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1

Association between Randall's Plaque and Calcifying Nanoparticles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Randall initially described calcified subepithelial papillary plaques, which he hypothesized as nidi for kidney stone formation. The discovery of calcifying nanoparticles (CNP) in many calcifying processes of human tissues has raised another hypothesis about their possible involvement in urinary stone formation. This research is the first attempt to investigate the potential association of these two hypotheses. We collected renal papilla and blood samples from 17 human patients who had undergone laparoscopic nephrectomy due to neoplasia. Immunohistochemical staining (IHS) was applied on the tissue samples using monoclonal antibody 8D10 (mAb) against CNP. Homogenized papillary tissues and serum samples were cultured for CNP. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis were performed on fixed papillary samples. Randall's plaques were visible on gross inspection in 11 out of 17 collected samples. IHS was positive for CNP antigen in 8 of these 11 visually positive samples, but in only 1 of the remaining 6 samples. SEM revealed spherical apatite formations in 14 samples, all of which had calcium and phosphate peaks detected by EDS analysis. From this study, there was some evidence of a link between the presence of Randall's plaques and the detection of CNP, also referred to as nanobacteria. Although causality was not demonstrated, these results suggest that further studies with negative control samples should be made to explore the etiology of Randall's plaque formation, thus leading to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of stone formation.

Citfcioglu, Neva; Vejdani, Kaveh; Lee, Olivia; Mathew, Grace; Aho, Katja M.; Kajander, Olavi; McKay, David S.; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Stoller, Marshall L.

2007-01-01

2

[Endemic pleural plaques and environmental factors (author's transl)].  

PubMed

In an agricultural town in Burgenland (Austria) we found an increased prevalence of pleural plaques. These calcifying thickenings of the pleura are related to minimal asbestos exposure such as is mesothelioma, but they cannot be regarded as a precancerosis. The increased occurrence of pleural plaques in this town of nearly 3500 inhabitants (in which during 1916 to 1945 asbestos was mined) we first found at the chest x-ray archives of a pulmologic hospital, then by mass radiography and blind comparison with control groups. A photofluoroscopy of 300 persons yielded 16 cases with definite pleural plaques (5.3%) among which were 4 cases with suspected asbestosis and another 14 cases with uncertain pleural plaques (4.7%). The 600 control persons showed no such radiological changes. Interviews wich persons detected for pleural plaques at mass radiography gave no indication that they had occupational asbestos exposure. But asbestos was detected in the soil of vineyards and in the dust of the houses. Asbestos was also detectable in the atmospheric dust by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopic techniques. PMID:749422

Neuberger, M; Gründorfer, W; Haider, M; Königshofer, R; Müller, H W; Raber, A; Riedmüller, G; Schwaighofer, B

1978-12-01

3

Association between Randall's Plaque and Calcifying Nanoparticles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Randall's plaques, first described by Alexander Randall in the 1930s, are small subepithelial calcifications in the renal papillae (RP) that also extend deeply into the renal medulla. Despite the strong correlation between the presence of these plaques and the formation of renal stones, the precise origin and pathogenesis of Randall s plaque formation remain elusive. The discovery of calcifying nanoparticles (CNP) and their detection in many calcifying processes of human tissues has raised hypotheses about their possible involvement in renal stone formation. We collected RP and blood samples from 17 human patients who had undergone laparoscopic nephrectomy due to neoplasia. Homogenized RP tissues and serum samples were cultured for CNP. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis were performed on fixed RP samples. Immunohistochemical staining (IHS) was applied on the tissue samples using CNP-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb). Randall s plaques were visible on gross inspection in 11 out of 17 collected samples. Cultures of all serum samples and 13 tissue homogenates had CNP growth within 4 weeks. SEM revealed spherical apatite formations in 14 samples, with calcium and phosphate peaks detected by EDS analysis. IHS was positive in 9 out of 17 samples. A strong link was found between the presence of Randall s plaques and the detection of CNP, also referred to as nanobacteria. These results suggest new insights into the etiology of Randall's plaque formation, and will help us understand the pathogenesis of stone formation. Further studies on this topic may lead us to new approaches on early diagnosis and novel medical therapies of kidney stone formation.

Ciftcioglu, Neva; Vejdani, Kaveh; Lee, Olivia; Mathew, Grace; Aho, Katja M.; Kajander, Olavi; McKay, David S.; Jones, Jeff A.; Hayat, Matthew; Stoller, Marshall L.

2007-01-01

4

Automated Detection Framework of the Calcified Plaque with Acoustic Shadowing in IVUS Images  

PubMed Central

Intravascular Ultrasound (IVUS) is one ultrasonic imaging technology to acquire vascular cross-sectional images for the visualization of the inner vessel structure. This technique has been widely used for the diagnosis and treatment of coronary artery diseases. The detection of the calcified plaque with acoustic shadowing in IVUS images plays a vital role in the quantitative analysis of atheromatous plaques. The conventional method of the calcium detection is manual drawing by the doctors. However, it is very time-consuming, and with high inter-observer and intra-observer variability between different doctors. Therefore, the computer-aided detection of the calcified plaque is highly desired. In this paper, an automated method is proposed to detect the calcified plaque with acoustic shadowing in IVUS images by the Rayleigh mixture model, the Markov random field, the graph searching method and the prior knowledge about the calcified plaque. The performance of our method was evaluated over 996 in-vivo IVUS images acquired from eight patients, and the detected calcified plaques are compared with manually detected calcified plaques by one cardiology doctor. The experimental results are quantitatively analyzed separately by three evaluation methods, the test of the sensitivity and specificity, the linear regression and the Bland-Altman analysis. The first method is used to evaluate the ability to distinguish between IVUS images with and without the calcified plaque, and the latter two methods can respectively measure the correlation and the agreement between our results and manual drawing results for locating the calcified plaque in the IVUS image. High sensitivity (94.68%) and specificity (95.82%), good correlation and agreement (>96.82% results fall within the 95% confidence interval in the Student t-test) demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in the detection of the calcified plaque with acoustic shadowing in IVUS images. PMID:25372784

Liu, Xin; Huang, Wenhua; Zhang, Heye; Tan, Ning; Hau, William Kongto; Zhang, Yuan-Ting; Liu, Huafeng

2014-01-01

5

Automated Detection Framework of the Calcified Plaque with Acoustic Shadowing in IVUS Images.  

PubMed

Intravascular Ultrasound (IVUS) is one ultrasonic imaging technology to acquire vascular cross-sectional images for the visualization of the inner vessel structure. This technique has been widely used for the diagnosis and treatment of coronary artery diseases. The detection of the calcified plaque with acoustic shadowing in IVUS images plays a vital role in the quantitative analysis of atheromatous plaques. The conventional method of the calcium detection is manual drawing by the doctors. However, it is very time-consuming, and with high inter-observer and intra-observer variability between different doctors. Therefore, the computer-aided detection of the calcified plaque is highly desired. In this paper, an automated method is proposed to detect the calcified plaque with acoustic shadowing in IVUS images by the Rayleigh mixture model, the Markov random field, the graph searching method and the prior knowledge about the calcified plaque. The performance of our method was evaluated over 996 in-vivo IVUS images acquired from eight patients, and the detected calcified plaques are compared with manually detected calcified plaques by one cardiology doctor. The experimental results are quantitatively analyzed separately by three evaluation methods, the test of the sensitivity and specificity, the linear regression and the Bland-Altman analysis. The first method is used to evaluate the ability to distinguish between IVUS images with and without the calcified plaque, and the latter two methods can respectively measure the correlation and the agreement between our results and manual drawing results for locating the calcified plaque in the IVUS image. High sensitivity (94.68%) and specificity (95.82%), good correlation and agreement (>96.82% results fall within the 95% confidence interval in the Student t-test) demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in the detection of the calcified plaque with acoustic shadowing in IVUS images. PMID:25372784

Gao, Zhifan; Guo, Wei; Liu, Xin; Huang, Wenhua; Zhang, Heye; Tan, Ning; Hau, William Kongto; Zhang, Yuan-Ting; Liu, Huafeng

2014-01-01

6

Occurrence of pleural plaques in workers with exposure to mineral wool  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to investigate whether occurrence of pleural plaques is associated with exposure to mineral wool. The occurrence of pleural plaques on routine chest radiographs of 933 persons employed in the mineral wool manufacturing industry and 865 referents was compared. Twelve men from the mineral wool industry had pleural plaques, as against three of the referents

Bengt Järvholm; Gunnar Hillerdal; Anna-Karin Järliden; Alf Hansson; Bengt-Gunnar Lilja; Göran Tornling; Peter Westerholm

1995-01-01

7

Environmental Asbestotic Pleural Plaques in Northeast Corsica: Correlations with Airborne and Pleural Mineralogic Analysis  

PubMed Central

We report a prevalence study of environmental pleural plaques in subjects over 50 years old from the northeastern Corsican village of Murato, built on asbestos surface deposits. The percentage of plaques was 41%, versus 7.5% in the control village of Vezzani. Although surface deposits contain both chrysotile and tremolite, airborne pollution and asbestos lung burden of exposed inhabitants consist essentially of tremolite as assessed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). However, TEM analysis of the parietal pleura of three animals bred in exposed areas showed a predominance of short fibers of chrysotile. The respective roles of tremolite and chrysotile in inducing pleural plaques in Corsica should thus be considered.—Environ Health Perspect 102(Suppl 5):251–252 (1994) PMID:7882944

Rey, F.; Boutin, C.; Viallat, J. R.; Steinbauer, J.; Alessandroni, P.; Jutisz, P.; Di Giambattista, D.; Billon-Galland, M. A.; Hereng, P.; Dumortier, P.; De Vuyst, P.

1994-01-01

8

An operated case of lung cancer with pleural plaques: its asbestos bodies, fiber analysis and asbestos exposure.  

PubMed

This case was a 79-year-old man with pleural plaques, which had been pointed out in the left lung field on chest X-ray six years ago. A new shadow in the right chest appeared in 1999 and was closely examined. Cytological class IV carcinoma was detected in his lung tissue obtained by broncho-fiberscope. Lobectomy of the right upper lobe was performed, and calcified pleural plaques were found on the chest wall. The clinical diagnosis was poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, T1N0M0. In World War II when he was 26 years old, he had worked as a boiler man on a battle cruiser for one year. The amount of asbestos bodies (AB) was 3,348 per gram dry lung tissue. The cores of AB and asbestos fibers were examined and showed that amosite was the most prevalent and crocidolite, tremolite and chrysotile were present in that order. After leaving the navy, he had worked as a farmer throughout his life, suggesting that he had never contacted asbestos occupationally after being a boiler man. It is strongly suggested that he had been exposed to asbestos during his work as a boiler man and that produced pleural plaques and lung cancer 50 years' later. PMID:11341552

Hiraoka, T; Watanabe, A; Usuma, Y; Mori, T; Kohyama, N; Takata, A

2001-04-01

9

Roentgenographic evidence for predominant left-sided location of unilateral pleural plaques.  

PubMed

The roentgenographic prevalence and anatomic distribution of pleural plaques were studied in the US Navy Asbestos Medical Surveillance Program population (105,064 individuals as of July 17, 1985). "Definite" or "probable" pleural plaques were noted in 4.4 percent of films. These were unilateral in 19.3 percent of roentgenograms with "definite" pleural plaque and 33.9 percent of films with "probable" pleural plaque. Unilateral findings were more often left-sided than right-sided; a ratio of 287:82 in the "definite" group and 625:287 in the "probable" group. Left-sided predominance of unilateral plaque is a consistent and unexplained epidemiologic finding that may provide clues to pleural pathogenesis following asbestos exposure. PMID:2721262

Withers, B F; Ducatman, A M; Yang, W N

1989-06-01

10

Regional Adipose Tissue Associations With Calcified Atherosclerotic Plaque: African American–Diabetes Heart Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coronary artery calcified atherosclerotic plaque (CP) is strongly associated with nonsubcutaneous adipose tissue, particularly pericardial adipose tissue (PAT), in community-based studies. We tested for relationships between regional adipose tissue depots and CP in African Americans with longstanding type 2 diabetes. Infrarenal aorta, coronary, and carotid artery CP and pericardial, visceral, intermuscular, and subcutaneous organ-specific adipose tissue volumes were measured using

Jasmin Divers; Lynne E. Wagenknecht; Donald W. Bowden; J. Jeffrey Carr; R. Caresse Hightower; Jingzhong Ding; Jianzhao Xu; Carl D. Langefeld; Barry I. Freedman

2010-01-01

11

Feature-based characterization of motion-contaminated calcified plaques in cardiac multidetector CT  

SciTech Connect

In coronary calcium scoring, motion artifacts affecting calcified plaques are commonly characterized using descriptive terms, which incorporate an element of subjectivity in their interpretations. Quantitative indices may improve the objective characterization of these motion artifacts. In this paper, an automated method for generating 12 quantitative indices, i.e., features that characterize the motion artifacts affecting calcified plaques, is presented. This method consists of using the rapid phase-correlated region-of-interest (ROI) tracking algorithm for reconstructing ROI images of calcified plaques automatically from the projection data obtained during a cardiac scan, and applying methods for extracting features from these images. The 12 features include two dynamic, six morphological, and four intensity-based features. The two dynamic features are three-dimensional (3D) velocity and 3D acceleration. The six morphological features include edge-based volume, threshold-based volume, sphericity, irregularity, average margin gradient, and variance of margin gradient. The four intensity-based features are maximum intensity, mean intensity, minimum intensity, and standard deviation of intensity. The 12 features were extracted from 54 reconstructed sets of simulated four-dimensional images from the dynamic NCAT phantom involving six calcified plaques under nine heart rate/multi-sector gating combinations. In order to determine how well the 12 features correlated with a plaque motion index, which was derived from the trajectory of the plaque, partial correlation coefficients adjusted for heart rate, number of gated sectors, and mean feature values of the six plaques were calculated for all 12 features. Features exhibiting stronger correlations (|r| set-membership sign [0.60,1.00]) with the motion index were 3D velocity, maximum intensity, and standard deviation of intensity. Features demonstrating stronger correlations (|r| set-membership sign [0.60,1.00]) with other features mostly involved intensity-based features. Edge-based volume/irregularity and average margin gradient/variance of margin gradient were the only two feature pairs out of 12 with stronger correlations that did not involve intensity-based features. Automatically extracted features of the motion artifacts affecting calcified plaques in cardiac computed tomography images potentially can be used to develop models for predicting image assessability with respect to motion artifacts.

King, Martin; Giger, Maryellen L.; Suzuki, Kenji; Pan, Xiaochuan [Department of Radiology, Committee on Medical Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

2007-12-15

12

Computerized assessment of motion-contaminated calcified plaques in cardiac multidetector CT  

SciTech Connect

An automated method for evaluating the image quality of calcified plaques with respect to motion artifacts in noncontrast-enhanced cardiac computed tomography (CT) images is introduced. This method involves using linear regression (LR) and artificial neural network (ANN) regression models for predicting two patient-specific, region-of-interest-specific, reconstruction-specific and temporal phase-specific image quality indices. The first is a plaque motion index, which is derived from the actual trajectory of the calcified plaque and is represented on a continuous scale. The second is an assessability index, which reflects the degree to which a calcified plaque is affected by motion artifacts, and is represented on an ordinal five-point scale. Two sets of assessability indices were provided independently by two radiologists experienced in evaluating cardiac CT images. Inputs for the regression models were selected from 12 features characterizing the dynamic, morphological, and intensity-based properties of the calcified plaques. Whereas LR-velocity (LR-V) used only a single feature (three-dimensional velocity), the LR-multiple (LR-M) and ANN regression models used the same subset of these 12 features selected through stepwise regression. The regression models were parameterized and evaluated using a database of simulated calcified plaque images from the dynamic NCAT phantom involving nine heart rate/multi-sector gating combinations and 40 cardiac phases covering two cardiac cycles. Six calcified plaques were used for the plaque motion indices and three calcified plaques were used for both sets of assessability indices. In one configuration, images from the second cardiac cycle were used for feature selection and regression model parameterization, whereas images from the first cardiac cycle were used for testing. With this configuration, repeated measures concordance correlation coefficients (CCCs) and associated 95% confidence intervals for the LR-V, LR-M, and ANN were 0.817 [0.785, 0.848], 0.894 [0.869, 0.916], and 0.917 [0.892, 0.936] for the plaque motion indices. For the two sets of assessability indices, CCC values for the ANN model were 0.843 [0.791, 0.877] and 0.793 [0.747, 0.828]. These two CCC values were statistically greater than the CCC value of 0.689 [0.648, 0.727], which was obtained by comparing the two sets of assessability indices with each other. These preliminary results suggest that the variabilities of assessability indices provided by regression models can lie within the variabilities of the indices assigned by independent observers. Thus, the potential exists for using regression models and assessability indices for determining optimal phases for cardiac CT image interpretation.

King, Martin; Giger, Maryellen L.; Suzuki, Kenji; Bardo, Dianna M. E.; Greenberg, Brent; Lan Li; Pan Xiaochuan [Department of Radiology, Committee on Medical Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

2007-12-15

13

Is There a Relation between Non-Calcifying Coronary Plaques and Acute Coronary Syndromes? A Retrospective Study Using Multislice Computed Tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess whether different coronary plaque types as classified by multislice computed tomography (CT) are retrospectively correlated with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) in an unselected study population. Methods: Sixty-three consecutive patients were examined with 16-slice CT coronary angiography. Coronary plaque types were classified as calcifying type 1, mixed (calcifying > non-calcifying) type 2,

Gudrun Feuchtner; Thomas Postel; Franz Weidinger; Matthias Frick; Hannes Alber; Wolfgang Dichtl; Daniel Jodocy; Ammar Mallouhi; Otmar Pachinger; Dieter zur Nedden; Guy J. Friedrich

2008-01-01

14

Site-specific intravascular ultrasound analysis of remodelling index and calcified necrosis patterns reveals novel blueprints for coronary plaque instability  

PubMed Central

Aims Post-mortem pathological studies have shown that a “vulnerable” plaque is the dominant patho-physiological mechanism responsible for acute coronary syndromes (ACS). One way to improve our understanding of these plaques in vivo is by using histological “surrogates” created by intravascular ultrasound derived virtual histology (IVUS-VH). Our aim in this analysis was to determine the relationship between site-specific differences in individual plaque areas between ACS plaques and stable plaques (SP), with a focus on remodelling index and the pattern of calcifying necrosis. Methods and results IVUS-VH was performed before percutaneous intervention in both ACS culprit plaques (CP) n=70 and stable disease (SP) n=35. A total of 210 plaque sites were examined in 105 lesions at the minimum lumen area (MLA) and the maximum necrotic core site (MAX NC). Each plaque site had multiple measurements made including some novel calculations to ascertain the plaque calcification equipoise (PCE) and the calcified interface area (CIA). CP has greater amounts of positive remodelling at the MLA (RI@MLA): 1.1 (±0.17) vs. 0.95 (±0.14) (P<0.001); lower values for PCE 30% vs. 54% (P<0.001) but a higher CIA 5.38 (±2.72) vs. 3.58 (±2.26) (P=0.001). These features can provide discriminatory ability between plaque types with area under the curve (AUC) measurements between 0.65-0.86. The cut-off values with greatest sensitivity and specificity to discriminate CP morphologies were: RI @ MLA >1.12; RI @ MAX NC >1.22; PCE @ MLA <47.1%; PCE @MAX NC <47.3%; CIA @ MLA >2.6; CIA @ MAX NC >3.1. Conclusions Determining the stage of calcifying necrosis, along with the remodelling index can discriminate between stable and ACS related plaques. These findings could be applied in the future to help detect plaques that have a vulnerable phenotype.

Patel, Billal; Stables, Rodney H.; Perry, Raphael A.; Palmer, Nicholas D.

2014-01-01

15

Neutrophil/Lymphocyte Ratio Is Associated with Non-Calcified Plaque Burden in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Elevations in soluble markers of inflammation and changes in leukocyte subset distribution are frequently reported in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Lately, the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio has emerged as a potential marker of both CAD severity and cardiovascular prognosis. Objectives The aim of the study was to investigate whether neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and other immune-inflammatory markers were related to plaque burden, as assessed by coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA), in patients with CAD. Methods Twenty patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) and 30 patients with stable angina (SA) underwent CCTA at two occasions, immediately prior to coronary angiography and after three months. Atherosclerotic plaques were classified as calcified, mixed and non-calcified. Blood samples were drawn at both occasions. Leukocyte subsets were analyzed by white blood cell differential counts and flow cytometry. Levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin(IL)-6 were measured in plasma. Blood analyses were also performed in 37 healthy controls. Results Plaque variables did not change over 3 months, total plaque burden being similar in NSTE-ACS and SA. However, non-calcified/total plaque ratio was higher in NSTE-ACS, 0.25(0.09–0.44) vs 0.11(0.00–0.25), p<0.05. At admission, levels of monocytes, neutrophils, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratios, CD4+ T cells, CRP and IL-6 were significantly elevated, while levels of NK cells were reduced, in both patient groups as compared to controls. After 3 months, levels of monocytes, neutrophils, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratios and CD4+ T cells remained elevated in patients. Neutrophil/lymphocyte ratios and neutrophil counts correlated significantly with numbers of non-calcified plaques and also with non-calcified/total plaque ratio (r?=?0.403, p?=?0.010 and r?=?0.382, p?=?0.024, respectively), but not with total plaque burden. Conclusions Among immune-inflammatory markers in NSTE-ACS and SA patients, neutrophil counts and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratios were significantly correlated with non-calcified plaques. Data suggest that these easily measured biomarkers reflect the burden of vulnerable plaques in CAD. PMID:25268632

Nilsson, Lennart; Wieringa, Wouter G.; Pundziute, Gabija; Gjerde, Marcus; Engvall, Jan; Swahn, Eva; Jonasson, Lena

2014-01-01

16

Numbers and types of asbestos fibers in subjects with pleural plaques.  

PubMed Central

The authors analyzed asbestos fibers in lung samples from 20 subjects with pleural plaques discovered on autopsy and compared the findings to their previous analyses of lungs from subjects with little or no asbestos exposure and no plaques. Sixteen of the subjects with plaques had a history of exposure to asbestos. The authors used electron-optical methods and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy to investigate the structure, diffraction patterns, and chemical composition of the asbestos fibers. The subjects with plaques had significantly higher median concentrations than the control subjects for amosite and crocidolite fibers (P less than 0.01) but not for the other fiber types. Minimal microscopic asbestosis was present in the 3 subjects who had the highest amosite concentrations. In the subjects with typical plaques, a history of asbestos exposure, and more fibers than in the control population, the relation of the plaques to asbestos was confirmed; for others, it was uncertain. PMID:7124907

Warnock, M. L.; Prescott, B. T.; Kuwahara, T. J.

1982-01-01

17

Computerized detection of non-calcified plaques in coronary CT angiography: topological soft-gradient detection method for plaque prescreening  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-calcified plaque (NCP) detection in coronary CT angiography (cCTA) is challenging due to the low CT number of NCP, the large number of coronary arteries and multiple phase CT acquisition. We are developing computervision methods for automated detection of NCPs in cCTA. A data set of 62 cCTA scans with 87 NCPs was collected retrospectively from patient files. Multiscale coronary vessel enhancement and rolling balloon tracking were first applied to each cCTA volume to extract the coronary artery trees. Each extracted vessel was reformatted to a straightened volume composed of cCTA slices perpendicular to the vessel centerline. A new topological soft-gradient (TSG) detection method was developed to prescreen for both positive and negative remodeling candidates by analyzing the 2D topological features of the radial gradient field surface along the vessel wall. Nineteen features were designed to describe the relative location along the coronary artery, shape, distribution of CT values, and radial gradients of each NCP candidate. With a machine learning algorithm and a two-loop leave-one-case-out training and testing resampling method, useful features were selected and combined into an NCP likelihood measure to differentiate TPs from FPs. The detection performance was evaluated by FROC analysis. Our TSG method achieved a sensitivity of 96.6% with 35.4 FPs/scan at prescreening. Classification with the NCP likelihood measure reduced the FP rates to 13.1, 10.0 and 6.7 FPs/scan at sensitivities of 90%, 80%, and 70%, respectively. These results demonstrated that the new TSG method is useful for computerized detection of NCPs in cCTA.

Wei, Jun; Zhou, Chuan; Chan, Heang-Ping; Chughtai, Aamer; Patel, Smita; Agarwal, Prachi; Kuriakose, Jean; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Kazerooni, Ella

2013-03-01

18

Relation of aggressiveness of lipid-lowering treatment to changes in calcified plaque burden by electron beam tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The comparative effects of more versus less aggressive low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol lowering (to ?80 vs >80 mg\\/dl) on calcified coronary plaque progression by electron beam tomography were evaluated in 182 consecutive asymptomatic patients after 1.2 years of treatment with statins alone or in combination with niacin. Despite the greater improvement in lipids in the ?80 versus >80 mg\\/dl groups,

Harvey S. Hecht; S. Mitchell Harman

2003-01-01

19

Coincidence of calcified carotid atheromatous plaque, osteoporosis, and periodontal bone loss in dental panoramic radiographs  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study was performed to assess the correlation of calcified carotid atheromatous plaque (CCAP), the mandibular cortical index, and periodontal bone loss in panoramic radiographs. Materials and Methods One hundred eighty-five panoramic radiographs with CCAP and 234 without this finding were evaluated by 3 observers for the presence of osseous changes related to osteoporosis and periodontal bone loss. Chi-squared and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare the two groups for an association of CCAP with the mandibular cortical index and periodontal bone loss, respectively. Results There was a statistically significant coincidence of CCAP and osseous changes related to osteopenia/osteoporosis, with a p-value <0.001. There was no statistically significant coincidence of CCAP and periodontal bone loss. When comparing the 2 groups, "With CCAP" and "Without CCAP", there was a statistically significant association with the mean body mass index (BMI), number of remaining teeth, positive history of diabetes mellitus, and vascular accidents. There was no statistically significant association with gender or a history of smoking. Conclusion This study identified a possible concurrence of CCAP and mandibular cortical changes secondary to osteopenia/osteoporosis in panoramic radiographs. This could demonstrate the important role of dental professionals in screening for these systemic conditions, leading to timely and appropriate referrals resulting in early interventions and thus improving overall health. PMID:24380062

Soroushian, Sheila; Ganguly, Rumpa

2013-01-01

20

Computerized luminal analysis for detection of non-calcified plaques in coronary CT angiography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-calcified plaque (NCP) detection in coronary CT angiography (cCTA) is challenging due to the low CT number of NCP, the large number of coronary arteries and multiple phase CT acquisition. We are developing computer-vision methods for automated detection of NCPs in cCTA. A data set of 62 cCTA scans with 87 NCPs was collected retrospectively from patient files. Multiscale coronary vessel enhancement and rolling balloon tracking were first applied to each cCTA volume to extract the coronary artery trees. Each extracted vessel was reformatted to a straightened volume composed of cCTA slices perpendicular to the vessel centerline. A topological soft-gradient (TSG) detection method was developed to prescreen for both positive and negative remodeling candidates by analyzing the 2D topological features of the radial gradient field surface along the vessel wall. A quantitative luminal analysis was newly designed for feature extraction and false positive (FP) reduction. We extracted 9 geometric features and 6 gray-level features, to quantify the differences between NCPs and FPs. The gray-level features included 4 features to measure local statistical characteristics and 2 asymmetry features to measure the asymmetric spatial location of gray-level density along the vessel centerline. The geometric features included a radius differential feature and 8 features extracted from two transformed volumes: the volumetric shape indexing and the gradient direction mapping volumes. With a machine learning algorithm and feature selection method, useful features were selected and combined into an NCP likelihood measure to differentiate TPs from FPs. With the NCP likelihood measure as a decision variable in the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, the area under the curve achieved a value of 0.85+/-0.01, indicating that the luminal analysis is effective in reducing FPs for NCP detection.

Wei, Jun; Zhou, Chuan; Chan, Heang-Ping; Chughtai, Aamer; Patel, Smita; Agarwal, Prachi; Kuriakose, Jean; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Kazerooni, Ella

2014-03-01

21

Admixture Mapping of Coronary Artery Calcified Plaque in African Americans with Type 2 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Background The presence and severity of coronary artery calcified plaque (CAC) differs markedly between individuals of African and European descent, suggesting that admixture mapping (AM) may be informative for identifying genetic variants associated with subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods and Results AM of CAC was performed in 1,040 unrelated African Americans with type 2 diabetes mellitus from the African American-Diabetes Heart Study (AA-DHS), Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), and Family Heart Study (FamHS) using the Illumina custom ancestry informative marker (AIM) panel. All cohorts obtained computed tomography scanning of the coronary arteries using identical protocols. For each AIM, the probability of inheriting 0, 1, and 2 copies of a European-derived allele was determined. Linkage analysis was performed by testing for association between each AIM using these probabilities and CAC, accounting for global ancestry, age, gender and study. Markers on 1p32.3 in the GLIS1 gene (rs6663966, LOD=3.7), 1q32.1 near CHIT1 (rs7530895, LOD=3.1), 4q21.2 near PRKG2 (rs1212373, LOD=3.0) and 11q25 in the OPCML gene (rs6590705, LOD=3.4) had statistically significant LOD scores, while markers on 8q22.2 (rs6994682, LOD=2.7), 9p21.2 (rs439314, LOD=2.7), and 13p32.1 (rs7492028, LOD=2.8) manifested suggestive evidence of linkage. These regions were uniformly characterized by higher levels of European ancestry associating with higher levels or odds of CAC. Findings were replicated in 1,350 AAs without diabetes and 2,497 diabetic European Americans from MESA and the Diabetes Heart Study. Conclusions Fine mapping these regions will likely identify novel genetic variants that contribute to CAC and clarify racial differences in susceptibility to subclinical CVD. PMID:23233742

Divers, Jasmin; Palmer, Nicholette D.; Lu, Lingyi; Register, Thomas C.; Carr, J. Jeffrey; Hicks, Pamela J.; Hightower, R. Caresse; Smith, S. Carrie; Xu, Jianzhao; Cox, Amanda J; Hruska, Keith A.; Bowden, Donald W.; Lewis, Cora E.; Heiss, Gerardo; Province, Michael A.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Kerr, Kathleen F.; Chen, Y.-D. Ida; Palmas, Walter; Rotter, Jerome I.; Wassel, Christina L.; Bertoni, Alain; Herrington, David; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.; Langefeld, Carl D.; Freedman, Barry I.

2013-01-01

22

Non-calcified coronary atherosclerotic plaque characterization by dual energy computed tomography.  

PubMed

Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the most prevalent cause of death worldwide. Atherosclerosis which is the condition of plaque buildup on the inside of the coronary artery wall is the main cause of CHD. Rupture of unstable atherosclerotic coronary plaque is known to be the cause of acute coronary syndrome. Vulnerability of atherosclerotic plaque has been related to a large lipid core covered by a fibrous cap. Non-invasive assessment of plaque characterization is necessary due to prognostic importance of early stage identification. The purpose of this study is to use the additional attenuation data provided by dual energy computed tomography (DECT) for plaque characterization. We propose to train supervised learners on pixel values recorded from DECT monochromatic X-ray and material basis pairs images, for more precise classification of fibrous and lipid plaques. The interaction of the pixel values from different image types is taken into consideration, as single pixel value might not be informative enough to separate fibrous from lipid. Organic phantom plaques scanned in a fabricated beating heart phantom were used as ground truth to train the learners. Our results show that support vector machines, artificial neural networks and random forests provide accurate results both on phantom and patient data. PMID:24808227

Yamak, Didem; Panse, Prasad; Pavlicek, William; Boltz, Thomas; Akay, Metin

2014-05-01

23

Calcified plaque: measurement of area at thin-section flat-panel CT and 64-section multidetector CT and comparison with histopathologic findings.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess the blooming artifacts in ex vivo coronary arteries at multidetector computed tomography (CT) and flat-panel-volume CT by comparing measured areas of calcified plaque with respect to the reference standard of histopathologic findings. Three ex vivo hearts were scanned with multidetector CT and flat-panel-volume CT after institutional review board approval. The area of calcified plaque was measured at histopathologic examination, multidetector CT, and flat-panel-volume CT. The plaque area was overestimated at multidetector CT by 400% (4.61/1.15) on average, and the predicted difference between the measurements was significant (3.46 mm(2), P = .018). The average overestimation of plaque area at flat-panel-volume CT was twofold (214% [2.18/1.02]), and the predicted difference was smaller (1.16 mm(2), P = .08). The extent of the blooming artifact in visualizing calcified coronary plaque is reduced by using flat-panel-volume CT. PMID:18710960

Sarwar, Ammar; Rieber, Johannes; Mooyaart, Eline A Q; Seneviratne, Sujith K; Houser, Stuart L; Bamberg, Fabian; Raffel, O Christopher; Gupta, Rajiv; Kalra, Mannudeep K; Pien, Homer; Lee, Hang; Brady, Thomas J; Hoffmann, Udo

2008-10-01

24

An Operated Case of Lung Cancer with Pleural Plaques: Its Asbestos Bodies, Fiber Analysis and Asbestos Exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This case was a 79-year-old man with pleural plaques, which had been pointed out in the left lung field on chest X-ray six years ago. A new shadow in the right chest appeared in 1999 and was closely examined. Cytological class IV carcinoma was detected in his lung tissue obtained by broncho-fiberscope. Lobectomy of the right upper lobe was performed,

Takesuke HIRAOKA; Akira WATANABE; Yasuhiro USUMA; Takashi MORI; Norihiko KOHYAMA; Ayako TAKATA

2001-01-01

25

Functional Properties of CD8+ Lymphocytes in Patients with Pleural Plaque and Malignant Mesothelioma  

PubMed Central

It is known that asbestos exposure can cause malignant mesothelioma (MM) and that CD8+ T cells play a critical role in antitumor immunity. We examined the properties of peripheral blood CD8+ lymphocytes from asbestos-exposed patients with pleural plaque (PL) and MM. The percentage of CD3+CD8+ cells in PBMCs did not differ among the three groups, although the total numbers of PBMCs of the PL and MM groups were lower than those of the healthy volunteers (HV). The percentage of IFN-?+ and CD107a+ cells in PMA/ionomycin-stimulated CD8+ lymphocytes did not differ among the three groups. Percentages of perforin+ cells and CD45RA? cells in fresh CD8+ lymphocytes of PL and MM groups were higher than those of HV. Percentages of granzyme B+ and perforin+ cells in PMA/ionomycin-stimulated CD8+ lymphocytes were higher in PL group compared with HV. The MM group showed a decrease of perforin level in CD8+ lymphocytes after stimulation compared with patients with PL. These results indicate that MM patients have characteristics of impairment in stimulation-induced cytotoxicity of peripheral blood CD8+ lymphocytes and that PL and MM patients have a common character of functional alteration in those lymphocytes, namely, an increase in memory cells, possibly related to exposure to asbestos. PMID:25045719

Kumagai-Takei, Naoko; Nishimura, Yasumitsu; Maeda, Megumi; Hayashi, Hiroaki; Matsuzaki, Hidenori; Lee, Suni; Kishimoto, Takumi; Fukuoka, Kazuya; Nakano, Takashi; Otsuki, Takemi

2014-01-01

26

Sequencing ancient calcified dental plaque shows changes in oral microbiota with dietary shifts of the Neolithic and Industrial revolutions  

PubMed Central

The importance of commensal microbes for human health is increasingly recognized1-5, yet the impacts of evolutionary changes in human diet and culture on commensal microbiota remain almost unknown. Two of the greatest dietary shifts in human evolution involved the adoption of carbohydrate-rich Neolithic (farming) diets6,7 (beginning ~10,000 years BP6,8), and the more recent advent of industrially processed flour and sugar (~1850)9. Here, we show that calcified dental plaque (dental calculus) on ancient teeth preserves a detailed genetic record throughout this period. Data from 34 early European skeletons indicate that the transition from hunter-gatherer to farming shifted the oral microbial community to a disease-associated configuration. The composition of oral microbiota remained surprisingly constant between Neolithic and Medieval times, after which (the now ubiquitous) cariogenic bacteria became dominant, apparently during the Industrial Revolution. Modern oral microbiota are markedly less diverse than historic populations, which might be contributing to chronic oral (and other) disease in post-industrial lifestyles. PMID:23416520

Adler, Christina J; Dobney, Keith; Weyrich, Laura S; Kaidonis, John; Walker, Alan W; Haak, Wolfgang; Bradshaw, Corey JA; Townsend, Grant; So?tysiak, Arkadiusz; Alt, Kurt W; Parkhill, Julian; Cooper, Alan

2014-01-01

27

Chocolate Consumption is Inversely Associated with Calcified Atherosclerotic Plaque in the Coronary Arteries: The NHLBI Family Heart Study  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims While a diet rich in anti-oxidant has been favorably associated with coronary disease and hypertension, limited data have evaluated the influence of such diet on subclinical disease. Thus, we sought to examine whether chocolate consumption is associated with calcified atherosclerotic plaque in the coronary arteries (CAC). Methods In a cross-sectional design, we studied 2,217 participants of the NHLBI Family Heart Study. Chocolate consumption was assessed by a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire and CAC was measured by cardiac CT. We defined prevalent CAC using an Agatston score of at least 100 and fitted generalized estimating equations to calculate prevalence odds ratios of CAC. Results There was an inverse association between frequency of chocolate consumption and prevalent CAC. Odds ratios (95% CI) for CAC were 1.0 (reference), 0.94 (0.66-1.35), 0.78 (0.53-1.13), and 0.68 (0.48-0.97) for chocolate consumption of 0, 1-3 times per month, once per week, and 2+ times per week, respectively (p for trend 0.022), adjusting for age, sex, energy intake, waist-hip ratio, education, smoking, alcohol consumption, ratio of total-to-HDL-cholesterol, non-chocolate candy, and diabetes mellitus. Controlling for additional confounders did not alter the findings. Exclusion of subjects with coronary heart disease or diabetes mellitus did not materially change the odds ratio estimates but did modestly decrease the overall significance (p = 0.07). Conclusions These data suggest that chocolate consumption might be inversely associated with prevalent CAC. PMID:20655129

Djousse, Luc; Hopkins, Paul N.; Arnett, Donna K.; Pankow, James S.; Borecki, Ingrid; North, Kari E.; Ellison, R. Curtis

2010-01-01

28

Modelling prevalence and incidence of fibrosis and pleural plaques in asbestos-exposed populations for screening and follow-up: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background CT-Scan is currently under assessment for the screening of asbestos-related diseases. However, to date no consensus exists as to how to select high-risk asbestos-exposed populations suitable for such screening programs. The objective of this study is to select the most relevant exposure variables for the prediction of pleural plaques and asbestosis in order to guide clinicians in their use of CT-Scan. Methods A screening program of non malignant asbestos-related diseases by CT-scan was conducted among asbestos-exposed volunteers in France. Precise assessments of asbestos exposure were obtained by occupational hygiene measurements and a job-exposure matrix. Several parameters were calculated (time since first exposure, duration, intensity and cumulative exposure to asbestos). Predictive parameters of prevalence and incidence were then estimated by standard logistic and a complementary log-log regression models. Results 1011 subjects were recruited in this screening program among them 474 (46.9%) presented with pleural plaques and 61 (6.0%) with interstitial changes compatible with asbestosis on CT-scan. Time since first exposure (p < 0.0001) and either cumulative or mean exposure (p < 0.0001) showed independent associations with both pleural plaques and asbestosis prevalence and pleural plaques incidence. Modelling incidence of pleural plaques showed a 0.8% to 2.4% yearly increase for a mean exposure of 1 f/ml. Conclusion Our findings confirmed the role played by time since first exposure and dose but not duration in asbestos-related diseases. We recommend to include these parameters in high-risk populations suitable for screening of these diseases. Short-periodicity of survey of pleural plaques by CT-Scan seemed not to be warranted. PMID:18570653

Paris, Christophe; Martin, Aurelie; Letourneux, Marc; Wild, Pascal

2008-01-01

29

Extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type arising in the pleura with pleural fibrous plaques in a lathe worker.  

PubMed

Our patient was an 86-year-old man who had worked as a lathe operator for 40 years. He had no history of tuberculosis, pyothorax, or autoimmune disease. He had not been exposed to asbestos. He was asymptomatic, but an imaging study showed gradually increasing pleural plaques. A biopsy specimen of a pleural lesion showed sclerosis of the pleura and diffuse infiltration of small- to medium-sized B lymphocytes. Polymerase chain reaction-based analysis detected monoclonal rearrangement of immunoglobulin heavy-chain genes. Histologic diagnosis was extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type (MALT lymphoma). The lymphoma was negative for Epstein-Barr virus. We report a rare case of a metal worker with MALT lymphoma arising in the pleura with pleural fibrous plaques. It is speculated that MALT lymphoma might develop in the background of pneumoconiosis. Inflammatory and/or immunologic reactions to metal particles might contribute to the oncogenesis of this tumor. PMID:21546297

Nakatsuka, Shin-ichi; Nagano, Teruaki; Kimura, Hayato; Hanada, Shoji; Inoue, Hidetoshi; Iwata, Takashi

2012-06-01

30

Influence of trigger type, tube voltage and heart rate on calcified plaque imaging in dual source cardiac computed tomography: phantom study  

PubMed Central

Background To investigate the impact of high pitch cardiac CT vs. retrospective ECG gated CT on the quantification of calcified vessel stenoses, with assessment of the influence of tube voltage, reconstruction kernel and heart rate. Methods A 4D cardiac movement phantom equipped with three different plaque phantoms (12.5%, 25% and 50% stenosis at different calcification levels), was scanned with a 128-row dual source CT scanner, applying different trigger types (gated vs. prospectively triggered high pitch), tube voltages (100-120 kV) and heart rates (50–90 beats per minute, bpm). Images were reconstructed using different standard (B26f, B46f, B70f) and iterative (I26f, I70f) convolution kernels. Absolute and relative plaque sizes were measured and statistically compared. Radiation dose associated with the different methods (gated vs. high pitch, 100 kV vs. 120 kV) were compared. Results Compared to the known diameters of the phantom plaques and vessels both CT-examination techniques overestimated the degrees of stenoses. Using the high pitch CT-protocol plaques appeared larger (0.09?±?0.31 mm, 2?±?8 percent points, PP) in comparison to the ECG-gated CT-scans. Reducing tube voltage had a similar effect, resulting in higher grading of the same stenoses by 3?±?8 PP. In turn, sharper convolution kernels lead to a lower grading of stenoses (differences of up to 5%). Pairwise comparison of B26f and I26f, B46f and B70f, and B70f and I70f showed differences of 0–1?±?6–8 PP of the plaque depiction. Motion artifacts were present only at 90 bpm high pitch experiments. High-pitch protocols were associated with significantly lower radiation doses compared with the ECG-gated protocols (258.0 mGy vs. 2829.8 mGy CTDIvol, p???0.0001). Conclusion Prospectively triggered high-pitch cardiac CT led to an overestimation of plaque diameter and degree of stenoses in a coronary phantom. This overestimation is only slight and probably negligible in a clinical situation. Even at higher heart rates high pitch CT-scanning allowed reliable measurements of plaque and vessel diameters with only slight differences compared ECG-gated protocols, although motion artifacts were present at 90 bpm using the high pitch protocols. PMID:25178653

2014-01-01

31

An outbreak of pleural mesothelioma and chronic fibrosing pleurisy in the village of Karain/Urg?p in Anatolia.  

PubMed Central

The 575 inhabitants of the remote Anatolian village of Karain suffered 11 deaths from pleural mesothelioma in 1975/76 and there were five cases of fibrosing pleurisy. In the previous five years there had been 25 cases of mesothelioma. Calcified pleural plaques were common on survey radiography. Asbestos does not occur in the local soil or rock, nor is it handled in the village, but a few fibres were found in the water. Fibres were also found in the pleural tissue of two of five cases examined. Inhabitants of the neighbouring villages are free of mesothelioma. Images PMID:663877

Baris, Y I; Sahin, A A; Ozesmi, M; Kerse, I; Ozen, E; Kolacan, B; Altinors, M; Goktepeli, A

1978-01-01

32

Carboxyterminal propeptide of type I procollagen in ELF: elevation in asbestosis, but not in pleural plaque disease.  

PubMed

Markers of collagen metabolism may possibly be used in the assessment of pulmonary involvement in asbestosis-related pulmonary diseases. In this study the levels of the carboxyterminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PICP) and the aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP) were evaluated in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), epithelial lining fluid (ELF) and serum from patients with asbestos related pulmonary and pleural involvement. Forty-two consecutive patients with occupational exposure to asbestos fibres, who underwent bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) at the time of the diagnosis were investigated. Five patients were diagnosed as having asbestosis, while 37 showed no parenchymal involvement. Of the latter group, 25 had pleural plaques, while 12 had no detectable changes in chest radiographs. The patients were followed-up for an average of 7 yrs. The PICP in BALF and ELF was detectable in all patients with asbestosis and in 8/37 subjects without parenchymal involvement. The levels of PICP in BALF and ELF were significantly higher in the asbestosis group compared to the patients without asbestosis (9.8+/-1.8 microg x L(-1) versus 0.6+/-1.3 microg x L(-1), p<0.001 and 488.9+/-208.8 microg x L(-1) versus 22.6+/-50.6 microg x L(-1), p<0.001, respectively). Only 1 patient with asbestosis and 3 patients without parenchymal involvement had detectable levels of PIIINP in BALF. The serum levels of PICP and PIIINP did not differ between the patients with asbestosis and those with exposure to asbestos fibres without asbestosis and were within the normal range. None of the 37 patients exposed to asbestos fibres without parenchymal involvement at the baseline developed asbestosis during the follow-up period of 7 yrs. In conclusion, the data show that the carboxyterminal propeptide of procollagen type I, but not the aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen is highly elevated in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and epithelial lining fluid in patients with asbestosis, but not in those without parenchymal involvement. This suggests that the determination of carboxyterminal propeptide of procollagen type I in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid could be used as a marker of parenchymal involvement in patients exposed to asbestos fibres. PMID:10543275

Lammi, L; Ryhänen, L; Lakari, E; Risteli, J; Pääkkö, P; Ruotsalainen, E M; Lähde, S; Kinnula, V L

1999-09-01

33

Pleural effusion  

MedlinePLUS

Fluid in the chest; Fluid on the lung; Pleural fluid ... Your body produces pleural fluid in small amounts to lubricate the surfaces of the pleura. This is the thin tissue that lines the chest cavity ...

34

Clinical consequences of asbestos-related diffuse pleural thickening: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asbestos-related diffuse pleural thickening (DPT), or extensive fibrosis of the visceral pleura secondary to asbestos exposure, is increasingly common due to the large number of workers previously exposed to asbestos. It may coexist with asbestos related pleural plaques but has a distinctly different pathology. The pathogenesis of this condition as distinct from pleural plaques is gradually becoming understood. Generation of

Susan E Miles; Alessandra Sandrini; Anthony R Johnson; Deborah H Yates

2008-01-01

35

Pleural effusion  

PubMed Central

Pleural disease remains a commonly encountered clinical problem for both general physicians and chest specialists. This review focuses on the investigation of undiagnosed pleural effusions and the management of malignant and parapneumonic effusions. New developments in this area are also discussed at the end of the review. It aims to be evidence based together with some practical suggestions for practising clinicians. PMID:16272233

Medford, A; Maskell, N

2005-01-01

36

Pleural Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... in and out. Disorders of the pleura include Pleurisy - inflammation of the pleura that causes sharp pain ... Viral infection is the most common cause of pleurisy. The most common cause of pleural effusion is ...

37

Pleural needle biopsy  

MedlinePLUS

... a collection of fluid around the lung ( pleural effusion ) or other abnormality of the pleural membrane. Pleural ... Broaddus VC, Light RW. Pleural effusion. In: Mason RJ, Broaddus VC, ... of Respiratory Medicine . 5th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier ...

38

Non-Neoplastic and Neoplastic Pleural Endpoints Following Fiber Exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to asbestos fibers is associated with non-neoplastic pleural diseases including plaques, fibrosis, and benign effusions, as well as with diffuse malignant pleural mesothelioma. Translocation and retention of fibers are fundamental processes in understanding the interactions between the dose and dimensions of fibers retained at this anatomic site and the subsequent pathological reactions. The initial interaction of fibers with target

V. Courtney Broaddus; Jeffrey I. Everitt; Brad Black; Agnes B. Kane

2011-01-01

39

Automated coronary CT angiography plaque-lumen segmentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are investigating the feasibility of a computer-aided detection (CAD) system to assist radiologists in diagnosing coronary artery disease in ECG gated cardiac multi-detector CT scans having calcified plaque. Coronary artery stenosis analysis is challenging if calcified plaque or the iodinated blood pool hides viable lumen. The research described herein provides an improved presentation to the radiologist by removing obscuring calcified plaque and blood pool. The algorithm derives a Gaussian estimate of the point spread function (PSF) of the scanner responsible for plaque blooming by fitting measured CTA image profiles. An initial estimate of the extent of calcified plaque is obtained from the image evidence using a simple threshold. The Gaussian PSF estimate is then convolved with the initial plaque estimate to obtain an estimate of the extent of the blooming artifact and this plaque blooming image is subtracted from the CT image to obtain an image largely free of obscuring plaque. In a separate step, the obscuring blood pool is suppressed using morphological operations and adaptive region growing. After processing by our algorithm, we are able to project the segmented plaque-free lumen to form synthetic angiograms free from obstruction. We can also analyze the coronary arteries with vessel tracking and centerline extraction to produce cross sectional images for measuring lumen stenosis. As an additional aid to radiologists, we also produce plots of calcified plaque and lumen cross-sectional area along selected blood vessels. The method was validated using digital phantoms and actual patient data, including in one case, a validation against the results of a catheter angiogram.

Cline, Harvey E.; Krishnan, Karthik; Napel, Sandy; Rubin, Geoffrey D.; Turner, Wesley D.; Avila, Ricardo S.

2009-02-01

40

Pleural fluid culture  

MedlinePLUS

Culture - pleural fluid ... is used to get a sample of pleural fluid. The sample is sent to a laboratory and ... around the lungs, called the pleural space. As fluid drains into a collection bottle, you may cough ...

41

Pleural fluid analysis  

MedlinePLUS

... of fluid that has collected in the pleural space. This is the space between the lining of the outside of the ... the chest. When fluid collects in the pleural space, the condition is called pleural effusion .

42

Pleural fluid smear  

MedlinePLUS

... the fluid that has collected in the pleural space. This is the space between the lining of the outside of the ... the chest. When fluid collects in the pleural space, the condition is called pleural effusion .

43

Intracranial calcified deposits in neurofibromatosis.  

PubMed Central

Three patients with the central type of neurofibromatosis, who on CT showed multiple subependymal calcified deposits, are presented. The literature on intracranial non-tumourous calcifications in neurofibromatosis is briefly reviewed. On the basis of our findings and the literature, it is proposed that such intracranial calcified deposits may be part of the neurofibromatosis syndrome and are caused by calcium deposits in glial proliferations, analogous to the calcified deposits seen in tuberous sclerosis. Images PMID:3098924

Arts, W F; Van Dongen, K J

1986-01-01

44

Pleural Cytologies in Lung Cancer Without Pleural Effusions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Malignant pleural effusions significantly increase the stage of lung cancer with attendant worsening of prognosis. There is a paucity of literature evaluating malignant pleural lavage cytology in patients without pleural effusions. We propose to determine the incidence of malignant pleural cytologies in patients without pleural effusions who undergo curative resection for lung cancer and to identify any predictive risk

Sten I Kjellberg; Carolyn M Dresler; Melvyn Goldberg

1997-01-01

45

Vulnerable Plaque  

MedlinePLUS

... within an artery leading to the heart or brain. With time, the plaque buildup would narrow the artery so much that the artery would either close off or become clogged by a blood clot (much like a clogged drain). The lack of oxygen-rich blood to the ...

46

Fishbowl Plaques.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an elementary art activity that successfully teaches the process of slabbing by having students create fishbowl plaques. Explains the process step-by-step beginning with a demonstration to the students along with showing previous examples. Endorses a type of clay that fires white because the glaze colors are much more vibrant. (CMK)

Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist

1998-01-01

47

Gray scale ultrasonography of calcified liver metastases.  

