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Sample records for calcified pleural plaques

  1. Association between Randall's Plaque and Calcifying Nanoparticles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Citfcioglu, Neva; Vejdani, Kaveh; Lee, Olivia; Mathew, Grace; Aho, Katja M.; Kajander, Olavi; McKay, David S.; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Stoller, Marshall L.

    2007-01-01

    Randall initially described calcified subepithelial papillary plaques, which he hypothesized as nidi for kidney stone formation. The discovery of calcifying nanoparticles (CNP) in many calcifying processes of human tissues has raised another hypothesis about their possible involvement in urinary stone formation. This research is the first attempt to investigate the potential association of these two hypotheses. We collected renal papilla and blood samples from 17 human patients who had undergone laparoscopic nephrectomy due to neoplasia. Immunohistochemical staining (IHS) was applied on the tissue samples using monoclonal antibody 8D10 (mAb) against CNP. Homogenized papillary tissues and serum samples were cultured for CNP. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis were performed on fixed papillary samples. Randall's plaques were visible on gross inspection in 11 out of 17 collected samples. IHS was positive for CNP antigen in 8 of these 11 visually positive samples, but in only 1 of the remaining 6 samples. SEM revealed spherical apatite formations in 14 samples, all of which had calcium and phosphate peaks detected by EDS analysis. From this study, there was some evidence of a link between the presence of Randall's plaques and the detection of CNP, also referred to as nanobacteria. Although causality was not demonstrated, these results suggest that further studies with negative control samples should be made to explore the etiology of Randall's plaque formation, thus leading to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of stone formation.

  2. [Pleural plaques: when and how to treat?].

    PubMed

    Schaer, B; Michel, Y

    2012-09-26

    Which course of action should be taken during the incidental finding of pleural thickening on chest X-ray? Aftereffect, without consequence, of an injury of the pleura, or potentially serious subclinical pathology? The differential diagnosis is wide, the radiograph nonspecific and the interobserver variability significant. In the absence of epidemiological studies and guidelines, the history and clinical examination remain the main factors in dictating investigations and management. Apical pleural thickening, which is nonspecific in the absence of parenchymal lesions, does not influence treatment recommendations for tuberculosis. Pleural plaques do not appear to increase the risk of cancer associated with asbestos and, thus, do not modify post-exposure follow-up. Incidental finding of pleural thickening remains a gray zone that opens the door to new studies. PMID:23097867

  3. Association between Randall's Plaque and Calcifying Nanoparticles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciftcioglu, Neva; Vejdani, Kaveh; Lee, Olivia; Mathew, Grace; Aho, Katja M.; Kajander, Olavi; McKay, David S.; Jones, Jeff A.; Hayat, Matthew; Stoller, Marshall L.

    2007-01-01

    Randall's plaques, first described by Alexander Randall in the 1930s, are small subepithelial calcifications in the renal papillae (RP) that also extend deeply into the renal medulla. Despite the strong correlation between the presence of these plaques and the formation of renal stones, the precise origin and pathogenesis of Randall s plaque formation remain elusive. The discovery of calcifying nanoparticles (CNP) and their detection in many calcifying processes of human tissues has raised hypotheses about their possible involvement in renal stone formation. We collected RP and blood samples from 17 human patients who had undergone laparoscopic nephrectomy due to neoplasia. Homogenized RP tissues and serum samples were cultured for CNP. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis were performed on fixed RP samples. Immunohistochemical staining (IHS) was applied on the tissue samples using CNP-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb). Randall s plaques were visible on gross inspection in 11 out of 17 collected samples. Cultures of all serum samples and 13 tissue homogenates had CNP growth within 4 weeks. SEM revealed spherical apatite formations in 14 samples, with calcium and phosphate peaks detected by EDS analysis. IHS was positive in 9 out of 17 samples. A strong link was found between the presence of Randall s plaques and the detection of CNP, also referred to as nanobacteria. These results suggest new insights into the etiology of Randall's plaque formation, and will help us understand the pathogenesis of stone formation. Further studies on this topic may lead us to new approaches on early diagnosis and novel medical therapies of kidney stone formation.

  4. Systematic review of pleural plaques and lung function

    PubMed Central

    Kerper, Laura E.; Lynch, Heather N.; Zu, Ke; Tao, Ge; Utell, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Context US EPA proposed a Reference Concentration for Libby amphibole asbestos based on the premise that pleural plaques are adverse and cause lung function deficits. Objective We conducted a systematic review to evaluate whether there is an association between pleural plaques and lung function and ascertain whether results were dependent on the method used to identify plaques. Methods Using the PubMed database, we identified studies that evaluated pleural plaques and lung function. We assessed each study for quality, then integrated evidence and assessed associations based on the Bradford Hill guidelines. We also compared the results of HRCT studies to those of X-ray studies. Results We identified 16 HRCT and 36 X-ray studies. We rated six HRCT and 16 X-ray studies as higher quality based on a risk-of-bias analysis. Half of the higher quality studies reported small but statistically significant mean lung function decrements associated with plaques. None of the differences were clinically significant. Many studies had limitations, such as inappropriate controls and/or insufficient adjustment for confounders. There was little consistency in the direction of effect for the most commonly reported measurements. X-ray results were more variable than HRCT results. Pleural plaques were not associated with changes in lung function over time in longitudinal studies. Conclusion The weight of evidence indicates that pleural plaques do not impact lung function. Observed associations are most likely due to unidentified abnormalities or other factors. PMID:25518994

  5. Focal pleural thickening mimicking pleural plaques on chest computed tomography: tips and tricks.

    PubMed

    Alfudhili, Khalid M; Lynch, David A; Laurent, Francois; Ferretti, Gilbert R; Dunet, Vincent; Beigelman-Aubry, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis of pleural plaques (PPs) is commonly straightforward, especially when a typical appearance is observed in a context of previous asbestos exposure. Nevertheless, numerous causes of focal pleural thickening may be seen in routine practice. They may be related to normal structures, functional pleural thickening, previous tuberculosis, pleural metastasis, silicosis or other rarer conditions. An application of a rigorous technical approach as well as a familiarity with loco-regional anatomy and the knowledge of typical aspects of PP are required. Indeed, false-positive or false-negative results may engender psychological and medico-legal consequences or can delay diagnosis of malignant pleural involvement. Correct recognition of PPs is crucial, as they may also be an independent risk factor for mortality from lung cancer in asbestos-exposed workers particularly in either smokers or former/ex-smokers. Finally, the presence of PP(s) may help in considering asbestosis as a cause of interstitial lung disease predominating in the subpleural area of the lower lobes. The aim of this pictorial essay is to provide a brief reminder of the normal anatomy of the pleura and its surroundings as well as the various aspects of PPs. Afterwards, the common pitfalls encountered in PP diagnosis will be emphasized and practical clues to differentiate actual plaque and pseudoplaque will be concisely described. PMID:26539633

  6. Pleural plaques and risk of cancer in Turin, northwestern Italy. An autopsy study

    SciTech Connect

    Mollo, F.; Andrion, A.; Colombo, A.; Segnan, N.; Pira, E.

    1984-10-01

    The relationship between the occurrence of neoplastic diseases and the presence of pleural plaques was studied in a series of 1097 autopsies performed in Turin from the adult general population. In men, pleural plaques showed an association with the presence of laryngeal, pulmonary, esophageal, and colorectal cancer. Only cancer of the larynx was strongly related to the occurrence of such pleural changes. This autopsy investigation confirms previous observations by others based on x-ray findings, and suggests that pleural plaques may be regarded as risk indicators of possibly asbestos-related tumors in the general population.

  7. Improving visualization of intracranial arteries at the skull base for CT angiography with calcified plaques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Adam; Lee, Chung-Wei; Yang, Chung-Yi; Liu, Hon-Man

    2010-03-01

    Bony structures at the skull base were the main obstacle to detection and estimation of arterial stenoses and aneurysms for CT angiography in the brain. Direct subtraction and the matched mask bone elimination (MMBE) have become two standard methods for removing bony structures. However, clinicians regularly find that calcified plaques at or near the carotid canal cannot be removed satisfactorily by existing methods. The blood-plaque boundary tends to be blurred by subtraction operation while plaque size is constantly overestimated by the bone mask dilation operation in the MMBE approach. In this study, we propose using the level of enhancement to adjust the MMBE bone mask more intelligently on the artery- and tissue-bone/plaque boundaries. The original MMBE method is only applied to the tissue-bone boundary voxels; while the artery-bone/blood-plaque boundary voxels, identified by a higher enhancement level, are processed by direct subtraction instead. A dataset of 6 patients (3 scanned with a regular dose and 3 scanned with a reduced dose) with calcified plaques at or near the skull base is used to examine our new method. Preliminary results indicate that the visualization of intracranial arteries with calcified plaques at the skull base can be improved effectively and efficiently.

  8. Detection of pleural plaques in workers exposed to inhalation of natural fluoro-edenite fibres

    PubMed Central

    RAPISARDA, VENERANDO; LEDDA, CATERINA; RICCERI, VINCENZO; ARENA, FRANCESCO; MUSUMECI, ANDREA; MARCONI, ANDREA; FAGO, LUCREZIA; BRACCI, MASSIMO; SANTARELLI, LORY; FERRANTE, MARGHERITA

    2015-01-01

    Fluoro-edenite is a natural mineral species initially isolated in Biancavilla, Sicily. The fibres are similar in size and morphology to certain amphibolic asbestos fibres, the inhalation of which may cause chronic inflammation and cancer. Occupational asbestos exposure is known to be associated with pleural and lung diseases, including pleural plaques. The aim of this study was to report the pleural and lung parenchymal lesions detected by high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in a group of construction workers exposed to fluoro-edenite. Information regarding life habits and occupational history was collected from 43 workers enrolled into the study. The participants underwent physical examination, blood analysis, search for uncoated fibres and ferruginous bodies in the sputum, pulmonary function tests, including diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (TLCO), and HRCT chest imaging. A general descriptive outcome analysis was also conducted; a prevalence ratio (PR) with 95% confidence interval and a two-tailed test P-value were calculated for pleural plaques using log-binomial regression, measuring plaque size and thickness, and cumulative exposure index (CEI). The mean values of the functional respiratory tests were within the normal range for all participants. A restrictive ventilatory defect was identified in two (5%) subjects and an obstructive ventilatory defect in three (7%) subjects. TLCO was reduced in two additional participants. Fibres were detected in 19 (44%) of subjects. Pleural involvement was documented in 39 (91%) workers, of whom 31 (72%) had bilateral plaques. Calcifications were detected in 25 (58%) of these participants. PR indicated a progressive increase in the risk of developing pleural lesions with rising CEI, i.e. length of exposure. The present findings demonstrate for the first time the presence of pleural plaques in the lungs of subjects exposed to fluoro-edenite fibres, and not to asbestos, through residing in Biancavilla and through their occupation. PMID:26137010

  9. Feature-based characterization of motion-contaminated calcified plaques in cardiac multidetector CT

    SciTech Connect

    King, Martin; Giger, Maryellen L.; Suzuki, Kenji; Pan, Xiaochuan

    2007-12-15

    In coronary calcium scoring, motion artifacts affecting calcified plaques are commonly characterized using descriptive terms, which incorporate an element of subjectivity in their interpretations. Quantitative indices may improve the objective characterization of these motion artifacts. In this paper, an automated method for generating 12 quantitative indices, i.e., features that characterize the motion artifacts affecting calcified plaques, is presented. This method consists of using the rapid phase-correlated region-of-interest (ROI) tracking algorithm for reconstructing ROI images of calcified plaques automatically from the projection data obtained during a cardiac scan, and applying methods for extracting features from these images. The 12 features include two dynamic, six morphological, and four intensity-based features. The two dynamic features are three-dimensional (3D) velocity and 3D acceleration. The six morphological features include edge-based volume, threshold-based volume, sphericity, irregularity, average margin gradient, and variance of margin gradient. The four intensity-based features are maximum intensity, mean intensity, minimum intensity, and standard deviation of intensity. The 12 features were extracted from 54 reconstructed sets of simulated four-dimensional images from the dynamic NCAT phantom involving six calcified plaques under nine heart rate/multi-sector gating combinations. In order to determine how well the 12 features correlated with a plaque motion index, which was derived from the trajectory of the plaque, partial correlation coefficients adjusted for heart rate, number of gated sectors, and mean feature values of the six plaques were calculated for all 12 features. Features exhibiting stronger correlations (|r| set-membership sign [0.60,1.00]) with the motion index were 3D velocity, maximum intensity, and standard deviation of intensity. Features demonstrating stronger correlations (|r| set-membership sign [0.60,1.00]) with other features mostly involved intensity-based features. Edge-based volume/irregularity and average margin gradient/variance of margin gradient were the only two feature pairs out of 12 with stronger correlations that did not involve intensity-based features. Automatically extracted features of the motion artifacts affecting calcified plaques in cardiac computed tomography images potentially can be used to develop models for predicting image assessability with respect to motion artifacts.

  10. Computerized assessment of motion-contaminated calcified plaques in cardiac multidetector CT

    SciTech Connect

    King, Martin; Giger, Maryellen L.; Suzuki, Kenji; Bardo, Dianna M. E.; Greenberg, Brent; Lan Li; Pan Xiaochuan

    2007-12-15

    An automated method for evaluating the image quality of calcified plaques with respect to motion artifacts in noncontrast-enhanced cardiac computed tomography (CT) images is introduced. This method involves using linear regression (LR) and artificial neural network (ANN) regression models for predicting two patient-specific, region-of-interest-specific, reconstruction-specific and temporal phase-specific image quality indices. The first is a plaque motion index, which is derived from the actual trajectory of the calcified plaque and is represented on a continuous scale. The second is an assessability index, which reflects the degree to which a calcified plaque is affected by motion artifacts, and is represented on an ordinal five-point scale. Two sets of assessability indices were provided independently by two radiologists experienced in evaluating cardiac CT images. Inputs for the regression models were selected from 12 features characterizing the dynamic, morphological, and intensity-based properties of the calcified plaques. Whereas LR-velocity (LR-V) used only a single feature (three-dimensional velocity), the LR-multiple (LR-M) and ANN regression models used the same subset of these 12 features selected through stepwise regression. The regression models were parameterized and evaluated using a database of simulated calcified plaque images from the dynamic NCAT phantom involving nine heart rate/multi-sector gating combinations and 40 cardiac phases covering two cardiac cycles. Six calcified plaques were used for the plaque motion indices and three calcified plaques were used for both sets of assessability indices. In one configuration, images from the second cardiac cycle were used for feature selection and regression model parameterization, whereas images from the first cardiac cycle were used for testing. With this configuration, repeated measures concordance correlation coefficients (CCCs) and associated 95% confidence intervals for the LR-V, LR-M, and ANN were 0.817 [0.785, 0.848], 0.894 [0.869, 0.916], and 0.917 [0.892, 0.936] for the plaque motion indices. For the two sets of assessability indices, CCC values for the ANN model were 0.843 [0.791, 0.877] and 0.793 [0.747, 0.828]. These two CCC values were statistically greater than the CCC value of 0.689 [0.648, 0.727], which was obtained by comparing the two sets of assessability indices with each other. These preliminary results suggest that the variabilities of assessability indices provided by regression models can lie within the variabilities of the indices assigned by independent observers. Thus, the potential exists for using regression models and assessability indices for determining optimal phases for cardiac CT image interpretation.

  11. CT Characteristics of Pleural Plaques Related to Occupational or Environmental Asbestos Exposure from South Korean Asbestos Mines

    PubMed Central

    Myong, Jun-Pyo; Lee, Jeong Kyong; Kim, Jeung Sook; Kim, Yoon Kyung; Jung, Soon-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated the CT characteristics of pleural plaques in asbestos-exposed individuals and compared occupational versus environmental exposure groups. Materials and Methods This study enrolled 181 subjects with occupational exposure and 98 with environmental exposure from chrysotile asbestos mines, who had pleural plaques confirmed by a chest CT. The CT scans were analyzed for morphological characteristics, the number and distribution of pleural plaques and combined pulmonary fibrosis. Furthermore, the CT findings were compared between the occupational and environmental exposure groups. Results Concerning the 279 subjects, the pleural plaques were single in 2.2% and unilateral in 3.6%, and showed variable widths (range, 1-20 mm; mean, 5.4 ± 2.7 mm) and lengths (5-310 mm; 72.6 ± 54.8 mm). The chest wall was the most commonly involved (98.6%), with an upper predominance on the ventral side (upper, 77.8% vs. lower, 55.9%, p < 0.001) and a lower predominance on the dorsal side (upper, 74.9% vs. lower, 91.8%, p = 0.02). Diaphragmatic involvement (78.1%) showed a right-side predominance (right, 73.8% vs. left, 55.6%, p < 0.001), whereas mediastinal plaques (42.7%) were more frequent on the left (right, 17.6% vs. left, 39.4%, p < 0.001). The extent and maximum length of plaques, and presence and severity of combined asbestosis, were significantly higher in the occupational exposure group (p < 0.05). Conclusion Pleural plaques in asbestos-exposed individuals are variable in number and size; and show a predominant distribution in the upper ventral and lower dorsal chest walls, right diaphragm, and left mediastinum. Asbestos mine workers have a higher extent of plaques and pulmonary fibrosis versus environmentally exposed individuals. PMID:26357506

  12. [About a case of calcifying fibrous tumor of the pleura].

    PubMed

    Rocas, Delphine; Thivolet-Béjui, Françoise; Tronc, François; Chalabreysse, Lara

    2015-12-01

    Calcifying fibrous tumor is a rare soft tissue benign tumor (OMS 2002). Some pleural localisations are described, which affect slightly older individuals than the other soft tissue forms. The calcifying fibrous tumor is included in the 2004 World Health Organization classification of pleural tumors. A pleural tumor located in the right inferior pulmonary lobe is diagnosed in a 59-year-old man. This pleural tumor is macroscopically well-circumscribed. Histologically, the rare spindle tumoral cells are located between bundles of a collagenous tissue, sometimes hyalinized, with psammomatous or dystrophic calcifications. The tumoral cells have a fibrohistiocytic origin. They stain positively for antibodies against vimentin, factor XIIIa, CD68, CD163, CD34. Antibodies against smooth muscle actin, desmin, PS100, ALK1 and EBV are negative. Main differencial diagnoses are other benign pleural tumors (solitary fibrous tumor, inflammatory myofibroblastique tumor), some malignant tumors (desmoplastic malignant pleural mesothelioma) and pleural pseudotumors (calcified pleural plaques, chronic fibrous pleuritis, amylose, hyalinizing granuloma). Our case is the 15th pleural calcifying fibrous tumor being reported. PMID:26608111

  13. Virtual intravascular endoscopy visualization of calcified coronary plaques: a novel approach of identifying plaque features for more accurate assessment of coronary lumen stenosis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lei; Sun, Zhonghua

    2015-05-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the feasibility of using 3D virtual intravascular endoscopy (VIE) as a novel approach for characterization of calcified coronary plaques with the aim of differentiating superficial from deep calcified plaques, thus improving assessment of coronary stenosis.A total of 61 patients with suspected coronary artery disease were included in the study. Minimal lumen diameter (MLD) was measured and compared between coronary CT angiography (CCTA) (?64-slice) and invasive coronary angiography (ICA) with regard to the measurement bias, whereas VIE findings were correlated with CCTA with respect to the diagnostic performance of coronary stenosis and the area under the curve (AUC) by receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis (ROC).In all 3 coronary arteries, the CCTA consistently underestimated the MLD relative to the ICA (P?calcified plaques compared with CCTA (0.99 vs 0.60, P?calcified plaques, therefore, significantly improving assessment of coronary stenosis. PMID:25929936

  14. Computerized detection of non-calcified plaques in coronary CT angiography: topological soft-gradient detection method for plaque prescreening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jun; Zhou, Chuan; Chan, Heang-Ping; Chughtai, Aamer; Patel, Smita; Agarwal, Prachi; Kuriakose, Jean; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Kazerooni, Ella

    2013-03-01

    Non-calcified plaque (NCP) detection in coronary CT angiography (cCTA) is challenging due to the low CT number of NCP, the large number of coronary arteries and multiple phase CT acquisition. We are developing computervision methods for automated detection of NCPs in cCTA. A data set of 62 cCTA scans with 87 NCPs was collected retrospectively from patient files. Multiscale coronary vessel enhancement and rolling balloon tracking were first applied to each cCTA volume to extract the coronary artery trees. Each extracted vessel was reformatted to a straightened volume composed of cCTA slices perpendicular to the vessel centerline. A new topological soft-gradient (TSG) detection method was developed to prescreen for both positive and negative remodeling candidates by analyzing the 2D topological features of the radial gradient field surface along the vessel wall. Nineteen features were designed to describe the relative location along the coronary artery, shape, distribution of CT values, and radial gradients of each NCP candidate. With a machine learning algorithm and a two-loop leave-one-case-out training and testing resampling method, useful features were selected and combined into an NCP likelihood measure to differentiate TPs from FPs. The detection performance was evaluated by FROC analysis. Our TSG method achieved a sensitivity of 96.6% with 35.4 FPs/scan at prescreening. Classification with the NCP likelihood measure reduced the FP rates to 13.1, 10.0 and 6.7 FPs/scan at sensitivities of 90%, 80%, and 70%, respectively. These results demonstrated that the new TSG method is useful for computerized detection of NCPs in cCTA.

  15. Computerized luminal analysis for detection of non-calcified plaques in coronary CT angiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jun; Zhou, Chuan; Chan, Heang-Ping; Chughtai, Aamer; Patel, Smita; Agarwal, Prachi; Kuriakose, Jean; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Kazerooni, Ella

    2014-03-01

    Non-calcified plaque (NCP) detection in coronary CT angiography (cCTA) is challenging due to the low CT number of NCP, the large number of coronary arteries and multiple phase CT acquisition. We are developing computer-vision methods for automated detection of NCPs in cCTA. A data set of 62 cCTA scans with 87 NCPs was collected retrospectively from patient files. Multiscale coronary vessel enhancement and rolling balloon tracking were first applied to each cCTA volume to extract the coronary artery trees. Each extracted vessel was reformatted to a straightened volume composed of cCTA slices perpendicular to the vessel centerline. A topological soft-gradient (TSG) detection method was developed to prescreen for both positive and negative remodeling candidates by analyzing the 2D topological features of the radial gradient field surface along the vessel wall. A quantitative luminal analysis was newly designed for feature extraction and false positive (FP) reduction. We extracted 9 geometric features and 6 gray-level features, to quantify the differences between NCPs and FPs. The gray-level features included 4 features to measure local statistical characteristics and 2 asymmetry features to measure the asymmetric spatial location of gray-level density along the vessel centerline. The geometric features included a radius differential feature and 8 features extracted from two transformed volumes: the volumetric shape indexing and the gradient direction mapping volumes. With a machine learning algorithm and feature selection method, useful features were selected and combined into an NCP likelihood measure to differentiate TPs from FPs. With the NCP likelihood measure as a decision variable in the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, the area under the curve achieved a value of 0.85+/-0.01, indicating that the luminal analysis is effective in reducing FPs for NCP detection.

  16. Calcified Atherosclerotic Plaque and Bone Mineral Density in Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Carr, J. Jeffrey; Register, Thomas C.; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Lohman, Kurt; Lenchik, Leon; Bowden, Donald W.; Langefeld, Carl D.; Xu, Jianzhou; Rich, Stephen S.; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.; Freedman, Barry I.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the relationships between atherosclerotic calcified plaque (CP) and bone mineral density (BMD) in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). CP in the coronary arteries, carotid bifurcation, and abdominal aorta was measured using computed tomography (CT) in 1,023 diabetic subjects from 453 families. Trabecular volumetric BMD in thoracic (T-vBMD) and lumbar (L-vBMD) spine was measured with quantitative CT (QCT), while areal BMD (aBMD) in the lumbar spine and hip was measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Correlation coefficients were computed to assess the magnitude of associations and generalized estimating equations (GEE1) were used to make statistical inferences while accounting for familial correlation. Subjects were 53.8% female, 85% European American (EA) and 15% African American (AA). After adjustment for age, significant inverse associations between CP and vBMD persisted in EA men (correlations between -0.11 and -0.16, all p < 0.05 with the exception of carotid CP vs. T-vBMD, p=0.076) and in AA women, excluding aortic CP, (correlations between -0.16 and -0.25, all p < 0.05). Estrogen use in AA but not EA women was consistently associated with an inverse relation between CP and vBMD. Significant inverse relationships between CP and vBMD were observed in EA men and AA women with DM2 after adjusting for age and other covariates. QCT determined vBMD was more strongly related to CP than aBMD by DXA. The relation between CP and BMD in diabetes is influenced by age, sex, and ethnicity, with further effect modification by hormone replacement therapy. PMID:17964237

  17. Pleural plaques related to “take-home” exposure to asbestos: An international case series

    PubMed Central

    Peretz, Alon; Van Hee, Victor C; Kramer, Mordechai R; Pitlik, Silvio; Keifer, Matthew C

    2008-01-01

    Context: While a large number of studies indicate the risks of high-level exposures to asbestos in the workplace setting, a relatively small number of studies describe the risk of pleural disease related to “take-home” asbestos brought into the household by workers exposed to asbestos. Consequently, the risk of pleural disease in family members of asbestos-exposed workers is likely underappreciated. Case presentations: Two families of siblings, one in Israel and one in the US, were evaluated because of their significant exposures to asbestos brought into the home by family members with heavy occupational exposures. Two of the four children of an asbestos cement debagger in Petach Tikvah, Israel and two children of a pipe lagger in a naval shipyard near Seattle, Washington, manifested benign pleural disease without parenchymal disease, despite having no occupational exposure to asbestos. Discussion: These cases illustrate that “take-home” asbestos exposure may lead to pleural disease at higher rates than commonly realized. Relevance to clinical practice: Providers should recognize that due to the potential for “take-home” exposures, asbestos-related disease in a patient may be a marker for disease in household contacts. Patients with family members heavily exposed to asbestos should be strongly encouraged to quit smoking in an effort to reduce any further carcinogenic exposures. Additionally, workplace control and regulation of asbestos use should be emphasized to protect both workers and their families. PMID:20428401

  18. North American Erionite-Associated Mesothelioma with Pleural Plaques and Pulmonary Fibrosis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kliment, Corrine R.; Clemens, Kristen; Oury, Tim D.

    2009-01-01

    Erionite, a fibrous zeolite mineral, has been categorized as a class I carcinogenic agent for its causative role in mesothelioma. In select villages in Turkey, erionite is the cause of more than 50% of mesotheliomas. In contrast, in the United States mesotheliomas are frequently associated with asbestos exposure. We describe the first reported case of a patient with erionite-associated pleural mesothelioma with classic pathologic changes typical of asbestos-related pulmonary and pleural pathology. This case report indicates that in addition to Turkey, erionite-associated disease can occur in North America and that subjects with erionite exposure are not only at risk of developing mesothelioma, but may develop interstitial fibrosis and additional pulmonary pathology impacting lung function and patient survival. PMID:19158938

  19. Contrast-enhanced MR imaging of atherosclerosis using citrate-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: calcifying microvesicles as imaging target for plaque characterization

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Susanne; Schnorr, Jörg; Ludwig, Antje; Stangl, Verena; Ebert, Monika; Hamm, Bernd; Taupitz, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the suitability of citrate-coated very small superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (VSOP) as a contrast agent for identifying inflammation in atherosclerotic lesions using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods and results VSOP, which have already been evaluated as a blood pool contrast agent for MR angiography in human clinical trials, were investigated in Watanabe heritable hyper-lipidemic rabbits to determine to what extent their accumulation in atherosclerotic lesions is a function of macrophage density and other characteristics of progressive atherosclerotic plaques. In advanced atherosclerotic lesions, a significant MRI signal loss was found within 1 hour after intravenous administration of VSOP at the intended clinical dose of 0.05 mmol Fe/kg. Histological examinations confirmed correlations between the loss of MRI signal in the vessel wall and the presence of Prussian blue-stained iron colocalized with macrophages in the plaque cap, but surprisingly also with calcifying microvesicles at the intimomedial interface. Critical electrolyte magnesium chloride concentration in combination with Alcian blue stain indicates that highly sulfated glycosaminoglycans are a major constituent of these calcifying microvesicles, which may serve as the key molecules for binding VSOP due to their highly complexing properties. Conclusion Calcifying microvesicles and macrophages are the targets for intravenously injected VSOP in atherosclerotic plaques, suggesting that VSOP-enhanced MRI may render clinically relevant information on the composition and inflammatory activity of progressive atherosclerotic lesions at risk of destabilization. PMID:23450179

  20. Sequencing ancient calcified dental plaque shows changes in oral microbiota with dietary shifts of the Neolithic and Industrial revolutions

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Christina J; Dobney, Keith; Weyrich, Laura S; Kaidonis, John; Walker, Alan W; Haak, Wolfgang; Bradshaw, Corey JA; Townsend, Grant; So?tysiak, Arkadiusz; Alt, Kurt W; Parkhill, Julian; Cooper, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The importance of commensal microbes for human health is increasingly recognized1-5, yet the impacts of evolutionary changes in human diet and culture on commensal microbiota remain almost unknown. Two of the greatest dietary shifts in human evolution involved the adoption of carbohydrate-rich Neolithic (farming) diets6,7 (beginning ~10,000 years BP6,8), and the more recent advent of industrially processed flour and sugar (~1850)9. Here, we show that calcified dental plaque (dental calculus) on ancient teeth preserves a detailed genetic record throughout this period. Data from 34 early European skeletons indicate that the transition from hunter-gatherer to farming shifted the oral microbial community to a disease-associated configuration. The composition of oral microbiota remained surprisingly constant between Neolithic and Medieval times, after which (the now ubiquitous) cariogenic bacteria became dominant, apparently during the Industrial Revolution. Modern oral microbiota are markedly less diverse than historic populations, which might be contributing to chronic oral (and other) disease in post-industrial lifestyles. PMID:23416520

  1. Quantitative analysis of arterial flow properties for detection of non-calcified plaques in ECG-gated coronary CT angiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jun; Zhou, Chuan; Chan, Heang-Ping; Chughtai, Aamer; Agarwal, Prachi; Kuriakose, Jean; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Patel, Smita; Kazerooni, Ella

    2015-03-01

    We are developing a computer-aided detection system to assist radiologists in detection of non-calcified plaques (NCPs) in coronary CT angiograms (cCTA). In this study, we performed quantitative analysis of arterial flow properties in each vessel branch and extracted flow information to differentiate the presence and absence of stenosis in a vessel segment. Under rest conditions, blood flow in a single vessel branch was assumed to follow Poiseuille's law. For a uniform pressure distribution, two quantitative flow features, the normalized arterial compliance per unit length (Cu) and the normalized volumetric flow (Q) along the vessel centerline, were calculated based on the parabolic Poiseuille solution. The flow features were evaluated for a two-class classification task to differentiate NCP candidates obtained by prescreening as true NCPs and false positives (FPs) in cCTA. For evaluation, a data set of 83 cCTA scans was retrospectively collected from 83 patient files with IRB approval. A total of 118 NCPs were identified by experienced cardiothoracic radiologists. The correlation between the two flow features was 0.32. The discriminatory ability of the flow features evaluated as the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.65 for Cu and 0.63 for Q in comparison with AUCs of 0.56-0.69 from our previous luminal features. With stepwise LDA feature selection, volumetric flow (Q) was selected in addition to three other luminal features. With FROC analysis, the test results indicated a reduction of the FP rates to 3.14, 1.98, and 1.32 FPs/scan at sensitivities of 90%, 80%, and 70%, respectively. The study indicated that quantitative blood flow analysis has the potential to provide useful features for the detection of NCPs in cCTA.

  2. Association of egg consumption and calcified atherosclerotic plaque in the coronary arteries: the NHLBI Family Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, Jeremy M.; Petrone, Andrew B.; Ellison, R. Curtis; Hunt, Steven C.; Carr, J. Jeffrey; Heiss, Gerardo; Arnett, Donna K.; Gaziano, J. Michael; Djoussé, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Eggs are a ubiquitous and important source of dietary cholesterol and nutrients, yet their relationship to coronary heart disease (CHD) remains unclear. While some data have suggested a positive association between egg consumption and CHD, especially among diabetic subjects, limited data exist on the influence of egg consumption on subclinical disease. Thus, we sought to examine whether egg consumption is associated with calcified atherosclerotic plaques in the coronary arteries. Methods In a cross-sectional design, we studied 1848 participants of the NHLBI Family Heart Study without known CHD. Egg consumption was assessed by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and coronary-artery calcium (CAC) was measured by cardiac CT. We defined prevalent CAC using an Agatston score of at least 100 and fitted generalized estimating equations to calculate prevalence odds ratios of CAC. Results Mean age was 56.5 years and 41% were male. Median consumption of eggs was 1/week. There was no association between frequency of egg consumption and prevalent CAC. Odds ratios (95% CI) for CAC were 1.0 (reference), 0.95 (0.66-1.38), 0.94 (0.63-1.40), and 0.90 (0.57-1.42) for egg consumption of almost never, 1-3 times per month, once per week, and 2+ times per week, respectively (p for trend 0.66), adjusting for age, sex, BMI, smoking, alcohol, physical activity, income, field center, total calories, and bacon. Additional control for hypertension and diabetes mellitus, or restricting the analysis to subjects with diabetes mellitus or fasting glucose >126 mg/dL did not alter the findings. Conclusions These data do not provide evidence for an association between egg consumption and prevalent CAC in adult men and women. PMID:25642410

  3. Computerized method for evaluating diagnostic image quality of calcified plaque images in cardiac CT: Validation on a physical dynamic cardiac phantom

    SciTech Connect

    King, Martin; Rodgers, Zachary; Giger, Maryellen L.; Bardo, Dianna M. E.; Patel, Amit R.

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: In cardiac computed tomography (CT), important clinical indices, such as the coronary calcium score and the percentage of coronary artery stenosis, are often adversely affected by motion artifacts. As a result, the expert observer must decide whether or not to use these indices during image interpretation. Computerized methods potentially can be used to assist in these decisions. In a previous study, an artificial neural network (ANN) regression model provided assessability (image quality) indices of calcified plaque images from the software NCAT phantom that were highly agreeable with those provided by expert observers. The method predicted assessability indices based on computer-extracted features of the plaque. In the current study, the ANN-predicted assessability indices were used to identify calcified plaque images with diagnostic calcium scores (based on mass) from a physical dynamic cardiac phantom. The basic assumption was that better quality images were associated with more accurate calcium scores. Methods: A 64-channel CT scanner was used to obtain 500 calcified plaque images from a physical dynamic cardiac phantom at different heart rates, cardiac phases, and plaque locations. Two expert observers independently provided separate sets of assessability indices for each of these images. Separate sets of ANN-predicted assessability indices tailored to each observer were then generated within the framework of a bootstrap resampling scheme. For each resampling iteration, the absolute calcium score error between the calcium scores of the motion-contaminated plaque image and its corresponding stationary image served as the ground truth in terms of indicating images with diagnostic calcium scores. The performances of the ANN-predicted and observer-assigned indices in identifying images with diagnostic calcium scores were then evaluated using ROC analysis. Results: Assessability indices provided by the first observer and the corresponding ANN performed similarly (AUC{sub OBS1}=0.80 [0.73,0.86] vs AUC{sub ANN1}=0.88 [0.82,0.92]) as that of the second observer and the corresponding ANN (AUC{sub OBS2}=0.87 [0.83,0.91] vs AUC{sub ANN2}=0.90 [0.85,0.94]). Moreover, the ANN-predicted indices were generated in a fraction of the time required to obtain the observer-assigned indices. Conclusions: ANN-predicted assessability indices performed similar to observer-assigned assessability indices in identifying images with diagnostic calcium scores from the physical dynamic cardiac phantom. The results of this study demonstrate the potential of using computerized methods for identifying images with diagnostic clinical indices in cardiac CT images.

  4. Calcifying nanoparticles associated encrusted urinary bladder cystitis.

    PubMed

    Jelic, Tomislav M; Roque, Rod; Yasar, Uzay; Tomchin, Shayna B; Serrato, Jose M; Deem, Samuel G; Tierney, James P; Chang, Ho-Huang

    2008-01-01

    Encrusted cystitis is a subtype of chronic cystitis characterized by multiple calcifications in the form of plaques located in the interstitium of the urinary bladder mucosa and frequently associated with mucosal ulcers. It is a very rare disease of controversial etiology. Our transmission electron microscopy of the calcified plaques of encrusted cystitis has revealed that the smallest formed particles (elementary units) of these calcifications are electron-dense shells surrounding an electron lucent core, diagnostic of calcifying nanoparticles (previously called nanobacteria). We pioneer the notion that calcifying nanoparticles are the causative agents of encrusted urinary bladder cystitis. PMID:18990947

  5. Pleural effusion

    PubMed Central

    Medford, A; Maskell, N

    2005-01-01

    Pleural disease remains a commonly encountered clinical problem for both general physicians and chest specialists. This review focuses on the investigation of undiagnosed pleural effusions and the management of malignant and parapneumonic effusions. New developments in this area are also discussed at the end of the review. It aims to be evidence based together with some practical suggestions for practising clinicians. PMID:16272233

  6. Pleural effusion

    MedlinePLUS

    ... left in the pleural cavity for a long time to drain the fluid. In some cases, the following may be done: Chemotherapy Putting medication into the chest that prevents fluid from building up again after it is drained Radiation therapy ...

  7. Pleural Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in and out. Disorders of the pleura include Pleurisy - inflammation of the pleura that causes sharp pain ... Viral infection is the most common cause of pleurisy. The most common cause of pleural effusion is ...

  8. Pleural needle biopsy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of the pleural membrane. Pleural biopsy can diagnose tuberculosis , cancer, and other diseases. If a closed pleural ... lung cancer , malignant mesothelioma , and metastatic pleural tumor ) Tuberculosis A disease caused by a virus, fungus, or ...

  9. Pleural fluid smear

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the fluid that has collected in the pleural space. This is the space between the lining of the outside of the ... the chest. When fluid collects in the pleural space, the condition is called pleural effusion .

  10. Pleural fluid analysis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of fluid that has collected in the pleural space. This is the space between the lining of the outside of the ... the chest. When fluid collects in the pleural space, the condition is called pleural effusion .

  11. Detection, modeling and matching of pleural thickenings from CT data towards an early diagnosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaisaowong, Kraisorn; Kraus, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    Pleural thickenings can be caused by asbestos exposure and may evolve into malignant pleural mesothelioma. While an early diagnosis plays the key role to an early treatment, and therefore helping to reduce morbidity, the growth rate of a pleural thickening can be in turn essential evidence to an early diagnosis of the pleural mesothelioma. The detection of pleural thickenings is today done by a visual inspection of CT data, which is time-consuming and underlies the physician's subjective judgment. Computer-assisted diagnosis systems to automatically assess pleural mesothelioma have been reported worldwide. But in this paper, an image analysis pipeline to automatically detect pleural thickenings and measure their volume is described. We first delineate automatically the pleural contour in the CT images. An adaptive surface-base smoothing technique is then applied to the pleural contours to identify all potential thickenings. A following tissue-specific topology-oriented detection based on a probabilistic Hounsfield Unit model of pleural plaques specify then the genuine pleural thickenings among them. The assessment of the detected pleural thickenings is based on the volumetry of the 3D model, created by mesh construction algorithm followed by Laplace-Beltrami eigenfunction expansion surface smoothing technique. Finally, the spatiotemporal matching of pleural thickenings from consecutive CT data is carried out based on the semi-automatic lung registration towards the assessment of its growth rate. With these methods, a new computer-assisted diagnosis system is presented in order to assure a precise and reproducible assessment of pleural thickenings towards the diagnosis of the pleural mesothelioma in its early stage.

  12. Clinical Investigation of Benign Asbestos Pleural Effusion

    PubMed Central

    Fujimoto, Nobukazu; Gemba, Kenichi; Aoe, Keisuke; Kato, Katsuya; Yokoyama, Takako; Usami, Ikuji; Onishi, Kazuo; Mizuhashi, Keiichi; Yusa, Toshikazu; Kishimoto, Takumi

    2015-01-01

    There is no detailed information about benign asbestos pleural effusion (BAPE). The aim of the study was to clarify the clinical features of BAPE. The criteria of enrolled patients were as follows: (1) history of asbestos exposure; (2) presence of pleural effusion determined by chest X-ray, CT, and thoracentesis; and (3) the absence of other causes of effusion. Clinical information was retrospectively analysed and the radiological images were reviewed. There were 110 BAPE patients between 1991 and 2012. All were males and the median age at diagnosis was 74 years. The median duration of asbestos exposure and period of latency for disease onset of BAPE were 31 and 48 years, respectively. Mean values of hyaluronic acid, adenosine deaminase, and carcinoembryonic antigen in the pleural fluid were 39,840?ng/mL, 23.9?IU/L, and 1.8?ng/mL, respectively. Pleural plaques were detected in 98 cases (89.1%). Asbestosis was present in 6 (5.5%) cases, rounded atelectasis was detected in 41 (37.3%) cases, and diffuse pleural thickening (DPT) was detected in 30 (27.3%) cases. One case developed lung cancer (LC) before and after BAPE. None of the cases developed malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) during the follow-up. PMID:26689234

  13. Mechanisms of plaque formation and rupture.

    PubMed

    Bentzon, Jacob Fog; Otsuka, Fumiyuki; Virmani, Renu; Falk, Erling

    2014-06-01

    Atherosclerosis causes clinical disease through luminal narrowing or by precipitating thrombi that obstruct blood flow to the heart (coronary heart disease), brain (ischemic stroke), or lower extremities (peripheral vascular disease). The most common of these manifestations is coronary heart disease, including stable angina pectoris and the acute coronary syndromes. Atherosclerosis is a lipoprotein-driven disease that leads to plaque formation at specific sites of the arterial tree through intimal inflammation, necrosis, fibrosis, and calcification. After decades of indolent progression, such plaques may suddenly cause life-threatening coronary thrombosis presenting as an acute coronary syndrome. Most often, the culprit morphology is plaque rupture with exposure of highly thrombogenic, red cell-rich necrotic core material. The permissive structural requirement for this to occur is an extremely thin fibrous cap, and thus, ruptures occur mainly among lesions defined as thin-cap fibroatheromas. Also common are thrombi forming on lesions without rupture (plaque erosion), most often on pathological intimal thickening or fibroatheromas. However, the mechanisms involved in plaque erosion remain largely unknown, although coronary spasm is suspected. The calcified nodule has been suggested as a rare cause of coronary thrombosis in highly calcified and tortious arteries in older individuals. To characterize the severity and prognosis of plaques, several terms are used. Plaque burden denotes the extent of disease, whereas plaque activity is an ambiguous term, which may refer to one of several processes that characterize progression. Plaque vulnerability describes the short-term risk of precipitating symptomatic thrombosis. In this review, we discuss mechanisms of atherosclerotic plaque initiation and progression; how plaques suddenly precipitate life-threatening thrombi; and the concepts of plaque burden, activity, and vulnerability. PMID:24902970

  14. Ultrasound tissue characterization of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque.

    PubMed

    Picano, Eugenio; Paterni, Marco

    2015-01-01

    A thrombotic occlusion of the vessel fed by ruptured coronary atherosclerotic plaque may result in unstable angina, myocardial infarction or death, whereas embolization from a plaque in carotid arteries may result in transient ischemic attack or stroke. The atherosclerotic plaque prone to such clinical events is termed high-risk or vulnerable plaque, and its identification in humans before it becomes symptomatic has been elusive to date. Ultrasonic tissue characterization of the atherosclerotic plaque is possible with different techniques--such as vascular, transesophageal, and intravascular ultrasound--on a variety of arterial segments, including carotid, aorta, and coronary districts. The image analysis can be based on visual, video-densitometric or radiofrequency methods and identifies three distinct textural patterns: hypo-echoic (corresponding to lipid- and hemorrhage-rich plaque), iso- or moderately hyper-echoic (fibrotic or fibro-fatty plaque), and markedly hyperechoic with shadowing (calcific plaque). Hypoechoic or dishomogeneous plaques, with spotty microcalcification and large plaque burden, with plaque neovascularization and surface irregularities by contrast-enhanced ultrasound, are more prone to clinical complications than hyperechoic, extensively calcified, homogeneous plaques with limited plaque burden, smooth luminal plaque surface and absence of neovascularization. Plaque ultrasound morphology is important, along with plaque geometry, in determining the atherosclerotic prognostic burden in the individual patient. New quantitative methods beyond backscatter (to include speed of sound, attenuation, strain, temperature, and high order statistics) are under development to evaluate vascular tissues. Although not yet ready for widespread clinical use, tissue characterization is listed by the American Society of Echocardiography roadmap to 2020 as one of the most promising fields of application in cardiovascular ultrasound imaging, offering unique opportunities for the early detection and treatment of atherosclerotic disease. PMID:25950760

  15. A case of multiple pleural cryptococcosis without pleural effusion

    PubMed Central

    Takahagi, Akihiro; Tao, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Tatsuro; Yoshiyama, Koichi; Furukawa, Masashi; Yoshida, Kumiko; Murakami, Tomoyuki; Okabe, Kazunori

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary cryptococcosis is most likely to occur in immunocompromised patients. The radiological manifestations generally include pulmonary parenchymal lesions, namely, pulmonary nodules, cavitary lesions, and consolidation; thus, multiple pleural nodules are unusual presentation. Here, we report a woman who presented with multiple pleural cryptococcosis without pleural effusion. The patient had previously undergone surgery for stage II rectal cancer. In addition, she received 6 cycles of chemotherapy for follicular lymphoma. Computed tomography (CT) revealed multiple small nodules involving the pleura without pleural effusion, which suggested possible recurrence of rectal cancer or malignant lymphoma as pleural dissemination. Thoracoscopic examination was performed, and pleural cryptococcosis was diagnosed. Although pleural cryptococcosis without pleural effusion is extremely rare presentation, clinicians should consider it when an immunocompromised patient presents with multiple pleural nodules. Thoracoscopic exploration should be the best procedure for the definitive diagnosis of multiple pleural nodules. PMID:26623138

  16. Aortic Distensibility and its Relationship to Coronary and Thoracic Atherosclerosis Plaque and Morphology by MDCT: Insights from the ROMICAT Trial

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Emily; Thai, Wai-Ee; Techasith, Tust; Major, Gyongyi; Szymonifka, Jackie; Tawakol, Ahmed; Nagurney, John T.; Hoffmann, Udo; Truong, Quynh A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Multi-detector cardiac computed tomography (CT) allows for simultaneous assessment of aortic distensibility (AD), coronary atherosclerosis, and thoracic aortic atherosclerosis. Objectives We sought to determine the relationship of AD to the presence and morphological features in coronary and thoracic atherosclerosis. Methods In 293 patients (53±12 years, 63% male), retrospectively-gated MDCT were performed. We measured intraluminal aortic areas across 10 phases of the cardiac cycle (multiphase reformation 10% increments) at pre-defined locations to calculate the ascending, descending, and local AD (at locations of thoracic plaque). AD was calculated as maximum change in area/(minimum area × pulse pressure). Coronary and thoracic plaques were categorized as calcified, mixed, or non-calcified. Results Ascending and descending AD were lower in patients with any coronary plaque, calcified or mixed plaque than those without (all p<0.0001) but not with non-calcified coronary plaque (p?0.46). Per 1 mmHg?110?3 increase in ascending and descending AD, there was an 18–29% adjusted risk reduction for having any coronary, calcified plaque, or mixed coronary plaque (ascending AD only) (all p?0.04). AD was not associated with non-calcified coronary plaque or when age was added to the models (all p>0.39). Local AD was lower at locations of calcified and mixed thoracic plaque when compared to non-calcified thoracic atherosclerosis (p<0.04). Conclusions A stiffer, less distensible aorta is associated with coronary and thoracic atherosclerosis, particularly in the presence of calcified and mixed plaques, suggesting that the mechanism of atherosclerosis in small and large vessels is similar and influenced by advancing age. PMID:22578738

  17. Association of Aortic Valve Calcification to the Presence, Extent, and Composition of Coronary Artery Plaque Burden: ROMICAT Study

    PubMed Central

    Mahabadi, Amir A.; Bamberg, Fabian; Toepker, Michael; Schlett, Christopher L.; Rogers, Ian S.; Nagurney, John T.; Brady, Thomas J.; Hoffmann, Udo; Truong, Quynh A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Aortic valve calcification (AVC) is associated with cardiovascular risk factors and coronary artery calcification. We sought to determine whether AVC is associated with the presence and extent of overall plaque burden, as well as to plaque composition (calcified, mixed, and non-calcified). Methods We examined 357 subjects (mean age: 53 ± 12 years, 61% male) who underwent contrast-enhanced ECG-gated 64-slice multi-detector computed tomography from the ROMICAT trial for the assessment of presence and extent of coronary plaque burden according to the 17-coronary segment model and presence of AVC. Results Patients with AVC (n=37, 10%) were more likely than those without AVC (n=320, 90%) to have coexisting presence of any coronary plaque (89% vs. 46%, p<0.001) and had a greater extent of coronary plaque burden (6.4 segments vs. 1.8 segments, p<0.001). Those with AVC had over 3-fold increase odds of having any plaque (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 3.6, p=0.047) and an increase of 2.5 segments of plaque (p<0.001) as compared to those without AVC. When stratified by plaque composition, AVC was associated most with calcified plaque (OR 5.2, p=0.004), then mixed plaque (OR 3.2, p=0.02), but not with non-calcified plaque (p=0.96). Conclusion AVC is associated with the presence and greater extent of coronary artery plaque burden and may be part of the later stages of the atherosclerosis process, as its relation is strongest with calcified plaque, less with mixed plaque, and nonsignificant with non-calcified plaque. If AVC is present, consideration for aggressive medical therapy may be warranted. PMID:19781415

  18. Pleural Fluid Analysis Test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and may include: Milky appearance may point to lymphatic system involvement. Reddish pleural fluid may indicate the presence ... or malignancy. Triglyceride levels may be increased with lymphatic system involvement. Tumor markers may be increased with some ...

  19. Calcified cerebral cryptococcal granuloma.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jing-Qi; Tao, Xiao-Feng; Bao, Wei-Qun; Hao, Nan-Xin; Wu, Xiang-Ru

    2013-04-01

    The authors report a 12-mo-old girl with calcified cerebral cryptococcal granuloma. She was admitted with a 6-mo history of seizures. Laboratory examinations showed no abnormal findings. Electroencephalography revealed bilateral slow wave activity, greater in the right occipital region. CT showed an irregular calcified focus with small surrounding low density in the right parieto-occipital region. MRI demonstrated mixed signals without edema and visible flow-voids. The clinical symptoms mimicked intracranial vascular malformations. The diagnosis of cerebral cryptococcal granuloma was made by histopathology. Partial resection of the lesion with post-operatively antifungal and anticonvulsant therapy offered the satisfactory result. Cerebral cryptococcal granuloma is extremely rare, especially in infants. Calcification is indeed unusual. Cerebral cryptococcal granuloma should be included in the differential diagnosis of intracranial mass with calcification in infants. PMID:22544674

  20. Early relapsing calcified cerebral embolism.

    PubMed

    Cerase, Alfonso; Grazzini, Irene

    2015-05-01

    Calcified cerebral emboli are rarely reported, but may be recurrent and devastating. Misdiagnosis at interpretation of initial brain computed tomography (CT) scan may occur in up to 27% of cases. The purpose of this case report was to describe clinical, CT, and CT angiography findings in a 79-year-old woman undergoing early recurrent stroke from calcified cerebral embolism. Neuroradiology should not overlook calcified cerebral embolism, and this confirms the role of CT in the assessment of stroke. PMID:25817624

  1. Pleurisy and Other Pleural Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Are Pleurisy and Other Pleural Disorders? Pleurisy (PLUR-ih-se) is a condition in ... conditions can cause pleurisy, including viral infections. Other Pleural Disorders Pneumothorax Air or gas can build up in ...

  2. Simulation of human atherosclerotic femoral plaque tissue: the influence of plaque material model on numerical results

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Due to the limited number of experimental studies that mechanically characterise human atherosclerotic plaque tissue from the femoral arteries, a recent trend has emerged in current literature whereby one set of material data based on aortic plaque tissue is employed to numerically represent diseased femoral artery tissue. This study aims to generate novel vessel-appropriate material models for femoral plaque tissue and assess the influence of using material models based on experimental data generated from aortic plaque testing to represent diseased femoral arterial tissue. Methods Novel material models based on experimental data generated from testing of atherosclerotic femoral artery tissue are developed and a computational analysis of the revascularisation of a quarter model idealised diseased femoral artery from a 90% diameter stenosis to a 10% diameter stenosis is performed using these novel material models. The simulation is also performed using material models based on experimental data obtained from aortic plaque testing in order to examine the effect of employing vessel appropriate material models versus those currently employed in literature to represent femoral plaque tissue. Results Simulations that employ material models based on atherosclerotic aortic tissue exhibit much higher maximum principal stresses within the plaque than simulations that employ material models based on atherosclerotic femoral tissue. Specifically, employing a material model based on calcified aortic tissue, instead of one based on heavily calcified femoral tissue, to represent diseased femoral arterial vessels results in a 487 fold increase in maximum principal stress within the plaque at a depth of 0.8 mm from the lumen. Conclusions Large differences are induced on numerical results as a consequence of employing material models based on aortic plaque, in place of material models based on femoral plaque, to represent a diseased femoral vessel. Due to these large discrepancies, future studies should seek to employ vessel-appropriate material models to simulate the response of diseased femoral tissue in order to obtain the most accurate numerical results. PMID:25602515

  3. Calcified retroperitoneal fibroma.

    PubMed

    Illuminati, G; Bertagni, A; Montesano, G; Soda, G; Baiocchini, A; Melis, M; Vietri, F

    1997-01-01

    A case of 31-year-old male with a retroperitoneal tumor is described. Abdominal ultrasound revealed a left para-aortic calcific mass, adjacent to the left lobe of the liver and to the upper pole of the left kidney. A CT-scan of the abdomen showed the mass to originate from the left adrenal gland. At operation, a large, retroperitoneal mass, adherent to the left kidney and the spleen, but not infiltrating, was excised. Histologically the tumor was diagnosed as a calcified osteo-producing fibroma. Benign retroperitoneal tumors represent about 25% of all retroperitoneal neoplasm. This reported case represents a retroperitoneal tumor of slow growth and benign clinical course whose characteristic consists of the heavy calcifications which are normally absent in a fibroma type mass. PMID:9558778

  4. Fishbowl Plaques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist

    1998-01-01

    Presents an elementary art activity that successfully teaches the process of slabbing by having students create fishbowl plaques. Explains the process step-by-step beginning with a demonstration to the students along with showing previous examples. Endorses a type of clay that fires white because the glaze colors are much more vibrant. (CMK)

  5. Enrichment of calcifying extracellular vesicles using density-based ultracentrifugation protocol

    PubMed Central

    Hutcheson, Joshua D.; Goettsch, Claudia; Pham, Tan; Iwashita, Masaya; Aikawa, Masanori; Singh, Sasha A.; Aikawa, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Calcifying extracellular vesicles (EVs) released from cells within atherosclerotic plaques have received increased attention for their role in mediating vascular calcification, a major predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, little is known about the difference between this pathologic vesicle population and other EVs that contribute to physiological cellular processes. One major challenge that hinders research into these differences is the inability to selectively isolate calcifying EVs from other vesicle populations. In this study, we hypothesized that the formation of mineral within calcifying EVs would increase the density of the vesicles such that they would pellet at a faster rate during ultracentrifugation. We show that after 10 min of ultracentrifugation at 100,000×g, calcifying EVs are depleted from the conditioned media of calcifying coronary artery smooth muscle cells and are enriched in the pelleted portion. We utilized mass spectrometry to establish functional proteomic differences between the calcifying EVs enriched in the 10 min ultracentrifugation compared to other vesicle populations preferentially pelleted by longer ultracentrifugation times. The procedures established in this study will allow us to enrich the vesicle population of interest and perform advanced proteomic analyses to find subtle differences between calcifying EVs and other vesicle populations that may be translated into therapeutic targets for vascular calcification. Finally, we will show that the differences in ultracentrifugation times required to pellet the vesicle populations can also be used to estimate physical differences between the vesicles. PMID:25491249

  6. Comparison of iodinated contrast media for the assessment of atherosclerotic plaque attenuation values by CT coronary angiography: observations in an ex vivo model

    PubMed Central

    La Grutta, L; Galia, M; Gentile, G; Lo Re, G; Grassedonio, E; Coppolino, F; Maffei, E; Maresi, E; Lo Casto, A; Cademartiri, F; Midiri, M

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the influence of different iodinated contrast media with several dilutions on plaque attenuation in an ex vivo coronary model studied by multislice CT coronary angiography. Methods In six ex vivo left anterior descending coronary arteries immersed in oil, CT (slices/collimation 64×0.625 mm, temporal resolution 210 ms, pitch 0.2) was performed after intracoronary injection of a saline solution, and solutions of a dimeric isosmolar contrast medium (Iodixanol 320 mgI ml?1) and a monomeric high-iodinated contrast medium (Iomeprol 400 mgI ml?1) with dilutions of 1/80 (low concentration), 1/50 (medium concentration), 1/40 (high concentration) and 1/20 (very high concentration). Two radiologists drew regions of interest in the lumen and in calcified and non-calcified plaques for each solution. 29 cross-sections with non-calcified plaques and 32 cross-sections with calcified plaques were evaluated. Results Both contrast media showed different attenuation values within lumen and plaque (p<0.0001). The correlation between lumen and non-calcified plaque values was good (Iodixanol r=0.793, Iomeprol r=0.647). Clustered medium- and high-concentration solutions showed similar plaque attenuation values, signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) (non-calcified plaque: medium solution SNR 31.3±15 vs 31.4±20, high solution SNR 39.4±17 vs 37.4±22; calcified plaque: medium solution SNR 305.2±133 vs 298.8±132, high solution SNR 323.9±138 vs 293±123) and derived contrast-to-noise ratios (p>0.05). Conclusion Differently iodinated contrast media have a similar influence on plaque attenuation profiles. Advances in knowledge Since iodine load affects coronary plaque attenuation linearly, different contrast media may be equally employed for coronary atherosclerotic plaque imaging. PMID:23255542

  7. Tuberculous pleural effusion.

    PubMed

    Ferreiro, Lucía; San José, Esther; Valdés, Luis

    2014-10-01

    Tuberculous pleural effusion (TBPE) is the most common form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in Spain, and is one of the most frequent causes of pleural effusion. Although the incidence has steadily declined (4.8 cases/100,000population in 2009), the percentage of TBPE remains steady with respect to the total number of TB cases (14.3%-19.3%). Almost two thirds are men, more than 60% are aged between 15-44years, and it is more common in patients with human immunodeficiency virus. The pathogenesis is usually a delayed hypersensitivity reaction. Symptoms vary depending on the population (more acute in young people and more prolonged in the elderly). The effusion is almost invariably a unilateral exudate (according to Light's criteria), more often on the right side, and the tuberculin test is negative in one third of cases. There are limitations in making a definitive diagnosis, so various pleural fluid biomarkers have been used for this. The combination of adenosine deaminase and lymphocyte percentage may be useful in this respect. Treatment is the same as for any TB. The addition of corticosteroids is not advisable, and chest drainage could help to improve symptoms more rapidly in large effusions. PMID:24721286

  8. The influence of plaque composition on underlying arterial wall stress during stent expansion: the case for lesion-specific stents.

    PubMed

    Pericevic, Ian; Lally, Caitríona; Toner, Deborah; Kelly, Daniel John

    2009-05-01

    Intracoronary stent implantation is a mechanical procedure, the success of which depends to a large degree on the mechanical properties of each vessel component involved and the pressure applied to the balloon. Little is known about the influence of plaque composition on arterial overstretching and the subsequent injury to the vessel wall following stenting. An idealised finite element model was developed to investigate the influence of both plaque types (hypercellular, hypocellular and calcified) and stent inflation pressures (9, 12 and 15 atm) on vessel and plaque stresses during the implantation of a balloon expandable coronary stent into an idealised stenosed artery. The plaque type was found to have a significant influence on the stresses induced within the artery during stenting. Higher stresses were predicted in the artery wall for cellular plaques, while the stiffer calcified plaque appeared to play a protective role by reducing the levels of stress within the arterial tissue for a given inflation pressure. Higher pressures can be applied to calcified plaques with a lower risk of arterial vascular injury which may reduce the stimulus for in-stent restenosis. Results also suggest that the risk of plaque rupture, and any subsequent thrombosis due to platelet deposition at the fissure, is greater for calcified plaques with low fracture stresses. PMID:19129001

  9. Cytology exam of pleural fluid

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the lungs. This area is called the pleural space. Cytology means the study of cells. ... A sample of fluid from the pleural space is needed. The sample is taken using a procedure called thoracentesis . The procedure is done in the following way: You sit on a ...

  10. The diagnosis of pleural effusions.

    PubMed

    Porcel, José M; Azzopardi, M; Koegelenberg, C F; Maldonado, F; Rahman, N M; Lee, Ycg

    2015-12-01

    Pleural effusions arise from a variety of systemic, inflammatory, infectious and malignant conditions. Their precise etiological diagnosis depends on a combination of medical history, physical examination, imaging tests and pertinent pleural fluid analyses; including specific biomarkers (e.g., natriuretic peptides for heart failure, adenosine deaminase for tuberculosis, or mesothelin for mesothelioma). Invasive procedures, such as pleuroscopic biopsies, may be required for persistently symptomatic effusions which remain undiagnosed after the analysis of one or more pleural fluid samples. However, whenever parietal pleural nodularity or thickening exist, image-guided biopsies should first be attempted. This review addresses the current diagnostic approach to pleural effusions secondary to heart failure, pneumonia, cancer, tuberculosis and other less frequent conditions. PMID:26449328

  11. Association between calcifying nanoparticles and placental calcification

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yanan; Zhang, Dechun; Lu, He; Luo, Shuang; Shen, Xuecheng

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine the possible contribution of calcifying nanoparticles to the pathogenesis of placental calcification. Methods Calcified placental tissues and distal tissue samples were collected from 36 confirmed placental calcification cases. In addition, 20 normal placental tissue samples were obtained as a control group. All the tissue samples were cultured using special nanobacterial culture methods. The cultured calcifying nanoparticles were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and their growth was monitored by optical density (OD) at a wavelength of 650 nm. 16S rRNA gene expression of the cultured calcifying nanoparticles was also isolated and sequenced. Results Novel calcifying nanoparticles wrapped with electron-dense shells between 50 nm to 500 nm in diameter were observed in the extracellular matrix of calcified placental tissues. They were detected in placental villi and hydroxyapatite crystals, and contained “nucleic acid-like materials”. After isolation and four weeks of culture, 28 of 36 calcified placental tissue samples showed white granular precipitates attached to the bottom of the culture tubes. OD650 measurements indicated that the precipitates from the calcified placental tissues were able to grow in culture, whereas no such precipitates from the control tissues were observed. The 16S rRNA genes were isolated from the cultured calcifying nanoparticles and calcified placental tissues, and their gene sequencing results implied that calcifying nanoparticles were novel nanobacteria (GenBank JF823648). Conclusion Our results suggest that these novel calcifying nanoparticles may play a role in placental calcification. PMID:22615531

  12. Pleural involvement in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Giannou, Anastasios D.; Stathopoulos, Georgios T.

    2015-01-01

    The pleural space, a sterile secluded environment in the thoracic cavity, represents an attractive metastatic site for various cancers of lung, breast and gastrointestinal origins. Whereas lung and breast adenocarcinomas could invade the pleural space because of their anatomic proximity, “distant” cancers like ovarian or gastrointestinal tract adenocarcinomas may employ more active mechanisms to the same end. A pleural metastasis is often accompanied by a malignant pleural effusion (MPE), an unfavorable complication that severely restricts the quality of life and expectancy of the cancer patient. MPE is the net “product” of three different processes, namely inflammation, enhanced angiogenesis and vascular leakage. Current efforts are focusing on the identification of cancer cell autocrine (specific mutation spectra and biochemical pathways) and paracrine (cytokine and chemokine signals) characteristics as well as host features (immunological or other) that underlie the MPE phenotype. Herein we examine the pleural histology, cytology and molecular characteristics that make the pleural cavity an attractive metastasis destination for lung adenocarcinoma. Mesothelial and tumor features that may account for the tumor’s ability to invade the pleural space are highlighted. Finally, possible therapeutic interventions specifically targeting MPE are discussed. PMID:26150915

  13. Nanobacteria--propagating calcifying nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kajander, E O

    2006-06-01

    Nanobacteria, also known as calcifying nanoparticles (CNP), are controversial infectious agents not matching the current criteria for 'living organism'. Despite the controversy of their classification, they propagate and cause cell death in vitro and are associated or found in many human diseases. Thus, more efforts should be focussed on research on pathogenicity of CNP. PMID:16706890

  14. Pleural mesothelial cells in pleural and lung diseases

    PubMed Central

    Antony, Veena B.

    2015-01-01

    During development, the mesoderm maintains a complex relationship with the developing endoderm giving rise to the mature lung. Pleural mesothelial cells (PMCs) derived from the mesoderm play a key role during the development of the lung. The pleural mesothelium differentiates to give rise to the endothelium and smooth muscle cells via epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). An aberrant recapitulation of such developmental pathways can play an important role in the pathogenesis of disease processes such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). The PMC is the central component of the immune responses of the pleura. When exposed to noxious stimuli, it demonstrates innate immune responses such as Toll-like receptor (TLR) recognition of pathogen associated molecular patterns as well as causes the release of several cytokines to activate adaptive immune responses. Development of pleural effusions occurs due to an imbalance in the dynamic interaction between junctional proteins, n-cadherin and ?-catenin, and phosphorylation of adherens junctions between PMCs, which is caused in part by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) released by PMCs. PMCs play an important role in defense mechanisms against bacterial and mycobacterial pleural infections, and in pathogenesis of malignant pleural effusion, asbestos related pleural disease and malignant pleural mesothelioma. PMCs also play a key role in the resolution of inflammation, which can occur with or without fibrosis. Fibrosis occurs as a result of disordered fibrin turnover and due to the effects of cytokines such as transforming growth factor-?, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), and basic fibroblast growth factor; which are released by PMCs. Recent studies have demonstrated a role for PMCs in the pathogenesis of IPF suggesting their potential as a cellular biomarker of disease activity and as a possible therapeutic target. Pleural-based therapies targeting PMCs for treatment of IPF and other lung diseases need further exploration. PMID:26150910

  15. An ultrastructural study of calcifying odontogenic cyst, especially calcified material.

    PubMed

    Mimura, Masafumi; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Kimijima, Yutaka; Ichinose, Shizuko; Sasaki, Kodo; Amagasa, Teruo

    2002-06-01

    The ultrastructural features of calcification in a case of calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC) were studied. Scanning electron microscopic examination of the inner parts of the cyst wall revealed many short microvilli, and X-ray microanalysis of the high-density masses in the intercellular parts showed prominent calcium peaks, which meant that these masses were calcified materials. On transmission electron microscopic observations, many calcifications exhibited a distinctive ring formation around the periphery of a central core that consisted of an amorphous structure. These calcifications were observed with necrotic remnants of nuclear material and many identifiable mitochondria, thin fibers, and epithelial cells. The cytoplasm of ghost cells consisted of numerous short electron-dense tonofilament bundles. Needle-like structures were shown in the tonofilament bundles. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the needle-like crystals were hydroxyapatite. It is suggested that calcification in a COC may be related to degenerative mitochondria and tonofilament bundles of ghost cells. PMID:12181653

  16. Feasibility of diagnosing unstable plaque in patients with acute coronary syndrome using iMap-IVUS*

    PubMed Central

    LIU, Jian; WANG, Zhao; WANG, Wei-min; LI, Qi; MA, Yu-liang; LIU, Chuan-fen; LU, Ming-yu; ZHAO, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the plaque composition between stable and unstable plaques, characterize unstable plaque by using iMap-intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), and quantify the diagnostic criteria for unstable plaque. Methods: Thirty-three acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients who had undergone coronary angiography and IVUS from February 19, 2014 to December 19, 2014 at Peking University People’s Hospital were enrolled in the study. Baseline data were collected. The patients were divided into two groups according to their gray-scale IVUS imaging, stable plaque and unstable plaque. A difference-in-difference evaluation was performed using the baseline data and off-line iMap imaging results between the two groups. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was constructed to obtain the optimal cut-off value to diagnose unstable plaque. Results: Percentages of fibrotic and necrotic tissues, absolute values of lipidic, necrotic, and calcified tissues, and plaque burden were independent predictors for unstable plaque. Absolute necrotic area was the best predictor and exhibited the highest diagnostic value for plaque vulnerability (area under the curve (AUC)=0.806, P=0.000, 95% CI (0.718, 0.894)). The cut-off score for predicting unstable plaque was 4.0 mm2. Conclusions: This study attempted to propose a cut-off value based on absolute necrotic area using iMap-IVUS to predict plaque vulnerability in patients with ACS. This score might provide a valuable reference for diagnosing unstable plaque. PMID:26537210

  17. Male Gender and Arterial Hypertension are Plaque Predictors at Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Joselina Luzia Menezes; Hirata, Mario Hiroyuki; Sousa, Amanda Guerra de Moraes Rego; Gabriel, Fabíola Santos; Hirata, Thiago Dominguez Crespo; Tavares, Irlaneide da Silva; Melo, Luiza Dantas; Dória, Fabiana de Santana; Sousa, Antônio Carlos Sobral; Pinto, Ibraim Masciarelli Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Background Systemic Arterial Hypertension (SAH) is one of the main risk factors for Coronary Artery Disease (CAD), in addition to male gender. Differences in coronary artery lesions between hypertensive and normotensive individuals of both genders at the Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography (CCTA) have not been clearly determined. Objective To Investigate the calcium score (CS), CAD extent and characteristics of coronary plaques at CCTA in men and women with and without SAH. Methods Prospective cross-sectional study of 509 patients undergoing CCTA for CAD diagnosis and risk stratification, from November 2011 to December 2012, at Instituto de Cardiologia Dante Pazzanese. Individuals were stratified according to gender and subdivided according to the presence (HT +) or absence (HT-) of SAH. Results HT+ women were older (62.3 ± 10.2 vs 57.8 ± 12.8, p = 0.01). As for the assessment of CAD extent, the HT+ individuals of both genders had significant CAD, although multivessel disease is more frequent in HT + men. The regression analysis for significant CAD showed that age and male gender were the determinant factors of multivessel disease and CS ? 100. Plaque type analysis showed that SAH was a predictive risk factor for partially calcified plaques (OR = 3.9). Conclusion Hypertensive men had multivessel disease more often than women. Male gender was a determinant factor of significant CAD, multivessel disease, CS ? 100 and calcified and partially calcified plaques, whereas SAH was predictive of partially calcified plaques. PMID:25861034

  18. An experimental-nonlinear finite element study of a balloon expandable stent inside a realistic stenotic human coronary artery to investigate plaque and arterial wall injury.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Alireza; Razaghi, Reza; Shojaei, Ahmad; Navidbakhsh, Mahdi

    2015-12-01

    The stresses induced within plaque tissues and arterial layers during stent expansion inside an atherosclerotic artery can be exceeded from the yield stresses of those tissues and, consequently, lead to plaque or arterial wall rupture. The distribution and magnitude of the stresses in the plaque-artery-stent structure might be distinctly different for different plaque types. In this study, the mechanical properties of six healthy and atherosclerotic human coronary arteries were determined for application in plaque and arterial vulnerability assessment. A nonlinear finite element simulation based on an Ogden material model was established to investigate the effect of plaque types on the stresses induced in the arterial wall during implantation of a balloon expandable coronary stent. The atherosclerotic artery was assumed to consist of a plaque and normal arterial tissues on its outer side. The results indicated a significant influence of plaque types on the maximum stresses induced within the plaque wall and arterial wall during stenting but not when computing maximum stress on the stent. The stress on the stiffest calcified plaque wall was 3.161 MPa, whereas cellular and hypocellular plaques showed relatively less stress on their wall. The highest von Mises stresses within the arterial wall were observed on the hypocellular plaque, whereas the lowest stresses were seen to be located in the calcified and cellular plaques. Although the computed stresses on the arterial wall for the calcified and cellular plaques were not high enough to invoke a rupture, the stress on the hypocellular plaque was relatively higher than that of the strength of the arterial wall. These findings may have implications not only for understanding the stresses induced in plaque and the arterial wall, but also for developing surgeries such as balloon-angioplasty and stenting. PMID:25870956

  19. A computational fluid-structure interaction model for plaque vulnerability assessment in atherosclerotic human coronary arteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, Alireza; Navidbakhsh, Mahdi; Razaghi, Reza; Haghpanahi, Mohammad

    2014-04-01

    Coronary artery disease is responsible for a third of global deaths worldwide. Computational simulations of blood flow can be used to understand the interactions of artery/plaque and blood in coronary artery disease and to better predict the rupture of atherosclerotic plaques. So far, the mechanical properties of animals' coronary artery have been mostly used for hemodynamic simulation of atherosclerotic arteries. The mechanical properties of animals' coronary arteries are often not accurate enough and can be only used for an approximate estimation and comparative assessment of the cognate parameters in human. In this study, a three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid-structure interactions model with three different plaque types is presented to perform a more accurate plaque vulnerability assessment for human atherosclerotic plaques. The coronary arteries of twenty-two male individuals were removed during autopsy and subjected to uniaxial tensile loading. The hyperelastic material coefficients of coronary arteries were calculated and implemented to the computational model. The fully coupled fluid and structure models were solved using the explicit dynamics finite element code LS-DYNA. The normal and shear stresses induced within the plaques were significantly affected by different plaque types. The highest von Mises (153 KPa) and shear (57 KPa) stresses were observed for hypocellular plaques, while the lowest von Mises (70 KPa) and shear (39 KPa) stresses were observed on the stiffer calcified plaques. The results suggest that the risk of plaque rupture due to blood flow is lower for cellular and hypocellular plaques, while higher for calcified plaques with low fracture stresses.

  20. Pleural Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenzweig, Kenneth E.; Zauderer, Marjorie G.; Laser, Benjamin; Krug, Lee M.; Yorke, Ellen; Sima, Camelia S.; Flores, Raja; Rusch, Valerie

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: In patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma who are unable to undergo pneumonectomy, it is difficult to deliver tumoricidal radiation doses to the pleura without significant toxicity. We have implemented a technique of using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) to treat these patients, and we report the feasibility and toxicity of this approach. Methods and Materials: Between 2005 and 2010, 36 patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma and two intact lungs (i.e., no previous pneumonectomy) were treated with pleural IMRT to the hemithorax (median dose, 46.8 Gy; range, 41.4-50.4) at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. Results: Of the 36 patients, 56% had right-sided tumors. The histologic type was epithelial in 78%, sarcomatoid in 6%, and mixed in 17%, and 6% had Stage I, 28% had Stage II, 33% had Stage III, and 33% had Stage IV. Thirty-two patients (89%) received induction chemotherapy (mostly cisplatin and pemetrexed); 56% underwent pleurectomy/decortication before IMRT and 44% did not undergo resection. Of the 36 patients evaluable for acute toxicity, 7 (20%) had Grade 3 or worse pneumonitis (including 1 death) and 2 had Grade 3 fatigue. In 30 patients assessable for late toxicity, 5 had continuing Grade 3 pneumonitis. For patients treated with surgery, the 1- and 2-year survival rate was 75% and 53%, and the median survival was 26 months. For patients who did not undergo surgical resection, the 1- and 2-year survival rate was 69% and 28%, and the median survival was 17 months. Conclusions: Treating the intact lung with pleural IMRT in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma is a safe and feasible treatment option with an acceptable rate of pneumonitis. Additionally, the survival rates were encouraging in our retrospective series, particularly for the patients who underwent pleurectomy/decortication. We have initiated a Phase II trial of induction chemotherapy with pemetrexed and cisplatin with or without pleurectomy/decortication, followed by pleural IMRT to prospectively evaluate the toxicity and survival.

