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1

[Endemic pleural plaques and environmental factors (author's transl)].  

PubMed

In an agricultural town in Burgenland (Austria) we found an increased prevalence of pleural plaques. These calcifying thickenings of the pleura are related to minimal asbestos exposure such as is mesothelioma, but they cannot be regarded as a precancerosis. The increased occurrence of pleural plaques in this town of nearly 3500 inhabitants (in which during 1916 to 1945 asbestos was mined) we first found at the chest x-ray archives of a pulmologic hospital, then by mass radiography and blind comparison with control groups. A photofluoroscopy of 300 persons yielded 16 cases with definite pleural plaques (5.3%) among which were 4 cases with suspected asbestosis and another 14 cases with uncertain pleural plaques (4.7%). The 600 control persons showed no such radiological changes. Interviews wich persons detected for pleural plaques at mass radiography gave no indication that they had occupational asbestos exposure. But asbestos was detected in the soil of vineyards and in the dust of the houses. Asbestos was also detectable in the atmospheric dust by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopic techniques. PMID:749422

Neuberger, M; Gründorfer, W; Haider, M; Königshofer, R; Müller, H W; Raber, A; Riedmüller, G; Schwaighofer, B

1978-12-01

2

Association between Randall's Plaque and Calcifying Nanoparticles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Randall initially described calcified subepithelial papillary plaques, which he hypothesized as nidi for kidney stone formation. The discovery of calcifying nanoparticles (CNP) in many calcifying processes of human tissues has raised another hypothesis about their possible involvement in urinary stone formation. This research is the first attempt to investigate the potential association of these two hypotheses. We collected renal papilla and blood samples from 17 human patients who had undergone laparoscopic nephrectomy due to neoplasia. Immunohistochemical staining (IHS) was applied on the tissue samples using monoclonal antibody 8D10 (mAb) against CNP. Homogenized papillary tissues and serum samples were cultured for CNP. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis were performed on fixed papillary samples. Randall's plaques were visible on gross inspection in 11 out of 17 collected samples. IHS was positive for CNP antigen in 8 of these 11 visually positive samples, but in only 1 of the remaining 6 samples. SEM revealed spherical apatite formations in 14 samples, all of which had calcium and phosphate peaks detected by EDS analysis. From this study, there was some evidence of a link between the presence of Randall's plaques and the detection of CNP, also referred to as nanobacteria. Although causality was not demonstrated, these results suggest that further studies with negative control samples should be made to explore the etiology of Randall's plaque formation, thus leading to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of stone formation.

Citfcioglu, Neva; Vejdani, Kaveh; Lee, Olivia; Mathew, Grace; Aho, Katja M.; Kajander, Olavi; McKay, David S.; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Stoller, Marshall L.

2007-01-01

3

Association between Randall's Plaque and Calcifying Nanoparticles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Randall's plaques, first described by Alexander Randall in the 1930s, are small subepithelial calcifications in the renal papillae (RP) that also extend deeply into the renal medulla. Despite the strong correlation between the presence of these plaques and the formation of renal stones, the precise origin and pathogenesis of Randall s plaque formation remain elusive. The discovery of calcifying nanoparticles (CNP) and their detection in many calcifying processes of human tissues has raised hypotheses about their possible involvement in renal stone formation. We collected RP and blood samples from 17 human patients who had undergone laparoscopic nephrectomy due to neoplasia. Homogenized RP tissues and serum samples were cultured for CNP. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis were performed on fixed RP samples. Immunohistochemical staining (IHS) was applied on the tissue samples using CNP-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb). Randall s plaques were visible on gross inspection in 11 out of 17 collected samples. Cultures of all serum samples and 13 tissue homogenates had CNP growth within 4 weeks. SEM revealed spherical apatite formations in 14 samples, with calcium and phosphate peaks detected by EDS analysis. IHS was positive in 9 out of 17 samples. A strong link was found between the presence of Randall s plaques and the detection of CNP, also referred to as nanobacteria. These results suggest new insights into the etiology of Randall's plaque formation, and will help us understand the pathogenesis of stone formation. Further studies on this topic may lead us to new approaches on early diagnosis and novel medical therapies of kidney stone formation.

Ciftcioglu, Neva; Vejdani, Kaveh; Lee, Olivia; Mathew, Grace; Aho, Katja M.; Kajander, Olavi; McKay, David S.; Jones, Jeff A.; Hayat, Matthew; Stoller, Marshall L.

2007-01-01

4

Pleural effusion during bromocriptine exposure in two patients with pre-existing asbestos pleural plaques: a relationship?  

PubMed

Two patients with pleural plaques developed pleural effusion and subsequent diffuse pleural fibrosis 50 and 39 yrs after their first exposure to asbestos. The diagnosis of benign asbestos pleural effusion was suggested, but the work-up finally suggested bromocriptine-induced pleural disease in both patients. These two cases illustrate that drug-induced pleural effusion is an important differential diagnosis of benign asbestos pleural effusion. It is, moreover, possible that pre-existing asbestos pleural lesions, or even asbestos exposure, increases the risk of developing bromocriptine-induced pleural disease. PMID:9493681

Knoop, C; Mairesse, M; Lenclud, C; Gevenois, P A; De Vuyst, P

1997-12-01

5

Image quality evaluation of motion-contaminated calcified plaques in cardiac CT  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automated method for evaluating the image quality of motion-contaminated calcified plaques in non contrast-enhanced cardiac CT was developed. This method consisted of using the rapid phase-correlated ROI (RP-ROI) reconstruction algorithm for generating a 4D series of calcified plaque images, and then extracting phase-correlated dynamic, morphological, and intensity-based features of the plaques. Velocity-based linear regression (VLR), multiple linear regression (MLR),

Martin King; Maryellen Giger; Kenji Suzuki; Xiaochuan Pan

2007-01-01

6

Automated detection framework of the calcified plaque with acoustic shadowing in IVUS images.  

