Sample records for calcified pleural plaques

  1. Fibrous Pleural Plaques Detected at Autopsy

    PubMed Central

    TÜRKMEN, Nursel; EREN, Bülent; GÜNDO?MU?, Ümit Naci

    2014-01-01

    The reported case was a 84-year-old male, dead after a traffic accident. The death was considered to be suspicious by prosecutor and an autopsy was mandated. In macroscopic autopsy investigation left tibia, fibula and multiple rib fractures, widespread seborrheic keratoses, and hyperpigmented skin lesions were detected. In the left chest cavity blood content and white colored lesions spread on the left parietal pleura and chest surface of the thoracic diaphragm were observed. The histological examination of the pleural lesions revealed fibrotic hyalinized structures with calcified foci. Investigation of pleural plaques in forensic autopsy is important for scientific classification of this interesting entity. PMID:25705312

  2. Asbestos related pleural plaques in retired boiler room workers.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, T M; Ho, C K; Su, W P; Hwang, J J; Tsai, M S; Chau, T T; Lu, S N; Chang, W Y

    1993-02-01

    Occupational disease is often underestimated and only a few formal reports have been published in Taiwan. This study reports of a group of workers with asbestos-induced-disease, pleural plaque in Taiwan. Pleural plaque is a marker of exposure to asbestos. The disease was found in chest radiographs of five boiler room workers in a sugar refining factory. The chest radiographs of 248 current workers in that plant were reviewed, and none of them was found to have pleural plaques. The storage of asbestos and the long-time use of mixed asbestos cement for insulation of the inner wall of the stove and pipes were found in the factory. The authors believe that the pleural plaques might be resulted from occupational exposure to asbestos. It is suggested that the use of asbestos should be prohibited, step by step, and regular follow-up of the workers with an asbestos exposure history is required. PMID:8492355

  3. Asbestos-related pleural plaques and lung function.

    PubMed

    Oliver, L C; Eisen, E A; Greene, R; Sprince, N L

    1988-01-01

    The present study examines the association between asbestos-related pleural plaques and lung function in a group of workers with occupational exposure to asbestos. Exposure, smoking, and respiratory histories, chest radiographs, flow-volume loops, and single breath DLCOs were obtained on 383 railroad workers. A score based on the ILO-1980 classification system was used to quantify the extent of plaquelike thickening. In order to eliminate potential confounders, we excluded from final analysis subjects with diffuse pleural thickening (n = 10) or small irregular opacities classified as profusion 0/1 or greater (n = 6) on chest radiograph. Definite pleural plaques were observed in 22.6%. The single breath DLCO was similar in the groups with and without plaques (p = 0.0550). Decrement in FVC and the occurrence of pulmonary restriction were associated with the presence of definite plaques (p = 0.0306 and 0.0431, respectively) and with quantitative pleural score (p = 0.0135 and 0.0126), controlling for duration of asbestos exposure and smoking. A test for trend revealed an association between level of diagnostic certainty (none, suspect, definite) for pleural plaques and these measures of lung function (p less than 0.02). Our findings reveal an association between asbestos-related pleural plaques and decrement in lung function as measured by FVC and criteria for pulmonary restriction. PMID:3266060

  4. Systematic review of pleural plaques and lung function

    PubMed Central

    Kerper, Laura E.; Lynch, Heather N.; Zu, Ke; Tao, Ge; Utell, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Context US EPA proposed a Reference Concentration for Libby amphibole asbestos based on the premise that pleural plaques are adverse and cause lung function deficits. Objective We conducted a systematic review to evaluate whether there is an association between pleural plaques and lung function and ascertain whether results were dependent on the method used to identify plaques. Methods Using the PubMed database, we identified studies that evaluated pleural plaques and lung function. We assessed each study for quality, then integrated evidence and assessed associations based on the Bradford Hill guidelines. We also compared the results of HRCT studies to those of X-ray studies. Results We identified 16 HRCT and 36 X-ray studies. We rated six HRCT and 16 X-ray studies as higher quality based on a risk-of-bias analysis. Half of the higher quality studies reported small but statistically significant mean lung function decrements associated with plaques. None of the differences were clinically significant. Many studies had limitations, such as inappropriate controls and/or insufficient adjustment for confounders. There was little consistency in the direction of effect for the most commonly reported measurements. X-ray results were more variable than HRCT results. Pleural plaques were not associated with changes in lung function over time in longitudinal studies. Conclusion The weight of evidence indicates that pleural plaques do not impact lung function. Observed associations are most likely due to unidentified abnormalities or other factors. PMID:25518994

  5. Association between Randall’s plaque and calcifying nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Çiftçio?lu, Neva; Vejdani, Kaveh; Lee, Olivia; Mathew, Grace; Aho, Katja M; Kajander, E Olavi; McKay, David S; Jones, Jeffrey A; Stoller, Marshall L

    2008-01-01

    Objectives Randall initially described calcified subepithelial papillary plaques, which he hypothesized as nidi for urinary calculi. The discovery of calcifying nanoparticles (CNP), also referred to as nanobacteria, in calcified soft tissues has raised another hypothesis about their possible involvement in urinary stone formation. This research is the first attempt to investigate the potential association of these two hypotheses. Methods We collected renal papilla and blood samples from 17 human patients who had undergone laparoscopic nephrectomy. Immunohistochemical staining (IHS) was applied using monoclonal antibody (mAb) against CNP. Homogenized papillary tissues and serum samples were cultured for CNP. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) were performed on papillary samples. Serum samples were tested for CNP antigen and antibody with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results Randall’s plaques (RP) were visible on gross inspection in 11 out of 17 samples. IHS was positive for CNP antigen in 8 of the visually positive samples, but in only 1 of the remaining samples. SEM revealed spherical apatite-formations in 14 samples confirmed by EDS analysis. In cultures, all serum samples and 13 tissue homogenates grew CNP. In ELISA, 14 samples were positive for CNP-antigen and 11 samples were positive for CNP-antibody. Conclusion There was evidence of a link between detection of CNP and presence of RP. Although causality was not demonstrated, these results suggest that further studies with negative control samples should be made to explore the etiology of RP formation, thus leading to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of stone formation. PMID:18488421

  6. Automated Detection Framework of the Calcified Plaque with Acoustic Shadowing in IVUS Images

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin; Huang, Wenhua; Zhang, Heye; Tan, Ning; Hau, William Kongto; Zhang, Yuan-Ting; Liu, Huafeng

    2014-01-01

    Intravascular Ultrasound (IVUS) is one ultrasonic imaging technology to acquire vascular cross-sectional images for the visualization of the inner vessel structure. This technique has been widely used for the diagnosis and treatment of coronary artery diseases. The detection of the calcified plaque with acoustic shadowing in IVUS images plays a vital role in the quantitative analysis of atheromatous plaques. The conventional method of the calcium detection is manual drawing by the doctors. However, it is very time-consuming, and with high inter-observer and intra-observer variability between different doctors. Therefore, the computer-aided detection of the calcified plaque is highly desired. In this paper, an automated method is proposed to detect the calcified plaque with acoustic shadowing in IVUS images by the Rayleigh mixture model, the Markov random field, the graph searching method and the prior knowledge about the calcified plaque. The performance of our method was evaluated over 996 in-vivo IVUS images acquired from eight patients, and the detected calcified plaques are compared with manually detected calcified plaques by one cardiology doctor. The experimental results are quantitatively analyzed separately by three evaluation methods, the test of the sensitivity and specificity, the linear regression and the Bland-Altman analysis. The first method is used to evaluate the ability to distinguish between IVUS images with and without the calcified plaque, and the latter two methods can respectively measure the correlation and the agreement between our results and manual drawing results for locating the calcified plaque in the IVUS image. High sensitivity (94.68%) and specificity (95.82%), good correlation and agreement (>96.82% results fall within the 95% confidence interval in the Student t-test) demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in the detection of the calcified plaque with acoustic shadowing in IVUS images. PMID:25372784

  7. Pleural plaques and risk of cancer in Turin, northwestern Italy. An autopsy study

    SciTech Connect

    Mollo, F.; Andrion, A.; Colombo, A.; Segnan, N.; Pira, E.

    1984-10-01

    The relationship between the occurrence of neoplastic diseases and the presence of pleural plaques was studied in a series of 1097 autopsies performed in Turin from the adult general population. In men, pleural plaques showed an association with the presence of laryngeal, pulmonary, esophageal, and colorectal cancer. Only cancer of the larynx was strongly related to the occurrence of such pleural changes. This autopsy investigation confirms previous observations by others based on x-ray findings, and suggests that pleural plaques may be regarded as risk indicators of possibly asbestos-related tumors in the general population.

  8. Feature-based characterization of motion-contaminated calcified plaques in cardiac multidetector CT

    SciTech Connect

    King, Martin; Giger, Maryellen L.; Suzuki, Kenji; Pan, Xiaochuan [Department of Radiology, Committee on Medical Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

    2007-12-15

    In coronary calcium scoring, motion artifacts affecting calcified plaques are commonly characterized using descriptive terms, which incorporate an element of subjectivity in their interpretations. Quantitative indices may improve the objective characterization of these motion artifacts. In this paper, an automated method for generating 12 quantitative indices, i.e., features that characterize the motion artifacts affecting calcified plaques, is presented. This method consists of using the rapid phase-correlated region-of-interest (ROI) tracking algorithm for reconstructing ROI images of calcified plaques automatically from the projection data obtained during a cardiac scan, and applying methods for extracting features from these images. The 12 features include two dynamic, six morphological, and four intensity-based features. The two dynamic features are three-dimensional (3D) velocity and 3D acceleration. The six morphological features include edge-based volume, threshold-based volume, sphericity, irregularity, average margin gradient, and variance of margin gradient. The four intensity-based features are maximum intensity, mean intensity, minimum intensity, and standard deviation of intensity. The 12 features were extracted from 54 reconstructed sets of simulated four-dimensional images from the dynamic NCAT phantom involving six calcified plaques under nine heart rate/multi-sector gating combinations. In order to determine how well the 12 features correlated with a plaque motion index, which was derived from the trajectory of the plaque, partial correlation coefficients adjusted for heart rate, number of gated sectors, and mean feature values of the six plaques were calculated for all 12 features. Features exhibiting stronger correlations (|r| set-membership sign [0.60,1.00]) with the motion index were 3D velocity, maximum intensity, and standard deviation of intensity. Features demonstrating stronger correlations (|r| set-membership sign [0.60,1.00]) with other features mostly involved intensity-based features. Edge-based volume/irregularity and average margin gradient/variance of margin gradient were the only two feature pairs out of 12 with stronger correlations that did not involve intensity-based features. Automatically extracted features of the motion artifacts affecting calcified plaques in cardiac computed tomography images potentially can be used to develop models for predicting image assessability with respect to motion artifacts.

  9. Computerized assessment of motion-contaminated calcified plaques in cardiac multidetector CT

    SciTech Connect

    King, Martin; Giger, Maryellen L.; Suzuki, Kenji; Bardo, Dianna M. E.; Greenberg, Brent; Lan Li; Pan Xiaochuan [Department of Radiology, Committee on Medical Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

    2007-12-15

    An automated method for evaluating the image quality of calcified plaques with respect to motion artifacts in noncontrast-enhanced cardiac computed tomography (CT) images is introduced. This method involves using linear regression (LR) and artificial neural network (ANN) regression models for predicting two patient-specific, region-of-interest-specific, reconstruction-specific and temporal phase-specific image quality indices. The first is a plaque motion index, which is derived from the actual trajectory of the calcified plaque and is represented on a continuous scale. The second is an assessability index, which reflects the degree to which a calcified plaque is affected by motion artifacts, and is represented on an ordinal five-point scale. Two sets of assessability indices were provided independently by two radiologists experienced in evaluating cardiac CT images. Inputs for the regression models were selected from 12 features characterizing the dynamic, morphological, and intensity-based properties of the calcified plaques. Whereas LR-velocity (LR-V) used only a single feature (three-dimensional velocity), the LR-multiple (LR-M) and ANN regression models used the same subset of these 12 features selected through stepwise regression. The regression models were parameterized and evaluated using a database of simulated calcified plaque images from the dynamic NCAT phantom involving nine heart rate/multi-sector gating combinations and 40 cardiac phases covering two cardiac cycles. Six calcified plaques were used for the plaque motion indices and three calcified plaques were used for both sets of assessability indices. In one configuration, images from the second cardiac cycle were used for feature selection and regression model parameterization, whereas images from the first cardiac cycle were used for testing. With this configuration, repeated measures concordance correlation coefficients (CCCs) and associated 95% confidence intervals for the LR-V, LR-M, and ANN were 0.817 [0.785, 0.848], 0.894 [0.869, 0.916], and 0.917 [0.892, 0.936] for the plaque motion indices. For the two sets of assessability indices, CCC values for the ANN model were 0.843 [0.791, 0.877] and 0.793 [0.747, 0.828]. These two CCC values were statistically greater than the CCC value of 0.689 [0.648, 0.727], which was obtained by comparing the two sets of assessability indices with each other. These preliminary results suggest that the variabilities of assessability indices provided by regression models can lie within the variabilities of the indices assigned by independent observers. Thus, the potential exists for using regression models and assessability indices for determining optimal phases for cardiac CT image interpretation.

  10. Pleural plaques: a review of diagnostic issues and possible nonasbestos factors.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Chester C; Mowat, Fionna S; Kelsh, Michael A; Roberts, Mark A

    2006-01-01

    The authors reviewed nonasbestos etiologies and diagnostic issues related to pleural plaques. Through searches of PUBMED and DIALOG using the term pleural plaques, they identified 125 articles. The authors found additional references by reviewing citations of these 125 articles. Exposure to nonasbestos agents (eg, erionite, silicates, manmade fibers) was cited as a possible factor in plaque development, although this association was based on limited data; empyema, tuberculosis, rib fractures, and hemothorax also were cited as potential etiologies. Rib companion shadows, fat, intercostal vessels, and muscles can appear as plaques; thus, radiographic diagnosis requires careful evaluation. Chest x-rays show large false negative and varying false positive rates. The terms calcification and thickening often were used as synonymous with plaques; however, these terms have different meanings. The authors concluded that plaques may be associated with nonasbestos exposures and certain medical conditions. Without a thorough exposure/medical history, plaque reports can be misleading. PMID:17867573

  11. Detection and Quantification of Calcified Coronary Plaque With Multidetector-Row CT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Jeffrey Carr

    Multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) has rapidly developed into a powerful tool for noninvasive measurement of calcified\\u000a plaque in the coronary arteries over the past decade. Identification and quantification of coronary artery calcifications\\u000a (CAC) with X-ray devices is well established in the literature with chest radiographs, fluoroscopy, computed tomography (CT\\u000a without electrocardiogram [ECG] gating) and cardiac CT (electron beam CT [EBCT],

  12. [Erionite-induced pleural plaques. Exposition to urban pollution in a female Turkish migrant in Germany].

    PubMed

    Gräsel, B; Kaya, A; Stahl, U; Rauber, K; Kuntz, C

    2008-06-01

    Erionite is a zeolite mineral of volcanic origin which contains no asbestos. It is found in different regions of the world, including southeast Turkey in ash and dust, from which it can cause inflammatory pleural plaques or malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). We report a female Turkish migrant exposed to urban pollution in her home country who decades later suffered from pleural plaques with a nonspecific chronic inflammatory disease. The differential diagnosis of inflammatory pleural plaques was assumed radiologically and confirmed by video-assisted thoracoscopic biopsy. Short-term clinical and radiologic control of the patient will be necessary because of the risk of MPM. For epidemiologic considerations discussed referring to current literature, a growing incidence of this type of disease in migrants from high-risk areas must be reckoned with in Germany, even without exposition to asbestos. PMID:18506411

  13. Detection of pleural plaques in workers exposed to inhalation of natural fluoro-edenite fibres

    PubMed Central

    RAPISARDA, VENERANDO; LEDDA, CATERINA; RICCERI, VINCENZO; ARENA, FRANCESCO; MUSUMECI, ANDREA; MARCONI, ANDREA; FAGO, LUCREZIA; BRACCI, MASSIMO; SANTARELLI, LORY; FERRANTE, MARGHERITA

    2015-01-01

    Fluoro-edenite is a natural mineral species initially isolated in Biancavilla, Sicily. The fibres are similar in size and morphology to certain amphibolic asbestos fibres, the inhalation of which may cause chronic inflammation and cancer. Occupational asbestos exposure is known to be associated with pleural and lung diseases, including pleural plaques. The aim of this study was to report the pleural and lung parenchymal lesions detected by high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in a group of construction workers exposed to fluoro-edenite. Information regarding life habits and occupational history was collected from 43 workers enrolled into the study. The participants underwent physical examination, blood analysis, search for uncoated fibres and ferruginous bodies in the sputum, pulmonary function tests, including diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (TLCO), and HRCT chest imaging. A general descriptive outcome analysis was also conducted; a prevalence ratio (PR) with 95% confidence interval and a two-tailed test P-value were calculated for pleural plaques using log-binomial regression, measuring plaque size and thickness, and cumulative exposure index (CEI). The mean values of the functional respiratory tests were within the normal range for all participants. A restrictive ventilatory defect was identified in two (5%) subjects and an obstructive ventilatory defect in three (7%) subjects. TLCO was reduced in two additional participants. Fibres were detected in 19 (44%) of subjects. Pleural involvement was documented in 39 (91%) workers, of whom 31 (72%) had bilateral plaques. Calcifications were detected in 25 (58%) of these participants. PR indicated a progressive increase in the risk of developing pleural lesions with rising CEI, i.e. length of exposure. The present findings demonstrate for the first time the presence of pleural plaques in the lungs of subjects exposed to fluoro-edenite fibres, and not to asbestos, through residing in Biancavilla and through their occupation.

  14. Mechanical response of a calcified plaque model to fluid shear force.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tiantian C; Tintut, Yin; Lyman, Althea; Mack, Wendy; Demer, Linda L; Hsiai, Tzung K

    2006-10-01

    Vascular calcification is associated with atherosclerosis, but whether it mechanically affects plaque stability remains controversial. To assess the effect of mineralization on plaque vulnerability to mechanical shear stress, we applied fluid shear to cultures of calcifying vascular cells (CVC), a subpopulation of smooth muscle cells that spontaneously mineralize. CVC cultures containing nodules were treated for 10 days with vehicle control or beta-glycerophosphate (BGP) to accelerate mineralization. Cultures were placed in a parallel-plate flow system and were subjected to increasing fluid shear stress (4.9 dyn/cm(2)/min up to 400 dyn/cm(2)). The number of nodules remaining attached was recorded every 10 min. Results showed that control cultures and BGP-treated cultures, which contained significantly greater calcium mineral than control cultures, had similar detachment thresholds (50-100 dyn/cm(2)), with linear portions of their stress/detachment curves from 100 to 275 dyn/cm(2). Based on repeated measure analysis of variance, BGP-treated nodules were no more likely to detach at a given shear than controls, although they showed a trend toward greater stability. Thus, calcification does not appear to increase plaque vulnerability to fluid shear stress, although it may contribute to a slight stabilization. This model may represent the first in vitro model of mechanical rupture of atherosclerotic plaque. PMID:17006755

  15. Railroad workers with pleural plaques: II. Small airway dysfunction among asbestos-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Hjortsberg, U; Orbaek, P; Aborelius, M; Ranstam, J; Welinder, H

    1988-01-01

    Increased volume of trapped gas (VTG) was found in 87 asbestos-exposed railroad repair shop workers, divided into three subgroups according to smoking habits. All the examined subjects had pleural plaques. Determination of VTG was used to study function of small airways. Increased VTG was found among asbestos-exposed smokers as well as nonsmokers. In both groups the VTG:TLC ratio was elevated compared with controls. Increased VTG is a sign of small airways dysfunction. In asbestos-exposed subjects, it might be caused by an early peribronchial reaction to inhaled asbestos fibers. PMID:3232684

  16. Automated Tracing of the Adventitial Contour of Aortoiliac and Peripheral Arterial Walls in CT Angiography (CTA) to Allow Calculation of Non-calcified Plaque Burden

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bhargav Raman; Raghav Raman; Geoffrey D. Rubin; Sandy Napel

    Aortoiliac and lower extremity arterial atherosclerotic plaque burden is a risk factor for the development of visceral and\\u000a peripheral ischemic and aneurismal vascular disease. While prior research allows automated quantification of calcified plaque\\u000a in these body regions using CT angiograms, no automated method exists to quantify soft plaque. We developed an automatic algorithm\\u000a that defines the outer wall contour and

  17. CT Attenuation Features of Individual Calcified Coronary Plaque: Differences among Asymptomatic, Stable Angina Pectoris, and Acute Coronary Syndrome Groups

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yi-Luan; Lin, Huey-Shyan; Wu, Carol C.; Wu, Fu-Zong; Yeh, Chinson; Chiou, Kuan-Ran; Mar, Guang-Yuan; Wu, Ming-Ting

    2015-01-01

    Background Coronary artery calcium (CAC) assessed by non-contrast cardiac CT has been shown to be an independent factor from the Framingham risk factors in predicting cardiovascular events. However, many patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) have low CAC score. A recent study that re-analyzed the previous CAC CT scan of MESA cohort showed that in subjects with global lower density, CAC was associated with higher risk of ACS. We aimed to further evaluate the characteristics of CAC attenuation features in ACS subjects, in comparison to asymptomatic and stable angina pectoris (SAP) groups. Methods In a period of 18 months, 524 consecutive subjects received standard CAC CT scans in our department; 278 of 524 subjects with presence of CAC (225 men, age = 60.6±9.5 years; ACS = 41, SAP = 78, asymptomatic = 159) were enrolled. Agatston score, number of plaques (NP) per subject and mean (HMEAN) and standard deviation (HSD) of attenuation of each calcified plaque were measured. Three regression models to distinguish the groups were built: model 1, conventional risk factors only; model 2, Agatston score plus model 1; model 3, plaque attenuation features plus model 2. Results Agatston score in ACS group (median = 112.9) was higher than in the asymptomatic group (median = 54.4, P = 0.028) and similar to the SAP group (median = 237.8, P = 0.428). Calcified plaques in the ACS group showed lower (HMEAN = 180.5) and more homogenous (HSD = 31.2) attenuation than those of the asymptomatic group (HMEAN = 205.9, P = 0.002; HSD = 52.4, P = 0.006) and the SAP group (HMEAN = 204.1, P = 0.016; HSD = 54.4, P = 0.011). Model 3 significantly improved the distinction between ACS and asymptomatic groups (area under curve [AUC] = 0.93) as compared to model 2 (AUC = 0.83, P = 0.003) and model 1 (AUC = 0.79, P = 0.001). Conclusions Calcified plaques in the ACS group were characteristically of low and homogenous CT attenuation. With validation in a large cohort, analysis of CT attenuation features may improve risk stratification of ACS using CAC CT scan. PMID:26106881

  18. Genetic Mapping of Vascular Calcified Plaque Loci on Chromosome 16p in European Americans from the Diabetes Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    LEHTINEN, ALLISON B; COX, AMANDA J; ZIEGLER, JULIE T; VORUGANTI, V. SAROJA; XU, JIANZHAO; FREEDMAN, BARRY I; CARR, J. JEFFREY; COMUZZIE, ANTHONY G; LANGEFELD, CARL D; BOWDEN, DONALD W

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY A carotid artery calcified plaque (CarCP) linkage peak on chromosome 16p (LOD 4.39 at 8.4cM) in European American (EA) families with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) from the Diabetes Heart Study (DHS) has been refined by fine-mapping and candidate genes and SNPs evaluated for association with subclinical CVD. Fine-mapping was based on 104 SNPs in 937 subjects from 315 families, including 45 SNPs in six candidate genes (CACNA1H, SEPX1, ABCA3, IL32, SOCS1, and KIAA0350). Linkage and association analyses using variance components analysis (SOLAR; adjusting for age, gender, BMI, and T2DM status) refined the original CarCP linkage into two distinct linkage regions (LOD scores: 3.89 at 6.9cM and 4.86 at 16.0cM). Evidence of linkage for coronary calcified plaque (LOD: 2.27 at 19cM) and a vascular calcification principle component (LOD: 3.71 at 16.0cM) was also observed. The strongest evidence for association with CarCP was observed with SNPs in the A2BP1 gene region (rs4337300 p=0.005) with modest evidence of association with SNPs in CACNA1H (p=0.010–0.033). Bayesian Quantitative Trait Nucleotide analysis identified a SNP, rs1358489, with either a functional effect on CarCP or in linkage disequilibrium with a functional SNP. This study refined the 16p region contributing to vascular calcification. Although the causal variants remain to be identified the results are consistent with a linkage peak which is due to multiple common variants, though rare variants cannot be excluded. PMID:21309755

  19. Railroad workers with pleural plaques: I. Spirometric and nitrogen washout investigation on smoking and nonsmoking asbestos-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Hjortsberg, U; Orbaek, P; Aborelius, M; Ranstam, J; Welinder, H

    1988-01-01

    Eighty-seven workers exposed to asbestos in a railroad car repair shop, with characteristic asbestos-induced pleural plaques, underwent extensive lung-function examination. Vital capacity (VC) showed the greatest reduction among the static lung volumes, with an asymmetrical distribution of one-fourth of the subjects below 80% of the predicted value. Logistic regression demonstrated VC to be sufficient for optimal discrimination of asbestos-exposed subjects from a group of matched controls. No further discriminatory power was gained by additional spirometric measures, lung mechanics, blood gas analysis, or diffusing capacity. Smoking had an influence on dynamic but not on static lung volumes. In conclusion, reduced static lung volumes among smoking asbestos-exposed workers with pleural plaques should, in the absence of other lung diseases, be mainly attributed to the asbestos exposure. PMID:3232683

  20. Improved non-calcified plaque delineation on coronary CT angiography by sonogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction with different filter strength and relationship with BMI

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lei; Plank, Fabian; Kummann, Moritz; Burghard, Philipp; Klauser, Andrea; Dichtl, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To prospectively compare non-calcified plaque delineation and image quality of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) obtained with sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction (IR) with different filter strengths and filtered back projection (FBP). Methods A total of 57 patients [28.1% females; body mass index (BMI) 29.2±6.5 kg/m2] were investigated. CCTA was performed using 128-slice dual-source CT. Images were reconstructed with standard FBP and sinogram-affirmed IR using different filter strength (IR-2, IR-3, IR-4) (SAFIRE, Siemens, Germany). Image quality of CCTA and a non-calcified plaque outer border delineation score were evaluated by using a 5-scale score: from 1= poor to 5= excellent. Image noise, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of aortic root, left main (LM) and right coronary artery, and the non-calcified plaque delineation were quantified and compared among the 4 image reconstructions, and were compared between different BMI groups (BMI <28 and ?28). Statistical analyses included one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), least significant difference (LSD) and Kruskal-Wallis test. Results There were 71.9% patients in FBP, 96.5% in IR-2, 96.5% in IR-3 and 98.2% in IR-4 who had overall CCTA image quality ?3, and there were statistical differences in CCTA exam image quality score among those groups, respectively (P<0.001). Sixty-one non-calcified plaques were detected by IR-2 to IR-4, out of those 11 (18%) were missed by FBP. Plaque delineation score increased constantly from FBP (2.7±0.4) to IR-2 (3.2±0.3), to IR-3 (3.5±0.3) up to IR-4 (4.0±0.4), while CNRs of the non-calcifying plaque increased and image noise decreased, respectively. Similarly, CNR of aortic root, LM and right coronary artery improved and image noise declined from FBP to IR-2, IR-3 and IR-4. There were no significant differences of image quality and plaque delineation score between low and high BMI groups within same reconstruction (all P>0.05). Significant differences in image quality and plaque delineation scores among different image reconstructions both in low and high BMI groups (all P<0.001) were found. I4f revealed the highest image quality and plaque delineation score. Conclusions IR offers improved image quality and non-calcified plaque delineation as compared with FBP, especially if BMI is increasing. Importantly, 18% of non-calcified plaques were missed with FBP. IR-4 shows the best image quality score and plaque delineation score among the different IR-filter strength. PMID:25984450

  1. Functional Properties of CD8+ Lymphocytes in Patients with Pleural Plaque and Malignant Mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Kumagai-Takei, Naoko; Nishimura, Yasumitsu; Maeda, Megumi; Hayashi, Hiroaki; Matsuzaki, Hidenori; Lee, Suni; Kishimoto, Takumi; Fukuoka, Kazuya; Nakano, Takashi; Otsuki, Takemi

    2014-01-01

    It is known that asbestos exposure can cause malignant mesothelioma (MM) and that CD8+ T cells play a critical role in antitumor immunity. We examined the properties of peripheral blood CD8+ lymphocytes from asbestos-exposed patients with pleural plaque (PL) and MM. The percentage of CD3+CD8+ cells in PBMCs did not differ among the three groups, although the total numbers of PBMCs of the PL and MM groups were lower than those of the healthy volunteers (HV). The percentage of IFN-?+ and CD107a+ cells in PMA/ionomycin-stimulated CD8+ lymphocytes did not differ among the three groups. Percentages of perforin+ cells and CD45RA? cells in fresh CD8+ lymphocytes of PL and MM groups were higher than those of HV. Percentages of granzyme B+ and perforin+ cells in PMA/ionomycin-stimulated CD8+ lymphocytes were higher in PL group compared with HV. The MM group showed a decrease of perforin level in CD8+ lymphocytes after stimulation compared with patients with PL. These results indicate that MM patients have characteristics of impairment in stimulation-induced cytotoxicity of peripheral blood CD8+ lymphocytes and that PL and MM patients have a common character of functional alteration in those lymphocytes, namely, an increase in memory cells, possibly related to exposure to asbestos. PMID:25045719

  2. Functional properties of CD8(+) lymphocytes in patients with pleural plaque and malignant mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Kumagai-Takei, Naoko; Nishimura, Yasumitsu; Maeda, Megumi; Hayashi, Hiroaki; Matsuzaki, Hidenori; Lee, Suni; Kishimoto, Takumi; Fukuoka, Kazuya; Nakano, Takashi; Otsuki, Takemi

    2014-01-01

    It is known that asbestos exposure can cause malignant mesothelioma (MM) and that CD8(+) T cells play a critical role in antitumor immunity. We examined the properties of peripheral blood CD8(+) lymphocytes from asbestos-exposed patients with pleural plaque (PL) and MM. The percentage of CD3(+)CD8(+) cells in PBMCs did not differ among the three groups, although the total numbers of PBMCs of the PL and MM groups were lower than those of the healthy volunteers (HV). The percentage of IFN-? (+) and CD107a(+) cells in PMA/ionomycin-stimulated CD8(+) lymphocytes did not differ among the three groups. Percentages of perforin(+) cells and CD45RA(-) cells in fresh CD8(+) lymphocytes of PL and MM groups were higher than those of HV. Percentages of granzyme B(+) and perforin(+) cells in PMA/ionomycin-stimulated CD8(+) lymphocytes were higher in PL group compared with HV. The MM group showed a decrease of perforin level in CD8(+) lymphocytes after stimulation compared with patients with PL. These results indicate that MM patients have characteristics of impairment in stimulation-induced cytotoxicity of peripheral blood CD8(+) lymphocytes and that PL and MM patients have a common character of functional alteration in those lymphocytes, namely, an increase in memory cells, possibly related to exposure to asbestos. PMID:25045719

  3. Sequencing ancient calcified dental plaque shows changes in oral microbiota with dietary shifts of the Neolithic and Industrial revolutions

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Christina J; Dobney, Keith; Weyrich, Laura S; Kaidonis, John; Walker, Alan W; Haak, Wolfgang; Bradshaw, Corey JA; Townsend, Grant; So?tysiak, Arkadiusz; Alt, Kurt W; Parkhill, Julian; Cooper, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The importance of commensal microbes for human health is increasingly recognized1-5, yet the impacts of evolutionary changes in human diet and culture on commensal microbiota remain almost unknown. Two of the greatest dietary shifts in human evolution involved the adoption of carbohydrate-rich Neolithic (farming) diets6,7 (beginning ~10,000 years BP6,8), and the more recent advent of industrially processed flour and sugar (~1850)9. Here, we show that calcified dental plaque (dental calculus) on ancient teeth preserves a detailed genetic record throughout this period. Data from 34 early European skeletons indicate that the transition from hunter-gatherer to farming shifted the oral microbial community to a disease-associated configuration. The composition of oral microbiota remained surprisingly constant between Neolithic and Medieval times, after which (the now ubiquitous) cariogenic bacteria became dominant, apparently during the Industrial Revolution. Modern oral microbiota are markedly less diverse than historic populations, which might be contributing to chronic oral (and other) disease in post-industrial lifestyles. PMID:23416520

  4. Sequencing ancient calcified dental plaque shows changes in oral microbiota with dietary shifts of the Neolithic and Industrial revolutions.

    PubMed

    Adler, Christina J; Dobney, Keith; Weyrich, Laura S; Kaidonis, John; Walker, Alan W; Haak, Wolfgang; Bradshaw, Corey J A; Townsend, Grant; So?tysiak, Arkadiusz; Alt, Kurt W; Parkhill, Julian; Cooper, Alan

    2013-04-01

    The importance of commensal microbes for human health is increasingly recognized, yet the impacts of evolutionary changes in human diet and culture on commensal microbiota remain almost unknown. Two of the greatest dietary shifts in human evolution involved the adoption of carbohydrate-rich Neolithic (farming) diets (beginning ?10,000 years before the present) and the more recent advent of industrially processed flour and sugar (in ?1850). Here, we show that calcified dental plaque (dental calculus) on ancient teeth preserves a detailed genetic record throughout this period. Data from 34 early European skeletons indicate that the transition from hunter-gatherer to farming shifted the oral microbial community to a disease-associated configuration. The composition of oral microbiota remained unexpectedly constant between Neolithic and medieval times, after which (the now ubiquitous) cariogenic bacteria became dominant, apparently during the Industrial Revolution. Modern oral microbiotic ecosystems are markedly less diverse than historic populations, which might be contributing to chronic oral (and other) disease in postindustrial lifestyles. PMID:23416520

  5. A Comparison of Risk Factors for Calcified Atherosclerotic Plaque in the Coronary, Carotid, and Abdominal Aortic Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Wagenknecht, Lynne E.; Langefeld, Carl D.; Freedman, Barry I.; Carr, J. Jeffery; Bowden, Donald W.

    2012-01-01

    The extent of shared risk factors for calcified atherosclerotic plaque (CAP) of the coronary, carotid, and abdominal aortic arteries is unknown. CAP was measured by computed tomography in 1,125 individuals in families affected with diabetes. Statistical methods adjusted for the lack of independence between observations. CAP scores were standardized, and tests of interaction were conducted to compare risk factor relations across vascular beds. The average age of the cohort was 61 years, and 84% had diabetes. The correlation in CAP scores across vascular beds ranged from 0.59 to 0.72. Age, albumin/creatinine ratio, hemoglobin A1c, diabetes, hypertension, and lipid-lowering therapy were correlated with quantity of CAP in all vascular beds (all p < 0.05); no differences in the strength of these relations were noted. In contrast, other significant correlates differed in the strength of their relations with CAP. The risk factor pack-years of smoking was most strongly correlated with CAP in the abdominal aorta (p < 0.005). Male gender, previous myocardial infarction, and coronary revascularization were most strongly correlated with CAP in the coronary arteries (p < 0.0001). In summary, CAPs of the coronary, carotid, and abdominal aortic arteries generally share common risk factors, even though several of these factors have a greater impact on CAP in one vascular bed than another. PMID:17493948

  6. Computerized method for evaluating diagnostic image quality of calcified plaque images in cardiac CT: Validation on a physical dynamic cardiac phantom

    SciTech Connect

    King, Martin; Rodgers, Zachary; Giger, Maryellen L.; Bardo, Dianna M. E.; Patel, Amit R. [Department of Radiology, Committee on Medical Physics, University of Chicago, 5841 South Maryland Avenue, MC 2026, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Oregon Health and Science University, 3181 Southwest Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, Oregon 97239 (United States); Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, 5841 South Maryland Avenue, MC 5084, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: In cardiac computed tomography (CT), important clinical indices, such as the coronary calcium score and the percentage of coronary artery stenosis, are often adversely affected by motion artifacts. As a result, the expert observer must decide whether or not to use these indices during image interpretation. Computerized methods potentially can be used to assist in these decisions. In a previous study, an artificial neural network (ANN) regression model provided assessability (image quality) indices of calcified plaque images from the software NCAT phantom that were highly agreeable with those provided by expert observers. The method predicted assessability indices based on computer-extracted features of the plaque. In the current study, the ANN-predicted assessability indices were used to identify calcified plaque images with diagnostic calcium scores (based on mass) from a physical dynamic cardiac phantom. The basic assumption was that better quality images were associated with more accurate calcium scores. Methods: A 64-channel CT scanner was used to obtain 500 calcified plaque images from a physical dynamic cardiac phantom at different heart rates, cardiac phases, and plaque locations. Two expert observers independently provided separate sets of assessability indices for each of these images. Separate sets of ANN-predicted assessability indices tailored to each observer were then generated within the framework of a bootstrap resampling scheme. For each resampling iteration, the absolute calcium score error between the calcium scores of the motion-contaminated plaque image and its corresponding stationary image served as the ground truth in terms of indicating images with diagnostic calcium scores. The performances of the ANN-predicted and observer-assigned indices in identifying images with diagnostic calcium scores were then evaluated using ROC analysis. Results: Assessability indices provided by the first observer and the corresponding ANN performed similarly (AUC{sub OBS1}=0.80 [0.73,0.86] vs AUC{sub ANN1}=0.88 [0.82,0.92]) as that of the second observer and the corresponding ANN (AUC{sub OBS2}=0.87 [0.83,0.91] vs AUC{sub ANN2}=0.90 [0.85,0.94]). Moreover, the ANN-predicted indices were generated in a fraction of the time required to obtain the observer-assigned indices. Conclusions: ANN-predicted assessability indices performed similar to observer-assigned assessability indices in identifying images with diagnostic calcium scores from the physical dynamic cardiac phantom. The results of this study demonstrate the potential of using computerized methods for identifying images with diagnostic clinical indices in cardiac CT images.

  7. Extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type arising in the pleura with pleural fibrous plaques in a lathe worker.

    PubMed

    Nakatsuka, Shin-ichi; Nagano, Teruaki; Kimura, Hayato; Hanada, Shoji; Inoue, Hidetoshi; Iwata, Takashi

    2012-06-01

    Our patient was an 86-year-old man who had worked as a lathe operator for 40 years. He had no history of tuberculosis, pyothorax, or autoimmune disease. He had not been exposed to asbestos. He was asymptomatic, but an imaging study showed gradually increasing pleural plaques. A biopsy specimen of a pleural lesion showed sclerosis of the pleura and diffuse infiltration of small- to medium-sized B lymphocytes. Polymerase chain reaction-based analysis detected monoclonal rearrangement of immunoglobulin heavy-chain genes. Histologic diagnosis was extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type (MALT lymphoma). The lymphoma was negative for Epstein-Barr virus. We report a rare case of a metal worker with MALT lymphoma arising in the pleura with pleural fibrous plaques. It is speculated that MALT lymphoma might develop in the background of pneumoconiosis. Inflammatory and/or immunologic reactions to metal particles might contribute to the oncogenesis of this tumor. PMID:21546297

  8. Pleural plaques related to “take-home” exposure to asbestos: An international case series

    PubMed Central

    Peretz, Alon; Van Hee, Victor C; Kramer, Mordechai R; Pitlik, Silvio; Keifer, Matthew C

    2008-01-01

    Context: While a large number of studies indicate the risks of high-level exposures to asbestos in the workplace setting, a relatively small number of studies describe the risk of pleural disease related to “take-home” asbestos brought into the household by workers exposed to asbestos. Consequently, the risk of pleural disease in family members of asbestos-exposed workers is likely underappreciated. Case presentations: Two families of siblings, one in Israel and one in the US, were evaluated because of their significant exposures to asbestos brought into the home by family members with heavy occupational exposures. Two of the four children of an asbestos cement debagger in Petach Tikvah, Israel and two children of a pipe lagger in a naval shipyard near Seattle, Washington, manifested benign pleural disease without parenchymal disease, despite having no occupational exposure to asbestos. Discussion: These cases illustrate that “take-home” asbestos exposure may lead to pleural disease at higher rates than commonly realized. Relevance to clinical practice: Providers should recognize that due to the potential for “take-home” exposures, asbestos-related disease in a patient may be a marker for disease in household contacts. Patients with family members heavily exposed to asbestos should be strongly encouraged to quit smoking in an effort to reduce any further carcinogenic exposures. Additionally, workplace control and regulation of asbestos use should be emphasized to protect both workers and their families. PMID:20428401

  9. North american erionite-associated mesothelioma with pleural plaques and pulmonary fibrosis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kliment, Corrine R; Clemens, Kristen; Oury, Tim D

    2009-01-01

    Erionite, a fibrous zeolite mineral, has been categorized as a class I carcinogenic agent for its causative role in mesothelioma. In select villages in Turkey, erionite is the cause of more than 50% of mesotheliomas. In contrast, in the United States mesotheliomas are frequently associated with asbestos exposure. We describe the first reported case of a patient with erionite-associated pleural mesothelioma with classic pathologic changes typical of asbestos-related pulmonary and pleural pathology. This case report indicates that in addition to Turkey, erionite-associated disease can occur in North America and that subjects with erionite exposure are not only at risk of developing mesothelioma, but may develop interstitial fibrosis and additional pulmonary pathology impacting lung function and patient survival. PMID:19158938

  10. Impact of HDL genetic risk scores on coronary artery calcified plaque and mortality in individuals with type 2 diabetes from the Diabetes Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are at elevated risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) events and mortality. Recent studies have assessed the impact of genetic variants affecting high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) concentrations on CVD risk in the general population. This study examined the utility of HDL-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for CVD risk prediction in European Americans with T2D enrolled in the Diabetes Heart Study (DHS). Methods Genetic risk scores (GRS) of HDL-associated SNPs were constructed and evaluated for potential associations with mortality and with coronary artery calcified atherosclerotic plaque (CAC), a measure of subclinical CVD strongly associated with CVD events and mortality. Two sets of SNPs were used to construct GRS; while all SNPs were selected primarily for their impacts on HDL, one set of SNPs had pleiotropic effects on other lipid parameters, while the other set lacked effects on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) or triglyceride concentrations. Results The GRS were specifically associated with HDL concentrations (4.90?×?10-7?

  11. Human Carotid Plaque Calcification and Vulnerability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carl-Magnus Wahlgren; Wei Zheng; Wael Shaalan; Jun Tang; Hisham S. Bassiouny

    2009-01-01

    Background: Inflammation is a key mechanism in human atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability and disruption. The objective was to determine the differential gene expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory factors in the fibrous cap and shoulder region of noncalcified and calcified carotid endarterectomy plaques. Methods: Thirty carotid endarterectomy plaques were classified as type Va (noncalcified, n = 15) and type Vb (calcified, n

  12. Isolation of calcifiable vesicles from aortas of rabbits fed with high cholesterol diets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Howard H. T. Hsu; Nancy P. Camacho; Francis Sun; Ossama Tawfik; H. Aono

    2000-01-01

    Advanced arterial wall calcification in atherosclerosis imposes a serious rupturing effect on the aorta. However, the mechanism of dystrophic calcification linked to hyperlipidemia, that causes atherosclerosis remains unknown. Emerging morphological and biochemical evidence reveals that calcifiable vesicles may have a role in plaque calcification. To determine whether a high cholesterol diet can induce arterial calcification and produce or activate calcifiable

  13. Pleural mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Ruffie, P A

    1991-04-01

    Pleural mesotheliomas are uncommon tumors that can be classified as localized or diffuse. Diffuse pleural mesotheliomas are invariably malignant. Although the frequency is low in the general population, it is more common in persons with a heavy occupational exposure to asbestos, and is considered as a signal tumor to asbestos exposure with medicolegal consequences. Mesothelioma incidence has been steadily rising during the past two decades, reflecting the increase in asbestos exposure during and following World War II. Clinical features include initial complaints of nonpleuritic chest pain and dyspnea. Distinguishing malignant mesothelioma from metastatic adenocarcinoma can be difficult, and can require large tissue biopsy with special stains and electron microscopy. The median survival of about 9 to 12 months confirms the poor outcome of pleural mesothelioma. The clinical deterioration is primarily attributable to locoregional spread of tumors, but metastasis is not rare. Several factors seem to have a prognostic value: performance status, stage, platelet count, age, histologic subtype, and asbestos exposure. In spite of the different therapeutic modalities such as surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy used alone or in combination, the median survival is fairly different from survival among untreated patients. Because of the uncommon occurrence of this tumor and the existence of several different prognostic categories, a cooperative effort will be necessary for future therapeutic trials. If these active new therapies are identified, it would be useful to compare them to a best supportive care regimen in order to demonstrate an advantage of the treatment. PMID:2069994

  14. The clinical relevance of asbestos-induced pleural fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, D.A. (Department of Internal Medicine, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, (United States))

    1991-12-31

    Asbestos-induced pleural fibrosis is the most common radiographic abnormality among asbestos-exposed persons. Circumscribed pleural plaques and diffuse pleural thickening account for more than 90% of the asbestos-induced chest wall abnormalities, and their prevalence is expected to increase for the next 15 to 20 years. Several investigators have recently found that pleural plaques and diffuse pleural thickening independently contribute to the development of restrictive lung function. The work presented in this paper indicates that asbestos-induced pleural fibrosis is also associated with evidence of interstitial lung abnormalities, even among those with normal parenchyma on chest X-ray film. These parenchymal abnormalities include an increased percentage of lymphocytes on bronchoalveolar lavage and an increase in the interstitial changes observed on high-resolution chest computerized tomography (HRCT) scan. However, neither a lymphocytic alveolitis nor an interstitial parenchymal fibrosis influenced the relationship between pleural fibrosis and restrictive lung function. We conclude that asbestos-induced pleural disease contributes to the development of restrictive lung function and identify a group of exposed individuals who are at excess risk of asbestosis.

  15. Mechanisms of plaque formation and rupture.

    PubMed

    Bentzon, Jacob Fog; Otsuka, Fumiyuki; Virmani, Renu; Falk, Erling

    2014-06-01

    Atherosclerosis causes clinical disease through luminal narrowing or by precipitating thrombi that obstruct blood flow to the heart (coronary heart disease), brain (ischemic stroke), or lower extremities (peripheral vascular disease). The most common of these manifestations is coronary heart disease, including stable angina pectoris and the acute coronary syndromes. Atherosclerosis is a lipoprotein-driven disease that leads to plaque formation at specific sites of the arterial tree through intimal inflammation, necrosis, fibrosis, and calcification. After decades of indolent progression, such plaques may suddenly cause life-threatening coronary thrombosis presenting as an acute coronary syndrome. Most often, the culprit morphology is plaque rupture with exposure of highly thrombogenic, red cell-rich necrotic core material. The permissive structural requirement for this to occur is an extremely thin fibrous cap, and thus, ruptures occur mainly among lesions defined as thin-cap fibroatheromas. Also common are thrombi forming on lesions without rupture (plaque erosion), most often on pathological intimal thickening or fibroatheromas. However, the mechanisms involved in plaque erosion remain largely unknown, although coronary spasm is suspected. The calcified nodule has been suggested as a rare cause of coronary thrombosis in highly calcified and tortious arteries in older individuals. To characterize the severity and prognosis of plaques, several terms are used. Plaque burden denotes the extent of disease, whereas plaque activity is an ambiguous term, which may refer to one of several processes that characterize progression. Plaque vulnerability describes the short-term risk of precipitating symptomatic thrombosis. In this review, we discuss mechanisms of atherosclerotic plaque initiation and progression; how plaques suddenly precipitate life-threatening thrombi; and the concepts of plaque burden, activity, and vulnerability. PMID:24902970

  16. Ultrasound Tissue Characterization of Vulnerable Atherosclerotic Plaque

    PubMed Central

    Picano, Eugenio; Paterni, Marco

    2015-01-01

    A thrombotic occlusion of the vessel fed by ruptured coronary atherosclerotic plaque may result in unstable angina, myocardial infarction or death, whereas embolization from a plaque in carotid arteries may result in transient ischemic attack or stroke. The atherosclerotic plaque prone to such clinical events is termed high-risk or vulnerable plaque, and its identification in humans before it becomes symptomatic has been elusive to date. Ultrasonic tissue characterization of the atherosclerotic plaque is possible with different techniques—such as vascular, transesophageal, and intravascular ultrasound—on a variety of arterial segments, including carotid, aorta, and coronary districts. The image analysis can be based on visual, video-densitometric or radiofrequency methods and identifies three distinct textural patterns: hypo-echoic (corresponding to lipid- and hemorrhage-rich plaque), iso- or moderately hyper-echoic (fibrotic or fibro-fatty plaque), and markedly hyperechoic with shadowing (calcific plaque). Hypoechoic or dishomogeneous plaques, with spotty microcalcification and large plaque burden, with plaque neovascularization and surface irregularities by contrast-enhanced ultrasound, are more prone to clinical complications than hyperechoic, extensively calcified, homogeneous plaques with limited plaque burden, smooth luminal plaque surface and absence of neovascularization. Plaque ultrasound morphology is important, along with plaque geometry, in determining the atherosclerotic prognostic burden in the individual patient. New quantitative methods beyond backscatter (to include speed of sound, attenuation, strain, temperature, and high order statistics) are under development to evaluate vascular tissues. Although not yet ready for widespread clinical use, tissue characterization is listed by the American Society of Echocardiography roadmap to 2020 as one of the most promising fields of application in cardiovascular ultrasound imaging, offering unique opportunities for the early detection and treatment of atherosclerotic disease. PMID:25950760

  17. Expression of NPP1 is regulated during atheromatous plaque calcification

    PubMed Central

    Nitschke, Yvonne; Hartmann, Simone; Torsello, Giovanni; Horstmann, Rüdiger; Seifarth, Harald; Weissen-Plenz, Gabriele; Rutsch, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Mutations of the ENPP1 gene encoding ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (NPP1) are associated with medial calcification in infancy. While the inhibitory role of matrix proteins such as osteopontin (OPN) with respect to atherosclerotic plaque calcification has been established, the role of NPP1 in plaque calcification is not known. We assessed the degree of plaque calcification (computed tomography), NPP1 and OPN localization (immunohistochemistry) and expression (RT-PCR) in a cohort of 45 patients undergoing carotid endatherectomy for significant stenosis of the internal carotid artery and in normal arteries (N= 50). We correlated NPP1 and OPN expression levels to the degree of plaque calcification, to pro-atherogenic factors and statin therapy. NPP1 was demonstrated in the base and in the shoulder of atherosclerotic plaques. Compared to normal arteries and non-calcified plaques, in calcified plaques NPP1 mRNA was decreased (P < 0.0001). OPN mRNA levels were up-regulated in carotid atheroma. NPP1 and OPN expression levels positively correlated with the degree of plaque calcification (R= 0.54, P= 0.00019 and R= 0.46, P= 0.017, respectively) and with risk factors of atherosclerosis. Expression of the calcification inhibitor NPP1 is down-regulated in calcified atherosclerotic plaques. Our correlation data point to a counter-active mechanism, which in the end turns out to be insufficient to prevent further progression of calcification. PMID:20015201

  18. Pleural fluid characteristics of tuberculous pleural effusions.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Emmet E; Warriner, David; Anderson, Paul B

    2010-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) infection of the pleural space is an important cause of pleural effusion in areas of high TB prevalence. Microbiological analyses of pleural fluid in the acute setting may be negative. Consequently, investigations may proceed to more invasive techniques, such as pleural biopsy or thoracoscopy. Ongoing research has led to implementing a number of additional fluid analyses that may lead to a diagnosis without a need for further invasive procedures. In this review, we discuss the characteristics of tuberculous pleural fluid that may assist in this important diagnosis, and we highlight the benefits of specific biomarker analyses. English-language publications from a MEDLINE search and references from relevant articles from January 1, 1990 to September 1, 2009 were reviewed. The key words searched included tuberculosis, pleural fluid, effusion, diagnosis, adenosine deaminase, and interferon. PMID:20561884

  19. Chronic pleuritic pain in four patients with asbestos induced pleural fibrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, A

    1990-01-01

    Four patients occupationally exposed to asbestos, each suffering at least eight years of disabling, persistent, and often bilateral pleuritic pain are described. Radiographic evidence of pleural disease ranged from plaques seen only on computed tomography to typical bilateral plaques or diffuse thickening to extensive diffuse and circumscribed pleural fibrosis and calcification. There was no history or evidence of acute pleuritis or pleural effusion in three patients. Intermittent pleural friction rubs have been present in all four; one patient showed pleural uptake of gallium-67. Extensive workups including repeated pulmonary ventilation-perfusion scans and cardiac catheterisation have not yielded other diagnoses to explain the pain. It is proposed that persistent pleuritic pain be added to the manifestations of benign asbestos induced pleural disease. Images PMID:2328221

  20. Calcified retroperitoneal fibroma.

    PubMed

    Illuminati, G; Bertagni, A; Montesano, G; Soda, G; Baiocchini, A; Melis, M; Vietri, F

    1997-01-01

    A case of 31-year-old male with a retroperitoneal tumor is described. Abdominal ultrasound revealed a left para-aortic calcific mass, adjacent to the left lobe of the liver and to the upper pole of the left kidney. A CT-scan of the abdomen showed the mass to originate from the left adrenal gland. At operation, a large, retroperitoneal mass, adherent to the left kidney and the spleen, but not infiltrating, was excised. Histologically the tumor was diagnosed as a calcified osteo-producing fibroma. Benign retroperitoneal tumors represent about 25% of all retroperitoneal neoplasm. This reported case represents a retroperitoneal tumor of slow growth and benign clinical course whose characteristic consists of the heavy calcifications which are normally absent in a fibroma type mass. PMID:9558778

  1. Enrichment of calcifying extracellular vesicles using density-based ultracentrifugation protocol

    PubMed Central

    Hutcheson, Joshua D.; Goettsch, Claudia; Pham, Tan; Iwashita, Masaya; Aikawa, Masanori; Singh, Sasha A.; Aikawa, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Calcifying extracellular vesicles (EVs) released from cells within atherosclerotic plaques have received increased attention for their role in mediating vascular calcification, a major predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, little is known about the difference between this pathologic vesicle population and other EVs that contribute to physiological cellular processes. One major challenge that hinders research into these differences is the inability to selectively isolate calcifying EVs from other vesicle populations. In this study, we hypothesized that the formation of mineral within calcifying EVs would increase the density of the vesicles such that they would pellet at a faster rate during ultracentrifugation. We show that after 10 min of ultracentrifugation at 100,000×g, calcifying EVs are depleted from the conditioned media of calcifying coronary artery smooth muscle cells and are enriched in the pelleted portion. We utilized mass spectrometry to establish functional proteomic differences between the calcifying EVs enriched in the 10 min ultracentrifugation compared to other vesicle populations preferentially pelleted by longer ultracentrifugation times. The procedures established in this study will allow us to enrich the vesicle population of interest and perform advanced proteomic analyses to find subtle differences between calcifying EVs and other vesicle populations that may be translated into therapeutic targets for vascular calcification. Finally, we will show that the differences in ultracentrifugation times required to pellet the vesicle populations can also be used to estimate physical differences between the vesicles. PMID:25491249

  2. Simulation of human atherosclerotic femoral plaque tissue: the influence of plaque material model on numerical results

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Due to the limited number of experimental studies that mechanically characterise human atherosclerotic plaque tissue from the femoral arteries, a recent trend has emerged in current literature whereby one set of material data based on aortic plaque tissue is employed to numerically represent diseased femoral artery tissue. This study aims to generate novel vessel-appropriate material models for femoral plaque tissue and assess the influence of using material models based on experimental data generated from aortic plaque testing to represent diseased femoral arterial tissue. Methods Novel material models based on experimental data generated from testing of atherosclerotic femoral artery tissue are developed and a computational analysis of the revascularisation of a quarter model idealised diseased femoral artery from a 90% diameter stenosis to a 10% diameter stenosis is performed using these novel material models. The simulation is also performed using material models based on experimental data obtained from aortic plaque testing in order to examine the effect of employing vessel appropriate material models versus those currently employed in literature to represent femoral plaque tissue. Results Simulations that employ material models based on atherosclerotic aortic tissue exhibit much higher maximum principal stresses within the plaque than simulations that employ material models based on atherosclerotic femoral tissue. Specifically, employing a material model based on calcified aortic tissue, instead of one based on heavily calcified femoral tissue, to represent diseased femoral arterial vessels results in a 487 fold increase in maximum principal stress within the plaque at a depth of 0.8 mm from the lumen. Conclusions Large differences are induced on numerical results as a consequence of employing material models based on aortic plaque, in place of material models based on femoral plaque, to represent a diseased femoral vessel. Due to these large discrepancies, future studies should seek to employ vessel-appropriate material models to simulate the response of diseased femoral tissue in order to obtain the most accurate numerical results. PMID:25602515

  3. Gallium-67 thoracic scan and pleural disease in asbestos workers

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, R.; Bisson, G.; Lamoureux, G.; Begin, R.

    1985-06-01

    The authors have recently reported that /sup 67/Ga scanning in asbestos workers can document excessive uptake of the marker among workers without sufficient criteria for asbestosis, but in their initial report they could not exclude definitely that /sup 67/Ga uptake could be related to pleural disease. To further test this hypothesis, they analyzed the /sup 67/Ga thoracic scan in relation to profusion scores of pleural disease on chest roentgenogram and CT scan of the thorax in 171 asbestos workers. They found no significant correlation between the /sup 67/Ga lung uptake and the radiographic scores of pleural disease. They concluded that pleural plaques are not an active site of /sup 67/Ga accumulation and do not contribute significantly to the thoracic uptake of the marker.

  4. Proton-induced X-ray emission analysis of atherosclerotic plaques of the carotid bifurcation.

    PubMed

    Peltomaa, M; Mattila, K; Wolf, J; Hyvönen-Dabek, M

    1992-09-01

    The trace elements of both calcified atherosclerotic plaques and plaque-free vessel walls of the carotid bifurcation from 31 autopsies were investigated using the proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method. The trace elements studied were phosphorus (P), calcium (Ca), chrome (Cr), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), selenium (Se), bromine (Br), strontium (Sr), and rubidium (Rb). All samples contained Fe and Zn. Mercury (Hg) was not detected in any of the samples studied. All plaque-free samples contained Cu and almost all Br and Ca, none Sr. All calcified atherosclerotic plaques contained Ca and almost all Br and Sr. The relative levels of Ca were higher in the calcified plaques than in the plaque-free vessel walls. The relative value of Ca in calcified and uncalcified samples was greatest in the group who had died because of cardiovascular disorders and smallest in the group who had died from other causes. There was a strong positive correlation between the Ca and Sr of the plaque samples and between the P and Br of the plaque-free samples. PMID:1384615

  5. A comparative study on plaque vulnerability using constitutive equations.

    PubMed

    Karimi, A; Navidbakhsh, M; Faghihi, S

    2014-03-01

    Atherosclerosis is the most serious and common form of cardiovascular disease in which plaque builds up inside the arteries. Peak plaque stress is considered as the main reason for plaque rupture, which results in heart attack and stroke. In the current research, the finite element method is used to anticipate plaque vulnerability, using human samples. A total of 23 healthy and atherosclerotic human coronary arteries (14 healthy and 9 atherosclerotic) were removed within 5 h postmortem. The samples were mounted on a uniaxial tensile test machine and the obtained mechanical properties were used in finite element models. The peak plaque stresses for the Ogden hyperelastic model were compared to the Mooney-Rivlin and Neo-Hookean outcomes. The results indicated that hypocellular plaque in all three models has the highest stress values compared to the cellular and calcified ones and, as a result, is quite prone to rupture. The calcified plaque type, in contrast, has the lowest stress values and remains stable. The results can be used in plaque vulnerability prediction and have clinical implications for interventions and surgeries such as balloon-angioplasty, cardiopulmonary bypass and stenting. PMID:23999817

  6. Indwelling pleural catheters for malignant pleural effusion.

    PubMed

    McPhillips, Dympna; Breen, David

    2015-06-01

    Pleural effusions are a common cause of symptoms in patients with malignancy and can adversely affect quality of life. However, not all effusions in the setting of malignancy are due to the cancer itself and therefore it is essential to perform an extensive assessment to diagnose the underlying aetiology. There are a number of treatment options available to manage a malignant effusion and reduce the associated symptomatology. The choice of intervention depends on a number of factors and, in particular, patient preference. In this paper, we will discuss the role of an indwelling pleural catheter in the outpatient management of individuals with malignant effusions. PMID:26126674

  7. Diagnostic Tools of Pleural Effusion

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Pleural effusion is not a rare disease in Korea. The diagnosis of pleural effusion is very difficult, even though the patients often complain of typical symptoms indicating of pleural diseases. Pleural effusion is characterized by the pleural cavity filled with transudative or exudative pleural fluids, and it is developed by various etiologies. The presence of pleural effusion can be confirmed by radiological studies including simple chest radiography, ultrasonography, or computed tomography. Identifying the causes of pleural effusions by pleural fluid analysis is essential for proper treatments. This review article provides information on the diagnostic approaches of pleural effusions and further suggested ways to confirm their various etiologies, by using the most recent journals for references. PMID:24920946

  8. Clinical consequences of asbestos-related diffuse pleural thickening: A review

    PubMed Central

    Miles, Susan E; Sandrini, Alessandra; Johnson, Anthony R; Yates, Deborah H

    2008-01-01

    Asbestos-related diffuse pleural thickening (DPT), or extensive fibrosis of the visceral pleura secondary to asbestos exposure, is increasingly common due to the large number of workers previously exposed to asbestos. It may coexist with asbestos related pleural plaques but has a distinctly different pathology. The pathogenesis of this condition as distinct from pleural plaques is gradually becoming understood. Generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, profibrotic cytokines and growth factors in response to asbestos is likely to play a role in the formation of a fibrinous intrapleural matrix. Benign asbestos related pleural effusions commonly antedate the development of diffuse pleural thickening. Environmental as well as occupational exposure to asbestos may also result in pleural fibrosis, particularly in geographic areas with naturally occurring asbestiform soil minerals. Pleural disorders may also occur after household exposure. High resolution computed tomography (CT) is more sensitive and specific than chest radiography for the diagnosis of diffuse pleural thickening, and several classification systems for asbestos-related disorders have been devised. Magnetic resonance imaging and fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) scanning may be useful in distinguishing between DPT and malignant mesothelioma. DPT may be associated with symptoms such as dyspnoea and chest pain. It causes a restrictive defect on lung function and may rarely result in respiratory failure and death. Treatment is primarily supportive. PMID:18775081

  9. Pleural fluid Gram stain

    MedlinePLUS

    Gram stain of pleural fluid ... lungs fill a person's chest with air. If fluid builds up in the space outside the lungs ... chest, it can cause many problems. Removing the fluid can relieve a person's breathing problems and help ...

  10. Metastatic pleural tumor

    MedlinePLUS

    Tumor - metastatic pleural ... The blood and lymph systems can carry cancer cells to other organs in the body, where they can produce new growths or tumors. The spread of cancer cells to other parts ...

  11. Non-Neoplastic and Neoplastic Pleural Endpoints Following Fiber Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Broaddus, V. Courtney; Everitt, Jeffrey I.; Black, Brad; Kane, Agnes B.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to asbestos fibers is associated with non-neoplastic pleural diseases including plaques, fibrosis, and benign effusions, as well as with diffuse malignant pleural mesothelioma. Translocation and retention of fibers are fundamental processes in understanding the interactions between the dose and dimensions of fibers retained at this anatomic site and the subsequent pathological reactions. The initial interaction of fibers with target cells in the pleura has been studied in cellular models in vitro and in experimental studies in vivo. The proposed biological mechanisms responsible for non-neoplastic and neoplastic pleural diseases and the physical and chemical properties of asbestos fibers relevant to these mechanisms are critically reviewed. Understanding mechanisms of asbestos fiber toxicity may help us anticipate the problems from future exposures both to asbestos and to novel fibrous materials such as nanotubes. Gaps in our understanding have been outlined as guides for future research. PMID:21534088

  12. Preliminary in vivo atherosclerotic carotid plaque characterization using the accumulated axial strain and relative lateral shift strain indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Hairong; Mitchell, Carol C.; McCormick, Matthew; Kliewer, Mark A.; Dempsey, Robert J.; Varghese, Tomy

    2008-11-01

    In this paper, we explore two parameters or strain indices related to plaque deformation during the cardiac cycle, namely, the maximum accumulated axial strain in plaque and the relative lateral shifts between plaque and vessel wall under in vivo clinical ultrasound imaging conditions for possible identification of vulnerable plaque. These strain indices enable differentiation between calcified and lipidic plaque tissue utilizing a new perspective based on the stiffness and mobility of the plaque. In addition, they also provide the ability to distinguish between softer plaques that undergo large deformations during the cardiac cycle when compared to stiffer plaque tissue. Soft plaques that undergo large deformations over the cardiac cycle are more prone to rupture and to release micro-emboli into the cerebral bloodstream. The ability to identify vulnerable plaque, prone to rupture, would significantly enhance the clinical utility of this method for screening patients. We present preliminary in vivo results obtained from ultrasound radio frequency data collected over 16 atherosclerotic plaque patients before these patients undergo a carotid endarterectomy procedure. Our preliminary in vivo results indicate that the maximum accumulated axial strain over a cardiac cycle and the maximum relative lateral shift or displacement of the plaque are useful strain indices that provide differentiation between soft and calcified plaques.

  13. JAMA Patient Page: Pleural Effusion

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is the most common cause of pleural effusion. • Pneumonia is a common lung infection and may result ... the fluid for laboratory analysis. TREATMENT • Treating bacterial pneumonia with antibiotics usually resolves pleural effusion. • Treating congestive ...

  14. The pathophysiology of pleural effusions.

    PubMed

    Sahn, S A

    1990-01-01

    Two features of human parietal pleura explain its role in the formation and removal of pleural liquid and protein in the normal state: the proximity of the microvessels to the pleural surface and the presence of stomata situated between mesothelial cells. For pleural fluid to accumulate in disease, there must be increased production from increased hydrostatic pressure, decreased oncotic or pleural pressure, increased microvascular permeability, or peritoneal-pleural movement. The rate of formation must overwhelm lymphatic clearance, which may be decreased by hydrostatic forces or blocked by malignant infiltration. PMID:2184750

  15. Male Gender and Arterial Hypertension are Plaque Predictors at Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Joselina Luzia Menezes; Hirata, Mario Hiroyuki; Sousa, Amanda Guerra de Moraes Rego; Gabriel, Fabíola Santos; Hirata, Thiago Dominguez Crespo; Tavares, Irlaneide da Silva; Melo, Luiza Dantas; Dória, Fabiana de Santana; Sousa, Antônio Carlos Sobral; Pinto, Ibraim Masciarelli Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Background Systemic Arterial Hypertension (SAH) is one of the main risk factors for Coronary Artery Disease (CAD), in addition to male gender. Differences in coronary artery lesions between hypertensive and normotensive individuals of both genders at the Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography (CCTA) have not been clearly determined. Objective To Investigate the calcium score (CS), CAD extent and characteristics of coronary plaques at CCTA in men and women with and without SAH. Methods Prospective cross-sectional study of 509 patients undergoing CCTA for CAD diagnosis and risk stratification, from November 2011 to December 2012, at Instituto de Cardiologia Dante Pazzanese. Individuals were stratified according to gender and subdivided according to the presence (HT +) or absence (HT-) of SAH. Results HT+ women were older (62.3 ± 10.2 vs 57.8 ± 12.8, p = 0.01). As for the assessment of CAD extent, the HT+ individuals of both genders had significant CAD, although multivessel disease is more frequent in HT + men. The regression analysis for significant CAD showed that age and male gender were the determinant factors of multivessel disease and CS ? 100. Plaque type analysis showed that SAH was a predictive risk factor for partially calcified plaques (OR = 3.9). Conclusion Hypertensive men had multivessel disease more often than women. Male gender was a determinant factor of significant CAD, multivessel disease, CS ? 100 and calcified and partially calcified plaques, whereas SAH was predictive of partially calcified plaques. PMID:25861034

  16. Proton-induced X-ray emission analysis of atherosclerotic plaques of the carotid bifurcation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Peltomaa; K. Mattila; J. Wolf; M. Hyvönen-Dabek

    1992-01-01

    The trace elements of both calcified atherosclerotic plaques and plaque-free vessel walls of the carotid bifurcation from\\u000a 31 autopsies were investigated using the proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method. The trace elements studied were phosphorus\\u000a (P), calcium (Ca), chrome (Cr), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), selenium (Se), bromine (Br), strontium (Sr),\\u000a and rubidium (Rb). All samples contained Fe

  17. Histopathology of plaque rupture.

    PubMed

    Ravn, H B; Falk, E

    1999-05-01

    Plaque disruption occurs during the development of atherosclerotic lesions. During certain circumstances it may result in thrombosis and subsequent development of acute coronary syndromes. Several characteristics of the plaque appear to be associated with plaque disruption, including a large lipid rich core, superficial plaque inflammation, and a thin fibrous cap. The importance of these and other plaque components are discussed in this article. PMID:10384825

  18. Calcifying Fibrous Tumor of the Gastrointestinal Tract.

    PubMed

    Larson, Brent K; Dhall, Deepti

    2015-07-01

    Calcifying fibrous tumor is a benign mass lesion classically described as a soft tissue tumor. However, a thorough review of the literature reveals that it can occur virtually anywhere, including the tubular gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Its clinical manifestations are variable in the GI tract, and its imaging findings are nonspecific. However, it has unique histologic and immunophenotypical features that must be recognized by GI pathologists to differentiate it from an assortment of other rare mesenchymal lesions of the abdomen and GI tract. Calcifying fibrous tumor is composed of a paucicellular collagen matrix, interspersed calcified bodies, and a sparse inflammatory infiltrate. Although calcifying fibrous tumor is benign, pathologists must be aware that it may occur in the GI tract to differentiate it from other potentially more aggressive, rare mesenchymal lesions. PMID:26125434

  19. Directional atherectomy of a heavy calcified axillary artery stenosis inducing critical hand ischemia.

    PubMed

    Anzuini, Angelo; Palloshi, Altin; Aprigliano, Gianfranco; Ielasi, Alfonso

    2013-07-01

    The presence of a severe calcified peripheral artery lesion is responsible for a poor response to balloon dilation, due to significant acute vessel recoil and frequent flow-limiting dissections requiring stent implantation. This possibility could be associated with very high compression and/or fracture rates particularly in cases of lesion located at the mobile joints. In this setting directional atherectomy offers the theoretical advantages of eliminating stretch injury on arterial walls and reducing the restenosis rate by direct plaque excision. In this report, we present a case of critical hand ischemia due to a heavily calcified axillary artery lesion managed by directional atherectomy and balloon angioplasty followed by immediate angiographic success and sustained clinical benefit up to 3 years of follow-up. PMID:23371036

  20. Orbital Atherectomy for Treating De Novo Severely Calcified Coronary Narrowing (1-Year Results from the Pivotal ORBIT II Trial).