  1. Optical density of healthy human arterial vessel wall and atheromatous plaque as a basis for pulsed laser angioplasty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarzmaier, Hans-Joachim; Hennig, Thomas; Betz, Peter; Kaufmann, Raimund; Wolbarsht, Myron L.

    1990-07-01

    Transmissions spectra of healthy human arterial vessel wall (intima, media, adventitia), lipid plaque as well as calcified plaque were obtained from 245 autopsy specimens (25 patients) by znicrospectrophotometry (25 jim sections, wavelength 240 nm - 1070nm). Lipid plaques showed moderately increased optical density over normal tissue in the visible and near infrared spectral range with maximal values in the blue spectral range (440 nm to 530 nm). At these wavelengths, extinction was about a factor of S compared to intima, a factor of 3 higher than in media, and a factor of 7 higher with respect to adventitia. Over the whole spectral range investigated, calcified plaque exhibited a significantly higher optical density compared to all layers of normal vessel wall. The maximum differences were found between 300 and 450 am for intima (6 to 7 fold), between 440 and 1070 for media (3 fold) and above 550am for adventitia (10 to 12 fold).

  2. Pleural calcification in northwest Greece

    SciTech Connect

    Bazas, T.; Oakes, D.; Gilson, J.C.; Bazas, B.; McDonald, J.C.

    1985-12-01

    Mass miniature radiography in 1969 detected a high prevalence of pleural calcification in three villages in northwest Greece. In 1980 a survey of a 15% sample of the population over the age of 10 was carried out with a 80% response rate. Full-size radiographs, ventilatory capacity measurements, and a detailed questionnaire on respiratory symptoms, type of work, and residence were used. Independent classification of the 408 films by two readers using the ILO/UC scheme showed very few small opacities but a very high prevalence of pleural calcification first evident in young adults and rising to 70% in the elderly. The overall prevalence was 34.7% in men and 21.5% in women. A comparison with the 1969 survey showed a progression rate of 5% per annum. In neither sex was there a significant relation of pleural calcification to smoking, ventilatory capacity, nor type of work, though those classified as field croppers had a slightly higher prevalence. There was no obvious evidence of increased lung cancer or mesothelioma in the village. The agent responsible for this apparently benign condition was not identified.

  3. Calcifying Fibrous Tumor of the Gastrointestinal Tract.

    PubMed

    Larson, Brent K; Dhall, Deepti

    2015-07-01

    Calcifying fibrous tumor is a benign mass lesion classically described as a soft tissue tumor. However, a thorough review of the literature reveals that it can occur virtually anywhere, including the tubular gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Its clinical manifestations are variable in the GI tract, and its imaging findings are nonspecific. However, it has unique histologic and immunophenotypical features that must be recognized by GI pathologists to differentiate it from an assortment of other rare mesenchymal lesions of the abdomen and GI tract. Calcifying fibrous tumor is composed of a paucicellular collagen matrix, interspersed calcified bodies, and a sparse inflammatory infiltrate. Although calcifying fibrous tumor is benign, pathologists must be aware that it may occur in the GI tract to differentiate it from other potentially more aggressive, rare mesenchymal lesions. PMID:26125434

  4. A finite element study of balloon expandable stent for plaque and arterial wall vulnerability assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, Alireza; Navidbakhsh, Mahdi; Razaghi, Reza

    2014-07-01

    The stresses induced within plaque tissues and arterial layers during stent expansion inside an atherosclerotic artery can be exceeded from the yield stresses of those tissues and, consequently, lead to plaque or arterial layer rupture. The distribution and magnitude of the stresses in each component involved in stenting might be clearly different for different plaque types and different arterial layers. In this study, a nonlinear finite element simulation was employed to investigate the effect of plaque composition (calcified, cellular, and hypocellular) on the stresses induced in the arterial layers (intima, media, and adventitia) during implantation of a balloon expandable coronary stent into a stenosed artery. The atherosclerotic artery was assumed to consist of a plaque and normal/healthy arterial tissues on its outer side. The results indicated a significant influence of plaque types on the maximum stresses induced within the plaque wall and arterial layers during stenting but not when computing maximum stress on the stent. The stress on the stiffest calcified plaque wall was in the fracture level (2.38 MPa), whereas cellular and hypocellular plaques remain stable owing to less stress on their walls. Regardless of plaque types, the highest von Mises stresses were observed on the stiffest intima layer, whereas the lowest stresses were seen to be located in less stiff media layer. The computed stresses on the intima layer were found to be high enough to initiate a rupture in this stiff layer. These findings suggest a higher risk of arterial vascular injury for the intima layer, while a lower risk of arterial injury for the media and adventitia layers.

  5. How Are Pleurisy and Other Pleural Disorders Diagnosed?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a pleural effusion, fluid buildup in the pleural space will prevent a friction rub. But if you ... buildup of air or gas in the pleural space). Diagnostic Tests Depending on the results of your ...

  6. Are the days of closed pleural biopsy over? Yes

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Dharmesh

    2015-01-01

    In the modern management of pleural diseases, thoracoscopy has a clear advantage over closed pleural biopsy. By way of its high yield, both in malignant pleural disease and pleural Tuberculosis – the two commonest cause of undiagnosed pleural effusion, thoracoscopy has the added advantage of faster symptom relief and offering effective pleurodesis. This makes it an attractive diagnostic and therapeutic procedure of choice and features high in the algorithms of many international guidelines on the approach to pleural diseases.

  7. Relationship between thyroid function and carotid artery plaque ulceration.

    PubMed

    Sevuk, Utkan; Bahadir, Mehmet Veysi; Altindag, Rojhat; Baysal, Erkan; Altintas, Bernas; Yaylak, Baris; Adiyaman, Mehmet Sahin; Ay, Nurettin

    2015-12-01

    Carotid artery plaque ulceration (PU) is known to be associated with cerebrovascular events (CVE). Even within euthyroid ranges, thyroid function has been reported to be associated with carotid atherosclerosis. However, the relationship between thyroid function and carotid PU remains unclear. Our aim was to determine the relationship between thyroid function and PU in patients with internal carotid artery stenosis (ICS). Records of patients with CVE were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 250 consecutive patients with ICS who had computed tomography angiography (CTA) of the carotid arteries following hospitalization were included in the study. CTA was used for the evaluation of carotid artery plaque morphology and ulceration. Plaque morphology was classified as fatty, mixed or calcified. Patients were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of PU. Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) and hypothyroidism were significantly more common in patients with PU (p < 0.001 and p = 0.003, respectively). Patients with PU had higher incidence of low-normal FT4 levels (p = 0.02). Compared with patients who had no PU, patients with PU had decreased FT4 levels and elevated TSH levels (p = 0.001 and p = 0.001, respectively). TSH level (OR 1.33, p = 0.001), SCH (OR 4.2, p = 0.001), hypothyroidism (OR 3.15, p = 0.037), fatty plaque (OR 2.16, p = 0.01) and calcified plaque (OR 0.19, p < 0.001) were independently associated with PU. Our results suggest that SCH and hypothyroidism could be a risk factor for PU and subsequent CVE. Thyroid functions may be useful for risk stratification of patients with ICS. PMID:25672265

  8. Imaging the vulnerable plaque.

    PubMed

    Vancraeynest, David; Pasquet, Agnes; Roelants, Véronique; Gerber, Bernhard L; Vanoverschelde, Jean-Louis J

    2011-05-17

    Cardiovascular diseases are still the primary causes of mortality in the United States and in Western Europe. Arterial thrombosis is triggered by a ruptured atherosclerotic plaque and precipitates an acute vascular event, which is responsible for the high mortality rate. These rupture-prone plaques are called "vulnerable plaques." During the past decades, much effort has been put toward accurately detecting the presence of vulnerable plaques with different imaging techniques. In this review, we provide an overview of the currently available invasive and noninvasive imaging modalities used to detect vulnerable plaques. We will discuss the upcoming challenges in translating these techniques into clinical practice and in assigning them their exact place in the decision-making process. PMID:21565634

  9. Study on calcifying treatments of hydroxyapatite (HAp) using calcifying promotion solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakaki, Moriaki; Yazaki, Syungo; Sunada, Yoshikazu

    2009-02-01

    Apatite is expected to be a useful material for artificial bones in surgery and artificial dental roots in dentistry. In particular, studies have recently been conducted into the reconstruction of teeth using Hydroxyapatite (HAp), and several supplements such as gum have become popular for keeping teeth in good condition. However, the decalcifying and calcifying processes are still not well understood. The aim of this research is to study the decalcifying and calcifying mechanisms of HAp. Specifically, the calcifying treatments were carried out on sintered pellets of HAp without pores using Phosphate Acid Maltodextrin (PMD) and Xylitol calcifying promotion agents. A natural calcifying liquid which simulates the situation within a human mouth was used as a reference. SEM, EDX, X-ray, IR and Raman measurements were used for the characterization of structures, morphologies, formed elements and physical properties. It was confirmed that a precursor material OCP was grown on the HAp pellet by the calcification treatment using each promotion agent.

  10. Pulmonary Silicosis Presents with Pleural Effusion

    PubMed Central

    Salih, Mohsin; Aljarod, Tarake; Ayan, Mohamed; Jeffrey, Melnick; Shah, Bobby H.

    2015-01-01

    Silica and silicate mineral dust inhalation can cause a variety of histopathological changes in the lungs and pleura. These include pulmonary silicotic nodules, interstitial infiltrate, fibrosis, and pleural thickening. Pleural effusion is an extremely rare presentation of silicosis. To our best knowledge, there have been only 2 cases of silicosis with pleural effusion reported in medical literature. Herein, we describe a case of a 77-year-old male with almost 50 years' history of occupational silica exposure. He presented with a 4-week history of exertional shortness of breath. He is a lifetime nonsmoker, with no known other significant pulmonary disease. He had chest X-ray which showed a right lung infiltrate and bilateral pleural thickening and effusion. Chest CT showed moderate-sized bilateral pleural effusion and thickening with multiple bilateral intrapulmonary nodules seen. He had undergone extensive workup and was diagnosed with silicosis. PMID:26435716

  11. Investigation of atherosclerotic plaque by high-frequency EPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biktagirov, T. B.; Chelyshev, Yu A.; Gafurov, M. R.; Mamin, G. V.; Orlinskii, S. B.; Osin, Yu N.; Salakhov, M. Kh

    2013-12-01

    We present a comparative study of samples of aorta walls from male patients with atherosclerosis and hydroxyapatite powders with the average size of crystallites of 30 nm synthesized by the wet precipitation technique by using 94 GHz pulsed EPR. Origin of the observed paramagnetic centers is discussed. Supported by the electron microscopy and microanalysis, it is shown that EPR spectra from the calcified biological tissues correlates with those obtained in inorganic hydroxyapatites. The hypothesis about the important role of (nano)hydroxyapatite in formation of the mineral deposits and atherosclerotic plaque instability is further sustained.

  12. Mutch memorial plaque unveiled

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A plaque commemorating Thomas A. Mutch, former associate administrator of NASA's Office of Space Science, was unveiled in a ceremony at the National Air and Space Museum earlier this month. Mutch was lost while mountain climbing in the Himalayas in October (Eos, October 28, p. 693). The plaque will be affixed to the Viking 1 lander, renamed the Mutch Memorial Station, during a future Mars mission.A follow-up Mars mission has been suggested for the 1990's, and although no funding is available now, there is talk, NASA says, of sending a roving spacecraft to Mars that would affix the plaque, scoop up some Martian terrain, and bring the sample back to earth. Until the plaque can be transported to Mars, it will remain at NASA headquarters in Washington, D.C.

  13. Mast cells mediate malignant pleural effusion formation.

    PubMed

    Giannou, Anastasios D; Marazioti, Antonia; Spella, Magda; Kanellakis, Nikolaos I; Apostolopoulou, Hara; Psallidas, Ioannis; Prijovich, Zeljko M; Vreka, Malamati; Zazara, Dimitra E; Lilis, Ioannis; Papaleonidopoulos, Vassilios; Kairi, Chrysoula A; Patmanidi, Alexandra L; Giopanou, Ioanna; Spiropoulou, Nikolitsa; Harokopos, Vaggelis; Aidinis, Vassilis; Spyratos, Dionisios; Teliousi, Stamatia; Papadaki, Helen; Taraviras, Stavros; Snyder, Linda A; Eickelberg, Oliver; Kardamakis, Dimitrios; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Feyerabend, Thorsten B; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer; Kalomenidis, Ioannis; Blackwell, Timothy S; Agalioti, Theodora; Stathopoulos, Georgios T

    2015-06-01

    Mast cells (MCs) have been identified in various tumors; however, the role of these cells in tumorigenesis remains controversial. Here, we quantified MCs in human and murine malignant pleural effusions (MPEs) and evaluated the fate and function of these cells in MPE development. Evaluation of murine MPE-competent lung and colon adenocarcinomas revealed that these tumors actively attract and subsequently degranulate MCs in the pleural space by elaborating CCL2 and osteopontin. MCs were required for effusion development, as MPEs did not form in mice lacking MCs, and pleural infusion of MCs with MPE-incompetent cells promoted MPE formation. Once homed to the pleural space, MCs released tryptase AB1 and IL-1?, which in turn induced pleural vasculature leakiness and triggered NF-?B activation in pleural tumor cells, thereby fostering pleural fluid accumulation and tumor growth. Evaluation of human effusions revealed that MCs are elevated in MPEs compared with benign effusions. Moreover, MC abundance correlated with MPE formation in a human cancer cell-induced effusion model. Treatment of mice with the c-KIT inhibitor imatinib mesylate limited effusion precipitation by mouse and human adenocarcinoma cells. Together, the results of this study indicate that MCs are required for MPE formation and suggest that MC-dependent effusion formation is therapeutically addressable. PMID:25915587

  14. Mast cells mediate malignant pleural effusion formation

    PubMed Central

    Giannou, Anastasios D.; Marazioti, Antonia; Spella, Magda; Kanellakis, Nikolaos I.; Apostolopoulou, Hara; Psallidas, Ioannis; Prijovich, Zeljko M.; Vreka, Malamati; Zazara, Dimitra E.; Lilis, Ioannis; Papaleonidopoulos, Vassilios; Kairi, Chrysoula A.; Patmanidi, Alexandra L.; Giopanou, Ioanna; Spiropoulou, Nikolitsa; Harokopos, Vaggelis; Aidinis, Vassilis; Spyratos, Dionisios; Teliousi, Stamatia; Papadaki, Helen; Taraviras, Stavros; Snyder, Linda A.; Eickelberg, Oliver; Kardamakis, Dimitrios; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Feyerabend, Thorsten B.; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer; Kalomenidis, Ioannis; Blackwell, Timothy S.; Agalioti, Theodora; Stathopoulos, Georgios T.

    2015-01-01

    Mast cells (MCs) have been identified in various tumors; however, the role of these cells in tumorigenesis remains controversial. Here, we quantified MCs in human and murine malignant pleural effusions (MPEs) and evaluated the fate and function of these cells in MPE development. Evaluation of murine MPE-competent lung and colon adenocarcinomas revealed that these tumors actively attract and subsequently degranulate MCs in the pleural space by elaborating CCL2 and osteopontin. MCs were required for effusion development, as MPEs did not form in mice lacking MCs, and pleural infusion of MCs with MPE-incompetent cells promoted MPE formation. Once homed to the pleural space, MCs released tryptase AB1 and IL-1?, which in turn induced pleural vasculature leakiness and triggered NF-?B activation in pleural tumor cells, thereby fostering pleural fluid accumulation and tumor growth. Evaluation of human effusions revealed that MCs are elevated in MPEs compared with benign effusions. Moreover, MC abundance correlated with MPE formation in a human cancer cell–induced effusion model. Treatment of mice with the c-KIT inhibitor imatinib mesylate limited effusion precipitation by mouse and human adenocarcinoma cells. Together, the results of this study indicate that MCs are required for MPE formation and suggest that MC-dependent effusion formation is therapeutically addressable. PMID:25915587

  15. Calcified neurocysticercosis associates with hippocampal atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Del Brutto, Oscar H.; Salgado, Perla; Lama, Julio; Del Brutto, Victor J.; Campos, Xavier; Zambrano, Mauricio; García, Héctor H.

    2015-01-01

    Calcified neurocysticercosis has been associated with hippocampal atrophy in patients with refractory epilepsy, but the relevance of this association in the population at large is unknown. We assessed calcified cysticerci and its association with hippocampal atrophy in elderly persons living in Atahualpa, an Ecuadorian village endemic for neurocysticercosis. All Atahualpa residents aged ?60 years were invited to undergo CT/MRI for neurocysticercosis detection. Twenty-eight (11%) out of 248 enrolled persons had calcified cysticerci (case-patients) and were matched 1:1 by age, sex and years of education to individuals without neurocysticercosis on CT/MRI (controls). Four case-patients and none of the controls had epilepsy (p=0.134). Cognitive performance was similar across both groups. The Scheltens’ medial temporal atrophy scale was used for hippocampal rating in case-patients and matched controls without neurocysticercosis. Mean score in the Scheltens’ scale was higher in case-patients than in controls (p<0.001). Atrophic hippocampi were noticed in 19 case-patients and five controls (p=0.003). Atrophy was bilateral in 11 case-patients and unilateral in eight. All case-patients with unilateral hippocampal atrophy had at least one ipsilateral calcification. This study shows an association between calcified cysticerci and hippocampal atrophy and raises the possibility of an inflammation-mediated hippocampal damage as the responsible mechanism for these findings. PMID:25349375

  16. Staining calcified dental tissues with food.

    PubMed

    Chan, K C; Hormati, A A; Kerber, P E

    1981-08-01

    The discoloration of enamel caused by food substances was found to be superficial and for dentin and cementum ingressive. Discoloration of cementum exceeded that of dentin, and dentin stained more than enamel. Coffee and soy sauce stained the calcified dental tissues more than the cola beverage and tea. The longer the staining time, the deeper was the discoloration. PMID:6944481

  17. Pleural involvement in systemic autoimmune disorders.

    PubMed

    Bouros, Demosthenes; Pneumatikos, Ioannis; Tzouvelekis, Argyris

    2008-01-01

    Systemic autoimmune diseases, a heterogeneous group of immunologically mediated inflammatory disorders including multiorgan involvement, can affect the pleura with various frequencies, either as a single presenting feature or as part of multisystem involvement. Rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus represent the most common immunological diseases that affect the pleural cavity; however, there is considerable variation regarding the reported prevalence, natural history and prognosis of pleural involvement in both conditions. The definition of pleural disease in the remaining systemic autoimmune disorders is unquestionably imprecise and assumptive, since it is risky to support premises based on single case reports or retrospective data from very small series. In this article, we will review the manifestations of pleural disease caused by rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, polymyositis/dermatomyositis, mixed connective tissue disease, ankylosing spondylitis, Sjogren's syndrome and Wegener's granulomatosis. PMID:18477860

  18. Multidisciplinary management of malignant pleural effusion.

    PubMed

    Kaifi, Jussuf T; Toth, Jennifer W; Gusani, Niraj J; Kimchi, Eric T; Staveley-O'Carroll, Kevin F; Belani, Chandra P; Reed, Michael F

    2012-06-01

    Approximately 50% of patients with metastatic disease develop a malignant pleural effusion (MPE). Prompt clinical evaluation and treatment to achieve successful palliation are the main goals of management of MPE. Optimal treatment is still controversial and there is no universal standard approach. Management options include observation, thoracentesis, indwelling pleural catheter (IPC) or chest tube placement, pleurodesis, and surgical pleurectomy. The treatment for each patient should be based on symptoms, general condition, and life expectancy. PMID:21960207

  19. Pleural space complications associated with lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Arndt, Andrew; Boffa, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    Lung transplantation represents a life-saving option for some end-stage lung diseases. Despite the magnitude of anatomic manipulation and the fragility of the patient population, the procedures have become progressively safer. Perioperative morbidity, however, remains high. Pleural space complications are particularly common. This article discusses hemothorax, chylothorax, air leak or pneumothorax, recurrent effusion, empyema, trapped lung, and chronic pleural complications. PMID:25430432

  20. An IR Navigation System for Pleural PDT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Timothy; Liang, Xing; Kim, Michele; Finlay, Jarod; Dimofte, Andreea; Rodriguez, Carmen; Simone, Charles; Friedberg, Joseph; Cengel, Keith

    2015-03-01

    Pleural photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been used as an adjuvant treatment with lung-sparing surgical treatment for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). In the current pleural PDT protocol, a moving fiber-based point source is used to deliver the light. The light fluences at multiple locations are monitored by several isotropic detectors placed in the pleural cavity. To improve the delivery of light fluence uniformity, an infrared (IR) navigation system is used to track the motion of the light source in real-time at a rate of 20 - 60 Hz. A treatment planning system uses the laser source positions obtained from the IR camera to calculate light fluence distribution to monitor the light dose uniformity on the surface of the pleural cavity. A novel reconstruction algorithm is used to determine the pleural cavity surface contour. A dual-correction method is used to match the calculated fluences at detector locations to the detector readings. Preliminary data from a phantom shows superior light uniformity using this method. Light fluence uniformity from patient treatments is also shown with and without the correction method.

  1. Pleural procedural complications: prevention and management

    PubMed Central

    Psallidas, Ioannis; Wrightson, John M.; Hallifax, Robert J.; Rahman, Najib M.

    2015-01-01

    Pleural disease is common with a rising case frequency. Many of these patients will be symptomatic and require diagnostic and/or therapeutic procedures. Patients with pleural disease present to a number of different medical specialties, and an equally broad range of clinicians are therefore required to have practical knowledge of these procedures. There is often underestimation of the morbidity and mortality associated with pleural interventions, even those regarded as being relatively straightforward, with potentially significant implications for processes relating to patient safety and informed consent. The advent of thoracic ultrasound (TUS) has had a major influence on patient safety and the number of physicians with the necessary skill set to perform pleural procedures. As the variety and complexity of pleural interventions increases, there is increasing recognition that early specialist input can reduce the risk of complications and number of procedures a patient requires. This review looks at the means by which complications of pleural procedures arise, along with how they can be managed or ideally prevented. PMID:26150919

  2. Mechanical, biological and structural characterization of human atherosclerotic femoral plaque tissue.

    PubMed

    Cunnane, E M; Mulvihill, J J E; Barrett, H E; Healy, D A; Kavanagh, E G; Walsh, S R; Walsh, M T

    2015-01-01

    The failure of endovascular treatments of peripheral arterial disease represents a critical clinical issue. Specialized data are required to tailor such procedures to account for the mechanical response of the diseased femoral arterial tissue to medical device deployment. The purpose of this study is to characterize the mechanical response of atherosclerotic femoral arterial tissue to large deformation, the conditions typical of angioplasty and stenting, and also to determine the mechanically induced failure properties and to relate this behaviour to biological content and structural composition using uniaxial testing, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Mechanical and biological characterization of 20 plaque samples obtained from femoral endarterectomy identified three distinct classifications. "Lightly calcified" samples display linear mechanical responses and fail at relatively high stretch. "Moderately calcified" samples undergo an increase in stiffness and ultimate strength coupled with a decrease in ductility. Structural characterization reveals calcified nodules within this group that may be acting to reinforce the tissue matrix, thus increasing the stiffness and ultimate strength. "Heavily calcified" samples account for the majority of samples tested and exhibit significantly reduced ultimate strength and ductility compared to the preceding groups. Structural characterization of this group reveals large areas of calcified tissue dominating the failure cross-sections of the samples. The frequency and structural dominance of these features solely within this group offers an explanation as to the reduced ultimate strength and ductility and highlights the need for modern peripheral endovascular devices to account for this behaviour during novel medical device design. PMID:25242646

  3. Pleural controversies: image guided biopsy vs. thoracoscopy for undiagnosed pleural effusions?

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Giles; de Fonseka, Duneesha

    2015-01-01

    Undiagnosed pleural effusions present an increasing diagnostic burden upon healthcare providers internationally. The investigation of pleural effusions often requires the acquisition of tissue for histological analysis and diagnosis. Historically there were two options for tissue biopsy: a ‘gold standard’ surgical biopsy or a “blind” closed pleural biopsy. Over the last decade however, image-guided Tru-cut biopsies and local anaesthetic thoracoscopic (local anaesthetic thoracoscopy) biopsies have become more widespread. Image-guided techniques acquire samples under ultrasound (US) or computed tomography (CT) guidance whereas LAT involves the direct visualisation and biopsy of the pleura with pleuroscopy. Both techniques have been shown to be superior to ‘blind’ closed pleural biopsy for the diagnosis of pleural or metastatic malignancy. However, closed biopsy remains a viable method of investigation in areas of high incidence of tuberculosis (TB). Beyond this, each investigative technique has its own advantages and disadvantages. Image-guided biopsy is less invasive, usually carried out as an outpatient procedure, and enables tissue biopsy in frail patients and those with pleural thickening but no pleural fluid. Local anaesthetic thoracoscopy (LAT) provides diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities in one procedure. Large volume thoracentesis, multiple pleural biopsies and talc poudrage can be carried out in a single procedure. The overall diagnostic yield is similar for both techniques, although there are no large-scale direct comparisons. Both techniques share low complication rates. PMID:26150917

  4. Comparative LIBS Analysis Of Calcified Tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Abdel-Salam, Z. A.; Harith, M. A.

    2008-09-23

    Signal enhancement, limits of detection, and relevance to environmental concentration for element in calcified tissues using LIBS with single and double laser pulses will be presented. These measurements were performed on three calcified tissues representing different matrices, namely enamel of human teeth, shells and eggshells. This method depends on the role of the laser induced shock wave on the ionization rate of the ablated target material atoms. The effect of the laser single and double pulse on the ionic to atomic ratio of calcium and magnesium spectral emission lines, CaII/CaI and MgII/MgI, will be presented and compared with the previous results and its relevance to the target material hardness. The results show that in case of single pulse the intensity ratios in calcium are higher than the double pulse while there is no appreciable difference between both in case of magnesium.

  5. Comparative LIBS Analysis Of Calcified Tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Salam, Z. A.; Harith, M. A.

    2008-09-01

    Signal enhancement, limits of detection, and relevance to environmental concentration for element in calcified tissues using LIBS with single and double laser pulses will be presented. These measurements were performed on three calcified tissues representing different matrices, namely enamel of human teeth, shells and eggshells. This method depends on the role of the laser induced shock wave on the ionization rate of the ablated target material atoms. The effect of the laser single and double pulse on the ionic to atomic ratio of calcium and magnesium spectral emission lines, CaII/CaI and MgII/MgI, will be presented and compared with the previous results and its relevance to the target material hardness. The results show that in case of single pulse the intensity ratios in calcium are higher than the double pulse while there is no appreciable difference between both in case of magnesium.

  6. La pelade par plaques

    PubMed Central

    Spano, Frank; Donovan, Jeff C.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter aux médecins de famille des renseignements de base pour faire comprendre l’épidémiologie, la pathogenèse, l’histologie et l’approche clinique au diagnostic de la pelade par plaques. Sources des données Une recension a été effectuée dans PubMed pour trouver des articles pertinents concernant la pathogenèse, le diagnostic et le pronostic de la pelade par plaques. Message principal La pelade par plaques est une forme de perte pileuse auto-immune dont la prévalence durant une vie est d’environ 2 %. Des antécédents personnels ou familiaux de troubles auto-immuns concomitants, comme le vitiligo ou une maladie de la thyroïde, peuvent être observés dans un petit sous-groupe de patients. Le diagnostic peut souvent être posé de manière clinique en se fondant sur la perte de cheveux non cicatricielle et circulaire caractéristique, accompagnée de cheveux en « point d’exclamation » en périphérie chez ceux dont le problème en est aux premiers stades. Le diagnostic des cas plus complexes ou des présentations inhabituelles peut être facilité par une biopsie et un examen histologique. Le pronostic varie largement et de mauvais résultats sont associés à une apparition à un âge précoce, une perte importante, la variante ophiasis, des changements aux ongles, des antécédents familiaux ou des troubles auto-immuns concomitants. Conclusion La pelade par plaques est une forme auto-immune de perte de cheveux périodiquement observée en soins primaires. Les médecins de famille sont bien placés pour identifier la pelade par plaques, déterminer la gravité de la maladie et poser le diagnostic différentiel approprié. De plus, ils sont en mesure de renseigner leurs patients à propos de l’évolution clinique de la maladie ainsi que du pronostic général selon le sous-type de patients.

  7. La pelade par plaques

    PubMed Central

    Spano, Frank; Donovan, Jeff C.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter aux médecins de famille des renseignements de base pour faire comprendre les schémas thérapeutiques et les résultats des traitements pour la pelade par plaques, de même que les aider à identifier les patients pour qui une demande de consultation en dermatologie pourrait s’imposer. Sources des données Une recension a été effectuée dans PubMed pour trouver des articles pertinents concernant le traitement de la pelade par plaques. Message principal La pelade par plaques est une forme auto-immune de perte pileuse qui touche à la fois les enfants et les adultes. Même s’il n’y a pas de mortalité associée à la maladie, la morbidité découlant des effets psychologiques de la perte des cheveux peut être dévastatrice. Lorsque la pelade par plaques et le sous-type de la maladie sont identifiés, un schéma thérapeutique approprié peut être amorcé pour aider à arrêter la chute des cheveux et possiblement faire commencer la repousse. Les traitements de première intention sont la triamcinolone intralésionnelle avec des corticostéroïdes topiques ou du minoxidil ou les 2. Les médecins de famille peuvent prescrire ces traitements en toute sécurité et amorcer ces thérapies. Les cas plus avancés ou réfractaires pourraient avoir besoin de diphénylcyclopropénone topique ou d’anthraline topique. On peut traiter la perte de cils avec des analogues de la prostaglandine. Les personnes ayant subi une perte de cheveux abondante peuvent recourir à des options de camouflage ou à des prothèses capillaires. Il est important de surveiller les troubles psychiatriques en raison des effets psychologiques profonds de la perte de cheveux. Conclusion Les médecins de famille verront de nombreux patients qui perdent leurs cheveux. La reconnaissance de la pelade par plaques et la compréhension du processus pathologique sous-jacent permettent d’amorcer un schéma thérapeutique approprié. Les cas plus graves ou réfractaires doivent être identifiés pour qu’une demande de consultation en dermatologie soit demandée au besoin.

  8. Cocaine Induced Pleural and Pericardial Effusion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Alqalyoobi, Shehabaldin; Vaidya, Omkar; Abu Ghanimah, Al-Ma'Mon; Elkhanany, Ahmed; Gohar, Ashraf

    2015-01-01

    A 42-year-old African American female with chronic cocaine use for 20 years, presented with two-day history of exertional shortness of breath and pleuritic chest pain. She was admitted three years back with acute kidney injury and skin rashes. At that time, skin biopsy was consistent with leukocytoclastic vasculitis and renal biopsy revealed proliferative glomerulonephritis. She responded to oral prednisone and mycophenolate with complete recovery of her kidney functions. Skin rash was waxing and waning over the last two years. On the second admission, patient was found to have large pleural effusion on computerized tomography scan and pericardial effusion on echocardiogram as shown in the figures. Pleural fluid analysis was exudative. Her serology was negative for ANA (antineutrophilic antibody) and anti-dsDNA (double stranded DNA). Complements levels were normal. She had positive low titers of ANCA levels. The patient was started on a course of prednisone for 6 months. Her pleural and pericardial effusion resolved completely on follow-up imaging with computerized tomography scan and echocardiogram. This case is unique since the pericardial and pleural effusions developed without any other etiology in the setting of cocaine; hence, we describe this clinical syndrome as cocaine induced pleural and pericardial effusions syndrome (CIPP). PMID:25918664

  9. Photon counting spectral CT component analysis of coronary artery atherosclerotic plaque samples

    PubMed Central

    Coulon, P; Thran, A; Roessl, E; Martens, G; Sigovan, M; Douek, P

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the capabilities of photon counting spectral CT to differentiate components of coronary atherosclerotic plaque based on differences in spectral attenuation and iodine-based contrast agent concentration. Methods: 10 calcified and 13 lipid-rich non-calcified histologically demonstrated atheromatous plaques from post-mortem human coronary arteries were scanned with a photon counting spectral CT scanner. Individual photons were counted and classified in one of six energy bins from 25 to 70?keV. Based on a maximum likelihood approach, maps of photoelectric absorption (PA), Compton scattering (CS) and iodine concentration (IC) were reconstructed. Intensity measurements were performed on each map in the vessel wall, the surrounding perivascular fat and the lipid-rich and the calcified plaques. PA and CS values are expressed relative to pure water values. A comparison between these different elements was performed using Kruskal–Wallis tests with pairwise post hoc Mann–Whitney U-tests and Sidak p-value adjustments. Results: Results for vessel wall, surrounding perivascular fat and lipid-rich and calcified plaques were, respectively, 1.19?±?0.09, 0.73?±?0.05, 1.08?±?0.14 and 17.79?±?6.70 for PA; 0.96?±?0.02, 0.83?±?0.02, 0.91?±?0.03 and 2.53?±?0.63 for CS; and 83.3?±?10.1, 37.6?±?8.1, 55.2?±?14.0 and 4.9?±?20.0?mmol?l?1 for IC, with a significant difference between all tissues for PA, CS and IC (p?plaque samples by analysing differences in spectral attenuation and iodine-based contrast agent concentration. Advances in knowledge: Photon counting spectral CT is a promising technique to identify plaque components by analysing differences in iodine-based contrast agent concentration, photoelectric attenuation and Compton scattering. PMID:24874766

  10. Tuberculous pleural effusions: advances and controversies

    PubMed Central

    Allwood, Brian W.; Diacon, Andreas H.; Koegelenberg, Coenraad F. N.

    2015-01-01

    On a global scale, tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the most frequent causes of pleural effusions. Our understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease has evolved and what was once thought to be an effusion as a result of a pure delayed hypersensitivity reaction is now believed to be the consequence of direct infection of the pleural space with a cascade of events including an immunological response. Pulmonary involvement is more common than previously believed and induced sputum, which is grossly underutilised, can be diagnostic in approximately 50%. The gold standard for the diagnosis of tuberculous pleuritis remains the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in pleural fluid, or pleural biopsy specimens, either by microscopy and/or culture, or the histological demonstration of caseating granulomas in the pleura along with acid fast bacilli (AFB). In high burden settings, however, the diagnosis is frequently inferred in patients who present with a lymphocytic predominant exudate and a high adenosine deaminase (ADA) level, which is a valuable adjunct in the diagnostic evaluation. ADA is generally readily accessible, and together with lymphocyte predominance justifies treatment initiation in patients with a high pre-test probability. Still, false-negative and false-positive results remain an issue. When adding closed pleural biopsy to ADA and lymphocyte count, diagnostic accuracy approaches that of thoracoscopy. The role of other biomarkers is less well described. Early pleural drainage may have a role in selected cases, but more research is required to validate its use and to define the subpopulation that may benefit from such interventions. PMID:26150911

  11. A Pleural Loose Body Mimicking a Pleural Tumor: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Sung Shine; Chun, Eun Mi; Won, Tae Hee; Park, Sanghui

    2015-01-01

    We present a rare case of a pleural loose body, thought to be a pedunculated pleural tumor, found incidentally in a 58-year-old female. Computed tomography showed a non-enhancing mass, which migrated along the mediastinum and paravertebral area. Thoracoscopic surgery revealed a 4 cm, soap-like mass that was found to be a fibrin body consisting of hyalinized collagen histopathologically. Mobility and the lack of contrast enhancement of a pleural mass are important clues to diagnosing this benign condition. PMID:26355378

  12. Localized malignant pleural mesothelioma with renal metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Zardawi, Sarah Jane; Li, Bob T.; Zauderer, Marjorie G.; Wang, Jennifer W.; Atmore, Bryn B.; Barnes, Tristan A.; Pavlakis, Nick; Mathur, Manu N.; Clarke, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Localized malignant pleural mesothelioma (LMM) is a rare subset of malignant pleural mesothelioma. Its epidemiology, biology, natural history and optimal treatment are poorly understood. We report a case of LMM treated aggressively with complete surgical resection and adjuvant radiotherapy, but subsequently complicated by local chest wall recurrence and solitary metastasis to the kidney. This case is examined in the context of a small number of cases of LMM in the literature to emphasize the existence of this rare disease entity, their unusual biological behaviour and the need for further tumour molecular and genomic research. PMID:25988069

  13. Pleural ascites without abdominal fluid: surgical considerations.

    PubMed

    Hartz, R S; Bomalaski, J; LoCicero, J; Murphy, R L

    1984-01-01

    The presence of ascitic fluid in the pleural cavity in the absence of peritoneal fluid is rare. We have recently encountered two patients who presented with red-sided pleural effusions and no abdominal ascites. Both patients had diaphragmatic defects: One was an old traumatic diaphragmatic tear and the other a pinpoint spontaneous perforation. These cases are unique because the diagnosis of total ascitic fluid movement across the diaphragm was made during life, and the condition was surgically corrected. The literature concerning transdiaphragmatic movement of fluid is reviewed, and an operative approach is outlined. PMID:6690852

  14. Supraspinatus Intramuscular Calcified Hematoma or Necrosis Associated with Tendon Tear

    PubMed Central

    Lädermann, Alexandre; Genevay, Muriel; Abrassart, Sophie; Schwitzguébel, Adrien Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Rotator cuff intramuscular calcification is a rare condition usually caused by heterotopic ossification and myositis ossificans. Case Presentation. We describe a patient with voluminous calcified mass entrapped in supraspinatus muscle associated with corresponding tendon tear. Histological examination corresponded to a calcified hematoma or necrosis. Patient was surgically managed with open excision of the calcified hematoma and rotator cuff arthroscopic repair. At 6 months, supraspinatus muscle was healed, and functional outcome was good. Discussion and Conclusion. We hypothesized that supraspinatus intramuscular calcified hematoma was responsible for mechanical stress on the tendon. This association has never been described. PMID:26380138

  15. A case of young woman with recurrent right pleural effusion

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Asmita A; Gupta, Amit; Venkitakrishnan, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Endomterisois is usually found in women of child-bearing age. A case is presented of massive right-sided pleural effusion caused by endometriosis. The final diagnosis was made by thoracoscopic pleural biopsy. Physicians should be aware of this potentially treatable cause of pleural effusion having excluded other possibilities such as malignancy and tuberculosis. PMID:26664182

  16. How Are Pleurisy and Other Pleural Disorders Treated?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... doctor may use a chest tube to deliver medicines called fibrinolytics to the pleural space. If the fluid still won't drain, you ... build up again after it's drained. Sometimes antitumor medicines will ... the pleural space. Sealing the pleural space is called pleurodesis (plur- ...

  17. Coronary Plaque Burden at Coronary CT Angiography in Asymptomatic Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Karen; Kwan, Alan C; Lai, Shenghan; Lima, João A C; Vigneault, Davis; Sandfort, Veit; Pattanayak, Puskar; Ahlman, Mark A; Mallek, Marissa; Sibley, Christopher T; Bluemke, David A

    2015-10-01

    Purpose To assess the relationship between total, calcified, and noncalcified coronary plaque burdens throughout the entire coronary vasculature at coronary computed tomographic (CT) angiography in relationship to cardiovascular risk factors in asymptomatic individuals with low-to-moderate risk. Materials and Methods This HIPAA-compliant study had institutional review board approval, and written informed consent was obtained. Two hundred two subjects were recruited to an ongoing prospective study designed to evaluate the effect of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors on atherosclerosis. Eligible subjects were asymptomatic individuals older than 55 years who were eligible for statin therapy. Coronary CT angiography was performed by using a 320-detector row scanner. Coronary wall thickness and plaque were evaluated in all epicardial coronary arteries greater than 2 mm in diameter. Images were analyzed by using dedicated software involving an adaptive lumen attenuation algorithm. Total plaque index (calcified plus noncalcified plaque) was defined as plaque volume divided by vessel length. Multivariable regression analysis was performed to determine the relationship between risk factors and plaque indexes. Results The mean age of the subjects was 65.5 years ± 6.9 (standard deviation) (36% women), and the median coronary artery calcium (CAC) score was 73 (interquartile range, 1-434). The total coronary plaque index was higher in men than in women (42.06 mm(2) ± 9.22 vs 34.33 mm(2) ± 8.35; P < .001). In multivariable analysis controlling for all risk factors, total plaque index remained higher in men than in women (by 5.01 mm(2); P = .03) and in those with higher simvastatin doses (by 0.44 mm(2)/10 mg simvastatin dose equivalent; P = .02). Noncalcified plaque index was positively correlated with systolic blood pressure (? = 0.80 mm(2)/10 mm Hg; P = .03), diabetes (? = 4.47 mm(2); P = .03), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level (? = 0.04 mm(2)/mg/dL; P = .02); the association with LDL cholesterol level remained significant (P = .02) after additional adjustment for the CAC score. Conclusion LDL cholesterol level, systolic blood pressure, and diabetes were associated with noncalcified plaque burden at coronary CT angiography in asymptomatic individuals with low-to-moderate risk. (©) RSNA, 2015 Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:26035436

  18. Calcifying species sensitivity distributions for ocean acidification.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Ligia B; De Schryver, An M; Hendriks, A Jan; Huijbregts, Mark A J

    2015-02-01

    Increasing CO2 atmospheric levels lead to increasing ocean acidification, thereby enhancing calcium carbonate dissolution of calcifying species. We gathered peer-reviewed experimental data on the effects of acidified seawater on calcifying species growth, reproduction, and survival. The data were used to derive species-specific median effective concentrations, i.e., pH50, and pH10, via logistic regression. Subsequently, we developed species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) to assess the potentially affected fraction (PAF) of species exposed to pH declines. Effects on species growth were observed at higher pH than those on species reproduction (mean pH10 was 7.73 vs 7.63 and mean pH50 was 7.28 vs 7.11 for the two life processes, respectively) and the variability in the sensitivity of species increased with increasing number of species available for the PAF (pH10 standard deviation was 0.20, 0.21, and 0.33 for survival, reproduction, and growth, respectively). The SSDs were then applied to two climate change scenarios to estimate the increase in PAF (?PAF) by future ocean acidification. In a high CO2 emission scenario, ?PAF was 3 to 10% (for pH50) and 21 to 32% (for pH10). In a low emission scenario, ?PAF was 1 to 4% (for pH50) and 7 to 12% (for pH10). Our SSDs developed for the effect of decreasing ocean pH on calcifying marine species assemblages can also be used for comparison with other environmental stressors. PMID:25551400

  19. Peripheral calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor - Case report.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Deepthi; Jayade, Bhushan V; Jayade, Gautam; Gopalkrishnan, K

    2014-01-01

    The calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT), Pindborg tumor is a benign, slow growing, but locally invasive neoplasm. It is known to have a common intraosseous variant and a very rare extraosseous variant. We report an unusual case of an extraosseous variant of CEOT of unusual large size and maxillary anterior location, the treatment was planned considering the clinical, radiological and histological features. Though peripheral types are less aggressive and had no recurrence, in our case regular follow up is required considering the aggressiveness of the lesion and its proximity to important adjacent structures. PMID:25737934

  20. Sarcoidosis as unusual cause of massive pleural effusion

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Sharad; Periwal, Pallavi; Dogra, Vikas; Talwar, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disease of unknown etiology. Pleural involvement is relatively rare. Development of pleural effusion in sarcoidosis needs to be evaluated for other causes, especially tuberculosis in endemic countries. Sarcoid pleural effusion responds to systemic corticosteroids. We are presenting case of 42 year old male patient of sarcoidosis who developed massive pleural effusion while on treatment with steroids, which was attributed to disease per se. Sarcoidosis as a cause of massive pleural effusion has not been mentioned before in published literature.

  1. Pleural infection caused by Legionella anisa.

    PubMed

    Bornstein, N; Mercatello, A; Marmet, D; Surgot, M; Deveaux, Y; Fleurette, J

    1989-09-01

    The first case of infection caused by Legionella anisa with isolation of the organism is reported here. The presence of L. anisa in the water supply of the hospital and the isolation of this species in the pleural fluid of a patient suffering from nosocomial pleurisy confirm the potential pathogenicity of this Legionella species. PMID:2778073

  2. Pleural effusions in patients with AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Miller, R.; Howling, S.; Reid, A.; Shaw, P.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To describe the range of pathology causing pleural effusions in HIV infected patients with acute respiratory episodes and to attempt to identify whether any associated radiological abnormalities enabled aetiological discrimination. Methods: Prospective study of chest radiographs of 58 consecutive HIV infected patients with pleural effusion and their microbiological, cytological, and histopathological diagnoses. Results: A specific diagnosis was made in all cases. Diagnoses were Kaposi's sarcoma, 19 patients; parapneumonic effusion, 16 patients; tuberculosis, eight patients; Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, six patients; lymphoma, four patients; pulmonary embolus, two patients; and heart failure, aspergillus/leishmaniasis, and Cryptococcus neoformans, one case each. Most effusions (50/58) were small. Bilateral effusions were commoner in Kaposi's sarcoma (12/19) and lymphoma (3/4) than in parapneumonic effusion (3/16). Concomitant interstitial parenchymal shadowing did not aid discrimination. A combination of bilateral effusions, focal air space consolidation, intrapulmonary nodules, and/or hilar lymphadenopathy suggests Kaposi's sarcoma. Unilateral effusion with focal air space consolidation suggests parapneumonic effusion if intrapulmonary nodules are absent: if miliary nodules and/or mediastinal lymphadenopathy are detected, this suggests tuberculosis. Conclusions: A wide variety of infectious and malignant conditions cause pleural effusions in HIV infected patients, the most common cause in this group was Kaposi's sarcoma. The presence of additional radiological abnormalities such as focal air space consolidation, intrapulmonary nodules, and mediastinal lymphadenopathy aids aetiological discrimination. Key Words: pleural effusion; Kaposi's sarcoma; bacterial pneumonia; chest radiograph PMID:10858714

  3. Proteomic pilot study of tuberculosis pleural effusion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiaqiang; Fang, Li-Zhou; Liu, Ling; Zhang, Jianqing; Fu, Weiping; Dai, Luming

    2015-08-17

    To discuss the differences in protein expression among tuberculosis pleural effusion (TBPE), malignant pleural effusion (MPE) and transudative pleural effusion (TSPE). We recruited 50 patients with pleural effusion, including 20 TBPEs, 17 MPEs and 13 TSPEs. Using the two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), we acquired the peptide mass finger printings (PMFs) of featured proteins. Then, we identified characteristic proteins by searching in the protein databank of the National Center of Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and assessed their diagnostic significance. We found five characteristic proteins: C1-inhibitor (C1-INH), transthyretin (TTR), human complement fragment 3b (C3b), human ceruloplasmin (CP), and Z34c protein fragment Fc (Z34c-Fc). C1-INH shows a high expression in TBPE and a low expression in MPE while TTR and C3 show low expression in TBPE and high expressions in MPE. Z34c-Fc and CP have a higher expression in TBPE than in TSPE. No common characteristic protein was found between MPE and TSPE. Statistic analysis consisted of paired t-tests and the difference between them is significance (P<0.05). C1-inhibitor (C1-INH), transthyretin (TTR), human Complement fragment 3b (C3b), human Ceruloplasmin (CP) and Z34c protein fragment Fc (Z34c-Fc) may provide an additional perspective in the differential diagnosis of PE. PMID:26406002

  4. Dental plaque identification at home

    MedlinePLUS

    ... all areas. The second method uses a plaque light. A special fluorescent solution is swirled around the mouth. The mouth is rinsed gently with water, and the teeth and gums are examined while ... plaque light into the mouth. The advantage of this method ...

  5. Pleural Small Cell Lung Carcinoma: An Unusual Culprit in Pleural Effusion.

    PubMed

    Adejorin, Oluwaseyi D; Sodhi, Amik; Hare, Felicia A; Headley, Arthur S; Murillo, Luis C; Kadaria, Dipen

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) usually presents as lung or mediastinal lesions. It is very rare for SCLC to present primarily as an isolated pleural effusion with no lung or mediastinal lesions. CASE REPORT We report the case of a 77-year-old white male with a 60-pack year history of smoking, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (stage IV), and asbestos exposure who presented with shortness of breath and left lateral chest pain for 7 days. On physical examination, he was very short of breath, with a prolonged expiratory phase on chest auscultation. Laboratory results were normal except for leukocytosis and chest radiograph revealing left-sided pleural effusion. Computerized tomography (CT) scanning of the chest with IV contrast showed left-sided pleural effusion without any lung or mediastinal lesions. Thoracentesis was performed and fluid was sent for analysis. Repeat CT chest/abdomen/pelvis, done immediately following thoracocentesis, did not show any masses or lymphadenopathy. Fluid analysis, including cytology and immunostain pattern, was consistent with small cell carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS Small cell lung cancer presenting as an isolated pleural effusion is extremely rare. It requires close attention to cytology and immunohistochemistry of pleural fluid samples. It also has implications for management and should be managed as limited-stage SCLC. PMID:26714576

  6. Hedgehog Signaling in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Felley-Bosco, Emanuela; Opitz, Isabelle; Meerang, Mayura

    2015-01-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a cancer associated with exposure to asbestos fibers, which accumulate in the pleural space, damage tissue and stimulate regeneration. Hedgehog signaling is a pathway important during embryonic mesothelium development and is inactivated in adult mesothelium. The pathway is reactivated in some MPM patients with poor clinical outcome, mainly mediated by the expression of the ligands. Nevertheless, mutations in components of the pathway have been observed in a few cases. Data from different MPM animal models and primary culture suggest that both autocrine and paracrine Hedgehog signaling are important to maintain tumor growth. Drugs inhibiting the pathway at the level of the smoothened receptor (Smo) or glioma-associated protein transcription factors (Gli) have been used mostly in experimental models. For clinical development, biomarkers are necessary for the selection of patients who can benefit from Hedgehog signaling inhibition. PMID:26184317

  7. Pleural effusion cytology of embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Thompson, K S; Jensen, J D; Bhoopalam, N; Reyes, C V

    1997-03-01

    This case report concerns an embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of the testis in a 31-yr-old white male patient who underwent radical left orchiectomy, followed by combined irradiation and chemotherapy, and who 2 yr later presented with dyspnea at rest, nonproductive cough, and lower back pain for 1 wk. Chest radiographs demonstrated a bilateral pleural effusion and diffuse infiltrating lesion of the pleurae, mimicking a mesothelioma. The pleural fluid displayed noncohesive, malignant, small, round cells about 2-5 times larger than mature lymphocytes. They had large, darkly stained, pleomorphic nuclei and bubbly cytoplasm with poorly defined borders. The diagnosis of embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma was supported by a positive myosin immunostaining and ultrastructural findings of intracytoplasmic actin and myosin-type microfilaments. Our case is also notable in that the tumor was a pure rhabdomyosarcoma involving a testicular origin, and the patient is the oldest reported in the literature. PMID:9099552

  8. Irregularly calcified eggs and eggshells of Caiman latirostris (Alligatoridae: Crocodylia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, Mariela Soledad; Simoncini, Melina Soledad; Dyke, Gareth

    2013-05-01

    We describe irregularly calcified egg and eggshell morphologies for the first time in nests of the broad-snouted caiman, Caiman latirostris. Research is based on detailed descriptions of 270 eggs from a total sample of 46,800 collected between 2005 and 2011 in Santa Fe Province, Argentina, and encompasses animals from both natural habitats and held in captivity. We discuss possible reasons for the occurrence of eggs with different mineralisation patterns in our extensive C. latirostris field sample and its conservation significance; the chemistry of egg laying in amniotes is sensitive to environmental contamination which, in turn, has biological implications. Based on our egg sample, we identify two caiman eggshell abnormalities: (1) regularly calcified eggs with either calcitic nodules or superficial wrinkles at one egg end and (2) irregularly calcified eggs with structural gaps that weaken the shell. Some recently laid clutches we examined included eggs with most of the shell broken and detached from the flexible membrane. Most type 1 regularly calcified eggs lost their initial calcified nodules during incubation, suggesting that these deposits do not affect embryo survival rates. In contrast, irregularly calcified caiman eggs have a mean hatching success rate of 8.9 % (range 0-38 %) across our sample compared to a mean normal success of 75 %. Most irregularly calcified caiman eggs probably die because of infections caused by fungi and bacteria in the organic nest material, although another possible explanation that merits further investigation could be an increase in permeability, leading to embryo dehydration.

  9. Telomerase activity in pleural malignant mesotheliomas.

    PubMed

    Au, Amy Y M; Hackl, Torben; Yeager, Thomas R; Cohen, Scott B; Pass, Harvey I; Harris, Curtis C; Reddel, Roger R

    2011-09-01

    New treatments are needed for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), which currently has a poor prognosis. Cellular immortalisation, one of the hallmarks of cancer, depends on the activity of a telomere length maintenance mechanism (TMM) - either telomerase or alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT). The TMMs are widely regarded as potential targets for cancer therapies and telomerase inhibitors have entered clinical trials. The aim of this study was to determine what proportion of MPMs use ALT and/or telomerase. Forty-three MPMs from 42 patients were examined for telomerase and ALT activity. Telomerase activity was detected by immunoaffinity purification followed by the telomere repeat amplification protocol (TRAP), and ALT activity was determined by the C-circle assay and by assessing telomere lengths using terminal restriction fragment analyses. We found that 43 of 43 MPMs were telomerase-positive[+] and ALT-negative[-]. Therefore, to investigate whether pleural mesothelial cells are unusually susceptible to activation of telomerase, we examined activation of the TMMs in an in vitro model of cellular immortalisation, in which normal pleural mesothelial cells were transduced with simian virus 40 (SV40) oncogenes. We found that normal mesothelial cells were TMM-negative, and that expression of the SV40 oncogenes did not directly activate telomerase or ALT. Immortalisation, which in this experimental system results from additional genetic changes that have not yet been identified, was accompanied by activation of either TMM. Therefore, pleural mesothelial cells are capable of activating either TMM in vitro, and the observation that 100% of MPMs were telomerase[+] suggests that there are factors in vivo that select for telomerase activity during oncogenesis of this tumour type. We conclude that MPM is a tumour that could be considered for anti-telomerase therapy. PMID:21277646

  10. Diagnosis and treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Panadero, Francisco

    2015-04-01

    There are three major challenges in the diagnosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma: mesothelioma must be distinguished from benign mesothelial hyperplasia; malignant mesothelioma (and its subtypes) must be distinguished from metastatic carcinoma; and invasion of structures adjacent to the pleura must be demonstrated. The basis for clarifying the first two aspects is determination of a panel of monoclonal antibodies with appropriate immunohistochemical evaluation performed by highly qualified experts. Clarification of the third aspect requires sufficiently abundant, deep biopsy material, for which thoracoscopy is the technique of choice. Video-assisted needle biopsy with real-time imaging can be of great assistance when there is diffuse nodal thickening and scant or absent effusion. Given the difficulties of reaching an early diagnosis, cure is not generally achieved with radical surgery (pleuropneumonectomy), so liberation of the tumor mass with pleurectomy/decortication combined with chemo- or radiation therapy (multimodal treatment) has been gaining followers in recent years. In cases in which surgery is not feasible, chemotherapy (a combination of pemetrexed and platinum-derived compounds, in most cases) with pleurodesis or a tunneled pleural drainage catheter, if control of pleural effusion is required, can be considered. Radiation therapy is reserved for treatment of pain associated with infiltration of the chest wall or any other neighboring structure. In any case, comprehensive support treatment for pain control in specialist units is essential: this acquires particular significance in this type of malignancy. PMID:25059587

  11. Pregnancy with bilateral tubercular pleural effusion: challenges.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Vanita; Gombar, Satinder; Kumar, Navneet; Goyal, Nitika; Gupta, Kanika

    2014-04-01

    Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) during pregnancy mimics some of the physiological changes that occur during pregnancy. Diagnosis is challenging, especially when the patient presents with acute respiratory distress. The incidence of pleural effusion in TB is 3-25% and in the majority of patients, is unilateral. We describe the intensive care management of a 27-year-old pregnant woman admitted to our hospital with life threatening respiratory distress and circulatory shock. She continued to have severe metabolic and respiratory acidosis with shock in spite of the resuscitative measures undertaken. At that point, a bedside lung ultrasonography showed bilateral pleural effusion which was followed with therapeutic thoracocentesis of the right side. This resulted in the stabilization of the respiratory mechanics and haemodynamics of the patient. The pleural fluid culture tested positive for acid fast bacilli after 4 weeks in the intensive care unit. Anti-TB therapy was started and she made a rapid recovery with liberation from mechanical ventilation. The early use of bedside lung ultrasonography was instrumental in the successful management of this patient. PMID:24395882

  12. Pioneer F Plaque Location

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Pioneer F spacecraft, destined to be the first man made object to escape from the solar system into interstellar space, carries this pictorial plaque. It is designed to show scientifically educated inhabitants of some other star system, who might intercept it millions of years from now, when Pioneer was launched, from where, and by what kind of beings. (Hopefully, any aliens reading the plaque will not use this knowledge to immediately invade Earth.) The design is etched into a 6 inch by 9 inch gold-anodized aluminum plate, attached to the spacecraft's attenna support struts in a position to help shield it from erosion by interstellar dust. The radiating lines at left represents the positions of 14 pulsars, a cosmic source of radio energy, arranged to indicate our sun as the home star of our civilization. The '1-' symbols at the ends of the lines are binary numbers that represent the frequencies of these pulsars at the time of launch of Pioneer F relative of that to the hydrogen atom shown at the upper left with a '1' unity symbol. The hydrogen atom is thus used as a 'universal clock,' and the regular decrease in the frequencies of the pulsars will enable another civilization to determine the time that has elapsed since Pioneer F was launched. The hydrogen is also used as a 'universal yardstick' for sizing the human figures and outline of the spacecraft shown on the right. The hydrogen wavelength, about 8 inches, multiplied by the binary number representing '8' shown next to the woman gives her height, 64 inches. The figures represent the type of creature that created Pioneer. The man's hand is raised in a gesture of good will. Across the bottom are the planets, ranging outward from the Sun, with the spacecraft trajectory arching away from Earth, passing Mars, and swinging by Jupiter.

  13. Eosinophilic Pleural Effusion: A Rare Manifestation of Hypereosinophilic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Okafor, Ndubuisi C.; Oso, Ayodeji A.; Oranu, Amanke C.; Wolff, Steven M.; Murray, John J.

    2009-01-01

    Several causes of eosinophilic pleural effusions have been described with malignancy being the commonest cause. Hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) is a rare disease and very few cases have been reported of HES presenting as eosinophilic pleural effusion (EPE). We report a case of a 26-year-old male who presented with shortness of breath. He had bilateral pleural effusions, generalized lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, and leukocytosis with marked peripheral blood eosinophilia. The pleural fluid was exudative, with 25%–30% eosinophilis, and absence of neoplastic cells. Hypereosinophilic syndrome was diagnosed after other causes of eosinophilia were excluded. He continued to be dyspneic with persistent accumulation of eosinophilic pleural fluid, even after his peripheral eosinophil count had normalized in response to treatment. This patient represents a very unusual presentation of HES with dyspnea and pleural effusions and demonstrates that treatment based on response of peripheral eosinophil counts, as is currently recommended, may not always be clinically adequate. PMID:20111739

  14. Cutaneous and pleural involvement in a patient with multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Saidane, Olfa; Slouma, Maroua; Haouet, Slim; Abdelmoula, Leila

    2015-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignant proliferation of a single clone of plasma cells and an excess of monoclonal immunoglobulin production. It is rarely associated with cutaneous and pleural involvement. We report a new case of a 62-year-old woman with a history of a symptomatic MM. Three months after chemotherapy initiation, she presented with subcutaneous nodules. Ultrasound-guided needle biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of cutaneous plasmacytomas. She underwent local radiation therapy leading to complete regression of subcutaneous nodules. One month later, she developed dyspnoea. Thoracic CT scan showed pleural thickening associated with pleural effusion. Pleural biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of pleural plasmacytoma. Chemotherapy including vincristine, doxorubicin and dexamethasone was administered. Cutaneous involvement and pleural effusion accompanying MM are uncommon. They are associated with poor prognosis. PMID:26438677

  15. Gingival calcifying epithelial tumor - a rare case report.

    PubMed

    Tejasvi, M L A; Balaji, B B; Pramkusam, K; Donempudi, G; Bhayya, H

    2014-01-01

    Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumors are rare odontogenic neoplasms that account for approximately one percent of all odontogenic tumors. Extra osseous variant is very rare with very few cases being reported in literature Peripheral Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT) commonly resemble oral hyperplastic or reactive lesions and are histologically similar to their intraosseous counterparts. Here we report a rare case of gingival calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor in the mandibular posterior region in a 31 year old female patient. Interestingly on literature review in on PubMed search only 22 case reports were available in, English literature, added to that this report will be the 23rd case. PMID:25855116

  16. Automated Quantitative Plaque Burden from Coronary CT Angiography Noninvasively Predicts Hemodynamic Significance by Using Fractional Flow Reserve in Intermediate Coronary Lesions1

    PubMed Central

    Diaz-Zamudio, Mariana; Dey, Damini; Schuhbaeck, Annika; Nakazato, Ryo; Gransar, Heidi; Slomka, Piotr J.; Narula, Jagat; Berman, Daniel S.; Achenbach, Stephan; Min, James K.; Doh, Joon-Hyung; Koo, Bon-Kwon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the utility of multiple automated plaque measurements from coronary computed tomographic (CT) angiography in determining hemodynamic significance by using invasive fractional flow reserve (FFR) in patients with intermediate coronary stenosis. Materials and Methods The study was approved by the institutional review board. All patients provided written informed consent. Fifty-six intermediate lesions (with 30%–69% diameter stenosis) in 56 consecutive patients (mean age, 62 years; range, 46–88 years), who subsequently underwent invasive coronary angiography with assessment of FFR (values ?0.80 were considered hemodynamically significant) were analyzed at coronary CT angiography. Coronary CT angiography images were quantitatively analyzed with automated software to obtain the following measurements: volume and burden (plaque volume × 100 per vessel volume) of total, calcified, and noncalcified plaque; low-attenuation (<30 HU) noncalcified plaque; diameter stenosis; remodeling index; contrast attenuation difference (maximum percent difference in attenuation per unit area with respect to the proximal reference cross section); and lesion length. Logistic regression adjusted for potential confounding factors, receiver operating characteristics, and integrated discrimination improvement were used for statistical analysis. Results FFR was 0.80 or less in 21 (38%) of the 56 lesions. Compared with nonischemic lesions, ischemic lesions had greater diameter stenosis (65% vs 52%, P = .02) and total (49% vs 37%, P = .0003), noncalcified (44% vs 33%, P = .0004), and low-attenuation noncalcified (9% vs 4%, P < .0001) plaque burden. Calcified plaque and remodeling index were not significantly different. In multivariable analysis, only total, noncalcified, and low-attenuation noncalcified plaque burden were significant predictors of ischemia (P < .015). For predicting ischemia, the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve was 0.83 for total plaque burden versus 0.68 for stenosis (P = .04). Conclusion Compared with stenosis grading, automatic quantification of total, noncalcified, and low-attenuation noncalcified plaque burden substantially improves determination of lesion-specific hemodynamic significance by FFR in patients with intermediate coronary lesions. PMID:25897475

  17. Different Plaque Composition and Progression in Patients with Stable and Unstable Coronary Syndromes Evaluated by Cardiac CT

    PubMed Central

    Dalager, Maiken Glud; Bøttcher, Morten; Thygesen, Jesper; Andersen, Gratien; Bøtker, Hans Erik

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To compare the quantity, subtype, and progression of atherosclerosis by cardiac computed tomography (CT) and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) in patients with stable (SAP) and unstable angina pectoris or non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (UAP/n-STEMI). Methods. Forty patients with SAP and 20 with UAP/n-STEMI underwent cardiac CT and angiography with IVUS at baseline and after one year. Atherosclerotic segments were divided into calcified, mixed, or noncalcified subtypes, and significant stenoses were registered. Results. Thirty-two SAP and 15 UAP/n-STEMI patients completed the CT follow-up. At baseline, the number of atherosclerotic segments was higher in UAP/n-STEMI than in SAP (P = 0.039). UAP/n-STEMI patients had more segments with noncalcified plaques (P = 0.0005) whereas SAP patients had more segments with calcified plaques (P = 0.013). The number of segments with significant stenosis did not differ between the groups, but noncalcified plaques more frequently caused significant stenoses in UAP/n-STEMI than in SAP patients (P = 0.0002). After one year the number of segments with atherosclerosis increased in SAP patients (P = 0.0001). The number of atherosclerotic segments remained unchanged in UAP/n-STEMI patients. However, composition was altered as the number of segments with noncalcified plaques decreased (P = 0.018). IVUS data confirmed the CT findings. Conclusion. Quantity, subtype, and progression of atherosclerosis differ between SAP and UAP/n-STEMI patients. PMID:26339610

  18. Pleural fluid tumour markers in malignant pleural effusion with inconclusive cytologic results

    PubMed Central

    Antonangelo, L.; Sales, R.K.; Corá, A.P.; Acencio, M.M.P.; Teixeira, L.R.; Vargas, F.S.

    2015-01-01

    Background The presence of tumour cells in pleural fluid or tissue defines an effusion as malignant. Cytology analysis of the pleural fluid has about 60% diagnostic sensitivity. Several tests have been proposed to improve diagnosis—among them, the concentrations of tumour markers in pleural fluid. We evaluated whether the concentrations of tumour markers in pleural fluid could improve the diagnosis of malignant pleural effusion (mpe) when cytology is doubtful. Methods Lymphocytic pleural fluids secondary to tuberculosis or malignancy from 156 outpatients were submitted for cytology and tumour marker quantification [carcinoembryonic antigen (cea), cancer antigen 15-3 (ca15-3), carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (ca19-9), cancer antigen 72-4 (ca72-4), cancer antigen 125 (ca125), and cyfra 21-1). Oneway analysis of variance, the Student t-test or Mann–Whitney test, and receiver operating characteristic curves were used in the statistical analysis. Results Concentrations of the tumour markers cea, ca15-3, ca125, and cyfra 21-1 were higher in mpes than they were in the benign effusions (p < 0.001), regardless of cytology results. The markers ca19-9 and ca72-4 did not discriminate malignant from benign effusions. When comparing the concentrations of tumour markers in mpes having positive, suspicious, or negative cytology with concentrations in benign effusions, we observed higher levels of cea, ca15-3, cyfra 21-1, and ca125 in malignant effusions with positive cytology (p = 0.003, p = 0.001, p = 0.002, and p = 0.001 respectively). In pleural fluid, only ca125 was higher in mpes with suspicious or negative cytology (p = 0.001) than in benign effusions. Conclusions Given high specificity and a sensitivity of about 60%, the concentrations of tumour markers in pleural effusions could be evaluated in cases of inconclusive cytology in patients with a high pre-test chance of malignancy or a history of cancer. PMID:26628873

  19. Disseminated plasma cell myeloma presenting as massive pleural effusion

    PubMed Central

    Babu, Kanahasubramanian Anand; Sundararajan, Lakshmikanthan; Prabu, Pandurangan; Parameswaran, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Plasma cell myeloma (PCM) is a hematologic malignancy of plasma cell origin and usually associated with the presence of lytic bone lesions. Pleural effusions are rarely associated with PCM and most often signify a concurrent disease process. Malignant myelomatous pleural effusions are even more unusual and carry a poor prognosis. We report a unique case of unsuspected PCM with thoracic involvement in the form of massive left side pleural effusion. Pleural fluid cytology revealed numerous atypical plasma cells. Subsequently on further workup, urine Bence Jones protein was positive. Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy and computed tomography of the chest and abdomen revealed features consistent with multiple myeloma. PMID:26664659

  20. Disappearance of La Caille Plaque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-04-01

    A bronze plaque erected to the memory of N.-L. de La Caille near the site of his observatory in Central Cape Town, has been stolen by metal thieves. It was designed by the famous architect Sir Herbert Baker.

  1. Comparison of the effects of pitavastatin versus pravastatin on coronary artery plaque phenotype assessed by tissue characterization using serial virtual histology intravascular ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Nozue, Tsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Shingo; Tohyama, Shinichi; Fukui, Kazuki; Umezawa, Shigeo; Onishi, Yuko; Kunishima, Tomoyuki; Sato, Akira; Nozato, Toshihiro; Miyake, Shogo; Takeyama, Youichi; Morino, Yoshihiro; Yamauchi, Takao; Muramatsu, Toshiya; Hibi, Kiyoshi; Terashima, Mitsuyasu; Michishita, Ichiro

    2015-01-01

    Thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA) is the most common type of vulnerable plaque and is the precursor of plaque rupture. However, rupture of a TCFA is not the only mechanism underlying thrombus formation or acute coronary syndrome. Although statin therapy changes the composition of coronary artery plaques, the effects of statins, particularly different types of statins, on plaque phenotype have not been fully examined. This study compared the effects of pitavastatin versus pravastatin on coronary artery plaque phenotype assessed by virtual histology (VH) intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) in patients with angina pectoris (AP). Coronary atherosclerosis in nonculprit lesions was evaluated using VH-IVUS at baseline and 8 months after statin therapy; analyzable IVUS data were obtained from 83 patients with stable AP (39 patients treated with pitavastatin and 44 with pravastatin) and 36 patients with unstable AP (19 patients treated with pitavastatin and 17 with pravastatin). Pitavastatin had a strong effect on reducing pathologic intimal thickening (PIT), especially in patients with unstable AP, but had no impact on VH-TCFA or fibroatheroma (FA). By contrast, pravastatin had weak effects on reducing PIT, VH-TCFA, or FA. Increases in the number of calcified plaques were observed for both statins. In conclusion, pitavastatin and pravastatin changed coronary artery plaque phenotype as assessed by VH-IVUS in patients with AP. However, the effects of these statins on coronary artery plaque phenotype were different. PMID:24337500

  2. Effects of bacteriophage traits on plaque formation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The appearance of plaques on a bacterial lawn is one of the enduring imageries in modern day biology. The seeming simplicity of a plaque has invited many hypotheses and models in trying to describe and explain the details of its formation. However, until now, there has been no systematic experimental exploration on how different bacteriophage (phage) traits may influence the formation of a plaque. In this study, we constructed a series of isogenic ? phages that differ in their adsorption rate, lysis timing, or morphology so that we can determine the effects if these changes on three plaque properties: size, progeny productivity, and phage concentration within plaques. Results We found that the adsorption rate has a diminishing, but negative impact on all three plaque measurements. Interestingly, there exists a concave relationship between the lysis time and plaque size, resulting in an apparent optimal lysis time that maximizes the plaque size. Although suggestive in appearance, we did not detect a significant effect of lysis time on plaque productivity. Nonetheless, the combined effects of plaque size and productivity resulted in an apparent convex relationship between the lysis time and phage concentration within plaques. Lastly, we found that virion morphology also affected plaque size. We compared our results to the available models on plaque size and productivity. For the models in their current forms, a few of them can capture the qualitative aspects of our results, but not consistently in both plaque properties. Conclusions By using a collection of isogenic phage strains, we were able to investigate the effects of individual phage traits on plaque size, plaque productivity, and average phage concentration in a plaque while holding all other traits constant. The controlled nature of our study allowed us to test several model predictions on plaque size and plaque productivity. It seems that a more realistic theoretical approach to plaque formation is needed in order to capture the complex interaction between phage and its bacterium host in a spatially restricted environment. PMID:21827665

  3. A RARE CASE OF PLEURAL LYMPHOMA

    PubMed Central

    Basuthakur, Sumitra; Sarkar, Anirban; Burman, Sushanta; Dandale, Rajesh

    2008-01-01

    We present a case report of a 20 years old male who had low grade fever, weight loss of about 10 kg and left-sided chest pain increasing in intensity over a year. Clinically, it mimicked left sided pleural effusion with a tender, soft, parietal swelling in left in-fraaxillary area. Chest x-ray and Computerized Tomography-scan of thorax showed pleura based mass in left hemi thorax. Computerized Tomography guided Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology confirmed the diagnosis of non Hodgkin Lymphoma, diffuse large B cell type, high-grade. PMID:21264085

  4. High IL-35 Pleural Expression in Patients with Tuberculous Pleural Effusion

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xuan; Yang, Jiong

    2015-01-01

    Background IL-35 is a novel anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive cytokine primarily produced by Treg cells, and is involved in inflammatory diseases and autoimmune diseases. However, its roles in tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE) remain unknown. We aimed to investigate the potential involvement of IL-35 in TPE. Material/Methods Thirty TPE patients and 20 lung cancer patients with malignant pleural effusion (MPE) were recruited. Samples of pleural effusion (100 mL) were collected after traditional pleurocentesis. Blood was sampled from TPE patients. Mononuclear cells were isolated by Ficoll-Hypaque gradient. Proportions of Th1, Th17, and IL-35-producing cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. IL-35 was assessed by real-time RT-PCR, ELISA, and immunofluorescence. An ELISPOT assay was used to assess the effect of IL-35 on pleural effusion mononuclear cells (PEMCs). Results Proportions of IL-35-producing cells were higher in TPE compared with MPE (49.4±6.0 vs. 15.8±5.4%, P<0.001) and blood from TPE patients (49.4±6.0% vs. 16.6±3.1, P<0.001). IL-35, IL-17 and IFN-? were elevated in TPE compared with MPE (all P<0.01). ELISPOT assay showed that IL-35 reduced the proportion of IFN-?-producing CD4+ T cells in TPE. IL-35 mRNA expression was higher in TPE compared with MPE (P<0.001). Immunofluorescence showed that IL-35-positive cells were present in pleural tissues from TPE patients. Conclusions Results suggest that there is an imbalance in IL-35 metabolism in TPE. However, further studies are required to assess the exact relationship with the immune system response to tuberculosis. IL-35 might play a role in TPE and might be targeted as a treatment for TPE. PMID:25935866

  5. Diagnostic value of neurotrophin expression in malignant pleural effusions

    PubMed Central

    DUYSINX, BERNARD C.; PAULUS, ASTRID; HEINEN, VINCENT; NGUYEN, DELPHINE; HENKET, MONIQUE; CORHAY, JEAN-LOUIS; LOUIS, RENAUD

    2011-01-01

    Neurotrophins (NTs) modulate the growth of human malignancies, including lung cancers. Our prospective study evaluated the accuracy of pleural NTs [nerve growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin 3 (nT3) and 4 (nT4)] levels for differentiating benign from malignant pleural exudates. Levels of NTs were measured by ELISA in 170 patients with non-neutrophilic (<50%) exudative benign or malignant pleurisies diagnosed by pleuroscopy. Fifty-nine benign (9 infections and 50 inflammatory diseases) and 111 malignant (50 extrathoracic tumors, 51 lung cancers and 10 mesotheliomas) pleural exudates were diagnosed by thoracoscopy. Levels of BDNF were significantly higher in malignant than in benign effusions [17 pg/ml (0–367) vs. 8 pg/ml (0–51), p<0.05]. ROC analysis showed an area under the curve of 0.609 (p=0.012; best threshold 44 pg/ml). Pleural BDNF levels were significantly higher in pleural metastasis of pulmonary tumors and in mesothelioma than in pleural benign effusions. Finally, a higher proportion of pleural nT3 was detected in squamous cell lung carcinoma in comparison to that in non-squamous cell lung carcinoma (72.7 vs. 10%, p<0.0001). NTs and particularly BDNF may play a role in the pathogenesis of malignant pleural effusions. PMID:22977602

  6. Unilateral pleural effusion without ascites in liver cirrhosis

    SciTech Connect

    Faiyaz, U.; Goyal, P.C.