PubMed

Intravascular Ultrasound (IVUS) is one ultrasonic imaging technology to acquire vascular cross-sectional images for the visualization of the inner vessel structure. This technique has been widely used for the diagnosis and treatment of coronary artery diseases. The detection of the calcified plaque with acoustic shadowing in IVUS images plays a vital role in the quantitative analysis of atheromatous plaques. The conventional method of the calcium detection is manual drawing by the doctors. However, it is very time-consuming, and with high inter-observer and intra-observer variability between different doctors. Therefore, the computer-aided detection of the calcified plaque is highly desired. In this paper, an automated method is proposed to detect the calcified plaque with acoustic shadowing in IVUS images by the Rayleigh mixture model, the Markov random field, the graph searching method and the prior knowledge about the calcified plaque. The performance of our method was evaluated over 996 in-vivo IVUS images acquired from eight patients, and the detected calcified plaques are compared with manually detected calcified plaques by one cardiology doctor. The experimental results are quantitatively analyzed separately by three evaluation methods, the test of the sensitivity and specificity, the linear regression and the Bland-Altman analysis. The first method is used to evaluate the ability to distinguish between IVUS images with and without the calcified plaque, and the latter two methods can respectively measure the correlation and the agreement between our results and manual drawing results for locating the calcified plaque in the IVUS image. High sensitivity (94.68%) and specificity (95.82%), good correlation and agreement (>96.82% results fall within the 95% confidence interval in the Student t-test) demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in the detection of the calcified plaque with acoustic shadowing in IVUS images. PMID:25372784

Gao, Zhifan; Guo, Wei; Liu, Xin; Huang, Wenhua; Zhang, Heye; Tan, Ning; Hau, William Kongto; Zhang, Yuan-Ting; Liu, Huafeng

2014-01-01

7

Automated Detection Framework of the Calcified Plaque with Acoustic Shadowing in IVUS Images  

PubMed Central

Intravascular Ultrasound (IVUS) is one ultrasonic imaging technology to acquire vascular cross-sectional images for the visualization of the inner vessel structure. This technique has been widely used for the diagnosis and treatment of coronary artery diseases. The detection of the calcified plaque with acoustic shadowing in IVUS images plays a vital role in the quantitative analysis of atheromatous plaques. The conventional method of the calcium detection is manual drawing by the doctors. However, it is very time-consuming, and with high inter-observer and intra-observer variability between different doctors. Therefore, the computer-aided detection of the calcified plaque is highly desired. In this paper, an automated method is proposed to detect the calcified plaque with acoustic shadowing in IVUS images by the Rayleigh mixture model, the Markov random field, the graph searching method and the prior knowledge about the calcified plaque. The performance of our method was evaluated over 996 in-vivo IVUS images acquired from eight patients, and the detected calcified plaques are compared with manually detected calcified plaques by one cardiology doctor. The experimental results are quantitatively analyzed separately by three evaluation methods, the test of the sensitivity and specificity, the linear regression and the Bland-Altman analysis. The first method is used to evaluate the ability to distinguish between IVUS images with and without the calcified plaque, and the latter two methods can respectively measure the correlation and the agreement between our results and manual drawing results for locating the calcified plaque in the IVUS image. High sensitivity (94.68%) and specificity (95.82%), good correlation and agreement (>96.82% results fall within the 95% confidence interval in the Student t-test) demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in the detection of the calcified plaque with acoustic shadowing in IVUS images. PMID:25372784

Liu, Xin; Huang, Wenhua; Zhang, Heye; Tan, Ning; Hau, William Kongto; Zhang, Yuan-Ting; Liu, Huafeng

2014-01-01

8

Mechanical behavior of calcified plaques: a summary of compression and stress-relaxation experiments.  

PubMed

This paper summarizes the results from mechanical testing of atherosclerotic plaques performed in the Cardiovascular Mechanics Laboratory and the Laboratory for Implantable Materials at UMBC. The motivation for our work is that balloon angioplasty, stenting, and roto-ablation are mechanical processes that are designed to permanently alter the shape of an occluded arterial lumen. The mechanisms of permanent plaque deformation are not known. Therefore, to study the mechanical behavior of plaques, we performed mechanical tests on atherosclerotic lesions with different compositions and investigated differences in the materials' mechanical responses. Atherosclerotic plaque specimens were subjected to two main types of loading: multiple cyclic compression and stress-relaxation. The multiple-cycle test protocol was two fifteen-cycle loading phases that were separated by a 10-15 minute unloaded "rest" period. The compressive stress-relaxation test protocol was a series of three consecutive loadings (called phases I, II, and III). Each phase consisted of a 25% compression that was achieved in less than 1 second, a 10 minute relaxation period, and a 10 minute unloaded "rest" period between loadings. In the multiple cycle compressive loading, plaques exhibited three distinct types of behavior, which corresponded to the plaque compositions. Calcified plaques showed behaviors distinct from other plaque types and healthy vessels. In contrast to the cyclic compression results, plaque types could not be distinguished solely on the basis of stress relaxation behavior. Calcified and fibrous plaques had similar behavior, and therefore histology was used for definite identification. Calcified plaques have unique mechanical properties, and therefore interventions like angioplasty, roto-ablation, and stenting may require protocols specific for calcified lesions. The optimum protocols for calcified plaques may be quite different from plaques with other compositions. It is essential to learn more about the mechanical behavior of all plaque types to increase the success rate of occlusive atherosclerosis treatments. PMID:10769409