    PubMed

    Généreux, Philippe; Lee, Arthur C; Kim, Christopher Y; Lee, Michael; Shlofmitz, Richard; Moses, Jeffrey W; Stone, Gregg W; Chambers, Jeff W

    2015-06-15

    Percutaneous coronary intervention of severely calcified lesions has historically been associated with major adverse cardiac event (MACE) rates as high as 30%. In the ORBIT II (Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of OAS in Treating Severely Calcified Coronary Lesions) trial, treatment of de novo severely calcified lesions with the Diamondback 360° Coronary Orbital Atherectomy System (OAS) resulted in low rates of procedural and 30-day adverse ischemic events. The long-term results from this trial have not been reported. We sought to determine the 1-year outcomes after orbital atherectomy of severely calcified coronary lesions. ORBIT II was a single-arm trial enrolling 443 subjects at 49 US sites with severely calcified lesions usually excluded from randomized trials. OAS utilizes a centrifugal differential sanding mechanism of action for plaque modification prior to stent implantation. After OAS drug-eluting stents were implanted in 88.2% of the patients. The primary safety end point was 30-day MACE, the composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction, or target vessel revascularization [TVR]. The present analysis reports the 1-year follow-up results from ORBIT II. One-year data were available in 433 of 443 patients (97.7%), with median follow-up time of 16.7 months. The 1-year MACE rate was 16.4%, including cardiac death (3.0%), myocardial infarction (9.7%), and target vessel revascularization (5.9%). The 1-year target lesion revascularization rate was 4.7%, and stent thrombosis occurred in 1 patient (0.2%). Independent predictors of 1-year MACE and target vessel revascularization were diameter stenosis at baseline and the use of bare-metal stents. In patients with severely calcified lesions who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention, the use of OAS was associated with low rates of 1-year adverse ischemic events compared with historical controls. This finding has important clinical implications for the selection of optimum treatment strategies for patients with severely calcified lesions. PMID:25910525

  1. Multiple myeloma presenting as eosinophilic pleural effusion.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Asmita A; Venkatakrishnan, Rajesh; Jose, Wesley; Palaniappan, Muthu; Pavithran, Keechilat

    2010-12-01

    An elderly man, with no comorbidity, presented with rapidly accumulating left pleural effusion. He also had generalized adenopathy. Pleural fluid cytology showed exudative pleural effusion with eosinophilia. Supraclavicular lymph node biopsy was reported as amyloid. On further investigation he was found to have kappa-light chain multiple myeloma. The final diagnosis was eosinophilic pleural effusion in a patient with multiple myeloma. PMID:21114774

  2. Diffuse Calcifications Protect Carotid Plaques regardless of the Amount of Neoangiogenesis and Related Histological Complications

    PubMed Central

    Vasuri, Francesco; Fittipaldi, Silvia; Pini, Rodolfo; Degiovanni, Alessio; Mauro, Raffaella; D'Errico-Grigioni, Antonia; Faggioli, Gianluca; Stella, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Background. Neoangiogenesis is crucial in plaque progression and instability. Previous data from our group showed that Nestin-positive intraplaque neovessels correlated with histological complications. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the relationship between neoangiogenesis, plaque morphology, and clinical instability of the plaque. Materials and Methods. Seventy-three patients (53 males and 20 females, mean age 71 years) were consecutively enrolled. Clinical data and 14 histological variables, including intraplaque hemorrhage and calcifications, were collected. Immunohistochemistry for CD34 and Nestin was performed. RT-PCR was performed to evaluate Nestin mRNA (including 5 healthy arteries as controls). Results. Diffusely calcified plaques (13/73) were found predominantly in females (P = 0.017), with a significantly lower incidence of symptoms (TIA/stroke (P = 0.019) than noncalcified plaques but with the same incidence of histological complications (P = 0.156)). Accordingly, calcified and noncalcified plaques showed similar mean densities of positivity for CD34 and Nestin. Nestin density, but not CD34, correlated with the occurrence of intraplaque hemorrhage. Conclusions. Plaques with massive calcifications show the same incidence of histological complications but without influencing symptomatology, especially in female patients, and regardless of the amount of neoangiogenesis. These results can be applied in a future presurgical identification of patients at major risk of developing symptoms. PMID:25883974

  3. Pleural involvement in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Giannou, Anastasios D.; Stathopoulos, Georgios T.

    2015-01-01

    The pleural space, a sterile secluded environment in the thoracic cavity, represents an attractive metastatic site for various cancers of lung, breast and gastrointestinal origins. Whereas lung and breast adenocarcinomas could invade the pleural space because of their anatomic proximity, “distant” cancers like ovarian or gastrointestinal tract adenocarcinomas may employ more active mechanisms to the same end. A pleural metastasis is often accompanied by a malignant pleural effusion (MPE), an unfavorable complication that severely restricts the quality of life and expectancy of the cancer patient. MPE is the net “product” of three different processes, namely inflammation, enhanced angiogenesis and vascular leakage. Current efforts are focusing on the identification of cancer cell autocrine (specific mutation spectra and biochemical pathways) and paracrine (cytokine and chemokine signals) characteristics as well as host features (immunological or other) that underlie the MPE phenotype. Herein we examine the pleural histology, cytology and molecular characteristics that make the pleural cavity an attractive metastasis destination for lung adenocarcinoma. Mesothelial and tumor features that may account for the tumor’s ability to invade the pleural space are highlighted. Finally, possible therapeutic interventions specifically targeting MPE are discussed.

  4. Pleural mesothelial cells in pleural and lung diseases

    PubMed Central

    Antony, Veena B.

    2015-01-01

    During development, the mesoderm maintains a complex relationship with the developing endoderm giving rise to the mature lung. Pleural mesothelial cells (PMCs) derived from the mesoderm play a key role during the development of the lung. The pleural mesothelium differentiates to give rise to the endothelium and smooth muscle cells via epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). An aberrant recapitulation of such developmental pathways can play an important role in the pathogenesis of disease processes such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). The PMC is the central component of the immune responses of the pleura. When exposed to noxious stimuli, it demonstrates innate immune responses such as Toll-like receptor (TLR) recognition of pathogen associated molecular patterns as well as causes the release of several cytokines to activate adaptive immune responses. Development of pleural effusions occurs due to an imbalance in the dynamic interaction between junctional proteins, n-cadherin and ?-catenin, and phosphorylation of adherens junctions between PMCs, which is caused in part by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) released by PMCs. PMCs play an important role in defense mechanisms against bacterial and mycobacterial pleural infections, and in pathogenesis of malignant pleural effusion, asbestos related pleural disease and malignant pleural mesothelioma. PMCs also play a key role in the resolution of inflammation, which can occur with or without fibrosis. Fibrosis occurs as a result of disordered fibrin turnover and due to the effects of cytokines such as transforming growth factor-?, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), and basic fibroblast growth factor; which are released by PMCs. Recent studies have demonstrated a role for PMCs in the pathogenesis of IPF suggesting their potential as a cellular biomarker of disease activity and as a possible therapeutic target. Pleural-based therapies targeting PMCs for treatment of IPF and other lung diseases need further exploration.

  5. Carotid Plaque Hemodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Harloff, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Internal carotid artery (ICA) plaques constitute one major source of retinal and cerebral brain embolism. Current guidelines recommend optimal treatment of cardiovascular risk factors and recanalization based on the degree of ICA stenosis. However, ICA plaque composition, motion, vascularization, and local hemodynamics have only received limited attention as potential and independent risk factors for plaque rupture. The European Carotid Surgery Trial (ECST) showed an increased risk of stroke recurrence even in moderate stenosis if the plaque surface was ulcerated in angiography. Further indicators of plaque instability and thus vulnerability were established by native or contrast-enhanced two-dimensional duplex ultrasound, CT, and MRI. Due to high soft tissue contrast, multi-contrast MRI seems to be ideally suited to identify plaque compositions that are prone to rupture, although data from large clinical trials proving the independent predictive value of plaque morphology are lacking. The role of cardiovascular risk factors for atherosclerosis of the common carotid artery is well established. Nevertheless, little is known concerning the impact of local hemodynamics on plaque development, progression, and rupture. Wall shear stress, the friction force acting on the endothelium of the vessel wall, was shown to be able to induce local atherosclerosis and vulnerable plaques in animal models. Plaque movement and deformation was limited to investigations using ultrasound in order to identify plaques at risk. Similarly, models to calculate tensile plaque stress seem to be able to identify peak mechanical stress acting on plaque surfaces that make such regions susceptible to rupture. In this review, current evidence regarding the correlation of plaque location, composition, and local hemodynamics at the carotid artery bifurcation will be presented. Moreover, the potential benefit of a future comprehensive and individual risk assessment will be discussed. PMID:25187766

  6. A finite element study of balloon expandable stent for plaque and arterial wall vulnerability assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, Alireza; Navidbakhsh, Mahdi; Razaghi, Reza

    2014-07-01

    The stresses induced within plaque tissues and arterial layers during stent expansion inside an atherosclerotic artery can be exceeded from the yield stresses of those tissues and, consequently, lead to plaque or arterial layer rupture. The distribution and magnitude of the stresses in each component involved in stenting might be clearly different for different plaque types and different arterial layers. In this study, a nonlinear finite element simulation was employed to investigate the effect of plaque composition (calcified, cellular, and hypocellular) on the stresses induced in the arterial layers (intima, media, and adventitia) during implantation of a balloon expandable coronary stent into a stenosed artery. The atherosclerotic artery was assumed to consist of a plaque and normal/healthy arterial tissues on its outer side. The results indicated a significant influence of plaque types on the maximum stresses induced within the plaque wall and arterial layers during stenting but not when computing maximum stress on the stent. The stress on the stiffest calcified plaque wall was in the fracture level (2.38 MPa), whereas cellular and hypocellular plaques remain stable owing to less stress on their walls. Regardless of plaque types, the highest von Mises stresses were observed on the stiffest intima layer, whereas the lowest stresses were seen to be located in less stiff media layer. The computed stresses on the intima layer were found to be high enough to initiate a rupture in this stiff layer. These findings suggest a higher risk of arterial vascular injury for the intima layer, while a lower risk of arterial injury for the media and adventitia layers.

  7. [Primary calcified mediastinal hydatid cyst producing compression].

    PubMed

    Benzarti, M; Jerray, M; Khirouni, S; Souissi, J; Ommezzine, N; Mezghenni, S; Hayouni, A; Garrouche, A; Klabi, N

    1997-01-01

    A mediastinal hydatid cyst is rare (< 0.1% of hydatidosis). It most frequently progresses to calcification rather than a pulmonary hydatid cyst because there is no relationship to ventilation. We report a case of calcified mediastinal hydatid cyst which was confirmed on histological examinations from the operative specimen, in an agricultural worker of 58 who presented with a homolateral paralysed diaphragm. PMID:9082506

  8. [Diet and plaque].

    PubMed

    Banoczy, J

    1989-06-01

    In summary, many sugar substitutes have a direct effect on dental plaque formation and, therefore, also an indirect effect on hard tooth substance. Short-and long-term clinical studies have shown that xylitol reduces dental plaque. Short-term clinical tests have also demonstrated that sorbitol reduces plaque formation, probably due to retardation of acid formation. With time, this effect, however, diminishes due to adaptation of the microorganisms. Streptococcus mutans count and acid formation in dental plaque are favourably influenced by sugar substitutes, especially by the consumption of xylitol. The effect of sugar substitutes on dental plaque plays an important role for the anticariogenic and caries-reducing mode of action. The development of both caries and periodontal diseases can be favourably influenced by reduced plaque formation. PMID:2635961

  9. Association of Metsovo lung and pleural mesothelioma with exposure to tremolite-containing whitewash.

    PubMed

    Langer, A M; Nolan, R P; Constantopoulos, S H; Moutsopoulos, H M

    1987-04-25

    Pleural thickening, bilateral pleural hyalinised plaques, and restrictive lung function are found among inhabitants of four small villages in northwestern Greece. Transbronchial biopsy samples from patients with disease contained tremolite fibres. Malignant pleural mesothelioma has now been reported in these villages and accounts for approximately 1% of the total mortality from 1981 to 1985. The principal whitewash once used in this area is predominantly asbestiform tremolite. The fibre is identical in every respect to fibres found in the lung tissues of people with Metsovo lung. The membrane activity of this tremolite is greater than that of the commercially used asbestiform amphiboles amosite and crocidolite. This measure of cytotoxicity lends further support to the hypothesis that this fibre is the agent of Metsovo lung and mesothelioma. PMID:2882352

  10. Comparative LIBS Analysis Of Calcified Tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Salam, Z. A.; Harith, M. A.

    2008-09-01

    Signal enhancement, limits of detection, and relevance to environmental concentration for element in calcified tissues using LIBS with single and double laser pulses will be presented. These measurements were performed on three calcified tissues representing different matrices, namely enamel of human teeth, shells and eggshells. This method depends on the role of the laser induced shock wave on the ionization rate of the ablated target material atoms. The effect of the laser single and double pulse on the ionic to atomic ratio of calcium and magnesium spectral emission lines, CaII/CaI and MgII/MgI, will be presented and compared with the previous results and its relevance to the target material hardness. The results show that in case of single pulse the intensity ratios in calcium are higher than the double pulse while there is no appreciable difference between both in case of magnesium.

  11. Comparative LIBS Analysis Of Calcified Tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Abdel-Salam, Z. A.; Harith, M. A. [National Institute of Laser Enhanced Science (NILES), Cairo University (Egypt)

    2008-09-23

    Signal enhancement, limits of detection, and relevance to environmental concentration for element in calcified tissues using LIBS with single and double laser pulses will be presented. These measurements were performed on three calcified tissues representing different matrices, namely enamel of human teeth, shells and eggshells. This method depends on the role of the laser induced shock wave on the ionization rate of the ablated target material atoms. The effect of the laser single and double pulse on the ionic to atomic ratio of calcium and magnesium spectral emission lines, CaII/CaI and MgII/MgI, will be presented and compared with the previous results and its relevance to the target material hardness. The results show that in case of single pulse the intensity ratios in calcium are higher than the double pulse while there is no appreciable difference between both in case of magnesium.

  12. Pleural controversies: indwelling pleural catheter vs. pleurodesis for malignant pleural effusions

    PubMed Central

    Fortin, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Malignant pleural effusions (MPE) are frequent consequences of malignant disease and significantly impair the quality of life (QoL) of patients. There are two main options for the palliation of MPE-related symptoms: obliterating the pleural space by pleurodesis to prevent further fluid reaccumulation, or chronically draining the pleural fluid with an indwelling pleural catheter (IPC). There is controversy as to which approach is superior each having advantages and drawbacks. Pleurodesis offers a higher chance of rapid resolution of the pleural effusion with an intervention that is time limited but at the expense of a more invasive procedure, the need for a hospital stay and a higher need for repeat procedures. IPC offers an outpatient solution which is less invasive but at the cost of prolonged catheter drainages and care in a significant portion of patients who will not achieve pleurodesis. Impact on QoL, symptom relief and costs do not appear to be significantly different between the two options. Treatment of MPE should be tailored to the patient’s functional status, comorbidities, prognosis and personal preferences as well as local expertise. Hybrid approaches using pleurodesis techniques and IPC concomitantly may come into play in the near future to further improve patient care.

  13. Effects of carbon dioxide, Nd-YAG, and argon laser radiation on coronary atheromatous plaques.

    PubMed

    Abela, G S; Normann, S; Cohen, D; Feldman, R L; Geiser, E A; Conti, C R

    1982-12-01

    Laser radiation has been successfully applied in several areas of medical practice. However, its use in cardiology and specifically its effects on obstructive atherosclerosis have largely been unexplored. To evaluate effects of laser radiation on atherosclerotic plaques 25 fresh necropsy atherosclerotic coronary artery segments were exposed to laser radiation with either a carbon dioxide, Nd-YAG, or argon laser. Split or intact segments were prepared under dry conditions or while immersed in saline solution or blood and exposed to laser radiation as power and duration of exposure varied. All 3 lasers were capable of creating controlled injury to atherosclerotic plaques. In general, the magnitude of injury varied according to the total energy delivered (that is, power times duration of exposure. Calcified and noncalcified plaques were penetrated with similar levels of injury. Histologic examination demonstrated that laser radiation produced a wedge incision in the atherosclerotic plaque which was surrounded by zones of thermal and acoustic injury. PMID:6816057

  14. The renal parenchymal stone: A benign calcified renal mass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael R. Paling; Brian R. J. Williamson

    1984-01-01

    Five patients are described, each with a densely calcified solitary mass in a peripheral location in the kidney. There was\\u000a exophytic projection of the calcification in 4 cases. Three lesions were so completely calcified as to be regarded as stones.\\u000a The bulk of the lesion was calcified in the 2 other cases, in which the noncalcified portion was either avascular

  15. Pleural thickening and gas transfer in asbestosis.

    PubMed Central

    Cookson, W O; Musk, A W; Glancy, J J

    1983-01-01

    Anomalies in the ratio of transfer factor to effective alveolar volume as an indicator of pulmonary gas exchange in cases of asbestosis may be related to diffuse pleural thickening. To examine the effect of pleural disease on gas transfer the plain chest radiographs of patients with asbestosis were assessed by two observers for profusion of parenchymal opacities and extent of pleural disease and the results were related to lung function. In 30 cases of category 1 profusion of parenchymal abnormality (according to the ILO international classification of radiographs for pneumoconiosis) transfer factor was independent of the degree of pleural thickening. The ratio of transfer factor to effective alveolar volume correlated directly with the degree of pleural thickening as alveolar volume fell with increasing severity of pleural disease. The results indicate that correcting transfer factor for alveolar volume does not provide an accurate reflection of severity of diffuse parenchymal fibrosis in patients with asbestosis and even minor pleural disease. PMID:6623418

  16. Pleural Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenzweig, Kenneth E., E-mail: ken.rosenzweig@mountsinai.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Zauderer, Marjorie G. [Department of Medicine, Thoracic Oncology Service, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Laser, Benjamin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI (United States); Krug, Lee M. [Department of Medicine, Thoracic Oncology Service, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Yorke, Ellen [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Sima, Camelia S. [Department of Epidemiology/Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Rimner, Andreas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Flores, Raja [Department of Surgery, Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Rusch, Valerie [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: In patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma who are unable to undergo pneumonectomy, it is difficult to deliver tumoricidal radiation doses to the pleura without significant toxicity. We have implemented a technique of using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) to treat these patients, and we report the feasibility and toxicity of this approach. Methods and Materials: Between 2005 and 2010, 36 patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma and two intact lungs (i.e., no previous pneumonectomy) were treated with pleural IMRT to the hemithorax (median dose, 46.8 Gy; range, 41.4-50.4) at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. Results: Of the 36 patients, 56% had right-sided tumors. The histologic type was epithelial in 78%, sarcomatoid in 6%, and mixed in 17%, and 6% had Stage I, 28% had Stage II, 33% had Stage III, and 33% had Stage IV. Thirty-two patients (89%) received induction chemotherapy (mostly cisplatin and pemetrexed); 56% underwent pleurectomy/decortication before IMRT and 44% did not undergo resection. Of the 36 patients evaluable for acute toxicity, 7 (20%) had Grade 3 or worse pneumonitis (including 1 death) and 2 had Grade 3 fatigue. In 30 patients assessable for late toxicity, 5 had continuing Grade 3 pneumonitis. For patients treated with surgery, the 1- and 2-year survival rate was 75% and 53%, and the median survival was 26 months. For patients who did not undergo surgical resection, the 1- and 2-year survival rate was 69% and 28%, and the median survival was 17 months. Conclusions: Treating the intact lung with pleural IMRT in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma is a safe and feasible treatment option with an acceptable rate of pneumonitis. Additionally, the survival rates were encouraging in our retrospective series, particularly for the patients who underwent pleurectomy/decortication. We have initiated a Phase II trial of induction chemotherapy with pemetrexed and cisplatin with or without pleurectomy/decortication, followed by pleural IMRT to prospectively evaluate the toxicity and survival.

  17. Talc mediates angiostasis in malignant pleural effusions via endostatin induction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Najmunnisa; K. A. Mohammed; S. Brown; Y. Su; P. S. Sriram; B. Moudgil; R. Loddenkemper; V. B. Antony

    2007-01-01

    Talc remains the most effective sclerosing agent for pleurodesis. However, its mechanism of action in resolving pleural malignant disease remains unclear. The present study evaluated the angiogenic balance in the pleural space in patients with malignant pleural effusions (MPE) following talc insufflation. Patient pleural fluid samples were collected both before and after talc insufflation. The ability of pleural mesothelial cells

  18. LIBS analysis of artificial calcified tissues matrices.

    PubMed

    Kasem, M A; Gonzalez, J J; Russo, R E; Harith, M A

    2013-04-15

    In most laser-based analytical methods, the reproducibility of quantitative measurements strongly depends on maintaining uniform and stable experimental conditions. For LIBS analysis this means that for accurate estimation of elemental concentration, using the calibration curves obtained from reference samples, the plasma parameters have to be kept as constant as possible. In addition, calcified tissues such as bone are normally less "tough" in their texture than many samples, especially metals. Thus, the ablation process could change the sample morphological features rapidly, and result in poor reproducibility statistics. In the present work, three artificial reference sample sets have been fabricated. These samples represent three different calcium based matrices, CaCO3 matrix, bone ash matrix and Ca hydroxyapatite matrix. A comparative study of UV (266 nm) and IR (1064 nm) LIBS for these three sets of samples has been performed under similar experimental conditions for the two systems (laser energy, spot size, repetition rate, irradiance, etc.) to examine the wavelength effect. The analytical results demonstrated that UV-LIBS has improved reproducibility, precision, stable plasma conditions, better linear fitting, and the reduction of matrix effects. Bone ash could be used as a suitable standard reference material for calcified tissue calibration using LIBS with a 266 nm excitation wavelength. PMID:23601869

  19. Rare case of acral calcified angioleiomyoma with macroscopic calcium extrusion.

    PubMed

    Blalock, Travis W; Kerr, Christy; DeRienzo, Damian P; Greenway, Hubert T

    2015-06-01

    Acral calcified angioleiomyoma is an uncommon tumor that presents as a non-descript papule or subcutaneous nodule, classically on the foot. Biopsy or excision is typically the diagnostic method of choice as well as the treatment for these sometimes painful tumors. We report an uncommon clinical presentation of acral calcified angioleiomyoma with considerable extrusion of calcium perforating through the skin. PMID:25937420

  20. Calcifying aponeurotic fibroma: a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Seema; Mishra, Kiran; Rajni

    2003-04-01

    Calcifying aponeurotic fibroma is a rare soft tissue tumor that primarily occurs in children and adolescents and has a strong predilection for the distal portion of the extremities, especially the hands and feet. This paper presents a case report of calcifying aponeurotic fibroma. PMID:15022918

  1. Statins use and coronary artery plaque composition: Results from the International Multicenter CONFIRM Registry

    PubMed Central

    Nakazato, Ryo; Gransar, Heidi; Berman, Daniel S.; Cheng, Victor Y.; Lin, Fay Y.; Achenbach, Stephan; Al-Mallah, Mouaz; Budoff, Matthew J.; Cademartiri, Filippo; Callister, Tracy Q.; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Cury, Ricardo C.; Chinnaiyan, Kavitha; Chow, Benjamin J.W.; Delago, Augustin; Hadamitzky, Martin; Hausleiter, Joerg; Kaufmann, Philipp; Maffei, Erica; Raff, Gilbert; Shaw, Leslee J.; Villines, Todd C.; Dunning, Allison; Feuchtner, Gudrun; Kim, Yong-Jin; Leipsic, Jonathon; Min, James K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The effect of statins on coronary artery plaque features beyond stenosis severity is not known. Coronary CT angiography (CCTA) is a novel non-invasive method that permits direct visualization of coronary atherosclerotic features, including plaque composition. We evaluated the association of statin use to coronary plaque composition type in patients without known coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing CCTA. Methods From consecutive individuals, we identified 6673 individuals (2413 on statin therapy and 4260 not on statin therapy) with no known CAD and available statin use status. We studied the relationship between statin use and the presence and extent of specific plaque composition types, which was graded as non-calcified (NCP), mixed (MP), or calcified (CP) plaque. Results The mean age was 59 ± 11 (55% male). Compared to the individuals not taking statins, those taking statins had higher prevalence of risk factors and obstructive CAD. In multivariable analyses, statin use was associated with increased the presence of MP [odds ratio (OR) 1.46, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.27–1.68), p < 0.001] and CP (OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.36–1.74, p < 0.001), but not NCP (OR 1.11, 95% CI 0.96–1.29, p = 0.1). Further, in multivariable analyses, statin use was associated with increasing numbers of coronary segments possessing MP (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.34–1.73, p < 0.001) and CP (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.36–1.70, p < 0.001), but not coronary segments with NCP (OR 1.09, 95% CI 0.94–1.25, p = 0.2). Conclusion Statin use is associated with an increased prevalence and extent of coronary plaques possessing calcium. The longitudinal effect of statins on coronary plaque composition warrants further investigation. PMID:22981406

  2. Cytodiagnosis of rheumatoid pleural effusions

    PubMed Central

    Boddington, M. M.; Spriggs, A. I.; Morton, J. A.; Mowat, A. G.

    1971-01-01

    The stained smears of the deposits from one pericardial and 19 pleural effusions complicating rheumatoid arthritis were examined. On the basis of clinical and biochemical evidence it was considered that in six cases the effusions were due to the rheumatoid disease while in a further nine cases the association was considered likely. In the remaining five cases the association was considered to be due to chance as other causes for the effusions were diagnosed. On cytological examination, seven cases showed a characteristic picture of degenerating polymorphs with amorphous extracellular material and epithelioid cells many of which were multinucleate. Five others contained similar amorphous material without epithelioid cells; of these two had many plasma cells and a third numerous macrophages probably containing `droplets' of rheumatoid factor complex. Thus in 12 of 15 cases a definite diagnosis of rheumatoid effusion could be made. In the remaining five cases cytological examination confirmed that the effusions were unrelated to the rheumatoid disease. The extracellular material gave a non-specific fluorescence with labelled anti-? globulin antisera, and since this reaction was not seen in control pleural fluid deposits, or with preparations of fibrin, it may have a confirmatory value. It is concluded that in many cases reliable cytological evidence can be found to confirm or refute a diagnosis of rheumatoid pleural or pericardial effusion. This may be helpful in the management of the rheumatoid disease. Images PMID:4101492

  3. Pleural calcification in northwest Greece

    SciTech Connect

    Bazas, T.; Oakes, D.; Gilson, J.C.; Bazas, B.; McDonald, J.C.

    1985-12-01

    Mass miniature radiography in 1969 detected a high prevalence of pleural calcification in three villages in northwest Greece. In 1980 a survey of a 15% sample of the population over the age of 10 was carried out with a 80% response rate. Full-size radiographs, ventilatory capacity measurements, and a detailed questionnaire on respiratory symptoms, type of work, and residence were used. Independent classification of the 408 films by two readers using the ILO/UC scheme showed very few small opacities but a very high prevalence of pleural calcification first evident in young adults and rising to 70% in the elderly. The overall prevalence was 34.7% in men and 21.5% in women. A comparison with the 1969 survey showed a progression rate of 5% per annum. In neither sex was there a significant relation of pleural calcification to smoking, ventilatory capacity, nor type of work, though those classified as field croppers had a slightly higher prevalence. There was no obvious evidence of increased lung cancer or mesothelioma in the village. The agent responsible for this apparently benign condition was not identified.

  4. Tuberculous pleural effusion. Twenty-year experience.

    PubMed

    Seibert, A F; Haynes, J; Middleton, R; Bass, J B

    1991-04-01

    We reviewed the records of 1,738 cases of tuberculosis seen during the period from 1968 to 1988 in Mobile, Alabama. Seventy cases of tuberculous pleural effusion were identified and constituted 4.9 percent of all disease due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis during this period. Tuberculous pleural effusion was diagnosed if the patient had M tuberculosis cultured from sputum, pleura, or pleural fluid and had a roentgenographic pleural effusion without an alternative explanation for the presence of the effusion. The diagnosis of tuberculous pleural effusion was made in the absence of a positive culture if the patient had an undiagnosed lymphocytic exudative pleural effusion and all clinical and roentgenographic abnormalities resolved on antimycobacterial chemotherapy. The mean age of all patients was 47 +/- 18.4 years. The 70 cases were evenly divided between 35 that were accompanied by roentgenographic pulmonary parenchymal infiltrates and 35 that occurred in the absence of parenchymal infiltrates. We conclude that cultures of all potentially diagnostic specimens (sputum, pleural fluid, and pleura) and an intermediate-strength skin test, are sensitive tests for the diagnosis of tuberculous pleural effusion. In addition, the age of patients with tuberculous pleural effusion appears to be increasing. PMID:1901261

  5. Diffuse pleural thickening following heart failure-related pleural effusions in an asbestos exposed patient.

    PubMed

    Evison, Matthew; Barber, Philip

    2015-03-01

    Diffuse pleural thickening (DPT) is a well-recognized consequence of asbestos exposure and often follows a benign asbestos-related pleural effusion. At our tertiary center, in the North West of England where the prevalence of asbestos-related pleural disease is high, we have encountered a series of patients that have had led us to consider a new hypothesis in DPT. We postulate that non-asbestos-related pleural effusions, particularly transudative pleural effusions, caused by heart failure can trigger the development of DPT. We present one such case, discuss the limitations of our temporal observations, and invite further discussions from readers. PMID:25582748

  6. Irregularly calcified eggs and eggshells of Caiman latirostris (Alligatoridae: Crocodylia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, Mariela Soledad; Simoncini, Melina Soledad; Dyke, Gareth

    2013-05-01

    We describe irregularly calcified egg and eggshell morphologies for the first time in nests of the broad-snouted caiman, Caiman latirostris. Research is based on detailed descriptions of 270 eggs from a total sample of 46,800 collected between 2005 and 2011 in Santa Fe Province, Argentina, and encompasses animals from both natural habitats and held in captivity. We discuss possible reasons for the occurrence of eggs with different mineralisation patterns in our extensive C. latirostris field sample and its conservation significance; the chemistry of egg laying in amniotes is sensitive to environmental contamination which, in turn, has biological implications. Based on our egg sample, we identify two caiman eggshell abnormalities: (1) regularly calcified eggs with either calcitic nodules or superficial wrinkles at one egg end and (2) irregularly calcified eggs with structural gaps that weaken the shell. Some recently laid clutches we examined included eggs with most of the shell broken and detached from the flexible membrane. Most type 1 regularly calcified eggs lost their initial calcified nodules during incubation, suggesting that these deposits do not affect embryo survival rates. In contrast, irregularly calcified caiman eggs have a mean hatching success rate of 8.9 % (range 0-38 %) across our sample compared to a mean normal success of 75 %. Most irregularly calcified caiman eggs probably die because of infections caused by fungi and bacteria in the organic nest material, although another possible explanation that merits further investigation could be an increase in permeability, leading to embryo dehydration.

  7. Formation and diagenesis of modern marine calcified cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Planavsky, N; Reid, R P; Lyons, T W; Myshrall, K L; Visscher, P T

    2009-12-01

    Calcified cyanobacterial microfossils are common in carbonate environments through most of the Phanerozoic, but are absent from the marine rock record over the past 65 Myr. There has been long-standing debate on the factors controlling the formation and temporal distribution of these fossils, fostered by the lack of a suitable modern analog. We describe calcified cyanobacteria filaments in a modern marine reef setting at Highborne Cay, Bahamas. Our observations and stable isotope data suggest that initial calcification occurs in living cyanobacteria and is photosynthetically induced. A single variety of cyanobacteria, Dichothrix sp., produces calcified filaments. Adjacent cyanobacterial mats form well-laminated stromatolites, rather than calcified filaments, indicating there can be a strong taxonomic control over the mechanism of microbial calcification. Petrographic analyses indicate that the calcified filaments are degraded during early diagenesis and are not present in well-lithified microbialites. The early diagenetic destruction of calcified filaments at Highborne Cay indicates that the absence of calcified cyanobacteria from periods of the Phanerozoic is likely to be caused by low preservation potential as well as inhibited formation. PMID:19796131

  8. Diagnosis and treatment of malignant pleural effusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frederick H. Hausheer; John W. Yarbro

    1987-01-01

    Pleural effusion is a common and important complication of malignancy which may at times be difficult to diagnose or treat. Its well recognized association with numerous diseases plus the limitations of our usual diagnostic tests may occasionally cause difficulty. In the oncology patient there are a number of common medical problems associated with the development of pleural effusion which frequently

  9. The Association of Brachial Artery Diameter with Noncalcified Coronary Plaque Burden in Apparently Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Vaidya, Dhananjay; Kral, Brian G.; Yanek, Lisa R; Moy, Taryn F.; Fishman, Elliot K.; Becker, Diane M.; Becker, Lewis C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Coronary atherosclerosis has been associated with systemic arterial remodeling even in non-atherosclerotic vessels. However it is not known whether systemic remodeling is differentially associated with the cumulative atherosclerotic process, reflected by putatively quiescent calcified plaque (CP) or with active atherosclerosis consisting of non-calcified plaque (NCP). We thus examined the association of brachial artery diameter (BAD), an artery which does not suffer clinical atherosclerosis, with the presence and the extent of coronary CP and NCP. Methods We studied 688 apparently healthy, asymptomatic participants from 350 families with a history of early-onset coronary artery disease (<60 years of age) measuring CAD risk factors and coronary plaque using dual-source CT angiography. Plaque volumes were quantified using a validated automated method. BAD was measured during diastole using B-mode ultrasound. The association of resting BAD with any detectable plaque, and log-transformed CP and NCP volumes if detectable, was tested using Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) adjusted for age, sex, race, current smoking, diabetes, hypertension, body mass index, non-HDL and HDL-cholesterol. Results Higher quintiles of BAD were associated with greater age and male sex (both p <0.001). In fully adjusted analysis, CP volume was not associated with BAD (p=0.65) but 1 ml greater NCP volume was associated with 0.65 mm larger BAD (p=0.027). Conclusion Our results suggest that systemic arterial remodeling of non-atherosclerotic arteries is a dynamic process that is correlated with the extent of putatively active atherosclerotic processes in distant beds, but not inactive accumulated plaque burden. PMID:24077324

  10. Dual energy CTA of the carotid bifurcation: Advantage of plaque subtraction for assessment of grade of the stenosis and morphology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Korn; B. Bender; C. Thomas; S. Danz; M. Fenchel; T. Nägele; M. Heuschmid; U. Ernemann; T. K. Hauser

    2011-01-01

    ObjectivesCalcifications adjacent to the vessel lumen often limit the assessment of stenoses at the carotid bifurcation in 3D multi intensity projection images (3D-MIP) using conventional single energy CT. Aim of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of 3D-MIP images after subtraction of bone and calcified plaques (PBS) using dual energy CT for the assessment of carotid bifurcation stenoses.

  11. BIOMECHANICS OF FLEXIBLE JOINTS IN THE CALCIFIED SEAWEED CALLIARTHRON CHEILOSPORIOIDES

    E-print Network

    Denny, Mark

    BIOMECHANICS OF FLEXIBLE JOINTS IN THE CALCIFIED SEAWEED CALLIARTHRON CHEILOSPORIOIDES evolution. In this dissertation, I explore the biomechanics and tissue construction of genicula features found in terrestrial plant xylem but unknown in marine algae. By exploring the biomechanics

  12. Targeting Angiogenesis-Dependent Calcified Neoplasms Using Combined Polymer Therapeutics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ehud Segal; Huaizhong Pan; Paula Ofek; Taturo Udagawa; Pavla Kopecková; Jindrich Kopecek; Ronit Satchi-Fainaro; Joseph Alan Bauer

    2009-01-01

    BackgroundThere is an immense clinical need for novel therapeutics for the treatment of angiogenesis-dependent calcified neoplasms such as osteosarcomas and bone metastases. We developed a new therapeutic strategy to target bone metastases and calcified neoplasms using combined polymer-bound angiogenesis inhibitors. Using an advanced “living polymerization” technique, the reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT), we conjugated the aminobisphosphonate alendronate (ALN), and the

  13. Mast cells mediate malignant pleural effusion formation.

    PubMed

    Giannou, Anastasios D; Marazioti, Antonia; Spella, Magda; Kanellakis, Nikolaos I; Apostolopoulou, Hara; Psallidas, Ioannis; Prijovich, Zeljko M; Vreka, Malamati; Zazara, Dimitra E; Lilis, Ioannis; Papaleonidopoulos, Vassilios; Kairi, Chrysoula A; Patmanidi, Alexandra L; Giopanou, Ioanna; Spiropoulou, Nikolitsa; Harokopos, Vaggelis; Aidinis, Vassilis; Spyratos, Dionisios; Teliousi, Stamatia; Papadaki, Helen; Taraviras, Stavros; Snyder, Linda A; Eickelberg, Oliver; Kardamakis, Dimitrios; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Feyerabend, Thorsten B; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer; Kalomenidis, Ioannis; Blackwell, Timothy S; Agalioti, Theodora; Stathopoulos, Georgios T

    2015-06-01

    Mast cells (MCs) have been identified in various tumors; however, the role of these cells in tumorigenesis remains controversial. Here, we quantified MCs in human and murine malignant pleural effusions (MPEs) and evaluated the fate and function of these cells in MPE development. Evaluation of murine MPE-competent lung and colon adenocarcinomas revealed that these tumors actively attract and subsequently degranulate MCs in the pleural space by elaborating CCL2 and osteopontin. MCs were required for effusion development, as MPEs did not form in mice lacking MCs, and pleural infusion of MCs with MPE-incompetent cells promoted MPE formation. Once homed to the pleural space, MCs released tryptase AB1 and IL-1?, which in turn induced pleural vasculature leakiness and triggered NF-?B activation in pleural tumor cells, thereby fostering pleural fluid accumulation and tumor growth. Evaluation of human effusions revealed that MCs are elevated in MPEs compared with benign effusions. Moreover, MC abundance correlated with MPE formation in a human cancer cell-induced effusion model. Treatment of mice with the c-KIT inhibitor imatinib mesylate limited effusion precipitation by mouse and human adenocarcinoma cells. Together, the results of this study indicate that MCs are required for MPE formation and suggest that MC-dependent effusion formation is therapeutically addressable. PMID:25915587

  14. Proteomic analysis of atherosclerotic plaque.

    PubMed

    Porcelli, B; Ciari, I; Felici, C; Pagani, R; Banfi, C; Brioschi, M; Giubbolini, M; de Donato, G; Setacci, C; Terzuoli, L

    2010-05-01

    Proteins play a fundamental role in the formation and progression of plaque, but proteomic analysis of plaque as a whole is difficult, due to its heterogeneous cellular composition and an abundance of plasma proteins. Several approaches to this problem are reported in the literature; they include proteomic analysis of vascular tissues, analysis of proteins released by normal and pathological arterial walls, proteomic analysis of vascular cells and proteomic analysis of blood. In a previous study, we proposed a new strategy for studying of proteome of plaque, which permits to select the proteins exclusive to plaque by the constructing of a reference synthetic gel. In the present work, we matched the spots of the reference synthetic gel with the spots of a pool of carotid plaque, in order to select only spots exclusive to plaque from the 2-dimensional electrophoresis of the pool of plaque. We selected some spots between those exclusive and identified them by mass spectrometry. Some proteins identified are involved in transport, others take part in elimination of toxic radicals, others are metabolic enzymes or structural proteins. This study represents an example of application of the new approach which we have proposed: the reference gel of proteome of plaque permits to select, on every sample of interest, only the spots exclusive to plaque; once selected, spots can be identified by mass spectrometry and, being typical of plaque composition, could represent novel markers of lesions and vascular risk. PMID:20005669

  15. Non-asbestos-related malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Kanbay, Asiye; Ozer Simsek, Zuhal; Tutar, Nuri; Y?lmaz, Insu; Buyukoglan, Hakan; Canoz, Ozlem; Demir, Ramazan

    2014-01-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an uncommon tumor derived from mesothelial lining cells. MPM has been described as an insidious neoplasm because of its long latency period. The tumor is typically found in patients several decades after asbestos exposure. We herein describe a 26-year-old patient with MPM who presented with pleural effusion. The patient had not been exposed to asbestos or erionite. There are few case reports of non-asbestos-related MPM in young patients. We report this case to remind physicians to consider MPM in the differential diagnosis of pleural effusion in young patients without exposure to asbestos or erionitis. PMID:25175133

  16. Correlation of concentrations of high-sensitivity troponin T and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein with plaque progression as measured by CT coronary angiography

    PubMed Central

    Seifarth, Harald; Schlett, Christopher L.; Lehman, Sam J.; Bamberg, Fabian; Donnelly, Patrick; Januzzi, James L.; Koenig, Wolfgang; Truong, Quynh A.; Hoffmann, Udo

    2015-01-01

    Background Elevated levels of inflammatory biomarkers are associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Objective We sought to determine whether elevated concentrations of high-sensitivity troponin T (hs-TnT) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) predict progression of coronary artery disease (CAD) as determined by coronary CT angiography (coronary CTA). Methods Patients presenting to the emergency department with acute chest pain who initially showed no evidence of an acute coronary syndrome underwent baseline and follow-up coronary CTA (median follow-up, 23.9 months) using identical acquisition and reconstruction parameters. Coronary CTA data of each major coronary artery were co-registered. Cross-sections were assessed for the presence of calcified and noncalcified plaques. Progression of atherosclerotic plaque and change of plaque composition from noncalcified to calcified plaque was evaluated and correlated to levels of hs-TnT and hs-CRP at the time of the baseline CT. Results Fifty-four patients (mean age, 54.1 years; 59% male) were included, and 6775 cross-sections were compared. CAD was detected in 12.2 ± 21.2 cross-sections per patient at baseline. Prevalence of calcified plaque increased by 1.5 ± 2.4 slices per patient (P < .0001) over the follow-up period. On average, 1.6 ± 3.6 slices with new noncalcified plaque were found per patient (P < .0001) and 0.7 ± 1.7 slices with pre-existing noncalcified plaque had progressed to calcified plaque (P < .0001). After multivariate adjustment, change of overall CAD burden was predicted by baseline hs-TnT and hs-CRP (r = 0.29; P = .039 and r = 0.40; P = .004). Change of plaque composition was associated with baseline hs-TnT (r = 0.29; P = .03). Conclusion Concentrations of hs-TnT and hs-CRP are weakly associated with a significant increase in CAD burden and change in plaque composition over 24 months independent of baseline risk factors. PMID:25467832

  17. Microsatellite Analysis of Pleural Supernatants Could Increase Sensitivity of Pleural Fluid Cytology

    PubMed Central

    Woenckhaus, Matthias; Grepmeier, Ulrike; Werner, Bernhard; Schulz, Christian; Rockmann, Felix; Wild, Peter J.; Röckelein, Georg; Blaszyk, Hagen; Schuierer, Marion; Hofstaedter, Ferdinand; Hartmann, Arndt; Dietmaier, Wolfgang

    2005-01-01

    Pleural effusions may result from various inflammatory, hemodynamic, or neoplastic conditions. A common diagnostic problem lies in distinguishing malignant from benign pleural effusions using routine cytological evaluation. We studied pleural fluid samples obtained from 14 patients with histologically confirmed malignancy and from 6 patients with benign pleural effusions using 12 microsatellite markers from 8 different chromosomal regions. Supernatants and cellular sediments of all 20 pleural fluid samples were analyzed. Routine cytological examination was 100% specific for malignancy but was only 57% sensitive. Microsatellite analyses of pleural fluid supernatants showed genetic alterations in tumor patients only. However, 50% of pleural effusions that were considered negative for malignancy by routine cytological analysis showed either loss of heterozygosity or microsatellite instability. The sensitivity of pleural fluid examination rose to 79% when routine cytological assessment was supplemented by molecular studies. Our data suggest that microsatellite analysis increases the sensitivity of cytological pleural fluid examination in assessing potential malignancy and that combining cytological and molecular methods may improve yield and certainty in diagnostically challenging cases. PMID:16237222

  18. Tight junction physiology of pleural mesothelium

    PubMed Central

    Markov, Alexander G.; Amasheh, Salah

    2014-01-01

    Pleura consists of visceral and parietal cell layers, producing a fluid, which is necessary for lubrication of the pleural space. Function of both mesothelial cell layers is necessary for the regulation of a constant pleural fluid volume and composition to facilitate lung movement during breathing. Recent studies have demonstrated that pleural mesothelial cells show a distinct expression pattern of tight junction proteins which are known to ubiquitously determine paracellular permeability. Most tight junction proteins provide a sealing function to epithelia, but some have been shown to have a paracellular channel function or ambiguous properties. Here we provide an in-depth review of the current knowledge concerning specific functional contribution of these proteins determining transport and barrier function of pleural mesothelium. PMID:25009499

  19. Circulating CD36 and fractalkine levels are associated with vulnerable plaque progression in patients with unstable angina pectoris.

    PubMed

    Li, Rui Jian; Yang, Ming; Li, Ji Fu; Xue, Li; Chen, Yu Guo; Chen, Wen Qiang

    2014-11-01

    The chemokine, fractalkine, independently enhances the vulnerability of coronary atherosclerotic plaques. The present study investigated the combined effects of CD36 and fractalkine on coronary plaque progression in patients with unstable angina pectoris. In the present study, 120 unstable angina pectoris patients undergoing coronary angiography and intravascular ultrasound were divided into two groups: an intermediate lesion group (lumen diameter stenosis 50-70%, 80 patients) and a severe lesion group (at least one lesion with lumen diameter stenosis > 70%, 40 patients). The control group consisted of 40 healthy age- and sex-matched subjects. Concentrations of CD36 and fractalkine were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Major adverse cardiovascular events were monitored over a 2-year follow up. Intravascular ultrasound showed that patients with severe lesions had more calcified and mixed plaques, and a larger plaque area and plaque burden than patients with intermediate lesions (P < 0.05-0.01). More patients with severe lesions underwent stent deployment (P < 0.05) than those with intermediate lesions. CD36 and fractalkine concentrations were significantly higher in the severe lesion patients (P < 0.05), and both had significant positive correlations (P < 0.05) with the plaque burden of atherosclerotic lesions. Using the matched nested case-control study, we found that CD36 and fractalkine levels were higher in patients with recurrent major adverse cardiovascular events than controls (P < 0.05). In conclusion, CD36 and fractalkine both promote, and might synergistically enhance, the progression of coronary atherosclerotic plaques. PMID:25224515

  20. An IR Navigation System for Pleural PDT

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Timothy C.; Liang, Xing; Kim, Michele M.; Finlay, Jarod C.; Dimofte, Andreea; Rodriguez, Carmen; Simone, Charles B.; Friedberg, Joseph S.; Cengel, Keith A.

    2015-01-01

    Pleural photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been used as an adjuvant treatment with lung-sparing surgical treatment for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). In the current pleural PDT protocol, a moving fiber-based point source is used to deliver the light. The light fluences at multiple locations are monitored by several isotropic detectors placed in the pleural cavity. To improve the delivery of light fluence uniformity, an infrared (IR) navigation system is used to track the motion of the light source in real-time at a rate of 20 – 60 Hz. A treatment planning system uses the laser source positions obtained from the IR camera to calculate light fluence distribution to monitor the light fluence uniformity on the surface of the pleural cavity. A novel reconstruction algorithm is used to determine the pleural cavity surface contour. A dual-correction method is used to match the calculated fluences at detector locations to the detector readings. Preliminary data from a phantom shows superior light uniformity using this method. Light fluence uniformity from patient treatments is also shown with and without the correction method. PMID:25995987

  1. Pleural procedural complications: prevention and management

    PubMed Central

    Psallidas, Ioannis; Wrightson, John M.; Hallifax, Robert J.; Rahman, Najib M.

    2015-01-01

    Pleural disease is common with a rising case frequency. Many of these patients will be symptomatic and require diagnostic and/or therapeutic procedures. Patients with pleural disease present to a number of different medical specialties, and an equally broad range of clinicians are therefore required to have practical knowledge of these procedures. There is often underestimation of the morbidity and mortality associated with pleural interventions, even those regarded as being relatively straightforward, with potentially significant implications for processes relating to patient safety and informed consent. The advent of thoracic ultrasound (TUS) has had a major influence on patient safety and the number of physicians with the necessary skill set to perform pleural procedures. As the variety and complexity of pleural interventions increases, there is increasing recognition that early specialist input can reduce the risk of complications and number of procedures a patient requires. This review looks at the means by which complications of pleural procedures arise, along with how they can be managed or ideally prevented.

  2. Pleural controversies: image guided biopsy vs. thoracoscopy for undiagnosed pleural effusions?

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Giles; de Fonseka, Duneesha

    2015-01-01

    Undiagnosed pleural effusions present an increasing diagnostic burden upon healthcare providers internationally. The investigation of pleural effusions often requires the acquisition of tissue for histological analysis and diagnosis. Historically there were two options for tissue biopsy: a ‘gold standard’ surgical biopsy or a “blind” closed pleural biopsy. Over the last decade however, image-guided Tru-cut biopsies and local anaesthetic thoracoscopic (local anaesthetic thoracoscopy) biopsies have become more widespread. Image-guided techniques acquire samples under ultrasound (US) or computed tomography (CT) guidance whereas LAT involves the direct visualisation and biopsy of the pleura with pleuroscopy. Both techniques have been shown to be superior to ‘blind’ closed pleural biopsy for the diagnosis of pleural or metastatic malignancy. However, closed biopsy remains a viable method of investigation in areas of high incidence of tuberculosis (TB). Beyond this, each investigative technique has its own advantages and disadvantages. Image-guided biopsy is less invasive, usually carried out as an outpatient procedure, and enables tissue biopsy in frail patients and those with pleural thickening but no pleural fluid. Local anaesthetic thoracoscopy (LAT) provides diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities in one procedure. Large volume thoracentesis, multiple pleural biopsies and talc poudrage can be carried out in a single procedure. The overall diagnostic yield is similar for both techniques, although there are no large-scale direct comparisons. Both techniques share low complication rates.

  3. Proteomic analysis of atherosclerotic plaque

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Porcelli; I. Ciari; C. Felici; R. Pagani; C. Banfi; M. Brioschi; M. Giubbolini; G. de Donato; C. Setacci; L. Terzuoli

    2010-01-01

    Proteins play a fundamental role in the formation and progression of plaque, but proteomic analysis of plaque as a whole is difficult, due to its heterogeneous cellular composition and an abundance of plasma proteins. Several approaches to this problem are reported in the literature; they include proteomic analysis of vascular tissues, analysis of proteins released by normal and pathological arterial

  4. Routes to chemical plaque control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Cummins

    1991-01-01

    A logical approach to the prevention of periodontal disease is through excellent supragingival plaque control. Such control is not generally achieved by mechanical oral hygiene procedures alone. Thus, there is a clear rationale for the use of antiplaque agents to augment mechanical means. The principle routes to chemical plaque control are to prevent colonization of the tooth surface, to inhibit

  5. Purine bases and atheromatous plaque.

    PubMed

    Terzuoli, L; Marinello, E; Felici, C; Frosi, B; Setacci, C; Giubbolini, M; Porcelli, B

    2004-01-01

    In this work we determined hypoxanthine (HX), xanthine (X), uric acid (UA), allantoin (ALL) and free radicals in atheromatous plaques to improve the comprehension of oxidative stress, a phenomenon which characterizes the evolution of atherosclerotic lesions. Carotid artery plaque were obtained from subjects undergoing endoarterectomy. Pulverized plaque, extracted by water, was used for analysis of oxidative stress factors (allantoin, uric acid, xanthine, hypoxanthine, free radicals). The peroxidation UA-->ALL was very high in the plaque, as was the level of free radicals. The results show that oxidative degradation of nucleotides, such as LDL oxidation, plays a specific role not only in the progression of atherosclerotic lesions but also in the advanced plaque. PMID:16857104

  6. Rotablation in the treatment of high-risk patients with heavily calcified left-main coronary lesions

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Meng-Hsiu; Yi, Hung-Tao; Tsao, Cheng-Rong; Chang, Wei-Chun; Su, Chieh-Shou; Liu, Tsun-Jui; Liang, Kae-Woei; Ting, Chih-Tai; Lee, Wen-Lieng

    2013-01-01

    Objective Heavily calcified left-main coronary diseases (LMCA) remain a formidable challenge for percutaneous interventions (PCI). This study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of using rotational atherectomy (RA) in treating such lesions in actual practice. Methods From February 2004 to March 2012, all consecutive patients who received RA for heavily-calcified LMCA lesions in our cath lab were enrolled. The relevant clinical and angiographic characteristics at the time of index PCI, as well as the clinical follow-up outcomes, were retrieved and analyzed. Results A total of 34 consecutive patients were recruited with a mean age 77.2 ± 10.2 years. There were 82.4% presented with acute coronary syndrome and 11.8% with cardiogenic shock. Chronic renal disease and diabetes were seen in 64.7% and 52.9%, respectively. Triple-vessel coronary disease was found in 76.5% of them. The mean SYNTAX score was 50 ± 15 and EuroSCORE II scale 5.6 ± 4.8. The angiographic success rate was 100% with a procedural success rate of 91.2%. The mean number of burrs per patient was 1.7 ± 0.5. Crossing-over stenting was used in 64.7%. Most stents were drug-eluting (67.6%). Intra-aortic ballon pump was used in 20.6% of the procedures. Three patients died during hospitalization, all due to presenting cardiogenic shock. No major complication occurred. Among 31 hospital survivors, the major adverse cardiac events (MACE) rate was 16.1%, all due to target lesion revascularization or target vessel revascularization. Conclusions In high-surgical-risk elderly patients, plaque modification with RA in PCI of heavily-calcified LMCA could be safely accomplished with a minimal complication rate and low out-of-hospital MACE. PMID:24133507

  7. Ameloblastomatous Calcifying Cystic Odontogenic Tumour: A Rare Variant

    PubMed Central

    Devaraju, Rama Raju; Duggi, Lakshmi Srujana; Sanjeevareddygari, Shylaja; Potturi, Abhinand

    2015-01-01

    Calcifying Cystic Odontogenic Tumor (CCOT) was previously described by Gorlin et al., in 1962 as Calcifying odontogenic cyst. CCOT is a rare lesion which accounts for 2% of all odontogenic pathological changes in the jaws. One of the variants, Ameloblastomatous proliferating type of CCOT is even more rare and very few cases have been reported in the light of literature review. This case report is an effort to bring forth a case of ameloblastomatous proliferating type of CCOT in a 65 year male, who presented with a painful swelling in the right jaw crossing midline causing facial asymmetry and confirmed by histopathological evaluation. PMID:25954714

  8. Cocaine Induced Pleural and Pericardial Effusion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Alqalyoobi, Shehabaldin; Vaidya, Omkar; Abu Ghanimah, Al-Ma'Mon; Elkhanany, Ahmed; Gohar, Ashraf

    2015-01-01

    A 42-year-old African American female with chronic cocaine use for 20 years, presented with two-day history of exertional shortness of breath and pleuritic chest pain. She was admitted three years back with acute kidney injury and skin rashes. At that time, skin biopsy was consistent with leukocytoclastic vasculitis and renal biopsy revealed proliferative glomerulonephritis. She responded to oral prednisone and mycophenolate with complete recovery of her kidney functions. Skin rash was waxing and waning over the last two years. On the second admission, patient was found to have large pleural effusion on computerized tomography scan and pericardial effusion on echocardiogram as shown in the figures. Pleural fluid analysis was exudative. Her serology was negative for ANA (antineutrophilic antibody) and anti-dsDNA (double stranded DNA). Complements levels were normal. She had positive low titers of ANCA levels. The patient was started on a course of prednisone for 6 months. Her pleural and pericardial effusion resolved completely on follow-up imaging with computerized tomography scan and echocardiogram. This case is unique since the pericardial and pleural effusions developed without any other etiology in the setting of cocaine; hence, we describe this clinical syndrome as cocaine induced pleural and pericardial effusions syndrome (CIPP). PMID:25918664

  9. Surgery for malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Sugarbaker, David J; Wolf, Andrea S

    2010-06-01

    The role of surgery for malignant pleural mesothelioma encompasses the need for rapid diagnosis, preoperative staging and surgical resection, and also the need for a greater biological understanding of this rare and aggressive malignancy. In the multimodality treatment paradigm, the goal of surgery is to provide a macroscopic complete resection (i.e., complete removal of all grossly visible tumor). Two operations have evolved: extrapleural pneumonectomy and pleurectomy/decortication. The former is indicated for patients with advanced locally invasive disease; the latter for patients with more superficial spread of tumor that spares the lung and fissures. If critical mediastinal structures (e.g., aorta and vertebral bodies) are found to be involved at thoracotomy, the tumor is classified as T4, and pleurectomy/decortication is recommended. Despite having more advanced disease, a subset of patients with favorable prognostic factors can experience extended survival by undergoing trimodality therapy with extrapleural pneumonectomy, chemotherapy and/or radiation. The influence of surgery goes beyond diagnosis and resection. Much of what we know about the biology of mesothelioma has been gleaned from studying the surgical pathophysiology, including the delineation of histopathologic subtypes, disease stage stratification with survival, the propensity for local (in contrast to systemic) recurrence, as well as the prognostic effect of epithelial versus nonepithelial cell type, extrapleural nodal involvement, tumor bulk and surgical margins. Pending the discovery of new drugs, the focus of clinical research over the next 5 years will emphasize refinements in patient selection, pathologic staging, molecular staging and other novel adjuvant therapies. PMID:20524919

  10. Calcified neonatal renal vein thrombosis demonstration by CT and US

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Jayogapal; H. L. Cohen; P. W. Brill; P. Winchester; D. Eaton

    1990-01-01

    Two cases of calcified renal vein thrombosis (RVT) were diagnosed, incidentally, within the first weeks of life. The CT images present the virtually diagnostic branching pattern of calcification that has been previously noted on pathology specimen radiographs. The CT and US images show peripheral renal vein, central renal vein and inferior vena cava calcification conforming to the two theoretical origins

  11. Calcified left atrial myxoma with floppy mitral valve

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G P Sharratt; M L Grover; J L Monro

    1979-01-01

    A heavily calcified left atrial myxoma in a man aged 53 was diagnosed from the plain chest x-ray film and confirmed by echocardiography. There was also moderate mitral regurgitation caused by a floppy mitral valve. Before a systemic embolus is considered to have arisen from a floppy mitral valve, echocardiography must be performed.

  12. Tuberculous pleural effusions: advances and controversies

    PubMed Central

    Allwood, Brian W.; Diacon, Andreas H.; Koegelenberg, Coenraad F. N.

    2015-01-01

    On a global scale, tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the most frequent causes of pleural effusions. Our understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease has evolved and what was once thought to be an effusion as a result of a pure delayed hypersensitivity reaction is now believed to be the consequence of direct infection of the pleural space with a cascade of events including an immunological response. Pulmonary involvement is more common than previously believed and induced sputum, which is grossly underutilised, can be diagnostic in approximately 50%. The gold standard for the diagnosis of tuberculous pleuritis remains the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in pleural fluid, or pleural biopsy specimens, either by microscopy and/or culture, or the histological demonstration of caseating granulomas in the pleura along with acid fast bacilli (AFB). In high burden settings, however, the diagnosis is frequently inferred in patients who present with a lymphocytic predominant exudate and a high adenosine deaminase (ADA) level, which is a valuable adjunct in the diagnostic evaluation. ADA is generally readily accessible, and together with lymphocyte predominance justifies treatment initiation in patients with a high pre-test probability. Still, false-negative and false-positive results remain an issue. When adding closed pleural biopsy to ADA and lymphocyte count, diagnostic accuracy approaches that of thoracoscopy. The role of other biomarkers is less well described. Early pleural drainage may have a role in selected cases, but more research is required to validate its use and to define the subpopulation that may benefit from such interventions.

  13. Tuberculous pleural effusions: advances and controversies.

    PubMed

    Vorster, Morné J; Allwood, Brian W; Diacon, Andreas H; Koegelenberg, Coenraad F N

    2015-06-01

    On a global scale, tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the most frequent causes of pleural effusions. Our understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease has evolved and what was once thought to be an effusion as a result of a pure delayed hypersensitivity reaction is now believed to be the consequence of direct infection of the pleural space with a cascade of events including an immunological response. Pulmonary involvement is more common than previously believed and induced sputum, which is grossly underutilised, can be diagnostic in approximately 50%. The gold standard for the diagnosis of tuberculous pleuritis remains the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in pleural fluid, or pleural biopsy specimens, either by microscopy and/or culture, or the histological demonstration of caseating granulomas in the pleura along with acid fast bacilli (AFB). In high burden settings, however, the diagnosis is frequently inferred in patients who present with a lymphocytic predominant exudate and a high adenosine deaminase (ADA) level, which is a valuable adjunct in the diagnostic evaluation. ADA is generally readily accessible, and together with lymphocyte predominance justifies treatment initiation in patients with a high pre-test probability. Still, false-negative and false-positive results remain an issue. When adding closed pleural biopsy to ADA and lymphocyte count, diagnostic accuracy approaches that of thoracoscopy. The role of other biomarkers is less well described. Early pleural drainage may have a role in selected cases, but more research is required to validate its use and to define the subpopulation that may benefit from such interventions. PMID:26150911

  14. Disappearance of La Caille Plaque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-04-01

    A bronze plaque erected to the memory of N.-L. de La Caille near the site of his observatory in Central Cape Town, has been stolen by metal thieves. It was designed by the famous architect Sir Herbert Baker.

  15. Recommendations of diagnosis and treatment of pleural effusion. Update.

    PubMed

    Villena Garrido, Victoria; Cases Viedma, Enrique; Fernández Villar, Alberto; de Pablo Gafas, Alicia; Pérez Rodríguez, Esteban; Porcel Pérez, José Manuel; Rodríguez Panadero, Francisco; Ruiz Martínez, Carlos; Salvatierra Velázquez, Angel; Valdés Cuadrado, Luis

    2014-06-01

    Although during the last few years there have been several important changes in the diagnostic or therapeutic methods, pleural effusion is still one of the diseases that the respiratory specialist have to evaluate frequently. The aim of this paper is to update the knowledge about pleural effusions, rather than to review the causes of pleural diseases exhaustively. These recommendations have a longer extension for the subjects with a direct clinical usefulness, but a slight update of other pleural diseases has been also included. Among the main scientific advantages are included the thoracic ultrasonography, the intrapleural fibrinolytics, the pleurodesis agents, or the new pleural drainages techniques. PMID:24698396

  16. Histopathologic Characteristics of Atherosclerotic Coronary Disease and Implications of the Findings for the Invasive and Noninvasive Detection of Vulnerable Plaques

    PubMed Central

    Narula, Jagat; Nakano, Masataka; Virmani, Renu; Kolodgie, Frank D.; Petersen, Rita; Newcomb, Robert; Malik, Shaista; Fuster, Valentin; Finn, Aloke V.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The goal of this study was to identify histomorphologic characteristics of atherosclerotic plaques and to determine the amenability of some of these components to be used as markers for invasive and noninvasive imaging. Background Rupture of the atherosclerotic plaques is responsible for the majority of acute coronary events, and the culprit lesions demonstrate distinct histopathologic features. It has been tacitly believed that plaque rupture (PR) is associated with angiographically minimally occlusive lesions. Methods We obtained 295 coronary atherosclerotic plaques, including stable (fibroatheroma [FA]; n = 105), vulnerable (thin-cap fibroatheroma [TCFA]; n = 88), and disrupted plaques (plaque rupture [PR]; n = 102) from the hearts of 181 men and 32 women who had died suddenly. The hierarchical importance of fibrous cap thickness, percent luminal stenosis, macrophage area, necrotic core area, and calcified plaque area was evaluated by using recursive partitioning analysis. Because clinical assessment of fibrous cap thickness is not possible by noninvasive imaging, it was excluded from the second set of partitioning analysis. Results Thickness of the fibrous cap emerged as the best discriminator of plaque type; the cap thickness measured <55 ?m in ruptured plaques, and all FA were associated with >84-?m cap thickness. Although the majority of TCFA were found in the 54- to 84-?m thickness group, those with <54-?m thickness were more likely to show <74% luminal stenosis (area under the curve: FA, 1.0; TCFA, 0.89; PR, 0.90). After exclusion of cap thickness, analysis of the plaque characteristics revealed macrophage infiltration and necrotic core to be the 2 best discriminators of plaque types (area under the curve: FA, 0.82; TCFA, 0.58; PR, 0.72). More than 75% cross-section area stenosis was seen in 70% of PR and 40% of TCFA; only 5% PR and 10% TCFA were <50% narrowed. Conclusions This postmortem study defines histomorphologic characteristics of vulnerable plaques, which may help develop imaging strategies for identification of such plaques in patients at a high risk of sustaining acute coronary events. PMID:23473409

  17. Indwelling pleural drain for mobile management of malignant pleural effusion-combining benefits of both methods

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Dinesh; Gupta, Anshu; Singhal, Sameer; Bansal, Sachin

    2015-01-01

    Malignant pleural effusion is a leading cause of morbidity in lung cancer patients requiring repeated pleural aspirations or persistent intercostal drainage tube. Using an indigenous method of putting icd tube of smaller size with subcutaneous tunneling would allow draining fluid from lungs easily and painlessly when needed and avoid the need for repeated injections and chest tube insertion every time the fluid is to be drained. PMID:25624601

  18. Effects of Stent Design and Atherosclerotic Plaque Composition on Arterial Wall Biomechanics

    PubMed Central

    Timmins, Lucas H.; Meyer, Clark A.; Moreno, Michael R.; Moore, James E.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the solid mechanical effects of varying stent design and atherosclerotic plaque stiffness on the biomechanical environment induced in a diseased artery wall model. Methods: Computational modeling techniques were employed to investigate the final radius of the lumen and artery wall stresses after stent implantation. Two stent designs were studied (one stiff and one less stiff). The stenotic artery was modeled as an axisymmetrical diseased vessel with a 20% stenosis by diameter. The material properties of the diseased tissue in the artery models varied. Atherosclerotic plaques half as stiff (0.5×), of equal stiffness (1.0×), or twice as stiff (2.0×) as the artery wall were investigated. Results: Final lumen radius was dependent on stent design, and the stiffer stent deformed the artery to an approximately 10% greater radius than the more compliant design. Alternatively, circumferential stress levels were dependent on both stent design and plaque material properties. Overall, the stiffer stent subjected the artery wall to much higher stress values than the more compliant design, with differences in peak values of 0.50, 0.31, and 0.09 MPa for the 2.0×, 1.0×, and 0.5× stiff plaques, respectively. Conclusion: Evidence suggests that a judicious choice of stent design can minimize stress while maintaining a patent lumen in stenotic arteries. If confronted with a rigid, calcified plaque, stent design is more important, as design differences can impose dramatically different stress fields, while still providing arterial patency. Alternatively, stent design is not as much of an issue when treating a soft, lipid-laden plaque, as stress fields do not vary significantly among stent designs. PMID:19090628

  19. Automatic spatiotemporal matching of detected pleural thickenings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaisaowong, Kraisorn; Keller, Simon Kai; Kraus, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Pleural thickenings can be found in asbestos exposed patient's lung. Non-invasive diagnosis including CT imaging can detect aggressive malignant pleural mesothelioma in its early stage. In order to create a quantitative documentation of automatic detected pleural thickenings over time, the differences in volume and thickness of the detected thickenings have to be calculated. Physicians usually estimate the change of each thickening via visual comparison which provides neither quantitative nor qualitative measures. In this work, automatic spatiotemporal matching techniques of the detected pleural thickenings at two points of time based on the semi-automatic registration have been developed, implemented, and tested so that the same thickening can be compared fully automatically. As result, the application of the mapping technique using the principal components analysis turns out to be advantageous than the feature-based mapping using centroid and mean Hounsfield Units of each thickening, since the resulting sensitivity was improved to 98.46% from 42.19%, while the accuracy of feature-based mapping is only slightly higher (84.38% to 76.19%).

  20. Unusual presentation and location pleural malignant mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Anjan; Carcano, Carolina; Hadeh, Anas; Lilenbaum, Rogerio

    2013-01-01

    Pleural malignant mesothelioma is an uncommon tumour of the thorax. We report two cases: a patient with atypically isolated location of the tumour at the right hilum and a young female patient. The histopathological and radiological features are reviewed with reference to relevant literature. PMID:23761508

  1. Transcriptome sequencing of malignant pleural mesothelioma tumors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Sugarbaker; William G. Richards; Gavin J. Gordon; Lingsheng Dong; Assunta de Rienzo; Gautam Maulik; Jonathan N. Glickman; Lucian R. Chirieac; Mor-Li Hartman; Bruce E. Taillon; Lei Du; Pascal Bouffard; Stephen F. Kingsmore; Neil A. Miller; Andrew D. Farmer; Roderick V. Jensen; Steven R. Gullans; Raphael Bueno

    2008-01-01

    Cancers arise by the gradual accumulation of mutations in multiple genes. We now use shotgun pyrosequencing to characterize RNA mutations and expression levels unique to malignant pleural mesotheliomas (MPMs) and not present in control tissues. On average, 266 Mb of cDNA were sequenced from each of four MPMs, from a control pulmonary adenocarcinoma (ADCA), and from normal lung tissue. Previously

  2. Pioneer F Plaque Symbology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Pioneer F spacecraft, destined to be the first man made object to escape from the solar system into interstellar space, carries this pictorial plaque. It is designed to show scientifically educated inhabitants of some other star system, who might intercept it millions of years from now, when Pioneer was launched, from where, and by what kind of beings. (With the hope that they would not invade Earth.) The design is etched into a 6 inch by 9 inch gold-anodized aluminum plate, attached to the spacecraft's attenna support struts in a position to help shield it from erosion by interstellar dust. The radiating lines at left represents the positions of 14 pulsars, a cosmic source of radio energy, arranged to indicate our sun as the home star of our civilization. The '1-' symbols at the ends of the lines are binary numbers that represent the frequencies of these pulsars at the time of launch of Pioneer F relative of that to the hydrogen atom shown at the upper left with a '1' unity symbol. The hydrogen atom is thus used as a 'universal clock,' and the regular decrease in the frequencies of the pulsars will enable another civilization to determine the time that has elapsed since Pioneer F was launched. The hydrogen is also used as a 'universal yardstick' for sizing the human figures and outline of the spacecraft shown on the right. The hydrogen wavelength, about 8 inches, multiplied by the binary number representing '8' shown next to the woman gives her height, 64 inches. The figures represent the type of creature that created Pioneer. The man's hand is raised in a gesture of good will. Across the bottom are the planets, ranging outward from the Sun, with the spacecraft trajectory arching away from Earth, passing Mars, and swinging by Jupiter.