    1983-09-01

    The source of massive pleural effusion was not apparent in a 58-year-old man who had cirrhosis but no demonstrable ascites. Intraperitoneal injection of technetium Tc 99m sulfur colloid established the presence of peritoneopleural communication. This diagnostic technique can be helpful in evaluating patients with cirrhosis of the liver and pleural effusion with or without ascites.

  7. Myelomatous pleural effusion - Thoracoscopic evaluation of a rare entity

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Chetan B; Gupta, Neeraj; Gupta, Rakesh C; Dixit, Ramakant; Gupta, Ankur; Indushekar, Varna

    2015-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is a malignant neoplasm of plasma cell origin that mainly affects bone marrow and skeletal system, producing large amount of light chain immunoglobulins. Pleural involvement in multiple myeloma is a rare complication which carries very poor prognosis. We report a case of multiple myeloma who presented with recurrent pleural effusion that was evaluated by means of thoracoscopy.

  8. Silicone Breast Implants: A Rare Cause of Pleural Effusion

    PubMed Central

    Shaik, Imam H.; Gandrapu, Bindu; Flores, David; Matta, Jyoti; Syed, Amer K.

    2015-01-01

    Pleural effusions are one of the rarest complications reported in patients with silicone gel filled breast implants. The silicone implants have potential to provoke chronic inflammation of pleura and subsequent pulmonary complications such as pleural effusion. Herein, we report a 44-year-old female who presented with left sided pleural effusion, six weeks after a silicone breast implantation surgery. The most common infectious, inflammatory, and malignant causes of pleural effusion were excluded with pleural fluid cytology and cultures. With recurrent effusion in the setting of recent surgery, the chemical reaction to silicone breast implants was sought and exploration was performed which revealed foreign body reaction (FBR) to silicone material. The symptoms dramatically improved after the explantation. PMID:26693375

  9. Comparison of plaque characteristics in narrowings with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), non-STEMI/unstable angina pectoris and stable coronary artery disease (from the ADAPT-DES IVUS Substudy).

    PubMed

    Dong, Liang; Mintz, Gary S; Witzenbichler, Bernhard; Metzger, D Christopher; Rinaldi, Michael J; Duffy, Peter L; Weisz, Giora; Stuckey, Thomas D; Brodie, Bruce R; Yun, Kyeong Ho; Xu, Ke; Kirtane, Ajay J; Stone, Gregg W; Maehara, Akiko

    2015-04-01

    Assessment of Dual Antiplatelet Therapy With Drug-Eluting Stents (ADAPT-DES) was a prospective, multicenter registry of 8,582 consecutive stable and unstable patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention using a drug-eluting stent. We sought to identify key morphologic features leading to ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) versus non-STEMI (NSTEMI) or unstable angina pectoris (UA) versus stable coronary artery disease (CAD) presentation. In the prespecified grayscale and virtual histology (VH) substudy of ADAPT-DES, preintervention imaging identified 676 patients with a single culprit lesion. The relation between lesion morphology and clinical presentation was compared among patients with (1) STEMI, (2) NSTEMI or UA, and (3) stable CAD. Intravascular ultrasound identified more plaque rupture and VH thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA) in STEMI lesions compared with NSTEMI/UA or stable CAD lesions; conversely, fibroatheromas appeared more often calcified with a thick fibrous cap in stable CAD. Minimum lumen cross-sectional area (MLA) was smaller with larger plaque burden and positive remodeling in STEMI lesions. Lesions with plaque rupture versus those without plaque rupture showed higher prevalence of VH-TCFA and larger plaque burden with positive remodeling, especially in patients with STEMI. Multivariate analysis showed that in the lesions with plaque rupture, plaque burden at the MLA site was the only independent predictor for STEMI (cutoff of plaque burden = 85%) and in lesions without plaque rupture, MLA was the only independent predictor for STEMI (cutoff of MLA = 2.3 mm(2)). In conclusion, culprit lesions causing STEMI have smaller lumen areas, greater plaque burden, and more plaque rupture or VH-TCFA compared with NSTEMI/UA or stable CAD; in lesions with plaque rupture, only plaque burden predicted STEMI, and in lesions without plaque rupture, only MLA area predicted STEMI. PMID:25661569

  10. The development and potential of acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging for carotid artery plaque characterization.

    PubMed

    Allen, Jason D; Ham, Katherine L; Dumont, Douglas M; Sileshi, Bantayehu; Trahey, Gregg E; Dahl, Jeremy J

    2011-08-01

    Stroke is the third leading cause of death and long-term disability in the USA. Currently, surgical intervention decisions in asymptomatic patients are based upon the degree of carotid artery stenosis. While there is a clear benefit of endarterectomy for patients with severe (> 70%) stenosis, in those with high/moderate (50-69%) stenosis the evidence is less clear. Evidence suggests ischemic stroke is associated less with calcified and fibrous plaques than with those containing softer tissue, especially when accompanied by a thin fibrous cap. A reliable mechanism for the identification of individuals with atherosclerotic plaques which confer the highest risk for stroke is fundamental to the selection of patients for vascular interventions. Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging is a new ultrasonic-based imaging method that characterizes the mechanical properties of tissue by measuring displacement resulting from the application of acoustic radiation force. These displacements provide information about the local stiffness of tissue and can differentiate between soft and hard areas. Because arterial walls, soft tissue, atheromas, and calcifications have a wide range in their stiffness properties, they represent excellent candidates for ARFI imaging. We present information from early phantom experiments and excised human limb studies to in vivo carotid artery scans and provide evidence for the ability of ARFI to provide high-quality images which highlight mechanical differences in tissue stiffness not readily apparent in matched B-mode images. This allows ARFI to identify soft from hard plaques and differentiate characteristics associated with plaque vulnerability or stability. PMID:21447606

  11. Evaluation of Cepheid's Xpert MTB/RIF Test on Pleural Fluid in the Diagnosis of Pleural Tuberculosis in a High Prevalence HIV/TB Setting

    PubMed Central

    Kirenga, Bruce J.; Kiragga, Agnes; Lukande, Robert; Nsereko, Maria; Ssengooba, Willy; Katamba, Achilles; Worodria, William; Joloba, Moses L.; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet

    2014-01-01

    Background Diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis (TB) using routinely available diagnostic methods is challenging due to the paucibacillary nature of the disease. Histopathology and pleural tissue TB culture involves an invasive procedure which requires expertise and appropriate equipment, both often unavailable in many health units. Xpert MTB/Rif test has been widely evaluated in sputum specimens but data on its performance in pleural TB is scarce. We evaluated the accuracy of Cepheid's Xpert MTB/Rif test on pleural fluid in the diagnosis of pleural TB in Uganda. Methods Consenting adult patients with exudative pleural effusions underwent pleural biopsy and the tissue obtained subjected to Lowenstein-Jensen and mycobacterial growth indicator tube MTB cultures and histopathology. Pleural fluid for Xpert MTB/Rif testing was also collected. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, clinical symptoms, HIV status and CD4 count were also collected. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of Xpert MTB/Rif test on pleural fluid in pleural TB diagnosis were calculated using pleural tissue MTB culture and/or histopathology as the reference standard. Results Of the 116 participants [female 50%, mean age 34 (SD ±13], 87/116 (75%) had pleural TB confirmed on pleural tissue culture and/or histopathology. The Xpert MTB/Rif test identified 25 (28.7%) of the 87 confirmed pleural TB cases. The sensitivity and specificity of Xpert MTB/Rif test were 28.7% and 96.6% respectively while the positive and negative predictive values were 96.1% and 31.1% respectively. Conclusion Xpert MTB/Rif test on pleural fluid does not accurately diagnose pleural TB and therefore cannot be used as an initial evaluation test in patients with suspected pleural TB. New, rapid and accurate tests for the diagnosis of pleural TB are still warranted. PMID:25051491

  12. Macrophage-Derived Matrix Vesicles: An Alternative Novel Mechanism for Microcalcification in Atherosclerotic Plaques

    PubMed Central

    New, Sophie E.; Goettsch, Claudia; Aikawa, Masanori; Marchini, Julio F.; Shibasaki, Manabu; Yabusaki, Katsumi; Libby, Peter; Shanahan, Catherine M.; Croce, Kevin; Aikawa, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Rationale We previously showed that early calcification of atherosclerotic plaques associates with macrophage accumulation. Chronic renal disease (CRD) and mineral imbalance accelerates calcification and the subsequent release of matrix vesicles (MVs) — precursors of microcalcification. Objective We tested the hypothesis that macrophage-derived MVs contribute directly to microcalcification. Methods and Results Macrophages associated with regions of calcified vesicular structures in human carotid plaques (n=136 patients). In vitro, macrophages released MVs with high calcification and aggregation potential. MVs expressed exosomal markers (CD9 and TSG101), and contained S100A9 and annexin V (Anx5). Silencing S100A9 in vitro and genetic deficiency in S100A9?/? mice reduced MV calcification, while stimulation with S100A9 increased calcification potential. Externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) after Ca/P stimulation and interaction of S100A9 and Anx5, indicated that a PS-Anx5-S100A9 membrane complex facilitates hydroxyapatite nucleation within the macrophage-derived MV membrane. Conclusions Our results support the novel concept that macrophages release calcifying MVs enriched in S100A9 and Anx5, which contribute to accelerated microcalcification in CRD. PMID:23616621

  13. Coronary Atherosclerotic Plaque Detected by Computed Tomographic Angiography in Subjects with Diabetes Compared to Those without Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Khazai, Bahram; Luo, Yanting; Rosenberg, Steven; Wingrove, James; Budoff, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Little data are available regarding coronary plaque composition and semi-quantitative scores in individuals with diabetes; the extent to which diabetes may affect the presence and extent of Coronary Artery Calcium (CAC) needs more evaluation. Considering that this information may be of great value in formulating preventive interventions in this population, we compared these findings in individuals with diabetes to those without. Methods Multi-Detector Computed Tomographic (MDCT) images of 861 consecutive patients with diabetes who were referred to Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute from January 2000 to September 2012, were evaluated using a 15–coronary segment model. All 861 patients underwent calcium scoring and from these; 389 had coronary CT angiography (CTA). CAC score was compared to 861 age, sex and ethnicity matched controls without diabetes after adjustment for Body Mass Index (BMI), family history of coronary artery disease, hyperlipidemia, hypertension and smoking. Segment Involvement Score (SIS; the total number of segments with any plaque), Segment Stenosis Score (SSS; the sum of maximal stenosis score per segment), Total Plaque Score (TPS; the sum of the plaque amount per segment) and plaque compositionwere compared to 389 age, sex and ethnicity matched controls without diabetes after adjustment for BMI, family history of coronary artery disease, hyperlipidemia, hypertension and smoking. Results Diabetes was positively correlated to the presence and extent of CAC (P<0.0001 for both). SIS, SSS and TPS were significantly higher in those with diabetes (P<0.0001). Number of mixed and calcified plaques were significantly higher in those with diabetes (P = 0.018 and P<0.001 respectively) but there was no significant difference in the number of non-calcified plaques between the two groups (P = 0.398). Conclusions Patients with diabetes have higher CAC and semi-quantitative coronary plaque scores compared to the age, gender and ethnicity matched controls without diabetes after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors. Since mixed plaque is associated with worse long-term clinical outcomes, these findings support more aggressive preventive measures in this population. PMID:26600086

  14. Rotablation in the treatment of high-risk patients with heavily calcified left-main coronary lesions

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Meng-Hsiu; Yi, Hung-Tao; Tsao, Cheng-Rong; Chang, Wei-Chun; Su, Chieh-Shou; Liu, Tsun-Jui; Liang, Kae-Woei; Ting, Chih-Tai; Lee, Wen-Lieng

    2013-01-01

    Objective Heavily calcified left-main coronary diseases (LMCA) remain a formidable challenge for percutaneous interventions (PCI). This study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of using rotational atherectomy (RA) in treating such lesions in actual practice. Methods From February 2004 to March 2012, all consecutive patients who received RA for heavily-calcified LMCA lesions in our cath lab were enrolled. The relevant clinical and angiographic characteristics at the time of index PCI, as well as the clinical follow-up outcomes, were retrieved and analyzed. Results A total of 34 consecutive patients were recruited with a mean age 77.2 ± 10.2 years. There were 82.4% presented with acute coronary syndrome and 11.8% with cardiogenic shock. Chronic renal disease and diabetes were seen in 64.7% and 52.9%, respectively. Triple-vessel coronary disease was found in 76.5% of them. The mean SYNTAX score was 50 ± 15 and EuroSCORE II scale 5.6 ± 4.8. The angiographic success rate was 100% with a procedural success rate of 91.2%. The mean number of burrs per patient was 1.7 ± 0.5. Crossing-over stenting was used in 64.7%. Most stents were drug-eluting (67.6%). Intra-aortic ballon pump was used in 20.6% of the procedures. Three patients died during hospitalization, all due to presenting cardiogenic shock. No major complication occurred. Among 31 hospital survivors, the major adverse cardiac events (MACE) rate was 16.1%, all due to target lesion revascularization or target vessel revascularization. Conclusions In high-surgical-risk elderly patients, plaque modification with RA in PCI of heavily-calcified LMCA could be safely accomplished with a minimal complication rate and low out-of-hospital MACE. PMID:24133507

  15. Progress in atherosclerotic plaque imaging

    PubMed Central

    Soloperto, Giulia; Casciaro, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the primary cause of mortality in the industrialized world, and arterial obstruction, triggered by rupture-prone atherosclerotic plaques, lead to myocardial infarction and cerebral stroke. Vulnerable plaques do not necessarily occur with flow-limiting stenosis, thus conventional luminographic assessment of the pathology fails to identify unstable lesions. In this review we discuss the currently available imaging modalities used to investigate morphological features and biological characteristics of the atherosclerotic plaque. The different imaging modalities such as ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, nuclear imaging and their intravascular applications are illustrated, highlighting their specific diagnostic potential. Clinically available and upcoming methodologies are also reviewed along with the related challenges in their clinical translation, concerning the specific invasiveness, accuracy and cost-effectiveness of these methods. PMID:22937215

  16. Imaging Atherosclerosis and Vulnerable Plaque

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Mehran M.; Glover, David K.; Lanza, Gregory M.; Fayad, Zahi A.; Johnson, Lynne L.

    2010-01-01

    Identifying patients at high risk for an acute cardiovascular event such as myocardial infarction or stroke and assessing the total atherosclerotic burden are clinically important. Currently available imaging modalities can delineate vascular wall anatomy and, with novel probes, target biologic processes important in plaque evolution and plaque stability. Expansion of the vessel wall involving remodeling of the extracellular matrix can be imaged, as can angiogenesis of the vasa vasorum, plaque inflammation, and fibrin deposits on early nonocclusive vascular thrombosis. Several imaging platforms are available for targeted vascular imaging to acquire information on both anatomy and pathobiology in the same imaging session using either hybrid technology (nuclear combined with CT) or MRI combined with novel probes targeting processes identified by molecular biology to be of importance. This article will discuss the current state of the art of these modalities and challenges to clinical translation. PMID:20395341

  17. Intrapleural tissue plasminogen activator and deoxyribonuclease therapy for pleural infection

    PubMed Central

    Piccolo, Francesco; Popowicz, Natalia; Wong, Donny

    2015-01-01

    Pleural infection remains a global health burden associated with significant morbidity. Drainage of the infected pleural fluid is important but can often be hindered by septations and loculations. Intrapleural fibrinolytic therapy alone, to break pleural adhesions, has shown no convincing advantages over placebo in improving clinical outcome. Deoxyribonucleoprotein from degradation of leukocytes contributes significantly to high viscosity of infected pleural fluid. Recombinant deoxyribonuclease (DNase) is effective in reducing pleural fluid viscosity in pre-clinical studies. The combination of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and DNase was effective in animal model experiments of empyema. The benefits were established in a randomized clinical trial: those (n=48) treated with tPA/DNase had significantly improved radiological outcomes and reduced need of surgery and duration of hospital stay. A longitudinal observational series of 107 patients further confirmed the effectiveness and safety of tPA/DNase therapy, including its use as ‘rescue therapy’ when patients failed to respond to antibiotics and chest tube drainage. Overall, a short course of intrapleural tPA (10 mg) and DNase (5 mg) therapy provides a cure in over 90% of patients without requiring surgery. The treatment stimulates pleural fluid formation, enhances radiographic clearance and resolution of systemic inflammation. Serious complications are uncommon; pleural bleeding requiring transfusion occurred in ~2% of cases. Pain can occur, especially with the first dose. Treatment is contraindicated in those with significant bleeding diathesis or a bronchopleural fistula. Future research is required to optimize dosing regimens and in refining patient selection. PMID:26150913

  18. Aterofisiol® in carotid plaque evolution

    PubMed Central

    Amato, Bruno; Compagna, Rita; Amato, Maurizio; Gallelli, Luca; de Franciscis, Stefano; Serra, Raffaele

    2015-01-01

    Background In patients with carotid stenosis, the risk of plaque rupture is related to the composition of the atherosclerotic plaque rather than to its magnitude. In this regard, we evaluated the effects of a supplement, Aterofisiol,® containing omega-3 (EPA [eicosapen acid] DHA [docosahexaenoic acid]), vitamin K2, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPC) and resveratrol on the composition of atherosclerotic plaque and on neurological symptoms in patients with carotid stenosis undergoing carotid endarterectomy. Methods The study was randomized, prospective, and double-blinded. Eligible patients were of both sexes, with carotid stenosis >70% who underwent endarterectomy. Enrolled patients were randomly allocated to receive either one tablet of acetylsalicylic acid 100 mg (Cardioaspirin®) + one tablet of Aterofisiol every 24 hours or one tablet of Cardioaspirin + one tablet of placebo every 24 hours. Each treatment was started 30 days before the surgery and was stopped 5 days before the surgery. The plaques were removed “en bloc” using standard surgical technique. Results During the study period, 214 patients (135 men and 79 women) were enrolled for intent-to-treat and randomized in two groups: Group A: 107 patients (68 men and 39 women) were treated with Cardioaspirin + Aterofisiol. Group B: 107 patients (67 men and 40 women) were treated with Cardioaspirin + placebo. At the end of the study, 202 patients participated fully (103 patients in Group A and 99 patients in Group B), making up the protocol evaluation population (94.4%). The mean lipid content of removed plaques was significantly lower (P<0.05) in Group A. We recorded a significantly lower incidence of neurological symptoms in Group A in comparison with Group B (P<0.05). Conclusion In the study, Aterofisiol showed to be effective in reducing the amounts of cholesterol and lipids in the plaques and in reducing adverse neurological events in the study group with respect to controls. PMID:26229448

  19. Calcified embolism: a rare cause of cerebral infarction.

    PubMed

    Chandran, Vijay; Pai, Aparna; Rao, Suryanarayana

    2013-01-01

    Calcified cerebral emboli (CCE) are a rare cause of stroke and these emboli can be identified on a CT scan of the brain performed for the initial evaluation of stroke. In this report we present a patient who developed a CCE following cardiac catheterisation that lodged in the left middle cerebral artery with resultant right hemiparesis and aphasia. The calcified embolus was seen on CT but could not be identified on MRI. Predisposing factors for CCE include angiography and valve or vessel wall calcification. The natural history and response to standard therapy in patients with CCE as compared with stroke of other aetiologies have not been studied until now. Increased awareness and ability to identify calcified emboli will help us to have an improved understanding of strokes resulting from CCE. PMID:23632190

  20. Increasing the Spatial Resolution of 3T Carotid MRI Has No Beneficial Effect for Plaque Component Measurement Reproducibility

    PubMed Central

    van Wijk, Diederik F.; Strang, Aart C.; Duivenvoorden, Raphael; Enklaar, Dirk-Jan F.; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; van der Geest, Rob J.; Kastelein, John J. P.; de Groot, Eric; Stroes, Erik S. G.; Nederveen, Aart J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Different in-plane resolutions have been used for carotid 3T MRI. We compared the reproducibility, as well as the within- and between reader variability of high and routinely used spatial resolution in scans of patients with atherosclerotic carotid artery disease. Since no consensus exists about the optimal segmentation method, we analysed all imaging data using two different segmentation methods. Materials and Methods In 31 patient with carotid atherosclerosis a high (0.25 × 0.25 mm2; HR) and routinely used (0.50 × 0.50 mm2; LR) spatial resolution carotid MRI scan were performed within one month. A fully blinded closed and a simultaneously open segmentation were used to quantify the lipid rich necrotic core (LRNC), calcified and loose matrix (LM) plaque area and the fibrous cap (FC) thickness. Results No significant differences were observed between scan-rescan reproducibility for HR versus LR measurements, nor did we find any significant difference between the within-reader and between-reader reproducibility. The same applies for differences between the open and closed reads. All intraclass correlation coefficients between scans and rescans for the LRNC, calcified and LM plaque area, as well as the FC thickness measurements with the open segmentation method were excellent (all above 0.75). Conclusions Increasing the spatial resolution at the expense of the contrast-to-noise ratio does not improve carotid plaque component scan-rescan reproducibility in patients with atherosclerotic carotid disease, nor does using a different segmentation method. PMID:26161783

  1. Friction and morphology of pleural mesothelia.

    PubMed

    Pecchiari, Matteo; Sartori, Patrizia; Conte, Vincenzo; D'Angelo, Edgardo; Moscheni, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    To verify the hypothesis that by enmeshing lubricants, microvilli reduce the coefficient of kinetic friction (?) of pleural mesothelium, ? was measured during reciprocating sliding of rabbit's visceral against parietal pleura before and after addition of hyaluronan, and related to the morphological features of the microvillar network. Because no relation was found between ? or ? changes after hyaluronan and microvillar characteristics, the latter are not determinants of the frictional forces which oppose sliding of normal mesothelial surfaces under physiological conditions, nor of the effects of hyaluronan. Addition of hyaluronan increased ? slightly but significantly in normal specimens, probably by altering the physiological mix of lubricants, but decreased ? of damaged mesothelia, suggesting protective, anti-abrasion properties. Indeed, while sliding of an injured against a normal pleura heavily damaged the latter and increased ? when Ringer was interposed between the surfaces, both effects were limited or prevented when hyaluronan was interposed between the injured and normal pleura before onset of sliding. PMID:26376001

  2. Reduction of rat pleural microvilli caused by noise pollution.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Maria Joäo; Pereira, António S; Ferreira, Paula G; Grande, Nuno R; Aguas, Artur P; Guimaräes, Laura; Freitas, Diamantino; Carvalho, António P

    2003-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to investigate whether chronic exposure to noise modifies pleural morphology. Rats were submitted to 8-h/day schedule of noise that is similar to the working hours at cotton-mill rooms. Morphometry of the area occupied by microvilli on the pleural surface showed a decrease in microvilli after 3 months of rat exposure to noise. The reduction of microvilli was 10% after 3 months of noise exposure (reaching 20% after 7 months of noise treatment) and is consistent with pleural effusions found in some of the patients working in noise-polluted environments. PMID:14710437

  3. Primary diffuse pleural rhabdomyosarcoma in an adult patient.

    PubMed

    Koksal, Deniz; Ibrahimov, Ferhad; Bugdayci, Meral; Gedikoglu, Gokhan; Emri, Salih

    2016-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma is an aggressive malignant tumor of childhood, originating from immature cells that are destinated to form striated skeletal muscle. It usually arises in the head and neck or the extremities. Primary diffuse pleural rhabdomyosarcoma is exceptionally rare. Herein we report a case of primary diffuse pleural rhabdomyosarcoma in a 48-year-old man. The diagnosis was confimed by percutaneous pleural biopsy. Chemotherapy (cisplatin, ifosfamide, adriamycin, vincristine) was initiated due to the large volume of the tumor. After 3 months, computed tomography of the thorax showed stable radiological findings. PMID:26207004

  4. Foreign body granuloma mimicking recurrence of malignant pleural mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Nakasuka, Takamasa; Fujimoto, Nobukazu; Hara, Naofumi; Miyamoto, Yosuke; Yamagishi, Tomoko; Asano, Michiko; Nishi, Hideyuki; Kishimoto, Takumi

    2015-01-01

    A 72-year-old man visited our hospital due to right pleural effusion. He had worked as a welder at a shipbuilding company and had been exposed to asbestos. Cytological examination and thoracoscopic pleural biopsy yielded a diagnosis of epithelial malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM); extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP) was performed. Two years later, he became aware of right-back swelling that became a fist-sized mass over 2 months. Microscopy of a tissue specimen revealed no malignant cells, but did indicate foreign body granuloma. Subcutaneous lesions that develop after EPP do not necessarily result from the recurrence of MPM, but could have benign etiologies.

  5. Inhibiting macrophage proliferation suppresses atherosclerotic plaque inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jun; Lobatto, Mark E.; Hassing, Laurien; van der Staay, Susanne; van Rijs, Sarian M.; Calcagno, Claudia; Braza, Mounia S.; Baxter, Samantha; Fay, Francois; Sanchez-Gaytan, Brenda L.; Duivenvoorden, Raphaël; Sager, Hendrik; Astudillo, Yaritzy M.; Leong, Wei; Ramachandran, Sarayu; Storm, Gert; Pérez-Medina, Carlos; Reiner, Thomas; Cormode, David P.; Strijkers, Gustav J.; Stroes, Erik S.G.; Swirski, Filip K.; Nahrendorf, Matthias; Fisher, Edward A.; Fayad, Zahi A.; Mulder, Willem J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation drives atherosclerotic plaque progression and rupture, and is a compelling therapeutic target. Consequently, attenuating inflammation by reducing local macrophage accumulation is an appealing approach. This can potentially be accomplished by either blocking blood monocyte recruitment to the plaque or increasing macrophage apoptosis and emigration. Because macrophage proliferation was recently shown to dominate macrophage accumulation in advanced plaques, locally inhibiting macrophage proliferation may reduce plaque inflammation and produce long-term therapeutic benefits. To test this hypothesis, we used nanoparticle-based delivery of simvastatin to inhibit plaque macrophage proliferation in apolipoprotein E deficient mice (Apoe?/?) with advanced atherosclerotic plaques. This resulted in rapid reduction of plaque inflammation and favorable phenotype remodeling. We then combined this short-term nanoparticle intervention with an eight-week oral statin treatment, and this regimen rapidly reduced and continuously suppressed plaque inflammation. Our results demonstrate that pharmacologically inhibiting local macrophage proliferation can effectively treat inflammation in atherosclerosis. PMID:26295063

  6. Ameloblastomatous Calcifying Cystic Odontogenic Tumour: A Rare Variant

    PubMed Central

    Devaraju, Rama Raju; Duggi, Lakshmi Srujana; Sanjeevareddygari, Shylaja; Potturi, Abhinand

    2015-01-01

    Calcifying Cystic Odontogenic Tumor (CCOT) was previously described by Gorlin et al., in 1962 as Calcifying odontogenic cyst. CCOT is a rare lesion which accounts for 2% of all odontogenic pathological changes in the jaws. One of the variants, Ameloblastomatous proliferating type of CCOT is even more rare and very few cases have been reported in the light of literature review. This case report is an effort to bring forth a case of ameloblastomatous proliferating type of CCOT in a 65 year male, who presented with a painful swelling in the right jaw crossing midline causing facial asymmetry and confirmed by histopathological evaluation. PMID:25954714

  7. Ameloblastomatous calcifying cystic odontogenic tumour: a rare variant.

    PubMed

    Devaraju, Rama Raju; Duggi, Lakshmi Srujana; Gantala, Ramlal; Sanjeevareddygari, Shylaja; Potturi, Abhinand

    2015-03-01

    Calcifying Cystic Odontogenic Tumor (CCOT) was previously described by Gorlin et al., in 1962 as Calcifying odontogenic cyst. CCOT is a rare lesion which accounts for 2% of all odontogenic pathological changes in the jaws. One of the variants, Ameloblastomatous proliferating type of CCOT is even more rare and very few cases have been reported in the light of literature review. This case report is an effort to bring forth a case of ameloblastomatous proliferating type of CCOT in a 65 year male, who presented with a painful swelling in the right jaw crossing midline causing facial asymmetry and confirmed by histopathological evaluation. PMID:25954714

  8. Intracranial calcified pseudocyst reaction to a shunt catheter.

    PubMed

    Yowtak, June; Hughes, Douglas; Heger, Ian; Macomson, Samuel D

    2014-02-01

    A 9-year-old boy with spina bifida, Chiari II malformation, and hydrocephalus presented with signs of increased intracranial pressure consistent with a shunt malfunction. Radiological investigations revealed an intracranial calcified lesion along the ventricular catheter. A shunt tap revealed a translucent milky white fluid. The patient underwent a ventriculostomy and, eventually, a shunt revision. Pathology findings were consistent with the formation of dystrophic calcification and a pseudocyst around the shunt catheter. Postoperatively, the patient returned to his neurological baseline. This is, to the best of the authors' knowledge, the first report of an intracranial calcified pseudocyst in a patient with normal renal function. PMID:24329159

  9. Dynamics of mussel plaque detachment.

    PubMed

    Desmond, Kenneth W; Zacchia, Nicholas A; Waite, J Herbert; Valentine, Megan T

    2015-09-14

    Mussels are well known for their ability to generate and maintain strong, long-lasting adhesive bonds under hostile conditions. Many prior studies attribute their adhesive strength to the strong chemical interactions between the holdfast and substrate. While chemical interactions are certainly important, adhesive performance is also determined by contact geometry, and understanding the coupling between chemical interactions and the plaque shape and mechanical properties is essential in deploying bioinspired strategies when engineering improved adhesives. To investigate how the shape and mechanical properties of the mussel's plaque contribute to its adhesive performance, we use a custom built load frame capable of fully characterizing the dynamics of the detachment. With this, we can pull on samples along any orientation, while at the same time measuring the resulting force and imaging the bulk deformations of the plaque as well as the holdfast-substrate interface where debonding occurs. We find that the force-induced yielding of the mussel plaque improves the bond strength by two orders of magnitude and that the holdfast shape improves bond strength by an additional order of magnitude as compared to other simple geometries. These results demonstrate that optimizing the contact geometry can play as important a role on adhesive performance as optimizing the chemical interactions as observed in other organisms and model systems. PMID:26223522

  10. Recurrent Pleural Effusions Occurring in Association with Primary Pulmonary Amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Tada, Lauren; Anjum, Humayun; Linville, W. Kenneth; Surani, Salim

    2015-01-01

    Recurrent pleural effusions occurring in association with immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis and not associated with amyloid cardiomyopathy are rare. These portend an overall poor prognosis with mean survival time of approximately 1.8 months. We hereby report a case of a 59-year-old Caucasian female with recurrent pleural effusions and an ultimate diagnosis of pulmonary amyloidosis in association with plasma cell myeloma. The optimal treatment for recurrent pleural effusions in amyloidosis has not been determined; however, our patient responded to therapy with Cyclophosphamide-Bortezomib- (Velcade-) Dexamethasone (CyBorD) and had no repeat hospitalizations or recurrence of pleural effusion at four-month follow-up after initiation of therapy. PMID:26448893

  11. Peritoneal-Pleural Leaks Demonstrated by CT Peritoneography

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Tian; Xie, Jingyuan; Wang, Weiming; Ren, Hong; Chen, Nan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Acute hydrothorax is an uncommon complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD). Currently, there is no specific diagnostic method. Although it is not a life-threatening complication, hydrothorax often requires interrupting or quitting PD. Misdiagnosis often leads to more serious consequences. Case Presentation A 49-year-old woman (height 163 cm, weight 58 kg, BMI 21.82), who started PD 3 months previously, suddenly presented with acute dyspnea and a right pleural effusion. Blood routine examination, serum albumin and a series of laboratory tests were immediately performed. Except for the serum creatinine, all of the other tests were within normal range. Thoracentesis was performed to obtain pleural fluid specimens; there was also no evidence of a tumor or inflammation. Congestive heart failure, infection and hypoalbuminemia were excluded as well. Because PD-associated pleural leakage was suspected, computerized tomography (CT) peritoneography was performed next. The first CT scan showed that the CT value of pleural effusion was 6 Hounsfield units (HU). On the evening of the same day, 100 ml ionic contrast medium was mixed with 2 l dialysate and infused into the peritoneal cavity. The next morning, a CT scan was performed again. The CT value of pleural effusion at the same site increased to 40 HU. At the end, pleural leakage was clearly diagnosed. Subsequently, she received temporary hemodialysis and a small dose of automated PD. After 3 months, she successfully returned to PD without any recurrence of hydrothorax. Conclusion Although similar case reports are not rare, this report provided a simple and effective method for diagnosing pleural leakage. Furthermore, noninvasive treatment of pleural effusion will also get a satisfactory outcome. PMID:26266244

  12. Acquired Large Calcified Unruptured Sinus of Valsalva Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Hyun; Seol, Sang-Hoon; Seo, Guang-Won; Song, Pil-Sang; Kim, Dong-Kie; Kim, Ki-Hun; Kim, Doo-Il

    2015-11-01

    Acquired aneurysms of the sinus of Valsalva are rare. They are caused by infections such as tuberculosis, syphilis and endocarditis, as well as atherosclerosis and traumatic injury. They may be asymptomatic and incidentally discovered. We present a rare case of a large acquired calcified unruptured aneurysm of the right coronary sinus of Valsalva that was compressing the right ventricular outflow tract. PMID:26105986

  13. INTRODUCTION Otoliths are paired calcified structures in the inner ear

    E-print Network

    INTRODUCTION Otoliths are paired calcified structures in the inner ear of the fish. They are made) otoliths are good candidates to date and establish the chronological sequence of events during the fish life as well as estimate the fish environment. The micro- and macrostructure of the otoliths are used

  14. Calcified Granulomatous Disease: Occupational Associations and Lack of Familial Aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Robert M.; Amoroso, Anthony; Hashmi, Salman; Kligerman, Seth; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Netzer, Giora

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The acute host response to histoplasma capsulatum infection varies according to exposure and susceptibility. Late sequelae include calcifications in the lung, thoracic lymphatics, and spleen. Determinants of calcified granuloma formation are poorly studied and may differ from those affecting acute response. We examined the occupational associations and familial aggregation of radiographic calcified granulomatous disease to characterize the determinants of calcified granuloma formation. Methods We analyzed prospectively collected cross-sectional data including computed tomograms from 872 adult members of the Old Order Amish of Lancaster County. Results Granulomas were present in 71 % of participants. Granulomas were present in the lung of 57 % of participants, in the hilar or mediastinal lymph nodes of 55 % of participants, and in the spleen of 29 % of participants. No significant differences were observed in the presence of granulomas between men and women. Each year of age was associated with 4 % higher odds of splenic calcifications, and a primary occupation of farming was associated with an 84 % higher odds of splenic calcifications. A compelling pattern of familial aggregation was not observed. Conclusions Calcified granulomatous disease does not appear to aggregate in families. Determinants influencing patterns of granulomatous disease include occupation, age, and geographic location. PMID:25038755

  15. Calcified scleral choristoma in organoid nevus syndrome simulating retinoblastoma.

    PubMed

    Shields, Charlotte Nelle; Shields, Carol L; Lin, Chris J; Menacker, Sheryl J; Shields, Jerry A

    2014-01-01

    A child referred for management of retinoblastoma who alternatively had a calcified scleral choristoma as part of previously undiagnosed organoid nevus syndrome is described. A 31-month-old male infant with scalp alopecia was referred for retinoblastoma management after a calcified mass in his left eye was found. Ophthalmic examination revealed the mass was of choroidal or scleral origin, underlying the retina. The amelanotic circumpapillary mass extended superonasally in a geographic configuration and measured 14×12 mm. There was no subretinal fluid, hemorrhage, feeder vessels, or tumor seeding. Ocular ultrasonography confirmed a homogeneous calcified intraocular mass 3.1 mm in thickness. Enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography revealed that the lesion was located within the sclera compressing the overlying choroidal tissue. Further evaluation disclosed cutaneous aplasia cutis congenita with nevus sebaceous of Jadassohn. Magnetic resonance imaging disclosed an arachnoid cyst of the brain. Later, optical coherence tomography revealed the mass to be in the deep choroid or within the sclera. This constellation of ocular, cutaneous, and neurological features were suggestive of organoid nevus syndrome. At the 2-year follow-up, the findings were stable. The calcified choristoma of organoid nevus syndrome, located within the sclera in this case, has distinctive clinical features that differentiate this benign tumor from retinoblastoma. PMID:24410727

  16. Reabsorption kinetics of albumin from pleural space of dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Miniati, M.; Parker, J.C.; Pistolesi, M.; Cartledge, J.T.; Martin, D.J.; Giuntini, C.; Taylor, A.E.

    1988-08-01

    The reabsorption of albumin from the pleural space was measured in eight dogs receiving 0.5 ml intrapleural injection of /sup 131/I-labeled albumin and a simultaneous intravenous injection of /sup 125/I-labeled albumin. Plasma curves for both tracers were obtained over 24 h. The /sup 125/I-albumin curve served as input function of albumin for interstitial spaces, including pleura, whereas the /sup 131/I-albumin curve represented the output function from pleural space. The frequency function of albumin transit times from pleural space to plasma was obtained by deconvolution of input-output plasma curves. Plasma recovery of /sup 131/I-albumin was complete by 24 h, and the mean transit time from pleura to plasma averaged 7.95 +/- 1.57 (SD) h. Albumin reabsorption occurred mainly via lymphatics as indicated by experiments in 16 additional dogs in which their right lymph ducts or thoracic ducts were ligated before intrapleural injection. A pleural lymph flow of 0.020 +/- 0.003 (SD) ml.kg-1.h-1 was estimated, which is balanced by a comparable filtration of fluid into the pleural space. This suggests that, under physiological conditions, the subpleural lymphatics represent an important control mechanism of pleural liquid pressure.

  17. Switching off malignant pleural effusion formation—fantasy or future?

    PubMed Central

    Giannou, Anastasios D.; Stathopoulos, Georgios T.

    2015-01-01

    Malignant pleural effusion (MPE) is common and difficult to treat. In the vast majority of patients the presence of MPE heralds incurable disease, associated with poor quality of life, morbidity and mortality. Current therapeutic approaches are inefficient and merely offer palliation of associated symptoms. Recent scientific progress has shed light in the biologic processes governing the mechanisms behind the pathobiology of MPE. Pleural based tumors interfere with pleural fluid drainage, as well as the host vasculature and immune system, resulting in decreased fluid absorption and increased pleural fluid production via enhanced plasma extravasation into the pleural space. In order to achieve this feat, pleural based tumors must elicit critical vasoactive events in the pleura, thus forming a favorable microenvironment for tumor dissemination and MPE development. Such properties involve specific transcriptional signaling cascades in addition to secretion of important mediators which attract and activate host cell populations which, in turn, impact tumor cell functions. The dissection of the biologic steps leading to MPE formation provides novel therapeutic targets and recent research findings provide encouraging results towards future therapeutic innovations in MPE management. PMID:26150914

  18. Black Pleural Effusion: A Unique Presentation of Metastatic Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Chhabra, Akansha; Mukherjee, Vikramjit; Chowdhary, Mudit; Danckers, Mauricio; Fridman, David

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic melanoma is a rare form of skin cancer, but one that comes with a high mortality rate. Pulmonary involvement is frequently seen in metastatic melanoma with only 2% of malignant melanoma patients with thorax metastasis presenting with pleural effusions. Herein, we report an extremely rare case of black pleural effusion from thoracic metastasis of cutaneous malignant melanoma. A 74-year-old man with known metastatic melanoma presented with a 1-month history of worsening lower back and hip pain and was found to have extensive osseous metastatic disease and multiple compression fractures. The patient underwent an uneventful kyphoplasty; however, the following day, he became acutely hypoxic and tachypneic with increased oxygen requirements. Radiographic evaluation revealed new bilateral pleural effusions. Bedside thoracentesis revealed a densely exudative, lymphocyte-predominant black effusion. Cytological examination showed numerous neoplastic cells with melanin deposition. A diagnosis of thoracic metastasis of malignant melanoma was established based on the gross and microscopic appearance of the pleural fluid. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of black pleural effusions secondary to metastatic melanoma in the United States. Despite the rarity of this presentation, it is important to determine the etiology of the black pleural effusion and to keep metastatic melanoma as a differential diagnosis. PMID:26078741

  19. Pleural Fluid Analysis in Chronic Hemothorax: A Mimicker of Infection

    PubMed Central

    DiVietro, Matthew L; Huggins, John Terrill; Angotti, Lauren Brown; Kummerfeldt, Carlos E; Nestor, Jennings E; Doelken, Peter; Sahn, Steven A

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Timing to video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) in hemothorax is based on preventing acute and long-term complications of retained blood products in the pleural space, including pleural space infection. We propose that the persistence of blood in the pleural space induces a proinflammatory state, independent of active infection. METHODS We identified six patients with a hemothorax by clinical history, radiographic imaging, and pleural fluid analysis from a database of 1133 patients undergoing thoracentesis from 2002 to 2010 at the Medical University of South Carolina. RESULTS In four of the six patients identified, the time from injury to thoracentesis was one, four, four, and five days, respectively. The fluid pH range was 7.32–7.41. The lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) range was 210–884 IU/L (mean 547 IU/L), and the absolute neutrophil count (ANC) range was 1196–3631 cells/µL. In two patients, the time from injury to thoracentesis was 7 and 60 days. In these two patients, the pH was 7.18 and 6.91, LDH was 1679 and 961 IU/L, and the ANC was 8134 and 5943 cells/µL. Microbiology and pathology were negative in all patients. CONCLUSIONS The persistence of blood outside the vascular compartment, and within the pleural space, biochemically mirrors infection. We will explore the multiple mechanisms that account for development of pleural fluid acidosis, inflammation, and neutrophil recruitment. PMID:26309422

  20. Three-Dimensional Ultrasound of Carotid Plaque.

    PubMed

    Spence, J David; Parraga, Grace

    2016-02-01

    Measurement of plaque burden is different from measurement of carotid intima-media thickness (IMT). Carotid total plaque area is a stronger predictor of cardiovascular risk than IMT, and in contrast to progression of IMT, which does not predict cardiovascular events, progression of total plaque area and total plaque volume strongly predict cardiovascular events. Measurement of plaque burden is useful in genetic research, and in evaluation of new therapies for atherosclerosis. Perhaps more importantly, it can be used for management of patients. A strategy called "treating arteries instead of treating risk factors" markedly reduces risk among patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis. PMID:26610661

  1. Vandetanib and indwelling pleural catheter for non-small cell lung cancer with recurrent malignant pleural effusion

    PubMed Central

    Massarelli, Erminia; Onn, Amir; Marom, Edith M.; Alden, Christine M.; Liu, Diane D.; Tran, Hai T.; Mino, Barbara; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Faiz, Saadia A.; Bashoura, Lara; Eapen, George A.; Morice, Rodolfo C.; Jack Lee, J.; Hong, Waun K.; Herbst, Roy S.; Jimenez, Carlos A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Non-small-cell lung cancer patients with malignant pleural effusion have a poor overall median survival (4.3 months). Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key regulator of pleural effusion production. It is unknown if pharmacological inhibition of VEGF signaling modifies the disease course of non-small-cell lung cancer patients with recurrent malignant pleural effusion. We report the final results of a single-arm phase II clinical trial of the VEGF receptor inhibitor vandetanib combined with intrapleural catheter placement in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer and recurrent malignant pleural effusion, to determine whether vandetanib reduces time to pleurodesis. Material and Methods Non-small-cell lung cancer patients with proven metastatic disease to the pleural space by pleural fluid cytology or pleural biopsy who required intrapleural catheter placement were eligible for enrollment. On the same day of the intrapleural catheter insertion, the patients were started on a daily oral dose of 300 mg vandetanib, for a maximum of 10 weeks. The primary endpoint was time to pleurodesis, with response rate as the secondary endpoint. Exploratory analyses included measurement of pleural fluid cytokines and angiogenic factors before and during therapy. Results Twenty eligible patients were included in the trial. Eleven patients completed 10 weeks of treatment. Median time to pleurodesis was 35 days (95% confidence interval 15, NA). Median time to pleurodesis in the historical cohort was 63 days (95% confidence interval 45, 86) when adjusted for ECOG performance status ? 2. Conclusions Vandetanib therapy was well tolerated; however it did not significantly reduce time to pleurodesis. PMID:24913066

  2. Bacterial sex in dental plaque

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Ingar; Tribble, Gena D.; Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Wang, Bing-Yan

    2013-01-01

    Genes are transferred between bacteria in dental plaque by transduction, conjugation, and transformation. Membrane vesicles can also provide a mechanism for horizontal gene transfer. DNA transfer is considered bacterial sex, but the transfer is not parallel to processes that we associate with sex in higher organisms. Several examples of bacterial gene transfer in the oral cavity are given in this review. How frequently this occurs in dental plaque is not clear, but evidence suggests that it affects a number of the major genera present. It has been estimated that new sequences in genomes established through horizontal gene transfer can constitute up to 30% of bacterial genomes. Gene transfer can be both inter- and intrageneric, and it can also affect transient organisms. The transferred DNA can be integrated or recombined in the recipient's chromosome or remain as an extrachromosomal inheritable element. This can make dental plaque a reservoir for antimicrobial resistance genes. The ability to transfer DNA is important for bacteria, making them better adapted to the harsh environment of the human mouth, and promoting their survival, virulence, and pathogenicity. PMID:23741559

  3. Plaque and arterial vulnerability investigation in a three-layer atherosclerotic human coronary artery using computational fluid-structure interaction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, Alireza; Navidbakhsh, Mahdi; Razaghi, Reza

    2014-08-01

    Coronary artery disease is the common form of cardiovascular diseases and known to be the main reason of deaths in the world. Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) simulations can be employed to assess the interactions of artery/plaque and blood to provide a more precise anticipation for rupture of arterial tissue layers and plaque tissues inside an atherosclerotic artery. To date, the arterial tissue in computational FSI simulations has been considered as a one-layer structure. However, a single layer assumption might have deeply bounded the results and, consequently, more computational simulation is needed by considering the arterial tissue as a three-layer structure. In this study, a three-dimensional computational FSI model of an atherosclerotic artery with a three-layer structure and different plaque types was established to perform a more accurate arterial wall/plaque tissue vulnerability assessment. The hyperelastic material coefficients of arterial layers were calculated and implemented in the computational model. The fully coupled fluid and structure models were solved using the explicit dynamics finite element code LS-DYNA. The results revealed the significant role of plaque types in the normal and shear stresses induced within the arterial tissue layers. The highest von Mises and shear stresses were observed on the stiffest calcified plaque with 3.59 and 3.27 MPa, while the lowest von Mises and shear stresses were seen on the hypocellular plaque with 1.15 and 0.63 MPa, respectively. Regardless of plaque types, the media and adventitia layers were played protective roles by displaying less stress on their wall, whilst the intima layer was at a high risk of rupture. The findings of this study have implications not only for determining the most vulnerable arterial layer/plaque tissue inside an atherosclerotic coronary artery but also for balloon-angioplasty, stenting, and bypass surgeries.

  4. Protocol of the Australasian Malignant Pleural Effusion (AMPLE) trial: a multicentre randomised study comparing indwelling pleural catheter versus talc pleurodesis

    PubMed Central

    Fysh, Edward T H; Thomas, Rajesh; Read, Catherine A; Lam, Ben C H; Yap, Elaine; Horwood, Fiona C; Lee, Pyng; Piccolo, Francesco; Shrestha, Ranjan; Garske, Luke A; Lam, David C L; Rosenstengel, Andrew; Bint, Michael; Murray, Kevin; Smith, Nicola A; Lee, Y C Gary

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Malignant pleural effusion can complicate most cancers. It causes breathlessness and requires hospitalisation for invasive pleural drainages. Malignant effusions often herald advanced cancers and limited prognosis. Minimising time spent in hospital is of high priority to patients and their families. Various treatment strategies exist for the management of malignant effusions, though there is no consensus governing the best choice. Talc pleurodesis is the conventional management but requires hospitalisation (and substantial healthcare resources), can cause significant side effects, and has a suboptimal success rate. Indwelling pleural catheters (IPCs) allow ambulatory fluid drainage without hospitalisation, and are increasingly employed for management of malignant effusions. Previous studies have only investigated the length of hospital care immediately related to IPC insertion. Whether IPC management reduces time spent in hospital in the patients’ remaining lifespan is unknown. A strategy of malignant effusion management that reduces hospital admission days will allow patients to spend more time outside hospital, reduce costs and save healthcare resources. Methods and analysis The Australasian Malignant Pleural Effusion (AMPLE) trial is a multicentred, randomised trial designed to compare IPC with talc pleurodesis for the management of malignant pleural effusion. This study will randomise 146 adults with malignant pleural effusions (1:1) to IPC management or talc slurry pleurodesis. The primary end point is the total number of days spent in hospital (for any admissions) from treatment procedure to death or end of study follow-up. Secondary end points include hospital days specific to pleural effusion management, adverse events, self-reported symptom and quality-of-life scores. Ethics and dissemination The Sir Charles Gairdner Group Human Research Ethics Committee has approved the study as have the ethics boards of all the participating hospitals. The trial results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at scientific conferences. Trial registration numbers Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry—ACTRN12611000567921; National Institutes of Health—NCT02045121. PMID:25377015

  5. Mechanics of the canine diaphragm in pleural effusion.

    PubMed

    De Troyer, André; Leduc, Dimitri; Cappello, Matteo; Gevenois, Pierre Alain

    2012-09-01

    Pleural effusion is a complicating feature of many diseases of the lung and pleura, but its effects on the mechanics of the diaphragm have not been assessed. In the present study, radiopaque markers were attached along muscle bundles in the midcostal region of the diaphragm in anesthetized dogs, and the three-dimensional location of the markers during relaxation before and after the stepwise introduction of liquid into the left or right pleural space and during phrenic nerve stimulation in the same conditions was determined using computed tomography. From these data, accurate measurements of diaphragm muscle length and displacement were obtained, and the changes in pleural and abdominal pressure were analyzed as functions of these parameters. The effect of liquid instillation on the axial position of rib 5 was also measured. The data showed that 1) liquid leaked through the dorsal mediastinal sheet behind the pericardium so that effusion was bilateral; 2) effusion caused a caudal displacement of the relaxed diaphragm; 3) this displacement was, compared with passive lung inflation, much larger than the cranial displacement of the ribs; and 4) the capacity of the diaphragm to generate pressure, in particular pleural pressure, decreased markedly as effusion increased, and this decrease was well explained by the decrease in active muscle length. It is concluded that pleural effusion has a major adverse effect on the pressure-generating capacity of the diaphragm and that this is the result of the action of hydrostatic forces on the muscle. PMID:22797306

  6. Extraosseous calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor: An uncommon variant.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Navin; Sah, Kunal; Chandra, Sunira; Gupta, Suchitra; Mittal, Shaksham; Agarwal, Mansi

    2013-07-01

    Odontogenic cysts comprise a diverse group of exceptional lesions derived from epithelial elements of the tooth-forming apparatus. Calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor is a rare odontogenic lesion, which represents about 2% of all odontogenic tumors and cysts. It may occur in a central (intraosseous) or peripheral (extraosseous calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor [ECCOT]) location. ECCOT in contrast to central, tends to affect the older patients, commonly located in the anterior lower jaw, is less aggressive and the recurrence is rare. Here, we report clinico-pathological and radiographic features of ECCOT located in relation to 48 (posterior lower jaw) measuring about 1 cm in the greatest diameter in a 17-year-old male. PMID:24665187

  7. Three-Dimensional Carotid Plaque MR Imaging.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Chun; Parker, Dennis L

    2016-02-01

    There has been significant progress made in 3-dimensional (3D) carotid plaque MR imaging techniques in recent years. Three-dimensional plaque imaging clearly represents the future in clinical use. With effective flow-suppression techniques, choices of different contrast weighting acquisitions, and time-efficient imaging approaches, 3D plaque imaging offers flexible imaging plane and view angle analysis, large coverage, multivascular beds capability, and even can be used in fast screening. PMID:26610656

  8. Analysis of Multicontrast Carotid Plaque MR Imaging.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huijun; Zhang, Qiang; Kerwin, William

    2016-02-01

    Plaque imaging by MR imaging provides a wealth of information on the characteristics of individual plaque that may reveal vulnerability to rupture, likelihood of progression, or optimal treatment strategy. T1-weighted and T2-weighted images among other options reveal plaque morphology and composition. Dynamic contrast-enhanced-MR imaging reveals plaque activity. To extract this information, image processing tools are needed. Numerous approaches for analyzing such images have been developed, validated against histologic gold standards, and used in clinical studies. These efforts are summarized in this article. PMID:26610657

  9. Effect of Ocean acidification on growth, calcification and recruitment of calcifying and non-calcifying epibionts of brown algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saderne, V.; Wahl, M.

    2012-03-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of CO2 are leading to an acidification of the oceans by 0.4 pH units in the course of this century according to the more severe model scenarios. The excess of CO2 could notably affect the benthic communities of calcifiers and macrophytes in different aspects (photosynthesis, respiration and calcification). Seaweeds are key species of nearshore benthic ecosystems of the Baltic Sea. They frequently are the substratum of fouling epibionts like bryozoans and tubeworms. Most of those species secrete calcified structures and could therefore be impacted by the seawater pCO2. On the other hand, the biological activity of the host may substantially modulate the pH and pCO2 conditions in the thallus boundary layer where the epibionts live. The aim of the present study was to test the sensitivity of seaweed macrofouling communities to higher pCO2 concentrations. Fragments of the macroalga Fucus serratus bearing the calcifiers Spirorbis spirorbis (Annelida) and Electra pilosa (Bryozoa) and the non-calcifier Alcyonidium gelatinosum (Bryozoa) were maintained for 30 days under three pCO2 conditions: natural 460 ± 59 ?atm and enriched 1193 ± 166 ?atm and 3150 ± 446 ?atm. Our study showed a significant reduction of growth rates and recruitment of Spirorbis individuals only at the highest pCO2. At a finer temporal resolution, the tubeworm recruits exhibited enhanced calcification of 40% during irradiation hours compared to dark hours, presumably due to the effect of photosynthetic and respiratory activities of the host alga on the carbonate system. Electra colonies showed significantly increased growth rates at 1193 ?atm. No effect on Alcyonidium colonies growth rates was observed. Those results suggest a remarkable resistance of the algal macro-epibiontic communities to the most elevated pCO2 foreseen in year 2100 for open ocean (~1000 ?atm) conditions possibly due to the modulation of environmental conditions by the biological activities of the host alga.

  10. Effect of Ocean acidification on growth, calcification and reproduction of calcifying and non-calcifying epibionts of brown algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saderne, V.; Wahl, M.

    2012-04-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of CO2 are leading to an acidification of the oceans of 0.4 pH units in the course of this century according to the more severe model scenarios. The excess of CO2 could notably affect the benthic communities of calcifiers and macrophytes in different aspects (photosynthesis, respiration and calcification). Seaweeds are one of the key species of nearshore benthic ecosystems of the Baltic Sea. They are the substratum of several fouling epibionts like bryozoans and tubeworms. Most of those species are bearing calcified structures and could therefore be potentially impacted by the seawater pCO2. On the other hand, the biological activity of the host may substantially modulate the pH and pCO2 conditions in the boundary layer where the epibionts live. The aim of the present study was to test the sensitivity of seaweed macrofouling communities to higher pCO2 concentration. Fragments of macroalgae Fucus serratus bearing the calcifiers Spirorbis spirorbis (Annelida) and Electra pilosa (Bryozoa) and the non-calcifier Alcyonidium gelatinosum (Bryozoa) were maintained for 30 days under three pCO2: natural 460 ± 59 µatm and enriched 1193 ± 166 µatm and 3150 ± 446 µatm. Our study showed a significant reduction of growth rates and reproduction of Spirorbis individuals at the highest pCO2. Tubeworms Juveniles exhibited enhanced calcification of 40 % when in the light compare to dark, presumably due to effect of photosynthetic and respiratory activities of the host alga. Electra colonies showed significantly improved growth rates at 1193 µatm. The overall net dissolution of the communities was significantly higher at 3150 µatm. No effect on Alcyonidium colonies growth rates was observed. Those results suggest a remarkable resistance of the algal macro-epibiontic communities to the most elevated pCO2 predicted for 2100 for open ocean (~1000 µatm) conditions. Concerns remains with regards to higher pCO2 possibly found in the future Baltic Sea.

  11. Secondary Syphilis with Pleural Effusion: Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Elzouki, Abdel-Naser; Al-Kawaaz, Mustafa; Tafesh, Zaid

    2012-01-01

    Here we present a case of a 38-year-old Indian man with a history of extramarital relationships who presented with pleurisy, skin rash, and radiological findings of pleural effusion. After thorough investigation of the etiology of his acute illness, he was found to be positive for syphilis. Review of literature revealed a small number of case reports of pleural effusion as a manifestation of secondary syphilis. The review of criteria proposed in the literature was utilized to diagnose this patient as a case of pulmonary syphilis. PMID:23304580

  12. Biomechanics and Inflammation in Atherosclerotic Plaque Erosion and Plaque Rupture: Implications for Cardiovascular Events in Women

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Ian C.; Suever, Jonathan D.; Timmins, Lucas H.; Veneziani, Alessandro; Vito, Raymond P.; Virmani, Renu; Oshinski, John N.; Taylor, W. Robert

    2014-01-01

    Objective Although plaque erosion causes approximately 40% of all coronary thrombi and disproportionally affects women more than men, its mechanism is not well understood. The role of tissue mechanics in plaque rupture and regulation of mechanosensitive inflammatory proteins is well established, but their role in plaque erosion is unknown. Given obvious differences in morphology between plaque erosion and rupture, we hypothesized that inflammation in general as well as the association between local mechanical strain and inflammation known to exist in plaque rupture may not occur in plaque erosion. Therefore, our objective was to determine if similar mechanisms underlie plaque rupture and plaque erosion. Methods and Results We studied a total of 74 human coronary plaque specimens obtained at autopsy. Using lesion-specific computer modeling of solid mechanics, we calculated the stress and strain distribution for each plaque and determined if there were any relationships with markers of inflammation. Consistent with previous studies, inflammatory markers were positively associated with increasing strain in specimens with rupture and thin-cap fibroatheromas. Conversely, overall staining for inflammatory markers and apoptosis were significantly lower in erosion, and there was no relationship with mechanical strain. Samples with plaque erosion most closely resembled those with the stable phenotype of thick-cap fibroatheromas. Conclusions In contrast to classic plaque rupture, plaque erosion was not associated with markers of inflammation and mechanical strain. These data suggest that plaque erosion is a distinct pathophysiological process with a different etiology and therefore raises the possibility that a different therapeutic approach may be required to prevent plaque erosion. PMID:25365517

  13. A case of calcified metastatic colorectal adenocarcinoma mimicking a benign lesion: pitfalls in diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Michail, Peter; Amith, Iftah; George, Sanila; George, Mathew K

    2015-01-01

    The radiological finding of a calcified intracranial lesion commonly represents a slow growing benign mass. Brain metastases originating from colorectal cancers are rare, occurring in approximately 2-3% of patients. Therefore the presence of a calcified brain lesion in a patient with a positive oncological history requires a high index of suspicion for brain metastases. Presented herein is a case of a frontoparietal calcified lesion initially overlooked as a benign tumour. Subsequent imaging following a neurological episode revealed a significant increase in size of the lesion with surrounding tissue oedema, prompting further investigation for suspicion of a calcified metastatic colorectal adenocarcinoma. PMID:25722903

  14. Advanced techniques for MRI of atherosclerotic plaque.

    PubMed

    Kerwin, William S; Canton, Gador

    2009-08-01

    This review examines the state of the art in vessel wall imaging by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with an emphasis on the biomechanical assessment of atherosclerotic plaque. Three areas of advanced techniques are discussed. First, alternative contrast mechanisms, including susceptibility, magnetization transfer, diffusion, and perfusion, are presented as to how they facilitate accurate determination of plaque constituents underlying biomechanics. Second, imaging technologies including hardware and sequences, are reviewed as to how they provide the resolution and signal-to-noise ratio necessary for determining plaque structure. Finally, techniques for combining MRI data into an overall assessment of plaque biomechanical properties, including wall shear stress and internal plaque strain, are presented. The paper closes with a discussion of the extent to which these techniques have been applied to different arteries commonly targeted by vessel wall MRI. PMID:20805732

  15. Haemodynamical stress in mouse aortic arch with atherosclerotic plaques: Preliminary study of plaque progression

    PubMed Central

    Assemat, P.; Siu, K.K.; Armitage, J.A.; Hokke, S.N.; Dart, A.; Chin-Dusting, J.; Hourigan, K.

    2014-01-01

    Atherosclerotic plaques develop at particular sites in the arterial tree, and this regional localisation depends largely on haemodynamic parameters (such as wall shear stress; WSS) as described in the literature. Plaque rupture can result in heart attack or stroke and hence understanding the development and vulnerability of atherosclerotic plaques is critically important. The purpose of this study is to characterise the haemodynamics of blood flow in the mouse aortic arch using numerical modelling. The geometries are digitalised from synchrotron imaging and realistic pulsatile blood flow is considered under rigid wall assumptions. Two cases are considered; arteries with and without plaque. Mice that are fed under fat diet present plaques in the aortic arch whose size is dependent on the number of weeks under the diet. The plaque distribution in the region is however relatively constant through the different samples. This result underlines the influence of the geometry and consequently of the wall shear stresses for plaque formation with plaques growing in region of relative low shear stresses. A discussion of the flow field in real geometry in the presence and absence of plaques is conducted. The presence of plaques was shown to alter the blood flow and hence WSS distribution, with regions of localised high WSS, mainly on the wall of the brachiocephalic artery where luminal narrowing is most pronounced. In addition, arch plaques are shown to induce recirculation in the blood flow, a phenomenon with potential influence on the progression of the plaques. The oscillatory shear index and the relative residence time have been calculated on the geometry with plaques to show the presence of this recirculation in the arch, an approach that may be useful for future studies on plaque progression. PMID:25349678

  16. Primary pleural precursor B-Cell lymphoblastic lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Mark S; Cheesman, Edmund; Kaleem, Musa; Wynn, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Intrathoracic lymphoblastic lymphoma (LBL) is classically of T-cell lineage, but these cases of pleural B-cell LBL suggest that this is not always the case. Despite the clinical challenges involved every attempt should be made to secure a biopsy and histological diagnosis, as we move into an era of lineage-directed therapies. PMID:26509024

  17. Mediastinectomy for management of chronic pyogranulomatous pleural disease in dogs.

    PubMed

    Trinterud, T; Nelissen, P; Caine, A R; White, R A S

    2014-06-14

    The medical records of 12 dogs with chronic pyogranulomatous pleural disease unresponsive to medical management were reviewed retrospectively. Resection of the mediastinal pleura (mediastinectomy) was performed through a median sternotomy to remove all diseased and surgically accessible mediastinal pleural tissue. Dogs were re-examined two weeks postoperatively, and long-term outcome was evaluated by contacting owners by phone. Twelve dogs underwent mediastinectomy; additional surgeries included subtotal pericardiectomy (8), lung lobectomy (4) and partial diaphragmatic resection (2). Histology of resected tissue consistently revealed neutrophilic, pyogranulomatous cellulitis/serositis. Foreign material was evident in the mediastinal tissue of five dogs and microorganisms were recovered from three dogs. Two dogs developed pneumothorax immediately postoperatively; one dog developed haemothorax one month postoperatively and was euthanased. Median follow-up time was eight months (range: 6-43?months); eleven dogs were alive and considered to be symptom-free by their owners. Mediastinectomy resulted in complete resolution of symptoms in most dogs (92 per cent) and was associated with a low incidence of major complications. The results of this study indicated that mediastinectomy results in favourable outcome for dogs with chronic pleural pyogranulomatous pleural disease unresponsive to medical management. PMID:24686857

  18. [Pleural empyema and lung abscess: current treatment options].

    PubMed

    Hecker, E; Hamouri, S; Müller, E; Ewig, S

    2012-06-01

    Parapneumonic pleural empyema has been classified into different stages and classes. While the American Thoracic Society (ATS) classification is based on the natural course of the disease, Light has classified pleural empyema according to the radiological, physical and biochemical characteristics, and the American College of Chest Physician (ACCP) has categorised the patients with pleural empyema according to the risk of a poor outcome. According to this classification the management of the pleural empyema is based on the stage of the disease. Therapeutic strategies include chest tube, chest tube with fibrinolysis, thoracoscopic debridement and decortication in open or minimally invasive techniques. Primary lung abscesses develop in previously healthy lung parenchyma and are caused by aspiration. In addition, abscess formation can occur without aspiration, and important differences relate to community-acquired, nosocomial abscesses and those in the immunosuppressed host. 90 % of all lung abscesses can be cured with antibiotic treatment alone, 10 % have to be treated with an interventional catheter or chest tubes and only 1 % require thoracic surgery because of complications independent of the former conservative or interventional treatment strategies. PMID:22711325

  19. IL-18 production in human pulmonary and pleural tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Song, C-H; Lee, J-S; Nam, H-H; Kim, J-M; Suhr, J-W; Jung, S-S; Na, M-J; Paik, T-H; Kim, H-J; Park, J-K; Jo, E-K

    2002-12-01

    Interleukin-18 (IL-18) has multiple important pro-inflammatory effects, including the induction of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) in various diseases. In this study, we investigated the IL-18-producing activities in human pulmonary and pleural tuberculosis (TB) in response to purified protein derivative (PPD) antigen (Ag) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The most significant IL-18 production was found in chronic refractory TB (CRTB) patients. However, IFN-gamma production in CRTB patients was significantly less than that in healthy tuberculin reactors or in patients with tuberculous pleurisy (TBP). Elevated levels of both IL-18 and IFN-gamma were found in pleural fluids from TBP patients. In vitro production of IL-18 was dramatically decreased following an 18 h stimulation with PPD. However, IFN-gamma was markedly increased in pleural mononuclear cells from TBP patients after in vitro stimulation with PPD. The mesothelial cell type was the main source of pro-IL-18 in pleural cells from TBP patients, suggesting an important role for these cells in TBP. Taken together, these data indicate that IL-18 is elevated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from CRTB patients, as well as at the site of TBP, indicating a possible role for IL-18 in both protective immunity and pathologic responses in human TB. PMID:12472673

  20. Correlation of coronary plaque characteristics and obstructive stenosis with chronic kidney disease by coronary CT angiography

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chengming; Duanmu, Yibo; Zhu, Yi; Xu, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular events. We evaluated the correlation of coronary plaque characteristics and obstructive stenosis with CKD by coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA). Methods We enrolled 491 subjects who were suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing CCTA. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated by the modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD) equation. Patients were subdivided into four groups based on their eGFR: normal GFR (n=213, eGFR ?90 mL/min/1.73 m2), mild renal insufficiency (n=191, eGFR 60-89 mL/min/1.73 m2), moderate renal insufficiency(n=78, eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2, ?30 mL/min/1.73 m2), and severe renal insufficiency (n=9, eGFR <30 mL/min/1.73 m2, ?15 mL/min/1.73 m2). Results Spearman correlation regression analysis showed that the prevalence of any plaque, calcified plaque (CP), mixed plaque (MP) were positively correlate with CKD (r=0.173, P<0.001; r=0.127, P=0.005; r=0.171, P<0.001), after adjustment for traditional risk factors the prevalence of any plaque and MP were still positively correlate with CKD (r=0.106, P=002; r=0.178, P<0.001). And the prevalence of any stenosis and severe stenosis were positively correlate with CKD (r=0.13, P<0.001; r=0.149, P<0.001), after adjustment for traditional risk factors were still positively correlate with CKD (r=0.134, P=0.003; r=0.174, P<0.001). Conclusions CKD is closely related with occurrence of CAD. CKD patients from mild renal insufficiency to severe renal insufficiency are the risk factors for CAD. More serious renal function impairment will indicates higher risk of coronary plaque, MP and obstructive stenosis. PMID:26676159

  1. EACTS expert consensus statement for surgical management of pleural empyema.

    PubMed

    Scarci, Marco; Abah, Udo; Solli, Piergiorgio; Page, Aravinda; Waller, David; van Schil, Paul; Melfi, Franca; Schmid, Ralph A; Athanassiadi, Kalliopi; Sousa Uva, Miguel; Cardillo, Giuseppe

    2015-11-01

    Pleural infection is a frequent clinical condition. Prompt treatment has been shown to reduce hospital costs, morbidity and mortality. Recent advances in treatment have been variably implemented in clinical practice. This statement reviews the latest developments and concepts to improve clinical management and stimulate further research. The European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (EACTS) Thoracic Domain and the EACTS Pleural Diseases Working Group established a team of thoracic surgeons to produce a comprehensive review of available scientific evidence with the aim to cover all aspects of surgical practice related to its treatment, in particular focusing on: surgical treatment of empyema in adults; surgical treatment of empyema in children; and surgical treatment of post-pneumonectomy empyema (PPE). In the management of Stage 1 empyema, prompt pleural space chest tube drainage is required. In patients with Stage 2 or 3 empyema who are fit enough to undergo an operative procedure, there is a demonstrated benefit of surgical debridement or decortication [possibly by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS)] over tube thoracostomy alone in terms of treatment success and reduction in hospital stay. In children, a primary operative approach is an effective management strategy, associated with a lower mortality rate and a reduction of tube thoracostomy duration, length of antibiotic therapy, reintervention rate and hospital stay. Intrapleural fibrinolytic therapy is a reasonable alternative to primary operative management. Uncomplicated PPE [without bronchopleural fistula (BPF)] can be effectively managed with minimally invasive techniques, including fenestration, pleural space irrigation and VATS debridement. PPE associated with BPF can be effectively managed with individualized open surgical techniques, including direct repair, myoplastic and thoracoplastic techniques. Intrathoracic vacuum-assisted closure may be considered as an adjunct to the standard treatment. The current literature cements the role of VATS in the management of pleural empyema, even if the choice of surgical approach relies on the individual surgeon's preference. PMID:26254467

  2. Ameloblastomatous calcifying odontogenic cyst: a rare histological variant.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Soumi; Sreelatha, S V; Venkatesh, S; Nair, Preeti P

    2013-01-01

    The calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC) occurs mainly as an intraosseous lesion in mandible or maxilla, but the peripheral variation of COC has also been reported. The confusion regarding its nature as cyst or tumour has not been resolved and a vast diversity has been noted in clinicopathological aspects of COC. We report a case of COCs with minimal mural ameloblastomatous proliferation in a 13-year-old girl, who presented with a painless swelling in the left jaw causing mild facial asymmetry. PMID:23696143

  3. Peripheral Calcifying Cystic Odontogenic Tumour - A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Shenoi, Ramakrishna; Gadve, Vandana; Rajderkar, Anand; Dive, Alka

    2015-01-01

    Odontogenic lesions are derived from remnants of the components of the developing tooth germ. The calcifying cystic odontogenic tumour (CCOT) is a benign cystic neoplasm of odontogenic origin that is characterized by ameloblastoma-like epithelial cells and ghost cells. Most peripheral CCOTs are located in the anterior gingiva of the mandible or maxilla. This is a rare case report of CCOT. The rare feature in our case was its peripheral nature of existence and its location in the left buccal vestibule and retromolar region. Based on the radiological, cytological and histopathological findings the lesion was surgically excised. PMID:26393218

  4. Peripheral Calcifying Cystic Odontogenic Tumour - A Rare Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kolte, Vrinda Sunil; Shenoi, Ramakrishna; Gadve, Vandana; Rajderkar, Anand; Dive, Alka

    2015-07-01

    Odontogenic lesions are derived from remnants of the components of the developing tooth germ. The calcifying cystic odontogenic tumour (CCOT) is a benign cystic neoplasm of odontogenic origin that is characterized by ameloblastoma-like epithelial cells and ghost cells. Most peripheral CCOTs are located in the anterior gingiva of the mandible or maxilla. This is a rare case report of CCOT. The rare feature in our case was its peripheral nature of existence and its location in the left buccal vestibule and retromolar region. Based on the radiological, cytological and histopathological findings the lesion was surgically excised. PMID:26393218

  5. Corticosteroid withdrawal precipitates perilesional edema around calcified Taenia solium cysts.

    PubMed

    Mejia, Rojelio; Nash, Theodore E

    2013-11-01

    Calcified Taenia solium granulomas are the focus of repeated episodes of perilesional edema and seizures in 50% of persons with calcifications, history of seizures, and a positive serology for cysticercosis. The pathophysiology is unclear but recent studies suggest the edema is caused by inflammation. We report two new cases and four other published cases where cessation of corticosteroids appeared to result in recurrence or new appearance of perilesional edema around calcifications. This suggests that perilesional edema is an immune-mediated phenomenon. PMID:24002482

  6. Clinical Perspective of Carotid Plaque Imaging.

    PubMed

    Bonati, Leo H; Nederkoorn, Paul J

    2016-02-01

    At present, patients with carotid disease are selected for invasive recanalization therapies mainly based on the degree of luminal narrowing and the presence or absence of recent ischemic symptoms. A more sophisticated risk model takes into account other clinical variables, such as age, sex, and the type of recent symptoms, as well as presence of ulcerated plaque. A growing body of evidence shows that noninvasive imaging of the carotid plaque by various methods reliably identifies structural correlates of plaque vulnerability, which are associated with an increased risk of cerebrovascular events. PMID:26610668

  7. The calcified lung nodule: What does it mean?

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Ali Nawaz; Al-Jahdali, Hamdan H.; Allen, Carolyn M.; Irion, Klaus L.; Al Ghanem, Sarah; Koteyar, Shyam Sunder

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this review is to present a pictorial essay emphasizing the various patterns of calcification in pulmonary nodules (PN) to aid diagnosis and to discuss the differential diagnosis and the pathogenesis where it is known. The imaging evaluation of PN is based on clinical history, size, distribution and the gross appearance of the nodule as well as feasibility of obtaining a tissue diagnosis. Imaging is instrumental in the management of PN and one should strive not only to identify small malignant tumors with high survival rates but to spare patients with benign PN from undergoing unnecessary surgery. The review emphasizes how to achieve these goals. One of the most reliable imaging features of a benign lesion is a benign pattern of calcification and periodic follow-up with computed tomography showing no growth for 2 years. Calcification in PN is generally considered as a pointer toward a possible benign disease. However, as we show here, calcification in PN as a criterion to determine benign nature is fallacious and can be misleading. The differential considerations of a calcified lesion include calcified granuloma, hamartoma, carcinoid, osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma and lung metastases or a primary bronchogenic carcinoma among others. We describe and illustrate different patterns of calcification as seen in PN on imaging. PMID:20582171

  8. Do blood-borne calcifying nanoparticles self-propagate?

    PubMed

    Mathew, Grace; Mckay, David S; Ciftçioglu, Neva

    2008-01-01

    The nanotechnology industry is currently in the process of producing new nanoparticles. The biological activity of nanoparticles including adverse as well as beneficial effects tends to increase as their size decreases. The smaller the particles are, the greater their bioactivity and toxicity. Thus, one can easily conjecture the impact ofa nanoparticle if it could also self-replicate. This in vitro study reveals the self-propagating ability of unique calcifying nanoparticles (CNP) that can be as small as 50 nm in size and found in blood, blood products, and calcified soft tissues. Although specific detection techniques, morphological characteristics and biomineralizing properties of CNP are well established, their genomic information and self-propagating capability have always been challenged. The objective of this study is to document the propagation of CNP under physiological conditions, using inverted light microscopy (LM) and the Biostation IM time-lapse imaging system. Their detailed morphological structure was examined using scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy. This present study, in conjunction with previous findings of metabolic activity, antibiotic sensitivity, antibody specificity, morphological aspects and infectivity, validates CNP as self-replicators. Therefore these sterile-filterable, blood-borne nanoparticles should be of concern to the nanomedicine industry. PMID:18686786

  9. Calcified microspheres as biological entities and their isolation from bone.

    PubMed

    Aaron, J E; Oliver, B; Clarke, N; Carter, D H

    1999-07-01

    Calcified microspheres, about 1 microm in diameter, appear at sites of bone formation where they invest the collagenous matrix, become confluent and disappear. Evidence that the particle boundaries are not lost with compaction but merely deformed is supported in section by the granular histochemical staining of the inorganic phase for bone salt, lipid, fibronectin and acid phosphatase in osteomalacic, acid-etched and normal human bone. Their persistence as discrete objects is confirmed by the application of methods for their isolation from the collagenous matrix of immature mouse calvarium and mature bovine femur. Five methods have been used to extract them and include (i) biochemical, (ii) chemical, (iii) mechanical, (iv) pyrogenous and (v) biological separation. Under the optical microscope, all isolates consisted of similar discrete objects and bridged assemblies, whose birefringence varied with treatment. After decalcification, their organic 'ghosts' remained. Each isolated microsphere had a complex substructure of clusters of non-collagenous calcified filaments surrounding a less dense centre. The filaments were 5 nm in diameter with a 5 nm periodicity and regular fine interfilamentous connections. It is concluded that the microspheres are independent, complex, pervasive and central to the containment (i.e. packaging) of calcium phosphate in bone. Their extraction will enable further analysis. PMID:10475573

  10. A Novel Cl Inward-Rectifying Current in the Plasma Membrane of the Calcifying Marine Phytoplankton

    E-print Network

    Taylor, Alison

    as much as 40% of annual global carbon assimilation. Ion and nutrient transport across the plasma membraneA Novel Cl Inward-Rectifying Current in the Plasma Membrane of the Calcifying Marine Phytoplankton properties and dominant ionic conductances in the plasma membrane of the calcifying marine phytoplankton

  11. AUTOMATIC DETECTION OF CALCIFIED LESIONS IN THE DESCENDING AORTA USING CONTRAST ENHANCED CT SCANS

    E-print Network

    van Vliet, Lucas J.