Topoleski, L D; Salunke, N V

2000-01-01

9

Pleural plaques and risk of cancer in Turin, northwestern Italy. An autopsy study  

SciTech Connect

The relationship between the occurrence of neoplastic diseases and the presence of pleural plaques was studied in a series of 1097 autopsies performed in Turin from the adult general population. In men, pleural plaques showed an association with the presence of laryngeal, pulmonary, esophageal, and colorectal cancer. Only cancer of the larynx was strongly related to the occurrence of such pleural changes. This autopsy investigation confirms previous observations by others based on x-ray findings, and suggests that pleural plaques may be regarded as risk indicators of possibly asbestos-related tumors in the general population.

Mollo, F.; Andrion, A.; Colombo, A.; Segnan, N.; Pira, E.

1984-10-01

10

Improving visualization of intracranial arteries at the skull base for CT angiography with calcified plaques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bony structures at the skull base were the main obstacle to detection and estimation of arterial stenoses and aneurysms for CT angiography in the brain. Direct subtraction and the matched mask bone elimination (MMBE) have become two standard methods for removing bony structures. However, clinicians regularly find that calcified plaques at or near the carotid canal cannot be removed satisfactorily by existing methods. The blood-plaque boundary tends to be blurred by subtraction operation while plaque size is constantly overestimated by the bone mask dilation operation in the MMBE approach. In this study, we propose using the level of enhancement to adjust the MMBE bone mask more intelligently on the artery- and tissue-bone/plaque boundaries. The original MMBE method is only applied to the tissue-bone boundary voxels; while the artery-bone/blood-plaque boundary voxels, identified by a higher enhancement level, are processed by direct subtraction instead. A dataset of 6 patients (3 scanned with a regular dose and 3 scanned with a reduced dose) with calcified plaques at or near the skull base is used to examine our new method. Preliminary results indicate that the visualization of intracranial arteries with calcified plaques at the skull base can be improved effectively and efficiently.

Huang, Adam; Lee, Chung-Wei; Yang, Chung-Yi; Liu, Hon-Man

2010-03-01

11

Computerized assessment of motion-contaminated calcified plaques in cardiac multidetector CT  

SciTech Connect

An automated method for evaluating the image quality of calcified plaques with respect to motion artifacts in noncontrast-enhanced cardiac computed tomography (CT) images is introduced. This method involves using linear regression (LR) and artificial neural network (ANN) regression models for predicting two patient-specific, region-of-interest-specific, reconstruction-specific and temporal phase-specific image quality indices. The first is a plaque motion index, which is derived from the actual trajectory of the calcified plaque and is represented on a continuous scale. The second is an assessability index, which reflects the degree to which a calcified plaque is affected by motion artifacts, and is represented on an ordinal five-point scale. Two sets of assessability indices were provided independently by two radiologists experienced in evaluating cardiac CT images. Inputs for the regression models were selected from 12 features characterizing the dynamic, morphological, and intensity-based properties of the calcified plaques. Whereas LR-velocity (LR-V) used only a single feature (three-dimensional velocity), the LR-multiple (LR-M) and ANN regression models used the same subset of these 12 features selected through stepwise regression. The regression models were parameterized and evaluated using a database of simulated calcified plaque images from the dynamic NCAT phantom involving nine heart rate/multi-sector gating combinations and 40 cardiac phases covering two cardiac cycles. Six calcified plaques were used for the plaque motion indices and three calcified plaques were used for both sets of assessability indices. In one configuration, images from the second cardiac cycle were used for feature selection and regression model parameterization, whereas images from the first cardiac cycle were used for testing. With this configuration, repeated measures concordance correlation coefficients (CCCs) and associated 95% confidence intervals for the LR-V, LR-M, and ANN were 0.817 [0.785, 0.848], 0.894 [0.869, 0.916], and 0.917 [0.892, 0.936] for the plaque motion indices. For the two sets of assessability indices, CCC values for the ANN model were 0.843 [0.791, 0.877] and 0.793 [0.747, 0.828]. These two CCC values were statistically greater than the CCC value of 0.689 [0.648, 0.727], which was obtained by comparing the two sets of assessability indices with each other. These preliminary results suggest that the variabilities of assessability indices provided by regression models can lie within the variabilities of the indices assigned by independent observers. Thus, the potential exists for using regression models and assessability indices for determining optimal phases for cardiac CT image interpretation.