PubMed

Three cases of calcified liver metastases demonstrating acoustical shadowing on gray scale ultrasonography are reported. Ultrasonography may show calcified liver masses that are not readily apparent on plain film radiographs. The discovery of calcified liver metastases by ultrasound can suggest a primary site of malignancy. PMID:409227

Katragadda, C S; Goldstein, H M; Green, B

1977-10-01

48

Association between calcifying nanoparticles and placental calcification  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to examine the possible contribution of calcifying nanoparticles to the pathogenesis of placental calcification. Methods Calcified placental tissues and distal tissue samples were collected from 36 confirmed placental calcification cases. In addition, 20 normal placental tissue samples were obtained as a control group. All the tissue samples were cultured using special nanobacterial culture methods. The cultured calcifying nanoparticles were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and their growth was monitored by optical density (OD) at a wavelength of 650 nm. 16S rRNA gene expression of the cultured calcifying nanoparticles was also isolated and sequenced. Results Novel calcifying nanoparticles wrapped with electron-dense shells between 50 nm to 500 nm in diameter were observed in the extracellular matrix of calcified placental tissues. They were detected in placental villi and hydroxyapatite crystals, and contained “nucleic acid-like materials”. After isolation and four weeks of culture, 28 of 36 calcified placental tissue samples showed white granular precipitates attached to the bottom of the culture tubes. OD650 measurements indicated that the precipitates from the calcified placental tissues were able to grow in culture, whereas no such precipitates from the control tissues were observed. The 16S rRNA genes were isolated from the cultured calcifying nanoparticles and calcified placental tissues, and their gene sequencing results implied that calcifying nanoparticles were novel nanobacteria (GenBank JF823648). Conclusion Our results suggest that these novel calcifying nanoparticles may play a role in placental calcification. PMID:22615531

Guo, Yanan; Zhang, Dechun; Lu, He; Luo, Shuang; Shen, Xuecheng

2012-01-01

49

Reproducibility of coronary plaque detection and characterization using low radiation dose coronary computed tomographic angiography in patients with intermediate likelihood of coronary artery disease (ReSCAN study).  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the interscan, interobserver and intraobserver agreement for coronary plaque detection, and characterization using low radiation dose high-pitch spiral acquisition coronary CT angiography (CTA). Two experienced observers independently evaluated coronary CTA datasets from 50 consecutive patients undergoing two 128-slice dual source CT scans within 12 days. Mean (±SD) estimated radiation exposure was 1.5 ± 0.2 mSv per scan. Observers recorded the presence and characterization of coronary plaques as non-calcified or calcified. A "segment involvement score" (SIS) was computed by summing the numbers of segments with any coronary plaque per patient. Reproducibility was assessed using kappa (?) statistics, paired t test and Bland-Altman analyses. Interscan, interobserver, and intraobserver agreement (?-values) for detection of any or calcified plaques were 83-94% (?-values 0.57-0.85), and 67-84% (0.31-0.67) for non-calcified plaques on a patient level. No significant difference was observed in mean interscan or interobserver SIS. Mean (95% CI) intraobserver SIS difference was -0.88 (-1.25; -0.51), P < 0.001, with limits of agreement from -4.7 to 2.9. Low radiation dose high-pitch coronary CTA permits detection of any or calcified plaques with high interscan, interobserver, intraobserver agreement. However, variability for the detection of non-calcified plaque is substantial. PMID:21626043

Øvrehus, Kristian Altern; Marwan, Mohamed; Bøtker, Hans Erik; Achenbach, Stephan; Nørgaard, Bjarne Linde

2012-04-01

50

Pleural mesothelioma - case report  

PubMed Central

Summary Background: Pleural mesothelioma is a very rare neoplasm; especially the local form. The diagnostics is difficult and the prognosis unfavourable. Case Report: We presented a case of a man with dyspnoea and cough. His chest radiogram showed hydrothorax on the left side. Neither the examinations of the pleural liquid, nor the CT-guided fine needle biopsy established the diagnosis. CT showed features suggestive of pleural mesothelioma. The diagnosis was confirmed by thoracoscopy. Although no neoplastic cells were found in the thoracoscopic specimen from the supradiaphragmatic tumor, we assumed that to be a case of a diffuse, primarily local form of mesothelioma. Conclusions: Diagnostics of pleural mesothelioma is very difficult. CT and thoracoscopy seem to be very valuable diagnostic methods. It is worth remembering that pleural mesothelioma can have a local form which may transform into a diffuse one. PMID:22802809

Klawiter, Anna; Damaszke, Tomasz

2010-01-01

51

Coronary Plaque Type and Burden By Computed Tomography Angiography Without Association to C-Reactive Protein  

PubMed Central

Background: Contrast-enhanced computed tomography angiography (CTA) of the coronaries allows identification of plaques. Limited data exists on the relationship between C-reactive protein (CRP) and the plaque type or plaque burden detected by CTA. Aims: We studied relationship between CRP and coronary atherosclerosis. Materials and Methods: 92 patients without history of coronary disease underwent coronary CTA for chest pain. Coronary arteries were evaluated with each detected plaque labeled as calcified, noncalcified or mixed. Logarithmic transformation was done on CRP values for statistical analysis. Results: 1380 coronary segments were evaluated. The average age was 57 years (SE 1.0) and basal metabolic index (BMI) 28.9 kg/m2 (SE 0.5). Median CRP level was 2.75 mg/L (range 0.17-16.98). No association was found between CRP quartiles and plaque type. In stepwise multivariate analysis, only diabetes was associated with noncalcified plaque (P < 0.001). When calcified and mixed plaques were added to the model, age (P < 0.001), diabetes (P < 0.02), and statin use (P < 0.05) were associated with an increased number of plaques per subject. No association was found between log-CRP for any type of plaque. Conclusion: There was no association between CRP and plaque type by CTA. Lack of association is likely due to limited spatial resolution and underestimation of noncalcified plaque burden by CTA. PMID:25006560

Navaravong, Leenhapong; Steenson, Carol; Sigurdsson, Gardar

2014-01-01

52

Diagnostic tools of pleural effusion.  

PubMed

Pleural effusion is not a rare disease in Korea. The diagnosis of pleural effusion is very difficult, even though the patients often complain of typical symptoms indicating of pleural diseases. Pleural effusion is characterized by the pleural cavity filled with transudative or exudative pleural fluids, and it is developed by various etiologies. The presence of pleural effusion can be confirmed by radiological studies including simple chest radiography, ultrasonography, or computed tomography. Identifying the causes of pleural effusions by pleural fluid analysis is essential for proper treatments. This review article provides information on the diagnostic approaches of pleural effusions and further suggested ways to confirm their various etiologies, by using the most recent journals for references. PMID:24920946

Na, Moon Jun

2014-05-01

53

Diagnostic Tools of Pleural Effusion  

PubMed Central

Pleural effusion is not a rare disease in Korea. The diagnosis of pleural effusion is very difficult, even though the patients often complain of typical symptoms indicating of pleural diseases. Pleural effusion is characterized by the pleural cavity filled with transudative or exudative pleural fluids, and it is developed by various etiologies. The presence of pleural effusion can be confirmed by radiological studies including simple chest radiography, ultrasonography, or computed tomography. Identifying the causes of pleural effusions by pleural fluid analysis is essential for proper treatments. This review article provides information on the diagnostic approaches of pleural effusions and further suggested ways to confirm their various etiologies, by using the most recent journals for references. PMID:24920946

2014-01-01

54

Clinical consequences of asbestos-related diffuse pleural thickening: A review  

PubMed Central

Asbestos-related diffuse pleural thickening (DPT), or extensive fibrosis of the visceral pleura secondary to asbestos exposure, is increasingly common due to the large number of workers previously exposed to asbestos. It may coexist with asbestos related pleural plaques but has a distinctly different pathology. The pathogenesis of this condition as distinct from pleural plaques is gradually becoming understood. Generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, profibrotic cytokines and growth factors in response to asbestos is likely to play a role in the formation of a fibrinous intrapleural matrix. Benign asbestos related pleural effusions commonly antedate the development of diffuse pleural thickening. Environmental as well as occupational exposure to asbestos may also result in pleural fibrosis, particularly in geographic areas with naturally occurring asbestiform soil minerals. Pleural disorders may also occur after household exposure. High resolution computed tomography (CT) is more sensitive and specific than chest radiography for the diagnosis of diffuse pleural thickening, and several classification systems for asbestos-related disorders have been devised. Magnetic resonance imaging and fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) scanning may be useful in distinguishing between DPT and malignant mesothelioma. DPT may be associated with symptoms such as dyspnoea and chest pain. It causes a restrictive defect on lung function and may rarely result in respiratory failure and death. Treatment is primarily supportive. PMID:18775081

Miles, Susan E; Sandrini, Alessandra; Johnson, Anthony R; Yates, Deborah H

2008-01-01

55

Five cases of pleural mesothelioma with endemic pleural calcifications in a rural area in Greece.  

PubMed

The authors describe 5 cases of pleural mesothelioma in a rural population of Macedonia, Greece. This population had been covered by an X-ray study over a 3-year period to detect pleural calcifications compatible with asbestos exposure. The study revealed a 24.2% prevalence of pleural plaques among the inhabitants aged over 40 years of 7 rural villages. High contents of asbestos (chrysotile and tremolite)--up to 90% by volume--were found in the material that was used for whitewashing the houses up to 1935. Even now, environmental concentrations of 0.01 fibres/ml were recorded in the houses. The prevalence of pleural mesothelioma in this rural population is high compared to the general population. A possible explanation of the phenomenon may be a cumulative environmental exposure to asbestos which, even though presumably within the acceptable limits for occupational exposure, lasted over a much longer time period, in terms of both daily exposure and total duration. PMID:1461190

Sichletidis, L; Daskalopoulou, E; Tsarou, V; Pnevmatikos, I; Chloros, D; Vamvalis, C

1992-01-01

56

Localized malignant pleural mesothelioma.  

PubMed

Localized malignant pleural mesothelioma (LMPM) is a rare tumor; previously only 52 cases have been reported in the English literature. This type of tumor should be distinguished from diffuse malignant pleural mesothelioma, because a good outcome may be obtained by surgical resection. We report a case of LMPM which grew rapidly within 1 year. Surgical resection was performed, and at present, 6 months since the operation, the patient remains free of the disease. PMID:22566254

Nakano, Takayuki; Hamanaka, Rurika; Oiwa, Kana; Nakazato, Kenei; Masuda, Ryota; Iwazaki, Masayuki

2012-07-01

57

Determinants of restrictive lung function in asbestos-induced pleural fibrosis  

SciTech Connect

We evaluated whether restrictive lung function among asbestos-exposed individuals with pleural fibrosis was caused by radiographically inapparent parenchymal inflammation and/or parenchymal fibrosis. All 24 study participants were sheet metal workers who were nonsmokers with normal parenchyma on posteroanterior chest radiograph. These subjects had either normal pleura (n = 7), circumscribed plaques (n = 9), or diffuse pleural thickening (n = 8). After controlling for age, years in the trade, and pack-years of smoking, we found that sheet metal workers with diffuse pleural thickening had a lower forced vital capacity (P less than 0.001), total lung capacity (P less than 0.01), and CO-diffusing capacity of the lung (P less than 0.05) than those with normal pleura. Similarly, sheet metal workers with circumscribed plaques were found to have a reduced forced vital capacity; however, because of the small number of study subjects, this difference (regression coefficient = -11.0) was only marginally significant (P = 0.06). Although circumscribed plaque and diffuse pleural thickening were both associated with a lymphocytic alveolitis and a higher prevalence of parenchymal fibrosis on high-resolution computerized tomography (HRCT) scan, neither a lymphocytic alveolitis nor the finding of parenchymal fibrosis on HRCT scan influenced the relationship between pleural fibrosis and restrictive lung function. We conclude that pleural fibrosis is associated with restrictive lung function and abnormally low diffusion that appears to be independent of our measures of parenchymal injury (chest X-ray, bronchoalveolar lavage, and HRCT scan).

Schwartz, D.A.; Galvin, J.R.; Dayton, C.S.; Stanford, W.; Merchant, J.A.; Hunninghake, G.W. (Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City (USA))

1990-05-01

58

Non-Neoplastic and Neoplastic Pleural Endpoints Following Fiber Exposure  

PubMed Central

Exposure to asbestos fibers is associated with non-neoplastic pleural diseases including plaques, fibrosis, and benign effusions, as well as with diffuse malignant pleural mesothelioma. Translocation and retention of fibers are fundamental processes in understanding the interactions between the dose and dimensions of fibers retained at this anatomic site and the subsequent pathological reactions. The initial interaction of fibers with target cells in the pleura has been studied in cellular models in vitro and in experimental studies in vivo. The proposed biological mechanisms responsible for non-neoplastic and neoplastic pleural diseases and the physical and chemical properties of asbestos fibers relevant to these mechanisms are critically reviewed. Understanding mechanisms of asbestos fiber toxicity may help us anticipate the problems from future exposures both to asbestos and to novel fibrous materials such as nanotubes. Gaps in our understanding have been outlined as guides for future research. PMID:21534088

Broaddus, V. Courtney; Everitt, Jeffrey I.; Black, Brad; Kane, Agnes B.

2011-01-01

59

Primary pleural non-Hodgkin lymphoma in a child--an exceedingly rare disease.  

PubMed

Primary pleural lymphomas are very rare. Two types are described in the literature: primary effusion lymphoma, in the setting of human immunodeficiency virus infection, and pyothorax-associated lymphomas, with a strong Epstein-Barr virus association. We report a rare case of a primary pleural lymphoma in a 12-year-old immunocompetent girl who presented with a hemorrhagic pleural effusion and had plaque-like thickening of the pleura. The histologic and immunophenotypic findings conformed to that of a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (CD20 positive). PMID:22424374

Ravikumar, Gayatri; Tirumalae, Rajalakshmi; Das, Kanishka

2012-03-01

60

Syndrome of pleural and retrosternal "bridging" fibrosis and retroperitoneal fibrosis in patients with asbestos exposure  

PubMed Central

Two case histories are described of pleural and anterior mediastinal fibrosis presenting as a continuous fibrotic process with thick parietal pleural plaques extending from one pleura to the contralateral pleura through the retrosternal area, and with retroperitoneal fibrosis. Follow-up over 4 years in one case demonstrated rapid progression of disease, with pleural fibrosis preceding retrosternal and retroperitoneal fibrosis. Histopathological analysis in both cases showed non-tumoral fibrosis with broad fibrous bundles surrounding fibroblasts (and lymphocytes in one case). Possible causes such as infections and exposure to ergot derivatives were excluded. Both patients had been slightly or moderately exposed to asbestos. PMID:21686563

Cottin, Vincent; Brillet, Pierre-Yves; Combarnous, Francois; Duperron, Florence; Nunes, Hilario; Cordier, Jean-Francois

2009-01-01

61

JAMA Patient Page: Pleural Effusion  

MedlinePLUS

... Cough • Chest pain CAUSES OF PLEURAL EFFUSIONS • Congestive heart failure (ineffective pumping of blood through the circulatory system ... with antibiotics usually resolves pleural effusion. • Treating congestive heart failure with diuretics (medication that removes excess fluid from ...

62

Pleural Fluid Cholesterol in Differentiating Exudative and Transudative Pleural Effusion  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To study the diagnostic value of pleural fluid cholesterol in differentiating transudative and exudative pleural effusion. To compare pleural fluid cholesterol level for exudates with Light's criteria. Design. Cross sectional descriptive study. Settings. Medical wards of Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital. Methods. Sixty two cases of pleural effusion with definite clinical diagnosis admitted in TUTH were taken and classified as transudates (19) and exudates (43). The parameters pleural fluid protein/serum protein ratio (pfP/sP), pleural fluid LDH/ serum LDH ratio, pleural fluid LDH (pfLDH) and pleural fluid cholesterol (pCHOL) were compared with clinical diagnosis with regard to their usefulness for distinguishing between pleural exudates and transudates. Results. The pCHOL values determined were 1.92 ± 0.75 for exudates, 0.53 ± 0.28 for transudates, the differences between the transudates and others are statistically significant (P < 0.0001). It is seen that pfP/sP ratio has a sensitivity of 81.4% and specificity of 82.6%; pfLDH/sLDH ratio has a sensitivity of 86% and specificity of 94.7% and pCHOL with sensitivity of 97.7% and specificity of 100% for differentiating exudative and transudative PE. Conclusion. The determination of pCHOL is of great value for distinguishing between pleural exudates and transudates and should be included in routine laboratory analysis of pleural effusion. PMID:23365740

Hamal, A. B.; Yogi, K. N.; Bam, N.; Das, S. K.; Karn, R.

2013-01-01

63

Non-invasive measurement of coronary plaque from coronary CT angiography and its clinical implications.  

PubMed

Coronary CT angiography (CTA) is increasingly used worldwide for direct, non-invasive evaluation of the coronary arteries. Advances in computed tomography (CT) technology over the last decade have enabled such reliable imaging of the coronary arteries. Beyond arterial stenosis, coronary CTA also permits assessment of atherosclerotic plaque (including plaque burden) and coronary artery remodeling, previously only achievable through invasive means. It has been shown that coronary plaque volumes for non-calcified and mixed plaques and the arterial remodeling index, correlate closely with invasive intravascular ultrasound. Several studies have also shown a strong relationship of adverse plaque features imaged by coronary CTA with acute coronary syndrome, all-cause death, major adverse cardiovascular events and myocardial ischemia. The aim of this review is to summarize current methods for quantitative measurement of atherosclerotic plaque features from coronary CTA and to discuss their clinical implications. PMID:23984930

Dey, Damini; Schuhbaeck, Annika; Min, James K; Berman, Daniel S; Achenbach, Stephan

2013-08-01

64

[Pleural needle biopsy in diagnosis of pleural effusion].  

PubMed

Diagnostic reliability of percutaneous parietal pleural biopsy with use of the Abrams needle technique performed over a period 1989-1994 was assessed in 37 patients with pleural effusion of unknown etiology, aged 24-82 years. Adequate diagnostic specimens were obtained in 33 patients. Histopathological diagnosis established neoplasma (39,4%), tuberculosis (9.1%) and chronic nonspecific pleuritis (51,5%). No complications of the procedure were encountered. Pleural needle biopsy should be more widely applied as a basic method in the diagnosis of pleural effusions of unknown etiology. PMID:8630469

Fija?kowski, M; B?och, P; Kulig, A; Graczyk, J; Szmidt, M

1996-01-01

65

Pleurisy and Other Pleural Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... the layers of tissue is a very thin space called the pleural space. Normally this space is filled with a small amount of fluid— ... or gas can build up in the pleural space. When this happens, it's called a pneumothorax (noo- ...

66

Inflammation and Plaque Vulnerability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of a thrombus at the site of an atherosclerotic plaque initiates abrupt arterial occlusion and is the proximate\\u000a event responsible for the vast majority of acute ischemic syndromes. In nearly 75% of cases thrombus overlies a disrupted\\u000a or ruptured plaque whereas the remainder of the thrombi overly an intact plaque with superficial endothelial erosion. Over\\u000a the past several years,

Prediman K. Shah

2009-01-01

67

A finite element study of balloon expandable stent for plaque and arterial wall vulnerability assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stresses induced within plaque tissues and arterial layers during stent expansion inside an atherosclerotic artery can be exceeded from the yield stresses of those tissues and, consequently, lead to plaque or arterial layer rupture. The distribution and magnitude of the stresses in each component involved in stenting might be clearly different for different plaque types and different arterial layers. In this study, a nonlinear finite element simulation was employed to investigate the effect of plaque composition (calcified, cellular, and hypocellular) on the stresses induced in the arterial layers (intima, media, and adventitia) during implantation of a balloon expandable coronary stent into a stenosed artery. The atherosclerotic artery was assumed to consist of a plaque and normal/healthy arterial tissues on its outer side. The results indicated a significant influence of plaque types on the maximum stresses induced within the plaque wall and arterial layers during stenting but not when computing maximum stress on the stent. The stress on the stiffest calcified plaque wall was in the fracture level (2.38 MPa), whereas cellular and hypocellular plaques remain stable owing to less stress on their walls. Regardless of plaque types, the highest von Mises stresses were observed on the stiffest intima layer, whereas the lowest stresses were seen to be located in less stiff media layer. The computed stresses on the intima layer were found to be high enough to initiate a rupture in this stiff layer. These findings suggest a higher risk of arterial vascular injury for the intima layer, while a lower risk of arterial injury for the media and adventitia layers.

Karimi, Alireza; Navidbakhsh, Mahdi; Razaghi, Reza

2014-07-01

68

Research paper The modern calcifying sponge Spheciospongia vesparium  

E-print Network

Research paper The modern calcifying sponge Spheciospongia vesparium (Lamarck, 1815), Great Bahama of Andros Island) the biostratonomy of the calcifying sponge Spheciospongia vesparium (Lamarck, 1815 (Lamarck, 1815) a potential pardigm to decipher in more detail the geologically important process

Burdige, David

69

Growth and Relative Size of Calcified Structures of Fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between size of calcified structures and the body of fish has been used widely in fisheries science to estimate body size at a younger age by “back-calculation.” I labeled the calcified tissue of northern pike Esox lucius with tetracycline to examine the concurrent linear growth of calcified structures and the body. I also conducted comparisons of the sizes

John M. Casselman

1990-01-01

70

Update on pleural diseases - 2007  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: New information is available on pleural diseases. The authors selected articles to make recommendations on diagnostic and treatment aspects of pleural diseases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eleven articles published in the English language between 2004 and 2007 were chosen. The basis of selection of the articles was the impact on daily practice, change in prior thinking of a disease process or specific treatment modality, as well as proper design and execution of the study. 5-amino-laevulinic acid with fluorescent light combined with white light may allow further diagnostic yield in undiagnosed pleural disease. FDG-PET may allow prognostication of patients with pleural tumors. Utilizing ultrasound by trained Emergency Department physicians is a rapid and effective technique to evaluate non-traumatic pleural effusions in symptomatic patients. Serum osteopontin levels may distinguish patients exposed to asbestos with benign disease from those with pleural mesothelioma. Administration of streptokinase in patients with empyema does not need for surgical drainage, length of hospital stay, or mortality as compared to conventional treatment with chest tube drainage and intravenous antibiotics. Silver nitrate may be an alternative agent to talc for producing pleurodesis. Routine use of graded talc (50% particles greater than 25 microns) is recommended to reduce the morbidity associated with talc pleurodesis. Study design does not permit us to conclude that aspiration of spontaneous pneumothorax is as effective as chest tube drainage. Pleural catheter may prove to be an important palliative modality in treating debilitated patients or patients with trapped lung who show symptomatic improvement with drainage; however, at the present time, these catheters cannot be considered a first line treatment option for patients with malignant pleural effusion. One of the studies reviewed showed no significant difference in tract metastasis in patients with malignant mesothelioma undergoing an invasive pleural procedure with or without irradiation to the procedure site. However, the design of the trial does not allow us to make this conclusion at the present time. PMID:19727362

Bishay, Ayman; Raoof, Suhail; Esan, Adebayo; Sung, Arthur; Wali, Siraj; Lee, Leonard Y.; George, Liziamma; Saleh, Anthony; Baumann, Michael

2007-01-01

71

Biomarkers of plaque instability.  

PubMed

Atherosclerosis is the proximate cause of arterial thrombosis, leading to acute occlusive cardiovascular syndromes. Thrombosis in atherosclerosis usually results from rupture of the fibrous cap of atherosclerotic plaques with a smaller proportion resulting from superficial endothelial erosion. Ruptured plaques are often associated with intimal and adventitial inflammation, increased size of lipid-rich necrotic core with thinned out collagen-depleted fibrous cap, outward remodeling, increased plaque neovascularity, intraplaque hemorrhage, and microcalcification. By inference, non-ruptured plaques with similar compositional features are considered to be at risk for rupture and hence are labeled vulnerable plaques or high-risk plaques. Identification of vulnerable plaques may help in predicting the risk of acute occlusive syndromes and may also allow targeting for aggressive systemic and possibly local therapies. Plaque rupture is believed to result from extracellular matrix (which comprises the protective fibrous cap) dysregulation due to excessive proteolysis in the context of diminished matrix synthesis. Inflammation is believed to play a key role by providing matrix-degrading metalloproteinases and also by inducing death of matrix-synthesizing smooth muscle cells. Systemic markers of inflammation are thus the most logical forms of potential biomarkers which may predict the presence of vulnerable or high-risk plaques. Several studies have suggested the potential prognostic value of a variety of systemic markers, but regrettably, their overall clinical predictive value is modestly incremental at best, especially for individual subjects compared to groups of patients. Nevertheless, continued investigation of reliable, cost-effective biomarkers that predict the presence of a high-risk plaque and future athero-thrombotic cardiovascular events with greater sensitivity and specificity is warranted. PMID:25326730

Shah, P K

2014-12-01

72

Pleural effusion: what lies underneath?  

PubMed Central

Malignant mesothelioma is a tumour of serous surfaces mainly arising at the pleura or the peritoneum. The diagnosis encompasses multiple problems as there is no pathognomonic hallmark for the disease, there are multiple histological types and the differentiation from other tumours, such as adenocarcinoma or metastatic pleural disease, can represent quite a challenge. Usually a diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma carries a dismal prognosis with scarce therapeutical options. The present report concerns a patient with a diagnosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma with endobronchial extension. Biopsy specimens were obtained through fibreoptic bronchoscopy and blind needle pleural biopsy. The final diagnosis was only possible after careful histological evaluation with a combination of immunohistochemical markers. PMID:21686530

Rodrigues, L Vaz; Raposo, J; Mendonca, C; Figueiredo, A; Barata, F; Meruje, M; Pires, J

2009-01-01

73

Tremolite whitewashing and pleural calcifications.  

PubMed

Radiologic screening of 688 inhabitants of the Metsovo area in Northwest Greece revealed that 323 (46.9 percent) had pleural calcifications. The percentage of positive examinations rose with age. Calcifications were observed in all four villages of the area where a material ("luto" soil) had been extensively used for whitewashing until 1940 to 1950. In four other villages in the immediate vicinity, where "luto" had never been used, pleural calcifications were not observed. Results suggest that Metsovo tremolite may have caused pleural calcifications to all individuals born in Metsovo before 1940. This is the first study indicating that environmental asbestos exposure can cause abnormalities in everyone exposed to it. PMID:2820656

Constantopoulos, S H; Saratzis, N A; Kontogiannis, D; Karantanas, A; Goudevenos, J A; Katsiotis, P

1987-10-01

74

Tremolite whitewashing and pleural calcifications  

SciTech Connect

Radiologic screening of 688 inhabitants of the Metsovo area in Northwest Greece revealed that 323 (46.9 percent) had pleural calcifications. The percentage of positive examinations rose with age. Calcifications were observed in all four villages of the area where a material (luto soil) had been extensively used for whitewashing until 1940 to 1950. In four other villages in the immediate vicinity, where luto had never been used, pleural calcifications were not observed. Results suggest that Metsovo tremolite may have caused pleural calcifications to all individuals born in Metsovo before 1940. This is the first study indicating that environmental asbestos exposure can cause abnormalities in everyone exposed to it.

Constantopoulos, S.H.; Saratzis, N.A.; Kontogiannis, D.; Karantanas, A.; Goudevenos, J.A.; Katsiotis, P.

1987-10-01

75

Comparative LIBS Analysis Of Calcified Tissues  

SciTech Connect

Signal enhancement, limits of detection, and relevance to environmental concentration for element in calcified tissues using LIBS with single and double laser pulses will be presented. These measurements were performed on three calcified tissues representing different matrices, namely enamel of human teeth, shells and eggshells. This method depends on the role of the laser induced shock wave on the ionization rate of the ablated target material atoms. The effect of the laser single and double pulse on the ionic to atomic ratio of calcium and magnesium spectral emission lines, CaII/CaI and MgII/MgI, will be presented and compared with the previous results and its relevance to the target material hardness. The results show that in case of single pulse the intensity ratios in calcium are higher than the double pulse while there is no appreciable difference between both in case of magnesium.

Abdel-Salam, Z. A.; Harith, M. A. [National Institute of Laser Enhanced Science (NILES), Cairo University (Egypt)

2008-09-23

76

High Field Atherosclerotic Plaque MRI  

PubMed Central

Manifestations of atherosclerotic plaque in different arterial beds range from perfusion deficits to overt ischemia such as stroke and myocardial infarction. Atherosclerotic plaque composition is known to be associated with its propensity to rupture and cause vascular events. MRI of atherosclerotic plaque using clinical 1.5T scanners can detect plaque composition. Plaque MRI at higher field strengths offers both opportunities and challenges to improving the high spatial-resolution and contrast required for this type of imaging. This article summarizes the technological requirements required for high field plaque MRI and its application in detecting plaque components. PMID:22548932

Yuan, Chun; Wang, Jinnan; Balu, Niranjan

2012-01-01

77

Comparison of racial differences in plaque composition and stenosis between HIV-positive and HIV-negative men from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study.  

PubMed

Previous studies demonstrated that blacks have less coronary artery calcification (CAC) than whites. We evaluated racial differences in plaque composition and stenosis in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. HIV-positive and HIV-negative men underwent noncontrast cardiac computed tomography (CT) if they were aged 40 to 70 years, weighed <136 kg, and had no history of cardiac surgery or revascularization and, if eligible, coronary CT angiography (CTA). There were 1,001 men who underwent CT scans and 759 men CTA. We measured CAC on noncontrast CT and identified total plaque, noncalcified plaque, calcified plaque, mixed plaque, and coronary stenosis >50% on CTA. The association of presence and extent of plaque with race was determined after adjustment for HIV serostatus, cardiovascular risk factors, and measures of socioeconomic status. The prevalences of any plaque on CTA and noncalcified plaque were not different between black and white men; however, black men had lower prevalences of CAC (prevalence ratio [PR] 0.79, p = 0.01), calcified plaque (PR 0.69, p = 0.002), and stenosis >50% (PR 0.59, p = 0.009). There were no associations between black race and extent of plaque in fully adjusted models. Using log-linear regression, black race was associated with a lower extent of any plaque on CTA in HIV-positive men (estimate = -0.24, p = 0.051) but not in HIV-negative men (0.12, p = 0.50, HIV interaction p = 0.005). In conclusion, a lower prevalence of CAC in black compared with white men appears to reflect less calcification of plaque and stenosis rather than a lower overall prevalence of plaque. PMID:24929623

Miller, P Elliott; Budoff, Matthew; Zikusoka, Michelle; Li, Xiuhong; Palella, Frank; Kingsley, Lawrence A; Witt, Mallory D; Sharrett, A Richey; Jacobson, Lisa P; Post, Wendy S

2014-08-01

78

Primary pleural liposarcoma, pleomorphic variant  

PubMed Central

Primary pleural liposarcoma (PPL) is a rare tumor derived from primitive mesenchymal tissue. We report a case of a 49-year-old female patient complaining of thoracic pain and dyspnea for 3 months. The chest X-ray showed a left basal opacity of lobulated contours and the thoracic computer tomography (CT) scan revealed a left pleural collection/mass, of 18 HU density and passive pulmonary atelectasis. The patient was taken to surgery and the cytologic examination of the gelatinous mass found in the procedure confirmed the diagnosis of a pleomorphic variant of pleural liposarcoma. We emphasise in the importance of careful inspection of the origin of the tumor in the diagnostic images to allow accurate diagnosis. PMID:25276389

Navarrete, Constanza; Lopez Arias, Maria Alejandra; Pelaez, Mauricio

2014-01-01

79

Primary pleural liposarcoma, pleomorphic variant.  

PubMed

Primary pleural liposarcoma (PPL) is a rare tumor derived from primitive mesenchymal tissue. We report a case of a 49-year-old female patient complaining of thoracic pain and dyspnea for 3 months. The chest X-ray showed a left basal opacity of lobulated contours and the thoracic computer tomography (CT) scan revealed a left pleural collection/mass, of 18 HU density and passive pulmonary atelectasis. The patient was taken to surgery and the cytologic examination of the gelatinous mass found in the procedure confirmed the diagnosis of a pleomorphic variant of pleural liposarcoma. We emphasise in the importance of careful inspection of the origin of the tumor in the diagnostic images to allow accurate diagnosis. PMID:25276389

Carrillo B, Jorge Alberto; Navarrete, Constanza; López Arias, María Alejandra; Peláez, Mauricio

2014-09-01

80

Pleural fluid ferritin concentrations in human disease.  

PubMed Central

The concentration of ferritin was measured in the pleural fluid of 108 patients with pleural effusions. In all groups of patients the ferritin concentration was higher in pleural fluid than in serum. The greatest differences, with up to 100 times more ferritin in the pleural fluid, were found for patients with rheumatoid pleurisy, malignant effusions, and empyema. In patients with non-malignant inflammatory pleural effusions the concentration of ferritin in pleural fluid correlated significantly with other pleural fluid indices of inflammation: there was a positive correlation with lactate dehydrogenase activity and a negative correlation with concentrations of glucose and complement components C3 and C4. Ferritin was detected immunocytochemically only in the macrophages found among the pleural fluid cells. Our study shows that large amounts of ferritin accumulate locally in the pleural cavity in certain types of pleural inflammation. The accumulation is probably partly the result of increased local reticuloendothelial system activity. Determination of the concentration of ferritin in pleural fluid may provide corroborative information for differential diagnosis and may further our understanding of the pathogenetic events that lead to the perpetuation of inflammatory activity in pleural effusions. Images PMID:4019803

Klockars, M; Weber, T; Tanner, P; Hellstrom, P E; Pettersson, T

1985-01-01

81

[Pleural mesothelioma--case with effusion in both pleural cavities].  

PubMed

Etiology of the pleural exudate is not always easy to establish with the routine diagnostic procedures. We report the history of a 55-year-old man, driver--without evident occupational exposure to asbestos dust. Patient was treated in hospital because of recurrent bilateral sanguineous pleural fluid. Repeated basic laboratory examinations of pleural exudate did not contribute to establishing etiology of the disease. At the beginning of hospital stay antituberculosis therapy was applied but was unsuccessful. Rapid accumulation of the fluid, deterioration of general condition of the patient, presence of dysplasia in the cells of the sediment of the exudate indicated possibility of diagnosis of neoplasm of the pleura. Intravenous injections of cisplatin and intrapleural application of bleomycin did not influence, however, the course of the disease. Final diagnosis was possible only after pleural biopsy (with Abrams needle) was performed. Histopathologic examination of the specimen disclosed: malignant mesothelioma biphasic type. Patient died after 3 months of observations and attempt at treatment. PMID:15754636

Fija?kowski, Marek; Jochymski, Cezary

2004-11-01

82

Tremolite whitewashing and pleural calcifications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiologic screening of 688 inhabitants of the Metsovo area in Northwest Greece revealed that 323 (46.9 percent) had pleural calcifications. The percentage of positive examinations rose with age. Calcifications were observed in all four villages of the area where a material (luto soil) had been extensively used for whitewashing until 1940 to 1950. In four other villages in the immediate

S. H. Constantopoulos; N. A. Saratzis; D. Kontogiannis; A. Karantanas; J. A. Goudevenos; P. Katsiotis

1987-01-01

83

LIBS analysis of artificial calcified tissues matrices.  

PubMed

In most laser-based analytical methods, the reproducibility of quantitative measurements strongly depends on maintaining uniform and stable experimental conditions. For LIBS analysis this means that for accurate estimation of elemental concentration, using the calibration curves obtained from reference samples, the plasma parameters have to be kept as constant as possible. In addition, calcified tissues such as bone are normally less "tough" in their texture than many samples, especially metals. Thus, the ablation process could change the sample morphological features rapidly, and result in poor reproducibility statistics. In the present work, three artificial reference sample sets have been fabricated. These samples represent three different calcium based matrices, CaCO3 matrix, bone ash matrix and Ca hydroxyapatite matrix. A comparative study of UV (266 nm) and IR (1064 nm) LIBS for these three sets of samples has been performed under similar experimental conditions for the two systems (laser energy, spot size, repetition rate, irradiance, etc.) to examine the wavelength effect. The analytical results demonstrated that UV-LIBS has improved reproducibility, precision, stable plasma conditions, better linear fitting, and the reduction of matrix effects. Bone ash could be used as a suitable standard reference material for calcified tissue calibration using LIBS with a 266 nm excitation wavelength. PMID:23601869

Kasem, M A; Gonzalez, J J; Russo, R E; Harith, M A

2013-04-15

84

Prevalence of calcified carotid artery atheromas on panoramic images of individuals with primary hyperparathyroidism  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT), affecting 1% of the population, is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The presence of calcified carotid artery plaque (CCAP) on panoramic images is a validated risk indicator of future adverse cardiovascular events. We hypothesized that military veterans aged 50 years or older diagnosed with PHPT by increased parathyroid hormone and calcium levels would frequently have CCAP on their images. Methods: We determined the prevalence rates of CCAP on the images of patients diagnosed with PHPT and evaluated their atherogenic risk profiles, including hypertension, dyslipidaemia, diabetes and obesity. Comparisons of atherogenic risk factors were made between subjects with and without observed CCAP on their panoramic images. Results: Of the 60 patients (86.7% males and 13.3% females, mean age 73.2 ± 11.3 years) with PHPT, 40% had atheromas. There were no significant differences between CCAP+ and CCAP? groups in gender or race (p > 0.05). The atherogenic profile (age, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidaemia) in the CCAP+ and CCAP? groups was not significantly different (p > 0.05). Conclusions: Calcified carotid artery atheromas are often seen on the panoramic images of patients with PHPT. Thus, dentists must be uniquely vigilant for these lesions when evaluating these studies. PMID:23775925

Friedlander, A H; Aghazadehsanai, N; Chang, T I; Harada, N; Garrett, N R

2013-01-01

85

Vitamin K-Antagonists Accelerate Atherosclerotic Calcification and Induce a Vulnerable Plaque Phenotype  

PubMed Central

Background Vitamin K-antagonists (VKA) are treatment of choice and standard care for patients with venous thrombosis and thromboembolic risk. In experimental animal models as well as humans, VKA have been shown to promote medial elastocalcinosis. As vascular calcification is considered an independent risk factor for plaque instability, we here investigated the effect of VKA on coronary calcification in patients and on calcification of atherosclerotic plaques in the ApoE?/? model of atherosclerosis. Methodology/Principal Findings A total of 266 patients (133 VKA users and 133 gender and Framingham Risk Score matched non-VKA users) underwent 64-slice MDCT to assess the degree of coronary artery disease (CAD). VKA-users developed significantly more calcified coronary plaques as compared to non-VKA users. ApoE?/? mice (10 weeks) received a Western type diet (WTD) for 12 weeks, after which mice were fed a WTD supplemented with vitamin K1 (VK1, 1.5 mg/g) or vitamin K1 and warfarin (VK1&W; 1.5 mg/g & 3.0 mg/g) for 1 or 4 weeks, after which mice were sacrificed. Warfarin significantly increased frequency and extent of vascular calcification. Also, plaque calcification comprised microcalcification of the intimal layer. Furthermore, warfarin treatment decreased plaque expression of calcification regulatory protein carboxylated matrix Gla-protein, increased apoptosis and, surprisingly outward plaque remodeling, without affecting overall plaque burden. Conclusions/Significance VKA use is associated with coronary artery plaque calcification in patients with suspected CAD and causes changes in plaque morphology with features of plaque vulnerability in ApoE?/? mice. Our findings underscore the need for alternative anticoagulants that do not interfere with the vitamin K cycle. PMID:22952653

Schurgers, Leon J.; Chatrou, Martijn L. L.; Herfs, Marjolein; Winkens, Mark H. M.; Westenfeld, Ralf; Veulemans, Verena; Krueger, Thilo; Shanahan, Catherine M.; Jahnen-Dechent, Willi; Biessen, Erik; Narula, Jagat; Vermeer, Cees; Hofstra, Leonard; Reutelingsperger, Chris P.

2012-01-01

86

Pleural thickening and gas transfer in asbestosis.  

PubMed Central

Anomalies in the ratio of transfer factor to effective alveolar volume as an indicator of pulmonary gas exchange in cases of asbestosis may be related to diffuse pleural thickening. To examine the effect of pleural disease on gas transfer the plain chest radiographs of patients with asbestosis were assessed by two observers for profusion of parenchymal opacities and extent of pleural disease and the results were related to lung function. In 30 cases of category 1 profusion of parenchymal abnormality (according to the ILO international classification of radiographs for pneumoconiosis) transfer factor was independent of the degree of pleural thickening. The ratio of transfer factor to effective alveolar volume correlated directly with the degree of pleural thickening as alveolar volume fell with increasing severity of pleural disease. The results indicate that correcting transfer factor for alveolar volume does not provide an accurate reflection of severity of diffuse parenchymal fibrosis in patients with asbestosis and even minor pleural disease. PMID:6623418

Cookson, W O; Musk, A W; Glancy, J J

1983-01-01

87

Medical Thoracoscopy vs Closed Pleural Biopsy in Pleural Effusions: A Randomized Controlled Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Pleural effusion is a common diagnostic dilemma for the pulmonologist. A histological diagnosis would many a time steer the way to an accurate diagnosis of the aetiologies of pleural effusions. This study has compared two methods for obtaining histological specimens in cases of undiagnosed pleural effusions. Aim: To compare the efficacy of closed pleural biopsy with Abrahm’s needle and medical thoracoscopic biopsy in the diagnosis of undiagnosed exudative pleural effusions at a tertiary care setting. Study Design: Randomized controlled study. Study Period: November 2008–October 2010. Methodology: All patients who were admitted with pleural effusions underwent a clinical workup for pleural effusions. Light’s criterion was used to differentiate between exudative and transudative pleural effusions. Those patients with exudative pleural effusions, who did not have a specific diagnosis, were included in the study. Fifty eight patients were included in the study and they were randomized into 2 Groups of 29 patients each. One group was subjected to medical thoracoscopic pleural biopsy and the other to closed pleural biopsy with Abrahm’s needle. Demographic, clinical and biochemical characteristics, diagnostic yields and the complications among the two groups were compared. Result: Medical thoracoscopy has a diagnostic yield of 86.2% with complication rate of 10.3% compared to 62.1% and 17.2% respectively in closed pleural biopsy group. Conclusion: Medical thoracoscopic pleural biopsy had a better diagnostic yield with a lower complication rate as compared to closed pleural biopsy with Abrahm’s needle. PMID:24995201

K.P., Suraj; T.P., Rajagopal; P.T., James; Chetambath, Ravindran

2014-01-01

88

Pleural Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: In patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma who are unable to undergo pneumonectomy, it is difficult to deliver tumoricidal radiation doses to the pleura without significant toxicity. We have implemented a technique of using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) to treat these patients, and we report the feasibility and toxicity of this approach. Methods and Materials: Between 2005 and 2010, 36 patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma and two intact lungs (i.e., no previous pneumonectomy) were treated with pleural IMRT to the hemithorax (median dose, 46.8 Gy; range, 41.4-50.4) at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. Results: Of the 36 patients, 56% had right-sided tumors. The histologic type was epithelial in 78%, sarcomatoid in 6%, and mixed in 17%, and 6% had Stage I, 28% had Stage II, 33% had Stage III, and 33% had Stage IV. Thirty-two patients (89%) received induction chemotherapy (mostly cisplatin and pemetrexed); 56% underwent pleurectomy/decortication before IMRT and 44% did not undergo resection. Of the 36 patients evaluable for acute toxicity, 7 (20%) had Grade 3 or worse pneumonitis (including 1 death) and 2 had Grade 3 fatigue. In 30 patients assessable for late toxicity, 5 had continuing Grade 3 pneumonitis. For patients treated with surgery, the 1- and 2-year survival rate was 75% and 53%, and the median survival was 26 months. For patients who did not undergo surgical resection, the 1- and 2-year survival rate was 69% and 28%, and the median survival was 17 months. Conclusions: Treating the intact lung with pleural IMRT in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma is a safe and feasible treatment option with an acceptable rate of pneumonitis. Additionally, the survival rates were encouraging in our retrospective series, particularly for the patients who underwent pleurectomy/decortication. We have initiated a Phase II trial of induction chemotherapy with pemetrexed and cisplatin with or without pleurectomy/decortication, followed by pleural IMRT to prospectively evaluate the toxicity and survival.

Rosenzweig, Kenneth E., E-mail: ken.rosenzweig@mountsinai.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Zauderer, Marjorie G. [Department of Medicine, Thoracic Oncology Service, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Laser, Benjamin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI (United States); Krug, Lee M. [Department of Medicine, Thoracic Oncology Service, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Yorke, Ellen [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Sima, Camelia S. [Department of Epidemiology/Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Rimner, Andreas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Flores, Raja [Department of Surgery, Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Rusch, Valerie [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

2012-07-15

89

Closed Pleural Biopsy is Still Useful in the Evaluation of Malignant Pleural Effusion  

PubMed Central

Background: Pleural fluid cytology for malignant cells is the easiest way to diagnose malignant pleural effusion with good sensitivity and specificity. With the introduction of medical thoracoscopy, the use of closed pleural biopsy for the diagnosis of cytology negative malignant pleural effusion is gradually decreasing. However use of thoracoscopy is limited due to its high cost and procedure related complications. Aims: The aim was to assess the usefulness of closed pleural biopsy in the diagnosis of malignant pleural effusion. Materials and Methods: Sixty-six patients of pleural effusion associated with malignancy were selected from the patients admitted in the chest ward of a tertiary care hospital over a period of 1 year. Pleural fluid aspiration for cytology and closed pleural biopsy were done in all the patients. Results: Out of 66 patients, 46 (69%) patients showed malignant cells in pleural fluid cytology examination. Cytology was positive in 35 (52%), 10 (15%), and 1 (1.5%) patients in the first, second, and third samples respectively. Closed pleural biopsy was positive in 32 (48%) patients. Among them, 22 also had positive cytology. Additional 10 cytology negative patients were diagnosed by pleural biopsy. Cytology–histology concordance was seen in 12 patients. Definite histological diagnosis could be achieved in five patients with indeterminate cytology. Pleural biopsy was not associated with any major postoperative complication. Conclusion: Closed pleural biopsy can improve the diagnostic ability in cytology negative malignant pleural effusion. Closed pleural biopsy has still a place in evaluation of malignant pleural effusion especially in a resource-limited country like India. PMID:22923920

Bhattacharya, Somnath; Bairagya, Tapan D; Das, Anirban; Mandal, Abhijit; Das, Sibes K

2012-01-01

90

Pulverisation of calcified and non-calcified gall bladder stones: extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy used alone.  

PubMed Central

Using a modified electromagnetic lithotripter (Siemens), extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) was performed in 260 patients with gall bladder stones. Exclusion criteria for treatment were a non-functioning gall bladder, subcostal gall bladder location, and multiple stones occupying more than three quarters of the gall bladder volume. Stone pulverisation was the end point of ESWL. The number of shock wave discharges and sessions was not limited. Pulverisation was achieved in 250 patients (96.1%) after a median of three ESWL sessions (range 1-21). The number of sessions required depended upon stone composition and burden. More than three sessions were required in 60.2% of patients with calcified stones compared with 35.9% of patients with non-calcified stones (p < 0.001). 65.8% of patients with stones measuring more than 30 mm in total diameter required more than three sessions compared with 42.9% of patients with a stone burden less than 30 mm (p < 0.01). At 18-24 (8-12) months follow up, stone clearance was achieved in 94.3% (80.4%) of patients with non-calcified stones, compared with 89.5% (76.8%) in patients with calcified stones and in 75% (71.4%) of patients with a total stone diameter more than 30 mm compared with 95.7% (80.4%) for patients with a total stone diameter less than 30 mm (p < 0.05). ESWL related complications (gross haematuria) occurred in three patients. Thirty six (13.8%) patients experienced biliary colic; four had cholecystectomy, and five endoscopic papillotomy because of common bile duct obstruction. Stone recurrence was seen in 5.3% of patients over a follow up period of up to two years (median 16.6 months). PMID:8150358

Soehendra, N; Nam, V C; Binmoeller, K F; Koch, H; Bohnacker, S; Schreiber, H W

1994-01-01

91

Pulverisation of calcified and non-calcified gall bladder stones: extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy used alone.  

PubMed

Using a modified electromagnetic lithotripter (Siemens), extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) was performed in 260 patients with gall bladder stones. Exclusion criteria for treatment were a non-functioning gall bladder, subcostal gall bladder location, and multiple stones occupying more than three quarters of the gall bladder volume. Stone pulverisation was the end point of ESWL. The number of shock wave discharges and sessions was not limited. Pulverisation was achieved in 250 patients (96.1%) after a median of three ESWL sessions (range 1-21). The number of sessions required depended upon stone composition and burden. More than three sessions were required in 60.2% of patients with calcified stones compared with 35.9% of patients with non-calcified stones (p < 0.001). 65.8% of patients with stones measuring more than 30 mm in total diameter required more than three sessions compared with 42.9% of patients with a stone burden less than 30 mm (p < 0.01). At 18-24 (8-12) months follow up, stone clearance was achieved in 94.3% (80.4%) of patients with non-calcified stones, compared with 89.5% (76.8%) in patients with calcified stones and in 75% (71.4%) of patients with a total stone diameter more than 30 mm compared with 95.7% (80.4%) for patients with a total stone diameter less than 30 mm (p < 0.05). ESWL related complications (gross haematuria) occurred in three patients. Thirty six (13.8%) patients experienced biliary colic; four had cholecystectomy, and five endoscopic papillotomy because of common bile duct obstruction. Stone recurrence was seen in 5.3% of patients over a follow up period of up to two years (median 16.6 months). PMID:8150358

Soehendra, N; Nam, V C; Binmoeller, K F; Koch, H; Bohnacker, S; Schreiber, H W

1994-03-01

92

Treatment of complicated parapneumonic pleural effusion and pleural parapneumonic empyema  

PubMed Central

Summary Background We performed this observational prospective study to evaluate the results of the application of a diagnostic and therapeutic algorithm for complicated parapneumonic pleural effusion (CPPE) and pleural parapneumonic empyema (PPE). Material/Methods From 2001 to 2007, 210 patients with CPPE and PPE were confirmed through thoracocentesis and treated with pleural drainage tubes (PD), fibrinolytic treatment or surgical intervention (videothoracoscopy and posterolateral thoracotomy). Patients were divided into 3 groups: I (PD); II (PD and fibrinolytic treatment); IIIa (surgery after PD and fibrinolysis), and IIIb (direct surgery). The statistical study was done by variance analysis (ANOVA), ? 2 and Fisher exact test. Results The presence of alcohol or drug consumption, smoking and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were strongly associated with a great necessity for surgical treatment. The IIIa group was associated with increased drainage time, length of stay and complications. No mortality was observed. The selective use of PD and intrapleural fibrinolysis makes surgery unnecessary in more than 75% of cases. Conclusions The selective use of PD and fibrinolysis avoids surgery in more than 75% of cases. However, patients who require surgery have more complications, longer hospital stay, and more days on PD and they are more likely to require admittance to the Intensive Care Unit. PMID:22739734

Suarez, Pedro Rodriguez; Gilart, Jorge Freixinet; Perez, Jose Maria Hernandez; Serhal, Mohamed Hussein; Artalejo, Antonio Lopez

2012-01-01

93

Relationship between Ultrasonic Attenuation, Size and Axial Strain Parameters for ex-vivo Atherosclerotic Carotid Plaque  

PubMed Central

Many ultrasonic parameters, primarily related to attenuation and scatterer size, have been used to characterize the composition of atherosclerotic plaque tissue. In this study we combine elastographic (axial strain ratio) and ultrasonic tissue characterization parameters, namely the attenuation coefficient and a scattering parameter associated with an “equivalent” scatterer size to delineate between fibrous, calcified, and lipidic plaque tissue. We present results obtained from 44 ex-vivo atherosclerotic plaque specimens obtained after carotid endarterectomy on human patients. Our results in the frequency range 2.5~7.5MHz indicate that softer plaques (with higher values of the strain ratio) are usually associated with larger equivalent scatterer size estimates (200 ~500 µm) and lower values of the attenuation coefficient slope (<1 dB/cm/MHz). On the other hand, stiffer plaques (with lower strain ratio values) are associated with smaller equivalent scatterer size estimates (100 ~200 µm) and higher values of the attenuation coefficient slope (1~3 dB/cm/MHz). These results indicate that ultrasonic tissue characterization and strain parameters have the potential to differentiate between different plaque types. These parameters can also be estimated from radiofrequency data acquired under in-vivo conditions and may help the clinician decide on appropriate interventional techniques. PMID:18490099

Shi, Hairong; Varghese, T.; Dempsey, R.J.; Salamat, M.S.; Zagzebski, J.A.

2008-01-01

94

Multiple Calcifying Hyperplastic Dental Follicle (MCHDF): A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Evaluation of enlarged follicles with unerupted teeth is always important because some changes may occur. One of the ex-tremely rare conditions seen in dental follicles is multiple calcifying hyperplastic dental follicle. We report a case of multi-ple calcifying hyperplastic dental follicle. Radiographs showed that mandibular third molars had a pericoronal radiolucent zone delineated by a well-defined and sclerotic border. Microscopic examination revealed a combination of fibrous connec-tive and small calcifications. Multiple calcifying hyperplastic dental follicle is a rare condition and its correct diagnosis is necessary to apply appropriate treatment. PMID:24082990

Jamshidi, Shokoofeh; Zargaran, Massoumeh; Mohtasham, Nooshin

2013-01-01

95

Diagnostic approach to pleural effusion.  

PubMed

Pleural effusion affects more than 1.5 million people in the United States each year and often complicates the management of heart failure, pneumonia, and malignancy. Pleural effusion occurs when fluid collects between the parietal and visceral pleura. Processes causing a distortion in body fluid mechanics, such as in heart failure or nephrotic syndrome, tend to cause transudative effusions, whereas localized inflammatory or malignant processes are often associated with exudative effusions. Patients can be asymptomatic or can present with cough, dyspnea, and pleuritic chest pain. Dullness to percussion on physical examination suggests an effusion; chest radiography can confirm the diagnosis. Thoracentesis may be indicated to diagnose effusion and relieve symptoms. Ultrasound guidance is preferred when aspirating fluid. Routine assays for aspirated fluid include protein and lactate dehydrogenase levels, Gram staining, cytology, and pH measurement. Light's criteria should be used to differentiate exudative from transudative effusions. Additional laboratory assays, bronchoscopy, percutaneous pleural biopsy, or thoracoscopy may be required for diagnosis if the initial test results are inconclusive. PMID:25077579

Saguil, Aaron; Wyrick, Kristen; Hallgren, John

2014-07-15

96

Myelomatous pleural effusion-A case report  

PubMed Central

Multiple myeloma is a malignant proliferation of plasma cells, predominantly involving the bone marrow and skeletal system. Pleural effusions are rarely associated with multiple myeloma and most often signify a concurrent disease process, e.g. amyloidosis.1,2 Malignant myelomatous pleural effusions are even more unusual, occurring in less than 1% of cases of multiple myeloma.1 Here we report the case of a patient with multiple myeloma presenting with a myelomatous pleural effusion at disease recurrence.

Miller, J.; Alton, P.A.

2011-01-01

97

How Are Pleurisy and Other Pleural Disorders Diagnosed?  

MedlinePLUS

... a pleural effusion, fluid buildup in the pleural space will prevent a friction rub. But if you ... buildup of air or gas in the pleural space). Diagnostic Tests Depending on the results of your ...

98

Establishment of epithelial cell line MDA-MB-157 from metastatic pleural effusion of human breast carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  An epithelial cell line, MDA-MB-157, has been established from the pleural fluid of a metastatic human breast carcinoma. The\\u000a cell line is characterized by rapid growth of cells in dense plaques and in suspension. The cells were originally isolated\\u000a in a complex medium containing Leibovitz's L-15, Waymouth's MB752\\/1 and Ham's F-10 media with 16% fetal calf serum, glutathione,\\u000a cortisol, insulin,

R. K. Young; R. M. Cailleau; B. Mackay; W. J. Reeves

1974-01-01

99

Intra-articular calcifying synovial sarcoma mimicking synovial chondromatosis.  