    AUTOMATIC DETECTION OF CALCIFIED LESIONS IN THE DESCENDING AORTA USING CONTRAST ENHANCED CT SCANS R enhanced Computed Tomography (CT) scans. This CT scan is generally followed by a contrast enhanced of calcified lesions on CTA scans. Calcium lesion detection is straightforward on a CT scan, however performing

  12. MID-LATE DEVONIAN CALCIFIED MARINE ALGAE AND CYANOBACTERIA, SOUTH CHINA

    E-print Network

    Riding, Robert

    MID-LATE DEVONIAN CALCIFIED MARINE ALGAE AND CYANOBACTERIA, SOUTH CHINA QI FENG,1 YI-MING GONG,1 contain microfossils generally regarded as calcified algae and cyanobacteria. These are present in 61 out with differing degrees of confidence, and placed in algae, cyanobacteria or microproblematica. Algae: Halysis

  13. Orbital Atherectomy Plaque Modification Assessment of the Femoropopliteal Artery Via Intravascular Ultrasound (TRUTH Study)

    PubMed Central

    Zavlunova, Susanna; Attubato, Michael J.; Martinsen, Brad J.; Mintz, Gary S.; Maehara, Akiko

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The Tissue Removal Assessment with Ultrasound of the SFA and Popliteal (TRUTH) study assessed the performance of the orbital atherectomy system (OAS) to treat femoropopliteal arteries, including determining its effect on plaque removal. Methods: Patients with symptomatic femoropopliteal peripheral arterial disease were treated with the OAS followed by adjunctive balloon angioplasty (BA). Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) images were collected pre- and post-OAS and post-OAS BA. Patients were followed through 12 months post-procedure. Results: Twenty-nine lesions were treated with OAS-BA in 25 patients. The mean maximum balloon inflation pressure was 5.2 ± 1.2 atm. Virtual histology IVUS (VH-IVUS) analysis revealed at the maximum calcium ablation site that calcium reduction was responsible for 86% of the lumen area increase. The minimum lumen area increased from 4.0 mm2 to 9.1 mm2 (<.0001), and the percentage of area stenosis decreased from 76.9% to 43.0% (<.0001) after OAS-BA. At 12 months, the target lesion revascularization rate was 8.2%, and ankle–brachial index and Rutherford classification improved significantly from baseline through follow-up. Conclusion: The VH-IVUS analysis reveals that OAS modifies the calcified component of the plaque burden. It is hypothesized that calcium modification by OAS changes the lesion compliance, allowing for low pressure adjunctive BA. The clinical outcomes were favorable through 12-month follow-up. PMID:26490645

  14. Atherosclerosis and Atheroma Plaque Rupture: Imaging Modalities in the Visualization of Vasa Vasorum and Atherosclerotic Plaques

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Invasive angiography has been widely accepted as the gold standard to diagnose cardiovascular pathologies. Despite its superior resolution of demonstrating atherosclerotic plaque in terms of degree of lumen stenosis, the morphological assessment for the plaque is insufficient for the analysis of plaque components, and therefore, unable to predict the risk status or vulnerability of atherosclerotic plaque. There is an increased body of evidence to show that the vasa vasorum play an important role in the initiation, progression, and complications of atherosclerotic plaque leading to major adverse cardiac events. This paper provides an overview of the evidence-based reviews of various imaging modalities with regard to their potential value for comprehensive characterization of the composition, burden, and neovascularization of atherosclerotic plaque. PMID:24688380

  15. Diagnostic Ability of FDG-PET/CT in the Detection of Malignant Pleural Effusion

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Reiko; Abe, Koichiro; Sakai, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We investigated the role of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) for the differential diagnosis of malignant and benign pleural effusion. We studied 36 consecutive patients with histologically proven cancer (excluding malignant mesothelioma) who underwent FDG-PET/CT for suspected malignant pleural effusion. Fourteen patients had cytologically proven malignant pleural effusion and the other 22 patients had either negative cytology or clinical follow-up, which confirmed the benign etiology. We examined the maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) of pleural effusion and the target-to-normal tissue ratio (TNR), calculated as the ratio of the pleural effusion SUVmax to the SUVmean of the normal tissues (liver, spleen, 12th thoracic vertebrae [Th12], thoracic aorta, and spinalis muscle). We also examined the size and density (in Hounsfield units) of the pleural effusion and pleural abnormalities on CT images. TNR (Th12) and increased pleural FDG uptake compared to background blood pool were significantly more frequent in cases with malignant pleural effusion (P?0.95 was the most accurate; the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for this value were 93%, 68%, and 75%, respectively. FDG-PET/CT can be a useful method for the differential diagnosis of malignant and benign pleural effusion. PMID:26200610

  16. Vascular MR segmentation: wall and plaque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fuxing; Holzapfel, Gerhard; Schulze-Bauer, Christian; Stollberger, Rudolf; Thedens, Daniel; Bolinger, Lizann; Stolpen, Alan; Sonka, Milan

    2003-05-01

    Cardiovascular events frequently result from local rupture of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque. Non-invasive assessment of plaque vulnerability is needed to allow institution of preventive measures before heart attack or stroke occur. A computerized method for segmentation of arterial wall layers and plaque from high-resolution volumetric MR images is reported. The method uses dynamic programming to detect optimal borders in each MRI frame. The accuracy of the results was tested in 62 T1-weighted MR images from 6 vessel specimens in comparison to borders manually determined by an expert observer. The mean signed border positioning errors for the lumen, internal elastic lamina, and external elastic lamina borders were -0.12+/-0.14 mm, 0.04+/-0.12mm, and -0.15+/-0.13 mm, respectively. The presented wall layer segmentation approach is one of the first steps towards non-invasive assessment of plaque vulnerability in atherosclerotic subjects.

  17. Nuclear Molecular Imaging for Vulnerable Atherosclerotic Plaques

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Soo Jin

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease as well as a lipid disorder. Atherosclerotic plaque formed in vessel walls may cause ischemia, and the rupture of vulnerable plaque may result in fatal events, like myocardial infarction or stroke. Because morphological imaging has limitations in diagnosing vulnerable plaque, molecular imaging has been developed, in particular, the use of nuclear imaging probes. Molecular imaging targets various aspects of vulnerable plaque, such as inflammatory cell accumulation, endothelial activation, proteolysis, neoangiogenesis, hypoxia, apoptosis, and calcification. Many preclinical and clinical studies have been conducted with various imaging probes and some of them have exhibited promising results. Despite some limitations in imaging technology, molecular imaging is expected to be used both in the research and clinical fields as imaging instruments become more advanced. PMID:26357491

  18. Detection of Vulnerable Plaque in Patients with Cryptogenic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Bayer-Karpinska, Anna; Schindler, Andreas; Saam, Tobias

    2016-02-01

    In up to 40% of ischemic stroke cases the etiology remains unknown. A substantial proportion of these patients has non- or only mildly stenosing carotid artery plaques not fulfilling common criteria for large artery stroke, but beeing suspicious for arterio-arteriell embolism. Several imaging techniques allow the non-invasive analysis of plaque features. Nevertheless, carotid MRI might be best suited to assess the key features of vulnerable plaques. This review article discusses potential causes of cryptogenic stroke, the role of plaque imaging in non-stenosing plaques and the association of vulnerable plaques and specific plaque features with stroke risk and stroke recurrence. PMID:26610663

  19. Multi-feature-based plaque characterization in ex vivo MRI trained by registration to 3D histology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Engelen, Arna; Niessen, Wiro J.; Klein, Stefan; Groen, Harald C.; Verhagen, Hence JM; Wentzel, Jolanda J.; van der Lugt, Aad; de Bruijne, Marleen

    2012-01-01

    We present a new method for automated characterization of atherosclerotic plaque composition in ex vivo MRI. It uses MRI intensities as well as four other types of features: smoothed, gradient magnitude and Laplacian images at several scales, and the distances to the lumen and outer vessel wall. The ground truth for fibrous, necrotic and calcified tissue was provided by histology and ?CT in 12 carotid plaque specimens. Semi-automatic registration of a 3D stack of histological slices and ?CT images to MRI allowed for 3D rotations and in-plane deformations of histology. By basing voxelwise classification on different combinations of features, we evaluated their relative importance. To establish whether training by 3D registration yields different results than training by 2D registration, we determined plaque composition using (1) a 2D slice-based registration approach for three manually selected MRI and histology slices per specimen, and (2) an approach that uses only the three corresponding MRI slices from the 3D-registered volumes. Voxelwise classification accuracy was best when all features were used (73.3 ± 6.3%) and was significantly better than when only original intensities and distance features were used (Friedman, p < 0.05). Although 2D registration or selection of three slices from the 3D set slightly decreased accuracy, these differences were non-significant.

  20. Pleural effusion Due to Streptococcus milleri: Case descriptions.

    PubMed

    Madrid-Carbajal, Claudia Janeth; Molinos, Luis; García-Clemente, Marta; Pando-Sandoval, Ana; Fleites, Ana; Casan-Clarà, Pere

    2014-09-01

    In this study we analyzed the characteristics of patients with pleural effusion secondary to Streptococcus milleri studied retrospectively between January and March 2013 and found seven patients with a mean age of 60 years, 43% of which were smokers and 57% with a drinking habit. The most common associated factors were alcoholism, previous pneumonia and diabetes. Other bacteria were identified as Enterobacter aerogenes, Bacteroides and Prevotella intermedia capillosus in two patients. The mean duration of antibiotic therapy was 28 days; six patients underwent pleural drainage by chest tube and one patient needed surgery due to poor clinical progress. The mean duration of hospitalization was 30 days with satisfactory outcome in all cases, despite some changes in residual function. PMID:24439468

  1. [Pleural hernia of an esophageal graft--late postoperative complication].

    PubMed

    Grabowski, K; Lewandowski, A; Moro?, K; Struty?ska-Karpi?ska, M; B?aszczuk, J; Macha?a, R

    1997-01-01

    Pleural hernia of the oesophageal substitute from pedicled intestinal segment is one of the late postoperative complications. 13 cases of patients with oesophagus reconstructed because of lye ingestion stenosis are presented. Problems concerning diagnosis and treatment of pleural hernia are analysed. Eight patients with minor symptoms were treated conservatively. Five patients were operated, two of them from acute necrosis of the substitute. Necrosis was caused by incarceration of the bowel and torsion of the mesentery. Elective operative treatment consisted of reduction of hernia sac contents, closing of the hernia orifice, chest drainage and temporary gastronomy. In patient operated as an emergency cases necrotic part of substitute was removed. This resulted in oesophageal exclusion in the neck, creating gastronomy. Chest drainage was also performed. PMID:9446380

  2. Detection of Atherosclerotic Coronary Plaques by Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Angioscopy 

    E-print Network

    Thomas, Patrick A.

    2010-10-12

    (6). About 70% of all coronary events are related to the rupture of atherosclerotic plaque buildup, primarily due to thrombosis at the plaque rupture site (7). Plaque buildup begins early in life as a simple aggregate of lipid cells entrenched in a... to rupture and referred to as thin-cap fibroatheromas (TCFA) (8). Vulnerable plaque is specifically defined as mildly to moderately stenotic plaque that are precursors to coronary thrombosis and myocardial ischemia (9). TCFA is one of the major types...

  3. Improvement of malignant pleural mesothelioma immunotherapy by epigenetic modulators.

    PubMed

    Hamaidia, Malik; Staumont, Bernard; Duysinx, Bernard; Louis, Renaud; Willems, Luc

    2016-01-01

    In the absence of a satisfactory treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), novel therapeutic strategies are urgently needed. Among these, immunotherapy offers a series of advantages such as tumor specificity and good tolerability. Unfortunately, MPM immunotherapy is frequently limited by incomplete cell differentiation or feedback loop regulatory mechanisms. In this review, we describe different components of the innate immune system and discuss strategies to improve MPM immunotherapy by using epigenetic modulators. PMID:26303419

  4. Treatment of complicated pleural effusion with intracavitary urokinase in children.

    PubMed

    de Benedictis, F M; De Giorgi, G; Niccoli, A; Troiani, S; Rizzo, F; Lemmi, A

    2000-06-01

    Intrapleural administration of fibrinolytic agents such as urokinase (UK) has been advocated as an alternative method to manage complicated pleural effusion (CPE). Despite the increasing number of empyemas successfully treated with UK in adults, the experience in children is limited to a few cases. We report the results of image-guided catheter drainage (IGCD) with intracavitary instillation of UK in six children with CPE. Urokinase (25,000-100, 000 IU) was diluted in 20 mL of normal saline and instilled into the pleural cavity via a percutaneously placed drainage catheter. After 4 hr, the clamped catheter was released and connected to water-seal suction at a negative pressure of 20 cm H(2)O. UK instillation was repeated daily until no further drainage occurred. During IGCD, repeated radiographic and ultrasound imaging determined the location and amount of any remaining pleural fluid. Mean duration of hospital stay before initiating UK therapy was 4.3 days. Mean duration of catheter drainage before initiating UK therapy was 3.5 days, and the mean total drainage was 86 mL. All patients had an increase in chest tube drainage within 24 hr after the first instillation of UK. The mean net total drainage after UK instillation was 281 mL, most of the drainage being occurring in the first 2 days of treatment. Mean hospital stay following UK treatment was 5.8 days, and the average total duration of hospital stay was 13.8 days. No complications and no adverse events occurred during treatment with UK. Complete resolution of the consequences of the pleural effusion was observed in all patients at follow-up. Our results suggest that IGCD with adjunctive UK therapy is a reliable, simple, and safe approach to treat CPE, and it can reduce the risks associated with thoracotomy and decortication. PMID:10821725

  5. Regional differences in pleural lymphatic albumin concentration in sheep

    SciTech Connect

    Albertine, K.H.; Schultz, E.L.; Wiener-Kronish, J.P.; Staub, N.C.

    1987-01-01

    We used quantitative reflectance autoradiography to compare the concentration of albumin in visceral pleural lymphatics at the cranial and caudal ends of the sheep's lung in the vertical (60 degrees head-up) and horizontal (supine) positions. Twelve to fourteen hours after injecting 125I-albumin intravenously we placed four anesthetized sheep in the vertical position to establish a microvascular hydrostatic pressure gradient along the vertical height of the lung. We placed two anesthetized sheep in the horizontal position. Four hours later, we fixed the left lung and removed visceral pleural tissue blocks from the cranial and caudal ends, separated by a 15-cm distance, along the costovertebral margin. We measured the silver grain density in the pleural lymphatic autoradiograms by dark-field reflectance microspectrophotometry. In the vertical position, the lymph albumin concentration at the cranial end (top) of the lung averaged 2.5 +/- 0.4 g/dl compared with the caudal end (bottom), which averaged 1.8 +/- 0.3 g/dl. The difference (42% greater at the top than the bottom) is significant (P less than 0.05). The computed gradient in perimicrovascular interstitial albumin osmotic pressure was 0.26 +/- 0.13 cmH2O/cm lung height. There were no differences between the cranial and caudal lymphatic groups in the two horizontal sheep. We conclude that in the sheep lung there is a gradient in perimicrovascular albumin concentration due to the vertical gradient in microvascular hydrostatic pressure.

  6. Current controversies in the management of malignant pleural effusions.

    PubMed

    Azzopardi, Maree; Porcel, José M; Koegelenberg, Coenraad F N; Lee, Y C Gary; Fysh, Edward T H

    2014-12-01

    Malignant pleural effusion (MPE) can complicate most malignancies and is a common clinical problem presenting to respiratory and cancer care physicians. Despite its frequent occurrence, current knowledge of MPE remains limited and controversy surrounds almost every aspect in its diagnosis and management. A lack of robust data has led to significant practice variations worldwide, inefficiencies in healthcare provision, and threats to patient safety. Recent studies have highlighted evolving concepts in MPE care that challenge traditional beliefs. Advancing laboratory techniques have improved the diagnostic yield from pleural fluid cytology, minimizing the need for invasive tissue biopsies, even in many cases of mesothelioma. Imaging-guided biopsy is comparable to thoracoscopy in suitable patients, if cytological examination was noncontributory. Cumulating evidence for the benefits of indwelling pleural catheters (IPCs) has led some centers to adopt this approach as first-line definitive management for MPE over conventional talc pleurodesis. The optimal technique of talc pleurodesis is still debated despite its use for many decades. Strategies combining pleurodesis and IPC are being studied. MPE consists of a heterogenous group of diseases and careful phenotyping of malignant effusion patients can provide important clinical information that will advance the field and allow better stratification of patients and planning of therapy accordingly. This review addresses the controversies in MPE diagnosis and management and exposes the deficits in knowledge of MPE that should be the focus of future research. PMID:25463163

  7. Carotenoids Co-Localize with Hydroxyapatite, Cholesterol, and Other Lipids in Calcified Stenotic Aortic Valves. Ex Vivo Raman Maps Compared to Histological Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Bonetti, A.; Bonifacio, A.; Mora, A. Della; Livi, U.; Marchini, M.; Ortolani, F.

    2015-01-01

    Unlike its application for atherosclerotic plaque analysis, Raman microspectroscopy was sporadically used to check the sole nature of bioapatite deposits in stenotic aortic valves, neglecting the involvement of accumulated lipids/lipoproteins in the calcific process. Here, Raman microspectroscopy was employed for examination of stenotic aortic valve leaflets to add information on nature and distribution of accumulated lipids and their correlation with mineralization in the light of its potential precocious diagnostic use. Cryosections from surgically explanted stenotic aortic valves (n=4) were studied matching Raman maps against specific histological patterns. Raman maps revealed the presence of phospholipids/triglycerides and cholesterol, which showed spatial overlapping with one another and Raman-identified hydroxyapatite. Moreover, the Raman patterns correlated with those displayed by both von-Kossa-calcium- and Nile-blue-stained serial cryosections. Raman analysis also provided the first identification of carotenoids, which co-localized with the identified lipid moieties. Additional fit concerned the distribution of collagen and elastin. The good correlation of Raman maps with high-affinity staining patterns proved that Raman microspectroscopy is a reliable tool in evaluating calcification degree, alteration/displacement of extracellular matrix components, and accumulation rate of different lipid forms in calcified heart valves. In addition, the novel identification of carotenoids supports the concept that valve stenosis is an atherosclerosis-like valve lesion, consistently with their previous Raman microspectroscopical identification inside atherosclerotic plaques. PMID:26150160

  8. Shunt site chronic calcified extradural hematoma: An avoidable complication

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Sudhansu Sekhar; Satapathy, Mani Charan; Senapati, Satya Bhusan

    2014-01-01

    Extradural hematoma (EDH) after ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt procedure is a rare, dangerous but easily avoidable and manageable complication. It is more common in children and young adults presumably due to relatively lax adhesion of dura to calvarium. We report a case of an 18-year-old male with acqueductal stenosis who underwent VP shunt procedure. Three months later, a computed tomography (CT) scan was done for the complaints of intractable headache and altered sensorium which showed chronic calcified EDH near shunt site. The ventricular catheter was in position and the ventricles were decompressed. After surgical decompression of EDH his symptoms improved. We discuss the factors leading to formation of EDH, with stress on proper technique to prevent or minimize such an avoidable complication. PMID:25250078

  9. Coral symbiotic algae calcify ex hospite in partnership with bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Frommlet, Jörg C.; Sousa, Maria L.; Alves, Artur; Vieira, Sandra I.; Suggett, David J.; Serôdio, João

    2015-01-01

    Dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium are commonly recognized as invertebrate endosymbionts that are of central importance for the functioning of coral reef ecosystems. However, the endosymbiotic phase within Symbiodinium life history is inherently tied to a more cryptic free-living (ex hospite) phase that remains largely unexplored. Here we show that free-living Symbiodinium spp. in culture commonly form calcifying bacterial–algal communities that produce aragonitic spherulites and encase the dinoflagellates as endolithic cells. This process is driven by Symbiodinium photosynthesis but occurs only in partnership with bacteria. Our findings not only place dinoflagellates on the map of microbial–algal organomineralization processes but also point toward an endolithic phase in the Symbiodinium life history, a phenomenon that may provide new perspectives on the biology and ecology of Symbiodinium spp. and the evolutionary history of the coral–dinoflagellate symbiosis. PMID:25918367

  10. Coral symbiotic algae calcify ex hospite in partnership with bacteria.

    PubMed

    Frommlet, Jörg C; Sousa, Maria L; Alves, Artur; Vieira, Sandra I; Suggett, David J; Serôdio, João

    2015-05-12

    Dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium are commonly recognized as invertebrate endosymbionts that are of central importance for the functioning of coral reef ecosystems. However, the endosymbiotic phase within Symbiodinium life history is inherently tied to a more cryptic free-living (ex hospite) phase that remains largely unexplored. Here we show that free-living Symbiodinium spp. in culture commonly form calcifying bacterial-algal communities that produce aragonitic spherulites and encase the dinoflagellates as endolithic cells. This process is driven by Symbiodinium photosynthesis but occurs only in partnership with bacteria. Our findings not only place dinoflagellates on the map of microbial-algal organomineralization processes but also point toward an endolithic phase in the Symbiodinium life history, a phenomenon that may provide new perspectives on the biology and ecology of Symbiodinium spp. and the evolutionary history of the coral-dinoflagellate symbiosis. PMID:25918367

  11. Intraosseous calcifying epithelial odontogenic (Pindborg) tumor: A rare entity

    PubMed Central

    More, Chandramani B; Vijayvargiya, Ritika

    2015-01-01

    Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT) is a locally aggressive, rare benign odontogenic neoplasm that accounts for <1% of all odontogenic tumors. It was first described by a Dutch pathologist Jens Jorgen Pindborg in 1955. It is most often located in the posterior mandible. The tumor usually appears between the second and sixth decade of life and has no gender predilection. It is slow-growing neoplasm with a recurrence rate of 10–15% and with rare malignant transformation. Early diagnosis is essential to avoid oro-maxillofacial deformation and destruction. CEOT is rarely reported in India. We, herewith present a rare case of CEOT with unusual features associated with an impacted right third molar in the posterior mandible of 35 years male, with an emphasis on clinical, radiographic, histopathology and immunohistochemical features.

  12. Shunt site chronic calcified extradural hematoma: An avoidable complication.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Sudhansu Sekhar; Satapathy, Mani Charan; Senapati, Satya Bhusan

    2014-05-01

    Extradural hematoma (EDH) after ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt procedure is a rare, dangerous but easily avoidable and manageable complication. It is more common in children and young adults presumably due to relatively lax adhesion of dura to calvarium. We report a case of an 18-year-old male with acqueductal stenosis who underwent VP shunt procedure. Three months later, a computed tomography (CT) scan was done for the complaints of intractable headache and altered sensorium which showed chronic calcified EDH near shunt site. The ventricular catheter was in position and the ventricles were decompressed. After surgical decompression of EDH his symptoms improved. We discuss the factors leading to formation of EDH, with stress on proper technique to prevent or minimize such an avoidable complication. PMID:25250078

  13. Utility of semi-rigid thoracoscopy in undiagnosed exudative pleural effusion

    PubMed Central

    Nattusamy, Loganathan; Madan, Karan; Mohan, Anant; Hadda, Vijay; Jain, Deepali; Madan, Neha Kawatra; Arava, Sudheer; Khilnani, Gopi C; Guleria, Randeep

    2015-01-01

    Background: Semi-rigid thoracoscopy is a safe and efficacious procedure in patients with undiagnosed pleural effusion. Literature on its utility from developing countries is limited. We herein describe our initial experience on the utility of semi-rigid thoracoscopy from a tertiary care teaching and referral center in north India. We also perform a systematic review of studies reporting the utility of semi-rigid thoracoscopy from India. Patients and Methods: The primary objective was to evaluate the diagnostic utility of semi-rigid thoracoscopy in patients with undiagnosed exudative pleural effusion. Semi-rigid thoracoscopy was performed under local anesthesia and conscious sedation in the bronchoscopy suite. Results: A total of 48 patients underwent semi-rigid thoracoscopy between August 2012 and December 2013 for undiagnosed pleural effusion. Mean age was 50.9 ± 14.1 years (range: 17–78 years). Pre-procedure clinico-radiological diagnoses were malignant pleural effusion [36 patients (75%)], tuberculosis (TB) [10 (20.83%) patients], and empyema [2 patients (4.17%)]. Patients with empyema underwent the procedure for pleural biopsy, optimal placement of intercostal tube and adhesiolysis. Thoracoscopic pleural biopsy diagnosed pleural malignancy in 30 (62.5%) patients and TB in 2 (4.17%) patients. Fourteen (29.17%) patients were diagnosed with non-specific pleuritis and normal pleura was diagnosed on a pleural biopsy in 2 (4.17%) patients. Overall, a definitive diagnosis of either pleural malignancy or TB was obtained in 32 (66.7%) patients. Combined overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of thoracoscopic pleural biopsy for malignant pleural effusion were 96.77%, 100%, 100% and 66.67%, respectively. There was no procedure-related mortality. On performing a systematic review of literature, four studies on semi-rigid thoracoscopy from India were identified. Conclusion: Semi-rigid thoracoscopy is a safe and efficacious procedure in patients with undiagnosed exudative pleural effusions. PMID:25814795

  14. Amyloid Plaques in PSAPP Mice Bind Less Metal than Plaques in Human Alzheimer's Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Leskovjan, A.; Lanzirotti, A; Miller, L

    2009-01-01

    Amyloid beta (A{Beta}) is the primary component of Alzheimer's disease (AD) plaques, a key pathological feature of the disease. Metal ions of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), and calcium (Ca) are elevated in human amyloid plaques and are thought to be involved in neurodegeneration. Transgenic mouse models of AD also exhibit amyloid plaques, but fail to exhibit the high degree of neurodegeneration observed in humans. In this study, we imaged the Zn, Cu, Fe, and Ca ion distribution in the PSAPP transgenic mouse model representing end-stage AD (N = 6) using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microprobe. In order to account for differences in density in the plaques, the relative protein content was imaged with synchrotron Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIRM) on the same samples. FTIRM results revealed a 61% increase in protein content in the plaques compared to the surrounding tissue. After normalizing to protein density, we found that the PSAPP plaques contained only a 29% increase in Zn and there was actually less Cu, Fe, and Ca in the plaque compared to the surrounding tissue. Since metal binding to A{beta} is thought to induce redox chemistry that is toxic to neurons, the reduced metal binding in PSAPP mice is consistent with the lack of neurodegeneration in these animals. These findings were in stark contrast to the high metal ion content observed in human AD plaques, further implicating the role of metal ions in human AD pathology.

  15. Rhodotorula mucilaginosa Fungemia and Pleural Tuberculosis in an Immunocompetent Patient: An Uncommon Association.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Cláudia; Ribeiro, Sofia; Lopes, Virgínia; Mendonça, Teresa

    2016-02-01

    We report an atypical case of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa fungemia coexisting with pleural tuberculosis, in an immunocompetent host. The patient was an inhaled drug abuser and worked in a fruit market. The diagnosis of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa infection was established by the isolation of the yeast in two blood cultures followed by a good response to amphotericin B treatment. Persistent evening fever and pleural effusion led to the second diagnosis-pleural tuberculosis. In the last 5 years, this was the only case of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa fungemia in our hospital and the first case in the literature that documents Rhodotorula mucilaginosa fungemia associated with pleural tuberculosis. PMID:26369644

  16. Calcifying nanoparticles (nanobacteria): an additional potential factor for urolithiasis in space flight crews.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jeffrey A; Ciftcioglu, Neva; Schmid, Josef F; Barr, Yael R; Griffith, Donald

    2009-01-01

    Spaceflight-induced microgravity appears to be a risk factor for the development of urinary calculi, resulting in urolithiasis during and after spaceflight. Calcifying nanoparticles, or nanobacteria, multiply more rapidly in simulated microgravity and create external shells of calcium phosphate. The question arises whether calcifying nanoparticles are nidi for calculi and contribute to the development of clinically significant urolithiasis in those who are predisposed to the development of urinary calculi because of intrinsic or extrinsic factors. This case report describes a calculus recovered after flight from an astronaut that, on morphologic and immunochemical analysis (including specific monoclonal antibody staining), demonstrated characteristics of calcifying nanoparticles. PMID:18718644

  17. Functional expression of dental plaque microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Scott N.; Meissner, Tobias; Su, Andrew I.; Snesrud, Erik; Ong, Ana C.; Schork, Nicholas J.; Bretz, Walter A.

    2014-01-01

    Dental caries remains a significant public health problem and is considered pandemic worldwide. The prediction of dental caries based on profiling of microbial species involved in disease and equally important, the identification of species conferring dental health has proven more difficult than anticipated due to high interpersonal and geographical variability of dental plaque microbiota. We have used RNA-Seq to perform global gene expression analysis of dental plaque microbiota derived from 19 twin pairs that were either concordant (caries-active or caries-free) or discordant for dental caries. The transcription profiling allowed us to define a functional core microbiota consisting of nearly 60 species. Similarities in gene expression patterns allowed a preliminary assessment of the relative contribution of human genetics, environmental factors and caries phenotype on the microbiota's transcriptome. Correlation analysis of transcription allowed the identification of numerous functional networks, suggesting that inter-personal environmental variables may co-select for groups of genera and species. Analysis of functional role categories allowed the identification of dominant functions expressed by dental plaque biofilm communities, that highlight the biochemical priorities of dental plaque microbes to metabolize diverse sugars and cope with the acid and oxidative stress resulting from sugar fermentation. The wealth of data generated by deep sequencing of expressed transcripts enables a greatly expanded perspective concerning the functional expression of dental plaque microbiota. PMID:25177549

  18. Statistical segmentation of carotid plaque neovascularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akkus, Zeynettin; Bosch, Johan G.; Sánchez-Ferrero, Gonzalo V.; Carvalho, Diego D. B.; Renaud, Guillaume; van den Oord, Stijn C. H.; ten Kate, Gerrit L.; Schinkel, Arend F. L.; de Jong, Nico; van der Steen, Antonius F. W.

    2013-03-01

    In several studies, intraplaque neovascularization (IPN) has been linked with plaque vulnerability. The recent development of contrast enhanced ultrasound enables IPN detection, but an accurate quantification of IPN is a big challenge due to noise, motion, subtle contrast response, blooming of contrast and artifacts. We present an algorithm that automatically estimates the location and amount of contrast within the plaque over time. Plaque pixels are initially labeled through an iterative expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm. The used algorithm avoids several drawbacks of standard EM. It is capable of selecting the best number of components in an unsupervised way, based on a minimum message length criterion. Next, neighborhood information using a 5×5 kernel and spatiotemporal behavior are combined with the known characteristics of contrast spots in order to group components, identify artifacts and finalize the classification. Image sequences are divided into 3-seconds subgroups. A pixel is relabeled as an artifact if it is labeled as contrast for more than 1.5 seconds in at least two subgroups. For 10 plaques, automated segmentation results were validated with manual segmentation of contrast in 10 frames per clip. Average Dice index and area ratio were 0.73+/-0.1 (mean+/-SD) and 98.5+/-29.6 (%) respectively. Next, 45 atherosclerotic plaques were analyzed. Time integrated IPN surface area was calculated. Average area of IPN was 3.73+/-3.51 mm2. Average area of 45 plaques was 11.6+/-8.6 mm2. This method based on EM contrast segmentation provides a new way of IPN quantification.

  19. Giant, Completely Calcified Lumbar Juxtafacet Cyst: Report of an Unusual Case

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Kevin T.; Owens, Timothy R.; Wang, Teresa S.; Moreno, Jessica R.; Bagley, Jacob H.; Bagley, Carlos A.

    2013-01-01

    Study Design?Case report. Objective?To report the case of one patient who developed a giant, completely calcified, juxtafacet cyst. Methods?A 57-year-old woman presented with a 2-year history of progressively worsening lower back pain, left leg pain, weakness, and paresthesias. Imaging showed a giant, completely calcified mass arising from the left L5–S1 facet joint, with coexisting grade I L5 on S1 anterolisthesis. The patient was treated with laminectomy, excision of the mass, and L5–S1 fixation and fusion. Results?The patient had an uncomplicated postoperative course and had complete resolution of her symptoms as of 1-year follow-up. Conclusions?When presented with a solid-appearing, calcified mass arising from the facet joint, a completely calcified juxtafacet cyst should be considered as part of the differential diagnosis. PMID:25083359

  20. DIFFERENTIAL EFFECT OF TETRAZOLIUM UPON BACTERIOPHAGE PLAQUE ASSAY TITERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study examined whether the practice of incorporating either tetrazolium red ortetrazolium violet dye into plaque assay medium deleteriously influences plaque assay titers. epresentative members of six different virus families were studied: ystoviridae (06), Leviviridae (MS2)...

  1. Estimation of nonlinear mechanical properties of atherosclerotic plaques

    E-print Network

    Zhu, Ting F. (Ting Fredrick)

    2005-01-01

    A numerical method has been developed to estimate the mechanical properties of atherosclerotic plaques by combining genetic algorithm with finite element methods. Plaque images derived from optical coherence tomography ...

  2. [Pleural involvement and functional effect of asbestosis in 380 exposed patients].

    PubMed

    Lemenager, J; Raffaelli, C; Letourneux, M; Sesboue, B; Boulier, A

    1985-07-01

    A large number of pleural abnormalities was detected by radiological and functional monitoring of 380 persons (mean age: 47 years) working in an asbestos processing factory. There were 127 cases of parietal pleura thickening (after 22 1/2 years' exposure), 11 cases of pleural calcifications (after 26 years' exposure) and 29 cases of obliteration of the costophrenic angle. Fourteen images of pulmonary asbestosis were encountered, 7 of which were associated with pleural effusion; they occurred at a mean age of 50 years, after 22 years' exposure. Pleural lesions had a restrictive influence on respiratory function in 24% of the cases and were sometimes painful. Small airway obstruction was detected by flow-volume loops in 9% non-smokers with pleural thickening, which suggests that intra-radiological lung lesions exist in asbestosis. PMID:3161061

  3. Lasers in the management of calcified urinary tract stents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nseyo, Unyime O.; Tunuguntla, Hari S. G. R.; Crone, Michael

    2003-06-01

    Indwelling double J ureteral stents are used for internal urinary diversion for ureteral obstruction and post-surgical drainage of the upper urinary tract. Stent calcification is a serious complication especially in those with forgotten stents. In a retrospective review of 16 patients (10 male and 6 female) we found holmium laser to be highly effective in the management of calcified stents. Encrustations/calcifications were noted on the distal end of the sent in 6 patiens (37.5%), middle and distal portions in 2 patients (12.5%), along the entire length of the stent in 3 patients (18.75%), lower portion of the stent in 4 patients (25%) and at the upper and lower ends of the stent in one patient (6.25%). Cystolitholapaxy, retrograde ureteroscopy (URS) with holmium: YAG (yttrium-aluminum-garnet) laser intracorporeal lithotripsy, percutaneous nephrostolithotomy (PNL) and antegrade URS with holmium: YAG laser intracorporeal lithotripsy were effectively performed without intraoperative complications. Lithotripsy became necessary before stent removal in 11 patients (68.75%). Holmium laser lithotripsy was useful in managing 7 patients (43.75%), and shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) in 6 patients (37.5%). In two patients (12.5%) both holmium and SWL were used before the stent can be removed.

  4. Post-polymerization of urease-induced calcified, polymer hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Rauner, Nicolas; Buenger, Lea; Schuller, Stefanie; Tiller, Joerg C

    2015-01-01

    Urease-induced calcification is an innovative method to artificially produce highly filled CaCO3-based composite materials by intrinsic mineralization of hydrogels. The mechanical properties of these hybrid materials based on poly(2-hydroxyethylacrylate) cross-linked by triethylene glycol dimethacrylate are poor. Increasing the degree of calcification to up to 94 wt% improves the Young's moduli (YM) of the materials from some 40 MPa to more than 300 MPa. The introduction of calcium carbonate affine groups to the hydrogel matrix by copolymerizing acrylic acid and [2-(methacryloyloxy) ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride, respectively, does not increase the stiffness of the composites. A Young's modulus of more than 1 GPa is achieved by post-polymerization (PP) of the calcified hydrogels, which proves that the size of the contact area between the matrix and calcium carbonate crystals is the most crucial parameter for controlling the stiffness of hybrid materials. Switching from low Tg to high Tg hydrogel matrices (based on poly(N,N-dimethyl acrylamide)) results in a YM of up to 3.5 GPa after PP. PMID:25284027

  5. The role of calcifying nanoparticles in biology and medicine.

    PubMed

    Kutikhin, Anton G; Brusina, Elena B; Yuzhalin, Arseniy E

    2012-01-01

    Calcifying nanoparticles (CNPs) (nanobacteria, nanobacteria-like particles, nanobes) were discovered over 25 years ago; nevertheless, their nature is still obscure. To date, nobody has been successful in credibly determining whether they are the smallest self-replicating life form on Earth, or whether they represent mineralo-protein complexes without any relation to living organisms. Proponents of both theories have a number of arguments in favor of the validity of their hypotheses. However, after epistemological analysis carried out in this review, all arguments used by proponents of the theory about the physicochemical model of CNP formation may be refuted on the basis of the performed investigations, and therefore published data suggest a biological nature of CNPs. The only obstacle to establish CNPs as living organisms is the absence of a fairly accurately sequenced genome at the present time. Moreover, it is clear that CNPs play an important role in etiopathogenesis of many diseases, and this association is independent from their nature. Consequently, emergence of CNPs in an organism is a pathological, not a physiological, process. The classification and new directions of further investigations devoted to the role of CNPs in biology and medicine are proposed. PMID:22287843

  6. Association between dental pulp stones and calcifying nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jinfeng; Yang, Fang; Zhang, Wei; Gong, Qimei; Du, Yu; Ling, Junqi

    2011-01-01

    The etiology of dental pulp stones, one type of extraskeletal calcification disease, remains elusive to date. Calcifying nanoparticles (CNPs), formerly referred to as nanobacteria, were reported to be one etiological factor in a number of extraskeletal calcification diseases. We hypothesized that CNPs are involved in the calcification of the dental pulp tissue, and therefore investigated the link between CNPs and dental pulp stones. Sixty-five freshly collected dental pulp stones, each from a different patient, were analyzed. Thirteen of the pulp stones were examined for the existence of CNPs in situ by immunohistochemical staining (IHS), indirect immunofluorescence staining (IIFS), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The remaining 52 pulp stones were used for isolation and cultivation of CNPs; the cultured CNPs were identified and confirmed via their shape and growth characteristics. Among the dental pulp stones examined in situ, 84.6% of the tissue samples staines positive for CNPs antigen by IHS; the corresponding rate by IIFS was 92.3 %. In 88.2% of the cultured samples, CNPs were isolated and cultivated successfully. The CNPs were visible under TEM as 200-400 nm diameter spherical particles surrounded by a compact crust. CNPs could be detected and isolated from a high percentage of dental pulp stones, suggesting that CNPs might play an important role in the calcification of dental pulp. PMID:21289988

  7. Bioconvection in Cultures of the Calcifying Unicellular Alga Pleurochrysis Carterae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montufar-Solis, Dina; Duke, P. Jackie; Marsh, Mary E.

    2003-01-01

    The unicellular, marine, calcifying alga P leurochiysis carterae--a model to study cell morphogenesis, cell polarity, calcification, gravitaxis, reproduction and development-- has extremely flexible culture requirements. Support studies for a flight experiment addressing cell motility suggested that cell density (cells/ml) affects cell movement in P. carterae cultures through the gradual establishment of bioconvection as the culture grows. To assess the effect of cell density on direction of the movement, without the effects of aging of the culture, swimming behavior was analyzed in aliquots from a series of dilutions obtained from a stock culture. Results showed that at low concentrations cells swim randomly. As the concentration increases, upswimming patterns overtake random swimming. Gradually, up and down movement patterns prevail, representative of bioconvection. This oriented swimming of P. carterae occurs in a wide range of concentrations, adding to the list of flexible requirements, in this case, cell concentration, to be used for spaceflight studies addressing cell motility and bioconvection in a unicellular model of biologically directed mineralization.

  8. Adalimumab: A Review in Chronic Plaque Psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Burness, Celeste B; McKeage, Kate

    2015-12-01

    Adalimumab (Humira(®)) is a fully human monoclonal antibody against tumour necrosis factor (TNF), formulated for subcutaneous administration. It is well established in the treatment of adults with moderate-to-severe chronic plaque psoriasis and has recently received approval in the EU for the treatment of severe chronic plaque psoriasis in children and adolescents from 4 years of age. In a phase III trial in paediatric patients, a significantly greater proportion of patients receiving adalimumab 0.8 mg/kg (to a maximum of 40 mg) every other week (eow) achieved a ?75 % improvement from baseline in Psoriasis Area and Severity Index than those receiving methotrexate after 16 weeks of treatment. In adults, well-designed randomized clinical trials demonstrated that adalimumab 40 mg eow effectively reduced the signs and symptoms of psoriasis and improved dermatology-specific and general measures of health-related quality of life, with these benefits sustained during long-term treatment. Adalimumab was generally well tolerated, compared with placebo or methotrexate, during clinical trials in paediatric and adult patients with chronic plaque psoriasis. Thus, adalimumab remains an important treatment strategy in adults with moderate-to-severe chronic plaque psoriasis and provides a promising new systemic treatment option for children and adolescents from 4 years of age with severe psoriasis. PMID:26586242

  9. EUS-guided fine needle tissue acquisition for the diagnosis of pleural metastases from endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Larghi, A; Lococo, F; Mainenti, S; Petrone, G; Cesario, A; Granone, P; Scambia, G; Costamagna, G

    2014-01-01

    Transesophageal EUS-FNA have become a useful tool in the evaluation of the mediastinum, especially during the staging work-up examination of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) or other malignancies. We report a challenging case of a 53 years-old woman with an endometrial adenocarcinoma who subsequently presented with right pleural effusion, diffuse pleural thickening with few pleural lesions. The patient referred a long history of exposure to amiantum, this posing a differential diagnosis between primary pleural tumour (mesothelioma) and neoplastic pleural localization of the endometrial cancer. The cytological examination of the pleural effusion (sampled via thoracenthesis) was not adequate to reach a diagnosis. Although a right-video-assisted thoracoscopy was considered the gold standard in this clinical setting to achieve a tissue acquisition of the pleura, an EUS (as the least invasive procedure) was attempted to reach a definitive diagnosis. EUS-FNTA of the pleura was done using a 19-Gauge needle and the pathological and immunophenotypic features were diagnostic for a pleural metastasis of high-grade endometrial serous carcinoma. The patient received adjuvant chemotherapy with a complete regression of the pleural lesions. We take the opportunity of this challenging case to discuss the efficacy and safety of EUS-FNAT to sample the pleural lesions with the use of a large calibre needle if the lesion lies just under the EUS cursor. We may assume that, in selected patients, this technique could be presented as a viable option to the more invasive surgical procedure, which has been previously the gold standard for the pleural tissue acquisition. PMID:24867517

  10. IVUS-based Histology of Atherosclerotic plaques: Improving Longitudinal Resolution

    E-print Network

    Yanikoglu, Berrin

    IVUS-based Histology of Atherosclerotic plaques: Improving Longitudinal Resolution Arash Takia ABSTRACT Although Virtual Histology (VH) is the in-vivo gold standard for atherosclerosis plaque is the Virtual Histology (VH).3 VH provides a colored coded plaque characterization image by analyzing

  11. In vivo imaging reveals sigmoidal growth kinetic of ?-amyloid plaques

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A major neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease is the deposition of amyloid plaques in the brains of affected individuals. Amyloid plaques mainly consist of fibrillar ?-amyloid, which is a cleavage product of the amyloid precursor protein. The amyloid-cascade-hypothesis postulates A? accumulation as the central event in initiating a toxic cascade leading to Alzheimer’s disease pathology and, ultimately, loss of cognitive function. We studied the kinetics of ?-amyloid deposition in Tg2576 mice, which overexpress human amyloid precursor protein with the Swedish mutation. Utilizing long-term two-photon imaging we were able to observe the entire kinetics of plaque growth in vivo. Essentially, we observed that plaque growth follows a sigmoid-shaped curve comprising a cubic growth phase, followed by saturation. In contrast, plaque density kinetics exhibited an asymptotic progression. Taking into account the fact that a critical concentration of A? is required to seed new plaques, we can propose the following kinetic model of ?-amyloid deposition in vivo. In the early cubic phase, plaque growth is not limited by A? concentration and plaque density increases very fast. During the transition phase, plaque density stabilizes whereas plaque volume increases strongly reflecting a robust growth of the plaques. In the late asymptotic phase, A? peptide production becomes rate-limiting for plaque growth. In conclusion, the present study offers a direct link between in vitro and in vivo studies facilitating the translation of A?-lowering strategies from laboratory models to patients. PMID:24678659

  12. [Parapneumonic pleural effusions: Epidemiology, diagnosis, classification and management].

    PubMed

    Letheulle, J; Kerjouan, M; Bénézit, F; De Latour, B; Tattevin, P; Piau, C; Léna, H; Desrues, B; Le Tulzo, Y; Jouneau, S

    2015-04-01

    Parapneumonic pleural effusions represent the main cause of pleural infections. Their incidence is constantly increasing. Although by definition they are considered to be a "parapneumonic" phenomenon, the microbial epidemiology of these effusions differs from pneumonia with a higher prevalence of anaerobic bacteria. The first thoracentesis is the most important diagnostic stage because it allows for a distinction between complicated and non-complicated parapneumonic effusions. Only complicated parapneumonic effusions need to be drained. Therapeutic evacuation modalities include repeated therapeutic thoracentesis, chest tube drainage or thoracic surgery. The choice of the first-line evacuation treatment is still controversial and there are few prospective controlled studies. The effectiveness of fibrinolytic agents is not established except when they are combined with DNase. Antibiotics are mandatory; they should be initiated as quickly as possible and should be active against anaerobic bacteria except for in the context of pneumococcal infections. There are few data on the use of chest physiotherapy, which remains widely used. Mortality is still high and is influenced by underlying comorbidities. PMID:25595878

  13. Radical surgery for malignant pleural mesothelioma: results and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Okada, Morihito; Mimura, Takeshi; Ohbayashi, Chiho; Sakuma, Toshiko; Soejima, Toshinori; Tsubota, Noriaki

    2008-02-01

    The role of surgical treatment for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) continues to be controversial. We carried out a retrospective review of the prognosis in patients who had radical surgery for MPM. Of 87 consecutive patients on whom surgical exploration for biopsy-proven MPM was performed, 31 patients underwent extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP) and 34 patients underwent pleurectomy/decortication (P/D). Sixty-five patients having EPP or P/D included 58 men (89%). The median age was 60 years (range 35-78) and the histologic type was epithelial in 48 patients (74%). IMIG staging classification was p-stage I disease in eight patients (12%), p-stage II in 13 (20%), p-stage III in 40 (62%) and p-stage IV in 4 (6%). Operative mortality was 3.2% for EPP and none for P/D. The median and 3-year survivals after EPP were 13 months and 33% whereas those after P/D were 17 months and 24%, respectively. A multivariate analysis demonstrated that older age (P=0.0467), non-epithelial histology (P=0.0057) and p-stage III-IV disease (P=0.0019), but not gender, side, surgical procedure, were significant independent negative prognostic factors. Although P/D appears to be acceptable in early stages, we encourage EPP, en bloc resection without entering the pleural cavity with intent for curability, which provides oncologically complete resection of all disease. PMID:18048410

  14. Current Concepts and Occurrence of Epithelial Odontogenic Tumors: II. Calcifying Epithelial Odontogenic Tumor Versus Ghost Cell Odontogenic Tumors Derived from Calcifying Odontogenic Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeon Sook

    2014-01-01

    Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumors (CEOTs) and ghost cell odontogenic tumors (GCOTs) are characteristic odontogenic origin epithelial tumors which produce calcifying materials from transformed epithelial tumor cells. CEOT is a benign odontogenic tumor composed of polygonal epithelial tumor cells that show retrogressive calcific changes, amyloid-like deposition, and clear cytoplasm. Differentially, GCOTs are a group of transient tumors characterized by ghost cell presence, which comprise calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor (CCOT), dentinogenic ghost cell tumor (DGCT), and ghost cell odontogenic carcinoma (GCOC), all derived from calcifying odontogenic cysts (COCs). There is considerable confusion about COCs and GCOTs terminology, but these lesions can be classified as COCs or GCOTs, based on their cystic or tumorous natures, respectively. GCOTs include ameloblastomatous tumors derived from dominant odontogenic cysts classified as CCOTs, ghost cell-rich tumors producing dentinoid materials as DGCTs, and the GCOT malignant counterpart, GCOCs. Many authors have reported CEOTs and GCOTs variably express keratins, ?-catenin, BCL-2, BSP, RANKL, OPG, Notch1, Jagged1, TGF-?, SMADs, and other proteins. However, these heterogeneous lesions should be differentially diagnosed to allow for accurate tumor progression and prognosis prediction. PMID:25013415

  15. Ocean acidification and calcifying reef organisms: A mesocosm investigation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jokiel, P.L.; Rodgers, K.S.; Kuffner, I.B.; Andersson, A.J.; Cox, E.F.; MacKenzie, F.T.

    2008-01-01

    A long-term (10 months) controlled experiment was conducted to test the impact of increased partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) on common calcifying coral reef organisms. The experiment was conducted in replicate continuous flow coral reef mesocosms flushed with unfiltered sea water from Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii. Mesocosms were located in full sunlight and experienced diurnal and seasonal fluctuations in temperature and sea water chemistry characteristic of the adjacent reef flat. Treatment mesocosms were manipulated to simulate an increase in pCO2 to levels expected in this century [midday pCO2 levels exceeding control mesocosms by 365 ?? 130 ??atm (mean ?? sd)]. Acidification had a profound impact on the development and growth of crustose coralline algae (CCA) populations. During the experiment, CCA developed 25% cover in the control mesocosms and only 4% in the acidified mesocosms, representing an 86% relative reduction. Free-living associations of CCA known as rhodoliths living in the control mesocosms grew at a rate of 0.6 g buoyant weight year-1 while those in the acidified experimental treatment decreased in weight at a rate of 0.9 g buoyant weight year-1, representing a 250% difference. CCA play an important role in the growth and stabilization of carbonate reefs, so future changes of this magnitude could greatly impact coral reefs throughout the world. Coral calcification decreased between 15% and 20% under acidified conditions. Linear extension decreased by 14% under acidified conditions in one experiment. Larvae of the coral Pocillopora damicornis were able to recruit under the acidified conditions. In addition, there was no significant difference in production of gametes by the coral Montipora capitata after 6 months of exposure to the treatments. ?? 2008 Springer-Verlag.

  16. Ocean acidification and calcifying reef organisms: a mesocosm investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jokiel, P. L.; Rodgers, K. S.; Kuffner, I. B.; Andersson, A. J.; Cox, E. F.; MacKenzie, F. T.

    2008-09-01

    A long-term (10 months) controlled experiment was conducted to test the impact of increased partial pressure of carbon dioxide ( pCO2) on common calcifying coral reef organisms. The experiment was conducted in replicate continuous flow coral reef mesocosms flushed with unfiltered sea water from Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii. Mesocosms were located in full sunlight and experienced diurnal and seasonal fluctuations in temperature and sea water chemistry characteristic of the adjacent reef flat. Treatment mesocosms were manipulated to simulate an increase in pCO2 to levels expected in this century [midday pCO2 levels exceeding control mesocosms by 365 ± 130 ?atm (mean ± sd)]. Acidification had a profound impact on the development and growth of crustose coralline algae (CCA) populations. During the experiment, CCA developed 25% cover in the control mesocosms and only 4% in the acidified mesocosms, representing an 86% relative reduction. Free-living associations of CCA known as rhodoliths living in the control mesocosms grew at a rate of 0.6 g buoyant weight year-1 while those in the acidified experimental treatment decreased in weight at a rate of 0.9 g buoyant weight year-1, representing a 250% difference. CCA play an important role in the growth and stabilization of carbonate reefs, so future changes of this magnitude could greatly impact coral reefs throughout the world. Coral calcification decreased between 15% and 20% under acidified conditions. Linear extension decreased by 14% under acidified conditions in one experiment. Larvae of the coral Pocillopora damicornis were able to recruit under the acidified conditions. In addition, there was no significant difference in production of gametes by the coral Montipora capitata after 6 months of exposure to the treatments.

  17. Microscopic Observation of Self-Propagation of Calcifying Nanoparticles (Nanobacteria)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathew, Grace; McKay, David S.; Ciftcioglu, Neva

    2007-01-01

    Biologists typically define living organisms as carbon and water-based cellular forms with :self-replication" as the fundamental trait of the life process. However, this standard dictionary definition of life does not help scientists to categorize self-replicators like viruses, prions, proteons and artificial life. CNP also named nanobacteria were discovered in early 1990s as about 100 nanometer-sized bacteria-like particles with unique apatite mineral-shells around them, and found to be associated with pathological-calcification related diseases. Although CNP have been isolated and cultured from mammalian blood and diseased calcified tissues, and their biomineralizing properties well established, their biological nature and self-replicating capability have always been severely challenged. The terms "self-replication", "self-assembly" or "self-propagation" have been widely used for all systems including nanomachines, crystals, computer viruses and memes. In a simple taxonomy, all biological and non-biological "self replicators", have been classified into "living" or "nonliving" based on the properties of the systems and the amount of support they require to self-replicate. To enhance our understanding about self-replicating nature of CNP, we have investigated their growth in specific culture conditions using conventional inverted light microscope and BioStation IM, Nikon s latest time-lapse imaging system. Their morphological structure was examined using scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy. This present study, in conjunction with previous findings of metabolic activity, antibiotic sensitivity, antibody specificity, morphological aspects and infectivity, all concomitantly validate CNP as living self-replicators.

  18. Persistent Seroconversion after Accidental Eye Exposure to Calcifying Nanoparticles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciftcioglu, Neva; Aho, Katja M.; McKay, David S.; Kajander, E. Olavi

    2007-01-01

    Biosafety of nanomaterials has attracted much attention recently. We report here a case where accidental human eye exposure to biogenic nanosized calcium phosphate in the form of calcifying nanoparticles (CNP) raised a strong IgG immune response against proteins carried by CNP. The antibody titer has persisted over ten years at the high level. The IgG was detected by ELISA using CNPs propagated in media containing bovine and human serum as antigen. The exposure incident occurred to a woman scientist (WS) at a research laboratory in Finland at 1993. CNP, also termed "nanobacteria", is a unique self-replicating agent that has not been fully characterized and no data on biohazards were available at that time. Before the accident, her serum samples were negative for both CNP antigen and anti-CNP antibody using specific ELISA tests (Nanobac Oy, Kuopio, Finland). The accident occurred while WS was harvesting CNP cultures. Due to a high pressure in pipetting, CNP pellet splashed into her right eye. Both eyes were immediately washed with water and saline. The following days there was irritation and redness in the right eye. These symptoms disappeared within two weeks without any treatment. Three months after the accident, blood and urine samples of WS were tested for CNP cultures (2), CNP-specific ELISA tests, and blood cell counts. Blood cell counts were normal, CNP antigen and culture tests were negative. A high IgG anti-CNP antibody titer was detected (see Figure). The antibodies of this person have been used thereafter as positive control and standard in ELISA manufacturing (Nano-Sero IgG ELISA, Nanobac Oy, Kuopio, Finland).

  19. Coronary CT Angiography in Heavily Calcified Coronary Arteries: Improvement of Coronary Lumen Visualization and Coronary Stenosis Assessment With Image Postprocessing Methods

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhonghua; Ng, Curtise K.C.; Xu, Lei; Fan, Zhanming; Lei, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To compare the diagnostic value of coronary CT angiography (CCTA) with use of 2 image postprocessing methods (CCTA_S) and (CCTA_OS) and original data (CCTA_O) for the assessment of heavily calcified plaques. Fifty patients (41 men, 9 women; mean age 61.9 years?±?9.1) with suspected coronary artery disease who underwent CCTA and invasive coronary angiography (ICA) examinations were included in the study. Image data were postprocessed with “sharpen” and smooth reconstruction algorithms in comparison with the original data without undergoing any image postprocessing to determine the effects on suppressing blooming artifacts due to heavy calcification in the coronary arteries. Minimal lumen diameter and degree of stenosis were measured and compared between CCTA_S, CCTA_OS, and CCTA_O with ICA as the reference method. The area under the curve (AUC) by receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis (ROC) was also compared among these 3 CCTA techniques. On a per-vessel assessment, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value, and 95% confidence interval (CI) were 100% (95% CI: 89%, 100%), 33% (95% CI: 22%, 45%), 41% (95% CI: 30%, 53%), 100% (95% CI: 85%, 100%) for CCTA_O, 94% (95% CI: 79%, 99%), 66% (95% CI: 54%, 77%), 57% (95% CI: 43%, 70%), and 95% (95% CI: 85%, 99%) for CCTA_S, 94% (95% CI: 79%, 99%), 44% (95% CI: 32%, 57%), 44% (95% CI: 32%, 57%), and 97% (95% CI: 79%, 99%) for CCTA_OS, respectively. The AUC by ROC curve analysis for CCTA_S showed significant improvement for detection of >50% coronary stenosis in left anterior descending coronary artery compared to that of CCTA_OS and CCTA_O methods (P??0.05). CCTA with “sharpen” reconstruction reduces blooming artifacts from heavy calcification, thus, leading to significant improvement of specificity and positive predictive value of CCTA in patients with heavily calcified plaques. However, specificity is still moderate and additional functional imaging may be needed. PMID:26632895

  20. Coronary CT Angiography in Heavily Calcified Coronary Arteries: Improvement of Coronary Lumen Visualization and Coronary Stenosis Assessment With Image Postprocessing Methods.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhonghua; Ng, Curtise K C; Xu, Lei; Fan, Zhanming; Lei, Jing

    2015-12-01

    To compare the diagnostic value of coronary CT angiography (CCTA) with use of 2 image postprocessing methods (CCTA_S) and (CCTA_OS) and original data (CCTA_O) for the assessment of heavily calcified plaques.Fifty patients (41 men, 9 women; mean age 61.9 years?±?9.1) with suspected coronary artery disease who underwent CCTA and invasive coronary angiography (ICA) examinations were included in the study. Image data were postprocessed with "sharpen" and smooth reconstruction algorithms in comparison with the original data without undergoing any image postprocessing to determine the effects on suppressing blooming artifacts due to heavy calcification in the coronary arteries. Minimal lumen diameter and degree of stenosis were measured and compared between CCTA_S, CCTA_OS, and CCTA_O with ICA as the reference method. The area under the curve (AUC) by receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis (ROC) was also compared among these 3 CCTA techniques.On a per-vessel assessment, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value, and 95% confidence interval (CI) were 100% (95% CI: 89%, 100%), 33% (95% CI: 22%, 45%), 41% (95% CI: 30%, 53%), 100% (95% CI: 85%, 100%) for CCTA_O, 94% (95% CI: 79%, 99%), 66% (95% CI: 54%, 77%), 57% (95% CI: 43%, 70%), and 95% (95% CI: 85%, 99%) for CCTA_S, 94% (95% CI: 79%, 99%), 44% (95% CI: 32%, 57%), 44% (95% CI: 32%, 57%), and 97% (95% CI: 79%, 99%) for CCTA_OS, respectively. The AUC by ROC curve analysis for CCTA_S showed significant improvement for detection of >50% coronary stenosis in left anterior descending coronary artery compared to that of CCTA_OS and CCTA_O methods (P??0.05).CCTA with "sharpen" reconstruction reduces blooming artifacts from heavy calcification, thus, leading to significant improvement of specificity and positive predictive value of CCTA in patients with heavily calcified plaques. However, specificity is still moderate and additional functional imaging may be needed. PMID:26632895

  1. Recent advances in plaque, gingivitis, tartar and caries prevention technology.

    PubMed

    Gaffar, A; Afflitto, J; Nabi, N; Herles, S; Kruger, I; Olsen, S

    1994-02-01

    A dentifrice containing triclosan/PVM/MA, copolymer/NaF (Total) combination was compared with dentifrices containing triclosan without the copolymer system. A variety of laboratory, animal and human studies indicated that Total provided higher uptake and retention of triclosan on teeth, and was more effective in reducing plaque in chemostat and flow cell models. The retention of triclosan in dental plaque was significantly higher with Total as compared with other dentifrices 2 hours post brushing. The triclosan retained in the plaque after using Total was effective against plaque bacteria for up to 12 hours. Other dentifrices did not provide a sustained antibacterial effect against plaque. The results indicated that the delivery system with the copolymer significantly enhanced the efficacy of triclosan against plaque, gingivitis and plaque related diseases in vivo. PMID:8021038

  2. Effect of using pump on postoperative pleural effusion in the patients that underwent CABG

    PubMed Central

    Özülkü, Mehmet; Aygün, Fatih

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study investigated effect of using pump on postoperative pleural effusion in patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting. Methods A total of 256 patients who underwent isolated coronary artery bypass grafting surgery in the Cardiovascular Surgery clinic were enrolled in the study. Jostra-Cobe (Model 043213 105, VLC 865, Sweden) heart-lung machine was used in on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting was performed using Octopus and Starfish. Proximal anastomoses to the aorta in both on-pump and off-pump techniques were performed by side clamps. The patients were discharged from the hospital between postoperative day 6 and day 11. Results The incidence of postoperative right pleural effusion and bilateral pleural effusion was found to be higher as a count in Group 1 (on-pump) as compared to Group 2 (off-pump). But the difference was not statistically significant [P>0.05 for right pleural effusion (P=0.893), P>0.05 for bilateral pleural effusion (P=0.780)]. Left pleural effusion was encountered to be lower in Group 2 (off-pump). The difference was found to be statistically significant (P<0.05, P=0.006). Conclusion Under the light of these results, it can be said that left pleural effusion is less prevalent in the patients that underwent off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting when compared to the patients that underwent on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting.

  3. A direct vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque elasticity reconstruction method based on an original material-finite element formulation: theoretical framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouvier, Adeline; Deleaval, Flavien; Doyley, Marvin M.; Yazdani, Saami K.; Finet, Gérard; Le Floc'h, Simon; Cloutier, Guy; Pettigrew, Roderic I.; Ohayon, Jacques

    2013-12-01

    The peak cap stress (PCS) amplitude is recognized as a biomechanical predictor of vulnerable plaque (VP) rupture. However, quantifying PCS in vivo remains a challenge since the stress depends on the plaque mechanical properties. In response, an iterative material finite element (FE) elasticity reconstruction method using strain measurements has been implemented for the solution of these inverse problems. Although this approach could resolve the mechanical characterization of VPs, it suffers from major limitations since (i) it is not adapted to characterize VPs exhibiting high material discontinuities between inclusions, and (ii) does not permit real time elasticity reconstruction for clinical use. The present theoretical study was therefore designed to develop a direct material-FE algorithm for elasticity reconstruction problems which accounts for material heterogeneities. We originally modified and adapted the extended FE method (Xfem), used mainly in crack analysis, to model material heterogeneities. This new algorithm was successfully applied to six coronary lesions of patients imaged in vivo with intravascular ultrasound. The results demonstrated that the mean relative absolute errors of the reconstructed Young's moduli obtained for the arterial wall, fibrosis, necrotic core, and calcified regions of the VPs decreased from 95.3±15.56%, 98.85±72.42%, 103.29±111.86% and 95.3±10.49%, respectively, to values smaller than 2.6 × 10-8±5.7 × 10-8% (i.e. close to the exact solutions) when including modified-Xfem method into our direct elasticity reconstruction method.

  4. Mesomesenchymal transition of pleural mesothelial cells is PI3K and NF-?B dependent.

    PubMed

    Owens, Shuzi; Jeffers, Ann; Boren, Jake; Tsukasaki, Yoshikazu; Koenig, Kathleen; Ikebe, Mitsuo; Idell, Steven; Tucker, Torry A

    2015-06-15

    Pleural organization follows acute injury and is characterized by pleural fibrosis, which may involve the visceral and parietal pleural surfaces. This process affects patients with complicated parapneumonic pleural effusions, empyema, and other pleural diseases prone to pleural fibrosis and loculation. Pleural mesothelial cells (PMCs) undergo a process called mesothelial mesenchymal transition (MesoMT), by which PMCs acquire a profibrotic phenotype characterized by cellular enlargement and elongation, increased expression of ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA), and matrix proteins including collagen-1. Although MesoMT contributes to pleural fibrosis and lung restriction in mice with carbon black/bleomycin-induced pleural injury and procoagulants and fibrinolytic proteases strongly induce MesoMT in vitro, the mechanism by which this transition occurs remains unclear. We found that thrombin and plasmin potently induce MesoMT in vitro as does TGF-?. Furthermore, these mediators of MesoMT activate phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and NF-?B signaling pathways. Inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling prevented TGF-?-, thrombin-, and plasmin-mediated induction of the MesoMT phenotype exhibited by primary human PMCs. Similar effects were demonstrated through blockade of the NF-?B signaling cascade using two distinctly different NF-?B inhibitors, SN50 and Bay-11 7085. Conversely, expression of constitutively active Akt-induced mesenchymal transition in human PMCs whereas the process was blocked by PX866 and AKT8. Furthermore, thrombin-mediated MesoMT is dependent on PAR-1 expression, which is linked to PI3K/Akt signaling downstream. These are the first studies to demonstrate that PI3K/Akt and/or NF-?B signaling is critical for induction of MesoMT. PMID:25888576

  5. Use of Circular Foldable Nitinol Blades for Resecting Calcified Aortic Heart Valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauck, Florian; Wendt, Daniel; Stühle, Sebastian; Kawa, Emilia; Wendt, Hermann; Müller, Wiebke; Thielmann, Matthias; Kipfmüller, Brigitte; Vogel, Bernd; Jakob, Heinz

    2009-08-01

    The use of percutaneous aortic valve implantation is limited, as the native calcified valve is left in situ. A new device has been developed for resecting calcified aortic valves, using collapsible nickel-titanium blades: laser-cut T-structures of Nitinol sheet-material (Ni51Ti49 at.%) have been grinded on a high-speed milling cutter to produce cutting edges which have been given the shape of half-circles afterwards. These have been connected to each other and to struts by using rivets which also serve as articulating axes for the cutting ring. The blades are folded around these axes and retreated into a tube to be inserted in the heart through the calcified valve leaflets. Once released, the cutting edges regain their ring-shape. By combining rotation of the ring with a translating movement against a second ring of slightly greater diameter on the instrument, a punching process is created which cuts the calcified valve leaflets and leaves a circular annulus, where a prosthesis can be fixed. In vitro cutting of artificially calcified valves ( n = 6) resulted in a resection time of t = 22 ± 6.29 s with a maximum turning moment of M = 2.4 ± 1.27 Nm, proving the function and the feasibility of the concept.

  6. Calcified microbes in Neoproterozoic carbonates: implications for our understanding of the Proterozoic/Cambrian transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knoll, A. H.; Fairchild, I. J.; Swett, K.

    1993-01-01

    Tidal flat and lagoonal dolostones of the Neoproterozoic Draken Formation, Spitsbergen, exhibit excellent preservation of carbonate fabrics, including heavily calcified microfossils. The crust-forming cyanobacterium Polybessurus is preserved locally by carbonate precipitated on and within sheaths in mildly evaporitic upper intertidal to supratidal environments. In contrast, calcified filaments in columnar stromatolites reflect subtidal precipitation. Filament molds in dolomicrites independently document extremely early lithification. The presence of heavily calcified cyanobacteria in Draken and other Proterozoic carbonates constrains potential explanations for the widespread appearance of calcified microorganisms near the Proterozoic-Cambrian boundary. We propose that the rarity of Proterozoic examples principally reflects the abundance and wide distribution of carbonate crystals precipitated on the sea floor or in the water column. Cyanobacterial sheaths would have competed effectively as sites for carbonate nucleation and growth only where calcitic and/or aragonitic nuclei were absent. In this view, the Proterozoic-Cambrian expansion of calcified microfossils primarily reflects the emergence of skeletons as principal agents of carbonate deposition.

  7. Primary pleural angiosarcoma associated with pneumoconiosis: An autopsy case.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Katsuya; Yamaryo, Takeshi; Akazawa, Yuko; Kawakami, Kenji; Nakashima, Masahiro

    2015-11-01

    We report a case of pleural angiosarcoma in an adult male patient confirmed by autopsy and possibly associated with pneumoconiosis. The lesion was characterized by thickened pleura of both lungs with nodular tumors. Histologically, the tumor was composed of spindle-to-polygonal epithelioid cells that were positive for CD31, CD34, vimentin, and cytokeratin on immunohistochemical staining but were negative for calretinin. Further examination revealed mix-dust pathological findings consistent with the existence of pneumoconiosis; dystrophic ossification, anthracosis, and fractal small dust particles were observed in the lung parenchyma and a hilar lymph node. The current case suggests that pneumoconiosis-associated pathologies may be risk factors for the development of angiosarcoma in the pleura. PMID:26314557

  8. Management of malignant pleural mesothelioma—The European experience

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Management of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) remains a clinical challenge and the incidence of the disease will continue to increase worldwide. Several aspects of mesothelioma treatment are discussed controversially, in particular, regarding extent and best type of surgery, radiotherapy, and the role of neoadjuvant or adjuvant treatment. However, best survival data is reported from groups using multimodality treatment including macroscopic complete resection (MCR) achieved by either extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP) or (extended) pleurectomy/decortication for patients qualifying from the tumor biology, stage, and patient’s performance status and comorbidities. Several aspects have to be considered during surgery but morbidity and mortality have been reduced at experienced centres. The final analysis of extended selection algorithms is pending. PMID:24868442

  9. A Large Pleural Effusion following Abdominal Aortic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ramsaran, Vinoo K.; Seeram, Vandana K.; Cury, James; Shujaat, Adil

    2015-01-01

    Chylous ascites and coexistent chylothorax is a rare but important complication following retroperitoneal abdominal surgery. We report a 70-year-old male who developed gradual abdominal distension, chest tightness, and dyspnea five months after having an uncomplicated aortobifemoral bypass performed. Physical examination was consistent with a large right sided effusion and ascites which were confirmed by computed tomography. Thoracentesis yielded an opaque milky fluid with analysis consistent with a chylothorax with a paracentesis revealing fluid that was similar in both appearance and biochemistry. The patient failed initial conservative management so a chest tube was placed followed by chemical pleurodesis. We review the literature of the pathophysiology and treatment approach to such a pleural effusion. PMID:26635989

  10. Mucinous Pleural Effusion in a Dog with a Pulmonary Adenocarcinoma and Carcinomatosis.

    PubMed

    Tropf, Melissa; Sellon, Rance; Paulson, Kathleen; Nelson, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    An 11 yr old castrated male greyhound presented to the Washington State University's Veterinary Teaching Hospital (WSU VTH) for evaluation of a 4 day history of pleural effusion. The pleural effusion had a gelatinous appearance, suggestive of mucus, and was characterized cytologically as a pyogranulomatous exudate with some features suggestive of a carcinoma. Postmortem examination identified a pulmonary mass with evidence of carcinomatosis. Pulmonary papillary adenocarcinoma with carcinomatosis was the histologic diagnosis. Abundant mucin production was present, consistent with a mucinous pulmonary adenocarcinoma. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of a mucinous pulmonary adenocarcinoma with mucus pleural effusion in a dog. PMID:26355581

  11. Lumican Is Overexpressed in Lung Adenocarcinoma Pleural Effusions

    PubMed Central

    Cappellesso, Rocco; Millioni, Renato; Arrigoni, Giorgio; Simonato, Francesca; Caroccia, Brasilina; Iori, Elisabetta; Guzzardo, Vincenza; Ventura, Laura; Tessari, Paolo; Fassina, Ambrogio

    2015-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma (AdC) is the most common lung cancer subtype and is often associated with pleural effusion (PE). Its poor prognosis is attributable to diagnostic delay and lack of effective treatments and there is a pressing need in discovering new biomarkers for early diagnosis or targeted therapies. To date, little is known about lung AdC proteome. We investigated protein expression of lung AdC in PE using the isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantification (iTRAQ) approach to identify possible novel diagnostic/prognostic biomarkers. This provided the identification of 109 of lung AdC-related proteins. We further analyzed lumican, one of the overexpressed proteins, in 88 resected lung AdCs and in 23 malignant PE cell-blocks (13 lung AdCs and 10 non-lung cancers) using immunohistochemistry. In AdC surgical samples, lumican expression was low in cancer cells, whereas it was strong and diffuse in the stroma surrounding the tumor. However, lumican expression was not associated with tumor grade, stage, and vascular/pleural invasion. None of the lung cancer cell-blocks showed lumican immunoreaction, whereas those of all the other tumors were strongly positive. Finally, immunoblotting analysis showed lumican expression in both cell lysate and conditioned medium of a fibroblast culture but not in those of A549 lung cancer cell line. PE is a valid source of information for proteomic analysis without many of the restrictions of plasma. The high lumican levels characterizing AdC PEs are probably due to its release by the fibroblasts surrounding the tumor. Despite the role of lumican in lung AdC is still elusive, it could be of diagnostic value. PMID:25961303

  12. Cataractogenesis after Cobalt-60 eye plaque radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kleineidam, M.; Augsburger, J.J. ); Hernandez, C.; Glennon, P.; Brady, L.W. )

    1993-07-15

    This study was designed to estimate the actuarial incidence of typical postirradiation cataracts and to identify prognostic factors related to their development in melanoma-containing eyes treated by Cobalt-60 plaque radiotherapy. A special interest was the impact of calculated radiation dose and dose-rate to the lens. The authors evaluated the actuarial occurrence of post-irradiation cataract in 365 patients with primary posterior uveal melanoma treated by Cobalt-60 plaque radiotherapy between 1976 and 1986. Only 22% (S.E. = 4.6%) of the patients who received a total dose of 6 to 20 Gy at the center of the lens developed a visually significant cataract attributable to the radiation within 5 years after treatment. Using multivariate Cox proportional hazards modeling, the authors identified thickness of the tumor, location of the tumor's anterior margin relative to the equatorward and the ora serrata, and diameter of the eye plaque used as the best combination of covariables for predicting length of time until development of cataract. Surprisingly, the dose of radiation delivered to the lens, which was strongly correlated to all of these covariables, was not a significant predictive factor in multivariate analysis. The results suggest that success of efforts to decrease the occurrence rate of post-irradiation cataracts by better treatment planning might be limited in patients with posterior uveal melanoma. 21 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Retroperitoneal liposarcoma associated with small plaque parapsoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Tartaglia, Francesco; Blasi, Sara; Sgueglia, Monica; Polichetti, Paolo; Tromba, Luciana; Berni, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    Background Extremely rare cases of paraneoplastic syndromes or ectopic production of proteins associated with liposarcoma are reported in literature. Production of Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor, alpha-fetoprotein, paraneoplastic pemphigus and leucocytosis, Acrokeratosis paraneoplastica (Bazex's syndrome) are reported. The present report describes a case of retroperitoneal liposarcoma associated with small plaque parapsoriasis. Our search in the English literature of such a kind of association did not reveal any case reported. Case presentation A 74 year male patient was admitted to our hospital because of the presence of an abdominal mass in right iliac fossa. He also complained of a two-year history of psoriasiform eruptions. The CT scan showed a retroperitoneal pelvic mass. Therefore surgical resection of the tumor was performed. After surgery, the skin eruptions disappeared completely in seven days and so a diagnosis of parapsoriasis syndrome was done. Conclusion Parallel disappearing of skin eruptions after surgery, typical clinical picture and not specific histology of the cutaneous lesions suggest the diagnosis of small plaque parapsoriasis. Therefore we propose to add Small Plaque Parapsoriasis to the list of paraneoplastic syndromes associated to liposarcoma. PMID:17620118

  14. Angiogenesis in human coronary atherosclerotic plaques.

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, E. R.; Garvin, M. R.; Dev, R.; Stewart, D. K.; Hinohara, T.; Simpson, J. B.; Schwartz, S. M.