King, Martin; Giger, Maryellen L.; Suzuki, Kenji; Bardo, Dianna M. E.; Greenberg, Brent; Lan Li; Pan Xiaochuan [Department of Radiology, Committee on Medical Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

2007-12-15

12

Neutrophil/Lymphocyte Ratio Is Associated with Non-Calcified Plaque Burden in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Elevations in soluble markers of inflammation and changes in leukocyte subset distribution are frequently reported in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Lately, the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio has emerged as a potential marker of both CAD severity and cardiovascular prognosis. Objectives The aim of the study was to investigate whether neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and other immune-inflammatory markers were related to plaque burden, as assessed by coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA), in patients with CAD. Methods Twenty patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) and 30 patients with stable angina (SA) underwent CCTA at two occasions, immediately prior to coronary angiography and after three months. Atherosclerotic plaques were classified as calcified, mixed and non-calcified. Blood samples were drawn at both occasions. Leukocyte subsets were analyzed by white blood cell differential counts and flow cytometry. Levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin(IL)-6 were measured in plasma. Blood analyses were also performed in 37 healthy controls. Results Plaque variables did not change over 3 months, total plaque burden being similar in NSTE-ACS and SA. However, non-calcified/total plaque ratio was higher in NSTE-ACS, 0.25(0.09–0.44) vs 0.11(0.00–0.25), p<0.05. At admission, levels of monocytes, neutrophils, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratios, CD4+ T cells, CRP and IL-6 were significantly elevated, while levels of NK cells were reduced, in both patient groups as compared to controls. After 3 months, levels of monocytes, neutrophils, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratios and CD4+ T cells remained elevated in patients. Neutrophil/lymphocyte ratios and neutrophil counts correlated significantly with numbers of non-calcified plaques and also with non-calcified/total plaque ratio (r?=?0.403, p?=?0.010 and r?=?0.382, p?=?0.024, respectively), but not with total plaque burden. Conclusions Among immune-inflammatory markers in NSTE-ACS and SA patients, neutrophil counts and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratios were significantly correlated with non-calcified plaques. Data suggest that these easily measured biomarkers reflect the burden of vulnerable plaques in CAD. PMID:25268632

Nilsson, Lennart; Wieringa, Wouter G.; Pundziute, Gabija; Gjerde, Marcus; Engvall, Jan; Swahn, Eva; Jonasson, Lena

2014-01-01

13

Environmental pleural plaques in residents of a Quebec chrysotile mining town.  

PubMed

We report four cases of pleural plaques found at autopsy in individuals who resided in or near the chrysotile mining town of Thetford Mines, Quebec, and who had never been employed in the chrysotile mining and milling industry. Three of these patients were farmers, and one was a road construction worker. Lung asbestos content of these cases was compared with that of a group of nine persons living in the same vicinity who did not have pleural plaques. The plaque group was found to have an equal chrysotile content but about a fourfold elevation in median tremolite content, a statistically significant increase. Fiber sizes were the same in both groups. Also, one plaque case had an elevated level of relatively long titanium oxide fibers. These observations suggest that environmental pleural plaques in this region of Quebec are probably caused by exposure to tremolite derived from local soil and rock and that other types of mineral fibers such as titanium oxide may occasionally also be the cause of such lesions. PMID:2838224

Churg, A; DePaoli, L

1988-07-01

14

Characterisation of non-calcified coronary plaque by 16-slice multidetector computed tomography: comparison with histopathological specimens obtained by directional coronary atherectomy.  

PubMed

The efficacy of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) for assessing coronary plaque composition has not been fully elucidated by comparison with histological findings. This study investigated the efficacy and limitations of CT density for identifying non-calcified lipid-rich plaque compared with histopathological findings. We studied 41 target lesions treated by directional coronary atherectomy in 41 patients with coronary artery disease who had non-calcified plaques detected by 16-slice MDCT before intervention. The lesions were histopathologically classified as lipid-rich or non-lipid-rich plaques, as well as according to the presence or absence of histopathological microcalcification. The mean CT density was determined in 5 regions of interest per slice and compared among the groups. The optimum cut-off value for identifying lipid-rich plaque was determined by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis using histological findings for reference. Eighteen lesions were histopathologically classified as lipid-rich (5 with microcalcification and 13 without it) and 23 lesions were non-lipid-rich (8 with microcalcification and 15 without it). The mean CT density was significantly lower for lipid-rich plaque without microcalcification compared with other plaque types (P = 0.0001). ROC analysis revealed that the optimum cut-off value for distinguishing lipid-rich from non-lipid-rich plaque without microcalcification was 50 HU (sensitivity: 92.3%; specificity: 93.3%). Histopathological microcalcification had a marked influence on the plaque CT density. Sixteen-slice MDCT can identify lipid-rich plaque by a low CT density. However, high CT density dose not exclude the possibility of lipid-rich plaque, and combined morphological assessment is necessary to differentiate plaque components. PMID:22147106

Kimura, Shigeki; Yonetsu, Taishi; Suzuki, Keiko; Isobe, Mitsuaki; Iesaka, Yoshito; Kakuta, Tsunekazu