PubMed

A case of intra-articular calcifying synovial sarcoma of the right knee joint in a 27-year-old man is reported. Prior to admission the patient had been suffering pain in the right knee for 5 years. Plain radiographs showed multiple calcified densities in the anterior aspect of the right knee closely mimicking synovial chondromatosis. Histological examination revealed that the lesion was a synovial sarcoma with extensive calcification subjacent to the synovial surface. Although intra-articular calcifying synovial sarcoma is very rare, it is important to be aware of the fact that synovial sarcoma, as well as synovial chondromatosis, can be present as a calcified lesion in the joint cavity. PMID:8958625

Ishida, T; Iijima, T; Moriyama, S; Nakamura, C; Kitagawa, T; Machinami, R

1996-11-01

100

BIOMECHANICS OF FLEXIBLE JOINTS IN THE CALCIFIED SEAWEED CALLIARTHRON CHEILOSPORIOIDES  

E-print Network

BIOMECHANICS OF FLEXIBLE JOINTS IN THE CALCIFIED SEAWEED CALLIARTHRON CHEILOSPORIOIDES evolution. In this dissertation, I explore the biomechanics and tissue construction of genicula features found in terrestrial plant xylem but unknown in marine algae. By exploring the biomechanics

Denny, Mark

101

Multiple calcifying hyperplastic dental follicles: A case report  

PubMed Central

This report describes a 31-year-old female patient with six impacted teeth. The crowns of the impacted teeth were surrounded with cyst-like lesions with a mixed internal structure and well-defined cortical borders. Microscopic examination of the specimen obtained from the follicle of the left mandibular third molar tooth revealed loose to moderately dense collagenous connective tissue with abundant calcified material and sparse epithelial islands. A diagnosis of multiple calcifying hyperplastic dental follicles was made. PMID:24380071

Aydin, Ulkem; Baykul, Timucin; Yildirim, Benay; Yildirim, Derya; Karaduman, Ayse

2013-01-01

102

[Drug induced eosinophilic pleural effusion].  

PubMed

The hypersensitivity reactions induced by drugs, some widely used, like central nervous system medication, can have various presentations. The lung is a frequent target for such events. We present the case of 40-year-old male patient, non-smoker, with infant encephalopaty, seizures since age of 6 with polimorphic crisis (mainly absences), with anticonvulsivant treatment since 2011 (carbamazepine, sodium valproate, levetiracetam), with no respiratory medical history. Current symptoms started two weeks before, with chest pain, dry cough. He received no antibiotics. Chest X-ray and thoracic CT scan (27 June 2013) showed a left pleral effusion. Left exploratory thoracocentesis extracted 20 ml reddish pleural fluid: eosinophilic exsudate (60%) with normal adenosin deaminase. He also presents moderate blood eosinophilia (13.7%-1780/mm3). Pulmonary infarction with secondary pleurisy, thoracic trauma, acute pancreatitis with secondary pleurisy were excluded. No Loeffler transient infiltrates were documented, serology for Toxocara is IgG positive (historical) and not significant for current episode, no symptoms suggestive for toxocarosis (characteristic to young children, patient had no liver enlargement etc.), no hidatidosis or trichinelosis were found. As an exclusion diagnosis, a hypersensitivity reaction to anticonvulsivant medication was considered (mentioned in literature) carbamazepine and sodium valproate (even if medication was taken for a longer time), with blood and pleural eosinophilia. Together with the neurologist, the mentioned drugs were stopped and he was started on lamotrigine 2 tb/day and levetiracetam 1 tb/day, well tolerated, no absences were noticed. Total remission of blood eosinophilia and partial remission of pleural effusion were noticed. Subsequent follow-ups confirm favourable evolution, with healing of pleurisy and normal blood cell count, which are stable at 7 months after changing anticonvulsivant treatment. PMID:25241560

Vasilescu, Raluca

2014-01-01

103

Diagnosis and treatment of malignant pleural effusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pleural effusion is a common and important complication of malignancy which may at times be difficult to diagnose or treat. Its well recognized association with numerous diseases plus the limitations of our usual diagnostic tests may occasionally cause difficulty. In the oncology patient there are a number of common medical problems associated with the development of pleural effusion which frequently

Frederick H. Hausheer; John W. Yarbro

1987-01-01

104

Benign asbestos pleural effusion: diagnosis and course.  

PubMed Central

We have reviewed 22 patients with benign asbestos pleural effusion seen over a 17-year period. The mean duration of exposure to asbestos was 5.5 years and the mean interval between exposure and presentation was 16.3 years. In five the effusion was asymptomatic. Fever was uncommon but in 15 of 21 patients the ESR was elevated. Leucocytosis was noted in seven of 20 patients. Autoantibodies were rarely detected. The pleural fluid was usually blood-stained and the volume aspirated was rarely larger than 500 ml. Pleural biopsies revealed established pleural fibrosis and/or inflammatory infiltration with fibrinous exudate and mesothelial and fibroblastic proliferation. A positive mantoux test was noted in eight of 12 patients but there was no other evidence of tuberculosis. The mean duration to spontaneous resolution of the effusion was 4.3 months. During a follow-up period of 28.1 years from initial exposure to asbestos (mean 22.8 years) and up to 17.2 years from initial presentation with a pleural effusion (mean 6.3 years) seven patients had a single recurrence and only one patient had multiple pleural effusions. Only three patients experienced persistent pleural pain. It was not possible to predict the likelihood of recurrence of an effusion or the persistence of pleural pain from the data at presentation. No patient subsequently developed mesothelioma or other neoplasm. PMID:7336367

Robinson, B W; Musk, A W

1981-01-01

105

Mesothelioma and Asbestos-Related Pleural Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

At present, the use of asbestos is not regulated at a worldwide scale. Moreover, there is a latency period between asbestos exposure and the manifestations of asbestos-related diseases. Consequently, pulmonologists are still dealing with consequences of asbestos exposure, which mainly occur at the pleural surface. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of asbestos-related pleural diseases. We

Laurent Greillier; Philippe Astoul

2008-01-01

106

Denitrification in human dental plaque  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Microbial denitrification is not considered important in human-associated microbial communities. Accordingly, metabolic investigations of the microbial biofilm communities of human dental plaque have focused on aerobic respiration and acid fermentation of carbohydrates, even though it is known that the oral habitat is constantly exposed to nitrate (NO3-) concentrations in the millimolar range and that dental plaque houses bacteria that

Frank Schreiber; Peter Stief; Armin Gieseke; Ines M Heisterkamp; Willy Verstraete; Dirk de Beer; Paul Stoodley

2010-01-01

107

Plaque Assay for Rickettsia rickettsii  

PubMed Central

A plaque technique for the assay of Rickettsia rickettsii is described. The method employs primary chick or green monkey kidney monolayer cell cultures with either an agarose or special Noble agar overlay. Plaques were counted in 6 days and resultant titers correlated well with ld50 end points obtained by a standard assay in embryonated eggs. Identification of the plaque-forming organisms was accomplished by direct observation of rickettsiae-like bodies in the monolayer lesions, inhibition of plaques by antibiotics, sensitivity of plaques to specific immune serum, and failure to cultivate other microorganisms from the infected cells. Versatility of the test was demonstrated by assaying samples of rickettsiae from several different sources commonly used in our laboratory. These included infected yolk sacs, various cell cultures, and infected guinea pig tissue. Sufficient numbers of viable rickettsiae were present in the cells of a single lesion to permit direct recovery. Images PMID:4977475

Weinberg, Edmund H.; Stakebake, Jack R.; Gerone, Peter J.

1969-01-01

108

Plaque assay for Rickettsia rickettsii.  

PubMed

A plaque technique for the assay of Rickettsia rickettsii is described. The method employs primary chick or green monkey kidney monolayer cell cultures with either an agarose or special Noble agar overlay. Plaques were counted in 6 days and resultant titers correlated well with ld(50) end points obtained by a standard assay in embryonated eggs. Identification of the plaque-forming organisms was accomplished by direct observation of rickettsiae-like bodies in the monolayer lesions, inhibition of plaques by antibiotics, sensitivity of plaques to specific immune serum, and failure to cultivate other microorganisms from the infected cells. Versatility of the test was demonstrated by assaying samples of rickettsiae from several different sources commonly used in our laboratory. These included infected yolk sacs, various cell cultures, and infected guinea pig tissue. Sufficient numbers of viable rickettsiae were present in the cells of a single lesion to permit direct recovery. PMID:4977475

Weinberg, E H; Stakebake, J R; Gerone, P J

1969-05-01

109

The clinical utility of pleural YKL-40 levels in diagnosing pleural effusions  

PubMed Central

Background and objective Recent evidence suggests that YKL-40 is a relatively new biomarker of inflammation and it is involved in the pathogenesis of several pulmonary diseases. Details of serum and pleural YKL-40 in pleural effusions however, remain unknown. We aimed to assess whether serum and pleural YKL-40 is an accurate biomarker of pleural effusions. Methods This clinical study was prospective, observational and cross-sectional. The concentrations of serum and pleural fluid YKL-40 and conventional pleural marker levels were measured in 80 subjects with pleural effusions, including 23 transudates caused by congestive heart failure (CHF), and 57 exudates including 23 parapneumonic, 22 malignant and 12 tuberculous pleural effusions (TBPEs). Results Median pleural fluid YKL-40 levels were higher in exudates than in transudates (219.4 and 205.9 ng/mL, respectively, P<0.001). High pleural YKL-40 levels, with a cutoff value of >215 ng/mL, yielded a 73% sensitivity, 73% specificity, likelihood ratio 2.8 for diagnosing exudate, with an area under the curve of 0.770 [95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.657-0.884]. Pleural YKL-40/serum YKL-40 ratio >1.5 yielded a 75% sensitivity, 72% specificity and likelihood ratio 2.6 for diagnosing TBPE, with an area under the curve of 0.825 (95% CI: 0.710-0.940). Conclusions High concentrations of pleural YKL-40 level may help to differentiate exudate from transudate and a high pleural YKL-40/serum YKL-40 ratio may be helpful in seperating TBPE from non-tuberculous effusions. PMID:24255777

Gumus, Aziz; Cinarka, Halit; Murat, Naci; Yilmaz, Adnan; Bedir, Recep; Sahin, Unal

2013-01-01

110

How Does Calcification Influence Plaque Vulnerability? Insights from Fatigue Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background. Calcification is commonly believed to be associated with cardiovascular disease burden. But whether or not the calcifications have a negative effect on plaque vulnerability is still under debate. Methods and Results. Fatigue rupture analysis and the fatigue life were used to evaluate the rupture risk. An idealized baseline model containing no calcification was first built. Based on the baseline model, we investigated the influence of calcification on rupture path and fatigue life by adding a circular calcification and changing its location within the fibrous cap area. Results show that 84.0% of calcified cases increase the fatigue life up to 11.4%. For rupture paths 10D far from the calcification, the life change is negligible. Calcifications close to lumen increase more fatigue life than those close to the lipid pool. Also, calcifications in the middle area of fibrous cap increase more fatigue life than those in the shoulder area. Conclusion. Calcifications may play a positive role in the plaque stability. The influence of the calcification only exists in a local area. Calcifications close to lumen may be influenced more than those close to lipid pool. And calcifications in the middle area of fibrous cap are seemly influenced more than those in the shoulder area. PMID:24955401

Wu, Baijian; Pei, Xuan; Li, Zhi-Yong

2014-01-01

111

Quantitative Analysis of Pleural Fluid Cell-free DNA as a Tool for the Classification of Pleural Effusions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Recently, much interest has been focused on the quantification of DNA in miscellaneous body fluids. In this study, the application is extended to classifying pleural effusions by measuring cell-free DNA in pleural fluid. Methods: We recruited 50 consecutive patients with pleural effusions with informed consent. Pleural fluids were centrifuged at 13 000g, with supernatants aliquoted for extraction and analysis

Michael H. M. Chan; Kai Ming Chow; Anthony T. C. Chan; Chi Bon Leung; Lisa Y. S. Chan; Katherine C. K. Chow; Ching Wan Lam; Y. M. Dennis Lo

112

Pleural effusion: An unusual cause and association  

PubMed Central

Filaria has a wide spectrum of presentation. We hereby present a case of Filarial pleural effusion that is a rarity in itself. Filarial lung involvement is usually in the form of tropical pulmonary eosinophilia with pulmonary infiltrates and peripheral eosinophilia, unlike our case where isolated pleural effusion of Filarial etiology was detected. Microfilaria has been isolated from Pleural fluid in very few cases, and ours was one such. Of late, there have been many incidental detections of Filarial parasites from varied anatomical sites in association with malignancy. Even in our case, we had one such unusual association. PMID:23741100

Navaz, Alam K.; Raikar, Madhusudan P.; Acharya, Vishak; Shetty, Sanmath K.

2013-01-01

113

Dystrophic calcified nodule of the testicle: a case report.  

PubMed

Dystrophic calcified nodule of the testis was first reported by Minkowitz and colleagues in 1965, with few subsequent reports. The etiology of this lesion is controversial and unknown partly owing to its rarity. We report the case of a 29-year-old man who presented with generalized right testicular pain. His ultrasound demonstrated a discrete calcified lesion. A right radical orchiectomy was performed identifying a 1.8 x 0.8 x 0.9-cm intratesticular calcific lesion with no evidence of intratubular germ cell tumour and negative tumour markers. PMID:18542828

Goel, Raj K; Norman, Richard W; Gupta, Rekha

2007-11-01

114

Small Plaque Mutants of the Sindbis Virus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In embryo cell cultures in gel medium infected with the Sindbis virus, two types of plaques appear: large (G) and small (p) plaques. The G plaques appear in 24 hours and grow until they attain a diameter of more than 20mm. The small plaques (p) appear aft...

C. Hannoun, J. Asso, P. Ardoin

1965-01-01

115

Combining Immunotoxin and Chemotherapy for Pleural Mesothelioma  

Cancer.gov

In this trial, patients with inoperable epithelial pleural mesothelioma will be given SS1P immunotoxin in combination with pemetrexed and cisplatin to determine the maximum tolerated dose of SS1P and side effects profile in these patients.

116

Plaque Assay for Murine Norovirus  

PubMed Central

Murine norovirus (MNV) is the only member of the Norovirus genus that efficiently grows in tissue culture 1, 2. Cell lysis and cytopathic effect (CPE) are observed during MNV-1 infection of murine dendritic cells or macrophages 1. This property of MNV-1 can be used to quantify the number of infectious particles in a given sample by performing a plaque assay 1. The plaque assay relies on the ability of MNV-1 to lyse cells and to form holes in a confluent cell monolayer, which are called plaques 3. Multiple techniques can be used to detect viral infections in tissue culture, harvested tissue, clinical, and environmental samples, but not all measure the number of infectious particles (e.g. qRT-PCR). One way to quantify infectious viral particles is to perform a plaque assay 3, which will be described in detail below. A variation on the MNV plaque assay is the fluorescent focus assay, where MNV antigen is immunostained in cell monolayers 4. This assay can be faster, since viral antigen expression precedes plaque formation. It is also useful for titrating viruses unable to form plaques. However, the fluorescent focus assay requires additional resources beyond those of the plaque assay, such as antibodies and a microscope to count focus-forming units. Infectious MNV can also be quantified by determining the 50% Tissue Culture Infective Dose (TCID50) 3. This assay measures the amount of virus required to produce CPE in 50% of inoculated tissue culture cells by endpoint titration 5. However, its limit of detection is higher compared to a plaque assay 4. In this article, we describe a plaque assay protocol that can be used to effectively determine the number of infectious MNV particles present in biological or environmental samples 1, 4, 6. This method is based on the preparation of 10-fold serial dilutions of MNV-containing samples, which are used to inoculate a monolayer of permissive cells (RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells). Virus is allowed to attach to the cell monolayer for a given period of time and then aspirated before covering cells with a mixture of agarose and cell culture media. The agar enables the spread of viral progeny to neighboring cells while limiting spread to distantly located cells. Consequently, infected cells are lysed and form holes in the monolayer known as plaques. Upon sufficient spread of virus, plaques become visible following staining of cells with dyes, like neutral red, methylene blue, or crystal violet. At low dilutions, each plaque originates from one infectious viral particle and its progeny, which spread to neighboring cells. Thus, counting the number of plaques allows one to calculate plaque-forming units (PFU) present in the undiluted sample 3. PMID:22951568

Gonzalez-Hernandez, Mariam B.; Bragazzi Cunha, Juliana; Wobus, Christiane E.

2012-01-01

117

Genitourinary malformation with calcified intraluminal meconium and pulmonary hypoplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcified intraluminal meconium is a rare finding in newborn infants that is often associated with communication between the\\u000a urinary and gastrointestinal tracts. Frequently such infants die because of respiratory problems. An illustrative case is\\u000a presented, and pulmonary hypoplasia is suggested as an etiology of the respiratory difficulties observed.

S. v. W. Hilton; D. K. Edwards; F. B. Stapleton; K. E. Miller; R. Williams; J. Wimmer

1980-01-01

118

Calcified scleral choristoma in organoid nevus syndrome simulating retinoblastoma.  

PubMed

A child referred for management of retinoblastoma who alternatively had a calcified scleral choristoma as part of previously undiagnosed organoid nevus syndrome is described. A 31-month-old male infant with scalp alopecia was referred for retinoblastoma management after a calcified mass in his left eye was found. Ophthalmic examination revealed the mass was of choroidal or scleral origin, underlying the retina. The amelanotic circumpapillary mass extended superonasally in a geographic configuration and measured 14×12 mm. There was no subretinal fluid, hemorrhage, feeder vessels, or tumor seeding. Ocular ultrasonography confirmed a homogeneous calcified intraocular mass 3.1 mm in thickness. Enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography revealed that the lesion was located within the sclera compressing the overlying choroidal tissue. Further evaluation disclosed cutaneous aplasia cutis congenita with nevus sebaceous of Jadassohn. Magnetic resonance imaging disclosed an arachnoid cyst of the brain. Later, optical coherence tomography revealed the mass to be in the deep choroid or within the sclera. This constellation of ocular, cutaneous, and neurological features were suggestive of organoid nevus syndrome. At the 2-year follow-up, the findings were stable. The calcified choristoma of organoid nevus syndrome, located within the sclera in this case, has distinctive clinical features that differentiate this benign tumor from retinoblastoma. PMID:24410727

Shields, Charlotte Nelle; Shields, Carol L; Lin, Chris J; Menacker, Sheryl J; Shields, Jerry A

2014-01-01

119

Clinical features of 46 eyes with calcified hydrogel intraocular lenses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To clarify the clinical features of delayed calcification of hydrogel intraocular lenses (IOLs) based on observation of a large case series.Setting: Ophthalmology department of 2 university teaching hospitals, Hong Kong, China.Methods: The first 44 patients with a known diagnosis of calcified IOL were recruited. Medical and ophthalmic histories were obtained. Surgical details, surgical complications, and visual acuity before and

Alexis Ka Fai Yu; Kenneth Yan Wing Kwan; David Ho Yin Chan; Daniel Yee Tak Fong

2001-01-01

120

Progress in atherosclerotic plaque imaging  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular diseases are the primary cause of mortality in the industrialized world, and arterial obstruction, triggered by rupture-prone atherosclerotic plaques, lead to myocardial infarction and cerebral stroke. Vulnerable plaques do not necessarily occur with flow-limiting stenosis, thus conventional luminographic assessment of the pathology fails to identify unstable lesions. In this review we discuss the currently available imaging modalities used to investigate morphological features and biological characteristics of the atherosclerotic plaque. The different imaging modalities such as ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, nuclear imaging and their intravascular applications are illustrated, highlighting their specific diagnostic potential. Clinically available and upcoming methodologies are also reviewed along with the related challenges in their clinical translation, concerning the specific invasiveness, accuracy and cost-effectiveness of these methods. PMID:22937215

Soloperto, Giulia; Casciaro, Sergio

2012-01-01

121

Imaging Atherosclerosis and Vulnerable Plaque  

PubMed Central

Identifying patients at high risk for an acute cardiovascular event such as myocardial infarction or stroke and assessing the total atherosclerotic burden are clinically important. Currently available imaging modalities can delineate vascular wall anatomy and, with novel probes, target biologic processes important in plaque evolution and plaque stability. Expansion of the vessel wall involving remodeling of the extracellular matrix can be imaged, as can angiogenesis of the vasa vasorum, plaque inflammation, and fibrin deposits on early nonocclusive vascular thrombosis. Several imaging platforms are available for targeted vascular imaging to acquire information on both anatomy and pathobiology in the same imaging session using either hybrid technology (nuclear combined with CT) or MRI combined with novel probes targeting processes identified by molecular biology to be of importance. This article will discuss the current state of the art of these modalities and challenges to clinical translation. PMID:20395341

Sadeghi, Mehran M.; Glover, David K.; Lanza, Gregory M.; Fayad, Zahi A.; Johnson, Lynne L.

2010-01-01

122

Pleural lipoma: a non-surgical lesion?  

PubMed Central

Pleural lipomas are benign tumours that develop at the expense of adipose tissues, and they never evolve towards liposarcoma. Located usually at the mediastinal, bronchial and pulmonary levels, a pleural situation is extremely rare. Chest X-rays usually detect them and computed tomography scans confirm the diagnosis. As complications occur, a wait-and-see policy is common. We report our pleural lipoma surgical exeresis experience since 1999. We have operated on five cases of pleural lipomas among nearly 1800 cases of thoracic exeresis: three male and two female patients, without obesity (in all cases, body mass index (BMI) < 28). The mean age was 54.6 years (range 35–72 years). Four patients were electively operated and one in emergency, three with video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) procedure and two with open chest surgery, without recurrent cases. Advancements in VATS have greatly reduced the morbidity rate of these benign tumours especially if exeresis is performed early on a small, uncomplicated adhesion-free tumour. On the other hand, the operation may be deleterious, complicated by the presence of a large lipoma or in a complicating situation. In our opinion, we should revise the wait-and-see policy when facing these lesions considering their evolutionary potential. We should advise VATS in pleural lipomas. PMID:22371386

Jayle, Christophe; Hajj-Chahine, Jamil; Allain, Geraldine; Milin, Serge; Soubiron, Laurent; Corbi, Pierre

2012-01-01

123

A Case of Pleural Paragonimiasis Confused with Tuberculous Pleurisy  

PubMed Central

Here, we report a case of pleural paragonimiasis that was confused with tuberculous pleurisy. A 38-year-old man complained of a mild febrile sensation and pleuritic chest pain. Radiologic findings showed right pleural effusion with pleural thickening and subpleural consolidation. Adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity in the pleural effusion was elevated (85.3 IU/L), whereas other examinations for tuberculosis were negative. At this time, the patient started empirical anti-tuberculous treatment. Despite 2 months of treatment, the pleural effusion persisted, and video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery was performed. Finally, the patient was diagnosed with pleural paragonimiasis based on the pathologic findings of chronic granulomatous inflammation containing Paragonimus eggs. This case suggested that pleural paragonimiasis should be considered when pleural effusion and elevated ADA levels are observed. PMID:24851131

Song, Junwhi; Hong, Goohyeon; Song, Jae-Uk; Kim, Wooyoul; Han, Seo Goo; Ko, Yousang; Chang, Boksoon; Jeong, Byeong-Ho; Eom, Jung Seop; Lee, Ji Hyun; Jhun, Byung Woo; Jeon, Kyeongman; Kim, Hong Kwan

2014-01-01

124

A case of pleural paragonimiasis confused with tuberculous pleurisy.  

PubMed

Here, we report a case of pleural paragonimiasis that was confused with tuberculous pleurisy. A 38-year-old man complained of a mild febrile sensation and pleuritic chest pain. Radiologic findings showed right pleural effusion with pleural thickening and subpleural consolidation. Adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity in the pleural effusion was elevated (85.3 IU/L), whereas other examinations for tuberculosis were negative. At this time, the patient started empirical anti-tuberculous treatment. Despite 2 months of treatment, the pleural effusion persisted, and video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery was performed. Finally, the patient was diagnosed with pleural paragonimiasis based on the pathologic findings of chronic granulomatous inflammation containing Paragonimus eggs. This case suggested that pleural paragonimiasis should be considered when pleural effusion and elevated ADA levels are observed. PMID:24851131

Song, Junwhi; Hong, Goohyeon; Song, Jae-Uk; Kim, Wooyoul; Han, Seo Goo; Ko, Yousang; Chang, Boksoon; Jeong, Byeong-Ho; Eom, Jung Seop; Lee, Ji Hyun; Jhun, Byung Woo; Jeon, Kyeongman; Kim, Hong Kwan; Koh, Won-Jung

2014-04-01

125

Detection of unsuspected malignant pleural effusion by bone scan  

SciTech Connect

Technetium-99m phosphate compounds may occasionally accumulate in malignant pleural effusions. A case of metastatic pleural effusion first diagnosed by bone scan, prior to its clinical or roentgenographic detection, is reported.

Goldstein, H.A.; Gefter, W.B.

1984-10-01

126

Molecular imaging of plaque vulnerability.  

PubMed

Over the past decade, significant progress has been made in the development of novel imaging strategies focusing on the biology of the vessel wall for identification of vulnerable plaques. While the majority of these studies are still in the pre-clinical stage, few techniques (e.g., (18)F-FDG and (18)F-NaF PET imaging) have already been evaluated in clinical studies with promising results. Here, we will briefly review the pathobiology of atherosclerosis and discuss molecular imaging strategies that have been developed to target these events, with an emphasis on mechanisms that are associated with atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability. PMID:25124827

Tavakoli, Sina; Vashist, Aseem; Sadeghi, Mehran M

2014-12-01

127

Prolonged pleural catheters in the management of pleural effusions due to breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Breast cancer is the second most common etiologic cause in malignant pleural effusions (MPE). The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of long term pleural catheters in inducing self sclerosis in pleural effusions of breast cancer patients. Methods In this study, 26 patients with breast cancer relapleural effusions that occurred between January 2011 and July 2013, who were considered not to undergo any other treatments and managed with prolonged pleural catheters (Jackson-Pratt silicone flat drain), were retrospectively analyzed. Thirty pleural catheters were inserted in 26 patients. All patients were female, mean age was 52 (range, 37-66) years old. Drainage over 1,500 mL per day was not allowed in order to avoid a lung edema. The catheters were removed in patients who had restoration of lung expansion and drainage under 50 mL/day. Results The histologic subtypes in pleural effusions were invasive ductal carcinoma in 18 patients, ductal carcinoma in situ in 4, invasive lobular carcinoma in 2, tubular carcinoma in 1, and medullary carcinoma in 1. Three of the 26 patients underwent bilateral catheter insertion, and one patient underwent a reinsertion of the catheter into the same hemithorax due to a recurrence. The catheters were retained for a mean period of 18 days (range, 11-38 days). In one patient with invasive ductal carcinoma and paramalignant pleural effusion (PMPE) (3.8%), a recurrent pleural effusion was seen 34 days after removal of the catheter. There were no complications. One patient died while the catheter was in place. Conclusions Prolonged catheters for the management of pleural effusions in selected patients have become more popular than other treatment alternatives due to a shorter length of stay and lower costs. We recommend the use of Jackson Pratt (JP) silicone flat drains which in our opinion provide effective pleurodesis in addition to easy application in recurrent effusions caused by breast cancer. PMID:24605219

Ordu, Cetin; Toker, Alper

2014-01-01

128

Pleural abnormalities: thoracic ultrasound to the rescue!  

PubMed

Diaphragmatic hernias that are diagnosed in adulthood may be traumatic or congenital in nature. Therefore, respiratory specialists need to be aware of the presentation of patients with these conditions. In this report, we describe a case series of patients with congenital and traumatic diaphragmatic hernias and highlight a varied range of their presentations. Abnormalities were noted in the thorax on the chest radiographs, but it was unclear as to the nature of the anomaly. The findings on thoracic ultrasound conducted by a pulmonologist helped to direct appropriate investigations avoiding unnecessary interventions. Instead of pleural effusions, consolidation or collapse, thoracic computed tomography demonstrated diaphragmatic hernias which were managed either conservatively or by surgery. There is increasing evidence that pulmonary specialists should be trained in thoracic ultrasonography to identify pleural pathology as well as safely conducting pleural-based interventions. PMID:23819018

Aslam, Imran; Pathmanathan, Sega; Lakshminarayana, Umesh B; Avery, Gerard R; Kastelik, Jack A; Morjaria, Jaymin B

2013-07-01

129

A rare cause of pleural effusion: ruptured primary pleural hydatid cyst.  

PubMed

Hydatidosis is an endemic parasitic disease in Mediterranean countries, often caused by the dog tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. The disease predominantly affects the liver (60-70%) and lungs (30%), and the surgical management is considered as the gold standard for treatment. Besides anaphylactic reactions, the most frequent complication of the hydatid disease is rupture into neighbouring structures, often affecting the bronchi, gastrointestinal tract and peritoneal/pleural cavities, according to its location. Primary pleural hydatidosis is an extremely rare entity and we present a ruptured pleural hydatid cyst with unusual location. PMID:24604800

Erkoç, Mustafa Fatih; Öztoprak, Bilge; Alkan, Sevil; Okur, Aylin

2014-01-01

130

Pharmacotherapy in complicated parapneumonic pleural effusions and thoracic empyema  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parapneumonic pleural effusions (PPE) and pleural empyema (PE) present a frequently diagnostic and therapeutic challenge in clinical practice. Although pleural diseases have received increased attention during the past decade, there are still many unanswered questions concerning the diagnosis and treatment of PPE and PE. A lack of controlled studies concerning the management of PPE and PE was noted in recent

Sophia E. Schiza; Katerina M. Antoniou; Foteini N. Economidou; Nikolaos M. Siafakas

131

A Case of Peritoneal Free Floating Calcified Fibromyoma  

PubMed Central

Giant peritoneal loose bodies are rare and few reported cases are found in literature. These are commonly found in the pelvis. Preoperatively these cases are diagnosed accidentally on abdominopelvic evaluation. We report one such case in a male patient who presented to us with acute gangrenous cholecystitis. We had diagnosed the lesion accidentally on a routine ultrasound of the abdomen and pelvis as a calcified leiomyoma of sigmoid colon. On laparoscopy, it was freely floating in the peritoneal cavity without any kind of peritoneal attachment or attachment to any intraperitoneal organ. The peritoneal loose body was removed by a small abdominal incision. Histopathologically the lesion was reported as benign calcified fibromyoma. Small peritoneal loose bodies are relatively common but a large peritoneal loose body is very rare. PMID:24995211

Sahadev, Ramaiah

2014-01-01

132

Interstitial granulomatous dermatitis with plaques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Interstitial granulomatous dermatitis is a histopathologic pattern with variable clinical appearance associated with autoimmune systemic diseases. The frequency of its different cutaneous expressions and its association with autoimmune diseases are not known. Objective: We describe the clinical, serologic, and histologic features in 17 patients with interstitial granulomatous dermatitis with a clinical presentation consisting of large erythematous plaques. Method: Skin

Carlo Tomasini; Mario Pippione

2002-01-01

133

Imaging findings of calcifying fibrous tumour of the liver  

PubMed Central

Calcifying fibrous tumour (CFT) is a recently recognised rare benign lesion characterised by dense hyalinised collagenous tissue, psammomatous or dystrophic calcifications and a lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate. The usual locations of the lesion are the soft tissues of the extremities, but rarely it occurs in the abdomen. Recently, we experienced a case of CFT found in the liver of a 29-year-old woman. Here, we describe the characteristic radiological and histopathological findings, along with a review of the relevant literature. PMID:21257832

Jo, B-J; Yoon, S-W; Ahn, H J; Kwon, S W

2011-01-01

134

Hybrid odontogenic tumor of calcifying odontogenic cyst and ameloblastic fibroma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Odontogenic tumors composed of 2 distinct types of lesions are unusual. We report an odontogenic tumor that was composed of calcifying odontogenic cyst and ameloblastic fibroma that occurred in the right posterior maxilla of a 22-year-old Korean woman. The tumor had a cystic component with an ameloblastic epithelial lining and conglomerates of so-called ghost cells, and there were deposits of

Jung Hoon Yoon; Hyung Jun Kim; Jong In Yook; In Ho Cha; Gary L Ellis; Jin Kim

2004-01-01

135

Ocean acidification and calcifying reef organisms: a mesocosm investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A long-term (10 months) controlled experiment was conducted to test the impact of increased partial pressure of carbon dioxide\\u000a (pCO2) on common calcifying coral reef organisms. The experiment was conducted in replicate continuous flow coral reef mesocosms\\u000a flushed with unfiltered sea water from Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii. Mesocosms were located in full sunlight and experienced\\u000a diurnal and seasonal fluctuations in temperature

P. L. Jokiel; K. S. Rodgers; I. B. Kuffner; A. J. Andersson; E. F. Cox; F. T. Mackenzie

2008-01-01

136

Calcified amorphous tumor in left atrium presenting with cerebral infarction  

PubMed Central

Calcified amorphous tumor (CAT) of the heart is an extremely rare cardiac mass. We describe a case of cardiac CAT in a 70-year-old Korean female who presented with acute onset dysarthria and right side weakness. Echocardiography and chest computed tomography revealed a left atrial mass that originated from the interatrial septum. The patient underwent surgical resection and pathologic examination demonstrated CAT. Postoperative course was uneventful and she was followed without recurrence.

Suh, Jong Hui; Kwon, Jong Bum; Park, Kuhn

2014-01-01

137

Calcified amorphous tumor in left atrium presenting with cerebral infarction.  

PubMed

Calcified amorphous tumor (CAT) of the heart is an extremely rare cardiac mass. We describe a case of cardiac CAT in a 70-year-old Korean female who presented with acute onset dysarthria and right side weakness. Echocardiography and chest computed tomography revealed a left atrial mass that originated from the interatrial septum. The patient underwent surgical resection and pathologic examination demonstrated CAT. Postoperative course was uneventful and she was followed without recurrence. PMID:25276375

Suh, Jong Hui; Kwon, Jong Bum; Park, Kuhn; Park, Chan Beom

2014-09-01

138

[Large cell calcifying Sertoli cell tumour: A case report].  

PubMed

A 19-year-old male Caucasian, without prior medical history, noticed a painless right testicular mass. Physical examination revealed neither gynecomastia nor abnormal skin pigmentation. Serum alpha-fetoprotein, ?-HCG and testosterone levels were normal. Sonography depicted an intratesticular diffusely hyperechoic lesion with acoustic shadowing. The patient underwent right orchiectomy. Histology revealed a benign large cell calcifying Sertoli cell tumour. This tumour is rare and may be associated with genetic abnormalities. PMID:23954122

Coulibaly, Béma; Mesturoux, Laura; Lanoe, Matthieu; Delage-Corre, Manuela; Labrousse, François

2013-08-01

139

Calcifying odontogenic cyst associated with an orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst.  

PubMed

Odontogenic tumors composed of two or more distinct types of lesions are unusual. In this paper, a case of an odontogenic lesion characterized by simultaneous occurrence of areas of calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC) and orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst (OOC) is described. The lesion was asymptomatic and presented at the radiographic examination as a unilocular well-delimited radiolucency extending from left incisor to right premolar area in the mandible. To date, this is the first report of COC associated with an OOC. PMID:20614303

de Fátima Bernardes, Vanessa; de Lacerda, Júlio César Tanos; de Aguiar, Maria Cássia Ferreira; Gomez, Ricardo Santiago

2008-12-01

140

Calcified-tissue investigations using synchrotron x-ray microscopy  

SciTech Connect

Synchrotron x-ray microscopy (SXRM) in both emission and absorption modes has been used to examine elemental distributions in specimens of rat tibia, human deciduous teeth, and an orthopedic implant phantom. The work was performed with a spatial resolution of 8 {mu}m for the emission work and 25 {mu}m for the absorption work. The results illustrate the usefulness of SXRM for measurements of different types of calcified tissue. 3 figs.

Jones, K.W.; Spanne, P.; Schidlovsky, G.; Dejun, X. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA)); Bockman, R.S. (Cornell Univ., New York, NY (USA). Medical Coll.); Rabinowitz, M.B. (Children's Hospital Medical Center, Boston, MA (USA)); Hammond, P.B.; Bornschein, R.L. (Cincinnati Univ., OH (USA)); Hoeltzel, D.A. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (USA))

1990-10-01

141

Malherbe's Calcifying Epithelioma (Pilomatrixoma): An Uncommon Periocular Tumor  

PubMed Central

Benign calcifying epithelioma of Malherbe or pilomatrixoma or pilomatricoma is an uncommon lesion of the periocular tissues, arising from the matrix cells at the base of the hair. In the periocular area, it usually arises from the lids and eyebrows. Pilomatrixoma has certain characteristic clinical and histopathologic features, but since it is not commonly suspected preoperatively, certain distinctive clinical features of tumor should suggest clinical diagnosis followed by histopathologic confirmation. PMID:21769234

Ali, Mohammad Javed; Honavar, Santosh G; Naik, Milind N; Vemuganti, Geeta K

2011-01-01

142

Reproducibility in Ultrasonic Characterization of Carotid Plaques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose: Echolucent carotid plaques compared with echogenic plaques could carry a significant risk of transient ischemic attacks and strokes, but the reproducibility of new ultrasonic methods has not yet been proved. The objective was to evaluate interobserver and intraobserver agreement in characterizing the carotid plaques studied by both B mode imaging and color Doppler imaging, which is the

J. M. de Bray; J. M. Baud; P. Delanoy; J. P. Camuzat; V. Dehans; J. Descamp-Le Chevoir; J. R. Launay; F. Luizy; Y. Sentou; P. Cales

1998-01-01

143

Costal osteochondroma spicule associated with pleural effusion.  

PubMed

Costal osteochondromas are a rare cause of lung injury. We report a 7-year-old male who presented with chest pain, cough, and left-sided pleural effusion following a fall. Imaging identified a 2 cm costal osteochondroma, which was resected with a thoracoscopic-assisted segmental rib resection. PMID:23653237

Chen, James; Nelson, Scott; Tzung, Brian; Applebaum, Harry; DeUgarte, Daniel A

2014-03-01

144

Pleural disease and acquired immune deficiency syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) do not frequently have pleural complications. However, pneumothorax is a troublesome complication of patients with AIDS. At some medical centres, more than 50% of patients with spontaneous pneumothorax have AIDS. Most patients with sponta- neous pneumothorax and AIDS have Pneumocystis carinii infection and necrotic subpleural blebs. The pneumothoraces in these patients usually cannot

R. W. Light; H. Hamm

1997-01-01

145

Diagnosis and management of malignant pleural effusions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately half of all patients with metastatic cancer develop malignant pleural effusions. Because the patients are already terminally ill, these effusions can present significant diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Symptoms are either present at the time of diagnosis or develop subsequently in virtually all cases. The diagnosis is based on chest radiography followed by thoracentesis or thoracoscopy. Most malignant effusions are

Kathieen N. Fenton; J. David Richardson

1995-01-01

146

Imaging Atherosclerosis and Risk of Plaque Rupture  

PubMed Central

Atherosclerosis imaging strategies can delineate characteristics of plaques at risk of rupture and thrombosis. Structural plaque imaging identifies high-risk plaque features including lipid pools, thin fibrous caps, and intraplaque hemorrhage, among others. New molecular imaging techniques complement structural imaging approaches by illuminating important features of plaque biology, with a prominent focus on detecting inflammation as a high-risk phenotype. As we unravel the molecular and structural characteristics underlying thrombosis-prone plaques, there is significant promise for eventual early identification and prediction of atherosclerotic plaque complications before they occur. Here we focus on recent imaging insights into high-risk arterial plaques, the etiologic agent of acute myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and sudden cardiac death. PMID:23982263

Osborn, Eric A; Jaffer, Farouc A

2013-01-01

147

Automated tissue characterization of in vivo atherosclerotic plaques by intravascular optical coherence tomography images  

PubMed Central

Intravascular optical coherence tomography (IVOCT) is rapidly becoming the method of choice for the in vivo investigation of coronary artery disease. While IVOCT visualizes atherosclerotic plaques with a resolution <20µm, image analysis in terms of tissue composition is currently performed by a time-consuming manual procedure based on the qualitative interpretation of image features. We illustrate an algorithm for the automated and systematic characterization of IVOCT atherosclerotic tissue. The proposed method consists in a supervised classification of image pixels according to textural features combined with the estimated value of the optical attenuation coefficient. IVOCT images of 64 plaques, from 49 in vivo IVOCT data sets, constituted the algorithm’s training and testing data sets. Validation was obtained by comparing automated analysis results to the manual assessment of atherosclerotic plaques. An overall pixel-wise accuracy of 81.5% with a classification feasibility of 76.5% and per-class accuracy of 89.5%, 72.1% and 79.5% for fibrotic, calcified and lipid-rich tissue respectively, was found. Moreover, measured optical properties were in agreement with previous results reported in literature. As such, an algorithm for automated tissue characterization was developed and validated using in vivo human data, suggesting that it can be applied to clinical IVOCT data. This might be an important step towards the integration of IVOCT in cardiovascular research and routine clinical practice. PMID:23847728

Ughi, Giovanni Jacopo; Adriaenssens, Tom; Sinnaeve, Peter; Desmet, Walter; D'hooge, Jan

2013-01-01

148

PLEURAL EFFECTS OF INDIUM PHOSPHIDE IN B6C3F1 MICE: NONFIBROUS PARTICULATE INDUCED PLEURAL FIBROSIS  

PubMed Central

The mechanism(s) by which chronic inhalation of indium phosphide (InP) particles causes pleural fibrosis is not known. Few studies of InP pleural toxicity have been conducted because of the challenges in conducting particulate inhalation exposures, and because the pleural lesions developed slowly over the 2-year inhalation study. The authors investigated whether InP (1 mg/kg) administered by a single oropharyngeal aspiration would cause pleural fibrosis in male B6C3F1 mice. By 28 days after treatment, protein and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were significantly increased in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), but were unchanged in pleural lavage fluid (PLF). A pronounced pleural effusion characterized by significant increases in cytokines and a 3.7-fold increase in cell number was detected 28 days after InP treatment. Aspiration of soluble InCl3 caused a similar delayed pleural effusion; however, other soluble metals, insoluble particles, and fibers did not. The effusion caused by InP was accompanied by areas of pleural thickening and inflammation at day 28, and by pleural fibrosis at day 98. Aspiration of InP produced pleural fibrosis that was histologically similar to lesions caused by chronic inhalation exposure, and in a shorter time period. This oropharyngeal aspiration model was used to provide an initial characterization of the progression of pleural lesions caused by InP. PMID:19995279

Kirby, Patrick J.; Shines, Cassandra J.; Taylor, Genie J.; Bousquet, Ronald W.; Price, Herman C.; Everitt, Jeffrey I.; Morgan, Daniel L.

2010-01-01

149

Pleural effects of indium phosphide in B6C3F1 mice: nonfibrous particulate induced pleural fibrosis.  

PubMed

The mechanism(s) by which chronic inhalation of indium phosphide (InP) particles causes pleural fibrosis is not known. Few studies of InP pleural toxicity have been conducted because of the challenges in conducting particulate inhalation exposures, and because the pleural lesions developed slowly over the 2-year inhalation study. The authors investigated whether InP (1 mg/kg) administered by a single oropharyngeal aspiration would cause pleural fibrosis in male B6C3F1 mice. By 28 days after treatment, protein and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were significantly increased in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), but were unchanged in pleural lavage fluid (PLF). A pronounced pleural effusion characterized by significant increases in cytokines and a 3.7-fold increase in cell number was detected 28 days after InP treatment. Aspiration of soluble InCl(3) caused a similar delayed pleural effusion; however, other soluble metals, insoluble particles, and fibers did not. The effusion caused by InP was accompanied by areas of pleural thickening and inflammation at day 28, and by pleural fibrosis at day 98. Aspiration of InP produced pleural fibrosis that was histologically similar to lesions caused by chronic inhalation exposure, and in a shorter time period. This oropharyngeal aspiration model was used to provide an initial characterization of the progression of pleural lesions caused by InP. PMID:19995279

Kirby, Patrick J; Shines, Cassandra J; Taylor, Genie J; Bousquet, Ronald W; Price, Herman C; Everitt, Jeffrey I; Morgan, Daniel L

2009-12-01

150

A Novel Cl Inward-Rectifying Current in the Plasma Membrane of the Calcifying Marine Phytoplankton  

E-print Network

A Novel Cl Inward-Rectifying Current in the Plasma Membrane of the Calcifying Marine Phytoplankton rectifier that tightly regulates membrane potential. Membrane depolarization gave rise to nonselective

Taylor, Alison

151

Calcified plaque is common in the carotid and femoral arteries of dialysis patients without clinical vascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction Background. Cardiac and vascular mortality are common in end-stage renal disease ( ERSD) and are Patients with end-stage renal disease ( ESRD) suVer often attributed to accelerated atherosclerosis. excessive mortality due to cardiovascular disease Subjects and methods. We studied 24 non-diabetic (CVD) compared with the general population (1). This ESRD patients without cardiac or vascular disease is frequently attributed

Tessa Savage; Amanda L. Clarke; Martin Giles; Charles R. V. Tomson; Anthony E. G. Raine

152

Endovascular Sharp Recanalization for Calcified Femoropopliteal Artery Occlusion  

PubMed Central

Endovascular intervention of peripheral chronic total occlusion (CTO) is technically challenging and time consuming. Various techniques and devices are used to facilitate lesion crossing and improve the success rate of the procedure. However, these new devices are quite expensive and not readily available. We report 2 cases of peripheral CTO wherein the occlusions were successfully crossed by using stiff end of Terumo glidewire. This sharp recanalization may be a useful technique for the recanalization of calcified peripheral CTOs when conventional techniques fail and new devices are not readily available, but it is accompanied by the risk of distal atheroembolism. PMID:24826257

Huang, Hsuan-Li; Chou, Hsin-Hua; Wu, Tien-Yu

2012-01-01

153

Corticosteroid withdrawal precipitates perilesional edema around calcified Taenia solium cysts.  

PubMed

Calcified Taenia solium granulomas are the focus of repeated episodes of perilesional edema and seizures in 50% of persons with calcifications, history of seizures, and a positive serology for cysticercosis. The pathophysiology is unclear but recent studies suggest the edema is caused by inflammation. We report two new cases and four other published cases where cessation of corticosteroids appeared to result in recurrence or new appearance of perilesional edema around calcifications. This suggests that perilesional edema is an immune-mediated phenomenon. PMID:24002482

Mejia, Rojelio; Nash, Theodore E

2013-11-01

154

Minimally-Invasive Localization of Oncolytic Herpes Simplex Viral Therapy of Metastatic Pleural Cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose Herpes simplex virus-one (HSV-1) oncolytic therapy and gene therapy are promising treatment modalities against cancer. NV1066, one such HSV-1 virus carries a marker gene for enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). The purpose of this study was to determine whether NV1066 is cytotoxic to lung cancer and whether EGFP is a detectable marker of viral infection in vitro and in vivo. We further investigated whether EGFP expression in infected cells can be used to localize the virus and to identify small metastatic tumor foci (< 1 mm.) in vivo by means of minimally invasive endoscopic systems equipped with fluorescent filters. Experimental Design In A549 human lung cancer cells, in vitro viral replication was determined by plaque assay, cell kill by LDH release assay, and EGFP expression by flow cytometry. In vivo, A549 cells were injected into the pleural cavity of athymic mice. Mice were treated with intrapleural injection of NV1066 or saline and examined for EGFP expression in tumor deposits using a stereomicroscope or a fluorescent thoracoscopic system. Results NV1066 replicated in, expressed EGFP in infected cells and killed tumor cells in vitro. In vivo, treatment with intrapleural NV1066 decreased pleural disease burden, as measured by chest wall nodule counts and organ weights. EGFP was easily visualized in tumor deposits, including microscopic foci, by fluorescent thoracoscopy. Conclusions NV1066 has significant oncolytic activity against a human NSCLC cell line and is effective in limiting the progression of metastatic disease in an in vivo orthotopic model. By incorporating fluorescent filters into endoscopic systems, a minimally-invasive means for diagnosing small metastatic pleural deposits and localization of viral therapy for thoracic malignancies may be developed using the EGFP marker gene inserted in oncolytic herpes simplex viruses. PMID:16037824

Stiles, Brendon M.; Adusumilli, Prasad S.; Bhargava, Amit; Stanziale, Stephen F.; Kim, Teresa H.; Chan, Mei-Ki; Huq, Rumana; Wong, Richard; Rusch, Valerie W.; Fong, Yuman

2005-01-01

155

Minimally invasive localization of oncolytic herpes simplex viral therapy of metastatic pleural cancer.  

PubMed

Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) oncolytic therapy and gene therapy are promising treatment modalities against cancer. NV1066, one such HSV-1 virus, carries a marker gene for enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). The purpose of this study was to determine whether NV1066 is cytotoxic to lung cancer and whether EGFP is a detectable marker of viral infection in vitro and in vivo. We further investigated whether EGFP expression in infected cells can be used to localize the virus and to identify small metastatic tumor foci (<1 mm) in vivo by means of minimally invasive endoscopic systems equipped with fluorescent filters. In A549 human lung cancer cells, in vitro viral replication was determined by plaque assay, cell kill by LDH release assay, and EGFP expression by flow cytometry. In vivo, A549 cells were injected into the pleural cavity of athymic mice. Mice were treated with intrapleural injection of NV1066 or saline and examined for EGFP expression in tumor deposits using a stereomicroscope or a fluorescent thoracoscopic system. NV1066 replicated in, expressed EGFP in infected cells and killed tumor cells in vitro. In vivo, treatment with intrapleural NV1066 decreased pleural disease burden, as measured by chest wall nodule counts and organ weights. EGFP was easily visualized in tumor deposits, including microscopic foci, by fluorescent thoracoscopy. NV1066 has significant oncolytic activity against a human NSCLC cell line and is effective in limiting the progression of metastatic disease in an in vivo orthotopic model. By incorporating fluorescent filters into endoscopic systems, a minimally invasive means for diagnosing small metastatic pleural deposits and localization of viral therapy for thoracic malignancies may be developed using the EGFP marker gene inserted in oncolytic herpes simplex viruses. PMID:16037824

Stiles, B M; Adusumilli, P S; Bhargava, A; Stanziale, S F; Kim, T H; Chan, M-K; Huq, R; Wong, R; Rusch, V W; Fong, Y

2006-01-01

156

[Pleural needle biopsy in the diagnostic standards of pleural diseases in the past and today].  

PubMed

Pleural needle biopsy (PNB) maintained its value in spite of introduction of videothoracoscopy. Diagnostic possibilities of PNB using Abrams needle were evaluated during 1989-1998 in 114 patients aged 17-82 years. In histological examinations of the biopsy specimens were diagnosed: neoplasms--in 47 (41%) patients, tuberculosis--in 10 (9%) and chronic nonspecific pleuritis--in remaining 57 patients. Data from further course of the disease confirmed diagnosis of neoplasms and tuberculosis. Complication of PNB was encountered only in 1 patient (pneumothorax). Among 47 patients with malignant infiltration of the pleura in the biopsy specimen only in 20 (42%) neoplastic cells were demonstrated in cytologic examination of the pleural fluid. PNB remains still useful in the diagnosis of causes of pleural diseases. Specificity of this method can be enhanced by more precise localization of the pleural lesions using imaging technics (USG, CT, MRI). PNB should be more widely performed in the diagnosis of pleural diseases of unknown etiology particularly when videothoracoscopy is not feasible. PMID:10344145

Fija?kowski, M; Graczyk, J; Szmidt, M

1999-01-01

157

Municipal pleural cancer mortality in Spain  

PubMed Central

Background: Pleural cancer is a recognised indicator of exposure to asbestos and mesothelioma mortality. Aims: To investigate the distribution of municipal mortality due to this tumour, using the autoregressive spatial model proposed by Besag, York, and Molliè. Methods: It was possible to compile and ascertain the posterior distribution of relative risk on the basis of a single Bayesian spatial model covering all of Spain's 8077 municipal areas. Maps were plotted depicting standardised mortality ratios, smoothed relative risk (RR) estimates, and the distribution of the posterior probability that RR >1. Results: There was a higher risk of death due to pleural cancer in well defined towns and areas, many of which correspond to municipalities where asbestos using industries once existed for many years, the prime example being the municipal pattern registered for Barcelona Province. The quality of mortality data, the suitability of the model used, and the usefulness of municipal atlases for environmental surveillance are discussed. PMID:15723885

Lopez-Abente, G; Hernandez-Barrera, V; Pollan, M; Aragones, N; Perez-Gomez, B

2005-01-01

158

Pleural fluid cell-free DNA integrity index to identify cytologically negative malignant pleural effusions including mesotheliomas  

PubMed Central

Background The diagnosis of malignant pleural effusions (MPE) is often clinically challenging, especially if the cytology is negative for malignancy. DNA integrity index has been reported to be a marker of malignancy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of pleural fluid DNA integrity index in the diagnosis of MPE. Methods We studied 75 pleural fluid and matched serum samples from consecutive subjects. Pleural fluid and serum ALU DNA repeats [115bp, 247bp and 247bp/115bp ratio (DNA integrity index)] were assessed by real-time quantitative PCR. Pleural fluid and serum mesothelin levels were quantified using ELISA. Results Based on clinico-pathological evaluation, 52 subjects had MPE (including 16 mesotheliomas) and 23 had benign effusions. Pleural fluid DNA integrity index was higher in MPE compared with benign effusions (1.2 vs. 0.8; p<0.001). Cytology had a sensitivity of 55% in diagnosing MPE. If cytology and pleural fluid DNA integrity index were considered together, they exhibited 81% sensitivity and 87% specificity in distinguishing benign and malignant effusions. In cytology-negative pleural effusions (35 MPE and 28 benign effusions), elevated pleural fluid DNA integrity index had an 81% positive predictive value in detecting MPEs. In the detection of mesothelioma, at a specificity of 90%, pleural fluid DNA integrity index had similar sensitivity to pleural fluid and serum mesothelin (75% each respectively). Conclusion Pleural fluid DNA integrity index is a promising diagnostic biomarker for identification of MPEs, including mesothelioma. This biomarker may be particularly useful in cases of MPE where pleural aspirate cytology is negative, and could guide the decision to undertake more invasive definitive testing. A prospective validation study is being undertaken to validate our findings and test the clinical utility of this biomarker for altering clinical practice. PMID:23009708

2012-01-01

159

An unusual case of pleural chordoma.  