    1994-01-01

    Neovascularization in the walls of coronary arteries is associated with the presence of atherosclerotic plaque. The mechanisms responsible for the formation of these intraplaque microvessels are not understood. The purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence of endothelial cell replication in plaque microvessels. Two hundred and one primary and restenotic coronary atherectomy specimens were analyzed for the presence of microvessels and proliferation as reflected by positive immunolabeling for Ulex agglutinin and the proliferating cell nuclear antigen, respectively. In primary but not restenotic specimens, proliferation of any cell type was associated with the detection of microvessels on the same slide. However, intraplaque microvessels were more commonly found in restenotic compared to primary specimens (P = 0.004). Twelve highly vascularized specimens with evidence of replication were subjected to detailed histomorphological and quantitative image analyses. At 200 x, the most vascular optical field of each slide was identified and consistently included plaque macrophages. Total slide endothelial cell replication indices for these specimens varied, but in some instances were remarkably elevated (eg, 43.5%). The role of intraplaque angiogenesis may be analogous to that of tumor or wound angiogenesis and be important in development and progression of coronary artery lesions and restenosis. Images Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:7524331

  15. The microscopic network structure of mussel (Mytilus) adhesive plaques.

    PubMed

    Filippidi, Emmanouela; DeMartini, Daniel G; Malo de Molina, Paula; Danner, Eric W; Kim, Juntae; Helgeson, Matthew E; Waite, J Herbert; Valentine, Megan T

    2015-12-01

    Marine mussels of the genus Mytilus live in the hostile intertidal zone, attached to rocks, bio-fouled surfaces and each other via collagen-rich threads ending in adhesive pads, the plaques. Plaques adhere in salty, alkaline seawater, withstanding waves and tidal currents. Each plaque requires a force of several newtons to detach. Although the molecular composition of the plaques has been well studied, a complete understanding of supra-molecular plaque architecture and its role in maintaining adhesive strength remains elusive. Here, electron microscopy and neutron scattering studies of plaques harvested from Mytilus californianus and Mytilus galloprovincialis reveal a complex network structure reminiscent of structural foams. Two characteristic length scales are observed characterizing a dense meshwork (approx. 100 nm) with large interpenetrating pores (approx. 1 µm). The network withstands chemical denaturation, indicating significant cross-linking. Plaques formed at lower temperatures have finer network struts, from which we hypothesize a kinetically controlled formation mechanism. When mussels are induced to create plaques, the resulting structure lacks a well-defined network architecture, showcasing the importance of processing over self-assembly. Together, these new data provide essential insight into plaque structure and formation and set the foundation to understand the role of plaque structure in stress distribution and toughening in natural and biomimetic materials. PMID:26631333

  16. Intravascular probe for detection of vulnerable plaque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patt, Bradley E.; Iwanczyk, Jan S.; MacDonald, Lawrence R.; Yamaguchi, Yuko; Tull, Carolyn R.; Janecek, Martin; Hoffman, Edward J.; Strauss, H. William; Tsugita, Ross; Ghazarossian, Vartan

    2001-12-01

    Coronary angiography is unable to define the status of the atheroma, and only measures the luminal dimensions of the blood vessel, without providing information about plaque content. Up to 70% of heart attacks are caused by minimally obstructive vulnerable plaques, which are too small to be detected adequately by angiography. We have developed an intravascular imaging detector to identify vulnerable coronary artery plaques. The detector works by sensing beta or conversion electron radiotracer emissions from plaque-binding radiotracers. The device overcomes the technical constraints of size, sensitivity and conformance to the intravascular environment. The detector at the distal end of the catheter uses six 7mm long by 0.5mm diameter scintillation fibers coupled to 1.5m long plastic fibers. The fibers are offset from each other longitudinally by 6mm and arranged spirally around a guide wire in the catheter. At the proximal end of the catheter the optical fibers are coupled to an interface box with a snap on connector. The interface box contains a position sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT) to decode the individual fibers. The whole detector assembly fits into an 8-French (2.7 mm in diameter) catheter. The PSPMT image is further decoded with software to give a linear image, the total instantaneous count rate and an audio output whose tone corresponds to the count rate. The device was tested with F-18 and Tl-204 sources. Spectrometric response, spatial resolution, sensitivity and beta to background ratio were measured. System resolution is 6 mm and the sensitivity is >500 cps / micrometers Ci when the source is 1 mm from the detector. The beta to background ratio was 11.2 for F-18 measured on a single fiber. The current device will lead to a system allowing imaging of labeled vulnerable plaque in coronary arteries. This type of signature is expected to enable targeted and cost effective therapies to prevent acute coronary artery diseases such as: unstable angina, acute myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death.

  17. [Malignant diffuse pleural mesothelioma: a comparison between computed tomography and the conventional chest x-ray].

    PubMed

    Bohndorf, K; Sepehr, H; Calavreszos, A; Koschel, G; Hain, E

    1985-03-01

    The rate of incidence of malignant pleural mesothelioma is increasing although diagnosis of this disease may be very difficult. Computed tomography examinations and conventional chest x-rays of 30 patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma were reviewed independently, to evaluate the role of both modalities. CT offered the following advantages over conventional chest x-ray examinations: CT was more sensitive in detecting the smooth and nodular changes of malignant pleural mesothelioma, especially at the diaphragm and lower parts of the thorax, tumours could be better demonstrated at the pericardium and in the greater fissure, in some cases, where chest films showed just abnormal widening of the mediastinum, CT could differentiate between tumour involvement of the mediastinal pleura and local invasion of the mediastinum by the tumour, CT was more effective in detecting pleural calcifications and thickening of the contralateral pleura. CT proves more accurate in assessing the extent of the disease, and gives additional diagnostic help. PMID:3987190

  18. Riding, R. 2005. Secular variations in abundance of calcified algae and cyanobacteria: how biomineralization can reflect global changes in temperature and water chemistry.

    E-print Network

    Riding, Robert

    Riding, R. 2005. Secular variations in abundance of calcified algae and cyanobacteria: how: 312. Secular variations in abundance of calcified algae and bacteria: how biomineralization can algae and cyanobacteria, cellular site and mineralogy of calcification, together with biogeographic

  19. Micro-analysis of plaque fluid from single-site fasted plaque

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, G.L.; Carey, C.M.; Chow, L.C.; Tatevossian, A. )

    1990-06-01

    Despite the site-specific nature of caries, nearly all data on the concentration of ions relevant to the level of saturation of plaque fluid with respect to calcium phosphate minerals or enamel are from studies that used pooled samples. A procedure is described for the collection and analysis of inorganic ions relevant to these saturation levels in plaque fluid samples collected from a single surface on a single tooth. Various methods for examining data obtained by this procedure are described, and a mathematical procedure employing potential plots is recommended.

  20. A topology-oriented and tissue-specific approach to detect pleural thickenings from 3D CT data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buerger, C.; Chaisaowong, K.; Knepper, A.; Kraus, T.; Aach, T.

    2009-02-01

    Pleural thickenings are caused by asbestos exposure and may evolve into malignant pleural mesothelioma. The detection of pleural thickenings is today mostly done by a visual inspection of CT data, which is time-consuming and underlies the physician's subjective judgment. We propose a new detection algorithm within our computer-assisted diagnosis (CAD) system to automatically detect pleural thickenings within CT data. First, pleura contours are identified by thresholding and contour relaxation with a probabilistic model. Subsequently, the approach to automatically detect pleural thickenings is proposed as a two-step procedure. Step one; since pleural thickenings appear as fine-scale occurrences on the rather large-scale pleura contour, a surface-based smoothing algorithm is developed. Pleural thickenings are initially detected as the difference between the original contours and the resulting "healthy" model of the pleura. Step two; as pleural thickenings can expand into the surrounding thoracic tissue, a subsequent tissue-specific segmentation for the initially detected pleural thickenings is performed in order to separate pleural thickenings from the surrounding thoracic tissue. For this purpose, a probabilistic Hounsfield model for pleural thickenings as a mixture of Gaussian distributions has been constructed. The parameters were estimated by applying the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm. A model fitting technique in combination with the application of a Gibbs-Markov random field (GMRF) model then allows the tissuespecific segmentation of pleural thickenings with high precision. With these methods, a new approach is presented in order to assure a precise and reproducible detection of pleural mesothelioma in its early stage.

  1. Differential susceptibility of human pleural and peritoneal mesothelial cells to asbestos exposure

    PubMed Central

    Dragon, Julie; Thompson, Joyce; MacPherson, Maximilian; Shukla, Arti

    2015-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an aggressive cancer of mesothelial cells of pleural and peritoneal cavities. In 85% of cases both pleural and peritoneal MM is caused by asbestos exposure. Although both are asbestos-induced cancers, the incidence of pleural MM is significantly higher (85%) than peritoneal MM (15%). It has been proposed that carcinogenesis is a result of asbestos-induced inflammation but it is not clear what contributes to the differences observed between incidences of these two cancers. We hypothesize that the observed differences in incidences of pleural and peritoneal MM are the result of differences in the direct response of these cell types to asbestos rather than to differences mediated by the in vivo microenvironment. To test this hypothesis we characterized cellular responses to asbestos in a controlled environment. We found significantly greater changes in genome-wide expression in response to asbestos exposure in pleural mesothelial cells as compared to peritoneal mesothelial cells. In particular, a greater response in many common genes (IL-8, ATF3, CXCL2, CXCL3, IL-6, GOS2) was seen in pleural mesothelial cells as compared to peritoneal mesothelial cells. Unique genes expressed in pleural mesothelial cells were mainly pro-inflammatory (G-CSF, IL-1?, IL-1?, GREM1) and have previously been shown to be involved in development of MM. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that differences in incidences of pleural and peritoneal MM upon exposure to asbestos are the result of differences in mesothelial cell physiology that lead to differences in the inflammatory response, which leads to cancer. PMID:25757056

  2. CT-Guided Core Needle Biopsy of Pleural Lesions: Evaluating Diagnostic Yield and Associated Complications

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Xiang-Ke; Bhetuwal, Anup

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and complications of CT-guided core needle biopsy (CT-guided CNB) of pleural lesion and the possible effects of influencing factors. Materials and Methods From September 2007 to June 2013, 88 consecutive patients (60 men and 28 women; mean [± standard deviation] age, 51.1 ± 14.4 years; range, 19-78 years) underwent CT-guided CNB, which was performed by two experienced chest radiologists in our medical center. Out of 88 cases, 56 (63%) were diagnosed as malignant, 28 (31%) as benign and 4 (5%) as indeterminate for CNB of pleural lesions. The final diagnosis was confirmed by either histopathological diagnosis or clinical follow-up. The diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and complication rates were statistically evaluated. Influencing factors (patient age, sex, lesion size, pleural-puncture angle, patient position, pleural effusion, and number of pleural punctures) were assessed for their effect on accuracy of CT-guided CNB using univariate and subsequent multivariate analysis. Results Diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV were 89.2%, 86.1%, 100%, 100%, and 67.8%, respectively. The influencing factors had no significant effect in altering diagnostic accuracy. As far as complications were concerned, occurrence of pneumothorax was observed in 14 (16%) out of 88 patients. Multivariate analysis revealed lesion size/pleural thickening as a significant risk factor (odds ratio [OR]: 8.744, p = 0.005) for occurrence of pneumothorax. Moreover, presence of pleural effusion was noted as a significant protective factor (OR: 0.171, p = 0.037) for pneumothorax. Conclusion CT-guided CNB of pleural lesion is a safe procedure with high diagnostic yield and low risk of significant complications. PMID:25598692

  3. Differential responses of calcifying and non-calcifying epibionts of a brown macroalga to present-day and future upwelling pCO2.

    PubMed

    Saderne, Vincent; Wahl, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Seaweeds are key species of the Baltic Sea benthic ecosystems. They are the substratum of numerous fouling epibionts like bryozoans and tubeworms. Several of these epibionts bear calcified structures and could be impacted by the high pCO2 events of the late summer upwellings in the Baltic nearshores. Those events are expected to increase in strength and duration with global change and ocean acidification. If calcifying epibionts are impacted by transient acidification as driven by upwelling events, their increasing prevalence could cause a shift of the fouling communities toward fleshy species. The aim of the present study was to test the sensitivity of selected seaweed macrofoulers to transient elevation of pCO2 in their natural microenvironment, i.e. the boundary layer covering the thallus surface of brown seaweeds. Fragments of the macroalga Fucus serratus bearing an epibiotic community composed of the calcifiers Spirorbis spirorbis (Annelida) and Electra pilosa (Bryozoa) and the non-calcifier Alcyonidium hirsutum (Bryozoa) were maintained for 30 days under three pCO2 conditions: natural 460 ± 59 µatm, present-day upwelling1193 ± 166 µatm and future upwelling 3150 ± 446 µatm. Only the highest pCO2 caused a significant reduction of growth rates and settlement of S. spirorbis individuals. Additionally, S. spirorbis settled juveniles exhibited enhanced calcification of 40% during daylight hours compared to dark hours, possibly reflecting a day-night alternation of an acidification-modulating effect by algal photosynthesis as opposed to an acidification-enhancing effect of algal respiration. E. pilosa colonies showed significantly increased growth rates at intermediate pCO2 (1193 µatm) but no response to higher pCO2. No effect of acidification on A. hirsutum colonies growth rates was observed. The results suggest a remarkable resistance of the algal macro-epibionts to levels of acidification occurring at present day upwellings in the Baltic. Only extreme future upwelling conditions impacted the tubeworm S. spirorbis, but not the bryozoans. PMID:23894659

  4. Cytologic features of ovarian granulosa cell tumors in pleural and ascitic fluids.

    PubMed

    Omori, Makiko; Kondo, Tetsuo; Yuminamochi, Tsutomu; Nakazawa, Kumiko; Ishii, Yoshio; Fukasawa, Hiroko; Hashi, Akihiko; Hirata, Shuji

    2015-07-01

    Adult granulosa cell tumor (AGCT) is an uncommon neoplasm of the ovary with potential for aggressive behavior and late recurrence. The most important prognostic factor for AGCT is tumor stage. Thus, cytological assessment of pleural or ascitic fluids is crucial for initial staging and subsequent patient management. We report herein two cases of ovarian AGCT presenting with exfoliated tumor cells in pleural and ascitic fluid. The first case involved a 61-year-old woman who presented with stage Ic (a) AGCT. Seven years after initial diagnosis, pleural effusion and pleural dissemination were identified. The second case involved a 50-year-old woman who presented with stage IV AGCT with massive ascites and right pleural effusion. Fluid cytology from both cases showed cohesive or loose clusters of small uniform neoplastic cells with round-to-oval nuclei, coffee-bean-shaped nuclear grooves, small nucleoli, and scant cytoplasm. Call-Exner bodies were also observed in these cytologic specimens. In the differential diagnosis of small monomorphic tumor cells in pleural effusion or ascites, coffee-bean-shaped nuclear grooves and cell clusters forming Call-Exner bodies are diagnostic clues of AGCT. PMID:25605680

  5. Dosimetric Benefit of a New Ophthalmic Radiation Plaque

    SciTech Connect

    Marwaha, Gaurav; Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio ; Wilkinson, Allan; Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio ; Bena, James; Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio ; Macklis, Roger; Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio ; Singh, Arun D.; Department of Ophthalmic Oncology, Cole Eye Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio; Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the computed dosimetry of a new ophthalmic plaque, EP917, when compared with the standard Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS) plaques, could reduce radiation exposure to vision critical structures of the eye. Methods and Materials: One hundred consecutive patients with uveal melanoma treated with COMS radiation plaques between 2007 and 2010 were included in this study. These treatment plans were generated with the use of Bebig Plaque Simulator treatment-planning software, both for COMS plaques and for EP917 plaques using I-125. Dose distributions were calculated for a prescription of 85 Gy to the tumor apex. Doses to the optic disc, opposite retina, lens, and macula were obtained, and differences between the 2 groups were analyzed by standard parametric methods. Results: When compared with the COMS plaques, the EP917 plaques used fewer radiation seeds by an average difference of 1.94 (P<.001; 95% confidence interval [CI], -2.8 to -1.06) and required less total strength of radiation sources by an average of 17.74 U (air kerma units) (P<.001; 95% CI, -20.16 to -15.32). The total radiation doses delivered to the optic disc, opposite retina, and macula were significantly less by 4.57 Gy, 0.50 Gy, and 11.18 Gy, respectively, with the EP917 plaques vs the COMS plaques. Conclusion: EP917 plaques deliver less overall radiation exposure to critical vision structures than COMS treatment plaques while still delivering the same total therapeutic dose to the tumor.

  6. Stability Analysis of a Model of Atherosclerotic Plaque Growth

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Sushruth; Seshaiyer, Padmanabhan

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis, the formation of life-threatening plaques in blood vessels, is a form of cardiovascular disease. In this paper, we analyze a simplified model of plaque growth to derive physically meaningful results about the growth of plaques. In particular, the main results of this paper are two conditions, which express that the immune response increases as LDL cholesterol levels increase and that diffusion prevails over inflammation in a healthy artery. PMID:25883675

  7. Subsurface ablation of atherosclerotic plaque using ultrafast laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Lanvin, Thomas; Conkey, Donald B; Frobert, Aurelien; Valentin, Jeremy; Goy, Jean-Jacques; Cook, Stéphane; Giraud, Marie-Noelle; Psaltis, Demetri

    2015-07-01

    We perform subsurface ablation of atherosclerotic plaque using ultrafast pulses. Excised mouse aortas containing atherosclerotic plaque were ablated with ultrafast near-infrared (NIR) laser pulses. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used to observe the ablation result, while the physical damage was inspected in histological sections. We characterize the effects of incident pulse energy on surface damage, ablation hole size, and filament propagation. We find that it is possible to ablate plaque just below the surface without causing surface damage, which motivates further investigation of ultrafast ablation for subsurface atherosclerotic plaque removal. PMID:26203381

  8. DETAIL OF PLAQUE WITH ADDITIONAL DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION INFORMATION, SOUTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF PLAQUE WITH ADDITIONAL DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION INFORMATION, SOUTHEAST ABUTMENT - Connecticut Avenue Bridge, Spans Rock Creek & Potomac Parkway at Connecticut Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  9. ISSN 13618415 (c) 2006 Elsevier Plaque Development, Vessel Curvature, and

    E-print Network

    Wahle, Andreas

    : Coronary Atherosclerosis, Plaque Distribution, Morphology, Hemodynamics, Data Fusion, X­ray Angiography #12; 1 Introduction Coronary atherosclerosis starts early in life and is a major cause of death

  10. Multimodal spectroscopy detects features of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque

    E-print Network

    Scepanovic, Obrad R.

    Early detection and treatment of rupture-prone vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques is critical to reducing patient mortality associated with cardiovascular disease. The combination of reflectance, fluorescence, and Raman ...

  11. DETAIL OF PLAQUE DESCRIBING LION SCULPTURES BY ROLAND HINTON PERRY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF PLAQUE DESCRIBING LION SCULPTURES BY ROLAND HINTON PERRY, NORTHWEST ABUTMENT - Connecticut Avenue Bridge, Spans Rock Creek & Potomac Parkway at Connecticut Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  12. The Elastic Lamellae of Devitalized Arteries Calcify When Incubated in Serum

    E-print Network

    Price, Paul A.

    The Elastic Lamellae of Devitalized Arteries Calcify When Incubated in Serum Evidence for a Serum whether serum contains an activity that induces artery calcification. Methods and Results--The elastic circulation. The SCF does not initiate medial elastin calcification in living arteries, which suggests

  13. Long-term responses of North Atlantic calcifying plankton to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaugrand, Gregory; McQuatters-Gollop, Abigail; Edwards, Martin; Goberville, Eric

    2013-03-01

    The global increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration is potentially threatening marine biodiversity in two ways. First, carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases accumulating in the atmosphere are causing global warming. Second, carbon dioxide is altering sea water chemistry, making the ocean more acidic. Although temperature has a cardinal influence on all biological processes from the molecular to the ecosystem level, acidification might impair the process of calcification or exacerbate dissolution of calcifying organisms. Here, we show however that North Atlantic calcifying plankton primarily responded to climate-induced changes in temperatures during the period 1960-2009, overriding the signal from the effects of ocean acidification. We provide evidence that foraminifers, coccolithophores, both pteropod and non-pteropod molluscs and echinoderms exhibited an abrupt shift circa 1996 at a time of a substantial increase in temperature and that some taxa exhibited a poleward movement in agreement with expected biogeographical changes under sea temperature warming. Although acidification may become a serious threat to marine calcifying organisms, our results suggest that over the study period the primary driver of North Atlantic calcifying plankton was oceanic temperature.

  14. A Comparative Analysis of Growth Zones in Four Calcified Structures of Pacific Blue Marlin, Makaim

    E-print Network

    A Comparative Analysis of Growth Zones in Four Calcified Structures of Pacific Blue Marlin, Makaim and dorsal fin spines collected from Pacific blue marlin in Kona, Hawaii were evaluated for legibility for the Pacific blue marlin, Makai-ra. nigricans, with only cursory data (WPFMC 1985). This lack of infor- mation

  15. Calcified neurocysticercosis associates with hippocampal atrophy: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Del Brutto, Oscar H; Salgado, Perla; Lama, Julio; Del Brutto, Victor J; Campos, Xavier; Zambrano, Mauricio; García, Héctor H

    2015-01-01

    Calcified neurocysticercosis has been associated with hippocampal atrophy in patients with refractory epilepsy, but the relevance of this association in the population at large is unknown. We assessed calcified cysticerci and its association with hippocampal atrophy in elderly persons living in Atahualpa, an Ecuadorian village endemic for neurocysticercosis. All Atahualpa residents ? 60 years of age were invited to undergo computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging for neurocysticercosis detection. Twenty-eight (11%) out of 248 enrolled persons had calcified cysticerci (case-patients) and were matched 1:1 by age, sex, and years of education to individuals without neurocysticercosis on computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (controls). Four case-patients and none of the controls had epilepsy (P = 0.134). Cognitive performance was similar across both groups. The Scheltens' medial temporal atrophy scale was used for hippocampal rating in case-patients and matched controls without neurocysticercosis. Mean score in the Scheltens' scale was higher in case-patients than in controls (P < 0.001). Atrophic hippocampi were noticed in 19 case-patients and five controls (P = 0.003). Atrophy was bilateral in 11 case-patients and unilateral in eight. All case-patients with unilateral hippocampal atrophy had at least one ipsilateral calcification. This study shows an association between calcified cysticerci and hippocampal atrophy and raises the possibility of an inflammation-mediated hippocampal damage as the responsible mechanism for these findings. PMID:25349375

  16. Long-Term Trends in Calcifying Plankton and pH in the North Sea

    PubMed Central

    Beare, Doug; McQuatters-Gollop, Abigail; van der Hammen, Tessa; Machiels, Marcel; Teoh, Shwu Jiau; Hall-Spencer, Jason M.

    2013-01-01

    Relationships between six calcifying plankton groups and pH are explored in a highly biologically productive and data-rich area of the central North Sea using time-series datasets. The long-term trends show that abundances of foraminiferans, coccolithophores, and echinoderm larvae have risen over the last few decades while the abundances of bivalves and pteropods have declined. Despite good coverage of pH data for the study area there is uncertainty over the quality of this historical dataset; pH appears to have been declining since the mid 1990s but there was no statistical connection between the abundance of the calcifying plankton and the pH trends. If there are any effects of pH on calcifying plankton in the North Sea they appear to be masked by the combined effects of other climatic (e.g. temperature), chemical (nutrient concentrations) and biotic (predation) drivers. Certain calcified plankton have proliferated in the central North Sea, and are tolerant of changes in pH that have occurred since the 1950s but bivalve larvae and pteropods have declined. An improved monitoring programme is required as ocean acidification may be occurring at a rate that will exceed the environmental niches of numerous planktonic taxa, testing their capacities for acclimation and genetic adaptation. PMID:23658686

  17. Calcified Mass on Brain CT in a Teenager with Refractory Seizures.

    PubMed

    Khalatbari, Mahmoud Reza; Brunetti, Enrico; Shobeiri, Elham; Moharamzad, Yashar

    2014-12-01

    Cerebral echinococcosis is very rare, representing 2% of all cystic echinococcosis (CE) cases. Primary echinococcal cysts of the brain are extremely rare in pediatric patients. We report on a 16-year-old boy referred to our tertiary center with intractable epilepsy for the previous three years despite receiving full doses of three antiepileptic medications. Brain computed tomography (CT) showed a left frontal calcified mass. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain revealed a well-defined spherical mass in the left frontal lobe, slightly hypointense on T1-weighted and heterogeneous hyperintense on T2-weighted images with no contrast enhancement. With a broad differential list in mind, a surgical intervention was planned. During surgery, a primary calcified cerebral echinococcal cyst with severe adhesion to the adjacent dura of the frontal region was discovered and removed intact. Histopathology examination confirmed the diagnosis. Only phenobarbital was continued and no medical therapy for CE was administered. Two years after surgery, the patient remained free of seizures. In areas endemic for CE, cerebral echinococcal cyst should be included in the differential list of patients with intractable seizures. Though rare, this entity can present itself as a calcified mass on neuroimaging. Surgical removal of the calcified cyst is necessary for control and treatment of the epilepsy. PMID:25489892

  18. Ultrastructural characteristics of ostrich eggshell: outer shell membrane and the calcified layers.

    PubMed

    Richards, P D; Richards, P A; Lee, M E

    2000-06-01

    The ultrastructure of the eggshell of the domestic hen has been well researched and structural studies of other avian species, such as the ostrich, often base their interpretation of egg shell structure on that of the chicken. In the ostrich, lowered hatchability and hatching trauma may be due to shell ultrastructural abnormalities. In the present study the ultrastructure of the calcified portion, and the outer shell membrane (OSM), of domesticated ostrich eggshells was investigated using standard electron microscopic techniques. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy studies demonstrated intimate contact between cup-shaped structures present on the OSM and the mammillary layer of the calcified portion of the shell. The initial calcium carbonate growth of the calcified shell was of a dendritic nature with nucleation sites on the surface of the cup's contents. The dendritic growth gave way to a more randomly-orientated, smaller crystallite growth structure, which changed in form as it neared the vertical crystal layer (VCL). The VCL is described as being both amorphous and 'crumbly' depending on the plane of fracture. These observations suggest that firstly, initial calcification is contained within the cups and is then directed outwards to form the shell and that secondly, the VCL may contain an evolutionary, calcified cuticular layer. These observations serve as a baseline for studies investigating the effect of shell structure and strength on hatchling trauma and the influence of maternal diet. PMID:11030359

  19. Vinca alkaloids in the therapeutic management of malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Ceresoli, Giovanni Luca; Zucali, Paolo Andrea

    2015-12-01

    Therapeutic options for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) are limited. Most patients are treated with chemotherapy during the course of their disease. The combination of pemetrexed with a platinum compound is the standard of care in the first-line setting, while no established treatment exists in the second and beyond-line setting. Vinca alkaloids are chemotherapeutic agents that have demonstrated clinical efficacy both as single agents and in combination in a broad spectrum of cancers, including MPM. Vinorelbine has shown activity in MPM patients as neoadiuvant therapy, first-line treatment, and in the second and third-line setting. Vinflunine is a derivative of vinorelbine that has been studied in MPM as first-line agent. While the role of vinca alkaloids in the first-line treatment of MPM seems marginal, treatment with vinorelbine remains a reasonable option for pemetrexed-pretreated patients in clinical practice, based on an acceptable rate of stable disease, confirmed by several trials. Ongoing studies on predictive biomarkers for vinorelbine will hopefully be able to individualize treatment, increasing response rates and survival outcomes. PMID:26526504

  20. Risk factors for the development of pleural empyema in children.

    PubMed

    Elemraid, Mohamed A; Thomas, Matthew F; Blain, Alasdair P; Rushton, Stephen P; Spencer, David A; Gennery, Andrew R; Clark, Julia E

    2015-07-01

    Pediatric pleural empyema has increased substantially over the past 20 years and reasons for this rise remain not fully explained. We investigated potential risk factors for the development of empyema in children by examining a cohort of patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Demographic, clinical, and socioeconomic characteristics, use of Ibuprofen prior to presentation and selected potential epidemiological risk factors were analyzed. Data were collected from a prospective etiological study of radiologically confirmed pneumonia in hospitalized children aged ?16 years. One hundred sixty children were enrolled; 56% were male and 69% aged <5 years. Empyema complication developed in 40 (25%) children. Children with empyema were more frequently prescribed Ibuprofen prior to admission to hospital than those without (82% vs. 46.2%; OR 1.94, 97.5% credible interval 0.80-3.18). Bacterial infection was strongly associated with the development of empyema (OR 3.34, 97.5% credible interval 1.70-5.14). In contrast age, sex, maternal age, parental smoking, level of socioeconomic status, nursery attendance, asthma, household characteristics (bedrooms and number of occupants) were not significantly different between groups. In conclusion, children with pneumonia who developed empyema had more often received Ibuprofen prior to hospitalization and confirmed bacterial infection. We suggest a population-based study involving both primary and secondary care settings would help to investigate the role of Ibuprofen use in modulating the course of disease in children with pneumonia. PMID:24692118

  1. Intercellular communication in malignant pleural mesothelioma: properties of tunneling nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Ady, Justin W.; Desir, Snider; Thayanithy, Venugopal; Vogel, Rachel I.; Moreira, André L.; Downey, Robert J.; Fong, Yuman; Manova-Todorova, Katia; Moore, Malcolm A. S.; Lou, Emil

    2014-01-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma is a particularly aggressive and locally invasive malignancy with a poor prognosis despite advances in understanding of cancer cell biology and development of new therapies. At the cellular level, cultured mesothelioma cells present a mesenchymal appearance and a strong capacity for local cellular invasion. One important but underexplored area of mesothelioma cell biology is intercellular communication. Our group has previously characterized in multiple histological subtypes of mesothelioma a unique cellular protrusion known as tunneling nanotubes (TnTs). TnTs are long, actin filament-based, narrow cytoplasmic extensions that are non-adherent when cultured in vitro and are capable of shuttling cellular cargo between connected cells. Our prior work confirmed the presence of nanotube structures in tumors resected from patients with human mesothelioma. In our current study, we quantified the number of TnTs/cell among various mesothelioma subtypes and normal mesothelial cells using confocal microscopic techniques. We also examined changes in TnT length over time in comparison to cell proliferation. We further examined potential approaches to the in vivo study of TnTs in animal models of cancer. We have developed novel approaches to study TnTs in aggressive solid tumor malignancies and define fundamental characteristics of TnTs in malignant mesothelioma. There is mounting evidence that TnTs play an important role in intercellular communication in mesothelioma and thus merit further investigation of their role in vivo. PMID:25400582

  2. Current Issues in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma Evaluation and Management

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an uncommon disease most often associated with occupational asbestos exposure and is steadily increasing in worldwide incidence. Patients typically present at an older age, with advanced clinical stage and other medical comorbidities, making management quite challenging. Despite great efforts, the prognosis of MPM remains poor, especially at progression after initial treatment. Macroscopic complete resection of MPM can be achieved through extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP) or extended (ie, radical) pleurectomy (e-P/D) in selected patients and can result in prolonged survival when incorporated into a multimodality approach. Given the morbidity associated with surgical resection of MPM, optimizing identification of appropriate patients is essential. Unfortunately, most patients are not candidates for EPP or e-P/D due to advanced stage, age, and/or medical comorbidity. Pemetrexed and platinum combination chemotherapy has become the cornerstone of therapy for patients with unresectable disease because the combination is associated with improved survival and quality of life in treated patients. However, MPM eventually becomes resistant to initial therapy, and benefit to further lines of therapy has not been substantiated in randomized clinical trials. Translational research has provided exciting insights into tumorigenesis, biomarkers, and immune response in MPM, leading to the development of multiple novel therapeutic agents that are currently in clinical trials. These advances hold the promise of a new era in the treatment of MPM and suggest that this disease will not be left behind in the war on cancer. PMID:25061089

  3. Automatic detection of pleural effusion in chest radiographs.

    PubMed

    Maduskar, Pragnya; Philipsen, Rick H M M; Melendez, Jaime; Scholten, Ernst; Chanda, Duncan; Ayles, Helen; Sánchez, Clara I; van Ginneken, Bram

    2016-02-01

    Automated detection of Tuberculosis (TB) using chest radiographs (CXRs) is gaining popularity due to the lack of trained human readers in resource limited countries with a high TB burden. The majority of the computer-aided detection (CAD) systems for TB focus on detection of parenchymal abnormalities and ignore other important manifestations such as pleural effusion (PE). The costophrenic angle is a commonly used measure for detecting PE, but has limitations. In this work, an automatic method to detect PE in the left and right hemithoraces is proposed and evaluated on a database of 638 CXRs. We introduce a robust way to localize the costophrenic region using the chest wall contour as a landmark structure, in addition to the lung segmentation. Region descriptors are proposed based on intensity and morphology information in the region around the costophrenic recess. Random forest classifiers are trained to classify left and right hemithoraces. Performance of the PE detection system is evaluated in terms of recess localization accuracy and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). The proposed method shows significant improvement in the AUC values as compared to systems which use lung segmentation and the costophrenic angle measurement alone. PMID:26688067

  4. Frequency of Surgery in Black Patients with Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Taioli, Emanuela; Wolf, Andrea S.; Moline, Jacqueline M.; Camacho-Rivera, Marlene; Flores, Raja M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare disease, even less frequently described in minority patients. We used a large population-based dataset to study the role of race in MPM presentation, treatment, and survival. Methods. All cases of pathologically proven MPM were identified in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Age, sex, diagnosis year, stage, cancer-directed surgery, radiation, and vital status were analyzed according to self-reported race (black or white). Results. There were 13,046 white and 688 black MPM patients (incidence: 1.1 per 100,000 whites; 0.5 per 100,000 blacks; age-adjusted, p = 0.01). Black patients were more likely to be female, younger, and with advanced stage and less likely to undergo cancer-directed surgery than whites, after adjustment by stage. On multivariable analysis, younger age and having surgery were associated with longer survival for both cohorts; female gender (HR 0.82 (0.77–0.88)) and early stage at diagnosis (HR 0.83 (0.76–0.90)) were predictive of longer survival in white, but not in black, patients. Conclusions. Surgery was associated with improved survival for both black and white MPM patients. However, black patients were less likely to undergo cancer-directed surgery. Increased surgical intervention in MPM black patients with early stage disease may improve their survival. PMID:26063951

  5. Protumorigenic effects of mir-145 loss in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Cioce, M.; Ganci, F.; Canu, V.; Sacconi, A.; Mori, F.; Canino, C.; Korita, E.; Casini, B.; Alessandrini, G.; Cambria, A.; Carosi, M.A.; Blandino, R.; Panebianco, V.; Facciolo, F.; Visca, P.; Volinia, S.; Muti, P.; Strano, S.; Croce, CM; Pass, HI; Blandino, G.

    2015-01-01

    We identified a discrete number of microRNAs differentially expressed in benign or malignant mesothelial tissues. We focused on mir-145 whose levels were significantly downregulated in malignant mesothelial tissues and Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) cell lines as compared to benign tissues (pleura, peritoneum or cysts). We show that promoter hyper-methylation caused very low levels in MPM cell lines. Treatment of MPM cell lines with mir-145 agonists negatively modulated some protumorigenic properties of MPM cells, such as clonogenicity, cell migration and resistance to pemetrexed treatment. The main effector mechanism of the clonogenic death induced by mir-145 was that of accelerated senescence. We found that mir-145 targeted OCT4 via specific binding to its 3’-UTR. Increased intracellular levels of mir-145 decreased the levels of OCT4 and its target gene ZEB1 thereby counteracting the increase of OCT4 induced by pemetrexed treatment which is known to favor the development of chemoresistant cells. In line with this, reintroduction of OCT4 into mimic-145 treated cells counteracted the effects on clonogenicity and replicative senescence. This further supports the relevance of the mir-145-OCT4 interaction for the survival of MPM cells. The potential use of mir-145 expression levels to classify benign vs malignant mesothelial tissues and the differences between pemetrexed-induced senescence and that induced by the re-expression of mir-145 are discussed. PMID:24240684

  6. Comparative studies of inorganic carbon utilization in Emiliania huxleyi and some non-calcifying marine microalgae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang-Feng, Dong; Merrett, M. J.; Chao-Yuan, Wu

    1999-09-01

    Inorganic carbon utilization in the non-calcifying marine microalgae, Nannochloropsis oculata, Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Porphyridium purpureum was compared with high- and low-calcifying strains of Emiliania huxleyi grown in artificial seawater medium aerated with either air (0.03% V/V CO2) or CO2-free air. For high-calcifying strain of E. oculata and P. tricornutem, similar growth patterns were observed in air-and CO2-free air-grown cultures. P. purpureum showed a less final cell density in CO2-free air than in air-grown culture. However, low-calcifying strain of E. huxleyi was able to grow only in air-grown culture, but not in CO2-free air-grown culture. Measurements of alkalinity, pH, concentration of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and free CO2 showed different patterns of DIC utilization. With N. oculata, P. tricornutum and P. purpureum the pattern of DIC utilization was characterized by an increase of pH and a decrease of DIC but a constant alkalinity in the cultures aerated with air or CO2-free air, suggesting that bicarbonate utilization was concomitant with an efflux of OH-. Both alkalinity and pH were maintained rather constant in air-grown culture of low-calcifying strain of E. huxleyi, suggesting that diffusive entry of CO2 could meet the requirement of DIC for its photosynthesis and growth. High-calcifying strain of E. huxleyi, however, showed a pattern of decrease of alkalinity and DIC but an almost constant pH, indicating that bicarbonate was the major form of inorganic carbon utilised by this organism and bicarbonate uptake is unlikely to be accompanied by an efflux of OH-. The final pH values reached by N. oculata, P. tricornutum and P. purpureum in a closed system were 10.75, 10.60 and 9.85 respectively, showing that bicarbonate utilisation is concomitant with an efflux of OH-. While the final pH of 8.4 in high-calcifying E. huxleyi suggests that bicarbonate utilization was not accompanied by an efflux of OH-.

  7. Photolichenoid plaques with associated vitiliginous pigmentary changes.

    PubMed

    Tran, Kathleen; Hartman, Rachael; Tzu, Julia; Meehan, Shane; Sanders, Scott E; Pomeranz, Miriam Keltz; Sanchez, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    A 49-year-old man with advanced HIV/AIDS on anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) presented with a several-month history of pruritic, erythematous, lichenified papules that coalesced into hyperkeratotic plaques on the trunk and extremities in a sun-exposed distribution. He shortly thereafter developed a progressive depigmentation over more than 80 percent of his body surface area. A biopsy specimen of an erythematous plaque on the trunk showed a superficial and mid-dermal infiltrate of lymphocytes with eosinophils, most consistent with either chronic lichenoid drug eruption or atypical lymphoproliferative disorder (ACLD) of HIV. The patient's lichenoid skin disease has persisted despite discontinuation of TMP-SMX, although it has improved partially with administration of topical glucocorticoids and acitretin. His depigmentation has continued to progress. We discuss the overlapping diagnostic entities which may be comprised by this patient's clinical disease, and highlight a unique presentation of the complex interaction between HIV infection and the skin. PMID:22031639

  8. Concept of Remission in Chronic Plaque Psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Gisondi, Paolo; Di Mercurio, Marco; Idolazzi, Luca; Girolomoni, Giampiero

    2015-11-01

    Psoriasis is a lifelong chronic inflammatory disease affecting 2-3% of the worldwide population. Current understanding of the pathogenesis of psoriasis assigns central importance to an interaction between acquired and innate immunity. The disease is characterized by a series of linked cellular changes in the skin, including hyperplasia of epidermal keratinocytes, angiogenesis, and infiltration of T lymphocytes, neutrophils, and other types of leukocytes in the affected skin. Plaque psoriasis is the most common clinical form and is characterized by red and scaly plaques generally localized at extensor sites such as elbows and knees. Major determinants of psoriasis severity include the extent of skin involvement; localization in highly affected areas such as scalp, palms, and soles; pruritus; presence of comorbidities including psoriatic arthritis; and impairment on quality of life. About one-third of patients have moderate to severe psoriasis defined as PASI (Psoriasis Area and Severity Index) and/or Dermatology Life Quality Index > 10, and/or affected body surface area > 10%. The optimal treatment goal is to safely achieve complete or almost complete skin clearance. Treatments available are various and they are chosen according to disease features, comorbidities, and patient characteristics and priorities. Topical treatments including corticosteroids and Vitamin D analogs are reserved for mild disease. Phototherapy, cyclosporine, methotrexate, acitretin, or biologics such as tumor necrosis factor-? antagonists and ustekinumab are reserved for the moderate to severe forms. PMID:26523059

  9. Assessment of plaque assay methods for alphaviruses.

    PubMed

    Juarez, Diana; Long, Kanya C; Aguilar, Patricia; Kochel, Tadeusz J; Halsey, Eric S

    2013-01-01

    Viruses from the Alphavirus genus are responsible for numerous arboviral diseases impacting human health throughout the world. Confirmation of acute alphavirus infection is based on viral isolation, identification of viral RNA, or a fourfold or greater increase in antibody titers between acute and convalescent samples. In convalescence, the specificity of antibodies to an alphavirus may be confirmed by plaque reduction neutralization test. To identify the best method for alphavirus and neutralizing antibody recognition, the standard solid method using a cell monolayer overlay with 0.4% agarose and the semisolid method using a cell suspension overlay with 0.6% carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) overlay were evaluated. Mayaro virus, Una virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), and Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV) were selected to be tested by both methods. The results indicate that the solid method showed consistently greater sensitivity than the semisolid method. Also, a "semisolid-variant method" using a 0.6% CMC overlay on a cell monolayer was assayed for virus titration. This method provided the same sensitivity as the solid method for VEEV and also had greater sensitivity for WEEV titration. Modifications in plaque assay conditions affect significantly results and therefore evaluation of the performance of each new assay is needed. PMID:23085307

  10. Modeling of Experimental Atherosclerotic Plaque Delamination.

    PubMed

    Leng, Xiaochang; Chen, Xin; Deng, Xiaomin; Sutton, Michael A; Lessner, Susan M

    2015-12-01

    A cohesive zone model (CZM) approach is applied to simulate atherosclerotic plaque delamination experiments in mouse abdominal aorta specimens. A three-dimensional finite element model is developed for the experiments. The aortic wall is treated as a fiber-reinforced, highly deformable, incompressible material, and the Holzapfel-Gasser-Ogden (HGO) model is adopted for the aortic bulk material behavior. Cohesive elements are placed along the plaque-media interface along which delamination occurs. The 3D specimen geometry is created based on images from the experiments and certain simplifying approximations. A set of HGO and CZM parameter values is determined based on values suggested in the literature and through matching simulation predictions of the load vs. load-point displacement curve with experimental measurements for one loading-delamination-unloading cycle. Using this set of parameter values, simulation predictions for four other loading-delamination-unloading cycles are obtained, which show good agreement with experimental measurements. The findings of the current study demonstrate the applicability of the CZM approach in arterial tissue failure simulations. PMID:26101030

  11. Concurrent pleural infiltration by chronic lymphocytic leukemia and adenocarcinoma of unknown primary site diagnosed by effusion cytology.

    PubMed

    Vrettos, Ioannis; Kamposioras, Konstantinos; Peridis, Stamatios; Aninos, Dionisios; Kazika, Stella; Spathis, Aris; Karakitsos, Petros; Papadopoulos, Angelos

    2014-02-01

    Synchronous malignancies in a pleural effusion are rare. A case of concurrent pleural infiltration by adenocarcinoma of unknown primary site and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is presented in this case study, which was diagnosed by effusion cytology. Pleural effusion is not an uncommon complication in patients with B-CLL. Even in a pleural effusion rich in monoclonal lymphocytes, the presence of a second cancer must be excluded because this can be the main cause of mortality. The role of cytology in such cases is of paramount importance. PMID:22833260

  12. Identification of Novel Markers for the Diagnosis of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Gueugnon, Fabien; Leclercq, Sabrina; Blanquart, Christophe; Sagan, Christine; Cellerin, Laurent; Padieu, Martine; Perigaud, Christian; Scherpereel, Arnaud; Gregoire, Marc

    2011-01-01

    The diagnosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma is difficult, with the most common differential diagnoses being benign pleural diseases and metastatic adenocarcinomas (ADCA). To identify novel markers that would be able to improve diagnostic accuracy, we performed a genome-wide gene expression analysis on tumor cell lines established from pleural effusions (malignant pleural mesothelioma and lung ADCA). This analysis led to the identification of genes encoding novel and pertinent cellular and soluble markers, for which the expression was validated by real-time RT-PCR. Immunohistochemical staining of tumor biopsy specimens with anti–type III collagen antibodies showed positive labeling for mesothelioma cells but not for ADCA cells. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we showed that the C-C motif chemokine 2 (CCL2) concentration was significantly higher in pleural effusions from patients with mesothelioma (n = 61) than in subjects with ADCA (n = 25) or with benign pleural effusions (n = 15): median (interquartile range) = 2.99 ng/ml (1.76 to 6.01) vs 0.99 ng/ml (0.51 to 1.83) and 1.47 ng/ml (0.80 to 1.56), respectively, P < 0.0001. Conversely, the galectin-3 concentration was lower in mesothelioma: 11.50 ng/ml (6.73 to 23.53) vs 24.74 ng/ml (20.42 to 70.35) and 17.64 ng/ml (14.81 to 24.68), respectively, P < 0.0001. The areas under the curve for CCL2 were 0.8030 and 0.7716 for the differentiation of mesothelioma from ADCA or benign pleural effusions, respectively. Similarly, the areas under the curve obtained for galectin-3 were 0.7980 and 0.6923, respectively. In conclusion, type III collagen, CCL2, and galectin-3 are promising new diagnostic markers for mesothelioma. PMID:21356356

  13. Identification of novel markers for the diagnosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Gueugnon, Fabien; Leclercq, Sabrina; Blanquart, Christophe; Sagan, Christine; Cellerin, Laurent; Padieu, Martine; Perigaud, Christian; Scherpereel, Arnaud; Gregoire, Marc

    2011-03-01

    The diagnosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma is difficult, with the most common differential diagnoses being benign pleural diseases and metastatic adenocarcinomas (ADCA). To identify novel markers that would be able to improve diagnostic accuracy, we performed a genome-wide gene expression analysis on tumor cell lines established from pleural effusions (malignant pleural mesothelioma and lung ADCA). This analysis led to the identification of genes encoding novel and pertinent cellular and soluble markers, for which the expression was validated by real-time RT-PCR. Immunohistochemical staining of tumor biopsy specimens with anti-type III collagen antibodies showed positive labeling for mesothelioma cells but not for ADCA cells. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we showed that the C-C motif chemokine 2 (CCL2) concentration was significantly higher in pleural effusions from patients with mesothelioma (n = 61) than in subjects with ADCA (n = 25) or with benign pleural effusions (n = 15): median (interquartile range) = 2.99 ng/ml (1.76 to 6.01) vs 0.99 ng/ml (0.51 to 1.83) and 1.47 ng/ml (0.80 to 1.56), respectively, P < 0.0001. Conversely, the galectin-3 concentration was lower in mesothelioma: 11.50 ng/ml (6.73 to 23.53) vs 24.74 ng/ml (20.42 to 70.35) and 17.64 ng/ml (14.81 to 24.68), respectively, P < 0.0001. The areas under the curve for CCL2 were 0.8030 and 0.7716 for the differentiation of mesothelioma from ADCA or benign pleural effusions, respectively. Similarly, the areas under the curve obtained for galectin-3 were 0.7980 and 0.6923, respectively. In conclusion, type III collagen, CCL2, and galectin-3 are promising new diagnostic markers for mesothelioma. PMID:21356356

  14. Multivariate modelling with 1H NMR of pleural effusion in murine cerebral malaria

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cerebral malaria is a clinical manifestation of Plasmodium falciparum infection. Although brain damage is the predominant pathophysiological complication of cerebral malaria (CM), respiratory distress, acute lung injury, hydrothorax/pleural effusion are also observed in several cases. Immunological parameters have been assessed in pleural fluid in murine models; however there are no reports of characterization of metabolites present in pleural effusion. Methods 1H NMR of the sera and the pleural effusion of cerebral malaria infected mice were analyzed using principal component analysis, orthogonal partial least square analysis, multiway principal component analysis, and multivariate curve resolution. Results It has been observed that there was 100% occurrence of pleural effusion (PE) in the mice affected with CM, as opposed to those are non-cerebral and succumbing to hyperparasitaemia (NCM/HP). An analysis of 1H NMR and SDS-PAGE profile of PE and serum samples of each of the CM mice exhibited a similar profile in terms of constituents. Multivariate analysis on these two classes of biofluids was performed and significant differences were detected in concentrations of metabolites. Glucose, creatine and glutamine contents were high in the PE and lipids being high in the sera. Multivariate curve resolution between sera and pleural effusion showed that changes in PE co-varied with that of serum in CM mice. The increase of glucose in PE is negatively correlated to the glucose in serum in CM as obtained from the result of multiway principal component analysis. Conclusions This study reports for the first time, the characterization of metabolites in pleural effusion formed during murine cerebral malaria. The study indicates that the origin of PE metabolites in murine CM may be the serum. The loss of the components like glucose, glutamine and creatine into the PE may worsen the situation of patients, in conjunction with the enhanced glycolysis, glutaminolysis and increased activity of creatine phophokinase which are already reported characteristic pathophysiological features of malaria. PMID:22047045

  15. Nanoparticle uptake by macrophages in vulnerable plaques for atherosclerosis diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Melzer, Susanne; Ankri, Rinat; Fixler, Dror; Tarnok, Attila

    2015-11-01

    The composition of atherosclerotic (AS) plaques is crucial concerning rupture, thrombosis and clinical events. Two plaque types are distinguished: stable and vulnerable plaques. Vulnerable plaques are rich in inflammatory cells, mostly only M1 macrophages, and are highly susceptible to rupture. These plaques represent a high risk particularly with the standard invasive diagnosis by coronary angiography. So far there are no non-invasive low-risk clinical approaches available to detect and distinguish AS plaque types in vivo. The perspective review introduces a whole work-flow for a novel approach for non-invasive detection and classification of AS plaques using the diffusion reflection method with gold nanoparticle loaded macrophages in combination with flow and image cytometric analysis for quality assurance. Classical biophotonic methods for AS diagnosis are summarized. Phenotyping of monocytes and macrophages are discussed for specific subset labelling by nanomaterials, as well as existing studies and first experimental proofs of concept for the novel approach are shown. In vitro and in vivo detection of NP loaded macrophages (M?). Different ways of M? labelling include (1) in vitro labelling in suspension (whole blood or buffy coat) or (2) labelling of short-term M? cultures with re-injection of M?-NP into the animal to detect migration of the cells in the plaques and (3) in vivo injection of NP into the organism. PMID:26110589

  16. Apollo Soyuz Test Project Commemorative plaque in orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) Commemorative Plaque is assembled in the Soviet Soyuz Orbital Module during the joint U.S.-U.S.S.R. Apollo-Soyuz Test Project docking in Earth orbit mission. The plaque is written both in English and Russian.

  17. Ultrafast laser ablation for targeted atherosclerotic plaque removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanvin, Thomas; Conkey, Donald B.; Descloux, Laurent; Frobert, Aurelien; Valentin, Jeremy; Goy, Jean-Jacques; Cook, Stéphane; Giraud, Marie-Noelle; Psaltis, Demetri

    2015-07-01

    Coronary artery disease, the main cause of heart disease, develops as immune cells and lipids accumulate into plaques within the coronary arterial wall. As a plaque grows, the tissue layer (fibrous cap) separating it from the blood flow becomes thinner and increasingly susceptible to rupturing and causing a potentially lethal thrombosis. The stabilization and/or treatment of atherosclerotic plaque is required to prevent rupturing and remains an unsolved medical problem. Here we show for the first time targeted, subsurface ablation of atherosclerotic plaque using ultrafast laser pulses. Excised atherosclerotic mouse aortas were ablated with ultrafast near-infrared (NIR) laser pulses. The physical damage was characterized with histological sections of the ablated atherosclerotic arteries from six different mice. The ultrafast ablation system was integrated with optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging for plaque-specific targeting and monitoring of the resulting ablation volume. We find that ultrafast ablation of plaque just below the surface is possible without causing damage to the fibrous cap, which indicates the potential use of ultrafast ablation for subsurface atherosclerotic plaque removal. We further demonstrate ex vivo subsurface ablation of a plaque volume through a catheter device with the high-energy ultrafast pulse delivered via hollow-core photonic crystal fiber.

  18. [Effect of Root Iron Plaque on Norfloxacin Uptake by Rice].

    PubMed

    Ma, Wei; Bao, Yan-yu

    2015-06-01

    In anaerobic condition, release of oxygen by roots to rhyzosphere caused the formation of red plaque of iron oxides or hydroxides on the root surface of rice. The effect of iron plaque on norfloxacin uptake was investigated with solution culture in greenhouse, and the results are showed in the following. The content of iron plaque increased with the increase of Fe2+ concentration in medium. After the addition of norfloxacin in nutrient solution, the content of iron plaques on the root surface decreased to different degree, and the reduction of iron plaques was increasing with the increase of norfloxacin mass concentration. Significant relationships were found between the iron plaques and norfloxacin on the root surface, and the correlation coefficients were 0.959 (norfloxacin mass concentration was 10 mg x L(-1)) and 0.987 (norfloxacin mass concentration was 50 mg x L(-1)), respectively, however, the norfloxacin contents in roots and shoots had no significant correlation with the iron plaques. After addition of different mass concentrations of norfloxacin, the quality distribution percentages of norfloxacin on the root surface and in roots and shoots were 87.7%-97.6%, 0.8%-4.8%, 1.5%-7.5%, respectively, the norfloxacin content on the root surface was far greater than those in roots and shoots. It was therefore concluded that iron plaque on roots was a norfloxacin reservoir for rice plant but had no significant effect on the transfer of norfloxacin to roots and shoots of the rice plant. PMID:26387334

  19. Characterization of bacteriophage communities and CRISPR profiles from dental plaque

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dental plaque is home to a diverse and complex community of bacteria, but has generally been believed to be inhabited by relatively few viruses. We sampled the saliva and dental plaque from 4 healthy human subjects to determine whether plaque was populated by viral communities, and whether there were differences in viral communities specific to subject or sample type. Results We found that the plaque was inhabited by a community of bacteriophage whose membership was mostly subject-specific. There was a significant proportion of viral homologues shared between plaque and salivary viromes within each subject, suggesting that some oral viruses were present in both sites. We also characterized Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPRs) in oral streptococci, as their profiles provide clues to the viruses that oral bacteria may be able to counteract. While there were some CRISPR spacers specific to each sample type, many more were shared across sites and were highly subject specific. Many CRISPR spacers matched viruses present in plaque, suggesting that the evolution of CRISPR loci may have been specific to plaque-derived viruses. Conclusions Our findings of subject specificity to both plaque-derived viruses and CRISPR profiles suggest that human viral ecology may be highly personalized. PMID:24981669

  20. Are herbal mouthwash efficacious over chlorhexidine on the dental plaque?

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Devanand; Nayan, Swapna; Tippanawar, Harshad K.; Patil, Gaurav I.; Jain, Ankita; Momin, Rizwan K.; Gupta, Rajendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To compare the effect of herbal extract mouthwash and chlorhexidine mouthwash on the dental plaque level. Materials and Methods: The subjects (60 healthy medical students aged ranges between 20 and 25 years) were randomly divided into two groups, that is, the herbal group and the chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash group. The data were collected at the baseline and 3 days. The plaque was disclosed using erythrosine disclosing agent and their scores were recorded using the Quigley and Hein plaque index modified by Turesky-Gilmore-Glickman. Statistical analysis was carried out later to compare the effect of all the two groups. Results: Our result showed that the chlorhexidine group shows a greater decrease in plaque score followed by herbal extract, but the result was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: The results indicate that herbal mouthwash may prove to be an effective agent owing to its ability to reduce plaque level, especially in low socioeconomic strata. PMID:26130940

  1. Proton Therapy for Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma After Extrapleural Pleuropneumonectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Krayenbuehl, Jerome; Hartmann, Matthias; Lomax, Anthony J.

    2010-10-01

    Purpose: To perform comparative planning for intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and proton therapy (PT) for malignant pleural mesothelioma after radical surgery. Methods and Materials: Eight patients treated with IMRT after extrapleural pleuropneumonectomy (EPP) were replanned for PT, comparing dose homogeneity, target volume coverage, and mean and maximal dose to organs at risk. Feasibility of PT was evaluated regarding the dose distribution with respect to air cavities after EPP. Results: Dose coverage and dose homogeneity of the planning target volume (PTV) were significantly better for PT than for IMRT regarding the volume covered by >95% (V95) for the high-dose PTV. The mean dose to the contralateral kidney, ipsilateral kidney, contralateral lung, liver, and heart and spinal cord dose were significantly reduced with PT compared with IMRT. After EPP, air cavities were common (range, 0-850 cm{sup 3}), decreasing from 0 to 18.5 cm{sup 3}/day. In 2 patients, air cavity changes during RT decreased the generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) in the case of using an a value of < - 10 to the PTV2 to <2 Gy in the presence of changing cavities for PT, and to 40 Gy for IMRT. Small changes were observed for gEUD of PTV1 because PTV1 was reached by the beams before air. Conclusion: Both PT and IMRT achieved good target coverage and dose homogeneity. Proton therapy accomplished additional dose sparing of most organs at risk compared with IMRT. Proton therapy dose distributions were more susceptible to changing air cavities, emphasizing the need for adaptive RT and replanning.

  2. Diarachidonoylphosphoethanolamine induces necrosis/necroptosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma cells.

    PubMed

    Kaku, Yoshiko; Tsuchiya, Ayako; Kanno, Takeshi; Nakano, Takashi; Nishizaki, Tomoyuki

    2015-09-01

    The present study investigated 1,2-diarachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DAPE)-induced cell death in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) cells. DAPE reduced cell viability in NCI-H28, NCI-H2052, NCI-H2452, and MSTO-211H MPM cell lines in a concentration (1-100?M)-dependent manner. In the flow cytometry using propidium iodide (PI) and annexin V (AV), DAPE significantly increased the population of PI-positive and AV-negative cells, corresponding to primary necrosis, and that of PI-positive and AV-positive cells, corresponding to late apoptosis/secondary necrosis, in NCI-H28 cells. DAPE-induced reduction of NCI-H28 cell viability was partially inhibited by necrostatin-1, an inhibitor of RIP1 kinase to induce necroptosis, or knocking-down RIP1. DAPE generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) followed by disruption of mitochondrial membrane potentials in NCI-H28 cells. DAPE-induced mitochondrial damage was attenuated by cyclosporin A, an inhibitor of cyclophilin D (CypD). DAPE did not affect expression and mitochondrial localization of p53 protein in NCI-H28 cells. DAPE significantly decreased intracellular ATP concentrations in NCI-H28 cells. Overall, the results of the present study indicate that DAPE induces necroptosis and necrosis of MPM cells; the former is mediated by RIP1 kinase and the latter is caused by generating ROS and opening CypD-dependent mitochondrial permeability transition pore, to reduce intracellular ATP concentrations. PMID:26004138

  3. Differential Responses of Calcifying and Non-Calcifying Epibionts of a Brown Macroalga to Present-Day and Future Upwelling pCO2

    PubMed Central

    Saderne, Vincent; Wahl, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Seaweeds are key species of the Baltic Sea benthic ecosystems. They are the substratum of numerous fouling epibionts like bryozoans and tubeworms. Several of these epibionts bear calcified structures and could be impacted by the high pCO2 events of the late summer upwellings in the Baltic nearshores. Those events are expected to increase in strength and duration with global change and ocean acidification. If calcifying epibionts are impacted by transient acidification as driven by upwelling events, their increasing prevalence could cause a shift of the fouling communities toward fleshy species. The aim of the present study was to test the sensitivity of selected seaweed macrofoulers to transient elevation of pCO2 in their natural microenvironment, i.e. the boundary layer covering the thallus surface of brown seaweeds. Fragments of the macroalga Fucus serratus bearing an epibiotic community composed of the calcifiers Spirorbis spirorbis (Annelida) and Electra pilosa (Bryozoa) and the non-calcifier Alcyonidium hirsutum (Bryozoa) were maintained for 30 days under three pCO2 conditions: natural 460±59 µatm, present-day upwelling1193±166 µatm and future upwelling 3150±446 µatm. Only the highest pCO2 caused a significant reduction of growth rates and settlement of S. spirorbis individuals. Additionally, S. spirorbis settled juveniles exhibited enhanced calcification of 40% during daylight hours compared to dark hours, possibly reflecting a day-night alternation of an acidification-modulating effect by algal photosynthesis as opposed to an acidification-enhancing effect of algal respiration. E. pilosa colonies showed significantly increased growth rates at intermediate pCO2 (1193 µatm) but no response to higher pCO2. No effect of acidification on A. hirsutum colonies growth rates was observed. The results suggest a remarkable resistance of the algal macro-epibionts to levels of acidification occurring at present day upwellings in the Baltic. Only extreme future upwelling conditions impacted the tubeworm S. spirorbis, but not the bryozoans. PMID:23894659

  4. Hydrogen sulfide production from subgingival plaque samples.

    PubMed

    Basic, A; Dahlén, G

    2015-10-01

    Periodontitis is a polymicrobial anaerobe infection. Little is known about the dysbiotic microbiota and the role of bacterial metabolites in the disease process. It is suggested that the production of certain waste products in the proteolytic metabolism may work as markers for disease severity. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a gas produced by degradation of proteins in the subgingival pocket. It is highly toxic and believed to have pro-inflammatory properties. We aimed to study H2S production from subgingival plaque samples in relation to disease severity in subjects with natural development of the disease, using a colorimetric method based on bismuth precipitation. In remote areas of northern Thailand, adults with poor oral hygiene habits and a natural development of periodontal disease were examined for their oral health status. H2S production was measured with the bismuth method and subgingival plaque samples were analyzed for the presence of 20 bacterial species with the checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization technique. In total, 43 subjects were examined (age 40-60 years, mean PI 95 ± 6.6%). Fifty-six percent had moderate periodontal breakdown (CAL > 3 < 7 mm) and 35% had severe periodontal breakdown (CAL > 7 mm) on at least one site. Parvimonas micra, Filifactor alocis, Porphyromonas endodontalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum were frequently detected. H2S production could not be correlated to periodontal disease severity (PPD or CAL at sampled sites) or to a specific bacterial composition. Site 21 had statistically lower production of H2S (p = 0.02) compared to 16 and 46. Betel nut chewers had statistically significant lower H2S production (p = 0.01) than non-chewers. Rapid detection and estimation of subgingival H2S production capacity was easily and reliably tested by the colorimetric bismuth sulfide precipitation method. H2S may be a valuable clinical marker for degradation of proteins in the subgingival pocket. PMID:25280920

  5. Chyliform effusion without pleural thickening in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Muresan, Crina; Muresan, Lucian; Grigorescu, Ioana; Dumitrascu, Dan L

    2015-01-01

    Pseudochylothorax, also known as chyliform effusion rich in cholesterol crystals, is a rare entity that sometimes occurs in long-standing rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and is usually associated with thickened pleura. There have only been a few case reports in the literature on pseudochylothorax unassociated with pleural thickening and with a short duration of articular symptoms in patients with RA. We report the case of a 70-year-old male patient with a history of RA and heart failure due to severe aortic stenosis, who presented with signs and symptoms of decompensated heart failure due to a moderate right-sided pleural effusion that was consequently proved to be pseudochylothorax unassociated with pleural thickening on chest computed tomography (CT) scan. The patient's outcome was favorable after thoracocentesis was carried out and leflunomide was added to the standard heart failure treatment.

  6. Pleural liquid and kinetic friction coefficient of mesothelium after mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Bodega, Francesca; Sironi, Chiara; Porta, Cristina; Zocchi, Luciano; Agostoni, Emilio

    2015-01-15

    Volume and protein concentration of pleural liquid in anesthetized rabbits after 1 or 3h of mechanical ventilation, with alveolar pressure equal to atmospheric at end expiration, were compared to those occurring after spontaneous breathing. Moreover, coefficient of kinetic friction between samples of visceral and parietal pleura, obtained after spontaneous or mechanical ventilation, sliding in vitro at physiological velocity under physiological load, was determined. Volume of pleural liquid after mechanical ventilation was similar to that previously found during spontaneous ventilation. This finding is contrary to expectation of Moriondo et al. (2005), based on measurement of lymphatic and interstitial pressure. Protein concentration of pleural liquid after mechanical ventilation was also similar to that occurring after spontaneous ventilation. Coefficient of kinetic friction after mechanical ventilation was 0.023±0.001, similar to that obtained after spontaneous breathing. PMID:25447684

  7. Empyema Necessitans Complicating Pleural Effusion Associated with Proteus Species Infection: A Diagnostic Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Yauba, M. S.; Ahmed, H.; Imoudu, I. A.; Yusuf, M. O.; Makarfi, H. U.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Empyema necessitans, a rare complication of pleural effusion, could result in significant morbidity and mortality in children. It is characterized by the dissection of pus through the soft tissues and the skin of the chest wall. Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Actinomyces israelii are common causes but Gram negative bacilli could be a rare cause. However, there were challenges in differentiating between Mycobacterium tuberculosis and nontuberculous empyema in a resource poor setting like ours. We report a child with pleural effusion and empyema necessitans secondary to Proteus spp. infection. Methods. We describe a 12-year-old child with empyema necessitans complicating pleural effusion and highlight management challenges. Results. This case was treated with quinolones, antituberculous drugs, chest tube drainage, and nutritional rehabilitation. Conclusion. Empyema necessitatis is a rare condition that can be caused by Gram negative bacterial pathogens like Proteus species. PMID:25893125

  8. Clinically Amyopathic Dermatomyositis Complicated by Pleural Effusion Case Report, Literature Review, and Proposed Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ying; Chhaya, Sheetal; Hurowitz, Bert; Ardiles, Thomas; Carlson, Richard

    2015-07-01

    Polymyositis-dermatomyositis (PM-DM) is a chronic inflammatorydisorder that mainly involves muscles and skin.Clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis (CADM) is a uniquesubset of PM-DM with typical skin manifestations but littleor no evidence of musculoskeletal involvement. Many casesof dermatomyositis and CADM are associated with internalmalignancy, but pulmonary manifestations can also beenseen; the most common of which is interstitial lung disease.Pleural effusion is a rare complication and may be difficultto differentiate from other causes, such as infections, heartfailure, or malignancy. We report a patient with CADMcomplicated by rapidly progressive pleural effusions. Basedon findings of this patient, as well as literature review, wesuggest that the etiology of massive pleural effusion inthis setting is most likely related to local immune pleuritisassociated with underlying interstitial lung disease due todermatomyositis. Optimal management should be individualizedand may include immunosuppressive agents, as wellas antimicrobials, and potentially other agents. PMID:26535603

  9. Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Pleura: A Rare Cause of Pleural Mass.

    PubMed

    Supakul, Rodjawan; Sodhi, Amik; Tamashiro, Cecilia Yshii; Azmi, Syed S; Kadaria, Dipen

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND A solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura is a rare but usually benign mesenchymal tumor arising from the pleura. Patients are often asymptomatic, resulting in the majority of tumors being detected incidentally on chest imaging. We present a case of a large solitary pleural tumor and review the typical radiographic and pathologic findings associated with this finding. CASE REPORT A 63-year-old white man with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was found to have a large pleural mass on chest radiography during a pre-operative assessment. The tumor was biopsied and findings were consistent with solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura. CONCLUSIONS SFTPs are generally considered benign tumors although there is a risk of malignant transformation and recurrence. Imaging studies play an important role in identifying the tumor and planes of resection, and histologic diagnosis is critical in differentiating SFTP from other type of pleural masses. Surgical resection is main therapy of choice. PMID:26632548

  10. Nonlinear registration of serial coronary CT angiography (CCTA) for assessment of changes in atherosclerotic plaque

    SciTech Connect

    Woo, Jonghye; Dey, Damini; Cheng, Victor Y.; Hong, Byung-Woo; Ramesh, Amit; Sundaramoorthi, Ganesh; Nakazato, Ryo; Berman, Daniel S.; Germano, Guido; Kuo, C.-C. Jay; Slomka, Piotr J.

    2010-02-15

    Purpose: Coronary CT angiography (CCTA) is a high-resolution three-dimensional imaging technique for the evaluation of coronary arteries in suspected or confirmed coronary artery disease (CAD). Coregistration of serial CCTA scans would allow precise superimposition of images obtained at two different points in time, which could aid in recognition of subtle changes and precise monitoring of coronary plaque progression or regression. To this end, the authors aimed at developing a fully automatic nonlinear volume coregistration for longitudinal CCTA scan pairs. Methods: The algorithm combines global displacement and local deformation using nonlinear volume coregistration with a volume-preserving constraint. Histogram matching of intensities between two serial scans is performed prior to nonlinear coregistration with dense nonparametric local deformation in which sum of squared differences is used as a similarity measure. The approximate segmentation of coronary arteries obtained from commercially available software provides initial anatomical landmarks for the coregistration algorithm that help localize and emphasize the structure of interest. To avoid possible bias caused by incorrect segmentation, the authors convolve the Gaussian kernel with the segmented binary coronary tree mask and define an extended weighted region of interest. A multiresolution approach is employed to represent coarse-to-fine details of both volumes and the energy function is optimized using a gradient descent method. The authors applied the algorithm in ten paired CCTA datasets (20 scans in total) obtained within 10.7{+-}5.7 months from each other on a dual source CT scanner to monitor progression of CAD. Results: Serial CCTA coregistration was successful in 9/10 cases as visually confirmed. The global displacement and local deformation of target registration error obtained from four anatomical landmarks were 2.22{+-}1.15 and 1.56{+-}0.74 mm, respectively, and the inverse consistency error of local deformation was 0.14{+-}0.06 mm. The observer variability between two expert observers was 1.31{+-}0.91 mm. Conclusions: The proposed coregistration algorithm demonstrates potential to accurately register serial CCTA scans, which may allow direct comparison of calcified and noncalcified atherosclerotic plaque changes between the two scans.

  11. 612 Letters to the Editor 1. Ponte C, Remy J, Lacombe A, Bonte C, Lequien P. [Calcified

    E-print Network

    , Struyven J. Calcified inferior vena cava thrombus in a fetus: perinatal imaging. J Ultrasound Med 1993; 12, Avila C, Grassi A, Divon MY. Inferior vena cava thrombosis presenting as non-immune hydrops in the fetus

  12. An Additional Potential Factor for Kidney Stone Formation during Space Flights: Calcifying Nanoparticles (Nanobacteria): A Case Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jeffrey A.; Ciftcioglu, Neva; Schmid, Joseph; Griffith, Donald

    2007-01-01

    Spaceflight-induced microgravity appears to be a risk factor for the development of urinary calculi due to skeletal calcium liberation and other undefined factors, resulting in stone disease in crewmembers during and after spaceflight. Calcifying nanoparticles, or nanobacteria, reproduce at a more rapid rate in simulated microgravity conditions and create external shells of calcium phosphate in the form of apatite. The questions arises whether calcifying nanoparticles are niduses for calculi and contribute to the development of clinical stone disease in humans, who possess environmental factors predisposing to the development of urinary calculi and potentially impaired immunological defenses during spaceflight. A case of a urinary calculus passed from an astronaut post-flight with morphological characteristics of calcifying nanoparticles and staining positive for a calcifying nanoparticle unique antigen, is presented.