2012-10-01

15

Chocolate Consumption is Inversely Associated with Calcified Atherosclerotic Plaque in the Coronary Arteries: The NHLBI Family Heart Study  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims While a diet rich in anti-oxidant has been favorably associated with coronary disease and hypertension, limited data have evaluated the influence of such diet on subclinical disease. Thus, we sought to examine whether chocolate consumption is associated with calcified atherosclerotic plaque in the coronary arteries (CAC). Methods In a cross-sectional design, we studied 2,217 participants of the NHLBI Family Heart Study. Chocolate consumption was assessed by a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire and CAC was measured by cardiac CT. We defined prevalent CAC using an Agatston score of at least 100 and fitted generalized estimating equations to calculate prevalence odds ratios of CAC. Results There was an inverse association between frequency of chocolate consumption and prevalent CAC. Odds ratios (95% CI) for CAC were 1.0 (reference), 0.94 (0.66-1.35), 0.78 (0.53-1.13), and 0.68 (0.48-0.97) for chocolate consumption of 0, 1-3 times per month, once per week, and 2+ times per week, respectively (p for trend 0.022), adjusting for age, sex, energy intake, waist-hip ratio, education, smoking, alcohol consumption, ratio of total-to-HDL-cholesterol, non-chocolate candy, and diabetes mellitus. Controlling for additional confounders did not alter the findings. Exclusion of subjects with coronary heart disease or diabetes mellitus did not materially change the odds ratio estimates but did modestly decrease the overall significance (p = 0.07). Conclusions These data suggest that chocolate consumption might be inversely associated with prevalent CAC. PMID:20655129

Djoussé, Luc; Hopkins, Paul N.; Arnett, Donna K.; Pankow, James S.; Borecki, Ingrid; North, Kari E.; Ellison, R. Curtis

2010-01-01

16

Pleural plaques related to “take-home” exposure to asbestos: An international case series  

PubMed Central

Context: While a large number of studies indicate the risks of high-level exposures to asbestos in the workplace setting, a relatively small number of studies describe the risk of pleural disease related to “take-home” asbestos brought into the household by workers exposed to asbestos. Consequently, the risk of pleural disease in family members of asbestos-exposed workers is likely underappreciated. Case presentations: Two families of siblings, one in Israel and one in the US, were evaluated because of their significant exposures to asbestos brought into the home by family members with heavy occupational exposures. Two of the four children of an asbestos cement debagger in Petach Tikvah, Israel and two children of a pipe lagger in a naval shipyard near Seattle, Washington, manifested benign pleural disease without parenchymal disease, despite having no occupational exposure to asbestos. Discussion: These cases illustrate that “take-home” asbestos exposure may lead to pleural disease at higher rates than commonly realized. Relevance to clinical practice: Providers should recognize that due to the potential for “take-home” exposures, asbestos-related disease in a patient may be a marker for disease in household contacts. Patients with family members heavily exposed to asbestos should be strongly encouraged to quit smoking in an effort to reduce any further carcinogenic exposures. Additionally, workplace control and regulation of asbestos use should be emphasized to protect both workers and their families. PMID:20428401

Peretz, Alon; Van Hee, Victor C; Kramer, Mordechai R; Pitlik, Silvio; Keifer, Matthew C

2008-01-01

17

North American Erionite-Associated Mesothelioma with Pleural Plaques and Pulmonary Fibrosis: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Erionite, a fibrous zeolite mineral, has been categorized as a class I carcinogenic agent for its causative role in mesothelioma. In select villages in Turkey, erionite is the cause of more than 50% of mesotheliomas. In contrast, in the United States mesotheliomas are frequently associated with asbestos exposure. We describe the first reported case of a patient with erionite-associated pleural mesothelioma with classic pathologic changes typical of asbestos-related pulmonary and pleural pathology. This case report indicates that in addition to Turkey, erionite-associated disease can occur in North America and that subjects with erionite exposure are not only at risk of developing mesothelioma, but may develop interstitial fibrosis and additional pulmonary pathology impacting lung function and patient survival. PMID:19158938

Kliment, Corrine R.; Clemens, Kristen; Oury, Tim D.

2009-01-01

18

CT findings in malignant pleural mesothelioma related to nonoccupational exposure to asbestos and fibrous zeolite (erionite).  

PubMed

Endemic malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) in Turkey is related to two mineral fibers, tremolite asbestos and fibrous zeolite (erionite). Thirteen cases of MPM from the Cappadocian area, where the soil is rich in erionite, and 29 cases of MPM, from villages whose occupants have high asbestos exposure, were examined by CT. The CT findings of the two groups of MPM were compared with respect to the configuration of the pleural lesions, stage of disease, fissural involvement, pleural effusion, presence of calcified pleural plaques, and chronic fibrosing pleuritis. In erionite-related MPM the pleural lesions were flat and smooth in 69.1%; in asbestos-related MPM the lesions were nodular in 55.1%. Stage IV disease, calcified pleural plaques, and chronic fibrosing pleuritis were more common in the erionite-related MPM. The rest of the findings were similar in both groups. The early radiological diagnosis of erionite-related MPM may be even more difficult because of the similarity of the pleural lesions to chronic fibrosing pleuritis. PMID:1848247

Erzen, C; Eryilmaz, M; Kalyoncu, F; Bilir, N; Sahin, A; Baris, Y I

1991-01-01

19

Influence of trigger type, tube voltage and heart rate on calcified plaque imaging in dual source cardiac computed tomography: phantom study  