  3. Increasing the Spatial Resolution of 3T Carotid MRI Has No Beneficial Effect for Plaque Component Measurement Reproducibility

    PubMed Central

    van Wijk, Diederik F.; Strang, Aart C.; Duivenvoorden, Raphael; Enklaar, Dirk-Jan F.; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; van der Geest, Rob J.; Kastelein, John J. P.; de Groot, Eric; Stroes, Erik S. G.; Nederveen, Aart J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Different in-plane resolutions have been used for carotid 3T MRI. We compared the reproducibility, as well as the within- and between reader variability of high and routinely used spatial resolution in scans of patients with atherosclerotic carotid artery disease. Since no consensus exists about the optimal segmentation method, we analysed all imaging data using two different segmentation methods. Materials and Methods In 31 patient with carotid atherosclerosis a high (0.25 × 0.25 mm2; HR) and routinely used (0.50 × 0.50 mm2; LR) spatial resolution carotid MRI scan were performed within one month. A fully blinded closed and a simultaneously open segmentation were used to quantify the lipid rich necrotic core (LRNC), calcified and loose matrix (LM) plaque area and the fibrous cap (FC) thickness. Results No significant differences were observed between scan-rescan reproducibility for HR versus LR measurements, nor did we find any significant difference between the within-reader and between-reader reproducibility. The same applies for differences between the open and closed reads. All intraclass correlation coefficients between scans and rescans for the LRNC, calcified and LM plaque area, as well as the FC thickness measurements with the open segmentation method were excellent (all above 0.75). Conclusions Increasing the spatial resolution at the expense of the contrast-to-noise ratio does not improve carotid plaque component scan-rescan reproducibility in patients with atherosclerotic carotid disease, nor does using a different segmentation method. PMID:26161783

  4. PLEURAL EFFECTS OF INDIUM PHOSPHIDE IN B6C3F1 MICE: NONFIBROUS PARTICULATE INDUCED PLEURAL FIBROSIS

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, Patrick J.; Shines, Cassandra J.; Taylor, Genie J.; Bousquet, Ronald W.; Price, Herman C.; Everitt, Jeffrey I.; Morgan, Daniel L.

    2010-01-01

    The mechanism(s) by which chronic inhalation of indium phosphide (InP) particles causes pleural fibrosis is not known. Few studies of InP pleural toxicity have been conducted because of the challenges in conducting particulate inhalation exposures, and because the pleural lesions developed slowly over the 2-year inhalation study. The authors investigated whether InP (1 mg/kg) administered by a single oropharyngeal aspiration would cause pleural fibrosis in male B6C3F1 mice. By 28 days after treatment, protein and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were significantly increased in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), but were unchanged in pleural lavage fluid (PLF). A pronounced pleural effusion characterized by significant increases in cytokines and a 3.7-fold increase in cell number was detected 28 days after InP treatment. Aspiration of soluble InCl3 caused a similar delayed pleural effusion; however, other soluble metals, insoluble particles, and fibers did not. The effusion caused by InP was accompanied by areas of pleural thickening and inflammation at day 28, and by pleural fibrosis at day 98. Aspiration of InP produced pleural fibrosis that was histologically similar to lesions caused by chronic inhalation exposure, and in a shorter time period. This oropharyngeal aspiration model was used to provide an initial characterization of the progression of pleural lesions caused by InP. PMID:19995279

  5. Rare Cases of Primary Pleural Hodgkin and Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paschalis Steiropoulos; George Kouliatsis; Georgia Karpathiou; Maria Popidou; Marios E. Froudarakis

    2009-01-01

    Primary pleural lymphoma is rare. It occurs in only 7% of lymphoma cases. We report herein two cases of primary pleural Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin follicular lymphomas diagnosed by thoracoscopy under local anesthesia. Both patients presented initially with dyspnea revealing pleural effusions. The pleural findings during thoracoscopy differed in the two cases and selective pleural biopsies under optical forceps led to

  6. Progress in atherosclerotic plaque imaging

    PubMed Central

    Soloperto, Giulia; Casciaro, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the primary cause of mortality in the industrialized world, and arterial obstruction, triggered by rupture-prone atherosclerotic plaques, lead to myocardial infarction and cerebral stroke. Vulnerable plaques do not necessarily occur with flow-limiting stenosis, thus conventional luminographic assessment of the pathology fails to identify unstable lesions. In this review we discuss the currently available imaging modalities used to investigate morphological features and biological characteristics of the atherosclerotic plaque. The different imaging modalities such as ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, nuclear imaging and their intravascular applications are illustrated, highlighting their specific diagnostic potential. Clinically available and upcoming methodologies are also reviewed along with the related challenges in their clinical translation, concerning the specific invasiveness, accuracy and cost-effectiveness of these methods. PMID:22937215

  7. Effect of Ocean acidification on growth, calcification and reproduction of calcifying and non-calcifying epibionts of brown algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saderne, V.; Wahl, M.

    2012-04-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of CO2 are leading to an acidification of the oceans of 0.4 pH units in the course of this century according to the more severe model scenarios. The excess of CO2 could notably affect the benthic communities of calcifiers and macrophytes in different aspects (photosynthesis, respiration and calcification). Seaweeds are one of the key species of nearshore benthic ecosystems of the Baltic Sea. They are the substratum of several fouling epibionts like bryozoans and tubeworms. Most of those species are bearing calcified structures and could therefore be potentially impacted by the seawater pCO2. On the other hand, the biological activity of the host may substantially modulate the pH and pCO2 conditions in the boundary layer where the epibionts live. The aim of the present study was to test the sensitivity of seaweed macrofouling communities to higher pCO2 concentration. Fragments of macroalgae Fucus serratus bearing the calcifiers Spirorbis spirorbis (Annelida) and Electra pilosa (Bryozoa) and the non-calcifier Alcyonidium gelatinosum (Bryozoa) were maintained for 30 days under three pCO2: natural 460 ± 59 µatm and enriched 1193 ± 166 µatm and 3150 ± 446 µatm. Our study showed a significant reduction of growth rates and reproduction of Spirorbis individuals at the highest pCO2. Tubeworms Juveniles exhibited enhanced calcification of 40 % when in the light compare to dark, presumably due to effect of photosynthetic and respiratory activities of the host alga. Electra colonies showed significantly improved growth rates at 1193 µatm. The overall net dissolution of the communities was significantly higher at 3150 µatm. No effect on Alcyonidium colonies growth rates was observed. Those results suggest a remarkable resistance of the algal macro-epibiontic communities to the most elevated pCO2 predicted for 2100 for open ocean (~1000 µatm) conditions. Concerns remains with regards to higher pCO2 possibly found in the future Baltic Sea.

  8. Effect of Ocean acidification on growth, calcification and recruitment of calcifying and non-calcifying epibionts of brown algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saderne, V.; Wahl, M.

    2012-03-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of CO2 are leading to an acidification of the oceans by 0.4 pH units in the course of this century according to the more severe model scenarios. The excess of CO2 could notably affect the benthic communities of calcifiers and macrophytes in different aspects (photosynthesis, respiration and calcification). Seaweeds are key species of nearshore benthic ecosystems of the Baltic Sea. They frequently are the substratum of fouling epibionts like bryozoans and tubeworms. Most of those species secrete calcified structures and could therefore be impacted by the seawater pCO2. On the other hand, the biological activity of the host may substantially modulate the pH and pCO2 conditions in the thallus boundary layer where the epibionts live. The aim of the present study was to test the sensitivity of seaweed macrofouling communities to higher pCO2 concentrations. Fragments of the macroalga Fucus serratus bearing the calcifiers Spirorbis spirorbis (Annelida) and Electra pilosa (Bryozoa) and the non-calcifier Alcyonidium gelatinosum (Bryozoa) were maintained for 30 days under three pCO2 conditions: natural 460 ± 59 ?atm and enriched 1193 ± 166 ?atm and 3150 ± 446 ?atm. Our study showed a significant reduction of growth rates and recruitment of Spirorbis individuals only at the highest pCO2. At a finer temporal resolution, the tubeworm recruits exhibited enhanced calcification of 40% during irradiation hours compared to dark hours, presumably due to the effect of photosynthetic and respiratory activities of the host alga on the carbonate system. Electra colonies showed significantly increased growth rates at 1193 ?atm. No effect on Alcyonidium colonies growth rates was observed. Those results suggest a remarkable resistance of the algal macro-epibiontic communities to the most elevated pCO2 foreseen in year 2100 for open ocean (~1000 ?atm) conditions possibly due to the modulation of environmental conditions by the biological activities of the host alga.

  9. Pleural Photodynamic Therapy and Surgery in Lung Cancer and Thymoma Patients with Pleural Spread

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Ying-Fan; Shieh, Ming-Jium; Chen, Jin-Shing; Lai, Hong-Shiee; Lee, Jang-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Pleural spread is difficult to treat in malignancies, especially in lung cancer and thymoma. Monotherapy with surgery fails to have a better survival benefit than palliative chemotherapy, the currently accepted treatment. Photodynamic therapy utilizes a photosensitizer to target the tumor site, and the tumor is exposed to light after performing a pleurectomy and tumor resection. However, the benefits of this procedure to lung cancer or thymoma patients are unknown. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of patients with lung cancer or thymoma with pleural seeding who underwent pleural photodynamic therapy and surgery between 2005 and 2013. Eighteen patients enrolled in this study. The mean patient age was 52.9 ± 12.2 years. Lung cancer was the inciting cancer of pleural dissemination in 10 patients (55.6%), and thymoma in 8 (44.4%). There was no procedure-related mortality. Using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, the 3-year survival rate and the 5-year survival rate were 68.9% and 57.4%, respectively. We compared the PDT lung cancer patients with those receiving chemotherapy or target therapy (n = 51) and found that the PDT group had better survival than non-PDT patients (mean survival time: 39.0 versus 17.6 months; P = .047). With proper patient selection, radical surgical resection combined with intrapleural photodynamic therapy for pleural spread in patients with non-small cell lung cancer or thymoma is feasible and may provide a survival benefit. PMID:26193470

  10. Pleural fluid cell-free DNA integrity index to identify cytologically negative malignant pleural effusions including mesotheliomas

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The diagnosis of malignant pleural effusions (MPE) is often clinically challenging, especially if the cytology is negative for malignancy. DNA integrity index has been reported to be a marker of malignancy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of pleural fluid DNA integrity index in the diagnosis of MPE. Methods We studied 75 pleural fluid and matched serum samples from consecutive subjects. Pleural fluid and serum ALU DNA repeats [115bp, 247bp and 247bp/115bp ratio (DNA integrity index)] were assessed by real-time quantitative PCR. Pleural fluid and serum mesothelin levels were quantified using ELISA. Results Based on clinico-pathological evaluation, 52 subjects had MPE (including 16 mesotheliomas) and 23 had benign effusions. Pleural fluid DNA integrity index was higher in MPE compared with benign effusions (1.2 vs. 0.8; p<0.001). Cytology had a sensitivity of 55% in diagnosing MPE. If cytology and pleural fluid DNA integrity index were considered together, they exhibited 81% sensitivity and 87% specificity in distinguishing benign and malignant effusions. In cytology-negative pleural effusions (35 MPE and 28 benign effusions), elevated pleural fluid DNA integrity index had an 81% positive predictive value in detecting MPEs. In the detection of mesothelioma, at a specificity of 90%, pleural fluid DNA integrity index had similar sensitivity to pleural fluid and serum mesothelin (75% each respectively). Conclusion Pleural fluid DNA integrity index is a promising diagnostic biomarker for identification of MPEs, including mesothelioma. This biomarker may be particularly useful in cases of MPE where pleural aspirate cytology is negative, and could guide the decision to undertake more invasive definitive testing. A prospective validation study is being undertaken to validate our findings and test the clinical utility of this biomarker for altering clinical practice. PMID:23009708

  11. Fibre distribution in the lungs and pleura of subjects with asbestos related diffuse pleural fibrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, A R; Stephens, M; Griffiths, D M; Blight, B J; Pooley, F D

    1991-01-01

    The lungs from 13 cases of diffuse pleural fibrosis associated with a history of exposure to asbestos were examined. Samples were taken from the visceral pleura and central and subpleural zones of the lungs for histopathological and mineralogical studies. The fibre type, size, and number were estimated for each of these regions by transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive x ray analysis. Amphibole fibre counts were raised when compared with a non-occupationally exposed group and matched those seen in cases of pleural plaques, mild asbestosis, and mesothelioma. A wide case to case variation of distribution was seen. No significant difference was apparent between central and subpleural zones, whereas low asbestos counts were found in the pleura; these were mainly short chrysotile fibres. Within the lungs more (45%) of the longer (greater than 4 microns) and thinner (less than 0.25 micron) amphibole fibres were retained in keeping with other studies implicating such fibre profiles in the pathogenesis of asbestos related disease. PMID:1659443

  12. Review: Cell Dynamics in Malignant Pleural Effusions.

    PubMed

    Giarnieri, Enrico; Bellipanni, Gianfranco; Macaluso, Marcella; Mancini, Rita; Holstein, Adam Carl; Milanese, Carla; Giovagnoli, Maria Rosaria; Giordano, Antonio; Russo, Giuseppe

    2014-09-01

    Malignant pleural effusions (MPEs) are a common manifestation found in patients with lung cancer. After cytological and histological confirmation of malignancy, talc pleurodesis still remains the treatment of choice in patients with MPEs resistant to chemotherapy. Despite this, primary challenges include reduced quality of life and life expectancy in general. Therefore, a better understanding of the cell biology of MPEs, along with improvements in treatment is greatly needed. It has recently been demonstrated that malignant pleural effusions (MPEs) may represent an excellent source for identification of molecular mechanisms within the tumor and its environment. The present review summarizes the current understanding of MPEs cells and tumor microenvironment, and particularly focuses on dissecting the cross-talk between MPEs and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), inflammation and cancer stem cells. J. Cell. Physiol. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25205557

  13. Metsovo lung: pleural calcification and restrictive lung function in northwestern Greece. Environmental exposure to mineral fiber as etiology

    SciTech Connect

    Constantopoulos, S.H.; Goudevenos, J.A.; Saratzis, N.; Langer, A.M.; Selikoff, I.J.; Moutsopoulos, H.M.

    1985-12-01

    Pleural calcifications are described in 122 of 268 (45.5%) inhabitants of four villages (Metsovo, Anilio, Milea, and Votonosi) in a small area of northwestern Greece (total population about 5000). All affected individuals are of one ethnic group, Vlachi. Calcifications were not noted in any of the 103 persons in the control group made up of 73 non-Vlachi inhabitants from the same and neighboring villages and 30 Vlachi from distant villages. The calcifications were seen in both sexes, equally, and their frequency increased with age, from 28.6% between 30 and 39 years to 81.0% in individuals over 70 years of age. When plaque development was extensive, a small restrictive pulmonary function defect was noted. Because of its prevalence in the Metsovo area we call this clinical pattern Metsovo lung. The identification of tremolite, related amphibole fibers, and traces of chrysotile fiber in settled dusts and soil specimens and of identical fibers in tissue specimens obtained at lung biopsy from 8 people with plaques supports the hypothesis that abestiform minerals are the agents responsible for these disease processes. Further, reports of the occurrence of mesothelioma and benign pleural effusions in inhabitants in the Metsovo area, along with the striking similarities to disease patterns observed in the Karain area of Turkey, add further weight to the hypothesis that mineral fiber(s) in the environment of the four villages are agent(s) in the etiology of Metsovo lung.

  14. Current therapies for malignant pleural mesothelioma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takashi Nakano

    2008-01-01

    Mesothelioma is a highly lethal tumor derived from mesothelial cells, and its global incidence is increasing because of widespread\\u000a exposure of numerous individuals to asbestos in the last 50 years. Mesothelioma is largely untreatable with any of the therapeutic\\u000a modalities. Recently, a novel multitargeted antifolate pemetrexed has shown promising activity against malignant pleural mesothelioma,\\u000a producing response rates of up to 40%

  15. Diagnosis and treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Panadero, Francisco

    2015-04-01

    There are three major challenges in the diagnosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma: mesothelioma must be distinguished from benign mesothelial hyperplasia; malignant mesothelioma (and its subtypes) must be distinguished from metastatic carcinoma; and invasion of structures adjacent to the pleura must be demonstrated. The basis for clarifying the first two aspects is determination of a panel of monoclonal antibodies with appropriate immunohistochemical evaluation performed by highly qualified experts. Clarification of the third aspect requires sufficiently abundant, deep biopsy material, for which thoracoscopy is the technique of choice. Video-assisted needle biopsy with real-time imaging can be of great assistance when there is diffuse nodal thickening and scant or absent effusion. Given the difficulties of reaching an early diagnosis, cure is not generally achieved with radical surgery (pleuropneumonectomy), so liberation of the tumor mass with pleurectomy/decortication combined with chemo- or radiation therapy (multimodal treatment) has been gaining followers in recent years. In cases in which surgery is not feasible, chemotherapy (a combination of pemetrexed and platinum-derived compounds, in most cases) with pleurodesis or a tunneled pleural drainage catheter, if control of pleural effusion is required, can be considered. Radiation therapy is reserved for treatment of pain associated with infiltration of the chest wall or any other neighboring structure. In any case, comprehensive support treatment for pain control in specialist units is essential: this acquires particular significance in this type of malignancy. PMID:25059587

  16. Malignant pleural mesothelioma in a 13-year-old girl

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Goyal; K. F. Swanson; O. Konez; D. Patel; P. K. Vyas

    2000-01-01

    Pleural mesothelioma is an uncommon tumor in all age groups, but is especially rare in childhood. We describe the clinical\\u000a and radiological features of malignant pleural mesothelioma in a 13-year-old girl. The chest radiograph showed nearly complete\\u000a opacification and loss of volume in the left hemithorax. Computed tomography demonstrated a large pleural effusion centrally\\u000a surrounded by a thick enhancing rind

  17. Application of the gingival contour plaque index: six-month plaque and gingivitis study.

    PubMed

    Scherl, Dale S; Bork, Kim; Coffman, Lori; Lowry, Stephen R; VanCleave, Misty

    2009-01-01

    The Gingival Contour Plaque Index (GCPI) is a recently introduced and validated method of measuring plaque accumulation in dogs. It focuses on plaque accumulated along the gingival margin. Plaque accumulation in this area leads to gingival inflammation and, potentially, periodontitis. A 6-month plaque and gingivitis study was conducted to demonstrate the clinical research application of the GCPI, and to ensure that documented quantification of plaque-reducing efficacy could be related to a reduction in gingivitis. Advantages of the GCPI method are the ability to quantify plaque accumulation in an awake dog with fewer research personnel and more efficient time usage. PMID:19476084

  18. Purine Catabolism in Advanced Carotid Artery Plaque

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Felici; I. Ciari; L. Terzuoli; B. Porcelli; C. Setacci; M. Giubbolini; E. Marinello

    2006-01-01

    This study was carried out on carotid artery plaque and plasma of 50 patients. We analyzed uric acid, hypoxanthine, xanthine, and allantoin levels to verify if enzymatic purine degradation occurs in advanced carotid plaque; we also determined free radicals and sulphydryl groups to check if there is a correlation between oxidant status and purine catabolism. Comparing plaque and plasma we

  19. Soluble mesothelin-related protein in pleural effusion from patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    FUJIMOTO, NOBUKAZU; GEMBA, KENICHI; ASANO, MICHIKO; WADA, SAE; ONO, KATSUICHIRO; OZAKI, SHINJI; KISHIMOTO, TAKUMI

    2010-01-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a highly aggressive neoplasm primarily arising from surface serosal cells of the pleura and is strongly associated with asbestos exposure. Patients with MPM often develop pleural fluid as initial presentation. However, cytological diagnosis using pleural fluid is usually difficult and has limited utility. A useful molecular marker for differential diagnosis particularly with lung cancer (LC) is urgently needed. The aim of the present study was to investigate the diagnostic value of soluble mesothelin-related protein (SMRP) in pleural fluid. Pleural fluids were collected from 23 patients with MPM, 38 with LC, 26 with benign asbestos pleurisy (BAP), 5 with tuberculosis pleurisy (TP) and 4 with chronic heart failure (CHF), and the SMRP concentration was determined. All data were analyzed by using non-parametric two-sided statistical tests. The median concentration of SMRP in MPM, LC, BAP, TP and CHF were 11.5 (range 0.90–82.80), 5.20 (0.05–36.40), 6.65 (1.45–11.25), 3.20 (1.65–6.50) and 2.03 (1.35–2.80) nmol/l, respectively. The SMRP concentration was significantly higher in MPM than in the other diseases (P=0.001). The area under the ROC curve (AUC) values of the MPM diagnosis was 0.75 for the differential diagnosis from the other groups. Based on the cut-off value of 8 nmol/l, the sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis of MPM were 70.0 and 68.4%, respectively. These results indicate that the SMRP concentration in pleural fluid is a useful marker for the diagnosis of MPM. PMID:22993544

  20. Do Plaques Rapidly Progress Prior to Myocardial Infarction? The Interplay Between Plaque Vulnerability and Progression.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Amir; Leipsic, Jonathon; Blankstein, Ron; Taylor, Carolyn; Hecht, Harvey; Stone, Gregg W; Narula, Jagat

    2015-06-19

    There is a common misperception in the cardiology community that most acute coronary events arise from ruptures of mildly stenotic plaques. This notion has emanated from multiple studies that had measured the degree of angiographic luminal narrowing in culprit plaques months to years before myocardial infarction. However, angiographic studies within 3 months before myocardial infarction, immediately after myocardial infarction with thrombus aspiration or fibrinolytic therapy, and postmortem pathological observations have all shown that culprit plaques in acute myocardial infarction are severely stenotic. Serial angiographic studies also have demonstrated a sudden rapid lesion progression before most cases of acute coronary syndromes. The possible mechanisms for such rapid plaque progression and consequent luminal obstruction include recurrent plaque rupture and healing and intraplaque neovascularization and hemorrhage with deposition of erythrocyte-derived free cholesterol. Moreover, recent intravascular and noninvasive imaging studies have demonstrated that plaques which result in coronary events have larger plaque volume and necrotic core size with greater positive vessel remodeling compared with plaques, which remain asymptomatic during several years follow-up, although these large atheromatous vulnerable plaques may angiographically seem mild. As such, it is these vulnerable plaques which are more prone to rapid plaque progression or are those in which plaque progression is more likely to become clinically evident. Therefore, in addition to characterizing plaque morphology, inflammatory activity, and severity, detection of the rate of plaque progression might identify vulnerable plaques with an increased potential for adverse outcomes. PMID:26089367

  1. Corticosteroid Withdrawal Precipitates Perilesional Edema around Calcified Taenia solium Cysts

    PubMed Central

    Mejia, Rojelio; Nash, Theodore E.

    2013-01-01

    Calcified Taenia solium granulomas are the focus of repeated episodes of perilesional edema and seizures in 50% of persons with calcifications, history of seizures, and a positive serology for cysticercosis. The pathophysiology is unclear but recent studies suggest the edema is caused by inflammation. We report two new cases and four other published cases where cessation of corticosteroids appeared to result in recurrence or new appearance of perilesional edema around calcifications. This suggests that perilesional edema is an immune-mediated phenomenon. PMID:24002482

  2. Targeting Angiogenesis-Dependent Calcified Neoplasms Using Combined Polymer Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Ehud; Pan, Huaizhong; Ofek, Paula; Udagawa, Taturo; Kope?ková, Pavla; Kope?ek, Jind?ich; Satchi-Fainaro, Ronit

    2009-01-01

    Background There is an immense clinical need for novel therapeutics for the treatment of angiogenesis-dependent calcified neoplasms such as osteosarcomas and bone metastases. We developed a new therapeutic strategy to target bone metastases and calcified neoplasms using combined polymer-bound angiogenesis inhibitors. Using an advanced “living polymerization” technique, the reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT), we conjugated the aminobisphosphonate alendronate (ALN), and the potent anti-angiogenic agent TNP-470 with N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymer through a Glycine-Glycine-Proline-Norleucine linker, cleaved by cathepsin K, a cysteine protease overexpressed at resorption sites in bone tissues. In this approach, dual targeting is achieved. Passive accumulation is possible due to the increase in molecular weight following polymer conjugation of the drugs, thus extravasating from the tumor leaky vessels and not from normal healthy vessels. Active targeting to the calcified tissues is achieved by ALN's affinity to bone mineral. Methods and Finding The anti-angiogenic and antitumor potency of HPMA copolymer-ALN-TNP-470 conjugate was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. We show that free and conjugated ALN-TNP-470 have synergistic anti-angiogenic and antitumor activity by inhibiting proliferation, migration and capillary-like tube formation of endothelial and human osteosarcoma cells in vitro. Evaluation of anti-angiogenic, antitumor activity and body distribution of HPMA copolymer-ALN-TNP-470 conjugate was performed on severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) male mice inoculated with mCherry-labeled MG-63-Ras human osteosarcoma and by modified Miles permeability assay. Our targeted bi-specific conjugate reduced VEGF-induced vascular hyperpermeability by 92% and remarkably inhibited osteosarcoma growth in mice by 96%. Conclusions This is the first report to describe a new concept of a narrowly-dispersed combined polymer therapeutic designed to target both tumor and endothelial compartments of bone metastases and calcified neoplasms at a single administration. This new approach of co-delivery of two synergistic drugs may have clinical utility as a potential therapy for angiogenesis-dependent cancers such as osteosarcoma and bone metastases. PMID:19381291

  3. A peripheral blood gene expression score is associated with plaque volume and phenotype by intravascular ultrasound with radiofrequency backscatter analysis: results from the ATLANTA study

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Parag H.; Vazquez, Gustavo; Qian, Zhen; Sharma, Abhinav; Anderson, Hunt; Murrieta, Laura; Flockhart, Nancy; Karmpaliotis, Dimitri; Kalynych, Anna; Asztalos, Bela; Elashoff, Michael R.; Blanchard, John; Rosenberg, Steven; Brown, Charles; Voros, Szilard

    2013-01-01

    Background A composite, peripheral gene expression score based on quantitative RNA-measurements has been validated for detecting stenosis against invasive coronary X-ray angiography. IVUS/VH has been validated for quantitative measurements of coronary plaque volume and composition and has been shown to be predictive of outcomes and treatment effects. The correlation between peripheral gene expression and coronary plaque composition by intravascular ultrasound with radiofrequency backscatter (IVUS/VH) is unknown. Methods Peripheral blood gene expression score (GES) was prospectively measured in 18 patients undergoing IVUS/VH. Plaque volume and composition [fibrous tissue (FI), fibro-fatty tissue (FF), necrotic core (NC) and dense calcium (DC)] were quantified in 3 dimensions in all plaques within the entire pullback. The relationship to GES was assessed by Spearman rank correlation. Results Mean age was 61.1±8.6 years; 67% were male. 1,158 mm of coronary anatomy was imaged by IVUS/VH. Using a validated scale of 1-40, mean GES was 21.6±9.4. GES was associated with plaque volume (R2=0.55; P=0.018), NC volume (R2=0.56; P=0.015), DC volume (R2=0.60; P=0.007), and non-calcified plaque volume (R2=0.50; P=0.036) by Spearman rank correlation. Conclusions In this preliminary report, increased GES was associated with higher plaque volume and a more vulnerable plaque phenotype as evidenced by NC and DC. This composite GES is not only associated with obstructive coronary disease, but also with higher plaque volume and vulnerable phenotype. PMID:24282740

  4. Calcified microspheres as biological entities and their isolation from bone.

    PubMed

    Aaron, J E; Oliver, B; Clarke, N; Carter, D H

    1999-07-01

    Calcified microspheres, about 1 microm in diameter, appear at sites of bone formation where they invest the collagenous matrix, become confluent and disappear. Evidence that the particle boundaries are not lost with compaction but merely deformed is supported in section by the granular histochemical staining of the inorganic phase for bone salt, lipid, fibronectin and acid phosphatase in osteomalacic, acid-etched and normal human bone. Their persistence as discrete objects is confirmed by the application of methods for their isolation from the collagenous matrix of immature mouse calvarium and mature bovine femur. Five methods have been used to extract them and include (i) biochemical, (ii) chemical, (iii) mechanical, (iv) pyrogenous and (v) biological separation. Under the optical microscope, all isolates consisted of similar discrete objects and bridged assemblies, whose birefringence varied with treatment. After decalcification, their organic 'ghosts' remained. Each isolated microsphere had a complex substructure of clusters of non-collagenous calcified filaments surrounding a less dense centre. The filaments were 5 nm in diameter with a 5 nm periodicity and regular fine interfilamentous connections. It is concluded that the microspheres are independent, complex, pervasive and central to the containment (i.e. packaging) of calcium phosphate in bone. Their extraction will enable further analysis. PMID:10475573

  5. Species-specific responses of calcifying algae to changing seawater carbonate chemistry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerald Langer; Markus Geisen; Karl-Heinz Baumann; Jessica Kläs; Ulf Riebesell; Silke Thoms; Jeremy R. Young

    2006-01-01

    Uptake of half of the fossil fuel CO2 into the ocean causes gradual seawater acidification. This has been shown to slow down calcification of major calcifying groups, such as corals, foraminifera, and coccolithophores. Here we show that two of the most productive marine calcifying species, the coccolithophores Coccolithus pelagicus and Calcidiscus leptoporus, do not follow the CO2-related calcification response previously

  6. AUTOMATIC DETECTION OF CALCIFIED LESIONS IN THE DESCENDING AORTA USING CONTRAST ENHANCED CT SCANS

    E-print Network

    van Vliet, Lucas J.

    AUTOMATIC DETECTION OF CALCIFIED LESIONS IN THE DESCENDING AORTA USING CONTRAST ENHANCED CT SCANS R enhanced Computed Tomography (CT) scans. This CT scan is generally followed by a contrast enhanced of calcified lesions on CTA scans. Calcium lesion detection is straightforward on a CT scan, however performing

  7. Unilateral pleural effusion without ascites in liver cirrhosis

    SciTech Connect

    Faiyaz, U.; Goyal, P.C.

    1983-09-01

    The source of massive pleural effusion was not apparent in a 58-year-old man who had cirrhosis but no demonstrable ascites. Intraperitoneal injection of technetium Tc 99m sulfur colloid established the presence of peritoneopleural communication. This diagnostic technique can be helpful in evaluating patients with cirrhosis of the liver and pleural effusion with or without ascites.

  8. Diagnostic value of neurotrophin expression in malignant pleural effusions.

    PubMed

    Duysinx, Bernard C; Paulus, Astrid; Heinen, Vincent; Nguyen, Delphine; Henket, Monique; Corhay, Jean-Louis; Louis, Renaud

    2011-09-01

    Neurotrophins (NTs) modulate the growth of human malignancies, including lung cancers. Our prospective study evaluated the accuracy of pleural NTs [nerve growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin 3 (nT3) and 4 (nT4)] levels for differentiating benign from malignant pleural exudates. Levels of NTs were measured by ELISA in 170 patients with non-neutrophilic (<50%) exudative benign or malignant pleurisies diagnosed by pleuroscopy. Fifty-nine benign (9 infections and 50 inflammatory diseases) and 111 malignant (50 extrathoracic tumors, 51 lung cancers and 10 mesotheliomas) pleural exudates were diagnosed by thoracoscopy. Levels of BDNF were significantly higher in malignant than in benign effusions [17 pg/ml (0-367) vs. 8 pg/ml (0-51), p<0.05]. ROC analysis showed an area under the curve of 0.609 (p=0.012; best threshold 44 pg/ml). Pleural BDNF levels were significantly higher in pleural metastasis of pulmonary tumors and in mesothelioma than in pleural benign effusions. Finally, a higher proportion of pleural nT3 was detected in squamous cell lung carcinoma in comparison to that in non-squamous cell lung carcinoma (72.7 vs. 10%, p<0.0001). NTs and particularly BDNF may play a role in the pathogenesis of malignant pleural effusions. PMID:22977602

  9. Some Observations on the Epidemiology of Benign Pleural Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Corbett McDonald

    1997-01-01

    The results from radiographic and respiratory function surveys in Quebec chrysotile miners and millers, Montana vermiculite workers and villagers from the Metsovo region of north-west Greece are compared. Large differ ences are seen in the prevalence and extent of pleural calcification, diffuse pleural thickening and small parenchymal opacities, with confirmatory evi dence from pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms. These findings

  10. Sarcoid pleural effusion: three cases and review of the literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A J Nicholls; J A Friend; J S Legge

    1980-01-01

    Pleural sarcoidosis is rare--it is little recognised in Birtian although several cases have been reported in the international literature. Three white men with pleural effusions caused by sacroidosis have been seen in a two-year period when approximately 60 new cases of thoracic sarcoidosis have been presented. In one patient a recurrent massive effusion was only diagnosed as being caused by

  11. In vivo light dosimetry for pleural PDT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimofte, Andreea; Zhu, Timothy C.; Finlay, Jarod C.; Culligan, Melissa; Edmonds, Christine E.; Friedberg, Joseph S.; Cengel, Keith; Hahn, Stephen M.

    2009-02-01

    In-vivo light Dosimetry for patients undergoing photodynamic therapy (PDT) is one of the important dosimetry quantities critical for predicting PDT outcome. This study examines the light fluence (rate) delivered to patients undergoing pleural PDT as a function of treatment time, treatment volume and surface area, and its accuracy as a function of the calibration accuracies of each isotropic detector and the calibration integrating sphere. The patients studied here were enrolled in Phase II clinical trial of Photofrin-mediated PDT for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer with pleural effusion. The ages of the patients studied varied from 34 to 69 year old. All patients were administered 2mg per kg body weight Photoprin 24 hours before the surgery. Patients undergoing photodynamic therapy (PDT) are treated with laser light with a light fluence of 60 J/cm^2 at 630nm. Fluence rate (mW/cm^2) and cumulative fluence (J/cm^2) was monitored at 7 different sites during the entire light treatment delivery. Isotropic detectors were used for in-vivo light dosimetry. The anisotropy of each isotropic detector was found to be within 30%. The mean fluence rate delivery varied from 37.84 to 94.05 mW/cm^2 and treatment time varied from 1762 to 5232s. We have established a correlation between the treatment time and the treatment volume. The results are discussed using an integrating sphere theory and the measured tissue optical properties. The result can be used as a clinical guideline for future pleural PDT treatment.

  12. Bacterial sex in dental plaque

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Ingar; Tribble, Gena D.; Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Wang, Bing-Yan

    2013-01-01

    Genes are transferred between bacteria in dental plaque by transduction, conjugation, and transformation. Membrane vesicles can also provide a mechanism for horizontal gene transfer. DNA transfer is considered bacterial sex, but the transfer is not parallel to processes that we associate with sex in higher organisms. Several examples of bacterial gene transfer in the oral cavity are given in this review. How frequently this occurs in dental plaque is not clear, but evidence suggests that it affects a number of the major genera present. It has been estimated that new sequences in genomes established through horizontal gene transfer can constitute up to 30% of bacterial genomes. Gene transfer can be both inter- and intrageneric, and it can also affect transient organisms. The transferred DNA can be integrated or recombined in the recipient's chromosome or remain as an extrachromosomal inheritable element. This can make dental plaque a reservoir for antimicrobial resistance genes. The ability to transfer DNA is important for bacteria, making them better adapted to the harsh environment of the human mouth, and promoting their survival, virulence, and pathogenicity. PMID:23741559

  13. High IL-35 Pleural Expression in Patients with Tuberculous Pleural Effusion

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xuan; Yang, Jiong

    2015-01-01

    Background IL-35 is a novel anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive cytokine primarily produced by Treg cells, and is involved in inflammatory diseases and autoimmune diseases. However, its roles in tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE) remain unknown. We aimed to investigate the potential involvement of IL-35 in TPE. Material/Methods Thirty TPE patients and 20 lung cancer patients with malignant pleural effusion (MPE) were recruited. Samples of pleural effusion (100 mL) were collected after traditional pleurocentesis. Blood was sampled from TPE patients. Mononuclear cells were isolated by Ficoll-Hypaque gradient. Proportions of Th1, Th17, and IL-35-producing cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. IL-35 was assessed by real-time RT-PCR, ELISA, and immunofluorescence. An ELISPOT assay was used to assess the effect of IL-35 on pleural effusion mononuclear cells (PEMCs). Results Proportions of IL-35-producing cells were higher in TPE compared with MPE (49.4±6.0 vs. 15.8±5.4%, P<0.001) and blood from TPE patients (49.4±6.0% vs. 16.6±3.1, P<0.001). IL-35, IL-17 and IFN-? were elevated in TPE compared with MPE (all P<0.01). ELISPOT assay showed that IL-35 reduced the proportion of IFN-?-producing CD4+ T cells in TPE. IL-35 mRNA expression was higher in TPE compared with MPE (P<0.001). Immunofluorescence showed that IL-35-positive cells were present in pleural tissues from TPE patients. Conclusions Results suggest that there is an imbalance in IL-35 metabolism in TPE. However, further studies are required to assess the exact relationship with the immune system response to tuberculosis. IL-35 might play a role in TPE and might be targeted as a treatment for TPE. PMID:25935866

  14. Prognostic factors in malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Ben

    2015-06-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a clinically aggressive tumor originating from mesothelial cells, which line the serosal cavities. Recent years have seen extensive research aimed at identifying new therapeutic targets, predictive markers and prognostic factors in this disease. These include both serum and tissue markers, and are related to multiple cellular pathways which affect cell survival, proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, interaction with the immune response and DNA repair. Several of these molecules may become relevant for pathologists as part of the effort to select patient sub-populations for targeted therapy in the future. This review summarizes current data in this area and discusses their potential clinical relevance. PMID:25824607

  15. Pleurodesis outcome in malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Fysh, Edward Thomas Hamilton; Tan, Sze Khen; Read, Catherine Ann; Lee, Felicity; McKenzie, Kate; Olsen, Nola; Weerasena, Indunil; Threlfall, Timothy; de Klerk, Nicholas; Musk, A William; Lee, Y C Gary

    2013-06-01

    Few data exist on the pleurodesis outcome in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). A retrospective review of the Western Australian Mesothelioma Registry over 5 years revealed 390 evaluable patients. Only a subset of patients (42.3%) underwent pleurodesis, surgically (n=78) or by bedside instillation of sclerosants (n=87). Surgical pleurodesis showed no advantages over bedside pleurodesis in efficacy (32% vs 31% failures requiring further drainage, p=0.98), patient survival (p=0.52) or total time spent in hospital from procedure till death (p=0.36). No clinical, biochemical or radiographic parameters tested adequately predict pleurodesis outcome. PMID:23299964

  16. Management of Pleural Effusion, Empyema, and Lung Abscess

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hyeon

    2011-01-01

    Pleural effusion is an accumulation of fluid in the pleural space that is classified as transudate or exudate according to its composition and underlying pathophysiology. Empyema is defined by purulent fluid collection in the pleural space, which is most commonly caused by pneumonia. A lung abscess, on the other hand, is a parenchymal necrosis with confined cavitation that results from a pulmonary infection. Pleural effusion, empyema, and lung abscess are commonly encountered clinical problems that increase mortality. These conditions have traditionally been managed by antibiotics or surgical placement of a large drainage tube. However, as the efficacy of minimally invasive interventional procedures has been well established, image-guided small percutaneous drainage tubes have been considered as the mainstay of treatment for patients with pleural fluid collections or a lung abscess. In this article, the technical aspects of image-guided interventions, indications, expected benefits, and complications are discussed and the published literature is reviewed. PMID:22379278

  17. [Diagnosis delay of pleural and pulmonary tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Cherif, J; Mjid, M; Ladhar, A; Toujani, S; Mokadem, S; Louzir, B; Mehiri, N; Béji, M

    2014-08-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is still being endemic in our country. Time until management determines both evolution and prognosis of this condition. The aim of this work is to evaluate the delay in diagnosis of TB in a respiratory unit from a university hospital series. The authors conducted a cross-sectional study including patients with pulmonary TBC and/or pleural. An evaluation of time management was conducted from the beginning of symptoms and various consultations with reference to the date of hospitalization and treatment set up. One hundred patients were included (pulmonary TB: 68 cases, pleural TB 23 cases, miliary pulmonary TB: 4 cases, pulmonary TB associated with other extrathoracic locations: 5 cases). The mean time of patient delay and total delay institution were respectively 43.6, 25.7 and 69.3 days. Variables responsible for long delays were: number of consultations more than 3 before hospitalization, empirical antibiotic therapy, of a regional hospital first consultation and the presence of extra-respiratory impairment. The patient delay was considered long. A reorganization of the TB control program, in particular by partial decentralization of care and health education is imperative in order to improve the quality of tuberculosis management in our country. PMID:24874402

  18. Anaplastic plasmacytoma with malignant pleural effusion lacking evidence of monoclonal gammopathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takuya Aoki; Hajime Okita; Hidekazu Kayano; Hideki Orikasa; Kentaro Watanabe; Brian P. Eyden; Kazuto Yamazaki

    2002-01-01

    . A case of plasmacytoma of the pleural cavity is reported with massive malignant pleural effusion, which, most unusually, lacked monoclonal gammopathy, thereby making it difficult to distinguish from lymphoma. The pleural tumor and pleural effusion contained large mononuclear lymphoma-like cells with distinct nucleoli. Immunohistochemistry revealed neither lymphoma markers nor clonal cytoplasmic nor cell surface immunoglobulins. Tumor cells were stained

  19. 77 FR 34389 - Determination of Regulatory Review Period for Purposes of Patent Extension; Progel Pleural Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ...Patent Extension; Progel Pleural Air Leak Sealant AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration...review period for Progel Pleural Air Leak Sealant and is publishing this notice of that...medical device, Progel Pleural Air Leak Sealant. Progel Pleural Air Leak Sealant is...

  20. Effect of calcifying bacteria on permeation properties of concrete structures.

    PubMed

    Achal, V; Mukherjee, A; Reddy, M S

    2011-09-01

    Microbially enhanced calcite precipitation on concrete or mortar has become an important area of research regarding construction materials. This study examined the effect of calcite precipitation induced by Sporosarcina pasteurii (Bp M-3) on parameters affecting the durability of concrete or mortar. An inexpensive industrial waste, corn steep liquor (CSL), from starch industry was used as nutrient source for the growth of bacteria and calcite production, and the results obtained with CSL were compared with those of the standard commercial medium. Bacterial deposition of a layer of calcite on the surface of the specimens resulted in substantial decrease of water uptake, permeability, and chloride penetration compared with control specimens without bacteria. The results obtained with CSL medium were comparable to those obtained with standard medium, indicating the economization of the biocalcification process. The results suggest that calcifying bacteria play an important role in enhancing the durability of concrete structures. PMID:21104104

  1. Intrapleural tissue plasminogen activator and deoxyribonuclease therapy for pleural infection

    PubMed Central

    Piccolo, Francesco; Popowicz, Natalia; Wong, Donny

    2015-01-01

    Pleural infection remains a global health burden associated with significant morbidity. Drainage of the infected pleural fluid is important but can often be hindered by septations and loculations. Intrapleural fibrinolytic therapy alone, to break pleural adhesions, has shown no convincing advantages over placebo in improving clinical outcome. Deoxyribonucleoprotein from degradation of leukocytes contributes significantly to high viscosity of infected pleural fluid. Recombinant deoxyribonuclease (DNase) is effective in reducing pleural fluid viscosity in pre-clinical studies. The combination of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and DNase was effective in animal model experiments of empyema. The benefits were established in a randomized clinical trial: those (n=48) treated with tPA/DNase had significantly improved radiological outcomes and reduced need of surgery and duration of hospital stay. A longitudinal observational series of 107 patients further confirmed the effectiveness and safety of tPA/DNase therapy, including its use as ‘rescue therapy’ when patients failed to respond to antibiotics and chest tube drainage. Overall, a short course of intrapleural tPA (10 mg) and DNase (5 mg) therapy provides a cure in over 90% of patients without requiring surgery. The treatment stimulates pleural fluid formation, enhances radiographic clearance and resolution of systemic inflammation. Serious complications are uncommon; pleural bleeding requiring transfusion occurred in ~2% of cases. Pain can occur, especially with the first dose. Treatment is contraindicated in those with significant bleeding diathesis or a bronchopleural fistula. Future research is required to optimize dosing regimens and in refining patient selection. PMID:26150913

  2. Massive pleural effusion due to metastasis of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, V M; Zembrzuski, M M da Silva; Gouvea, I P; Nery, N S; dos Santos, L A M

    2011-12-01

    We describe the case of a 72-year old male with pleural effusion associated with prostate cancer. There was a previous history of tobacco smoking (pack/year: 47) and of total prostatectomy followed by external beam radiation therapy seven years previously for prostate cancer. Furthermore, he was submitted to orchiectomy plus non-steroidal anti-androgen blockage, in addition to docetaxel-based chemotherapy and prednisone. After the beginning of chemotherapy, a progressive elevation in prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels was observed. On admission, he presented with fever, weight loss, and respiratory symptoms due to a massive right pleural effusion. Fluid samples obtained by needle aspiration showed haemorrhagic exudates without malignant cells. Pleural metastasis were detected by thorax imaging studies, and biopsy samples revealed prostate adenocarcinoma as the origin of his pleural effusion. Pleural fluid was drained and talc pleurodesis was performed. This report aims to describe the occurrence of massive pleural effusion due to metastasis of prostate cancer and emphasizes the role of pleural biopsy with immunohistochemical studies to characterize this diagnosis. PMID:22512233

  3. The relevance of Randall's plaques

    PubMed Central

    Strakosha, Ruth; Monga, Manoj; Wong, Michael Y. C.

    2014-01-01

    The pathophysiology of nephrolithiasis is not fully understood. The pioneering work of Alexander Randall in the 1940s sought to clarify our understanding of stone formation. This review traces the inception of the theory of Randall's plaques and the refinement of the hypothesis in the early days of kidney stone research. It then reviews the contemporary findings utilizing sophisticated investigative techniques that shed additional light on the pathophysiology and redefine the seminal findings of Dr. Randall that were made 70 years ago. PMID:24497683

  4. Diagnosis and management of patients with pleural effusions.

    PubMed

    Myatt, Rebecca

    2014-06-17

    Pleural effusions occur when fluid accumulates between the visceral and parietal pleura in the chest cavity, preventing the lung from expanding fully during inspiration. The reduction in lung volume, depression of the diaphragm and reduced chest wall compliance cause dyspnoea, and occasionally pain or cough. Pleural effusion is a complex problem caused by a variety of conditions requiring different treatment depending on the underlying diagnosis. This article discusses the causes and treatment of pleural effusions, referencing guidelines produced by the British Thoracic Society. PMID:24916260

  5. [Benign pleural effusion in a carpenter exposed to asbestos].

    PubMed

    Petersen, Rolf; Pedersen, Carsten Franck; Munch, Erik Peter

    2010-10-25

    A 55-year-old carpenter developed pleurisy with pleural effusion on the right side in 2000 and on the left side in 2003. No known causes of pleurisy were found. He had been occupationally exposed to asbestos during a 6-month-period in 1971 while working with roof sheets made of asbestos cement. In the literature there is evidence of asbestos being a cause of benign pleural effusion. We found it likely that the pleurisy with pleural effusion found in this patient was an occupational condition and it should therefore be notified as industrial injury. PMID:21040677

  6. Pleural effusion segmentation in thin-slice CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donohue, Rory; Shearer, Andrew; Bruzzi, John; Khosa, Huma

    2009-02-01

    A pleural effusion is excess fluid that collects in the pleural cavity, the fluid-filled space that surrounds the lungs. Surplus amounts of such fluid can impair breathing by limiting the expansion of the lungs during inhalation. Measuring the fluid volume is indicative of the effectiveness of any treatment but, due to the similarity to surround regions, fragments of collapsed lung present and topological changes; accurate quantification of the effusion volume is a difficult imaging problem. A novel code is presented which performs conditional region growth to accurately segment the effusion shape across a dataset. We demonstrate the applicability of our technique in the segmentation of pleural effusion and pulmonary masses.

  7. Thermal study of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque

    E-print Network

    Kim, Taehong

    2009-05-15

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1. Clinical significance of atherosclerosis . . . . . . . . . 1 B. Vessel Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1. Arterial wall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2. Blood and its constituents... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 C. Process of Plaque Formation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 1. Localization of atherosclerotic plaque . . . . . . . . . 8 2. Stages of atherosclerosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3. Inflammation by macrophages...

  8. Thermal study of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque 

    E-print Network

    Kim, Taehong

    2009-05-15

    ranged from 0.1 to 0.25 oC in the plaque/lumen interface. In 3-D realistic model, the multiple measuring points must be considered to decrease the potential error in temperature measurement even within 1 or 2 mm at centerline region of plaque. The most...

  9. Purine catabolism in advanced carotid artery plaque.

    PubMed

    Felici, C; Ciari, I; Terzuoli, L; Porcelli, B; Setacci, C; Giubbolini, M; Marinello, E

    2006-01-01

    This study was carried out on carotid artery plaque and plasma of 50 patients. We analyzed uric acid, hypoxanthine, xanthine, and allantoin levels to verify if enzymatic purine degradation occurs in advanced carotid plaque; we also determined free radicals and sulphydryl groups to check if there is a correlation between oxidant status and purine catabolism. Comparing plaque and plasma we found higher levels of free radicals, hypoxanthine, xanthine, and a decrease of some oxidant protectors, such as sulphydryl groups and uric acid, in plaque. We also observed a very important phenomenon in plaque, the presence of allantoin due to chemical oxidation of uric acid, since humans do not have the enzyme uricase. The hypothetical elevated activity of xanthine oxidase in atherosclerosis could be reduced by specific therapies using its inhibitors, such as oxypurinol or allopurinol. PMID:17065109

  10. Advanced Techniques for MRI of Atherosclerotic Plaque

    PubMed Central

    Kerwin, William S.; Canton, Gador

    2011-01-01

    This review examines the state of the art in vessel wall imaging by MRI with an emphasis on the biomechanical assessment of atherosclerotic plaque. Three areas of advanced techniques are discussed. First, alternative contrast mechanisms, including susceptibility, magnetization transfer, diffusion and perfusion, are presented in regards to how they facilitate accurate determination of plaque constituents underlying biomechanics. Second, imaging technologies, including hardware and sequences, are reviewed in regards to how they provide the resolution and SNR necessary for determining plaque structure. Finally, techniques for combining MRI data into an overall assessment of plaque biomechanical properties, including wall shear stress and internal plaque strain, are presented. The paper closes with a discussion of the extent to which these techniques have been applied to different arteries commonly targeted by vessel wall MRI. PMID:20805732

  11. Calcifying Ghost Cell Odontogenic Cyst: Report of a Case and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Sonone, Archana; Sabane, V. S.; Desai, Rajeev

    2011-01-01

    The calcifying ghost cell odontogenic cyst (CGCOC) was first described by Gorlin et al. in 1962. Calcifying ghost cell odontogenic cyst is comparatively rare in occurrence, constituting about 0.37% to 2.1% of all odontogenic tumors. The most notable features of this pathologic entity are histopathological features which include a cystic lining demonstrating characteristic “Ghost” epithelial cells with a propensity to calcify. In addition, the CGCOC may be associated with other recognized odontogenic tumors, most commonly odontomas. There are variants of CGCOC according to clinical, histopathological, and radiological characteristics. Therefore a proper categorization of the cases is needed for better understanding of the pathogenesis of each variant. Here, we report a classical case of calcifying odontogenic cyst along with a brief review of literature. PMID:22567434

  12. Switching off malignant pleural effusion formation—fantasy or future?

    PubMed Central

    Giannou, Anastasios D.; Stathopoulos, Georgios T.

    2015-01-01

    Malignant pleural effusion (MPE) is common and difficult to treat. In the vast majority of patients the presence of MPE heralds incurable disease, associated with poor quality of life, morbidity and mortality. Current therapeutic approaches are inefficient and merely offer palliation of associated symptoms. Recent scientific progress has shed light in the biologic processes governing the mechanisms behind the pathobiology of MPE. Pleural based tumors interfere with pleural fluid drainage, as well as the host vasculature and immune system, resulting in decreased fluid absorption and increased pleural fluid production via enhanced plasma extravasation into the pleural space. In order to achieve this feat, pleural based tumors must elicit critical vasoactive events in the pleura, thus forming a favorable microenvironment for tumor dissemination and MPE development. Such properties involve specific transcriptional signaling cascades in addition to secretion of important mediators which attract and activate host cell populations which, in turn, impact tumor cell functions. The dissection of the biologic steps leading to MPE formation provides novel therapeutic targets and recent research findings provide encouraging results towards future therapeutic innovations in MPE management. PMID:26150914

  13. Disposition of phosphomycin in patients with pleural effusion.

    PubMed Central

    Lastra, C F; Marińo, E L; Barrueco, M; Gervós, M S; Gil, A D

    1984-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of phosphomycin were studied in seven patients with pleural effusion of varied etiologies. All patients received a single intravenous bolus of 30 mg of antibiotic per kg. Phosphomycin levels in plasma and pleural fluid were determined simultaneously. Antibiotic levels in plasma followed a two-compartment open kinetic model. In the pleural fluid, maximum concentrations of phosphomycin, 42.63 +/- 16.03 micrograms/ml (mean +/- standard deviation), were reached at 3.69 +/- 1.08 h after administration of the antibiotic. The disappearance constant of the antibiotic from the pleural fluid was significantly smaller (0.16 +/- 0.06 h-1) than the elimination constant determined from the levels of drug in plasma (0.73 +/- 0.26 h-1). Phosphomycin persisted in antibacterial concentrations in the pleural fluid for a considerable period of time. The low accessibility of phosphomycin observed in one of the patients in the study, with a maximum concentration value of 2.16 micrograms of phosphomycin per ml of pleural fluid, could be due to the existence of pachypleuritis in that patient; this was later confirmed in clinical and histological studies done after the research described here. PMID:6732214

  14. Black Pleural Effusion: A Unique Presentation of Metastatic Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Chhabra, Akansha; Mukherjee, Vikramjit; Chowdhary, Mudit; Danckers, Mauricio; Fridman, David

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic melanoma is a rare form of skin cancer, but one that comes with a high mortality rate. Pulmonary involvement is frequently seen in metastatic melanoma with only 2% of malignant melanoma patients with thorax metastasis presenting with pleural effusions. Herein, we report an extremely rare case of black pleural effusion from thoracic metastasis of cutaneous malignant melanoma. A 74-year-old man with known metastatic melanoma presented with a 1-month history of worsening lower back and hip pain and was found to have extensive osseous metastatic disease and multiple compression fractures. The patient underwent an uneventful kyphoplasty; however, the following day, he became acutely hypoxic and tachypneic with increased oxygen requirements. Radiographic evaluation revealed new bilateral pleural effusions. Bedside thoracentesis revealed a densely exudative, lymphocyte-predominant black effusion. Cytological examination showed numerous neoplastic cells with melanin deposition. A diagnosis of thoracic metastasis of malignant melanoma was established based on the gross and microscopic appearance of the pleural fluid. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of black pleural effusions secondary to metastatic melanoma in the United States. Despite the rarity of this presentation, it is important to determine the etiology of the black pleural effusion and to keep metastatic melanoma as a differential diagnosis. PMID:26078741

  15. Black Pleural Effusion: A Unique Presentation of Metastatic Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, Akansha; Mukherjee, Vikramjit; Chowdhary, Mudit; Danckers, Mauricio; Fridman, David

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic melanoma is a rare form of skin cancer, but one that comes with a high mortality rate. Pulmonary involvement is frequently seen in metastatic melanoma with only 2% of malignant melanoma patients with thorax metastasis presenting with pleural effusions. Herein, we report an extremely rare case of black pleural effusion from thoracic metastasis of cutaneous malignant melanoma. A 74-year-old man with known metastatic melanoma presented with a 1-month history of worsening lower back and hip pain and was found to have extensive osseous metastatic disease and multiple compression fractures. The patient underwent an uneventful kyphoplasty; however, the following day, he became acutely hypoxic and tachypneic with increased oxygen requirements. Radiographic evaluation revealed new bilateral pleural effusions. Bedside thoracentesis revealed a densely exudative, lymphocyte-predominant black effusion. Cytological examination showed numerous neoplastic cells with melanin deposition. A diagnosis of thoracic metastasis of malignant melanoma was established based on the gross and microscopic appearance of the pleural fluid. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of black pleural effusions secondary to metastatic melanoma in the United States. Despite the rarity of this presentation, it is important to determine the etiology of the black pleural effusion and to keep metastatic melanoma as a differential diagnosis. PMID:26078741

  16. Relationship between occupations and asbestosfibre content of the lungs in patients with pleural mesothelioma, lung cancer, and other diseases

    PubMed Central

    Whitwell, F.; Scott, Jean; Grimshaw, Myra

    1977-01-01

    Whitwell, F., Scott, Jean, and Grimshaw, Myra (1977).Thorax, 32, 377-386. Relationship between occupations and asbestos-fibre content of the lungs in patients with pleural mesothelioma, lung cancer, and other diseases. The light-visible asbestos-fibre content of 300 lung specimens has been measured using a potash-digestion and phase-contrast microscopy technique, and the results have been correlated with the occupations of the patients. Among 100 pleural mesothelioma specimens were 88 where the patients had been exposed to asbestos, and in 73 of these (83%) the lung tissue contained over 100 000 asbestos fibres per gram of dried lung, and only one specimen showed less than 20 000 fibres per gram. When asbestosis was present, the lungs nearly always showed over 3 million fibres per gram. In 100 control lungs (those without industrial disease or lung cancer) there were less than 20 000 fibres per gram of dried lung in 71% of specimens. Lungs from 100 patients with lung cancer but no industrial disease contained less than 20 000 fibres per gram of dried lung in 80% of cases. Patients with parietal pleural plaques nearly all had over 20 000 fibres per gram in their lungs. The number of asbestos fibres found in the lungs was closely related to the occupations of the patients but not to their home environment. Patients who had lived near likely sources of atmospheric asbestos pollution did not have higher asbestos fibre counts than the rest of the patients. It is concluded that there is a definite dose relationship between asbestos exposure and mesothelioma formation but that' `sub-asbestosis' levels of asbestos exposure do not contribute to the formation of lung cancer in those not subjected to industrial asbestos exposure. Images PMID:929482

  17. A mechanistic analysis of the role of microcalcifications in atherosclerotic plaque stability: potential implications for plaque rupture

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado, Natalia; Kelly-Arnold, Adreanne; Vengrenyuk, Yuliya; Laudier, Damien; Fallon, John T.; Virmani, Renu; Cardoso, Luis

    2012-01-01

    The role of microcalcifications (?Calcs) in the biomechanics of vulnerable plaque rupture is examined. Our laboratory previously proposed (Ref. 44), using a very limited tissue sample, that ?Calcs embedded in the fibrous cap proper could significantly increase cap instability. This study has been greatly expanded. Ninety-two human coronary arteries containing 62 fibroatheroma were examined using high-resolution microcomputed tomography at 6.7-?m resolution and undecalcified histology with special emphasis on calcified particles <50 ?m in diameter. Our results reveal the presence of thousands of ?Calcs, the vast majority in lipid pools where they are not dangerous. However, 81 ?Calcs were also observed in the fibrous caps of nine of the fibroatheroma. All 81 of these ?Calcs were analyzed using three-dimensional finite-element analysis, and the results were used to develop important new clinical criteria for cap stability. These criteria include variation of the Young's modulus of the ?Calc and surrounding tissue, ?Calc size, and clustering. We found that local tissue stress could be increased fivefold when ?Calcs were closely spaced, and the peak circumferential stress in the thinnest nonruptured cap (66 ?m) if no ?Calcs were present was only 107 kPa, far less than the proposed minimum rupture threshold of 300 kPa. These results and histology suggest that there are numerous ?Calcs < 15 ?m in the caps, not visible at 6.7-?m resolution, and that our failure to find any nonruptured caps between 30 and 66 ?m is a strong indication that many of these caps contained ?Calcs. PMID:22777419

  18. Fibrillar amyloid plaque formation precedes microglial activation.

    PubMed

    Jung, Christian K E; Keppler, Kevin; Steinbach, Sonja; Blazquez-Llorca, Lidia; Herms, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD), hallmark ?-amyloid deposits are characterized by the presence of activated microglia around them. Despite an extensive characterization of the relation of amyloid plaques with microglia, little is known about the initiation of this interaction. In this study, the detailed investigation of very small plaques in brain slices in AD transgenic mice of the line APP-PS1(dE9) revealed different levels of microglia recruitment. Analysing plaques with a diameter of up to 10 ?m we find that only the half are associated with clear morphologically activated microglia. Utilizing in vivo imaging of new appearing amyloid plaques in double-transgenic APP-PS1(dE9)xCX3CR1+/- mice further characterized the dynamic of morphological microglia activation. We observed no correlation of morphological microglia activation and plaque volume or plaque lifetime. Taken together, our results demonstrate a very prominent variation in size as well as in lifetime of new plaques relative to the state of microglia reaction. These observations might question the existing view that amyloid deposits by themselves are sufficient to attract and activate microglia in vivo. PMID:25799372

  19. Multi-feature-based plaque characterization in ex vivo MRI trained by registration to 3D histology.

    PubMed

    van Engelen, Arna; Niessen, Wiro J; Klein, Stefan; Groen, Harald C; Verhagen, Hence J M; Wentzel, Jolanda J; van der Lugt, Aad; de Bruijne, Marleen

    2012-01-01

    We present a new method for automated characterization of atherosclerotic plaque composition in ex vivo MRI. It uses MRI intensities as well as four other types of features: smoothed, gradient magnitude and Laplacian images at several scales, and the distances to the lumen and outer vessel wall. The ground truth for fibrous, necrotic and calcified tissue was provided by histology and ?CT in 12 carotid plaque specimens. Semi-automatic registration of a 3D stack of histological slices and ?CT images to MRI allowed for 3D rotations and in-plane deformations of histology. By basing voxelwise classification on different combinations of features, we evaluated their relative importance. To establish whether training by 3D registration yields different results than training by 2D registration, we determined plaque composition using (1) a 2D slice-based registration approach for three manually selected MRI and histology slices per specimen, and (2) an approach that uses only the three corresponding MRI slices from the 3D-registered volumes. Voxelwise classification accuracy was best when all features were used (73.3 ± 6.3%) and was significantly better than when only original intensities and distance features were used (Friedman, p < 0.05). Although 2D registration or selection of three slices from the 3D set slightly decreased accuracy, these differences were non-significant. PMID:22156050

  20. Moxifloxacin Pharmacokinetics and Pleural Fluid Penetration in Patients with Pleural Effusion

    PubMed Central

    Chatzika, Kalliopi; Manika, Katerina; Kontou, Paschalina; Pitsiou, Georgia; Papakosta, Despina; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and penetration of moxifloxacin (MXF) in patients with various types of pleural effusion. Twelve patients with empyema/parapneumonic effusion (PPE) and 12 patients with malignant pleural effusion were enrolled in the study. A single-dose pharmacokinetic study was performed after intravenous administration of 400 mg MXF. Serial plasma (PL) and pleural fluid (PF) samples were collected during a 24-h time interval after drug administration. The MXF concentration in PL and PF was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography, and main pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated. Penetration of MXF in PF was determined by the ratio of the area under the concentration-time curve from time zero to 24 h (AUC24) in PF (AUC24PF) to the AUC24 in PL. No statistically significant differences in the pharmacokinetics in PL were observed between the two groups, despite the large interindividual variability in the volume of distribution, clearance, and elimination half-life. The maximum concentration in PF (CmaxPF) in patients with empyema/PPE was 2.23 ± 1.31 mg/liter, and it was detected 7.50 ± 2.39 h after the initiation of the infusion. In patients with malignant effusion, CmaxPF was 2.96 ± 1.45 mg/liter, but it was observed significantly earlier, at 3.58 ± 1.38 h (P < 0.001). Both groups revealed similar values of AUC24PF (31.83 ± 23.52 versus 32.81 ± 12.66 mg · h/liter). Penetration of MXF into PF was similarly good in both patient groups (1.11 ± 0.74 versus 1.17 ± 0.39). Despite similar plasma pharmacokinetics, patients with empyema/parapneumonic effusion showed a significant delay in achievement of PF maximum MXF levels compared to those with malignant effusion. However, in both groups, the degree of MXF PF penetration and the on-site drug exposure, expressed by AUC24PF, did not differ according to the type of pleural effusion. PMID:24323477

  1. Vascular MR segmentation: wall and plaque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fuxing; Holzapfel, Gerhard; Schulze-Bauer, Christian; Stollberger, Rudolf; Thedens, Daniel; Bolinger, Lizann; Stolpen, Alan; Sonka, Milan

    2003-05-01

    Cardiovascular events frequently result from local rupture of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque. Non-invasive assessment of plaque vulnerability is needed to allow institution of preventive measures before heart attack or stroke occur. A computerized method for segmentation of arterial wall layers and plaque from high-resolution volumetric MR images is reported. The method uses dynamic programming to detect optimal borders in each MRI frame. The accuracy of the results was tested in 62 T1-weighted MR images from 6 vessel specimens in comparison to borders manually determined by an expert observer. The mean signed border positioning errors for the lumen, internal elastic lamina, and external elastic lamina borders were -0.12+/-0.14 mm, 0.04+/-0.12mm, and -0.15+/-0.13 mm, respectively. The presented wall layer segmentation approach is one of the first steps towards non-invasive assessment of plaque vulnerability in atherosclerotic subjects.

  2. Historical Plaque at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This plaque, displayed on the grounds of Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, commemorates the Redstone Test Stand as an Alabama Historic Civil Engineering Landmark. The site was desinated as such in 1979.

  3. A new inexpensive customized plaque for choroidal melanoma iodine-125 plaque therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Vine, A.K.; Tenhaken, R.K.; Diaz, R.F.; Maxson, B.B.; Lichter, A.S.

    1989-04-01

    The authors have developed a new inexpensive precious metal alloy plaque for use in customized iodine-125 plaque therapy. Each plaque is formed from two flat circular gold/palladium foils which are used in dental crown work. Using a simple manual mechanism, the two forms are stamped over a customized acrylic die shaped to the dimensions of the tumor base plus a 2-mm margin. Completed plaques consist of a back wall, a 2-mm side wall, and a 1.5-mm wide lip with holes for suture placement. Advantages include: simple construction from inexpensive components, customized shape, and iodine seeds that are readily visible on plane radiographs.

  4. Stevia and sucrose effect on plaque formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sonia Maria Blauth de Slavutzky

    2010-01-01

    An in vivo study was done by measuring the accumulation of dental plaque after rinsing with a solution of 10% sucrose four times daily\\u000a during 5 days and comparing it with a rinsing of 10% solution of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni four times a day, during 5 days a week. The accumulation of dental plaque after rinsing with Stevia was 57, 82% less

  5. Detection of High-Risk Atherosclerotic Plaque

    PubMed Central

    Fleg, Jerome L.; Stone, Gregg W.; Fayad, Zahi A.; Granada, Juan F.; Hatsukami, Thomas S.; Kolodgie, Frank D.; Ohayon, Jacques; Pettigrew, Roderic; Sabatine, Marc S.; Tearney, Guillermo; Waxman, Sergio; Domanski, Michael J.; Srinivas, Pothur R.; Narula, Jagat

    2013-01-01

    The leading cause of major morbidity and mortality in most countries around the world is atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, most commonly caused by thrombotic occlusion of a high-risk coronary plaque resulting in myocardial infarction or cardiac death, or embolization from a high-risk carotid plaque resulting in stroke. The lesions prone to result in such clinical events are termed vulnerable or high-risk plaques, and their identification may lead to the development of pharmacological and mechanical intervention strategies to prevent such events. Autopsy studies from patients dying of acute myocardial infarction or sudden death have shown that such events typically arise from specific types of atherosclerotic plaques, most commonly the thin-cap fibroatheroma. However, the search in human beings for vulnerable plaques before their becoming symptomatic has been elusive. Recently, the PROSPECT (Providing Regional Observations to Study Predictors of Events in the Coronary Tree) study demonstrated that coronary plaques that are likely to cause future cardiac events, regardless of angiographic severity, are characterized by large plaque burden and small lumen area and/or are thin-cap fibroatheromas verified by radiofrequency intravascular ultrasound imaging. This study opened the door to identifying additional invasive and noninvasive imaging modalities that may improve detection of high-risk atherosclerotic lesions and patients. Beyond classic risk factors, novel biomarkers and genetic profiling may identify those patients in whom noninvasive imaging for vulnerable plaque screening, followed by invasive imaging for risk confirmation is warranted, and in whom future pharmacological and/or device-based focal or regional therapies may be applied to improve long-term prognosis. PMID:22974808

  6. Microscopic Observation of Self-Propagation of Calcifying Nanoparticles (Nanobacteria)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathew, Grace; McKay, David S.; Ciftcioglu, Neva

    2007-01-01

    Biologists typically define living organisms as carbon and water-based cellular forms with :self-replication" as the fundamental trait of the life process. However, this standard dictionary definition of life does not help scientists to categorize self-replicators like viruses, prions, proteons and artificial life. CNP also named nanobacteria were discovered in early 1990s as about 100 nanometer-sized bacteria-like particles with unique apatite mineral-shells around them, and found to be associated with pathological-calcification related diseases. Although CNP have been isolated and cultured from mammalian blood and diseased calcified tissues, and their biomineralizing properties well established, their biological nature and self-replicating capability have always been severely challenged. The terms "self-replication", "self-assembly" or "self-propagation" have been widely used for all systems including nanomachines, crystals, computer viruses and memes. In a simple taxonomy, all biological and non-biological "self replicators", have been classified into "living" or "nonliving" based on the properties of the systems and the amount of support they require to self-replicate. To enhance our understanding about self-replicating nature of CNP, we have investigated their growth in specific culture conditions using conventional inverted light microscope and BioStation IM, Nikon s latest time-lapse imaging system. Their morphological structure was examined using scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy. This present study, in conjunction with previous findings of metabolic activity, antibiotic sensitivity, antibody specificity, morphological aspects and infectivity, all concomitantly validate CNP as living self-replicators.