PubMed

Chordoma is a rare slow-growing neoplasm arising from notochordal remnants. In the United States, the annual incidence of chordoma is 0.08 per 100,000 and is more common in men than in women. The most common locations of chordoma are the cranial (32%), spinal (32.8%), and sacral (29.2%) regions [1]. We report an unusual case of pleural chordoma in a 45-year-old man. PMID:24694418

Ni, Mingwei; Paul, Subroto; Lee, Paul C

2014-04-01

160

Mediastinal hemangioma: Masquerading as pleural effusion  

PubMed Central

We present a rare case of mediastinal hemangioma in a 4-year-old child. The child presented with cough and fever and the chest radiograph revealed right pleural effusion. On further work-up with chest computed tomography mediastinal cystic mass occupying the right hemithorax was identified. The cystic mass was resected completely through a right thoracotomy. Histopathological examination established the final diagnosis of mediastinal capillary hemangioma. PMID:24347874

Deepak, J.; Babu, M. Narendra; Gowrishankar, B. C.; Ramesh, S.

2013-01-01

161

Eosinophilic Pleural Effusion: A Rare Manifestation of Hypereosinophilic Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Several causes of eosinophilic pleural effusions have been described with malignancy being the commonest cause. Hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) is a rare disease and very few cases have been reported of HES presenting as eosinophilic pleural effusion (EPE). We report a case of a 26-year-old male who presented with shortness of breath. He had bilateral pleural effusions, generalized lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, and leukocytosis with marked peripheral blood eosinophilia. The pleural fluid was exudative, with 25%–30% eosinophilis, and absence of neoplastic cells. Hypereosinophilic syndrome was diagnosed after other causes of eosinophilia were excluded. He continued to be dyspneic with persistent accumulation of eosinophilic pleural fluid, even after his peripheral eosinophil count had normalized in response to treatment. This patient represents a very unusual presentation of HES with dyspnea and pleural effusions and demonstrates that treatment based on response of peripheral eosinophil counts, as is currently recommended, may not always be clinically adequate. PMID:20111739

Okafor, Ndubuisi C.; Oso, Ayodeji A.; Oranu, Amanke C.; Wolff, Steven M.; Murray, John J.

2009-01-01

162

Fluoride in Dental Plaque and its Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total plaque fluoride is in the range 5-10 mg\\/kg (ppm) on a wet-weight basis. The variability of literature data on plaque fluoride is partly ascribed to analytical problems, many assays being close to or below the concentration detection limit of the fluoride electrode. A change in classification of plaque fluoride compartments is necessary, since recent work indicates that there are

A. Tatevossian

1990-01-01

163

Ocean acidification: documenting its impact on calcifying phytoplankton at basin scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we evaluate several approaches to discern the impact of ocean acidifica- tion on calcifying plankton, over basin scales. We focus on estimates of the standing stock of particu- late inorganic carbon (PIC) associated with calcifying plankton since it is thought that these organ- isms will be the most sensitive to ocean acidification. Chemical techniques provide the greatest

William M. Balch; Victoria J. Fabry

2008-01-01

164

Evaluation of the calcifying characteristics of biological fluids and inhibitors of calcification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The calcifying activities of biological fluids can be measured,in vitro andin vivo, by their ability to reharden softened blocks of tooth enamel. The activity is expressed in terms of the calcium (and phosphate) concentrations of synthetic calcifying solutions of known concentration and activity. A typical human plasma had an activity corresponding to that of a solution of the following concentration:

F. F. Feagin; A. A. Walker; Ward Pigman

1969-01-01

165

The relevance of Randall's plaques  

PubMed Central

The pathophysiology of nephrolithiasis is not fully understood. The pioneering work of Alexander Randall in the 1940s sought to clarify our understanding of stone formation. This review traces the inception of the theory of Randall's plaques and the refinement of the hypothesis in the early days of kidney stone research. It then reviews the contemporary findings utilizing sophisticated investigative techniques that shed additional light on the pathophysiology and redefine the seminal findings of Dr. Randall that were made 70 years ago. PMID:24497683

Strakosha, Ruth; Monga, Manoj; Wong, Michael Y. C.

2014-01-01

166

Soluble mesothelin-related protein in pleural effusion from patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma  

PubMed Central

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a highly aggressive neoplasm primarily arising from surface serosal cells of the pleura and is strongly associated with asbestos exposure. Patients with MPM often develop pleural fluid as initial presentation. However, cytological diagnosis using pleural fluid is usually difficult and has limited utility. A useful molecular marker for differential diagnosis particularly with lung cancer (LC) is urgently needed. The aim of the present study was to investigate the diagnostic value of soluble mesothelin-related protein (SMRP) in pleural fluid. Pleural fluids were collected from 23 patients with MPM, 38 with LC, 26 with benign asbestos pleurisy (BAP), 5 with tuberculosis pleurisy (TP) and 4 with chronic heart failure (CHF), and the SMRP concentration was determined. All data were analyzed by using non-parametric two-sided statistical tests. The median concentration of SMRP in MPM, LC, BAP, TP and CHF were 11.5 (range 0.90–82.80), 5.20 (0.05–36.40), 6.65 (1.45–11.25), 3.20 (1.65–6.50) and 2.03 (1.35–2.80) nmol/l, respectively. The SMRP concentration was significantly higher in MPM than in the other diseases (P=0.001). The area under the ROC curve (AUC) values of the MPM diagnosis was 0.75 for the differential diagnosis from the other groups. Based on the cut-off value of 8 nmol/l, the sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis of MPM were 70.0 and 68.4%, respectively. These results indicate that the SMRP concentration in pleural fluid is a useful marker for the diagnosis of MPM. PMID:22993544

FUJIMOTO, NOBUKAZU; GEMBA, KENICHI; ASANO, MICHIKO; WADA, SAE; ONO, KATSUICHIRO; OZAKI, SHINJI; KISHIMOTO, TAKUMI

2010-01-01

167

Biomechanics and Inflammation in Atherosclerotic Plaque Erosion and Plaque Rupture: Implications for Cardiovascular Events in Women  

PubMed Central

Objective Although plaque erosion causes approximately 40% of all coronary thrombi and disproportionally affects women more than men, its mechanism is not well understood. The role of tissue mechanics in plaque rupture and regulation of mechanosensitive inflammatory proteins is well established, but their role in plaque erosion is unknown. Given obvious differences in morphology between plaque erosion and rupture, we hypothesized that inflammation in general as well as the association between local mechanical strain and inflammation known to exist in plaque rupture may not occur in plaque erosion. Therefore, our objective was to determine if similar mechanisms underlie plaque rupture and plaque erosion. Methods and Results We studied a total of 74 human coronary plaque specimens obtained at autopsy. Using lesion-specific computer modeling of solid mechanics, we calculated the stress and strain distribution for each plaque and determined if there were any relationships with markers of inflammation. Consistent with previous studies, inflammatory markers were positively associated with increasing strain in specimens with rupture and thin-cap fibroatheromas. Conversely, overall staining for inflammatory markers and apoptosis were significantly lower in erosion, and there was no relationship with mechanical strain. Samples with plaque erosion most closely resembled those with the stable phenotype of thick-cap fibroatheromas. Conclusions In contrast to classic plaque rupture, plaque erosion was not associated with markers of inflammation and mechanical strain. These data suggest that plaque erosion is a distinct pathophysiological process with a different etiology and therefore raises the possibility that a different therapeutic approach may be required to prevent plaque erosion. PMID:25365517

Campbell, Ian C.; Suever, Jonathan D.; Timmins, Lucas H.; Veneziani, Alessandro; Vito, Raymond P.; Virmani, Renu; Oshinski, John N.; Taylor, W. Robert

2014-01-01

168

Iron plaque formation on seagrasses: Why not?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron (Fe) plaque formation is a well known phenomenon in wetland, freshwater and salt marsh species; however there are no reports about Fe plaque occurrence in seagrasses. Here we review the main factors regulating Fe deposition on the roots and rhizomes of plants from reduced sediments\\/soils, and discuss these factors in relation to marine environment. Moreover, we present some early

K atrina Povidisa; Marianne Holmer

2008-01-01

169

Advanced Techniques for MRI of Atherosclerotic Plaque  

PubMed Central

This review examines the state of the art in vessel wall imaging by MRI with an emphasis on the biomechanical assessment of atherosclerotic plaque. Three areas of advanced techniques are discussed. First, alternative contrast mechanisms, including susceptibility, magnetization transfer, diffusion and perfusion, are presented in regards to how they facilitate accurate determination of plaque constituents underlying biomechanics. Second, imaging technologies, including hardware and sequences, are reviewed in regards to how they provide the resolution and SNR necessary for determining plaque structure. Finally, techniques for combining MRI data into an overall assessment of plaque biomechanical properties, including wall shear stress and internal plaque strain, are presented. The paper closes with a discussion of the extent to which these techniques have been applied to different arteries commonly targeted by vessel wall MRI. PMID:20805732

Kerwin, William S.; Canton, Gador

2011-01-01

170

A large calcified retroperitoneal extraskeletal osteosarcoma with consequent bilateral hydronephrosis.  

PubMed

Extraskeletal osteosarcoma (ESOS) is a rare malignant mesenchymal neoplasm that accounts for less than 4% of all osteosarcomas and approximately 1-2% of all soft tissue sarcomas. The tumor is typically located in the deep soft tissues, without attachment to skeletal bones. Although ESOS has been found todevelop virtually in every organ, its most common locations are the limbs. In the case of abdominal or pelvic lesions the diagnosis can be very difficult, thus it necessarily requires confirmation after exploratory laparotomy and histopathology. Such tumors may reach enormous sizes before detection because the enlarging mass may not be associated with pain. ESOS may be one of the differential diagnoses to be considered in the case of calcified masses arising in retroperitoneal space. Here we describe a bulky, bilateral, metastatic ESOS arising from the retroperitoneum and causing obstructive uropathy with consequent hydronephrosis. PMID:22953650

Uccello, M; Malaguarnera, M; Giordano, M; Leggio, E; Catania, V E; Consoli, A S; Trainiti, M

2012-07-01

171

Characterization of calcified deposits on contraceptive intrauterine devices.  

PubMed

The formation of calcified deposits on > 200 contraceptive intrauterine devices (IUD) was quantitated as a function of time in healthy women, pregnant women, and women with a pathologic lesion. The incrustment formation was significantly enhanced when inflammation occurred, but change could not be observed in cases of pregnancy. The incrustments were analyzed by x-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, x-ray microprobe, and ultramicrochemical stone analysis techniques. Major components and their average w/w percent quantities in the incrustments are as follows: calcium carbonate 75%, apatite 5%, and organic matrix 20%. Earlier hypotheses on the chemical processes of deposit formation are discussed, and a new, ionic mechanism of calcification on IUD surfaces is suggested. PMID:9883386

Patai, K; Berényi, M; Sipos, M; Noszál, B

1998-11-01

172

Defect in recruiting effector memory CD8+ T-cells in malignant pleural effusions compared to normal pleural fluid  

PubMed Central

Background Malignant pleural effusions (MPE) are a common and fatal complication in cancers including lung or breast cancers, or malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). MPE animal models and immunotherapy trials in MPM patients previously suggested defects of the cellular immunity in MPE. However only few observational studies of the immune response were done in MPM patients, using questionable control groups (transudate…). Methods We compared T cell populations evaluated by flow cytometry from blood and pleural effusion of untreated patients with MPM (n?=?58), pleural metastasis of adenocarcinoma (n?=?30) or with benign pleural lesions associated with asbestos exposure (n?=?23). Blood and pleural fluid were also obtained from healthy subjects, providing normal values for T cell populations. Results Blood CD4+ or CD8+ T cells percentages were similar in all groups of patients or healthy subjects. Whereas pleural fluid from healthy controls contained mainly CD8+ T cells, benign or malignant pleural effusions included mainly CD4+ T cells. Effector memory T cells were the main T cell subpopulation in pleural fluid from healthy subjects. In contrast, there was a striking and selective recruitment of central memory CD4+ T cells in MPE, but not of effector cells CD8+ T cells or NK cells in the pleural fluid as one would expect in order to obtain an efficient immune response. Conclusions Comparing for the first time MPE to pleural fluid from healthy subjects, we found a local defect in recruiting effector CD8+ T cells, which may be involved in the escape of tumor cells from immune response. Further studies are needed to characterize which subtypes of effector CD8+ T cells are involved, opening prospects for cell therapy in MPE and MPM. PMID:23816056

2013-01-01

173

Haemodynamical stress in mouse aortic arch with atherosclerotic plaques: Preliminary study of plaque progression  

PubMed Central

Atherosclerotic plaques develop at particular sites in the arterial tree, and this regional localisation depends largely on haemodynamic parameters (such as wall shear stress; WSS) as described in the literature. Plaque rupture can result in heart attack or stroke and hence understanding the development and vulnerability of atherosclerotic plaques is critically important. The purpose of this study is to characterise the haemodynamics of blood flow in the mouse aortic arch using numerical modelling. The geometries are digitalised from synchrotron imaging and realistic pulsatile blood flow is considered under rigid wall assumptions. Two cases are considered; arteries with and without plaque. Mice that are fed under fat diet present plaques in the aortic arch whose size is dependent on the number of weeks under the diet. The plaque distribution in the region is however relatively constant through the different samples. This result underlines the influence of the geometry and consequently of the wall shear stresses for plaque formation with plaques growing in region of relative low shear stresses. A discussion of the flow field in real geometry in the presence and absence of plaques is conducted. The presence of plaques was shown to alter the blood flow and hence WSS distribution, with regions of localised high WSS, mainly on the wall of the brachiocephalic artery where luminal narrowing is most pronounced. In addition, arch plaques are shown to induce recirculation in the blood flow, a phenomenon with potential influence on the progression of the plaques. The oscillatory shear index and the relative residence time have been calculated on the geometry with plaques to show the presence of this recirculation in the arch, an approach that may be useful for future studies on plaque progression. PMID:25349678

Assemat, P.; Siu, K.K.; Armitage, J.A.; Hokke, S.N.; Dart, A.; Chin-Dusting, J.; Hourigan, K.

2014-01-01

174

Results of thoracoscopic pleural abrasion for primary spontaneous pneumothorax  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Several video-assisted techniques have been used to treat primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP). The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of thoracoscopic pleural abrasion for PSP. Methods: From 1991 to 2003, 185 consecutive patients, 143 male and 42 female, aged 15 to 60 years (average 31.6) underwent thoracoscopic pleural abrasion for PSP. The indications for surgery were

D. Gossot; D. Galetta; J. B. Stern; D. Debrosse; R. Caliandro; P. Girard; D. Grunenwald

2004-01-01

175

Effects of pneumothorax or pleural effusion on pulmonary function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of pneumothorax or pleural effusion on respiratory function as measured by the commonly applied tests were investigated by studying 13 patients (six with pneumothorax, seven with effusion) with and, as far as possible, without air or fluid in the pleural cavity. Measurements included spirometric volumes, carbon monoxide transfer factor (TLCO), and KCO by the single breath method, maximum

J J Gilmartin; A J Wright; G J Gibson

1985-01-01

176

Unilateral pleural effusion without ascites in liver cirrhosis  

SciTech Connect

The source of massive pleural effusion was not apparent in a 58-year-old man who had cirrhosis but no demonstrable ascites. Intraperitoneal injection of technetium Tc 99m sulfur colloid established the presence of peritoneopleural communication. This diagnostic technique can be helpful in evaluating patients with cirrhosis of the liver and pleural effusion with or without ascites.

Faiyaz, U.; Goyal, P.C.

1983-09-01

177

Effects of pneumothorax or pleural effusion on pulmonary function.  

PubMed Central

The effects of pneumothorax or pleural effusion on respiratory function as measured by the commonly applied tests were investigated by studying 13 patients (six with pneumothorax, seven with effusion) with and, as far as possible, without air or fluid in the pleural cavity. Measurements included spirometric volumes, carbon monoxide transfer factor (TLCO), and KCO by the single breath method, maximum expiratory flow-volume curves, and subdivisions of lung volume estimated by both inert gas dilution and body plethysmography. In patients with pneumothorax "pleural volume" was estimated as the difference between lung volumes measured by dilution and thoracic gas volume measured by plethysmography. In patients with effusion the change in "pleural volume" was equated with the volume of fluid subsequently aspirated. "Total thoracic capacity" (TTC) was estimated by adding total lung capacity (TLC) measured by dilution and "pleural volume." Both effusion and pneumothorax produced a restrictive ventilatory defect with reductions of vital capacity, functional residual capacity, and TLC. In the patients with effusion TTC fell after aspiration, suggesting that the pleural fluid produced relative expansion of the chest wall as well as compression of the lung. In patients with pneumothorax, however, there was no difference in TTC with and without air in the pleural space. In the presence of pleural air or fluid there was a slight decrease in TLCO and increase in KCO, with a small but significant increase in the rate of lung emptying during forced expiration. PMID:3969656

Gilmartin, J J; Wright, A J; Gibson, G J

1985-01-01

178

[Pleural metastases of sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma].  

PubMed

Sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma is a rare tumor recently described. The histological presentation can be confused with certain soft tissue benign tumors and certain sarcomas. Metastatic spread is usually late in the natural course of the disease. We report a case of recurrent sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma with pleural metastases which developed ten years after surgical resection of the primary tumor. The tumor was formed by small uniform round epithelioid cells with a clear cytoplasm. The tumor cells were strongly positive for vimentin. This clinical case is discussed in light of other cases reported in the literature. PMID:16840996

Decroisette, C; Melloni, B; Moldovan, D; Gazaille, V; Fermeaux, V; Bertin, F; Bonnaud, F

2006-06-01

179

A rare case of pleural lymphoma.  

PubMed

We present a case report of a 20 years old male who had low grade fever, weight loss of about 10 kg and left-sided chest pain increasing in intensity over a year. Clinically, it mimicked left sided pleural effusion with a tender, soft, parietal swelling in left in-fraaxillary area. Chest x-ray and Computerized Tomography-scan of thorax showed pleura based mass in left hemi thorax. Computerized Tomography guided Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology confirmed the diagnosis of non Hodgkin Lymphoma, diffuse large B cell type, high-grade. PMID:21264085

Basuthakur, Sumitra; Sarkar, Anirban; Burman, Sushanta; Dandale, Rajesh

2008-10-01

180

Pleural mesothelioma and household asbestos exposure.  

PubMed

This article discusses the development of asbestos-induced malignant mesotheliomas after non-occupational environmental exposure to asbestos through contact with occupationally exposed household members. In our policlinic, we have seen six fatal pleural mesothelioma cases (five wives and one son of asbestos-industry workers) with no history of occupational asbestos exposure. In five women, a causal relation was established between the fatal disease and inhalation of asbestos fibers while cleaning the contaminated work-clothes and shoes of their husbands at home. The son had also been exposed to asbestos throughout his childhood during daily visits with his father at the workplace. PMID:8869527

Schneider, J; Straif, K; Woitowitz, H J

1996-01-01

181

Management of Pleural Effusion, Empyema, and Lung Abscess  

PubMed Central

Pleural effusion is an accumulation of fluid in the pleural space that is classified as transudate or exudate according to its composition and underlying pathophysiology. Empyema is defined by purulent fluid collection in the pleural space, which is most commonly caused by pneumonia. A lung abscess, on the other hand, is a parenchymal necrosis with confined cavitation that results from a pulmonary infection. Pleural effusion, empyema, and lung abscess are commonly encountered clinical problems that increase mortality. These conditions have traditionally been managed by antibiotics or surgical placement of a large drainage tube. However, as the efficacy of minimally invasive interventional procedures has been well established, image-guided small percutaneous drainage tubes have been considered as the mainstay of treatment for patients with pleural fluid collections or a lung abscess. In this article, the technical aspects of image-guided interventions, indications, expected benefits, and complications are discussed and the published literature is reviewed. PMID:22379278

Yu, Hyeon

2011-01-01

182

Sudden Unilateral Vision Loss Arising from Calcified Amorphous Tumor of the Left Ventricle  

PubMed Central

Calcified amorphous tumor of the heart is a very rare non-neoplastic intracavitary mass. The clinical presentation is similar to that of other cardiac masses. The precise cause and best approach to treatment remain unclear. We describe a case of cardiac calcified amorphous tumor presenting with refractory unilateral vision loss that was successfully treated by surgical excision. To our knowledge, this is only the 2nd reported case of retinal arterial embolism due to cardiac calcified amorphous tumor in the English-language literature. PMID:24082378

Nazli, Yunus; Colak, Necmettin; Atar, Inci Asli; Alpay, Mehmet Fatih; Haltas, Hacer; Eryonucu, Beyhan; Cakir, Omer

2013-01-01

183

The Potential Role of Optical Coherence Tomography in the Evaluation of Vulnerable Carotid Atheromatous Plaques: A Pilot Study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose. The decision to intervene surgically in patients with carotid artery disease is based on the presence of symptoms, along with the severity of carotid artery stenosis as assessed by ultrasound or X-ray computed tomography (CT). Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a relatively new imaging technique that offers potential in the identification of, as well as the distinction between, stable and unstable atherosclerotic plaques. The purpose of our study was to evaluate whether OCT can be used as a noninvasive diagnostic tool to reveal the morphology of carotid stenosis from the adventitial surface of the carotid artery. To achieve this aim, excised atheromatous plaques were scanned by OCT from the external surface. Methods. Plaques removed at carotid endarterectomy were scanned by OCT from the external surface within 72 hr of surgery and then examined histologically. The images of the histologic slides and the scans were then compared. Results. We examined 10 carotid endarterectomy specimens and were able to identify calcification, cholesterol crystal clefts, and lipid deposits in the OCT images with histologic correlation. The strong light scattering from the calcified tissue and cholesterol crystal clefts limited the depth of light penetration, making observation of the intimal surface and the detail of the fibrous cap difficult. However, we were able to confidently identify the absence of an atherosclerotic plaque by OCT scans even from the external surface. Conclusion. The results of this pilot study demonstrate that OCT can reveal the main features of carotid stenosis but that plaque vulnerability cannot be reliably and precisely assessed if scanned from the external surface with OCT in its present form.

Prabhudesai, Vikramaditya [St. Joseph's Hospital, Diagnostic Imaging (Canada); Phelan, Cordelia [University Hospital of North Staffordshire, NHS Trust, Department of Pathology (United Kingdom); Yang, Ying [Institute of Science and Technology in Medicine, Keele University (United Kingdom)], E-mail: bea00@keele.ac.uk; Wang, Ruikang K. [Oregon Health and Science University, Department of Biomedical Engineering (United States); Cowling, Mark G. [University Hospital of North Staffordshire, NHS Trust, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

2006-12-15

184

Evaluation of Cepheid's Xpert MTB/RIF Test on Pleural Fluid in the Diagnosis of Pleural Tuberculosis in a High Prevalence HIV/TB Setting  

PubMed Central

Background Diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis (TB) using routinely available diagnostic methods is challenging due to the paucibacillary nature of the disease. Histopathology and pleural tissue TB culture involves an invasive procedure which requires expertise and appropriate equipment, both often unavailable in many health units. Xpert MTB/Rif test has been widely evaluated in sputum specimens but data on its performance in pleural TB is scarce. We evaluated the accuracy of Cepheid's Xpert MTB/Rif test on pleural fluid in the diagnosis of pleural TB in Uganda. Methods Consenting adult patients with exudative pleural effusions underwent pleural biopsy and the tissue obtained subjected to Lowenstein-Jensen and mycobacterial growth indicator tube MTB cultures and histopathology. Pleural fluid for Xpert MTB/Rif testing was also collected. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, clinical symptoms, HIV status and CD4 count were also collected. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of Xpert MTB/Rif test on pleural fluid in pleural TB diagnosis were calculated using pleural tissue MTB culture and/or histopathology as the reference standard. Results Of the 116 participants [female 50%, mean age 34 (SD ±13], 87/116 (75%) had pleural TB confirmed on pleural tissue culture and/or histopathology. The Xpert MTB/Rif test identified 25 (28.7%) of the 87 confirmed pleural TB cases. The sensitivity and specificity of Xpert MTB/Rif test were 28.7% and 96.6% respectively while the positive and negative predictive values were 96.1% and 31.1% respectively. Conclusion Xpert MTB/Rif test on pleural fluid does not accurately diagnose pleural TB and therefore cannot be used as an initial evaluation test in patients with suspected pleural TB. New, rapid and accurate tests for the diagnosis of pleural TB are still warranted. PMID:25051491

Kirenga, Bruce J.; Kiragga, Agnes; Lukande, Robert; Nsereko, Maria; Ssengooba, Willy; Katamba, Achilles; Worodria, William; Joloba, Moses L.; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet

2014-01-01

185

Retinal arterial plaques in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome  

PubMed Central

The authors report the unusual observation discrete plaque like excrescencies along the retinal arterial wall in a young patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Though bilateral, in the right eye there was severe arteriolar narrowing and so these plaques were less identifiable. Fluorescein angiography did not reveal any arteriolar occlusion or areas of capillary occlusion in both eyes. There were no other signs of HIV associated microangiopathy and the patient did not have any concurrent cardiovascular or hematological abnormality. The cause of these plaques remains unexplained and we conjecture that they could represent macro immune-complex deposition along the arteriolar walls. PMID:24765430

Venkatesh, Pradeep; Pathak, Harish; Garg, Satpal

2012-01-01

186

Giant, completely calcified lumbar juxtafacet cyst: report of an unusual case.  

PubMed

Study Design?Case report. Objective?To report the case of one patient who developed a giant, completely calcified, juxtafacet cyst. Methods?A 57-year-old woman presented with a 2-year history of progressively worsening lower back pain, left leg pain, weakness, and paresthesias. Imaging showed a giant, completely calcified mass arising from the left L5-S1 facet joint, with coexisting grade I L5 on S1 anterolisthesis. The patient was treated with laminectomy, excision of the mass, and L5-S1 fixation and fusion. Results?The patient had an uncomplicated postoperative course and had complete resolution of her symptoms as of 1-year follow-up. Conclusions?When presented with a solid-appearing, calcified mass arising from the facet joint, a completely calcified juxtafacet cyst should be considered as part of the differential diagnosis. PMID:25083359

Huang, Kevin T; Owens, Timothy R; Wang, Teresa S; Moreno, Jessica R; Bagley, Jacob H; Bagley, Carlos A

2014-08-01

187

A rare case of a calcified glomus tumour in the thigh of an adolescent.  

PubMed

Glomus tumours are clinically defined by a triad of symptoms, i.e. paroxysmal pain, pinpoint tenderness and hypersensitivity to cold. These tumours typically affect the upper limbs, are small in size, superficially located and mostly found in adults. During a radiologic assessment of an idiopathic scoliosis in a 13-year-old girl, we found a calcified mass lesion in the soft tissue of the proximal thigh. The child was asymptomatic. Complementary exams permitted the definition of an interfascial calcified tumour with a long axis of 50 mm, with an inferior polar soft-tissue component. After excision, the anatomical pathology analysis confirmed the diagnosis of calcified glomus tumour. This clinical and radiologic presentation is particularly uncommon for a glomus tumour, which enriches the range of differential diagnoses of calcified masses in soft tissue. PMID:23417232

Dabadie, Alexia; Fernandez, Carla; Gorincour, Guillaume; Panuel, Michel; Petit, Philippe

2013-08-01

188

Atherosclerosis and Atheroma Plaque Rupture: Imaging Modalities in the Visualization of Vasa Vasorum and Atherosclerotic Plaques  

PubMed Central

Invasive angiography has been widely accepted as the gold standard to diagnose cardiovascular pathologies. Despite its superior resolution of demonstrating atherosclerotic plaque in terms of degree of lumen stenosis, the morphological assessment for the plaque is insufficient for the analysis of plaque components, and therefore, unable to predict the risk status or vulnerability of atherosclerotic plaque. There is an increased body of evidence to show that the vasa vasorum play an important role in the initiation, progression, and complications of atherosclerotic plaque leading to major adverse cardiac events. This paper provides an overview of the evidence-based reviews of various imaging modalities with regard to their potential value for comprehensive characterization of the composition, burden, and neovascularization of atherosclerotic plaque. PMID:24688380

2014-01-01

189

The Histopathology of Enamel Lesions Produced in vitro in Teeth Previously Exposed to Calcifying Fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-five erupted and 15 unerupted caries-free teeth were painted with varnish leaving ‘windows’ of enamel on buccal and lingual surfaces. Each tooth was slit in half longitudinally and one half, selected at random, was stored in a calcifying fluid whilst the control half was placed in distilled water. The calcifying fluid was used in the range pH 6.8–7.4. Tooth halves

L. M. Silverstone

1970-01-01

190

Atherosclerotic Plaque Component Segmentation in Combined Carotid MRI and CTA Data Incorporating Class Label Uncertainty  

PubMed Central

Atherosclerotic plaque composition can indicate plaque vulnerability. We segment atherosclerotic plaque components from the carotid artery on a combination of in vivo MRI and CT-angiography (CTA) data using supervised voxelwise classification. In contrast to previous studies the ground truth for training is directly obtained from 3D registration with histology for fibrous and lipid-rich necrotic tissue, and with CT for calcification. This registration does, however, not provide accurate voxelwise correspondence. We therefore evaluate three approaches that incorporate uncertainty in the ground truth used for training: I) soft labels are created by Gaussian blurring of the original binary histology segmentations to reduce weights at the boundaries between components, and are weighted by the estimated registration accuracy of the histology and in vivo imaging data (measured by overlap), II) samples are weighted by the local contour distance of the lumen and outer wall between histology and in vivo data, and III) 10% of each class is rejected by Gaussian outlier rejection. Classification was evaluated on the relative volumes (% of tissue type in the vessel wall) for calcified, fibrous and lipid-rich necrotic tissue, using linear discriminant (LDC) and support vector machine (SVM) classification. In addition, the combination of MRI and CTA data was compared to using only one imaging modality. Best results were obtained by LDC and outlier rejection: the volume error per vessel was 0.91.0% for calcification, 12.77.6% for fibrous and 12.18.1% for necrotic tissue, with Spearman rank correlation coefficients of 0.91 (calcification), 0.80 (fibrous) and 0.81 (necrotic). While segmentation using only MRI features yielded low accuracy for calcification, and segmentation using only CTA features yielded low accuracy for necrotic tissue, the combination of features from MRI and CTA gave good results for all studied components. PMID:24762678

van Engelen, Arna; Niessen, Wiro J.; Klein, Stefan; Groen, Harald C.; Verhagen, Hence J. M.; Wentzel, Jolanda J.; van der Lugt, Aad; de Bruijne, Marleen

2014-01-01

191

Historical Plaque at Marshall Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This plaque, displayed on the grounds of Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, commemorates the Redstone Test Stand as an Alabama Historic Civil Engineering Landmark. The site was desinated as such in 1979.

2002-01-01

192

Thermal study of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque  

E-print Network

Atherosclerotic plaques with high probability of rupture show the presence of a hot spot due to the accumulation of inflammatory cells. This study utilizes two and three dimensional (2-D and 3-D) arterial geometries containing an atherosclerotic...

Kim, Taehong

2009-05-15

193

Vascular MR segmentation: wall and plaque  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cardiovascular events frequently result from local rupture of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque. Non-invasive assessment of plaque vulnerability is needed to allow institution of preventive measures before heart attack or stroke occur. A computerized method for segmentation of arterial wall layers and plaque from high-resolution volumetric MR images is reported. The method uses dynamic programming to detect optimal borders in each MRI frame. The accuracy of the results was tested in 62 T1-weighted MR images from 6 vessel specimens in comparison to borders manually determined by an expert observer. The mean signed border positioning errors for the lumen, internal elastic lamina, and external elastic lamina borders were -0.12+/-0.14 mm, 0.04+/-0.12mm, and -0.15+/-0.13 mm, respectively. The presented wall layer segmentation approach is one of the first steps towards non-invasive assessment of plaque vulnerability in atherosclerotic subjects.

Yang, Fuxing; Holzapfel, Gerhard; Schulze-Bauer, Christian; Stollberger, Rudolf; Thedens, Daniel; Bolinger, Lizann; Stolpen, Alan; Sonka, Milan

2003-05-01

194

A special type of senile plaque, possibly an initial stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is customary to distinguish “primitive”, “classic” and “compact” (“burned out”) senile plaques in Alzheimer's disease and senile dementia of the Alzheimer type (SDAT). Primitive plaques are characterized by altered neurites without accumulation of amyloid, classic plaques by an amyloid core surrounded by altered neurites and compact plaques by amyloid without pathological neurites. Here we describe a further type of

A. Probst; H. Brunnschweiler; C. Lautenschlager; J. Ulrich

1987-01-01

195

Characterization of Atherosclerotic Plaques by Laser Speckle Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—A method capable of determining atherosclerotic plaque composition and measuring plaque viscoelasticity can provide valuable insight into intrinsic features associated with plaque rupture and can enable the identification of high-risk lesions. In this article, we describe a new optical technique, laser speckle imaging (LSI), that measures an index of plaque viscoelasticity. We evaluate the potential of LSI for characterizing atherosclerotic

Seemantini K. Nadkarni; Brett E. Bouma; Tina Helg; Raymond Chan; Elkan Halpern; Alexandra Chau; Milan Singh Minsky; Jason T. Motz; Stuart L. Houser; Guillermo J. Tearney

2010-01-01

196

Radiolabelled probes for imaging of atherosclerotic plaques  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. Unstable atherosclerotic plaques are prone to rupture followed by thrombus formation, vessel stenosis, and occlusion and frequently lead to acute myocardial infarction and brain infarction. As such, unstable plaques represent an important diagnostic target in clinical settings and the specific diagnosis of unstable plaques would enable preventive treatments for cardiovascular disease. To date, various imaging methods such as computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound (US), and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) have been widely used clinically. Although these methods have advantages in terms of spatial resolution and the ability to make detailed identification of morphological alterations such as calcifications and vessel stenosis, these techniques require skill or expertise to discriminate plaque instability, which is essential for early diagnosis and treatment and can present difficulties for quantitative estimation. On the other hand, nuclear imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) can noninvasively collect quantitative information on the expression levels of functional molecules and metabolic activities in vivo and thus provide functional diagnoses of unstable plaques with high sensitivity. Specifically, unstable plaques are characterized by an abundance of invasive inflammatory cells (macrophages), increased oxidative stress that increases oxidized LDL and its receptor expressed on cells in the lesions, increased occurrence of apoptosis of macrophages and other cells involved in disease progression, increased protease expression and activity, and finally thrombus formation triggered by plaque rupture, which is the most important mechanism leading to the onset of infarctions and ischemic sudden death. Therefore, these characteristics can all be targets for molecular imaging by PET and SPECT. In this paper, we review the present state and future of radiolabelled probes that have been developed for detecting atherosclerotic unstable plaques with nuclear imaging techniques. PMID:23145360

Temma, Takashi; Saji, Hideo

2012-01-01

197

Detection of High-Risk Atherosclerotic Plaque  

PubMed Central

The leading cause of major morbidity and mortality in most countries around the world is atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, most commonly caused by thrombotic occlusion of a high-risk coronary plaque resulting in myocardial infarction or cardiac death, or embolization from a high-risk carotid plaque resulting in stroke. The lesions prone to result in such clinical events are termed vulnerable or high-risk plaques, and their identification may lead to the development of pharmacological and mechanical intervention strategies to prevent such events. Autopsy studies from patients dying of acute myocardial infarction or sudden death have shown that such events typically arise from specific types of atherosclerotic plaques, most commonly the thin-cap fibroatheroma. However, the search in human beings for vulnerable plaques before their becoming symptomatic has been elusive. Recently, the PROSPECT (Providing Regional Observations to Study Predictors of Events in the Coronary Tree) study demonstrated that coronary plaques that are likely to cause future cardiac events, regardless of angiographic severity, are characterized by large plaque burden and small lumen area and/or are thin-cap fibroatheromas verified by radiofrequency intravascular ultrasound imaging. This study opened the door to identifying additional invasive and noninvasive imaging modalities that may improve detection of high-risk atherosclerotic lesions and patients. Beyond classic risk factors, novel biomarkers and genetic profiling may identify those patients in whom noninvasive imaging for vulnerable plaque screening, followed by invasive imaging for risk confirmation is warranted, and in whom future pharmacological and/or device-based focal or regional therapies may be applied to improve long-term prognosis. PMID:22974808

Fleg, Jerome L.; Stone, Gregg W.; Fayad, Zahi A.; Granada, Juan F.; Hatsukami, Thomas S.; Kolodgie, Frank D.; Ohayon, Jacques; Pettigrew, Roderic; Sabatine, Marc S.; Tearney, Guillermo; Waxman, Sergio; Domanski, Michael J.; Srinivas, Pothur R.; Narula, Jagat

2013-01-01

198

Pharmacokinetics of Liposomal Amphotericin B in Pleural Fluid?  

PubMed Central

We report the penetration of liposomal amphotericin B into the pleural fluid of a patient with pulmonary zygomycosis and empyema. The ratio of area under the concentration-versus-time curve in pleural fluid (AUCpleural fluid) to that in serum (AUCserum) for liposomal amphotericin B over 24 h was 9.4%, with pleural fluid concentrations of 2.12 to 4.91 ?g/ml. Given the relatively low level of intrapleural penetration of liposomal amphotericin B, chest tube drainage may be warranted for successful treatment of zygomycotic empyema. PMID:20086161

Moriyama, Brad; Torabi-Parizi, Parizad; Pratt, Alexandra K.; Henning, Stacey A.; Pennick, Gennethel; Shea, Yvonne R.; Roy Chowdhuri, Sinchita; Rinaldi, Michael G.; Barrett, A. John; Walsh, Thomas J.

2010-01-01

199

Successful treatment of eosinophilic pleural effusions following congenital heart surgery.  

PubMed

We report two children, age 7 months and 5 years, who underwent surgery for congenital heart disease and developed persistent pleural effusions with elevated eosinophil counts. Given the elevation of eosinophil counts in both blood and pleural fluid of these patients, it was considered that an allergic response might have caused the persistent effusion. In both cases, the effusion resolved within 48 hours after treatment with corticosteroids was begun. It is possible that postoperative eosinophilic pleural effusion may represent a subgroup of effusions that are more likely to respond to treatment with corticosteroids. PMID:16391983

Perens, G S; Shannon, K M; Levi, D S; Drant, S

2006-01-01

200

Expression of Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 in Pleural Effusions of Tuberculosis and Lung Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 has been implicated in the development of pleural effusions. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the expression of MMP-9 in pleural effusions of tuberculosis, lung cancer and transudates. Methods: Ninety-one patients (37 tuberculous pleural effusions, 42 malignant pleural effusions of lung cancer and 12 transudates) were included. Concentrations of pleural fluid MMP-9 and

Kwang Joo Park; Sung Chul Hwang; Seung Soo Sheen; Yoon Jung Oh; Jae Ho Han; Kyi Beum Lee

2005-01-01

201

Studies of the Rickettsial Plaque Assay Technique  

PubMed Central

A plaque assay system for pathogenic rickettsiae, which utilizes primary chick embryo tissue cultures, is described. It proved to be a highly reproducible measure of infectiousness for Rickettsia rickettsi and R. typhi, which were employed in most studies; as well as for R. canada, R. prowazeki, R. sibirica, R. akari, R. conori, and Coxiella burneti. Plaque-forming units (PFU) were compared to direct rickettsial counts and to 50% infectious dose (ID50) values for embryonated eggs, mice, and guinea pigs. Plaque size, appearance, and number were influenced by diluent, incubation temperature after nutrient overlay, centrifugation of inoculated tissue cultures, and number of host cells planted initially in each flask. The most critical factors in plaque formation were diluent used in making rickettsial suspensions and incubation temperature (32 C) after nutrient overlay. Brain Heart Infusion was the only diluent capable of preventing significant delay in plaque formation and decreases in PFU and mouse ID50. Plaque formation was unaffected by genetic background of host cells, volume of inoculum, temperature and length of incubation period before nutrient overlay, and rapid freezing and thawing of rickettsial seed. Centrifugation of inoculated cultures at 600 × g resulted in 100% irreversible absorption of rickettsiae to host cells within 5 min, whereas without centrifugation at least 4 hr was required to achieve the same effect. Images PMID:4629250

Wike, David A.; Tallent, George; Peacock, Marius G.; Ormsbee, Richard A.

1972-01-01

202

Bioconvection in Cultures of the Calcifying Unicellular Alga Pleurochrysis Carterae  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The unicellular, marine, calcifying alga P leurochiysis carterae--a model to study cell morphogenesis, cell polarity, calcification, gravitaxis, reproduction and development-- has extremely flexible culture requirements. Support studies for a flight experiment addressing cell motility suggested that cell density (cells/ml) affects cell movement in P. carterae cultures through the gradual establishment of bioconvection as the culture grows. To assess the effect of cell density on direction of the movement, without the effects of aging of the culture, swimming behavior was analyzed in aliquots from a series of dilutions obtained from a stock culture. Results showed that at low concentrations cells swim randomly. As the concentration increases, upswimming patterns overtake random swimming. Gradually, up and down movement patterns prevail, representative of bioconvection. This oriented swimming of P. carterae occurs in a wide range of concentrations, adding to the list of flexible requirements, in this case, cell concentration, to be used for spaceflight studies addressing cell motility and bioconvection in a unicellular model of biologically directed mineralization.

Montufar-Solis, Dina; Duke, P. Jackie; Marsh, Mary E.

2003-01-01

203

Methotrexate-induced pleuropericarditis and eosinophilic pleural effusion.  

PubMed

A 41-year-old man developed widespread skin rash involving his knees, elbows, and gluteal region. He received methotrexate for approximately 1 month and later developed dyspnea and a left-sided eosinophilic pleural effusion. He was transiently placed on oral steroids. Subsequent skin biopsy showed psoriatric arthritis. Methotrexate was restarted and 8 weeks into the treatment, he developed dyspnea, a hemorrhagic pericardial effusion, and a right-sided eosinophilic pleural effusion. Methotrexate was discontinued, but patient developed dyspnea with a recurrent right eosinophilic pleural effusion, 2 weeks later. Pleural biopsies were obtained through medical pleuroscopy that revealed mild chronic inflammation with prominent eosinophils and no evidence for malignancy. Oral steroids were restarted with significant improvement in his symptoms. PMID:24419196

Cudzilo, Corey; Aragaki, Alejandro; Guitron, Julian; Benzaquen, Sadia

2014-01-01

204

Macrophages in malignant pleural effusions - alternatively activated tumor associated macrophages  

PubMed Central

Pleural macrophages are involved in local defense mechanisms against environmental pollution, bacteria and cancer. Their main function encompasses phagocytosis of degenerated mesothelial cells. In human pleural effusions macrophages represent more than half of all cells. A model of polarized macrophage activation (M1 and M2) was proposed, which defines a functionally different macrophage populations generated in response to various factors present in the inflamed environment. Tumor associated macrophages are a major component of the inflammatory infiltrate of most cancers. They can promote the proliferation and spread of cancer cells in the early stages of carcinogenesis and during metastasis. Macrophages isolated from malignant pleural effusions as well as tumor associated macrophages exhibit weak cytotoxic activity against tumor cells, increase their proliferative activity and may protect tumor cells from apoptosis. Defining biology of macrophages present in specific environment of the pleural effusion could allow the introduction of innovative diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. PMID:23788895

Sikora, Jan

2012-01-01

205

Coronary plaque imaging with 256-slice multidetector computed tomography: interobserver variability of volumetric lesion parameters with semiautomatic plaque analysis software  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential clinical value of coronary plaque imaging with a new generation CT\\u000a scanner and the interobserver variability of coronary plaque assessment with a new semiautomatic plaque analysis application.\\u000a Thirty-five isolated plaques of the left anterior descending coronary artery from 35 patients were evaluated with a new semiautomatic\\u000a plaque analysis application. All

Oliver Klass; Susanne Kleinhans; Matthew J. Walker; Mark Olszewski; Sebastian Feuerlein; Markus Juchems; Martin H. K. Hoffmann

2010-01-01

206

Pleural angiosarcoma: a rare cause of spontaneous haemothorax.  

PubMed

Angiosarcoma is a rare soft tissue tumour and constitutes less than 1% of all soft tissue cancers. Pleural angiosarcomas are extremely rare and have an aggressive course. We report the case of a 79-year-old female patient who presented with complaints of increasing dyspnoea on exertion and homogeneous opacification of the left hemithorax on chest radiograph. Epithelioid angiosarcoma was determined on pleural tissue obtained by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). PMID:23894910

Onur, Seda Tural; Günlüoglu, Zeki; Dalar, Levent; Sökücü, Sinem; Altin, Sedat; Dinçer, Ibrahim

2013-02-01

207

PLAQUE:PLAQUE: What it is and how to get rid of it  

E-print Network

and stick to the teeth. · Some types of plaque cause tooth decay. · Other types of plaque cause gum disease, especially sweets, provide nutrients for the germs that cause tooth decay, as well as those that cause gum--this could harm your gums. Brush Teeth Use any tooth brushing method that is comfortable, but do not scrub

Bandettini, Peter A.

208

Life on the margin: implications of ocean acidification on Mg-calcite, high latitude and cold-water marine calcifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future anthropogenic emissions of CO2 and the resulting ocean acidification may have severe consequences for marine calcifying organisms and ecosystems. Marine calcifiers depositing calcitic hard parts that contain significant concentrations of magnesium, i.e. Mg-calcite, and calcify- ing organisms living in high latitude and\\/or cold-water environments are at immediate risk to ocean acidification and decreasing seawater carbonate saturation because they are

Andreas J. Andersson; Fred T. Mackenzie; Nicholas R. Bates

2008-01-01

209

[Parapneumonic pleural effusions and empyema in adults:current practice].  

PubMed

About 20% of hospitalized patients with bacterial pneumonia have an accompanying pleural effusion. Parapneumonic effusions (PPE) are associated with a considerable morbidity and mortality. The main decision in managing a patient with a PPE is whether to insert a chest tube (complicated PPE). Imaging (i.e., chest radiograph, ultrasound and computed tomography) and pleural fluid analysis (i.e., pH, glucose, lactate dehydrogenase, bacterial cults) provide essential information for patient management. Therefore, all PPEs should be aspirated for diagnostic purposes. This may require image-guidance if the effusion is small or heavily loculated. According to the current guidelines, any PPE that fulfills at least one of the following criteria should be drained: size > or = 1/2 of the hemithorax, loculations, pleural fluid pH < 7.20 (or alternatively pleural fluid glucose < 60 mg/dl), positive pleural fluid Gram stain or culture, or purulent appearance. The key components of the treatment of complicated PPE and empyema are the use of appropriate antibiotics, provision of nutritional support, and drainage of the pleural space by one of the following methods: therapeutic thoracentesis, tube thoracostomy, intrapleural fibrinolytics, thoracoscopy with breakdown of adhesions or thoracotomy with decortication. The routine use of intrapleural fibrinolytic therapy remains controversial. (c) 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved. PMID:19889319

Porcel, J M; Light, R W

2009-11-01

210

Transient pleural effusion in norepinephrine-stimulated rats.  

PubMed

Transient pleural effusions occurred in rats receiving continuous intravenous infusion of norepinephrine (NE, 0.1 mg/kg/h). We hypothesized that these pleural effusions result from a NE-induced increase in right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) and total peripheral resistance (TPR). NE was administered over time intervals between 20 min and 72 h. It induced an immediate doubling in RVSP whereas LVSP remained at the control level. TPR increased with a delay of 6 h. At this time, pleural effusions occurred in NE-treated animals, reached their maximum after 8h and disappeared after 24 h of NE stimulation. Combining NE with the alpha-blocker prazosin normalized TPR and prevented pleural effusions. Therefore, we interpret the pleural effusion as a consequence of pulmonary venous congestion, mainly caused by an increased TPR. LV hypertrophy which developed after 24 h of NE stimulation is considered to compensate for the hemodynamic disturbance due to the NE-induced elevation in TPR. This is reflected in the disappearance of pleural effusion. PMID:11605994

Rassler, B; Barth, W; Zimmer, H G

2001-09-01

211

Relationship between occupations and asbestosfibre content of the lungs in patients with pleural mesothelioma, lung cancer, and other diseases  

PubMed Central

Whitwell, F., Scott, Jean, and Grimshaw, Myra (1977).Thorax, 32, 377-386. Relationship between occupations and asbestos-fibre content of the lungs in patients with pleural mesothelioma, lung cancer, and other diseases. The light-visible asbestos-fibre content of 300 lung specimens has been measured using a potash-digestion and phase-contrast microscopy technique, and the results have been correlated with the occupations of the patients. Among 100 pleural mesothelioma specimens were 88 where the patients had been exposed to asbestos, and in 73 of these (83%) the lung tissue contained over 100 000 asbestos fibres per gram of dried lung, and only one specimen showed less than 20 000 fibres per gram. When asbestosis was present, the lungs nearly always showed over 3 million fibres per gram. In 100 control lungs (those without industrial disease or lung cancer) there were less than 20 000 fibres per gram of dried lung in 71% of specimens. Lungs from 100 patients with lung cancer but no industrial disease contained less than 20 000 fibres per gram of dried lung in 80% of cases. Patients with parietal pleural plaques nearly all had over 20 000 fibres per gram in their lungs. The number of asbestos fibres found in the lungs was closely related to the occupations of the patients but not to their home environment. Patients who had lived near likely sources of atmospheric asbestos pollution did not have higher asbestos fibre counts than the rest of the patients. It is concluded that there is a definite dose relationship between asbestos exposure and mesothelioma formation but that' `sub-asbestosis' levels of asbestos exposure do not contribute to the formation of lung cancer in those not subjected to industrial asbestos exposure. Images PMID:929482

Whitwell, F.; Scott, Jean; Grimshaw, Myra

1977-01-01

212

Intra-Pleural Colistin Methanesulfonate Therapy for Pleural Infection caused by Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter Baumannii: A Successful Case Report.  

PubMed

Infections caused by carbapenem-resistant, Gram-negative bacteria are an increasing clinical challenge, since the antimicrobial treatment options are often limited to colistin methanesulfonate. No data are available regarding the pharmacokinetics of colistin in pleural fluid. We report the case of a 92-year old man with ventilator-associated pneumonia and pleurisy caused by Acinetobacter baumannii and Escherichia coli, which were both multidrug-resistant. After an unsuccessful treatment with intravenous colistin methanesulfonate and imipen-em-cilastatin, the addition of intra-pleural colistin methanesulfonate to the intravenous treatment led to a prompt clinical, radiological and microbiological resolution. This is the first report of a successful use of intra-pleural colistin in the literature. The intra-pleural colistin therapy should be considered in selected cases of pleurisy caused by multi-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:25276329

Rana, Muhammad Asim; Rahman, Basheer Abd El; Mady, Ahmed Fouad; Odat, Mohammed Al; AlHarthy, Abdurehman; Ramadan, Omar El Sayed; Mumtaz, Shahzad Ahmed; Omrani, Ali S

2014-08-13

213

Intra-Pleural Colistin Methanesulfonate Therapy for Pleural Infection caused by Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter Baumannii: A Successful Case Report  

PubMed Central

Infections caused by carbapenem-resistant, Gram-negative bacteria are an increasing clinical challenge, since the antimicrobial treatment options are often limited to colistin methanesulfonate. No data are available regarding the pharmacokinetics of colistin in pleural fluid. We report the case of a 92-year old man with ventilator-associated pneumonia and pleurisy caused by Acinetobacter baumannii and Escherichia coli, which were both multidrug-resistant. After an unsuccessful treatment with intravenous colistin methanesulfonate and imipen-em-cilastatin, the addition of intra-pleural colistin methanesulfonate to the intravenous treatment led to a prompt clinical, radiological and microbiological resolution. This is the first report of a successful use of intra-pleural colistin in the literature. The intra-pleural colistin therapy should be considered in selected cases of pleurisy caused by multi-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:25276329

Rana, Muhammad Asim; Rahman, Basheer Abd El; Mady, Ahmed Fouad; Odat, Mohammed Al; AlHarthy, Abdurehman; Ramadan, Omar El Sayed; Mumtaz, Shahzad Ahmed; Omrani, Ali S.

2014-01-01

214

Persistent Seroconversion after Accidental Eye Exposure to Calcifying Nanoparticles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biosafety of nanomaterials has attracted much attention recently. We report here a case where accidental human eye exposure to biogenic nanosized calcium phosphate in the form of calcifying nanoparticles (CNP) raised a strong IgG immune response against proteins carried by CNP. The antibody titer has persisted over ten years at the high level. The IgG was detected by ELISA using CNPs propagated in media containing bovine and human serum as antigen. The exposure incident occurred to a woman scientist (WS) at a research laboratory in Finland at 1993. CNP, also termed "nanobacteria", is a unique self-replicating agent that has not been fully characterized and no data on biohazards were available at that time. Before the accident, her serum samples were negative for both CNP antigen and anti-CNP antibody using specific ELISA tests (Nanobac Oy, Kuopio, Finland). The accident occurred while WS was harvesting CNP cultures. Due to a high pressure in pipetting, CNP pellet splashed into her right eye. Both eyes were immediately washed with water and saline. The following days there was irritation and redness in the right eye. These symptoms disappeared within two weeks without any treatment. Three months after the accident, blood and urine samples of WS were tested for CNP cultures (2), CNP-specific ELISA tests, and blood cell counts. Blood cell counts were normal, CNP antigen and culture tests were negative. A high IgG anti-CNP antibody titer was detected (see Figure). The antibodies of this person have been used thereafter as positive control and standard in ELISA manufacturing (Nano-Sero IgG ELISA, Nanobac Oy, Kuopio, Finland).