PubMed Central

Background To investigate the impact of high pitch cardiac CT vs. retrospective ECG gated CT on the quantification of calcified vessel stenoses, with assessment of the influence of tube voltage, reconstruction kernel and heart rate. Methods A 4D cardiac movement phantom equipped with three different plaque phantoms (12.5%, 25% and 50% stenosis at different calcification levels), was scanned with a 128-row dual source CT scanner, applying different trigger types (gated vs. prospectively triggered high pitch), tube voltages (100-120 kV) and heart rates (50–90 beats per minute, bpm). Images were reconstructed using different standard (B26f, B46f, B70f) and iterative (I26f, I70f) convolution kernels. Absolute and relative plaque sizes were measured and statistically compared. Radiation dose associated with the different methods (gated vs. high pitch, 100 kV vs. 120 kV) were compared. Results Compared to the known diameters of the phantom plaques and vessels both CT-examination techniques overestimated the degrees of stenoses. Using the high pitch CT-protocol plaques appeared larger (0.09?±?0.31 mm, 2?±?8 percent points, PP) in comparison to the ECG-gated CT-scans. Reducing tube voltage had a similar effect, resulting in higher grading of the same stenoses by 3?±?8 PP. In turn, sharper convolution kernels lead to a lower grading of stenoses (differences of up to 5%). Pairwise comparison of B26f and I26f, B46f and B70f, and B70f and I70f showed differences of 0–1?±?6–8 PP of the plaque depiction. Motion artifacts were present only at 90 bpm high pitch experiments. High-pitch protocols were associated with significantly lower radiation doses compared with the ECG-gated protocols (258.0 mGy vs. 2829.8 mGy CTDIvol, p???0.0001). Conclusion Prospectively triggered high-pitch cardiac CT led to an overestimation of plaque diameter and degree of stenoses in a coronary phantom. This overestimation is only slight and probably negligible in a clinical situation. Even at higher heart rates high pitch CT-scanning allowed reliable measurements of plaque and vessel diameters with only slight differences compared ECG-gated protocols, although motion artifacts were present at 90 bpm using the high pitch protocols. PMID:25178653

2014-01-01

20

Replacement of the heavily calcified ascending aorta in aortic valve replacement.  

PubMed

A totally calcified ascending aorta prevents aortic crossclamping and aortotomy during aortic valve replacement, and replacement of the ascending aorta is a valid option in these cases. We describe a simple technique for calcified ascending aorta replacement using the Cavitron Ultrasonic Surgical Aspirator. This can be used in aortic endarterectomy for removal of the calcified plaque in the anastomotic part. PMID:24928643

Matsumoto, Kazuhisa; Hisashi, Yosuke; Imoto, Yutaka

2015-03-01

21

Study of inorganic particles, fibers, and asbestos bodies by variable pressure scanning electron microscopy with annexed energy dispersive spectroscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy in thin sections of lung and pleural plaque.  

PubMed

In a previous work it has been demonstrated that micro-Raman spectroscopy is a technique able to recognize crystalline phases on untreated samples. In that case, inorganic particles and uncoated fibers from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of a patient affected by pneumoconiosis were identified and characterized. In this work the technique is applied to asbestos bodies, that is, to coated fibers, and on crystallizations and fibrous phases observed in the plural plaque from patients affected by mesothelioma. From the Raman analysis the abundant fibrous material observed in the pleural area is talc, whereas rounded grains in the pleural tissue show the Raman spectrum of apatite, a calcium phosphate mineral particular to bones. In the pulmonary tissue many asbestos bodies, consisting of the incorporated fibers coated by iron-rich proteins, were observed. Under the 632.8 nm laser beam of the spectrometer, photo-crystallization of hematite in the iron-rich material forming the asbestos bodies can be proposed by the changes in the Raman spectra acquired during subsequent acquisitions. Nevertheless, the identification of the mineral phase constituting the incorporated fiber was possible by analyzing the Raman spectra; the results were confirmed by variable pressure scanning electron microscopy with annexed energy dispersive spectroscopy (VP-SEM-EDS) analyses. PMID:20537223

Rinaudo, Caterina; Croce, Alessandro; Musa, Maya; Fornero, Elisa; Allegrina, Mario; Trivero, Paolo; Bellis, Donata; Sferch, Daniela; Toffalorio, Francesca; Veronesi, Giulia; Pelosi, Giuseppe

2010-06-01

22

Pleural effusion  

PubMed Central

Pleural disease remains a commonly encountered clinical problem for both general physicians and chest specialists. This review focuses on the investigation of undiagnosed pleural effusions and the management of malignant and parapneumonic effusions. New developments in this area are also discussed at the end of the review. It aims to be evidence based together with some practical suggestions for practising clinicians. PMID:16272233

Medford, A; Maskell, N

2005-01-01

23

Calcified falx meningioma.  

PubMed

A totally calcified mid third falcine meningioma in an elderly male patient is presented. An uneventful enmasse excision was performed. Advantages of positioning on ipsilateral side for paramedian extracerebral lesions are highlighted. PMID:11025638

Mathuriya, S N; Vasishta, R K; Khandelwal, N; Pathak, A; Sharma, B S; Khosla, V K

2000-09-01

24

Pleural fluid analysis  

MedlinePLUS

... of fluid that has collected in the pleural space. This is the space between the lining of the outside of the ... the chest. When fluid collects in the pleural space, the condition is called pleural effusion .

25

Pleural fluid smear  

MedlinePLUS

... the fluid that has collected in the pleural space. This is the space between the lining of the outside of the ... the chest. When fluid collects in the pleural space, the condition is called pleural effusion .