  7. Persistent Seroconversion after Accidental Eye Exposure to Calcifying Nanoparticles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciftcioglu, Neva; Aho, Katja M.; McKay, David S.; Kajander, E. Olavi

    2007-01-01

    Biosafety of nanomaterials has attracted much attention recently. We report here a case where accidental human eye exposure to biogenic nanosized calcium phosphate in the form of calcifying nanoparticles (CNP) raised a strong IgG immune response against proteins carried by CNP. The antibody titer has persisted over ten years at the high level. The IgG was detected by ELISA using CNPs propagated in media containing bovine and human serum as antigen. The exposure incident occurred to a woman scientist (WS) at a research laboratory in Finland at 1993. CNP, also termed "nanobacteria", is a unique self-replicating agent that has not been fully characterized and no data on biohazards were available at that time. Before the accident, her serum samples were negative for both CNP antigen and anti-CNP antibody using specific ELISA tests (Nanobac Oy, Kuopio, Finland). The accident occurred while WS was harvesting CNP cultures. Due to a high pressure in pipetting, CNP pellet splashed into her right eye. Both eyes were immediately washed with water and saline. The following days there was irritation and redness in the right eye. These symptoms disappeared within two weeks without any treatment. Three months after the accident, blood and urine samples of WS were tested for CNP cultures (2), CNP-specific ELISA tests, and blood cell counts. Blood cell counts were normal, CNP antigen and culture tests were negative. A high IgG anti-CNP antibody titer was detected (see Figure). The antibodies of this person have been used thereafter as positive control and standard in ELISA manufacturing (Nano-Sero IgG ELISA, Nanobac Oy, Kuopio, Finland).

  8. Penetration of fluoride into natural plaque biofilms.

    PubMed

    Watson, P S; Pontefract, H A; Devine, D A; Shore, R C; Nattress, B R; Kirkham, J; Robinson, C

    2005-05-01

    Caries occurs at inaccessible stagnation sites where plaque removal is difficult. Here, the penetration through plaque of protective components, such as fluoride, is likely to be crucial in caries inhibition. We hypothesized that topically applied fluoride would readily penetrate such plaque deposits. In this study, plaque biofilms generated in vivo on natural enamel surfaces were exposed to NaF (1000 ppm F-) for 30 or 120 sec (equivalent to toothbrushing) or for 30 min. Biofilms were then sectioned throughout their depth, and the fluoride content of each section was determined with the use of a fluoride electrode. Exposure to NaF for 30 or 120 sec increased plaque fluoride concentrations near the saliva interface, while concentrations near the enamel surface remained low. Fluoride penetration increased with duration of NaF exposure. Removal of exogenous fluoride resulted in fluoride loss and redistribution. Penetration of fluoride into plaque biofilms during brief topical exposure is restricted, which may limit anti-caries efficacy. PMID:15840782

  9. Pleural epithelioid hemangioendothelioma: literature summary and novel case report.

    PubMed

    Salijevska, Julita; Watson, Robert; Clifford, Amy; Ritchie, Andrew I; Mauri, Francisco; Adeboyeku, David

    2015-07-01

    Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHE) is a rare malignant cancer of vascular origin that can affect multiple and varied tissue sites. A subtype of EHE, pulmonary epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (PHE), is more unusual with only 200 reported cases. Of these, only 27 have been classified as pleural in origin. Based on available literature, the average age of presentation of pleural PHE is 45.7 years with a male preponderance of 2.375. A summary of all published case reports reveals significant heterogeneity both in presentation and management. Here we add to this knowledge-base with a report of an unusual case of pleural PHE in a 36-year-old female who presented with a 6-week history of chest pain and breathlessness. Significant challenges in the diagnosis and management of patients with pleural PHE exist, including a wide initial differential diagnosis and difficulties in obtaining tissue specimens, coupled with relatively limited treatment options. Early referral to a cardiothoracic center for video-assisted thoracoscopic biopsy is crucial in facilitating a diagnosis and allowing adequate pleural drainage for symptomatic relief. PMID:26015825

  10. Percutaneous treatment of subarachnoid-pleural fistula with Onyx.

    PubMed

    Knafo, Steven; Parker, Fabrice; Herbrecht, Anne; Court, Charles; Saliou, Guillaume

    2013-04-01

    Subarachnoid-pleural fistula is a well-described complication after anterior surgery for thoracic disc herniation, but is difficult to treat by means of traditional chest and lumbar drains due to interference by positive ventilation pressures that may keep the fistula open and prevent proper closure. Current treatment strategies include surgical repair, which is technically challenging, and noninvasive positive pressure ventilation, which can take several weeks to be effective. In this report, the authors describe a novel treatment for subarachnoid-pleural fistula using percutaneous obliteration with Onyx. Surgery for removal of a T7-8 disc herniation associated with ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament was performed in a 56-year-old woman via an anterior transthoracic transpleural approach. Ten days after surgery, she presented with diplopia due to a subarachnoid-pleural fistula that was confirmed by CT myelography. Percutaneous injection of Onyx was performed under local anesthesia. Postprocedure CT showed complete obliteration of the fistula with no adverse events. A CT scan obtained 1 month later showed complete resolution of the pleural effusion. Neurological examination at 3 months postsurgery was normal. Clinical and radiological follow-up at 1 year showed complete recovery and no sign of fistula recurrence. Percutaneous treatment for subarachnoid-pleural fistula is an easy, safe, and effective strategy and can therefore be proposed as a first-line option for this challenging complication. PMID:23432323

  11. Emergency operation of a patient with spontaneous rupture and massive hemorrhage of pleural solitary fibrous tumor.

    PubMed

    Shao, Feng; Yang, Rusong; Pan, Yanqing

    2014-10-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare pleural disease with asymptomatic clinical course. We report a case of a patient with spontaneous rupture and massive hemorrhage of pleural SFT, which was treated by emergency operation. PMID:25364532

  12. Combined Assessment of High-Sensitivity Troponin T and Noninvasive Coronary Plaque Composition for the Prediction of Cardiac Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Gitsioudis, Gitsios; Schüssler, Alena; Nagy, Eszter; Maurovich-Horvat, Pál; Buss, Sebastian J; Voss, Andreas; Hosch, Waldemar; Hofmann, Nina; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Giannitsis, Evangelos; Katus, Hugo A; Korosoglou, Grigorios

    2015-07-01

    Purpose To determine the risk-stratification ability of plaque volume and composition assessment with cardiac computed tomographic (CT) angiography and high-sensitivity troponin T (hsTnT) in patients at intermediate risk for coronary artery disease (CAD). Materials and Methods The study complied with the Declaration of Helsinki and was approved by the local ethics committee. All patients gave written informed consent. Five hundred twenty-one consecutive patients (mean age ± standard deviation, 62 years ± 10; 256 men and 265 women) were included in this prospective, observational, longitudinal, single-center study. Quantitative cardiac CT angiography analysis was performed in all patients (for 7690 coronary segments), whereas biomarkers (hsTnT and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein) were available in 408 patients (78%). To evaluate the incremental value of cardiac CT angiography and hsTnT for the prediction of cardiovascular events, multivariate Cox regression and integrated discrimination improvement analysis were applied. Results In 521 patients, 13 hard cardiac events occurred during a mean follow-up period of 2.3 years ± 1.1 (median, 2.4 years; range, 0.5-4.5 years), while 23 patients underwent late coronary revascularization. The Duke clinical score was 51% ± 30, indicating intermediate risk. The presence of no plaques or purely calcified versus noncalcified plaques, plaque volume according to tertiles, and increased hsTnT (?14 pg/mL) was independently associated with hard cardiac events (hazard ratio [HR] = 26.08, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.78, 244.99; HR = 12.14, 95% CI: 1.87, 78.74; and HR = 10.31, 95% CI: 2.72, 39.0, respectively; P < .01 for all). Patients with increased hsTnT and plaque burden (n = 53) showed the highest incidence for hard cardiac events (annual rate, 12.7%), followed by those with either increased hsTnT or plaque burden (n = 145; annual rate = 0.44%, P < .03), while those with lower hsTnT and plaque burden exhibited excellent outcomes and no hard event during the follow-up duration (n = 210; annual rate = 0%, P < .001). Conclusion Use of hsTnT as a marker of myocardial microinjury and cardiac CT angiography as a marker of the total atherosclerotic burden improves the prediction of cardiac outcome in patients with presumably stable CAD and may aid in personalized risk stratification in patients at intermediate risk. (©) RSNA, 2015 Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:25734549

  13. Primary pleural epithelioid hemangioendothelioma mimicking as a posterior mediastinal tumor

    PubMed Central

    Wethasinghe, James; Sood, Jaideep; Walmsley, Russell; Milne, David; Jafer, Ali; Gordon-Glassford, Noel

    2015-01-01

    A 41-year-old man with no previous asbestos exposure presented with 6 months of dull right lower chest pain and weight loss. The initial computed tomography (CT) scan was reported as showing a soft tissue thickening in the posterior mediastinum with non-specific nodules in the horizontal and oblique fissures. An endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration from the 12?×?25?mm heterogeneous posterior mediastinal mass was suspicious for a ganglioneuroma. The procedure was complicated by a large hemothorax requiring drainage. A subsequent positron emission tomographic CT revealed a moderately fluorodeoxyglucose avid area of pleural thickening extending from the sixth to ninth thoracic vertebral body in the paraspinal region along with nodules along the right horizontal and oblique fissures. A thoracoscopic biopsy of the pleural lesion confirmed a pleural epithelioid hemangioendothelioma. There was a 5-mm reduction in tumor thickness and improvement in his pain following 54?Gy of radiotherapy.

  14. The role of pleuroscopy in undiagnosed exudative pleural effusion

    PubMed Central

    Prabhu, V. G.; Narasimhan, R.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: To find the diagnostic yield of a pleuroscopic pleural biopsy and to find the complication rates. Settings and Design: Institutional based prospective study. Materials and Methods: Sixty-eight consecutive patients who had undiagnosed exudative pleural effusion were recruited for pleuroscopy from September 2007 to August 2010. Results: A total of 68 patients (55 males and 13 females; mean age 49 years) underwent pleuroscopy. Malignancy was diagnosed in 24 patients, 22 patients had non-specific inflammation, tuberculosis was found in 16 patients, empyema was found in 2 patients, 1 patient had sarcoidosis, 1 patient had normal pleura and it was non-diagnostic in 2 patients. The diagnostic yield was 97%. There were no major complications, only four patients had minor complication like subcutaneous emphysema (three patients) and prolonged air leak (one patient). Conclusions: Pleuroscopy is a safe, simple, and valuable tool in the diagnosis of undiagnosed exudative pleural effusion with minimal complication rates. PMID:22628926

  15. PLAQUE:PLAQUE: What it is and how to get rid of it

    E-print Network

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    . Red, puffy or bleeding gums can be the first signs of gum disease. If gum disease is not treated for keeping your teeth and gums ­healthy plus seeing your dentist regularly--you can have your teeth and stick to the teeth. · Some types of plaque cause tooth decay. · Other types of plaque cause gum disease

  16. Immune responses and immunotherapeutic interventions in malignant pleural mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Bograd, Adam J.; Suzuki, Kei; Vertes, Eva; Colovos, Christos; Morales, Eduardo A.; Sadelain, Michel; Adusumilli, Prasad S.

    2012-01-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive, primary pleural malignancy with poor prognosis, hypothesized to originate from a chronic inflammatory state within the pleura. Similar to what has been observed in other solid tumors (melanoma, ovarian and colorectal cancer), clinical and pre-clinical MPM investigations have correlated anti-tumor immune responses with improved survival. As such, a better understanding of the complex MPM tumor microenvironment is imperative in strategizing successful immunotherapies. Herein, we review the immune responses vital to the development and progression of MPM, as well as assess the role of immunomodulatory therapies, highlighting recent pre-clinical and clinical immunotherapy investigations. PMID:21913025

  17. Talc pleurodesis through indwelling pleural catheters for malignant pleural effusions: retrospective case series of a novel clinical pathway.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Liju; Ip, Hugh; Rao, Deepak; Patel, Nishil; Noorzad, Farinaz

    2014-12-01

    Malignant pleural effusions cause significant morbidity, but there is no gold standard minimally invasive treatment. A new therapeutic approach combines talc pleurodesis and indwelling pleural catheters (IPCs) to enable outpatient management. This case series summarizes the safety and efficacy data of all patients (24) with a symptomatic malignant pleural effusion who underwent talc pleurodeses via IPCs between December 2010 and July 2013. Successful pleurodesis was achieved in 22 procedures (92%). There was one empyema, one hydropneumothorax, one recurrent effusion, and two minor complications: one drain site wound infection and one complaint of chest pain. Twenty-two procedures (92%) were performed in the outpatient setting. This report confirms the safety and efficacy of administering talc slurry through IPCs in an outpatient setting. Studies in a larger cohort are necessary to define the role of this novel approach in the treatment algorithm of patients with this condition. PMID:25451360

  18. Use of pleural fluid ceruloplasmin in the differentiation of exudative and transudative pleural effusion

    PubMed Central

    Shanthaveeranna, Girish K.; Thykadavil, Vinod G.; D’souza, George A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Differentiating into transudate or exudate is the first step in the evaluation of effusions. Light's criteria is the standard but a significant number of transudates may not be differentiated based on these criteria. Acute phase proteins (APP) are present in plasma, which increase or decrease by about 25% during an acute inflammatory response. Ceruloplasmin (CP) is a positive APP. Hence, this study was done to know the diagnostic value of pleural fluid (pf) CP and pf to serum ceruloplasmin ratio (CPr) to differentiate the pleural effusion (PE) into exudate and transudate as compared to Light's criteria. Materials and Methods: Setting: Medical wards of St John's Medical College Hospital, Bangalore. Design: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Patients with PE were divided into exudate and transudate by definitive diagnosis. pfCP, CPr and Light's criteria were compared with definitive diagnosis for the differentiation of pf into exudate and transudate. Results: The mean value of the pfCP and CPr was found to be significantly different between exudates and transudates. Sensitivity and specificity of pfCP at ? 13.34 mg/dl is 89.7% and 83.3%, CPr at ? 0.37 is 91.4% and 83.3%, Light's criteria 94.82% and 83.3%, respectively. Light's criteria, pfCP and CPr have similar PPV (98%) with Light's criteria having higher NPV (62.5%) than pfCP (45%) and CPr (50%), respectively. CPr has higher NPV than pfCP. Conclusions: pfCP and CPr can differentiate pf into exudate and transudate with comparable PPV to Light's criteria. PMID:25624589

  19. Hyperspectral imaging of atherosclerotic plaques in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Eivind L. P.; Randeberg, Lise L.; Olstad, Elisabeth; Haugen, Olav A.; Aksnes, Astrid; Svaasand, Lars O.

    2011-02-01

    Vulnerable plaques constitute a risk for serious heart problems, and are difficult to identify using existing methods. Hyperspectral imaging combines spectral- and spatial information, providing new possibilities for precise optical characterization of atherosclerotic lesions. Hyperspectral data were collected from excised aorta samples (n = 11) using both white-light and ultraviolet illumination. Single lesions (n = 42) were chosen for further investigation, and classified according to histological findings. The corresponding hyperspectral images were characterized using statistical image analysis tools (minimum noise fraction, K-means clustering, principal component analysis) and evaluation of reflectance/fluorescence spectra. Image analysis combined with histology revealed the complexity and heterogeneity of aortic plaques. Plaque features such as lipids and calcifications could be identified from the hyperspectral images. Most of the advanced lesions had a central region surrounded by an outer rim or shoulder-region of the plaque, which is considered a weak spot in vulnerable lesions. These features could be identified in both the white-light and fluorescence data. Hyperspectral imaging was shown to be a promising tool for detection and characterization of advanced atherosclerotic plaques in vitro. Hyperspectral imaging provides more diagnostic information about the heterogeneity of the lesions than conventional single point spectroscopic measurements.

  20. Induction of calcification in rabbit aortas by high cholesterol diets: roles of calcifiable vesicles in dystrophic calcification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Howard H. T Hsu; Nancy C Camacho; Ossama Tawfik; Francis Sun

    2002-01-01

    Atherosclerotic calcification may weaken the aorta wall and thereby lead to rupture of the vessel. The mechanism whereby aortas undergo calcification remains unclear. Previous reports in this laboratory showed that, after 2 months of cholesterol-supplemental feeding, an increase in calcifiability of membrane vesicles isolated from rabbit aortas precedes substantial arterial calcification. Further, the mineral was deposited by isolated calcifiable vesicles

  1. Differential responses of calcifying and non-calcifying epibionts of a brown macroalga to present-day and future upwelling pCO2.

    PubMed

    Saderne, Vincent; Wahl, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Seaweeds are key species of the Baltic Sea benthic ecosystems. They are the substratum of numerous fouling epibionts like bryozoans and tubeworms. Several of these epibionts bear calcified structures and could be impacted by the high pCO2 events of the late summer upwellings in the Baltic nearshores. Those events are expected to increase in strength and duration with global change and ocean acidification. If calcifying epibionts are impacted by transient acidification as driven by upwelling events, their increasing prevalence could cause a shift of the fouling communities toward fleshy species. The aim of the present study was to test the sensitivity of selected seaweed macrofoulers to transient elevation of pCO2 in their natural microenvironment, i.e. the boundary layer covering the thallus surface of brown seaweeds. Fragments of the macroalga Fucus serratus bearing an epibiotic community composed of the calcifiers Spirorbis spirorbis (Annelida) and Electra pilosa (Bryozoa) and the non-calcifier Alcyonidium hirsutum (Bryozoa) were maintained for 30 days under three pCO2 conditions: natural 460 ± 59 µatm, present-day upwelling1193 ± 166 µatm and future upwelling 3150 ± 446 µatm. Only the highest pCO2 caused a significant reduction of growth rates and settlement of S. spirorbis individuals. Additionally, S. spirorbis settled juveniles exhibited enhanced calcification of 40% during daylight hours compared to dark hours, possibly reflecting a day-night alternation of an acidification-modulating effect by algal photosynthesis as opposed to an acidification-enhancing effect of algal respiration. E. pilosa colonies showed significantly increased growth rates at intermediate pCO2 (1193 µatm) but no response to higher pCO2. No effect of acidification on A. hirsutum colonies growth rates was observed. The results suggest a remarkable resistance of the algal macro-epibionts to levels of acidification occurring at present day upwellings in the Baltic. Only extreme future upwelling conditions impacted the tubeworm S. spirorbis, but not the bryozoans. PMID:23894659

  2. Analysis of mycoplasmal pleural effusion by the polymerase chain reaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mitsuo Narita; Yoshihiro Matsuzono; Osamu Itakura; Satoshi Yamada; Takehiro Togashi

    1998-01-01

    Ten pediatric patients with mycoplasmal pleuritis were tested for the presence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in pleural fluid by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Three of the four PCR positive cases left a persistent consolidation. The remaining one was an infant who required mechanical ventilation. PCR may be useful in predicting delayed resolution of roent- genographic abnormality.

  3. Massive pleural effusion in a renal transplant recipient on tacrolimus

    PubMed Central

    Nayagam, L. S.; Vijayanand, B.; Balasubramanian, S.

    2014-01-01

    Fluid and salt retention have been described as a side effect of tacrolimus therapy. We report a case of unexplained massive fluid retention with pleural effusion and ascites in the immediate post-transplant period. The patient recovered immediately on conversion from tacrolimus to sirolimus. PMID:25249724

  4. Three-Dimensional Stereoscopic Volume Rendering of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Mollberg, Nathan M.; Parsad, Nigel M.; Armato, Samuel G.; Vigneswaran, Janani; Kindler, Hedy L.; Sensakovic, William F.; Salgia, Ravi; Silverstein, Jonathan C.; Vigneswaran, Wickii T.

    2012-01-01

    Our objective was to investigate the application of three-dimensional (3D) stereoscopic volume rendering with perceptual colorization on preoperative imaging for malignant pleural mesothelioma. At present, we have prospectively enrolled 6 patients being considered for resection of malignant pleural mesothelioma that have undergone a multidetector-row computed tomography (CT) scan of the chest. The CT data sets were volume rendered without preprocessing. The resultant 3D rendering was displayed stereoscopically and used to provide information regarding tumor extent, morphology, and anatomic involvement. To demonstrate this technique, this information was compared with the corresponding two-dimensional CT grayscale axial images from two of these patients. Three-dimensional stereoscopic reconstructions of the CT data sets provided detailed information regarding the local extent of tumor that could be used for preoperative surgical planning. Three-dimensional stereoscopic volume rendering for malignant pleural mesothelioma is a novel approach. Combined with our innovative perceptual colorization algorithm, stereoscopic volumetric analysis potentially allows for the accurate determination of the extent of pleural mesothelioma with results difficult to duplicate using grayscale, multiplanar CT images. PMID:23102002

  5. Pleural effusions in lymphoblastic lymphoma: A diagnostic alternative

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beverly E. Chaignaud; Timothy A. Bonsack; Harry P. Kozakewich; Robert C. Shamberger

    1998-01-01

    Background: Children with large anterior mediastinal masses frequently present with severe respiratory compromise and often pose a difficult diagnostic dilemma. A biopsy is preferred for diagnosis before treatment can begin; however, many of these children are at risk of acute clinical deterioration and cardiovascular arrest with the induction of anesthesia. The authors noted a correlation between pleural effusions and lymphoblastic

  6. Effect of gum chewing on plaque accumulation.

    PubMed

    Hoerman, K C; Gasior, E J; Zibell, S E; Record, D; Flowerdew, G

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to test the effect of chewing gum sweetened with either sorbitol (LG) or sucrose (SG) on the growth of plaque on tooth enamel surfaces. Nineteen dental students, in a balanced crossover design, chewed the two gums for 5 days without normal oral hygiene practices. The control treatment was a 5-day non-chewing (NG) phase. A period of 9 days was allowed for normal hygiene between test phases. The chewing regimen required 20 minutes of use of one stick of chewing gum immediately after meals or snacks. The average number of sticks chewed was 3.8/day. Pre- and post-treatment plaque scores were recorded by two examiners using a Modified Navy Plaque Index (PLI) from 0 to 9 along each of four surfaces to assess six Ramfjord teeth. Pre-treatment mean PLI scores for the 3 test treatments were, NG = 2.0, LG = 1.9 and SG = 1.9. Post-treatment mean PLI scores were, NG = 3.6, LG = 3.3 and SG = 3.3. ANOVA of pre- and post-treatment scores revealed no significant differences between treatments. Post-treatment scores of the 2 chewing gums were then pooled, independent of sweetener. ANOVA of these data revealed chewing gum (LG + SG = 3.3) to cause significantly less plaque accumulation than no gum (NG = 3.6). In a no oral hygiene environment, plaque accumulation during use of sorbitol chewing gum or sucrose chewing gum was statistically the same. However, chewing gum, irrespective of sweetener, caused significantly less plaque accumulation than no chewing. PMID:2133390

  7. Clinical Significance of Soluble CD26 in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Fujimoto, Nobukazu; Ohnuma, Kei; Aoe, Keisuke; Hosono, Osamu; Yamada, Taketo; Kishimoto, Takumi; Morimoto, Chikao

    2014-01-01

    There is no established single diagnostic marker for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). CD26 is a 110 kDa, multifunctional, membrane-bound glycoprotein that has dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV) enzyme activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical significance of soluble CD26 (sCD26) in patients with MPM. The study included 80 MPM patients, 79 subjects with past asbestos exposure (SPE), and 134 patients with other benign pleural diseases (OPD) that were included as a control group. sCD26 levels and DPPIV activity in serum and/or pleural fluid were determined using an ELISA kit. Serum sCD26 levels and DPPIV enzyme activity in patients with MPM were significantly decreased compared with those in the SPE group (P?=?0.000). The level of serum sCD26 was significantly decreased in patients with advanced stages of MPM compared with those with earlier stages (P?=?0.047). The median OS of patients with MPM who had higher DPPIV enzyme activity was significantly longer than that of those with lower DPPIV enzyme activity (P?=?0.032). The sCD26 levels in the pleural fluid of MPM patients with an epithelioid subtype were significantly increased compared with the OPD cohort (P?=?0.012). Moreover, DPPIV enzyme activity in the pleural fluid of patients with MPM with an epithelioid subtype were significantly increased compared with those in the OPD cohort (P?=?0.009). Patients with MPM who had lower specific DPPIV activity, determined as DPPIV/sCD26, showed significantly prolonged survival compared with those with higher specific DPPIV activity (P?=?0.028). Serum sCD26 and DPPIV enzyme activity appear to be useful biomarkers for differentiating patients with MPM from SPE. The sCD26 levels or DPPIV enzyme activity in pleural fluid appear to be biomarkers in patients with an epithelioid subtype of MPM. DPPIV activity in serum or pleural fluid appears to be predictive for the prognosis of patients with MPM. PMID:25526639

  8. Assessment of vulnerable plaque composition by matching the deformation of a parametric plaque model to measured plaque deformation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Radj A. Baldewsing; Johannes A. Schaar; Frits Mastik; Cees. W. J. Oomens; Antonius F. W. van der Steen

    2005-01-01

    Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) elastography visualizes local radial strain of arteries in so-called elastograms to detect rupture-prone plaques. However, due to the unknown arterial stress distribution these elastograms cannot be directly interpreted as a morphology and material composition image. To overcome this limitation we have developed a method that reconstructs a Young's modulus image from an elastogram. This method is especially

  9. 18. Photocopy of drawing of bronze dedication plaque, circa 1903 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Photocopy of drawing of bronze dedication plaque, circa 1903 (original drawing in possession of City Engineer's Office Grand Rapids, Michigan) DEDICATION PLAQUE. - Bridge Street Bridge, Spanning Grand River, Michigan & Bridge Streets, Grand Rapids, Kent County, MI

  10. Estimation of nonlinear mechanical properties of atherosclerotic plaques

    E-print Network

    Zhu, Ting F. (Ting Fredrick)

    2005-01-01

    A numerical method has been developed to estimate the mechanical properties of atherosclerotic plaques by combining genetic algorithm with finite element methods. Plaque images derived from optical coherence tomography ...

  11. Coronary CT Angiography in the Quantitative Assessment of Coronary Plaques

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) has been recently evaluated for its ability to assess coronary plaque characteristics, including plaque composition. Identification of the relationship between plaque composition by CCTA and patient clinical presentations may provide insight into the pathophysiology of coronary artery plaque, thus assisting identification of vulnerable plaques which are associated with the development of acute coronary syndrome. CCTA-generated 3D visualizations allow evaluation of both coronary lesions and lumen changes, which are considered to enhance the diagnostic performance of CCTA. The purpose of this review is to discuss the recent developments that have occurred in the field of CCTA with regard to its diagnostic accuracy in the quantitative assessment of coronary plaques, with a focus on the characterization of plaque components and identification of vulnerable plaques. PMID:25162010

  12. CT Features of an unusual calcified schwannoma of the superior laryngeal nerve.

    PubMed

    Moroni, A-L; Righini, C; Faure, C; Serra-Tosio, G; Lefournier, V

    2007-05-01

    We report the CT findings in a patient with a lateral neck mass histologically diagnosed as a laryngeal schwannoma but presenting some uncommon CT features. CT showed unusual calcified components, very rarely observed and potentially misleading for diagnosis. However, this imaging feature can be found in ancient schwannomas. Our case is, therefore, a very rare one and reviews the main differential diagnoses. PMID:17494683

  13. Long-Term Trends in Calcifying Plankton and pH in the North Sea

    PubMed Central

    Beare, Doug; McQuatters-Gollop, Abigail; van der Hammen, Tessa; Machiels, Marcel; Teoh, Shwu Jiau; Hall-Spencer, Jason M.

    2013-01-01

    Relationships between six calcifying plankton groups and pH are explored in a highly biologically productive and data-rich area of the central North Sea using time-series datasets. The long-term trends show that abundances of foraminiferans, coccolithophores, and echinoderm larvae have risen over the last few decades while the abundances of bivalves and pteropods have declined. Despite good coverage of pH data for the study area there is uncertainty over the quality of this historical dataset; pH appears to have been declining since the mid 1990s but there was no statistical connection between the abundance of the calcifying plankton and the pH trends. If there are any effects of pH on calcifying plankton in the North Sea they appear to be masked by the combined effects of other climatic (e.g. temperature), chemical (nutrient concentrations) and biotic (predation) drivers. Certain calcified plankton have proliferated in the central North Sea, and are tolerant of changes in pH that have occurred since the 1950s but bivalve larvae and pteropods have declined. An improved monitoring programme is required as ocean acidification may be occurring at a rate that will exceed the environmental niches of numerous planktonic taxa, testing their capacities for acclimation and genetic adaptation. PMID:23658686

  14. Calcified epibionts as palaeoecological tools: examples from the Recent and Pleistocene reefs of Barbados

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Martindale

    1992-01-01

    Calcified epibionts (crustose coralline algae, bryozoans, foraminiferans and serpulid worms) which colinize primary framebuilders of Recent Barbados reefs exhibit a well-defined zonation of species and morphological growth forms in response to environmental factors such as water turbulence and light. Exposed environments are characterized by thick crusts of coralline algae whereas cryptic environments are dominated by thin crusts of algae, bryozoans,

  15. A Novel Cl Inward-Rectifying Current in the Plasma Membrane of the Calcifying Marine Phytoplankton

    E-print Network

    Taylor, Alison

    rectifier that tightly regulates membrane potential. Membrane depolarization gave rise to nonselectiveA Novel Cl Inward-Rectifying Current in the Plasma Membrane of the Calcifying Marine Phytoplankton Kingdom, The Laboratory, Citadel Hill, Plymouth PL1 2PB, United Kingdom We investigated the membrane

  16. Cognitive Performance of Patients with Epilepsy and Calcified Neurocysticercotic Lesions: A Case–Control Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C. P Boppré; P. R Wille; R Guarnieri; K Rezek; C Carqueja; P. C Trevisol-Bittencourt; J. C Walz; M Bianchin; A von Wangenheim; M. L Chaves; R Walz

    2001-01-01

    Neuropsychological tests were applied to 20 patients with focal epilepsy related to calcified neurocysticercosis (NCC) (mean: three lesions\\/patient; NCC group), 22 patients with focal epilepsy without NCC (EPI group), and 29 healthy controls matched for age, sex, and educational level. The EPI and NCC groups were matched for age at onset of epilepsy, epilepsy duration, frequency of attacks, seizure semiology,

  17. Massively calcified intravascular cast after removal of a tunneled central vein catheter for hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Capitanini, Alessandro; Ricci, Enrico; Frosini, Pierfrancesco; Cupisti, Adamasco

    2013-01-01

    Vascular calcifications usually affect the arteries, while central vein calcifications are rare. A 45-year-old hemodialysis patient underwent a chest CT scan before central vein catheterization required for arteriovenous access thrombosis, in July 2011. He was on hemodialysis since 1995 and from 2005 on warfarin treatment because of repeated thrombosis and dysfunction of arteriovenous fistula and central vein catheters (CVC). A previous tunneled CVC placed in the left external jugular vein was removed in December 2010. Eight months later a chest CT scan showed a 79-mm irregular, linear, tubular radiopaque density in the superior vena cava and left brachiocephalic vein. The possibility of a retained catheter fragment was considered, but the final diagnosis was: calcified "cast" adherent to the vessel wall. This is the first report of an intravenous calcified "cast" (originating from peri-catheter calcification) retained after removal of a tunneled dialysis CVC. This finding is significant because it mimics a retained catheter fragment possibly leading to misdiagnosis and exposing patients to additional risk for unnecessary retrieving interventions. Catheter removal or over the wire substitution in the presence of a calcified cast could also be considered a risky procedure. Retained calcified cast should be included among the long-term complications of hemodialysis CVCs. At the time of publication, the patient is alive without any complication related to the pathology reported. PMID:23147749

  18. Perilesional brain edema and seizure activity in patients with calcified neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Nash, Theodore E.; Pretell, E. Javier; Lescano, Andres. G.; Bustos, Javier A.; Gilman, Robert H.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Garcia, Héctor H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Cysticercosis due to Taenia solium is a leading cause of adult acquired seizures and epilepsy that frequently occurs in patients with only calcified larval cysts. Transient episodes of perilesional brain edema occur around calcified foci but its importance, association with seizures, incidence, and pathophysiology are unknown. Methods One hundred and ten persons with only calcified lesions and a history of seizures or severe headaches were followed prospectively in a cohort design to assess the incidence of seizure relapses. In a nested case-control sub study, perilesional edema was assessed by MRI at the time a seizure occurred in the symptomatic patient and in a matched asymptomatic control, amongst the 110 followed. Results Median follow up was 32.33 months (SD 19.99). Twenty-nine people had an incident seizure with an estimated 5 year seizure incidence of 36%. Twenty-four patients of the 29 with seizure relapse had an MRI evaluation within five days of the event. Perilesional edema was found in 12 (50.0%) compared to 2 of 23 asymptomatic matched controls (8.7%). Conclusions Perilesional edema occurs frequently and is associated with episodic seizure activity in calcified neurocysticercosis. Our findings are likely representative of symptomatic patients in endemic regions and suggest a unique and possibly preventable cause of seizures in this population. PMID:18986841

  19. Calcified inclusions in the superficial pineal gland of the mongolian gerbil, Meriones unguiculatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joan L. Japha; Thomas J. Eder; Eli D. Goldsmith

    1976-01-01

    A histological and histochemical study of the pineal gland of neonatal, juvenile and adult gerbils is described. Calcified inclusions appear within pinealocytes in the superficial pineal about the third week of age, and the incidence of inclusions increases with age until, by the eleventh week, they are found in all animals. The inclusions contain an organic matrix composed of a

  20. The Elastic Lamellae of Devitalized Arteries Calcify When Incubated in Serum

    E-print Network

    Price, Paul A.

    The Elastic Lamellae of Devitalized Arteries Calcify When Incubated in Serum Evidence for a Serum whether serum contains an activity that induces artery calcification. Methods and Results--The elastic circulation. The SCF does not initiate medial elastin calcification in living arteries, which suggests

  1. Comparative studies of inorganic carbon utilization in Emiliania huxleyi and some non-calcifying marine microalgae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Liang-Feng; Merrett, M. J.; Wu, Chao-Yuan

    1999-09-01

    Inorganic carbon utilization in the non-calcifying marine microalgae, Nannochloropsis oculata, Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Porphyridium purpureum was compared with high- and low-calcifying strains of Emiliania huxleyi grown in artificial seawater medium aerated with either air (0.03% V/V CO2) or CO2-free air. For high-calcifying strain of E. oculata and P. tricornutem, similar growth patterns were observed in air-and CO2-free air-grown cultures. P. purpureum showed a less final cell density in CO2-free air than in air-grown culture. However, low-calcifying strain of E. huxleyi was able to grow only in air-grown culture, but not in CO2-free air-grown culture. Measurements of alkalinity, pH, concentration of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and free CO2 showed different patterns of DIC utilization. With N. oculata, P. tricornutum and P. purpureum the pattern of DIC utilization was characterized by an increase of pH and a decrease of DIC but a constant alkalinity in the cultures aerated with air or CO2-free air, suggesting that bicarbonate utilization was concomitant with an efflux of OH-. Both alkalinity and pH were maintained rather constant in air-grown culture of low-calcifying strain of E. huxleyi, suggesting that diffusive entry of CO2 could meet the requirement of DIC for its photosynthesis and growth. High-calcifying strain of E. huxleyi, however, showed a pattern of decrease of alkalinity and DIC but an almost constant pH, indicating that bicarbonate was the major form of inorganic carbon utilised by this organism and bicarbonate uptake is unlikely to be accompanied by an efflux of OH-. The final pH values reached by N. oculata, P. tricornutum and P. purpureum in a closed system were 10.75, 10.60 and 9.85 respectively, showing that bicarbonate utilisation is concomitant with an efflux of OH-. While the final pH of 8.4 in high-calcifying E. huxleyi suggests that bicarbonate utilization was not accompanied by an efflux of OH-.

  2. Microanalysis of Senile Plaques Using Nuclear Microscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judith Landsberg; Brendan McDonald; Geoff Grime; Frank Watt

    1993-01-01

    Silver-staining “senile” plaques occurring in the brain are a major part of the pathology of Alzheimer's disease. The elemental composition of these structures, and the possible presence of aluminum and silicon in these structures, has been the subject of an increasing research effort over the last decade. However, the results have often been contradictory.Using a scanning proton microprobe, the elemental

  3. Biomechanics of Plaque Rupture: Progress, Problems, and New Frontiers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter D. Richardson

    2002-01-01

    Plaque rupture has become identified as a critical step in the evolution of arterial plaques, especially as clinically significant events occur in critical arteries. It has become common in the past dozen years or so to consider which plaques are vulnerable, even though not yet ruptured. Thrombotic events have remained significant, but in a context where they are seen as

  4. In vivo imaging reveals sigmoidal growth kinetic of ?-amyloid plaques

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A major neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease is the deposition of amyloid plaques in the brains of affected individuals. Amyloid plaques mainly consist of fibrillar ?-amyloid, which is a cleavage product of the amyloid precursor protein. The amyloid-cascade-hypothesis postulates A? accumulation as the central event in initiating a toxic cascade leading to Alzheimer’s disease pathology and, ultimately, loss of cognitive function. We studied the kinetics of ?-amyloid deposition in Tg2576 mice, which overexpress human amyloid precursor protein with the Swedish mutation. Utilizing long-term two-photon imaging we were able to observe the entire kinetics of plaque growth in vivo. Essentially, we observed that plaque growth follows a sigmoid-shaped curve comprising a cubic growth phase, followed by saturation. In contrast, plaque density kinetics exhibited an asymptotic progression. Taking into account the fact that a critical concentration of A? is required to seed new plaques, we can propose the following kinetic model of ?-amyloid deposition in vivo. In the early cubic phase, plaque growth is not limited by A? concentration and plaque density increases very fast. During the transition phase, plaque density stabilizes whereas plaque volume increases strongly reflecting a robust growth of the plaques. In the late asymptotic phase, A? peptide production becomes rate-limiting for plaque growth. In conclusion, the present study offers a direct link between in vitro and in vivo studies facilitating the translation of A?-lowering strategies from laboratory models to patients. PMID:24678659

  5. New concepts in the composition, crystallization and growth of the mineral component of calcified tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montel, G.; Bonel, G.; Heughebaert, J. C.; Trombe, J. C.; Rey, C.

    1981-05-01

    Several difficulties arise when studying the mineral component of calcified tissues: this material is complex, due to the large number of atomic components; it is poorly crystallized, heterogeneous, and varies with different factors (animal species, kind of bone, age, sampling zone, etc.); it is strongly linked to the organic component (collagen, etc.), and today no available technique allows a complete separation of these two components without alteration of one of the other. Research on synthetic materials allows the elaboration of some models to account, at least partially, for the nature and properties of the calcified-tissue mineral component. So, glycine fixation by apatite constitutes the first model of the collagen-apatite bond. The introduction of carbonate ions into the apatitic lattice can take place in two kinds of site, and under different forms. The replacement of PO 3-4 ions by HPO 2-4 can also be observed. The properties of phosphates depend on the presence of these various substituents, and therefore such substitutions can play an important role in phosphate behaviour in biological media. The study of the hydrolysis and crystallization of amorphous phosphate into apatite leads to new conceptions relative to the possible existence of an amorphous "phase" in calcified tissues. The conversion of amorphous phosphates to crystalline apatite is dependent on numerous ions (Mg 2+, P 2O 4-7, CO 32-, etc.). Studies on synthetic materials can be regarded as a basis for the further study of calcified tissues, partic ularly to determine their constitution and properties. Besides, such studies enable the synthesis of materials, for implants, very similar to calcified tissues.

  6. Pleural calcification, pleural mesotheliomas, and bronchial cancers caused by tremolite dust.

    PubMed

    Yazicioglu, S; Ilçayto, R; Balci, K; Sayli, B S; Yorulmaz, B

    1980-08-01

    Around the town of Cermik in south-east Turkey there are many deposits of asbestiform minerals, some of which are used to make whitewash or stucco. A sample of 7000 of the population revealed 461 (6.5%) with pleural thickening and calcification, of whom 103 (1.47% of the total) had evidence of interstitial pulmonary fibrosis. Forty-one patients with respiratory cancer were admitted to the Diyarbakir Chest Hospital from around Cermik and from a comparable area of equal population (but without asbestos deposits) in 1977-8. Of these 23 were mesotheliomas, 22 coming from around Cermik. In addition, 11 of the 18 primary bronchial cancers came from around Cermik. A similar excess of mesothelioma and bronchial cancer had been admitted from the Cermik area in previous years. The whitewash or stucco material has been shown to contain fibrous tremolite and non-fibrous antigorite/lizardite, chlorite, and talc. A lung biopsy of a patient from Cermik contained large numbers of tremolite fibres, both free and forming asbestos bodies. There were only occasional chrysotile fibres. PMID:7444823

  7. Quantifying Effects of Plaque Structure and Material Properties on Stress Distributions in Human Atherosclerotic Plaques Using 3D FSI Models

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Dalin; Yang, Chun; Zheng, Jie; Woodard, Pamela K.; Saffitz, Jeffrey E.; Sicard, Gregorio A.; Pilgram, Thomas K.; Yuan, Chun

    2006-01-01

    Background Atherosclerotic plaques may rupture without warning and cause acute cardiovascular syndromes such as heart attack and stroke. Methods to assess plaque vulnerability noninvasively and predict possible plaque rupture are urgently needed. Method MRI-based three-dimensional unsteady models for human atherosclerotic plaques with multi-component plaque structure and fluid-structure interactions are introduced to perform mechanical analysis for human atherosclerotic plaques. Results Stress variations on critical sites such as a thin cap in the plaque can be 300% higher than that at other normal sites. Large calcification block considerably changes stress/strain distributions. Stiffness variations of plaque components (50% reduction or 100% increase) may affect maximal stress values by 20–50 %. Plaque cap erosion causes almost no change on maximal stress level at the cap, but leads to 50% increase in maximal strain value. Conclusions Effects caused by atherosclerotic plaque structure, cap thickness and erosion, material properties, and pulsating pressure conditions on stress/strain distributions in the plaque are quantified by extensive computational case studies and parameter evaluations. Computational mechanical analysis has good potential to improve accuracy of plaque vulnerability assessment. PMID:16502661

  8. Malignant pleural mesothelioma in Turkey, 2000-2002.

    PubMed

    Emri, Salih; Demir, Ahmet U

    2004-08-01

    Both asbestos and erionite related malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a serious health problem in Turkey. Erionite has a higher potency in the lung than asbestos and familial clustering of malignant mesothelioma suggests a genetic predisposition to this cancer among affected individuals. Neither Simian virus 40 (SV40) nor human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8) are co-factors in the pathenogenesis of environmentally induced mesothelioma. A survival advantage has been demonstrated in patients with asbestos-induced mesothelioma compared with erionite-induced mesothelioma. This together with the proliferation index (PI) can be used as an independent prognostic factor for patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma. It is envisaged that the application of these prognostic approaches together with the new TNM staging system will allow investigations to be more precisely carried out and evaluated. PMID:15261427

  9. Imaging of coronary atherosclerosis and identification of the vulnerable plaque

    PubMed Central

    de Feyter, P.J.; Serruys, P. W.; Nieman, K.; Mollet, N.; Cademartiri, F.; van Geuns, R. J.; Slager, C.; van der Steen, A.F.W.; Krams, R.; Schaar, J.A.; Wielopolski, P.; Pattynama, P.M.T.; Arampatzis, A.; van der Lugt, A.; Regar, E.; Ligthart, J.; Smits, P.

    2003-01-01

    Identification of the vulnerable plaque responsible for the occurrence of acute coronary syndromes and acute coronary death is a prerequisite for the stabilisation of this vulnerable plaque. Comprehensive coronary atherosclerosis imaging in clinical practice should involve visualisation of the entire coronary artery tree and characterisation of the plaque, including the three-dimensional morphology of the plaque, encroachment of the plaque on the vessel lumen, the major tissue components of the plaque, remodelling of the vessel and presence of inflammation. Obviously, no single diagnostic modality is available that provides such comprehensive imaging and unfortunately no diagnostic tool is available that unequivocally identifies the vulnerable plaque. The objective of this article is to discuss experience with currently available diagnostic modalities for coronary atherosclerosis imaging. In addition, a number of evolving techniques will be briefly discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7 PMID:25696244

  10. Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in malignant pleural mesothelioma: a possible guardian for long-term survival

    PubMed Central

    Zarogoulidis, Paul; Mavroudi, Maria; Porpodis, Konstantinos; Domvri, Kalliopi; Sakkas, Antonios; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Stylianaki, Aikaterini; Tsiotsios, Anastasios; Courcoutsakis, Nikolaos; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2012-01-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma is a rare and aggressive malignancy of the pleura correlated with exposure to asbestos, with a medium survival of 11–12 months after diagnosis. A case of a 67-year-old male who had previously worked in the asbestos industry and is a current smoker is reported. The computed tomography evaluation revealed a right pleural mass with pleural thickening, and the pleural biopsy confirmed a diagnosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma. He was treated with chemotherapy consisting of etoposide, paclitaxel, and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin hydrochloride. After completion of chemotherapy, radiologic evaluation confirmed a reduction of pleural thickening and improvement in his symptoms. A complete presentation of each drug formulation and characteristics are also included in this paper. The patient’s follow-up is continuing, and computed tomography reveals stable disease 9 years after initial examination. PMID:23055748

  11. "Dry" pleural mesothelioma successfully diagnosed on endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS)-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA).

    PubMed

    Lococo, Filippo; Rossi, Giulio; Agostini, Lorenzo; Filice, Angelina; Paci, Massimiliano; Rapicetta, Cristian; Ricchetti, Tommaso; Tenconi, Sara; Piro, Roberto; Sgarbi, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    The acquisition of histologic material is obligatory in order to establish the diagnosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). In particular, tissue acquisition in cases of "dry" MPM (focal pleural thickening without pleural effusion or mediastinal lymph node involvement) is usually performed via a thoracoscopic pleural biopsy. In contrast, the techniques for performing echoendoscopic (transbronchial or transesophageal) needle aspiration of pleural lesions have only rarely been reported due to the theoretical limitations of tissue acquisition in such cases. We herein report the first case of "dry" MPM successfully diagnosed via endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) in a 73-year-old man presenting with a pleural mass in the right costovertebral recess, adjacent to the carina. The patient underwent radical resection, and a definitive pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of epithelioid MPM. PMID:24583437

  12. Bilateral dissemination of malignant pleural mesothelioma via iatrogenic buffalo chest: a rare route of disease progression.

    PubMed

    Ikezoe, Kohei; Tanaka, Eisaku; Tanizawa, Kiminobu; Hashimoto, Seishu; Shindo, Toru; Noma, Satoshi; Kobashi, Yoichiro; Taguchi, Yoshio

    2012-09-01

    Buffalo chest refers to the pleuro-pleural communication that results in a single pleural cavity. Iatrogenic buffalo chest can occur following heart or heart-lung transplantation and other major thoracic surgeries. We present the case of malignant pleural mesothelioma in which iatrogenic buffalo chest after extended thymectomy caused bilateral pneumothoraces and contralateral dissemination of the disease. The free communication between bilateral pleural cavities had facilitated the rapid progression of tumor and the consequent bilateral malignant pleural effusions had made the management of disease much more difficult, leading to the early fatal outcome. To our knowledge, this is the first case of buffalo chest that was associated with bilateral malignant pleural effusions. PMID:22580971

  13. Role of therapeutic thoracentesis in tuberculous pleural effusion

    PubMed Central

    Bhuniya, Sourin; Arunabha, Datta C.; Choudhury, Sabyasachi; Saha, Indranil; Roy, T. Sumit; Saha, Mita

    2012-01-01

    CONTEXT: Prevalence of tuberculous pleural effusion is very high in the Asian subcontinent but very few studies have come up from this part of the world about the course of recovery of pulmonary functions after institution of anti-tubercular therapy (ATT) and thoracentesis. AIMS: To study initial lung function impairment, changes over time after institution of ATT and thoracentesis and residual abnormalities left at the end of six months of treatment. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Randomized open level interventional study over two years in 52 patients at a tertiary level teaching hospital. METHODS: The study population was divided into two equal groups, A (therapeutic thoracentesis) and B (diagnostic thoracentesis). Spirometry, chest radiograph and ultrasonography of thorax were done initially and at each follow-up visit up to six months. Statistical analysis was done (P value < 0.05 considered significant). RESULTS: Both groups were comparable initially. After six months none in group A and five patients in group B had minimal pleural effusion. During follow up, mean percentage predicted of FEV1 and FVC increased more in A than in B and the differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Pleural thickening, initially absent in both groups, was found to be more in B as compared to A at subsequent follow-up visits and this was statistically significant (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Thoracentesis should be considered in addition to anti-TB treatment, especially in large effusions, in order to relieve dyspnea, avoid possibility of residual pleural thickening and risk of developing restrictive functional impairment. PMID:23189098

  14. Malignant pleural mesothelioma: a phase II trial with docetaxel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. Vorobiof; B. L. Rapoport; M. R. Chasen; R. P. Abratt; N. Cronje; L. Fourie; G. McMichael; D. Hacking

    2002-01-01

    Current cytotoxic therapy has been of limited benefit to patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma. Single agent chemotherapy has been extensively evaluated in small series of phase II clinical trials, with disappointing responses. Docetaxel, an effective taxane in the treatment of advanced breast cancer and non-small-cell lung cancer, was administered intravenously at a dose of 100 mg\\/m 2 every 3 weeks

  15. Pleural tissue repair with cord blood platelet gel

    PubMed Central

    Rosso, Lorenzo; Parazzi, Valentina; Damarco, Francesco; Righi, Ilaria; Santambrogio, Luigi; Rebulla, Paolo; Gatti, Stefano; Ferrero, Stefano; Nosotti, Mario; Lazzari, Lorenza

    2014-01-01

    Background Prolonged air leak is the major cause of morbidity after pulmonary resection. In this study we used in vitro and in vivo experiments to investigate an innovative approach based on the use of human umbilical cord blood platelet gel. Materials and methods In vitro, a scratch assay was performed to test the tissue repair capability mediated by cord blood platelet gel compared to the standard culture conditions using human primary mesothelial cells. In vivo, an iatrogenic injury was made to the left lung of 54 Wistar rats. Cord blood platelet gel was placed on the injured area only in treated animals and at different times histological changes and the presence of pleural adhesions were evaluated. In addition, changes in the pattern of soluble inflammatory factors were investigated using a multiplex proteome array. Results In vitro, mesothelial cell damage was repaired in a shorter time by cord blood platelet gel than in the control condition (24 versus 35 hours, respectively). In vivo, formation of new mesothelial tissue and complete tissue recovery were observed at 45±1 and 75±1 hours in treated animals and at 130±2.5 and 160±6 hours in controls, respectively. Pleural adhesions were evident in 43% of treated animals compared to 17% of controls. No complications were observed. Interestingly, some crucial soluble factors involved in inflammation were significantly reduced in treated animals. Discussion Cord blood platelet gel accelerates the repair of pleural damage and stimulates the development of pleural adhesions. Both properties could be particularly useful in the management of prolonged air leak, and to reduce inflammation. PMID:23736928

  16. Cokeromyces recurvatus isolated from pleural and peritoneal fluid: case report.

    PubMed Central

    Munipalli, B; Rinaldi, M G; Greenberg, S B

    1996-01-01

    The zygomycetous mold Cokeromyces recurvatus was isolated from the pleural and peritoneal fluids of a 64-year-old man with a history of peptic ulcer disease and alcohol abuse. The patient presented to the hospital with severe abdominal pain and a ruptured duodenal ulcer. This is one of the few times that C.recurvatus has been isolated from a human source, and the organism may have contributed to the death of this patient. PMID:8880530

  17. Current controversies in the management of malignant pleural effusions.

    PubMed

    Azzopardi, Maree; Porcel, José M; Koegelenberg, Coenraad F N; Lee, Y C Gary; Fysh, Edward T H

    2014-12-01

    Malignant pleural effusion (MPE) can complicate most malignancies and is a common clinical problem presenting to respiratory and cancer care physicians. Despite its frequent occurrence, current knowledge of MPE remains limited and controversy surrounds almost every aspect in its diagnosis and management. A lack of robust data has led to significant practice variations worldwide, inefficiencies in healthcare provision, and threats to patient safety. Recent studies have highlighted evolving concepts in MPE care that challenge traditional beliefs. Advancing laboratory techniques have improved the diagnostic yield from pleural fluid cytology, minimizing the need for invasive tissue biopsies, even in many cases of mesothelioma. Imaging-guided biopsy is comparable to thoracoscopy in suitable patients, if cytological examination was noncontributory. Cumulating evidence for the benefits of indwelling pleural catheters (IPCs) has led some centers to adopt this approach as first-line definitive management for MPE over conventional talc pleurodesis. The optimal technique of talc pleurodesis is still debated despite its use for many decades. Strategies combining pleurodesis and IPC are being studied. MPE consists of a heterogenous group of diseases and careful phenotyping of malignant effusion patients can provide important clinical information that will advance the field and allow better stratification of patients and planning of therapy accordingly. This review addresses the controversies in MPE diagnosis and management and exposes the deficits in knowledge of MPE that should be the focus of future research. PMID:25463163

  18. Soluble Mesothelin-related Peptides in the Diagnosis of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arnaud Scherpereel; Bogdan Grigoriu; Massimo Conti; Thomas Gey; Marc Gregoire; Marie-Christine Copin; Patrick Devos; Bachar Chahine; Henri Porte; Philippe Lassalle

    2006-01-01

    Background: Diagnosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma is a chal- lenging issue. Potential markers in mesothelioma diagnosis include soluble mesothelin-related peptides (SMRPs) and osteopontin, but no subsequent validation has been published yet. Methods: We prospectively evaluated SMRPs in serum and pleural effusionfrompatientswithmesothelioma(n74),pleuralmetasta- sis of carcinomas (n 35), or benign pleural lesions associated with asbestos exposure (n 28), recruited when first suspected

  19. The generalized geometry of eye plaque therapy.

    PubMed

    Kepka, A G; Johnson, P M; Kline, R W

    1988-01-01

    A calculation is described that enables the rapid assessment of dose rate at various points of interest within the eye (lens, optic nerve, etc.) for the treatment of choroidal melanoma by plaque therapy. 125I seeds are used as the radiation source. The location of the plaque and its associated seeds relative to the eye (in a Cartesian coordinate system) is determined from the description of the tumor, as drawn and dimensioned on a fundus-view diagram by the ophthalmologist. This requires a computer to numerically solve an equation, which is derived in the framework of spherical geometry. Further results of this calculation yield data files that serve as the input to a conventional brachytherapy treatment planning program. This enables the visualization of the dose distribution within a plane that contains the major axis of the tumor in order to assess the adequacy of the treated volume. PMID:3405140

  20. Plaque formation of dietary isomaltulose in humans.

    PubMed

    Ooshima, T; Izumitani, A; Takei, T; Fujiwara, T; Sobue, S

    1990-01-01

    The plaque formation of isomaltulose, a sucrose isomer, was examined in 15 human volunteers with both diet and oral hygiene under supervision. The subjects were requested to refrain from all oral hygiene procedures for 3 days and were provided between-meal snacks containing 157 g of 4 test sugars (100% isomaltulose, 70% isomaltulose + 30% sucrose, 50% isomaltulose + 50% sucrose, and 100% sucrose). The study was repeated 4 times over 4 weeks. The isomaltulose diet resulted in the lowest plaque index, while sucrose induced a significantly greater deposition. In the absence of sucrose-containing snacks, mutans streptococci in saliva decreased below the baseline level. These results suggest that isomaltulose may be a suitable substitute for sucrose in between meal snacks. PMID:2293892

  1. Enucleation versus plaque irradiation for choroidal melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Straatsma, B.R.; Fine, S.L.; Earle, J.D.; Hawkins, B.S.; Diener-West, M.; McLaughlin, J.A.

    1988-07-01

    The Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS) is an international, multicenter-controlled study. The organization includes an Executive Committee, Steering Committee, 6 Central Units, 32 Clinical Centers, and a Data and Safety Monitoring Committee. Scientifically, the COMS consists of (1) a randomized trial of patients with medium choroidal melanoma treated with enucleation versus iodine-125 plaque irradiation, (2) a randomized trial of patients with large choroidal melanoma treated with enucleation versus preenucleation external beam irradiation and enucleation, and (3) a prospective observational study of patients with small choroidal melanoma to determine whether a randomized trial of treatment is appropriate. In design and conduct of the COMS, special consideration is given to biostatistics and sample size considerations, iodine-125 plaque irradiation of choroidal melanoma, and coordinated ocular melanoma research. Recruitment is in progress. However, the pool of eligible patients is limited and the COMS needs the continued support and cooperation of ophthalmologists throughout the United States and Canada.

  2. Thrombogenic potential of human coronary atherosclerotic plaques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raffaela Fetiveau; Stefano Lucreziotti; Robert D. Rosenberg; Pier Mannuccio; Mannucci Diego Ardissino; Piera Angelica Merlini; Kenneth A. Bauer; Ezio Bramucci; Maurizio Ferrario; Pier Mannuccio Mannucci

    2001-01-01

    the procedure, plasma prothrombin frag- ment 1 1 2 levels were significantly in- creased across the lesion in patients with unstable, but not in those with stable, coronary disease (unstable, median in- crease, 0.37 nM; range, 20.35-1.16 nM) (stable, median increase, 20.065 nM; range, 20.58-1.06 nM) (P 5 .0021). After plaque removal, an increase in prothrom- bin fragment 1 1

  3. An Additional Potential Factor for Kidney Stone Formation during Space Flights: Calcifying Nanoparticles (Nanobacteria): A Case Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jeffrey A.; Ciftcioglu, Neva; Schmid, Joseph; Griffith, Donald

    2007-01-01

    Spaceflight-induced microgravity appears to be a risk factor for the development of urinary calculi due to skeletal calcium liberation and other undefined factors, resulting in stone disease in crewmembers during and after spaceflight. Calcifying nanoparticles, or nanobacteria, reproduce at a more rapid rate in simulated microgravity conditions and create external shells of calcium phosphate in the form of apatite. The questions arises whether calcifying nanoparticles are niduses for calculi and contribute to the development of clinical stone disease in humans, who possess environmental factors predisposing to the development of urinary calculi and potentially impaired immunological defenses during spaceflight. A case of a urinary calculus passed from an astronaut post-flight with morphological characteristics of calcifying nanoparticles and staining positive for a calcifying nanoparticle unique antigen, is presented.

  4. Microwave plaque thermoradiotherapy for choroidal melanoma.

    PubMed Central

    Finger, P. T.

    1992-01-01

    Microwave thermoradiotherapy was used as a primary treatment for 44 patients with choroidal melanoma. An episcleral dish-shaped microwave antenna was placed beneath the tumour at the time of plaque brachytherapy. While temperatures were measured at the sclera, the tumour's apex was targeted to receive a minimum of 42 degrees C for 45 minutes. In addition, the patients received full or reduced doses of plaque radiotherapy. No patients have been lost to follow-up. Two eyes have been enucleated: one for rubeotic glaucoma, and one for uveitic glaucoma. Though six patients have died, only one death was due to metastatic choroidal melanoma (39 months after treatment). Clinical observations suggest that the addition of microwave heating to plaque radiation therapy of choroidal melanoma has been well tolerated. There has been a 97.7% local control rate (with a mean follow-up of 22.2 months). We have reduced the minimum tumour radiation dose (apex dose) to levels used for thermoradiotherapy of cutaneous melanomas (50 Gy/5000 rad). Within the range of this follow-up period no adverse effects which might preclude the use of this microwave heat delivery system for treatment of choroidal melanoma have been noted. Images PMID:1622949

  5. Oblique aortic valve replacement and coronary artery bypass grafting for severely calcified narrow aortic root with unstable angina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toru Ishida; Kiyoharu Nakano; Akihiko Gomi; Hayao Nakatani; Tokuya Sato; Naoki Saegusa

    2001-01-01

    We report an 84-year-old woman diagnosed with aortic stenosis and regurgitation with a severely calcified narrow aortic root\\u000a and left main coronary artery trunk stenosis with triple-vessel coronary artery disease. Emergency aortic valve replacement\\u000a and triple coronary artery bypass grafting were successful. The aortic annulus was small and heavily calcified, and the ascending\\u000a aorta, the sinus of valsalva and the

  6. The modern calcifying sponge Spheciospongia vesparium (Lamarck, 1815), Great Bahama Bank: Implications for ancient sponge mud-mounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fritz Neuweiler; David J. Burdige

    2005-01-01

    Modern calcified siliceous sponges from the Great Bahama Bank, living at water depth ranges of 2 to 5 m, have been proposed as likely analogues for calcified sponges in Upper Jurassic sponge “reefs” (e.g., southern Germany), or Lower Jurassic bioherms that consist of reddish, spiculiferous limestones (e.g., Broccatello Formation of the Southern Alps). Indeed, sponge-related calcification or siliceous sponge diagenesis,

  7. Ghrelin receptor deficiency aggravates atherosclerotic plaque instability and vascular inflammation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Qu, Xinkai; Yuan, Fang; Yang, Yiqing; Xu, Lei; Dai, Jinjie; Wang, Weigang; Fei, Jian; Hou, Xumin; Fang, Weiyi

    2015-01-01

    Ghrelin has been found to be associated with anti-inflammatory effects, inhibition of atherosclerotic plaque formation, and plaque stability in the cardiovascular system. We investigated whether ghrelin affected atherosclerotic plaque and inflammation found in atherosclerosis. We crossed ghrelin receptor knock out mice (growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR)-/-) and low-density lipoprotein receptor-null (low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR)-/-) mice. In this model, atherosclerotic lesions were promoted by administering a high-fat, high-cholesterol, Western-type diet for 18 weeks. Serum lipid levels, atherosclerotic plaque on the aortic arches, and expression of intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), T cells, macrophages, and smooth muscle cells of atherosclerotic plaque were observed. Although serum lipid levels and atherosclerotic plaque in aortic arches were not significantly different between GHSR+/+/LDLR-/- and GHSR -/-LDLR-/- mice, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 protein expression in atherosclerotic plaques were increased in GHSR -/-LDLR-/- mice compared with GHSR+/+/LDLR-/- mice. T cells and macrophages were increased, while smooth muscle cells of atherosclerotic plaques were less in GHSR -/-LDLR-/- mice than that in GHSR+/+/LDLR-/- mice. In conclusion, ghrelin receptor deficiency aggravates atherosclerotic plaque instability and vascular inflammation but not the surface area of atherosclerotic plaque. This information will provide novel avenues for the treatment of patients with atherosclerosis.  PMID:25553467

  8. Transcriptome and proteome analysis of Pinctada margaritifera calcifying mantle and shell: focus on biomineralization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caroline Joubert; David Piquemal; Benjamin Marie; Laurent Manchon; Fabien Pierrat; Isabelle Zanella-Cléon; Nathalie Cochennec-Laureau; Yannick Gueguen; Caroline Montagnani

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The shell of the pearl-producing bivalve Pinctada margaritifera is composed of an organic cell-free matrix that plays a key role in the dynamic process of biologically-controlled biomineralization. In order to increase genomic resources and identify shell matrix proteins implicated in biomineralization in P. margaritifera, high-throughput Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) pyrosequencing was undertaken on the calcifying mantle, combined with a

  9. The mineralogical responses of marine calcifiers to CO2-induced ocean acidification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. B. Ries; A. L. Cohen; D. C. McCorkle

    2008-01-01

    We have conducted 6-month laboratory experiments to investigate the effect of pCO2-induced reductions in seawater CaCO3 saturation state on biocalcification by 18 aragonitic and calcitic (low-high Mg) taxa representing eight of the major marine calcifying groups: Chlorophyta; Rhodophyta; Crustacea; Bivalvia; Gastropoda; Annelida; Cnidaria; and Echinodermata. The CaCO3 saturation states of the experimental seawaters, constrained by intercalibrated determinations of pH, alkalinity,

  10. Symptomatic osteolipoma of the tuber cinereum masquerading as calcified retroclival mass.

    PubMed

    Kalakoti, Piyush; Ahmed, Osama; Jacobsohn, Jamie A; Nanda, Anil

    2015-06-01

    We present a case of symptomatic osteolipoma of the tuber cinereum in a 51 year old male with rapid visual deterioration over several months leading to bilateral visual loss. Preoperatively the lesion masqueraded as a calcified retroclival mass. Intracranial osteolipomas are rare benign lesions that are usually asymptomatic and have an indolent course. Additionally, we discuss our intraoperative findings highlighting the technical challenges encountered along with a review of the English language literature on histologically proven intracranial osteolipomas. PMID:25827864

  11. Case report: Calcifying fibrous tumor presenting as an asymptomatic pelvic mass

    PubMed Central

    Giardino, Angela A; Ramaiya, Nikhil H; Shinagare, Atul B; Jagannathan, Jyothi P; Stachler, Matthew D; Raut, Chandrajit P

    2011-01-01

    Calcifying fibrous tumor (CFT) is a rare benign mesenchymal tumor most commonly found in the soft tissues of the extremities and pleura. It is characterized by hyalinized collagenous fibrous tissue, with bland spindle cells, psammomatous or dystrophic calcifications, and focal lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate. CFT of the gastrointestinal tract is exceedingly uncommon. We report a case of CFT arising from the small intestine and associated mesentery; this case was identified incidentally in an otherwise healthy 45-year-old man. PMID:22223947

  12. Fatal outcome of a calcified amorphous tumor of the heart (cardiac CAT)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Lewin; Saman Nazarian; Joseph E. Marine; David D. Yuh; Pedram Argani; Marc K. Halushka

    2006-01-01

    Calcified amorphous tumor of the heart (cardiac CAT) is an unusual non-neoplastic cardiac mass that can mimic a more malignant lesion. We describe a case of cardiac CAT in a 60-year-old female who presented with syncope. Workup revealed a 2.1-cm mass in the right ventricular wall involving the chordae tendineae of the tricuspid valve, impacting right ventricular function. Magnetic resonance

  13. Intravascular probe for detection of vulnerable plaque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patt, Bradley E.; Iwanczyk, Jan S.; MacDonald, Lawrence R.; Yamaguchi, Yuko; Tull, Carolyn R.; Janecek, Martin; Hoffman, Edward J.; Strauss, H. William; Tsugita, Ross; Ghazarossian, Vartan

    2001-12-01

    Coronary angiography is unable to define the status of the atheroma, and only measures the luminal dimensions of the blood vessel, without providing information about plaque content. Up to 70% of heart attacks are caused by minimally obstructive vulnerable plaques, which are too small to be detected adequately by angiography. We have developed an intravascular imaging detector to identify vulnerable coronary artery plaques. The detector works by sensing beta or conversion electron radiotracer emissions from plaque-binding radiotracers. The device overcomes the technical constraints of size, sensitivity and conformance to the intravascular environment. The detector at the distal end of the catheter uses six 7mm long by 0.5mm diameter scintillation fibers coupled to 1.5m long plastic fibers. The fibers are offset from each other longitudinally by 6mm and arranged spirally around a guide wire in the catheter. At the proximal end of the catheter the optical fibers are coupled to an interface box with a snap on connector. The interface box contains a position sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT) to decode the individual fibers. The whole detector assembly fits into an 8-French (2.7 mm in diameter) catheter. The PSPMT image is further decoded with software to give a linear image, the total instantaneous count rate and an audio output whose tone corresponds to the count rate. The device was tested with F-18 and Tl-204 sources. Spectrometric response, spatial resolution, sensitivity and beta to background ratio were measured. System resolution is 6 mm and the sensitivity is >500 cps / micrometers Ci when the source is 1 mm from the detector. The beta to background ratio was 11.2 for F-18 measured on a single fiber. The current device will lead to a system allowing imaging of labeled vulnerable plaque in coronary arteries. This type of signature is expected to enable targeted and cost effective therapies to prevent acute coronary artery diseases such as: unstable angina, acute myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death.

  14. Bacterial Diversity in Human Subgingival Plaque

    PubMed Central

    Paster, Bruce J.; Boches, Susan K.; Galvin, Jamie L.; Ericson, Rebecca E.; Lau, Carol N.; Levanos, Valerie A.; Sahasrabudhe, Ashish; Dewhirst, Floyd E.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the bacterial diversity in the human subgingival plaque by using culture-independent molecular methods as part of an ongoing effort to obtain full 16S rRNA sequences for all cultivable and not-yet-cultivated species of human oral bacteria. Subgingival plaque was analyzed from healthy subjects and subjects with refractory periodontitis, adult periodontitis, human immunodeficiency virus periodontitis, and acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis. 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) bacterial genes from DNA isolated from subgingival plaque samples were PCR amplified with all-bacterial or selective primers and cloned into Escherichia coli. The sequences of cloned 16S rDNA inserts were used to determine species identity or closest relatives by comparison with sequences of known species. A total of 2,522 clones were analyzed. Nearly complete sequences of approximately 1,500 bases were obtained for putative new species. About 60% of the clones fell into 132 known species, 70 of which were identified from multiple subjects. About 40% of the clones were novel phylotypes. Of the 215 novel phylotypes, 75 were identified from multiple subjects. Known putative periodontal pathogens such as Porphyromonas gingivalis, Bacteroides forsythus, and Treponema denticola were identified from multiple subjects, but typically as a minor component of the plaque as seen in cultivable studies. Several phylotypes fell into two recently described phyla previously associated with extreme natural environments, for which there are no cultivable species. A number of species or phylotypes were found only in subjects with disease, and a few were found only in healthy subjects. The organisms identified only from diseased sites deserve further study as potential pathogens. Based on the sequence data in this study, the predominant subgingival microbial community consisted of 347 species or phylotypes that fall into 9 bacterial phyla. Based on the 347 species seen in our sample of 2,522 clones, we estimate that there are 68 additional unseen species, for a total estimate of 415 species in the subgingival plaque. When organisms found on other oral surfaces such as the cheek, tongue, and teeth are added to this number, the best estimate of the total species diversity in the oral cavity is approximately 500 species, as previously proposed. PMID:11371542

  15. Proteomic evaluation of biologic nanoparticles isolated from human kidney stones and calcified arteries

    PubMed Central

    Shiekh, Farooq A.; Charlesworth, Jon E.; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Hunter, Larry W.; Jayachandran, Muthuvel; Miller, Virginia M.; Lieske, John C.