Ciftcioglu, Neva; Aho, Katja M.; McKay, David S.; Kajander, E. Olavi

2007-01-01

215

Microscopic Observation of Self-Propagation of Calcifying Nanoparticles (Nanobacteria)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biologists typically define living organisms as carbon and water-based cellular forms with :self-replication" as the fundamental trait of the life process. However, this standard dictionary definition of life does not help scientists to categorize self-replicators like viruses, prions, proteons and artificial life. CNP also named nanobacteria were discovered in early 1990s as about 100 nanometer-sized bacteria-like particles with unique apatite mineral-shells around them, and found to be associated with pathological-calcification related diseases. Although CNP have been isolated and cultured from mammalian blood and diseased calcified tissues, and their biomineralizing properties well established, their biological nature and self-replicating capability have always been severely challenged. The terms "self-replication", "self-assembly" or "self-propagation" have been widely used for all systems including nanomachines, crystals, computer viruses and memes. In a simple taxonomy, all biological and non-biological "self replicators", have been classified into "living" or "nonliving" based on the properties of the systems and the amount of support they require to self-replicate. To enhance our understanding about self-replicating nature of CNP, we have investigated their growth in specific culture conditions using conventional inverted light microscope and BioStation IM, Nikon s latest time-lapse imaging system. Their morphological structure was examined using scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy. This present study, in conjunction with previous findings of metabolic activity, antibiotic sensitivity, antibody specificity, morphological aspects and infectivity, all concomitantly validate CNP as living self-replicators.

Mathew, Grace; McKay, David S.; Ciftcioglu, Neva

2007-01-01

216

Functional expression of dental plaque microbiota  

PubMed Central

Dental caries remains a significant public health problem and is considered pandemic worldwide. The prediction of dental caries based on profiling of microbial species involved in disease and equally important, the identification of species conferring dental health has proven more difficult than anticipated due to high interpersonal and geographical variability of dental plaque microbiota. We have used RNA-Seq to perform global gene expression analysis of dental plaque microbiota derived from 19 twin pairs that were either concordant (caries-active or caries-free) or discordant for dental caries. The transcription profiling allowed us to define a functional core microbiota consisting of nearly 60 species. Similarities in gene expression patterns allowed a preliminary assessment of the relative contribution of human genetics, environmental factors and caries phenotype on the microbiota's transcriptome. Correlation analysis of transcription allowed the identification of numerous functional networks, suggesting that inter-personal environmental variables may co-select for groups of genera and species. Analysis of functional role categories allowed the identification of dominant functions expressed by dental plaque biofilm communities, that highlight the biochemical priorities of dental plaque microbes to metabolize diverse sugars and cope with the acid and oxidative stress resulting from sugar fermentation. The wealth of data generated by deep sequencing of expressed transcripts enables a greatly expanded perspective concerning the functional expression of dental plaque microbiota. PMID:25177549

Peterson, Scott N.; Meissner, Tobias; Su, Andrew I.; Snesrud, Erik; Ong, Ana C.; Schork, Nicholas J.; Bretz, Walter A.

2014-01-01

217

Effects of Coexisting Pneumonia and End-stage Renal Disease on Pleural Fluid Analysis in Patients With Hydrostatic Pleural Effusion  

PubMed Central

Background: In individual patients, especially those who are hospitalized, several conditions often coexist that may be responsible for the development of a pleural effusion and may affect the pleural fluid analysis (PFA). The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of end-stage renal disease and pneumonia on PFA in patients with hydrostatic pleural effusion. Methods: In a retrospective analysis of 1,064 consecutive patients who underwent thoracentesis at a university hospital, cell counts and pleural fluid protein, lactate dehydrogenase, pH, and glucose levels were examined in those (n = 300) with clinical evidence of hydrostatic pleural effusion. Results: The 300 patients (28.1%) with pleural effusions had congestive heart failure (CHF), circulatory overload (CO), or both. Expert consensus was achieved in 66 (22%) for CHF as the sole diagnosis (SCHF), 30 (10%) for CHF and coexisting pneumonia (PCHF), and 26 (8.7%) for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) with coexisting CO or CHF. The remaining 178 patients were excluded because of complicating conditions. There were minor, but statistically significant differences in pleural fluid/serum protein ratios in patients with ESRD with coexisting CO or CHF compared with SCHF. Compared with SCHF, there were statistically significant tendencies for higher protein and lactate dehydrogenase concentrations and lower pH levels in those with PCHF. The total nucleated cell count and the absolute neutrophil count were significantly higher in PCHF. Conclusions: ESRD in patients with hydrostatic pleural effusions has a minimal effect on the PFA. Coexisting pneumonia most often results in an exudative effusion in patients with CHF. PMID:23288037

Huggins, John T.; Goldblatt, Mark; Nietert, Paul; Sahn, Steven A.

2013-01-01

218

Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Identify Intraplaque Hemorrhage and Define its Location in Complicated Carotid Artery Plaques.  

E-print Network

??Atherosclerotic plaque (AP) composition is an important factor influencing plaque rupture. Intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH) is a marker of complicated-plaque formation, responsible for many of the… (more)

Bitar, Richard

2011-01-01

219

Calcified microbes in Neoproterozoic carbonates: implications for our understanding of the Proterozoic/Cambrian transition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tidal flat and lagoonal dolostones of the Neoproterozoic Draken Formation, Spitsbergen, exhibit excellent preservation of carbonate fabrics, including heavily calcified microfossils. The crust-forming cyanobacterium Polybessurus is preserved locally by carbonate precipitated on and within sheaths in mildly evaporitic upper intertidal to supratidal environments. In contrast, calcified filaments in columnar stromatolites reflect subtidal precipitation. Filament molds in dolomicrites independently document extremely early lithification. The presence of heavily calcified cyanobacteria in Draken and other Proterozoic carbonates constrains potential explanations for the widespread appearance of calcified microorganisms near the Proterozoic-Cambrian boundary. We propose that the rarity of Proterozoic examples principally reflects the abundance and wide distribution of carbonate crystals precipitated on the sea floor or in the water column. Cyanobacterial sheaths would have competed effectively as sites for carbonate nucleation and growth only where calcitic and/or aragonitic nuclei were absent. In this view, the Proterozoic-Cambrian expansion of calcified microfossils primarily reflects the emergence of skeletons as principal agents of carbonate deposition.

Knoll, A. H.; Fairchild, I. J.; Swett, K.

1993-01-01

220

Pigmented epidermal plaques in three dogs.  

PubMed

Papillomavirus was identified in pigmented epidermal plaques (PEP) from three dogs: a miniature schnauzer with hyperadrenocorticism and hypoglobulinemia, an American Staffordshire terrier with hypoglobulinemia, and a Pomeranian with unconfirmed hypothyroidism. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) arose within several plaques in the Pomeranian. Clinical improvement coincided in the first two cases with treatment of the concurrent disease and the administration of low-dose oral interferon-alpha. This is the first report of PEP in an American Staffordshire terrier and a Pomeranian. The potential for malignant transformation of PEP to SCC emphasizes the need for recognition and clinical management of PEP. PMID:15347622

Stokking, Laura B; Ehrhart, Eugene J; Lichtensteiger, Carol A; Campbell, Karen L

2004-01-01

221

Atherosclerotic plaque rupture and thrombosis. Evolving concepts.  

PubMed

Rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque associated with partial or complete thrombotic vessel occlusion is fundamental to the development of ischemic coronary syndromes. Plaques that produce only mild-to-moderate angiographic luminal stenosis are frequently those that undergo abrupt disruption, leading to unstable angina or acute myocardial infarction. Plaques with increased lipid content appear more prone to rupture, particularly when the lipid pool is localized eccentrically within the intima. Macrophages appear to play an important role in atherogenesis, perhaps by participating in the uptake and metabolism of lipoproteins, secretion of growth factors, and production of enzymes and toxic metabolites that may facilitate plaque rupture. In addition, the particular composition or configuration of a plaque and the hemodynamic forces to which it is exposed may determine its susceptibility to disruption. Exposure of collagen, lipids, and smooth muscle cells after plaque rupture leads to the activation of platelets and the coagulation cascade system. The resulting thrombus may lead to marked reduction in myocardial perfusion and the development of an unstable coronary syndrome, or it may become organized and incorporated into the diseased vessel, thus contributing to the progression of atherosclerosis. In unstable angina, plaque disruption leads to thrombosis, which is usually labile and results in only a transient reduction in myocardial perfusion. Release of vasoactive substances, arterial spasm, or increases in myocardial oxygen demand may contribute to ischemia. In acute myocardial infarction, plaque disruption results in a more persistent thrombotic vessel occlusion; the extent of necrosis depends on the size of the artery, the duration of occlusion, the presence of collateral flow, and the integrity of the fibrinolytic system. Thrombi that undergo lysis expose a highly thrombogenic surface to the circulating blood, which has the capacity of activating platelets and the coagulation cascade system and may lead to thrombotic reocclusion. Measurements aimed at reversing the process of atherosclerosis via cholesterol reduction and enhanced high density lipoprotein activity are encouraging. Active research is being focused on the development of new antithrombotic tools, such as inhibitors of thrombin, thromboxane, and serotonin receptor antagonists, and monoclonal antibodies aimed at blocking platelet membrane receptors or adhesive proteins. These compounds may prove useful when immediate and potent inhibition of the hemostatic system is desired. Intensive research is still needed in the areas of pathogenesis and therapeutic intervention in atherosclerosis. PMID:2203564

Fuster, V; Stein, B; Ambrose, J A; Badimon, L; Badimon, J J; Chesebro, J H

1990-09-01

222

IL-33 levels differentiate tuberculous pleurisy from malignant pleural effusions  

PubMed Central

Tuberculous pleural effusions (TPEs) and malignant pleural effusions (MPEs) are difficult to differentiate between in certain clinical situations. Interleukin (IL)-33 is a cytokine that participates in inflammatory responses and may have a role in pleural effusions. The present study aimed to investigate the concentrations and potential differential significance of IL-33 in patients with TPE and MPE. IL-33 levels in pleural effusion and serum samples were detected using sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 23 patients with TPE and 21 patients with MPE. The concentration of IL-33 (mean ± standard deviation) in the TPE patients (22.962±0.976 ng/l) was significantly higher than that in the MPE patients (12.603±5.153 ng/l; P<0.001; z=?4.572); however, there was no significant difference in the serum level of IL-33 in the patients with TPE compared with those with MPE (P>0.05). The concentration of IL-33 in the pleural effusions was positively correlated with that in the serum samples in each group (TPE: r=0.563, P=0.05; MPE: r=0.535, P<0.05). The cut-off value of pleural IL-33 for TPE was 19.86 ng/l, which yielded a sensitivity of 0.869, a specificity of 0.905 and an area under the corresponding receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.903. The present study identified that the level of pleural IL-33 is significantly increased in TPEs and may serve as a novel biomarker to differentiate between patients with TPE and MPE. PMID:24959294

XUAN, WEI-XIA; ZHANG, JIAN-CHU; ZHOU, QIONG; YANG, WEI-BING; MA, LI-JUN

2014-01-01

223

Assessment of vulnerable plaque composition by matching the deformation of a parametric plaque model to measured plaque deformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) elastography visualizes local radial strain of arteries in so-called elastograms to detect rupture-prone plaques. However, due to the unknown arterial stress distribution these elastograms cannot be directly interpreted as a morphology and material composition image. To overcome this limitation we have developed a method that reconstructs a Young's modulus image from an elastogram. This method is especially

Radj A. Baldewsing; Johannes A. Schaar; Frits Mastik; Cees. W. J. Oomens; Antonius F. W. van der Steen

2005-01-01

224

A large calcified retroperitoneal mass in a patient with chronic renal failure: liposarcoma with ossification.  

PubMed

Here we describe a 65-year-old Japanese man with chronic renal failure (CRF) and a large, dense, calcified abdominal mass. The patient had a history of proteinuria, which was diagnosed as focal glomerulosclerosis. This diagnosis was confirmed by renal biopsy in 2002, with worsening renal function by July 2005 when a large area of calcification was detected on abdominal radiography, which further increased in size on follow-up radiography in December 2006. The calcified mass was surgically resected and histopathologically diagnosed as myxoid-type liposarcoma composed of dedifferentiated, myxoid, and well-differentiated components with areas of osseous metaplasia. Soft tissue calcifications and ossifications are often benign, but malignant tumors should be considered when the calcified mass is retroperitoneal, occurs in a patient with no history of chronic infection, and is not located near a large joint or associated with administration of calcium carbonate or a vitamin D derivative. PMID:19882203

Okuda, Itsuko; Ubara, Yoshifumi; Okuda, Chikao; Fujii, Takeshi; Suwabe, Tatsuya; Kokubo, Takashi; Nakajima, Yasio; Hashimoto, Masaji

2010-04-01

225

Multifocal calcifying fibrous tumor at six sites in one patient: a case report  

PubMed Central

Calcifying fibrous tumors (CFT) are rare benign tumors. They usually affect children and young adults and the incidence is equal in males and females. The usual clinical presentation is that of a painless mass. A computed tomography scan typically reveals a well-demarcated calcified lesion. CFT usually presents as a solitary mass and the commonest sites of occurrence are in soft tissues, the pleura, or the peritoneum. Multifocal occurrences at the same site have also been reported. The first case of CFT was reported in 1988. We present a rare case of multiple calcifying fibrous tumors at multiple sites in the same patient. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first ever reported case of multifocal CFT atsix different anatomical sites in one patient. PMID:25070647

2014-01-01

226

Protocol of the Australasian Malignant Pleural Effusion (AMPLE) trial: a multicentre randomised study comparing indwelling pleural catheter versus talc pleurodesis  

PubMed Central

Introduction Malignant pleural effusion can complicate most cancers. It causes breathlessness and requires hospitalisation for invasive pleural drainages. Malignant effusions often herald advanced cancers and limited prognosis. Minimising time spent in hospital is of high priority to patients and their families. Various treatment strategies exist for the management of malignant effusions, though there is no consensus governing the best choice. Talc pleurodesis is the conventional management but requires hospitalisation (and substantial healthcare resources), can cause significant side effects, and has a suboptimal success rate. Indwelling pleural catheters (IPCs) allow ambulatory fluid drainage without hospitalisation, and are increasingly employed for management of malignant effusions. Previous studies have only investigated the length of hospital care immediately related to IPC insertion. Whether IPC management reduces time spent in hospital in the patients’ remaining lifespan is unknown. A strategy of malignant effusion management that reduces hospital admission days will allow patients to spend more time outside hospital, reduce costs and save healthcare resources. Methods and analysis The Australasian Malignant Pleural Effusion (AMPLE) trial is a multicentred, randomised trial designed to compare IPC with talc pleurodesis for the management of malignant pleural effusion. This study will randomise 146 adults with malignant pleural effusions (1:1) to IPC management or talc slurry pleurodesis. The primary end point is the total number of days spent in hospital (for any admissions) from treatment procedure to death or end of study follow-up. Secondary end points include hospital days specific to pleural effusion management, adverse events, self-reported symptom and quality-of-life scores. Ethics and dissemination The Sir Charles Gairdner Group Human Research Ethics Committee has approved the study as have the ethics boards of all the participating hospitals. The trial results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at scientific conferences. Trial registration numbers Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry—ACTRN12611000567921; National Institutes of Health—NCT02045121. PMID:25377015

Fysh, Edward T H; Thomas, Rajesh; Read, Catherine A; Lam, Ben C H; Yap, Elaine; Horwood, Fiona C; Lee, Pyng; Piccolo, Francesco; Shrestha, Ranjan; Garske, Luke A; Lam, David C L; Rosenstengel, Andrew; Bint, Michael; Murray, Kevin; Smith, Nicola A; Lee, Y C Gary

2014-01-01

227

Coronary CT Angiography in the Quantitative Assessment of Coronary Plaques  

PubMed Central

Coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) has been recently evaluated for its ability to assess coronary plaque characteristics, including plaque composition. Identification of the relationship between plaque composition by CCTA and patient clinical presentations may provide insight into the pathophysiology of coronary artery plaque, thus assisting identification of vulnerable plaques which are associated with the development of acute coronary syndrome. CCTA-generated 3D visualizations allow evaluation of both coronary lesions and lumen changes, which are considered to enhance the diagnostic performance of CCTA. The purpose of this review is to discuss the recent developments that have occurred in the field of CCTA with regard to its diagnostic accuracy in the quantitative assessment of coronary plaques, with a focus on the characterization of plaque components and identification of vulnerable plaques. PMID:25162010

2014-01-01

228

Exocytosis of polymorphonuclear leukocyte lysosomal contents induced by dental plaque.  

PubMed Central

Rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocytes were incubated with a sonically treated suspension of pooled dental plaque to determine if the plaque would induce release of lysosomal enzymes from the polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Cells incubated with plaque at 37 degrees C released significantly greater amounts of the lysosomal enzymes, beta-glucuronidase and lysozyme, than did cells incubated with plaque at 0 degrees C or without plaque at 37 degrees C. This response was both dose and time dependent. Release of the cytoplasmic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase was minimal, and there were no significant differences in lactate dehydrogenase release between cells at 0 and 37 degrees C, or without plaque. These results indicate that dental plaque can induce the selective release of lysosomal enzymes, which could be involved in the periodontal injury produced by dental plaque. PMID:561032

White, R R; Montgomery, E H

1977-01-01

229

Primary pleural angiosarcoma in a 63-year-old gentleman.  

PubMed

Primary pleural angiosarcomas are extremely rare. As of 2010, only around 50 case reports have been documented in the literature. Herein, we report the case of a 63-year-old gentleman who presented with a 3-month history of right-sided chest pain, dyspnea, and hemoptysis. Chest X-ray showed bilateral pleural effusion with partial bibasilar atelectasis. Ultrasound-guided thoracocentesis showed bloody and exudative pleural fluid. Cytologic examination was negative for malignant cells. An abdominal contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) scan showed two right diaphragmatic pleural masses. Whole-body positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scan showed two hypermetabolic fluorodeoxyglucose- (FDG-) avid lesions involving the right diaphragmatic pleura. CT-guided needle-core biopsy was performed and histopathological examination showed neoplastic cells growing mainly in sheets with focal areas suggestive of vascular spaces lined by cytologically malignant epithelioid cells. Immunohistochemical analysis showed strong positivity for vimentin, CD31, CD68, and Fli-1 markers. The overall pathological and immunohistochemical features supported the diagnosis of epithelioid angiosarcoma. The patient was scheduled for surgery in three weeks. Unfortunately, the patient died after one week after discharge secondary to pulseless ventricular tachycardia arrest followed by asystole. Moreover, we also present a brief literature review on pleural angiosarcoma. PMID:23844302

Abu-Zaid, Ahmed; Mohammed, Shamayel

2013-01-01

230

Subatmospheric pressure in the rabbit pleural lymphatic network  

PubMed Central

Hydraulic pressure in intercostal and diaphragmatic lymphatic vessels was measured through the micropuncture technique in 23 anaesthetised paralysed rabbits. Pleural lymphatic vessels with diameters ranging from 55 to 950 ?m were observed under stereomicroscope view about 3–4 h after intrapleural injection of 20 % fluorescent dextrans. Lymphatic pressure oscillated from a minimum (Pmin) to a maximum (Pmax) value, reflecting oscillations in phase with cardiac activity (cardiogenic oscillations) and lymphatic myogenic activity. With intact pleural space, Pmin in submesothelial diaphragmatic lymphatic vessels of the lateral apposition zone was ?9.1 ± 4.2 mmHg, more subatmospheric than the simultaneously recorded pleural liquid pressure amounting to ?3.9 ± 1.2 mmHg. In extrapleural intercostal lymphatic vessels Pmin averaged ?1.3 ± 2.7 mmHg. Cardiogenic pressure oscillations (Pmax?Pmin), were observed in all recordings; their mean amplitude was about 5 mmHg and was not dependent upon frequency of cardiac contraction, nor lymphatic vessel diameter, nor the Pmin value. Intrinsic contractions of lymphatic vessel walls caused spontaneous pressure waves of about 7 mmHg in amplitude at a rate of 8 cycles min?1. These results demonstrated the ability of pleural lymphatic vessels to generate pressure oscillations driving fluid from the subatmospheric pleural space into the lymphatic network. PMID:10545142

Negrini, Daniela; Del Fabbro, Massimo

1999-01-01

231

Interstitial granulomatous dermatitis with plaques and arthritis.  

PubMed

Interstitial granulomatous dermatitis and arthritis (IGDA) is a rare disease entity with female predominance. The case of a 53-year-old woman with erythemas, plaques and nodules associated with polyarthritis is presented. She was treated with cyclosporin A, with improvement of the joint affliction and complete clearance of skin lesions. The differential diagnosis of IGDA is discussed briefly. PMID:14579165

Wollina, U; Schönlebe, J; Unger, L; Weigel, K; Köstler, E; Nüsslein, H

2003-10-01

232

Interstitial granulomatous dermatitis with plaques and arthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interstitial granulomatous dermatitis and arthritis (IGDA) is a rare disease entity with female predominance. The case of a 53-year-old woman with erythemas, plaques and nodules associated with polyarthritis is presented. She was treated with cyclosporin A, with improvement of the joint affliction and complete clearance of skin lesions. The differential diagnosis of IGDA is discussed briefly.

U. Wollina; J. Schönlebe; L. Unger; K. Weigel; E. Köstler; H. Nüsslein

2003-01-01

233

Emergency operation of a patient with spontaneous rupture and massive hemorrhage of pleural solitary fibrous tumor.  

PubMed

Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare pleural disease with asymptomatic clinical course. We report a case of a patient with spontaneous rupture and massive hemorrhage of pleural SFT, which was treated by emergency operation. PMID:25364532

Shao, Feng; Yang, Rusong; Pan, Yanqing

2014-10-01

234

Emergency operation of a patient with spontaneous rupture and massive hemorrhage of pleural solitary fibrous tumor  

PubMed Central

Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare pleural disease with asymptomatic clinical course. We report a case of a patient with spontaneous rupture and massive hemorrhage of pleural SFT, which was treated by emergency operation. PMID:25364532

Shao, Feng; Pan, Yanqing

2014-01-01

235

Differential responses of calcifying and non-calcifying epibionts of a brown macroalga to present-day and future upwelling pCO2.  

PubMed

Seaweeds are key species of the Baltic Sea benthic ecosystems. They are the substratum of numerous fouling epibionts like bryozoans and tubeworms. Several of these epibionts bear calcified structures and could be impacted by the high pCO2 events of the late summer upwellings in the Baltic nearshores. Those events are expected to increase in strength and duration with global change and ocean acidification. If calcifying epibionts are impacted by transient acidification as driven by upwelling events, their increasing prevalence could cause a shift of the fouling communities toward fleshy species. The aim of the present study was to test the sensitivity of selected seaweed macrofoulers to transient elevation of pCO2 in their natural microenvironment, i.e. the boundary layer covering the thallus surface of brown seaweeds. Fragments of the macroalga Fucus serratus bearing an epibiotic community composed of the calcifiers Spirorbis spirorbis (Annelida) and Electra pilosa (Bryozoa) and the non-calcifier Alcyonidium hirsutum (Bryozoa) were maintained for 30 days under three pCO2 conditions: natural 460 ± 59 µatm, present-day upwelling1193 ± 166 µatm and future upwelling 3150 ± 446 µatm. Only the highest pCO2 caused a significant reduction of growth rates and settlement of S. spirorbis individuals. Additionally, S. spirorbis settled juveniles exhibited enhanced calcification of 40% during daylight hours compared to dark hours, possibly reflecting a day-night alternation of an acidification-modulating effect by algal photosynthesis as opposed to an acidification-enhancing effect of algal respiration. E. pilosa colonies showed significantly increased growth rates at intermediate pCO2 (1193 µatm) but no response to higher pCO2. No effect of acidification on A. hirsutum colonies growth rates was observed. The results suggest a remarkable resistance of the algal macro-epibionts to levels of acidification occurring at present day upwellings in the Baltic. Only extreme future upwelling conditions impacted the tubeworm S. spirorbis, but not the bryozoans. PMID:23894659

Saderne, Vincent; Wahl, Martin

2013-01-01

236

Supplementary Prognostic Variables for Pleural Mesothelioma  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The staging system for malignant pleural mesothelioma is controversial. To revise this system, the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer Staging Committee developed an international database. This report analyzes prognostic variables in a surgical population, which are supplementary to previously published CORE variables (stage, histology, sex, age, and type of procedure). Methods: Supplementary prognostic variables were studied in three scenarios: (1) all data available, that is, patient pathologically staged and other CORE variables available (2) only clinical staging available along with CORE variables, and (3) only age, sex, histology, and laboratory parameters are known. Survival was analyzed by Kaplan–Meier, prognostic factors by log rank and stepwise Cox regression modeling after elimination of nonsignificant variables. p value less than 0.05 was significant. Results: A total of 2141 patients with best tumor, node, metastasis (TNM) stages (pathologic with/without clinical staging) had nonmissing age, sex, histology, and type of surgical procedure. Three prognostic models were defined. Scenario A (all parameters): best pathologic stage, histology, sex, age, type of surgery, adjuvant treatment, white blood cell count (WBC) (?15.5 or not), and platelets (?400 k or not) (n = 550). Scenario B (no surgical staging): clinical stage, histology, sex, age, type of surgery, adjuvant treatment, WBC, hemoglobin (<14.6 or not), and platelets (n = 627). Scenario C (limited data): histology, sex, age, WBC, hemoglobin, and platelets (n = 906). Conclusion: Refinement of these models could define not only the appropriate patient preoperatively for best outcomes after cytoreductive surgery but also stratify surgically treated patients after clinical and pathologic staging who do or do not receive adjuvant therapy. PMID:24807157

Giroux, Dorothy; Kennedy, Catherine; Ruffini, Enrico; Cangir, Ayten K.; Rice, David; Asamura, Hisao; Waller, David; Edwards, John; Weder, Walter; Hoffmann, Hans; van Meerbeeck, Jan P.; Rusch, Valerie W.

2014-01-01

237

In vivo imaging reveals sigmoidal growth kinetic of ?-amyloid plaques  

PubMed Central

A major neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease is the deposition of amyloid plaques in the brains of affected individuals. Amyloid plaques mainly consist of fibrillar ?-amyloid, which is a cleavage product of the amyloid precursor protein. The amyloid-cascade-hypothesis postulates A? accumulation as the central event in initiating a toxic cascade leading to Alzheimer’s disease pathology and, ultimately, loss of cognitive function. We studied the kinetics of ?-amyloid deposition in Tg2576 mice, which overexpress human amyloid precursor protein with the Swedish mutation. Utilizing long-term two-photon imaging we were able to observe the entire kinetics of plaque growth in vivo. Essentially, we observed that plaque growth follows a sigmoid-shaped curve comprising a cubic growth phase, followed by saturation. In contrast, plaque density kinetics exhibited an asymptotic progression. Taking into account the fact that a critical concentration of A? is required to seed new plaques, we can propose the following kinetic model of ?-amyloid deposition in vivo. In the early cubic phase, plaque growth is not limited by A? concentration and plaque density increases very fast. During the transition phase, plaque density stabilizes whereas plaque volume increases strongly reflecting a robust growth of the plaques. In the late asymptotic phase, A? peptide production becomes rate-limiting for plaque growth. In conclusion, the present study offers a direct link between in vitro and in vivo studies facilitating the translation of A?-lowering strategies from laboratory models to patients. PMID:24678659

2014-01-01

238

[Pleurisy of unexpected etiology: a foreign body within the pleural cavity].  

PubMed

Following three brief clinical reports, we review the literature concerning a rare cause of exudative pleural effusion: the presence of a foreign body in the pleural cavity. Frequently iatrogenical, this rare etiology of pleural effusion must be envisaged when this complication develops after any invasive peri-thoracic surgery and must be included in the differential diagnosis of recurrent pleural effusions. These effusions have a favorable prognosis after withdrawal of the foreign body. PMID:24640307

Ribera-Jorba, T; Heinen, V; Corhay, J-L; Louis, R; Duysinx, B

2014-01-01

239

The pathology of atherosclerosis: plaque development and plaque responses to medical treatment.  

PubMed

Atherosclerosis develops over the course of 50 years, beginning in the early teenage years. The causes of this process appear to be lipid retention, oxidation, and modification, which provoke chronic inflammation at susceptible sites in the walls of all major conduit arteries. Initial fatty streaks evolve into fibrous plaques, some of which develop into forms that are vulnerable to rupture, causing thrombosis or stenosis. Erosion of the surfaces of some plaques and rupture of a plaque's calcific nodule into the artery lumen also may trigger thrombosis. The process of plaque development is the same regardless of race/ethnicity, sex, or geographic location, apparently worldwide. However, the rate of development is faster in patients with risk factors such as hypertension, tobacco smoking, diabetes mellitus, obesity, and genetic predisposition. Clinical trial data demonstrate that treatment with 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) favorably alters plaque size, cellular composition, chemical composition, and biological activities centered on inflammation and cholesterol metabolism, as well as the risk of clinical events due to atherosclerosis. Even with advanced atherosclerosis, statins begin to improve clinical risk within 4 months. During long-term follow-up in clinical trials for up to 11 years with or without further treatment, clinical benefit remains significant, indicating the durability of treatment-induced changes in the development of plaque. Thus, atherosclerosis, a disease heretofore viewed as inevitably progressive, can be treated to significantly alter arterial lesions and reduce their clinical consequences. PMID:19110086

Insull, William

2009-01-01

240

Multimodal treatment for resectable epithelial type malignant pleural mesothelioma  

PubMed Central

Background Malignant pleural mesothelioma is a rare malignancy. The outcome remains poor despite complete surgical resection. Patients and methods Eleven patients with histologicaly proven epithelial type malignant pleural mesothelioma undergoing extrapleural pneumonectomy with systemic chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy before and after surgical resection were retrospectively reviewed. Results Ten out of 11 patients underwent complete surgical resection, of these 7 patients had stage I disease. Of these 7 patients, 5 are alive without any recurrence, a 2-year survival rate of 80% was observed in this group. There was no operative mortality or morbidity. Conclusion Extrapleural pneumonectomy with perioperative adjuvant treatment is safe and effective procedure for epithelial type malignant pleural mesothelioma. PMID:15128453

Yoshino, Ichiro; Yamaguchi, Masafumi; Okamoto, Tatsuro; Ushijima, Chie; Fukuyama, Yasuro; Ichinose, Yukito; Maehara, Yoshihiko

2004-01-01

241

c ? TÜB?ITAK Zinc Determination in Pleural Fluid  

E-print Network

In this study, an enzymatic zinc determination method was applied to pleural fluid, the basis of which was the regaining of the activity of apo carbonic anhydrase by the zinc present in the sample. The method was used for pleural fluid zinc determination in order to show the application to body fluids other than serum. For this purpose, pleural fluids were obtained from 20 patients and zinc concentrations were determined. Carbonic anhydrase was purified by affinity chromatography from bovine erythrocytes. The zinc present in its structure was removed by dialysis against dipicolinic acid, resulting in apoenzyme obtained at a ratio of 100%. The activity of the enzyme was determined by the esterase action on p-nitrophenyl acetate. For comparison, the same samples were analyzed in atomic absorption. The results obtained were evaluated statistically. (>0.05 t-test, <0.001 Zn 2+ (AA)-Zn 2+ (apoCA), <0.005 Zn 2+ (apoCA)-Total protein).

unknown authors

242

Pleural effusion lipoproteins measured by NMR spectroscopy for diagnosis of exudative pleural effusions: a novel tool for pore-size estimation.  

PubMed

High-resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry of biofluids has been increasingly used in laboratory diagnosis of various diseases. In this study, we extended the use of (1)H NMR spectroscopy for laboratory diagnosis of exudative pleural effusions using pleural fluids. We compared this new NMR-based test with Light's criteria, the current gold standard for laboratory diagnosis of exudative pleural effusions. We analyzed 67 samples of pleural effusions from patients with pulmonary malignancy (N = 32), pulmonary tuberculosis (N = 18), and congestive heart failure (N = 17). The metabolomes of pleural effusions were analyzed using (1)H NMR spectroscopy on a Bruker 600 MHz spectrometer. Through a metabolome-wide association approach with filtering of insignificant markers (p value <4 × 10(-6)) and multivariate analysis (principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis), lipoprotein was found to be the best biomarker that distinguished exudates from transudates. Using NMR-based lipoprotein profiling to classify exudative pleural effusions from transudates, the area-under-receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.96 with sensitivity of 98%, specificity of 88%, and accuracy of 98%. In contrast, the current gold standard, Light's criteria, give a specificity of only 65% at the same sensitivity level of 98%. Using the principle of size exclusion, NMR-based lipoprotein profiling of pleural fluids has an unprecedented diagnostic performance superiority over the Light's criteria. The capillary leaks secondary to inflammation result in a larger pleural pore-size, which allows the large-sized lipoproteins to accumulate in exudative pleural effusions. In contrast, the pleural permeability is intact in transudates, which allow only small-sized lipoproteins to pass into the pleural effusions. The average capillary pore-size of the pleura can therefore be determined by using NMR-based lipoprotein profiling of pleural fluids. We believe this new test will change the current clinical practice for management of pleural effusions and will become a new standard for clinical practice. PMID:25072840

Lam, Ching-Wan; Law, Chun-Yiu

2014-09-01

243

Prognostic significance of pleural lavage cytology after resection for non-small cell lung cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: In the staging of lung cancer, pleural effusion that is malignant on cytologic examination is regarded as T4 disease, and curative resection cannot be performed. We conducted this study to determine whether cancer cells can be present in the pleural cavity with no pleural effusion, to investigate the factors contributing to that occurrence, and to evaluate its prognostic significance.

Christophoros Kotoulas; George Lazopoulos; Theodoros Karaiskos; Pericles Tomos; Marios Konstantinou; George Papamichalis; Dimitra Politi; Achilles Lioulias

2001-01-01

244

Comparison of pulmonary and pleural responses of rats and hamsters to inhaled refractory ceramic fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was designed to determine whether pleural fiber burdens or subchronic pleural fibroproliferative and inflam- matory changes can help explain the marked interspecies differ- ences in pleural fibrosis and mesothelioma that are observed fol- lowing long-term inhalation of RCF-1 ceramic fibers by rats and hamsters. Fischer 344 rats and Syrian golden hamsters were ex- posed to RCF-1 for

Thomas R. Gelzleichter; Edilberto Bermudez; James B. Mangum; Brian A. Wong; Derek B. Janszen; Owen R. Moss; Jeffrey I. Everitt

1999-01-01

245

Efficacious pleurodesis with OK432 and doxorubicin against malignant pleural effusions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malignant pleural effusion develops frequently in patients with advanced lung cancer. Chemical pleurodesis is the most effective palliative treatment for these patients. The efficacy of pleurodesis using both OK-432, a preparation of Streptococcus pyogenes, and doxorubicin for 20 patients with cytology-proven malignant pleural effusion associated with lung cancer was evaluated. After complete removal of pleural effusion, OK-432 and 30 mg

K. Kishi; S. Homma; S. Sakamoto; M. Kawabata; E. Tsuboi; K. Nakata; K. Yoshimura

2004-01-01

246

Multiplane ultrasound approach to quantify pleural effusion at the bedside  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To assess the accuracy of a multiplane ultrasound approach to measure pleural effusion volume (PEV), considering pleural effusion\\u000a (PE) extension along the cephalocaudal axis and PE area.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Prospective study performed on 58 critically ill patients with 102 PEs. Thoracic drainage was performed in 46 patients (59\\u000a PEs) and lung computed tomography (CT) in 24 patients (43 PEs). PE was assessed

Francis Remérand; Jean Dellamonica; Zhang Mao; Fabio Ferrari; Belaïd Bouhemad; Yang Jianxin; Charlotte Arbelot; Qin Lu; Carole Ichaï; Jean-Jacques Rouby

2010-01-01

247

Atherosclerotic plaque characterization by spatial and temporal speckle pattern analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improved methods are needed to identify the vulnerable coronary plaques responsible for acute myocardial infraction or sudden cardiac death. We describe a method for characterizing the structure and biomechanical properties of atherosclerotic plaques based on speckle pattern fluctuations. Near-field speckle images were acquired from five human aortic specimens ex vivo. The speckle decorrelation time constant varied significantly for vulnerable aortic plaques (? = 40 ms) versus stable plaques (? = 400 ms) and normal aorta (? = 500 ms). These initial results indicate that different atherosclerotic plaque types may be distinguished by analysis of temporal and spatial speckle pattern fluctuations.

Tearney, Guillermo J.; Bouma, Brett E.

2002-04-01

248

MID-LATE DEVONIAN CALCIFIED MARINE ALGAE AND CYANOBACTERIA, SOUTH CHINA  

E-print Network

., 1999), end-Ordovician (Sheehan and Harris, 2004), and end-Devonian (Whalen et al., 2002; Stephens types of microbial carbonate and associated calcified microbial fossils and confidently evaluating-Famennian transition at four locations in three widely spaced areas of southern China (Fig. 1). The associated fossils

Riding, Robert

249

AUTOMATIC DETECTION OF CALCIFIED LESIONS IN THE DESCENDING AORTA USING CONTRAST ENHANCED CT SCANS  

E-print Network

in CTA scans would allow an imaging protocol without a CT scan, thus reducing scanning time and radiationAUTOMATIC DETECTION OF CALCIFIED LESIONS IN THE DESCENDING AORTA USING CONTRAST ENHANCED CT SCANS R enhanced Computed Tomography (CT) scans. This CT scan is generally followed by a contrast enhanced

van Vliet, Lucas J.

250

Allometric Relationships between Size of Calcified Structures and Round Goby Total Length  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allometric relationships between calcified structures and total length of round goby Neogobius melanostomus were determined from a sample of fish ranging in total length from 53 to 152 mm. Each of the 10 allometric equations gave coefficients of determination (r ) that were greater than 0.80 and highly significant. The equations with the most predictive ability were those relating total

J. P. Dietrich; A. C. Taraborelli; B. J. Morrison; T. Schaner

2006-01-01

251

Long-Term Trends in Calcifying Plankton and pH in the North Sea  

PubMed Central

Relationships between six calcifying plankton groups and pH are explored in a highly biologically productive and data-rich area of the central North Sea using time-series datasets. The long-term trends show that abundances of foraminiferans, coccolithophores, and echinoderm larvae have risen over the last few decades while the abundances of bivalves and pteropods have declined. Despite good coverage of pH data for the study area there is uncertainty over the quality of this historical dataset; pH appears to have been declining since the mid 1990s but there was no statistical connection between the abundance of the calcifying plankton and the pH trends. If there are any effects of pH on calcifying plankton in the North Sea they appear to be masked by the combined effects of other climatic (e.g. temperature), chemical (nutrient concentrations) and biotic (predation) drivers. Certain calcified plankton have proliferated in the central North Sea, and are tolerant of changes in pH that have occurred since the 1950s but bivalve larvae and pteropods have declined. An improved monitoring programme is required as ocean acidification may be occurring at a rate that will exceed the environmental niches of numerous planktonic taxa, testing their capacities for acclimation and genetic adaptation. PMID:23658686

Beare, Doug; McQuatters-Gollop, Abigail; van der Hammen, Tessa; Machiels, Marcel; Teoh, Shwu Jiau; Hall-Spencer, Jason M.

2013-01-01

252

Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor, a rare presentation in children: two case reports.  

PubMed

Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT) is a rare and benign odontogenic neoplasm that affects the jaws. It is certainly an atypical instance to find this tumor in children. Here, we present two case reports of CEOT presenting in mandible of a 12- and 13-year-old female child, respectively. CEOT have been reported to show features of malignant transformation also. PMID:24739915

Mohanty, Susant; Mohanty, Neeta; Routray, Samapika; Misra, Satya Ranjan; Vasudevan, Vijeev

2014-01-01

253

“Bursal reactions” in rotator cuff tearing, the impingement syndrome, and calcifying tendinitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subacromial bursal specimens from 63 patients undergoing surgery for rotator cuff tearing (n = 43), the impingement syndrome (n = 14), and calcifying tendinitis (n = 6) were studied to characterize the reactions that develop at the tendinopathy “lesional” sites. Intensity of the bursal reactions and production of type III collagen vary considerably, with the highest incidence of both seen

Hirotada Ishii; Jacques A Brunet; R. Peter Welsh; Hans K Uhthoff

1997-01-01

254

Imaging of coronary atherosclerosis and identification of the vulnerable plaque  

PubMed Central

Identification of the vulnerable plaque responsible for the occurrence of acute coronary syndromes and acute coronary death is a prerequisite for the stabilisation of this vulnerable plaque. Comprehensive coronary atherosclerosis imaging in clinical practice should involve visualisation of the entire coronary artery tree and characterisation of the plaque, including the three-dimensional morphology of the plaque, encroachment of the plaque on the vessel lumen, the major tissue components of the plaque, remodelling of the vessel and presence of inflammation. Obviously, no single diagnostic modality is available that provides such comprehensive imaging and unfortunately no diagnostic tool is available that unequivocally identifies the vulnerable plaque. The objective of this article is to discuss experience with currently available diagnostic modalities for coronary atherosclerosis imaging. In addition, a number of evolving techniques will be briefly discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7

de Feyter, P.J.; Serruys, P. W.; Nieman, K.; Mollet, N.; Cademartiri, F.; van Geuns, R. J.; Slager, C.; van der Steen, A.F.W.; Krams, R.; Schaar, J.A.; Wielopolski, P.; Pattynama, P.M.T.; Arampatzis, A.; van der Lugt, A.; Regar, E.; Ligthart, J.; Smits, P.

2003-01-01

255

Predominant cultivable flora isolated from human root surface caries plaque.  

PubMed Central

Plaque samples were obtained from tooth surfaces exhibiting typical lesions of root surface caries and were immediately cultured by a continuous anaerobic procedure. The bacterial composition of root caries flora was determined on individual samples. Representative isolates from each specimen were characterized by morphological and physiological criteria. In addition, fluorescent antibody reagents were used to confirm the identification of Streptococcus mutans and Actinomyces viscosus. The plaque samples could be divided into two groups on the basis of the presence or absence of S. mutans in the plaque. In group I plaques, S. mutans comprised 30 percent of the total cultivable flora. S. sanguis was either not found or was present in very low number. In group II plaques, S. mutans was not detected, and S. sanguis formed 48 percent of the total plaque flora. A. viscosus was the dominant organism in all plaque samples, accounting for 47 percent of the group I isolates and 41 percent of the group II isolates. PMID:1091550

Syed, S A; Loesche, W J; Pape, H L; grenier, E

1975-01-01

256

New concepts in the composition, crystallization and growth of the mineral component of calcified tissues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several difficulties arise when studying the mineral component of calcified tissues: this material is complex, due to the large number of atomic components; it is poorly crystallized, heterogeneous, and varies with different factors (animal species, kind of bone, age, sampling zone, etc.); it is strongly linked to the organic component (collagen, etc.), and today no available technique allows a complete separation of these two components without alteration of one of the other. Research on synthetic materials allows the elaboration of some models to account, at least partially, for the nature and properties of the calcified-tissue mineral component. So, glycine fixation by apatite constitutes the first model of the collagen-apatite bond. The introduction of carbonate ions into the apatitic lattice can take place in two kinds of site, and under different forms. The replacement of PO 3-4 ions by HPO 2-4 can also be observed. The properties of phosphates depend on the presence of these various substituents, and therefore such substitutions can play an important role in phosphate behaviour in biological media. The study of the hydrolysis and crystallization of amorphous phosphate into apatite leads to new conceptions relative to the possible existence of an amorphous "phase" in calcified tissues. The conversion of amorphous phosphates to crystalline apatite is dependent on numerous ions (Mg 2+, P 2O 4-7, CO 32-, etc.). Studies on synthetic materials can be regarded as a basis for the further study of calcified tissues, partic ularly to determine their constitution and properties. Besides, such studies enable the synthesis of materials, for implants, very similar to calcified tissues.

Montel, G.; Bonel, G.; Heughebaert, J. C.; Trombe, J. C.; Rey, C.

1981-05-01

257

Simple method for plating Escherichia coli bacteriophages forming very small plaques or no plaques under standard conditions.  

PubMed

The use of low concentrations (optimally 2.5 to 3.5 microg/ml, depending on top agar thickness) of ampicillin in the bottom agar of the plate allows for formation of highly visible plaques of bacteriophages which otherwise form extremely small plaques or no plaques on Escherichia coli lawns. Using this method, we were able to obtain plaques of newly isolated bacteriophages, propagated after induction of prophages present in six E. coli O157:H(-) strains which did not form plaques when standard plating procedures were employed. PMID:18586961

Lo?, Joanna M; Golec, Piotr; Wegrzyn, Grzegorz; Wegrzyn, Alicja; Lo?, Marcin

2008-08-01

258

Interstitial granulomatous dermatitis with plaques and arthritis.  

PubMed

Interstitial granulomatous dermatitis (IGD) is a histopathological disorder characterised by an infiltration of the reticular dermis with a predominance of interstitial and palisadic histiocytes with a few areas of degenerating collagen bundles associated with a variable number of polynuclear neutrophils and eosinophils. There are several clinical conditions with a pattern of IGD. The linear form associated with arthritis was the first variety described. There is also a second form, which presents with plaques. This variety may be associated with arthritis, use of certain drugs or the presence of different systemic disorders. We report a case of IGD with plaques and arthritis. We discuss the differential clinical and histological diagnosis with other inflammatory skin lesions, which may be associated with joint disorders and collagen degeneration. We believe that it should be considered in patients presenting with arthritis and skin lesions. PMID:12804998

Bañuls, José; Betlloch, Isabel; Botella, Rafael; Jiménez, Maria José; Blanes, Mar; Pascual, José Carlos; Belinchón, Isabel; Silvestre, Juan Francisco

2003-01-01

259

Enucleation versus plaque irradiation for choroidal melanoma.  

PubMed

The Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS) is an international, multicenter-controlled study. The organization includes an Executive Committee, Steering Committee, 6 Central Units, 32 Clinical Centers, and a Data and Safety Monitoring Committee. Scientifically, the COMS consists of (1) a randomized trial of patients with medium choroidal melanoma treated with enucleation versus iodine-125 plaque irradiation, (2) a randomized trial of patients with large choroidal melanoma treated with enucleation versus preenucleation external beam irradiation and enucleation, and (3) a prospective observational study of patients with small choroidal melanoma to determine whether a randomized trial of treatment is appropriate. In design and conduct of the COMS, special consideration is given to biostatistics and sample size considerations, iodine-125 plaque irradiation of choroidal melanoma, and coordinated ocular melanoma research. Recruitment is in progress. However, the pool of eligible patients is limited and the COMS needs the continued support and cooperation of ophthalmologists throughout the United States and Canada. PMID:3174030

Straatsma, B R; Fine, S L; Earle, J D; Hawkins, B S; Diener-West, M; McLaughlin, J A

1988-07-01

260

Measurement of Pleural Temperature During Radiofrequency Ablation of Lung Tumors to Investigate Its Relationship to Occurrence of Pneumothorax or Pleural Effusion  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between pleural temperature and pneumothorax or pleural effusion after radiofrequency (RF) ablation of lung tumors. The pleural temperature was measured immediately outside the lung surface nearest to the tumor with a fiber-type thermocouple during 25 ablation procedures for 34 tumors in 22 patients. The procedures were divided into two groups depending on the highest pleural temperature: P-group I and P-group II, with highest pleural temperatures of <40 deg. C and {>=}40 deg. C, respectively. The incidence of pneumothorax or pleural effusion was compared between the groups. Multiple variables were compared between the groups to determine the factors that affect the pleural temperature. The overall incidence of pneumothorax and pleural effusion was 56% (14/25) and 20% (5/25), respectively. Temperature data in five ablation procedures were excluded from the analyses because these were affected by the pneumothorax. P-group I and P-group II comprised 10 procedures and 10 procedures, respectively. The incidence of pleural effusion was significantly higher in P-group II (4/10) than in P-group I (0/10) (p = 0.043). However, the incidence of pneumothorax did not differ significantly (p = 0.50) between P-group I (4/10) and P-group II (5/10). Factors significantly affecting the pleural temperature were distance between the electrode and the pleura (p < 0.001) and length of the lung parenchyma between the electrode and the pleura (p < 0.001). We conclude that higher pleural temperature appeared to be associated with the occurrence of pleural effusion and not with that of pneumothorax.

Tajiri, Nobuhisa, E-mail: tombon@cc.okayama-u.ac.jp; Hiraki, Takao; Mimura, Hidefumi; Gobara, Hideo; Mukai, Takashi; Hase, Soichiro; Fujiwara, Hiroyasu; Iguchi, Toshihiro; Sakurai, Jun [Okayama University Medical School, Department of Radiology (Japan); Aoe, Motoi; Sano, Yoshifumi; Date, Hiroshi [Okayama University Medical School, Department of Cancer and Thoracic Surgery (Japan); Kanazawa, Susumu [Okayama University Medical School, Department of Radiology (Japan)

2008-05-15

261

Earliest Known Roman London Plaque Discovered  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earlier today, archaeologists working on a massive dig on the southern banks of the River Thames uncovered the oldest known plaque inscribed with the city's Roman name, Londinium. While the exact date of the plaque is unknown, it is believed to date from between 50 and 150 AD, and would most likely have been placed on some type of building or in a shrine. Equally important, the plaque offers some initial concrete evidence that there was an emerging merchant class in London during this period. The actual location of the plaque's discovery is near the junction of what were three key roads in Roman Britain, and the finding represents only a small portion of what may be unearthed in this 40-week archaeology project.The first link is to a recent news story about the recent find in London. The second site leads to the Council for British Archaeology, which features numerous links to ongoing research projects within Britain and frequent updates about new findings from the field. The third site offers some perspective on the historical notion of Roman Britain, and particularly how scholars understand that epoch. The fourth site is a link to the complete work "Roman Roads in Britain," a historical study that seeks to describe and delineate the exact location of these very important Roman pathways. Information about the Museum of London, which is working jointly on this project, is provided by the fifth link. The last link, Britannia, is a nice omnibus listing of sites dealing with various aspects of Roman Britain history and archaeology, provided by the Dalton School in New York.

Grinnell, Max

2002-01-01

262

Fibrous pleural tumour producing 171 litres of transudate.  

PubMed

Localized fibrous tumours of the pleura (or localized benign mesothelioma) are rare, and in most cases, asymptomatic. This report describes a 48 yr old female with a right-sided fibrous pleural tumour, which produced 171 L of transudate before a correct diagnosis was reached. The tumour was surgically removed and the transudation stopped immediately. PMID:9864026

Ulrik, C S; Viskum, K

1998-11-01

263

Malignant pleural effusions: recent advances and ambulatory sclerotherapy.  

PubMed

Malignant pleural effusions are a common problem in cancer patients with advanced disease. Patients typically present with progressive dyspnea, cough, and/or chest pain that significantly compromises their quality of life. Treatment is often palliative, usually consisting of sequential thoracenteses or tube thoracostomy with or without sclerotherapy. The traditional method of treatment--tube thoracostomy with large-bore chest tubes connected to continuous wall suction--requires hospitalization, is expensive, limits patient mobility, and can cause significant patient discomfort. More recent trials have explored new techniques, including thoracoscopic insufflation of talc and small-bore catheters. Most of these studies have been performed on inpatients, although a recent multi-institutional trial was initiated to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of ambulatory (outpatient) pleural drainage and sclerotherapy using small-bore catheters. All patients fulfilling eligibility criteria had a small-bore catheter placed in the pleural space that was then connected to a closed gravity drainage bag system. When daily tube drainage was <100 mL, sclerotherapy was performed. Response rates at our institution demonstrated 10 patients (53%) had a complete response, 5 (26%) had a partial response, and 4 (21%) had progressive disease at 30-day follow-up. These preliminary results suggest ambulatory sclerotherapy is a safe, viable alternative to conventional inpatient treatment of malignant pleural effusions in a select group of patients. PMID:9438694

Patz, E F

1998-01-01

264

Massive pleural effusion in a renal transplant recipient on tacrolimus  

PubMed Central

Fluid and salt retention have been described as a side effect of tacrolimus therapy. We report a case of unexplained massive fluid retention with pleural effusion and ascites in the immediate post-transplant period. The patient recovered immediately on conversion from tacrolimus to sirolimus.

Nayagam, L. S.; Vijayanand, B.; Balasubramanian, S.

2014-01-01

265

Advances in the systemic therapy of malignant pleural mesothelioma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malignant pleural mesothelioma is an aggressive thoracic malignancy associated with exposure to asbestos, and its incidence is anticipated to increase during the first half of this century. Chemotherapy is the mainstay of treatment, yet sufficiently robust evidence to substantiate the current standard of care has emerged only in the past 5 years. This Review summarizes the evidence supporting the clinical

Giovanni Gaudino; Kenneth J O'Byrne; Luciano Mutti; Jan van Meerbeeck; Dean A Fennell

2008-01-01

266

Conversion of plaque-area measurements to plaque index scores. An assessment of variation and discriminatory power.  