  13. The Journal of Neuroscience, June 1994, 14(6): 35653577 Identification and Characterization of Pleural Neurons that Inhibit Tail

    E-print Network

    Byrne, John H.

    of Pleural Neurons that Inhibit Tail Sensory Neurons and Motor Neurons in Aplysia: Correlation with FMRFamide of the right pleural ganglion were identified as elements of the circuit mediating the defensive tail withdrawal reflex of Aply- sia. These neurons produced IPSPs in tail sensory neurons and were classified

  14. Human oral, gut, and plaque microbiota in patients with atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Koren, Omry; Spor, Aymé; Felin, Jenny; Fåk, Frida; Stombaugh, Jesse; Tremaroli, Valentina; Behre, Carl Johan; Knight, Rob; Fagerberg, Björn; Ley, Ruth E.; Bäckhed, Fredrik

    2011-01-01

    Periodontal disease has been associated with atherosclerosis, suggesting that bacteria from the oral cavity may contribute to the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, the gut microbiota may affect obesity, which is associated with atherosclerosis. Using qPCR, we show that bacterial DNA was present in the atherosclerotic plaque and that the amount of DNA correlated with the amount of leukocytes in the atherosclerotic plaque. To investigate the microbial composition of atherosclerotic plaques and test the hypothesis that the oral or gut microbiota may contribute to atherosclerosis in humans, we used 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes to survey the bacterial diversity of atherosclerotic plaque, oral, and gut samples of 15 patients with atherosclerosis, and oral and gut samples of healthy controls. We identified Chryseomonas in all atherosclerotic plaque samples, and Veillonella and Streptococcus in the majority. Interestingly, the combined abundances of Veillonella and Streptococcus in atherosclerotic plaques correlated with their abundance in the oral cavity. Moreover, several additional bacterial phylotypes were common to the atherosclerotic plaque and oral or gut samples within the same individual. Interestingly, several bacterial taxa in the oral cavity and the gut correlated with plasma cholesterol levels. Taken together, our findings suggest that bacteria from the oral cavity, and perhaps even the gut, may correlate with disease markers of atherosclerosis. PMID:20937873

  15. Atherosclerotic Plaque Destabilization in Mice: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Hendrikse, Jeffrey; Beckers, Linda; Paulin, Nicole; Van der Heiden, Kim; Braster, Quinte; Drechsler, Maik; Daemen, Mat J.; Lutgens, Esther; Soehnlein, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis-associated diseases are the main cause of mortality and morbidity in western societies. The progression of atherosclerosis is a dynamic process evolving from early to advanced lesions that may become rupture-prone vulnerable plaques. Acute coronary syndromes are the clinical manifestation of life-threatening thrombotic events associated with high-risk vulnerable plaques. Hyperlipidemic mouse models have been extensively used in studying the mechanisms controlling initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. However, the understanding of mechanisms leading to atherosclerotic plaque destabilization has been hampered by the lack of proper animal models mimicking this process. Although various mouse models generate atherosclerotic plaques with histological features of human advanced lesions, a consensus model to study atherosclerotic plaque destabilization is still lacking. Hence, we studied the degree and features of plaque vulnerability in different mouse models of atherosclerotic plaque destabilization and find that the model based on the placement of a shear stress modifier in combination with hypercholesterolemia represent with high incidence the most human like lesions compared to the other models. PMID:26492161

  16. Senile plaque neurites in Alzheimer disease accumulate amyloid precursor protein.

    PubMed Central

    Cras, P; Kawai, M; Lowery, D; Gonzalez-DeWhitt, P; Greenberg, B; Perry, G

    1991-01-01

    Senile plaques are polymorphous beta-amyloid protein deposits found in the brain in Alzheimer disease and normal aging. This beta-amyloid protein is derived from a larger precursor molecule of which neurons are the principal producers in brain. We found that amyloid precursor protein (APP)-immunoreactive neurites were involved in senile plaques and that only a subset of these neurites showed markers for the abnormal filaments characteristic of neurofibrillary pathology. In the neocortex of nondemented individuals with senile plaques but spared of neurofibrillary pathology, dystrophic neurites in senile plaques showed only APP accumulation. In contrast, in the brains of Alzheimer patients, virtually all APP-immunoreactive neurites also showed immunoreactivity with ubiquitin, tau, and phosphorylated neurofilaments. The presence of tau and neurofilament epitopes in dystrophic neurites in senile plaques was correlated with the extent of neurofibrillary pathology in the surrounding brain tissue. Accumulation of APP and the formation of neurofibrillary pathology in senile plaque neurites are therefore distinct phenomena. Our findings suggest that APP accumulation in senile plaque neurites occurs prior to tau accumulation and is therefore more closely related to appearance of neuritic dystrophy. Images PMID:1652752

  17. The effects of pleural fluid drainage on respiratory function in mechanically ventilated patients after cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Brims, Fraser J H; Davies, Michael G; Elia, Andy; Griffiths, Mark J D

    2015-01-01

    Background Pleural effusions occur commonly after cardiac surgery and the effects of drainage on gas exchange in this population are not well established. We examined pulmonary function indices following drainage of pleural effusions in cardiac surgery patients. Methods We performed a retrospective study examining the effects of pleural fluid drainage on the lung function indices of patients recovering from cardiac surgery requiring mechanical ventilation for more than 7?days. We specifically analysed patients who had pleural fluid removed via an intercostal tube (ICT: drain group) compared with those of a control group (no effusion, no ICT). Results In the drain group, 52 ICTs were sited in 45 patients. The mean (SD) volume of fluid drained was 1180 (634) mL. Indices of oxygenation were significantly worse in the drain group compared with controls prior to drainage. The arterial oxygen tension (PaO2)/fractional inspired oxygen (FiO2) (P/F) ratio improved on day 1 after ICT placement (mean (SD), day 0: 31.01 (8.92) vs 37.18 (10.7); p<0.05) and both the P/F ratio and oxygenation index (OI: kPa/cm?H2O=PaO2/mean airway pressure×FiO2) demonstrated sustained improvement to day 5 (P/F day 5: 39.85 (12.8); OI day 0: 2.88 (1.10) vs day 5: 4.06 (1.73); both p<0.01). The drain group patients were more likely to have an improved mode of ventilation on day 1 compared with controls (p=0.028). Conclusions Pleural effusion after cardiac surgery may impair oxygenation. Drainage of pleural fluid is associated with a rapid and sustained improvement in oxygenation. PMID:26339492

  18. Interferon Gamma Release Assays for Diagnosis of Pleural Tuberculosis: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Ashutosh N; Agarwal, Ritesh; Gupta, Dheeraj; Dhooria, Sahajal; Behera, Digambar

    2015-08-01

    The role of interferon gamma release assays (IGRAs), although established for identifying latent tuberculosis, is still evolving in the diagnosis of active extrapulmonary tuberculosis. We systematically evaluated the diagnostic performance of blood- and pleural fluid-based IGRAs in tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE). We searched the PubMed and Embase databases for studies evaluating the use of commercially available IGRAs on blood and/or pleural fluid samples for diagnosing TPE. The quality of the studies included was assessed through the QUADAS-2 tool. The pooled estimates of sensitivity and specificity with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were generated using a bivariate random-effects model and examined using forest plots and hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic (HSROC) curves. Indeterminate IGRA results were included for sensitivity calculations. Heterogeneity was explored through subgroup analysis and meta-regression based on prespecified covariates. We identified 19 studies assessing the T.SPOT.TB and/or QuantiFERON assays. There were 20 and 14 evaluations, respectively, of whole-blood and pleural fluid assays, involving 1,085 and 727 subjects, respectively. There was only one good-quality study, and five studies used nonstandard assay thresholds. The pooled sensitivity and specificity for the blood assays were 0.77 (95% CI, 0.71 to 0.83) and 0.71 (95% CI, 0.65 to 0.76), respectively. The pooled sensitivity and specificity for the pleural fluid assays were 0.72 (95% CI, 0.55 to 0.84) and 0.78 (95% CI, 0.65 to 0.87), respectively. There was considerable heterogeneity; however, multivariate meta-regression did not identify any covariate with significant influence. There was no publication bias for blood assays. We conclude that commercial IGRAs, performed either on whole-blood or pleural fluid samples, have poor diagnostic accuracy in patients suspected to have TPE. PMID:25994163

  19. Diagnostic accuracy of pleural fluid tumor necrosis factor-? in tuberculous pleurisy: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhenzhen; Qin, Wenzhe; Li, Lei; Wu, Qin; Chen, Xuerong

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pleurisy is a common extra pulmonary complication of tuberculosis, but current methods for diagnosing it are fairly crude. Here we product a meta-analysis for the available evidence on the ability of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) in pleural fluid to serve as a diagnostic marker of tuberculous pleurisy (TP). Materials and Methods: We searched the PubMed, EMBASE, and Google Scholar databases systematically for studies measuring sensitivity, specificity and other measures of diagnostic accuracy of pleural fluid TNF-? in the diagnosis of TP were meta-analyzed by Stata, version 12 and meta-disc. Results: A total of six publications reporting seven case-control studies were identified. Pooled results indicated that pleural fluid TNF-? showed a diagnostic sensitivity of 0.89 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.83-0.93; range, 0.42-1.0) and a diagnostic specificity of 0.82 (95% CI: 0.78-0.86; range, 0.58-0.98). The pooled positive likelihood ratio was 4.78 (95% CI: 3.32-6.89); the negative likelihood ratio, 0.16 (95% CI: 0.1-0.27); the diagnostic odds ratio, 32.43 (95% CI: 14.48-72.6); and the area under the curve was 0.8556 (standard error of mean 0.0559). Conclusion: Pleural fluid TNF-? levels shows relatively high sensitivity but insufficient specificity for diagnosing TP. Pleural fluid TNF-? measurement may be useful in combination with clinical manifestations and conventional tests such as microbiological examination or pleural biopsy. PMID:26622262

  20. The future of stone research: rummagings in the attic, Randall's plaque, nanobacteria, and lessons from phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Ryall, Rosemary Lyons

    2008-05-01

    The prevention or cure of stone disease will be achieved only by identifying biochemical, physiological and molecular mechanisms operating before the formation of a calculus. Yet, the gradual increase in the total number of papers devoted to the study of kidney stones that has occurred since the beginning of the 21st century can be attributed almost entirely to papers concerned with the investigation of factors associated with urolithiasis after stones have already formed. The need to prevent stones by discovering how the human body routinely stops their formation in those of us who do not suffer from them is therefore as exigent as ever and a new approach to investigating the causes of stones is urgently needed. In this paper, I develop the view that stone research will best progress by examining and understanding how healthy plants and animals control the formation of biominerals. In addition to structures like bones, teeth, shells and spines, many organisms spanning the entire phylogenetic tree form intra- and extracellular granules which are use as storage depots for calcium and other important ions, which they can reclaim to maintain homeostasis or to satisfy specific needs during periods of high demand, such as shell formation, moulting or skeletal development. These electron-dense granules, which also bear an uncanny resemblance to calcified nanobacteria, are remarkably similar in general structure, size and composition to particles observed in healthy human kidneys and in Randall's plaque. Therefore, it is likely that the granules in human kidneys fulfil analogous functions to those in other organisms-particularly in calcium homeostasis. Their study in a large range of creatures has already provided a deep well of information about their structure, movement, composition, macromolecular content, synthesis and resorption, from which we can draw to quench our thirst for knowledge of basic mechanisms and events involved in the formation of human kidney stones. PMID:18286270

  1. Changes in atherosclerotic plaques induced by inhalation of diesel exhaust

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Ni; Kido, Takashi; Suzuki, Hisashi; Yang, Grace; Kavanagh, Terrance J.; Kaufman, Joel D.; Rosenfeld, Michael E.; van Breemen, Cornelis; van Eeden, Stephan F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Exposure to particulate matter air pollution may be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality; however, the biological mechanisms are unclear. We hypothesize that exposure to diesel exhaust (DE), an important source of traffic-related particulate air pollution, promotes changes of atherosclerotic plaque component that may lead to plaque vulnerability. Methods and results 30-week old ApoE knockout mice fed with regular chow inhaled DE (at 200 ?g/m3 of particulate) or filtered-air (control) for 7 weeks (6 h/day, 5 days/week) (12 mice/group). Total number of alveolar macrophages (p < 0.01) and alveolar macrophages positive for particles (p < 0.0001) were more than 8-fold higher after DE inhalation than the control. DE inhalation caused 1.5 to 3-fold increases in plaque lipid content (p<0.02), cellularity (p<0.02), foam cell formation (p<0.04), and smooth muscle cell content (p<0.05). The expression of oxidative stress markers, iNOS, CD36, and nitrotyrosine was significantly increased by 1.5 to 2-fold in plaques, with enhanced systemic lipid and DNA oxidation (p<0.02). Increased foam cells and the expression of iNOS (R2 = 0.72, p = 0.0081) and CD36 (R2 = 0.49, p = 0.015) in plaques were positively correlated with the magnitude of DE exposure. Conclusions Exposure to DE promotes changes in atherosclerotic plaques characteristic of unstable vulnerable plaques. Increased systemic and plaque oxidative stress markers suggest that these changes in plaques could be due to DE-induced oxidative stress. PMID:21435644

  2. Calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor associated with an odontome – a diverse lesion encountered

    PubMed Central

    Radheshyam, Chourasia; Alokenath, Bandyopadhyay; Kumar, Harish; Abikshyeet, Panda

    2015-01-01

    The human jaw is an exclusive habitat for odontogenic lesions. Ghost cells associated odontogenic lesions are a diverse group with a variety of presentations in the jaws. Calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor is a benign cystic neoplasm of odontogenic origin which demonstrates ghost cells in the epithelial component. This tumor sometimes mimics the features of a cyst clinically and radiographically, but histopathologically as well as behavior-wise shows the features of a tumor. Many classification systems have been proposed and revised from time to time. Presently a dualistic concept is highlighted to classify this group of lesions. The present case highlights a case of calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor associated with a complex composite odontome, which appeared like a cyst clinically and radiographically. PMID:26345145

  3. Clear cell variant of calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor: Case report with immunohistochemical findings

    PubMed Central

    Turatti, Eveline; Brasil, Juviano; Romañach, Mário-José; de Almeida, Oslei-Paes

    2015-01-01

    Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT) is a rare benign odontogenic neoplasm, locally aggressive, characterized by sheets and nests of polyhedral epithelial cells exhibiting eosinophilic cytoplasm or less often clear cytoplasm. Additional features include nuclear pleomorphism without mitotic activity, concentric calcifications, and deposits of amyloid. Herein, we present an additional example of clear cell variant of CEOT occurring in a 25-year-old female. Microscopically, the tumor consisted on proliferation of epithelial cells with eosinophilic, clear vacuolated cytoplasm interspersed with focal areas of amyloid deposition. Tumor cells were immunopositive for AE1/AE3, CK14, CK19, ?-catenin, CD138, and p63. Key words:Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor, clear cell, histopathology, immunohistochemistry. PMID:25810830

  4. Surgical excision of a giant calcified amorphous tumour of the right ventricle and right pulmonary artery.

    PubMed

    Prifti, Edvin; Kajo, Efrosina; Krakulli, Klodian; Ikonomi, Majlinda

    2015-12-01

    A cardiac calcified amorphous tumour (CCAT) is a rare non-neoplastic intracavitary mass with unknown causes. We describe a 32-year old male presenting with progressive dyspnoea, cough and oedemas. The transthoracic echocardiography and contrast-enhanced angio-computed tomography demonstrated a 4 × 10 cm calcified mass into the right ventricle and total occlusion of the right pulmonary artery. The patient underwent successful total removal of the mass through a transverse right ventriculotomy, and right pulmonary embolectomy. Histopathological examination of mass confirmed the diagnosis of a CCAT. The postoperative course was uneventful. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case with a confirmed diagnosis of CCAT at two different locations and the third undergoing a combined approach aiming at total mass excision. PMID:26371150

  5. Occipital calcified pseudoneoplasms of the neuraxis (CAPNON): understanding a rare pathology.

    PubMed

    Lyapichev, Kirill; Bregy, Amade; Shah, Ashish H; Shah, Kinjal; Desai, Mehul B; Petito, Carol; Komotar, Ricardo J

    2014-01-01

    Calcifying pseudoneoplasms of the neuraxis (CAPNON) are rare and typically benign lesions that can occur anywhere within the central nervous system. Aetiology of this lesion is unclear and surgical removal is usually curative. We present a 24-year-old male patient with a history of occipital migraines who was admitted after sudden onset seizure and loss of vision. CT and MRI demonstrated a small calcifying lesion in the right temporo-occipital lobe. The patient underwent gross total resection of the tumour mass and pathological analysis revealed a CAPNON. The preoperative diagnosis of CAPNON remains difficult due to unspecific radiological findings, yet a clear understanding of characteristic pathological findings and prognosis of CAPNON remains paramount. PMID:25480139

  6. Cynara scolymus affects malignant pleural mesothelioma by promoting apoptosis and restraining invasion

    PubMed Central

    Pulito, Claudio; Mori, Federica; Sacconi, Andrea; Casadei, Luca; Ferraiuolo, Maria; Valerio, Maria Cristina; Santoro, Raffaela; Goeman, Frauke; Maidecchi, Anna; Mattoli, Luisa; Manetti, Cesare; Di Agostino, Silvia; Muti, Paola; Blandino, Giovanni; Strano, Sabrina

    2015-01-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma is a poorly treated neoplasia arising from the pleural mesothelial lining. Here we document that the leaf extract of Cynara scolymus exerts broad antitumoral effects both in vitro and in vivo on mesothelioma cell lines. We found that Cynara scolymus treatment affects strongly cell growth, migration and tumor engraftment of mesothelioma cell lines. Strikingly, dietary feeding with Cynara scolymus leaf extract reduces the growth of mesothelioma xenografted tumors similarly to pemetrexed, a commonly employed drug in the treatment of mesothelioma. In aggregate our findings suggest that leaf extract of Cynara scolymus holds therapeutic potential for the treatment of mesothelioma. PMID:26136339

  7. Extralobar Pulmonary Sequestration Presenting with Recurring Massive Pleural Effusion in a Young Woman: A Challenging Case.

    PubMed

    Davoli, Fabio; Turello, Davide; Valente, Guido; Rena, Ottavio; Roncon, Alberto; Baietto, Guido; Casadio, Caterina

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of extralobar pulmonary sequestration (ELS) in a young woman, presenting with right recurring massive pleural effusion. The patient initially underwent a diagnostic Video Assisted Thoracic Surgery (VATS) for a suspected diffuse malignancy. After the aspiration of the pleural effusion we observed a highly vascularised cystic mass, with its origin from the right lower lobe. As we tried to retract the right lower lobe, the mass broke with massive bleeding requiring emergency right lateral thoracotomy. The mass was succesfully excised, resembling an extra-lobar pulmonary sequestration. The patient was discharged on post-operative day 5. PMID:26546093

  8. Cynara scolymus affects malignant pleural mesothelioma by promoting apoptosis and restraining invasion.

    PubMed

    Pulito, Claudio; Mori, Federica; Sacconi, Andrea; Casadei, Luca; Ferraiuolo, Maria; Valerio, Maria Cristina; Santoro, Raffaela; Goeman, Frauke; Maidecchi, Anna; Mattoli, Luisa; Manetti, Cesare; Di Agostino, Silvia; Muti, Paola; Blandino, Giovanni; Strano, Sabrina

    2015-07-20

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma is a poorly treated neoplasia arising from the pleural mesothelial lining. Here we document that the leaf extract of Cynara scolymus exerts broad antitumoral effects both in vitro and in vivo on mesothelioma cell lines. We found that Cynara scolymus treatment affects strongly cell growth, migration and tumor engraftment of mesothelioma cell lines. Strikingly, dietary feeding with Cynara scolymus leaf extract reduces the growth of mesothelioma xenografted tumors similarly to pemetrexed, a commonly employed drug in the treatment of mesothelioma. In aggregate our findings suggest that leaf extract of Cynara scolymus holds therapeutic potential for the treatment of mesothelioma. PMID:26136339

  9. Cytokine levels in pleural fluid as markers of acute rejection after lung transplantation*

    PubMed Central

    de Camargo, Priscila Cilene León Bueno; Afonso, José Eduardo; Samano, Marcos Naoyuki; Acencio, Milena Marques Pagliarelli; Antonangelo, Leila; Teixeira, Ricardo Henrique de Oliveira Braga

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to determine the levels of lactate dehydrogenase, IL-6, IL-8, and VEGF, as well as the total and differential cell counts, in the pleural fluid of lung transplant recipients, correlating those levels with the occurrence and severity of rejection. We analyzed pleural fluid samples collected from 18 patients at various time points (up to postoperative day 4). The levels of IL-6, IL-8, and VEGF tended to elevate in parallel with increases in the severity of rejection. Our results suggest that these levels are markers of acute graft rejection in lung transplant recipients. PMID:25210966

  10. Effective Treatment of Pleural Epitheloid Hemangio-endothelioma with Pazopanib: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Schallier, Denis; Berendes, Berend-Jan; Lefesvre, Pierre; Everaert, Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    A patient with a pleural epitheloid hemangio-endothelioma (EHE) who failed to respond to six cycles of initial chemotherapy with iphosphamide and epirubicine was treated with pazopanib in second-line. A significant subjective and objective metabolic response on (18)F-fluoro-deoxyglucose positron-emission tomography-computed tomography was noted. Based on this observation, the role of vasculoendothelial growth factor receptor inhibitors such as pazopanib (or other tyrosine kinase inhibitors), in the treatment of pleural EHE should be established through prospective collaborative studies as upfront medication and in combination with chemotherapy. PMID:26722064

  11. A rare case of hybrid odontogenic tumor: Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor combined with ameloblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Wadhwan, Vijay; Sharma, Preeti; Bansal, Vishal

    2015-01-01

    A hybrid odontogenic tumor comprising two distinct lesions is extremely rare. Nevertheless, such tumors have been reported in the literature for academic and research interest. However, it is still obscure whether they behave as a new entity or they solely present separate histopathologic patterns. Here, we present a true hybrid neoplasm of combined ameloblastoma and calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor showing intermixed histopathologic patterns of both the tumors. PMID:26604514

  12. Atherosclerotic plaque detection by confocal Brillouin and Raman microscopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Zhaokai; Basagaoglu, Berkay; Yakovlev, Vladislav V.

    2015-02-01

    Atherosclerosis, the development of intraluminal plaque, is a fundamental pathology of cardiovascular system and remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Biomechanical in nature, plaque rupture occurs when the mechanical properties of the plaque, related to the morphology and viscoelastic properties, are compromised, resulting in intraluminal thrombosis and reduction of coronary blood flow. In this report, we describe the first simultaneous application of confocal Brillouin and Raman microscopies to ex-vivo aortic wall samples. Such a non-invasive, high specific approach allows revealing a direct relationship between the biochemical and mechanical properties of atherosclerotic tissue.

  13. [A case of calcified chronic subdural hematoma wherein MRI was useful for decision of the treatment strategy].

    PubMed

    Ito, Miiko; Saito, Shinjiro; Kondo, Rei; Nagahata, Morio; Kayama, Takamasa

    2014-08-01

    Calcified chronic subdural hematoma is a rare condition, representing 0.4-2.6% of all chronic subdural hematomas. It is often difficult to remove the hematoma without damaging the brain, owing to the adhesion between hematoma capsule and brain. Therefore, surgical intervention in managing calcified chronic subdural hematoma cases is still considered controversial. We report a case of calcified chronic subdural hematoma, which was successfully performed under microscopic guidance. A 72-year-old man complained of progressive left hemiparesis of 6-month duration. A CT scan revealed a calcified chronic subdural hematoma, 10 cm long and 4.5 cm thick, in the right convexity. On MRI, T2-weighted images showed a thin layer of cerebrospinal fluid intensity between the hematoma capsule and brain. There was no brain edema adjacent to the chronic subdural hematoma. Based on these MRI observations, we believed that adhesion between the hematoma capsule and brain would be mild. We then planned and succeeded in total removal of the calcified chronic subdural hematoma mass under microscopic guidance. The left hemiparesis disappeared after surgery. The patient was discharged without any neurological deficit. While considering surgical management in calcified chronic subdural hematoma cases, it should be important to evaluate adhesion between the hematoma capsule and brain with MRI. PMID:25087759

  14. Proteomic evaluation of biological nanoparticles isolated from human kidney stones and calcified arteries.

    PubMed

    Shiekh, Farooq A; Charlesworth, Jon E; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Hunter, Larry W; Jayachandran, Muthuvel; Miller, Virginia M; Lieske, John C

    2010-10-01

    Calcifying biological nanoparticles (NPs) develop under cell culture conditions from homogenates of diverse tissue samples displaying extraosseous mineralization, including kidney stones and calcified aneurysms. Probes to definitively identify NPs in biological systems are lacking. Therefore, the aim of this study was to begin to establish a proteomic biosignature of NPs in order to facilitate more definitive investigation of their contribution to disease. Biological NPs derived from human kidney stones and calcified aneurysms were completely decalcified by overnight treatment with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid or brief incubation in HCl, as evidenced by lack of a calcium shell and of Alizarin Red S staining, by transmission electron microscopy and confocal microscopy, respectively. Decalcified NPs contained numerous proteins, including some from bovine serum and others of prokaryotic origin. Most prominent of the latter group was EF-Tu, which appeared to be identical to EF-Tu from Staphylococcus epidermidis. A monoclonal antibody against human EF-Tu recognized a protein in Western blots of total NP lysate, as well as in intact NPs by immunofluorescence and immunogold EM. Approximately 8% of NPs were quantitatively recognized by the antibody using flow cytometry. Therefore, we have defined methods to reproducibly decalcify biological NPs, and identified key components of their proteome. These elements, including EF-Tu, can be used as biomarkers to further define the processes that mediate propagation of biological NPs and their contribution to disease. PMID:20466084

  15. Pacific-wide contrast highlights resistance of reef calcifiers to ocean acidification

    PubMed Central

    Comeau, S.; Carpenter, R. C.; Nojiri, Y; Putnam, H. M.; Sakai, K.; Edmunds, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) and its associated decline in calcium carbonate saturation states is one of the major threats that tropical coral reefs face this century. Previous studies of the effect of OA on coral reef calcifiers have described a wide variety of outcomes for studies using comparable partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) ranges, suggesting that key questions remain unresolved. One unresolved hypothesis posits that heterogeneity in the response of reef calcifiers to high pCO2 is a result of regional-scale variation in the responses to OA. To test this hypothesis, we incubated two coral taxa (Pocillopora damicornis and massive Porites) and two calcified algae (Porolithon onkodes and Halimeda macroloba) under 400, 700 and 1000 ?atm pCO2 levels in experiments in Moorea (French Polynesia), Hawaii (USA) and Okinawa (Japan), where environmental conditions differ. Both corals and H. macroloba were insensitive to OA at all three locations, while the effects of OA on P. onkodes were location-specific. In Moorea and Hawaii, calcification of P. onkodes was depressed by high pCO2, but for specimens in Okinawa, there was no effect of OA. Using a study of large geographical scale, we show that resistance to OA of some reef species is a constitutive character expressed across the Pacific. PMID:25056628

  16. Dose-Volume Histogram Parameters and Clinical Factors Associated With Pleural Effusion After Chemoradiotherapy in Esophageal Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Shirai, Katsuyuki; Tamaki, Yoshio; Kitamoto, Yoshizumi; Murata, Kazutoshi; Satoh, Yumi; Higuchi, Keiko; Nonaka, Tetsuo; Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Katoh, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Takeo; Nakano, Takashi

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: To investigate the dose-volume histogram parameters and clinical factors as predictors of pleural effusion in esophageal cancer patients treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Methods and Materials: Forty-three esophageal cancer patients treated with definitive CRT from January 2001 to March 2007 were reviewed retrospectively on the basis of the following criteria: pathologically confirmed esophageal cancer, available computed tomography scan for treatment planning, 6-month follow-up after CRT, and radiation dose {>=}50 Gy. Exclusion criteria were lung metastasis, malignant pleural effusion, and surgery. Mean heart dose, mean total lung dose, and percentages of heart or total lung volume receiving {>=}10-60 Gy (Heart-V{sub 10} to V{sub 60} and Lung-V{sub 10} to V{sub 60}, respectively) were analyzed in relation to pleural effusion. Results: The median follow-up time was 26.9 months (range, 6.7-70.2) after CRT. Of the 43 patients, 15 (35%) developed pleural effusion. By univariate analysis, mean heart dose, Heart-V{sub 10} to V{sub 60}, and Lung-V{sub 50} to V{sub 60} were significantly associated with pleural effusion. Poor performance status, primary tumor of the distal esophagus, and age {>=}65 years were significantly related with pleural effusion. Multivariate analysis identified Heart-V{sub 50} as the strongest predictive factor for pleural effusion (p = 0.01). Patients with Heart-V{sub 50} <20%, 20%{<=} Heart-V{sub 50} <40%, and Heart-V{sub 50} {>=}40% had 6%, 44%, and 64% of pleural effusion, respectively (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Heart-V{sub 50} is a useful parameter for assessing the risk of pleural effusion and should be reduced to avoid pleural effusion.

  17. Saphenous vein aorto-coronary graft atherosclerosis in patients with chronic kidney disease: more plaque calcification and necrosis, but less vasoconstrictor potential.

    PubMed

    Baars, Theodor; Kleinbongard, Petra; Böse, Dirk; Konorza, Thomas; Möhlenkamp, Stefan; Hippler, Jörg; Erbel, Raimund; Heusch, Gerd

    2012-11-01

    Atherosclerotic coronary arteries are more calcified in patients with than without chronic kidney disease (CKD). We addressed the potential for coronary microvascular obstruction in patients with and without CKD during stenting for saphenous vein aorto-coronary graft (SVG) stenosis under protection with a distal occlusion/aspiration device. In patients with and without CKD (n = 20/20), SVG plaque composition was analyzed from virtual histology using intravascular ultrasound analysis before stent implantation. There was more dense calcium and more necrotic core in patients with than without CKD (14 ± 3 vs. 3 ± 1 % and 21 ± 3 vs. 12 ± 2 % of plaque volume, respectively). Coronary aspirate was retrieved during stent implantation and divided into particulate debris and plasma. Patients with CKD had more particulate debris and calcium release than patients without CKD. In contrast, the release of serotonin was less in patients with than without CKD (0.4 ± 0.1 vs. 1.2 ± 0.3 ?mol/L), whereas that of catecholamines, endothelin, tissue factor, thromboxane, tumor necrosis factor ?, and C reactive protein was not significantly different. Confirming the biochemical results, aspirate plasma from patients with CKD induced less vasoconstriction of rat mesenteric arteries than that from patients without CKD (with endothelium (+E), 26 ± 7 %; without endothelium (-E): 28 ± 7 % vs. +E, 68 ± 12 %; -E: 95 ± 16 % of maximum KCl-induced vasoconstriction). Graft atherosclerosis of patients with CKD is more degenerated and releases more particulate debris and calcium, but the aspirate has surprisingly less serotonin and vasoconstrictor potential. PMID:23052640

  18. 33. HISTORIC PLAQUE MARKING WHERE JOHNSTON DIED, ADJACENT TO PATHWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. HISTORIC PLAQUE MARKING WHERE JOHNSTON DIED, ADJACENT TO PATHWAY WITH CONCRETE CULVERT LEADING NORTH OUT OF RAVINE TOWARD JOHNSTON MEMORIAL SITE. VIEW NW. - Shiloh National Military Park Tour Roads, Shiloh, Hardin County, TN

  19. Elevation view of dedication plaque on east wall of south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevation view of dedication plaque on east wall of south lobby - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Pacific Branch, Main Mental Health Building, 11301 Wilshire Boulevard, West Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  20. 7. DETAIL VIEW SHOWING BUILDER'S PLAQUE ON UPPER CHORD ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. DETAIL VIEW SHOWING BUILDER'S PLAQUE ON UPPER CHORD ON SOUTHWEST CORNER OF BRIDGE, LOOKING EAST - Shenandoah River Bridge, Spanning North fork of Shenandoah River on Virginia State Route 767, Quicksburg, Shenandoah County, VA

  1. 6. VIEW OF COMMEMORATIVE PLAQUE, EAST APPROACH GUARDRAIL, WHICH STATES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF COMMEMORATIVE PLAQUE, EAST APPROACH GUARDRAIL, WHICH STATES 'SALINE RIVER; ARK. GENERAL CONST. CO.; CONTRACTOR; ARKANSAS; STATE HIGHWAY DEPARTMENT; 1928, BRIDGE NO. __.' - Saline River Bridge, County Highway 365 across Saline River, Benton, Saline County, AR

  2. 5. DETAIL VIEW, LOOKING WEST, SHOWING STONE PLAQUE INSCRIBED 'USRA, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. DETAIL VIEW, LOOKING WEST, SHOWING STONE PLAQUE INSCRIBED 'USRA, 1936' LOCATED IN EAST ELEVATION (tHIS PHOTOGRAPH IS FOGGED) - Spring Lake Bridge, Spanning Bob Barnes Branch at County Road No. 36D, Belleville, Yell County, AR

  3. 156. 1932 UNITED DAUGHTERS OF CONFEDERACY, DISTRICT CHAPTERS MEMORIAL PLAQUE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    156. 1932 UNITED DAUGHTERS OF CONFEDERACY, DISTRICT CHAPTERS MEMORIAL PLAQUE AND REPLACEMENT RED OAK MEMORIAL PLANTING. - George Washington Memorial Parkway, Along Potomac River from McLean to Mount Vernon, VA, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, VA

  4. Clathrin and Cx43 gap junction plaque endoexocytosis

    SciTech Connect

    Nickel, Beth M.; DeFranco, B. Hewa; Gay, Vernon L.; Murray, Sandra A.

    2008-10-03

    In earlier transmission electron microscopic studies, we have described pentilaminar gap junctional membrane invaginations and annular gap junction vesicles coated with short, electron-dense bristles. The similarity between these electron-dense bristles and the material surrounding clathrin-coated pits led us to suggest that the dense bristles associated with gap junction structures might be clathrin. To confirm that clathrin is indeed associated with annular gap junction vesicles and gap junction plaques, quantum dot immuno-electron microscopic techniques were used. We report here that clathrin associates with both connexin 43 (Cx43) gap junction plaques and pentilaminar gap junction vesicles. An important finding was the preferential localization of clathrin to the cytoplasmic surface of the annular or of the gap junction plaque membrane of one of the two contacting cells. This is consistent with the possibility that the direction of gap junction plaque internalization into one of two contacting cells is regulated by clathrin.

  5. Aggregative Behavior of Bacteria Isolated from Canine Dental Plaque

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, David R.; Wilson, Michael; Buckley, Catherine M. F.; Spratt, David A.

    2006-01-01

    Interbacterial adhesion of bacteria isolated from canine dental plaque was assessed by performing a visual coaggregation assay. Using conditions mimicking those likely to be encountered in vivo, the entire cultivable plaque microbiota from a single dog was assessed, and eight (6.7%) unique coaggregation interactions were detected for 120 crosses. Transmission electron microscopy was used to visualize several of the bacteria in isolation and as coaggregates, which revealed surface structures that may be involved in adhesion and coaggregation. The results of this study indicate that the prevalence of coaggregating pairs of dental plaque bacteria in dogs is similar to the prevalence of coaggregating pairs of dental plaque bacteria reported in humans. In addition, genera found in both hosts generally exhibited similar coaggregation reactions; however, autoaggregation was found to be more common among oral bacteria isolated from dogs. PMID:16885267

  6. 38. 100 foot through truss bridge original identification plaque ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. 100 foot through truss - bridge original identification plaque located on the top of the north portal entrance. - Weidemeyer Bridge, Spanning Thomes Creek at Rawson Road, Corning, Tehama County, CA

  7. 6. WEST FRONT DETAIL, SHOWING COMPANY NAME PLAQUE AND UPPER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. WEST FRONT DETAIL, SHOWING COMPANY NAME PLAQUE AND UPPER FLOOR FENESTRATION. VIEW TO EAST. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, Becker-Hazelton Company Warehouse, 280 Iowa Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  8. 8. DETAIL OF EAST FRONT, SHOWING COMPANY NAME PLAQUE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. DETAIL OF EAST FRONT, SHOWING COMPANY NAME PLAQUE AND PARAPET. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, Carr, Ryder & Adams Company, Powerhouse, Tenth & Jackson Streets, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  9. 32. STUDIO VIEW OF PLAQUE PLACED ON MILL HOUSE AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. STUDIO VIEW OF PLAQUE PLACED ON MILL HOUSE AT TIME OF COMPLETION, COMMEMORATING EDWARD J. LUKE (SEE TEXT) - Sperry Corn Elevator Complex, Weber Avenue (North side), West of Edison Street, Stockton, San Joaquin County, CA

  10. Contemporary carotid imaging: from degree of stenosis to plaque vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Brinjikji, Waleed; Huston, John; Rabinstein, Alejandro A; Kim, Gyeong-Moon; Lerman, Amir; Lanzino, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Carotid artery stenosis is a well-established risk factor of ischemic stroke, contributing to up to 10%-20% of strokes or transient ischemic attacks. Many clinical trials over the last 20 years have used measurements of carotid artery stenosis as a means to risk stratify patients. However, with improvements in vascular imaging techniques such as CT angiography and MR angiography, ultrasonography, and PET/CT, it is now possible to risk stratify patients, not just on the degree of carotid artery stenosis but also on how vulnerable the plaque is to rupture, resulting in ischemic stroke. These imaging techniques are ushering in an emerging paradigm shift that allows for risk stratifications based on the presence of imaging features such as intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH), plaque ulceration, plaque neovascularity, fibrous cap thickness, and presence of a lipid-rich necrotic core (LRNC). It is important for the neurosurgeon to be aware of these new imaging techniques that allow for improved patient risk stratification and outcomes. For example, a patient with a low-grade stenosis but an ulcerated plaque may benefit more from a revascularization procedure than a patient with a stable 70% asymptomatic stenosis with a thick fibrous cap. This review summarizes the current state-of-the-art advances in carotid plaque imaging. Currently, MRI is the gold standard in carotid plaque imaging, with its high resolution and high sensitivity for identifying IPH, ulceration, LRNC, and inflammation. However, MRI is limited due to time constraints. CT also allows for high-resolution imaging and can accurately detect ulceration and calcification, but cannot reliably differentiate LRNC from IPH. PET/CT is an effective technique to identify active inflammation within the plaque, but it does not allow for assessment of anatomy, ulceration, IPH, or LRNC. Ultrasonography, with the aid of contrast enhancement, is a cost-effective technique to assess plaque morphology and characteristics, but it is limited in sensitivity and specificity for detecting LRNC, plaque hemorrhage, and ulceration compared with MRI. Also summarized is how these advanced imaging techniques are being used in clinical practice to risk stratify patients with low- and high-grade carotid artery stenosis. For example, identification of IPH on MRI in patients with low-grade carotid artery stenosis is a risk factor for failure of medical therapy, and studies have shown that such patients may fair better with carotid endarterectomy (CEA). MR plaque imaging has also been found to be useful in identifying revascularization candidates who would be better candidates for CEA than carotid artery stenting (CAS), as high intraplaque signal on time of flight imaging is associated with vulnerable plaque and increased rates of adverse events in patients undergoing CAS but not CEA. PMID:26230478

  11. Vascular malformation mimicking multiple sclerosis active plaque: Usefulness of susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) to perform correct diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Marsecano, Claudia; Perri, Marco; Michelini, Giulia; Varrassi, Marco; Splendiani, Alessandra; di Cesare, Ernesto; Masciocchi, Carlo; Gallucci, Massimo

    2015-10-01

    Brain focal hyperdensity areas are common findings in computed tomography examinations, often further evaluated in magnetic resonance imaging exams. These are usually haemosiderin and calcified perivascular clusters known as cerebral microbleeds and may be secondary signs of brain disorders. Cerebral microbleeds are paramagnetic and ferromagnetic substances determining magnetic field inhomogeneity. Susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) performed at 3T with phase post-processing is very useful in evaluating this field variation. In fact in the past decade SWI has been increasingly reported for its clinical value in adults with neurologic disorders, traumas, arterial venous malformations, occult venous diseases, tumours and functional brain imaging. The occasional computed tomography findings of single or multiple focal hyperdense areas can mimic many of these brain disorders and lead to misinterpretations. For these reason it is useful to have a more detailed diagnosis with MRI brain examination. The authors highlight the role of SWI sequence in the differential diagnosis among active plaque, vascular malformation and haemorrhagic lesion in a case report of a 41-year-old woman suffering from multiple sclerosis with a focal hyperdense area reported in a computed tomography brain examination. PMID:26450102

  12. Near-IR imaging of interproximal lesions from occlusal surfaces and the influence of stains and plaque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fried, Daniel; Bühler, Christopher M.; Ngaotheppitak, Patara; Darling, Cynthia L.

    2006-02-01

    Dental enamel manifests high transparency in the near-IR (NIR). Our previous work demonstrated that NIR light at 1310-nm is ideally suited for the transillumination of interproximal dental caries (dental decay in between teeth) and that it can also be used to image decay in the pits and fissures of the occlusal (biting) surfaces of posterior teeth where most new dental decay occurs. Early occlusal lesions cannot be detected by x-rays during the early stages of lesion development due to the overlapping topography of the crown of the tooth. Stains and non-calcified plaque are not visible in the NIR enabling better discrimination of demineralized areas. We also demonstrate that interproximal lesions can be imaged from the occlusal surface (from above). Moreover, multiple illumination and detector angles can be exploited for optimal contrast between caries and sound tissue. These measurements suggest that NIR imaging offers significant advantages over the conventional visual, tactile and radiographic caries detection methods and other optical caries detection and imaging techniques.

  13. Detail of plaque beneath column on the south parapet at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of plaque beneath column on the south parapet at the west end of the bridge. The plaque reads ?1914; Mayor E.J. Drussel; Councilmen E.S. Henry, E.F. Hogan, R.P. Lamdin, C.F. Ross, J.H. Shuppert; Leonard & Day, Engineers; C.H. Gildersleeve, Builder.? - First Street Bridge, Spanning Napa River at First Street between Soscol Avenue & Juarez Street, Napa, Napa County, CA

  14. Effect of rinse with calcium enriched milk on plaque fluid.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, M; Matsunaga, K; Kadoma, Y

    1999-09-01

    Previous research has shown that rinsing the mouth with milk significantly diminished the pH in dental plaque fluid; however, the degree of saturation with respect to the dental enamel (DS) was not significantly decreased because of an increase in the calcium ion concentration in plaque fluid. The aim of this study was to investigate the cariostatic effect of adding calcium to milk on the DS value of the plaque fluid after rinsing. Plaque samples were collected from 8 Japanese male dental students. Prior to plaque collection, all subjects refrained from practicing oral hygiene for 48 hr and fasted overnight. Supragingival plaque samples were collected from one side of the mouth of each subject, and then collected from the other side, following a 30-second rinse with 15 mL of calcium-enriched milk, which was prepared by adding calcium carbonate to ordinary milk, and a 10-minute waiting period. The samples were cleared by centrifugation, and the plaque fluid was analyzed for inorganic ions and pH, using an ion chromatograph and pH microelectrode, respectively. The calcium ion concentration of the milk was 6.4 mM, which was about 36% higher than that of ordinary milk. The pH decreased significantly (p<5%) from 6.4 to 6.1 following the rinse with calcium enriched milk, as tested by the paired t-test. The decrease in pH might have caused a reduction of the DS value; however, it was compensated for by a significant (p<0.5%) increase in the calcium ion concentration of plaque fluid. PMID:12160258

  15. Molecular MRI of Atherosclerotic Plaque With Targeted Contrast Agents

    PubMed Central

    Sosnovik, David E.; Caravan, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Molecular MRI of atherosclerosis involves the use of novel contrast agents to image cellular and molecular processes within atherosclerotic plaque. Agents to image plaque lipid content, inflammation, angiogenesis, and thrombosis have been developed and studied extensively in animal models of atherosclerosis and vascular injury. Selected agents have also been studied in humans, with highly promising initial results. In this brief review, recent advances as well as opportunities and challenges in the field are discussed. PMID:20019886

  16. Sensitive detection of tritium in southern blot and plaque hybridizations

    SciTech Connect

    Bartnik, E.; Borsuk, P.; Pieniazek, N.J.

    1981-09-15

    A sensitive method for detecting /sup 3/H-labeled probes in Southern blot and plaque hybridizations is described. The method is a combination of dipping nitrocellulose filters in melted Permablend III and preflashing X-ray films. About 10 cpm per band or plaque can be detected after 1 week. This method is used to detect cloned rDNA from Aspergillus nidulans and cloned variant sequences of calf satellite I DNA.

  17. Plaque retention on elastomeric ligatures. An in vivo study

    PubMed Central

    CONDÒ, R.; CASAGLIA, A.; CONDÒ, S.G.; CERRONI, L.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Fixed orthodontic appliances make it difficult to maintain the oral hygiene, resulting in plaque accumulation. Retention of bacterial plaque, represents a risk for white spot lesions and development of periodontal disease. Aim Purpose of this study was to determine in vivo the retention of plaque on three different elastic ligatures, in comparison with stainless steel ligature, to determine a possible association between type of ligatures and accumulation of microorganisms. Material and Methods three elastic ligation systems were analyzed for plaque retention: ring-shape, clear, latex ligatures (Leone® Spa), ring-shape, grey, polyurethane ligatures (Micerium® Spa) and grey, polyurethane, Slide low-friction ligatures (Leone® Spa), compared with stainless steel ligatures (Leone® Spa) used as control. Forthy orthodontic patients undergoing fixed orthodontic therapy were selected. A sample for each type of ligature were applied inside the oral cavity of each subject. Samples were kept in the oral cavity for 28 days, ligating 0.16 X 0.22 stainless steel archwire to stainless steel orthodontic premolars brackets. The presence of bacterical slime was quantified by spectrophotometric method (crystal violet-Bouin’s fixative) and morphological observations was evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Results From analysis of bacterical slime emerges that all the elastics showed a low plaque retention, especially if compared to the group of steinless steel ligatures, that presented a greater plaque adhesion, statistically significant compared to the Slide group (r<0.0002) and the two elastic groups (r<0.0001). This study reported no significant difference between the Slide ligatures and the traditional elastic ligatures as regards the retention of plaque. SEM images showed presence of cocci, rods and few filamentous organisms and an interbacterial matrix in all observed samples. Conclusion Elastomeric ligatures showed a significant lower susceptibility to plaque adhesion, in comparison to the stainless steel of the metallic ligatures. No statistically significant difference was observed among the elastic devices. PMID:23741603

  18. Urease and Dental Plaque Microbial Profiles in Children

    PubMed Central

    Morou-Bermudez, Evangelia; Rodriguez, Selena; Bello, Angel S.; Dominguez-Bello, Maria G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Urease enzymes produced by oral bacteria generate ammonia, which can have a significant impact on the oral ecology and, consequently, on oral health. To evaluate the relationship of urease with dental plaque microbial profiles in children as it relates to dental caries, and to identify the main contributors to this activity. Methods 82 supragingival plaque samples were collected from 44 children at baseline and one year later, as part of a longitudinal study on urease and caries in children. DNA was extracted; the V3–V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified and sequenced using 454 pyrosequencing. Urease activity was measured using a spectrophotometric assay. Data were analyzed with Qiime. Results Plaque urease activity was significantly associated with the composition of the microbial communities of the dental plaque (Baseline P = 0.027, One Year P = 0.012). The bacterial taxa whose proportion in dental plaque exhibited significant variation by plaque urease levels in both visits were the family Pasteurellaceae (Baseline P<0.001; One Year P = 0.0148), especially Haemophilus parainfluenzae. No association was observed between these bacteria and dental caries. Bacteria in the genus Leptotrichia were negatively associated with urease and positively associated with dental caries (Bonferroni P<0.001). Conclusions Alkali production by urease enzymes primarily from species in the family Pasteurellaceae can be an important ecological determinant in children’s dental plaque. Further studies are needed to establish the role of urease-associated bacteria in the acid/base homeostasis of the dental plaque, and in the development and prediction of dental caries in children. PMID:26418220

  19. Vulnerable plaque intervention: State of the art.

    PubMed

    Young, John J; Phillips, Harry R; Marso, Steven P; Granada, Juan F; McPherson, John A; Waksman, Ron; Steinhubl, Steven R; Schwartz, Robert S; Stone, Gregg W

    2008-02-15

    Progressive atherosclerotic disease is responsible for many of the late adverse clinical events that detract from the high procedural and clinical success of percutaneous coronary intervention. Despite recent advances in catheter based technology for the treatment of obstructive coronary artery disease, the greater risk to the patient over time may in fact come from the significant rate of acute coronary events triggered by nonculprit and/or nonobstructive coronary artery lesions. These areas of vulnerability within the epicardial coronary tree have generated a great deal of interest surrounding the concepts of vulnerable plaque (VP), vulnerable blood and the vulnerable patient. This 'state of the art' review discusses the limitations of coronary angiography alone in providing risk assessment; reviews the underlying biological concepts of VP; discusses evolving noninvasive and invasive imaging technologies for the detection of VP; and finally provides a futuristic look at how the field of interventional cardiology may transcend the traditional angiogram and move toward a more comprehensive treatment approach that benefits the patients' overall coronary health. PMID:18288729

  20. Prolidase activity in chronic plaque psoriasis patients

    PubMed Central

    Aksoy, Nurten; Ozgöztas, Orhan; Sezen, Hatice; Yesilova, Yavuz; Turan, Enver

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Psoriasis is a chronic, inflammatory, T-cell-mediated and hyperproliferative skin disease characterized by erythematous, squamous, sharply circumscribed and infiltrated plaques. The metabolisms of the collagen proteins undergo considerable changes due to the acceleration of their turnovers as a result of increased prolidase activity in psoriasis patients. Aim To determine the level of prolidase activity in psoriasis patients and evaluate its relationship with the oxidative system. Material and methods The serum prolidase enzyme activity, total antioxidant levels and total oxidant levels of 40 psoriasis patients and a control group including 47 healthy individuals were analyzed by using their serum samples, and their oxidative stress indices were calculated. Results The prolidase levels (p < 0.01), total oxidant levels (p < 0.01) and oxidative stress index levels (p < 0.001) of the patient group were higher than the corresponding parameters in the control group. The total antioxidant level was low (p < 0.01). Although a positive correlation was found between the prolidase and total antioxidant levels and the total oxidant level, no correlation was found between prolidase and the oxidative stress index. Conclusions It has been determined that the activity of the prolidase enzyme increases due to the increased collage turnover in psoriasis patients. Increased serum oxidant levels and oxidative stress indices values may play a role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. PMID:26015776

  1. Isolation of Helicobacter pylori from dental plaque: A microbiological study

    PubMed Central

    Sudhakar, Uma; Anusuya, C. N.; Ramakrishnan, T.; Vijayalakshmi, R.

    2008-01-01

    Aim The aim of our study was to isolate H. pylori from dental plaque in gastric and duodenal ulcer patients and compare it with dental plaque of healthy subjects. Materials and Methods Fifty patients in the age range of 25-50 years who were endoscopically proven cases of duodenal and gastric ulcer were chosen. H. pylorus was isolated from the dental plaque of these patients using culture method and rapid urease test (RUT). It was compared with the dental plaque from control group (25 students). The specificity and sensitivity of RUT was compared with culture method. The oral hygiene index (OHI) score and plaque index were assessed. Results Ten percent positivity was observed in the study group by culture. Though RUT showed 70% positive isolation it is neither a specific test nor a conclusive test as compared to culture. The result correlates with oral hygiene in study population. Conclusion Further, more studies are needed to compare RUT and culture, with serology and polymerase chain reactions. The ability to detect H. pylori from dental plaque using these methods offer the potential for the noninvasive test for infection and would aid in support of oral transmission of H. pylori. PMID:20142948

  2. Preliminary study of the detectability of coronary plaque with PET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delso, G.; Martinez-Möller, A.; Bundschuh, R. A.; Nekolla, S. G.; Ziegler, S. I.; Schwaiger, M.

    2011-04-01

    The evaluation of coronary plaque vulnerability could be of great diagnostic value in cardiology. Positron emission tomography (PET) is a good candidate due to its ability to quantify micromolar concentrations of targeted drugs. However, the detectability of sub-voxel targets such as coronary plaque is limited by partial volume effects and by cardiorespiratory motion. The goal of this paper is to investigate the impact of these factors in the detectability of plaque uptake. Radioactive markers were implanted on the epicardium of a pig and in vivo scans were performed. This was complemented with phantom measurements to determine the minimum detectable uptake as a function of background activity. Simulations were used to evaluate the effect of cardiorespiratory motion on the reconstructed lesions. Despite cardiorespiratory motion of up to 7 mm, the markers were detectable in the in vivo scans even after the injection of background. A lower limit of 250 Bq was found for a target to be detectable. Motion reduced the contrast of the reconstructed lesions to 23% of their static counterpart. Respiratory gating improved this to 49% of the static value. The results suggest that coronary plaque evaluation with PET is possible, provided that sufficient plaque-to-myocardium uptake contrast (50 to 100) can be achieved. This requirement increases exponentially for lesions with uptake below 250 Bq. The described experiments provide a means of estimating the minimum uptake and contrast required to ensure the detectability of plaque lesions.

  3. Dosimetry for 125I seed (model 6711) in eye plaques.

    PubMed

    Chiu-Tsao, S T; Anderson, L L; O'Brien, K; Stabile, L; Liu, J C

    1993-01-01

    The effect of eye plaque materials (gold backing and silastic seed-carrier insert) on the dose distribution around a single 125I seed has been measured, using cubic lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) 1 mm on an edge, in a solid water eye phantom embedded in a solid water head phantom. With an 125I seed (model 6711) positioned in the center slot of the silastic insert for a 20-mm plaque of the design used in the collaborative ocular melanoma study (COMS), dose was measured at 2-mm intervals along the plaque central axis (the seed's transverse axis) and at various off-axis points, both with and without the COMS gold backing placed over the insert. Monte Carlo calculations (MORSE code) were performed, as well, for these configurations and closely the same geometry but assuming a large natural water phantom. Additional Monte Carlo calculations treated the case, both for 20- and 12-mm gold plaques, where the silastic insert is replaced by natural water. Relative to previous measurements taken in homogeneous medium of the same material (without the eye plaque), the dose reduction found by both Monte Carlo and TLD methods was greater at points farther from the seed along the central axis and, for a given central-axis depth, at larger off-axis distances. Removal of the gold backing from the plaque did not make measurable difference in the dose reduction results (10% at 1 cm). PMID:8497229

  4. [A case of pulmonary Mycobacterium kansasii infection with pleural effusion, distinguished from pulmonary tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yosuke; Kurosawa, Takayuki; Hosaka, Kiminori

    2014-09-01

    A case of pulmonary Mycobacterium kansasii infection with pleural effusion is very rare. We report a case of pulmonary Mycobacterium kansasii infection with pleural effusion, distinguished from pulmonary tuberculosis. A 44-year-old man presented to a clinic with a productive cough, sputum, and loss of appetite for several months. Chest X-ray and chest computed tomography (CT) showed right pleural effusion, centrilobular nodules and infiltrative shadows with cavities in the bilateral lung fields. The direct smear examination showed positive acid-fast bacilli (Gaffky 5). He was referred to our hospital for suspected recurrent pulmonary tuberculosis. We started anti-tuberculosis drugs because pulmonary tuberculosis complicated with pleurisy was first suspected from the findings of high ADA level (78.6 IU/l) of the effusion and positive result of interferon-gamma release assay (QuantiFERON TB-2G). But Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. avium complex was not identified by the polymerase chain reaction method and the culture of the sputum was negative. At a later date, Mycobacterium kansasii was detected by sputum culture. The patient was diagnosed as pulmonary Mycobacterium kansasii infection and treatment with anti-tuberculosis drugs including RFP resulted in a good clinical response. This case was a rare case of pulmonary Mycobacterium kansasii infection with pleural effusion, distinguished from pulmonary tuberculosis. PMID:25730945

  5. Ultrasound-induced lung hemorrhage: Role of acoustic boundary conditions at the pleural surface

    E-print Network

    Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

    Ultrasound-induced lung hemorrhage: Role of acoustic boundary conditions at the pleural surface intercostal tissue and lung was evaluated as a possible explanation for the enhanced lung damage the volume of air inspired and expired. The acoustic impedance difference between intercostal tissue and lung

  6. Primary pleural effusion posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder: Distinction from secondary involvement and effusion lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Ohori, N P; Whisnant, R E; Nalesnik, M A; Swerdlow, S H

    2001-07-01

    Pleural effusion presentation of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is relatively uncommon. Most examples of effusion-based PTLD have been secondary to widespread solid organ involvement, and are associated with an aggressive clinical course. We report on a case of primary effusion PTLD in a 70-yr-old male liver transplant recipient with a history of hepatitis B infection. Cytomorphologically, the pleural fluid specimen showed a monomorphous population of intermediate to large-sized transformed lymphoid cells, with irregular multilobated nuclear contours and readily identifiable mitotic figures. Flow cytometric immunophenotypic studies revealed a CD5-negative, CD10-negative, lambda immunoglobulin light chain-positive, monoclonal B-lymphocyte (CD19-positive/CD20-positive) population. The immunocytochemical stain for CD30 antigen was negative. In situ hybridization study for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) early RNA (EBER) and Southern blot analysis for EBV terminal repeat sequences were both positive. Southern blot analysis for human herpes virus-8 (HHV-8) was negative. No solid-organ PTLD was identified, and the cytologic results supported the diagnosis of primary effusion PTLD. Immunosuppression was decreased, and 8 mo following the diagnosis of pleural fluid PTLD, the patient was stable and his pleural effusion had markedly diminished. Recognition of primary effusion PTLD and its distinction from PTLD secondarily involving the body fluids and from other lymphomas is important, since the behavior and prognosis appear different. PMID:11466813

  7. Journal Article: Localized Pleural Thickening: Smoking and Exposure to Libby Vermiculite

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is limited research on the combined effects of smoking and asbestos exposure on risk of localized pleural thickening (LPT). This analysis uses data from the Marysville cohort of workers occupationally exposed to Libby amphibole asbestos (LAA). Workers were interviewed to ...

  8. [Effect of cetylpyridinium chloride on formation and metabolism of human dental plaque].

    PubMed

    Martin, L M; Vono, A Z; Pinheiro, C E; Abdo, R C; Bijella, M F

    1990-01-01

    In this work, the Cepacol (cetylpyridinium chlorid) diluted 1:2, when used for mouthwashes three time a day decreased the "in situ" formation of human dental plaque, however it didn't decreased neither the plaque fermentation, nor the IEP synthesis by the plaque. When the Cepacol was used for treating the "in vitro" dental plaque in both 1:10 and 1:20 dilutions, decreased the fermentation and the IEP synthesis of the "in vitro" plaque. PMID:2135339

  9. Pleural cancer mortality in Spain: time-trends and updating of predictions up to 2020

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A total of 2,514,346 metric tons (Mt) of asbestos were imported into Spain from 1906 until the ban on asbestos in 2002. Our objective was to study pleural cancer mortality trends as an indicator of mesothelioma mortality and update mortality predictions for the periods 2011–2015 and 2016–2020 in Spain. Methods Log-linear Poisson models were fitted to study the effect of age, period of death and birth cohort (APC) on mortality trends. Change points in cohort- and period-effect curvatures were assessed using segmented regression. Fractional power-link APC models were used to predict mortality until 2020. In addition, an alternative model based on national asbestos consumption figures was also used to perform long-term predictions. Results Pleural cancer deaths increased across the study period, rising from 491 in 1976–1980 to 1,249 in 2006–2010. Predictions for the five-year period 2016–2020 indicated a total of 1,319 pleural cancer deaths (264 deaths/year). Forecasts up to 2020 indicated that this increase would continue, though the age-adjusted rates showed a levelling-off in male mortality from 2001 to 2005, corresponding to the lower risk in post-1960 generations. Among women, rates were lower and the mortality trend was also different, indicating that occupational exposure was possibly the single factor having most influence on pleural cancer mortality. Conclusion The cancer mortality-related consequences of human exposure to asbestos are set to persist and remain in evidence until the last surviving members of the exposed cohorts have disappeared. It can thus be assumed that occupationally-related deaths due to pleural mesothelioma will continue to occur in Spain until at least 2040. PMID:24195451

  10. Detection of pleural effusions and increased lung water by Tc-99m DTPA imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, E.C.; Karelitz, J.R.; Bennett, L.R.

    1985-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to report a systematic observation of uptake or retention of Tc-99m DTPA in pleural effusions and other abnormal states of increased lung water. 24 patients who underwent renal imaging with 10 mCi Tc-99m DTPA were included. Imaging was performed with a large field of view camera for 0-03 minutes after injection and delayed images acquired 2-4 hours later. The images encompassed the mid and lower thorax as well as kidneys. 15 patients showed, at 0-5 minutes, cold areas at lung bases that later showed relatively increased activity at 2-4 hours (hot on delayed images). 14 of these 15 patients showed pleural effusions on chest x-ray. Small bilateral effusions were more clearly demonstrated by scan than by x-ray in 8 of 15 patients. One patient with pneumonia showed an immediate hot area in the infected lobe, and two with pulmonary edema and congestive failure showed diffuse lung retention of Tc-99m on delayed images. Among 9 patients who did not demonstrate abnormal cold or hot areas in their lungs on DTPA images, none had clinical or x-ray evidence of pleural effusion, pneumonia, or congestive failure (100% negative predictive value). Differences in rate constants for diffusion into vs. out of pleural fluid provide a plausible explanation for the observed retention of tracer in effusions, as seen on delayed images. This study indicates that imaging with Tc-99m DTPA provides information of diagnostic value in the detection of pleural effusions. Futhermore, the data suggests that DTPA imaging may also be useful as a simple, cost-effective method to detect other conditions in which regional lung water is abnormally increased.

  11. Myeloid Sarcoma: An Unusual Case of Mediastinal Mass and Malignant Pleural Effusion with Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Kamal Kant; Tyagi, Ruchita; Law, Arjun Datt; Khadwal, Alka; Prakash, Gaurav; Rajwanshi, Arvind; Varma, Subhash Chander; Malhotra, Pankaj

    2015-12-01

    Myeloid sarcoma is an extramedullary tumor seen most commonly in patients with acute myeloid leukemia and less frequently in chronic myeloid leukemia, myelodysplastic syndrome and rarely, in an isolated form without any other underlying malignancy. Malignant pleural effusion in hematological malignancies is rare when compared with solid tumors. We present an unusual case of myeloid sarcoma in which a mediastinal mass with pleural effusion was the initial presentation. A 27 year old gentleman presented with complaints of fever, chest pain and swelling in the anterior chest wall for 6 months. Examination revealed a lump measuring 5 × 5 cm on the left side of the chest wall. Hematological evaluation showed hemoglobin-14.2 g/dL, platelet count-233 × 10(9)/L, TLC-117 × 10(6)/L with normal differential counts. Contrast enhanced computerised tomography (CECT) confirmed the presence of a soft tissue mass in the superior mediastinum abutting against the chest wall. Core biopsy was suggestive of myeloid sarcoma and immunohistochemistry was positive for myeloperoxidase and negative for CD3, CD 20 and CD 23. Pleural fluid analysis showed the presence of malignant cells. Bone marrow examination did not show an excess of blasts. A final diagnosis of extramedullary myeloid sarcoma with malignant pleural effusion was made. The patient was given induction chemotherapy (3 + 7 regimen) with daunorubicin and cytosine arabinoside. Repeat CECT done on day 28 showed complete resolution of pleural effusion and significant reduction in the size of mediastinal mass. The patient has successfully completed three cycles of consolidation therapy following which there has been complete resolution of the mass. He remains asymptomatic on close follow up. PMID:26306072

  12. Utility of adenosine deaminase (ADA), PCR & thoracoscopy in differentiating tuberculous & non-tuberculous pleural effusion complicating chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sravan; Agarwal, Ritesh; Bal, Amanjit; Sharma, Kusum; Singh, Navneet; Aggarwal, Ashutosh N.; Verma, Indu; Rana, Satyawati V.; Jha, Vivekanand

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Pleural effusion is a common occurrence in patients with late-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD). In developing countries, many effusions remain undiagnosed after pleural fluid analysis (PFA) and patients are empirically treated with antitubercular therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of adenosine deaminase (ADA), nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT) and medical thoracoscopy in distinguishing tubercular and non-tubercular aetiologies in exudative pleural effusions complicating CKD. Methods: Consecutive stage 4 and 5 CKD patients with pleural effusions underwent PFA including ADA and PCR [65 kDa gene; multiplex (IS6110, protein antigen b, MPB64)]. Patients with exudative pleural effusion undiagnosed after PFA underwent medical thoracoscopy. Results: All 107 patients underwent thoracocentesis with 45 and 62 patients diagnosed as transudative and exudative pleural effusions, respectively. Twenty six of the 62 patients underwent medical thoracoscopy. Tuberculous pleurisy was diagnosed in six while uraemic pleuritis was diagnosed in 20 subjects. The sensitivity and specificity of pleural fluid ADA, 65 kDa gene PCR, and multiplex PCR were 66.7 and 90 per cent, 100 and 50 per cent, and 100 and 100 per cent, respectively. Thoracoscopy was associated with five complications in three patients. Interpretation & conclusions: Uraemia remains the most common cause of pleural effusion in CKD even in high TB prevalence country. Multiplex PCR and thoracoscopy are useful investigations in the diagnostic work-up of pleural effusions complicating CKD while the sensitivity and/or specificity of ADA and 65 kDa gene PCR is poor. PMID:25963491

  13. Sonographic Detection of Abnormal Plaque Motion of the Carotid Artery: Its Usefulness in Diagnosing High-Risk Lesions Ranging from Plaque Rupture to Ulcer Formation.

    PubMed

    Muraki, Mutsuko; Mikami, Taisei; Yoshimoto, Tetsuyuki; Fujimoto, Shin; Kitaguchi, Mayumi; Kaga, Sanae; Sugawara, Tomoko; Tokuda, Kouichi; Kaneko, Sadao; Kashiwaba, Takeshi

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the feasibility of using sonography of abnormal plaque motion to diagnose high-risk carotid lesions ranging from plaque rupture to ulcer formation. Fifty consecutive carotid arteries of 49 patients (71 ± 7 y, 37 males) who underwent carotid endarterectomy were investigated by carotid sonography to find a plaque concavity (sonographic ulcer [SU]), fine trembling motion inside the plaque (FTMI) and systolic retractive motion of the plaque surface (SRMS). Plaque rupture or ulcer, necrotic core and intra-plaque hemorrhage were determined at carotid endarterectomy. Twenty-two SUs, 41 cases of FTMI and 20 cases of SRMS were detected by carotid sonography. The sensitivity and specificity of SU in diagnosing plaque rupture or ulcer at carotid endarterectomy were 48% and 90%, and those of FTMI were 93% and 60%. Plaques with SRMS more frequently had both a necrotic core and intra-plaque hemorrhage than those without SRMS (80% vs. 30%, p = 0.0005). Abnormal plaque motion detected by carotid sonography is useful in detecting a ruptured or ulcerated plaque with a necrotic core and/or hemorrhage. PMID:26589531

  14. The Effect of Pleural Abrasion on the Treatment of Primary Spontaneous Pneumothorax: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Ming, Mo-yu; Cai, Shuang-qi; Chen, Yi-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Background Pleural abrasion has been widely used to control the recurrence of primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP). However, controversy still exists regarding the advantages and disadvantages of pleural abrasion compared with other interventions in preventing the recurrence of PSP. Methods The PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases were searched up to December 15, 2014 to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared the effects of pleural abrasion with those of other interventions in the treatment of PSP. The study outcomes included the PSP recurrence rate and the occurrence rate of adverse effects. Results Mechanical pleural abrasion and apical pleurectomy after thoracoscopic stapled bullectomy exhibited similarly persistent postoperative air leak occurrence rates (p = 0.978) and 1-year PSP recurrence rates (p = 0.821), whereas pleural abrasion led to reduced residual chest pain and discomfort (p = 0.001) and a smaller rate of hemothorax (p = 0.036) than did apical pleurectomy. However, the addition of minocycline pleurodesis to pleural abrasion did not reduce the pneumothorax recurrence rate compared with apical pleurectomy (3.8% for both procedures) but was associated with fewer complications. There was no statistical difference in the pneumothorax recurrence rate between mechanical pleural abrasion and chemical pleurodesis with minocycline on either an intention-to-treat basis (4 of 42 versus 0 of 42, p = 0.12; Fisher exact test) or after exclusions (2 of 40 versus 0 of 42, p = 0.24; Fisher exact test). Pleural abrasion plus minocycline pleurodesis also did not reduce the pneumothorax recurrence rate compared with pleural abrasion alone (p = 0.055). Moreover, pleural abrasion plus minocycline pleurodesis was associated with more intense acute chest pain. The postoperative overall recurrence rate in patients who underwent staple line coverage with absorbable cellulose mesh and fibrin glue was similar to that with mechanical abrasion after thoracoscopic bullectomy (13.8% vs. 14.2%, respectively; p = 0.555), but staple line coverage resulted in less postoperative residual pain than mechanical abrasion (0.4% vs.3.2%; p<0.0001). Pleural abrasion after thoracoscopic wedge resection did not decrease the recurrence of pneumothorax compared with wedge resection alone (p = 0.791), but the intraoperative bleeding and postoperative pleural drainage rates were higher when pleural abrasion was performed. Conclusions In addition to resulting in the same pneumothorax recurrence rate, thoracoscopic pleural abrasion with or without minocycline pleurodesis is safer than apical pleurectomy in the treatment of PSP. However, minocycline pleurodesis with or without pleural abrasion is not any more effective than pleural abrasion alone. Moreover, additional mechanical abrasion is not safer than additional staple line coverage with absorbable cellulose mesh and fibrin glue after thoracoscopic bullectomy because of increased postoperative pain. Additionally, pleural abrasion after thoracoscopic wedge resection should not be recommended for routine application due to the greater incidence of adverse effects than wedge resection alone. However, further large-scale, well-designed RCTs are needed to confirm the best procedure. PMID:26042737

  15. Macrophage-targeted photodynamic detection of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamblin, Michael R.; Tawakol, Ahmed; Castano, Ana P.; Gad, Faten; Zahra, Touqir; Ahmadi, Atosa; Stern, Jeremy; Ortel, Bernhard; Chirico, Stephanie; Shirazi, Azadeh; Syed, Sakeena; Muller, James E.

    2003-06-01

    Rupture of a vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque (VP) leading to coronary thrombosis is the chief cause of sudden cardiac death. VPs are angiographically insignificant lesions, which are excessively inflamed and characterized by dense macrophage infiltration, large necrotic lipid cores, thin fibrous caps, and paucity of smooth muscle cells. We have recently shown that chlorin(e6) conjugated with maleylated albumin can target macrophages with high selectivity via the scavenger receptor. We report the potential of this macrophage-targeted fluorescent probe to localize in VPs in a rabbit model of atherosclerosis, and allow detection and/or diagnosis by fluorescence spectroscopy or imaging. Atherosclerotic lesions were induced in New Zealand White rabbit aortas by balloon injury followed by administration of a high-fat diet. 24-hours after IV injection of the conjugate into atherosclerotic or normal rabbits, the animals were sacrificed, and aortas were removed, dissected and examined for fluorescence localization in plaques by fiber-based spectrofluorimetry and confocal microscopy. Dye uptake within the aortas was also quantified by fluorescence extraction of samples from aorta segments. Biodistribution of the dye was studied in many organs of the rabbits. Surface spectrofluorimetry after conjugate injection was able to distinguish between plaque and adjacent aorta, between atherosclerotic and normal aorta, and balloon-injured and normal iliac arteries with high significance. Discrete areas of high fluorescence (up to 20 times control were detected in the balloon-injured segments, presumably corresponding to macrophage-rich plaques. Confocal microscopy showed red ce6 fluorescence localized in plaques that showed abundant foam cells and macrophages by histology. Extraction data on aortic tissue corroborated the selectivity of the conjugate for plaques. These data support the strategy of employing macrophage-targeted fluorescent dyes to detect VP by intravascular spectrofluorimetry. It may also be possible to use macrophage-targeted PDT to therapeutically modify inflammatory cell-laden VPs leading to plaque stabilization and reduction of sudden cardiovascular death.

  16. Raised Soluble P-Selectin Moderately Accelerates Atherosclerotic Plaque Progression

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Karen L.; Aprico, Andrea; Harris, Emma; Irvine, Jennifer C.; Jefferis, Ann-maree; Fang, Lu; Kanellakis, Peter; Bobik, Alex; Chin-Dusting, Jaye P. F.

    2014-01-01

    Soluble P-selectin (sP-selectin), a biomarker of inflammatory related pathologies including cardiovascular and peripheral vascular diseases, also has pro-atherosclerotic effects including the ability to increase leukocyte recruitment and modulate thrombotic responses in vivo. The current study explores its role in progressing atherosclerotic plaque disease. Apoe?/? mice placed on a high fat diet (HFD) were given daily injections of recombinant dimeric murine P-selectin (22.5 µg/kg/day) for 8 or 16 weeks. Saline or sE-selectin injections were used as negative controls. In order to assess the role of sP-selectin on atherothrombosis an experimental plaque remodelling murine model, with sm22?-hDTR Apoe?/? mice on a HFD in conjunction with delivery of diphtheria toxin to induce targeted vascular smooth muscle apoptosis, was used. These mice were similarly given daily injections of sP-selectin for 8 or 16 weeks. While plaque mass and aortic lipid content did not change with sP-selectin treatment in Apoe?/? or SM22?-hDTR Apoe?/? mice on HFD, increased plasma MCP-1 and a higher plaque CD45 content in Apoe?/? HFD mice was observed. As well, a significant shift towards a more unstable plaque phenotype in the SM22?-hDTR Apoe?/? HFD mice, with increased macrophage accumulation and lower collagen content, leading to a lower plaque stability index, was observed. These results demonstrate that chronically raised sP-selectin favours progression of an unstable atherosclerotic plaque phenotype. PMID:24846287

  17. Intra-individual comparison of carotid and femoral atherosclerotic plaque features with in vivo MR plaque imaging.

    PubMed

    Helck, Andreas; Bianda, Nicola; Canton, Gador; Yuan, Chun; Hippe, Daniel S; Reiser, Maximilian F; Gallino, Augusto; Wyttenbach, Rolf; Saam, Tobias

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate differences of plaque composition and morphology within the same patient in different vascular beds using non-invasive MR-plaque imaging. 28 patients (67.8 ± 7.4 years, 8 females) with high Framingham general cardiovascular disease 10-year risk score and mild-to-moderate atherosclerosis were consecutively included in the study. All subjects underwent a dedicated MRI-plaque imaging protocol using TOF and T1w and T2w black-blood-sequences with fat suppression at 1.5 T. The scan was centered on the carotid bulb of the carotid arteries and on the most stenotic lesion of the ipsilateral femoral artery, respectively. Plaques were classified according to the American Heart Association (AHA) lesion type classification and area measurements of lumen, wall and the major plaque components, such as calcification, necrotic core and hemorrhage were determined in consensus by two blinded reviewers using dedicated software (Cascade, Seattle, USA). Plaque components were recorded as maximum percentages of the wall area. Carotid arteries had larger maximum wall and smaller minimum lumen areas (p < 0.001) than femoral arteries, whereas no significant difference was find with respect to the max. NWI (p = 0.87). Prevalence of lipid-rich AHA lesion type IV/V and complicated AHA lesion type VI with hemorrhage/thrombus/fibrous cap rupture was significantly higher in the carotid arteries compared to the femoral arteries. Plaque composition as percentage of the vessel wall differed significantly between carotid and femoral arteries: Max. %necrotic core and max. %hemorrhage were significantly higher in the carotid arteries compared to the femoral arteries (p = 0.001 and p = 0.02, respectively). Max. %calcification did not differ significantly. Average stenotic degree of carotid arteries at duplex was 49.7 ± 12.5 (%). Non-invasive MR plaque-imaging is able to visualize differences in plaque composition across the vascular tree. We observed significant differences in quantitative and qualitative plaque features between carotid and femoral arteries within the same patient, which in the future could help to improve risk stratification in patients with atherosclerosis. PMID:26296806

  18. ROPES eye plaque dosimetry: commissioning and verification of an ophthalmic brachytherapy treatment planning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poder, J.; Annabell, N.; Geso, M.; Alqathami, M.; Corde, S.