    2010-01-01

    Calcifying biologic nanoparticles (NPs) develop under cell culture conditions from homogenates of diverse tissue samples displaying extraosseous mineralization, including kidney stones and calcified aneurysms. Probes to definitively identify NPs in biologic systems are lacking. Therefore, the aim of this study was to begin to establish a proteomic biosignature of NPs in order to facilitate more definitive investigation of their contribution to disease. Biologic NPs derived from human kidney stones and calcified aneurysms were completely decalcified by overnight treatment with EDTA or brief incubation in HCl, as evidenced by lack of a calcium shell and of Alizarin Red S staining, by transmission electron microscopy and confocal microscopy, respectively. Decalcified NPs contained numerous proteins including some from bovine serum and others of prokaryotic origin. Most prominent of the latter group was EF-Tu, which appeared identical to EF-Tu from S. epidermidis. A monoclonal antibody against human EF-Tu recognized a protein in Western blots of total NP lysate, as well as in intact NPs by immunofluorescence and immunogold EM. Approximately 8% of NPs were quantitatively recognized by the antibody by flow cytometry. Therefore, we have defined methods to reproducibly decalcify biologic NPs, and identified key components of their proteome. These elements, including EF-Tu, can be used as biomarkers to further define processes which mediate propagation of biologic NPs and their contribution to disease. PMID:20466084

  16. Comprehensive approach for clamping severely calcified ascending aorta using computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Hiroyuki; Mitsuno, Masataka; Ryomoto, Masaaki; Miyamoto, Yuji

    2010-01-01

    A severely calcified ascending aorta is generally considered unclampable. Many surgeons have developed procedures to avoid manipulation such as cross-clamping on such calcified aorta. However, these alternatives are sometimes complicated and require a more invasive procedure than the conventional method. We assessed our comprehensive strategy for clamping of a severely calcified aorta using preoperative computed tomography (CT). We found that the extent of calcification just below the innominate artery was significantly less than that at the usual ascending aorta clamp site. After confirming that the extent of calcification just below the innominate artery was <75% of the entire circumference by preoperative CT, ascending aorta was clamped with a soft cross-clamp placed on the ascending aorta with particular care to orientate the clamp parallel to the calcification. All operations were completed under usual cardiopulmonary bypass with mild hypothermia. All patients survived surgery and no patients had a postoperative neurological complication. Our results provide important information for the management of these high-risk patients, with a comprehensive approach used to choose the appropriate option for an optimal outcome. PMID:19861326

  17. Dose backscatter factors for selected beta sources as a function of source, calcified plaque and contrast agent using Monte Carlo calculations.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-Woo; Reece, Warren Daniel

    2004-02-21

    Electron backscattering is a prominent secondary effect in beta dosimetry, and is closely correlated with factors such as the geometries of the source and the scattering material, as well as the composition of the scattering material. Previous results were varied depending on the experimental setup and detector resolution, and were generally performed for monoenergetic electron beams, which makes direct application of these factors to beta sources difficult. In this work, backscattering factors were calculated with MCNP 4C for selected beta sources currently in use (32P and 90Sr/90Y) as well as for sources of potential therapeutic use (45Ca, 142Pr and 185W). Specifically, the calculations used beta spectra generated by the SADDE MOD2 code. The factors were calculated as a function of the distance from the interface between water and scatterers. The scatterers include source surroundings, source supporting materials and contrast agents commonly used for imaging purposes in brachytherapy. The results were fit by a simple function for future incorporation into a dose point kernel code. Due to the high-Z material content (iodine, Z = 53) in the contrast agent, a significant dose backscatter was observed near the water interface. Different cross-section algorithms in the MCNP code (inherent and ITS 3.0) affect the factor calculations. The results generated by the ITS 3.0 algorithm closely matched the EGS4 calculations for 32P. The dependence of backscatter factors on log(Z + 1) (Baily 1980 Med. Phys. 7514-9) was observed for all the beta sources with a high correlation coefficient, R (> 0.95). The overall results indicate that the backscattering effect is significant at short distances from the surface of the interface between water and the scattering material. This model can also aid in choosing a source support or mixing materials for beta brachytherapy sources. PMID:15005167

  18. Dose backscatter factors for selected beta sources as a function of source, calcified plaque and contrast agent using Monte Carlo calculations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sung-Woo Lee; Warren Daniel Reece

    2004-01-01

    Electron backscattering is a prominent secondary effect in beta dosimetry, and is closely correlated with factors such as the geometries of the source and the scattering material, as well as the composition of the scattering material. Previous results were varied depending on the experimental setup and detector resolution, and were generally performed for monoenergetic electron beams, which makes direct application

  19. Dose backscatter factors for selected beta sources as a function of source, calcified plaque and contrast agent using Monte Carlo calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sung-Woo; Reece, Warren Daniel

    2004-02-01

    Electron backscattering is a prominent secondary effect in beta dosimetry, and is closely correlated with factors such as the geometries of the source and the scattering material, as well as the composition of the scattering material. Previous results were varied depending on the experimental setup and detector resolution, and were generally performed for monoenergetic electron beams, which makes direct application of these factors to beta sources difficult. In this work, backscattering factors were calculated with MCNP 4C for selected beta sources currently in use (32P and 90Sr/90Y) as well as for sources of potential therapeutic use (45Ca, 142Pr and 185W). Specifically, the calculations used beta spectra generated by the SADDE MOD2 code. The factors were calculated as a function of the distance from the interface between water and scatterers. The scatterers include source surroundings, source supporting materials and contrast agents commonly used for imaging purposes in brachytherapy. The results were fit by a simple function for future incorporation into a dose point kernel code. Due to the high-Z material content (iodine, Z = 53) in the contrast agent, a significant dose backscatter was observed near the water interface. Different cross-section algorithms in the MCNP code (inherent and ITS 3.0) affect the factor calculations. The results generated by the ITS 3.0 algorithm closely matched the EGS4 calculations for 32P. The dependence of backscatter factors on log(Z + 1) (Baily 1980 Med. Phys. 7 514-9) was observed for all the beta sources with a high correlation coefficient, R (>0.95). The overall results indicate that the backscattering effect is significant at short distances from the surface of the interface between water and the scattering material. This model can also aid in choosing a source support or mixing materials for beta brachytherapy sources.

  20. Growth of Microorganisms from Supragingival Dental Plaque on Saliva Agar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. H. De Jong; J. S. Van Der Hoeven; J. H. Van Os

    1986-01-01

    The role of saliva in supporting the growth of dental plaque has scarcely been investigated. We have studied the growth and recovery of micro-organisms from dental plaque samples on saliva-agar plates, prepared from filter-sterilized wax-stimulated whole saliva. Under optimal conditions, the mean recovery of plaque samples on saliva agar was about 50% (range, 22-77) of the recovery on blood agar.

  1. Stability Analysis of a Model of Atherosclerotic Plaque Growth

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Sushruth; Seshaiyer, Padmanabhan

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis, the formation of life-threatening plaques in blood vessels, is a form of cardiovascular disease. In this paper, we analyze a simplified model of plaque growth to derive physically meaningful results about the growth of plaques. In particular, the main results of this paper are two conditions, which express that the immune response increases as LDL cholesterol levels increase and that diffusion prevails over inflammation in a healthy artery. PMID:25883675

  2. A Plaque Assay for the Simian Rotavirus SA11

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ERIC M. SMITH; MARY KOLB ESTES; DAVID Y. GRAHAM; CHARLES P. GERBA

    1979-01-01

    SUMMARY A sensitive, quantitative and reproducible plaque assay for the measurement of the simian rotavirus SAII is described. Plaque formation required the presence of the facilitators pancreatin or trypsin and diethylaminoethyl-dextran in the agar overlay. SAII produced plaques in three continuous primate cell lines: MA-Io4, CV-I and LLC-MK2. MA-Io 4 cells were the most sensitive.

  3. Multimodal spectroscopy detects features of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque

    E-print Network

    Scepanovic, Obrad R.

    Early detection and treatment of rupture-prone vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques is critical to reducing patient mortality associated with cardiovascular disease. The combination of reflectance, fluorescence, and Raman ...

  4. Dural metastasis masquerading as an en plaque meningioma

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Ankur; Savardekar, Amey; Chaterjee, Debajyaoti; Salunke, Pravin; Vasishta, Rakesh K; Bhattacharya, Anish

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic adenocarcinoma mimicking meningioma is rare; and any metastatic lesion masquerading as an en plaque meningioma is extremely rare. We report the case of a 50-year-old female, who presented with headache and left hemiparesis for 1 month and on imaging showed a dural-based enhancing mass along the right hemisphere. The patient was operated with a working diagnosis of en plaque meningioma. Histopathology revealed metastatic adenocarcinoma. This report highlights an unusual radiological presentation of a metastatic lesion as dural based en plaque variety. Metastasis should be borne in mind for any en plaque lesion with rapid clinical progression. PMID:26167033

  5. Subsurface ablation of atherosclerotic plaque using ultrafast laser pulses

    PubMed Central

    Lanvin, Thomas; Conkey, Donald B.; Frobert, Aurelien; Valentin, Jeremy; Goy, Jean-Jacques; Cook, Stéphane; Giraud, Marie-Noelle; Psaltis, Demetri

    2015-01-01

    We perform subsurface ablation of atherosclerotic plaque using ultrafast pulses. Excised mouse aortas containing atherosclerotic plaque were ablated with ultrafast near-infrared (NIR) laser pulses. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used to observe the ablation result, while the physical damage was inspected in histological sections. We characterize the effects of incident pulse energy on surface damage, ablation hole size, and filament propagation. We find that it is possible to ablate plaque just below the surface without causing surface damage, which motivates further investigation of ultrafast ablation for subsurface atherosclerotic plaque removal.

  6. U.K. Controlled Trial of Intrapleural Streptokinase for Pleural Infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas A. Maskell; Christopher W. H. Davies; Andrew J. Nunn; Emma L. Hedley; Fergus V. Gleeson; Robert Miller; Rhian Gabe; Glyn L. Rees; Timothy E. A. Peto; Mark A. Woodhead; Janet H. Darbyshire; Robert J. O. Davies

    2005-01-01

    background Intrapleural fibrinolytic agents are used in the drainage of infected pleural-fluid collec- tions. This use is based on small trials that did not have the statistical power to evaluate accurately important clinical outcomes, including safety. We conducted a trial to clarify the therapeutic role of intrapleural streptokinase. methods In this double-blind trial, 454 patients with pleural infection (defined by

  7. Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumour: Report of a Rare Form with Exclusive Pleural Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Sara Lemos; Lopes, Joăo Madeira; Santos, Joăo Meneses; Oliveira, Pedro Soares; Victorino, Rui M. M.

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour (IMT) is a rare scleroinflammatory lesion, characterized by a myofibroblastic proliferation with inflammatory infiltrates, with many possible locations and diagnosis based on immunohistochemistry. Pleural IMT is uncommon and is usually an extension of a pulmonary involvement. We report on a 28-year-old woman with a new form of this rare entity, characterized by exclusive pleural involvement. PMID:25525549

  8. Restrictive lung function and asbestos-induced pleural fibrosis. A quantitative approach.

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, D A; Galvin, J R; Yagla, S J; Speakman, S B; Merchant, J A; Hunninghake, G W

    1993-01-01

    To assess further the clinical significance of asbestos-induced pleural fibrosis, we used a computer algorithm to reconstruct images three dimensionally from the high-resolution computerized tomography (HRCT) scan of the chest in 60 asbestos-exposed subjects. Pulmonary function tests, chest radiographs, and HRCT scans were performed on all study subjects. The volume of asbestos-induced pleural fibrosis was computed from the three-dimensional reconstruction of the HRCT scan. Among those with pleural fibrosis identified on the HRCT scan (n = 29), the volume of the pleural lesion varied from 0.01% (0.5 ml) and 7.11% (260.4 ml) of the total chest cavity. To investigate the relationship between asbestos-induced pleural fibrosis and restrictive lung function, we compared the computer-derived estimate of pleural fibrosis to the total lung capacity and found that these measures were inversely related (r = -0.40; P = 0.002). After controlling for age, height, pack-years of cigarette smoking, and the presence of interstitial fibrosis on the chest radiograph, the volume of pleural fibrosis identified on the three-dimensional reconstructed image from the HRCT scan was inversely associated with the total lung capacity (P = 0.03) and independently accounted for 9.5% of the variance of this measure of lung volume. These findings further extend the scientific data supporting an independent association between pleural fibrosis and restrictive lung function. Images PMID:8514875

  9. Functional closure of visceral pleural defects by autologous tissue engineered cell sheets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masato Kanzaki; Masayuki Yamato; Joseph Yang; Hidekazu Sekine; Ryo Takagi; Tamami Isaka; Teruo Okano; Takamasa Onuki

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The occurrence of intraoperative air leaks is an unavoidable complication during pulmonary surgeries. However, current surgical methods are generally ineffective in closing these visceral pleural defects, resulting in a decreased quality of life for patients. Here, we examined novel tissue engineered cell sheets for the closure of pleural defects in a porcine model. Methods: Skin biopsies were harvested from

  10. Factors Influencing Length of Hospital Stay in Patients with Bacterial Pleural Effusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Soriano; J. Alegre; C. Alemán; E. Ruiz; A. Vázquez; J. L. Carrasco; R. Segura; A. Ferrer; T. Fernández de Sevilla

    2005-01-01

    Background: Factors influencing length of hospital stay have been poorly analyzed in parapneumonic pleural effusions (PPE). Objectives: The aim of this work is to identify the variables that determine increased hospital stay in patients with infectious pleural effusion (PE). Patients and Methods: We analyzed 112 patients with PE: empyema, complicated parapneumonic and non-complicated parapneumonic. Epidemiologic, biochemical, therapeutic and radiological variables

  11. Diagnostic and Prognostic Value of Soluble Syndecan-1 in Pleural Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Metintas, Muzaffer; Hjerpe, Anders; Dobra, Katalin

    2014-01-01

    Background. The distinction between malignant and benign pleural effusions is a diagnostic challenge today and measuring soluble biomarkers could add to the diagnostic accuracy. Syndecan-1 is a proteoglycan involved in various cellular functions and is cleaved from the cell surface in a regulated manner. The shed fragment, which can be recovered in effusion supernatant and in serum, retains its binding capacities, but often with different functions and signalling properties than the cell-bound form. Aim. This study aimed to investigate the diagnostic and prognostic value of soluble syndecan-1 in pleural effusions and sera from patients with pleural malignancies. Study Design. Using two cohorts of patients, we assessed the diagnostic and prognostic value of soluble syndecan-1 in pleural effusions and sera, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Results. In pleural effusions, syndecan-1 distinguished malignant and benign diseases, with an odds ratio of 8.59 (95% CI 3.67 to 20.09). Furthermore, syndecan-1 in pleural effusions predicted a survival difference for patients with pleural metastatic disease and malignant mesothelioma of 11.2 and 9.2 months, respectively. However, no such effects were seen when syndecan-1 was measured in serum. Conclusion. Soluble syndecan-1 is a promising candidate biomarker for the cytopathological diagnosis and prognostication of malignant pleural effusions. PMID:25147801

  12. Endemic pleural disease associated with exposure to mixed fibrous dust in Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. N. Rohl; A. M. Langer; G. Moncure; I. J. Selikoff; A. Fischbein

    1982-01-01

    Pleural mesothelioma, lung cancer, pleural calcification and fibrosis, and interstitial parenchymal fibrosis have been observed among inhabitants of several villages in south-central Turkey. Earlier reports have stated that environmental and lung tissue samples from this area contained the fibrous zeolite mineral erionite, and this mineral has generally been assumed to be the agent responsible for these endemic pathological conditions in

  13. Environmental exposure to asbestos and risk of pleural mesothelioma: review and meta-analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valérie Bourdčs; Paolo Boffetta; Paola Pisani

    2000-01-01

    A number of epidemiological studies have addressed the risk of pleural mesothelioma from environmental (household and neighborhood) exposure to asbestos, but no overall risk estimate is available. We reviewed the epidemiological studies on risk of pleural mesothelioma and household or neighborhood exposure to asbestos. We identified eight relevant studies; most were conducted in populations with relatively high exposure levels. We

  14. Diagnosis of Visceral Pleural Invasion in Resected Lung Cancer Using a Jet Stream of Saline Solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yukito Ichinose; Tokujiro Yano; Hiroshi Asoh; Hideki Yokoyama; Yasuro Fukuyama; Yasaburo Katsuda

    1997-01-01

    Background. Visceral pleural invasion by the tumor is an important prognostic factor in patients undergoing resection for lung cancer. We developed a method to detect more accurately the presence of visceral pleural invasion in resected lung cancer.Methods. The surface of the visceral pleura over 90 resected peripheral tumors was irrigated twice with a jet stream of saline solution using a

  15. Computerized segmentation and measurement of malignant pleural mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Sensakovic, William F.; Armato, Samuel G.; Straus, Christopher; Roberts, Rachael Y.; Caligiuri, Philip; Starkey, Adam; Kindler, Hedy L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The current linear method to track tumor progression and evaluate treatment efficacy is insufficient for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). A volumetric method for tumor measurement could improve the evaluation of novel treatments, but a fully manual implementation of volume measurement is too tedious and time-consuming. This manuscript presents a computerized method for the three-dimensional segmentation and volumetric analysis of MPM. Methods: The computerized MPM segmentation method segments the lung parenchyma and hemithoracic cavities to define the pleural space. Nonlinear diffusion and a k-means classifier are then implemented to identify MPM in the pleural space. A database of 31 computed tomography scans from 31 patients with pathologically confirmed MPM was retrospectively collected. Three observers independently outlined five randomly selected sections in each scan. The Jaccard similarity coefficient (J) between each of the observers and between the observer-defined and computer-defined segmentations was calculated. The computer-defined and the observer-defined segmentation areas (averaged over all observers) were both calculated for each axial section and compared using Bland–Altman plots. Results: The median J value among observers averaged over all sections was 0.517. The median J between the computer-defined and manual segmentations was 0.484. The difference between these values was not statistically significant. The area delineated by the computerized method demonstrated variability and bias comparable to the tumor area calculated from manual delineations. Conclusions: A computerized method for segmentation and measurement of MPM was developed. This method requires minimal initialization by the user and demonstrated good agreement with manually drawn outlines and area measurements. This method will allow volumetric tracking of tumor progression and may improve the evaluation of novel MPM treatments. PMID:21361192

  16. Oral biofilm models for mechanical plaque removal.

    PubMed

    Verkaik, Martinus J; Busscher, Henk J; Rustema-Abbing, Minie; Slomp, Anje M; Abbas, Frank; van der Mei, Henny C

    2010-08-01

    In vitro plaque removal studies require biofilm models that resemble in vivo dental plaque. Here, we compare contact and non-contact removal of single and dual-species biofilms as well as of biofilms grown from human whole saliva in vitro using different biofilm models. Bacteria were adhered to a salivary pellicle for 2 h or grown after adhesion for 16 h, after which, their removal was evaluated. In a contact mode, no differences were observed between the manual, rotating, or sonic brushing; and removal was on average 39%, 84%, and 95% for Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus oralis, and Actinomyces naeslundii, respectively, and 90% and 54% for the dual- and multi-species biofilms, respectively. However, in a non-contact mode, rotating and sonic brushes still removed considerable numbers of bacteria (24-40%), while the manual brush as a control (5-11%) did not. Single A. naeslundii and dual-species (A. naeslundii and S. oralis) biofilms were more difficult to remove after 16 h growth than after 2 h adhesion (on average, 62% and 93% for 16- and 2-h-old biofilms, respectively), while in contrast, biofilms grown from whole saliva were easier to remove (97% after 16 h and 54% after 2 h of growth). Considering the strong adhesion of dual-species biofilms and their easier more reproducible growth compared with biofilms grown from whole saliva, dual-species biofilms of A. naeslundii and S. oralis are suggested to be preferred for use in mechanical plaque removal studies in vitro. PMID:19565279

  17. Oral biofilm models for mechanical plaque removal

    PubMed Central

    Verkaik, Martinus J.; Busscher, Henk J.; Rustema-Abbing, Minie; Slomp, Anje M.; Abbas, Frank

    2009-01-01

    In vitro plaque removal studies require biofilm models that resemble in vivo dental plaque. Here, we compare contact and non-contact removal of single and dual-species biofilms as well as of biofilms grown from human whole saliva in vitro using different biofilm models. Bacteria were adhered to a salivary pellicle for 2 h or grown after adhesion for 16 h, after which, their removal was evaluated. In a contact mode, no differences were observed between the manual, rotating, or sonic brushing; and removal was on average 39%, 84%, and 95% for Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus oralis, and Actinomyces naeslundii, respectively, and 90% and 54% for the dual- and multi-species biofilms, respectively. However, in a non-contact mode, rotating and sonic brushes still removed considerable numbers of bacteria (24–40%), while the manual brush as a control (5–11%) did not. Single A. naeslundii and dual-species (A. naeslundii and S. oralis) biofilms were more difficult to remove after 16 h growth than after 2 h adhesion (on average, 62% and 93% for 16- and 2-h-old biofilms, respectively), while in contrast, biofilms grown from whole saliva were easier to remove (97% after 16 h and 54% after 2 h of growth). Considering the strong adhesion of dual-species biofilms and their easier more reproducible growth compared with biofilms grown from whole saliva, dual-species biofilms of A. naeslundii and S. oralis are suggested to be preferred for use in mechanical plaque removal studies in vitro. PMID:19565279

  18. Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma Caused by Environmental Exposure to Asbestos or Erionite in Rural Turkey: CT Findings in 84

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmet Altay; Ziya Toros; Muzaffer Eryllmaz; Salih Emri; Okhan Akhan; Yusuf Izzettin Barl

    OBJECTIVE. Malignant pleural mesothelioma In rural Turkey frequently results from environmental exposure to tremolite asbestos or fibrous zeolite (erionite). The aim of this study was to determine the CT features of malignant pleural mesothelloma in patients exposed to asbestos or erlonite. MATERIALS AND METHODS. The CT scans of 84 patients with proved malignant pleural mesothelioma were retrospectively evaluated. Twenty patients

  19. Air transport and the fate of pneumothorax in pleural adhesions.

    PubMed Central

    Haid, M M; Paladini, P; Maccherini, M; Di Bisceglie, M; Biagi, G; Gotti, G

    1992-01-01

    Air travel is contraindicated in patients with a pneumothorax but was necessary because of the exigencies of war in three patients. Three patients with high velocity missile injuries to the chest and pleural adhesions are reported. All had to be evacuated by air, without an intercostal drain or oxygen supplement, from the war stricken area of Northern Somalia (Horn of Africa) to Mogadishu. Two patients with a partial pneumothorax flew on military transport aeroplanes at an altitude of 3000 m in a non-pressurised cabin and recovered rapidly after a few days in hospital. One patient, transported on a small Cessna aeroplane, died after developing bilateral tension pneumothoraces. Images PMID:1481187

  20. Differential diagnosis of pleural mesothelioma using Logic Learning Machine

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Tumour markers are standard tools for the differential diagnosis of cancer. However, the occurrence of nonspecific symptoms and different malignancies involving the same cancer site may lead to a high proportion of misclassifications. Classification accuracy can be improved by combining information from different markers using standard data mining techniques, like Decision Tree (DT), Artificial Neural Network (ANN), and k-Nearest Neighbour (KNN) classifier. Unfortunately, each method suffers from some unavoidable limitations. DT, in general, tends to show a low classification performance, whereas ANN and KNN produce a "black-box" classification that does not provide biological information useful for clinical purposes. Methods Logic Learning Machine (LLM) is an innovative method of supervised data analysis capable of building classifiers described by a set of intelligible rules including simple conditions in their antecedent part. It is essentially an efficient implementation of the Switching Neural Network model and reaches excellent classification accuracy while keeping low the computational demand. LLM was applied to data from a consecutive cohort of 169 patients admitted for diagnosis to two pulmonary departments in Northern Italy from 2009 to 2011. Patients included 52 malignant pleural mesotheliomas (MPM), 62 pleural metastases (MTX) from other tumours and 55 benign diseases (BD) associated with pleurisies. Concentration of three tumour markers (CEA, CYFRA 21-1 and SMRP) was measured in the pleural fluid of each patient and a cytological examination was also carried out. The performance of LLM and that of three competing methods (DT, KNN and ANN) was assessed by leave-one-out cross-validation. Results LLM outperformed all other considered methods. Global accuracy was 77.5% for LLM, 72.8% for DT, 54.4% for KNN, and 63.9% for ANN, respectively. In more details, LLM correctly classified 79% of MPM, 66% of MTX and 89% of BD. The corresponding figures for DT were: MPM = 83%, MTX = 55% and BD = 84%; for KNN: MPM = 58%, MTX = 45%, BD = 62%; for ANN: MPM = 71%, MTX = 47%, BD = 76%. Finally, LLM provided classification rules in a very good agreement with a priori knowledge about the biological role of the considered tumour markers. Conclusions LLM is a new flexible tool potentially useful for the differential diagnosis of pleural mesothelioma. PMID:26051106

  1. Clozapine-Induced Liver Injury and Pleural Effusion

    PubMed Central

    O’Neill, Francis A.

    2014-01-01

    Clozapine, whilst associated commonly with a transient and benign increase in liver enzymes, has also been associated with varying presentations of hepatitis in existing case reports. This report describes what we believe to be the first documented case of acute liver injury and pleural effusion associated with clozapine, resolving after cessation of the agent. The case supports existing literature in advocating a high index of suspicion, particularly in the 4-5 weeks following clozapine initiation, when considering nonspecific clinical symptoms and signs. PMID:25553232

  2. Congenital milia en plaque on scalp.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sangita; Sangal, Shikha

    2015-01-01

    Milia en plaque is a rare disease entity characterized by confluence of multiple keratin-filled cysts resulting from the obstruction of hair follicle without any preceding primary dermatosis. Fewer than 40 cases have been reported so far in dermatological literature, and most cases are described to occur in adults and in the peri-auricular area. We describe a case of congenital MEP on scalp of a five-year-old boy with a blaschkoid extension into posterior nuchal area. This case report claims its uniqueness because of the unusual site and congenital presentation. PMID:25657433

  3. [Plaque surgery for Peyronie's disease: heterologous grafts].

    PubMed

    Paradiso, Matteo; Sedigh, Omid; Milan, Gian Luca

    2003-06-01

    Surgical treatment of Induratio Penis Plastica includes conservative procedures (phalloplasty), substitutive procedures (prosthesis) and combined procedures (phalloplasty plus prosthesis). Our policy for conservative treatment is based on radical removal of the plaque and replacement with biological patches. During a 15 year experience we employed lyophilized dura mater, autologous dermal graft, preputial skin, cadaveric dermal graft (AlloDerm), venous graft and porcine SIS (Small Intestine Submucosa) graft. Our experience confirms the superiority of venous grafts, but preliminary results with SIS grafts are encouraging. PMID:12868152

  4. Plaque biofilms: the effect of chemical environment on natural human plaque biofilm architecture.

    PubMed

    Robinson, C; Strafford, S; Rees, G; Brookes, S J; Kirkham, J; Shore, R C; Watson, P S; Wood, S

    2006-11-01

    The architecture of microbial biofilms especially the outer regions have an important influence on the interaction between biofilm and local environment particularly on the flux of materials into and out of biofilm compartments and as a consequence, biofilm metabolic behaviour. In the case of dental plaque biofilms, architecture will determine access of nutrients including acidogenic substrates and therapeutic materials to the microbial biomass and to the underlying tooth surface. Manipulation of this architecture may offer a means of altering mass transfer into the whole biofilm and biomass and raises the possibility of improving access of therapeutics. Plaque biofilms formed in vivo on human enamel were subjected to a number of different chemical conditions while under observation by confocal laser scanning microscopy in reflection mode. In this way the outer 50-100 microm or so of the biofilms was examined. Density and distribution of biomass were recorded as degree of reflectance. The amount and density of biofilm biomass increased from the plaque saliva interface towards the interior. Plaque biofilms were robust and little affected by mechanical manipulation, high ionic strength or low pH (2.5). Detergent (SLS), however, often appeared to either remove biomass and/or dramatically reduce its density. PMID:16806048

  5. An unusual case of a pleural effusion with an abdominal mass.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Preetam R; Sahoo, Rameshchandra; Baliga, Poornima

    2008-07-01

    A 38-year-old man presented to us with a left sided pleural effusion. Pleural fluid was aspirated and analysis revealed it to be an exudate with predominant lymphocytes and an elevated ADA level. He was discharged on antituberculous treatment. Patient returned with re-accumulation of pleural fluid. Computed tomography done in our institute picked up not only parenchymal disease in the lung which was not evident on chest radiographs but also picked up an abdominal mass in the left renal fossa. Pathological examination of excised mass revealed its tuberculous nature. The repeated recollection of pleural fluid was attributed to a "paradoxical response"; the patient was reassured and his anti-tuberculous treatment continued. Recognition of the fact that evidence of tuberculosis at distant sites may occasionally be needed to substantiate the diagnosis of tuberculous pleural effusion in a difficult and bacteriologically "negative" case prompted us to report this case. PMID:18807748

  6. Correlation between plaque vulnerability of aorta and coronary artery: an evaluation of plaque activity by direct visualization with angioscopy.

    PubMed

    Aono, Jun; Ikeda, Shuntaro; Katsumata, Yuriko; Higashi, Haruhiko; Ohshima, Kousei; Ishibashi, Ken; Matsuoka, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Kouki; Hamada, Mareomi

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the degree of atherosclerotic changes in the descending thoracic aorta (TA) and the coronary artery using angioscopy. Twenty-five consecutive patients undergoing angioscopy of the TA and coronary angiography were enrolled in this study. Participants were divided into three groups according to the angioscopic grading of the TA: white plaque group (W-group), yellow plaque group (Y-group) and intensive yellow, ruptured plaque with ulceration and/or thrombus group (RP-group). The maximum plaque grade, plaque score, number of yellow plaques, frequency of yellow-plaque grades by coronary angioscopy, and SYNTAX score by coronary angiography were evaluated. Brachial-artery pulse wave velocity and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level tended to be higher in the RP-group than in the other groups, although the differences were not statistically significant. The SYNTAX score was significantly higher in the RP-group than in the W-group (W-group 4.0 ± 3.6 vs. RP-group 17.5 ± 10.0, P = 0.045). In addition, the angioscopic maximum plaque grade, plaque score, and number of yellow plaques in the RP-group were significantly higher than in the W-group (maximum plaque grade W-group 0.8 ± 0.4 vs. RP-group 1.8 ± 0.8, P = 0.026; plaque score W-group 1.0 ± 1.2 vs. RP-group 4.0 ± 1.4, P = 0.014; and number of yellow plaques W-group 1.0 ± 1.2 vs. RP-group 2.5 ± 0.5, P = 0.023). The yellow-plaque grade in the coronary artery was correlated significantly with the plaque grading of TA (P = 0.043). Our study suggests that the angioscopic progression of aortic atherosclerosis is closely associated with vulnerability to and the extent of coronary stenosis, indicating that vulnerability toward atherosclerotic plaque development occurs simultaneously in the coronary tree and systemic arteries. PMID:25916323

  7. Chronic Kidney Disease and Coronary Artery Vulnerable Plaques

    PubMed Central

    Wada, Mitsuru; Higo, Tomoaki; Matsuo, Koshi; Nishio, Mayu; Hirata, Akio; Asai, Mitsutoshi; Nemoto, Takayoshi; Kashiyama, Toshikazu; Murakami, Ayaka; Kashiwase, Kazunori; Kodama, Kazuhisa

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a risk factor of cardiovascular disease. The number of yellow plaques is a predictor of future cardiovascular events. We assumed that CKD might raise the risk of cardiovascular events by increasing the number of yellow plaques. Therefore, we compared the number of yellow plaques between patients with and without CKD. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Consecutive 136 patients with acute myocardial infarction who received percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and angioscopic examination were analyzed. The infarct-related artery was angioscopically examined. The number of yellow plaques, maximum yellow color grade of detected yellow plaques, and prevalence of disrupted yellow plaques in nonculprit segments were compared between patients with and without CKD. Results The number of yellow plaques was significantly larger in CKD than in non-CKD patients (median [interquartile range]: 4.0 [2.0 to 6.0] versus 2.0 [1.0 to 4.0], P = 0.001). Maximum yellow color grade and prevalence of disrupted plaques in the nonculprit segments were not different between patients with and without CKD. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed CKD as an independent risk of multiple yellow plaques per vessel (odds ratio 3.49, 95% confidence interval 1.10 to 11.10, P = 0.03). Conclusion CKD was an independent risk factor of multiple coronary yellow plaques, suggesting that patients with CKD would have a higher risk of coronary events because they had more yellow plaques than patients without CKD. PMID:22157709

  8. Plaque distribution and vascular remodeling of ruptured and nonruptured coronary plaques in the same vessel: an intravascular ultrasound study in vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clemens von Birgelen; Wolfgang Klinkhart; Gary S Mintz; Alexandra Papatheodorou; Jörg Herrmann; Dietrich Baumgart; Michael Haude; Heinrich Wieneke; Junbo Ge; Raimund Erbel

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVESThis study was designed to identify potential differences between the intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) characteristics of spontaneously ruptured and nonruptured coronary plaques.BACKGROUNDThe identification of vulnerable plaques in vivo may allow targeted prevention of acute coronary events and more effective evaluation of novel therapeutic approaches.METHODSIntravascular ultrasound was used to identify 29 ruptured plaques in arteries containing another nonruptured plaque in an adjacent

  9. Assessment of plaque assay methods for alphaviruses.

    PubMed

    Juarez, Diana; Long, Kanya C; Aguilar, Patricia; Kochel, Tadeusz J; Halsey, Eric S

    2013-01-01

    Viruses from the Alphavirus genus are responsible for numerous arboviral diseases impacting human health throughout the world. Confirmation of acute alphavirus infection is based on viral isolation, identification of viral RNA, or a fourfold or greater increase in antibody titers between acute and convalescent samples. In convalescence, the specificity of antibodies to an alphavirus may be confirmed by plaque reduction neutralization test. To identify the best method for alphavirus and neutralizing antibody recognition, the standard solid method using a cell monolayer overlay with 0.4% agarose and the semisolid method using a cell suspension overlay with 0.6% carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) overlay were evaluated. Mayaro virus, Una virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), and Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV) were selected to be tested by both methods. The results indicate that the solid method showed consistently greater sensitivity than the semisolid method. Also, a "semisolid-variant method" using a 0.6% CMC overlay on a cell monolayer was assayed for virus titration. This method provided the same sensitivity as the solid method for VEEV and also had greater sensitivity for WEEV titration. Modifications in plaque assay conditions affect significantly results and therefore evaluation of the performance of each new assay is needed. PMID:23085307

  10. [Malignant pleural mesothelioma: 2013 state of the art].

    PubMed

    Campbell, Karine; Brosseau, Solenn; Reviron-Rabec, Lucie; Bergot, Emmanuel; Lechapt, Emmanučle; Levallet, Guénaëlle; Zalcman, Gérard

    2013-12-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a bad-prognosis cancer raising difficult issues according to diagnosis. Reliable histological diagnosis indeed requires large-sized pathological samples obtained by thoracoscopy, and need diagnosis certification by the MESOPATH national expert pathological committee. MPM epidemiology shows a rising incidence among females, whereas an incidence plateau has been reached for males in France. The incidence peak is still predicted for 2030 decade in UK, Australia and North America, because of the asbestosis massive use in their industry until the end of 1980 decade. Pleural carcinogenesis is better understood with the recent discovery of BAP1 susceptibility gene although no oncogenic driver has been ever uncovered for targeted therapies, although several more or less targeted biological therapies are currently tested in early phase or more advanced-phase trials. Surgery is more and more questioned, since radical surgery is currently abandoned, whereas debulking or cyto-reduction surgery has been proposed within a multimodality approach also including adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy but still need prospective trials. Pemetrexed and cisplatin-based chemotherapy remains the reference treatment, which has proved in mesothelioma some efficacy on overall survival in randomized trials, with a 13-15 months median-overall survival. Final results of the large phase 3 clinical trial "MAPS" sponsored by French collaborative Intergroup (IFCT) evaluating the effect of bevacizumab addition to pemetrexed-cisplatin doublet will be released in early 2015, since 445 patients have been included by November 2013. PMID:24225007

  11. Predominance of heavily calcified coccolithophores at low CaCO3 saturation during winter in the Bay of Biscay

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Helen E. K.; Tyrrell, Toby; Charalampopoulou, Anastasia; Dumousseaud, Cynthia; Legge, Oliver J.; Birchenough, Sarah; Pettit, Laura R.; Garley, Rebecca; Hartman, Sue E.; Hartman, Mark C.; Sagoo, Navjit; Daniels, Chris J.; Achterberg, Eric P.; Hydes, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Coccolithophores are an important component of the Earth system, and, as calcifiers, their possible susceptibility to ocean acidification is of major concern. Laboratory studies at enhanced pCO2 levels have produced divergent results without overall consensus. However, it has been predicted from these studies that, although calcification may not be depressed in all species, acidification will produce “a transition in dominance from more to less heavily calcified coccolithophores” [Ridgwell A, et al., (2009) Biogeosciences 6:2611–2623]. A recent observational study [Beaufort L, et al., (2011) Nature 476:80–83] also suggested that coccolithophores are less calcified in more acidic conditions. We present the results of a large observational study of coccolithophore morphology in the Bay of Biscay. Samples were collected once a month for over a year, along a 1,000-km-long transect. Our data clearly show that there is a pronounced seasonality in the morphotypes of Emiliania huxleyi, the most abundant coccolithophore species. Whereas pH and CaCO3 saturation are lowest in winter, the E. huxleyi population shifts from <10% (summer) to >90% (winter) of the heavily calcified form. However, it is unlikely that the shifts in carbonate chemistry alone caused the morphotype shift. Our finding that the most heavily calcified morphotype dominates when conditions are most acidic is contrary to the earlier predictions and raises further questions about the fate of coccolithophores in a high-CO2 world. PMID:22615387

  12. Clinical classification of plaque morphology in coronary disease.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Fumiyuki; Joner, Michael; Prati, Francesco; Virmani, Renu; Narula, Jagat

    2014-07-01

    In published post-mortem pathological studies, more than two-thirds of acute coronary events are associated with the rupture of lipid-rich, voluminous, and outwardly remodelled plaques covered by attenuated and inflamed fibrous caps in the proximal part of coronary arteries. Superficial erosion of the plaques is responsible for most of the remaining events; the eroded plaques usually do not demonstrate much lipid burden, do not have thin fibrous caps, are not positively remodelled, and are not critically occlusive. Both noninvasive and invasive imaging studies have been performed to clinically define the plaque characteristics in acute coronary syndromes in an attempt to identify the high-risk plaque substrate susceptible to development of an acute coronary event. Optical coherence tomography (OCT)--an intravascular imaging modality with high resolution--can be used to define various stages of plaque morphology, which might allow its use for the identification of high-risk plaques vulnerable to rupture, and their amenability to pre-emptive interventional treatment. OCT might also be employed to characterize plaque pathology at the time of intervention, to provide a priori knowledge of the mechanism of the acute coronary syndrome and, therefore, to enable improved management of the condition. PMID:24776706

  13. Aggregative Behavior of Bacteria Isolated from Canine Dental Plaque

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David R. Elliott; Michael Wilson; Catherine M. F. Buckley; David A. Spratt

    2006-01-01

    Interbacterial adhesion of bacteria isolated from canine dental plaque was assessed by performing a visual coaggregation assay. Using conditions mimicking those likely to be encountered in vivo, the entire cultivable plaque microbiota from a single dog was assessed, and eight (6.7%) unique coaggregation interactions were detected for 120 crosses. Transmission electron microscopy was used to visualize several of the bacteria

  14. Characterization of bacteriophage communities and CRISPR profiles from dental plaque

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dental plaque is home to a diverse and complex community of bacteria, but has generally been believed to be inhabited by relatively few viruses. We sampled the saliva and dental plaque from 4 healthy human subjects to determine whether plaque was populated by viral communities, and whether there were differences in viral communities specific to subject or sample type. Results We found that the plaque was inhabited by a community of bacteriophage whose membership was mostly subject-specific. There was a significant proportion of viral homologues shared between plaque and salivary viromes within each subject, suggesting that some oral viruses were present in both sites. We also characterized Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPRs) in oral streptococci, as their profiles provide clues to the viruses that oral bacteria may be able to counteract. While there were some CRISPR spacers specific to each sample type, many more were shared across sites and were highly subject specific. Many CRISPR spacers matched viruses present in plaque, suggesting that the evolution of CRISPR loci may have been specific to plaque-derived viruses. Conclusions Our findings of subject specificity to both plaque-derived viruses and CRISPR profiles suggest that human viral ecology may be highly personalized. PMID:24981669

  15. Bidirectional reflectance of dry and submerged Labsphere Spectralon plaque

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth J. Voss; Hao Zhang

    2006-01-01

    We present the bidirectional reflectance of a Labsphere calibration plaque, both dry and submerged in water, at normal illumination. The measurements indicate that when submerged in water, the Labsphere calibration plaque has a higher reflectance value than when dry at viewing angles below 55°. The results are presented in the form of a reflectance factor and are useful for calibrating

  16. To order wood plaques of ARTICLES or ISSUE COVERS,

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    ://www.myplaques.com/plaquebuilder/?jobid=75716 Paid by: __ Check/Money Order enclosed __ Invoice under Purchase Order Number __ VAT Numbercm) $1,030 / Ł668 ______ ____________ PLAQUE COLOR: __ Black Matte __ Cherry __Oak PLATE COLOR: __ Black on Brass __ Black on Silver __ Brass on Black PLAQUE FONT: __Arial __ Times * Please add $100

  17. Complement factor C5a induces atherosclerotic plaque disruptions

    PubMed Central

    Wezel, Anouk; de Vries, Margreet R; Lagraauw, H Maxime; Foks, Amanda C; Kuiper, Johan; Quax, Paul HA; Bot, Ilze

    2014-01-01

    Complement factor C5a and its receptor C5aR are expressed in vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques; however, a causal relation between C5a and plaque rupture has not been established yet. Accelerated atherosclerosis was induced by placing vein grafts in male apoE?/? mice. After 24 days, when advanced plaques had developed, C5a or PBS was applied locally at the lesion site in a pluronic gel. Three days later mice were killed to examine the acute effect of C5a on late stage atherosclerosis. A significant increase in C5aR in the plaque was detectable in mice treated with C5a. Lesion size and plaque morphology did not differ between treatment groups, but interestingly, local treatment with C5a resulted in a striking increase in the amount of plaque disruptions with concomitant intraplaque haemorrhage. To identify the potential underlying mechanisms, smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells were treated in vitro with C5a. Both cell types revealed a marked increase in apoptosis after stimulation with C5a, which may contribute to lesion instability in vivo. Indeed, apoptosis within the plaque was seen to be significantly increased after C5a treatment. We here demonstrate a causal role for C5a in atherosclerotic plaque disruptions, probably by inducing apoptosis. Therefore, intervention in complement factor C5a signalling may be a promising target in the prevention of acute atherosclerotic complications. PMID:25124749

  18. Bidirectional reflectance of dry and submerged Labsphere Spectralon plaque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voss, Kenneth J.; Zhang, Hao

    2006-10-01

    We present the bidirectional reflectance of a Labsphere calibration plaque, both dry and submerged in water, at normal illumination. The measurements indicate that when submerged in water, the Labsphere calibration plaque has a higher reflectance value than when dry at viewing angles below 55°. The results are presented in the form of a reflectance factor and are useful for calibrating underwater reflectance measurements.

  19. Inflammatory Cytokines Mediate C–C (Monocyte Chemotactic Protein 1) and C–X–C (Interleukin 8) Chemokine Expression in Human Pleural Fibroblasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Farzad Loghmani; Kamal A. Mohammed; Najmunnisa Nasreen; Robert D. Van Horn; Joyce A. Hardwick; Kerry L. Sanders; Veena B. Antony

    2002-01-01

    Current knowledge implicates pleural mesothelial cells as mainly responsible for inflammatory responses in the pleural space. However, a vast body of recent evidence underscores the important role of fibroblasts in the process of inflammation in several types of tissues. We hypothesize that HPFBs (human pleural fibroblasts) play an important role in pleural responses and also when activated by bacterial endotoxin

  20. Are herbal mouthwash efficacious over chlorhexidine on the dental plaque?

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Devanand; Nayan, Swapna; Tippanawar, Harshad K.; Patil, Gaurav I.; Jain, Ankita; Momin, Rizwan K.; Gupta, Rajendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To compare the effect of herbal extract mouthwash and chlorhexidine mouthwash on the dental plaque level. Materials and Methods: The subjects (60 healthy medical students aged ranges between 20 and 25 years) were randomly divided into two groups, that is, the herbal group and the chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash group. The data were collected at the baseline and 3 days. The plaque was disclosed using erythrosine disclosing agent and their scores were recorded using the Quigley and Hein plaque index modified by Turesky-Gilmore-Glickman. Statistical analysis was carried out later to compare the effect of all the two groups. Results: Our result showed that the chlorhexidine group shows a greater decrease in plaque score followed by herbal extract, but the result was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: The results indicate that herbal mouthwash may prove to be an effective agent owing to its ability to reduce plaque level, especially in low socioeconomic strata.

  1. Atherosclerotic plaque destabilization: mechanisms, models, and therapeutic strategies.

    PubMed

    Silvestre-Roig, Carlos; de Winther, Menno P; Weber, Christian; Daemen, Mat J; Lutgens, Esther; Soehnlein, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the pathophysiology of atherogenesis and the progression of atherosclerosis have been major goals of cardiovascular research during the previous decades. However, the complex molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying plaque destabilization remain largely obscure. Here, we review how lesional cells undergo cell death and how failed clearance exacerbates necrotic core formation. Advanced atherosclerotic lesions are further weakened by the pronounced local activity of matrix-degrading proteases as well as immature neovessels sprouting into the lesion. To stimulate translation of the current knowledge of molecular mechanisms of plaque destabilization into clinical studies, we further summarize available animal models of plaque destabilization. Based on the molecular mechanisms leading to plaque instability, we outline the current status of clinical and preclinical trials to induce plaque stability with a focus on induction of dead cell clearance, inhibition of protease activity, and dampening of inflammatory cell recruitment. PMID:24385514

  2. Nonlinear registration of serial coronary CT angiography (CCTA) for assessment of changes in atherosclerotic plaque

    SciTech Connect

    Woo, Jonghye; Dey, Damini; Cheng, Victor Y.; Hong, Byung-Woo; Ramesh, Amit; Sundaramoorthi, Ganesh; Nakazato, Ryo; Berman, Daniel S.; Germano, Guido; Kuo, C.-C. Jay; Slomka, Piotr J. [Departments of Imaging and Medicine, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California 90048 (United States); Departments of Imaging and Medicine, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California 90048 and Department of Medicine, David-Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California 90049 (United States); Departments of Imaging and Medicine, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California 90048 (United States); School of Computer Science and Engineering, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Departments of Imaging and Medicine, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California 90048 (United States); Computer Science, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Departments of Imaging and Medicine, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California 90048 (United States); Departments of Imaging and Medicine, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California 90048 and Department of Medicine, David-Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California 90049 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-2564 (United States); Departments of Imaging and Medicine, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California 90048 and Department of Medicine, David-Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California 90049 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Purpose: Coronary CT angiography (CCTA) is a high-resolution three-dimensional imaging technique for the evaluation of coronary arteries in suspected or confirmed coronary artery disease (CAD). Coregistration of serial CCTA scans would allow precise superimposition of images obtained at two different points in time, which could aid in recognition of subtle changes and precise monitoring of coronary plaque progression or regression. To this end, the authors aimed at developing a fully automatic nonlinear volume coregistration for longitudinal CCTA scan pairs. Methods: The algorithm combines global displacement and local deformation using nonlinear volume coregistration with a volume-preserving constraint. Histogram matching of intensities between two serial scans is performed prior to nonlinear coregistration with dense nonparametric local deformation in which sum of squared differences is used as a similarity measure. The approximate segmentation of coronary arteries obtained from commercially available software provides initial anatomical landmarks for the coregistration algorithm that help localize and emphasize the structure of interest. To avoid possible bias caused by incorrect segmentation, the authors convolve the Gaussian kernel with the segmented binary coronary tree mask and define an extended weighted region of interest. A multiresolution approach is employed to represent coarse-to-fine details of both volumes and the energy function is optimized using a gradient descent method. The authors applied the algorithm in ten paired CCTA datasets (20 scans in total) obtained within 10.7{+-}5.7 months from each other on a dual source CT scanner to monitor progression of CAD. Results: Serial CCTA coregistration was successful in 9/10 cases as visually confirmed. The global displacement and local deformation of target registration error obtained from four anatomical landmarks were 2.22{+-}1.15 and 1.56{+-}0.74 mm, respectively, and the inverse consistency error of local deformation was 0.14{+-}0.06 mm. The observer variability between two expert observers was 1.31{+-}0.91 mm. Conclusions: The proposed coregistration algorithm demonstrates potential to accurately register serial CCTA scans, which may allow direct comparison of calcified and noncalcified atherosclerotic plaque changes between the two scans.

  3. Characterization of Atherosclerotic Plaques by Laser Speckle Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Nadkarni, Seemantini K.; Bouma, Brett E.; Helg, Tina; Chan, Raymond; Halpern, Elkan; Chau, Alexandra; Minsky, Milan Singh; Motz, Jason T.; Houser, Stuart L.; Tearney, Guillermo J.

    2010-01-01

    Background A method capable of determining atherosclerotic plaque composition and measuring plaque viscoelasticity can provide valuable insight into intrinsic features associated with plaque rupture and can enable the identification of high-risk lesions. In this article, we describe a new optical technique, laser speckle imaging (LSI), that measures an index of plaque viscoelasticity. We evaluate the potential of LSI for characterizing atherosclerotic plaque. Methods and Results Time-varying helium-neon laser speckle images were acquired from 118 aortic plaque specimens from 14 human cadavers under static and deforming conditions (0 to 200 ?m/s). Temporal fluctuations in the speckle patterns were quantified by exponential fitting of the normalized cross-correlation of sequential frames in each image series of speckle patterns to obtain the exponential decay time constant, ?. The decorrelation time constants of thin-cap fibroatheromas (TCFA) (?=47.5±19.2 ms) were significantly lower than those of other atherosclerotic lesions (P<0.001), and the sensitivity and specificity of the LSI technique for identifying TCFAs were >90%. Speckle decorrelation time constants demonstrated strong correlation with histological measurements of plaque collagen (R=0.73, P<0.0001), fibrous cap thickness (R=0.87, P<0.0001), and necrotic core area (R=?0.81, P<0.0001). Under deforming conditions (10 to 200 ?m/s), ? correlated well with cap thickness in necrotic core fibroatheromas (P>0.05). Conclusions The measurement of speckle decorrelation time constant from laser speckle images provides an index of plaque viscoelasticity and facilitates the characterization of plaque type. Our results demonstrate that LSI is a highly sensitive technique for characterizing plaque and identifying thin-cap fibroatheromas. PMID:16061738

  4. Aortic Arch Plaques and Risk of Recurrent Stroke and Death

    PubMed Central

    Di Tullio, Marco R.; Russo, Cesare; Jin, Zhezhen; Sacco, Ralph L.; Mohr, J.P.; Homma, Shunichi

    2010-01-01

    Background Aortic arch plaques are a risk factor for ischemic stroke. Although the stroke mechanism is conceivably thromboembolic, no randomized studies have evaluated the efficacy of antithrombotic therapies in preventing recurrent events. Methods and Results The relationship between arch plaques and recurrent events was studied in 516 patients with ischemic stroke, double–blindly randomized to treatment with warfarin or aspirin as part of the Patent Foramen Ovale in Cryptogenic Stroke Study (PICSS), based on the Warfarin-Aspirin Recurrent Stroke Study (WARSS). Plaque thickness and morphology was evaluated by transesophageal echocardiography. End-points were recurrent ischemic stroke or death over a 2-year follow-up. Large plaques (?4mm) were present in 19.6% of patients, large complex plaques (those with ulcerations or mobile components) in 8.5 %. During follow-up, large plaques were associated with a significantly increased risk of events (adjusted Hazard Ratio 2.12, 95% Confidence Interval 1.04-4.32), especially those with complex morphology (HR 2.55, CI 1.10-5.89). The risk was highest among cryptogenic stroke patients, both for large plaques (HR 6.42, CI 1.62-25.46) and large-complex plaques (HR 9.50, CI 1.92-47.10). Event rates were similar in the warfarin and aspirin groups in the overall study population (16.4% vs. 15.8%; p=0.43). Conclusions In patients with stroke, and especially cryptogenic stroke, large aortic plaques remain associated with an increased risk of recurrent stroke and death at two years despite treatment with warfarin or aspirin. Complex plaque morphology confers a slight additional increase in risk. PMID:19380621

  5. Efficacy of CT in diagnosis of transudates and exudates in patients with pleural effusion

    PubMed Central

    Çullu, Ne?at; Kalemci, Serdar; Karaka?, Ömer; Eser, ?rfan; Yalç?n, Funda; Boyac?, Fat?ma Nuref?an; Karaka?, Ekrem

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of multidetector computed tomography (CT) imaging in diagnosis of pleural exudates and transudates using attenuation values. MATERIALS AND METHODS This retrospective study included 106 patients who were diagnosed with pleural effusion between January 2010 and June 2012. After the patients underwent chest CT, thoracentesis was performed in the first week. The attenuation values of the pleural effusions were measured in all patients. RESULTS According to Light’s criteria, 30 of 106 patients with pleural effusions had transudates, and the remaining patients had exudates. The Hounsfield unit (HU) value of the exudates (median, 12.5; range, 4–33) was significantly higher than that of the transudates (median, 5; range, 2–15) (P = 0.001). Additionally, when evaluated by disease subgroups, congestive heart failure and empyema were predictable in terms of median HU values of the pleural effusions with high and moderate sensitivity and specificity values (84.6% and 81.2%, respectively; 76.9% and 66.7%, respectively). Compared with other patients, the empyema patients had significantly more loculation and pleural thickening. CONCLUSION CT attenuation values may be useful in differentiating exu-dates from transudates. Although there is an overlap in most effusions, exudate can be considered when the CT attenuation values are >15 HU. Because of overlapping HU values, close correlation with clinical findings is essential. Additional signs, such as fluid loculation and pleural thickness, should be considered and may provide further information for the differentiation. PMID:24100060

  6. Primary pleural leiomyosarcoma with rapid progression and fatal outcome: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Leiomyosarcomas are neoplasms of smooth muscles that most commonly arise from the uterus, gastrointestinal tract, or soft tissue. Primary pleural leiomyosarcoma is extremely rare. To the best of our knowledge, only nine cases have been published to date. Because of the rarity of pleural leiomyosarcoma and its similarity (clinical and histological) to other pleural neoplasms, particularly sarcomatous mesothelioma, diagnosis is often difficult. Case presentation A 58-year-old North African man was admitted with complaints of dyspnea and chest pain to our hospital. Chest computed tomography revealed right pleural effusion and pleural thickening. A transthoracic needle biopsy yielded a diagnosis of leiomyosarcoma, and tumor cells were strongly and uniformly positive for vimentin, a smooth muscle actin at immunohistochemical analysis. A general examination did not show any metastatic lesions in other areas. One month after diagnosis, the tumor grew rapidly, with pulmonary invasion, and therefore he was treated only by palliative care. He died from respiratory failure one month later. Because no organ of origin of the leiomyosarcoma, other than the pleura, was detected, this case was diagnosed as a primary pleural leiomyosarcoma. Conclusions Although leiomyosarcoma originating from the pleura is rare, this entity is increasingly described. The purpose of presenting this case report is to raise awareness among clinicians to consider this clinical entity as a differential diagnosis when a pleural mass is identified. PMID:22480303

  7. TLR2 in Pleural Fluid Is Modulated by Talc Particles during Pleurodesis

    PubMed Central

    Jankovicova, Karolina; Kondelkova, Katerina; Habal, Petr; Andrys, Ctirad; Krejsek, Jan; Mandak, Jiri

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the role of TLR2 molecule in pleural space during thoracoscopic talc pleurodesis period in patients with malignant pleural effusion. We analyzed TLR2 molecule in soluble form as well as on membrane of granulocytes in pleural fluid. Pleural fluid examination was done at three intervals during pleurodesis procedure: 1st—before the thoracoscopic procedure, 2nd—2 hours after the terminating thoracoscopic procedure with talc insufflation, 3rd—24 hours after the thoracoscopic procedure. We reported significant increase of soluble TLR2 molecule in pleural fluid effusion during talc pleurodesis from preoperative value. This increase was approximately 8-fold in the interval of 24 hours. The changes on granulocyte population were quite different. The mean fluorescent intensity of membrane TLR2 molecule examined by flow cytometry on granulocyte population significantly decreased after talc exposure with comparison to prethoracoscopic density. To estimate the prognostic value of TLR2 expression in pleural fluid patients were retrospectively classified into either prognostically favourable or unfavourable groups. Our results proved that patients with favourable prognosis had more than 3-fold higher soluble TLR2 level in pleural fluid early, 2 hours after talc pleurodesis intervention. PMID:23304186

  8. A review of uncommon cytopathologic diagnoses of pleural effusions from a chest diseases center in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Cakir, Ebru; Demirag, Funda; Aydin, Mehtap; Erdogan, Yurdanur

    2011-01-01

    Background: After pneumonia, cancer involving the pleura is the leading cause of exudative pleural effusion. Cytologic examination of pleural effusions is an important initial step in management of malignant effusions. The aim of this study is to evaluate the spectrum of uncommon malignant pleural effusions in a chest disease center in Turkey. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of samples of pleural effusions submitted to Ataturk Chest Diseases and Chest Surgery Education and Research Hospital Department of Pathology between March 2005 and November 2008 was performed. Results: Out of a total of 4684 samples reviewed 364 (7.8%) were positive for cancer cells. Of the malignant pleural effusions 295 (81%) were classified as adenocarcinoma or carcinoma not otherwise specified (NOS). Pleural effusion specimens revealing a diagnosis other than adenocarcinoma/carcinoma NOS were: 32 (8.8%) malignant mesotheliomas, 14 (3.8%) small cell carcinomas, 13 (3.5%) hematolymphoid malignancies and 10 (2.7%) squamous cell carcinoma. Hematolymphoid malignancies included non- Hodgkin lymphoma (diffuse B large cell lymphoma, mantle cell lymphoma), multiple myeloma, chronic myeloid leukemia, and acute myeloid leukemia. Conclusions: Despite that adenocarcinoma is the most common cause of malignant pleural effusions, there is a significant number of hematological and non-hematological uncommon causes of such effusions. Cytopathologists and clinicians must keep in mind these uncommon entities in routine practice for an accurate diagnosis. PMID:21799700

  9. Bilateral calcified chronic subdural hematoma. Further pathogenetic and clinical consideration on the so-called "armored brain".

    PubMed

    Spadaro, A; Rotondo, M; Di Celmo, D; Simpatico, S; Parlato, C; Zotta, D C; Albanese, V

    1987-01-01

    Calcified chronic subdural hematomas after shunting procedures for treatment of hydrocephalus have been rarely described. When the calcified wall is so large to extensively cover the surface of the cerebral hemispheres, this instance has been defined "Armored Brain". The Authors report the case of an eleven-year-old patient affected by triventricular hydrocephalus due to aqueductal stenosis, that was treated by a ventriculoatrial shunt. The post-operative course was uneventful and the patient recovered completely from the preexisting neurological deficits. Nevertheless, a CT scan performed 2 and 1/2 years later, revealed the development of a bilateral calcified chronic subdural hematoma, to such extent to configure a so-called "Armored Brain". Clinical course, pathogenesis and treatment of such kind of pathology are discussed in light of the data reported from the literature. PMID:3668658

  10. The effect of hypodynamia on mineral and protein metabolism in calcified tissues of the maxillodental system (experimental radioisotope study)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prokhonchukov, A. A.; Kovalenko, Y. A.; Kolesnik, A. G.; Kondratyev, Y. I.; Ilyushko, N. A.

    1980-01-01

    Mineral and protein metabolism was studied in experiments on 60 white rats, using P-32 and Ca-45 uptake in the mineral fractions, 2C-14-glycine in the protein fractions, and P-32 in both fractions of calcified tissues as indices over a 100 day period of experimental hypodynamia. Combined alterations in mineral and protein metabolism occurred in the calcified tissues of the experimental animals. The most pronounced changes were found in P-32 and 2C-14-glycine metabolism. In the incisors and femoral bones, these alterations occurred in two phases: P-32 and 2C-14-glycine uptake first increased, then decreased. Changes in Ca-45 metabolism were less pronounced, particularly in the initial period of the experiment. A marked reduction in P-32, Ca-45, and 2C-14-glycine uptake was found in various fractions of the calcified tissues on the 100th day of experimental hypodynamia.

  11. Mesomesenchymal transition of pleural mesothelial cells is PI3K and NF-?B dependent.

    PubMed

    Owens, Shuzi; Jeffers, Ann; Boren, Jake; Tsukasaki, Yoshikazu; Koenig, Kathleen; Ikebe, Mitsuo; Idell, Steven; Tucker, Torry A

    2015-06-15

    Pleural organization follows acute injury and is characterized by pleural fibrosis, which may involve the visceral and parietal pleural surfaces. This process affects patients with complicated parapneumonic pleural effusions, empyema, and other pleural diseases prone to pleural fibrosis and loculation. Pleural mesothelial cells (PMCs) undergo a process called mesothelial mesenchymal transition (MesoMT), by which PMCs acquire a profibrotic phenotype characterized by cellular enlargement and elongation, increased expression of ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA), and matrix proteins including collagen-1. Although MesoMT contributes to pleural fibrosis and lung restriction in mice with carbon black/bleomycin-induced pleural injury and procoagulants and fibrinolytic proteases strongly induce MesoMT in vitro, the mechanism by which this transition occurs remains unclear. We found that thrombin and plasmin potently induce MesoMT in vitro as does TGF-?. Furthermore, these mediators of MesoMT activate phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and NF-?B signaling pathways. Inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling prevented TGF-?-, thrombin-, and plasmin-mediated induction of the MesoMT phenotype exhibited by primary human PMCs. Similar effects were demonstrated through blockade of the NF-?B signaling cascade using two distinctly different NF-?B inhibitors, SN50 and Bay-11 7085. Conversely, expression of constitutively active Akt-induced mesenchymal transition in human PMCs whereas the process was blocked by PX866 and AKT8. Furthermore, thrombin-mediated MesoMT is dependent on PAR-1 expression, which is linked to PI3K/Akt signaling downstream. These are the first studies to demonstrate that PI3K/Akt and/or NF-?B signaling is critical for induction of MesoMT. PMID:25888576

  12. Pleural Fluid Adenosine Deaminase (Pfada) in the Diagnosis of Tuberculous Effusions in a Low Incidence Population

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, David T.; Bhatnagar, Rahul; Fairbanks, Lynette D.; Zahan-Evans, Natalie; Clive, Amelia O.; Morley, Anna J.; Medford, Andrew R. L.; Maskell, Nicholas A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Previous studies have assessed the diagnostic ability of pleural fluid adenosine deaminase (pfADA) in detecting tuberculous pleural effusions, with good specificity and sensitivity reported. However, in North Western Europe pfADA is not routinely used in the investigation of a patient with an undiagnosed pleural effusion, mainly due to a lack of evidence as to its utility in populations with low mycobacterium tuberculosis (mTB) incidence. Methods Patients presenting with an undiagnosed pleural effusion to a tertiary pleural centre in South-West England over a 3 year period, were prospectively recruited to a pleural biomarker study. Pleural fluid from consecutive patients with robust 12-month follow up data and confirmed diagnosis were sent for pfADA analysis. Results Of 338 patients enrolled, 7 had confirmed tuberculous pleural effusion (2%). All mTB effusions were lymphocyte predominant with a median pfADA of 72.0 IU/L (range- 26.7 to 91.5) compared to a population median of 12.0 IU/L (range- 0.3 to 568.4). The optimal pfADA cut off was 35 IU/L, which had a negative predictive value (NPV) of 99.7% (95% CI; 98.2-99.9%) for the exclusion of mTB, and sensitivity of 85.7% (95% CI; 42.2-97.6%) with an area under the curve of 0.88 (95% CI; 0.732–1.000). Discussion This is the first study examining the diagnostic utility of pfADA in a low mTB incidence area. The chance of an effusion with a pfADA under 35 IU/L being of tuberculous aetiology was negligible. A pfADA of over 35 IU/L in lymphocyte-predominant pleural fluid gives a strong suspicion of mTB. PMID:25647479

  13. Automated extraction of pleural effusion in three-dimensional thoracic CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kido, Shoji; Tsunomori, Akinori

    2009-02-01

    It is important for diagnosis of pulmonary diseases to measure volume of accumulating pleural effusion in threedimensional thoracic CT images quantitatively. However, automated extraction of pulmonary effusion correctly is difficult. Conventional extraction algorithm using a gray-level based threshold can not extract pleural effusion from thoracic wall or mediastinum correctly, because density of pleural effusion in CT images is similar to those of thoracic wall or mediastinum. So, we have developed an automated extraction method of pulmonary effusion by use of extracting lung area with pleural effusion. Our method used a template of lung obtained from a normal lung for segmentation of lungs with pleural effusions. Registration process consisted of two steps. First step was a global matching processing between normal and abnormal lungs of organs such as bronchi, bones (ribs, sternum and vertebrae) and upper surfaces of livers which were extracted using a region-growing algorithm. Second step was a local matching processing between normal and abnormal lungs which were deformed by the parameter obtained from the global matching processing. Finally, we segmented a lung with pleural effusion by use of the template which was deformed by two parameters obtained from the global matching processing and the local matching processing. We compared our method with a conventional extraction method using a gray-level based threshold and two published methods. The extraction rates of pleural effusions obtained from our method were much higher than those obtained from other methods. Automated extraction method of pulmonary effusion by use of extracting lung area with pleural effusion is promising for diagnosis of pulmonary diseases by providing quantitative volume of accumulating pleural effusion.

  14. Pemetrexed: new drug. Pleural mesothelioma: a first encouraging trial.

    PubMed

    2005-12-01

    (1) Chemotherapy does not appear to prolong the survival of patients with inoperable pleural mesothelioma, and the tumour response rate barely exceeds 20%. A combination of cisplatin + doxorubicin seems to provide the best response rates. (2) In a trial of second-line docetaxel therapy in patients with non small cell lung cancer, survival was extended by about 3 months compared with palliative care (7.5 versus 4.6 months). (3) Pemetrexed, an antifolate closely related to methotrexate and raltitrexed, has been authorized for use for both conditions. (4) In a randomised single-blind trial involving 456 patients with previously untreated pleural mesothelioma, survival was prolonged by about 3 months by a cisplatin + pemetrexed combination in comparison with cisplatin + placebo (12.1 versus 9.3 months). The respective tumour response rates were 41.3% and 16.7%. This is the only available comparative trial of pemetrexed in patients with mesothelioma. A more appropriate comparator would have been a cisplatin-based regimen such as cisplatin + doxorubicin. (5) A "non inferiority" trial of second-line treatment in 571 patients with locally advanced or metastatic non small cell lung cancer showed no significant difference in median survival time with pemetrexed versus docetaxel (about 8 months with both treatments). However, this trial does not rule out the possibility that pemetrexed is less effective than docetaxel. (6) Supplementation with folic acid and vitamin B12 reduces haematological and gastrointestinal complications associated with the antifolate activity of pemetrexed. (7) Despite this supplementation, more than 15% of patients in the mesothelioma trial developed severe neutropenia, leukopenia or fatigue during cisplatin + pemetrexed therapy. Pemetrexed aggravates the nausea and vomiting provoked by cisplatin, a drug that is highly emetic. (8) The adverse effects of pemetrexed were similar to those of docetaxel in the trial comparing the two drugs. However, neutropenia (5% versus 40%) and febrile neutropenia (2% versus 13%) occurred less frequently with pemetrexed. (9) Patients receiving pemetrexed must be monitored closely for some rare but potentially severe adverse effects; they include angina, myocardial infarction and stroke, liver damage, and bullous skin rash. (10) According to the summary of product characteristics (SPC), pemetrexed therapy must be administered in combination with folic acid and vitamin B12 supplementation in order to reduce haematological toxicity, and also with corticosteroid therapy to reduce the risk of serious skin reactions. (11) In practice, given the absence of a better alternative, and pending the results of a second trial, the cisplatin + pemetrexed combination can be used as a first-line regimen for patients with pleural mesothelioma. However, pemetrexed cannot replace docetaxel in second-line treatment of non small cell lung cancer. PMID:16400741

  15. Pleural fluid metastases of salivary duct carcinoma: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Huss, Julie; Conrad, Rachel; Hirschowitz, Sharon; Moatamed, Neda

    2014-01-01

    Salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) comprises a small proportion of salivary gland tumors; however, it is known to be aggressive with a high rate of metastasis. Although frequent references are made to pulmonary dissemination, metastases in the pleural fluid have not been described. In this article, we report the cytologic features of metastatic SDC in the pleural fluid. The clinical history, cytomorphology and immunohistochemical features used for diagnosis are described. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of pleural fluid involvement by salivary duct carcinoma reported in the literature. PMID:24738005

  16. Pleural procedures and patient safety: a national BTS audit of practice.

    PubMed

    Hooper, Clare E; Welham, Sally A; Maskell, Nick A

    2015-02-01

    The BTS pleural procedures audit collected data over a 2-month period in June and July 2011. In contrast with the 2010 audit, which focussed simply on chest drain insertions, data on all pleural aspirations and local anaesthetic thoracoscopy (LAT) was also collected. Ninety hospitals submitted data, covering a patient population of 33 million. Twenty-one per cent of centres ran a specialist pleural disease clinic, 71% had a nominated chest drain safety lead, and 20% had thoracic surgery on site. Additionally, one-third of centres had a physician-led LAT service. PMID:24658342

  17. Rapid Mass Movement of Chloroplasts during Segment Formation of the Calcifying Siphonalean Green Alga, Halimeda macroloba

    PubMed Central

    Larkum, Anthony W. D.; Salih, Anya; Kühl, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background The calcifying siphonalean green alga, Halimeda macroloba is abundant on coral reefs and is important in the production of calcium carbonate sediments. The process by which new green segments are formed over-night is revealed here for the first time. Methodology/Principal Findings Growth of new segments was visualised by epifluorescence and confocal microscopy and by pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) fluorimetry. Apical colourless proto-segments were initiated on day 1, and formed a loose network of non-calcified, non-septate filaments, containing no chloroplasts. Rapid greening was initiated at dusk by i) the mass movement of chloroplasts into these filaments from the parent segment and ii) the growth of new filaments containing chloroplasts. Greening was usually complete in 3–5 h and certainly before dawn on day 2 when the first signs of calcification were apparent. Mass chloroplast movement took place at a rate of ?0.65 µm/s. Photosynthetic yield and rate remained low for a period of 1 to several hours, indicating that the chloroplasts were made de novo. Use of the inhibitors colchicine and cytochalasin d indicated that the movement process is dependent on both microtubules and microfilaments. Significance This unusual process involves the mass movement of chloroplasts at a high rate into new segments during the night and rapid calcification on the following day and may be an adaptation to minimise the impact of herbivorous activity. PMID:21750703

  18. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension from calcified thoracic disc protrusions causing CSF leak successfully treated with targeted epidural blood patch.