PubMed

Plaque areas recorded graphically or photographically provide a permanent record of plaque accumulations on teeth at a moment in time. As such, these records could be re-evaluated and converted into other index scores. The purpose of this study was to determine the reproducibility of scoring a plaque index from previously recorded plaque areas and to compare such scores with the original scores of the same index. A randomised blind, crossover study comparing 5 treatments for plaque inhibition scored by plaque area and index was chosen. 2 examiners, the original scorer PRH and another, NC, 2x scored the plaque area tooth charts according to the criteria of the plaque index system used in the original study. Standard deviations of the differences showed intra-examiner repeatability to be high particularly for the original examiner. Inter-examiner reproducibility for the original index scores was considered good but less than for intra-examiner repeatability. Correlation coefficients were complimentary to the differences analysis, being very high within examiners and less high for between examiners and original and rescored index. Separation between distributions of plaque area measurements for consecutive values of the index were particular good for scores 2 versus 3 and 3 versus 4 and less good for 1 versus 2 and 4 versus 5. Reanalysis of the study for treatment differences using rescored data revealed a similar level of significance as using the original data. Rescored index had similar discriminatory power for the study as plaque area and original plaque index when both were derived from the same buccal tooth surfaces. However, discriminatory power was less by comparison with original plaque index derived from the buccal surfaces of all teeth. It is concluded that plaque area provides a permanent record of plaque distribution which can be converted into index data at a later date. Such data collection could make possible comparisons between studies using different indices. PMID:10412846

Renton-Harper, P; Claydon, N; Warren, P; Newcombe, R G; Addy, M

1999-07-01

267

Atherosclerotic Aortic Arch Plaques in Acute Ischemic Stroke  

PubMed Central

Background: Atherosclerotic aortic arch plaques (AAP) have been linked to an increased risk of thrombo-embolic events as a cause of acute ischemic stroke of undetermined etiology. Objectives: To find out the presence of atherosclerotic plaques in aortic arch and their potential role as a source of embolism in cerebral infarction of undetermined etiology. Methods: We performed trans-esophageal echocardiography (TEE) and multislice computerized tomography (MSCT) of the aortic arch on 30 patients with acute ischemic stroke of undetermined cause from a total series of 150 non-selected patients with acute ischemic stroke studied prospectively by clinical evaluation, laboratory investigations, cranial computed tomography, color coded duplex ultrasonography of the carotid arteries and transcranial Doppler (TCD). Results: Using trans-esophageal echocardiography eight patients (29.6%) had atherosclerotic aortic arch plaques, while using multislice computerized tomography atherosclerotic aortic arch plaques were revealed in twelve patients (40%). Atherosclerotic aortic arch plaques were significantly related to older age, male gender, hypertension, ischemic heart disease and low-grade atherosclerotic carotid lesions. Multislice computerized tomography of the aortic arch was more sensitive than trans-esophageal echocardiography in detecting the site, size and characters of atherosclerotic aortic arch plaques. Conclusion: Atherosclerotic aortic arch plaques are a frequent finding in patients with acute ischemic stroke of undetermined cause supporting the hypothesis that aortic plaques have embolic potential. In addition, multislice computerized tomography is more sensitive than trans-esophageal echocardiography in detecting atherosclerotic aortic arch plaques and better characterization of these plaques especially relevant one. PMID:22518260

Deif, Randa; El-Sayed, Mohamed; allah, Foad Abd; Baligh, Essam; El-Fayomy, Nervana M.; EzzAt, Loai; Gamal, Heba

2011-01-01

268

Efficacy and Safety of Tunneled Pleural Catheters in Adults with Malignant Pleural Effusions: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background Malignant pleural effusions (MPE) are a frequent cause of dyspnea and discomfort at the end of cancer patients' lives. The tunneled indwelling pleural catheter (TIPC) was approved by the FDA in 1997 and has been investigated as a treatment for MPE. Objective To systematically review published data on the efficacy and safety of the TIPC for treatment of MPE. Design We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and ISI Web of Science databases to identify studies published through October 2009 that reported outcomes in adult patients with MPE treated with a TIPC. Data were aggregated using summary statistics when outcomes were described in the same way among multiple primary studies. Main Measures Symptomatic improvement and complications associated with use of the TIPC. Key Results Nineteen studies with a total of 1,370 patients met criteria for inclusion in the review. Only one randomized study directly compared the TIPC with the current gold standard treatment, pleurodesis. All other studies were case series. Symptomatic improvement was reported in 628/657 patients (95.6%). Quality of life measurements were infrequently reported. Spontaneous pleurodesis occurred in 430/943 patients (45.6%). Serious complications were rare and included empyema in 33/1168 patients (2.8%), pneumothorax requiring a chest tube in 3/51 (5.9%), and unspecified pneumothorax in 17/439 (3.9%). Minor complications included cellulitis in 32/935 (3.4%), obstruction/clogging in 33/895 (3.7%) and unspecified malfunction of the catheter in 11/121 (9.1%). The use of the TIPC was without complication in 517/591 patients (87.5%). Conclusions Based on low-quality evidence in the form of case series, the TIPC may improve symptoms for patients with MPE and does not appear to be associated with major complications. Prospective randomized studies comparing the TIPC to pleurodesis are needed before the TIPC can be definitively recommended as a first-line treatment of MPE. PMID:20697963

McKee, Kanako Y.; Kohlwes, R. Jeffrey

2010-01-01

269

Differential Responses of Calcifying and Non-Calcifying Epibionts of a Brown Macroalga to Present-Day and Future Upwelling pCO2  

PubMed Central

Seaweeds are key species of the Baltic Sea benthic ecosystems. They are the substratum of numerous fouling epibionts like bryozoans and tubeworms. Several of these epibionts bear calcified structures and could be impacted by the high pCO2 events of the late summer upwellings in the Baltic nearshores. Those events are expected to increase in strength and duration with global change and ocean acidification. If calcifying epibionts are impacted by transient acidification as driven by upwelling events, their increasing prevalence could cause a shift of the fouling communities toward fleshy species. The aim of the present study was to test the sensitivity of selected seaweed macrofoulers to transient elevation of pCO2 in their natural microenvironment, i.e. the boundary layer covering the thallus surface of brown seaweeds. Fragments of the macroalga Fucus serratus bearing an epibiotic community composed of the calcifiers Spirorbis spirorbis (Annelida) and Electra pilosa (Bryozoa) and the non-calcifier Alcyonidium hirsutum (Bryozoa) were maintained for 30 days under three pCO2 conditions: natural 460±59 µatm, present-day upwelling1193±166 µatm and future upwelling 3150±446 µatm. Only the highest pCO2 caused a significant reduction of growth rates and settlement of S. spirorbis individuals. Additionally, S. spirorbis settled juveniles exhibited enhanced calcification of 40% during daylight hours compared to dark hours, possibly reflecting a day-night alternation of an acidification-modulating effect by algal photosynthesis as opposed to an acidification-enhancing effect of algal respiration. E. pilosa colonies showed significantly increased growth rates at intermediate pCO2 (1193 µatm) but no response to higher pCO2. No effect of acidification on A. hirsutum colonies growth rates was observed. The results suggest a remarkable resistance of the algal macro-epibionts to levels of acidification occurring at present day upwellings in the Baltic. Only extreme future upwelling conditions impacted the tubeworm S. spirorbis, but not the bryozoans. PMID:23894659

Saderne, Vincent; Wahl, Martin

2013-01-01

270

Diagnostic value of pleural fluid interferon-gamma and adenosine deaminase in patients with pleural tuberculosis in Qatar  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the diagnostic utility of interferon-gamma (IFN-?) and adenosine deaminase (ADA) in tuberculous pleural effusions by determining the best cutoff levels of these two markers for pleural tuberculosis, in the context of the local epidemiological settings in Qatar. Methods We prospectively studied IFN-? and ADA levels in the pleural fluid of patients presenting to Hamad General Hospital between June 1, 2009 and May 31, 2010. Results We studied 103 patients with pleural effusions, 72 (69.9%) with pleural tuberculosis, and 31 (30.1%) with nontuberculous etiologies. The mean IFN-? concentration for the group with tuberculous effusions was significantly higher than that in the group with nontuberculous effusions (1.98 ± 81 vs 0.26 ± 10 pg/mL [P < 0.0001]). The mean ADA activity for the tuberculous effusions group was significantly higher than that in group with nontuberculous effusions (41.30 ± 20.09 vs 14.93 ± 14.87 U/L [P < 0.0001]). By analysis of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, the best cutoff values for IFN-? and ADA were 0.5 pg/mL and 16.65 U/L, respectively. The results for IFN-? vs ADA were: for sensitivity, 100% vs 86%, respectively; for specificity, 100% vs 74%, respectively; for positive predictive value, 100% vs 88.5%, respectively; and for negative predictive value, 100% vs 69.7%, respectively. Conclusion IFN-? and ADA could be used as valuable parameters for the differentiation of tuberculous from nontuberculous effusion, and IFN-? was more sensitive and specific for tuberculous effusion than ADA. PMID:23378780

Khan, Fahmi Yousef; Hamza, Maha; Omran, Aisha Hussein; Saleh, Muhannad; Lingawi, Mona; Alnaqdy, Adel; Rahman, Mohamed Osman Abdel; Ahmedullah, Hasan Syed; Hamza, Alan; Ani, Ahmed AL; Errayes, Mehdi; Almaslamani, Mona; Mahmood, Ahmed Ali

2013-01-01

271

Pleural calcification, pleural mesotheliomas, and bronchial cancers caused by tremolite dust.  

PubMed

Around the town of Cermik in south-east Turkey there are many deposits of asbestiform minerals, some of which are used to make whitewash or stucco. A sample of 7000 of the population revealed 461 (6.5%) with pleural thickening and calcification, of whom 103 (1.47% of the total) had evidence of interstitial pulmonary fibrosis. Forty-one patients with respiratory cancer were admitted to the Diyarbakir Chest Hospital from around Cermik and from a comparable area of equal population (but without asbestos deposits) in 1977-8. Of these 23 were mesotheliomas, 22 coming from around Cermik. In addition, 11 of the 18 primary bronchial cancers came from around Cermik. A similar excess of mesothelioma and bronchial cancer had been admitted from the Cermik area in previous years. The whitewash or stucco material has been shown to contain fibrous tremolite and non-fibrous antigorite/lizardite, chlorite, and talc. A lung biopsy of a patient from Cermik contained large numbers of tremolite fibres, both free and forming asbestos bodies. There were only occasional chrysotile fibres. PMID:7444823

Yazicioglu, S; Ilçayto, R; Balci, K; Sayli, B S; Yorulmaz, B

1980-08-01

272

Assessment of coronary arterial plaque by optical coherence tomography.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to analyze the ability of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to identify coronary arterial plaque diagnosed by histologic examination. We examined 166 sections from 108 coronary arterial segments of 40 consecutive human cadavers (24 men and 16 women; mean age 74 +/- 7 years). The plaque type was classified as fibrous (n = 43), fibrocalcific (n = 82), or lipid-rich (n = 41). The accuracy of OCT and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) in characterizing the plaque type was studied, with the histologic consensus diagnosis serving as the gold standard. OCT, as well as IVUS, had high sensitivity and specificity for characterizing the different types of atherosclerotic plaque. OCT had a higher sensitivity for characterizing lipid-rich plaques than IVUS (85% vs 59%, p = 0.03). In conclusion, the high resolution of OCT permitted evaluation of lipid-rich plaques more accurately than IVUS. PMID:16616021

Kume, Teruyoshi; Akasaka, Takashi; Kawamoto, Takahiro; Watanabe, Nozomi; Toyota, Eiji; Neishi, Yoji; Sukmawan, Renan; Sadahira, Yoshito; Yoshida, Kiyoshi

2006-04-15

273

An Additional Potential Factor for Kidney Stone Formation during Space Flights: Calcifying Nanoparticles (Nanobacteria): A Case Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spaceflight-induced microgravity appears to be a risk factor for the development of urinary calculi due to skeletal calcium liberation and other undefined factors, resulting in stone disease in crewmembers during and after spaceflight. Calcifying nanoparticles, or nanobacteria, reproduce at a more rapid rate in simulated microgravity conditions and create external shells of calcium phosphate in the form of apatite. The questions arises whether calcifying nanoparticles are niduses for calculi and contribute to the development of clinical stone disease in humans, who possess environmental factors predisposing to the development of urinary calculi and potentially impaired immunological defenses during spaceflight. A case of a urinary calculus passed from an astronaut post-flight with morphological characteristics of calcifying nanoparticles and staining positive for a calcifying nanoparticle unique antigen, is presented.

Jones, Jeffrey A.; Ciftcioglu, Neva; Schmid, Joseph; Griffith, Donald

2007-01-01

274

Dosimetric Benefit of a New Ophthalmic Radiation Plaque  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine whether the computed dosimetry of a new ophthalmic plaque, EP917, when compared with the standard Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS) plaques, could reduce radiation exposure to vision critical structures of the eye. Methods and Materials: One hundred consecutive patients with uveal melanoma treated with COMS radiation plaques between 2007 and 2010 were included in this study. These treatment plans were generated with the use of Bebig Plaque Simulator treatment-planning software, both for COMS plaques and for EP917 plaques using I-125. Dose distributions were calculated for a prescription of 85 Gy to the tumor apex. Doses to the optic disc, opposite retina, lens, and macula were obtained, and differences between the 2 groups were analyzed by standard parametric methods. Results: When compared with the COMS plaques, the EP917 plaques used fewer radiation seeds by an average difference of 1.94 (P<.001; 95% confidence interval [CI], -2.8 to -1.06) and required less total strength of radiation sources by an average of 17.74 U (air kerma units) (P<.001; 95% CI, -20.16 to -15.32). The total radiation doses delivered to the optic disc, opposite retina, and macula were significantly less by 4.57 Gy, 0.50 Gy, and 11.18 Gy, respectively, with the EP917 plaques vs the COMS plaques. Conclusion: EP917 plaques deliver less overall radiation exposure to critical vision structures than COMS treatment plaques while still delivering the same total therapeutic dose to the tumor.

Marwaha, Gaurav, E-mail: marwahg2@ccf.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Center, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Center, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Wilkinson, Allan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Center, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Center, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Bena, James [Department of Quantitative Health Sciences, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States) [Department of Quantitative Health Sciences, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Macklis, Roger [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Center, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Center, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Singh, Arun D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Center, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Center, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Department of Ophthalmic Oncology, Cole Eye Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States)

2012-12-01

275

Dietary trans fatty acids and composition of human atheromatous plaques.  

PubMed

Dietary fatty acids are incorporated into atheromatous plaques mainly in the form of cholesterol esters. Physicochemical properties of the plaque (e. g. mechanical strength) depend on its fatty acid composition. Trans isomers of unsaturated fatty acids (TFA) are known to reduce the availability of fatty acid precursors for the synthesis of anticoagulant PG(1) and PG(3) prostaglandins. The present study was undertaken to determine the content of trans isomers in atheromatous plaques and to search for correlations between trans isomers in the plaque and adipose tissue. Atheromatous plaques were obtained from 31 patients who underwent surgery due to atherosclerotic stenosis of the abdominal aorta, iliac or femoral arteries. Fatty acids were extracted and separated as methyl esters using gas chromatography (GC) with an internal standard. Correlations were searched for with statistical methods, taking the level of significance as p < 0.05. We found spatial and positional isomers of sixteen- and eighteen-carbon fatty acids in plaques and adipose tissue, with elaidic acid (C18:1 trans-9) being the most abundant. Every plaque and adipose tissue sample contained linolelaidic acid (C18:2 trans-9 trans-12) which is derived exclusively from linoleic acid, as well as conjugated dienes of linoleic acid (CLA) produced during oxidative processes. The presence of trans isomers of fatty acids in the atheromatous plaque seems to be of relevance to plaque formation. Of much concern is the detection of elaidic and linolelaidic acids which adversely affect the physiologically important metabolism of eicosanoids. The TFA pool in adipose tissue has little effect on the amount of these acids in the atheromatous plaque. Apparently, the presence of TFA in atheromatous plaques is the result of processes taking place during plaque formation and maturation. PMID:15309454

Stachowska, Ewa; Do?egowska, Barbara; Chlubek, Dariusz; Weso?owska, Teresa; Ciechanowski, Kazimierz; Gutowski, Piotr; Szumi?owicz, Halina; Turowski, Rados?aw

2004-10-01

276

Development of a quantitative mechanical test of atherosclerotic plaque stability.  

PubMed

Atherosclerotic plaque rupture is the main cause of myocardial infarction and stroke. Both clinical and computational studies indicate that the shoulder region, where a plaque joins the vessel wall, is rupture-prone. Previous mechanistic studies focused on mechanical properties of the fibrous cap and tensile stresses, which could lead to tearing of the cap. Based on clinical observations of "mobile floating plaques," we postulate that de-adhesion between the fibrous cap and the underlying vessel wall may also play a role in plaque failure. Thus, measuring adhesive strength of the bond between plaque and vascular wall may provide useful new insights into plaque stability. Delamination experiments, widely used in examining inter-laminar adhesive strength of biological materials, were used to measure adhesive strength of advanced plaques in apolipoprotein E-knockout (apoE-KO) mice after 8 months on Western diet. We measured adhesive strength in terms of local energy release rate, G, during controlled plaque delamination. As a measure of the fracture energy required to delaminate a unit area of plaque from the underlying internal elastic lamina (IEL), G provides a quantitative measure of local adhesive strength of the plaque-IEL interface. The values for G acquired from 16 plaques from nine apoE-KO mouse aortas formed a positively skewed distribution with a mean of 24.5 J/m(2), median of 19.3 J/m(2), first quartile of 10.8 J/m(2), and third quartile of 34.1 J/m(2). These measurements are in the lower range of values reported for soft tissues. Histological studies confirmed delamination occurred at the interface between plaque and IEL. PMID:21757197

Wang, Ying; Ning, Jinfeng; Johnson, John A; Sutton, Michael A; Lessner, Susan M

2011-09-01

277

Ameloblastomatous calcifying ghost cell odontogenic cyst - a rare variant of a rare entity  

PubMed Central

Summary Calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC) is an uncommon benign cystic neoplasm of odontogenic origin, which shows extensive diversity in its clinico-pathological appearances and biological behavior. It most commonly occurs in broader age group of 1–82 years in anterior part of jaws which is classically described by presence of ghost cells. There are variants of COC according to clinical, histopathological, and radiological characteristics. Therefore a proper categorization of the cases is needed for better understanding of the pathogenesis of each variant. Here we report a rare case of ameloblastomatous calcifying ghost cell odontogenic cyst in 24 year old female with brief review of literature. Presence of ameloblastomatous proliferation and impacted canine presented a diagnostic dilemma and was diagnosed by careful radiographic and histopathogical interpretation. Long follow up and more case report are required to shed light on its behaviour as there scarcity of data of this lesion in literature. PMID:23741537

Singh, Harkanwal Preet; Yadav, Madhulika; Nayar, Amit; Verma, Chanchal; Aggarwal, Palak; Bains, Sandeep Kumar

2013-01-01

278

Comparison of the Effectiveness of Some Pleural Sclerosing Agents Used for Control of Effusions in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma: A Review of 117 Cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Objectives: Management of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) has been an important clinical issue regardless of the treatment modality employed. We aimed to investigate the efficacy of oxytetracycline (OT), Corynebacterium parvum (CP), and nitrogen mustard (NM) in the management of pleural effusion associated with MPM. Methods: One hundred and seventeen patients who had stage-2 MPM or over according to

Hasan Bayram; Füsun Topçu; Ömer Satici

2000-01-01

279

Impact de plaques composites : caractérisation et modèles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are concerned with the behavior of thin stratified carbon- or glass- epoxy composite plates. The present work is presented as a part of a more wide study carried out which purpose is the numerical simulation of damage evolution within such plates when subjected to a localized transverse low-velocity impact. To establish a correlation between the measured internal damage and the corresponding absorbed energy, from works presented in the literature, is the aim of this one. We first focuse our attention on the typical loading conditions of a direct transverse low-velocity impact. Indeed, we point out the respective role of the impactor/plate contact, indentation and flexion process of the plate on the localization, initiation and propagation of intralaminar cracking and interlaminar delamination. A phenomenological model of interactive evolution of these damages which takes into account the loading and energy absorption process is then proposed, and we identify the interaction between the experimental parameters and the up mentioned damages. We further expose a discussion about some contact law models, and our approach of the loading/structure interaction simulation in terms of the damage phenomenology model presented. Nous nous intéressons au comportement de plaques minces composites stratifiées à fibres longues et à base de carbone/époxyde ou verre/époxyde. Le travail présenté s'insère dans une étude globale visant la simulation numérique de l'évolution de l'endommagement interne des plaques. Le but de cet article est essentiellement de dégager une relation entre l'état d'endommagement mesuré dans la plaque et l'énergie d'impact absorbée correspondante, à partir des travaux exposés dans la littérature. Pour cela, nous présentons notre analyse des conditions de chargement typiques de la sollicitation d'impact transverse direct: nous différencions les, chargements de poinçonnement et de flexion de la plaque sur la localisation, l'initiation et la propagation de la fissuration intralaminaire et du délaminage interlaminaire. Sur la base de cette analyse, nous proposons un modèle phénoménologique d'évolution interactive des dommages tenant compte des modes de chargement et des énergies dissipées, et une identification de l'interaction paramètres expérimentaux/dommages. Nous exposons ensuite notre analyse de modèles de lois de contact par rapport au modèle phénoménologique présenté.

Espinosa, Ch.; Collombet, F.

1991-12-01

280

Dental plaque - associated infections and antibacterial oral hygiene products.  

PubMed

Synopsis Dental plaque accumulates on hard non-shedding surfaces such as teeth, dentures and orthodontic appliances. This accumulation is facilitated by the absence of adequate oral hygiene procedures. The term 'plaque' describes a mass of microorganisms embedded in an organic matrix of host and microbial origin. In addition to the aesthetic desirability of 'clean teeth, healthy gums and fresh breath' associated with the absence of plaque, obvious consequences of the presence of plaque include tooth decay (dental caries), gingivitis and periodontal (gum) disease and denture associated problems. Thus the prevention of plaque formation, the reduction of plaque accumulation and the effective removal of plaque are considerations of the cosmetic and health professions alike. There are many oral hygiene products available to the general public - toothpastes, mouthwashes, denture cleaners, and, more recently, chewing gums and novel mouthwashes. Several of these products have antimicrobial components. This paper reviews the microbiology of plaque and plaque associated problems, and surveys the type of products currently available for maintenance of good oral hygiene. Potential areas for future development are also explored. PMID:19291039

Verran, J

1991-02-01

281

59. SAC Plaque, front lawn, building 500, looking east ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

59. SAC Plaque, front lawn, building 500, looking east - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

282

DETAIL OF PLAQUE DESCRIBING LION SCULPTURES BY ROLAND HINTON PERRY, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DETAIL OF PLAQUE DESCRIBING LION SCULPTURES BY ROLAND HINTON PERRY, NORTHWEST ABUTMENT - Connecticut Avenue Bridge, Spans Rock Creek & Potomac Parkway at Connecticut Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

283

Multimodal spectroscopy detects features of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque  

E-print Network

Early detection and treatment of rupture-prone vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques is critical to reducing patient mortality associated with cardiovascular disease. The combination of reflectance, fluorescence, and Raman ...

Scepanovic, Obrad R.

284

Transformation of the viscoelastic functions of calcified tissues and interfacial biomaterials into a common representation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since both connective and calcified tissues are markedly viscoelastic in nature, an understanding of the behavior of these\\u000a tissues intrinsically as materials on their own, as well as in composite formation with synthetic implants, is of prime importance\\u000a in order to predict and anticipate materials' design and function. Thus considerable interest has developed in recent years\\u000a with respect to measurements

Roderic S. Lakes; J. Lawrence Katz

1974-01-01

285

Non-Calcified Ductal Carcinoma in Situ: Ultrasound and Mammographic Findings Correlated with Histological Findings  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate radiological findings of non-calcified ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and to correlate those with histological features. Materials and Methods From July 2002 to March 2006, 22 patients with histologically-proven non-calcified DCIS were included. Mammography was obtained in 19 patients, ultrasound in 18 patients, and both examinations in 15 patients. Radiological findings were evaluated according to the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System by American College of Radiology. Histological tumor subtype and Van Nuys classification of DCIS were assessed. Results Histological subtypes consisted of mixed type in 11 patients (50%), comedo in 4 (18%), cribriform in 4 (18%), papillary type in 2 (9%), and solid in one (5%). According to Van Nuys classification, group 3 DCIS was observed in 13 (59%) patients. In the 19 patients who underwent mammography, 13 patients presented with abnormal findings: focal asymmetry in 7 patients (37%), masses in 4 (21%), skin thickening in one (5%), and architectural distortion in one (5%). In the 18 patients who had received breast ultrasound, a mass was present in 15 (83%) patients and ductal changes in 3 patients (17%). Sixty percent of patients with masses on ultrasound had group 3 DCIS and 100% of patients with ductal change had group 1 DCIS (p = 0.017). Conclusion Diagnosis of non-calcified DCIS by mammography is not an easy task due to the lack of typical malignant calcifications or masses. High resolution ultrasound can be useful for detecting non-calcified DCIS, and ultrasound findings are correlated with histological features. PMID:18306476

Cho, Kyu Ran; Kim, Chul Hwan; Whang, Kyu Won; Kim, Yun Hwan; Kim, Baek Hyun; Woo, Ok Hee; Lee, Young Hen; Chung, Kyoo Byung

2008-01-01

286

Electron microscopic analysis of mineral deposits in the calcifying epiphyseal growth plate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Early mineral deposits within calcifying rat epiphyseal growth plates were studied by bright field and selected-area dark\\u000a field electron microscopy, and X-ray microanalysis. These mineral deposits were preparedin situ by high-pressure freezing, freeze substitution, and low-temperature embedding, and were examined in unstained, stained, and\\u000a ethyleneglycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA)-treated stained thin sections. On unstained sections mineral rods occur within an amorphous

A. Larry Arsenault; Ernst B. Hunziker

1988-01-01

287

Novel Proteins from the Calcifying Shell Matrix of the Pacific Oyster Crassostrea gigas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shell of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas is composed of more than 99% CaCO3 and of around 0.5% of occluded organic matrix. According to classical views, this matrix is supposed to regulate the shell\\u000a mineral deposition. In this study, we developed one of the first proteomic approaches applied to mollusk shell in order to\\u000a characterise the calcifying matrix proteins.

Benjamin Marie; Isabelle Zanella-Cléon; Nathalie Guichard; Michel Becchi; Frédéric Marin

288

A rare presentation of hybrid odontogenic tumor involving calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor and plexiform ameloblastoma  

PubMed Central

A hybrid odontogenic tumor comprising two distinct lesions is extremely rare. We presented a hybrid odontogenic tumor composed of a calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor (CCOT) and a plexiform ameloblastoma. This tumor was observed in the anterior area of the mandible of a 17-year-old Indian male. Masses of ghost epithelial cells with the characteristics of CCOT were seen in the lining of the cyst. The odontogenic epithelia with the features of plexiform ameloblastoma were also observed. PMID:24124318

Chaubey, Snehal S.; Mishra, Sunil S.; Degwekar, Shirish S.; Chaubey, Saujanya

2013-01-01

289

Calcifying ghost cell odontogenic cyst: A review on terminologies and classifications  

PubMed Central

Calcifying ghost cell odontogenic cyst (CGCOC) is a relatively uncommon odontogenic lesion characterized by varied clinical, radiographical features and biological behavior. CGCOC can exhibit either as a cystic or a solid lesion. Since its first description by Gorlin et al, in 1962, it has been known by different names and classified and sub-classified into various types. In this article we present a case of CGCOC and discuss the related literature regarding the terminology, classification and biological behavior of CGCOC. PMID:23248487

Thinakaran, Meera; Sivakumar, Palanivelu; Ramalingam, Sudhakar; Jeddy, Nadeem; Balaguhan, S.

2012-01-01

290

Transcriptome and proteome analysis of Pinctada margaritifera calcifying mantle and shell: focus on biomineralization  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The shell of the pearl-producing bivalve Pinctada margaritifera is composed of an organic cell-free matrix that plays a key role in the dynamic process of biologically-controlled biomineralization. In order to increase genomic resources and identify shell matrix proteins implicated in biomineralization in P. margaritifera, high-throughput Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) pyrosequencing was undertaken on the calcifying mantle, combined with a

Caroline Joubert; David Piquemal; Benjamin Marie; Laurent Manchon; Fabien Pierrat; Isabelle Zanella-Cléon; Nathalie Cochennec-Laureau; Yannick Gueguen; Caroline Montagnani

2010-01-01

291

[A case of calcified chronic subdural hematoma wherein MRI was useful for decision of the treatment strategy].  

PubMed

Calcified chronic subdural hematoma is a rare condition, representing 0.4-2.6% of all chronic subdural hematomas. It is often difficult to remove the hematoma without damaging the brain, owing to the adhesion between hematoma capsule and brain. Therefore, surgical intervention in managing calcified chronic subdural hematoma cases is still considered controversial. We report a case of calcified chronic subdural hematoma, which was successfully performed under microscopic guidance. A 72-year-old man complained of progressive left hemiparesis of 6-month duration. A CT scan revealed a calcified chronic subdural hematoma, 10 cm long and 4.5 cm thick, in the right convexity. On MRI, T2-weighted images showed a thin layer of cerebrospinal fluid intensity between the hematoma capsule and brain. There was no brain edema adjacent to the chronic subdural hematoma. Based on these MRI observations, we believed that adhesion between the hematoma capsule and brain would be mild. We then planned and succeeded in total removal of the calcified chronic subdural hematoma mass under microscopic guidance. The left hemiparesis disappeared after surgery. The patient was discharged without any neurological deficit. While considering surgical management in calcified chronic subdural hematoma cases, it should be important to evaluate adhesion between the hematoma capsule and brain with MRI. PMID:25087759

Ito, Miiko; Saito, Shinjiro; Kondo, Rei; Nagahata, Morio; Kayama, Takamasa

2014-08-01

292

Past constraints on the vulnerability of marine calcifiers to massive carbon dioxide release  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing concentrations of carbon dioxide in sea water are driving a progressive acidification of the ocean. Although the associated changes in the carbonate chemistry of surface and deep waters may adversely affect marine calcifying organisms, current experiments do not always produce consistent results for a given species. Ocean sediments record past biological responses to transient greenhouse warming and ocean acidification. During the Palaeocene-Eocene thermal maximum, for example, the biodiversity of benthic calcifying organisms decreased markedly, whereas extinctions of surface dwellers were very limited. Here we use the Earth system model GENIE-1 to simulate and compare directly past and present environmental changes in the marine realm. In our simulation of future ocean conditions, we find an undersaturation with respect to carbonate in the deep ocean that exceeds that experienced during the Palaeocene-Eocene thermal maximum and could endanger calcifying organisms. Furthermore, our simulations show higher rates of environmental change at the surface for the future than the Palaeocene-Eocene thermal maximum, which could potentially challenge the ability of plankton to adapt.

Ridgwell, Andy; Schmidt, Daniela N.

2010-03-01

293

Pacific-wide contrast highlights resistance of reef calcifiers to ocean acidification.  

PubMed

Ocean acidification (OA) and its associated decline in calcium carbonate saturation states is one of the major threats that tropical coral reefs face this century. Previous studies of the effect of OA on coral reef calcifiers have described a wide variety of outcomes for studies using comparable partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) ranges, suggesting that key questions remain unresolved. One unresolved hypothesis posits that heterogeneity in the response of reef calcifiers to high pCO2 is a result of regional-scale variation in the responses to OA. To test this hypothesis, we incubated two coral taxa (Pocillopora damicornis and massive Porites) and two calcified algae (Porolithon onkodes and Halimeda macroloba) under 400, 700 and 1000 ?atm pCO2 levels in experiments in Moorea (French Polynesia), Hawaii (USA) and Okinawa (Japan), where environmental conditions differ. Both corals and H. macroloba were insensitive to OA at all three locations, while the effects of OA on P. onkodes were location-specific. In Moorea and Hawaii, calcification of P. onkodes was depressed by high pCO2, but for specimens in Okinawa, there was no effect of OA. Using a study of large geographical scale, we show that resistance to OA of some reef species is a constitutive character expressed across the Pacific. PMID:25056628

Comeau, S; Carpenter, R C; Nojiri, Y; Putnam, H M; Sakai, K; Edmunds, P J

2014-09-01

294

Plaque rupture with severe pre-existing stenosis precipitating coronary thrombosis. Characteristics of coronary atherosclerotic plaques underlying fatal occlusive thrombi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ruptured atheromatous plaques were identified by step-sectioning technique as responsible for 40 of 51 recent coronary artery thrombi and 63 larger intimal haemorrhages. The degree of pre-existing luminal narrowing at the site of rupture was decisive for whether plaque rupture caused occlusive thrombosis or just intimal haemorrhage. If the pre-existing stenosis was greater than 90% (histologically determined) then plaque rupture

E Falk

1983-01-01

295

Pleural amyloidosis mimicking mesothelioma: a clinicopathologic study of two cases.  

PubMed

Two cases of pleural amyloidosis are presented. The patients are two men, 70 and 72 years of age respectively. Neither patient had evidence of systemic amyloidosis. Each presented clinically with symptoms of chest pain and dyspnea. Radiologically, both patients showed diffuse pleural thickening similar to that observed in malignant mesothelioma. In both patients, surgical decortication of the pleura was performed. Histologically, the lesions were characterized by the presence of an amorphous eosinophilic material with focal collections of a lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate. Focal clusters of giant cells were admixed with the lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate. Histochemical stains for Congo red showed strong positive apple-green birefringency. Immunohistochemical studies using kappa and lambda light chains showed polyclonality. The cases discussed herein represent an unusual presentation of amyloid and one that needs to be considered in the differential diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma. PMID:11510005

Adams, A L; Castro, C Y; Singh, S P; Moran, C A

2001-08-01

296

Pleural Effusion Due to Streptococcus milleri: Case Descriptions.  

PubMed

In this study we analyzed the characteristics of patients with pleural effusion secondary to Streptococcus milleri studied retrospectively between January and March 2013 and found seven patients with a mean age of 60 years, 43% of which were smokers and 57% with a drinking habit. The most common associated factors were alcoholism, previous pneumonia and diabetes. Other bacteria were identified as Enterobacter aerogenes, Bacteroides and Prevotella intermedia capillosus in two patients. The mean duration of antibiotic therapy was 28 days; six patients underwent pleural drainage by chest tube and one patient needed surgery due to poor clinical progress. The mean duration of hospitalization was 30 days with satisfactory outcome in all cases, despite some changes in residual function. PMID:24439468

Madrid-Carbajal, Claudia Janeth; Molinos, Luis; García-Clemente, Marta; Pando-Sandoval, Ana; Fleites, Ana; Casan-Clarà, Pere

2014-09-01

297

Minute localized malignant pleural mesothelioma coexisting with multiple adenocarcinomas.  

PubMed

We report an extremely rare case of minute localized malignant pleural mesothelioma (LMPM) coexisting with multiple lung adenocarcinomas in a 64-year-old woman without a history of smoking or asbestos exposure. A computed tomography scan of the chest displayed total five ground-glass opacities in the lung. Transbronchial lung biopsy from a ground-glass opacity in the posterior segment revealed a bronchioloalveolar carcinoma. With a diagnosis of primary lung cancer, right upper lobectomy and wedge resection of the right lower lobe with systematic lymph node dissection was performed using video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. Incidentally, a minute gray-white nodule measuring 6 mm was detected on the visceral pleural surface of the right upper lobe. The postoperative histological diagnosis was minute LMPM coexisting with multiple adenocarcinomas. PMID:20155346

Maeda, Ryo; Isowa, Noritaka; Onuma, Hideyuki; Miura, Hiroshi; Tokuyasu, Hirokazu; Kawasaki, Yuji

2010-02-01

298

Photolichenoid plaques with associated vitiliginous pigmentary changes.  

PubMed

A 49-year-old man with advanced HIV/AIDS on anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) presented with a several-month history of pruritic, erythematous, lichenified papules that coalesced into hyperkeratotic plaques on the trunk and extremities in a sun-exposed distribution. He shortly thereafter developed a progressive depigmentation over more than 80 percent of his body surface area. A biopsy specimen of an erythematous plaque on the trunk showed a superficial and mid-dermal infiltrate of lymphocytes with eosinophils, most consistent with either chronic lichenoid drug eruption or atypical lymphoproliferative disorder (ACLD) of HIV. The patient's lichenoid skin disease has persisted despite discontinuation of TMP-SMX, although it has improved partially with administration of topical glucocorticoids and acitretin. His depigmentation has continued to progress. We discuss the overlapping diagnostic entities which may be comprised by this patient's clinical disease, and highlight a unique presentation of the complex interaction between HIV infection and the skin. PMID:22031639

Tran, Kathleen; Hartman, Rachael; Tzu, Julia; Meehan, Shane; Sanders, Scott E; Pomeranz, Miriam Keltz; Sanchez, Miguel

2011-01-01

299

Pleural tissue repair with cord blood platelet gel  

PubMed Central

Background Prolonged air leak is the major cause of morbidity after pulmonary resection. In this study we used in vitro and in vivo experiments to investigate an innovative approach based on the use of human umbilical cord blood platelet gel. Materials and methods In vitro, a scratch assay was performed to test the tissue repair capability mediated by cord blood platelet gel compared to the standard culture conditions using human primary mesothelial cells. In vivo, an iatrogenic injury was made to the left lung of 54 Wistar rats. Cord blood platelet gel was placed on the injured area only in treated animals and at different times histological changes and the presence of pleural adhesions were evaluated. In addition, changes in the pattern of soluble inflammatory factors were investigated using a multiplex proteome array. Results In vitro, mesothelial cell damage was repaired in a shorter time by cord blood platelet gel than in the control condition (24 versus 35 hours, respectively). In vivo, formation of new mesothelial tissue and complete tissue recovery were observed at 45±1 and 75±1 hours in treated animals and at 130±2.5 and 160±6 hours in controls, respectively. Pleural adhesions were evident in 43% of treated animals compared to 17% of controls. No complications were observed. Interestingly, some crucial soluble factors involved in inflammation were significantly reduced in treated animals. Discussion Cord blood platelet gel accelerates the repair of pleural damage and stimulates the development of pleural adhesions. Both properties could be particularly useful in the management of prolonged air leak, and to reduce inflammation. PMID:23736928

Rosso, Lorenzo; Parazzi, Valentina; Damarco, Francesco; Righi, Ilaria; Santambrogio, Luigi; Rebulla, Paolo; Gatti, Stefano; Ferrero, Stefano; Nosotti, Mario; Lazzari, Lorenza

2014-01-01

300

Symptomatic benign pleural effusions among asbestos insulation workers: residual radiographic abnormalities.  

PubMed Central

During a cross sectional medical survey of 2815 insulation workers with 30 years or more from onset of asbestos exposure conducted from 1981 to 1983, a positive history of benign pleural effusion was found in 20 (0.71%). Two or three such episodes had occurred in four of these 20 subjects. The chest x ray abnormalities in these cases were characterised by pleural fibrosis in 19 and diffuse pleural fibrosis with blunting of the corresponding costophrenic angle in 16. In the total group of 2815 insulation workers diffuse pleural fibrosis was found in 142 (5.0%). Thus diffuse pleural fibrosis with blunting of the corresponding costophrenic angle is a frequent residual abnormality after benign pleural effusion. Its impact on pulmonary function can be pronounced. Images PMID:3260799

Lilis, R; Lerman, Y; Selikoff, I J

1988-01-01

301

Cytology of sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma in pleural effusion.  

PubMed

We report a case of sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma focusing on its cytological features in pleural effusion. A 32-year-old man had noticed a tumor in his left buttock 5 years earlier but had not sought treatment because the tumor had been painless. He visited our hospital because the tumor had gradually increased in size. The resected tumor was 12 × 8 × 6 cm in size and had a delineated margin. The histological diagnosis was sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma with a negative surgical margin. Multiple tumor nodules were recognized in both lungs 9 months after the initial surgery, and an excisional biopsy was performed. A histological examination revealed a metastasis of sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma, and chemotherapy was initiated. Pleural disseminations were detected 4 years after the chemotherapy, and the pleural effusion was sampled for cytological examination. The cytological examination revealed several medium-sized cell clusters with moderate overcrowding and an epithelioid cell arrangement; numerous histiocytes and lymphocytes and a small amount of mesothelial cells were observed in the background. The nuclei were pleomorphic with oval, spindle, or cleaved shapes and occasional multinucleation; they were located eccentrically in the cytoplasm and exhibited uniformly fine granular chromatin, a thin nuclear membrane, and several small nucleoli. The above cytological features, coupled with the clinical findings, enabled a diagnosis of sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma. To our knowledge, this is the first cytological description of sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma. PMID:20091700

Tsuchido, Keiko; Yamada, Makoto; Satou, Tamami; Otsuki, Yoshiro; Shimizu, Shin-ichi; Kobayashi, Hiroshi

2010-10-01

302

Pleural Mesothelial Cell Differentiation and Invasion in Fibrogenic Lung Injury  

PubMed Central

The origin of the myofibroblast in fibrotic lung disease is uncertain, and no effective medical therapy for fibrosis exists. We have previously demonstrated that transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) induces pleural mesothelial cell (PMC) transformation into myofibroblasts and haptotactic migration in vitro. Whether PMC differentiation and migration occurs in vivo, and whether this response can be modulated for therapeutic benefit, is unknown. Here, using mice recombinant for green fluorescent protein (GFP) driven by the Wilms tumor-1 (WT-1) promoter, we demonstrate PMC trafficking into the lung and differentiation into myofibroblasts. Carbon monoxide or the induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) inhibited the expression of myofibroblast markers, contractility, and haptotaxis in PMCs treated with TGF-?1. Intrapleural HO-1 induction inhibited PMC migration after intratracheal fibrogenic injury. PMCs from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) exhibited increased expression of myofibroblast markers and enhanced contractility and haptotaxis, compared with normal PMCs. Carbon monoxide reversed this IPF PMC profibrotic phenotype. WT-1–expressing cells were present within fibrotic regions of the lungs in IPF subjects, supporting a role for PMC differentiation and trafficking as contributors to the myofibroblast population in lung fibrosis. Our findings also support a potential role for pleural-based therapies to modulate pleural mesothelial activation and parenchymal fibrosis progression. PMID:23399488

Zolak, Jason S.; Jagirdar, Rajesh; Surolia, Ranu; Karki, Suman; Oliva, Octavio; Hock, Thomas; Guroji, Purushotham; Ding, Qiang; Liu, Riu-Ming; Bolisetty, Subhashini; Agarwal, Anupam; Thannickal, Victor J.; Antony, Veena B.

2014-01-01

303

Pleural mesothelial cell differentiation and invasion in fibrogenic lung injury.  

PubMed

The origin of the myofibroblast in fibrotic lung disease is uncertain, and no effective medical therapy for fibrosis exists. We have previously demonstrated that transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) induces pleural mesothelial cell (PMC) transformation into myofibroblasts and haptotactic migration in vitro. Whether PMC differentiation and migration occurs in vivo, and whether this response can be modulated for therapeutic benefit, is unknown. Here, using mice recombinant for green fluorescent protein (GFP) driven by the Wilms tumor-1 (WT-1) promoter, we demonstrate PMC trafficking into the lung and differentiation into myofibroblasts. Carbon monoxide or the induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) inhibited the expression of myofibroblast markers, contractility, and haptotaxis in PMCs treated with TGF-?1. Intrapleural HO-1 induction inhibited PMC migration after intratracheal fibrogenic injury. PMCs from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) exhibited increased expression of myofibroblast markers and enhanced contractility and haptotaxis, compared with normal PMCs. Carbon monoxide reversed this IPF PMC profibrotic phenotype. WT-1-expressing cells were present within fibrotic regions of the lungs in IPF subjects, supporting a role for PMC differentiation and trafficking as contributors to the myofibroblast population in lung fibrosis. Our findings also support a potential role for pleural-based therapies to modulate pleural mesothelial activation and parenchymal fibrosis progression. PMID:23399488

Zolak, Jason S; Jagirdar, Rajesh; Surolia, Ranu; Karki, Suman; Oliva, Octavio; Hock, Thomas; Guroji, Purushotham; Ding, Qiang; Liu, Riu-Ming; Bolisetty, Subhashini; Agarwal, Anupam; Thannickal, Victor J; Antony, Veena B

2013-04-01

304

Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis with concurrent pleural mesothelioma in a dog.  

PubMed

Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) is a rare pulmonary disorder characterized by the accumulation of calcium phosphate microliths within the alveoli, with only a few cases described in animals. A 10-year-old female Bulldog was euthanized due to history of dyspnea and recurrent pleural and pericardial effusions. At necropsy, numerous multifocal to coalescent protruding nodules of 1-5 mm in diameter were scattered throughout the thoracic serosal surfaces. Moreover, lungs showed a diffuse pale gray color and had a generalized fine grainy consistency. Histological investigations revealed abundant intra-alveolar laminated microliths that stained positive with periodic acid-Schiff and von Kossa stains. The pulmonary interstitium showed multifocal, mild to moderate thickening, due to collagen deposition and mild hyperplasia of type 2 pneumocytes. The pulmonary lesion was not associated with any inflammatory response, and mineral deposition was not observed in any other organ or tissue. In addition, pulmonary, pericardial, and pleural surfaces were extensively infiltrated by an epithelioid mesothelioma. Immunohistochemical staining revealed neoplastic cells that strongly coexpressed vimentin and cytokeratin, supporting the diagnosis of mesothelioma. An overview of PAM, including pathogenesis and histological characteristics, are discussed in relation to the concurrent pleural mesothelioma. The potential cause and effect relationship between the 2 conditions could neither be established nor ruled out. PMID:24081932

de Brot, Simone; Hilbe, Monika

2013-11-01

305

[Pleural involvement in Rustitski?-Kahler disease (a clinical case report)].  

PubMed

The author presents a case with pleural effusion expressing a secondary pleural involvement in Rüstitzki-Kahler disease during a solitary plasmocytoma of the 8th rib. Biologically the monoclonal protein was an IgM, a rather seldom met evolution of myeloma. Blood electrophoresis and immunoelectrophoresis modifications were reflected in the pleural fluid too. The case stresses the difficulties met in the etiological diagnosis of pleurisies. PMID:7734986

Dobre, V

1994-01-01

306

Soluble Mesothelin-related Peptides in the Diagnosis of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Diagnosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma is a chal- lenging issue. Potential markers in mesothelioma diagnosis include soluble mesothelin-related peptides (SMRPs) and osteopontin, but no subsequent validation has been published yet. Methods: We prospectively evaluated SMRPs in serum and pleural effusionfrompatientswithmesothelioma(n74),pleuralmetasta- sis of carcinomas (n 35), or benign pleural lesions associated with asbestos exposure (n 28), recruited when first suspected

Arnaud Scherpereel; Bogdan Grigoriu; Massimo Conti; Thomas Gey; Marc Gregoire; Marie-Christine Copin; Patrick Devos; Bachar Chahine; Henri Porte; Philippe Lassalle

2006-01-01

307

Inflammation of the Atherosclerotic Cap and Shoulder of the Plaque Is a Common and Locally Observed Feature in Unruptured Plaques of Femoral and Coronary Arteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retrospectively, plaque rupture is often colocalized with inflammation of the cap and shoulder of the atherosclerotic plaque. Local inflammation is therefore considered a potential marker for plaque vulnerability. However, high specificity of inflammation for plaque rupture is a requisite for application of inflammation markers to detect rupture-prone lesions. The objective of the present study was to investigate the prevalence and

Gerard Pasterkamp; Arjan H. Schoneveld; Allard C. van der Wal; Dirk-Jan Hijnen; Willem J. A. van Wolveren; Simon Plomp; Hans L. J. M. Teepen; Cornelius Borst

308

Plaque Assay for Q Fever and Scrub Typhus Rickettsiae  

PubMed Central

The plaque assay procedure developed for spotted fever and typhus group rickettsiae is also appropriate for scrub typhus and Q fever rickettsiae. The plaque titers of suspensions of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi and Coxiella burnetii compared favorably with end points obtained by titrations in mice. Images PMID:4989539

McDade, Joseph E.; Gerone, Peter J.

1970-01-01

309

Characterization of bacteriophage communities and CRISPR profiles from dental plaque  

PubMed Central

Background Dental plaque is home to a diverse and complex community of bacteria, but has generally been believed to be inhabited by relatively few viruses. We sampled the saliva and dental plaque from 4 healthy human subjects to determine whether plaque was populated by viral communities, and whether there were differences in viral communities specific to subject or sample type. Results We found that the plaque was inhabited by a community of bacteriophage whose membership was mostly subject-specific. There was a significant proportion of viral homologues shared between plaque and salivary viromes within each subject, suggesting that some oral viruses were present in both sites. We also characterized Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPRs) in oral streptococci, as their profiles provide clues to the viruses that oral bacteria may be able to counteract. While there were some CRISPR spacers specific to each sample type, many more were shared across sites and were highly subject specific. Many CRISPR spacers matched viruses present in plaque, suggesting that the evolution of CRISPR loci may have been specific to plaque-derived viruses. Conclusions Our findings of subject specificity to both plaque-derived viruses and CRISPR profiles suggest that human viral ecology may be highly personalized. PMID:24981669

2014-01-01

310

Small entities with large impact: microcalcifications and atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review Atherosclerotic plaque rupture and subsequent acute events, such as myocardial infarction and stroke, contribute to the majority of cardiovascular-related deaths. Calcification has emerged as a significant predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, challenging previously held notions that calcifications stabilize atherosclerotic plaques. In this review, we address this discrepancy through recent findings that not all calcifications are equivalent in determining plaque stability. Recent findings The risk associated with calcification is inversely associated with calcification density. As opposed to large calcifications that potentially stabilize the plaque, biomechanical modeling indicates that small microcalcifications within the plaque fibrous cap can lead to sufficient stress accumulation to cause plaque rupture. Microcalcifications appear to derive from matrix vesicles enriched in calcium-binding proteins that are released by cells within the plaque. Clinical detection of microcalcifications has been hampered by the lack of imaging resolution required for in-vivo visualization; however, recent studies have demonstrated promising new techniques to predict the presence of microcalcifications. Summary Microcalcifications play a major role in destabilizing atherosclerotic plaques. The identification of critical characteristics that lead to instability along with new imaging modalities to detect their presence in vivo may allow early identification and prevention of acute cardiovascular events. PMID:25188916

Hutcheson, Joshua D.; Maldonado, Natalia; Aikawa, Elena

2014-01-01

311

Dietary trans fatty acids and composition of human atheromatous plaques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Dietary fatty acids are incorporated into atheromatous plaques mainly in the form of cholesterol esters. Physicochemical properties of the plaque (e. g. mechanical strength) depend on its fatty acid composition. Trans isomers of unsaturated fatty acids (TFA) are known to reduce the availability of fatty acid precursors for the synthesis of anticoagulant PG 1 and PG 3 prostaglandins. The

Ewa Stachowska; Barbara Do??gowska; Dariusz Chlubek; Teresa Weso?owska; Kazimierz Ciechanowski; Piotr Gutowski; Halina Szumi?owicz; Rados?aw Turowski

2004-01-01

312

Free cholesterol in atherosclerotic plaques: where does it come from?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose of review Free cholesterol in plaques is an emerging contributing factor to lesion instability and, until recently, apoptosis of lipid-laden macrophages was considered the major source of free cholesterol. The validity of this concept is beginning to be challenged since there is recent evidence of erythrocyte membrane-derived cholesterol in plaques. Therefore, intraplaque hemorrhage may not be a passive event,

Frank D. Kolodgie; Allen P. Burke; Gaku Nakazawa; Qi Cheng; Xin Xu; Renu Virmani

2007-01-01

313

Medical thoracoscopic removal of a metal needle from the pleural space.  

PubMed

Medical thoracoscopy is an excellent diagnostic and therapeutic tool for management of pleural diseases. There have been case reports of removal of foreign bodies from pleural spaces with video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery under general anaesthesia by thoracic surgeons. We present a case of successful removal of an 8?cm long metal needle from the pleural space with single port medical semirigid thoracoscopy under local anaesthesia by a chest physician. Removal of a foreign body from the pleural space is one more indication for medical thoracoscopy, however, an experienced chest physician and proper case selection are very important for safety and a successful outcome of this procedure. PMID:25301430

Gupta, Richa; James, Prince; Thangakunam, Balamugesh; Christopher, Devasahayam Jesudas

2014-01-01

314

Successful nonsurgical treatment of tuberculous empyema in an irreducible pleural space.  

PubMed

A 78-year-old woman with empyema due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a chronic pleural space was successfully treated with a 24-month course of oral isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, and serial space-emptying thoracocenteses. Besides dramatic clinical improvement, follow-up pleural fluid analyses demonstrated gradual replacement of the empyema with a sterile pleural exudate, which has persisted 24 months after cessation of therapy. This case demonstrates a therapeutic program that was an effective alternative to decortication or thoracoplasty for tuberculous empyema in an irreducible pleural space. PMID:4053728

Neihart, R E; Hof, D G

1985-11-01

315

Resolution of pancreatico-pleural fistula with endoscopic ultrasound-guided therapy  

PubMed Central

Pancreatico-pleural fistula is an uncommon cause of recurrent pleural effusion. Delayed diagnosis may occur if fluid amylase level is not obtained early in the clinical course. As most cases of pancreatico-pleural effusion are due to chronic pancreatitis, endoscopic therapy may be effective if pancreatic fluid secretion can be diverted to a more physiologic pathway. However, when severe pancreatitis leads to disconnection of the pancreatic duct, it precludes conventional endoscopic treatment via transpapillary stenting of the pancreatic duct. We describe a patient with a chronic, refractory pancreatico-pleural fistula arising from chronic pancreatitis with a disconnected pancreatic duct syndrome, which resolved following endoscopic ultrasound-guided therapy.

Houlihan, M.D.; Bowyer, B.A.; Barclay, R.L.

2013-01-01

316

Atherosclerotic plaque destabilization: mechanisms, models, and therapeutic strategies.  

PubMed

Understanding the pathophysiology of atherogenesis and the progression of atherosclerosis have been major goals of cardiovascular research during the previous decades. However, the complex molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying plaque destabilization remain largely obscure. Here, we review how lesional cells undergo cell death and how failed clearance exacerbates necrotic core formation. Advanced atherosclerotic lesions are further weakened by the pronounced local activity of matrix-degrading proteases as well as immature neovessels sprouting into the lesion. To stimulate translation of the current knowledge of molecular mechanisms of plaque destabilization into clinical studies, we further summarize available animal models of plaque destabilization. Based on the molecular mechanisms leading to plaque instability, we outline the current status of clinical and preclinical trials to induce plaque stability with a focus on induction of dead cell clearance, inhibition of protease activity, and dampening of inflammatory cell recruitment. PMID:24385514

Silvestre-Roig, Carlos; de Winther, Menno P; Weber, Christian; Daemen, Mat J; Lutgens, Esther; Soehnlein, Oliver

2014-01-01

317

Imaging of atherosclerotic plaques in obesity: excessive fat accumulation, plaque progression and vulnerability.  