26

Mechanisms of plaque formation and rupture.  

PubMed

Atherosclerosis causes clinical disease through luminal narrowing or by precipitating thrombi that obstruct blood flow to the heart (coronary heart disease), brain (ischemic stroke), or lower extremities (peripheral vascular disease). The most common of these manifestations is coronary heart disease, including stable angina pectoris and the acute coronary syndromes. Atherosclerosis is a lipoprotein-driven disease that leads to plaque formation at specific sites of the arterial tree through intimal inflammation, necrosis, fibrosis, and calcification. After decades of indolent progression, such plaques may suddenly cause life-threatening coronary thrombosis presenting as an acute coronary syndrome. Most often, the culprit morphology is plaque rupture with exposure of highly thrombogenic, red cell-rich necrotic core material. The permissive structural requirement for this to occur is an extremely thin fibrous cap, and thus, ruptures occur mainly among lesions defined as thin-cap fibroatheromas. Also common are thrombi forming on lesions without rupture (plaque erosion), most often on pathological intimal thickening or fibroatheromas. However, the mechanisms involved in plaque erosion remain largely unknown, although coronary spasm is suspected. The calcified nodule has been suggested as a rare cause of coronary thrombosis in highly calcified and tortious arteries in older individuals. To characterize the severity and prognosis of plaques, several terms are used. Plaque burden denotes the extent of disease, whereas plaque activity is an ambiguous term, which may refer to one of several processes that characterize progression. Plaque vulnerability describes the short-term risk of precipitating symptomatic thrombosis. In this review, we discuss mechanisms of atherosclerotic plaque initiation and progression; how plaques suddenly precipitate life-threatening thrombi; and the concepts of plaque burden, activity, and vulnerability. PMID:24902970

Bentzon, Jacob Fog; Otsuka, Fumiyuki; Virmani, Renu; Falk, Erling

2014-06-01

27

Vulnerable Plaque  

MedlinePLUS

... plaque is formed in the following way. Fat droplets are absorbed by the artery, which causes the ... called macrophages and begin to soak up fat droplets. The fat-filled cells form a plaque with ...

28

Plaque Psoriasis  

MedlinePLUS

... Cycle Team NPF DIY Medical Professionals Donate Donate Psoriasis About Psoriasis Symptoms and Diagnosis Types of Psoriasis ... Kit Find Us Online YouTube Twitter Facebook Plaque Psoriasis Plaque psoriasis is the most common form of ...

29

Coronary plaque imaging with 256-slice multidetector computed tomography: interobserver variability of volumetric lesion parameters with semiautomatic plaque analysis software.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential clinical value of coronary plaque imaging with a new generation CT scanner and the interobserver variability of coronary plaque assessment with a new semiautomatic plaque analysis application. Thirty-five isolated plaques of the left anterior descending coronary artery from 35 patients were evaluated with a new semiautomatic plaque analysis application. All patients were scanned with a 256-slice MDCT scanner (Brilliance iCT, Philips Healthcare, Cleveland OH, USA). Two independent observers evaluated lesion volume, maximum plaque burden, lesion CT number mean and standard deviation, and relative lesion composition. We found 10 noncalcified, 16 mixed, and 9 calcified lesions in our study cohort. Relative interobserver bias and variability for lesion volume were -37%, -13%, -49%, -44% and 28%, 16%, 37%, and 90% for all, noncalcified, mixed, and calcified lesions, respectively. Absolute interobserver bias and variability for relative lesion composition were 1.2%, 0.5%, 1.5%, 1.3% and 3.3%, 4.5%, 7.0%, and 4.4% for all, noncalcified, mixed, and calcified lesions, respectively. While mixed and calcified lesions demonstrated a high degree of lesion volume interobserver variability, noncalcified lesions had a lower degree of lesion volume interobserver variability. In addition, relative noncalcified lesion composition had a very low interobserver variability. Therefore, there may a role for MDCT in serial noncalcified plaque assessment with semiautomatic analysis software. PMID:20339922

Klass, Oliver; Kleinhans, Susanne; Walker, Matthew J; Olszewski, Mark; Feuerlein, Sebastian; Juchems, Markus; Hoffmann, Martin H K

2010-08-01

30

Odonto calcifying cyst  

PubMed Central

The calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC) is reported to be associated with odontoma in 24% of cases. Separation of the cases of calcifying odontogenic cyst associated with odontoma (COCaO) may lead to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of this lesion. The literature revealed 52 cases of COCaO. The male to female ratio was 1:1.9, with a mean age of 16 years. Most common location was the maxilla (61.5%). The radiographic appearance of most cases (80.5%) was a well-defined, mixed radiolucent-radiopaque lesion. Histologically, the lesions consisted of a single large cyst with tooth-like structures as an integral part, giving the impression of a single lesion. In addition to the unique histologic features, differences in gender and distribution were found between the cases of COCaO and those of simple COC. COCaO may be regarded as a separate entity and classified as a benign, mixed odontogenic tumor. The term odontocalcifying odontogenic cyst is suggested. PMID:23853467

Aswath, Nalini; Mastan, Kader; Manikandan, Tirupathi; Samuel, Gigi

2013-01-01

31

Calcified retroperitoneal fibroma.  