    PubMed

    Allmendinger, Andrew M; Lee, Thomas C

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous spinal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks are increasingly recognized in patients presenting with orthostatic headache and ultimately diagnosed with intracranial hypotension. While the precise cause of these spontaneous leaks is unknown, it is thought to result from underlying weakness in the spinal meninges and may be associated with meningeal diverticula or Tarlov cysts. Rarely, calcified intervertebral discs or bony osteophytes can result in CSF leakage, which has been described in the surgery literature but not well recognized in the radiology literature. The authors present three cases of patients presenting with CSF leaks from calcified thoracic disc protrusions that were successfully treated with epidural blood patches. PMID:23395554

  19. Calcified algae and bryozoans from the Ordovician - Silurian successions of the Spiti Himalaya, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Shivani; Parcha, Suraj Kumar

    2015-04-01

    The Tethys Himalaya contains an extensive record of sediments ranging from Precambrian to Cretaceous. These successions are well exposed in Pin, Parahio, Kunzum La and in the Takche sections. The present work is focused on the Ordovician and Silurian succession in the Pin Valley. The Ordovician succession consists of purple coloured quartzite, shale, siltstone, grits, dolarenites etc. Whereas, the Silurian succession comprises of thick sequence of slate, dolomite, calcarenites, olive green shale, limestone and pink dolomite. Both the successions contain a rich assemblage of the microfossils along with other body fossils. These successions show a wide variety of marine calcareous algae, along with corals and bryozoans. The calcified algae and bryozoans reported from the Ordovician - Silurian succession are mostly in carbonate beds. The various genera of bryozoan identified are as Calloporella, Cyphotrypa, Dekayai, Eridotrypa, Insignia, Trematopora, etc. along with them are various forms of calcified algae which were found in association in the same thin sections. The prominent genera of calcified algae are as: Dasyporella, Moniliporella, and Vermiporella. The algal assemblages mainly consist of the order Dasycladales, which predominants in the entire successions. Three genera of Dasycladacean algae were identified, among them genus Moniliporella was reported first time from the Pin section. The presence of bryozoans and calcified green algae in these successions indicates shallow marine to near shore environmental conditions followed by different stages of regression and transgression during this time span. Based on the faunal elements, middle to late Ordovician age can be assigned to Thango Formation and late Ordovician to late Silurian to the Takche Formation.The bryozoan communities identified indicates a correlation with that of southern China, Russia, Siberia, Kazakhstan and Mongolia. The genera Insignia and Tremaptopora which are reported from the Spiti Basin are also reported from the Ordovician successions of Russia. The earlier Bryozoan fauna reported from India from Kinnaur Basin were assigned late Ordovician age but the recent studies show that they go up to late Silurian and are equally present in Thango as well as in the Takche formations of this region. The calcified algae can be correlated at generic level with parallel successions of the Kinnaur Basin and also with the other well-known sections of the world. Apart from Spiti Basin, the genus Dasyporella is reported from middle to late Ordovician successions of the Tarim Basin in China, eastern Kazakhstan, Utah, Nevada, Norway and from Silurian successions of northern California. The genus Vermiporella which is also one of the dominating genera in the Spiti Basin is equally reported from the Ordovician successions of the Tarim Basin China, eastern North America, Baltic region, Poland, Scotland. This forms is equally reported from Silurian successions of Netherlands, Sweden and in India from the Kinnaur Basin. The genus Moniliporella which was reported first time from Spiti Basin by the authors shows an age ranges from late Ordovician to early Silurian. It has been found that even in Tarim Basin Moniliporella is having the same age range as that of the Spiti Basin as well as that of Kazakhstan. The studied microfaunal assemblage of Spiti Basin shows a cosmopolitan nature and is correlatable to other well known successions of the world.

  20. Management of malignant pleural mesothelioma—The European experience

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Management of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) remains a clinical challenge and the incidence of the disease will continue to increase worldwide. Several aspects of mesothelioma treatment are discussed controversially, in particular, regarding extent and best type of surgery, radiotherapy, and the role of neoadjuvant or adjuvant treatment. However, best survival data is reported from groups using multimodality treatment including macroscopic complete resection (MCR) achieved by either extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP) or (extended) pleurectomy/decortication for patients qualifying from the tumor biology, stage, and patient’s performance status and comorbidities. Several aspects have to be considered during surgery but morbidity and mortality have been reduced at experienced centres. The final analysis of extended selection algorithms is pending. PMID:24868442

  1. Bone marrow endothelial progenitors in atherosclerotic plaque resolution

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Longbiao; Heuser-Baker, Janet; Herlea-Pana, Oana; Barlic-Dicen, Jana

    2013-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Persistently elevated circulating low-density lipoprotein, or hypercholesterolemia, and deposition of low-density lipoprotein in the vascular wall are the main inducers of atherosclerosis, which manifests itself as arterial lesions or plaques. Some plaques become thrombosis-prone and rupture, causing acute myocardial infarction or stroke. Lowering plasma cholesterol through the use of statins is the primary intervention against atherosclerosis. Treatment with statins slows progression of atherosclerosis but can only support limited plaque regression. Partially regressed plaques continue to pose a serious threat due to their remaining potential to rupture. Thus, new interventions inducing complete reversal of atherosclerosis are being sought. Implementation of new therapies will require clear understanding of the mechanisms driving plaque resolution. In this Commentary, we highlight the role of bone marrow endothelial progenitors in atherosclerotic plaque regression and discuss how regenerative cell-based interventions could be used in combination with plasma lipid-lowering to induce plaque reversal in order to prevent and/or reduce adverse cardiovascular events. PMID:23538778

  2. Metal plaque on reeds from an Acid mine drainage site.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lin; Cutright, Teresa J

    2015-05-01

    Studies were conducted to investigate the interactions among rhizosphere microorganisms, plaque formation, and metal accumulation in reeds [ (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud.] grown in an acid mine drainage-contaminated field. We found that Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria (Fe(II)OB] played a key role in Fe plaque formation and pH decrease. The kinetics of Fe plaque formation were related to the abundance of rhizosphere Fe(II)OB, which mediated 66.0 to 93.3% Fe(II) oxidation. The Fe(II) concentration decreased from 14.24 to 0.94 mg L in nonsterile samples, with the most abundant Fe(II)OB activity (5.64 ± 3.83 × 10 colony-forming units g) after 2 d, and pH decreased from 2.91 to 2.50. The amount of metal plaque was also positively correlated with metal levels in soil. No significant correlations were found between Fe, Mn, and Al concentration in the plaque. Reeds sequestered Al in the aboveground tissues, and Mn and Al were stored in the roots and rhizomes. Metal plaque did not affect the Mn uptake but inhibited the translocation of Fe and Al in reeds. To increase the phytoremediation efficiency of Fe, Mn, and Al from the acid mine drainage-contaminated site, further research may be needed to inhibit the Fe(II)OB growth and reduce the metal plaque formation, thereby increasing the metal accumulation in reeds. PMID:26024266

  3. Subphrenic and Pleural Abscess Due to Spilled Gallstones

    PubMed Central

    Varker, Kimberly A.; Zaydfudim, Victor; McKee, Jason

    2006-01-01

    Background: A 70-year-old male approximately 3 years after laparoscopic cholecystectomy presented to his primary care physician with a 4-month history of generalized malaise. Methods: A workup included magnetic resonance imaging that revealed a perihepatic abscess. The patient underwent ultrasound-guided drainage, with the removal of 1400 mL of purulent fluid and placement of 2 drains. Computed tomographic scanning showed resolution, and he was discharged home on oral antibiotics. At 2-month follow-up, the patient was asymptomatic, denying any constitutional symptoms. However, abdominal computed tomographic scanning revealed recurrence of the abscess, which measured approximately 18x9x7.5 cm, with mass effect on the liver. The patient was placed on intravenous antibiotics and scheduled for operative drainage. The abdomen was entered with a right subcostal incision, and 900 mL of purulent fluid was drained. We also noted abscess erosion through the inferolateral aspect of the right diaphragm into the pleural space. The pleural abscess was loculated and isolated from the lung parenchyma. Palpation within the abscess cavity revealed 9 large gallstones. Following copious irrigation and debridement of necrotic tissue, 3 drains were placed and the incision was closed. Results: The patient had an uneventful recovery and was discharged home on postoperative day number 6. Follow-up imaging at 3 months demonstrated resolution of the collection. Conclusion: Spillage of gallstones is a complication of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, occurring in 6% to 16% of all cases. Retained stones rarely result in a problem, but when complications arise, aggressive surgical intervention is usually necessary. PMID:16709371

  4. Immobilization of R. erythropolis in alginate-based artificial cells for simulated plaque degradation in aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Mobed-Miremadi, Maryam; Darbha, Srikanth

    2014-01-01

    Cholesterol degradation rates of free and immobilized Rhodococcus erythropolis (ATCC # 25544) were studied utilizing the bacterium's cholesterol oxidase enzyme pathway to degrade cholesterol in an aqueous simulated non-calcified plaque solution. An L16 (4(5)) Taguchi design was used to minimize the glycolipid bio-surfactant by-product in the growth medium, to improve bacterial viability in the immobilized state. As an expected outcome of miniaturization, there is a significant difference between the atomized (d?=?850?±?50??m) and inkjet-bioprinted (d?=?32?±?5??m) lumped kinetic degradation rates after 48?h (p?=?0.029, ??=?0.05) per ml of jetted alginate. Based on a biphasic cholesterol degradation model, at an initial bacterial cell density of Nlow?=?4.53?×?10(8)/ml, for an initial cholesterol concentration of 3?mg/ml, the percentage mass of metabolite degraded is 37.0%?±?0.42%, 57.8%?±?0.04% and 65.1%?±?0.01% for the free, atomized and inkjet immobilized bacteria, respectively. PMID:23906071

  5. Dural lucent line: characteristic sign of hyperostosing meningioma en plaque

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.S.; Rogers, L.F.; Lee, C.

    1983-12-01

    Hyperostosis of the skull associated with en plaque form of meningioma may present a diagnostic challenge, since the intracranial part of the tumor is not visualized by skull radiography, computed tomography (CT), or other neuroradiologic methods. The authors report four cases of hyperostosing meningioma en plaque demonstrating a characteristic feature: a subdural layer of ossification along the hyperostotic bone with a dural lucent interface. Polytomography or high-resolution CT at bone window settings is necessary to identify the dural lucent line. The absence of this sign does not exclude meningioma en plaque.

  6. Complement activation in amyloid plaques in Alzheimer’s dementia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Eikelenboom; C. E. Hack; J. M. Rozemuller; F. C. Stam

    1988-01-01

    Summary  Amyloid plaques in Alzheimer’s dementia contain complement factors C1q, C4 and C3. In the present study we demonstrate complement\\u000a activation in amyloid plaques using immunoenzymatical techniques and specific antibodies against subunits of individual complement\\u000a components and activated complement products. Amyloid plaques contain C1q and activated C3 fragments (C3c and C3d, g) but\\u000a no C1s and C3a. These findings demonstrate that

  7. A topology-oriented and tissue-specific approach to detect pleural thickenings from 3D CT data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buerger, C.; Chaisaowong, K.; Knepper, A.; Kraus, T.; Aach, T.

    2009-02-01

    Pleural thickenings are caused by asbestos exposure and may evolve into malignant pleural mesothelioma. The detection of pleural thickenings is today mostly done by a visual inspection of CT data, which is time-consuming and underlies the physician's subjective judgment. We propose a new detection algorithm within our computer-assisted diagnosis (CAD) system to automatically detect pleural thickenings within CT data. First, pleura contours are identified by thresholding and contour relaxation with a probabilistic model. Subsequently, the approach to automatically detect pleural thickenings is proposed as a two-step procedure. Step one; since pleural thickenings appear as fine-scale occurrences on the rather large-scale pleura contour, a surface-based smoothing algorithm is developed. Pleural thickenings are initially detected as the difference between the original contours and the resulting "healthy" model of the pleura. Step two; as pleural thickenings can expand into the surrounding thoracic tissue, a subsequent tissue-specific segmentation for the initially detected pleural thickenings is performed in order to separate pleural thickenings from the surrounding thoracic tissue. For this purpose, a probabilistic Hounsfield model for pleural thickenings as a mixture of Gaussian distributions has been constructed. The parameters were estimated by applying the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm. A model fitting technique in combination with the application of a Gibbs-Markov random field (GMRF) model then allows the tissuespecific segmentation of pleural thickenings with high precision. With these methods, a new approach is presented in order to assure a precise and reproducible detection of pleural mesothelioma in its early stage.

  8. Sterile empyematous pleural effusion in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus: a diagnostic challenge

    PubMed Central

    Kriegel, MA; Van Beek, C; Mostaghimi, A; Kyttaris, VC

    2009-01-01

    Herein we present a case of a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and a sterile empyematous pleural effusion, a complication not generally associated with SLE. A discussion of the diagnostic and treatment dilemmas follows the case presentation. PMID:19433457

  9. Pericardial, pleural and peritoneal involvement in a patient with primary gastric mantle cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Keklik, Muzaffer; Yildirim, Afra; Keklik, Ertugrul; Ertan, Sirac; Deniz, Kemal; Ozturk, Fahir; Ileri, Ibrahim; Cerci, Ilkcan; Camlica, Demet; Cetin, Mustafa; Eser, Bulent

    2015-05-01

    Primary gastric mantle cell lymphoma is a rare form of gastointestinal tumour. Although peritoneal carcinomatosis accompanied by malignant ascites is relatively common, mantle cell lymphoma presenting with ascites is rare. Also, effusions involving pericardial and pleural cavities are uncommon during the course of lymphomas. We report the first case in which pericardial, pleural and peritoneal effusion of a primary gastric mantle cell lymphoma. PMID:25636307

  10. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs decrease the quality of pleurodesis after mechanical pleural abrasion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Lardinois; P. Vogt; L. Yang; I. Hegyi; M. Baslam; W. Weder

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are often applied for pain management after thoracic surgery. Since these drugs diminish collagen deposition through inhibition of the prostaglandin synthesis, we investigated their effects on adhesion formation after endoscopic mechanical pleural abrasion, which is often applied in the therapy of pneumothorax. Methods: Mechanical pleural abrasion was performed unilaterally by the use of video-assisted thoracoscopic

  11. Differential Susceptibility of Human Pleural and Peritoneal Mesothelial Cells to Asbestos Exposure.

    PubMed

    Dragon, Julie; Thompson, Joyce; MacPherson, Maximilian; Shukla, Arti

    2015-08-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an aggressive cancer of mesothelial cells of pleural and peritoneal cavities. In 85% of cases both pleural and peritoneal MM is caused by asbestos exposure. Although both are asbestos-induced cancers, the incidence of pleural MM is significantly higher (85%) than peritoneal MM (15%). It has been proposed that carcinogenesis is a result of asbestos-induced inflammation but it is not clear what contributes to the differences observed between incidences of these two cancers. We hypothesize that the observed differences in incidences of pleural and peritoneal MM are the result of differences in the direct response of these cell types to asbestos rather than to differences mediated by the in vivo microenvironment. To test this hypothesis we characterized cellular responses to asbestos in a controlled environment. We found significantly greater changes in genome-wide expression in response to asbestos exposure in pleural mesothelial cells as compared to peritoneal mesothelial cells. In particular, a greater response in many common genes (IL-8, ATF3, CXCL2, CXCL3, IL-6, GOS2) was seen in pleural mesothelial cells as compared to peritoneal mesothelial cells. Unique genes expressed in pleural mesothelial cells were mainly pro-inflammatory (G-CSF, IL-1?, IL-1?, GREM1) and have previously been shown to be involved in development of MM. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that differences in incidences of pleural and peritoneal MM upon exposure to asbestos are the result of differences in mesothelial cell physiology that lead to differences in the inflammatory response, which leads to cancer. J. Cell. Biochem. 116: 1540-1552, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25757056

  12. Incidence of Pleural Mesothelioma in New Caledonia: A 10Year Survey (1978–1987)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paquerette Goldberg; Marcel Goldberg; Marie-Josée Marne; Albert Hirsch; Jean Tredaniel

    1991-01-01

    All cases of primary pleural cancers that were reported during a 10-y period (i.e., 1978–1987) in New Caledonia were recorded and compared with five cancer registers. There was an excess of primary pleural cancers in the area of New Caledonia, and it was particularly evident among the Melanesian ethnic group. Neither geographical nor occupational factors accounted for these results, but

  13. Incidence of pleural mesothelioma in New Caledonia: a 10-year survey (1978-1987).

    PubMed

    Goldberg, P; Goldberg, M; Marne, M J; Hirsch, A; Tredaniel, J

    1991-01-01

    All cases of primary pleural cancers that were reported during a 10-y period (i.e., 1978-1987) in New Caledonia were recorded and compared with five cancer registers. There was an excess of primary pleural cancers in the area of New Caledonia, and it was particularly evident among the Melanesian ethnic group. Neither geographical nor occupational factors accounted for these results, but an environmental factor could not be excluded. PMID:1953039

  14. Volumetric Quantification of Atherosclerotic Plaque in CT Considering Partial Volume Effect

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jamshid Dehmeshki; Xujiong Ye; Hamdan Amin; Maryam Abaei; Xinyu Lin; Salah D. Qanadli

    2007-01-01

    Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is quantified based on a computed tomography (CT) scan image. A calcified region is identified. Modified expectation maximization (MEM) of a statistical model for the calcified and background material is used to estimate the partial calcium content of the voxels. The algorithm limits the region over which MEM is performed. By using MEM, the statistical properties

  15. Transcriptome and proteome analysis of Pinctada margaritifera calcifying mantle and shell: focus on biomineralization

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The shell of the pearl-producing bivalve Pinctada margaritifera is composed of an organic cell-free matrix that plays a key role in the dynamic process of biologically-controlled biomineralization. In order to increase genomic resources and identify shell matrix proteins implicated in biomineralization in P. margaritifera, high-throughput Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) pyrosequencing was undertaken on the calcifying mantle, combined with a proteomic analysis of the shell. Results We report the functional analysis of 276 738 sequences, leading to the constitution of an unprecedented catalog of 82 P. margaritifera biomineralization-related mantle protein sequences. Components of the current "chitin-silk fibroin gel-acidic macromolecule" model of biomineralization processes were found, in particular a homolog of a biomineralization protein (Pif-177) recently discovered in P. fucata. Among these sequences, we could show the localization of two other biomineralization protein transcripts, pmarg-aspein and pmarg-pearlin, in two distinct areas of the outer mantle epithelium, suggesting their implication in calcite and aragonite formation. Finally, by combining the EST approach with a proteomic mass spectrometry analysis of proteins isolated from the P. margaritifera shell organic matrix, we demonstrated the presence of 30 sequences containing almost all of the shell proteins that have been previously described from shell matrix protein analyses of the Pinctada genus. The integration of these two methods allowed the global composition of biomineralizing tissue and calcified structures to be examined in tandem for the first time. Conclusions This EST study made on the calcifying tissue of P. margaritifera is the first description of pyrosequencing on a pearl-producing bivalve species. Our results provide direct evidence that our EST data set covers most of the diversity of the matrix protein of P. margaritifera shell, but also that the mantle transcripts encode proteins present in P. margaritifera shell, hence demonstrating their implication in shell formation. Combining transcriptomic and proteomic approaches is therefore a powerful way to identify proteins involved in biomineralization. Data generated in this study supply the most comprehensive list of biomineralization-related sequences presently available among protostomian species, and represent a major breakthrough in the field of molluskan biomineralization. PMID:21040589

  16. Low frequency of EGFR mutations in pleural mesothelioma patients, Cologne, Germany.

    PubMed

    Schildgen, Verena; Pabst, Olga; Tillmann, Ramona-Liza; Lüsebrink, Jessica; Schildgen, Oliver; Ludwig, Corinna; Brockmann, Michael; Stoelben, Erich

    2015-02-01

    EGFR mutations were previously found in patients suffering from peritoneal mesothelioma but have not yet been described in pleural mesothelioma. The aim of the present study was the identification of EGFR mutations in patients suffering from pleural mesothelioma. Pleural mesothelioma tissue from 31 patients was used to analyze possible mutations in the EGFR gene comprising the exons 18-21 with the codons 719, 768, 790, 858+861, 731+734, 785, 797+801, 831, and 868 with pyrosequencing. The results indicate that 31 pleural mesothelioma patients show a wild-type EGFR gene when analyzing the codons D19, 768, 790, 858+861, 731+734, 785, 797+801, 831, and 868, whereas 2 patients have a mutation in the EGFR gene in codon 719. Sanger sequencing of the EGFR codon 785 was used for the determination of a polymorphism in the sequencing of tumor-free patients and pleural mesothelioma patients with a distribution of a wild-type homozygous sequence with guanine, a wild-type heterozygous sequence having guanine and adenine, a wild-type homozygous sequence with adenine, and a wild-type heterozygous sequence with adenine and guanine. Next, the identification of less EGFR mutations in the EGFR gene of the pleural mesothelioma an up to this time unknown polymorphism in the EGFR gene was identified which could be wrongly interpreted as a mutation. PMID:25679064

  17. Human parietal pleura present electrophysiology variations according to location in pleural cavity.

    PubMed

    Kouritas, Vassilios K; Hatzoglou, Chrisi; Foroulis, Christophoros N; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos I

    2008-08-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate if human pleura from different anatomical locations presents electrophysiology differences. Specimens were stripped over the 2nd-5th rib (cranial), 8th-10th rib (caudal), and mediastinum during open surgery and were mounted between Ussing chambers. Amiloride and ouabain were added towards mesothelial surface and trans-mesothelial potential difference (PD) was measured after 1, 5, 10 and 20 min. Trans-membrane resistance (R) was calculated from Ohm's law. R increased after amiloride addition, for cranial (net increase of 0.40 Omega x cm(2)) and caudal (1.16 Omega x cm(2)) pleural pieces. Mediastinal pleura R remained unchanged (0.09 Omega x cm(2)). R increase was higher for caudal than cranial (P=0.029) or mediastinal tissues (P=0.002). R increased after ouabain addition for caudal (1.35 Omega x cm(2)) and cranial (0.56 Omega x cm(2)) pleural pieces. Mediastinal pleural tissue did not respond (0.20 Omega x cm(2)). Caudally located pleura responded greater than cranial (P=0.043) or mediastinal (P=0.003) pleural tissues. Human pleura shows electrophysiology differences according to the location within the pleural cavity. Surgeons may waste mediastinal pleura when needed but should leave intact caudal parietal pleura, which seems to be electrophysiologically the most important part of the pleural cavity. PMID:18469008

  18. Cytologic features of ovarian granulosa cell tumors in pleural and ascitic fluids.

    PubMed

    Omori, Makiko; Kondo, Tetsuo; Yuminamochi, Tsutomu; Nakazawa, Kumiko; Ishii, Yoshio; Fukasawa, Hiroko; Hashi, Akihiko; Hirata, Shuji

    2015-07-01

    Adult granulosa cell tumor (AGCT) is an uncommon neoplasm of the ovary with potential for aggressive behavior and late recurrence. The most important prognostic factor for AGCT is tumor stage. Thus, cytological assessment of pleural or ascitic fluids is crucial for initial staging and subsequent patient management. We report herein two cases of ovarian AGCT presenting with exfoliated tumor cells in pleural and ascitic fluid. The first case involved a 61-year-old woman who presented with stage Ic (a) AGCT. Seven years after initial diagnosis, pleural effusion and pleural dissemination were identified. The second case involved a 50-year-old woman who presented with stage IV AGCT with massive ascites and right pleural effusion. Fluid cytology from both cases showed cohesive or loose clusters of small uniform neoplastic cells with round-to-oval nuclei, coffee-bean-shaped nuclear grooves, small nucleoli, and scant cytoplasm. Call-Exner bodies were also observed in these cytologic specimens. In the differential diagnosis of small monomorphic tumor cells in pleural effusion or ascites, coffee-bean-shaped nuclear grooves and cell clusters forming Call-Exner bodies are diagnostic clues of AGCT. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2015;43:581-584. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25605680

  19. Isolation and sequence of the vitamin K-dependent matrix Gla protein from the calcified cartilage of the soupfin shark.

    E-print Network

    Price, Paul A.

    Isolation and sequence of the vitamin K-dependent matrix Gla protein from the calcified cartilage Department of Biology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla. High levels of the vitamin K contains 4 residues of the vitamin K-dependent amino acid gamma- carboxyglutamic acid in its 102 residue

  20. Detection of Atherosclerotic Coronary Plaques by Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Angioscopy

    E-print Network

    Thomas, Patrick A.

    2010-10-12

    the potential of a FLIM angioscopy system to detect and differentiate coronary atherosclerotic plaques ex-vivo into several groups including thin, fibrotic, lipid-laden, thick-cap fibroatheroma (FA), and fibrocalcified. Samples were extracted post-mortem weekly...

  1. 32. STUDIO VIEW OF PLAQUE PLACED ON MILL HOUSE AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. STUDIO VIEW OF PLAQUE PLACED ON MILL HOUSE AT TIME OF COMPLETION, COMMEMORATING EDWARD J. LUKE (SEE TEXT) - Sperry Corn Elevator Complex, Weber Avenue (North side), West of Edison Street, Stockton, San Joaquin County, CA

  2. 26. BOLLING MEMORIAL GROVE PLAQUE, AVENUE OF THE GIANTS, OLD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. BOLLING MEMORIAL GROVE PLAQUE, AVENUE OF THE GIANTS, OLD HIGHWAY 101. HUMBOLDT COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. LOOKING E. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  3. 8. DETAIL OF EAST FRONT, SHOWING COMPANY NAME PLAQUE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. DETAIL OF EAST FRONT, SHOWING COMPANY NAME PLAQUE AND PARAPET. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, Carr, Ryder & Adams Company, Powerhouse, Tenth & Jackson Streets, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  4. 6. WEST FRONT DETAIL, SHOWING COMPANY NAME PLAQUE AND UPPER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. WEST FRONT DETAIL, SHOWING COMPANY NAME PLAQUE AND UPPER FLOOR FENESTRATION. VIEW TO EAST. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, Becker-Hazelton Company Warehouse, 280 Iowa Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  5. 10. VIEW OF PLAQUE ON ILLINOIS DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HEADQUARTERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW OF PLAQUE ON ILLINOIS DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HEADQUARTERS GROUND, SPRINGFIELD, ILLINOIS; NOW IN CUSTODY OF WARREN COUNTY HIGHWAY SUPERINTENDENT - Campbell Bridge, Spanning Cedar Creek at Sumner Township Road 22, Little York, Warren County, IL

  6. 6. VIEW OF COMMEMORATIVE PLAQUE, EAST APPROACH GUARDRAIL, WHICH STATES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF COMMEMORATIVE PLAQUE, EAST APPROACH GUARDRAIL, WHICH STATES 'SALINE RIVER; ARK. GENERAL CONST. CO.; CONTRACTOR; ARKANSAS; STATE HIGHWAY DEPARTMENT; 1928, BRIDGE NO. __.' - Saline River Bridge, County Highway 365 across Saline River, Benton, Saline County, AR

  7. Proteolytic enzymes and rotavirus SA-11 plaque formation.

    PubMed Central

    Ramia, S; Sattar, S A

    1980-01-01

    In addition to trypsin, eight other proteolytic enzyme preparations were tested for their ability to assist simian rotavirus SA-11 plaque formation in MA-104 cells. When incorporated in the overlay (minimal essential medium and 0.7% Ionagar No. 2) in the concentrations per mL indicated, alpha-chymotrypsin (10 micrograms), elastase (0.5 micrograms), subtilisin (0.5 micrograms), pronase (2.5 micrograms) and pancreatin (25 micrograms) were as efficient as trypsin (5 micrograms) in helping SA-11 produce 3-4 mm diameter plaques after five days of incubation at 37 degrees C. No plaques were produced when pepsin (25 micrograms), papain (10 micrograms) or thermolysin (10 micrograms) was added to the overlay. Addition of soybean trypsin inhibitor to alpha-chymotrypsin-, pronase- or pancreatin-containing overlays completely inhibited virus plaque production. A similar effect was not seen with elastase or subtilisin. PMID:6250685

  8. Clathrin and Cx43 gap junction plaque endoexocytosis

    SciTech Connect

    Nickel, Beth M.; DeFranco, B. Hewa; Gay, Vernon L. [Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, University of Pittsburgh, School of Medicine, 324 South Biomedical Science Tower, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Murray, Sandra A. [Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, University of Pittsburgh, School of Medicine, 324 South Biomedical Science Tower, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States)], E-mail: smurray@pitt.edu

    2008-10-03

    In earlier transmission electron microscopic studies, we have described pentilaminar gap junctional membrane invaginations and annular gap junction vesicles coated with short, electron-dense bristles. The similarity between these electron-dense bristles and the material surrounding clathrin-coated pits led us to suggest that the dense bristles associated with gap junction structures might be clathrin. To confirm that clathrin is indeed associated with annular gap junction vesicles and gap junction plaques, quantum dot immuno-electron microscopic techniques were used. We report here that clathrin associates with both connexin 43 (Cx43) gap junction plaques and pentilaminar gap junction vesicles. An important finding was the preferential localization of clathrin to the cytoplasmic surface of the annular or of the gap junction plaque membrane of one of the two contacting cells. This is consistent with the possibility that the direction of gap junction plaque internalization into one of two contacting cells is regulated by clathrin.

  9. Elevation view of dedication plaque on east wall of south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevation view of dedication plaque on east wall of south lobby - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Pacific Branch, Main Mental Health Building, 11301 Wilshire Boulevard, West Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  10. Detail of plaque beneath column on the south parapet at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of plaque beneath column on the south parapet at the west end of the bridge. The plaque reads ?1914; Mayor E.J. Drussel; Councilmen E.S. Henry, E.F. Hogan, R.P. Lamdin, C.F. Ross, J.H. Shuppert; Leonard & Day, Engineers; C.H. Gildersleeve, Builder.? - First Street Bridge, Spanning Napa River at First Street between Soscol Avenue & Juarez Street, Napa, Napa County, CA

  11. Single-use plaque removal efficacy of three power toothbrushes.

    PubMed

    Sharma, N C; Goyal, C R; Qaqish, J G; Cugini, M A; Thompson, M C; Warren, P R

    2005-06-01

    OBJECTIVES.: To compare the safety and plaque removal efficacy of two oscillating/rotating/pulsating toothbrushes (Oral-B ProfessionalCaretrade mark 7000 [PC 7000] and Oral-B 3D Excel [3DE]) and a high-frequency toothbrush (Sonicare(R) Advance, Philips Oral Healthcare; SA) in a single-use, examiner-blind, three period crossover study. METHODS.: After refraining from all oral hygiene procedures for 23-25 hours, subjects received an oral tissue examination and those with pre-brushing whole mouth mean plaque scores 0.6 based on the Rustogi et al. Modified Navy Plaque Index were randomly assigned to treatment sequence. After brushing with the assigned toothbrush and a commercially available dentifrice for 2 minutes, oral tissues were then re-examined and post-brushing plaque scores recorded. Following a brief washout period between two additional visits, the above procedures were repeated with the two alternate toothbrushes. One examiner, blinded to the treatment sequence, performed all clinical measurements. RESULTS.: A total of 79 subjects (28 males and 51 females) were enrolled and completed the study. Each toothbrush was found to be safe and significantly reduced plaque levels after a single brushing. The PC 7000 and 3DE were equally more effective in plaque removal than the SA, at all tooth areas, reducing plaque by 59.0%, 59.7% and 51.8%, respectively on whole mouth surfaces, and by 67.5%, 67.8% and 59.4%, respectively on approximal surfaces. CONCLUSIONS.: The action of the oscillating/rotating/pulsating toothbrushes (Oral-B ProfessionalCare 7000 and Oral-B 3D Excel) was more effective in plaque removal than the high-frequency toothbrush (Sonicare Advance). PMID:16253750

  12. Tryptase Promotes Atherosclerotic Plaque Haemorrhage in ApoE-/- Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Dai; Li, Xiaobo; Ning, Yanxia; Yin, Lianhua

    2013-01-01

    Tryptase, the most abundant mast cell (MC) granule protein, plays an important role in atherosclerosis plaque development. To test the hypothesis that tryptase participates directly in atherosclerosis plaque haemorrhage, the gene sequence and siRNA for tryptase were cloned into a lentivirus carrier and atherosclerosis plaque haemorrhage models in ApoE-/- mice were constructed. After a cuffing-cervical artery operation, the mice were randomly divided into 6 groups. Hematoxylin and eosin(HE) staining showed that the cervical artery plaque area was much larger in the tryptase overexpression group compared to the other groups, and there was greater artery stenosis. The artery stenosis from the cuff-side in all groups was more than 90%, except the siRNA group. Tryptase promotes plaque haemorrhage distinctively because 50% of the mice in the tryptase overexpression group had plaque haemorrhage, while only 10% in the siRNA group did. The immunohistochemistry of the cervical artery plaque showed that plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) expression was the lowest while tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), CD31, CD34 and VEGF was the highest in the tryptase overexpression groups. This observation was completely contrary to what was observed in the siRNA group. Tryptase promoted bEnd.3 cell growth, migration and capillary-like tube formation, which suggests that tryptase can promote microvessel angiogenesis. PAI-1 expression was inhibited, while tPA expression was increased by tryptase in bEnd.3 cells. Our in vivo and in vitro studies suggest that trypase can promote atherosclerotic plaque haemorrhage by promoting angiogenesis and regulating the balance of PAI-1 and tPA. Thus, regulating tryptase expression in MCs may provide a potential target for atherosclerosis treatment. PMID:23573292

  13. Effect of pancreatin on plaque formation by influenza viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul E. Came; Andrea Pascale; Gerard Shimonaski

    1968-01-01

    Summary Pancreatin incorporated into the overlay medium of chick embryo monolayers infected with influenza A\\/Swine, A\\/PR8, A\\/NWS, A2\\/Jap. 305\\/57, B\\/Lee, and B\\/GL enhances the number and size of plaques. The influenza A2\\/RI\\/5+ and A2\\/RI\\/5- substrains were not affected. In general, the degree of enhancement and the efficiency of plaque formation varies as the concentration of pancreatin is increased. It is

  14. Ultrashort echo time cardiovascular magnetic resonance of atherosclerotic carotid plaque

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheuk F Chan; Niall G Keenan; Sonia Nielles-Vallespin; Peter Gatehouse; Mary N Sheppard; Joseph J Boyle; Dudley J Pennell; David N Firmin

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Multi-contrast weighted cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) allows detailed plaque characterisation and assessment of plaque vulnerability. The aim of this preliminary study was to show the potential of Ultra-short Echo Time (UTE) subtraction MR in detecting calcification. METHODS: 14 ex-vivo human carotid arteries were scanned using CMR and CT, prior to histological slide preparation. Two images were acquired using a

  15. Tazarotene gel: Efficacy and safety in plaque psoriasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerald D. Weinstein

    1997-01-01

    Tazarotene is the first of a new generation of acetylenic retinoids developed for the topical treatment of mild-to-moderate plaque psoriasis. Controlled clinical trials have demonstrated that once-daily tazarotene 0.05% and 0.1% gels are effective in improving and reducing clinical signs and symptoms of psoriasis on trunk and limb lesions and difficult-to-treat elbow and knee plaques. Tazarotene has a rapid onset

  16. Antibacterial effect of taurolidine (2%) on established dental plaque biofilm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicole Birgit Arweiler; Thorsten Mathias Auschill; Anton Sculean

    Preliminary data have suggested that taurolidine may bear promising disinfectant properties for the therapy of bacterial infections.\\u000a However, at present, the potential antibacterial effect of taurolidine on the supragingival plaque biofilm is unknown. To\\u000a evaluate the antibacterial effect of taurolidine on the supragingival plaque biofilm using the vital fluorescence technique\\u000a and to compare it with the effect of NaCl and

  17. Bidirectional reflectance of dry and submerged Labsphere Spectralon plaque.

    PubMed

    Voss, Kenneth J; Zhang, Hao

    2006-10-20

    We present the bidirectional reflectance of a Labsphere calibration plaque, both dry and submerged in water, at normal illumination. The measurements indicate that when submerged in water, the Labsphere calibration plaque has a higher reflectance value than when dry at viewing angles below 55 degrees . The results are presented in the form of a reflectance factor and are useful for calibrating underwater reflectance measurements. PMID:17068529

  18. Vulnerable plaque intervention: State of the art.

    PubMed

    Young, John J; Phillips, Harry R; Marso, Steven P; Granada, Juan F; McPherson, John A; Waksman, Ron; Steinhubl, Steven R; Schwartz, Robert S; Stone, Gregg W

    2008-02-15

    Progressive atherosclerotic disease is responsible for many of the late adverse clinical events that detract from the high procedural and clinical success of percutaneous coronary intervention. Despite recent advances in catheter based technology for the treatment of obstructive coronary artery disease, the greater risk to the patient over time may in fact come from the significant rate of acute coronary events triggered by nonculprit and/or nonobstructive coronary artery lesions. These areas of vulnerability within the epicardial coronary tree have generated a great deal of interest surrounding the concepts of vulnerable plaque (VP), vulnerable blood and the vulnerable patient. This 'state of the art' review discusses the limitations of coronary angiography alone in providing risk assessment; reviews the underlying biological concepts of VP; discusses evolving noninvasive and invasive imaging technologies for the detection of VP; and finally provides a futuristic look at how the field of interventional cardiology may transcend the traditional angiogram and move toward a more comprehensive treatment approach that benefits the patients' overall coronary health. PMID:18288729

  19. Coral calcifying fluid pH dictates response to ocean acidification

    PubMed Central

    Holcomb, M.; Venn, A. A.; Tambutté, E.; Tambutté, S.; Allemand, D.; Trotter, J.; McCulloch, M.

    2014-01-01

    Ocean acidification driven by rising levels of CO2 impairs calcification, threatening coral reef growth. Predicting how corals respond to CO2 requires a better understanding of how calcification is controlled. Here we show how spatial variations in the pH of the internal calcifying fluid (pHcf) in coral (Stylophora pistillata) colonies correlates with differential sensitivity of calcification to acidification. Coral apexes had the highest pHcf and experienced the smallest changes in pHcf in response to acidification. Lateral growth was associated with lower pHcf and greater changes with acidification. Calcification showed a pattern similar to pHcf, with lateral growth being more strongly affected by acidification than apical. Regulation of pHcf is therefore spatially variable within a coral and critical to determining the sensitivity of calcification to ocean acidification. PMID:24903088

  20. Effects of dietary flaxseed on atherosclerotic plaque regression.

    PubMed

    Francis, Andrew A; Deniset, Justin F; Austria, Jose A; LaValleé, Renee K; Maddaford, Graham G; Hedley, Thomas E; Dibrov, Elena; Pierce, Grant N

    2013-06-15

    Dietary flaxseed can retard the progression of atherosclerotic plaques. However, it remains unclear whether these antiatherogenic effects extend to plaque regression. In the present study, the therapeutic potential of dietary flaxseed on atherosclerotic plaque regression and vascular contractile function was evaluated using a novel rabbit model. Rabbits were randomly assigned to receive either a regular diet for 12 wk (group I) or a 1% cholesterol-supplemented diet for 4 wk followed by a regular diet for 8 wk (group II). The remaining experimental animals were treated as in group II but were fed for an additional 14 wk with either a regular diet (group III) or a 10% flaxseed-supplemented diet (group IV). Animals in group II showed clear evidence of plaque growth stabilization. Their vessels also exhibited significantly lower norepinephrine-induced contraction and an impaired relaxation response to acetylcholine compared with animals in group I. Dietary flaxseed supplementation resulted in a significant ?40% reduction in plaque formation (P = 0.033). Animals in both groups II and III displayed improved contraction and endothelium-dependent vessel relaxation. Dietary flaxseed is a valuable strategy to accelerate the regression of atherosclerotic plaques; however, flaxseed intervention did not demonstrate a clear beneficial effect on the vessel contractile response and endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation. PMID:23585134

  1. Preliminary study of the detectability of coronary plaque with PET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delso, G.; Martinez-Möller, A.; Bundschuh, R. A.; Nekolla, S. G.; Ziegler, S. I.; Schwaiger, M.

    2011-04-01

    The evaluation of coronary plaque vulnerability could be of great diagnostic value in cardiology. Positron emission tomography (PET) is a good candidate due to its ability to quantify micromolar concentrations of targeted drugs. However, the detectability of sub-voxel targets such as coronary plaque is limited by partial volume effects and by cardiorespiratory motion. The goal of this paper is to investigate the impact of these factors in the detectability of plaque uptake. Radioactive markers were implanted on the epicardium of a pig and in vivo scans were performed. This was complemented with phantom measurements to determine the minimum detectable uptake as a function of background activity. Simulations were used to evaluate the effect of cardiorespiratory motion on the reconstructed lesions. Despite cardiorespiratory motion of up to 7 mm, the markers were detectable in the in vivo scans even after the injection of background. A lower limit of 250 Bq was found for a target to be detectable. Motion reduced the contrast of the reconstructed lesions to 23% of their static counterpart. Respiratory gating improved this to 49% of the static value. The results suggest that coronary plaque evaluation with PET is possible, provided that sufficient plaque-to-myocardium uptake contrast (50 to 100) can be achieved. This requirement increases exponentially for lesions with uptake below 250 Bq. The described experiments provide a means of estimating the minimum uptake and contrast required to ensure the detectability of plaque lesions.

  2. Dosimetry for 125I seed (model 6711) in eye plaques.

    PubMed

    Chiu-Tsao, S T; Anderson, L L; O'Brien, K; Stabile, L; Liu, J C

    1993-01-01

    The effect of eye plaque materials (gold backing and silastic seed-carrier insert) on the dose distribution around a single 125I seed has been measured, using cubic lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) 1 mm on an edge, in a solid water eye phantom embedded in a solid water head phantom. With an 125I seed (model 6711) positioned in the center slot of the silastic insert for a 20-mm plaque of the design used in the collaborative ocular melanoma study (COMS), dose was measured at 2-mm intervals along the plaque central axis (the seed's transverse axis) and at various off-axis points, both with and without the COMS gold backing placed over the insert. Monte Carlo calculations (MORSE code) were performed, as well, for these configurations and closely the same geometry but assuming a large natural water phantom. Additional Monte Carlo calculations treated the case, both for 20- and 12-mm gold plaques, where the silastic insert is replaced by natural water. Relative to previous measurements taken in homogeneous medium of the same material (without the eye plaque), the dose reduction found by both Monte Carlo and TLD methods was greater at points farther from the seed along the central axis and, for a given central-axis depth, at larger off-axis distances. Removal of the gold backing from the plaque did not make measurable difference in the dose reduction results (10% at 1 cm). PMID:8497229

  3. Automatic plaque assay for the pharmaceutical industry using machine vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilder, Joseph; Tsai, Augustine; Festa, J. M.

    1995-10-01

    A crucial step in the manufacture of vaccines is the verification of their potency. An assay of the potency must be carried out on every batch produced to determine the safety and efficacy of the vaccine. Currently, human inspectors count the number of plaques (holes) in a cell layer in a petri dish to estimate the potency.They must determine whether nearby plaques that have overgrown each other's borders are single or multiple plaques and distinguish between plaques and small tears in the cell layer resulting from the processing operations (the edges of tears differ in appearance from the edges of plaques). Because of the judgments required to make these subtle distinctions, human inspectors are inconsistent. In cooperation with Merck & Co., Inc., the Rutgers University Center for Computer Aids for Industrial Productivity has demonstrated the feasibility of achieving consistent automatic counting of plaques by a prototype intelligent machine vision system. The David Sarnoff Research Center developed materials handling equipment and factory information system interfaces to enable this prototype system to be installed in a quality control facility at Merck. This paper describes the overall operation of the machine vision aspects of the system, including optics, illumination, sensing, preprocessing, feature extraction and shape recognition. Results of initial tests of the system are also reported.

  4. Myeloid calcifying cells promote atherosclerotic calcification via paracrine activity and allograft inflammatory factor-1 overexpression.

    PubMed

    Albiero, Mattia; Rattazzi, Marcello; Menegazzo, Lisa; Boscaro, Elisa; Cappellari, Roberta; Pagnin, Elisa; Bertacco, Elisa; Poncina, Nicol; Dyar, Kenneth; Ciciliot, Stefano; Iwabuchi, Kazuya; Millioni, Renato; Arrigoni, Giorgio; Kraenkel, Nicolle; Landmesser, Ulf; Agostini, Carlo; Avogaro, Angelo; Fadini, Gian Paolo

    2013-07-01

    Several cell types contribute to atherosclerotic calcification. Myeloid calcifying cells (MCCs) are monocytes expressing osteocalcin (OC) and bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP). Herein, we tested whether MCCs promote atherosclerotic calcification in vivo. We show that the murine spleen contains OC(+)BAP(+) cells with a phenotype similar to human MCCs, a high expression of adhesion molecules and CD11b, and capacity to calcify in vitro and in vivo. Injection of GFP(+) OC(+)BAP(+) cells into 8- or 40-week ApoE(-/-) mice led to more extensive calcifications in atherosclerotic areas after 24 or 4 weeks, respectively, compared to control OC(-)BAP(-) cells. Despite that OC(+)BAP(+) cells had a selective transendothelial migration capacity, tracking of the GFP signal revealed that presence of injected cells within atherosclerotic areas was an extremely rare event and so GFP mRNA was undetectable by qPCR of lesion extracts. By converse, injected OC(+)BAP(+) cells persisted in the bloodstream and bone marrow up to 24 weeks, suggesting a paracrine effect. Indeed, OC(+)BAP(+) cell-conditioned medium (CM) promoted calcification by cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) more than CM from OC(-)BAP(-) cells. A genomic and proteomic investigation of MCCs identified allograft inflammatory factor (AIF)-1 as a potential candidate of this paracrine activity. AIF-1 stimulated VSMC calcification in vitro and monocyte-specific (CD11b-driven) AIF-1 overexpression in ApoE(-/-) mice increased calcium content in atherosclerotic areas. In conclusion, we show that murine OC(+)BAP(+) cells correspond to human MCCs and promote atherosclerotic calcification in ApoE(-/-) mice, through paracrine activity and modulation of resident cells by AIF-1 overexpression. PMID:23800875

  5. Dentinogenic Ghost Cell Tumor — A Neoplastic Variety of Calcifying Odontogenic Cyst: Case Presentation and Review

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Shalu; Prabhat, Mukul; Goel, Sumit; Bhalla, Kanika; Panjwani, Sapna; Misra, Deepankar; Agarwal, Ankur; Bhatnagar, Gunjan

    2015-01-01

    Context: The calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC), also referred to as calcifying ghost cell odontogenic cyst (CGCOC) is a heterogeneous lesion existing either as cystic or solid variant. Due to the fact that all CGCOC lesions are not cystic, and the biological behavior is often not consistent with a cyst, there has always been a controversy as to whether COC is a cyst or a tumor. The dentinogenic ghost-cell tumor (DGCT), a solid variant of the COC, is an uncommon odontogenic neoplasm occurring predominantly in later life. Case report is followed by a concise review and disambiguation of controversial terminologies regarding nomenclature of COC. Case Report: We report a case of 33-year-old female patient who presented with an insidious, steadily increasing swelling on the left side of her face since 8 months. Patient reported slight difficulty in eating because of reduced intraoral space and an obvious concern with facial disfigurement. There was no contributory dental or medical history. Intraorally, a hard, well defined, bicortical swelling was noted in left maxillary region with slight mobility of the associated teeth and normal appearing overlying mucosa. A provisional diagnosis of adenomatoid odontogenic tumor was made, and orthopantomogram, paranasal sinus radiograph and computed tomograpy scan of the face were acquired. A radiographic diagnosis of COC was made, which was subsequently confirmed on histopathology postenucleation of the tumor mass. COC has been seen to be of extensive diversity in its clinical and histopathological features as well as in its biological behavior. Conclusion: The present case of 33-year-old female was diagnosed as DGCT, a tumorous form of COC, due to its characteristic histological features; numerous ghost cells and dentinoid material. PMID:25709974

  6. Comparison of nucleolar organiser regions and DNA flow cytometry in the evaluation of pleural effusion.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, M. S.; Tsai, M. S.; Hwang, J. J.; Wang, T. H.

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND--In conventional cytological diagnosis of pleural effusions the assessment of morphological features plays an important part. However, false negative and false positive results may occur. In this study conventional cytology was compared with flow cytometric DNA analysis and the argyrophil staining technique for nucleolar organiser regions (AgNOR) to characterise benign and malignant effusions. METHODS--Pleural effusions from 71 patients (38 with benign lung disease, 33 with proven adenocarcinoma of lung) were studied by conventional cytology, flow cytometric DNA analysis, and the AgNOR technique. Tumour cell ploidy was determined by flow cytometry. In an attempt to detect the cell proliferative state, flow cytometric S phase fraction and the AgNOR technique were used. The correlations among conventional cytology, flow cytometric DNA ploidy, S phase fraction analysis, and nucleolar organiser regions were investigated. RESULTS--All the 38 benign pleural effusions were diploid. There were 17 (52%) aneuploid and 16 (48%) diploid malignant pleural effusions. Based on these results this type of DNA analysis had a sensitivity of 52% and a specificity of 100%. The mean (SD) numbers of flow cytometric S phase fractions of benign and malignant cases were 5.32 (1.67)% and 12.45 (3.93)% respectively. The mean numbers of S phase fractions of diploid malignant cases were higher than diploid benign cases. In each case the number of AgNORs was counted in 100 cells. The mean number of AgNOR dots per nucleus was 12.57 (3.64) for malignant pleural effusion cells and 3.96 (1.39) for benign pleural effusion cells. The mean number of AgNOR dots was 14.45 (3.36) for aneuploid malignant pleural effusion cells and 10.57 (2.82) for diploid malignant pleural effusion cells. The AgNOR numbers were higher in diploid malignant cells than in diploid benign cells. There was a significant correlation between the S phase fraction determined by flow cytometry and the mean number of AgNORs per nucleus in malignant cases. CONCLUSIONS--Both flow cytometry and the AgNOR methods provide comparable measurements in the diagnosis of pleural effusion. The study also indicates that the AgNOR method, which is rapid and easy to perform, may be a useful adjunct to flow cytometry, S phase fraction analysis and conventional cytology in the routine diagnosis of malignant pleural effusion. PMID:7831633

  7. Dynamics of pleural fluid effusion and chylothorax in the fetus and newborn: role of the lymphatic system.

    PubMed

    Bellini, C; Ergaz, Z; Boccardo, F; Bellini, T; Campisi, C C; Bonioli, E; Ramenghi, L A

    2013-06-01

    Pleural fluid effusion particularly chylothorax is a relatively rare occurrence in the newborn, but when it occurs it is often life-threatening. In this article, we describe and illustrate the morphologic features of the visceral and parietal pleura including pleural lymphatics and the physiology and pathophysiology of pleural fluid balance. The role and function of the lymphatic system in controlling the volume and composition of pleural liquid are detailed and a conceptual scheme presented. Finally, the crucial role of inadequate lymphatic drainage (either functional overload from an imbalance in Starling forces or mechanical insufficiency from lymphatic dysplasia) is emphasized. PMID:24354106

  8. Local critical stress correlates better than global maximum stress with plaque morphological features linked to atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability: an in vivo multi-patient study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dalin Tang; Zhongzhao Teng; Gador Canton; Thomas S Hatsukami; Li Dong; Xueying Huang; Chun Yuan

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is believed that mechanical stresses play an important role in atherosclerotic plaque rupture process and may be used for better plaque vulnerability assessment and rupture risk predictions. Image-based plaque models have been introduced in recent years to perform mechanical stress analysis and identify critical stress indicators which may be linked to rupture risk. However, large-scale studies based on

  9. Effectiveness of medical thoracoscopy and thoracoscopic talc poudrage in patients with exudative pleural effusion

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Akash; Taha, Aza; Venkateswaran, Sridhar; Tee, Augustine

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of medical thoracoscopy (MT) and thoracoscopic talc poudrage (TTP) in patients with exudative pleural effusion. METHODS We evaluated the diagnostic yields, complications and outcomes of MT and TTP in 41 consecutive patients with symptomatic pleural effusions who were planned to undergo both procedures from 1 December 2011 to 30 November 2012. Data was reviewed retrospectively and prospectively up to March 2013. RESULTS Among the 41 patients, 36 underwent MT with the intent of biopsy and talc pleurodesis, 2 underwent MT for pleurodesis only and 3 had failed MT. Aetiologies of pleural effusion included lung cancer (n = 14), tuberculosis (n = 9), breast cancer (n = 7), ovarian cancer (n = 2), malignant mesothelioma (n = 1), congestive cardiac failure (n = 1), peritoneal dialysis (n = 1) and hepatic hydrothorax (n = 1); pleural effusion was undiagnosed in five patients. The overall diagnostic yield of MT, and the yield in tubercular and malignant pleural effusions were 77.8%, 100.0% and 82.6%, respectively; it was inconclusive in 22.2%. Complications that occurred were self-limiting, with no procedure-related mortality. The 30-day mortality rate was 17.1%. A total of 15 patients underwent TTP. The 30-, 60- and 90-day success rates were 77.8%, 80.0% and 80.0%, respectively, with one patient having complications (i.e. empyema). The 30-day mortality was 40.0%. CONCLUSION MT is a safe procedure with high diagnostic yields in undiagnosed pleural effusions. TTP is an effective method to stop recurrence of pleural effusions.

  10. Dynamic and Volumetric Variables Reliably Predict Fluid Responsiveness in a Porcine Model with Pleural Effusion

    PubMed Central

    Broch, Ole; Gruenewald, Matthias; Renner, Jochen; Meybohm, Patrick; Schöttler, Jan; Heß, Katharina; Steinfath, Markus; Bein, Berthold

    2013-01-01

    Background The ability of stroke volume variation (SVV), pulse pressure variation (PPV) and global end-diastolic volume (GEDV) for prediction of fluid responsiveness in presence of pleural effusion is unknown. The aim of the present study was to challenge the ability of SVV, PPV and GEDV to predict fluid responsiveness in a porcine model with pleural effusions. Methods Pigs were studied at baseline and after fluid loading with 8 ml kg?1 6% hydroxyethyl starch. After withdrawal of 8 ml kg?1 blood and induction of pleural effusion up to 50 ml kg?1 on either side, measurements at baseline and after fluid loading were repeated. Cardiac output, stroke volume, central venous pressure (CVP) and pulmonary occlusion pressure (PAOP) were obtained by pulmonary thermodilution, whereas GEDV was determined by transpulmonary thermodilution. SVV and PPV were monitored continuously by pulse contour analysis. Results Pleural effusion was associated with significant changes in lung compliance, peak airway pressure and stroke volume in both responders and non-responders. At baseline, SVV, PPV and GEDV reliably predicted fluid responsiveness (area under the curve 0.85 (p<0.001), 0.88 (p<0.001), 0.77 (p?=?0.007). After induction of pleural effusion the ability of SVV, PPV and GEDV to predict fluid responsiveness was well preserved and also PAOP was predictive. Threshold values for SVV and PPV increased in presence of pleural effusion. Conclusions In this porcine model, bilateral pleural effusion did not affect the ability of SVV, PPV and GEDV to predict fluid responsiveness. PMID:23418546

  11. Protumorigenic effects of mir-145 loss in malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Cioce, M; Ganci, F; Canu, V; Sacconi, A; Mori, F; Canino, C; Korita, E; Casini, B; Alessandrini, G; Cambria, A; Carosi, M A; Blandino, R; Panebianco, V; Facciolo, F; Visca, P; Volinia, S; Muti, P; Strano, S; Croce, C M; Pass, H I; Blandino, G

    2014-11-13

    We identified a discrete number of microRNAs differentially expressed in benign or malignant mesothelial tissues. We focused on mir-145 whose levels were significantly downregulated in malignant mesothelial tissues and malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) cell lines as compared to benign tissues (pleura, peritoneum or cysts). We show that promoter hyper-methylation caused very low levels in MPM cell lines and specimens. Treatment of MPM cell lines with mir-145 agonists negatively modulated some protumorigenic properties of MPM cells, such as clonogenicity, cell migration and resistance to pemetrexed treatment. The main effector mechanism of the clonogenic death induced by mir-145 was that of accelerated senescence. We found that mir-145 targeted OCT4 via specific binding to its 3'-UTR. Increased intracellular levels of mir-145 decreased the levels of OCT4 and its target gene ZEB1, thereby counteracting the increase of OCT4 induced by pemetrexed treatment which is known to favor the development of chemoresistant cells. In line with this, reintroduction of OCT4 into mimic-145 treated cells counteracted the effects on clonogenicity and replicative senescence. This further supports the relevance of the mir-145-OCT4 interaction for the survival of MPM cells. The potential use of mir-145 expression levels to classify benign vs malignant mesothelial tissues and the differences between pemetrexed-induced senescence and that induced by the re-expression of mir-145 are discussed. PMID:24240684

  12. Frequency of Surgery in Black Patients with Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Taioli, Emanuela; Wolf, Andrea S.; Moline, Jacqueline M.; Camacho-Rivera, Marlene; Flores, Raja M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare disease, even less frequently described in minority patients. We used a large population-based dataset to study the role of race in MPM presentation, treatment, and survival. Methods. All cases of pathologically proven MPM were identified in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Age, sex, diagnosis year, stage, cancer-directed surgery, radiation, and vital status were analyzed according to self-reported race (black or white). Results. There were 13,046 white and 688 black MPM patients (incidence: 1.1 per 100,000 whites; 0.5 per 100,000 blacks; age-adjusted, p = 0.01). Black patients were more likely to be female, younger, and with advanced stage and less likely to undergo cancer-directed surgery than whites, after adjustment by stage. On multivariable analysis, younger age and having surgery were associated with longer survival for both cohorts; female gender (HR 0.82 (0.77–0.88)) and early stage at diagnosis (HR 0.83 (0.76–0.90)) were predictive of longer survival in white, but not in black, patients. Conclusions. Surgery was associated with improved survival for both black and white MPM patients. However, black patients were less likely to undergo cancer-directed surgery. Increased surgical intervention in MPM black patients with early stage disease may improve their survival.

  13. Macrophage-targeted photodynamic detection of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamblin, Michael R.; Tawakol, Ahmed; Castano, Ana P.; Gad, Faten; Zahra, Touqir; Ahmadi, Atosa; Stern, Jeremy; Ortel, Bernhard; Chirico, Stephanie; Shirazi, Azadeh; Syed, Sakeena; Muller, James E.

    2003-06-01

    Rupture of a vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque (VP) leading to coronary thrombosis is the chief cause of sudden cardiac death. VPs are angiographically insignificant lesions, which are excessively inflamed and characterized by dense macrophage infiltration, large necrotic lipid cores, thin fibrous caps, and paucity of smooth muscle cells. We have recently shown that chlorin(e6) conjugated with maleylated albumin can target macrophages with high selectivity via the scavenger receptor. We report the potential of this macrophage-targeted fluorescent probe to localize in VPs in a rabbit model of atherosclerosis, and allow detection and/or diagnosis by fluorescence spectroscopy or imaging. Atherosclerotic lesions were induced in New Zealand White rabbit aortas by balloon injury followed by administration of a high-fat diet. 24-hours after IV injection of the conjugate into atherosclerotic or normal rabbits, the animals were sacrificed, and aortas were removed, dissected and examined for fluorescence localization in plaques by fiber-based spectrofluorimetry and confocal microscopy. Dye uptake within the aortas was also quantified by fluorescence extraction of samples from aorta segments. Biodistribution of the dye was studied in many organs of the rabbits. Surface spectrofluorimetry after conjugate injection was able to distinguish between plaque and adjacent aorta, between atherosclerotic and normal aorta, and balloon-injured and normal iliac arteries with high significance. Discrete areas of high fluorescence (up to 20 times control were detected in the balloon-injured segments, presumably corresponding to macrophage-rich plaques. Confocal microscopy showed red ce6 fluorescence localized in plaques that showed abundant foam cells and macrophages by histology. Extraction data on aortic tissue corroborated the selectivity of the conjugate for plaques. These data support the strategy of employing macrophage-targeted fluorescent dyes to detect VP by intravascular spectrofluorimetry. It may also be possible to use macrophage-targeted PDT to therapeutically modify inflammatory cell-laden VPs leading to plaque stabilization and reduction of sudden cardiovascular death.

  14. ROPES eye plaque dosimetry: commissioning and verification of an ophthalmic brachytherapy treatment planning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poder, J.; Annabell, N.; Geso, M.; Alqathami, M.; Corde, S.

    2013-06-01

    In this study, the Plaque SimulatorTM eye plaque brachytherapy planning system was commissioned for ROPES eye plaques and Amersham Health model 6711 Iodine 125 seeds, using TG43-UI data. The brachytherapy module of the RADCALC® independent checking program was configured to allow verification of the accuracy of the dose calculated by Plaque SimulatorTM. Central axis depth dose distributions were compared and observed to agree to within 2% for all ROPES plaque models and depths of interest. Experimental measurements were performed with a customized PRESAGEm 3-D type dosimeter to validate the calculated depth dose distributions. Preliminary results have shown the effect of the stainless steel plaque backing decreases the measured fluorescence intensity by up to 25%, and 40% for the 15 mm and 10 mm diameter ROPES plaques respectively. This effect, once fully quantified should be accounted for in the Plaque SimulatorTM eye plaque brachytherapy planning system.

  15. The modern calcifying sponge Spheciospongia vesparium (Lamarck, 1815), Great Bahama Bank: Implications for ancient sponge mud-mounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuweiler, Fritz; Burdige, David J.

    2005-04-01

    Modern calcified siliceous sponges from the Great Bahama Bank, living at water depth ranges of 2 to 5 m, have been proposed as likely analogues for calcified sponges in Upper Jurassic sponge "reefs" (e.g., southern Germany), or Lower Jurassic bioherms that consist of reddish, spiculiferous limestones (e.g., Broccatello Formation of the Southern Alps). Indeed, sponge-related calcification or siliceous sponge diagenesis, in general, is widely considered a key feature for the mechanisms of accretion and textural maturation in Phanerozoic sponge mounds or spiculiferous carbonate mud-mounds. Based on a revisit of the original sites on the Great Bahama Bank (NW of Andros Island) the biostratonomy of the calcifying sponge Spheciospongia vesparium (Lamarck, 1815) was explored using the patterns of fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) as revealed by the application of three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy. Geochemical sampling distinguished between FDOM that was extracted from sponge tissue and FDOM that was intimately associated with CaCO 3 (from particles due to sediment agglutination and authigenic CaCO 3), both obtained from the living sponge at the sediment surface and from the calcified sponge at the shallow subsurface (from 5 to 10 cm of depth). As expected, the sponge tissue shows highest intensities for protein-like fluorescence. However, from the surface to the subsurface, there is a loss of such relatively pristine fluorescent material in the range of 70%. Humic-like fluorescence that occurs associated with sponge tissue is relatively mature or aged, thus it most probably represents seawater FDOM taken up through active filter feeding. Relative to the sponge tissue material, the FDOM patterns associated with Ca-carbonates show much lower total fluorescence intensities, by up to two orders of magnitude. The agglutinated sedimentary carbonate particles from the surface (pellets, ooids, grapestones) exclusively show a relatively mature, humic-like fluorescence. The deeper, calcified parts of Spheciospongia, which represent a mixture of particles and authigenic CaCO 3, provided a FDOM pattern that obviously combines the mature FDOM pattern of particles with diagenetically fresh, protein-like and fulvic acid-like fluorescence. We conclude that shallow subsurface calcification of S. vesparium correlates with the initial stage of sponge biomass humification. Such a mechanism of biomass transformation, i.e., from biopolymers to geopolymers via degradation and condensation, has also been suggested for the large-scale development of carbonate (sponge) mud-mounds. Therefore, we consider the modern calcifying siliceous sponge S. vesparium (Lamarck, 1815) a potential pardigm to decipher in more detail the geologically important process of biomass-induced calcification or organomineralisation with its subsequent effect of pore water FDOM preservation and sediment lithification.

  16. Detection of activated T lymphocytes in the human atherosclerotic plaque.

    PubMed Central

    Hansson, G. K.; Holm, J.; Jonasson, L.

    1989-01-01

    It was recently shown that the human atherosclerotic plaque contains significant amounts of T lymphocytes, and also that smooth muscle cells in these plaques express class II MHC (Ia) antigens. These antigens are not normally present on smooth muscle cells but are inducible by interferon-gamma, a secretory product of activated T cells. Therefore, T cell activation in the plaque was analyzed by immunofluorescent detection of activation markers on T cells isolated from the plaques and in cryostat sections of carotid endarterectomy specimens. Of cells isolated from the plaque, 5% exhibited the E rosettes characteristic of T cells. One third of these cells expressed HLA-DR and VLA-1 (very late activation antigen-1), which in T cells are synthesized only in the activated state. T cells were also identified in sections using immunofluorescent detection of the T cell-specific surface protein, CD3 (Leu-4), with rhodamine labeled second-step antibodies. The frequency of activated T cells was then determined by staining the same, or serial, sections with antibodies to HLA-DR or to the interleukin-2 receptor, followed by biotin-avidin-FITC detection. Of the T cells in the plaque, 34% and 6%, respectively, expressed these cell surface proteins. Taken together, these results indicated that a substantial proportion of the T cells in atherosclerotic plaque are in an activated state. The activation pattern, with a high frequency of HLA-DR and VLA-1 expression and a much lower frequency of interleukin-2 receptor expression, was similar to that reported to occur in chronic inflammatory conditions. Interferon-gamma could be detected in and around some of the lymphocytes, suggesting that paracrine secretion of this lymphokine may occur in the plaque. T cells may be activated locally, presumably by antigen(s) presented in the context of class II MHC expressing smooth muscle cells and/or macrophages, in the atherosclerotic lesion. Such activated T cells may in turn modulate the functions of other cells in the plaque. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:2505620

  17. Echogenic carotid plaques are associated with aortic arterial stiffness in subjects with subclinical carotid atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Zureik, Mahmoud; Bureau, Jeanne-Marie; Temmar, Mohammed; Adamopoulos, Chris; Courbon, Dominique; Bean, Kathryn; Touboul, Pierre-Jean; Benetos, Athanase; Ducimetičre, Pierre

    2003-03-01

    A better understanding of the interrelationships between the structure and function of the large arteries would lead to optimize cardiovascular disease prevention strategies. In this study, we investigated the relationships of aortic arterial stiffness assessed by carotid-femoral pulse-wave velocity (PWV), with carotid plaque echogenicity assessed by B-mode ultrasound. We analyzed 561 subjects (without coronary heart disease or stroke) who were volunteers for free health examinations (age, 58.3+/-10.8 years; 32.6% women). Extracranial carotid plaque echogenicity was graded from 1 (plaque appearing black or almost black) to 4 (plaque appearing white or almost white) according to the Gray-Weale classification. Plaques of grades 1 and 2 were defined as echolucent plaques, and plaques of grades 3 and 4 were defined as echogenic plaques. Fifty-one subjects (9.1%) had echolucent carotid plaques, 109 (19.4%) had echogenic plaques, and 401 (71.5%) had no plaques. Subjects with echogenic plaques had higher PWV mean (12.9+/-2.8 m/s) compared with those without plaques (11.1+/-2.3 m/s, P<0.001) and compared with those with echolucent plaques (11.3+/-2.3 m/s, P<0.01). The PWV means in subjects without plaques and those with echolucent plaques were similar and not statistically different (P=0.55). When multivariate adjustment for major known cardiovascular risk factors was performed, these results were not markedly modified. Similar patterns of results were also observed in many subgroups according to age, gender, and hypertensive status. This study provides the first evidence that echogenic but not echolucent carotid plaques are associated with aortic arterial stiffness. This association applies to individuals with normal blood pressure and those with elevated blood pressure. Assessment of the joint and interaction effects of plaque morphology and arterial stiffness on the occurrence of cardiovascular events would permit a better identification of high-risk subjects. PMID:12623953

  18. Chest pain in asbestos-exposed individuals with benign pleural and parenchymal disease.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, S; de Klerk, N; Palmer, L J; Olsen, N J; Pang, S C; William Musk, A

    2000-11-01

    Many asbestos-exposed individuals complain of chest pain for which there is no clear explanation. To determine whether chest pain is associated with the presence of benign pleural or parenchymal disease on chest radiograph, we studied 1,280 subjects undergoing surveillance because of prior asbestos exposure at Wittenoom, Western Australia. All subjects completed the Rose questionnaire on chest pain and this revealed 556 subjects (43%) who experienced some chest pain. A posterior-anterior chest radiograph was performed at the same clinic visit and was subsequently graded independently by two experienced readers for diffuse parenchymal disease and pleural disease. Logistic regression models adjusted for sex, age, and cumulative asbestos exposure indicated that the presence of chest pain was significantly associated with the presence of both benign pleural disease and diffuse parenchymal disease. Further analysis after stratification of chest pain into nonanginal and anginal pain showed that there was a significant association between anginal pain and the presence of pleural and parenchymal asbestos-induced radiologic abnormalities and an association of nonanginal pain with parenchymal disease. We conclude that radiographic evidence of either parenchymal or pleural disease in subjects exposed to asbestos is significantly related to the presence of chest pain, particularly anginal pain. PMID:11069817

  19. Combined detections of interleukin-33 and adenosine deaminase for diagnosis of tuberculous pleural effusion

    PubMed Central

    Li, Diandian; Shen, Yongchun; Fu, Xiaomin; Li, Min; Wang, Tao; Wen, Fuqiang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the diagnostic accuracy of the combination of interleukin-33 (IL-33) and adenosine deaminase (ADA) for differentiating TPE from pleural effusions with the other etiologies. Methods: Pleural effusion samples were collected from 32 TPE patients and 55 non-TPE patients. Pleural levels of IL-33 and ADA were measured by ELISA. The corresponding biochemical indexes were also simultaneously determined. Results: The pleural levels of IL-33 and ADA in the TPE group were significantly higher than those in the non-TPE group. With a cut-off value of 68.3 pg/ml, the sensitivity and specificity for IL-33 were 83.9% and 70.9%, respectively. While for ADA, the sensitivity and specificity were 87.5% and 87.3%, respectively at a cut-off value of 10.25 U/L. Combined use of IL-33 and ADA measurements further increased the sensitivity or specificity. Conclusion: Our study suggests that the applications of new biomarker IL-33, along with ADA, may serve as efficient diagnosis strategies in the management of pleural TB. Further studies at a large scale should be performed to validate our findings. PMID:25755791

  20. Low Copper and High Manganese Levels in Prion Protein Plaques

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Christopher J.; Gilbert, P.U.P.A.; Abrecht, Mike; Baldwin, Katherine L.; Russell, Robin E.; Pedersen, Joel A.; Aiken, Judd M.; McKenzie, Debbie

    2013-01-01

    Accumulation of aggregates rich in an abnormally folded form of the prion protein characterize the neurodegeneration caused by transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). The molecular triggers of plaque formation and neurodegeneration remain unknown, but analyses of TSE-infected brain homogenates and preparations enriched for abnormal prion protein suggest that reduced levels of copper and increased levels of manganese are associated with disease. The objectives of this study were to: (1) assess copper and manganese levels in healthy and TSE-infected Syrian hamster brain homogenates; (2) determine if the distribution of these metals can be mapped in TSE-infected brain tissue using X-ray photoelectron emission microscopy (X-PEEM) with synchrotron radiation; and (3) use X-PEEM to assess the relative amounts of copper and manganese in prion plaques in situ. In agreement with studies of other TSEs and species, we found reduced brain levels of copper and increased levels of manganese associated with disease in our hamster model. We also found that the in situ levels of these metals in brainstem were sufficient to image by X-PEEM. Using immunolabeled prion plaques in directly adjacent tissue sections to identify regions to image by X-PEEM, we found a statistically significant relationship of copper-manganese dysregulation in prion plaques: copper was depleted whereas manganese was enriched. These data provide evidence for prion plaques altering local transition metal distribution in the TSE-infected central nervous system. PMID:23435237

  1. Laser speckle imaging of atherosclerotic plaques through optical fiber bundles.

    PubMed

    Nadkarni, Seemantini K; Bouma, Brett E; Yelin, Dvir; Gulati, Amneet; Tearney, Guillermo J

    2008-01-01

    Laser speckle imaging (LSI), a new technique that measures an index of plaque viscoelasticity, has been investigated recently to characterize atherosclerotic plaques. These prior studies demonstrated the diagnostic potential of LSI for detecting high-risk plaques and were conducted ex vivo. To conduct intracoronary LSI in vivo, the laser speckle pattern must be transmitted from the coronary wall to the image detector in the presence of cardiac motion. Small-diameter, flexible optical fiber bundles, similar to those used in coronary angioscopy, may be incorporated into an intravascular catheter for this purpose. A key challenge is that laser speckle is influenced by inter-fiber leakage of light, which may be exacerbated during bundle motion. In this study, we tested the capability of optical fiber bundles to transmit laser speckle patterns obtained from atherosclerotic plaques and evaluated the influence of motion on the diagnostic accuracy of fiber bundle-based LSI. Time-varying helium-neon laser speckle images of aortic plaques were obtained while cyclically moving the flexible length of the bundle to mimic coronary motion. Our results show that leached fiber bundles may reliably transmit laser speckle images in the presence of cardiac motion, providing a viable option to conduct intracoronary LSI. PMID:19021396

  2. Low copper and high manganese levels in prion protein plaques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Christopher J.; Gilbert, P.U.P.A.; Abrecth, Mike; Baldwin, Katherine L.; Russell, Robin E.; Pedersen, Joel A.; McKenzie, Debbie

    2013-01-01

    Accumulation of aggregates rich in an abnormally folded form of the prion protein characterize the neurodegeneration caused by transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). The molecular triggers of plaque formation and neurodegeneration remain unknown, but analyses of TSE-infected brain homogenates and preparations enriched for abnormal prion protein suggest that reduced levels of copper and increased levels of manganese are associated with disease. The objectives of this study were to: (1) assess copper and manganese levels in healthy and TSE-infected Syrian hamster brain homogenates; (2) determine if the distribution of these metals can be mapped in TSE-infected brain tissue using X-ray photoelectron emission microscopy (X-PEEM) with synchrotron radiation; and (3) use X-PEEM to assess the relative amounts of copper and manganese in prion plaques in situ. In agreement with studies of other TSEs and species, we found reduced brain levels of copper and increased levels of manganese associated with disease in our hamster model. We also found that the in situ levels of these metals in brainstem were sufficient to image by X-PEEM. Using immunolabeled prion plaques in directly adjacent tissue sections to identify regions to image by X-PEEM, we found a statistically significant relationship of copper-manganese dysregulation in prion plaques: copper was depleted whereas manganese was enriched. These data provide evidence for prion plaques altering local transition metal distribution in the TSE-infected central nervous system.