PubMed

Obesity is becoming a major health issue in the world due to sedentary lifestyles and increasing intake of Western diets. Obesity is associated with metabolic abnormalities and atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. Adipose tissue has been increasingly considered to play a critical role in inducing metabolic disturbances and promoting atherogenesis. Arterial wall imaging permits direct visualization of atheroma burden in various vascular beds. In addition, recent advances in imaging technology help characterize components, microstructures and functional features of atherosclerotic plaques. These imaging modalities have contributed to elucidating factors associated with atherosclerosis in obese patients. Also, it provides opportunities to evaluate the effect of novel therapies on plaques in the setting of obesity. The findings of recent imaging studies and the clinical implications will be reviewed. PMID:25355677

Kataoka, Yu; Nicholls, Stephen J

2014-12-01

318

Relationship between Watershed Infarcts and Recent Intra Plaque Haemorrhage in Carotid Atherosclerotic Plaque  

PubMed Central

Objective Watershed infarcts (WSI) are thought to result from hemodynamic mechanism, but studies have suggested that microemboli from unstable carotid plaques may distribute preferentially in watershed areas, i.e., between two cerebral arterial territories. Intraplaque haemorrhage (IPH) is an emerging marker of plaque instability and microembolic activity. We assessed the association between WSI and IPH in patients with recently symptomatic moderate carotid stenosis. Methods and Results We selected 65 patients with symptomatic moderate (median NASCET degree of stenosis?=?31%) carotid stenosis and brain infarct on Diffusion-Weighted Imaging (DWI) on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) from a multicentre prospective study. Fourteen (22%) had WSI (cortical, n?=?8; internal, n?=?4; cortical and internal, n?=?2). Patients with WSI were more likely to have IPH than those without WSI although the difference was not significant (50% vs. 31%, OR?=?2.19; 95% CI, 0.66–7.29; P?=?0.20). After adjustment for degree of stenosis, age and gender, the results remained unchanged. Conclusion About one in fifth of brain infarcts occurring in patients with moderate carotid stenosis were distributed in watershed areas. Albeit not significant, an association between IPH - more generally plaque component - and WSI, still remains possible. PMID:25272160

Isabel, Clothilde; Lecler, Augustin; Turc, Guillaume; Naggara, Olivier; Schmitt, Emmanuelle; Belkacem, Samia; Oppenheim, Catherine; Touze, Emmanuel

2014-01-01

319

Predominance of heavily calcified coccolithophores at low CaCO3 saturation during winter in the Bay of Biscay  

PubMed Central

Coccolithophores are an important component of the Earth system, and, as calcifiers, their possible susceptibility to ocean acidification is of major concern. Laboratory studies at enhanced pCO2 levels have produced divergent results without overall consensus. However, it has been predicted from these studies that, although calcification may not be depressed in all species, acidification will produce “a transition in dominance from more to less heavily calcified coccolithophores” [Ridgwell A, et al., (2009) Biogeosciences 6:2611–2623]. A recent observational study [Beaufort L, et al., (2011) Nature 476:80–83] also suggested that coccolithophores are less calcified in more acidic conditions. We present the results of a large observational study of coccolithophore morphology in the Bay of Biscay. Samples were collected once a month for over a year, along a 1,000-km-long transect. Our data clearly show that there is a pronounced seasonality in the morphotypes of Emiliania huxleyi, the most abundant coccolithophore species. Whereas pH and CaCO3 saturation are lowest in winter, the E. huxleyi population shifts from <10% (summer) to >90% (winter) of the heavily calcified form. However, it is unlikely that the shifts in carbonate chemistry alone caused the morphotype shift. Our finding that the most heavily calcified morphotype dominates when conditions are most acidic is contrary to the earlier predictions and raises further questions about the fate of coccolithophores in a high-CO2 world. PMID:22615387

Smith, Helen E. K.; Tyrrell, Toby; Charalampopoulou, Anastasia; Dumousseaud, Cynthia; Legge, Oliver J.; Birchenough, Sarah; Pettit, Laura R.; Garley, Rebecca; Hartman, Sue E.; Hartman, Mark C.; Sagoo, Navjit; Daniels, Chris J.; Achterberg, Eric P.; Hydes, David J.

2012-01-01

320

Focused Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy in Calcifying Tendinitis of the Shoulder  

PubMed Central

Background: The objective of this study is to assess the effectiveness of extracorporeal shock wave therapy in the management of calcifying tendinitis of the shoulder. Furthermore, a dose-response relationship was sought as a secondary confirmation of effectiveness. Hypothesis: Focused extracorporeal shock wave therapy has a high, dose-responsive effectiveness in the management of calcifying tendinitis of the shoulder. Study Design: Meta-analysis. Methods: Studies were identified from online databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Controlled Trials Register), manual searches, and personal communication with experts in the field. After assessment of heterogeneity, a random effects model was generated. The primary end points were identified as pain and function by using the visual analog scale and the Constant-Murley Score, respectively. These end points were pooled and the weighted mean differences and 95% confidence intervals were estimated. Odds ratios of the secondary end point deposit resorption were pooled. Results: In 14 studies, shock wave therapy led to a significantly higher reduction of pain (weighted mean difference, ?2.8 points; 95% confidence interval, ?4.2 to ?1.5 points) and improvement of function (weighted mean difference, 19.8 points; 95% confidence interval, 13.4-26.3 points), compared to other treatments and placebo. High-energy treatment produced significantly better results than low-energy treatment for pain reduction (weighted mean difference, 1.7 points; 95% confidence interval, 0.7-2.6 points) and improvement of function (weighted mean difference, 10.7 points; 95% confidence interval, 7.2-14.1 points). These results are consistent with a dose-response relationship supporting the effectiveness of shock wave therapy. Conclusion: Shock wave therapy for calcifying tendinitis of the shoulder is effective in pain relief, function restoration, and deposit resorption; however, these conclusions are susceptible to bias arising from the limitations of the included studies. PMID:23015865

Vavken, Patrick; Holinka, Johannes; Rompe, Jan Dirk; Dorotka, Ronald

2009-01-01

321

Senile plaque neurites in Alzheimer disease accumulate amyloid precursor protein.  

PubMed Central

Senile plaques are polymorphous beta-amyloid protein deposits found in the brain in Alzheimer disease and normal aging. This beta-amyloid protein is derived from a larger precursor molecule of which neurons are the principal producers in brain. We found that amyloid precursor protein (APP)-immunoreactive neurites were involved in senile plaques and that only a subset of these neurites showed markers for the abnormal filaments characteristic of neurofibrillary pathology. In the neocortex of nondemented individuals with senile plaques but spared of neurofibrillary pathology, dystrophic neurites in senile plaques showed only APP accumulation. In contrast, in the brains of Alzheimer patients, virtually all APP-immunoreactive neurites also showed immunoreactivity with ubiquitin, tau, and phosphorylated neurofilaments. The presence of tau and neurofilament epitopes in dystrophic neurites in senile plaques was correlated with the extent of neurofibrillary pathology in the surrounding brain tissue. Accumulation of APP and the formation of neurofibrillary pathology in senile plaque neurites are therefore distinct phenomena. Our findings suggest that APP accumulation in senile plaque neurites occurs prior to tau accumulation and is therefore more closely related to appearance of neuritic dystrophy. Images PMID:1652752

Cras, P; Kawai, M; Lowery, D; Gonzalez-DeWhitt, P; Greenberg, B; Perry, G

1991-01-01

322

Collagenolytic Activity of Dental Plaque Associated with Periodontal Pathology  

PubMed Central

Certain dental plaques, removed from sites of gingival and periodontal pathology in mentally retarded, institutionalized individuals, when incubated in phosphate buffer with Achilles tendon collagen, gave rise to an increase in ninhydrin-positive material. These plaques, while showing great variability, released significantly more ninhydrin-positive material per milligram of plaque (wet weight) than did either the endogenous or heat-treated controls. Certain plaques could also break down soluble, tritiated, labeled collagen isolated from the calvaria of chicken embryos. Bacteroides melaninogenicus and Clostridia histolyticum were found in plaques by either fluorescent antibody or cultural methods. C. histolyticum, when detected, accounted for about 0.01 to 0.1% of the bacteria in plaque. A conspicuous isolate from some plaques was a Bacillus species which rapidly liquefied gelatin. Cell-free supernatants of this organism were able to degrade about 50 to 70% of the soluble collagen when incubated at 36 C. C. histolyticum ATCC 8034 caused an 80% degradation of the collagen under the same conditions of incubation. The Bacillus strains were facultative, could ferment glucose, reduced nitrate to nitrite, and were catalase, indole, and urease negative. The limited taxonomic information for the isolates is compatible with the description given for Bacillus cereus. PMID:4361294

Loesche, W. J.; Paunio, K. U.; Woolfolk, M. P.; Hockett, R. N.

1974-01-01

323

Intravascular photoacoustic imaging: a new tool for vulnerable plaque identification.  

PubMed

The vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque is believed to be at the root of the majority of acute coronary events. Even though the exact origins of plaque vulnerability remain elusive, the thin-cap fibroatheroma, characterized by a lipid-rich necrotic core covered by a thin fibrous cap, is considered to be the most prominent type of vulnerable plaque. No clinically available imaging technique can characterize atherosclerotic lesions to the extent needed to determine plaque vulnerability prognostically. Intravascular photoacoustic imaging (IVPA) has the potential to take a significant step in that direction by imaging both plaque structure and composition. IVPA is a natural extension of intravascular ultrasound that adds tissue type specificity to the images. IVPA utilizes the optical contrast provided by the differences in the absorption spectra of plaque components to image composition. Its capability to image lipids in human coronary atherosclerosis has been shown extensively ex vivo and has recently been translated to an in vivo animal model. Other disease markers that have been successfully targeted are calcium and inflammatory markers, such as macrophages and matrix metalloproteinase; the latter two through application of exogenous contrast agents. By simultaneously displaying plaque morphology and composition, IVPA can provide a powerful prognostic marker for disease progression, and as such has the potential to transform the current practice in percutaneous coronary intervention. PMID:24631379

Jansen, Krista; van Soest, Gijs; van der Steen, Antonius F W

2014-06-01

324

Predictive Factors of Potential Malignant Transformation in Recurrent Calcifying Cystic Odontogenic Tumor: Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor (CCOT) demonstrates considerable diversity in histopathology and clinical behavior. Ghost cell odontogenic carcinoma (GCOC) is the rare malignant counterpart of CCOT and it frequently arises from malignant transformation of a recurrent CCOT. In this paper, we present a case of CCOT and discuss its distinct histopathologic features in recurrence. Then, we will have a review on clinical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical aspects of GCOC in the literature. Predictive factors of malignant transformation in a benign CCOT will also be discussed. PMID:23956907

Mokhtari, Sepideh; Mohsenifar, Zhaleh; Ghorbanpour, Maedeh

2013-01-01

325

A calcified sinutubular junction: the discovery of a supravalvular aortic stenosis in an elderly woman.  

PubMed

We report a case of a 64 year old woman with a calcified ring at the level of the sinotubular junction. Echocardiography and Computed Tomography showed a supravalvular aortic stenosis, without known associated lesions, except for the existence of an aberrant right subclavian artery. These combination of abnormalities makes it an unique case. Differential diagnosis of sinutubular calcification is added. From the literature a short review of supravalvular aortic stenosis is presented with indications for surgical intervention. Lifelong and regular follow up is necessary. PMID:23640577

Cozijnsen, L; Bakker-de Boo, M; Kardux, J J; Bouma, B J

2013-12-01

326

A calcified foreign body in the bladder after laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair.  

PubMed

In this paper, we report an exceedingly rare complication after laparoscopic inguinal hernioplasty. A 57-year-old man was submitted to transurethral resection of the prostate followed by laparoscopic "bikini mesh" hernia repair. One year later, he presented with miccional irritative symptoms. Ultrasonography showed a vesical intraluminal foreign body and computerized tomography revealed a calcified foreign body on the anterior bladder wall. On reoperation, it was noted that there occurred mesh transfixation of the bladder. The lateral segments were removed and the patient recovered uneventfully. This is a, thus far, unpublished complication of this technique. PMID:17541491

Lopes, R I; Dias, A R; Lopes, S I; Cordeiro, M D; Barbosa, C M; Lopes, R N

2008-02-01

327

Large Bilateral Adrenal Leiomyomas Presenting as Calcified Adrenal Masses: A Rare Case Report  

PubMed Central

We report the case of a 55-year-old woman with bilateral, large, calcified adrenal tumors who was treated by laparoscopic adrenalectomy. The patient presented with upper abdominal discomfort for the past 5 years. Her imaging showed bilateral enlarged adrenal glands up to 10-cm size with punctate calcifications. Positron emission tomography scan demonstrated moderate fluorodeoxyglucose avidity in the left adrenal mass. Bilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy was performed through a transperitoneal approach. The postoperative period was uneventful, and the patient was discharged on the third postoperative day. Histology findings were consistent with adrenal leiomyomatosis. PMID:24868343

Nanjappa, Bhuvanesh; Agrawal, Pallavi; Pushkarna, Arawat

2014-01-01

328

Primary pleural squamous cell carcinoma misdiagnosed as localized mesothelioma: a case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Primary pleural squamous cell carcinoma is very rare, and there is a lack of experience in the diagnosis and treatment of this condition. An asymptomatic 75-year-old man was referred to us after a right pleural nodule was found on computed tomography during a routine health examination. He underwent surgery for his pleural tumor twice over the following 2 years. Histopathological examination eventually led to a diagnosis of primary pleural squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:23497477

2013-01-01

329

Primary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma as a pleural mass  

PubMed Central

Primary pleural lymphoma is a rare entity that has been described in association with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or pyothorax. It occurs in only 7% of primary lymphoma cases. We report the case of a 52-year-old male with no history of HIV infection or pyothorax who was diagnosed of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) and underwent a routine chest X-ray to screen for any organic cause of the symptoms. The radiograph revealed two voluminous masses with extraparenchymatous features but without pleural effusion. A contrast-enhanced CT was performed and confirmed the existence of the pleural masses that showed homogeneous attenuation. Neither mediastinal lymphadenopathy nor pleural effusion were present. A percutaneous CT-guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) with a 25-G needle was performed (two samples were obtained) and the first diagnosis was of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The final diagnosis of primary pleural mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma was confirmed by a CT-guided core biopsy with a 20-G needle. To the best of our knowledge, no cases of MALT lymphoma presenting as pleural masses without pleural effusion have been reported in immunocompetent patients. In this report, we describe the case of a patient with a primary pleural MALT lymphoma and include a short review of the literature. PMID:22101588

Barahona, M L; Duenas, V P; Sanchez, M T; Plaza, B V

2011-01-01

330

Diagnostic and Prognostic Value of Soluble Syndecan-1 in Pleural Malignancies  

PubMed Central

Background. The distinction between malignant and benign pleural effusions is a diagnostic challenge today and measuring soluble biomarkers could add to the diagnostic accuracy. Syndecan-1 is a proteoglycan involved in various cellular functions and is cleaved from the cell surface in a regulated manner. The shed fragment, which can be recovered in effusion supernatant and in serum, retains its binding capacities, but often with different functions and signalling properties than the cell-bound form. Aim. This study aimed to investigate the diagnostic and prognostic value of soluble syndecan-1 in pleural effusions and sera from patients with pleural malignancies. Study Design. Using two cohorts of patients, we assessed the diagnostic and prognostic value of soluble syndecan-1 in pleural effusions and sera, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Results. In pleural effusions, syndecan-1 distinguished malignant and benign diseases, with an odds ratio of 8.59 (95% CI 3.67 to 20.09). Furthermore, syndecan-1 in pleural effusions predicted a survival difference for patients with pleural metastatic disease and malignant mesothelioma of 11.2 and 9.2 months, respectively. However, no such effects were seen when syndecan-1 was measured in serum. Conclusion. Soluble syndecan-1 is a promising candidate biomarker for the cytopathological diagnosis and prognostication of malignant pleural effusions. PMID:25147801

Metintas, Muzaffer; Hjerpe, Anders; Dobra, Katalin

2014-01-01

331

Expression of fibroblast specific protein-1 in pleural tuberculosis and its clinical biological significance  

PubMed Central

Background Fibroblast specific protein-1 (S100A4) is related with many fibrotic diseases, but its role in the pathogenesis of pleural fibrosis has not been fully elucidated. Then we aim to investigate the expression and effect of fibroblast specific protein-1 (S100A4) in pleural tuberculosis and, subsequently, pleural fibrosis. Methods The expression of S100A4 in pleura was examined in 30 patients with pleural tuberculosis and 5 control (disease-free) patients by immunohistochemistry using the streptavidin-peroxidase (S-P) conjugated method. Results The expression of S100A4 in pleura was mainly distributed in the nucleus and cytoplasm of fibroblasts and vascular endothelial cells, and the positive rate was 90.0% (27 out of 30 patients with pleural tuberculosis). There were no expressions of S100A4 in the control group. In the pleura of all 30 patients with pleural tuberculosis, S100A4 had a higher expression in the two- to eight-week duration of the disease. Conclusions S100A4 plays an important role in the phenotypic transformation of pleural mesothelial cells and the development of pleural fibrosis. PMID:24885536

2014-01-01

332

Factors Influencing Length of Hospital Stay in Patients with Bacterial Pleural Effusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Factors influencing length of hospital stay have been poorly analyzed in parapneumonic pleural effusions (PPE). Objectives: The aim of this work is to identify the variables that determine increased hospital stay in patients with infectious pleural effusion (PE). Patients and Methods: We analyzed 112 patients with PE: empyema, complicated parapneumonic and non-complicated parapneumonic. Epidemiologic, biochemical, therapeutic and radiological variables

T. Soriano; J. Alegre; C. Alemán; E. Ruiz; A. Vázquez; J. L. Carrasco; R. Segura; A. Ferrer; T. Fernández de Sevilla

2005-01-01

333

Aortopulmonary collateral vessels and prolonged pleural effusions after modified Fontan procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pleural effusions after the modified Fontan procedure are unpredictable, increase morbidity, and prolong hospital stay. To assess the relation between preoperative characteristics and postoperative pleural drainage, we performed a retrospective study of 71 patients who underwent Fontan procedures. Analyses revealed no significant relation between duration of effusion and age at Fontan, preoperative oxygen saturation, pulmonary artery pressure, ventricular end-diastolic pressure,

Robert L. Spicer; Karen C. Uzark; John W. Moore; Richard D. Mainwaring; John J. Lamberti

1996-01-01

334

Pleural solitary fibrous tumor complicated with autoimmune hemolytic anemia.  

PubMed

We herein report a 74-year-old woman who presented with autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) associated with pleural solitary fibrous tumor (SFT). Her AIHA was initially treated with 1 mg/kg daily of oral prednisolone (PSL) for 2 months, which had a limited effect. However, after surgical tumor resection, the patient showed remarkable improvement of AIHA with normalizations of serum lactate dehydrogenase and bilirubin levels, and we were able to rapidly reduce the PSL dosage. This is the first description of a case of AIHA caused by SFT. PMID:25030571

Takahashi, Hiroshi; Ohkawara, Hiroshi; Ikeda, Kazuhiko; Harada-Shirado, Kayo; Furukawa, Miki; Sukegawa, Masumi; Shichishima-Nakamura, Akiko; Noji, Hideyoshi; Wakamatsu, Saho; Tasaki, Kazuhiro; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Ogawa, Kazuei; Takeishi, Yasuchika

2014-01-01

335

An Update in the Management of Malignant Pleural Effusion  

PubMed Central

Malignant pleural effusion (MPE) usually presents in the disseminated and advanced stage of malignancy. Dyspnea is the debilitating symptom which needs palliation in these patients. Various modalities are available in the management of MPE. Careful consideration of the patient's expected survival and quality of life is needed when deciding the optimum treatment modality in such patients. In this article, different modalities of the palliative management of MPE are discussed with an attempt to derive a treatment algorithm for the management of MPE. PMID:21976848

Muduly, DK; Deo, SVS; Subi, TS; Kallianpur, AA; Shukla, NK

2011-01-01

336

Industrial pollution and pleural cancer mortality in Spain.  

PubMed

Pleural cancer mortality is an acknowledged indicator of exposure to asbestos and mesothelioma mortality but in 15%-20% of cases no exposure can be recalled. In the past, asbestos was used in many industries and it is still found in many installations. Our objective was to ascertain whether there might be excess pleural cancer mortality among populations residing in the vicinity of Spanish industrial installations that are governed by the Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) Directive and the European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register Regulation and report their emissions to air. An ecological study was designed to examine pleural cancer mortality at a municipal level (8098 Spanish towns) over the period 1997-2006, during which 2146 deaths were registered. We conducted an exploratory "near vs. far" analysis to estimate the relative risks (RRs) of towns situated at a distance of <2 km from installations. This analysis was repeated for each of the 24 industrial groups. RR and their 95% credible intervals (95% CIs) were estimated on the basis of a Poisson conditional autoregressive Bayesian model with explanatory variables. Integrated nested Laplace approximations were used as a Bayesian inference tool. Analysis showed statistically significant RRs in both sexes in the vicinity of 7 of the 24 industrial groups studied (RR, 95% CI), namely, biocide facilities (2.595, 1.459-4.621), ship-building (2.321, 1.379-3.918), glass and mineral fibre production (1.667, 1.041-2.665), non-hazardous waste treatment (1.737, 1.077-2.799), galvanising (1.637, 1.139-2.347), organic chemical plants (1.386, 1.075-1.782) and the food and beverage sector (1.255, 1.006-1.562). In the proximity of sources pertaining to the biocide, organic chemical and galvanising sectors, the risk was seen to be rising among men and women, a finding that could indicate airborne environmental exposure. These results support that residing in the vicinity of IPPC-registered industries that release pollutants to the air constitutes a risk factor for pleural cancer. PMID:22444064

López-Abente, Gonzalo; Fernández-Navarro, Pablo; Boldo, Elena; Ramis, Rebeca; García-Pérez, Javier

2012-05-01

337

Localized fibrous pleural tumour of the interlobular pleura.  

PubMed

Localized fibrous tumours of the pleura (LFTP) are rare, generally benign and asymptomatic neoplasms, which originate from the pleural layers. We report on the case of a 67 year old woman who had a 1.5 cm diameter pulmonary nodule in the right upper lobe, which had been found by chance. Video-assisted thoracoscopy (VAT) was used to excise the nodule. The diagnosis of localized fibrous tumour of the interlobar pleura was made on microscopic evaluation. After 17 months, the patient is well and her chest radiographic image is normal. PMID:8793476

Sanguinetti, C M; Marchesani, F; Ranaldi, R; Pela, R; Cecarini, L

1996-05-01

338

Use of Fibrinolytics in Abdominal and Pleural Collections  

PubMed Central

Fluid collections that are incompletely drained despite adequate catheter position, size, and number represent a minority of abscesses but a source of great frustration for patients, surgeons, and interventional radiologists. Drainage of such complex collections is known to be more effective with the adjunctive use of intracavitary fibrinolytic agents instilled via the drainage catheter. In this review article, we discuss the role of fibrinolytics specifically tissue plasminogen activator as explored by interventional radiologists in enhancing effective drainage of these complex abdominal and pelvic collections as well as complex pleural collections. PMID:24293799

Shenoy-Bhangle, Anuradha S.; Gervais, Debra A.

2012-01-01

339

Non-pulsed electrochemical impregnation of flexible metallic battery plaques  

DOEpatents

A method of loading active battery material into porous, flexible, metallic battery plaques, comprises the following steps: precipitating nickel hydroxide active material within the plaque, by making the plaque cathodic, at a high current density, in an electro-precipitation cell also containing a consumable nickel anode and a solution comprising nickel nitrate, having a pH of between 2.0 and 2.8; electrochemically oxidizing the precipitate in caustic formation solution; and repeating the electro-precipitation step at a low current density.

Maskalick, Nicholas J. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1982-01-01

340

Near-IR imaging of interproximal lesions from occlusal surfaces and the influence of stains and plaque  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dental enamel manifests high transparency in the near-IR (NIR). Our previous work demonstrated that NIR light at 1310-nm is ideally suited for the transillumination of interproximal dental caries (dental decay in between teeth) and that it can also be used to image decay in the pits and fissures of the occlusal (biting) surfaces of posterior teeth where most new dental decay occurs. Early occlusal lesions cannot be detected by x-rays during the early stages of lesion development due to the overlapping topography of the crown of the tooth. Stains and non-calcified plaque are not visible in the NIR enabling better discrimination of demineralized areas. We also demonstrate that interproximal lesions can be imaged from the occlusal surface (from above). Moreover, multiple illumination and detector angles can be exploited for optimal contrast between caries and sound tissue. These measurements suggest that NIR imaging offers significant advantages over the conventional visual, tactile and radiographic caries detection methods and other optical caries detection and imaging techniques.

Fried, Daniel; Bühler, Christopher M.; Ngaotheppitak, Patara; Darling, Cynthia L.

2006-02-01

341

Osteopontin is elevated during neointima formation in rat arteries and is a novel component of human atherosclerotic plaques.  

PubMed Central

In an earlier report, we used differential cloning to identify genes that might be critical in controlling arterial neointima formation (Giachelli, C., N. Bae, D. Lombardi, M. Majesky, and S. Schwartz. 1991. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 177:867-873). In this study, we sequenced the complete cDNA and conclusively identified one of these genes, 2B7, as rat osteopontin. Using immunochemistry and in situ hybridization, we found that medial smooth muscle cells (SMC) in uninjured arteries contained very low levels of osteopontin protein and mRNA. Injury to either the adult rat aorta or carotid artery using a balloon catheter initiated a qualitatively similar time-dependent increase in both osteopontin protein and mRNA in arterial SMC. Expression was transient and highly localized to neointimal SMC during the proliferative and migratory phases of arterial injury, suggesting a possible role for osteopontin in these processes. In vitro, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), and angiotensin II (AII), all proteins implicated in the rat arterial injury response, elevated osteopontin expression in confluent vascular SMC. Finally, we found that osteopontin was a novel component of the human atherosclerotic plaque found most strikingly associated with calcified deposits. These data implicate osteopontin as a potentially important mediator of arterial neointima formation as well as dystrophic calcification that often accompanies this process. Images PMID:8408622

Giachelli, C M; Bae, N; Almeida, M; Denhardt, D T; Alpers, C E; Schwartz, S M

1993-01-01

342

Intracranial subdural osteoma: a rare benign tumor that can be differentiated from other calcified intracranial lesions utilizing MR imaging.  

PubMed

We report the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging characteristics of subdural osteoma and other benign calcified intracranial lesions to highlight imaging features that differentiate between these disease entities. A 63-year-old woman presented with progressively altered mental status. Non-contrast CT demonstrated a densely calcified right middle cranial fossa extra-axial mass. MR imaging of the lesion demonstrated T1 and T2 hypointensity without evidence of contrast enhancement, parenchymal abnormality, or connection to adjacent venous structures. Diffusion weighted imaging demonstrated markedly decreased signal intensity and artificially reduced diffusion on apparent diffusion coefficient map. Histologically, the tumor was predominantly composed of lamellar bone and small fragments of residual dura consistent with subdural osteoma. This case demonstrates that radiological examination can provide additional insight into the origin of intracranial osteomas (extradural versus subdural versus sinonasal) and help distinguish from other diagnostic considerations including benign meningeal ossification and calcified meningioma prior to surgical resection. PMID:22197691

Barajas, Ramon F; Perry, Arie; Sughrue, Michael; Aghi, Manish; Cha, Soonmee

2012-10-01

343

Lung scan perfusion defects limited to matching pleural effusions: low probability of pulmonary embolism  

SciTech Connect

Patients with a new pleural effusion are often sent for a ventilation-perfusion scan to exclude a pulmonary embolism. This retrospective study assessed the probability of pulmonary embolism when a pleural effusion and a perfusion defect of similar size are the only significant imaging abnormalities. In 451 reports of patients who were scanned for suspected pulmonary embolism, 53 had perfusion defects secondary to pleural effusion without other significant perfusion defects. Using pulmonary angiography, venography, analysis of pleural fluid, clinical course, and other radiographic and laboratory studies to establish the final diagnosis, only two patients had documented venous thrombotic disease: one had pulmonary emboli, the other thrombophlebitis. Lung scans having significant perfusion defects limited to pleural effusions and matching them in size have a low probability for pulmonary embolism.

Bedont, R.A.; Datz, F.L.

1985-12-01

344

MRI plaque imaging reveals high-risk carotid plaques especially in diabetic patients irrespective of the degree of stenosis  

PubMed Central

Background Plaque imaging based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) represents a new modality for risk assessment in atherosclerosis. It allows classification of carotid plaques in high-risk and low-risk lesion types (I-VIII). Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM 2) represents a known risk factor for atherosclerosis, but its specific influence on plaque vulnerability is not fully understood. This study investigates whether MRI-plaque imaging can reveal differences in carotid plaque features of diabetic patients compared to nondiabetics. Methods 191 patients with moderate to high-grade carotid artery stenosis were enrolled after written informed consent was obtained. Each patient underwent MRI-plaque imaging using a 1.5-T scanner with phased-array carotid coils. The carotid plaques were classified as lesion types I-VIII according to the MRI-modified AHA criteria. For 36 patients histology data was available. Results Eleven patients were excluded because of insufficient MR-image quality. DM 2 was diagnosed in 51 patients (28.3%). Concordance between histology and MRI-classification was 91.7% (33/36) and showed a Cohen's kappa value of 0.81 with a 95% CI of 0.98-1.15. MRI-defined high-risk lesion types were overrepresented in diabetic patients (n = 29; 56.8%). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed association between DM 2 and MRI-defined high-risk lesion types (OR 2.59; 95% CI [1.15-5.81]), independent of the degree of stenosis. Conclusion DM 2 seems to represent a predictor for the development of vulnerable carotid plaques irrespective of the degree of stenosis and other risk factors. MRI-plaque imaging represents a new tool for risk stratification of diabetic patients. See Commentary: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/8/78/abstract PMID:21118504

2010-01-01

345

Spontaneous intracranial hypotension from calcified thoracic disc protrusions causing CSF leak successfully treated with targeted epidural blood patch.  

PubMed

Spontaneous spinal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks are increasingly recognized in patients presenting with orthostatic headache and ultimately diagnosed with intracranial hypotension. While the precise cause of these spontaneous leaks is unknown, it is thought to result from underlying weakness in the spinal meninges and may be associated with meningeal diverticula or Tarlov cysts. Rarely, calcified intervertebral discs or bony osteophytes can result in CSF leakage, which has been described in the surgery literature but not well recognized in the radiology literature. The authors present three cases of patients presenting with CSF leaks from calcified thoracic disc protrusions that were successfully treated with epidural blood patches. PMID:23395554

Allmendinger, Andrew M; Lee, Thomas C

2013-01-01

346

Ultrasound-Guided Posterolateral Approach for Midline Calcified Thoracic Disc Herniation  

PubMed Central

Objective Symptomatic thoracic disc herniation often requires prompt surgical treatment to prevent neurological deterioration and permanent deficits. Anterior approaches offer direct visualization and access to the herniated disc and anterior dura but require access surgeons and are often associated with considerable postoperative pain and pulmonary complications. A disadvantage with using posterior approaches in the setting of central calcified thoracic disc herniation however, has been the limited visualization of anterior dura and difficulty to accurately assess the extent of decompression. Methods We report our experience with intraoperative ultrasound (US) guidance during a modified posterior transpedicular approach for removal of a central calcified thoracic disc herniation with a review of pertinent literature. Results The herniated thoracic disc was successfully removed with posterior approach with the aid of intraoperative US. The patient had significant neurological improvement at three months follow-up. Conclusion Intraoperative ultrasound is a simple yet valuable tool for real-time imaging during transpedicular thoracic discectomy. Visualization provided by intraoperative US increases the safety profile of posterior approaches and may make thoracotomy unnecessary in a selected group of patients, especially when a patient has existing pulmonary disease or is otherwise not medically fit for the transthoracic approach.

Lopes, Demetrius K.; Fontes, Ricardo B. V.

2014-01-01

347

Hydroxyapatite and calcified elastin induce osteoblast-like differentiation in rat aortic smooth muscle cells.  

PubMed

Vascular calcification can be categorized into two different types. Intimal calcification related to atherosclerosis and elastin-specific medial arterial calcification (MAC). Osteoblast-like differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) has been shown in both types; however, how this relates to initiation of vascular calcification is unclear. We hypothesize that the initial deposition of hydroxyapatite-like mineral in MAC occurs on degraded elastin first and that causes osteogenic transformation of VSMCs. To test this, rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs) were cultured on hydroxyapatite crystals and calcified aortic elastin. Using RT-PCR and specific protein assays, we demonstrate that RASMCs lose their smooth muscle lineage markers like alpha smooth muscle actin (SMA) and myosin heavy chain (MHC) and undergo chondrogenic/osteogenic transformation. This is indicated by an increase in the expression of typical chondrogenic proteins such as aggrecan, collagen type II alpha 1(Col2a1) and bone proteins such as runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin (OCN). Furthermore, when calcified conditions are removed, cells return to their original phenotype. Our data supports the hypothesis that elastin degradation and calcification precedes VSMCs' osteoblast-like differentiation. PMID:24447384

Lei, Yang; Sinha, Aditi; Nosoudi, Nasim; Grover, Ankit; Vyavahare, Naren

2014-04-15

348

Expression of uPA, tPA, and PAI-1 in Calcified Aortic Valves  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Our physiopathological assumption is that u-PA, t-PA, and PAI-1 are released by calcified aortic valves and play a role in the calcification of these valves. Methods. Sixty-five calcified aortic valves were collected from patients suffering from aortic stenosis. Each valve was incubated for 24 hours in culture medium. The supernatants were used to measure u-PA, t-PA, and PAI-1 concentrations; the valve calcification was evaluated using biphotonic absorptiometry. Results. Aortic stenosis valves expressed normal plasminogen activators concentrations and overexpressed PAI-1 (u-PA, t-PA, and PAI-1 mean concentrations were, resp., 1.69?ng/mL ± 0.80, 2.76?ng/mL ± 1.33, and 53.27?ng/mL ± 36.39). There was no correlation between u-PA and PAI-1 (r = 0.3) but t-PA and PAI-1 were strongly correlated with each other (r = 0.6). Overexpression of PAI-1 was proportional to the calcium content of the AS valves. Conclusions. Our results demonstrate a consistent increase of PAI-1 proportional to the calcification. The overexpression of PAI-1 may be useful as a predictive indicator in patients with aortic stenosis. PMID:24693431

Kochtebane, Najlah; Alzahrani, Abdullah Mossa M.

2014-01-01

349

Transforming growth factor-?1 in plaque morphea  

PubMed Central

Introduction Morphea (localized scleroderma) is a rare cutaneous disease characterized by skin fibrosis of unknown pathogenesis. Transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) is a potent profibrotic factor. The role of TGF-? in morphea remains unclear. Aim The goal of this study was to estimate the expression level of TGF-?1 in skin and peripheral blood mononuclear cells as well as the plasma levels of TGF-?1 in plaque morphea (MEP). Material and methods The study involved 20 MEP patients. Three control groups were involved: 1 – plasma: 36 healthy volunteers; 2 – PBMC: 47 healthy volunteers; 3 – skin biopsies: 13 samples collected during mastectomy (breast cancer was not skin involved). The analysis of TGF-?1 plasma levels was performed with the use an adequate ELISA kit, while real-time polymerase chain reaction was employed for the expression of TGF-?1 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and skin. Results In our study we have not detected differences in TGF-? 1 expression in PBMC, skin, nor in plasma levels of TGF-?1 between MEP patients and healthy controls, regardless of disease activity and its duration. Conclusions The results of our study contradict the claim of the substantial role of TGF-?1 in the most common morphea subtype – MEP. PMID:24493995

Kowalczyk, Michal J.; Szramka-Pawlak, Beata; Gornowicz-Porowska, Justyna; Szewczyk, Aleksandra; Silny, Wojciech; Molinska-Glura, Marta; Olewicz-Gawlik, Anna; Zaba, Ryszard; Pazdrowski, Jakub; Hrycaj, Pawel

2013-01-01

350

Detection of Atherosclerotic Coronary Plaques by Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Angioscopy  

E-print Network

the potential of a FLIM angioscopy system to detect and differentiate coronary atherosclerotic plaques ex-vivo into several groups including thin, fibrotic, lipid-laden, thick-cap fibroatheroma (FA), and fibrocalcified. Samples were extracted post-mortem weekly...

Thomas, Patrick A.

2010-10-12

351

Advances in mechanisms, imaging and management of the unstable plaque.  

PubMed

Post-mortem observations demonstrated that plaque fissure was the final event leading to coronary thrombosis and occlusion in about two-thirds of cases of sudden coronary death. Plaques prone to fissure have, therefore, been defined "vulnerable plaques" and are identified by specific anatomic features including thin inflamed fibrous cap, large lipidic core and positive remodeling. Accordingly, elegant imaging modalities have been developed in order to identify this "holy grail". However, the results of prognostic studies based on the identification of vulnerable plaques have not been encouraging because of the low positive predictive value for major cardiovascular events. This observation is not surprising as the pathogenesis of acute coronary syndromes is complex and multifactorial. In this review we propose a pathogenetic classification of acute coronary syndromes in the attempt to identify homogeneous groups of patients with a common mechanism of coronary instability which can be identified by using specific biomarkers and imaging techniques, and become a specific therapeutic target. PMID:24530781

Niccoli, Giampaolo; Liuzzo, Giovanna; Montone, Rocco A; Crea, Filippo

2014-04-01

352

VIEW TO THE SOUTHEAST. MEMORIAL WITH BRONZE PLAQUE IN HONOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW TO THE SOUTHEAST. MEMORIAL WITH BRONZE PLAQUE IN HONOR OF KELLER, MARKS THE CENTER OF THE BRIDGE. - Keller Memorial Bridge, Spanning Tennessee River at U.S. Highway 31, Decatur, Morgan County, AL

353

5. DETAIL VIEW, LOOKING WEST, SHOWING STONE PLAQUE INSCRIBED 'USRA, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. DETAIL VIEW, LOOKING WEST, SHOWING STONE PLAQUE INSCRIBED 'USRA, 1936' LOCATED IN EAST ELEVATION (tHIS PHOTOGRAPH IS FOGGED) - Spring Lake Bridge, Spanning Bob Barnes Branch at County Road No. 36D, Belleville, Yell County, AR

354

Pleural mesothelioma in a nine-month-old dog  

PubMed Central

This paper reports on an unusual case of pleural epitheloid mesothelioma in a nine-month-old male, mixed breed dog. The dog was presented in-extremis and, on post mortem examination, multiple, exophytic, frequently pedunculated, yellowish-red, soft to firm masses ranging from 3 mm to 6 cm in diameter were diffusely distributed over, and attached to, the pericardial and parietal pleural surfaces. Microscopically, these masses consisted of round to partially polygonalshaped, anaplastic cells with minimal cytoplasm and hyperchromatic nuclei covering papillomatous projections or as part of more densely cellular masses. A supporting fibrovascular stroma and mitotic figures were also evident. Constituent tumour cells were labeled positively with antibodies against both vimentin and cytokeratin. In contrast, the same cells exhibited equivocal labeling with an antibody directed against calretinin antigen and did not label with antibodies against carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and milk fat globule-related antigen (MFGRA). Such tumours are rare in dogs, particularly in such a young animal. PMID:21851687

2007-01-01

355

Pleural Mesothelioma: An Institutional Experience of 66 Cases  

PubMed Central

Background Malignant mesothelioma of the pleura is an aggressive tumor known to be associated with asbestos. Histological diagnosis of mesothelioma is challenging and is usually aided by immunohistochemical markers. Methods During an 18-year period (1995-2012), 66 patients with pleural mesothelioma were diagnosed at the Samsung Medical Center in Seoul. We reviewed hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemical slides of pleural mesothelioma and evaluated their pathological and clinical features. Results The male-to-female ratio was 1.75:1, and age of patients ranged from 28 to 80 years with an average age of 56.84 years. Twenty-two out of 66 patients underwent curative pneumonectomy. Follow-up data was available in 60 patients (90.9%), and 50 of them (83.3%) died from the disease. The average overall survival was 15.39 months. Histologically, the epithelioid type was the most common, followed by the sarcomatoid and the biphasic types. Epidemiologic information was not available in most cases, and only one patient was confirmed to have a history of asbestos exposure. Conclusions Malignant mesothelioma of the pleura is a fatal tumor, and the therapeutic benefit of pneumonectomy remains unproven. The combination of calretinin, Wilms tumor 1, HMBE-1, and thyroid transcription factor-1 may provide high diagnostic accuracy in diagnosing mesothelioma. PMID:24868221

Ahn, Soomin; Choi, In Ho; Kim, Jhingook; Ahn, Myung-Ju

2014-01-01

356

Pleurodesis in the treatment of pneumothorax and pleural effusion.  

PubMed

Malignant pleural effusion and persistent and/or recurrent spontaneous pneumothorax are clinical entities requiring pleurodesis to avoid the accumulation of liquid and air, respectively. The objectives are to alleviate symptoms (dyspnea, pain and cough), decrease prolonged air leak, avoid recurrence and improve quality of life. Chemical pleurodesis utilizes chemical irritants. The most common of these is "talc" because of its efficiency and its success in lowering the rate of recurrence. Its main indication is in the palliative treatment of malignant pleural effusion. Other substances less frequently used because they are rarely used currently or under study are cytostatics, antibiotics, antiseptics and autologous blood. Surgical pleurodesis with mechanical abrasion by videothoracoscopy is indicated primarily in the treatment of spontaneous pneumothorax because it is highly efficient, easy to carry out, and has low morbidity when compared to pleurectomy. Using pleurodesis in benign effusion is highly controversial. Its principal indications are hepatic hydrothorax, chylothorax, and cardiac effusion that does not respond to medical treatment. Plasma determinations of systemic inflammatory markers and thoracic ultrasound studies can evaluate the efficacy of pleurodesis. We do not recommend the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the postoperative period to avoid the possibility of interfering with hemostasis or the formation of adherences. PMID:24354096

Suárez, P M Rodríguez; Gilart, J L Freixinet

2013-06-01

357

Parenchymal trafficking of pleural mesothelial cells in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.  

PubMed

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is characterised by myofibroblast proliferation leading to architectural destruction. Neither the origin nor the continued proliferation of myofibroblasts is well understood. Explanted human IPF lungs were stained by immunohistochemistry for calretinin, a marker of pleural mesothelial cells (PMCs). Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cystic fibrosis (CF) lungs acted as controls. The number of PMCs per 100 nucleated cells and per photomicrograph was estimated along with the Ashcroft score of fibrosis. Mouse PMCs expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) or labelled with nanoparticles were injected into the pleural space of mice given intranasal transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1. Mouse lungs were lavaged and examined for the presence of GFP, smooth muscle ?-actin (?-SMA) and calretinin. Calretinin-positive PMCs were found throughout IPF lungs, but not in COPD or CF lungs. The number of PMCs correlated with the Ashcroft score. In mice, nanoparticle-laden PMCs were recoverable by bronchoalveolar lavage, depending on the TGF-?1 dose. Fluorescent staining showed ?-SMA expression in GFP-expressing PMCs, with co-localisation of GFP and ?-SMA. PMCs can traffic through the lung and show myofibroblast phenotypic markers. PMCs are present in IPF lungs, and their number correlates with IPF severity. Since IPF presumably begins subpleurally, PMCs could play a pathogenetic role via mesothelial-mesenchymal transition. PMID:21737551

Mubarak, K K; Montes-Worboys, A; Regev, D; Nasreen, N; Mohammed, K A; Faruqi, I; Hensel, E; Baz, M A; Akindipe, O A; Fernandez-Bussy, S; Nathan, S D; Antony, V B

2012-01-01

358

Real-time treatment feedback guidance of Pleural PDT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pleural photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been used as an adjuvant treatment with lung-sparing surgical treatment for mesothelioma with remarkable results. In the current intrapleural PDT protocol, a moving fiber-based point source is used to deliver the light and the light dose are monitored by 7 detectors placed in the pleural cavity. To improve the delivery of light dose uniformity, an infrared (IR) camera system is used to track the motion of the light sources. A treatment planning system uses feedback from the detectors as well as the IR camera to update light fluence distribution in real-time, which is used to guide the light source motion for uniform light dose distribution. We have improved the GUI of the light dose calculation engine to provide real-time light fluence distribution suitable for guiding the surgery to delivery light more uniformly. A dual-correction method is used in the feedback system, so that fluence calculation can match detector readings using both direct and scatter light models. An improved measurement device is developed to automatically acquire laser position for the point source. Comparison of the effects of the guidance is presented in phantom study.

Zhu, Timothy C.; Kim, Michele M.; Liang, Xing; Liu, Baochang; Meo, Julia L.; Finlay, Jarod C.; Dimofte, Andreea; Rodriguez, Carmen; Simone, Charles; Cengel, Keith; Friedberg, Joseph

2013-03-01

359

Ultrasonic tissue characterization of collagen in lipid-rich plaques in apoE-deficient mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanical failure of the fibrous cap of a vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque may lead to sudden plaque rupture and thus precipitate arterial thrombosis. Because ultrasound correlates strongly with mechanical features of tissues it might provide information on the stability of fibrous caps. The acoustic properties of the normal vessel wall and plaques, particularly fibrous caps of lipid-rich plaques, were evaluated in

Yoshifumi Saijo; Claus Schiøtt Jørgensen; Erling Falk

2001-01-01

360

Assessment of coronary plaque collagen with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionCurrent evidence indicates that most plaques classified as vulnerable or ruptured plaque do not lead to unstable angina or myocardial infarction. Improved methods are needed to risk stratify plaques to identify those which lead to most acute coronary syndromes. Collagen depletion in the intima overlying lipid collections appears to be a critical component of unstable plaques. In this study, we

Susanne D. Giattina; Brian K. Courtney; Paul R. Herz; Michelle Harman; Sonya Shortkroff; Debra L. Stamper; Bin Liu; James G. Fujimoto; Mark E. Brezinski

2006-01-01

361

Detail of plaque beneath column on the south parapet at ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail of plaque beneath column on the south parapet at the west end of the bridge. The plaque reads ?1914; Mayor E.J. Drussel; Councilmen E.S. Henry, E.F. Hogan, R.P. Lamdin, C.F. Ross, J.H. Shuppert; Leonard & Day, Engineers; C.H. Gildersleeve, Builder.? - First Street Bridge, Spanning Napa River at First Street between Soscol Avenue & Juarez Street, Napa, Napa County, CA

362

Therapeutic Modifications to the Mineral Ion Composition of Dental Plaque  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mouth rinse containing calcium, phosphate, fluoride, urea and monofluorophosphate was used 12 times over 3 days by 15 young adults. The concentration of acid-extractable fluoride in 4-day-old plaque rose from 8.4 to 560 ng\\/mg dry weight. Plaque calcium increased from 4.1 to 42.5 ?g\\/mg and phosphate from 3.9 to 22.7 ?g\\/ mg. The ions are fixed in a form

E. I. F. Pearce

1984-01-01

363

Spectral CT imaging of vulnerable plaque with two independent biomarkers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the feasibility of a novel four-material decomposition technique for assessing the vulnerability of plaque with two contrast materials spectral computer tomography (CT) using two independent markers: plaque's inflammation and spotty calcification. A simulation study was conducted using an energy-sensitive photon-counting detector for k-edge imaging of the coronary arteries. In addition to detecting

Pavlo Baturin; Yahya Alivov; Sabee Molloi

2012-01-01

364

Improved plaque assays for Rickettsia prowazekii in Vero 76 cells.  

PubMed Central

Typhus group rickettsiae, including Rickettsia prowazekii and R. typhi, produce visible plaques on primary chick embryo fibroblasts and low-passage mouse embryo fibroblasts but do not form reproducible plaques on continuous cell culture lines. We tested medium overlay modifications for plaque formation of typhus group rickettsiae on the continuous fibroblast cell line Vero76. A procedure involving primary overlay with medium at pH 6.8, which was followed 2 to 3 days later with secondary overlay at neutral pH containing 1 microgram of emetine per ml and 20 micrograms of NaF per ml, resulted in visible plaques at 7 to 10 days postinfection. A single-step procedure involving overlay with medium containing 50 ng of dextran sulfate per ml also resulted in plaque formation within 8 days postinfection. These assays represent reproducible and inexpensive methods for evaluating the infectious titers of typhus group rickettsiae, cloning single plaque isolates, and testing the susceptibilities of rickettsiae to antibiotics. PMID:8818887

Policastro, P F; Peacock, M G; Hackstadt, T

1996-01-01

365

Effects of dietary flaxseed on atherosclerotic plaque regression.  

PubMed

Dietary flaxseed can retard the progression of atherosclerotic plaques. However, it remains unclear whether these antiatherogenic effects extend to plaque regression. In the present study, the therapeutic potential of dietary flaxseed on atherosclerotic plaque regression and vascular contractile function was evaluated using a novel rabbit model. Rabbits were randomly assigned to receive either a regular diet for 12 wk (group I) or a 1% cholesterol-supplemented diet for 4 wk followed by a regular diet for 8 wk (group II). The remaining experimental animals were treated as in group II but were fed for an additional 14 wk with either a regular diet (group III) or a 10% flaxseed-supplemented diet (group IV). Animals in group II showed clear evidence of plaque growth stabilization. Their vessels also exhibited significantly lower norepinephrine-induced contraction and an impaired relaxation response to acetylcholine compared with animals in group I. Dietary flaxseed supplementation resulted in a significant ?40% reduction in plaque formation (P = 0.033). Animals in both groups II and III displayed improved contraction and endothelium-dependent vessel relaxation. Dietary flaxseed is a valuable strategy to accelerate the regression of atherosclerotic plaques; however, flaxseed intervention did not demonstrate a clear beneficial effect on the vessel contractile response and endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation. PMID:23585134

Francis, Andrew A; Deniset, Justin F; Austria, Jose A; LaValleé, Renee K; Maddaford, Graham G; Hedley, Thomas E; Dibrov, Elena; Pierce, Grant N

2013-06-15

366

Phenotypic modulation of macrophages in response to plaque lipids  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review The accumulation of macrophages in the vascular wall is a hallmark of atherosclerosis. The biological properties of atherosclerotic plaque macrophages determine lesion size, composition and stability. In atherosclerotic plaques, macrophages encounter a microenvironment that is comprised of a variety of lipid oxidation products, each of which has diverse biological effects. In this review, we summarize recent advances in our understanding of the effects of plaque lipids on macrophage phenotypic polarization. Recent findings Atherosclerotic lesions in mice and in humans contain various macrophage phenotypes, which play different roles in mediating inflammation, the clearance of dead cells, and possibly resolution. Macrophages alter their phenotype and biological function in response to plaque lipids through the upregulation of specific sets of genes. Interaction of oxidized lipids with pattern recognition receptors and activation of the inflammasome by cholesterol crystals drive macrophages towards an inflammatory M1 phenotype. A new phenotype, Mox, develops when oxidized phospholipids activate stress response genes via Nrf2. Other lipid mediators such as nitrosylated-fatty acids and omega-3 fatty acid-derived products polarize plaque macrophages towards anti-inflammatory and proresolving phenotypes. Summary A deeper understanding of how lipids that accumulate in atherosclerotic plaques affect macrophage phenotype and function and thus atherosclerotic lesion development and stability will help to devise novel strategies for intervention. PMID:21841486

Adamson, Samantha; Leitinger, Norbert

2014-01-01

367

pH Heterogeneity of human and rabbit atherosclerotic plaques; a new insight into detection of vulnerable plaque  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Atherosclerotic plaques are heterogeneous with respect to inflammation, calcification, vascularity, oxygen, and temperature. We hypothesized that they also vary in pH and measured pH in living human carotid endarterectomized atherosclerotic plaques (CEA), Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbit aortas and human umbilical arteries (HUA). Methods and results: We measured pH of CEA of 48 patients, nine WHHL rabbit aortas and

Morteza Naghavi; Reji John; Sameh Naguib; Mir Said Siadaty; Roxana Grasu; K. C Kurian; W. Barry van Winkle; Babs Soller; Silvio Litovsky; Mohammad Madjid; James T Willerson; Ward Casscells

2002-01-01

368

Elevated pleural effusion IL-17 is a diagnostic marker and outcome predictor in lung cancer patients  

PubMed Central

Background Interleukin 17 (IL-17) is a proinflammatory cytokine produced mainly by CD4+ T-lymphocytes and may be important in tumor cell growth and progression. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic value of pleural effusion levels of IL-17 in lung cancer patients with malignant pleural effusion (MPE). Methods Pleural effusion samples were collected from 78 lung cancer patients with MPE and from 45 patients with nonmalignant pleural effusion. Pleural fluid concentrations of IL-17 were measured by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Results Malignant effusion exhibited higher IL-17 levels than nonmalignant effusion (20.49?±?5.27 pg/ml vs. 13.16?±?2.25 pg/ml; P?pleural fluid IL-17 levels below 15 pg/ml had longer overall survival than those patients with higher levels (10.8 months vs. 4.7 months; P?pleural fluid IL-17 level was an independent prognostic factor in lung cancer patients with MPE. Conclusions Measurement of IL-17 levels might be a useful diagnostic and prognostic test for lung cancer patients with MPE. PMID:24887477

2014-01-01

369

Subarachnoid-pleural fistula in a child: the cause and treatment.  