    2013-06-01

    In this study, the Plaque SimulatorTM eye plaque brachytherapy planning system was commissioned for ROPES eye plaques and Amersham Health model 6711 Iodine 125 seeds, using TG43-UI data. The brachytherapy module of the RADCALC® independent checking program was configured to allow verification of the accuracy of the dose calculated by Plaque SimulatorTM. Central axis depth dose distributions were compared and observed to agree to within 2% for all ROPES plaque models and depths of interest. Experimental measurements were performed with a customized PRESAGEm 3-D type dosimeter to validate the calculated depth dose distributions. Preliminary results have shown the effect of the stainless steel plaque backing decreases the measured fluorescence intensity by up to 25%, and 40% for the 15 mm and 10 mm diameter ROPES plaques respectively. This effect, once fully quantified should be accounted for in the Plaque SimulatorTM eye plaque brachytherapy planning system.

  19. Treatment of calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor/Pindborg tumor by a conservative surgical method

    PubMed Central

    Vigneswaran, T.; Naveena, R.

    2015-01-01

    Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT) also known as Pindborg tumor is a rare odontogenic epithelial neoplasm. So far nearly 200 cases have been reported in literature. We are reporting a case of CEOT in a 42-year-old male patient with painless bony swelling in the mandible. Approximately, 50% of the cases are associated with an unerupted tooth or odontome, but was not so with our case. Considering the intrabony mandibular location of the lesion and its limited size, we opted for a more conservative surgery. The clinical, radiographic and histopathologic features and the surgical treatment done are discussed with relevant references. PMID:26015736

  20. Calcified central venous catheter fibrin sheath: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Keehn, Aryeh; Rabinowitz, Dan; Williams, Steve K; Taragin, Benjamin H

    2015-01-01

    We present a 6-year-old girl with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who demonstrated on chest X-ray a radiopacity in the superior vena cava after removal of an implanted venous access device. This radiopacity was initially thought to be a retained catheter fragment. On review of previous imaging, we were able to document the temporal development of a calcified catheter cast as distinct from the catheter. This case represents a rare consequence of central venous catheterization in children. Knowledge of this finding as a possible complication may help avoid performance of unnecessary follow-up imaging or invasive procedures. PMID:26259863

  1. Identifying Vulnerable Plaques with Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doherty, Joshua Ryan

    The rupture of arterial plaques is the most common cause of ischemic complications including stroke, the fourth leading cause of death and number one cause of long term disability in the United States. Unfortunately, because conventional diagnostic tools fail to identify plaques that confer the highest risk, often a disabling stroke and/or sudden death is the first sign of disease. A diagnostic method capable of characterizing plaque vulnerability would likely enhance the predictive ability and ultimately the treatment of stroke before the onset of clinical events. This dissertation evaluates the hypothesis that Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) imaging can noninvasively identify lipid regions, that have been shown to increase a plaque's propensity to rupture, within carotid artery plaques in vivo. The work detailed herein describes development efforts and results from simulations and experiments that were performed to evaluate this hypothesis. To first demonstrate feasibility and evaluate potential safety concerns, finite- element method simulations are used to model the response of carotid artery plaques to an acoustic radiation force excitation. Lipid pool visualization is shown to vary as a function of lipid pool geometry and stiffness. A comparison of the resulting Von Mises stresses indicates that stresses induced by an ARFI excitation are three orders of magnitude lower than those induced by blood pressure. This thesis also presents the development of a novel pulse inversion harmonic tracking method to reduce clutter-imposed errors in ultrasound-based tissue displacement estimates. This method is validated in phantoms and was found to reduce bias and jitter displacement errors for a marked improvement in image quality in vivo. Lastly, this dissertation presents results from a preliminary in vivo study that compares ARFI imaging derived plaque stiffness with spatially registered composition determined by a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) gold standard in human carotid artery plaques. It is shown in this capstone experiment that lipid filled regions in MRI correspond to areas of increased displacement in ARFI imaging while calcium and loose matrix components in MRI correspond to uniformly low displacements in ARFI imaging. This dissertation provides evidence to support that ARFI imaging may provide important prognostic and diagnostic information regarding stroke risk via measurements of plaque stiffness. More generally, the results have important implications for all acoustic radiation force based imaging methods used clinically.

  2. Unified theory on the pathogenesis of Randall's plaques and plugs.

    PubMed

    Khan, Saeed R; Canales, Benjamin K

    2015-01-01

    Kidney stones develop attached to sub-epithelial plaques of calcium phosphate (CaP) crystals (termed Randall's plaque) and/or form as a result of occlusion of the openings of the Ducts of Bellini by stone-forming crystals (Randall's plugs). These plaques and plugs eventually extrude into the urinary space, acting as a nidus for crystal overgrowth and stone formation. To better understand these regulatory mechanisms and the pathophysiology of idiopathic calcium stone disease, this review provides in-depth descriptions of the morphology and potential origins of these plaques and plugs, summarizes existing animal models of renal papillary interstitial deposits, and describes factors that are believed to regulate plaque formation and calcium overgrowth. Based on evidence provided within this review and from the vascular calcification literature, we propose a "unified" theory of plaque formation-one similar to pathological biomineralization observed elsewhere in the body. Abnormal urinary conditions (hypercalciuria, hyperoxaluria, and hypocitraturia), renal stress or trauma, and perhaps even the normal aging process lead to transformation of renal epithelial cells into an osteoblastic phenotype. With this de-differentiation comes an increased production of bone-specific proteins (i.e., osteopontin), a reduction in crystallization inhibitors (such as fetuin and matrix Gla protein), and creation of matrix vesicles, which support nucleation of CaP crystals. These small deposits promote aggregation and calcification of surrounding collagen. Mineralization continues by calcification of membranous cellular degradation products and other fibers until the plaque reaches the papillary epithelium. Through the activity of matrix metalloproteinases or perhaps by brute physical force produced by the large sub-epithelial crystalline mass, the surface is breached and further stone growth occurs by organic matrix-associated nucleation of CaOx or by the transformation of the outer layer of CaP crystals into CaOx crystals. Should this theory hold true, developing an understanding of the cellular mechanisms involved in progression of a small, basic interstitial plaque to that of an expanding, penetrating plaque could assist in the development of new therapies for stone prevention. PMID:25119506

  3. Restriction of bacteriophage plaque formation in Streptomyces spp.

    PubMed Central

    Cox, K L; Baltz, R H

    1984-01-01

    Several Streptomyces species that produce restriction endonucleases were characterized for their ability to propagate 10 different broad host range bacteriophages. Each species displayed a different pattern of plaque formation. A restrictionless mutant of S. albus G allowed plaque formation by all 10 phages, whereas the wild-type strain showed plaques with only 2 phages. DNA isolated from three of the phages was analyzed for the presence of restriction sites for Streptomyces species-encoded enzymes, and a very strong correlation was established between the failure to form plaques on Streptomyces species that produced particular restriction enzymes and the presence of the corresponding restriction sites in the phage DNA. Also, the phages that lacked restriction sites in their DNA generally formed plaques on the corresponding restriction endonuclease-producing hosts at high efficiency. The DNAs from the three phages analyzed also generally contained either many or no restriction sites for the Streptomyces species-produced enzymes, suggesting a strong evolutionary trend to either eliminate all or tolerate many restriction sites. The data indicate that restriction plays a major role in host range determination for Streptomyces phages. Analysis of bacteriophage host ranges of many other uncharacterized Streptomyces hosts has identified four relatively nonrestricting hosts, at least two of which may be suitable hosts for gene cloning. The data also suggest that several restriction systems remain to be identified in the genus Streptomyces. PMID:6086574

  4. Low copper and high manganese levels in prion protein plaques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Christopher J.; Gilbert, P.U.P.A.; Abrecth, Mike; Baldwin, Katherine L.; Russell, Robin E.; Pedersen, Joel A.; McKenzie, Debbie

    2013-01-01

    Accumulation of aggregates rich in an abnormally folded form of the prion protein characterize the neurodegeneration caused by transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). The molecular triggers of plaque formation and neurodegeneration remain unknown, but analyses of TSE-infected brain homogenates and preparations enriched for abnormal prion protein suggest that reduced levels of copper and increased levels of manganese are associated with disease. The objectives of this study were to: (1) assess copper and manganese levels in healthy and TSE-infected Syrian hamster brain homogenates; (2) determine if the distribution of these metals can be mapped in TSE-infected brain tissue using X-ray photoelectron emission microscopy (X-PEEM) with synchrotron radiation; and (3) use X-PEEM to assess the relative amounts of copper and manganese in prion plaques in situ. In agreement with studies of other TSEs and species, we found reduced brain levels of copper and increased levels of manganese associated with disease in our hamster model. We also found that the in situ levels of these metals in brainstem were sufficient to image by X-PEEM. Using immunolabeled prion plaques in directly adjacent tissue sections to identify regions to image by X-PEEM, we found a statistically significant relationship of copper-manganese dysregulation in prion plaques: copper was depleted whereas manganese was enriched. These data provide evidence for prion plaques altering local transition metal distribution in the TSE-infected central nervous system.

  5. Multimodal spectroscopy detects features of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Š?epanovi?, Obrad R.; Fitzmaurice, Maryann; Miller, Arnold; Kong, Chae-Ryon; Volynskaya, Zoya; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Kramer, John R.; Feld, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Early detection and treatment of rupture-prone vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques is critical to reducing patient mortality associated with cardiovascular disease. The combination of reflectance, fluorescence, and Raman spectroscopy-termed multimodal spectroscopy (MMS)-provides detailed biochemical information about tissue and can detect vulnerable plaque features: thin fibrous cap (TFC), necrotic core (NC), superficial foam cells (SFC), and thrombus. Ex vivo MMS spectra are collected from 12 patients that underwent carotid endarterectomy or femoral bypass surgery. Data are collected by means of a unitary MMS optical fiber probe and a portable clinical instrument. Blinded histopathological analysis is used to assess the vulnerability of each spectrally evaluated artery lesion. Modeling of the ex vivo MMS spectra produce objective parameters that correlate with the presence of vulnerable plaque features: TFC with fluorescence parameters indicative of collagen presence; NC/SFC with a combination of diffuse reflectance ?-carotene/ceroid absorption and the Raman spectral signature of lipids; and thrombus with its Raman signature. Using these parameters, suspected vulnerable plaques can be detected with a sensitivity of 96% and specificity of 72%. These encouraging results warrant the continued development of MMS as a catheter-based clinical diagnostic technique for early detection of vulnerable plaques.

  6. Radionuclide imaging - A molecular key to the atherosclerotic plaque

    PubMed Central

    Langer, Harald Franz; Haubner, Roland; Pichler, Bernd Juergen; Gawaz, Meinrad

    2008-01-01

    Despite primary and secondary prevention, serious cardiovascular events like unstable angina or myocardial infarction still account for one third of all deaths worldwide. Therefore, identifying individual patients with vulnerable plaques at high risk for plaque rupture is a central challenge in cardiovascular medicine. Several non-invasive techniques, such as MRI, multislice computed tomography and electron beam tomography are currently being tested for their ability to identify such patients by morphological criteria. In contrast, molecular imaging techniques use radiolabeled molecules to detect functional aspects in atherosclerotic plaques by visualizing its biological activity. Based upon the knowledge about the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis, various studies in vitro, in vivo and the first clinical trials have used different tracers for plaque imaging studies, including radioactive labelled lipoproteins, components of the coagulation system, cytokines, mediators of the metalloproteinase system, cell adhesion receptors and even whole cells. This review gives an update on the relevant non-invasive plaque imaging approaches using nuclear imaging techniques to detect atherosclerotic vascular lesions. PMID:18582628

  7. Effect of denture surface glazing on denture plaque formation.

    PubMed

    Sesma, Newton; Laganá, Dalva Cruz; Morimoto, Susana; Gil, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated, in vivo, the efficacy of a denture glazing material (Palaseal) in modifying plaque colonization of dentures. Ten subjects were selected and received maxillary temporary partial removable dentures, with complete acrylic palatal coverage. The right half of the fitting surface of the denture bases were glazed with Palaseal, whereas the other half was not glazed. One month after insertion, two fragments of the resin base of all dentures were removed (one from the glazed side and another from the non-glazed side). These samples were prepared and examined by scanning electron microscopy. Three months after insertion, other fragments were obtained and analyzed. Microscopic observation at 1 month revealed that, for all patients, the plaque film was thinner on the treated side in comparison to the non-treated side. However, at the 3-month evaluation, some areas of the glaze showed cracking, and both glazed and non-glazed sides were covered by a dense bacterial plaque film. In conclusion, the findings of this clinical experiment showed that glazing denture's fitting surface did not prevent bacterial colonization, but favored plaque removal while the glaze layer remained intact. After three months, glaze cracks created microretentive areas that increased plaque accumulation. PMID:16475607

  8. Hydrothorax with alveolar-pleural fistula mimicking re-expansion pulmonary edema during liver transplantation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Woo, Jae Hee; Chung, Rack Kyung; Baik, Hee Jung; Kim, Youn Jin

    2015-04-01

    We present a case of an alveolar-pleural fistula with hepatic hydrothorax in a patient undergoing orthotropic liver transplantation, which was detected by drainage of transudate through an endotracheal tube during operation. A standard endotracheal tube was changed to a double-lumen tube to provide differential lung ventilation. The patient was diagnosed with an alveolar-pleural fistula by direct vision of an air leak during positive-pressure ventilation through a diaphragmatic incision. There was still a concern about worsening his ventilation due to persistent aspiration of pleural effusion towards the ipsilateral lung during the remaining operation period. Surgeon repaired the defect on the exposed lung surface via diaphragmatic opening. Anesthesiologists should consider an alveolar-pleural fistula as a possible differential diagnosis with re-expansion pulmonary edema when transudate emanating from the endotracheal tube is obtained in patients with massive hydrothorax. PMID:25844139

  9. The effect of hypodynamia on mineral and protein metabolism in calcified tissues of the maxillodental system (experimental radioisotope study)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prokhonchukov, A. A.; Kovalenko, Y. A.; Kolesnik, A. G.; Kondratyev, Y. I.; Ilyushko, N. A.

    1980-01-01

    Mineral and protein metabolism was studied in experiments on 60 white rats, using P-32 and Ca-45 uptake in the mineral fractions, 2C-14-glycine in the protein fractions, and P-32 in both fractions of calcified tissues as indices over a 100 day period of experimental hypodynamia. Combined alterations in mineral and protein metabolism occurred in the calcified tissues of the experimental animals. The most pronounced changes were found in P-32 and 2C-14-glycine metabolism. In the incisors and femoral bones, these alterations occurred in two phases: P-32 and 2C-14-glycine uptake first increased, then decreased. Changes in Ca-45 metabolism were less pronounced, particularly in the initial period of the experiment. A marked reduction in P-32, Ca-45, and 2C-14-glycine uptake was found in various fractions of the calcified tissues on the 100th day of experimental hypodynamia.

  10. Cervical radiculopathy caused by neural foraminal migration of a herniated calcified intervertebral disk in childhood: a case report.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung Min; Kim, Eun-Sang; Sung, Duk Hyun

    2005-11-01

    Childhood intervertebral disk calcification is a rare clinical entity. Although its clinical course is usually benign, nerve root irritation or spinal cord compression can occasionally occur. We present the clinical and radiologic findings of a 9-year-old boy with cervical radiculopathy due to a herniated calcified intervertebral disk, which developed suddenly after swimming for 1 hour. Radiologic findings indicated that a calcified nucleus pulposus at the C6-7 level herniated into the spinal canal and migrated far into the right C6-7 neural foramen. Surgical management was performed 8 weeks after the onset of symptoms, because the initial presenting symptoms persisted despite conservative treatment. In children, calcified intervertebral disks can cause cervical radiculopathy that requires surgical management when they herniate and migrate far into the neural foramen. PMID:16271574

  11. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging of the vasa vasorum of carotid artery plaque

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ze-Zhou; Zhang, Yan-Ming

    2015-01-01

    The vasa vasorum of carotid artery plaque is a novel marker of accurately evaluating the vulnerability of carotid artery plaque, which was associated with symptomatic cerebrovascular and cardiovascular disease. The presence of ultrasound contrast agents in carotid artery plaque represents the presence of the vasa vasorum in carotid artery plaque because the ultrasound contrast agents are strict intravascular tracers. Therefore, contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is a novel and safe imaging modality for evaluating the vasa vasorum in carotid artery plaque. However, there are some issues that needs to be assessed to embody fully the clinical utility of the vasa vasorum in carotid artery plaque with CEUS. PMID:26120382

  12. Fluid in the airway of nontraumatic death on postmortem computed tomography: relationship with pleural effusion and postmortem elapsed time.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Masanori; Gonoi, Wataru; Hagiwara, Kazuchika; Okuma, Hidemi; Shintani, Yukako; Abe, Hiroyuki; Takazawa, Yutaka; Ohtomo, Kuni; Fukayama, Masashi

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate radiographic features of endotracheal/endobronchial fluid in the airway (FA) observed on postmortem computed tomography (PMCT). We studied 164 subjects who died at our hospital between April 2009 and September 2012. Fluid in the airway was considered positive when fluid was identified in the lumen of 1 of the 2 main bronchi in continuity with a segmental bronchus. Pleural effusion and atelectasis/consolidation of the lung lower lobes were also evaluated. Fluid in the airway was observed in 60 (71%) of 84 subjects with unilateral or bilateral pleural effusion, and in 44 (55%) of 80 subjects without pleural effusion (P = 0.029). Of the latter, 41 (93%) had atelectasis/consolidation of the lower lung lobes. Among subjects without pleural effusion, average times after death to PMCT of subjects with and without FA were 501 and 314 minutes, respectively (P = 0.01). Time-course analysis showed that cases with FA on PMCT largely correlated with time after death (R = 0.7966). Fluid in the airway is frequently observed on PMCT in subjects with pleural effusion or atelectasis/consolidation of the lung. No FA in subjects without pleural effusion correlated to shorter times after death. In addition, FA frequency on PMCT increased over time after death. PMID:24781399

  13. Pituitary Stone or Calcified Pituitary Tumor? Three Cases and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Chentli, Farida; Safer-Tabi, Amel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Pituitary stone or pituitary calculus is a scientific enigma characterized by a large calcification in the pituitary sella. It can be discovered incidentally or in a patient with endocrine and/or neurological problems. Its mechanism is not understood. In this article, we described three patients harboring a large pituitary calcification. Case Presentation: The first case was observed in a 27-year-old woman who consulted for secondary amenorrhea. The second case concerned a woman who consulted for infertility, and the third one was observed in an 11-year and nine-month-old girl who was sent to our department for short stature. Clinical examination was normal in both adults. The pediatric case had dwarfism with lack of pubertal development. Hormonal assessment showed hyperprolactinemia in both women and thyrotroph and somatotroph deficits in the child. Radiologic exploration discovered pituitary calcifications measuring 10, 11, and 45 mm without any cystic or solid mass. Conclusions: Radiological findings pleaded for a pituitary stone, but calcified adenomas in women, and calcified craniopharyngioma in the pediatric case could not be excluded, as our three patients were not operated on. PMID:26401144

  14. On the potential role of marine calcifiers in glacial-interglacial dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omta, A.; van Voorn, G.; Rickaby, R. E.; Follows, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    Ice-core measurements have revealed a highly asymmetric cycle in Antarctic temperature and atmospheric CO2 over the last 800,000 years. Both CO2 and temperature decrease over 100,000 years going into a glacial period, then rise steeply over less than 10,000 years at the end of a glacial. There does not yet exist wide agreement about the causes of this cycle or about the ori- gin of its shape. Here, we explore the possibility that an ecologically driven oscillator plays a role in the dynamics. A conceptual model describing the in- teraction between calcifying plankton and ocean alkalinity shows interesting features: (i) it generates an oscillation in atmospheric CO2 with the charac- teristic asymmetric shape observed in the ice-core record, (ii) the system can transform a sinusoidal Milankovitch forcing into a sawtooth-shaped output, and (iii) there are spikes of enhanced calcifier productivity at the glacial- interglacial transitions, consistent with several sedimentary records. This suggests that ecological processes might play an active role in the observed glacial-interglacial cycles.

  15. Clinical implications of calcifying nanoparticles in dental diseases: a critical review

    PubMed Central

    Alenazy, Mohammed S; Mosadomi, Hezekiah A

    2014-01-01

    Background Unknown cell-culture contaminants were described by Kajander and Ciftçio?lu in 1998. These contaminants were called nanobacteria initially and later calcifying nanoparticles (CNPs). Their exact nature is unclear and controversial. CNPs have unique and unusual characteristics, which preclude placing them into any established evolutionary branch of life. Aim The aim of this systematic review was to assess published data concerning CNPs since 1998 in general and in relation to dental diseases in particular. Materials and methods The National Library of Medicine (PubMed) and Society of Photographic Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) electronic and manual searches were conducted. Nanobacteria and calcifying nanoparticles were used as keywords. The search yielded 135 full-length papers. Further screening of the titles and abstracts that followed the review criteria resulted in 43 papers that met the study aim. Conclusion The review showed that the existence of nanobacteria is still controversial. Some investigators have described a possible involvement of CNPs in pulpal and salivary gland calcifications, as well as the possible therapeutic use of CNPs in the treatment of cracked and/or eroded teeth. PMID:24376354

  16. Quantitative laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis of calcified tissue samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samek, O.; Beddows, D. C. S.; Telle, H. H.; Kaiser, J.; Liška, M.; Cáceres, J. O.; Gonzáles Ureña, A.

    2001-06-01

    We report on the application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to the analysis of important minerals and the accumulation of potentially toxic elements in calcified tissue, to trace e.g. the influence of environmental exposure, and other medical or biological factors. This theme was exemplified for quantitative detection and mapping of Al, Pb and Sr in representative samples, including teeth (first teeth of infants, second teeth of children and teeth of adults) and bones (tibia and femur). In addition to identifying and quantifying major and trace elements in the tissues, one- and two-dimensional profiles and maps were generated. Such maps (a) provide time/concentration relations, (b) allow to follow mineralisation of the hydroxyapatite matrix and the migration of the elements within it and (c) enable to identify disease states, such as caries in teeth. In order to obtain quantitative calibration, reference samples in the form of pressed pellets with calcified tissue-equivalent material (majority compound of pellets is CaCO 3) were used whose physical properties closely resembled hydroxyapatite. Compounds of Al, Sr and Pb were added to the pellets, containing atomic concentrations in the range 100-10 000 ppm relative to the Ca content of the matrix. Analytical results based on this calibration against artificial samples for the trace elements under investigation agree with literature values, and with our atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) cross-validation measurements.

  17. Rapid Mass Movement of Chloroplasts during Segment Formation of the Calcifying Siphonalean Green Alga, Halimeda macroloba

    PubMed Central

    Larkum, Anthony W. D.; Salih, Anya; Kühl, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background The calcifying siphonalean green alga, Halimeda macroloba is abundant on coral reefs and is important in the production of calcium carbonate sediments. The process by which new green segments are formed over-night is revealed here for the first time. Methodology/Principal Findings Growth of new segments was visualised by epifluorescence and confocal microscopy and by pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) fluorimetry. Apical colourless proto-segments were initiated on day 1, and formed a loose network of non-calcified, non-septate filaments, containing no chloroplasts. Rapid greening was initiated at dusk by i) the mass movement of chloroplasts into these filaments from the parent segment and ii) the growth of new filaments containing chloroplasts. Greening was usually complete in 3–5 h and certainly before dawn on day 2 when the first signs of calcification were apparent. Mass chloroplast movement took place at a rate of ?0.65 µm/s. Photosynthetic yield and rate remained low for a period of 1 to several hours, indicating that the chloroplasts were made de novo. Use of the inhibitors colchicine and cytochalasin d indicated that the movement process is dependent on both microtubules and microfilaments. Significance This unusual process involves the mass movement of chloroplasts at a high rate into new segments during the night and rapid calcification on the following day and may be an adaptation to minimise the impact of herbivorous activity. PMID:21750703

  18. Bifurcation analysis of a model for atherosclerotic plaque evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulelzai, M. A. K.; Dubbeldam, J. L. A.; Meijer, H. G. E.

    2014-06-01

    We analyze two ordinary differential equation (ODE) models for atherosclerosis. The ODE models describe long time evolution of plaques in arteries. We show how the dynamics of the first atherosclerosis model (model A) can be understood using codimension-two bifurcation analysis. The Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL) intake parameter (d) is the first control parameter and the second control parameter is either taken to be the conversion rate of macrophages (b) or the wall shear stress (?). Our analysis reveals that in both cases a Bogdanov-Takens (BT) point acts as an organizing center. The bifurcation diagrams are calculated partly analytically and to a large extent numerically using AUTO07 and MATCONT. The bifurcation curves show that the concentration of LDL in the plaque as well as the monocyte and the macrophage concentrations exhibit oscillations for a certain range of values of the control parameters. Moreover, we find that there are threshold values for both the cholesterol intake rate dcrit and the conversion rate of the macrophages bcrit, which depend on the values of other parameters, above which the plaque volume increases with time. It is found that larger conversion rates of macrophages lower the threshold value of cholesterol intake and vice versa. We further argue that the dynamics for model A can still be discerned in the second model (model B) in which the slow evolution of the radius of the artery is coupled self-consistently to changes in the plaque volume. The very slow evolution of the radius of the artery compared to the other processes makes it possible to use a slow manifold approximation to study the dynamics in this case. We find that in this case the model predicts that the concentrations of the plaque constituents may go through a period of oscillations before the radius of the artery will start to decrease. These oscillations hence act as a precursor for the reduction of the artery radius by plaque growth.

  19. Newly synthesized anticancer drug HUHS1015 is effective on malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Kaku, Yoshiko; Nagaya, Hisao; Tsuchiya, Ayako; Kanno, Takeshi; Gotoh, Akinobu; Tanaka, Akito; Shimizu, Tadashi; Nakao, Syuhei; Tabata, Chiharu; Nakano, Takashi; Nishizaki, Tomoyuki

    2014-07-01

    The newly synthesized naftopidil analogue HUHS1015 reduced cell viability in malignant pleural mesothelioma cell lines MSTO-211H, NCI-H28, NCI-H2052, and NCI-H2452, with the potential greater than that for the anticancer drugs paclitaxel or cisplatin at concentrations higher than 30 ?M. HUHS1015 induced both necrosis and apoptosis of MSTO-211H and NCI-H2052 cells. HUHS1015 upregulated expression of mRNAs for Puma, Hrk, and Noxa in MSTO-211H and NCI-H2052 cells, suggesting HUHS1015-induced mitochondrial apoptosis. HUHS1015 clearly suppressed tumor growth in mice inoculated with NCI-H2052 cells. Taken together, the results of the present study indicate that HUHS1015 could be developed as an effective anticancer drug for treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma. PMID:24754309

  20. Newly synthesized anticancer drug HUHS1015 is effective on malignant pleural mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Kaku, Yoshiko; Nagaya, Hisao; Tsuchiya, Ayako; Kanno, Takeshi; Gotoh, Akinobu; Tanaka, Akito; Shimizu, Tadashi; Nakao, Syuhei; Tabata, Chiharu; Nakano, Takashi; Nishizaki, Tomoyuki

    2014-01-01

    The newly synthesized naftopidil analogue HUHS1015 reduced cell viability in malignant pleural mesothelioma cell lines MSTO-211H, NCI-H28, NCI-H2052, and NCI-H2452, with the potential greater than that for the anticancer drugs paclitaxel or cisplatin at concentrations higher than 30 ?M. HUHS1015 induced both necrosis and apoptosis of MSTO-211H and NCI-H2052 cells. HUHS1015 upregulated expression of mRNAs for Puma, Hrk, and Noxa in MSTO-211H and NCI-H2052 cells, suggesting HUHS1015-induced mitochondrial apoptosis. HUHS1015 clearly suppressed tumor growth in mice inoculated with NCI-H2052 cells. Taken together, the results of the present study indicate that HUHS1015 could be developed as an effective anticancer drug for treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma. PMID:24754309

  1. Real-time treatment light dose guidance of Pleural PDT: an update

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Timothy C.; Kim, Michele M.; Jacques, Steve L.; Penjweini, Rozhin; Dimofte, Andreea; Finlay, Jarod C.; Simone, Charles B.; Cengel, Keith A.; Friedberg, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to develop and improve an infrared (IR) navigation system to deliver light dose uniformly during intracavitory PDT by tracking the movement of the light source and providing real-time feedback on the light fluence rate on the entire cavity surface area. In the current intrapleural PDT protocol, several detectors placed in selected locations in the pleural cavity monitor the light doses. To improve the delivery of light dose uniformity, an IR camera system is used to track the motion of the light source as well as the surface contour of the pleural cavity. Monte-Carlo simulation is used to improve the calculation algorithm for the effect of light that undergoes multiple scattering along the surface in addition to an improvement of the direct light calculation using an improved model that accounts for the anisotropy of the light from the light source. PMID:25999654

  2. Pulmonary Pressure Necrosis due to Chronic Pleural Effusion after Heart Transplantation: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jae Seung; Lee, Sung Ho; Lee, Jeong Hyeon; Sun, Kyung

    2014-12-01

    A 51-year-old woman had severe restrictive cardiomyopathy with heart failure. The first symptoms had started 12 years ago, and her symptoms gradually worsened. She was treated with diuretics, intermittent but repetitive thoracentesis, and paracentesis due to recurrent pleural effusion and ascites. Consequently, a collapse of the right lower lobe (RLL) was noted. We stopped thoracentesis and paracentesis and added continuous intravenous diuretics for 3 months before heart transplantation (HT). Finally, she underwent HT. However, her RLL remained collapsed and chest tube drainage persisted. We performed a RLL lobectomy with video-assisted thoracic surgery. No specific pathologic findings were noted except pulmonary necrotic lesions. We report a rare case of pulmonary necrosis caused by mechanical compression due to chronic pleural effusion after HT. PMID:25798361

  3. Pulmonary melioidosis presenting with pleural effusion: A case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Soo, Chun Ian; Abdul Wahab, Sopian; Abdul Hamid, Faisal

    2015-01-01

    Melioidosis is a serious infection, which can involve multiple systems. We report a case of pulmonary melioidosis with the initial presentation mimicking a partially treated pneumonia complicated by right-sided pleural effusion. The patient is a 49-year old man who did not respond to parenteral ceftriaxone and tazobactam/piperacillin therapy. However, upon culture and sensitivity results from blood and pleural samples isolated Burkholderia pseudomallei; antimicrobial therapy was de-escalated to parenteral ceftazidime. Within 72 h duration, his fever subsided and other respiratory symptoms improved tremendously. This case highlights the importance of early recognition of B. pseudomallei in pulmonary infection in order for prompt institution of appropriate antibiotics treatment; thus reducing morbidity and mortality.

  4. The Nature of Iron Deposits Differs between Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Carotid Atherosclerotic Plaques

    PubMed Central

    Kopriva, David; Kisheev, Anastasye; Meena, Deiter; Pelle, Shaneen; Karnitsky, Max; Lavoie, Andrea; Buttigieg, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Iron within atherosclerotic plaque has been implicated as a catalyst of oxidative stress that causes progression of plaque, and plaque rupture. Iron is believed to accumulate within plaque by incorporation of erythrocytes following plaque rupture and hemorrhage. There is only indirect evidence to support this hypothesis. Plaque specimens were obtained from ten symptomatic and fifteen asymptomatic patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy at a single institution. Plaques were sectioned for study using synchrotron radiation induced X-ray fluorescence the study the distribution of zinc, calcium and iron. Histologic staining was carried out with Prussian Blue, and immunohistochemical staining was done to localize macrophages with CD68. Data were compared against patient clinical variables. Ten symptomatic (15 ± 10 days between index symptoms and surgery) and fifteen asymptomatic carotid plaques were studied. Zinc and calcium co-localized in mineralized areas of symptomatic and asymptomatic plaque. Iron was identified away from zinc and calcium in both symptomatic and asymptomatic plaques. Within the symptomatic plaques, iron was found within the thrombus associated with plaque rupture and hemorrhage. It did not stain with Prussian Blue, but was found in association with CD68 positive macrophages. In symptomatic plaques, the abundance of iron showed an association with the source patient’s LDL cholesterol (R2 = 0.39, Significance F = 0.05). Iron in asymptomatic plaque was present as hemosiderin/ferritin that stained positive with Prussian Blue, and was observed in association with CD68 positive macrophages. Iron in acutely symptomatic plaques is found within thrombus, in the presence of macrophages. The abundance of iron in symptomatic plaques is associated with the source patient’s LDL cholesterol. Within asymptomatic plaques, iron is found in association with macrophages, as hemosiderin/ferritin. PMID:26606178

  5. Calcified algae and bryozoans from the Ordovician - Silurian successions of the Spiti Himalaya, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Shivani; Parcha, Suraj Kumar

    2015-04-01

    The Tethys Himalaya contains an extensive record of sediments ranging from Precambrian to Cretaceous. These successions are well exposed in Pin, Parahio, Kunzum La and in the Takche sections. The present work is focused on the Ordovician and Silurian succession in the Pin Valley. The Ordovician succession consists of purple coloured quartzite, shale, siltstone, grits, dolarenites etc. Whereas, the Silurian succession comprises of thick sequence of slate, dolomite, calcarenites, olive green shale, limestone and pink dolomite. Both the successions contain a rich assemblage of the microfossils along with other body fossils. These successions show a wide variety of marine calcareous algae, along with corals and bryozoans. The calcified algae and bryozoans reported from the Ordovician - Silurian succession are mostly in carbonate beds. The various genera of bryozoan identified are as Calloporella, Cyphotrypa, Dekayai, Eridotrypa, Insignia, Trematopora, etc. along with them are various forms of calcified algae which were found in association in the same thin sections. The prominent genera of calcified algae are as: Dasyporella, Moniliporella, and Vermiporella. The algal assemblages mainly consist of the order Dasycladales, which predominants in the entire successions. Three genera of Dasycladacean algae were identified, among them genus Moniliporella was reported first time from the Pin section. The presence of bryozoans and calcified green algae in these successions indicates shallow marine to near shore environmental conditions followed by different stages of regression and transgression during this time span. Based on the faunal elements, middle to late Ordovician age can be assigned to Thango Formation and late Ordovician to late Silurian to the Takche Formation.The bryozoan communities identified indicates a correlation with that of southern China, Russia, Siberia, Kazakhstan and Mongolia. The genera Insignia and Tremaptopora which are reported from the Spiti Basin are also reported from the Ordovician successions of Russia. The earlier Bryozoan fauna reported from India from Kinnaur Basin were assigned late Ordovician age but the recent studies show that they go up to late Silurian and are equally present in Thango as well as in the Takche formations of this region. The calcified algae can be correlated at generic level with parallel successions of the Kinnaur Basin and also with the other well-known sections of the world. Apart from Spiti Basin, the genus Dasyporella is reported from middle to late Ordovician successions of the Tarim Basin in China, eastern Kazakhstan, Utah, Nevada, Norway and from Silurian successions of northern California. The genus Vermiporella which is also one of the dominating genera in the Spiti Basin is equally reported from the Ordovician successions of the Tarim Basin China, eastern North America, Baltic region, Poland, Scotland. This forms is equally reported from Silurian successions of Netherlands, Sweden and in India from the Kinnaur Basin. The genus Moniliporella which was reported first time from Spiti Basin by the authors shows an age ranges from late Ordovician to early Silurian. It has been found that even in Tarim Basin Moniliporella is having the same age range as that of the Spiti Basin as well as that of Kazakhstan. The studied microfaunal assemblage of Spiti Basin shows a cosmopolitan nature and is correlatable to other well known successions of the world.

  6. Multispectral optoacoustic tomography resolves smart probe activation in vulnerable plaques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razansky, Daniel; Harlaar, Niels J.; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk; Taruttis, Adrian; Herzog, Eva; Zeebregts, Clark; van Dam, Goitzen; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2011-03-01

    In this work, we show, for the first time to our knowledge, that multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT) can deliver high resolution images of activatable molecular probe's distribution, sensitive to matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), deep within optically scattering human carotid specimen. It is further demonstrated that this method can be used in order to provide accurate maps of vulnerable plaque formations in atherosclerotic disease. Moreover, optoacoustic images can simultaneously show the underlining plaque morphology for accurate localization of MMP activity in three dimensions. This performance directly relates to small animal screening applications and to clinical potential as well.

  7. DETAIL OF PLAQUE COMMEMORATING THE JULY/ AUGUST 1958 VOYAGE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF PLAQUE COMMEMORATING THE JULY/ AUGUST 1958 VOYAGE OF THE USS NAUTILUS (SSN-571) TO THE NORTH POLE. NOTE: THIS PLAQUE IS NOT LOCATED AT WHARFS S13-S19; IT IS AT THE SUBMARINE MEMORIAL PARK, ABOUT 1,000' SOUTH OF THE WHARFS. THE LOCATION AND ORIENTATION OF THIS PHOTO IS NOT SHOWN ON THE PHOTO KEY MAP - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Additional Piers and Quay Walls, S13 to S19, Northeast end of Magazine Loch, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  8. Dosimetric study of the 15 mm ROPES eye plaque

    SciTech Connect

    Granero, D.; Perez-Calatayud, J.; Ballester, F.; Casal, E.; Frutos, J.M. de

    2004-12-01

    The main aim of this paper is to make a study of dose-rate distributions obtained around the 15 mm, radiation oncology physics and engineering services, Australia (ROPES) eye plaque loaded with {sup 125}I model 6711 radioactive seeds. In this study, we have carried out a comparison of the dose-rate distributions obtained by the algorithm used by the Plaque Simulator (PS) (BEBIG GmbH, Berlin, Germany) treatment planning system with those obtained by means of the Monte Carlo method for the ROPES eye plaque. A simple method to obtain the dose-rate distributions in a treatment planning system via the superposition of the dose-rate distributions of a seed placed in the eye plaque has been developed. The method uses eye plaque located in a simplified geometry of the head anatomy and distributions obtained by means of the Monte Carlo code GEANT4. The favorable results obtained in the development of this method suggest that it could be implemented on a treatment planning system to improve dose-rate calculations. We have also found that the dose-rate falls sharply along the eye and that outside the eye the dose-rate is very low. Furthermore, the lack of backscatter photons from the air located outside the eye-head phantom produces a dose reduction negligible for distances from the eye-plaque r<1 cm but reaches up to 20% near the air-eye interface. Results showed that the treatment planning system lacks accuracy around the border of the eye (in the sclera and the surrounding area) due to the simplicity of the algorithm used. The BEBIG treatment planning system uses a global attenuation factor that takes into account the effect of the eye plaque seed carrier and the lack of backscatter photons caused by the metallic cover, which in the case of a ROPES eye plaque has a default value of T=1 (no correction). In the present study, a global attenuation factor T=0.96 and an air-interface correction factor which improve on treatment planning system calculations were obtained.

  9. Method of making a light weight battery plaque

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, M. A.; Post, R. E.; Soltis, D. G. (inventors)

    1984-01-01

    A nickel plaque which may be coated with a suitable metal or compound to make an electrode for a fuel cell or battery is fabricated by directing nickel sensitizer, catalyst and plating solutions through a porous plastic substrate in the order named and at prescribed temperatures and flow rates. A boride compound dissolved in the plating solution decreases the electrical resistance of the plaque. Certain substrates may require treatment in an alkali solution to dissolve filler materials thereby increasing porosity to a required 65%.

  10. Pleural fluid extramedullary hematopoiesis case report with review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Koch, Meghan; Kurian, Elizabeth M

    2016-01-01

    Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) is the trilineage formation of normal blood cells outside of the bone marrow. While predominantly seen in the spleen and liver, EMH rarely occurs in serous effusions. Accurate diagnosis requires recognition of megakaryocytes and other precursor hematopoietic elements. We present a case of pleural fluid EMH in a patient with primary myelofibrosis and developing leukemia, with a review of the literature, prognostic implications and diagnostic challenges. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:41-44. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26592973

  11. Environmental pulmonary health problems related to mineral dusts: Examples from central Anatolia, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do?an, M.

    2002-01-01

    There are a number of benign disorders including pleural thickening (PT), calcified pleural plaques (CPP), and malignant diseases such as malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) in central Anatolia. Earlier studies suggested tremolite was the main cause, and there was no explanation why some of the population did not have malignant cases, and plaques were by far the most frequent manifestation of asbestos-induced injury. In this study, geological, mineralogical and environmental data were evaluated. While the prolonged continuous exposure to high or low doses of long (8-30 µm) and thin (less than 0.25 µm) mixed fibers such as chrysolite, and/or anthophyllite or tremolite, and also silica particles may be the cause of MPM in central Anatolia, two different reasons for the CPP and PT are suggested. The first one is short (less than 8 µm) and thin mixed-type mineral fibers. The second reason is low doses of long, but thick, splintery tremolite fibers.

  12. Malignant pleural mesothelioma: history, controversy and future of a manmade epidemic.

    PubMed

    Røe, Oluf Dimitri; Stella, Giulia Maria

    2015-03-01

    Asbestos is the term for a family of naturally occurring minerals that have been used on a small scale since ancient times. Industrialisation demanded increased mining and refining in the 20th century, and in 1960, Wagner, Sleggs and Marchand from South Africa linked asbestos to mesothelioma, paving the way to the current knowledge of the aetiology, epidemiology and biology of malignant pleural mesothelioma. Pleural mesothelioma is one of the most lethal cancers, with increasing incidence worldwide. This review will give some snapshots of the history of pleural mesothelioma discovery, and the body of epidemiological and biological research, including some of the controversies and unresolved questions. Translational research is currently unravelling novel circulating biomarkers for earlier diagnosis and novel treatment targets. Current breakthrough discoveries of clinically promising noninvasive biomarkers, such as the 13-protein signature, microRNAs and the BAP1 mesothelioma/cancer syndrome, are highlighted. The asbestos history is a lesson to not be repeated, but here we also review recent in vivo and in vitro studies showing that manmade carbon nanofibres could pose a similar danger to human health. This should be taken seriously by regulatory bodies to ensure thorough testing of novel materials before release in the society. PMID:25726562

  13. Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Pleura: A Rare Cause of Pleural Mass

    PubMed Central

    Supakul, Rodjawan; Sodhi, Amik; Tamashiro, Cecilia Yshii; Azmi, Syed S.; Kadaria, Dipen

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Male, 63 Final Diagnosis: Solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura Symptoms: Chronic cough Medication: — Clinical Procedure: CT guided biopsy • surgical resection Specialty: Pulmonology Objective: Rare disease Background: A solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura is a rare but usually benign mesenchymal tumor arising from the pleura. Patients are often asymptomatic, resulting in the majority of tumors being detected incidentally on chest imaging. We present a case of a large solitary pleural tumor and review the typical radiographic and pathologic findings associated with this finding. Case Report: A 63-year-old white man with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was found to have a large pleural mass on chest radiography during a pre-operative assessment. The tumor was biopsied and findings were consistent with solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura. Conclusions: SFTPs are generally considered benign tumors although there is a risk of malignant transformation and recurrence. Imaging studies play an important role in identifying the tumor and planes of resection, and histologic diagnosis is critical in differentiating SFTP from other type of pleural masses. Surgical resection is main therapy of choice. PMID:26632548

  14. Clinical diagnostic of pleural effusions using a high-speed viscosity measurement method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurth, Cedric; Klein, Katherine; van Nimwegen, Lena; Korn, Ronald; Vijayaraghavan, Krishnaswami; Zenhausern, Frederic

    2011-08-01

    We present a novel bio-analytical method to discriminate between transudative and exudative pleural effusions based on a high-speed video analysis of a solid glass sphere impacting a liquid. Since the result depends on the solution viscosity, it can ultimately replace the battery of biochemical assays currently used. We present results obtained on a series of 7 pleural effusions obtained from consenting patients by analyzing both the splash observed after the glass impactor hits the liquid surface, and in a configuration reminiscent of the drop ball viscometer with added sensitivity and throughput provided by the high-speed camera. The results demonstrate distinction between the pleural effusions and good correlation with the fluid chemistry analysis to accurately differentiate exudates and transudates for clinical purpose. The exudative effusions display a viscosity around 1.39 ± 0.08 cP whereas the transudative effusion was measured at 0.89 ± 0.09 cP, in good agreement with previous reports.

  15. Pleural cavity type 2 innate lymphoid cells precede Th2 expansion in murine Litomosoides sigmodontis infection.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Alexis; Killoran, Kristin; Mitre, Edward; Nutman, Thomas B

    2015-12-01

    Recently, a family of innate cells has been identified that respond to IL-25 and IL-33 in murine intestinal helminths. Termed Type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) they facilitate the development of Th2 responses responsible for helminth clearance. We evaluated these cells in a tissue-invasive helminth model. Using Litomosides sigmodontis (a strong Th2 polarizing filarial infection) we observed a robust Th2 response in the pleural cavity, where adult worms reside, marked by increased levels of IL-5 and IL-13 in infected mice. In parallel, ILC2s were expanded in the pleural cavity early in the infection, peaking during the pre-patent period. L. sigmodontis also elicits a strong systemic Th2 response, which includes significantly increased levels of IgG1, IgE and IL-5 in the plasma of infected mice. Although ILC2s were expanded locally, they were not expanded in the spleen, blood, or mediastinal lymph nodes in response to L. sigmodontis infection, suggesting that ILC2s function primarily at the site of infection. The increase in ILC2s in the pleural cavity and the expansion in Th2 responses indicates a probable role for these cells in initiating and maintaining the Th2 response and highlights the importance of these cells in helminth infections and their role in Th2 immunity. PMID:26394284

  16. Invasive pleural malignant mesothelioma with rib destruction and concurrent osteosarcoma in a dog.

    PubMed

    Di Tommaso, Morena; Rocconi, Francesca; Marruchella, Giuseppe; D'Angelo, Anna Rita; Masci, Stefano; Santori, Domenico; Civitella, Carla; Luciani, Alessia; Boari, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    A 7-year-old Dachshund was clinically examined because of a 10-day history of lameness in the left hind limb. On the basis of radiological and cytological findings, an osteosarcoma of the left acetabular region was suspected. The dog underwent a hemipelvectomy and osteosarcoma was diagnosed by subsequent histopathological examination. An immovable subcutaneous mass was noted on the left chest wall during the physical examination and non-septic neutrophilic inflammation was diagnosed by cytology. Forty days later, the dog showed signs of respiratory distress with an in-diameter increase of the subcutaneous mass up to 4 cm. Thoracic radiography and ultrasonography revealed pleural effusion and a lytic process in the fourth left rib. Furthermore, ultrasound examination revealed a mixed echogenic mobile structure with a diameter of around 2 cm floating within the pleural fluid of the left hemithorax close to the pericardium. The dog underwent surgery for an en bloc resection of the subcutaneous mass together with the fourth rib and the parietal pleura. Moreover, the left altered lung lobe, corresponding to the mobile structure detected by ultrasound, was removed. Based on cytological, histopathological, and immunohistochemical examinations, an invasive epithelioid pleural malignant mesothelioma was diagnosed. PMID:26625859

  17. Pleural tuberculosis in a patient with untreated type 1 Gaucher disease.

    PubMed

    Dulgar, Ozgecan; Eskazan, Ahmet Emre; Ersen, Ezel; Demiroz, Ahu Senem; Turna, Akif; Oz, Buge; Tuzuner, Nukhet

    2016-01-01

    Gaucher disease (GD) is an autosomal recessive glycolipid storage disorder, due to deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme glucocerebrosidase, leading to accumulation of the substrate glucocerebroside in the cells of the macrophage-monocyte system. Patients with GD have alteration in their immune system and impaired microbicidal capacity of mononuclear phagocytes. It has also been demonstrated that monocyte dysfunction may correlate with the plasma glucocerebrosidase concentrations. Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem in developing countries. Pleural TB is one of the most common forms of extra-pulmonary TB. Since immune system can be impaired due to the deficiency of glucocerebrosidase in various ways, TB can be observed in patients with GD especially when left untreated. Cytopenia(s) is also general finding in untreated Gaucher patients, and they may be observed most frequently due to the infiltration of the bone marrow with Gaucher cells together with the additional factor of splenomegaly. We herein present a case of an adult patient with heterozygous untreated GD1, who developed pleural TB complicated by ipsilateral pulmonary fibrosis. Before his admission to our clinic, pleurectomy operation was performed and 4-drug combination anti-TB therapy was initiated including isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol and pyrazinamide. Fever complaint was disappeared with anti-TB treatment but he also had fatigue and pain. After initiation of enzyme replacement therapy in addition to anti-TB treatment, clinical and hematological improvement was observed. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of GD1 with pleural TB. PMID:26459658

  18. Plaque: What It Is and How to Get Rid of It

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for a fresh feeling! Rinse again. Remember: Food residues, especially sweets, provide nutrients for the germs that ... why it is important to remove all food residues, as well as plaque, from teeth. Remove plaque ...

  19. Three-dimensional dosimetry imaging of I-125 plaque for eye cancer treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, M.; Green, J.; Petasecca, M.; Lerch, M. L. F.; Cutajar, D.; Franklin, D.; Jakubek, J.; Carolan, M. G.; Conway, M.; Pospisil, S.; Kron, T.; Metcalfe, P.; Zaider, M.; Rosenfeld, A. B.

    2011-05-01

    Treatment of ocular cancers using eye plaque brachytherapy is now an established medical procedure. However, current QA for these eye plaques is quite rudimentary, limiting the opportunities for precise pre-tumour plaque customisation. This paper proposes and experimentally validates a new technique for imaging of eye plaque dose distributions using a high-resolution pixelated silicon detector. Results are presented demonstrating the 2D and 3D isodose surfaces produced using experimental data collected using this method.

  20. Is cadmium exposure associated with the burden, vulnerability and rupture of human atherosclerotic plaques?

    PubMed

    Bergström, Göran; Fagerberg, Björn; Sallsten, Gerd; Lundh, Thomas; Barregard, Lars

    2015-01-01

    The general population is exposed to cadmium from food and smoking. Cadmium is a widely spread toxic pollutant that seems to be associated with cardiovascular diseases, although little is known if it contributes to the occurrence of atherosclerotic plaques and the process whereby plaques become vulnerable and are prone to rupture. We tested the hypotheses that cadmium exposure is associated not only with an increased subclinical burden of atherosclerotic plaques in different vascular territories and early signs of plaque vulnerability, but also with cadmium content and plaque-rupture in the clinical phase of the disease. Ultrasound technique was used to measure plaque prevalence and echogenicity in the carotid and femoral arteries in a population sample of women (n = 599) in whom blood cadmium was measured. In addition cadmium was measured in snap-frozen endarterectomies and whole blood obtained from patients who were referred to surgery because of symptomatic carotid plaques (n = 37). Sixteen endarterectomies were divided into three parts corresponding to different flow conditions and plaque vulnerability. In the population sample blood cadmium was associated with the number of vascular territories with plaques (p = 0.003 after adjustment for potential confounders). The cadmium concentrations in symptomatic plaques were 50-fold higher in plaque tissue than in blood. Cadmium levels in blood and plaque correlated, also after adjustment for smoking and other cardiovascular risk factors (p<0.001). Compared with the other parts of the plaque, the cadmium content was double as high in the part where plaque rupture usually occurs. In conclusion, the results show that cadmium exposure is associated with the burden of subclinical atherosclerosis in middle-aged women with different degrees of glucose tolerance, and that the content of cadmium in symptomatic plaques in patients is related to that in blood, but much higher, and preferentially located in the part of plaque where rupture often occurs. PMID:25816093

  1. Thymoma exhibiting spontaneous regression in size, pleural effusion and serum cytokeratin fragment level: A case report

    PubMed Central

    FURUYA, KENTA; ISOBE, KAZUTOSHI; SANO, GO; KABURAKI, KYOHEI; GOCHO, KYOKO; ISHIDA, FUMIAKI; KIKUCHI, NAOSHI; SUGINO, KEISHI; SAKAMOTO, SUSUMU; TAKAI, YUJIRO; OTSUKA, HAJIME; HATA, YOSHINOBU; IYODA, AKIRA; WAKAYAMA, MEGUMI; SHIBUYA, KAZUTOSHI; HOMMA, SAKAE

    2015-01-01

    A 30-year-old man was admitted to Toho University Omori Medical Center for assessment of right chest pain and fever. Chest computed tomography (CT) revealed an anterior mediastinal tumor sized 11.0×6.0×5.0 cm, with right pleural effusion. The laboratory analysis revealed elevated white blood cell count (11,000/µl), C-reactive protein (4.1 mg/dl) and cytokeratin fragment (CYFRA; 12.7 ng/ml; normal, <2 ng/ml). The level of CYFRA in the pleural effusion was also markedly elevated (143 ng/ml). On the first day after admission (6 days after the initial CT), there was a mild regression on CT (10.0×5.5×4.4 cm; reduction rate, 26.7%), with decrease of the pleural effusion volume. A CT-guided needle biopsy was performed, but the findings were not conclusive, as most of the tissue was necrotic. Seven days later (13 days after the initial CT), a CT revealed further regression (9.5×5.4×4.2 cm; reduction rate, 34.7%) with disappearance of the pleural effusion. The patient was followed up on an outpatient basis. At 35 days after the initial CT, the tumor continued to shrink without treatment (8.0×3.6×3.0 cm; reduction rate, 73.8%) and the serum CYFRA level had decreased to 0.8 ng/ml, although it had not returned to normal levels. At 62 days after the initial CT, the patient underwent surgical resection. The resected specimen was diagnosed as thymoma (World Health Organization type B2; Masaoka classification, stage II), with prominent degeneration and necrosis. One possible cause of the spontaneous regression may be increased internal pressure, probably associated with rapid tumor growth, leading to massive necrosis with resulting chest pain, inflammatory reaction with pleural effusion and subsequent tumor regression. The serum CYFRA level may be a useful marker for the evaluation of the clinical course of thymoma with extensive necrosis. PMID:26623050

  2. Development of Tc-99m Imaging Agents for Abeta Plaques

    SciTech Connect

    Zhi-Ping, Zhuang; Mei-Ping Kung; Catherihne Hou; Hank F. Kung

    2008-09-26

    Development of SPECT imaging agents based on Tc-99m targeting A? plaques is useful for diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A stilbene derivative, [11C]SB-13, showing promise in detecting senile plaques present in AD patients has been reported previously1,2. Based on the 4’-amino-stilbene core structure we have added substituted groups through which a chelating group, N2S2, was conjugated. We report herein a series of Tc-99m labeled stilbene derivative conjugated with a TcO[N2S2] core. The syntheses of stilbenes containing a N2S2 chelating ligand are achieved by a scheme shown. Lipophilic 99mTc stilbene complexes were successfully prepared and purified through HPLC. Preliminary results of in vitro labeling of brain sections from transgenic mice showed very promising plaque labeling. These 99mTc stilbene derivatives are warranted for further evaluations as potential imaging agents targeting amyloid plaques.

  3. SEQUENTIAL INOCULATION AS AN ADJUNCT IN ENTERIC VIRUS PLAQUE ENUMERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential utility of sequentially inoculating a virus sample onto two different cultures of similar dissimilar cell lines was evaluated in conjunction with IDU (5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine) treatment of the cells as a potential adjunct in viral plaque formation assays. his evaluat...

  4. 7. VARIABLEANGLE LAUNCHER DEDICATION PLAQUE SHOWING JAMES H. JENNISON (LEFT), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VARIABLE-ANGLE LAUNCHER DEDICATION PLAQUE SHOWING JAMES H. JENNISON (LEFT), AND W.H. SAYLOR (RIGHT), AT THE DEDICATION CEREMONY, May 7, 1948. (Original photograph in possession of Dave Willis, San Diego, California.) - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  5. Ultrasound imaging versus morphopathology in cardiovascular diseases. Coronary atherosclerotic plaque

    PubMed Central

    Baroldi, Giorgio; Bigi, Riccardo; Cortigiani, Lauro

    2004-01-01

    This review article is aimed at comparing the results of histopathological and clinical imaging studies to assess coronary atherosclerotic plaques in humans. In particular, the gap between the two techniques and its effect on the understanding of the pathophysiological basis of coronary artery disease is critically discussed. PMID:15598352

  6. Fermentation of five sucrose isomers by human dental plaque bacteria.

    PubMed

    Matsuyama, J; Sato, T; Hoshino, E; Noda, T; Takahashi, N

    2003-01-01

    Sucrose has five structural isomers: palatinose, trehalulose, turanose, maltulose and leucrose. Although these isomers have been reported to be noncariogenic disaccharides, which cannot be utilized by mutans streptococci, there is no information about their fermentability by other bacteria in dental plaque. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether these isomers were fermented by predominant bacteria in human dental plaque. Clinical bacterial isolates obtained from dental plaque from 3 children aged 22 months to 50 months (146 strains) were inoculated into 3 ml of peptone-yeast extract (PY medium) containing glucose for 1 day, then an aliquot of 20 microl of culture medium was inoculated into 1 ml of PY medium containing 1% (w/v) of the respective test carbohydrates. After incubation for 1 day, the pH values and the optical density at 660 nm of the cultures were measured. Fermentation ability was measured by pH or=0.5. Of the clinical isolates, 33% fermented palatinose, and 69% of these were Actinomyces species. All of the palatinose-fermenting bacterial strains fermented trehalulose, 25% fermented turanose, 70% fermented maltulose and 23% fermented leucrose. We therefore conclude that, in human dental plaque, there are significant numbers of bacteria that are able to ferment sucrose isomers. PMID:14571118

  7. Impact of artificial plaque composition on drug transport.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ji; Saylor, David M; Glaser, Ethan P; Patwardhan, Dinesh V

    2013-06-01

    Drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation is a common treatment for atherosclerosis. The safety and efficacy of these devices will depend on the uptake and distribution of drug into the vessel wall. It is established that the composition of atherosclerotic vessels can vary dramatically with patients' age and gender. However, studies focused on elucidating and quantifying the impact of these variations on important drug transport properties, such as diffusion (D) and partition (k) coefficients, are limited. We have developed an improved tissue mimic or artificial plaque to probe the effect of varying concentrations of plaque constituents on drug transport in vitro. Based on these artificial plaques, we have quantified the impact of gelatin (hydrolyzed collagen) and lipid (cholesterol) concentration on D and k using two model drugs, tetracycline and fluvastatin. We found that for tetracycline, increasing the collagen concentration from 0.025 to 0.100 (w/w) resulted in a fivefold decrease in diffusivity, whereas there was no discernible impact on solubility. Increasing the lipid concentration up to 0.034 (w/w) resulted in only minor changes to transport properties of tetracycline. However, fluvastatin exhibited nearly a fivefold increase in k and 10-fold decrease in D with increased lipid concentration. These results were in reasonable agreement with existing models and exhibited behavior consistent with previous observations on drugs commonly used in DES applications. These observations suggest that variations in the chemical characteristics of atherosclerotic plaque can significantly alter the release rate and distribution of drug following DES implantation. PMID:23568279

  8. Verruca vulgaris in a plaque of acanthosis nigricans.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Atif; Matthews, Mark; Browning, John C

    2011-01-01

    Warts are common cutaneous tumors, induced by different strains of the human papilloma virus. Many people develop one or more warts in their lifetime, most of which resolve spontaneously. We present a case of multiple warts within a plaque of acanthosis nigricans probably related to autoinoculation. PMID:21696689

  9. Imaging of the Fibrous Cap in Atherosclerotic Carotid Plaque

    SciTech Connect

    Saba, Luca; Potters, Fons; Lugt, Aad van der; Mallarini, Giorgio

    2010-08-15

    In the last two decades, a substantial number of articles have been published to provide diagnostic solutions for patients with carotid atherosclerotic disease. These articles have resulted in a shift of opinion regarding the identification of stroke risk in patients with carotid atherosclerotic disease. In the recent past, the degree of carotid artery stenosis was the sole determinant for performing carotid intervention (carotid endarterectomy or carotid stenting) in these patients. We now know that the degree of stenosis is only one marker for future cerebrovascular events. If one wants to determine the risk of these events more accurately, other parameters must be taken into account; among these parameters are plaque composition, presence and state of the fibrous cap (FC), intraplaque haemorrhage, plaque ulceration, and plaque location. In particular, the FC is an important structure for the stability of the plaque, and its rupture is highly associated with a recent history of transient ischaemic attack or stroke. The subject of this review is imaging of the FC.

  10. Inadequate dietary magnesium intake increases atherosclerotic plaque development in rabbits

    E-print Network

    Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

    Inadequate dietary magnesium intake increases atherosclerotic plaque development in rabbits at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA b Division of Nutritional Sciences, Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA Received 12 February

  11. Intracellular amyloid and the neuronal origin of Alzheimer neuritic plaques

    PubMed Central

    Pensalfini, Anna; Albay, Ricardo; Rasool, Suhail; Wu, Jessica; Hatami, Asa; Arai, Hiromi; Margol, Lawrence; Milton, Saskia; Poon, Wayne; Corrada, Maria; Kawas, Claudia; Glabe, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Genetic analysis of familial forms of Alzheimer's disease (AD) causally links the proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and AD. However, the specific type of amyloid and mechanisms of amyloid pathogenesis remain unclear. We conducted a detailed analysis of intracellular amyloid with an aggregation specific conformation dependent monoclonal antibody, M78, raised against fibrillar Aß42. M78 immunoreactivity colocalizes with Aß and the carboxyl terminus of APP (APP-CTF) immunoreactivities in perinuclear compartments at intermediate times in 10 mo 3XTg-AD mice, indicating that this represents misfolded and aggregated protein rather than normally folded APP. At 12 mo, M78 immunoreactivity also accumulates in the nucleus. Neuritic plaques at 12 mo display the same spatial organization of centrally colocalized M78, diffuse chromatin and neuronal nuclear NeuN staining surrounded by peripheral M78 and APP-CTF immunoreactivity as observed in neurons, indicating that neuritic plaques arise from degenerating neurons with intracellular amyloid immunoreactivity. The same staining pattern was observed in neuritic plaques in human AD brains, showing elevated intracellular M78 immunoreactivity at intermediate stages of amyloid pathology (Braak A and B) compared to no amyloid pathology and late stage amyloid pathology (Braak 0 and C, respectively). These results indicate that intraneuronal protein aggregation and amyloid accumulation is an early event in AD and that neuritic plaques are initiated by the degeneration and death of neurons by a mechanism that may be related to the formation of extracellular traps by neutrophils. PMID:25092575

  12. Transcriptome and proteome analysis of Pinctada margaritifera calcifying mantle and shell: focus on biomineralization

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The shell of the pearl-producing bivalve Pinctada margaritifera is composed of an organic cell-free matrix that plays a key role in the dynamic process of biologically-controlled biomineralization. In order to increase genomic resources and identify shell matrix proteins implicated in biomineralization in P. margaritifera, high-throughput Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) pyrosequencing was undertaken on the calcifying mantle, combined with a proteomic analysis of the shell. Results We report the functional analysis of 276 738 sequences, leading to the constitution of an unprecedented catalog of 82 P. margaritifera biomineralization-related mantle protein sequences. Components of the current "chitin-silk fibroin gel-acidic macromolecule" model of biomineralization processes were found, in particular a homolog of a biomineralization protein (Pif-177) recently discovered in P. fucata. Among these sequences, we could show the localization of two other biomineralization protein transcripts, pmarg-aspein and pmarg-pearlin, in two distinct areas of the outer mantle epithelium, suggesting their implication in calcite and aragonite formation. Finally, by combining the EST approach with a proteomic mass spectrometry analysis of proteins isolated from the P. margaritifera shell organic matrix, we demonstrated the presence of 30 sequences containing almost all of the shell proteins that have been previously described from shell matrix protein analyses of the Pinctada genus. The integration of these two methods allowed the global composition of biomineralizing tissue and calcified structures to be examined in tandem for the first time. Conclusions This EST study made on the calcifying tissue of P. margaritifera is the first description of pyrosequencing on a pearl-producing bivalve species. Our results provide direct evidence that our EST data set covers most of the diversity of the matrix protein of P. margaritifera shell, but also that the mantle transcripts encode proteins present in P. margaritifera shell, hence demonstrating their implication in shell formation. Combining transcriptomic and proteomic approaches is therefore a powerful way to identify proteins involved in biomineralization. Data generated in this study supply the most comprehensive list of biomineralization-related sequences presently available among protostomian species, and represent a major breakthrough in the field of molluskan biomineralization. PMID:21040589

  13. Direct association between diet and the stability of human atherosclerotic plaque.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Isabel; Andersson Georgiadou, Elisavet; Mattsson, Sören; Skog, Göran; Pedro, Luís; Fernandes E Fernandes, José; Dias, Nuno; Engström, Gunnar; Nilsson, Jan; Stenström, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Mediterranean diet has been suggested to explain why coronary heart disease mortality is lower in southern than northern Europe. Dietary habits can be revealed by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) measurement of carbon (?(13)C) and nitrogen (?(15)N) in biological tissues. To study if diet is associated with human plaque stability, atherosclerotic plaques from carotid endarterectomy on 56 patients (21 Portuguese and 35 Swedish) were analysed by IRMS and histology. Plaque components affecting rupture risk were measured. Swedish plaques had more apoptosis, lipids and larger cores, as well as fewer proliferating cells and SMC than the Portuguese, conferring the Swedish a more rupture-prone phenotype. Portuguese plaques contained higher ?(13)C and ?(15)N than the Swedish, indicating that Portuguese plaques were more often derived from marine food. Plaque ?(13)C correlated with SMC and proliferating cells, and inversely with lipids, core size, apoptosis. Plaque ?(15)N correlated with SMC and inversely with lipids, core size and apoptosis. This is the first observational study showing that diet is reflected in plaque components associated with its vulnerability. The Portuguese plaques composition is consistent with an increased marine food intake and those plaques are more stable than those from Swedish patients. Marine-derived food is associated with plaque stability. PMID:26490319

  14. 76 FR 66307 - Scientific Information Request on Phototherapy for Treatment of Chronic Plaque Psoriasis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-26

    ... Treatment of Chronic Plaque Psoriasis AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS. ACTION... for treatment of chronic plaque psoriasis. Scientific information is being solicited to inform our... Chronic Plaque Psoriasis, which is currently being conducted by the Evidence-based Practice Centers...

  15. Direct association between diet and the stability of human atherosclerotic plaque

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Isabel; Andersson Georgiadou, Elisavet; Mattsson, Sören; Skog, Göran; Pedro, Luís; Fernandes e Fernandes, José; Dias, Nuno; Engström, Gunnar; Nilsson, Jan; Stenström, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Mediterranean diet has been suggested to explain why coronary heart disease mortality is lower in southern than northern Europe. Dietary habits can be revealed by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) measurement of carbon (?13C) and nitrogen (?15N) in biological tissues. To study if diet is associated with human plaque stability, atherosclerotic plaques from carotid endarterectomy on 56 patients (21 Portuguese and 35 Swedish) were analysed by IRMS and histology. Plaque components affecting rupture risk were measured. Swedish plaques had more apoptosis, lipids and larger cores, as well as fewer proliferating cells and SMC than the Portuguese, conferring the Swedish a more rupture-prone phenotype. Portuguese plaques contained higher ?13C and ?15N than the Swedish, indicating that Portuguese plaques were more often derived from marine food. Plaque ?13C correlated with SMC and proliferating cells, and inversely with lipids, core size, apoptosis. Plaque ?15N correlated with SMC and inversely with lipids, core size and apoptosis. This is the first observational study showing that diet is reflected in plaque components associated with its vulnerability. The Portuguese plaques composition is consistent with an increased marine food intake and those plaques are more stable than those from Swedish patients. Marine-derived food is associated with plaque stability. PMID:26490319

  16. Stable Size Distribution of Amyloid Plaques Over the Course of Alzheimer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Serrano-Pozo, Alberto; Mielke, Matthew L.; Muzitansky, Alona; Gómez-Isla, Teresa; Growdon, John H.; Bacskai, Brian J.; Betensky, Rebecca A.; Frosch, Matthew P.; Hyman, Bradley T.

    2012-01-01

    Amyloid-? plaques are a key pathological feature of Alzheimer disease (AD), but whether plaque sizes increase or stabilize over the course of AD is unknown. We measured the size distribution of total immunoreactive (10D5-positive) and dense-core (Thioflavine-S-positive) plaques in the temporal neocortex of a large group of AD and plaque-bearing age-matched non-demented subjects to test the hypothesis that amyloid plaques continue to grow along with the progression of the disease. The size of amyloid-? (10D5)-positive plaques did not differ between groups whereas dense-core plaques from the AD group were slightly larger than those in the non-demented group (~25%–30%, p = 0.01). Within the AD group, dense-core plaque size did not independently correlate with duration of clinical disease (from 4 to 21 years, p = 0.68), whereas 10D5-positive plaque size correlated negatively with disease duration (p = 0.01). By contrast, an earlier age of symptom onset strongly predicted a larger postmortem plaque size; this effect was independent of disease duration and the presence of the APOE?4 allele (p = 0.0001). We conclude that plaques vary in size among patients, with larger size distributions correlating with an earlier age of onset, but plaques do not substantially increase in size over the clinical course of the disease. PMID:22805771

  17. Isolation and sequence of the vitamin K-dependent matrix Gla protein from the calcified cartilage of the soupfin shark.

    E-print Network

    Price, Paul A.