  3. Update on the role of neutrophils in atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Federico; Mach, Francois; Montecucco, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is the main pathophysiological process underlying acute cardiovascular diseases. Life-threatening conditions, such as myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke, are provoked by the sudden rupture of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques, characterized by thin, highly inflamed and collagen-poor fibrous cap. Whereas both innate and adaptive inflammation progressively emerged as driving force of this processes, less is known about the involvement of neutrophils (PMNs). Advances in laboratory techniques during the last two decades disclosed that PMNs play a crucial role in promoting plaque vulnerability by the release of different enzymes, such as gelatinases (matrix metalloproteinases) collagenases, elastase and myeloperoxidase. Accordingly, circulating levels of PMNs and their products have been investigated as potential markers of plaque instability in both primary and secondary prevention on cardiovascular diseases. In addition, the development of different classes of drugs targeting PMNs activation is emerging as an interesting field of research. This narrative review will provide an update on the role of PMNs in promoting plaque vulnerability also discussing the potential effects of therapeutic strategies targeting PMN on plaque vulnerability. PMID:25382205

  4. Plaque-like dermatofibroma: A distinct and rare benign neoplasm?

    PubMed

    Leow, Liang Joo; Sinclair, Peter A; Horton, Jeremy J

    2008-05-01

    Unusual large dermatofibromata are reported in a 40-year-old man and a 48-year-old man, who both presented with plaques on a lower limb. The largest plaque in each case was well-defined, reddish brown, indurated and measured 50 mm x 30 mm and 70 mm x 40 mm, respectively. Several satellite lesions were present around the large plaques. Dermoscopic examination showed diffuse homogenous pigmentation in the absence of other diagnostic criteria for dermatofibroma. Light microscopy of biopsies from each patient displayed similar features. There was a dermal proliferation of fibrohistiocytic cells that entrapped intervening thickened collagen fibres. The overlying epidermis was acanthotic, and in some instances this showed basal hyperpigmentation. There was no evidence of malignancy. Immunohistochemical staining was positive for Factor XIIIa and negative for CD34. Based on the histological findings, a diagnosis of dermatofibroma was made for each of these cases. Fewer than 20 adult cases of large dermatofibroma of this scale, designated giant dermatofibroma, have been reported to date; and only two have shown a plaque-like appearance, the remainder being pedunculated. The authors propose plaque-like dermatofibroma as a variety of large dermatofibroma distinct to pedunculated giant dermatofibroma. PMID:18412813

  5. Non-invasive molecular imaging of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques.

    PubMed

    Magnoni, Marco; Ammirati, Enrico; Camici, Paolo G

    2015-04-01

    The growing discoveries coming from clinical and basic research during the past decades have revolutionized our knowledge regarding pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying the atherosclerotic process and its thrombotic complications. The traditional view focusing on the severity of stenosis of atherosclerotic plaque has given way to the evidence that the clinical complications of atherosclerotic vascular disease, particularly the propensity to develop thrombotic complications, are determined mainly by the biological composition of the plaque. This paradigm shift has reinforced the need to move from the sole anatomical assessment toward combined anatomic and functional imaging modalities enabling the molecular and cellular characterization of the disease on top of its structural properties. Together, the progress to identify molecular targets related to plaque vulnerability and the improvement of imaging techniques for the detection of such molecular targets have allowed us to obtain new important pathophysiological information. This might allow better patient stratification for the identification of subjects at high risk to develop premature atherosclerosis who might need an aggressive therapeutic approach. Nuclear techniques, magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography angiography, and contrast-enhanced ultrasound represent the currently available non-invasive imaging modalities for molecular imaging which can provide different and complementary insights into the biological features of the atherosclerotic process. This clinical review will discuss the evidence and potential translational applications of the individual imaging techniques particularly concerning their ability to detect the main atherosclerotic features related to plaque vulnerability, such as plaque inflammation and intertwined neovascularization. PMID:25702846

  6. Iron in arterial plaque: modifiable risk factor for atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Jerome L

    2009-07-01

    It has been proposed that iron depletion protects against cardiovascular disease. There is increasing evidence that one mechanism for this protection may involve a reduction in iron levels within atherosclerotic plaque. Large increases in iron concentration are seen in human atherosclerotic lesions in comparison to levels in healthy arterial tissue. In animal models, depletion of lesion iron levels in vivo by phlebotomy, systemic iron chelation treatment or dietary iron restriction reduces lesion size and/or increases plaque stability. A number of factors associated with increased arterial disease or increased cardiovascular events is also associated with increased plaque iron. In rats, infusion of angiotensin II increases ferritin levels and arterial thickness which are reversed by treatment with the iron chelator deferoxamine. In humans, a polymorphism for haptoglobin associated with increased cardiovascular disease is also characterized by increased lesional iron. Heme oxygenase 1 (HO1) is an important component of the system for mobilization of iron from macrophages. Human HO1 promoter polymorphisms causing weaker upregulation of the enzyme are associated with increased cardiovascular disease and increased serum ferritin. Increased cardiovascular disease associated with inflammation may be in part caused by elevated hepcidin levels that promote retention of iron within plaque macrophages. Defective retention of iron within arterial macrophages in genetic hemochromatosis may explain why there is little evidence of increased atherosclerosis in this disorder despite systemic iron overload. The reviewed findings support the concept that arterial plaque iron is a modifiable risk factor for atherogenesis. PMID:18619522

  7. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging of the vasa vasorum of carotid artery plaque

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ze-Zhou; Zhang, Yan-Ming

    2015-01-01

    The vasa vasorum of carotid artery plaque is a novel marker of accurately evaluating the vulnerability of carotid artery plaque, which was associated with symptomatic cerebrovascular and cardiovascular disease. The presence of ultrasound contrast agents in carotid artery plaque represents the presence of the vasa vasorum in carotid artery plaque because the ultrasound contrast agents are strict intravascular tracers. Therefore, contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is a novel and safe imaging modality for evaluating the vasa vasorum in carotid artery plaque. However, there are some issues that needs to be assessed to embody fully the clinical utility of the vasa vasorum in carotid artery plaque with CEUS. PMID:26120382

  8. Do Coccolith B/Ca Ratios Elucidate the Response of the Smallest Calcifiers to Ocean Acidification?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoll, H. M.; Langer, G.; Shimizu, N.; Kanamaru-Shinn, K.

    2009-12-01

    Coccolithophorid algae are microscopic but prolific calcifiers in modern and ancient oceans. Different species and strains have exhibited diverse calcification responses to laboratory ocean acidification experiments. This hampers our ability to predict future alteration of marine biogeochemical cycles. We used SIMS ion probe to measure B/Ca ratios of coccoliths from three different strains of Emiliania huxleyi and one strain of Coccolithus pelagicus braarudi under different pH conditions to ascertain if B/Ca in fossil coccoliths might be an indicator of calcification stress to past events. B/Ca in abiogenic calcites increases at higher pH because of the preferential incorporation of borate ion into the calcite lattice, relative to boric acid which is the dominant species of B at lower pH. We find, however, that the behavior of B/Ca in coccoliths differs substantially from that of abiogenic calcites. First, B/Ca ratios of coccoliths are generally lower than those of abiogenic calcites precipitated in a comparable pH range, suggesting that the transport of ions into the cell reduces the ratio of B to bicarbonate in the calcifying vesicle compared to seawater. The slowest growing strain of E. huxleyi and one strain of C. braarudi exhibited low B/Ca ratios (<10 ?mol/mol) which were constant as a function of culture pH; the calcite/cell of this E. huxleyi strain decreased with decreasing pH whereas that of the C. braarudi was constant. Two other more rapidly growing strains of E. huxleyi exhibited a large range in B/Ca ratio (55 to 25 ?mol/mol), inversely correlated with pH which is opposite to the relationship observed in abiogenic calcites. Calcite/cell in both of these strains was constant or increased slightly with decreasing pH. B/Ca ratios therefore do not show a clear relationship with calcification stress. The variation in B/Ca ratios is most plausibly explained by changes in transport of B into the cell. B intake may be controlled by passive boric acid uptake through lipid membranes, which may increase at low pH. The potentially compensating role of active borate transporters remains to be evaluated and may explain the constant B/Ca ratios in other strains. The importance of variable B uptake means that B/Ca ratios cannot be used to evaluate the homeostasis or disruption of pH in the calcification vesicle.

  9. Formation mechanism of calcified roots in terrestrial sediments: insights from a multitechnique and multiscale characterization strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Khatib, Rime; Huguet, Arnaud; Bernard, Sylvain; Gocke, Martina; Wiesenberg, Guido; Derenne, Sylvie

    2015-04-01

    Root remains encrusted by secondary carbonates, e.g. carbonated rhizoliths, are common in many soils and terrestrial sediments from various environmental settings. Rhizoliths usually exhibit a cylindrical shape and may have different sizes (from a few µm up to several cm). These objects have been known for ages and intensively used as proxies for paleoenvironmental reconstruction. It is generally assumed that such encrustation is controlled or induced by complex organic-mineral interactions at the plant tissue scale, even though this has never been investigated in detail. The aim of this work was to better constrain the mechanisms of rhizolith formation, which remain unclear so far. Rhizoliths at different stages of encrustation and surrounding sediment were sampled at different depths from a loess-paleosol sequence (Nussloch, SW Germany). They were characterised using a multi-scale and multi-technique approach. The use of SEM and TEM to investigate rhizolith samples has offered a unique combination of chemical and structural information with submicrometer spatial resolution, while solid-state 13C NMR of decarbonated rhizoliths along with liquid and gas chromatography analyses of organic extracts have provided information at a molecular level. SEM and TEM reveal that the precipitation of secondary carbonates does not only occur around, but also within the plant root cells and evidence the close relationship existing between organic and inorganic phases within these complex systems. The fine-scale preservation of root cellular ultrastructure with remarkable integrity observed for samples at all stages of encrustation has likely been promoted by this intra-cellular carbonate precipitation. In parallel, gas and liquid chromatography analyses showed that microbial biomarkers were predominant in the former roots, in contrast with the surrounding sediment, dominated by plant biomarkers. This suggests that the molecular signatures of the organic matter differ between calcified roots and the surrounding sediment, as also confirmed by 13C NMR analyses. Fresh and calcified roots present similar 13C NMR spectra, showing the good preservation of the root-derived organic matter in carbonated rhizoliths. Altogether, the results allow us to propose a general scenario for the mechanism of plant root encrustation by secondary carbonates in terrestrial sediments.

  10. Genomic events associated with progression of pleural malignant mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Ivanov, Sergey V.; Miller, Jeremy; Lucito, Robert; Tang, Chunlao; Ivanova, Alla V.; Pei, Jianming; Carbone, Michele; Cruz, Christina; Beck, Amanda; Webb, Craig; Nonaka, Daisuke; Testa, Joseph R.; Pass, Harvey I.

    2008-01-01

    Pleural malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an aggressive cancer with a very long latency and a very short median survival. Little is known about the genetic events that trigger MM and their relation to poor outcome. The goal of our study was to characterize major genomic gains and losses associated with MM origin and progression and assess their clinical significance. We performed Representative Oligonucleotide Microarray Analysis (ROMA) on DNA isolated from tumors of 22 patients who recurred at variable interval with the disease after surgery. The total number of copy number alterations (CNA) and frequent imbalances for patients with short time (<12 months from surgery) and long time to recurrence were recorded and mapped using the Analysis of Copy Errors (ACE) algorithm. We report a profound increase in CNA in the short-time recurrence group with most chromosomes affected, which can be explained by chromosomal instability associated with MM. Deletions in chromosomes 22q12.2, 19q13.32, and 17p13.1 appeared to be the most frequent events (55-74%) shared between MM patients followed by deletions in 1p, 9p, 9q, 4p, 3p and gains in 5p, 18q, 8q, and 17q (23-55%). Deletions in 9p21.3 encompassing CDKN2A/ARF and CDKN2B were characterized as specific for the short-term recurrence group. Analysis of the minimal common areas of frequent gains and losses identified candidate genes that may be involved in different stages of MM: OSM (22q12.2), FUS1 and PL6 (3p21.3), DNAJA1 (9p21.1), and CDH2 (18q11.2-q12.3). Imbalances seen by ROMA were confirmed by Affymetrix genome analysis in a subset of samples. PMID:18973227

  11. Thrombomodulin expression in malignant pleural mesothelioma and pulmonary adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Collins, C. L.; Ordonez, N. G.; Schaefer, R.; Cook, C. D.; Xie, S. S.; Granger, J.; Hsu, P. L.; Fink, L.; Hsu, S. M.

    1992-01-01

    Thrombomodulin (TM) is a glycoprotein of molecular weight 75,000 kd that is normally present in restricted numbers of cells, including endothelial and mesothelial cells. In this study, the authors tested the possibility of using anti-TM to facilitate the diagnosis of mesothelioma. All of the 31 mesotheliomas and the two mesothelioma cell lines (MS-1 and MS-2) tested were stained positively with anti-TM. The specificity of anti-TM staining in mesothelioma cells was further confirmed by in situ hybridization of MS-1 cells with a TM-specific probe. The expression of TM in MS-1 cells was increased markedly when these cells were induced by 12-0-tetradecanyl phorbol 13-acetate (TPA) to differentiate. The expression of TM in mesothelioma cells, however, did not correlate with any particular phase of the cell cycle. In an attempt to differentiate pleural mesothelioma from pulmonary adenocarcinoma, the authors compared the expression of TM, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and Leu M1 in these two types of tumors. Only four of 48 (8%) pulmonary adenocarcinomas were stained positively by antibodies to TM. Therefore, immunohistochemical staining with antibodies to TM yielded 100% sensitivity and 92% specificity for diagnosis of mesothelioma. All of the mesotheliomas stained negatively for CEA and Leu M1, except for one, which showed minimal focal positivity for Leu M1. In contrast, 79% and 60% of adenocarcinomas stained positively for CEA and Leu M1, respectively. These findings suggest that immunocytochemical staining with anti-TM should be added to the battery of tests to increase the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity for differentiating mesothelioma from pulmonary adenocarcinoma. Images Figure 2 PMID:1357974

  12. Gli as a Novel Therapeutic Target in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui; Lui, Natalie; Cheng, Tiffany; Tseng, Hsin-Hui K.; Yue, Dongsheng; Giroux-Leprieur, Etienne; Do, Hanh T.; Sheng, Qing; Jin, Joy Q.; Luh, Thomas W.; Jablons, David M.; He, Biao

    2013-01-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a highly aggressive tumor with poor prognosis. Current treatment is rarely curative, thus novel meaningful therapies are urgently needed. Inhibition of Hedgehog (Hh) signaling at the cell membrane level in several cancers has shown anti-cancer activity in recent clinical studies. Evidence of Hh-independent Gli activation suggests Gli as a more potent therapeutic target. The current study is aimed to evaluate the potential of Gli as a therapeutic target to treat MPM. The expression profiles of Gli factors and other Hh signaling components were characterized in 46 MPM patient tissue samples by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Cultured cell lines were employed to investigate the requirement of Gli activation in tumor cell growth by inhibiting Gli through siRNA or a novel small molecule Gli inhibitor (Gli-I). A xenograft model was used to evaluate Gli-I in vivo. In addition, a side by side comparison between Gli and Smoothened (Smo) inhibition was conducted in vitro using siRNA and small molecule inhibitors. Our study reported aberrant Gli1 and Gli2 activation in a large majority of tissues. Inhibition of Gli by siRNAs or Gli-I suppressed cell growth dramatically both in vitro and in vivo. Inhibition of Gli exhibited better cytotoxicity than that of Smo by siRNA and small molecule inhibitors vismodegib and cyclopamine. Combination of Gli-I and pemetrexed, as well as Gli-I and vismodegib demonstrated synergistic effects in suppression of MPM proliferation in vitro. In summary, Gli activation plays a critical role in MPM. Inhibition of Gli function holds strong potential to become a novel, clinically effective approach to treat MPM. PMID:23483902

  13. Diarachidonoylphosphoethanolamine induces necrosis/necroptosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma cells.

    PubMed

    Kaku, Yoshiko; Tsuchiya, Ayako; Kanno, Takeshi; Nakano, Takashi; Nishizaki, Tomoyuki

    2015-09-01

    The present study investigated 1,2-diarachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DAPE)-induced cell death in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) cells. DAPE reduced cell viability in NCI-H28, NCI-H2052, NCI-H2452, and MSTO-211H MPM cell lines in a concentration (1-100?M)-dependent manner. In the flow cytometry using propidium iodide (PI) and annexin V (AV), DAPE significantly increased the population of PI-positive and AV-negative cells, corresponding to primary necrosis, and that of PI-positive and AV-positive cells, corresponding to late apoptosis/secondary necrosis, in NCI-H28 cells. DAPE-induced reduction of NCI-H28 cell viability was partially inhibited by necrostatin-1, an inhibitor of RIP1 kinase to induce necroptosis, or knocking-down RIP1. DAPE generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) followed by disruption of mitochondrial membrane potentials in NCI-H28 cells. DAPE-induced mitochondrial damage was attenuated by cyclosporin A, an inhibitor of cyclophilin D (CypD). DAPE did not affect expression and mitochondrial localization of p53 protein in NCI-H28 cells. DAPE significantly decreased intracellular ATP concentrations in NCI-H28 cells. Overall, the results of the present study indicate that DAPE induces necroptosis and necrosis of MPM cells; the former is mediated by RIP1 kinase and the latter is caused by generating ROS and opening CypD-dependent mitochondrial permeability transition pore, to reduce intracellular ATP concentrations. PMID:26004138

  14. An integrated system for the segmentation of atherosclerotic carotid plaque.

    PubMed

    Loizou, Christos P; Pattichis, Constantinos S; Pantziaris, Marios; Nicolaides, Andrew

    2007-11-01

    In this paper, we propose and evaluate an integrated system for the segmentation of atherosclerotic plaque in ultrasound imaging of the carotid artery based on normalization, speckle reduction filtering, and four different snakes segmentation methods. These methods are the Williams and Shah, Balloon, Lai and Chin, and the gradient vector flow (GVF) snake. The performance of the four different plaque snakes segmentation methods was tested on 80 longitudinal ultrasound images of the carotid artery using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and the manual delineations of an expert. All four methods were very satisfactory and similar in all measures evaluated, with no significant differences between them; however, the Lai and Chin snakes segmentation method gave slightly better results. Concluding, it is proposed that the integrated system investigated in this study could be used successfully for the automated segmentation of the carotid plaque. PMID:18046941

  15. Large-Cell Calcifying Sertoli Cell Tumour of the Testis Detected at Screening of a Family with Carney Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. N. Jayasena; J. T. N. Ariyasinghe; D. M. R. Gunawardena; S. A. S. Gunawardena; M. V. C. de Silva

    2005-01-01

    We report the detection of a large-cell calcifying Sertoli cell tumour (LCCSCT) in a 34-year-old male during screening of a family with Carney syndrome. The patient had ignored the testicular swelling for 7 years. He also had a cardiac myxoma. The LCCSCT in this patient had prognostically unfavourable features such as large size (>6 cm) and a high mitotic rate.

  16. Isolated unilateral oculomotor nerve neuropraxia following a trivial fall in a patient with calcified posterior petroclinoid ligament

    PubMed Central

    Patwardhan, Maneesha Anil

    2015-01-01

    Isolated traumatic oculomotor nerve palsy caused by a trivial fall is extremely rare. We report a case of this condition. A 49-year-old woman had distal radius fracture and ptosis on the same side after having a trivial domestic fall. She did not show any clinical or radiological signs of head injury. Computerized tomography revealed a calcified posterior petroclinoid ligament which has direct anatomical and pathological relation with the oculomotor nerve. PMID:25767590

  17. Empyema necessitans complicating pleural effusion associated with proteus species infection: a diagnostic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Yauba, M S; Ahmed, H; Imoudu, I A; Yusuf, M O; Makarfi, H U

    2015-01-01

    Background. Empyema necessitans, a rare complication of pleural effusion, could result in significant morbidity and mortality in children. It is characterized by the dissection of pus through the soft tissues and the skin of the chest wall. Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Actinomyces israelii are common causes but Gram negative bacilli could be a rare cause. However, there were challenges in differentiating between Mycobacterium tuberculosis and nontuberculous empyema in a resource poor setting like ours. We report a child with pleural effusion and empyema necessitans secondary to Proteus spp. infection. Methods. We describe a 12-year-old child with empyema necessitans complicating pleural effusion and highlight management challenges. Results. This case was treated with quinolones, antituberculous drugs, chest tube drainage, and nutritional rehabilitation. Conclusion. Empyema necessitatis is a rare condition that can be caused by Gram negative bacterial pathogens like Proteus species. PMID:25893125

  18. Frequency and healing of nonculprit coronary artery plaque disruptions in patients with acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Okada, Katsuki; Ueda, Yasunori; Matsuo, Koshi; Nishio, Mayu; Hirata, Akio; Kashiwase, Kazunori; Asai, Mitsutoshi; Nemoto, Takayoshi; Kodama, Kazuhisa

    2011-05-15

    The pathophysiology of plaque disruption and healing in nonculprit segments has not been clarified. Therefore, we investigated the frequency of plaque disruptions in nonculprit segments and whether those plaques are stabilized during follow-ups in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) by serial angioscopic observations. Analyzed were 13 consecutive patients with AMI in whom infarct-related arteries were serially observed by angioscopy immediately after reperfusion and at 1- and 6-month follow-ups. Color of plaques was graded as 0 (white), 1 (slight yellow), 2 (yellow), or 3 (intensive yellow). Plaques with thrombus were defined as disrupted. Although number of nonculprit yellow plaques did not change from immediately after reperfusion to 6 months, the maximum color grade of those plaques and incidence of disrupted plaques in nonculprit segments (immediate vs 1 month vs 6 months 31% vs 8% vs 0%) decreased significantly by 6 months. Plaque stabilization as shown by disappearance of thrombus was significantly associated with plaque regression as shown by a decrease of maximum yellow color grade in nonculprit segments. In conclusion, patients with AMI frequently had disrupted and actively thrombogenic yellow plaques in nonculprit segments of the culprit vessel, and those plaques healed with decreases of yellow color grade and thrombogenicity during 6-months follow-up. Plaque disruption and healing occur not only at the culprit lesion but may be a pan-coronary process in patients with AMI. PMID:21377645

  19. Calcified Rheumatic Valve Neoangiogenesis Is Associated With Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Expression and Osteoblast-Like Bone Formation

    PubMed Central

    Rajamannan, Nalini M.; Nealis, Thomas B.; Subramaniam, Malayannan; Pandya, Sanjay; Stock, Stuart R.; Ignatiev, Constatine I.; Sebo, Thomas J.; Rosengart, Todd K.; Edwards, William D.; McCarthy, Patrick M.; Bonow, Robert O.; Spelsberg, Thomas C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Rheumatic heart disease is the most common cause of valvular disease in developing countries. Despite the high prevalence of this disease, the cellular mechanisms are not well known. We hypothesized that rheumatic valve calcification is associated with an osteoblast bone formation and neoangiogenesis. Methods and Results To test this hypothesis, we examined human rheumatic valves replaced at surgery (n=23), normal human valves (n=20) removed at cardiac transplantation, and degenerative mitral valve leaflets removed during surgical valve repair (n=15). Microcomputed tomography was used to assess mineralization fronts to reconstruct the extents of mineralization. Immunohistochemistry was used to localize osteopontin protein, ?-actin, osteocalcin, vascular endothelial growth factor, von Willebrand factor, and CD68 (human macrophage). Microcomputed tomography demonstrated complex calcification developing within the heavily calcified rheumatic valves, not in the degenerative mitral valves and control valves. Immunohistochemistry localized osteopontin and osteocalcin to areas of smooth muscle cells within microvessels and proliferating myofibroblasts. Vascular endothelial growth factor was present in areas of inflammation and colocalized with the CD68 stain primarily in the calcified rheumatic valves. Alizarin red, osteopontin, and osteocalcin protein expression was upregulated in the calcified rheumatic valves and was present at low levels in the degenerative mitral valves. Conclusions These findings support the concept that rheumatic valve calcification is not a random passive process but a regulated, inflammatory cellular process associated with the expression of osteoblast markers and neoangiogenesis. PMID:15956138

  20. CO? and inorganic nutrient enrichment affect the performance of a calcifying green alga and its noncalcifying epiphyte.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Laurie C; Bischof, Kai; Baggini, Cecilia; Johnson, Andrew; Koop-Jakobsen, Ketil; Teichberg, Mirta

    2015-04-01

    Ocean acidification studies in the past decade have greatly improved our knowledge of how calcifying organisms respond to increased surface ocean CO2 levels. It has become evident that, for many organisms, nutrient availability is an important factor that influences their physiological responses and competitive interactions with other species. Therefore, we tested how simulated ocean acidification and eutrophication (nitrate and phosphate enrichment) interact to affect the physiology and ecology of a calcifying chlorophyte macroalga (Halimeda opuntia (L.) J.V. Lamouroux) and its common noncalcifying epiphyte (Dictyota sp.) in a 4-week fully crossed multifactorial experiment. Inorganic nutrient enrichment (+NP) had a strong influence on all responses measured with the exception of net calcification. Elevated CO2 alone significantly decreased electron transport rates of the photosynthetic apparatus and resulted in phosphorus limitation in both species, but had no effect on oxygen production or respiration. The combination of CO2 and +NP significantly increased electron transport rates in both species. While +NP alone stimulated H. opuntia growth rates, Dictyota growth was significantly stimulated by nutrient enrichment only at elevated CO2, which led to the highest biomass ratios of Dictyota to Halimeda. Our results suggest that inorganic nutrient enrichment alone stimulates several aspects of H. opuntia physiology, but nutrient enrichment at a CO2 concentration predicted for the end of the century benefits Dictyota sp. and hinders its calcifying basibiont H. opuntia. PMID:25648647

  1. Diurnal fluctuations in seawater pH influence the response of a calcifying macroalga to ocean acidification.

    PubMed

    Cornwall, Christopher E; Hepburn, Christopher D; McGraw, Christina M; Currie, Kim I; Pilditch, Conrad A; Hunter, Keith A; Boyd, Philip W; Hurd, Catriona L

    2013-12-01

    Coastal ecosystems that are characterized by kelp forests encounter daily pH fluctuations, driven by photosynthesis and respiration, which are larger than pH changes owing to ocean acidification (OA) projected for surface ocean waters by 2100. We investigated whether mimicry of biologically mediated diurnal shifts in pH-based for the first time on pH time-series measurements within a kelp forest-would offset or amplify the negative effects of OA on calcifiers. In a 40-day laboratory experiment, the calcifying coralline macroalga, Arthrocardia corymbosa, was exposed to two mean pH treatments (8.05 or 7.65). For each mean, two experimental pH manipulations were applied. In one treatment, pH was held constant. In the second treatment, pH was manipulated around the mean (as a step-function), 0.4 pH units higher during daylight and 0.4 units lower during darkness to approximate diurnal fluctuations in a kelp forest. In all cases, growth rates were lower at a reduced mean pH, and fluctuations in pH acted additively to further reduce growth. Photosynthesis, recruitment and elemental composition did not change with pH, but ?(13)C increased at lower mean pH. Including environmental heterogeneity in experimental design will assist with a more accurate assessment of the responses of calcifiers to OA. PMID:24107535

  2. A rare stroma-rich variant of hyaline-vascular Castleman’s disease associated with calcifying fibrous pseudotumor

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Haifen; Jiang, Maofen; Xiao, Weihua

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The stroma-rich variant of hyaline-vascular type of Castleman’s disease (SR-HVCD) should be differentiated from vascular or follicular dendritic reticulum cell neoplasms. In this paper, we present a rare case of HVCD. We also suspect a possible association between SR-HVCD and calcifying fibrous pseudotumor. Methods: A 34-year-old man was found an abdominal mass by computed tomography (CT) in a general health checkup. The mass was resected from the mesenteric root. The specimens were evaluated for detailed characterizations through gross examination, microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Results: The mass showed histologic patterns and immunohistochemical results of HVCD with significant angiomyoid proliferations, collagenation and focal calcification. Histologically, stromal elements of HVCD in our case were similar to those of a calcifying fibrous pseudotumour. Conclusions: A possible association was suspected between SR-HVCD and calcifying fibrous pseudotumor. To the best of our knowledge, this is the fourth report of describing an association between the two diseases in the English literature.

  3. Dosimetric study of the 15 mm ROPES eye plaque

    SciTech Connect

    Granero, D.; Perez-Calatayud, J.; Ballester, F.; Casal, E.; Frutos, J.M. de [Department of Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics and IFIC, University of Valencia-CSIC, Dr. Moliner 50, E46100 Burjassot (Spain); Medical Physics Section, University Hospital, Av. Ramon y Cajal 3, E47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2004-12-01

    The main aim of this paper is to make a study of dose-rate distributions obtained around the 15 mm, radiation oncology physics and engineering services, Australia (ROPES) eye plaque loaded with {sup 125}I model 6711 radioactive seeds. In this study, we have carried out a comparison of the dose-rate distributions obtained by the algorithm used by the Plaque Simulator (PS) (BEBIG GmbH, Berlin, Germany) treatment planning system with those obtained by means of the Monte Carlo method for the ROPES eye plaque. A simple method to obtain the dose-rate distributions in a treatment planning system via the superposition of the dose-rate distributions of a seed placed in the eye plaque has been developed. The method uses eye plaque located in a simplified geometry of the head anatomy and distributions obtained by means of the Monte Carlo code GEANT4. The favorable results obtained in the development of this method suggest that it could be implemented on a treatment planning system to improve dose-rate calculations. We have also found that the dose-rate falls sharply along the eye and that outside the eye the dose-rate is very low. Furthermore, the lack of backscatter photons from the air located outside the eye-head phantom produces a dose reduction negligible for distances from the eye-plaque r<1 cm but reaches up to 20% near the air-eye interface. Results showed that the treatment planning system lacks accuracy around the border of the eye (in the sclera and the surrounding area) due to the simplicity of the algorithm used. The BEBIG treatment planning system uses a global attenuation factor that takes into account the effect of the eye plaque seed carrier and the lack of backscatter photons caused by the metallic cover, which in the case of a ROPES eye plaque has a default value of T=1 (no correction). In the present study, a global attenuation factor T=0.96 and an air-interface correction factor which improve on treatment planning system calculations were obtained.

  4. Dosimetric study of the 15 mm ROPES eye plaque.

    PubMed

    Granero, D; Pérez-Calatayud, J; Ballester, F; Casal, E; de Frutos, J M

    2004-12-01

    The main aim of this paper is to make a study of dose-rate distributions obtained around the 15 mm, radiation oncology physics and engineering services, Australia (ROPES) eye plaque loaded with 125I model 6711 radioactive seeds. In this study, we have carried out a comparison of the dose-rate distributions obtained by the algorithm used by the Plaque Simulator (PS) (BEBIG GmbH, Berlin, Germany) treatment planning system with those obtained by means of the Monte Carlo method for the ROPES eye plaque. A simple method to obtain the dose-rate distributions in a treatment planning system via the superposition of the dose-rate distributions of a seed placed in the eye plaque has been developed. The method uses eye plaque located in a simplified geometry of the head anatomy and distributions obtained by means of the Monte Carlo code GEANT4. The favorable results obtained in the development of this method suggest that it could be implemented on a treatment planning system to improve dose-rate calculations. We have also found that the dose-rate falls sharply along the eye and that outside the eye the dose-rate is very low. Furthermore, the lack of backscatter photons from the air located outside the eye-head phantom produces a dose reduction negligible for distances from the eye-plaque r<1 cm but reaches up to 20% near the air-eye interface. Results showed that the treatment planning system lacks accuracy around the border of the eye (in the sclera and the surrounding area) due to the simplicity of the algorithm used. The BEBIG treatment planning system uses a global attenuation factor that takes into account the effect of the eye plaque seed carrier and the lack of backscatter photons caused by the metallic cover, which in the case of a ROPES eye plaque has a default value of T= 1 (no correction). In the present study, a global attenuation factor T=0.96 and an air-interface correction factor which improve on treatment planning system calculations were obtained. PMID:15651616

  5. Computed tomography-guided cutting needle pleural biopsy: Accuracy and complications

    PubMed Central

    CAO, YI-YUAN; FAN, NA; XING, FEN; XU, LI-YING; QU, YAN-JUAN; LIAO, MEI-YAN

    2015-01-01

    In cases of pleural lesion, tissue samples can be obtained through thoracoscopy or closed needle biopsy for histopathological analysis. Cutting needle biopsy is a relatively recent addition to these techniques. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and safety of computed tomography-guided cutting needle pleural biopsy (CT-CNPB), as well as the associated complications, in patients with pleural lesion. This study was a retrospective analysis of 92 percutaneous CT-CNPBs on 90 patients between March 2008 and May 2013. For group comparisons, ?2 tests were used to detect the risk factors for diagnostic accuracy (false-negative rate). Of the 92 CT-CNPBs, malignant lesions were diagnosed in 55 cases (mesothelioma in 12, metastatic pleural disease in 36, synoviosarcoma in one, indeterminate-origin disease in one and false-negative lesion in five) and benign pleural disease was diagnosed in 37 cases (inflammation in 15, tuberculosis in 10, granuloma in three, solitary fibrous tumor in two, hematoma in one, fungus in one and indeterminate-origin disease in five). The sensitivity of diagnostic malignant lesion was 90.9%, and the specificity and positive and negative predictive values were 100, 100 and 88.1%, respectively. The overall diagnostic accuracy was 94.6%. A specific diagnosis was achieved in 89.1% of malignant lesions and 86.4% of benign lesions. Univariate analysis of the risk factors affecting accuracy (false-negative rate) did not reveal any significant differences (all P>0.05). The complication rates were 6.5% for pneumothorax, 8.7% for hemorrhage and 1.1% for hemothorax. In conclusion, CT-CNPB is a safe and accurate diagnostic technique that can be recommended as the primary method of diagnosis in patients with pleural thickening or lesions observed by CT scan. PMID:25452813

  6. Near Infrared Photoimmunotherapy in the Treatment of Pleural Disseminated NSCLC: Preclinical Experience

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Kazuhide; Nagaya, Tadanobu; Choyke, Peter L.; Kobayashi, Hisataka

    2015-01-01

    Pleural metastases are common in patients with advanced thoracic cancers and are a cause of considerable morbidity and mortality yet is difficult to treat. Near Infrared Photoimmunotherapy (NIR-PIT) is a cancer treatment that combines the specificity of intravenously injected antibodies for targeting tumors with the toxicity induced by photosensitizers after exposure to NIR-light. Herein, we evaluate the efficacy of NIR-PIT in a mouse model of pleural disseminated non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). In vitro and in vivo experiments were conducted with a HER2, luciferase and GFP expressing NSCLC cell line (Calu3-luc-GFP). An antibody-photosensitizer conjugate (APC) consisting of trastuzumab and a phthalocyanine dye, IRDye-700DX, was synthesized. In vitro NIR-PIT cytotoxicity was assessed with dead staining, luciferase activity, and GFP fluorescence intensity. In vivo NIR-PIT was performed in mice with tumors implanted intrathoracic cavity or in the flank, and assessed by tumor volume and/or bioluminescence and fluorescence thoracoscopy. In vitro NIR-PIT-induced cytotoxicity was light dose dependent. In vivo NIR-PIT led significant reductions in both tumor volume (p = 0.002 vs. APC) and luciferase activity (p = 0.0004 vs. APC) in a flank model, and prolonged survival (p < 0.0001). Bioluminescence indicated that NIR-PIT lead to significant reduction in pleural dissemination (1 day after PIT; p = 0.0180). Fluorescence thoracoscopy confirmed the NIR-PIT effect on disseminated pleural disease. In conclusion, NIR-PIT has the ability to effectively treat pleural metastases caused by NSCLC in mice. Thus, NIR-PIT is a promising therapy for pleural disseminated tumors. PMID:25897335

  7. Tissue Plasminogen Activator Potently Stimulates Pleural Effusion via a Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-1-Dependent Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Lansley, Sally M; Cheah, Hui Min; Varano Della Vergiliana, Julius F; Chakera, Aron; Lee, Y C Gary

    2015-07-01

    Pleural infection is common. Evacuation of infected pleural fluid is essential for successful treatment, but it is often difficult because of adhesions/loculations within the effusion and the viscosity of the fluid. Intrapleural delivery of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) (to break the adhesions) and deoxyribonuclease (DNase) (to reduce fluid viscosity) has recently been shown to improve clinical outcomes in a large randomized study of pleural infection. Clinical studies of intrapleural fibrinolytic therapy have consistently shown subsequent production of large effusions, the mechanism(s) of which are unknown. We aimed to determine the mechanism by which tPA induces exudative fluid formation. Intrapleural tPA, with or without DNase, significantly induced pleural fluid accumulation in CD1 mice (tPA alone: median [interquartile range], 53.5 [30-355] ?l) compared with DNase alone or vehicle controls (both, 0.0 [0.0-0.0] ?l) after 6 hours. Fluid induction was reproduced after intrapleural delivery of streptokinase and urokinase, indicating a class effect. Pleural fluid monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 levels strongly correlated with effusion volume (r?=?0.7302; P?=?0.003), and were significantly higher than MCP-1 levels in corresponding sera. Mice treated with anti-MCP-1 antibody (P?pleural fluid formation (by up to 85%). Our data implicate MCP-1 as the key molecule governing tPA-induced fluid accumulation. The role of MCP-1 in the development of other exudative effusions warrants examination. PMID:25474480

  8. Intensity-modulated photon arc therapy for treatment of pleural mesothelioma

    SciTech Connect

    Tobler, Matt; Watson, Gordon; Leavitt, Dennis

    2002-12-31

    Radiotherapy plays a key role in the definitive or adjuvant management of patients with mesothelioma of the pleural surface. Many patients are referred for radiation with intact lung following biopsy or subtotal pleurectomy. Delivery of efficacious doses of radiation to the pleural lining while avoiding lung parenchyma toxicity has been a difficult technical challenge. Using opposed photon fields produce doses in lung that result in moderate-to-severe pulmonary toxicity in 100% of patients treated. Combined photon-electron beam treatment, at total doses of 4250 cGy to the pleural surface, results in two-thirds of the lung volume receiving over 2100 cGy. We have developed a technique using intensity-modulated photon arc therapy (IMRT) that significantly improves the dose distribution to the pleural surface with concomitant decrease in dose to lung parenchyma compared to traditional techniques. IMRT treatment of the pleural lining consists of segments of photon arcs that can be intensity modulated with varying beam weights and multileaf positions to produce a more uniform distribution to the pleural surface, while at the same time reducing the overall dose to the lung itself. Computed tomography (CT) simulation is critical for precise identification of target volumes as well as critical normal structures (lung and heart). Rotational arc trajectories and individual leaf positions and weightings are then defined for each CT plane within the patient. This paper will describe the proposed rotational IMRT technique and, using simulated isodose distributions, show the improved potential for sparing of dose to the critical structures of the lung, heart, and spinal cord.

  9. Challenges in the development of an immunochromatographic interferon-gamma test for diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Denkinger, Claudia M; Kalantri, Yatiraj; Schumacher, Samuel G; Michael, Joy S; Shankar, Deepa; Saxena, Arvind; Sriram, Natarajan; Balamugesh, Thangakunam; Luo, Robert; Pollock, Nira R; Pai, Madhukar; Christopher, Devasahayam J

    2013-01-01

    Existing diagnostic tests for pleural tuberculosis (TB) have inadequate accuracy and/or turnaround time. Interferon-gamma (IFNg) has been identified in many studies as a biomarker for pleural TB. Our objective was to develop a lateral flow, immunochromatographic test (ICT) based on this biomarker and to evaluate the test in a clinical cohort. Because IFNg is commonly present in non-TB pleural effusions in low amounts, a diagnostic IFNg-threshold was first defined with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for IFNg in samples from 38 patients with a confirmed clinical diagnosis (cut-off of 300 pg/ml; 94% sensitivity and 93% specificity). The ICT was then designed; however, its achievable limit of detection (5000 pg/ml) was over 10-fold higher than that of the ELISA. After several iterations in development, the prototype ICT assay for IFNg had a sensitivity of 69% (95% confidence interval (CI): 50-83) and a specificity of 94% (95% CI: 81-99%) compared to ELISA on frozen samples. Evaluation of the prototype in a prospective clinical cohort (72 patients) on fresh pleural fluid samples, in comparison to a composite reference standard (including histopathological and microbiologic test results), showed that the prototype had 65% sensitivity (95% CI: 44-83) and 89% specificity (95% CI: 74-97). Discordant results were observed in 15% of samples if testing was repeated after one freezing and thawing step. Inter-rater variability was limited (3%; 1 out of 32). In conclusion, despite an iterative development and optimization process, the performance of the IFNg ICT remained lower than what could be expected from the published literature on IFNg as a biomarker in pleural fluid. Further improvements in the limit of detection of an ICT for IFNg, and possibly combination of IFNg with other biomarkers such as adenosine deaminase, are necessary for such a test to be of value in the evaluation of pleural tuberculosis. PMID:24376880

  10. Automated delineation of calcified vessels in mammography by tracking with uncertainty and graphical linking techniques.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jie-Zhi; Chen, Chung-Ming; Cole, Elodia B; Pisano, Etta D; Shen, Dinggang

    2012-11-01

    As a potential biomarker for women's cardiovascular and chronic kidney diseases, breast arterial calcification (BAC) in mammography has become an emerging research topic in recent years. To provide more objective measurement for vascular structures with calcium depositions in mammography, a new computerized method is introduced in this paper to delineate the calcified vessels. Specifically, we leverage two underlying cues, namely calcification and vesselness, into a multiple seeded tracking with uncertainty scheme. This new vessel-tracking scheme generates plenty of sampling paths to describe the complicated topology of the vascular structures with calcium depositions. A compiling and linking process is further carried out to organize the sampling paths together to be the vessel segments that likely belong to the same vessel tract. The proposed method has been evaluated on 63 mammograms, by comparison with manual delineations from two experts using various assessment metrics. The experiment results confirm the efficacy and stability of the proposed method, and also indicate that the proposed method can be potentially used as a convenient BAC measurement tool in replacement of the trivial and tedious manual delineation tasks. PMID:22949053

  11. Cognitive Performance of Patients with Epilepsy and Calcified Neurocysticercotic Lesions: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Boppré, M C. P.; Wille, P R.; Guarnieri, R; Rezek, K; Carqueja, C; Trevisol-Bittencourt, P C.; Walz, J C.; Bianchin, M; von Wangenheim, A; Chaves, M L.; Walz, R

    2001-12-01

    Neuropsychological tests were applied to 20 patients with focal epilepsy related to calcified neurocysticercosis (NCC) (mean: three lesions/patient; NCC group), 22 patients with focal epilepsy without NCC (EPI group), and 29 healthy controls matched for age, sex, and educational level. The EPI and NCC groups were matched for age at onset of epilepsy, epilepsy duration, frequency of attacks, seizure semiology, interictal EEG findings, and antiepileptic drugs used. There were no differences in the digit span, word span, calculus, and Mini-Mental State examination among the three groups studied. The NCC and EPI groups showed lower scores than controls in immediate and delayed verbal memory, famous faces test, spatial recognition span, abstractions and judgment, and visuoconstructional abilities. The EPI group, but not the NCC group, also had lower scores in a praxis tests. There were no differences between the NCC and EPI groups in any of the tests applied (P > 15), except for the spatial recognition span, which was lower in the former. Cognitive impairment is a prevalent neuropsychological feature of patients with epilepsy and NCC. PMID:12609389

  12. Calcium carbonate mineralization: involvement of extracellular polymeric materials isolated from calcifying bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ercole, Claudia; Bozzelli, Paola; Altieri, Fabio; Cacchio, Paola; Del Gallo, Maddalena

    2012-08-01

    This study highlights the role of specific outer bacterial structures, such as the glycocalix, in calcium carbonate crystallization in vitro. We describe the formation of calcite crystals by extracellular polymeric materials, such as exopolysaccharides (EPS) and capsular polysaccharides (CPS) isolated from Bacillus firmus and Nocardia calcarea. Organic matrices were isolated from calcifying bacteria grown on synthetic medium--in the presence or absence of calcium ions--and their effect on calcite precipitation was assessed. Scanning electron microscopy observations and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry analysis showed that CPS and EPS fractions were involved in calcium carbonate precipitation, not only serving as nucleation sites but also through a direct role in crystal formation. The utilization of different synthetic media, with and without addition of calcium ions, influenced the biofilm production and protein profile of extracellular polymeric materials. Proteins of CPS fractions with a molecular mass between 25 and 70 kDa were overexpressed when calcium ions were present in the medium. This higher level of protein synthesis could be related to the active process of bioprecipitation. PMID:22697480

  13. Analysis of the Mineral Composition of the Human Calcified Cartilage Zone

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Wang, Fuyou; Tan, Hongbo; Chen, Guangxing; Guo, Lin; Yang, Liu

    2012-01-01

    As the connecting tissue between the hyaline articular cartilage and the subchondral bone, calcified cartilage zone (CCZ) plays a great role in the force transmission and materials diffusion. However, the questions that remain to be resolved are its mineral composition and organization. In this study, 40 healthy human knee specimens were harvested; first the CCZ was dissected and observed by Safranin O/fast green staining, then CCZ chemical characteristics were measured by using amino acid assay and X-ray diffraction. The percentage of dry weight of type II collagen as an organic compound of CCZ was 20.16% ± 0.96%, lower than that of the hyaline cartilage layer (61.39% ± 0.38%); the percentage of dry weight of hydroxyapatite as an inorganic compound was 65.09% ± 2.31%, less than that of subchondral bone (85.78% ± 3.42%). Our study provides the accurate data for the reconstruction of the CCZ in vitro and the elucidation of CCZ structure and function. PMID:22811609

  14. Backscattered electron imaging: The role in calcified tissue and implant analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bloebaum, R.D.; Bachus, K.N.; Boyce, T.M. (Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center (151F), Salt Lake City, UT (USA))

    1990-07-01

    The working distance and tilt studies helped to clarify the influences of specimen variability when the BSE mode is used in calcified tissue research. This work has shown that the BSEPs of cortical bone may be accurately maintained within 2 percent error over a 10 degree range of tilt, or 300 microns working distance variation. If future bone and implant investigators wish to conduct accurate, quantitative mineral microanalysis in bone, then standard grinding and polishing techniques should be adequate if calibration procedures are developed. The BSEP characteristics of the pure metals make them suitable to be used for calibrating the BSE signal. BSE analysis, with correlated biomechanical studies, will lead us to a better understanding of the relationships between structure, function, and mineral content in bone. On-line BSEP analysis techniques will expand our understanding of the mineralization events in bone which are associated with aging, weightlessness, pharmaceutical therapies, and the presence of biomaterials. The future of the BSE imaging technology and the contributions to be made in understanding the histometry, biomechanics and mineral content of bone as well as bone's response to implant materials has just begun to unfold. 74 references.

  15. Standing prone positioning in establishing causality between matched ventilation-perfusion defects and pleural effusion.

    PubMed

    Fotos, Joseph S; Tulchinsky, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy is routinely performed in patients with suspected pulmonary thromboembolism. Pleural effusions in such patients are common and can cause matched ventilation-perfusion defects. This is especially true of the posterior projections in the supine patient. Prone positioning has been described as a useful technique to redistribute pleural fluid anteriorly, exposing perfusion in posterior lung fields; however, some patients have a concurrent condition that renders prone positioning difficult. This report discusses a modified technique that allows patients to be imaged in a standing prone position with excellent results. PMID:25247271

  16. Ovarian immature teratoma with gliomatosis peritonei and pleural glial implant: a case report.

    PubMed

    Wu, Pao-Shu; Lai, Chiung-Ru

    2015-06-01

    Gliomatosis peritonei is a very rare phenomenon occurring almost exclusively in association with ovarian immature teratoma. It is characterized by numerous benign, mature glial nodules in the omentum and mesentery. The presence of glial tissue outside abdominal cavity is extremely rare in the setting of ovarian immature teratoma. We present a case of ovarian immature teratoma with both gliomatosis peritonei and pleural glial implant in a 4-year-old girl. Glial emboli were present in the pleural implant, suggesting lymphovascular dissemination might be the cause of extra-abdominal glial implantation. PMID:25663333

  17. Bilateral pleural effusion with APLA positivity in a case of rhupus syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Kaushik; Saha, Arnab; Mitra, Mrinmoy; Panchadhyayee, Prabodh

    2014-01-01

    Rhupus syndrome is a rare syndrome characterized by overlap of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Our patient was a diagnosed case of RA and developed SLE 2 years after. She was a middle-aged woman, presented with bilateral pleural effusion with exacerbation of skin and joint symptoms of SLE. We diagnosed the case as tubercular pleural effusion by positive Mycobacterium tuberculosis in bactec 460 culture. She had also anti-phospholipid antibody positivity without any symptoms and signs of thrombosis. PMID:25378850

  18. Endemic pleural disease associated with exposure to mixed fibrous dust in Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Rohl, A.N.; Langer, A.M.; Moncure, G.; Selikoff, I.J.; Fischbein, A.

    1982-04-30

    Pleural mesothelioma, lung cancer, pleural calcification and fibrosis, and interstitial parenchymal fibrosis have been observed among inhabitants of several villages in south-central Turkey. Earlier reports have stated that environmental and lung tissue samples from this area contained the fibrous zeolite mineral erionite, and this mineral has generally been assumed to be the agent responsible for these endemic pathological conditions in the absence of asbestos outcroppings and usage. Several different kinds of asbestos minerals in addition to erionite have now been found in environmental samples taken from the villages where these diseases occur. The lung tissues of mesothelioma patients from these villages contain both fibrous zeolites and asbestos minerals.

  19. A case of chronic pancreatitis complicated by massive pericardial and right pleural effusion.

    PubMed

    Imai, Y; Taniguchi, M; Tagawa, K; Toda, N; Tanzawa, Y; Okamoto, M; Ikari, Y; Fujino, H; Unuma, T

    1993-10-01

    A 42-year-old man was admitted complaining of dyspnea. Chest X-ray showed an increase in cardiac size, and echocardiography revealed a large volume of pericardial effusion. Pancreatic enzyme levels were elevated in both serum and pericardial effusion. Computed tomography and endoscopic retrograde pancreatography demonstrated a fistula connecting a pancreatic pseudocyst with the pericardium and the right pleural cavity. Massive pericardial and right pleural effusion is an extremely rare complication of chronic pancreatitis. In this case, computed tomography and endoscopic retrograde pancreatography were useful for diagnosing the fistula. PMID:8224627

  20. An assessment of the vulnerability of carotid plaques: a comparative study between intraplaque neovascularization and plaque echogenicity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Carotid plaque echolucency as detected by Color Doppler ultrasonography (CDUS) has been used as a potential marker of plaque vulnerability. However, contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) has recently been shown to be a valuable method to evaluate the vulnerability and neovascularization within carotid atherosclerotic plaques. The aim of this study was to compare CEUS and CDUS in the assessment of plaque vulnerability using transcranial color Doppler (TCD) monitoring of microembolic signals (MES) as a reference technique. Methods A total of 46 subjects with arterial stenosis (? 50%) underwent a carotid duplex ultrasound, TCD monitoring of MES and CEUS (SonoVue doses of 2.0 mL) within a span of 3 days. The agreement between the CEUS, CDUS, and MES findings was assessed with a chi-square test. A p-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Neovascularization was observed in 30 lesions (44.4%). The vascular risk factors for stroke were similar and there were no age or gender differences between the 2 groups. Using CEUS, MES were identified in 2 patients (12.5%) within class 1 (non-neovascularization) as opposed to 15 patients (50.0%) within class 2 (neovascularization) (p?=?0.023). CDUS revealed no significant differences in the appearance of the MES between the 2 groups (hyperechoic and hypoechoic) (p?=?0.237). Conclusion This study provides preliminary evidence to suggest that intraplaque neovascularization detected by CEUS is associated with the presence of MESs, where as plaque echogenicity on traditional CDUS does not. These findings argue that CEUS may better identify high-risk plaques. PMID:23537052

  1. 21 CFR 872.5580 - Oral rinse to reduce the adhesion of dental plaque.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...rinse to reduce the adhesion of dental plaque. 872.5580 Section...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Therapeutic Devices...rinse to reduce the adhesion of dental plaque. (a)...

  2. 21 CFR 872.5580 - Oral rinse to reduce the adhesion of dental plaque.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...rinse to reduce the adhesion of dental plaque. 872.5580 Section...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Therapeutic Devices...rinse to reduce the adhesion of dental plaque. (a)...

  3. 21 CFR 872.5580 - Oral rinse to reduce the adhesion of dental plaque.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...rinse to reduce the adhesion of dental plaque. 872.5580 Section...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Therapeutic Devices...rinse to reduce the adhesion of dental plaque. (a)...

  4. 21 CFR 872.5580 - Oral rinse to reduce the adhesion of dental plaque.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...rinse to reduce the adhesion of dental plaque. 872.5580 Section...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Therapeutic Devices...rinse to reduce the adhesion of dental plaque. (a)...

  5. 21 CFR 872.5580 - Oral rinse to reduce the adhesion of dental plaque.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...rinse to reduce the adhesion of dental plaque. 872.5580 Section...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Therapeutic Devices...rinse to reduce the adhesion of dental plaque. (a)...

  6. Multimodal characterization of compositional, structural and functional features of human atherosclerotic plaques

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yang; Chaudhari, Abhijit J.; Lam, Matthew; Xie, Hongtao; Yankelevich, Diego R.; Phipps, Jennifer; Liu, Jing; Fishbein, Michael C.; Cannata, Jonathan M.; Shung, K. Kirk; Marcu, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Detection of atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability has critical clinical implications for avoiding sudden death in patients with high risk of plaque rupture. We report on multimodality imaging of ex-vivo human carotid plaque samples using a system that integrates fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM), ultrasonic backscatter microscopy (UBM), and photoacoustic imaging (PAI). Biochemical composition is differentiated with a high temporal resolution and sensitivity at the surface of the plaque by the FLIM subsystem. 3D microanatomy of the whole plaque is reconstructed by the UBM. Functional imaging associated with optical absorption contrast is evaluated from the PAI component. Simultaneous recordings of the optical, ultrasonic, and photoacoustic data present a wealth of complementary information concerning the plaque composition, structure, and function that are related to plaque vulnerability. This approach is expected to improve our ability to study atherosclerotic plaques. The multimodal system presented here can be translated into a catheter based intraluminal system for future clinical studies. PMID:21833365

  7. Mechanism of ceroid formation in atherosclerotic plaque: in situ studies combination of Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy

    E-print Network

    Haka, Abigail S.

    Accumulation of the lipid-protein complex ceroid is a characteristic of atherosclerotic plaque. The mechanism of ceroid formation has been extensively studied, because the complex is postulated to contribute to plaque ...

  8. Plaque: What It Is and How to Get Rid of It

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for a fresh feeling! Rinse again. Remember: Food residues, especially sweets, provide nutrients for the germs that ... why it is important to remove all food residues, as well as plaque, from teeth. Remove plaque ...

  9. Modelling of fluid structure interactions in stenosed arteries: effect of plaque deformability

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Modelling of fluid structure interactions in stenosed arteries: effect of plaque deformability of fluid structure interactions in stenosed arteries. Stenoses in arteries are usually induced the mechanical response of plaques in the arteries [1]. This mechanical response is mainly induced

  10. Plaque-Type Blue Nevus of the Oral Cavity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susanna K. Fistarol; Peter H. Itin

    2005-01-01

    Background: The blue nevus of the oral cavity is a rare lesion with important differential diagnoses. The plaque-type blue nevus is an uncommon variant of the blue nevus. Because of its particular clinical appearance, it can easily be confused with satellite metastases from malignant melanoma. The diagnosis usually requires a biopsy. Objectives: To describe the clinical and histological features of

  11. Manufacturer's plaque located on north side of south parapet wall, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Manufacturer's plaque located on north side of south parapet wall, bridge over little Pince Creek (S.R. 1026, section 002), looking south - Bridge over Little Pine Creek, State Route 1026 over Little Pine Creek, 2.01 kilometers (1.25 miles) East of Bendertown, Jonestown, Columbia County, PA

  12. Aminomalonic Acid: Identification in Escherichia coli and Atherosclerotic Plaque

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John J. van Buskirk; Wolff M. Kirsch; Don L. Kleyer; Robert M. Barkley; Tad H. Koch

    1984-01-01

    Aminomalonic acid (Ama) has been isolated from proteins of Escherichia coli and human atherosclerotic plaque. The presence of Ama has important biological implications because the malonic acid moiety potentially imparts calcium binding properties to protein. Ama was obtained by anaerobic alkaline hydrolysis and identified by chromatographic behavior, quantitative acid-mediated decarboxylation to glycine, and unambiguous gas chromatographic\\/mass spectral detection. The chromatographic,

  13. Fermentation of five sucrose isomers by human dental plaque bacteria.

    PubMed

    Matsuyama, J; Sato, T; Hoshino, E; Noda, T; Takahashi, N

    2003-01-01

    Sucrose has five structural isomers: palatinose, trehalulose, turanose, maltulose and leucrose. Although these isomers have been reported to be noncariogenic disaccharides, which cannot be utilized by mutans streptococci, there is no information about their fermentability by other bacteria in dental plaque. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether these isomers were fermented by predominant bacteria in human dental plaque. Clinical bacterial isolates obtained from dental plaque from 3 children aged 22 months to 50 months (146 strains) were inoculated into 3 ml of peptone-yeast extract (PY medium) containing glucose for 1 day, then an aliquot of 20 microl of culture medium was inoculated into 1 ml of PY medium containing 1% (w/v) of the respective test carbohydrates. After incubation for 1 day, the pH values and the optical density at 660 nm of the cultures were measured. Fermentation ability was measured by pH or=0.5. Of the clinical isolates, 33% fermented palatinose, and 69% of these were Actinomyces species. All of the palatinose-fermenting bacterial strains fermented trehalulose, 25% fermented turanose, 70% fermented maltulose and 23% fermented leucrose. We therefore conclude that, in human dental plaque, there are significant numbers of bacteria that are able to ferment sucrose isomers. PMID:14571118

  14. Plaque Formation in Agar by Single Antibody-Producing Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Niels K. Jerne; Albert A. Nordin

    1963-01-01

    Distinct plaques, each of which is due to the release of hemolysin by a single antibody-forming cell, are revealed by complement after incubation, in an agar layer, of a mixture of sheep red cells and lymphoid cells from a rabbit immunized with sheep red cells.

  15. Intravascular palpography for high-risk vulnerable plaque assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johannes A. Schaar; Korte de C. L; Frits Mastik; Radj Baldewsing; Evelyn Regar; Steen van der A. F. W; P. W. J. C. Serruys; Feyter de P. J; C. J. Slager

    2003-01-01

    Background: The composition of an atherosclerotic plaque is considered more important than the degree of stenosis. An unstable lesion may rupture and cause an acute thrombotic reaction. Most of these lesions contain a large lipid pool cov- ered by an inflamed thin fibrous cap. The stress in the cap in- creases with decreasing cap thickness and increasing macrophage infiltration. Intravascular

  16. Variogram methods for texture classification of atherosclerotic plaque ultrasound images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeromin, Oliver M.; Pattichis, Marios S.; Pattichis, Constantinos; Kyriacou, Efthyvoulos; Nicolaides, Andrew

    2006-03-01

    Stroke is the third leading cause of death in the western world and the major cause of disability in adults. The type and stenosis of extracranial carotid artery disease is often responsible for ischemic strokes, transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) or amaurosis fugax (AF). The identification and grading of stenosis can be done using gray scale ultrasound scans. The appearance of B-scan pictures containing various granular structures makes the use of texture analysis techniques suitable for computer assisted tissue characterization purposes. The objective of this study is to investigate the usefulness of variogram analysis in the assessment of ultrasound plague morphology. The variogram estimates the variance of random fields, from arbitrary samples in space. We explore stationary random field models based on the variogram, which can be applied in ultrasound plaque imaging leading to a Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) system for the early detection of symptomatic atherosclerotic plaques. Non-parametric tests on the variogram coefficients show that the cofficients coming from symptomatic versus asymptomatic plaques come from distinct distributions. Furthermore, we show significant improvement in class separation, when a log point-transformation is applied to the images, prior to variogram estimation. Model fitting using least squares is explored for anisotropic variograms along specific directions. Comparative classification results, show that variogram coefficients can be used for the early detection of symptomatic cases, and also exhibit the largest class distances between symptomatic and asymptomatic plaque images, as compared to over 60 other texture features, used in the literature.

  17. 4. VISTA POINT AND INTERPRETIVE PLAQUE AT LEE VINING CANYON. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VISTA POINT AND INTERPRETIVE PLAQUE AT LEE VINING CANYON. NOTE ROAD CUT ON CANYON WALL. LOOKING NNE. GIS: N-37 56 30.3 / 119 13 44.8 - Tioga Road, Between Crane Flat & Tioga Pass, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  18. [Optimization of black blood CINE for mobile plaque].

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Kenichi; Komaki, Shinsuke

    2013-11-01

    For examining carotid plaque, black blood (BB) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can diagnose plaque components based on MR signals. Dynamic images for evaluating the mobility of carotid plaque may also be useful as an adjunct to the diagnosis of carotid plaque. The aim of this study was to find optimal parameters for dynamic images using the black blood technique (BB CINE). All experiments were acquired using electrocardiographically (ECG)-gated T1 turbo field echo (T1 TFE) combined with the regional saturation technique (REST) and improved motion-sensitized driven equilibrium (iMSDE) at 1.5 tesla (T). The following parameters were investigated. (1) Four fat suppression techniques: spectral presaturation with IR (SPIR), the principle of selective excitation technique (PROSET) with a binomial excitation of 1-1 (PROSET1-1), PROSET1-2-1 and PROSET1-3-3-1; (2) TFE factors 1 and 2; and (3) flow velocity encoding (venc) of 1, 3, 5, 10 and 15 cm/s for iMSDE. The results showed the optimal parameters for BB CINE to be PROSET1-2-1, TFE factor 2, and flow venc of 3-5 cm/s for iMSDE. PMID:24256651

  19. Secretory group II phospholipase A2 in human atherosclerotic plaques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mario Menschikowski; Michael Kasper; Peter Lattke; Andrea Schiering; Sigbert Schiefer; Hubertus Stockinger; Werner Jaross

    1995-01-01

    Atherosclerotic plaques exhibit a series of features that are similar to those of chronic inflammation. Based on the fact that during inflammation several cell types synthesize and secrete a group II phospholipase A2 (PLA2), an immunohistochemical study was undertaken to explore whether this enzyme can be identified in human atherosclerotic lesions. Tissue specimens obtained from 13 patients who had undergone

  20. Atherothrombosis and Plaque Heterology: Different Location or a Unique Disease?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Slevin; Q. Wang; A. Luque; Oriol Juan-Babot; J. Gaffney; P. Kumar; S. Kumar; L. Badimon; J. Krupinski

    2008-01-01

    Formation of unstable plaques frequently results in atherothrombosis, the major cause for ischaemic stroke, myocardial infarction and peripheral arterial disease. Patients who have symptomatic thrombosis in one vascular bed are at increased risk of disease in other beds. However, the development of the disease in carotid, coronary and peripheral arteries may have different pathophysiology suggesting that more complex treatment protocols

  1. Atherosclerotic Plaque at the Carotid Bifurcation: CT Angiographic Appearance with Histopathologic Correlation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Barry Oliver; G. Alistair Lammie; Andrew R. Wright; Joanna Wardlaw; Sandi G. Patel; Russell Peek; C. Vaughan Ruckley; Donald A. Collie

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:The likelihood that carotid plaque will give rise to cerebral ischemia probably relates to the degree of arterial stenosis and to plaque morphology. The aim of this study was to assess whether features seen at CT angiography might be used to predict carotid plaque stability by comparing CT angiograms with histopathologic examinations of the carotid artery bifurcation. METHODS:

  2. Lipid composition in atheromatous plaque: evaluation of the lipid three-phase percentage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Enrico Marinello; Carlo Setacci; Michele Giubbolini; Giuliano Cinci; Barbara Frosi; Brunetta Porcelli; Lucia Terzuoli

    2003-01-01

    There is a renewed interest in the study of plaque lipid composition because it is recognized that it, rather than the luminal narrowing, influences the plaque stability and determines patient symptoms.At this purpose, we quantitatively evaluated in the carotid plaque of different categories of patients the expression of triglycerides, phospholipids, cholesterol, free cholesterol, esters of cholesterol, and the percentages of

  3. The role of shear stress in the destabilization of vulnerable plaques and related therapeutic implications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JJ Wentzel; FJH Gijsen; A Thury; AC van der Wal; JA Schaar; PW Serruys; CJ Slager

    2005-01-01

    American Heart Association type IV plaques consist of a lipid core covered by a fibrous cap, and develop at locations of eccentric low shear stress. Vascular remodeling initially preserves the lumen diameter while maintaining the low shear stress conditions that encourage plaque growth. When these plaques eventually start to intrude into the lumen, the shear stress in the area surrounding

  4. The Impact of Calcification on the Biomechanical Stability of Atherosclerotic Plaques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hayden Huang; Renu Virmani; Hesham Younis; Allen P. Burke; Roger D. Kamm; Richard T. Lee

    2001-01-01

    Background—Increased biomechanical stresses in the fibrous cap of atherosclerotic plaques contribute to plaque rupture and, consequently, to thrombosis and myocardial infarction. Thin fibrous caps and large lipid pools are important determinants of increased plaque stresses. Although coronary calcification is associated with worse cardiovascular prognosis, the relationship between atheroma calcification and stresses is incompletely described. Methods and Results—To test the hypothesis

  5. Electron Microscopic Study of the Effect of Water Jet Lavage Devices on Dental Plaque

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John M. Brady; Walter A. Gray; Surindar N. Bhaskar

    1973-01-01

    The maxillary posterior teeth of nine rhesus monkeys were treated with a pulsating water lavage instrument at 70 psi (high setting). Electron microscopic studies of pre- and post-lavage plaque samples showed that water jet devices as used in this experiment either removed the plaque completely or caused irreversible damage to the microbial forms in the plaque matrix.

  6. Development of Positron Emission Tomography ?-Amyloid Plaque Imaging Agents

    PubMed Central

    Mathis, Chester A.; Mason, N. Scott; Lopresti, Brian J.; Klunk, William E.