PubMed

Hydrothorax of the cerebrospinal fluid after a subarachnoid-pleural fistula is a rare condition. Subarachnoid-pleural fistula may appear after a trauma at the thoracolumbar vertebral column or iatrogenically after thoracotomy. A two years and four months old boy who was operated because of ganglioneuroblastoma was admitted to hospital due to respiratory distress. The chest roentgenogram obtained two months after thoracotomy, showed a pleural effusion at the left side and a chest tube was inserted. The craniospinal magnetic resonance imagining revealed subarachnoid-pleural fistula and lumbar external cerebrospinal fluid drainage was performed. The chest tube was removed by application of tetracycline between pleural layers. After the patient was discharged, respiratory distress reoccurred after 3 weeks and a chest tube was reinserted due to fluid at the left hemithorax. An external lumbar drainage was reapplied. The location of the fistula was determined by craniospinal magnetic resonance imagining and myelography. The fistula was surgically restored by a posterior approach and laminectomy. The cerebrospinal fluid drainage and chest tube was removed three days and seven days after the operation respectively. The patient was discharged at the 13 days after the operation. During periodical outpatient follow up the patient has no symptoms and is neurologically intact. Subarachnoid-pleural fistulas, usually do not regress spontaneously or respond to conservative methods. Invasive approaches including surgery may be needed to treat patients with subarachnoid-pleural fistulae. PMID:23279024

Karabayir, Nalan; Demirkol, Demet; Al, Isik Odaman; Dolas, Ilyas; Sencer, Altay

2012-12-01

370

Diagnostic accuracy of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interferon-gamma, interlukine-10 and adenosine deaminase 2 in differential diagnosis between tuberculous pleural effusion and malignant pleural effusion  

PubMed Central

Background The current study was performed to investigate the potential biomarkers for the differential diagnosis of tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE) and malignant pleural effusions (MPE). Methods Among ninety patients (n?=?90) involved in the study, 47 with tuberculous pleural effusion aged from 18 to 70 and 43 with secondary malignant pleural effusion aged from 34 to 78. We tested the pleural levels of TNF-?, IFN-? and IL-10 as well as the enzyme activity of ADA2, and then we compared the differential diagnostic efficiencies of those biochemical parameters with ADA between the two groups. Results Our results show that, the concentrations of pleural TNF-? (45.55?±?15.85 ng/L), IFN-? (114.97?±?27.85 ng/L) as well as activities of ADA2 (35.71?±?10.00 U/L) and ADA (39.39?±?10.60 U/L) in tuberculous group were significantly higher compared to malignant group. Furthermore, according to the ROC curve analysis the thresholds of TNF-?, IFN-?, ADA2 and ADA were found to be 30.3 ng/L, 103.65 ng/L, 29.45 U/L, and 39.00 U/L, respectively. TNF-?, IFN-? and ADA2 yielded better sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the diagnosis than ADA. Our investigation further revealed that the combinations of TNF-? and ADA2 further increased the specificity and accuracy for the differential diagnosis. Conclusion In conclusion, we found that TNF-?, IFN-?, ADA and ADA2 all increased in TPE. Combinations of the TNF-? and ADA2 yielded the best specificity and accuracy for the differential diagnosis of TPE from MPE. Our investigation suggests that the applications of TNF-? together with ADA2 may contribute to more efficient diagnosis strategies in the management of discrimination between tuberculous and malignant pleural effusions. PMID:24984978

2014-01-01

371

Transcriptome and proteome analysis of Pinctada margaritifera calcifying mantle and shell: focus on biomineralization  

PubMed Central

Background The shell of the pearl-producing bivalve Pinctada margaritifera is composed of an organic cell-free matrix that plays a key role in the dynamic process of biologically-controlled biomineralization. In order to increase genomic resources and identify shell matrix proteins implicated in biomineralization in P. margaritifera, high-throughput Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) pyrosequencing was undertaken on the calcifying mantle, combined with a proteomic analysis of the shell. Results We report the functional analysis of 276 738 sequences, leading to the constitution of an unprecedented catalog of 82 P. margaritifera biomineralization-related mantle protein sequences. Components of the current "chitin-silk fibroin gel-acidic macromolecule" model of biomineralization processes were found, in particular a homolog of a biomineralization protein (Pif-177) recently discovered in P. fucata. Among these sequences, we could show the localization of two other biomineralization protein transcripts, pmarg-aspein and pmarg-pearlin, in two distinct areas of the outer mantle epithelium, suggesting their implication in calcite and aragonite formation. Finally, by combining the EST approach with a proteomic mass spectrometry analysis of proteins isolated from the P. margaritifera shell organic matrix, we demonstrated the presence of 30 sequences containing almost all of the shell proteins that have been previously described from shell matrix protein analyses of the Pinctada genus. The integration of these two methods allowed the global composition of biomineralizing tissue and calcified structures to be examined in tandem for the first time. Conclusions This EST study made on the calcifying tissue of P. margaritifera is the first description of pyrosequencing on a pearl-producing bivalve species. Our results provide direct evidence that our EST data set covers most of the diversity of the matrix protein of P. margaritifera shell, but also that the mantle transcripts encode proteins present in P. margaritifera shell, hence demonstrating their implication in shell formation. Combining transcriptomic and proteomic approaches is therefore a powerful way to identify proteins involved in biomineralization. Data generated in this study supply the most comprehensive list of biomineralization-related sequences presently available among protostomian species, and represent a major breakthrough in the field of molluskan biomineralization. PMID:21040589

2010-01-01

372

Purification of Matrix Gla Protein From a Marine Teleost Fish, Argyrosomus regius: Calcified Cartilage and Not Bone  

E-print Network

of higher vertebrates and Xenopus. Later reports showed that MGP also accumulated in costal calcified cartilage as well as at sites of heart valves and arterial calcification. Interestingly, MGP was also found of MGP expression or accumulation in teleost fishes, the ancestors of terrestrial vertebrates, who have

Price, Paul A.

373

Calcifying Fibrous ‘Pseudotumor’Clinicopathologic Study of 15 Cases and Analysis of its Relationship to Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcifying fibrous pseudotumor (CFP) has been postulated to be a “late” stage of inlammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT). We analyzed 15 cases (8 females and 7 males; aged 1 to 65 years). The anatomic distribution was wide, including 3 cases each in neck, mesentery\\/omentum, and GI tract and 2 cases each in mediastinum and paratesticular sites. Follow-up information was available in

Alessandra F. Nascimento; Robert Ruiz; Jason L. Hornick; Christopher D. M. Fletcher

2002-01-01

374

Eocene Green River Formation “ Oocardium tufa” reinterpreted as complex arrays of calcified caddisfly (Insecta: Trichoptera) larval cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fossil caddisfly (Insecta: Trichoptera) larval cases are preserved in some Eocene Green River Formation tufa, and well organized arrays of these calcified larval cases have been misidentified as “Oocardium tufa”. The arrays of caddisfly larval cases occur as superimposed layers of vertically oriented cases. The cases are parallel to each other, closely packed, equal in size, and are oriented perpendicular

V. Leroy Leggitt; Mark A Loewen

2002-01-01

375

Preoperative ultrasonographic mapping of calcium deposits facilitates localization during arthroscopic surgery for calcifying tendinitis of the rotator cuff  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcifying tendinitis is a relatively common disorder of the rotator cuff. For symptomatic patients, excision of the calcium deposits offers reliable pain relief. The arthroscopic technique is demanding. Arthroscopic localization of the deposit is frequently demanding. The technique described in this article facilitates the localization of calcium deposits based on preoperative ultrasonography. Knowing the exact topography of the deposit relative

S Rupp; R Seil; D Kohn

1998-01-01

376

Isolation and sequence of the vitamin K-dependent matrix Gla protein from the calcified cartilage of the soupfin shark.  

E-print Network

Isolation and sequence of the vitamin K-dependent matrix Gla protein from the calcified cartilage Department of Biology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla. High levels of the vitamin K contains 4 residues of the vitamin K-dependent amino acid gamma- carboxyglutamic acid in its 102 residue

Price, Paul A.

377

First evidence of chitin in calcified coralline algae: new insights into the calcification process of Clathromorphum compactum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interest in calcifying coralline algae has been increasing over the past years due to the discovery of extensive coralline algal dominated ecosystems in Arctic and Subarctic latitudes, their projected sensitivity to ocean acidification and their utility as palaeoenvironmental proxies. Thus, it is crucial to obtain a detailed understanding of their calcification process. We here extracted calcified skeletal organic matrix components including soluble and insoluble fractions from the widely-distributed Subarctic and Arctic coralline alga Clathromorphum compactum. The lyophilized skeletal organic matrix fractions showed comparatively high concentrations of soluble and insoluble organic matrices comprising 0.9% and 4.5% of skeletal weight, respectively. This is significantly higher than in other skeletal marine calcifiers. Attenuated Total Reflection-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) results indicate that chitin is present in the skeletal organic matrices of C. compactum. This polymer exhibits similar hierarchical structural organizations with collagen present in the matrix and serves as a template for nucleation and controls the location and orientation of mineral phases. Chitin contributes to significantly increasing skeletal strength, making C. compactum highly adapted for living in a shallow high-latitude benthic environment. Furthermore, chitin containing polysaccharides can increase resistance of calcifiers to negative effects of ocean acidification.

Rahman, M. Azizur; Halfar, Jochen

2014-08-01

378

[Tuberculous pleural effusion and HIV infection at the pulmonary disease clinic in Abidjan, Ivory Coast].  

PubMed

Clinical, radiographic, biological, histological and pathological data from thirty HIV-infected patients with tuberculous pleural effusion were prospectively collected at the pulmonary disease clinic at the University teaching hospital of Treichville in Abidjan from April to December 1999. Patients mean age was 35 years, ranging from 16 to 79. The white cell count in the serous effusion pleural fluid was high with predominant lymphocytes. Microscopy examination of the aspirate did not show AFB. The Tuberculin Skin Test remained negative for 16 patients (53%). Multiple pleural biopsies showed typical tuberculous follicles in 19 patients (63%) and a non-typical inflammatory reactions in eleven patients (37%). PMID:18166932

Domoua, K; Daix, T; Coulibaly, G; Bakayoko, A; N'Goran, Y; N'Dri, R; Yapi, A

2007-10-01

379

Diffuse pleural thickening in asbestos workers: disability and lung function abnormalities.  

PubMed Central

Data from 37 asbestos workers with diffuse pleural fibrosis have been analysed. None had radiological evidence of asbestosis or physiological evidence of airflow obstruction. Forty per cent had breathlessness of MRC grade 3 or higher. Vital capacity was significantly lower in the subjects in the higher grades of breathlessness and in those with greater radiographic pleural abnormality. No relationship was demonstrated between dust exposure and either radiographic abnormality or grade of breathlessness. Diffuse pleural thickening, particularly when extensive and bilateral, causes functional impairment and disability. PMID:6474388

McGavin, C R; Sheers, G

1984-01-01

380

Role of interventional pulmonology in the management of complicated parapneumonic pleural effusions and empyema.  

PubMed

Pleural infection is a major problem that affects 80?000 cases per year in the UK and USA. It is increasing in incidence, and in an ageing population, it presents a complex challenge that requires a combination of medical therapies and may lead to the need for surgery. This article focuses on the role of the interventional pulmonologist in the diagnosis and management of pleural infection. In particular, we examine the role of pleural ultrasound in diagnostics, thoracocentesis and real-time guided procedures, and the current management strategies, including the controversial role of medical thoracoscopy. PMID:25039299

Breen, David P; Daneshvar, Cyrus

2014-10-01

381

Videothoracoscopy in pleural empyema following methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) lung infection.  

PubMed

Our study shows the different therapeutic procedures in 64 patients with pleural effusion due to MRSA pneumonia. The thoracostomy tube associated with pleural washing was decisive in 10 simple effusion patients. Video-assisted thoracic surgery allowed a complete resolution of the disease in 22 complex parapneumonic effusion patients. In 20 of 32 patients with frank pus in the pleural cavity, the videothoracoscopic insufflation of carbon dioxide (CO2) before thoracotomy facilitated the dissection of the lung tissue. In 12 patients, this approach was not applied because of cardiac insufficiency. Videothoracoscopy and decortication after thoracotomy ensured the recovery of functions. PMID:19649511

Divisi, Duilio; Imbriglio, Giovanna; Crisci, Roberto

2009-01-01

382

Association between Variations in Coagulation System Genes and Carotid Plaque  

PubMed Central

Objective Genetic variation in coagulation and fibrinolysis may affect the development of subclinical atherosclerosis modifying the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease. However, data on the relationship between subclinical atherosclerosis and genes involved in the coagulation system are sparse. The objective of this study is to examine the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in coagulation system genes and subclinical carotid plaque phenotypes. Methods From the Genetic Determinants of Subclinical Carotid Disease study, 287 Dominicans were examined for carotid plaque presence, thickness, and surface irregularity by high-resolution B-mode carotid ultrasound. Logistic regression was used to test for association between 101 SNPs in 23 coagulation system genes and plaque phenotypes while controlling for age, sex, smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes. Within gene haplotypes and interactions between genes were examined. A follow-up of SNPs in moderate to high (r2>0.25) linkage disequilibrium (LD) with those implicated in the discovery analysis (p?0.01) was performed in an independent sample of 301 Dominicans. Results The prevalence of carotid plaque (47% discovery; 46% follow-up) as well as the mean age (65±8 discovery; 65±9 follow-up) of the participants was similar in both datasets. Two genes (vWF and THBS1) were associated (p?0.01) with plaque size and surface irregularity. In followup, 5 SNPs in vWF were associated (p?0.05) with plaque size. SERPINE1 was an additional gene of interest in the haplotype and interaction analyses. Conclusions Variation in the vWF, THBS1, and SERPINE1 gene may play an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic plaque. PMID:22982001

Della-Morte, David; Beecham, Ashley; Dong, Chuanhui; Wang, Liyong; McClendon, Mark S.; Gardener, Hannah; Blanton, Susan H.; Sacco, Ralph L.; Rundek, Tatjana

2012-01-01

383

Thrombosis formation on atherosclerotic lesions and plaque rupture.  

PubMed

Atherosclerosis is a silent chronic vascular pathology that is the cause of the majority of cardiovascular ischaemic events. The evolution of vascular disease involves a combination of endothelial dysfunction, extensive lipid deposition in the intima, exacerbated innate and adaptive immune responses, proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells and remodelling of the extracellular matrix, resulting in the formation of an atherosclerotic plaque. High-risk plaques have a large acellular lipid-rich necrotic core with an overlying thin fibrous cap infiltrated by inflammatory cells and diffuse calcification. The formation of new fragile and leaky vessels that invade the expanding intima contributes to enlarge the necrotic core increasing the vulnerability of the plaque. In addition, biomechanical, haemodynamic and physical factors contribute to plaque destabilization. Upon erosion or rupture, these high-risk lipid-rich vulnerable plaques expose vascular structures or necrotic core components to the circulation, which causes the activation of tissue factor and the subsequent formation of a fibrin monolayer (coagulation cascade) and, concomitantly, the recruitment of circulating platelets and inflammatory cells. The interaction between exposed atherosclerotic plaque components, platelet receptors and coagulation factors eventually leads to platelet activation, aggregation and the subsequent formation of a superimposed thrombus (i.e. atherothrombosis) which may compromise the arterial lumen leading to the presentation of acute ischaemic syndromes. In this review, we will describe the progression of the atherosclerotic lesion along with the main morphological characteristics that predispose to plaque rupture, and discuss the multifaceted mechanisms that drive platelet activation and subsequent thrombus formation. Finally, we will consider the current scientific challenges and future research directions. PMID:25156650

Badimon, L; Vilahur, G

2014-12-01

384

Raised Soluble P-Selectin Moderately Accelerates Atherosclerotic Plaque Progression  

PubMed Central

Soluble P-selectin (sP-selectin), a biomarker of inflammatory related pathologies including cardiovascular and peripheral vascular diseases, also has pro-atherosclerotic effects including the ability to increase leukocyte recruitment and modulate thrombotic responses in vivo. The current study explores its role in progressing atherosclerotic plaque disease. Apoe?/? mice placed on a high fat diet (HFD) were given daily injections of recombinant dimeric murine P-selectin (22.5 µg/kg/day) for 8 or 16 weeks. Saline or sE-selectin injections were used as negative controls. In order to assess the role of sP-selectin on atherothrombosis an experimental plaque remodelling murine model, with sm22?-hDTR Apoe?/? mice on a HFD in conjunction with delivery of diphtheria toxin to induce targeted vascular smooth muscle apoptosis, was used. These mice were similarly given daily injections of sP-selectin for 8 or 16 weeks. While plaque mass and aortic lipid content did not change with sP-selectin treatment in Apoe?/? or SM22?-hDTR Apoe?/? mice on HFD, increased plasma MCP-1 and a higher plaque CD45 content in Apoe?/? HFD mice was observed. As well, a significant shift towards a more unstable plaque phenotype in the SM22?-hDTR Apoe?/? HFD mice, with increased macrophage accumulation and lower collagen content, leading to a lower plaque stability index, was observed. These results demonstrate that chronically raised sP-selectin favours progression of an unstable atherosclerotic plaque phenotype. PMID:24846287

Andrews, Karen L.; Aprico, Andrea; Harris, Emma; Irvine, Jennifer C.; Jefferis, Ann-maree; Fang, Lu; Kanellakis, Peter; Bobik, Alex; Chin-Dusting, Jaye P. F.

2014-01-01

385

Macrophage-targeted photodynamic detection of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rupture of a vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque (VP) leading to coronary thrombosis is the chief cause of sudden cardiac death. VPs are angiographically insignificant lesions, which are excessively inflamed and characterized by dense macrophage infiltration, large necrotic lipid cores, thin fibrous caps, and paucity of smooth muscle cells. We have recently shown that chlorin(e6) conjugated with maleylated albumin can target macrophages with high selectivity via the scavenger receptor. We report the potential of this macrophage-targeted fluorescent probe to localize in VPs in a rabbit model of atherosclerosis, and allow detection and/or diagnosis by fluorescence spectroscopy or imaging. Atherosclerotic lesions were induced in New Zealand White rabbit aortas by balloon injury followed by administration of a high-fat diet. 24-hours after IV injection of the conjugate into atherosclerotic or normal rabbits, the animals were sacrificed, and aortas were removed, dissected and examined for fluorescence localization in plaques by fiber-based spectrofluorimetry and confocal microscopy. Dye uptake within the aortas was also quantified by fluorescence extraction of samples from aorta segments. Biodistribution of the dye was studied in many organs of the rabbits. Surface spectrofluorimetry after conjugate injection was able to distinguish between plaque and adjacent aorta, between atherosclerotic and normal aorta, and balloon-injured and normal iliac arteries with high significance. Discrete areas of high fluorescence (up to 20 times control were detected in the balloon-injured segments, presumably corresponding to macrophage-rich plaques. Confocal microscopy showed red ce6 fluorescence localized in plaques that showed abundant foam cells and macrophages by histology. Extraction data on aortic tissue corroborated the selectivity of the conjugate for plaques. These data support the strategy of employing macrophage-targeted fluorescent dyes to detect VP by intravascular spectrofluorimetry. It may also be possible to use macrophage-targeted PDT to therapeutically modify inflammatory cell-laden VPs leading to plaque stabilization and reduction of sudden cardiovascular death.

Hamblin, Michael R.; Tawakol, Ahmed; Castano, Ana P.; Gad, Faten; Zahra, Touqir; Ahmadi, Atosa; Stern, Jeremy; Ortel, Bernhard; Chirico, Stephanie; Shirazi, Azadeh; Syed, Sakeena; Muller, James E.

2003-06-01

386

Distinguishing benign from malignant pleural effusions by lectin immunocytochemistry.  

PubMed

Since distinguishing malignant from benign cells in pleural effusions can be difficult, with reactive mesothelial cells simulating adenocarcinoma cells, the binding patterns of a battery of lectins on cells in eight benign and eight malignant effusions were studied using the avidin-biotin peroxidase complex method. The following lectins were used: concanavalin A, Dolichos biflorus agglutinin, peanut agglutinin, Phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin, Ricinus communis germ agglutinin, soybean agglutinin, Ulex europeaus agglutinin (UEA) and wheat germ agglutinin. Several patterns of staining were seen with the lectins, but only UEA was helpful in distinguishing between benign and malignant effusions. Sixty percent of the adenocarcinomas stained with UEA, whereas none of the cells in the benign effusions did. These results imply that UEA positivity is indicative of carcinoma and can be useful in separating reactive or atypical mesothelial cells from adenocarcinoma cells. PMID:2473586

Rosen-Levin, E; Patil, J R; Watson, C W; Jagirdar, J

1989-01-01

387

Management of malignant pleural mesothelioma--The European experience  

PubMed Central

Management of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) remains a clinical challenge and the incidence of the disease will continue to increase worldwide. Several aspects of mesothelioma treatment are discussed controversially, in particular, regarding extent and best type of surgery, radiotherapy, and the role of neoadjuvant or adjuvant treatment. However, best survival data is reported from groups using multimodality treatment including macroscopic complete resection (MCR) achieved by either extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP) or (extended) pleurectomy/decortication for patients qualifying from the tumor biology, stage, and patient’s performance status and comorbidities. Several aspects have to be considered during surgery but morbidity and mortality have been reduced at experienced centres. The final analysis of extended selection algorithms is pending. PMID:24868442

2014-01-01

388

Coral calcifying fluid pH dictates response to ocean acidification.  

PubMed

Ocean acidification driven by rising levels of CO2 impairs calcification, threatening coral reef growth. Predicting how corals respond to CO2 requires a better understanding of how calcification is controlled. Here we show how spatial variations in the pH of the internal calcifying fluid (pHcf) in coral (Stylophora pistillata) colonies correlates with differential sensitivity of calcification to acidification. Coral apexes had the highest pHcf and experienced the smallest changes in pHcf in response to acidification. Lateral growth was associated with lower pHcf and greater changes with acidification. Calcification showed a pattern similar to pHcf, with lateral growth being more strongly affected by acidification than apical. Regulation of pHcf is therefore spatially variable within a coral and critical to determining the sensitivity of calcification to ocean acidification. PMID:24903088

Holcomb, M; Venn, A A; Tambutté, E; Tambutté, S; Allemand, D; Trotter, J; McCulloch, M

2014-01-01

389

First report of MRI findings in a case of an autoamputated wandering calcified ovary  

PubMed Central

An autoamputated wandering calcified ovary (AWCO) is an extremely rare cause of abdominal calcification in the pediatric population. We present the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of AWCO in a child. To our knowledge, the MRI features of AWCO have not been previously described in the published literature. Our case report indicates that the MRI findings are characteristic in the diagnosis of an AWCO and can completely obviate the need for invasive procedures in this mostly benign disease. An AWCO should be considered in all cases of mobile calcific opacities on radiographs in female patients. We advise that MRI be conducted in all suspected cases of AWCO for accurate and noninvasive diagnosis, and regular follow-up should be performed with ultrasound. The findings in our case report have the potential to change the course of investigations and management in suspected cases. PMID:24669196

Mahajan, Parag Suresh; Ahamad, Nazeer; Hussain, Sheik Akbar

2014-01-01

390

Establishment and characterization of a primary calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor cell population  

PubMed Central

Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumors (CEOTs) are rare neoplasms derived from dental tissue with the unique characteristic of calcifying amyloid-like material. Objectives To establish primary CEOT epithelial-derived cell populations, investigate the expression of enamel matrix proteins (EMPs), and identify potential ameloblastin (AMBN) and patched I (PTCHI) gene alterations. Materials and Methods A 28-year-old patient with a lesion of the posterior maxilla, radiographically characterized by a radiolucency with well-defined borders containing mixed radiopacities, agreed to participate with informed consent. The patient's biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of CEOT, and a small representative tumor fragment was ascertained for cell culture. Explant cultures were established and used to establish primary cell populations. These were analyzed for morphology, cell proliferation, mineralization activity, expression of epithelial-associated markers (qRT-PCR and immunocytochemistry), and gene mutations of AMBN or PTCHI. DNA was extracted from tumor cells and gene coding and exon–intron boundaries overlapping fragments amplified. PCR products were bidirectional DNA sequenced and compared against reference sequence. Results A CEOT cell population was established and proliferated in culture and could be maintained for several passages. Expression of EMPs, cytokeratin 14 and 17, and patched (PTCHI), as well as ALP activity, was detected. These cells also had the ability to mineralize, similar to the primary tumor. Two AMBN alterations were identified in the sample: c.1323G>A/A441A (rs7680880) and c.1344*+111delA. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms were identified in the PTCHI gene. Conclusions Our data support the establishment of a CEOT-derived cell population, which expresses known epithelial-associated proteins. PMID:24118390

Amm, Hope M.; Rollins, Douglas L.; Ren, Changchun; Dong, Juan; DeVilliers, Patricia; Rivera, Helen; MacDougall, Mary

2014-01-01

391

[Descriptive and immunohistochemical study of ghost cell keratinization in the calcifying odontogenic cyst].  

PubMed

The calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC) or Gorlin cyst is a rare and benign lesion most often intraosseous, although an appreciable number of cases are peripheral. Two histologic entities are described, one being cystic and the other neoplastic. The cystic type may occur as three variants. The occurrence of ghost cells, although shared with calcifying epithelioma of Malherbe, craniopharyngioma and other odontogenic tumors, represents the most conspicuous feature of the COC. Ghost cells are so called because they stain only faintly with common dies, including eosin. Although seldom studied, it is claimed that ghost cells are keratinized. However, this hypothesis is not universally accepted since electron microscopic studies give evidence that ultrastructural features of ghost cells differ from what is observed during the keratinizing process of the epidermis and oral mucosae. The present study, dealing with one case of COC, combines two complementary techniques: one a Rhodamine B keratin specific staining method and the other an immunohistochemical technique based on the use of a primary antiserum directed against high molecular weight keratins. With the Rhodamine B method, ghost cells and orthokeratinized cells of control gingiva are strongly stained while intermediate cells of the COC are less prominent. On the other hand, with the immunohistochemical technique, intermediate mediate cells of the COC are less prominent. On the other hand, with the immunohistochemical technique, intermediate cells of the COC and high level cells of control epithelium react strongly. Ghost cells of the COC are only faintly labelled and orthokeratinized cells of the control gingiva remain unlabelled. In combination with previous histochemical studies, these results confirm the occurrence of a keratinizing process.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2426250

Monteil, R A; Bauduin, D; Marcelet, B

1986-06-01

392

Identifying Vulnerable Plaques with Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rupture of arterial plaques is the most common cause of ischemic complications including stroke, the fourth leading cause of death and number one cause of long term disability in the United States. Unfortunately, because conventional diagnostic tools fail to identify plaques that confer the highest risk, often a disabling stroke and/or sudden death is the first sign of disease. A diagnostic method capable of characterizing plaque vulnerability would likely enhance the predictive ability and ultimately the treatment of stroke before the onset of clinical events. This dissertation evaluates the hypothesis that Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) imaging can noninvasively identify lipid regions, that have been shown to increase a plaque's propensity to rupture, within carotid artery plaques in vivo. The work detailed herein describes development efforts and results from simulations and experiments that were performed to evaluate this hypothesis. To first demonstrate feasibility and evaluate potential safety concerns, finite- element method simulations are used to model the response of carotid artery plaques to an acoustic radiation force excitation. Lipid pool visualization is shown to vary as a function of lipid pool geometry and stiffness. A comparison of the resulting Von Mises stresses indicates that stresses induced by an ARFI excitation are three orders of magnitude lower than those induced by blood pressure. This thesis also presents the development of a novel pulse inversion harmonic tracking method to reduce clutter-imposed errors in ultrasound-based tissue displacement estimates. This method is validated in phantoms and was found to reduce bias and jitter displacement errors for a marked improvement in image quality in vivo. Lastly, this dissertation presents results from a preliminary in vivo study that compares ARFI imaging derived plaque stiffness with spatially registered composition determined by a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) gold standard in human carotid artery plaques. It is shown in this capstone experiment that lipid filled regions in MRI correspond to areas of increased displacement in ARFI imaging while calcium and loose matrix components in MRI correspond to uniformly low displacements in ARFI imaging. This dissertation provides evidence to support that ARFI imaging may provide important prognostic and diagnostic information regarding stroke risk via measurements of plaque stiffness. More generally, the results have important implications for all acoustic radiation force based imaging methods used clinically.

Doherty, Joshua Ryan

393

Angiotensin Receptor Blockade With Candesartan Attenuates Atherosclerosis, Plaque Disruption, and Macrophage Accumulation Within the Plaque in a Rabbit Model  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about whether direct angiotensin receptor blockade can reduce atherosclerosis and plaque disruption. This study evaluated the effect of angiotensin receptor blockade on both the development of atherosclerosis and the disruption of plaque in a modified Constantinides animal model. Methods and Results Twenty-eight New Zealand White rabbits underwent aortic balloon injury followed by a 1% cholesterol diet for 8 weeks. Thirteen rabbits received candesartan at 0.5 mg · kg?1 · d?1 beginning 2 days before aortic balloon injury and continued for the total 8 weeks of the cholesterol diet. The rabbits were then pharmacologically triggered and humanely killed, and their aortas were analyzed. The degree of atherosclerosis was determined by intima-media ratio of the infrarenal portion of the aorta. The frequency of intra-aortic thrombosis, a measure of plaque disruption, and the percentages of macrophage area and collagen-staining area of the plaque were determined. Candesartan-treated rabbits had less atherosclerosis (intima-media infrarenal aorta ratio of 1.18±0.08 versus 1.57±0.08 [mean±SEM] for the placebo group, P<0.001); fewer thrombi (3 of 13 versus 11 of 15; P<0.05); lower percentage area of macrophages to total plaque (18.8±2.7% versus 27±2.5%, P<0.05); and higher collagen to total plaque area (45±3% versus 35±2%, P<0.01). Conclusions These results demonstrate that angiotensin receptor blockade attenuates the degree of atherosclerosis and reduces both plaque disruption and macrophage accumulation while increasing collagen deposition in the aortas of this animal model. PMID:15451796

Perez, Alexandra S.; Nasser, Imad; Stewart, Robert; Vaidya, Anand; Al Ammary, Fawaz; Schmidt, Ben; Horowitz, Gary; Dolgoff, Jennifer; Hamilton, James; Quist, William C.

2010-01-01

394

Multimodal spectroscopy detects features of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early detection and treatment of rupture-prone vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques is critical to reducing patient mortality associated with cardiovascular disease. The combination of reflectance, fluorescence, and Raman spectroscopy-termed multimodal spectroscopy (MMS)-provides detailed biochemical information about tissue and can detect vulnerable plaque features: thin fibrous cap (TFC), necrotic core (NC), superficial foam cells (SFC), and thrombus. Ex vivo MMS spectra are collected from 12 patients that underwent carotid endarterectomy or femoral bypass surgery. Data are collected by means of a unitary MMS optical fiber probe and a portable clinical instrument. Blinded histopathological analysis is used to assess the vulnerability of each spectrally evaluated artery lesion. Modeling of the ex vivo MMS spectra produce objective parameters that correlate with the presence of vulnerable plaque features: TFC with fluorescence parameters indicative of collagen presence; NC/SFC with a combination of diffuse reflectance ?-carotene/ceroid absorption and the Raman spectral signature of lipids; and thrombus with its Raman signature. Using these parameters, suspected vulnerable plaques can be detected with a sensitivity of 96% and specificity of 72%. These encouraging results warrant the continued development of MMS as a catheter-based clinical diagnostic technique for early detection of vulnerable plaques.

Š?epanovi?, Obrad R.; Fitzmaurice, Maryann; Miller, Arnold; Kong, Chae-Ryon; Volynskaya, Zoya; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Kramer, John R.; Feld, Michael S.

2011-01-01

395

Plaque Assay of Rickettsiae in a Mammalian Cell Line  

PubMed Central

Clear-cut and repeatable plaque assays were obtained for three rickettsiae of the spotted fever group (Rickettsia rickettsi, R. conori, and R. montana) in Vero cells used in a manner similar to that for arboviruses. In addition, three typhus group agents (R. typhi, R. canada, R. prowazeki) induced plaques in these cells. In preliminary tests Coxiella burneti (Nine Mile strain) failed to produce plaques. Comparable results were obtained in plastic flasks and plastic culture trays incubated in ambient air with or without addition of N-2-hydroxyethyl-piperazine-N?-2-ethanesulfinic acid buffer. Larger and more well defined R. rickettsi plaques were produced when cultures were overlaid with Leibovitz (L15) medium than with either medium 199 or Eagle medium. Phosphate-buffered saline containing bovine plasma albumin (fraction V), in contrast to brain heart infusion broth, as a diluent for preparing inocula consistently permitted development of larger and more numerous plaques with three agents: R. rickettsi, R. conori, and R. montana. When R. rickettsi and R. typhi were assayed in parallel in primary chicken embryo cultures and Vero cells, comparable results were obtained, but with R. canada results in Vero cells were superior. In contrast, R. prowazeki produced inconsistent results in Vero cells. Images PMID:4208640

Cory, J.; Yunker, C. E.; Ormsbee, R. A.; Peacock, M.; Meibos, H.; Tallent, G.

1974-01-01

396

Uniaxial tensile testing approaches for characterisation of atherosclerotic plaques.  

PubMed

The pathological changes associated with the development of atherosclerotic plaques within arterial vessels result in significant alterations to the mechanical properties of the diseased arterial wall. There are several methods available to characterise the mechanical behaviour of atherosclerotic plaque tissue, and it is the aim of this paper to review the use of uniaxial mechanical testing. In the case of atherosclerotic plaques, there are nine studies that employ uniaxial testing to characterise mechanical behaviour. A primary concern regarding this limited cohort of published studies is the wide range of testing techniques that are employed. These differing techniques have resulted in a large variance in the reported data making comparison of the mechanical behaviour of plaques from different vasculatures, and even the same vasculature, difficult and sometimes impossible. In order to address this issue, this paper proposes a more standardised protocol for uniaxial testing of diseased arterial tissue that allows for better comparisons and firmer conclusions to be drawn between studies. To develop such a protocol, this paper reviews the acquisition and storage of the tissue, the testing approaches, the post-processing techniques and the stress-strain measures employed by each of the nine studies. Future trends are also outlined to establish the role that uniaxial testing can play in the future of arterial plaque mechanical characterisation. PMID:24508324

Walsh, M T; Cunnane, E M; Mulvihill, J J; Akyildiz, A C; Gijsen, F J H; Holzapfel, G A

2014-03-01

397

Infliximab in the treatment of plaque type psoriasis  

PubMed Central

Psoriasis is a chronic and immunomediated skin disease characterized by erythematous scaly plaques. Psoriasis affects approximately 1% to 3% of the Caucasian population. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) is a proinflammatory cytokine that plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Infliximab is an anti-TNF-? drug widely used for the treatment of plaque type psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. Controlled clinical trials demonstrated that infliximab is characterized by a high degree of clinical response in moderate to severe plaque psoriasis. Moreover infliximab showed rapid efficacy in nail psoriasis which represents a therapeutic challenge for dermatologists and a relevant source of distress for patients with plaque psoriasis. This anti-TNF-? has an encouraging safety profile, especially as long as physicians are watchful in prevention and early diagnosis of infections and infuse reactions. The efficacy, tolerability and safety profiles suggest infliximab as a suitable anti-psoriatic drug in the long-term treatment of a chronic disease such as plaque-type psoriasis. PMID:21436966

Saraceno, Rosita; Saggini, Andrea; Pietroleonardo, Lucia; Chimenti, Sergio

2009-01-01

398

Radiolabeled probes for imaging Alzheimer’s plaques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a debilitating disease characterized by the presence of extra-cellular plaques and intra-cellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) in the brain. The major protein component of these plaques is beta amyloid peptide (A?), a 40-42 amino acid peptide cleaved from amyloid precursor protein (APP) by ?-secretase and a putative ?-secretase. We radioiodinated quinoline derivatives (clioquinol and oxine) and evaluated them as potential amyloid imaging agents based on their ability to cross the blood brain barrier (BBB) and on their selectivity to metal binding sites on amyloid plaques. The uptake of theses tracers in the brains of normal swiss-webster mice was rapid and so was the clearance. Selectivity was demonstrated by higher binding to AD brain homogenates compared to normal brain. Autoradiographic studies demonstrated the localization of the tracers in the plaque regions of the AD brain sections as well as in liver tissue with amyloidosis. Further optimization and evaluations would likely lead to development of these molecules as AD plaque imaging agents.

Kulkarni, P. V.; Arora, V.; Roney, A. C.; White, C.; Bennett, M.; Antich, P. P.; Bonte, F. J.

2005-12-01

399

Low Copper and High Manganese Levels in Prion Protein Plaques  

PubMed Central

Accumulation of aggregates rich in an abnormally folded form of the prion protein characterize the neurodegeneration caused by transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). The molecular triggers of plaque formation and neurodegeneration remain unknown, but analyses of TSE-infected brain homogenates and preparations enriched for abnormal prion protein suggest that reduced levels of copper and increased levels of manganese are associated with disease. The objectives of this study were to: (1) assess copper and manganese levels in healthy and TSE-infected Syrian hamster brain homogenates; (2) determine if the distribution of these metals can be mapped in TSE-infected brain tissue using X-ray photoelectron emission microscopy (X-PEEM) with synchrotron radiation; and (3) use X-PEEM to assess the relative amounts of copper and manganese in prion plaques in situ. In agreement with studies of other TSEs and species, we found reduced brain levels of copper and increased levels of manganese associated with disease in our hamster model. We also found that the in situ levels of these metals in brainstem were sufficient to image by X-PEEM. Using immunolabeled prion plaques in directly adjacent tissue sections to identify regions to image by X-PEEM, we found a statistically significant relationship of copper-manganese dysregulation in prion plaques: copper was depleted whereas manganese was enriched. These data provide evidence for prion plaques altering local transition metal distribution in the TSE-infected central nervous system. PMID:23435237

Johnson, Christopher J.; Gilbert, P.U.P.A.; Abrecht, Mike; Baldwin, Katherine L.; Russell, Robin E.; Pedersen, Joel A.; Aiken, Judd M.; McKenzie, Debbie

2013-01-01

400

The vulnerable coronary plaque: update on imaging technologies.  

PubMed

Several studies have been carried out on vulnerable plaque as the main culprit for ischaemic cardiac events. Historically, the most important diagnostic technique for studying coronary atherosclerotic disease was to determine the residual luminal diameter by angiographic measurement of the stenosis. However, it has become clear that vulnerable plaque rupture as well as thrombosis, rather than stenosis, triggers most acute ischaemic events and that the quantification of risk based merely on severity of the arterial stenosis is not sufficient. In the last decades, substantial progresses have been made on optimisation of techniques detecting the arterial wall morphology, plaque composition and inflammation. To date, the use of a single technique is not recommended to precisely identify the progression of the atherosclerotic process in human beings. In contrast, the integration of data that can be derived from multiple methods might improve our knowledge about plaque destabilisation. The aim of this narrative review is to update evidence on the accuracy of the currently available non-invasive and invasive imaging techniques in identifying components and morphologic characteristics associated with coronary plaque vulnerability. PMID:23803753

Rosa, Gian Marco; Bauckneht, Matteo; Masoero, Giovanni; Mach, François; Quercioli, Alessandra; Seitun, Sara; Balbi, Manrico; Brunelli, Claudio; Parodi, Antonello; Nencioni, Alessio; Vuilleumier, Nicolas; Montecucco, Fabrizio

2013-10-01

401

Laser speckle imaging of atherosclerotic plaques through optical fiber bundles.  

PubMed

Laser speckle imaging (LSI), a new technique that measures an index of plaque viscoelasticity, has been investigated recently to characterize atherosclerotic plaques. These prior studies demonstrated the diagnostic potential of LSI for detecting high-risk plaques and were conducted ex vivo. To conduct intracoronary LSI in vivo, the laser speckle pattern must be transmitted from the coronary wall to the image detector in the presence of cardiac motion. Small-diameter, flexible optical fiber bundles, similar to those used in coronary angioscopy, may be incorporated into an intravascular catheter for this purpose. A key challenge is that laser speckle is influenced by inter-fiber leakage of light, which may be exacerbated during bundle motion. In this study, we tested the capability of optical fiber bundles to transmit laser speckle patterns obtained from atherosclerotic plaques and evaluated the influence of motion on the diagnostic accuracy of fiber bundle-based LSI. Time-varying helium-neon laser speckle images of aortic plaques were obtained while cyclically moving the flexible length of the bundle to mimic coronary motion. Our results show that leached fiber bundles may reliably transmit laser speckle images in the presence of cardiac motion, providing a viable option to conduct intracoronary LSI. PMID:19021396

Nadkarni, Seemantini K; Bouma, Brett E; Yelin, Dvir; Gulati, Amneet; Tearney, Guillermo J

2008-01-01

402

Radionuclide imaging - A molecular key to the atherosclerotic plaque  

PubMed Central

Despite primary and secondary prevention, serious cardiovascular events like unstable angina or myocardial infarction still account for one third of all deaths worldwide. Therefore, identifying individual patients with vulnerable plaques at high risk for plaque rupture is a central challenge in cardiovascular medicine. Several non-invasive techniques, such as MRI, multislice computed tomography and electron beam tomography are currently being tested for their ability to identify such patients by morphological criteria. In contrast, molecular imaging techniques use radiolabeled molecules to detect functional aspects in atherosclerotic plaques by visualizing its biological activity. Based upon the knowledge about the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis, various studies in vitro, in vivo and the first clinical trials have used different tracers for plaque imaging studies, including radioactive labelled lipoproteins, components of the coagulation system, cytokines, mediators of the metalloproteinase system, cell adhesion receptors and even whole cells. This review gives an update on the relevant non-invasive plaque imaging approaches using nuclear imaging techniques to detect atherosclerotic vascular lesions. PMID:18582628

Langer, Harald Franz; Haubner, Roland; Pichler, Bernd Juergen; Gawaz, Meinrad

2008-01-01

403

Rayleigh mixture model for plaque characterization in intravascular ultrasound.  

PubMed

Vulnerable plaques are the major cause of carotid and coronary vascular problems, such as heart attack or stroke. A correct modeling of plaque echomorphology and composition can help the identification of such lesions. The Rayleigh distribution is widely used to describe (nearly) homogeneous areas in ultrasound images. Since plaques may contain tissues with heterogeneous regions, more complex distributions depending on multiple parameters are usually needed, such as Rice, K or Nakagami distributions. In such cases, the problem formulation becomes more complex, and the optimization procedure to estimate the plaque echomorphology is more difficult. Here, we propose to model the tissue echomorphology by means of a mixture of Rayleigh distributions, known as the Rayleigh mixture model (RMM). The problem formulation is still simple, but its ability to describe complex textural patterns is very powerful. In this paper, we present a method for the automatic estimation of the RMM mixture parameters by means of the expectation maximization algorithm, which aims at characterizing tissue echomorphology in ultrasound (US). The performance of the proposed model is evaluated with a database of in vitro intravascular US cases. We show that the mixture coefficients and Rayleigh parameters explicitly derived from the mixture model are able to accurately describe different plaque types and to significantly improve the characterization performance of an already existing methodology. PMID:21245004

Seabra, José C; Ciompi, Francesco; Pujol, Oriol; Mauri, Josepa; Radeva, Petia; Sanches, João

2011-05-01

404

Tumor necrosis factor alpha and high sensitivity C-reactive protein in diagnosis of exudative pleural effusion  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Differentiation between exudative and transudative pleural effusions is the initial step in assessment of pleural effusion. The aim of this study was to determine whether high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?) are diagnostic utilities for exudative pleural effusion. METHODS: This experimental study assessed 79 patients with pleural effusion who underwent diagnostic evaluations at Imam Reza hospital, Mashhad, Iran in 2009-2010. The complete biochemical analysis of pleural fluid, pleural fluid culture, and pathological examination of pleural fluid and tissue were performed. Moreover, hsCRP and TNF? concentrations were measured in pleural fluid samples. The data was analyzed by student's t-test and Mann-Whitney test. RESULTS: According to Light's criteria, 50 patients (63.30%) had exudative effusions while 29 subjects (36.70%) had transudative effusion. The pleural fluid concentrations of hsCRP and TNF? were significantly higher in the exudative group than the transudative group (p < 0.05). At a cutoff value of 5 mg/L for hsCRP, the results showed 94% sensitivity and 96.6% specificity. Regarding TNF?, a cutoff value of 12.9 ng/dl represented 96% sensitivity and 93% specificity. CONCLUSIONS: HsCRP and TNF? levels may be considered as beneficial diagnostic factors for detecting exudative effusion in patients with pleural effusion. PMID:22973340

Rezaeetalab, Fariba; Parizadeh, Seyed Mohhamad Reza; Esmaeely, Habibollah; Akbari, Hadi; Akbari, Farzaneh; Saberi, Soheila

2011-01-01

405

Myelomatous pleural effusion as an initial sign of multiple myeloma—a case report and review of literature  

PubMed Central

Objective Discuss and improve the understanding of the clinical characters and diagnostic methods of myelomatous pleurisy, particularly of the patients with pleural effusion as an initial manifestation. Background A 53-year-old male, who had been misdiagnosed as tuberculous pleurisy in a local hospital, was diagnosed as multiple myeloma (MM) with pleural infiltration. We reviewed the literature on clinical manifestations, serum and pleural effusion characters, treatment and diagnostic options of this exceptionally rare presentation of MM. Methods We conducted a search of the published medical literature since 2000 in MEDLINE and PubMed using search criteria [(“pleural effusion” and “MM”) or “myelomatous pleural effusions”]. The search led to 64 case reports, and 16 cases with pleural effusion as an initial manifestation were included in this review. We have also searched for recent advances in diagnosis. Results and conclusions Myelomatous pleurisy is a rare complication of MM. Its clinical and laboratory findings are non-specific. Definitive diagnosis relies on the histopathology of pleural biopsy or pleural effusion. Thoracoscopic pleural biopsy is reliable, safe and effective. Chemotherapy is the mainstay of treatment for myelomatous pleural effusion. However, the response rate is low with an overall median survival time of 4 months. PMID:25093103

Zhang, Li-Li; Hu, Cheng-Ping; Yang, Hua-Ping

2014-01-01

406

Radiological study of pleural changes in relation to mesothelioma in Turkey.  

PubMed Central

In some villages in central Turkey pleural changes occur as a result of environmental exposure to mineral fibres. In most cases the fibre is asbestos but in some cases the non-asbestos fibre erionite, a zeolite, is responsible. The incidence of malignant mesothelioma is much higher in "erionite villages" than in "asbestos villages" despite similar frequencies of pleural changes. In this study chest radiographs from 466 people from asbestos villages, 549 from erionite villages, and 382 controls were compared. The frequency of pleural calcification was about the same in the two groups of villages studied, but the minor fissures were visible to a greater degree in erionite cases. In people from erionite villages "atypical" pleural calcification, due to calcification of the visceral rather than the parietal pleura, was more common. These differences may indicate that the fibres have different lengths and diameters. Images PMID:6879497

Hillerdal, G; Baris, Y I

1983-01-01

407

The V-line: a sonographic aid for the confirmation of pleural fluid  

PubMed Central

Background Ultrasound is being used increasingly to diagnose pathological free fluid accumulation at the bedside. In addition to the detection of peritoneal and pericardial fluid, point-of-care ultrasound allows rapid bedside diagnosis of pleural fluid. Findings In this short report, we describe the sonographic observation of the vertebral or ‘V-line’ to help confirm the presence of pleural fluid in the supine patient. The V-line sign is a result of the fluid acting as an acoustic window to enable visualization of vertebral bodies and posterior thoracic wall, thus confirming the presence of pleural fluid. Conclusions The V-line is a useful sonographic sign to aid the diagnosis of pleural free fluid. PMID:22920298

2012-01-01

408

Intrabronchial Valves for Treatment of Alveolar-Pleural Fistula in a Patient With Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia.  

PubMed

Alveolo-pleural fistula is a common complication of severe pulmonary infection. Some patients require long-term placement of chest tubes until spontaneous closure of the fistula takes place, whereas others require surgical intervention. We report a case of a patient with alveolo-pleural fistula secondary to Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia who was successfully treated with the use of intrabronchial unidirectional valves inserted using flexible bronchoscopy. PMID:25321456

Vicencio, Alfin G; Tozzi, Meghan; Thompson, Cecilia; Satchell, Margaret; Delbello, David; Ting, Andrew; Harkin, Timothy J

2014-10-01

409

Ultrasound-guided pleural puncture in supine or recumbent lateral position - feasibility study  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study is to evaluate feasibility, safety and efficacy of accessing the pleural space with the patient supine or in lateral recumbent position, under constant ultrasonic guidance along the costophrenic sinus. Methods All patients with pleural effusion, referred to thoracentesis or pleural drainage from February 2010 to January 2011 in two institutions, were drained either supine or in lateral recumbent position through an echomonitored cannulation of the costophrenic sinus. The technique is described in detail and an analysis of safety and feasibility is carried out. Results One hundred and one thoracenteses were performed on 76 patients and 30 pigtail catheters were inserted in 30 patients (for a total of 131 pleural procedures in 106 patients enrolled). The feasibility of the procedures was 100% and in every case it was possible to follow real time needle tip passage in the pleural space. Ninety eight thoracenteses (97%) and all catheter drainages were successfully completed. Four thoracenteses were stopped because of the appearance of complications while no pigtail drainage procedure was stopped. After 24 hour follow up, one chest pain syndrome (1.3% of completed thoracenteses) and two pneumothoraces (1.4%) occurred. The mean acquisition time of pleural space was 76 ± 9 seconds for thoracentesis and 185 ± 46 seconds for drainage insertion (p < 0.05). Conclusions This study highlights the safety and efficacy of this technique of real time echo-monitored pleural space puncture, that offers a more comfortable patient position, an easier approach for the operator, a very low rate of complications with short acquisition time of pleural space. PMID:23497643

2013-01-01

410

Role of Common Investigations in Aetiological Evaluation of Exudative Pleural Effusions  

PubMed Central

Background: Pleural effusion is a common problem encountered in daily practice. To Establish aetiology of exudative effusions is a diagnostic challenge to general practitioners and even to pulmonologists especially in resource poor government hospitals with lack of investigations like thoracoscopy. Some recent studies had shown that around 2% of patients remained undiagnosed even after these investigations. Aims and Objective: To evaluate the role of the commonly available investigations such as pleural fluid study, blind pleural biopsy, sputum examination, CT scan thorax, bronchoscopy in the aetiological evaluation of exudative effusions and to ascertain the proportion of cases which remain undiagnosed after all the above investigations. Material and Methods: This was a prospective single-centred cross-sectional study carried out at the NRS Medical College, Kolkata, India from February 2008 to February 2013 which included 568 patients of exudative pleural effusions. We performed commonly available procedures like pleural fluid study, blind pleural biopsy, sputum examination, CT scan thorax, bronchoscopic procedures to the diagnosis. Results: Total number of patients studied were 568. Tuberculosis was the most common cause (54.57%) followed by malignancy (28.17%), empyema (10.56%), parapneumonic effusion (5.28%) and others. Carcinoma of the lung was the commonest cause of malignant effusions and bronchoscopic biopsy was given the highest yield of histological diagnosis (84.6%) followed by CT guided FNAC (77.6%) and pleural fluid cytology (55%). Highest yield to diagnose tubercular effusion was found in lymph node FNAC (81.5%) followed by pleural biopsy (62%). Sputum smear for AFB was positive in only 27.4% cases. Bleeding followed by pneumothorax were the most common complications. Complications are very less (1.3% and 0.9% respectively). 2 patients (0.34%) remained undiagnosed even after these all above said investigations. Conclusion: Above mentioned commonly available investigations can ascertain diagnosis in most of the cases in the aetiological evaluation of exudative effusions and they are relatively safe procedures. PMID:24298481

Maji, Arnab; Maikap, Malay Kumar; Jash, Debraj; Saha, Kaushik; Kundu, Abhijit; Saha, Debabrata; Banerjee, Sourindranath; Patra, Anupam

2013-01-01

411

Hyaluronic Acid Concentration in Pleural Fluid: Diagnostic Aid for Tuberculous Pleurisy  

PubMed Central

Background A high concentration of hyaluronic acid in pleural fluid is suggestive of malignant mesothelioma. However, a relatively high concentration of hyaluronic acid was also seen in the pleural fluid of patients with benign inflammatory diseases. To show the utility of measuring hyaluronic acid levels in pleural fluid to diagnose tuberculous pleurisy, we compared the clinical features and levels of hyaluronic acid in the pleural fluid of patients with and without tuberculous pleurisy. Methods We enrolled 27 patients with infective pleurisy admitted at Teikyo University Hospital from January 2010 to December 2013. Ten patients were diagnosed with tuberculous pleurisy, and 17 with non-tuberculous pleurisy. We reviewed the clinical features and data of all 27 patients and compared the two groups. We analyzed and compared the concentration of hyaluronic acid and adenosine deaminase in their pleural fluid. Results Patients with tuberculous pleurisy tended to have significantly higher concentrations of hyaluronic acid and adenosine deaminase in their pleural fluid (tuberculous pleurisy patients vs. other infective pleurisy patients: hyaluronic acid (× 103 ng/mL); 42.9 ± 23.3 vs. 16.8 ± 17.9, P = 0.003, adenosine deaminase (IU/L); 89.7 ± 33.3 vs. 74.0 ± 90.9, P = 0.032). Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed no significant difference in the area under the curve of hyaluronic acid and adenosine deaminase volumes in pleural fluid, suggesting their equivalent value as major diagnostic tools for tuberculosis pleurisy. Conclusions Hyaluronic acid concentration in pleural fluid can be a valuable tool for the diagnosis of tuberculous pleurisy. PMID:25368701

Yoshino, Yusuke; Wakabayashi, Yoshitaka; Seo, Kazunori; Koga, Ichiro; Kitazawa, Takatoshi; Ota, Yasuo

2015-01-01

412

Malignant pleural mesothelioma forming a huge mediastinal mass and causing atrial fibrillation.  

PubMed

A patient with malignant pleural mesothelioma was admitted with atrial fibrillation. Chest computed tomography showed a huge mediastinal tumor adjacent to the heart. Autopsy revealed a 12×9.5-cm mediastinal mass involving the right lung, which distorted and stretched the myocardial sleeve surrounding the right inferior pulmonary vein. This case demonstrates that advanced malignant pleural mesothelioma can cause atrial fibrillation, possibly by stimulating myocardium around a pulmonary vein. PMID:23455791

Kuwabara, Hiroko; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Inada, Yuki; Shibayama, Yuro

2012-01-01

413

Basal plate plaque: a novel organising placental thrombotic process.  

PubMed

In contrast to thrombi and haematomas at other body sites, thrombi in the placental intervillous space are not traditionally known to undergo organisation. This report presents 11 examples of a form of organising thrombotic process that develops as a plaque on the foetal aspect of the basal plate. Originally identified in the placenta of a foetus showing severe intrauterine growth restriction, further examples of this lesion, which we term a 'basal plate plaque', show a spectrum of placental involvement. Small lesions appear to occur at points of localised stasis at the basal plate (eg, at edges of anchoring villi or in small basal plate depressions). Large areas of involvement, as seen in the original case, may be pathological markers of more generalised disturbances in placental circulation or of hypercoagulability in the intervillous space. Large basal plate plaques may therefore prove to be diagnostically significant and should be reported. PMID:21252255

Fitzgerald, Brendan; Shannon, Patrick; Kingdom, John; Keating, Sarah

2011-08-01

414

Bifurcation analysis of a model for atherosclerotic plaque evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze two ordinary differential equation (ODE) models for atherosclerosis. The ODE models describe long time evolution of plaques in arteries. We show how the dynamics of the first atherosclerosis model (model A) can b