    Isolation and sequence of the vitamin K-dependent matrix Gla protein from the calcified cartilage Department of Biology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla. High levels of the vitamin K contains 4 residues of the vitamin K-dependent amino acid gamma- carboxyglutamic acid in its 102 residue

  18. Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour with clear langerhans cells: a novel variant, report of a case and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Afrogheh, Amir; Schneider, Johann; Mohamed, Noor; Hille, Jos

    2014-06-01

    Clear cell calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour (CCEOT) is a rare variant of calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT). While it is not surprising to find clear cells in odontogenic lesions, the exact nature of the clear cells in CCEOT has not been elucidated. Herein, we report a case of peripheral CCEOT of anterior mandible in a 37 year old black female. Histologically, the tumour consisted of cords and small nests of clear cells surrounded by dense deposits of amyloid and basophilic calcifications. The cells possessed abundant clear cytoplasm and eccentrically located indented nuclei. Admixed with the clear cells were eosinophilic cuboidal to polyhedral cells. The clear cells were PAS negative and immunoreactive for S100 protein, CD1a and Langerin. The clear cells were negative for MNF-116, SMA, Desmin and CK-19. It is therefore recommended to recognize two variants of CCEOT, namely, CEOT with clear cell change and CEOT with clear Langerhans cells (LC). We further suggest that the contradictory term "non-calcifying variant of calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour with LC" to be abandoned, as the current case clearly indicates that LC could be seen in CEOT irrespective of the presence or absence of calcifications. PMID:24037599

  19. First evidence of chitin in calcified coralline algae: new insights into the calcification process of Clathromorphum compactum

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, M. Azizur; Halfar, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    Interest in calcifying coralline algae has been increasing over the past years due to the discovery of extensive coralline algal dominated ecosystems in Arctic and Subarctic latitudes, their projected sensitivity to ocean acidification and their utility as palaeoenvironmental proxies. Thus, it is crucial to obtain a detailed understanding of their calcification process. We here extracted calcified skeletal organic matrix components including soluble and insoluble fractions from the widely-distributed Subarctic and Arctic coralline alga Clathromorphum compactum. The lyophilized skeletal organic matrix fractions showed comparatively high concentrations of soluble and insoluble organic matrices comprising 0.9% and 4.5% of skeletal weight, respectively. This is significantly higher than in other skeletal marine calcifiers. Attenuated Total Reflection-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) results indicate that chitin is present in the skeletal organic matrices of C. compactum. This polymer exhibits similar hierarchical structural organizations with collagen present in the matrix and serves as a template for nucleation and controls the location and orientation of mineral phases. Chitin contributes to significantly increasing skeletal strength, making C. compactum highly adapted for living in a shallow high-latitude benthic environment. Furthermore, chitin containing polysaccharides can increase resistance of calcifiers to negative effects of ocean acidification. PMID:25145331

  20. Genetic Susceptibility for Alzheimer’s Disease Neuritic Plaque Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Shulman, Joshua M.; Chen, Kewei; Keenan, Brendan T.; Chibnik, Lori B.; Fleisher, Adam; Thiyyagura, Pradeep; Roontiva, Auttawut; McCabe, Cristin; Patsopoulos, Nikolaos A.; Corneveaux, Jason J.; Yu, Lei; Huentelman, Matthew J.; Evans, Denis A.; Schneider, Julie A.; Reiman, Eric M.; De Jager, Philip L.; Bennett, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether Alzheimer’s disease (AD) susceptibility loci from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) impact neuritic plaque pathology and to additionally identify novel risk loci for this trait. Design Candidate analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and GWAS in a joint clinicopathologic cohort study, followed by targeted validation in independent neuroimaging cohorts. Participants and Setting 725 deceased subjects from the Religious Orders and Rush Memory and Aging Project, two prospective, community-based studies of aging; the validation neuroimaging cohort consisted of 114 subjects from multiple clinical and research centers. Main Outcome Measures A quantitative measure of neuritic plaque pathologic burden, based on assessments of silver-stained tissue averaged from multiple brain regions. Validation based on ?-amyloid load by immunocytochemistry, and replication with fibrillar ?-amyloid Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging with Pittsburgh Compound B or florbetapir. Results Besides the previously reported APOE and CR1 loci, we find that ABCA7 (rs3764650, P=0.02) and CD2AP (rs9349407, P=0.03) AD susceptibility loci are associated with neuritic plaque burden. In addition, among the top results of our GWAS, we discovered a novel variant near the amyloid precursor protein gene (APP, rs2829887) that is associated with neuritic plaques (P=3.3×10?6). This polymorphism was associated with postmortem ?-amyloid load, as well as fibrillar ?-amyloid in two independent cohorts of adults with normal cognition. Conclusion These findings enhance understanding of AD risk factors by relating validated susceptibility alleles to increased neuritic plaque pathology and implicate common genetic variation at the APP locus in the earliest, pre-symptomatic stages of AD. PMID:23836404

  1. Anterior Herniation of Partially Calcified and Degenerated Cervical Disc Causing Dysphagia

    PubMed Central

    Turk, Cezmi Cagri; Yildirim, Ali Erdem; Dalgic, Ali

    2015-01-01

    We report a rare case of anterior cervical disc herniation associated with dysphagia. A 32-year-old man presented with complaints of dysphagia and concomitant pain in the right arm resistant to conservative therapy. On physical examination with respect to the muscle strength, the right shoulder abduction and flexion of the forearm were 3/5. Lateral X-ray revealed calcified osteophytes at the anterior C4-5 level. Magnetic resonance imaging showed soft disc herniation involving the right C6 root at the C5-6 level and anterior herniation of the C4-5 cervical disc. Anterior discectomies for C4-5 and C5-6 levels stabilized and ameliorated the dysphagia and pain. Cervical disc herniation usually presents with radicular findings. However, dysphagia may be an uncommon presentation. Anterior cervical disc herniation should be considered in a patient presenting with dysphagia. PMID:26240723

  2. Pathological calcification and replicating calcifying-nanoparticles: general approach and correlation.

    PubMed

    Ciftçio?lu, Neva; McKay, David S

    2010-05-01

    Calcification, a phenomenon often regarded by pathologists little more than evidence of cell death, is becoming recognized to be important in the dynamics of a variety of diseases from which millions of beings suffer in all ages. In calcification, all that is needed for crystal formation to start is nidi (nuclei) and an environment of available dissolved components at or near saturation concentrations, along with the absence of inhibitors for crystal formation. Calcifying nanoparticles (CNP) are the first calcium phosphate mineral containing particles isolated from human blood and were detected in numerous pathologic calcification related diseases. Controversy and critical role of CNP as nidi and triggering factor in human pathologic calcification are discussed. PMID:20094006

  3. Anterior Herniation of Partially Calcified and Degenerated Cervical Disc Causing Dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Ozdol, Cagatay; Turk, Cezmi Cagri; Yildirim, Ali Erdem; Dalgic, Ali

    2015-08-01

    We report a rare case of anterior cervical disc herniation associated with dysphagia. A 32-year-old man presented with complaints of dysphagia and concomitant pain in the right arm resistant to conservative therapy. On physical examination with respect to the muscle strength, the right shoulder abduction and flexion of the forearm were 3/5. Lateral X-ray revealed calcified osteophytes at the anterior C4-5 level. Magnetic resonance imaging showed soft disc herniation involving the right C6 root at the C5-6 level and anterior herniation of the C4-5 cervical disc. Anterior discectomies for C4-5 and C5-6 levels stabilized and ameliorated the dysphagia and pain. Cervical disc herniation usually presents with radicular findings. However, dysphagia may be an uncommon presentation. Anterior cervical disc herniation should be considered in a patient presenting with dysphagia. PMID:26240723

  4. Multiple calcified brain metastases in a man with invasive ductal breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Ressl, Nadine; Oberndorfer, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of a 52-year-old Caucasian man with invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast. One year after initial diagnosis, he developed a generalised epileptic seizure and neuroimaging showed multiple, calcified intracerebral lesions. Owing to these atypical cerebral imaging findings, comprehensive serological and cerebrospinal fluid analysis was conducted and a latent toxoplasmosis was suspected. In order to distinguish between metastases and an infectious disease, a cerebral biopsy was performed, which verified brain metastases. The patient received whole-brain radiotherapy. The last cerebral CT scan, 18 months later showed stable disease. Calcification of brain metastases in patients with breast cancer is very rare. Owing to their non-characteristic radiological appearance with a lack of contrast enhancement, diagnosis of metastases can be difficult. Infectious diseases should be considered within the diagnostic work up. Owing to possible pitfalls, we recommend a widespread differential diagnostic work up in similar cases, and even in cases with a confirmed primary tumour. PMID:26472289

  5. Cone Beam Computed Tomography Findings in Calcifying Cystic Odontogenic Tumor Associated with Odontome: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Phulambrikar, Tushar; Vilas Kant, Sanchita; Kode, Manasi; Magar, Shaliputra

    2015-01-01

    The calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor (CCOT) is a rare cystic odontogenic neoplasm frequently found in association with odontome. This report documents a case of CCOT associated with an odontome arising in the anterior maxilla in a 28-year-old man. Conventional radiographs showed internal calcification within the lesion but were unable to visualize its relation with the adjacent structures and its accurate extent. In this case cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) could accurately reveal the extent and the internal structure of the lesion which aided the presumptive diagnosis of the lesion as CCOT. This advanced imaging technique proved to be extremely useful in the radiographic assessment and management of this neoplasm of the maxilla. PMID:26636128

  6. A calcified amorphous tumor that developed on both sides of the atrioventricular valve annulus.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Masaki; Okayama, Hideki; Kawamura, Go; Shigematsu, Tatsuya; Takahashi, Tatsunori; Miyoshi, Toru; Higaki, Akinori; Hara, Kayo; Kawata, Yoshitaka; Hiasa, Go; Yamada, Tadakatsu; Kazatani, Yukio; Hayashi, Yutaka

    2015-12-01

    We report a rare case of a hemodialysis patient with a calcified amorphous tumor (CAT) on both sides of the atrioventricular valve annulus. A 70-year-old female who had received hemodialysis for 23 years because of chronic glomerulonephritis presented to our hospital with acute heart failure. Echocardiography indicated the presence of mobile cardiac masses on the mitral valve and tricuspid valve annulus. We suspected the presence of a cardiac tumor or vegetation. The patient received 3 g/day sulbactam-ampicillin and 60 mg/day gentamicin. Surgery was performed on the 14th day after hospital admission. The patient underwent mitral valve replacement, tricuspid annuloplasty, and tumor resection. Based on the pathological findings, the cardiac tumor was diagnosed as a CAT. PMID:26585959

  7. Malignant transformation of calcifying cystic odontogenic tumour – a review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Ashok, Nipun; Alzoghaibi, Ibrahim; Altamimi, Mohammed Alsakran; Azzeghaiby, Saleh Nasser; Baroudi, Kusai; Nassani, Mohammad Zakaria

    2015-01-01

    Calcifying cystic odontogenic tumour (CCOT) has been classified as an odontogenic tumour. Ghost cell odontogenic carcinoma (GCOC) is the malignant counterpart of CCOT. This paper aims to review the literature regarding malignant transformation of CCOT. A literature search was done via the National Library of Medicine PubMed interface, searching for articles relating to malignant transformation of CCOT. From these articles, references were obtained, and from their references lists, pertinent secondary references were also identified and acquired. After reviewing the literature, we found 26 cases of GCOC which developed from CCOT. Malignant transformation of CCOT was seen more commonly in the maxilla. Histologically, changes such as increased nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio, atypical mitotic figures have been reported after malignant transformation. Immunohistochemical analysis has shown an increased expression of ki-67 and p53 in tumour cells. Malignant transformation of CCOT, although rare, mostly takes place in recurrent and long standing cases. PMID:26557757

  8. Cone Beam Computed Tomography Findings in Calcifying Cystic Odontogenic Tumor Associated with Odontome: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Phulambrikar, Tushar; Vilas Kant, Sanchita; Kode, Manasi; Magar, Shaliputra

    2015-12-01

    The calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor (CCOT) is a rare cystic odontogenic neoplasm frequently found in association with odontome. This report documents a case of CCOT associated with an odontome arising in the anterior maxilla in a 28-year-old man. Conventional radiographs showed internal calcification within the lesion but were unable to visualize its relation with the adjacent structures and its accurate extent. In this case cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) could accurately reveal the extent and the internal structure of the lesion which aided the presumptive diagnosis of the lesion as CCOT. This advanced imaging technique proved to be extremely useful in the radiographic assessment and management of this neoplasm of the maxilla. PMID:26636128

  9. Coral calcifying fluid pH dictates response to ocean acidification.

    PubMed

    Holcomb, M; Venn, A A; Tambutté, E; Tambutté, S; Allemand, D; Trotter, J; McCulloch, M

    2014-01-01

    Ocean acidification driven by rising levels of CO2 impairs calcification, threatening coral reef growth. Predicting how corals respond to CO2 requires a better understanding of how calcification is controlled. Here we show how spatial variations in the pH of the internal calcifying fluid (pHcf) in coral (Stylophora pistillata) colonies correlates with differential sensitivity of calcification to acidification. Coral apexes had the highest pHcf and experienced the smallest changes in pHcf in response to acidification. Lateral growth was associated with lower pHcf and greater changes with acidification. Calcification showed a pattern similar to pHcf, with lateral growth being more strongly affected by acidification than apical. Regulation of pHcf is therefore spatially variable within a coral and critical to determining the sensitivity of calcification to ocean acidification. PMID:24903088

  10. Malignant transformation of calcifying cystic odontogenic tumour - a review of literature.

    PubMed

    Tarakji, Bassel; Ashok, Nipun; Alzoghaibi, Ibrahim; Altamimi, Mohammed Alsakran; Azzeghaiby, Saleh Nasser; Baroudi, Kusai; Nassani, Mohammad Zakaria

    2015-01-01

    Calcifying cystic odontogenic tumour (CCOT) has been classified as an odontogenic tumour. Ghost cell odontogenic carcinoma (GCOC) is the malignant counterpart of CCOT. This paper aims to review the literature regarding malignant transformation of CCOT. A literature search was done via the National Library of Medicine PubMed interface, searching for articles relating to malignant transformation of CCOT. From these articles, references were obtained, and from their references lists, pertinent secondary references were also identified and acquired. After reviewing the literature, we found 26 cases of GCOC which developed from CCOT. Malignant transformation of CCOT was seen more commonly in the maxilla. Histologically, changes such as increased nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio, atypical mitotic figures have been reported after malignant transformation. Immunohistochemical analysis has shown an increased expression of ki-67 and p53 in tumour cells. Malignant transformation of CCOT, although rare, mostly takes place in recurrent and long standing cases. PMID:26557757

  11. Transradial versus transfemoral rotablation for heavily calcified coronary lesions in contemporary drug-eluting stent era

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Wei-Hsian; Tseng, Chin-Kun; Tsao, Tien-Ping; Jen, Hsu-Lung; Huang, Wen-Pin; Huang, Chien-Lung; Wang, Jiann-Jong; Young, Mason Shing

    2015-01-01

    Background Although radial access for drug-eluting stent (DES) combined with rotational atherectomy (RA) in patients with calcified coronary lesions may be associated with a lower risk of major bleeding complications and obtain favorable clinical results compared with femoral access, the long-term outcome data of this approach were limited in contemporary DES era. Methods & Results This retrospective study sought to compare in-hospital and long-term outcomes for patients undergoing RA via the transradial (TR) and transfemoral (TF) route in 126 consecutive patients (59 radial, 67 femoral) from 2009 to 2014. TR RA procedures were performed in 44/62 (71%) by the three TR operators, compared with 15/64 (23%) by the four TF operators in the present study. Signi?cantly smaller diameter guide catheters and burrs (1.39 ± 0.16 mm vs. 1.53 ± 0.24 mm, P = 0.001) were used in the TR group. Procedural success rates were similar in both TR and TF groups. There was a significantly less major access site bleeding complications in favor of radial artery access (2% vs. 16%, P = 0.012). The incidence of in-hospital death or myocardial infarction was low in both groups. Although a trend of lower adverse event rate was demonstrated in the TR group compared with the TF one, no statistical significance (21% vs. 27%, P = 0.135) was detected. Conclusions Radial access, a useful alternative to femoral access for RA and DES, can be safely and successfully performed on up to 71% of the patients with heavily calcified coronary lesions needing RA by experienced TR operators. PMID:26512239

  12. Electron microscopic analysis of mineral deposits in the calcifying epiphyseal growth plate.

    PubMed

    Arsenault, A L; Hunziker, E B

    1988-02-01

    Early mineral deposits within calcifying rat epiphyseal growth plates were studied by bright field and selected-area dark field electron microscopy, and X-ray microanalysis. These mineral deposits were prepared in situ by high-pressure freezing, freeze substitution, and low-temperature embedding, and were examined in unstained, stained, and ethyleneglycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA)-treated stained thin sections. On unstained sections mineral rods occur within an amorphous density of calcium and phosphorus (CaP). X-ray microanalysis of stained sections reveals that the location of electron-dense deposits does not always correspond to that of the CaP mineral deposits identified in electron microscopic images. Such an analysis showed a depletion of both Ca and P in stained sections at sites corresponding to high levels of these elements in unstained sections. Staining thus demineralizes early deposition sites of CaP; at the same time lead (Pb) and uranium (U) bind to the organic components of the extracellular matrix formerly associated with Ca and P. This substitution phenomenon alters the overall fine structure of mineral sites by depleting the amorphous density of Ca and P, and by creating isolated rodlike structures that have formerly been interpreted as representing hydroxyapatite (HAP) crystals. Selected-area dark field imaging shows nascent sites of HAP crystals to be associated with the limiting membrane of matrix vesicles, but such crystals were undetectable at these sites with conventional bright field images. Dark field imaging also showed that the typical 30-80 nm crystal rods found in calcified cartilage consist of aggregates of HAP crystals. PMID:2450627

  13. Effect of experimental conditions on surface hardness measurements of calcified tissues via LIBS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Salam, Z. A.; Nanjing, Z.; Anglos, D.; Harith, M. A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the effects of LIBS experimental conditions on the measurement of the surface hardness of calcified tissues. The technique mainly depends on a previously demonstrated correlation between the intensity ratio of ionic to atomic spectral lines and the hardness of the target material. Three types of calcified tissues have been examined, namely enamel of human teeth, shells, and eggshells. Laser-induced breakdown spectra were obtained under two different experimental conditions. In the first nano and picoseconds, laser pulses were used in a single-pulse arrangement, while in the second, single- and double-pulse regimes with nanosecond laser excitation were utilized. The results show that the ionic to atomic spectral line intensity ratios are higher in the case of picosecond laser pulse for both Ca and Mg spectral lines. This effect has been justified in view of the repulsive force of the laser-induced shock waves which depends clearly on the target surface hardness and on the laser irradiance. The electron densities ratio (pico/nano) is shown to be strongly depending on the laser irradiance too. In the case of calcium, single-pulse ratios are higher than the double-pulse ratios, while there is no appreciable difference between both in the case of magnesium. The results obtained herein suggest that double-pulse nanosecond arrangement and the choice of a minor element such as Mg furnishes the best experimental conditions for estimating the surface hardness via LIBS spectra. To validate this method, it has been applied on two previously measured groups of teeth enamel, the first is of ancient Egyptians, and the second from Nubians and Ugandans. The results support the usefulness of this method for similar real-life applications.

  14. Patient-specific prediction of coronary plaque growth from CTA angiography: a multiscale model for plaque formation and progression.

    PubMed

    Parodi, Oberdan; Exarchos, Themis P; Marraccini, Paolo; Vozzi, Federico; Milosevic, Zarko; Nikolic, Dalibor; Sakellarios, Antonis; Siogkas, Panagiotis K; Fotiadis, Dimitrios I; Filipovic, Nenad

    2012-09-01

    Computational fluid dynamics methods based on in vivo 3-D vessel reconstructions have recently been identified the influence of wall shear stress on endothelial cells as well as on vascular smooth muscle cells, resulting in different events such as flow mediated vasodilatation, atherosclerosis, and vascular remodeling. Development of image-based modeling technologies for simulating patient-specific local blood flows is introducing a novel approach to risk prediction for coronary plaque growth and progression. In this study, we developed 3-D model of plaque formation and progression that was tested in a set of patients who underwent coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) for anginal symptoms. The 3-D blood flow is described by the Navier-Stokes equations, together with the continuity equation. Mass transfer within the blood lumen and through the arterial wall is coupled with the blood flow and is modeled by a convection-diffusion equation. The low density lipoprotein (LDL) transports in lumen of the vessel and through the vessel tissue (which has a mass consumption term) are coupled by Kedem-Katchalsky equations. The inflammatory process is modeled using three additional reaction-diffusion partial differential equations. A full 3-D model was created. It includes blood flow and LDL concentration, as well as plaque formation and progression. Furthermore, features potentially affecting plaque growth, such as patient risk score, circulating biomarkers, localization and composition of the initial plaque, and coronary vasodilating capability were also investigated. The proof of concept of the model effectiveness was assessed by repetition of CTA, six months after. PMID:22665513

  15. A free boundary problem for steady small plaques in the artery and their stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Avner; Hao, Wenrui; Hu, Bei

    2015-08-01

    Atherosclerosis is a leading cause of death in the United States and worldwide; it originates from a plaque which builds up in the artery. In this paper, we consider a simplified model of plaque growth involving LDL and HDL cholesterols, macrophages and foam cells, which satisfy a coupled system of PDEs with a free boundary, the interface between the plaque and the blood flow. We prove that there exist small radially symmetric stationary plaques and establish a sharp condition that ensures their stability. We also determine necessary and sufficient conditions under which a small initial plaque will shrink and disappear, or persist for all times.

  16. Artificial pleural effusion in percutaneous microwave ablation of hepatic tumors near the diaphragm under the guidance of ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Gang; Sun, Yao; Cong, Lin; Jing, Xuehong; Yu, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility, safety and efficacy of artificial pleural effusion in percutaneous microwave ablation of hepatic tumors near the diaphragm under ultrasound guidance. Methods: For localization and navigation of tumors near the dome of the diaphragm by ultrasound during microwave ablation in 14 tumors of 11 cases, artificial pleural effusion was performed in the volume of 1000~1500 ml of Normal saline or 5% Glucose injection solution via the right thoracic cavity. The tumor marker, AFP was monitored before and after operation in 6 times in a period of 2 years. We analyzed the successful rate and effectiveness of artificial pleural effusion. Results: The successful rate of artificial pleural effusion was 100% without complications. Artificial hydrothorax on the right eliminated the interference of intrapulmonary gas to the visualization of hepatic tumors near the diaphragm on ultrasound. In the follow-up of 2 years, the ablation rate reached to 92.9% with no serious complications. The AFP value before operation was in significant statistical difference with the others after operation (P = 0.000). Conclusions: Artificial pleural effusion aids the visualization of hepatic tumors near the diaphragm on ultrasound. A good therapeutic effectiveness can be reached in percutaneous microwave ablation of tumors in the hepatic dome under the guidance of ultrasound. PMID:26629218

  17. Texture based segmentation method to detect atherosclerotic plaque from optical tomography images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Ammu; Hewko, Mark; Sowa, Michael; Sherif, Sherif

    2013-06-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging has been widely employed in assessing cardiovascular disease. Atherosclerosis is one of the major cause cardio vascular diseases. However visual detection of atherosclerotic plaque from OCT images is often limited and further complicated by high frame rates. We developed a texture based segmentation method to automatically detect plaque and non plaque regions from OCT images. To verify our results we compared them to photographs of the vascular tissue with atherosclerotic plaque that we used to generate the OCT images. Our results show a close match with photographs of vascular tissue with atherosclerotic plaque. Our texture based segmentation method for plaque detection could be potentially used in clinical cardiovascular OCT imaging for plaque detection.

  18. Non-Amplified FGFR1 is a Growth Driver in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Marek, Lindsay A.; Hinz, Trista K.; von Mässenhause, Anne; Olszewski, Kyle A.; Kleczko, Emily K.; Böhm, Diana; Weiser-Evans, Mary C.; Nemenoff, Raphael A.; Hoffmann, Hans; Warth, Arne; Gozgit, Joseph M.; Perner, Sven; Heasley, Lynn E.

    2014-01-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is associated with asbestos exposure and is a cancer that has not been significantly impacted by small molecule-based targeted therapeutics. Previously, we demonstrated the existence of functional subsets of lung cancer and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines in which fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) autocrine signaling functions as a non-mutated growth pathway. In a panel of pleural mesothelioma cell lines, FGFR1 and FGF2 were co-expressed in 3 of 7 cell lines and were significantly associated with sensitivity to the FGFR-active tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), ponatinib, both in vitro and in vivo using orthotopically propagated xenografts. Furthermore, RNAi-mediated silencing confirmed the requirement for FGFR1 in specific mesothelioma cells and sensitivity to the FGF ligand trap, FP-1039, validated the requirement for autocrine FGFs. None of the FGFR1-dependent mesothelioma cells exhibited increased FGFR1 gene copy number, based on a FISH assay, indicating that increased FGFR1 transcript and protein expression were not mediated by gene amplification. Elevated FGFR1 mRNA was detected in a subset of primary MPM clinical specimens and like MPM cells, none harbored increased FGFR1 gene copy number. These results indicate that autocrine signaling through FGFR1 represents a targetable therapeutic pathway in MPM and that biomarkers distinct from increased FGFR1 gene copy number such as FGFR1 mRNA would be required to identify MPM patients bearing tumors driven by FGFR1 activity. Implications FGFR1 is a viable therapeutic target in a subset of malignant pleural mesotheliomas, but FGFR TKI-responsive tumors will need to be selected by a biomarker distinct from increased FGFR1 gene copy number, possibly FGFR1 mRNA or protein levels. PMID:24966347

  19. Silver nitrate versus tetracycline in pleurodesis for malignant pleural effusions; a prospective randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Tabatabaei, Seyed Abass; Hashemi, Seyed Mozafar; Kamali, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: In this study, we aimed to investigate the effectiveness of silver nitrate (SN) versus tetracycline in pleurodesis among patients with malignant pleural effusion (MPE). Methods: In this prospective randomized clinical trial, patients with unilateral MPE candidate for pleurodesis were enrolled. The patients randomly allocated in two groups for receiving 20 mL 0.5% SN or 2.5 g tetracycline diluted in 30 cc normal saline and 0.1% lidocaine, through the chest tube. Patients were followed-up immediately (during 24 h) and 1-month after the procedure for evaluating recurrence of the pleural effusion using chest radiograph. They were clinically evaluated for chest pain and/or dyspnea and fever using a questionnaire that completed by the surgeon. The results were compared with two groups. Results: During this trial, 50 patients with MPE candidate for pleurodesis were selected and randomized into two interventional groups (25 patients in each group). Immediate and late recurrence of pleural effusion after pleurodesis were similar in two groups (P > 0.05). All patients in tetracycline group had fever and chest pain, but in SN group fever and chest pain were reported in 3 (12%) and 12 (48%) of patients, respectively (P < 0.05). Conclusion: SN is at least as effective as tetracycline for MPE treatment. In addition, its side effects were lower than tetracycline. Other advantages of SN are its low cost, availability, and safety. For more accurate results, it is recommended to design further trials with larger sample size and with lower doses of both SN and tetracycline.

  20. Ultrasound Biomicroscopy for Longitudinal Studies of Carotid Plaque Development in Mice: Validation with Histological Endpoints

    PubMed Central

    Harmon, Erin Y.; Fronhofer, Van; Keller, Rebecca S.; Feustel, Paul J.; Brosnan, M. Julia; von der Thüsen, Jan H.; Loegering, Daniel J.; Lennartz, Michelle R.

    2012-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is responsible for the death of thousands of Americans each year. The carotid constriction model of plaque development has recently been presented as a model for unstable plaque formation in mice. In this study we 1) validate ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) for the determination of carotid plaque size, percent stenosis, and plaque development in live animals, 2) determine the sensitivity of UBM in detecting changes in blood flow induced by carotid constriction and 3) test whether plaque formation can be predicted from blood flow parameters measured by UBM. Carotid plaques were induced by surgical constriction in Apo E?/? mice. Arteries were imaged bi-weekly by UBM, at which time PW-Doppler measurements of proximal blood flow, as well as plaque length and percent stenosis were determined. Histology was performed 9 weeks post surgery. When compared to whole mount post-mortem measurements, UBM accurately reported carotid plaque length. Percent stenosis, based on transverse B-mode UBM measurements, correlated well with that calculated from histological sections. PW-Doppler revealed that constriction reduced maximum systolic velocity (vmax) and duration of the systolic velocity peak (ts/tt). Pre-plaque (2 week post-surgery) PW-Doppler parameters (vmax and ts/tt) were correlated with plaque length at 9 weeks, and were predictive of plaque formation. Correlation of initiating PW-Doppler parameters (vmax and ts/tt) with resulting plaque length established the degree of flow disturbance required for subsequent plaque development and demonstrated its power for predicting plaque development. PMID:22242191

  1. Successful Management of a Perforated Interposed Substernal Ileocolon Caused by Right Pleural Hernia.

    PubMed

    Shiozaki, Atsushi; Fujiwara, Hitoshi; Konishi, Hirotaka; Arita, Tomohiro; Kosuga, Toshiyuki; Morimura, Ryo; Murayama, Yasutoshi; Komatsu, Shuhei; Kuriu, Yoshiaki; Ikoma, Hisashi; Nakanishi, Masayoshi; Ichikawa, Daisuke; Okamoto, Kazuma; Otsuji, Eigo

    2016-01-01

    A 73-year-old man underwent esophagectomy and reconstruction with interposition of the ileocolon through the substernal tract. Ten months later he presented with sudden pain in the right side of his chest that developed after vomiting. Emergency surgical intervention revealed a right pleural hernia of the esophageal substitute and a 3-cm perforation in the cecum. After suturing the perforation directly, we made the redundant ileum straight and pulled down the repaired cecum into the abdominal cavity to prevent intrathoracic leakage, successfully preserving the reconstructed organ. This rare case emphasizes the importance of careful dissection of the pleura and the use of a suitable length of ileocolon for reconstruction. PMID:26694309

  2. Myxoid mesenchymal neoplasm presenting as massive arm and chest wall oedema with pleural effusion

    PubMed Central

    Pai, Vidya B; Ravilla, Rahul; Lindberg, Matthew; Steliga, Matthew; Arnaoutakis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    Myxoid mesenchymal tumours are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms characterised histologically by their abundant mucoid and myxoid extracellular matrix (ECM). Encompassing a broad spectrum of clinical behaviour ranging from benign to malignant, there are more than 60 reactive and neoplastic entities currently classified under its domain. Its varied clinical and histopathologic features continue to pose a diagnostic challenge to clinicians and pathologists. Here, we describe a rare case of myxoid mesenchymal tumour presenting as oedema of the upper extremity with pleural metastasis and partial response to chemotherapy, which to the best of our knowledge has not yet been described in the literature. PMID:26635894

  3. Is galectin-3 antibody a useful marker in the diagnosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma?

    PubMed

    Mlika, Mona; Ayadi-Kaddour, Aida; Ksantini, Meriem; Bouraoui, Saadia; Mzabi, Sabah; El Mezni, Faouzi

    2013-01-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a challenging diagnosis characterized by the absence of real specific diagnostic markers. Positivity with the galectin-3 antibody was assessed by a cytoplasmic expression in 17 MPM. Fourteen cases expressed the galectin-3 antibody. The three negative cases consisted of epithelioid, biphasic, and sarcomatoid MPM. The 14 positive cases consisted of epithelioid MPM in 12 cases, sarcomatoid MPM in one case, and biphasic MPM in one case. In spite of our inability to prove the real diagnostic value of the galectin-3 antibody, our findings make us wonder about the implication of this antibody in the carcinogenesis of MPM. PMID:23537297

  4. Pleural epitheliod hemangioendothelioma: What started as a liver fluke and ended up being almost mistaken for malignant mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Jamy, Omer H.; Huber, Bryan; Giri, Smith

    2015-01-01

    Epitheliod hemangioendothelioma (EHE) is a rare tumor of vascular origin. The pleural variant has only been reported around 20 times in English literature. It commonly occurs in older men and carries a poor prognosis with average survival lasting from a few weeks to months. Pleural EHE (PEHE) can be a diagnostic challenge due to its rarity as well as similarities to other pleural and vascular tumors. There is currently no standard treatment for EHE. Due to the rarity of this disease, reaching a final diagnosis is challenging. It's clinical, radiological, and pathological resemblance to malignant mesothelioma can cause a delay in diagnosis. Special stains such as CD31, CD34, and factor VIII related antigen can help differentiate between the two. Ordering appropriate stains in a timely manner can help avoid misdiagnosing PEHE.

  5. Intravascular photoacoustic imaging of gold nanorod-labeled atherosclerotic plaques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeager, Doug; Karpiouk, Andrei; Wang, Bo; Amirian, James; Sokolov, Konstantin; Smalling, Richard; Emelianov, Stanislav

    2012-02-01

    Combined intravascular photoacoustic (IVPA) and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging has been previously established as a viable means for imaging atherosclerotic plaques using both endogenous and exogenous contrast. In this study, IVUS/IVPA imaging of an atherosclerotic rabbit aorta following injection of gold nanorods (AuNR) with peak absorbance within the tissue optical window was performed. Ex-vivo imaging results revealed high photoacoustic signal from localized AuNR. Corresponding histological cross-sections and digital photographs of the artery lumen confirmed the presence of AuNR preferentially located at atherosclerotic regions and in agreement with IVPA signal. Furthermore, an integrated IVUS/IVPA imaging catheter was used to image the AuNR in the presence of luminal blood. The results suggest that AuNR allow for IVPA imaging of exogenously labeled atherosclerotic plaques with a comparatively low background signal and without the need for arterial flushing.

  6. The prevention and regression of atherosclerotic plaques: emerging treatments

    PubMed Central

    Kalanuria, Atul Ashok; Nyquist, Paul; Ling, Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    Occlusive vascular diseases, such as sudden coronary syndromes, stroke, and peripheral arterial disease, are a huge burden on the health care systems of developed and developing countries. Tremendous advances have been made over the last few decades in the diagnosis and treatment of atherosclerotic diseases. Intravascular ultrasound has been able to provide detailed information of plaque anatomy and has been used in several studies to assess outcomes. The presence of atherosclerosis disrupts the normal protective mechanism provided by the endothelium and this mechanism has been implicated in the pathophysiology of coronary artery disease and stroke. Efforts are being put into the prevention of atherosclerosis, which has been shown to begin in childhood. This paper reviews the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis and discusses the current options available for the prevention and reversal of plaque formation. PMID:23049260

  7. Evaluation of a prebrushing mouthrinse in controlling dental plaque.

    PubMed

    O'Mahony, G; O'Mullane, D M

    1991-01-01

    The study was designed to evaluate an advertising claim made for a commercial pre-brushing mouthrinse, that it aided plaque removal. Forty-one subjects completed a six month, randomised, two-group, blind, pragmatic clinical trial. Those in the control group continued with their normal oral hygiene practices whilst those in the study group were given supplies of the test rinse and asked to use it in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. Mean plaque scores recorded in the test group after one month, three months and six months, were statistically significantly lower than in the control group supporting the claim made on behalf of the test product. The clinical significance of these findings, for example on gingivitis, is uncertain and further research is needed to assess this. PMID:1815019

  8. Inflammation, plaque progression and vulnerability: evidence from intravascular ultrasound imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kataoka, Yu; Puri, Rishi

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence points to a critical role of inflammation in the development and propagation of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Pathological studies in human and animal models have elucidated specific inflammatory mediators contributing to the progression and rupture of atherosclerotic plaque in the artery wall. These observations not only outline the importance of inflammation in atheroma progression but also the potential of anti-inflammatory therapeutic approaches to prevent and stabilize atherosclerotic disease. Intravascular ultrasonography enables direct atheroma visualization in vivo. Additionally, refinements in ultrasound technology permitting radiofrequency backscatter analysis enhance plaque characterization associated with disease instability. These imaging modalities will continue to provide opportunities for evaluating novel inflammatory mechanisms and anti-inflammatory therapies. PMID:26331112

  9. Apollo 11 Commander Armstrong Presents President With Commemorative Plaque

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    On June 4, 1974, 5 years after the successful Apollo 11 lunar landing mission, commander Neil Armstrong (right) presented a plaque to U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon (left) on behalf of all people who had taken part in the space program. In making the presentation, Armstrong said 'Mr. President, you have proclaimed this week to be United States Space week in conjunction with the fifth anniversary of our first successful landing on the Moon. It is my privilege to represent my colleagues, the crewmen of projects Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, and Skylab, and the men and women of NASA, and the hundreds of thousands of Americans from across the land who contributed so mightily to the success of our efforts in space in presenting this plaque which bears the names of each individual who has had the privilege of representing this country' in a space flight. The presentation was made at the California white house in San Clemente.

  10. Pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy occurring postpartum.

    PubMed

    Dehdashti, Alma L; Wikas, Schield M

    2015-06-01

    Pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy (PUPPP)(also known as polymorphic eruption of pregnancy in Europe) is an intensely pruritic eruption that affects women during the third trimester of pregnancy. Treatment usually is aimed at symptom relief until delivery, as the eruption usually resolves rapidly in the postpartum period. We report the case of a 30-year-old woman who presented 2 weeks postpartum with an intensely pruritic generalized eruption. The eruption started on the abdominal striae within 24 hours of delivery and gradually spread to the buttocks, legs, and arms. Punch biopsy confirmed a diagnosis of PUPPP. Pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy presenting in the postpartum period is extremely rare. We present this case for clinical interest and to remind clinicians to keep PUPPP as a consideration in the differential diagnosis when evaluating pruritic eruptions in women who are in the postpartum period. PMID:26125211

  11. Optimum illumination wavelength for fluorescence spectroscopy of atheromatous plaque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gmitro, Arthur F.; Alexander, Andrew L.; Davenport, Carolyn M.; Manriquez, G. H.

    1990-07-01

    Seven illumination wavelengths from 270 to 364 nm were investigated for their ability to produce differences in the fluorescence spectra between normal aorta and atheromatous plaque. Differences in the spectra were evaluated using the Hotelling trace and ROC methods. The results indicate that large spectral differences and, therefore, good classification can be obtained with illumination in the range from about 304 to 334 nm and that the performance drops off rapidly on either end of the illumination range.

  12. An Autopsied Case of Malignant Sarcomatoid Pleural Mesothelioma in Which Chest Pain Developed Several Months Earlier without Abnormality on Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yaguchi, Daizo; Ichikawa, Motoshi; Inoue, Noriko; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Matsuura, Akinobu; Shizu, Masato; Imai, Naoyuki; Watanabe, Kazuko

    2015-01-01

    The patient experienced chest pain for about 7 months, but a diagnosis could not be made until after death. He was diagnosed with malignant sarcomatoid pleural mesothelioma on autopsy. In this case report, difficult aspects of the diagnosis are discussed. The 70-year-old Japanese man was a driver who transported ceramic-related products. Right chest pain developed in July 2013, but no abnormality was detected on a chest computed tomography (CT) performed in September 2013, and the pain was managed as right intercostal neuralgia. A chest CT performed in late October 2013 revealed a right pleural effusion, and the patient was referred to our hospital in early November 2013. Thoracentesis was performed, but the cytology was negative, and no diagnosis could be made. Close examination was postponed because the patient developed a subarachnoid hemorrhage. He underwent 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET) after discharge from the neurosurgery department, and extensive right pleural thickening and 18F-FDG accumulation in this region were observed. Based on these findings, malignant pleural mesothelioma was suspected, and a thoracoscopy was performed under local anesthesia in early December 2013, but no definite diagnosis could be made. The patient selected best supportive care and died about 7 months after the initial development of right chest pain. The disease was definitively diagnosed as malignant sarcomatoid pleural mesothelioma by a pathological autopsy. When chronic chest pain of unknown cause is observed and past exposure to asbestos is suspected, actions to prevent delay in diagnosis should be taken, including testing for suspicion of malignant pleural mesothelioma. PMID:26600776

  13. Symplekin, a novel type of tight junction plaque protein

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Using a monoclonal antibody we have identified and cDNA-cloned a novel type of protein localized, by light and electron microscopy, to the plaque associated with the cytoplasmic face of the tight junction- containing zone (zonula occludens) of polar epithelial cells and of Sertoli cells of testis, but absent from the junctions of vascular endothelia. The approximately 3.7-kb mRNA encodes a polypeptide of 1142 amino acids (calculated molecular weight 126.5 kD, pI 6.25), for which the name "symplekin" (from Greek sigma upsilon mu pi lambda epsilon kappa epsilon iota, nu, to tie together, to weave, to be intertwined) is proposed. However, both the mRNA and the protein can also be detected in a wide range of cell types that do not form tight junctions or are even completely devoid of any stable cell contacts. Careful analyses have revealed that the protein occurs in all these diverse cells in the nucleoplasm, and only in those cells forming tight junctions is it recruited, partly but specifically, to the plaque structure of the zonula occludens. We discuss symplekin as a representative of a group of dual residence proteins which occur and probably function in the nucleus as well as in the plaques exclusive for either tight junctions, adherens junctions, or desmosomes. PMID:8769423

  14. Potential contributions of intimal and plaque hypoxia to atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Fong, Guo-Hua

    2015-06-01

    Injury of arterial endothelium by abnormal shear stress and other insults induces migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), which in turn leads to intimal thickening, hypoxia, and vasa vasorum angiogenesis. The resultant new blood vessels extend from the tunica media into the outer intima, allowing blood-borne oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) particles to accumulate in outer intimal tissues by extravasation through local capillaries. In response to oxLDL accumulation, monocytes infiltrate into arterial wall tissues, where they differentiate into macrophages and subsequently evolve into foam cells by uptaking large quantities of oxLDL particles, the latter process being stimulated by hypoxia. Increased oxygen demand due to expanding macrophage and foam cell populations contributes to persistent hypoxia in plaque lesions, whereas hypoxia further promotes plaque growth by stimulating angiogenesis, monocyte infiltration, and oxLDL uptake into macrophages. Molecularly, the accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1? and the expression of its target genes mediate many of the hypoxia-induced processes during plaque initiation and growth. It is hoped that further understanding of the underlying mechanisms may lead to novel therapies for effective intervention of atherosclerosis. PMID:25876920

  15. Neurofibrillary tangles and senile plaques in aged bears.

    PubMed

    Cork, L C; Powers, R E; Selkoe, D J; Davies, P; Geyer, J J; Price, D L

    1988-11-01

    In aged human beings and in individuals with age-associated degenerative disorders, particularly Alzheimer's disease (AD), neurons develop cytoskeletal abnormalities, including neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) and senile plaques (SP). Senile plaques occur in several nonhuman species; however, NFT, with ultrastructural or immunocytochemical similarities to those occurring in humans, have not been identified in other mammals. In this study of five aged bears (Ursus, 20-30 years of age), we identified cytoskeletal abnormalities similar to those occurring in humans. An aged Asiatic brown bear had NFT, composed of straight 10-16-nm filaments, that were immunoreactive with antibodies directed against: phosphorylated epitopes of neurofilaments (NF); tau; A68 (a protein enriched in AD); and an antigen associated with paired helical filaments (PHF). An aged polar bear had numerous SP; neurites of these plaques were immunoreactive with antibodies against phosphorylated epitopes of NF, but NFT were not identified. These results indicate that nonprimate species develop age-related cytoskeletal abnormalities similar to those occurring in humans. Investigations of the comparative pathology of aged mammals may be useful in elucidating the pathogeneses of these abnormalities. PMID:3171607

  16. Heterogeneity of Inflammatory and Cytokine Networks in Chronic Plaque Psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Swindell, William R.; Xing, Xianying; Stuart, Philip E.; Chen, Cynthia S.; Aphale, Abhishek; Nair, Rajan P.; Voorhees, John J.; Elder, James T.; Johnston, Andrew; Gudjonsson, Johann E.

    2012-01-01

    The clinical features of psoriasis, characterized by sharply demarcated scaly erythematous plaques, are typically so distinctive that a diagnosis can easily be made on these grounds alone. However, there is great variability in treatment response between individual patients, and this may reflect heterogeneity of inflammatory networks driving the disease. In this study, whole-genome transcriptional profiling was used to characterize inflammatory and cytokine networks in 62 lesional skin samples obtained from patients with stable chronic plaque psoriasis. We were able to stratify lesions according to their inflammatory gene expression signatures, identifying those associated with strong (37% of patients), moderate (39%) and weak inflammatory infiltrates (24%). Additionally, we identified differences in cytokine signatures with heightened cytokine-response patterns in one sub-group of lesions (IL-13-strong; 50%) and attenuation of these patterns in a second sub-group (IL-13-weak; 50%). These sub-groups correlated with the composition of the inflammatory infiltrate, but were only weakly associated with increased risk allele frequency at some psoriasis susceptibility loci (e.g., REL, TRAF3IP2 and NOS2). Our findings highlight variable points in the inflammatory and cytokine networks known to drive chronic plaque psoriasis. Such heterogeneous aspects may shape clinical course and treatment responses, and can provide avenues for development of personalized treatments. PMID:22479649

  17. Rhenium and technetium complexes that bind to amyloid-? plaques.

    PubMed

    Hayne, David J; North, Andrea J; Fodero-Tavoletti, Michelle; White, Jonathan M; Hung, Lin W; Rigopoulos, Angela; McLean, Catriona A; Adlard, Paul A; Ackermann, Uwe; Tochon-Danguy, Henri; Villemagne, Victor L; Barnham, Kevin J; Donnelly, Paul S

    2015-03-21

    Alzheimer's disease is associated with the presence of insoluble protein deposits in the brain called amyloid plaques. The major constituent of these deposits is aggregated amyloid-? peptide. Technetium-99m complexes that bind to amyloid-? plaques could provide important diagnostic information on amyloid-? plaque burden using Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT). Tridentate ligands with a stilbene functional group were used to form complexes with the fac-[M(I)(CO)3](+) (M = Re or (99m)Tc) core. The rhenium carbonyl complexes with tridentate co-ligands that included a stilbene functional group and a dimethylamino substituent bound to amyloid-? present in human frontal cortex brain tissue from subjects with Alzheimer's disease. This chemistry was extended to make the analogous [(99m)Tc(I)(CO)3](+) complexes and the complexes were sufficiently stable in human serum. Whilst the lipophilicity (log?D7.4) of the technetium complexes appeared ideally suited for penetration of the blood-brain barrier, preliminary biodistribution studies in an AD mouse model (APP/PS1) revealed relatively low brain uptake (0.24% ID g(-1) at 2 min post injection). PMID:25515141

  18. Carbon dioxide induced disassembly of gap-junctional plaques.

    PubMed

    Lee, W M; Cran, D G; Lane, N J

    1982-10-01

    When sheep ovarian follicle cells are maintained in an O2-rich environment their cells are metabolically coupled, as monitored by observing the exchange of [3H]choline; choline metabolites were detected up to 4 mm from the explant under these control conditions. When the tissues were placed in a CO2-rich environment the cells became uncoupled physiologically and choline metabolites were no longer exchanged. The cells in these two states, coupled and uncoupled, were examined by freeze-fracture. The initial controls were characteristic of ovarian follicular tissue exhibiting large macular plaques with regular outlines composed of PF intra-membranous particles (IMPs), which were arrayed in rows with IMP-free aisles. With uncoupling, the junctional plaques became irregular at the periphery, they became loosely packed and IMPs began to 'stream' out laterally across the membrane. Ultimately they were reduced to negligible IMP clusters or free IMPs. Analyses of the IMPs with an image analyser confirmed that in the uncoupled state the gap-junctional IMPs were dispersed over the membranes. On return to an O2-rich environment, the cells became recoupled as monitored by physiological criteria and in freeze-fracture replicas IMPs reclustered into macular, albeit smaller, plaques. These results support the contention that with uncoupling, gap-junctional particles are free to move and hence may become dispersed over the membrane face, with the possibility of being re-utilized to form junctions anew when conditions for coupling are re-established. PMID:6818235

  19. Characterizing atherosclerotic plaque with computed tomography: a contrast-detail study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasraie, Nima; Clarke, Geoffrey D.

    2012-02-01

    Plaque characterization may benefit from the increasing distinctiveness of the attenuating properties of different soft plaque components at lower energies. Due to the relative slight increase in the CT number of the nonadipose soft plaque at lower tube voltage settings vs. adipose plaque, a higher contrast between atheromous adipose and non-adipose plaque may become visible with modern 64 slice systems. A contrast-detail (C-D) phantom with varying plaque composition as the contrast generating method, was imaged on a commercial 64 slice MDCT system using 80, 120, and 140 kVp settings. The same phantom was also imaged on a Cone Beam CT (CBCT) system with a lower tube voltage of 75 kVp. The results of experiments from four different observers on three different plaque types (lipid, fiber, calcific) indicate that CT attenuation within lipid cores and fibrous masses vary not only with the percentage of lipid or fiber present, but also with the size of the cores. Furthermore, the C-D curve analysis for all three plaque types reveals that while the noise constraints prevent visible differentiation of soft plaque at current conventional 64 slice MDCT settings, CBCT exhibits superior visible contrast detectability than its conventional counterpart, with the latter having appreciably better resolution limits and beneficial lower tube voltages. This low voltage CT technique has the potential to be useful in composition based diagnosis of carotid vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque.

  20. Primary Stenting for Complex Atherosclerotic Plaques in Aortic and Iliac Stenoses

    SciTech Connect

    Onal, Baran; Ilgit, Erhan T.; Yuecel, Cem; Ozbek, Erdal; Vural, Murat; Akpek, Sergin

    1998-09-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of primary stenting for complex atherosclerotic plaques in aortic and iliac stenoses that are not amenable to balloon angioplasty alone. Methods: Nineteen patients with complex atherosclerotic plaques were treated with a Palmaz stent (n= 19), Wallstent (n= 1), Strecker stent (n= 1), or Memotherm stent (n= 1). A total of 22 stenoses presenting with complex plaque morphology including ulcerated plaques, ulcerated plaques with focal aneurysms, plaques with heavy calcification, severely eccentric plaques, plaques with overhanging edge, and plaques with spontaneous dissection were stented. The lesions were in the aorta (n= 1), common iliac artery (n= 19), or external iliac artery (n= 2). Results: Immediate angiography after stent placement revealed restoration of patency of the stented segment. Focal aneurysms and ulcerated areas were occluded in the follow-up angiographies obtained 4-12 weeks after the procedure. In one case with poor distal runoff and multiple complex lesions of the iliac artery, subacute occlusion occurred. Clinical and angiographic follow-up (3-46 months) revealed patency of all other stented segments. Conclusion: Primary stenting is an effective and reliable approach for complex plaques in stenoses. Patency of the arterial segment with a smooth lumen can be created without the risk of acute complications such as distal embolization, dissection, or occlusion.

  1. Retention of antimicrobial activity in plaque and saliva following mouthrinse use in vivo.

    PubMed

    Otten, M P T; Busscher, H J; van der Mei, H C; Abbas, F; van Hoogmoed, C G

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the contribution of plaque and saliva towards the prolonged activity, also called substantivity, of three antimicrobial mouthrinses (Listerine®, Meridol®, Crest Pro Health®), used in combination with a toothpaste (Prodent Coolmint®). Volunteers brushed for 4 weeks with a toothpaste without antimicrobial claims, while during the last 2 weeks half of the volunteers used an antimicrobial mouthrinse in addition to brushing. At the end of the experimental period, plaque and saliva samples were collected 6 h after oral hygiene, and bacterial concentrations and viabilities were determined. The contribution of plaque and saliva towards substantivity was assessed by combining plaque obtained after mechanical cleaning only with plaque and saliva obtained after additional use of an antimicrobial rinse. Subsequently, resulting viabilities of the combined plaques were determined. The viabilities of plaque samples after additional rinsing with mouthrinses were lower than of plaque obtained after mechanical cleaning only, regardless of the rinse involved. Moreover, plaque collected 6 h after rinsing with antimicrobial mouthrinses contained a surplus of antimicrobial activity. Only Listerine showed decreased viability in saliva, but none of the mouthrinses showed any residual antimicrobial activity in saliva. The findings indicate that plaque left behind after mechanical cleaning contributes to the prolonged substantivity of antimicrobial mouthrinses. PMID:20838045

  2. Characterising human atherosclerotic carotid plaque tissue composition and morphology using combined spectroscopic and imaging modalities

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Calcification is a marked pathological component in carotid artery plaque. Studies have suggested that calcification may induce regions of high stress concentrations therefore increasing the potential for rupture. However, the mechanical behaviour of the plaque under the influence of calcification is not fully understood. A method of accurately characterising the calcification coupled with the associated mechanical plaque properties is needed to better understand the impact of calcification on the mechanical behaviour of the plaque during minimally invasive treatments. This study proposes a comparison of biochemical and structural characterisation methods of the calcification in carotid plaque specimens to identify plaque mechanical behaviour. Biochemical analysis, by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, was used to identify the key components, including calcification, in each plaque sample. However, FTIR has a finite penetration depth which may limit the accuracy of the calcification measurement. Therefore, this FTIR analysis was coupled with the identification of the calcification inclusions located internally in the plaque specimen using micro x-ray computed tomography (?X-CT) which measures the calcification volume fraction (CVF) to total tissue content. The tissue characterisation processes were then applied to the mechanical material plaque properties acquired from experimental circumferential loading of human carotid plaque specimen for comparison of the methods. FTIR characterised the degree of plaque progression by identifying the functional groups associated with lipid, collagen and calcification in each specimen. This identified a negative relationship between stiffness and 'lipid to collagen' and 'calcification to collagen' ratios. However, ?X-CT results suggest that CVF measurements relate to overall mechanical stiffness, while peak circumferential strength values may be dependent on specific calcification geometries. This study demonstrates the need to fully characterise the calcification structure of the plaque tissue and that a combination of FTIR and ?X-CT provides the necessary information to fully understand the mechanical behaviour of the plaque tissue. PMID:25602176

  3. Beneficial clinical effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract on the progression of carotid atherosclerotic plaques

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Ai-Hong; Wang, Jian; Gao, Hai-Qing; Zhang, Ping; Qiu, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Background Atherosclerotic plaques indicate the occurrence of ischemia events and it is a difficult task for clinical physicians. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) has been reported to exert an antiatherogenic effect by inducing regression of atherosclerotic plaques in animal experimental studies. In this study, the antiatherogenic effect of GSPE has been investigated in clinical use. Methods Consecutive 287 patients diagnosed with asymptomatic carotid plaques or abnormal plaque free carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) were randomly assigned to the GSPE group (n = 146) or control group (n = 141). The patients in the GSPE group received GSPE 200 mg per day orally, while patients in the control group were only enrolled in a lifestyle intervention program. Carotid ultrasound examination was performed at baseline and 6, 12, 24 months during follow-up. Mean maximum CIMT (MMCIMT), plaque score, echogenicity of plaques and ischemic vascular events were recorded. Results As anticipated, after treatment, GSPE resulted in significant reduction in MMCIMT progression (4.2% decrease after six months, 4.9% decrease after 12 months and 5.8% decrease after 24 months) and plaque score (10.9% decrease after six months, 24.1% decrease after 12 months and 33.1% decrease after 24 months) for the primary outcome, while MMCIMT and plaque score were stable and even increased with the time going on in control group. The number of plaques and unstable plaques also decreased after treatment of GSPE. Furthermore, the carotid plaque can disappear after treatment with GSPE. The incidence rate for transitory ischemic attack (TIA), arterial revascularization procedure, and hospital readmission for unstable angina in GSPE group were statistically significant lower (P = 0.02, 0.08, 0.002, respectively) compared with the control group. Conclusions GSPE inhibited the progression of MMCIMT and reduced carotid plaque size in GSPE treated patients, and with extended treatment, the superior efficacy on MMCIMT and carotid plaque occurred. Furthermore, the GSPE group showed lower rates of clinical vascular events. PMID:26345394

  4. Spectral CT imaging of vulnerable plaque with two independent biomarkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baturin, Pavlo; Alivov, Yahya; Molloi, Sabee

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the feasibility of a novel four-material decomposition technique for assessing the vulnerability of plaque with two contrast materials spectral computer tomography (CT) using two independent markers: plaque's inflammation and spotty calcification. A simulation study was conducted using an energy-sensitive photon-counting detector for k-edge imaging of the coronary arteries. In addition to detecting the inflammation status, which is known as a biological marker of a plaque's vulnerability, we use spotty calcium concentration as an independent marker to test a plaque's vulnerability. We have introduced a new method for detecting and quantifying calcium concentrations in the presence of two contrast materials (iodine and gold), calcium and soft tissue background. In this method, four-material decomposition was performed on a pixel-by-pixel basis, assuming there was an arbitrary mixture of materials in the voxel. The concentrations of iodine and gold were determined by the k-edge material decomposition based on the maximum likelihood method. The calibration curves of the attenuation coefficients, with respect to the concentrations of different materials, were used to separate the calcium signal from both contrast materials and different soft tissues in the mixtures. Three different materials (muscle, blood and lipid) were independently used as soft tissue. The simulations included both ideal and more realistic energy resolving detectors to measure the polychromatic photon spectrum in single slice parallel beam geometry. The ideal detector was used together with a 3 cm diameter digital phantom to demonstrate the decomposition method while a more realistic detector and a 33 × 24 cm2 digital chest phantom were simulated to validate the vulnerability assessment technique. A 120 kVp spectrum was generated to produce photon flux sufficient for detecting contrast materials above the k-edges of iodine (33.2 keV) and gold (80.7 keV). By performing simulations on a 3 cm diameter digital phantom, we successfully identified four materials that were simultaneously present in the mixture at different proportions and in multiple locations on the phantom. Quantitative analysis with a chest digital phantom showed that the results for iodine, gold and calcium were highly correlated with the known concentrations. The analysis revealed a potentially powerful technique for assessing a plaque's vulnerability with two independent markers. High correlation and low relative errors between calculated and known materials’ concentrations showed that the method is feasible. This technique can potentially have a high clinical impact.

  5. Regional brain hypometabolism is unrelated to regional amyloid plaque burden.

    PubMed

    Altmann, Andre; Ng, Bernard; Landau, Susan M; Jagust, William J; Greicius, Michael D

    2015-12-01

    See Sorg and Grothe (doi:10.1093/brain/awv302) for a scientific commentary on this article.In its original form, the amyloid cascade hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease holds that fibrillar deposits of amyloid are an early, driving force in pathological events leading ultimately to neuronal death. Early clinicopathological investigations highlighted a number of inconsistencies leading to an updated hypothesis in which amyloid plaques give way to amyloid oligomers as the driving force in pathogenesis. Rather than focusing on the inconsistencies, amyloid imaging studies have tended to highlight the overlap between regions that show early amyloid plaque signal on positron emission tomography and that also happen to be affected early in Alzheimer's disease. Recent imaging studies investigating the regional dependency between metabolism and amyloid plaque deposition have arrived at conflicting results, with some showing regional associations and other not. We extracted multimodal neuroimaging data from the Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging database for 227 healthy controls and 434 subjects with mild cognitive impairment. We analysed regional patterns of amyloid deposition, regional glucose metabolism and regional atrophy using florbetapir ((18)F) positron emission tomography, (18)F-fluordeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, respectively. Specifically, we derived grey matter density and standardized uptake value ratios for both positron emission tomography tracers in 404 functionally defined regions of interest. We examined the relation between regional glucose metabolism and amyloid plaques using linear models. For each region of interest, correcting for regional grey matter density, age, education and disease status, we tested the association of regional glucose metabolism with (i) cortex-wide florbetapir uptake; (ii) regional (i.e. in the same region of interest) florbetapir uptake; and (iii) regional florbetapir uptake while correcting in addition for cortex-wide florbetapir uptake. P-values for each setting were Bonferroni corrected for 404 tests. Regions showing significant hypometabolism with increasing cortex-wide amyloid burden were classic Alzheimer's disease-related regions: the medial and lateral parietal cortices. The associations between regional amyloid burden and regional metabolism were more heterogeneous: there were significant hypometabolic effects in posterior cingulate, precuneus, and parietal regions but also significant positive associations in bilateral hippocampus and entorhinal cortex. However, after correcting for global amyloid burden, few of the negative associations remained and the number of positive associations increased. Given the wide-spread distribution of amyloid plaques, if the canonical cascade hypothesis were true, we would expect wide-spread, cortical hypometabolism. Instead, cortical hypometabolism appears to be linked to global amyloid burden. Thus we conclude that regional fibrillar amyloid deposition has little to no association with regional hypometabolism. PMID:26419799

  6. Combined evaluation of adenosine deaminase level and histopathological findings from pleural biopsy with Cope’s needle for the diagnosis of tuberculous pleurisy

    PubMed Central

    Behrsin, Rodolfo Fred; Junior, Cyro Teixeira da Silva; Cardoso, Gilberto Perez; Barillo, Jorge Luiz; de Souza, Joeber Bernardo Soares; de Araújo, Elizabeth Giestal

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Closed needle pleural biopsy (CNPB) has historically been the gold standard procedure for the diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis. Adenosine deaminase (ADA) is an efficient biomarker for tuberculosis that is measurable in pleural fluids. Objective: We compared the diagnostic accuracy of the pleural ADA (P-ADA) level and histopathological findings of CNPB specimens in patients with pleural tuberculosis. Methods: This prospective study consisted of two groups of examinations with a proven diagnosis of pleural effusion. The P-ADA level was measured in 218 patients with pleural effusion due to a number of causes, and 157 CNPB specimens underwent histopathological analysis. Results: CNPBs were performed in patients with tuberculosis (n=122) and other diseases: adenocarcinoma (n=23), lymphoma (n=5), systemic lupus erythematosus (n=4), squamous cell carcinoma (n=2), and small cell lung cancer (n=1). According to the ROC curve, the optimal cut-off value of the P-ADA level (Giusti and Galanti colorimetric method) was equal to or greater than 40.0 U/L. The diagnostic accuracy of the P-ADA test was 83.0%, and that of histopathological examination of the CNPB tissue, was 78.8% (AUC=0.293, P=0.7695). The association between the P-ADA assay and pleural histopathology was 24.41 (P<0.0001). The tetrachoric correlation coefficient was 0.563 (high correlation). Conclusion: In Brazil and other countries with a high incidence of tuberculosis, P-ADA activity is an accurate test for the diagnosis of tuberculous pleural effusions, and its use should be encouraged. The high diagnostic performance of the P-ADA test could to aid the diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis and render CNPB unnecessary. PMID:26261621

  7. Formation mechanism of calcified roots in terrestrial sediments: insights from a multitechnique and multiscale characterization strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Khatib, Rime; Huguet, Arnaud; Bernard, Sylvain; Gocke, Martina; Wiesenberg, Guido; Derenne, Sylvie

    2015-04-01

    Root remains encrusted by secondary carbonates, e.g. carbonated rhizoliths, are common in many soils and terrestrial sediments from various environmental settings. Rhizoliths usually exhibit a cylindrical shape and may have different sizes (from a few µm up to several cm). These objects have been known for ages and intensively used as proxies for paleoenvironmental reconstruction. It is generally assumed that such encrustation is controlled or induced by complex organic-mineral interactions at the plant tissue scale, even though this has never been investigated in detail. The aim of this work was to better constrain the mechanisms of rhizolith formation, which remain unclear so far. Rhizoliths at different stages of encrustation and surrounding sediment were sampled at different depths from a loess-paleosol sequence (Nussloch, SW Germany). They were characterised using a multi-scale and multi-technique approach. The use of SEM and TEM to investigate rhizolith samples has offered a unique combination of chemical and structural information with submicrometer spatial resolution, while solid-state 13C NMR of decarbonated rhizoliths along with liquid and gas chromatography analyses of organic extracts have provided information at a molecular level. SEM and TEM reveal that the precipitation of secondary carbonates does not only occur around, but also within the plant root cells and evidence the close relationship existing between organic and inorganic phases within these complex systems. The fine-scale preservation of root cellular ultrastructure with remarkable integrity observed for samples at all stages of encrustation has likely been promoted by this intra-cellular carbonate precipitation. In parallel, gas and liquid chromatography analyses showed that microbial biomarkers were predominant in the former roots, in contrast with the surrounding sediment, dominated by plant biomarkers. This suggests that the molecular signatures of the organic matter differ between calcified roots and the surrounding sediment, as also confirmed by 13C NMR analyses. Fresh and calcified roots present similar 13C NMR spectra, showing the good preservation of the root-derived organic matter in carbonated rhizoliths. Altogether, the results allow us to propose a general scenario for the mechanism of plant root encrustation by secondary carbonates in terrestrial sediments.

  8. Advances in the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weiquan; Wu, Xinshu; Wu, Licun; Zhang, Weidong

    2015-01-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare cancer originated from pleural mesothelial cells. MPM has been associated with long-term exposure to asbestos. The prognosis of MPM is poor due to the difficulty of making diagnosis in the early stage, the rapid progression, the high invasiveness and the lack of effective treatment. Although the incidence of MPM is low in China to date, it has a tendency to increase in the coming years. The variety of clinical features may cause the delay of diagnosis and high rate of misdiagnosis. The diagnosis of MPM is based on biopsy of the pleura and immunohistochemistry. As China has become the largest country in the consumption of asbestos, it would give rise to a new surge of MPM in the future. The current treatment of MPM is multimodality therapy including surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and immunotherapy. Two surgical procedures are commonly applied: extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP) and pleurectomy/decortication (P/D). Three dimensional conformal radiotherapy is used to denote a spectrum of radiation planning and delivery techniques that rely on the 3D imaging to define the tumor. Cisplatin combined with pemetrexed (PEM) is the first-line chemotherapy for MPM. The principal targets in immunotherapy include T cells (Treg), CTLA-4 and PD-1. The diagnosis, treatment and prognosis still remain a major challenge for clinical research and will do so for years to come. PMID:26366399

  9. A novel near real-time laser scanning device for geometrical determination of pleural cavity surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Michele M.; Zhu, Timothy C.

    2013-03-01

    During HPPH-mediated pleural photodynamic therapy (PDT), it is critical to determine the anatomic geometry of the pleural surface quickly as there may be movement during treatment resulting in changes with the cavity. We have developed a laser scanning device for this purpose, which has the potential to obtain the surface geometry in real-time. A red diode laser with a holographic template to create a pattern and a camera with auto-focusing abilities are used to scan the cavity. In conjunction with a calibration with a known surface, we can use methods of triangulation to reconstruct the surface. Using a chest phantom, we are able to obtain a 360 degree scan of the interior in under 1 minute. The chest phantom scan was compared to an existing CT scan to determine its accuracy. The laser-camera separation can be determined through the calibration with 2mm accuracy. The device is best suited for environments that are on the scale of a chest cavity (between 10cm and 40cm). This technique has the potential to produce cavity geometry in real-time during treatment. This would enable PDT treatment dosage to be determined with greater accuracy. Works are ongoing to build a miniaturized device that moves the light source and camera via a fiber-optics bundle commonly used for endoscopy with increased accuracy.

  10. Measurement of pleural pressure with oesophageal catheter-tip micromanometer in anaesthetized humans.

    PubMed

    Chartrand, D A; Jodoin, C; Couture, J

    1991-05-01

    In spontaneously breathing anaesthetized subjects, we studied a new technique for the measurement of changes in pleural pressure. Seven ASA physical status I patients undergoing general anaesthesia (enflurane 1-2 MAC, nitrous oxide 50%, and oxygen) for minor orthopaedic surgery were studied in the supine position. Changes in oesophageal pressure (delta Pes) were measured by means of a catheter-tip pressure transducer. This micromanometer was positioned according to an occlusion test where delta Pes were compared with the changes in airway opening pressure (delta Pao). Optimizing the signal/noise ratio, we observed a linear relationship between delta Pes and delta Pao. In each patient, the delta Pes/delta Pao relationship was highly reproducible. Using the linear regression analysis to characterize the delta Pes/delta Pao relationship, we have developed a different approach for the positioning of oesophageal catheter. After statistical analysis of the observed delta Pes/delta Pao relationship, a "calibration" factor can be used in order to correct the observed slope of the delta Pes/delta Pao relationship to its theoretical value. We conclude that an oesophageal catheter-tip micromanometer can be used in anaesthetized supine patients to measure changes in pleural pressure. PMID:2065421

  11. Lubricating recovery of damaged pleural mesothelium: effect of time and of phosphatidylcholines.

    PubMed

    Bodega, Francesca; Sironi, Chiara; Porta, Cristina; Agostoni, Emilio

    2014-11-01

    Effect of time and phosphatidylcholines (PCs) on lubrication of damaged mesothelium has been investigated. Marked increase in coefficient of kinetic friction (?) of pleural specimens after mesothelial blotting and rewetting decreased by 23.4±3.5%, 41.8±3.8%, and 40.5±2.7% after 30min, 1h, and 2h. Hence, damaged mesothelium is able to partially reset lubricating molecules on its surface. Increase in ? of post-blotting Ringer 2h after addition of unsaturated PCs (3mg/ml) decreased a little more than after 2h Ringer. Effects of unsaturated and saturated PCs were similar, contrary to expectation raised by their different percentage in pleural and alveolar lavage. Effect of PCs did not increase at 6mg/ml, and was nil at 0.4mg/ml. Increase of ? after short phospholipase treatment decreased by 45.9±2.0% after 2h Ringer, and a little more after addition of unsaturated or saturated PCs. Hence, PCs, as other phospholipids, have a small effect, likely because of difficulty in resetting their relationships with main lubricating molecules. PMID:25128640

  12. Report of Two Cases of Combined Odontogenic Tumors: Ameloblastoma with Odontogenic Keratocyst and Ameloblastic Fibroma with Calcifying Odontogenic Cyst.

    PubMed

    Neuman, Ashley Nicole; Montague, Lindsay; Cohen, Donald; Islam, Nadim; Bhattacharyya, Indraneel

    2015-09-01

    Combined odontogenic neoplasms have rarely been documented. Such tumors have also been described by other researchers as "hybrid" lesions. The histologic features are often identical to other individually well-established odontogenic neoplasms such as ameloblastoma, adenomatoid odontogenic tumor, ameloblastic fibroma (AF), and ameloblastic fibro-odontoma. Their clinical presentation is variable, ranging from cysts to neoplasms showing varying degrees of aggressive behavior. Most combined tumors contain features of one of the odontogenic tumors in combination with either a calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC) or a calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor. We present two new cases of combined odontogenic tumors: an ameloblastoma with an odontogenic keratocyst and an AF with COC. Predicting clinical outcome is challenging when a combination tumor is encountered due to the paucity of such lesions. One must understand salient features of these entities and differentiate them from the more common conventional neoplasms to expand classification and provide prognostic criteria. PMID:25552434

  13. Anterior interhemispheric calcified lipoma together with subcutaneous lipoma and agenesis of corpus callosum: a rare manifestation of midline craniofacial dysraphism.

    PubMed

    Karakas, Omer; Karakas, Ekrem; Boyac?, Fat?ma Nurefsan; Celik, Bahattin; Cullu, Nesat

    2013-07-01

    Frontonasal dysplasia (FND) or craniofacial dysraphism includes a variety of craniofacial defects. FNDs are rarely associated with intracranial lipoma. The majority of intracranial lipomas are incidentally identified on radiological examinations. They are commonly accompanied by other congenital intracranial malformations. Moreover, they are rarely associated with subcutaneous lipoma. We present a rare case of midline craniofacial dysraphism with interhemispheric calcified lipoma together with subcutaneous lipoma and agenesis of the corpus callosum. PMID:23504434

  14. CO? and inorganic nutrient enrichment affect the performance of a calcifying green alga and its noncalcifying epiphyte.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Laurie C; Bischof, Kai; Baggini, Cecilia; Johnson, Andrew; Koop-Jakobsen, Ketil; Teichberg, Mirta

    2015-04-01

    Ocean acidification studies in the past decade have greatly improved our knowledge of how calcifying organisms respond to increased surface ocean CO2 levels. It has become evident that, for many organisms, nutrient availability is an important factor that influences their physiological responses and competitive interactions with other species. Therefore, we tested how simulated ocean acidification and eutrophication (nitrate and phosphate enrichment) interact to affect the physiology and ecology of a calcifying chlorophyte macroalga (Halimeda opuntia (L.) J.V. Lamouroux) and its common noncalcifying epiphyte (Dictyota sp.) in a 4-week fully crossed multifactorial experiment. Inorganic nutrient enrichment (+NP) had a strong influence on all responses measured with the exception of net calcification. Elevated CO2 alone significantly decreased electron transport rates of the photosynthetic apparatus and resulted in phosphorus limitation in both species, but had no effect on oxygen production or respiration. The combination of CO2 and +NP significantly increased electron transport rates in both species. While +NP alone stimulated H. opuntia growth rates, Dictyota growth was significantly stimulated by nutrient enrichment only at elevated CO2, which led to the highest biomass ratios of Dictyota to Halimeda. Our results suggest that inorganic nutrient enrichment alone stimulates several aspects of H. opuntia physiology, but nutrient enrichment at a CO2 concentration predicted for the end of the century benefits Dictyota sp. and hinders its calcifying basibiont H. opuntia. PMID:25648647

  15. Percutaneous coronary intervention in heavily calcified lesions using rotational atherectomy and paclitaxel-eluting stents: outcomes at one year.

    PubMed

    García de Lara, Juan; Pinar, Eduardo; Ramón Gimeno, Juan; Hurtado, José Antonio; Lacunza, Javier; Valdesuso, Raúl; Valdés Chávarri, Mariano

    2010-01-01

    Heavily calcified lesions present a challenge for percutaneous coronary intervention. With rotational atherectomy, it is possible to treat these lesions and paclitaxel-eluting stents (PESs) reduce the risk of restenosis over the long term. This retrospective study investigated clinical outcomes with rotational atherectomy and PESs in 50 consecutive patients with heavily calcified lesions. Mortality and target lesion revascularization at 1 year (median, 14 months; interquartile range, 8.75-25.5 months) were recorded. Some 52% of patients were aged over 70 years, 68% were male, 52% had acute coronary syndrome, 80% had multivessel disease and 44% were receiving abciximab. Two patients died in hospital, three died during follow-up (one cardiac death) and 3 (6%) underwent target lesion revascularization. At 1 year, the survival rate free of cardiac death was 94% and the survival rate free of target lesion revascularization was 94%. These findings demonstrate that the combination of rotational atherectomy and PESs gives excellent results in heavily calcified lesions. PMID:20089233

  16. Increasing costs due to ocean acidification drives phytoplankton to be more heavily calcified: optimal growth strategy of coccolithophores.

    PubMed

    Irie, Takahiro; Bessho, Kazuhiro; Findlay, Helen S; Calosi, Piero

    2010-01-01

    Ocean acidification is potentially one of the greatest threats to marine ecosystems and global carbon cycling. Amongst calcifying organisms, coccolithophores have received special attention because their calcite precipitation plays a significant role in alkalinity flux to the deep ocean (i.e., inorganic carbon pump). Currently, empirical effort is devoted to evaluating the plastic responses to acidification, but evolutionary considerations are missing from this approach. We thus constructed an optimality model to evaluate the evolutionary response of coccolithophorid life history, assuming that their exoskeleton (coccolith) serves to reduce the instantaneous mortality rates. Our model predicted that natural selection favors constructing more heavily calcified exoskeleton in response to increased acidification-driven costs. This counter-intuitive response occurs because the fitness benefit of choosing a better-defended, slower growth strategy in more acidic conditions, outweighs that of accelerating the cell cycle, as this occurs by producing less calcified exoskeleton. Contrary to the widely held belief, the evolutionarily optimized population can precipitate larger amounts of CaCO(3) during the bloom in more acidified seawater, depending on parameter values. These findings suggest that ocean acidification may enhance the calcification rates of marine organisms as an adaptive response, possibly accompanied by higher carbon fixation ability. Our theory also provides a compelling explanation for the multispecific fossil time-series record from ?200 years ago to present, in which mean coccolith size has increased along with rising atmospheric CO(2) concentration. PMID:20976167

  17. Diurnal fluctuations in seawater pH influence the response of a calcifying macroalga to ocean acidification.

    PubMed

    Cornwall, Christopher E; Hepburn, Christopher D; McGraw, Christina M; Currie, Kim I; Pilditch, Conrad A; Hunter, Keith A; Boyd, Philip W; Hurd, Catriona L

    2013-12-01

    Coastal ecosystems that are characterized by kelp forests encounter daily pH fluctuations, driven by photosynthesis and respiration, which are larger than pH changes owing to ocean acidification (OA) projected for surface ocean waters by 2100. We investigated whether mimicry of biologically mediated diurnal shifts in pH-based for the first time on pH time-series measurements within a kelp forest-would offset or amplify the negative effects of OA on calcifiers. In a 40-day laboratory experiment, the calcifying coralline macroalga, Arthrocardia corymbosa, was exposed to two mean pH treatments (8.05 or 7.65). For each mean, two experimental pH manipulations were applied. In one treatment, pH was held constant. In the second treatment, pH was manipulated around the mean (as a step-function), 0.4 pH units higher during daylight and 0.4 units lower during darkness to approximate diurnal fluctuations in a kelp forest. In all cases, growth rates were lower at a reduced mean pH, and fluctuations in pH acted additively to further reduce growth. Photosynthesis, recruitment and elemental composition did not change with pH, but ?(13)C increased at lower mean pH. Including environmental heterogeneity in experimental design will assist with a more accurate assessment of the responses of calcifiers to OA. PMID:24107535

  18. Diurnal fluctuations in seawater pH influence the response of a calcifying macroalga to ocean acidification

    PubMed Central

    Cornwall, Christopher E.; Hepburn, Christopher D.; McGraw, Christina M.; Currie, Kim I.; Pilditch, Conrad A.; Hunter, Keith A.; Boyd, Philip W.; Hurd, Catriona L.

    2013-01-01

    Coastal ecosystems that are characterized by kelp forests encounter daily pH fluctuations, driven by photosynthesis and respiration, which are larger than pH changes owing to ocean acidification (OA) projected for surface ocean waters by 2100. We investigated whether mimicry of biologically mediated diurnal shifts in pH—based for the first time on pH time-series measurements within a kelp forest—would offset or amplify the negative effects of OA on calcifiers. In a 40-day laboratory experiment, the calcifying coralline macroalga, Arthrocardia corymbosa, was exposed to two mean pH treatments (8.05 or 7.65). For each mean, two experimental pH manipulations were applied. In one treatment, pH was held constant. In the second treatment, pH was manipulated around the mean (as a step-function), 0.4 pH units higher during daylight and 0.4 units lower during darkness to approximate diurnal fluctuations in a kelp forest. In all cases, growth rates were lower at a reduced mean pH, and fluctuations in pH acted additively to further reduce growth. Photosynthesis, recruitment and elemental composition did not change with pH, but ?13C increased at lower mean pH. Including environmental heterogeneity in experimental design will assist with a more accurate assessment of the responses of calcifiers to OA. PMID:24107535

  19. Manual planimetric measurement of carotid plaque volume using three-dimensional ultrasound imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Landry, Anthony; Ainsworth, Craig; Blake, Chris; Spence, J. David; Fenster, Aaron

    2007-04-15

    We investigated the utility of three manual planimetric methods to quantify carotid plaque volume. A single observer measured 15 individual plaques from 15 three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound (3D US) images of patients ten times each using three different planimetric approaches. Individual plaque volumes were measured (range: 32.6-597.1 mm{sup 3}) using a standard planimetric approach (M1) whereby a plaque end was identified and sequential contours were measured. The same plaques were measured using a second approach (M2), whereby plaque ends were first identified and the 3D US image of the plaque was then subdivided into equal intervals. A third method (M3) was used to measure total plaque burden (range: 165.1-1080.0 mm{sup 3}) in a region ({+-}1.5 cm) relative to the carotid bifurcation. M1 systematically underestimated individual plaque volume compared to M2 (V{sub 2}=V{sub 1}+14.0 mm{sup 3}, r=0.99, p=0.006) due to a difference in the mean plaque length measured. Coefficients of variance (CV) for M1 and M2 decrease with increasing plaque volume, with M2 results less than M1. Root mean square difference between experimental and theoretical CV for M2 was 3.2%. The standard deviation in the identification of the transverse location of the carotid bifurcation was 0.56 mm. CVs for plaque burden measured using M3 ranged from 1.2% to 7.6% and were less than CVs determined for individual plaque volumes of the same volume. The utility of M3 was demonstrated by measuring carotid plaque burden and volume change over a period of 3 months in three patients. In conclusion, M2 was determined to be a more superior measurement technique than M1 to measure individual plaque volume. Furthermore, we demonstrated the utility of M3 to quantify regional plaque burden and to quantify change in plaque volume.

  20. Application of a nuclear microprobe to the study of calcified tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coote, Graeme E.; Vickridge, Ian C.

    1988-03-01

    The mineral fraction of calcified tissue is largely calcium hydroxyapatite (bones and teeth) or calcium carbonate (shells and fish otoliths). Apatite has such a strong affinity for fluoride ions that the F/Ca ratio can vary markedly with position in a bone or tooth, depending on the amount of fluoride present at the time of calcification or partial recrystallization. New biological information can be obtained by introducing extra fluoride into the diet of an animal and using a microprobe later to scan sections of bones or teeth. In suitable burial sites extra fluoride is introduced after death, and the new distribution may have applications in forensic science and archaeology. Fish otoliths are also of interest since a new carbonate layer is formed each day and the distribution of trace elements may record some aspects of the fish's life history. Results from the following studies are presented: fluorine distributions in the teeth of sheep which ingested extra fluoride for known periods; distributions of calcium and fluorine in femurs of rats which drank water high in fluoride for periods from 2 to 15 weeks; calcium and fluorine distributions in artificially-prepared lesions in tooth enamel; diffusion profiles in archaeological human teeth and animal bones; patterns in the strontium/calcium ratio in sectioned otoliths of several species of fish.