    2012-01-01

    For 100 years, ?-amyloid (A?) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) have been recognized as the neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and their presence or absence could only be assessed postmortem using stains and dyes that identified these microscopic structures. Approximately 10 years ago, the first successful A? plaque–specific positron emission tomography (PET) imaging study was conducted in a living human subject clinically diagnosed with probable AD using the 11C-labeled radiopharmaceutical Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB). Laboratory studies and preclinical evaluations to design PiB began a decade earlier than the first human PiB PET study and involved chemical modifications of different well-known dyes that bound specifically to the extended ?-pleated sheets that comprise the fibrils of amyloid proteins such as A? plaques, NFTs, ?-synuclein deposits, and prions. These preclinical studies were conducted in our laboratories at the University of Pittsburgh, starting with Congo red derivatives, followed by Chrysamine G derivatives, followed by X-series compounds, and finally with neutral derivatives of thioflavin-T. The in vitro and in vivo evaluations of the different derivatives as candidate PET radioligands for imaging A? plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in human brain are described in this review, along with the specific evaluation criteria by which the candidate radioligands were judged. Out of these studies came PiB, a PET radioligand that binds selectively and with high affinity to only fibrillar forms of A?. PiB has been used in many different human research protocols throughout the world and has demonstrated the usefulness of assessing the A? plaque status of subjects many years before the clinical diagnosis of probable AD. Recently, longer-lived 18F-radiolabeled A?-selective radiopharmaceuticals have been developed. It is likely that the full clinical impact of these imaging agents will be realized by identifying presymptomatic subjects who would benefit from early drug treatments with future disease-modifying AD therapeutics. PMID:23026364

  7. Optical Coherence Tomography Analysis of Attenuated Plaques Detected by Intravascular Ultrasound in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Kubo, Takashi; Matsuo, Yoshiki; Ino, Yasushi; Tanimoto, Takashi; Ishibashi, Kohei; Komukai, Kenichi; Kitabata, Hironori; Tanaka, Atsushi; Kimura, Keizo; Imanishi, Toshio; Akasaka, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Background. Recent intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) studies have demonstrated that hypoechoic plaque with deep ultrasound attenuation despite absence of bright calcium is common in acute coronary syndrome. Such “attenuated plaque” may be an IVUS characteristic of unstable lesion. Methods. We used optical coherence tomography (OCT) in 104 patients with unstable angina to compare lesion characteristics between IVUS-detected attenuated plaque and nonattenuated plaque. Results. IVUS-detected attenuated plaque was observed in 41 (39%) patients. OCT-detected lipidic plaque (88% versus 49%, P < 0.001), thin-cap fibroatheroma (48% versus 16%, P < 0.001), plaque rupture (44% versus 11%, P < 0.001), and intracoronary thrombus (54% versus 17%, P < 0.001) were more often seen in IVUS-detected attenuated plaques compared with nonattenuated plaques. Conclusions. IVUS-detected attenuated plaque has many characteristics of unstable coronary lesion. The presence of attended plaque might be an important marker of lesion instability. PMID:21941667

  8. An IR navigation system for real-time treatment guidance of pleural PDT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Timothy C.; Liang, Xing; Chang, Chang; Sandell, Julia; Finlay, Jarod C.; Dimofte, Andreea; Rodriguez, Carmen; Cengel, Keith; Friedberg, Joseph; Glatstein, Eli; Hahn, Stephen M.

    2011-02-01

    Uniform light fluence distribution for patients undergoing photodynamic therapy (PDT) is critical to ensure predictable PDT outcome. However, common practice uses a point source to deliver light to the pleural cavity with the light uniformity monitored by 7 detectors placed within the pleural cavity. To improve the uniformity of light fluence rate distribution, we have used a real-time infrared (IR) tracking camera to track the movement of the light point source. The same tracking device is used to determine the surface contour of the treatment area. This study examines the light fluence (rate) delivered between the measurement and calculation in phantom studies. Isotropic detectors were used for in-vivo light dosimetry. Light fluence rate in the pleural cavity is calculated and compared with the in-vivo calculation. Phantom studies show that the surface contour can be determined with an accuracy of 2 mm, with maximum deviation of 5 mm. We can successfully match the calculated light fluence rates with the in-vivo measurements. Preliminary results indicate that the light fluence rate can have up to 50% deviation compared to the prescription in phantom experiments. The IR camera has been used successfully in pleural PDT patient treatment to track the motion of light source in realtime. We concluded that it is feasible to develop an IR camera based system to guide the motion of the light source to improve the uniformity of light distribution.

  9. Functional closure of visceral pleural defects by autologous tissue engineered cell sheets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masato Kanzaki; Masayuki Yamato; Joseph Yang; Hidekazu Sekine; Ryo Takagi; Tamami Isaka; Teruo Okano; Takamasa Onuki

    Objective: The occurrence of intraoperative air leaks is an unavoidable complication during pulmonary surgeries. However, current surgical methodsaregenerallyineffective in closingthesevisceralpleuraldefects,resultingin a decreasedqualityoflife forpatients. Here,we examined novel tissue engineered cell sheets for the closure of pleural defects in a porcine model. Methods: Skin biopsies were harvested from juvenile swine and tissue sheets composed of dermal fibroblasts were created using ex vivo

  10. A PRESUMPTIVE CASE OF TOXOCARIASIS ASSOCIATED WITH EOSINOPHILIC PLEURAL EFFUSION: CASE REPORT AND LITERATURE REVIEW

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MAHI LAKSHMI ASHWATH; DONALD R. ROBINSON; HAROLD P. KATNER

    Human toxocariasis is a helminthozoonosis caused by Toxocara sp. Larval migration of the organism through the tissues can result in eosinophila associated with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations. We report a case of eosinophilic pleural effusion and CD8 cell deficiency associated with Toxocara sp. The symptoms of this patient responded promptly to a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medication (naproxen). This is

  11. Targeting Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Blockade: Ascites and pleural effusion formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. M. W. Verheul; K. Hoekman; A. S. Jorna; E. F. Smith; H. M. PINEDOa

    2000-01-01

    Primary Purpose. Formation of ascites and pleural effusion (PE) is a common problem for patients with advanced-stage cancer. These fluid accumulations cause severe symptoms such as abdominal distention, shortness of breath, cachexia, anorexia, and fatigue. Preclinical models have demonstrated that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a pivotal role in the accu- mulation of malignant PE or ascites. This study

  12. Pleural pressure measured in the zone of apposition of diaphragm to rib cage in rabbits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Perez; P. Fernandez; M. I. Hernaiz; E. G. Jackson; S. J. Lai-Fook; B. R. Boynton

    1993-01-01

    In 10 anesthetized adult rabbits, we studied the effect of spontaneous breathing and positive pressure ventilation on pleural pressure on the costal lung surface (Ppl) and in the zone of apposition of the rib cage to the diaphragm (Papp). Ppl and Papp were measured by rib capsules installed in the 5th or 6th rib and 11th or 12th rib, respectively.

  13. CT findings in malignant pleural mesothelioma related to nonoccupational exposure to asbestos and fibrous zeolite (erionite)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Canan Erzen; Muzaffer Eryilmaz; Fuat Kalyoncu; Nazmi Bilir; Altan Sahin; Y. Izettin Baris

    1991-01-01

    Endemic malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) in Turkey is related to two mineral fibers, tremolite asbestos and fibrous zeolite (erionite). Thirteen cases of MPM from the Cappadocian area, where the soil is rich in erionite, and 29 cases of MPM, from villages whose occupants have high asbestos exposure, were examined by CT. The CT findings of the two groups of MPM

  14. Three-dimensional automatic computer-aided evaluation of pleural effusions on chest CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Mark; Summers, Ronald M.; Yao, Jianhua

    2011-03-01

    The ability to estimate the volume of pleural effusions is desirable as it can provide information about the severity of the condition and the need for thoracentesis. We present here an improved version of an automated program to measure the volume of pleural effusions using regular chest CT images. First, the lungs are segmented using region growing, mathematical morphology, and anatomical knowledge. The visceral and parietal layers of the pleura are then extracted based on anatomical landmarks, curve fitting and active contour models. The liver and compressed tissues are segmented out using thresholding. The pleural space is then fitted to a Bezier surface which is subsequently projected onto the individual two-dimensional slices. Finally, the volume of the pleural effusion is quantified. Our method was tested on 15 chest CT studies and validated against three separate manual tracings. The Dice coefficients were 0.74+/-0.07, 0.74+/-0.08, and 0.75+/-0.07 respectively, comparable to the variation between two different manual tracings.

  15. Two novel methods for juxta-pleural nodule segmentation based on CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Shou-liang; Si, Guanglei; van Triest, Han; Yue, Yong

    2011-10-01

    The shape, size and growth rate of lung nodules are the most important indicators for the malignancy of a lung cancer and the basis for assessment of lung cancer treatment effect. Therefore, accurate segmentation of the lung nodules is of great significance for the diagnosis and treatment of the lung cancers. In this paper, two novel methods are proposed to extract juxta-pleural nodules in CT image data for subsequent volume assessment. The algorithm takes the form of user interaction process, such as the selection of the seed point and the adjustment of the volume of interest, which can make best use of the knowledge of the radiologists. The first method combining contour finding and arc chord ratio thresholding and the second method combining the ray casting and line fitting are both designed for segmentation of the juxta-pleural nodules. The algorithm is tested on datasets from 39 patients with a total of 53 juxta-pleural nodules. Evaluated by the senior radiologists, the two methods both gained satisfactory results with segmentation accuracy exceeding 90% on average. It shows the algorithm is helpful for the segmentation, volume measurements and evaluation of juxta-pleural nodules.

  16. Progelatinase B/matrix metalloproteinase-9 proenzyme as a marker of pleural inflammation.

    PubMed

    Kotyza, Jaromír; Pesek, Milos; Puzman, Petr; Havel, David

    2004-06-01

    Previous analyses of pleural effusions of different origin revealed high levels of matrix metalloproteinase-9 proenzyme (proMMP-9), predominantly in parainfectious exudates. To confirm the etiological association with inflammation and to explore time course of release of proMMP-9 under conditions of a local inflammatory reaction, the authors estimated proMMP-9 in pleural fluids of patients undergoing therapeutic talc pleurodesis (n = 20) and explorative thoracoscopy (n = 4), before, and at different time intervals after the intervention. The authors also compared proMMP-9 values with proinflammatory markers, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), and leukocyte count. As revealed through scanning substrate electrophoresis, proMMP-9 levels increased within the first hours a!nd culminated 16 to 48 hours after intervention, amounting to 1.5- to 102 -fold of initial concentration (mean = 14.8 -fold). MMP-9 proenzyme values significantly correlated with the levels of proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 (r =.79, n = 47, p <.01) and with neutrophil counts (r =.75, n = 45, p <.01). In conclusion, the results present proMMP-9 as a novel early indicator of acute host-response in pleural space that complements traditional proinflammatory markers and might be useful in monitoring pleural inflammatory processes. PMID:15204835

  17. Prediction of Pulmonary Parenchymal Reexpansion by Computed Tomography After Pleural Decortication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pyoung Jeon; Kyung Young Chung; Kil Dong Kim; Dong Hwan Shin; Bum Koo Cho; Choe Kyu Ok

    1997-01-01

    Twenty-six patients underwent pleural decortication for chronic empyema. All had a computed tomgraphy scan of the chest showing no marked parenchymal destruction. Multiple subpleural linear densities perpendicular to the pleura were seen to various degrees and the sum of the areas of these densities was evaluated for each patient. The thickness of visceral and parietal pleura, nodularity of the empyema

  18. Lymphocytic alveolitis and pleural calcifications in nonoccupational asbestos exposure. Protection against neoplasia?

    PubMed

    Constantopoulos, S H; Dalavanga, Y A; Sakellariou, K; Goudevenos, J; Kotoulas, O B

    1992-12-01

    Inhabitants of the Metsovo area in Northwest Greece (population, 4,000) have been exposed to asbestos through the use of whitewash containing tremolite. This has resulted in endemic pleural calcifications (PCs) and increased incidence of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). In order to evaluate the lung response to the fiber, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed in 25 Metsovites; 14 with PCs, three with PCs and neoplasia, five without PCs, and three without PCs but with established neoplasia. There were no differences between the four groups with regard to age or exposure. Twelve Metsovites had lymphocytic alveolitis (BAL lymphocytes > 15%). Eleven belonged to the group with PCs and one belonged to the group without PCs. None of those with neoplasia had alveolitis. The lymphocytes were mainly helper T-cells, and activation markers were more frequent among those with PCs. We have previously reported on the relative absence of PCs in Metsovites with malignant pleural mesothelioma. This observation and the results of the present study suggest that lymphocytic alveolitis correlates with pleural calcifications, whereas both are rarely present in patients with neoplasia. PMID:1456576

  19. Small calcifying fibrous pseudotumor of the heart confined to the epicardium.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Shigeki; Funakoshi, Yasunobu; Yoon, Hyung-Eun; Okuma, Tomohisa; Utsumi, Tomoki; Ito, Norimasa; Sakaguchi, Masahiro; Taniguchi, Kazuhiro; Eimoto, Tadaaki; Matsumura, Akihide

    2015-01-01

    A calcifying fibrous pseudotumor (CFPT) is a rare benign lesion that often presents in the upper and lower extremities of children and young adults. In the present report, we describe a case of a small CFPT arising from the epicardium (visceral pericardium) in a 32-year-old woman. The tumor presented as a 25-mm polypoid mass protruding into the pericardial cavity, without extending into the myocardium. A complete resection was performed, and the patient has not experienced any relapse for more than 2 years. On histological examination, the lesion contained densely hyalinized collagen with psammomatous and dystrophic calcifications, as well as patchy chronic inflammatory infiltrate. The localization in the epicardium with no involvement of the myocardium was confirmed by the elastic stain. Amyloid was negative by the Congo red stain. On immunohistochemical analysis, the lesional cells indicated diffuse positive staining for vimentin and factor XIIIa and focal positive staining for CD34, but did not indicate positive staining for other pertinent antigens such as cytokeratins, calretinin, desmin, ?-smooth muscle actin, ALK, and estrogen and progesterone receptors as well as IgG4 in plasma cells. To our knowledge, only three cases of CFPT in the heart have been reported in the literature, all of which developed in young females as a large mass involving the epicardium; the lesion also extended to the parietal pericardium in two cases. Moreover, all cases presented with few symptoms, despite the large lesion. In the present case, the CFPT developed also in a young woman, but the lesion was much smaller than those previously published and was localized in the visceral serous membrane of the heart. The findings of this case suggest a potential preferable site of origin of CFPTs of the heart. PMID:25434646

  20. Multiscale mechanics of hierarchical structure/property relationships in calcified tissues and tissue/material interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Katz, J. Lawrence; Misra, Anil; Spencer, Paulette; Wang, Yong; Bumrerraj, Sauwanan; Nomura, Tsutomu; Eppell, Steven J.; Tabib-Azar, Massood

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a review plus new data that describes the role hierarchical nanostructural properties play in developing an understanding of the effect of scale on the material properties (chemical, elastic and electrical) of calcified tissues as well as the interfaces that form between such tissues and biomaterials. Both nanostructural and microstructural properties will be considered starting with the size and shape of the apatitic mineralites in both young and mature bovine bone. Microstructural properties for human dentin and cortical and trabecular bone will be considered. These separate sets of data will be combined mathematically to advance the effects of scale on the modeling of these tissues and the tissue/biomaterial interfaces as hierarchical material/structural composites. Interfacial structure and properties to be considered in greatest detail will be that of the dentin/adhesive (d/a) interface, which presents a clear example of examining all three material properties, (chemical, elastic and electrical). In this case, finite element modeling (FEA) was based on the actual measured values of the structure and elastic properties of the materials comprising the d/a interface; this combination provides insight into factors and mechanisms that contribute to premature failure of dental composite fillings. At present, there are more elastic property data obtained by microstructural measurements, especially high frequency ultrasonic wave propagation (UWP) and scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM) techniques. However, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and nanoindentation (NI) of cortical and trabecular bone and the dentin–enamel junction (DEJ) among others have become available allowing correlation of the nanostructural level measurements with those made on the microstructural level. PMID:18270549

  1. Increased lipogenesis and stearate accelerate vascular calcification in calcifying vascular cells.

    PubMed

    Ting, Tabitha C; Miyazaki-Anzai, Shinobu; Masuda, Masashi; Levi, Moshe; Demer, Linda L; Tintut, Yin; Miyazaki, Makoto

    2011-07-01

    Vascular calcification is recognized as an independent predictor of cardiovascular mortality, particularly in subjects with chronic kidney disease. However, the pathways by which dysregulation of lipid and mineral metabolism simultaneously occur in this particular population remain unclear. We have shown that activation of the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) blocks mineralization of bovine calcifying vascular cells (CVCs) and in ApoE knock-out mice with 5/6 nephrectomy. In contrast to FXR, this study showed that liver X receptor (LXR) activation by LXR agonists and adenovirus-mediated LXR overexpression by VP16-LXR? and VP16-LXR? accelerated mineralization of CVCs. Conversely, LXR inhibition by dominant negative (DN) forms of LXR? and LXR? reduced calcium content in CVCs. The regulation of mineralization by FXR and LXR agonists was highly correlated with changes in lipid accumulation, fatty acid synthesis, and the expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 (SREBP-1). The rate of lipogenesis in CVCs through the SREBP-1c dependent pathway was reduced by FXR activation, but increased by LXR activation. SREBP-1c overexpression augmented mineralization in CVCs, whereas SREBP-1c DN inhibited alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralization induced by LXR agonists. LXR and SREBP-1c activations increased, whereas FXR activation decreased, saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids derived from lipogenesis. In addition, we found that stearate markedly promoted mineralization of CVCs as compared with other fatty acids. Furthermore, inhibition of either acetyl-CoA carboxylase or acyl-CoA synthetase reduced mineralization of CVCs, whereas inhibition of stearoyl-CoA desaturase induced mineralization. Therefore, a stearate metabolite derived from lipogenesis might be a risk factor for the development of vascular calcification. PMID:21596756

  2. Evaluation of calcified carotid atheroma on panoramic radiographs and Doppler ultrasonography in an older population

    PubMed Central

    Atalay, Yusuf; Asutay, Fatih; Agacayak, Kamil Serkan; Koparal, Mahmut; Adali, Fahri; Gulsun, Belgin

    2015-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study is to determine the reliability of panoramic radiograph (PR) as a screening tool for the detection of calcified carotid atheroma (CCA) by comparing it with Doppler ultrasonography (DU) examination. A second aim was to evaluate the relationship among CCA, systemic diseases, smoking, and body mass index in an older population. Materials and methods A total of 1,650 PRs of patients aged over 45 years (736 males and 914 females) were randomly selected. All the patients had been referred to the Faculty of Dentistry, Afyon Kocatepe University, Afyonkarahisar, Turkey, during 2013–2014 for routine PR screening. Medical data were collected from the archival records of the dental school. The patients were divided into two groups: Group A (study group), CCA findings were confirmed by DU (n=59); and Group B (control group), CCA findings were not confirmed by DU (n=34). Results Of the 1,650 individuals, 93 (5.63%) were detected to have CCA on PR. The population consisted of 43 males and 50 females with mean age of 59.84±10.92 years. No difference was determined in respect of CCA between the sexes (P=0.745). There was a significant difference between Group A and Group B in respect of hypertension (P=0.004). But there was no difference between Group A and Group B in respect of age (P=0.495), BMI (P=0.756), diabetes (P=0.168), and smoking (P=0.482) distribution. Conclusion Although PR cannot be used as an initial diagnostic method when searching for CCA, dentists should be aware of CCA on a routine PR, particularly in older patients who may also have the risk factors of obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and smoking. Recognizing of CCA especially in hypertensive patients could potentially increase the length and quality of life for individuals. PMID:26185431

  3. The mineralogical responses of marine calcifiers to CO2-induced ocean acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ries, J. B.; Cohen, A. L.; McCorkle, D. C.

    2008-12-01

    We have conducted 6-month laboratory experiments to investigate the effect of pCO2-induced reductions in seawater CaCO3 saturation state on biocalcification by 18 aragonitic and calcitic (low-high Mg) taxa representing eight of the major marine calcifying groups: Chlorophyta; Rhodophyta; Crustacea; Bivalvia; Gastropoda; Annelida; Cnidaria; and Echinodermata. The CaCO3 saturation states of the experimental seawaters, constrained by intercalibrated determinations of pH, alkalinity, and DIC, were attained with bubbled air-CO2 mixtures of 400 (ambient), 600, 900, and 2850 ppm pCO2, yielding ?arag of 2.5 (ambient), 2.0, 1.5, 0.7, respectively. We previously showed that while rates of net calcification obtained from buoyant weighing declined with increasing pCO2 for nearly half of the species investigated, a nearly equal number exhibited constant or, in some cases, increased calcification under moderately (600 ppm) or extremely (900 or 2850 ppm) elevated pCO2. The organisms' investigated in this study secrete various forms of CaCO3, which differ in crystallographic structure and therefore solubility: aragonite and high-Mg are generally more soluble than low-Mg calcite. We have employed powder x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, inductively-coupled-plasma mass-spectrometry, and scanning electron microscopy to quantify changes in the organisms' skeletal mineralogy (aragonite:calcite ratio) and Mg-content (MgCO3:CaCO3 ratio) that occurred in response to the prescribed reductions in seawater CaCO3 saturation state. We will compare calcification and mineralogical response patterns amongst the organisms to elucidate the role of mineral lability in driving species-specific responses to CO2-induced ocean acidification.

  4. A clinicopathologic study on calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor: with special reference to Langerhans cell variant

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour (CEOT) is a rare benign odontogenic tumour, and its Langerhans cell variant is even rarer. Due to the limited number of recorded cases, the biological behaviour and histogenesis of the Langerhans cell variant of CEOT are not yet fully understood. Thus, the correlation between conventional CEOT and the Langerhans cell variant remains to be clarified. Material (cases) Eight cases of CEOT including 2 cases of Langerhans cell variant were clinicopathologically studied and the English language literature was reviewed. Langerhans cells were detected in 2 cases of conventional CEOT and in 2 cases of Langerhans cell variant by immunohistochemistry. Results and findings In the 6 cases of conventional CEOT, 5 tumours involved the premolar and molar region and the anterior portion of the mandible was affected in 1 case. Four patients were followed for 2–7 years and did not show any sign of recurrence. A review of the English language literature revealed 5 cases; combined with the present 2 new cases, a total of 7 cases of Langerhans cell variant of CEOT were collected. The patients were all Asian. Six tumours occurred in the maxilla and 1 in mandible; all mainly involved the anterior region of the jaws. Five patients were followed for 2-10 years and did not show any evidence of recurrence. Langerhans cells can be seen in both the conventional and the Langerhans cell variant of CEOT; however, increased numbers of Langerhans cells are seen in the latter. Conclusions Although the Langerhans cell variant of CEOT is a rare entity and behaves similarly to the conventional type, it could show unique clinical and histologic features that may pose problems for differential diagnosis. Virtual slides http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1979090740113894 PMID:24555881

  5. Calcifying nanoparticles promote mineralization in vascular smooth muscle cells: implications for atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Larry W; Charlesworth, Jon E; Yu, Sam; Lieske, John C; Miller, Virginia M

    2014-01-01

    Background Nano-sized complexes of calcium phosphate mineral and proteins (calcifying nanoparticles [CNPs]) serve as mineral chaperones. Thus, CNPs may be both a result and cause of soft tissue calcification processes. This study determined if CNPs could augment calcification of arterial vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro. Methods CNPs 210 nm in diameter were propagated in vitro from human serum. Porcine aortic smooth muscle cells were cultured for up to 28 days in medium in the absence (control) or presence of 2 mM phosphate ([P] positive calcification control) or after a single 3-day exposure to CNPs. Transmission electron-microscopy was used to characterize CNPs and to examine their cellular uptake. Calcium deposits were visualized by light microscopy and von Kossa staining and were quantified by colorimetry. Cell viability was quantified by confocal microscopy of live-/dead-stained cells and apoptosis was examined concurrently by fluorescent labeling of exposed phosphatidylserine. Results CNPs, as well as smaller calcium crystals, were observed by transmission electron-microscopy on day 3 in CNP-treated but not P-treated cells. By day 28, calcium deposits were visible in similar amounts within multicellular nodules of both CNP- and P-treated cells. Apoptosis increased with cell density under all treatments. CNP treatment augmented the density of apoptotic bodies and cellular debris in association with mineralized multicellular nodules. Conclusion Exogenous CNPs are taken up by aortic smooth muscle cells in vitro and potentiate accumulation of smooth-muscle-derived apoptotic bodies at sites of mineralization. Thus, CNPs may accelerate vascular calcification. PMID:24920905

  6. Osteoclasts but not osteoblasts are affected by a calcified surface treated with zoledronic acid in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Schindeler, Aaron [Department of Orthopaedic Research and Biotechnology, Children's Hospital at Westmead, Sydney (Australia) and Discipline of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Sydney, Sydney (Australia)]. E-mail: AaronS@chw.edu.au; Little, David G. [Department of Orthopaedic Research and Biotechnology, Children's Hospital at Westmead, Sydney (Australia); Discipline of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Sydney, Sydney (Australia)

    2005-12-16

    Bisphosphonates are potent inhibitors of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. Recent interest has centered on the effects of bisphosphonates on osteoblasts. Chronic dosing of osteoblasts with solubilized bisphosphonates has been reported to enhance osteogenesis and mineralization in vitro. However, this methodology poorly reflects the in vivo situation, where free bisphosphonate becomes rapidly bound to mineralized bone surfaces. To establish a more clinically relevant cell culture model, we cultured bone cells on calcium phosphate coated quartz discs pre-treated with the potent nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate, zoledronic acid (ZA). Binding studies utilizing [{sup 14}C]-labeled ZA confirmed that the bisphosphonate bound in a concentration-dependent manner over the 1-50 {mu}M dose range. When grown on ZA-treated discs, the viability of bone-marrow derived osteoclasts was greatly reduced, while the viability and mineralization of the osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cell line were largely unaffected. This suggests that only bone resorbing cells are affected by bound bisphosphonate. However, this system does not account for transient exposure to unbound bisphosphonate in the hours following a clinical dosing. To model this event, we transiently treated osteoblasts with ZA in the absence of a calcified surface. Osteoblasts proved highly resistant to all transitory treatment regimes, even when utilizing ZA concentrations that prevented mineralization and/or induced cell death when dosed chronically. This study represents a pharmacologically more relevant approach to modeling bisphosphonate treatment on cultured bone cells and implies that bisphosphonate therapies may not directly affect osteoblasts at bone surfaces.

  7. Viability of calcifying bacterial formulations in fly ash for applications in building materials.

    PubMed

    Dhami, Navdeep Kaur; Mukherjee, Abhijit; Reddy, M Sudhakara

    2013-12-01

    Evidence of bacterial involvement in precipitation of calcium carbonates has brought a revolution in the field of applied microbiology, geotechnical sciences, environmental and civil engineering with its marked success in restoration of various building materials. For applications of these calcite binder-producing bacterial cultures, different expensive carrier materials have been used but their high costs have come in the way of their successful commercialization. In the present study, we have explored the potential of cheap industrial by-product fly ash as a carrier material for bacterial cells and investigated the viability of calcifying bacterial isolates: Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus cereus, and Lysinibacillus fusiformis in fly ash carrier at varying temperatures and moisture conditions along with biomineralization efficacy of these formulations. We used laser scanning confocal microscopy to analyze the viability of bacteria by florescent dye 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride (CTC) along with the plate count method. Results revealed that fly ash successfully served as an effective carrier material and bacterial formulations stored at 4 °C provided longer shelf life than those stored at higher temperatures. Up to 10(6) cfu/g was found to sustain in all formulations at 4 °C compared to 10(4)-10(5) cfu/g in case of higher temperatures up to 1 year. For 4 °C, higher moistures (50 %) were found to provide better survivability while for higher temperatures, lower moistures (30 %) favored higher viability. The biomineralization capability of fresh and formulated bacterial cells was compared on the basis of precipitation of carbonates and it was found that carbonate precipitation efficacy of formulated bacterial cells was comparable to fresh bacterial cells. PMID:24065359

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging of amyloid plaques in transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Chamberlain, Ryan; Wengenack, Thomas M.; Poduslo, Joseph F.; Garwood, Michael; Jack, Clifford R.

    2011-01-01

    A major objective in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease is amyloid plaque reduction. Transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease provide a controlled and consistent environment for studying amyloid plaque deposition in Alzheimer's disease. Magnetic resonance imaging is an attractive tool for longitudinal studies because it offers non-invasive monitoring of amyloid plaques. Recent studies have demonstrated the ability of magnetic resonance imaging to detect individual plaques in living mice. This review discusses the mouse models, MR pulse sequences, and parameters that have been used to image plaques and how they can be optimized for future studies. PMID:21499442

  9. Patient-specific prediction of coronary plaque growth from CTA angiography: a multiscale model for plaque formation and progression.

    PubMed

    Parodi, Oberdan; Exarchos, Themis P; Marraccini, Paolo; Vozzi, Federico; Milosevic, Zarko; Nikolic, Dalibor; Sakellarios, Antonis; Siogkas, Panagiotis K; Fotiadis, Dimitrios I; Filipovic, Nenad

    2012-09-01

    Computational fluid dynamics methods based on in vivo 3-D vessel reconstructions have recently been identified the influence of wall shear stress on endothelial cells as well as on vascular smooth muscle cells, resulting in different events such as flow mediated vasodilatation, atherosclerosis, and vascular remodeling. Development of image-based modeling technologies for simulating patient-specific local blood flows is introducing a novel approach to risk prediction for coronary plaque growth and progression. In this study, we developed 3-D model of plaque formation and progression that was tested in a set of patients who underwent coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) for anginal symptoms. The 3-D blood flow is described by the Navier-Stokes equations, together with the continuity equation. Mass transfer within the blood lumen and through the arterial wall is coupled with the blood flow and is modeled by a convection-diffusion equation. The low density lipoprotein (LDL) transports in lumen of the vessel and through the vessel tissue (which has a mass consumption term) are coupled by Kedem-Katchalsky equations. The inflammatory process is modeled using three additional reaction-diffusion partial differential equations. A full 3-D model was created. It includes blood flow and LDL concentration, as well as plaque formation and progression. Furthermore, features potentially affecting plaque growth, such as patient risk score, circulating biomarkers, localization and composition of the initial plaque, and coronary vasodilating capability were also investigated. The proof of concept of the model effectiveness was assessed by repetition of CTA, six months after. PMID:22665513

  10. Pleural cancer mortality in Spain: time-trends and updating of predictions up to 2020

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A total of 2,514,346 metric tons (Mt) of asbestos were imported into Spain from 1906 until the ban on asbestos in 2002. Our objective was to study pleural cancer mortality trends as an indicator of mesothelioma mortality and update mortality predictions for the periods 2011–2015 and 2016–2020 in Spain. Methods Log-linear Poisson models were fitted to study the effect of age, period of death and birth cohort (APC) on mortality trends. Change points in cohort- and period-effect curvatures were assessed using segmented regression. Fractional power-link APC models were used to predict mortality until 2020. In addition, an alternative model based on national asbestos consumption figures was also used to perform long-term predictions. Results Pleural cancer deaths increased across the study period, rising from 491 in 1976–1980 to 1,249 in 2006–2010. Predictions for the five-year period 2016–2020 indicated a total of 1,319 pleural cancer deaths (264 deaths/year). Forecasts up to 2020 indicated that this increase would continue, though the age-adjusted rates showed a levelling-off in male mortality from 2001 to 2005, corresponding to the lower risk in post-1960 generations. Among women, rates were lower and the mortality trend was also different, indicating that occupational exposure was possibly the single factor having most influence on pleural cancer mortality. Conclusion The cancer mortality-related consequences of human exposure to asbestos are set to persist and remain in evidence until the last surviving members of the exposed cohorts have disappeared. It can thus be assumed that occupationally-related deaths due to pleural mesothelioma will continue to occur in Spain until at least 2040. PMID:24195451

  11. Can cholesterol be used to distinguish pleural exudates from transudates? evidence from a bivariate meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Many studies have investigated whether pleural cholesterol levels can aid in diagnosis of pleural exudates, and the results have varied considerably. To gain a more reliable answer to this question, we meta-analyzed the literature on using pleural cholesterol or the ratio of cholesterol in pleural fluid to cholesterol in serum (P/S cholesterol ratio) as diagnostic tests to help identify pleural exudates. Methods Literature databases were systematically searched for studies examining accuracy of pleural cholesterol or P/S cholesterol ratios for diagnosing pleural exudates. Data on sensitivity, specificity, positive/negative likelihood ratio (PLR/NLR), and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) were pooled using bivariate-effects models. Summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curves and area under the curve (AUC) were used to summarize overall test performance. Results Our meta-analysis included up to 20 studies involving 3,496 subjects. Summary estimates for pleural cholesterol in the diagnosis of pleural exudates were as follows: sensitivity, 0.88 (95%CI 0.84 to 0.92); specificity, 0.96 (95% CI 0.92 to 0.98); PLR, 20.31 (95% CI 11.21 to 36.78); NLR, 0.12 (95% CI 0.09 to 0.17); DOR, 167.06 (95% CI 76.79 to 363.95); and AUC 0.97 (95% CI 0.95 to 0.98). The corresponding summary performance estimates for using the P/S cholesterol ratio were as follows: sensitivity, 0.94 (95% CI 0.92 to 0.96); specificity, 0.87 (95% CI 0.83 to 0.91); PLR 7.46 (95% CI, 5.47 to 10.19); NLR, 0.07 (95% CI 0.05 to 0.10); DOR, 107.74 (95% CI 60.91 to 190.60); and AUC 0.97 (95% CI 0.95 to 0.98). Conclusions Both pleural cholesterol level and the P/S cholesterol ratio are helpful for the diagnosis of pleural exudates. Nevertheless, the results of pleural cholesterol assays should be interpreted in parallel with the results of traditional tests and clinical information. PMID:24731290

  12. Plaque Rupture Complications in Murine Atherosclerotic Vein Grafts Can Be Prevented by TIMP-1 Overexpression

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Margreet R.; Niessen, Hans W. M.; Löwik, Clemens W. G. M.; Hamming, Jaap F.; Jukema, J. Wouter; Quax, Paul H. A.

    2012-01-01

    The current study describes the incidence and phenotype of plaque rupture complications in murine vein grafts. Since matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are highly involved in atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability and plaque rupture, we hypothesized that this model can be validated by overexpression of the MMP inhibitor TIMP-1. First we studied 47 vein grafts in hypercholesterolemic ApoE3*Leiden mice for the incidence of plaque complications. In 79% of these grafts, extensive lesions with plaque rupture complications like dissections, intraplaque hemorrhages or erosions with intramural thrombi were found. Next, in vivo Near-InfraRed-Fluorescence imaging demonstrated that electroporation mediated TIMP-1-overexpression reduced local MMP activity in vein grafts by 73% (p<0.01). This led to a 40% reduction in lesion-size after 28d (p?=?0.01) and a more stable lesion phenotype with significant more smooth muscle cells (135%), collagen (47%) and significant less macrophages (44%) and fibrin (55%) than controls. More importantly, lesions in the TIMP-1 group showed a 90% reduction of plaque complications (10/18 of control mice showed plaque complications versus 1/18 in TIMP-1 treated mice). Murine vein grafts are a relevant spontaneous model to study plaque stability and subsequent hemorrhagic complications, resulting in plaque instability. Moreover, inhibition of MMPs by TIMP-1-overexpression resulted in decreased plaque progression, increased stabilization and decreased plaque rupture complications in murine vein grafts. PMID:23071737

  13. Dynamic variations in the ultrasound greyscale median of carotid artery plaques

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Several studies have found that the ultrasound greyscale median (GSM) of carotid artery plaques may be useful for predicting the risk of cerebrovascular events. However, measurements of GSM are typically performed on still ultrasound images ignoring any variations that may be observed on a frame-by-frame basis. The aim of this study was to establish the existence and investigate the nature and extent of these variations. Methods Employing a novel method that enabled plaque boundaries to be tracked semi-automatically, variations in the plaque GSM and observed cross-sectional area were measured for 27 carotid artery plaques (19 consecutive patients, stenosis range 10%-80%) over image sequences of up to 10 seconds in length acquired with a mean frame rate of 32 frames per second. Results Our results showed a mean inter-frame coefficient of variation (CV) of 5.2% (s.d. 2.5%) for GSM and 4.2% (s.d. 2.9%) for the plaque area. Thirteen of the 27 plaques (48%) exhibited CV in GSM greater than 5% whereas only six plaques (22%) had CV in plaque area of greater than 5%. There was no significant correlation between the CV of GSM and plaque area. Conclusions Inter-frame variations in the plaque GSM such as those found in this study have implications on the reproducibility of GSM measurements and their clinical utility. Studies assessing the GSM of carotid artery plaques should consider these variations. PMID:23767988

  14. Evaluation of collagen in atherosclerotic plaques: the use of two coherent laser-based imaging methods

    PubMed Central

    Nadkarni, Seemantini K.; Bouma, Brett E.; de Boer, Johannes; Tearney, Guillermo J.

    2009-01-01

    Acute coronary events such as myocardial infarction are frequently caused by the rupture of unstable atherosclerotic plaque. Collagen plays a key role in determining plaque stability. Methods to measure plaque collagen content are invaluable in detecting unstable atherosclerotic plaques. Recently, novel coherent laser-based imaging techniques, such as polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PSOCT) and laser speckle imaging (LSI) have been investigated, and they provide a wealth of information related to collagen content and plaque stability. Additionally, given their potential for intravascular use, these technologies will be invaluable for improving our understanding of the natural history of plaque development and rupture and, hence, enable the detection of unstable plaques. In this article we review recent developments in these techniques and potential challenges in translating these methods into intra-arterial use in patients. PMID:18386093

  15. Ultrasound speckle tracking strain estimation of in vivo carotid artery plaque with in vitro sonomicrometry validation.

    PubMed

    Widman, Erik; Caidahl, Kenneth; Heyde, Brecht; D'hooge, Jan; Larsson, Matilda

    2015-01-01

    Our objective was to validate a previously developed speckle tracking (ST) algorithm to assess strain in common carotid artery plaques. Radial and longitudinal strain was measured in common carotid artery gel phantoms with a plaque-mimicking inclusion using an in-house ST algorithm and sonomicrometry. Moreover, plaque strain by ST for seven patients (77 ± 6 y) with carotid atherosclerosis was compared with a quantitative visual assessment by two experienced physicians. In vitro, good correlation existed between ST and sonomicrometry peak strains, both radially (r = 0.96, p < 0.001) and longitudinally (r = 0.75, p < 0.01). In vivo, greater pulse pressure-adjusted radial and longitudinal strains were found in echolucent plaques than in echogenic plaques. This illustrates the feasibility of ultrasound ST strain estimation in plaques and the possibility of characterizing plaques using ST strain in vivo. PMID:25308946

  16. The Effect of Pleural Abrasion on the Treatment of Primary Spontaneous Pneumothorax: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Ming, Mo-yu; Cai, Shuang-qi; Chen, Yi-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Background Pleural abrasion has been widely used to control the recurrence of primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP). However, controversy still exists regarding the advantages and disadvantages of pleural abrasion compared with other interventions in preventing the recurrence of PSP. Methods The PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases were searched up to December 15, 2014 to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared the effects of pleural abrasion with those of other interventions in the treatment of PSP. The study outcomes included the PSP recurrence rate and the occurrence rate of adverse effects. Results Mechanical pleural abrasion and apical pleurectomy after thoracoscopic stapled bullectomy exhibited similarly persistent postoperative air leak occurrence rates (p = 0.978) and 1-year PSP recurrence rates (p = 0.821), whereas pleural abrasion led to reduced residual chest pain and discomfort (p = 0.001) and a smaller rate of hemothorax (p = 0.036) than did apical pleurectomy. However, the addition of minocycline pleurodesis to pleural abrasion did not reduce the pneumothorax recurrence rate compared with apical pleurectomy (3.8% for both procedures) but was associated with fewer complications. There was no statistical difference in the pneumothorax recurrence rate between mechanical pleural abrasion and chemical pleurodesis with minocycline on either an intention-to-treat basis (4 of 42 versus 0 of 42, p = 0.12; Fisher exact test) or after exclusions (2 of 40 versus 0 of 42, p = 0.24; Fisher exact test). Pleural abrasion plus minocycline pleurodesis also did not reduce the pneumothorax recurrence rate compared with pleural abrasion alone (p = 0.055). Moreover, pleural abrasion plus minocycline pleurodesis was associated with more intense acute chest pain. The postoperative overall recurrence rate in patients who underwent staple line coverage with absorbable cellulose mesh and fibrin glue was similar to that with mechanical abrasion after thoracoscopic bullectomy (13.8% vs. 14.2%, respectively; p = 0.555), but staple line coverage resulted in less postoperative residual pain than mechanical abrasion (0.4% vs.3.2%; p<0.0001). Pleural abrasion after thoracoscopic wedge resection did not decrease the recurrence of pneumothorax compared with wedge resection alone (p = 0.791), but the intraoperative bleeding and postoperative pleural drainage rates were higher when pleural abrasion was performed. Conclusions In addition to resulting in the same pneumothorax recurrence rate, thoracoscopic pleural abrasion with or without minocycline pleurodesis is safer than apical pleurectomy in the treatment of PSP. However, minocycline pleurodesis with or without pleural abrasion is not any more effective than pleural abrasion alone. Moreover, additional mechanical abrasion is not safer than additional staple line coverage with absorbable cellulose mesh and fibrin glue after thoracoscopic bullectomy because of increased postoperative pain. Additionally, pleural abrasion after thoracoscopic wedge resection should not be recommended for routine application due to the greater incidence of adverse effects than wedge resection alone. However, further large-scale, well-designed RCTs are needed to confirm the best procedure. PMID:26042737

  17. Calcifying invertebrates succeed in a naturally CO2-rich coastal habitat but are threatened by high levels of future acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomsen, J.; Gutowska, M. A.; Saphörster, J.; Heinemann, A.; Trübenbach, K.; Fietzke, J.; Hiebenthal, C.; Eisenhauer, A.; Körtzinger, A.; Wahl, M.; Melzner, F.

    2010-11-01

    CO2 emissions are leading to an acidification of the oceans. Predicting marine community vulnerability towards acidification is difficult, as adaptation processes cannot be accounted for in most experimental studies. Naturally CO2 enriched sites thus can serve as valuable proxies for future changes in community structure. Here we describe a natural analogue site in the Western Baltic Sea. Seawater pCO2 in Kiel Fjord is elevated for large parts of the year due to upwelling of CO2 rich waters. Peak pCO2 values of >230 Pa (>2300 ?atm) and pHNBS values of <7.5 are encountered during summer and autumn, average pCO2 values are ~70 Pa (~700 ?atm). In contrast to previously described naturally CO2 enriched sites that have suggested a progressive displacement of calcifying auto- and heterotrophic species, the macrobenthic community in Kiel Fjord is dominated by calcifying invertebrates. We show that blue mussels from Kiel Fjord can maintain control rates of somatic and shell growth at a pCO2 of 142 Pa (1400 ?atm, pHNBS = 7.7). Juvenile mussel recruitment peaks during the summer months, when high water pCO2 values of ~100 Pa (~1000 ?atm) prevail. Our findings indicate that calcifying keystone species may be able to cope with surface ocean pHNBS values projected for the end of this century when food supply is sufficient. However, owing to non-linear synergistic effects of future acidification and upwelling of corrosive water, peak seawater pCO2 in Kiel Fjord and many other productive estuarine habitats could increase to values >400 Pa (>4000 ?atm). These changes will most likely affect calcification and recruitment, and increase external shell dissolution.

  18. Calcifying invertebrates succeed in a naturally CO2 enriched coastal habitat but are threatened by high levels of future acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomsen, J.; Gutowska, M. A.; Saphörster, J.; Heinemann, A.; Trübenbach, K.; Fietzke, J.; Hiebenthal, C.; Eisenhauer, A.; Körtzinger, A.; Wahl, M.; Melzner, F.

    2010-07-01

    CO2 emissions are leading to an acidification of the oceans. Predicting marine community vulnerability towards acidification is difficult, as adaptation processes cannot be accounted for in most experimental studies. Naturally CO2 enriched sites thus can serve as valuable proxies for future changes in community structure. Here we describe a natural analogue site in the Western Baltic Sea. Seawater pCO2 in Kiel Fjord is elevated for large parts of the year due to upwelling of CO2 rich waters. Peak pCO2 values of >230 Pa (>2300 ?atm) and pH values of <7.5 are encountered during summer and autumn, average pCO2 values are ~70 Pa (~700 ?atm). In contrast to previously described naturally CO2 enriched sites that have suggested a progressive displacement of calcifying auto- and heterotrophic species, the macrobenthic community in Kiel Fjord is dominated by calcifying invertebrates. We show that blue mussels from Kiel Fjord can maintain control rates of somatic and shell growth at a pCO2 of 142 Pa (1400 ?atm, pH=7.7). Juvenile mussel recruitment peaks during the summer months, when high water pCO2 values of ~100 Pa (~1000 ?atm) prevail. Our findings indicate that calcifying keystone species may be able to cope with surface ocean pH values projected for the end of this century. However, owing to non-linear synergistic effects of future acidification and upwelling of corrosive water, peak seawater pCO2 in Kiel Fjord and many other productive estuarine habitats could increase to values >400 Pa (>4000 ?atm). These changes will most likely affect calcification and recruitment, and increase external shell dissolution.

  19. Parasite Antigen in Serum Predicts the Presence of Viable Brain Parasites in Patients With Apparently Calcified Cysticercosis Only

    PubMed Central

    Zea-Vera, Alonso; Cordova, Erika G.; Rodriguez, Silvia; Gonzales, Isidro; Pretell, E. Javier; Castillo, Yesenia; Castro-Suarez, Sheila; Gabriël, Sarah; Tsang, Victor C. W.; Dorny, Pierre; Garcia, Hector H.

    2013-01-01

    Background.?Computed tomography (CT) remains the standard neuroimaging screening exam for neurocysticercosis, and residual brain calcifications are the commonest finding. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is more sensitive than CT but is rarely available in endemic regions. Enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay uses antibody detection for diagnosis confirmation; by contrast, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) antigen detection (Ag-ELISA) detects circulating parasite antigen. This study evaluated whether these assays predict undetected viable cysts in patients with only calcified lesions on brain CT. Methods.?Serum samples from 39 patients with calcified neurocysticercosis and no viable parasites on CT were processed by Ag-ELISA and EITB. MRI was performed for each patient within 2 months of serologic testing. Conservatively high ELISA and EITB cutoffs were used to predict the finding of viable brain cysts on MRI. Results.?Using receiver operating characteristic–optimized cutoffs, 7 patients were Ag-ELISA positive, and 8 had strong antibody reactions on EITB. MRI showed viable brain cysts in 7 (18.0%) patients. Patients with positive Ag-ELISA were more likely to have viable cysts than Ag-ELISA negatives (6/7 vs 1/32; odds ratio, 186 [95% confidence interval, 1–34 470.0], P < .001; sensitivity 85.7%, specificity 96.9%, positive likelihood ratio of 27 to detect viable cysts). Similar but weaker associations were also found between a strong antibody reaction on EITB and undetected viable brain cysts. Conclusions.?Antigen detection, and in a lesser degree strong antibody reactions, can predict viable neurocysticercosis. Serological diagnostic methods could identify viable lesions missed by CT in patients with apparently only calcified cysticercosis and could be considered for diagnosis workup and further therapy. PMID:23788241

  20. A comparison of human dental plaque microcosm biofilms grown in an undefined medium and a chemically defined artificial saliva

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Wong; C. H. Sissions

    2001-01-01

    The growth and pathogenic properties of dental plaque result from interactions between the microbiota and the oral environment and have been studied in laboratory experimental systems ranging from single or a few species (such as in chemostats) to dental plaque microcosms. Microcosm plaque is an in vitro version of natural plaque and has been explored as a microflora model because

  1. Active and Inactive Edges of Psoriatic Plaques: Identification by Tracing and Investigation by Laser-Doppler Flowmetry and Immunocytochemical Techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan Macdonald Hull; Mark Goodfield; Edward John Wood; D. Phil; William John Cunliffe

    1989-01-01

    In plaque psoriasis it is likely that biochemical and ultrastructural changes precede the appearance of the typical plaque that is recognizable clinically. Currently, no technique exists by which the very early changes in psoriasis can be investigated. We report a method in which plaques of psoriasis are serially traced to identify their advancing edge. Eighty-two untreated plaques from 15 patients

  2. Microbiologic aspects of dental plaque and dental caries.

    PubMed

    Marsh, P D

    1999-10-01

    Dental plaque is an example of a microbial biofilm with a diverse microbial composition; it is found naturally on teeth and confers advantages to the host, for example, by preventing colonization by exogenous, and often pathogenic, micro-organisms. In individuals with a high frequency sugar diet, or with a severely compromised saliva flow, the levels of potentially cariogenic bacteria (acid-producing and acid-tolerating species) can increase beyond those compatible with enamel health. This article discusses antimicrobial strategies to control dental caries, including; reducing plaque levels, in general or specific cariogenic bacteria in particular, by antiplaque or antimicrobial agents; reducing bacterial acid production by replacing fermentable carbohydrates in the diet with sugar substitutes, or by interfering with bacterial metabolism with fluoride or antimicrobial agents. PMID:10553246

  3. Apollo 11 Commander Armstrong Presents President With Commemorative Plaque

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    On June 4, 1974, 5 years after the successful Apollo 11 lunar landing mission, commander Neil Armstrong (right) presented a plaque to U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon (left) on behalf of all people who had taken part in the space program. In making the presentation, Armstrong said 'Mr. President, you have proclaimed this week to be United States Space week in conjunction with the fifth anniversary of our first successful landing on the Moon. It is my privilege to represent my colleagues, the crewmen of projects Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, and Skylab, and the men and women of NASA, and the hundreds of thousands of Americans from across the land who contributed so mightily to the success of our efforts in space in presenting this plaque which bears the names of each individual who has had the privilege of representing this country' in a space flight. The presentation was made at the California white house in San Clemente.

  4. Optical detection of structural changes in human carotid atherosclerotic plaque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korol, R. M.; Canham, P. B.; Finlay, H. M.; Hammond, R. R.; Quantz, M.; Ferguson, G. G.; Liu, L. Y.; Lucas, A. R.

    2005-08-01

    Background: Arterial bifurcations are commonly the sites of developing atherosclerotic plaque that lead to arterial occlusions and plaque rupture (myocardial infarctions and strokes). Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy provides an effective nondestructive method supplying spectral information on extracellular matrix (ECM) protein composition, specifically collagen and elastin. Purpose: To investigate regional differences in the ECM proteins -- collagen I, III and elastin in unstable plaque by analyzing data from laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy of human carotid endarterectomy specimens. Methods: Gels of ECM protein extracts (elastin, collagen types I & III) were measured as reference spectra and internal thoracic artery segments (extra tissue from bypass surgery) were used as tissue controls. Arterial segments and the endarterectomy specimens (n=21) were cut into 5mm cross-sectional rings. Ten fluorescence spectra per sampling area were then recorded at 5 sites per ring with argon laser excitation (357nm) with a penetration depth of 200 ?m. Spectra were normalized to maximum intensity and analyzed using multiple regression analysis. Tissue rings were fixed in formalin (within 3 hours of surgery), sectioned and stained with H&E or Movat's Pentachrome for histological analysis. Spectroscopy data were correlated with immunohistology (staining for elastin, collagen types I, III and IV). Results: Quantitative fluorescence for the thoracic arteries revealed a dominant elastin component on the luminal side -- confirmed with immunohistology and known artery structure. Carotid endarterectomy specimens by comparison had a significant decrease in elastin signature and increased collagen type I and III. Arterial spectra were markedly different between the thoracic and carotid specimens. There was also a significant elevation (p<0.05) of collagen type I distal to the bifurcation compared to proximal tissue in the carotid specimens. Conclusion: Fluorescence spectroscopy is an effective method for evaluating ECM (collagen and elastin) associated with vascular remodeling despite the considerable variability in the plaque structure. Consistent regional differences were detected in the carotid specimens.

  5. Copper, iron and zinc in Alzheimer's disease senile plaques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A Lovell; J. D Robertson; W. J Teesdale; J. L Campbell; W. R Markesbery

    1998-01-01

    Concentrations of copper (Cu), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) were measured in the rims and cores of senile plaques (SP) and in the neuropil of the amygdala of nine Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and in the neuropil of the amygdala of five neurologically normal control subjects using micro particle-induced X-ray emission (micro-PIXE). Comparison of SP rim and core values revealed

  6. Perforin expression in plaque psoriasis: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Samaka, Rehab Monir; Gaber, Mohamed A; Metwe, Nermin A

    2015-04-01

    Psoriasis (PsO) is T-cell-mediated disease resulting from aberrant activation of both innate and adaptive immunity. Perforin is a multi-domain, pore-forming protein. It is located within the cytoplasm of CD 8 cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) and natural killer cells (NK). The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunohistochemical (IHC) expression of perforin in lesional and perilesional skin of chronic plaque psoriatic patient and correlate its expression with the standard clinico-pathological variables. This prospective case-control study was conducted on 50 PsO patients and 30 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects as a control group. There were high-significant differences between lesional and perilesional skin of plaque PsO patients as regards to IHC perforin status and localization (p?plaque PsO. Plaque psoriatic patients with positive perforin expression could be a candidate for a future target therapy to stop the proposed scenario and achieve a therapeutic response. PMID:25222509

  7. Detection of Atherosclerotic Coronary Plaques by Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Angioscopy 

    E-print Network

    Thomas, Patrick A.

    2010-10-12

    waves. This presents a problem by masking any features behind the calcium deposit (11). Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) presents another way to scan the physical tomography of a surface, giving similar information as IVUS. OCT has received a... technique for intravascular detection of atherosclerotic plaque is Intravascular Ultrasound, or IVUS. IVUS is the adaption of ultrasonography to intravascular applications and returns A-line scans (A-line scans are lines of spatially resolved information...

  8. Clinical safety of tazarotene in the treatment of plaque psoriasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald Marks

    1997-01-01

    Oral retinoids are effective in the treatment of psoriasis, but their use is limited by concerns for teratogenic potential and systemic side effects. Tazarotene is a novel acetylenic retinoid undergoing clinical trials for the topical treatment of mild-to-moderate plaque psoriasis. The safety and tolerability of tazarotene 0.1% and 0.05% gels were examined in a series of preclinical and clinical trials.

  9. A Preliminary Analysis of Calcifying Particles in the Serum and Prostates of Patients with Prostatic Inflammation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jeffrey A.; Carlson, Grant; Kajander, E. Olavi; Warmflash, David; Taylor, Karen; Ayala, Gustavo; Shoskes, Daniel; Everett, Meg; Feedback, Dan; Ciftcioglu, Neva

    2006-01-01

    Chronic diseases of the prostate such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) & chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) have associated findings of chronic inflammation, despite a lack of causal relationship. Numerous attempts to define an infectious agent responsible for the clinical findings have been inconsistent. The possibility of an infectious agent, that has not been uncovered with routine culturing methods, forms the basis for this study. Serum from 940 healthy Finnish men were compared with serum from 40 Crohn's, 40 path dx prostatitis, & 40 with path dx carcinoma, using an enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA), to detect antigens specific to Nanobacteria(NB) utilizing monoclonal antibodies (Ab) 5/3 and 8D10. This ELISA has not been validated for detecting NB-associated with clinical prostatic disease, yet cross-reactivity with other bacterial species is low. Immunohistochemistry was performed on de-paraffinized prostatic tissue slides, de-calcified with EDTA and stained with the DAKO Catalyzed Signal Amplification kit, employing 8D10 as the primary (target/antigen-detecting) Ab. The mean (plus or minus SD) & median concentrations of NB antigen (U/50 L) were 379.59 (plus or minus 219.28) & 640.00 for patients with prostatitis (BPH) vs 3.31 (plus or minus 3.55) & 2.94 for prostate adenocarcinoma, 1.88 (plus or minus 2.94) & 0.80 for Crohn's disease, & 7.43 (plus or minus 25.57) & 0.00 for patients with no clinical prostatic disease. Unpaired t-tests revealed statistically significant differences between the prostatitis (BPH) sera & each of the other groups with p less than 0.005, but no differences between the other groups themselves. Preliminary studies with immunohistochemistry & 3-D confocal microscopy reveal 16/24 tissue sections + for NB Ag in BPH vs. only 2/22 tissue sections with prostate cancer. The preliminary findings of this serum screening study suggest that NB antigen may be commonly found in the serum of patients with the pathological diagnosis of prostatitis. Preliminary immunohistologic studies, suggest that NB may be found within the gland itself at a higher rate in patients with BPH relative to patients with adenocarcinoma, however confirmatory studies with a more specific ELISA technique, primary cultures, & with larger numbers of patients in a prospective design are required to determine if 1) NB are a causative organism for clinical hyperplastic and inflammatory disease, & if 2) serological testing can be used to discriminate patients with nanobacterial-associated prostatic disease.

  10. Patient specific multiscale modelling for plaque formation and progression.

    PubMed

    Exarchos, T P; Sakellarios, A; Siogkas, P K; Fotiadis, D I; Milosevic, Z; Nikolic, D; Filipovic, N; Marraccini, P; Vozzi, F; Parodi, O

    2012-01-01

    We present a three-dimensional model of plaque formation and progression that was tested in a set of patients who underwent coronary Computed Tomography angiography (CTA) for anginal symptoms. The 3D blood flow is described by the Navier-Stokes equations, together with the continuity equation. Mass transfer within the blood lumen and through the arterial wall is coupled with the blood flow and is modeled by a convection-diffusion equation. The Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) transports in lumen of the vessel and through the vessel tissue (which has a mass consumption term) are coupled by Kedem-Katchalsky equations. The inflammatory process is modeled using three additional reaction-diffusion partial differential equations. A full three-dimensional model was created. Furthermore, features potentially affecting plaque growth, such as patient risk score, circulating biomarkers, localization and composition of the initial plaque, and coronary vasodilating capability were also investigated. The proof of concept of the model effectiveness was assessed 6 months after the baseline evaluation. PMID:23366529

  11. Adherence of plaque components to different restorative materials.

    PubMed

    Kawai, K; Urano, M

    2001-01-01

    This study compared the amount of artificial plaque synthesized in vitro by Streptococcus sobrinus on various dental materials using radioisotopes. In particular, plaque-retaining capacities of new types of ceramics were the focus of this study. Specimens were fabricated from the following materials (one amalgam alloy [Spherical-D], one casting gold alloy [Casting Gold TYPE I], one resin composite [Herculite XR] and three ceramics [Vita Celay Blanks, IPS Empress and Dicor MGC]). The amount of bacteria and glucans adhered on the specimens was measured after incubation for 24 hours at 37 degrees C with radio-labeled cariogenic bacteria and sucrose. This adhesion test was performed using two different surfaces with 600-grit roughness and clinical smoothness. Irrespective of the surface roughness, the least amount of plaque adhered to the ceramics. However, in the case of the resin composite and amalgam, the amount of bacteria and glucan adhesion decreased dramatically by polishing, though there were no statistically different changes in the amount of bacteria and glucans that adhered to the ceramics even after polishing. In general, the amount of adhered bacteria showed almost the same tendency as that of glucans. Although no statistical differences in the amount of bacteria and glucan adhesion were detected among the three ceramics investigated in this study, a lesser amount of bacteria and glucans adhered to them compared to the other materials. PMID:11504440

  12. HDL-mimetic PLGA nanoparticle to target atherosclerosis plaque macrophages.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Gaytan, Brenda L; Fay, Francois; Lobatto, Mark E; Tang, Jun; Ouimet, Mireille; Kim, YongTae; van der Staay, Susanne E M; van Rijs, Sarian M; Priem, Bram; Zhang, Liangfang; Fisher, Edward A; Moore, Kathryn J; Langer, Robert; Fayad, Zahi A; Mulder, Willem J M

    2015-03-18

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is a natural nanoparticle that exhibits an intrinsic affinity for atherosclerotic plaque macrophages. Its natural targeting capability as well as the option to incorporate lipophilic payloads, e.g., imaging or therapeutic components, in both the hydrophobic core and the phospholipid corona make the HDL platform an attractive nanocarrier. To realize controlled release properties, we developed a hybrid polymer/HDL nanoparticle composed of a lipid/apolipoprotein coating that encapsulates a poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) core. This novel HDL-like nanoparticle (PLGA-HDL) displayed natural HDL characteristics, including preferential uptake by macrophages and a good cholesterol efflux capacity, combined with a typical PLGA nanoparticle slow release profile. In vivo studies carried out with an ApoE knockout mouse model of atherosclerosis showed clear accumulation of PLGA-HDL nanoparticles in atherosclerotic plaques, which colocalized with plaque macrophages. This biomimetic platform integrates the targeting capacity of HDL biomimetic nanoparticles with the characteristic versatility of PLGA-based nanocarriers. PMID:25650634

  13. Reproducibility of two 3-D ultrasound carotid plaque quantification methods.

    PubMed

    Grćbe, Martin; Entrekin, Robert; Collet-Billon, Antoine; Harrison, Gerard; Sillesen, Henrik

    2014-07-01

    Compared with single 2-D images, emerging 3-D ultrasound technologies hold the promise of reducing variability and increasing sensitivity in the quantification of carotid plaques for individual cardiovascular risk stratification. Inter- and intra-observer agreement between a manual, cross-sectional, 2-D freehand sweep and a mechanical 3-D ultrasound investigation of 62 carotid artery plaques is reported with intra-class correlation coefficients (with 95% confidence intervals). Inter-observer agreement was 0.60 (0.29-0.77) for the freehand method and 0.89 (0.83-0.93) for the mechanical 3-D acquisition. The use of semi-automated computerized planimetric measurements of plaque burden has high intra-observer repeatability, but is vulnerable to systematic inter-observer differences. For the 2-D freehand sweep, a considerable contribution to variation is introduced by the scanning procedure itself, that is, the lack of controlled motion along the third dimension. Future implementation of 3-D ultrasound quantification in large-scale studies of inter-individual cardiovascular risk assessment seems justified using the methods described. PMID:24726799

  14. Use of food colourants as plaque disclosing agents.

    PubMed

    Kieser, J B; Wade, A B

    1976-11-01

    The effectiveness of plaque disclosure by several liquid food colourants and disclosing agents was compared in a group of eight subjects. The subjects refrained from all forms of oral hygiene for a 48-hour period prior to rinsing with 5 ml of each dye in turn at weekly intervals. Kodachrome film records were taken and projected for the assessment at weekly intervals. Kodachrome film records were taken and projected for the assessment of plaque staining efficacy by a panel of 38 assessors. Acceptability with respect to taste, extent and duration of mucosal staining and any side effects was also evaluated. The food colourants were as effective as the disclosing agents. Ability to stain plaque appears to be related not only to the constituents of each dye, but also to their concentrations and relative proportions. Other desirable properties of an ideal disclosing agent tended to be fulfilled to a level equivalent to, or better than, that reached by the proprietery disclosing agents. Difficulty in obtaining proprietary disclosing agents should not act as a handicap to achieving better levels of oral cleanliness as inexpensive food colourants of equal effectiveness to the best proprietary agent are readily available. PMID:62762

  15. [Ultrasound-guided ESWT in Peyronie's disease plaques].

    PubMed

    Mirone, V; Palmieri, A; Granata, A M; Piscopo, A; Verze, P; Ranavolo, R

    2000-12-01

    The aim of the study was to check the efficiency of shock waves in the treatment of Peyronie's disease. The instrument, because of its lithotriptic power, already used in the treatment of orthopedic disease and salivary stones, can be used to break plaques in induratio penis plastica. A total of 481 patients affected with Peyronie's disease were entered into a prospective trial. Patients with big plaques or with an initial stage of degeneration were excluded. We divided the patients into three treatment groups: a) shock waves alone in 56 patients; b) a combination of shock waves and calcioantagonist (perilesional injection) in 324 patients; c) calcioantagonist alone in 101 patients. The group of 101 patients (group C) treated during the previous 2 years with a medical therapy based only on the injection of calcioantagonist, was used as a control group. Ultrasound evaluation of the treated plaques showed a reduction of size in 27/56 patients of the group A, in 159/324 patients of the group B and in 39/101 patients of group C. Painful erection improved in the 91.5% of group B, against the 45.7% of group C. Furthermore, we pointed out, with interviews to the patients, a considerable improvement of the pain and of the sexual performances. The therapeutic association of shock waves with calcioantagonist injections is an effective non-operative treatment for the stabilization of Peyronie's disease. PMID:11221076

  16. Pravastatin Treatment Increases Collagen Content and Decreases Lipid Content, Inflammation, Metalloproteinases, and Cell Death in Human Carotid Plaques Implications for Plaque Stabilization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Milita Crisby; Gunilla Nordin-Fredriksson; Prediman K. Shah; Juliana Yano; Jenny Zhu; Jan Nilsson

    Background—The clinical benefits of lipid lowering with statins are attributed to changes in plaque composition leading to lesion stability, but supporting clinical data from human studies are lacking. Therefore, we investigated the effect of 3 months of pravastatin treatment on composition of human carotid plaques removed during carotid endarterectomy. Methods and Results—Consecutive patients with symptomatic carotid artery stenosis received 40

  17. TTF-1 and napsin A on cell blocks and supernatants of pleural fluids for labeling malignant effusions.

    PubMed

    Porcel, José M; Palma, Rosa; Bielsa, Silvia; Esquerda, Aureli; Gatius, Sonia; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Salud, Antonieta

    2015-07-01

    In this retrospective study of 80 pleural effusions, the combination of thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1) and napsin A immunostaining on fluid cell blocks was positive in 80% of lung adenocarcinomas. Although measuring TTF-1 pleural fluid concentrations was of no value, quantification of napsin A levels allowed the identification of one third of the double-negative stained lung adenocarcinomas, with an overall accuracy similar to classical tumour markers for malignant-benign discrimination (sensitivity 40%, specificity 100%). PMID:25873201

  18. Visualization of the biochemical markers of atherosclerotic plaque with the use of Raman, IR and AFM.

    PubMed

    Marzec, Katarzyna M; Wrobel, Tomasz P; Rygula, Anna; Maslak, Edyta; Jasztal, Agnieszka; Fedorowicz, Andrzej; Chlopicki, Stefan; Baranska, Malgorzata

    2014-09-01

    In this work, we describe a methodology to visualize the biochemical markers of atherosclerotic plaque in cross sections of brachiocephalic arteries (BCA) taken from ApoE/LDLR(-/-) mice. The approach of the visualization of the same area of atherosclerotic plaque with the use of Raman, IR and AFM imaging enables the parallel characterisation of various features of atherosclerotic plaques. This support to the histochemical staining is utilized mainly in studies on mice models of atherosclerotic plaques, where micro and sub-micro resolutions are required. This work presents the methodology of the measurement and visualization of plaque features important for atherosclerosis development and plaques vulnerability analysis. Label-free imaging of cholesterol, cholesteryl esters, remodeled media, heme, internal elastic lamina, fibrous cap and calcification provides additional knowledge to previously presented quantitative measurements of average plaque features. AFM imaging enhanced the results obtained with the use of vibrational microspectroscopies with additional topographical information of the sample. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work which demonstrates that co-localized measurement of atherosclerotic plaque with Raman, IR and AFM imaging provides a comprehensive insight into the biochemical markers of atherosclerotic plaques, and can be used as an integrated approach to assess vulnerability of the plaque. (© 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim). PMID:24604883

  19. Short-term consumption of probiotic lactobacilli has no effect on acid production of supragingival plaque.

    PubMed

    Marttinen, Aino; Haukioja, Anna; Karjalainen, Sára; Nylund, Lotta; Satokari, Reetta; Öhman, Carina; Holgerson, Pernilla; Twetman, Svante; Söderling, Eva

    2012-06-01

    Acidogenicity and the levels of mutans streptococci (MS) in dental plaque after the use of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Lactobacillus reuteri were determined. The study had a randomised, double-blind, crossover design. Thirteen volunteers used tablets containing LGG or a combination of L. reuteri SD2112 and PTA 5289 for 2 weeks. At baseline and at the end of each tablet period, all available supragingival plaque was collected. Lactic acid production was determined from a fixed volume (8 ?l) of fresh plaque and the rest of the plaque was used for culturing MS and lactobacilli. The retention of probiotics to the plaque was assessed using PCR techniques. No probiotic-induced changes were found in the acidogenicity of plaque. Also, MS counts remained at the original level. The number of subjects with lactobacilli in plaque increased in the L. reuteri group (p = 0.011) but not in the LGG group. PCR analysis of plaque revealed the presence of LGG in four and L. reuteri in six subjects after the use of the probiotic. The use of the lactobacilli did not affect the acidogenicity or MS levels of plaque. Short-term consumption of LGG and L. reuteri appeared not to influence the acidogenicity of plaque. PMID:21732090

  20. Carotid intima-media thickness and plaque in cardiovascular risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, Tasneem Z; Lee, Ming-Sum

    2014-10-01

    Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) has been shown to predict cardiovascular (CV) risk in multiple large studies. Careful evaluation of CIMT studies reveals discrepancies in the comprehensiveness with which CIMT is assessed-the number of carotid segments evaluated (common carotid artery [CCA], internal carotid artery [ICA], or the carotid bulb), the type of measurements made (mean or maximum of single measurements, mean of the mean, or mean of the maximum for multiple measurements), the number of imaging angles used, whether plaques were included in the intima-media thickness (IMT) measurement, the report of adjusted or unadjusted models, risk association versus risk prediction, and the arbitrary cutoff points for CIMT and for plaque to predict risk. Measuring the far wall of the CCA was shown to be the least variable method for assessing IMT. However, meta-analyses suggest that CCA-IMT alone only minimally improves predictive power beyond traditional risk factors, whereas inclusion of the carotid bulb and ICA-IMT improves prediction of both cardiac risk and stroke risk. Carotid plaque appears to be a more powerful predictor of CV risk compared with CIMT alone. Quantitative measures of plaques such as plaque number, plaque thickness, plaque area, and 3-dimensional assessment of plaque volume appear to be progressively more sensitive in predicting CV risk than mere assessment of plaque presence. Limited data show that plaque characteristics including plaque vascularity may improve CV disease risk stratification further. IMT measurement at the CCA, carotid bulb, and ICA that allows inclusion of plaque in the IMT measurement or CCA-IMT measurement along with plaque assessment in all carotid segments is emerging as the focus of carotid artery ultrasound imaging for CV risk prediction. PMID:25051948