PubMed

A case of 31-year-old male with a retroperitoneal tumor is described. Abdominal ultrasound revealed a left para-aortic calcific mass, adjacent to the left lobe of the liver and to the upper pole of the left kidney. A CT-scan of the abdomen showed the mass to originate from the left adrenal gland. At operation, a large, retroperitoneal mass, adherent to the left kidney and the spleen, but not infiltrating, was excised. Histologically the tumor was diagnosed as a calcified osteo-producing fibroma. Benign retroperitoneal tumors represent about 25% of all retroperitoneal neoplasm. This reported case represents a retroperitoneal tumor of slow growth and benign clinical course whose characteristic consists of the heavy calcifications which are normally absent in a fibroma type mass. PMID:9558778

Illuminati, G; Bertagni, A; Montesano, G; Soda, G; Baiocchini, A; Melis, M; Vietri, F

1997-01-01

32

Definitive Diagnosis of Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak Into the Pleural Space Using 111In-DTPA Cisternography.  

PubMed

A 58-year-old woman with a calcified disk extrusion causing severe spinal stenosis underwent T8 to T9 diskectomy and spinal fusion. A postoperative pseudomeningocele was treated with lumbar drain and fibrin glue. Performed for persistent right pleural effusion, CT myelogram failed to show communication between the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and pleural space-even on 2-hour delayed images. Subsequent In-DTPA cisternogram clearly demonstrated CSF leakage into the right pleural space at 2 hours, and surgical repair yielded good results. Radionuclide cisternography is a highly useful method to detect CSF leak, especially when it is occult on CT yet suspected clinically. PMID:25243944

Howard, Brandon A; Gray, Linda; Isaacs, Robert E; Borges-Neto, Salvador

2014-09-18

33

[Rare localizations of calcifying tendopathies].  

PubMed

5 case-reports illustrate 2 rare locations of calcifying peritendinitis: The insertion of the deltoid tendon in the proximal humerus and the insertion of the gluteus maximus tendon in the femur. Knowledge of these insertion sites on one hand and the possibility of calcifying tendinitis at these sites on the other hand may allow proper diagnosis of certain shoulder- and hip joint pain syndromes and subsequent correct therapy. PMID:6421695

Nidecker, A; Hartweg, H

1983-12-01

34

Enrichment of calcifying extracellular vesicles using density-based ultracentrifugation protocol  

PubMed Central

Calcifying extracellular vesicles (EVs) released from cells within atherosclerotic plaques have received increased attention for their role in mediating vascular calcification, a major predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, little is known about the difference between this pathologic vesicle population and other EVs that contribute to physiological cellular processes. One major challenge that hinders research into these differences is the inability to selectively isolate calcifying EVs from other vesicle populations. In this study, we hypothesized that the formation of mineral within calcifying EVs would increase the density of the vesicles such that they would pellet at a faster rate during ultracentrifugation. We show that after 10 min of ultracentrifugation at 100,000×g, calcifying EVs are depleted from the conditioned media of calcifying coronary artery smooth muscle cells and are enriched in the pelleted portion. We utilized mass spectrometry to establish functional proteomic differences between the calcifying EVs enriched in the 10 min ultracentrifugation compared to other vesicle populations preferentially pelleted by longer ultracentrifugation times. The procedures established in this study will allow us to enrich the vesicle population of interest and perform advanced proteomic analyses to find subtle differences between calcifying EVs and other vesicle populations that may be translated into therapeutic targets for vascular calcification. Finally, we will show that the differences in ultracentrifugation times required to pellet the vesicle populations can also be used to estimate physical differences between the vesicles. PMID:25491249

Hutcheson, Joshua D.; Goettsch, Claudia; Pham, Tan; Iwashita, Masaya; Aikawa, Masanori; Singh, Sasha A.; Aikawa, Elena

2014-01-01

35

Simulation of human atherosclerotic femoral plaque tissue: the influence of plaque material model on numerical results  

PubMed Central

Background Due to the limited number of experimental studies that mechanically characterise human atherosclerotic plaque tissue from the femoral arteries, a recent trend has emerged in current literature whereby one set of material data based on aortic plaque tissue is employed to numerically represent diseased femoral artery tissue. This study aims to generate novel vessel-appropriate material models for femoral plaque tissue and assess the influence of using material models based on experimental data generated from aortic plaque testing to represent diseased femoral arterial tissue. Methods Novel material models based on experimental data generated from testing of atherosclerotic femoral artery tissue are developed and a computational analysis of the revascularisation of a quarter model idealised diseased femoral artery from a 90% diameter stenosis to a 10% diameter stenosis is performed using these novel material models. The simulation is also performed using material models based on experimental data obtained from aortic plaque testing in order to examine the effect of employing vessel appropriate material models versus those currently employed in literature to represent femoral plaque tissue. Results Simulations that employ material models based on atherosclerotic aortic tissue exhibit much higher maximum principal stresses within the plaque than simulations that employ material models based on atherosclerotic femoral tissue. Specifically, employing a material model based on calcified aortic tissue, instead of one based on heavily calcified femoral tissue, to represent diseased femoral arterial vessels results in a 487 fold increase in maximum principal stress within the plaque at a depth of 0.8 mm from the lumen. Conclusions Large differences are induced on numerical results as a consequence of employing material models based on aortic plaque, in place of material models based on femoral plaque, to represent a diseased femoral vessel. Due to these large discrepancies, future studies should seek to employ vessel-appropriate material models to simulate the response of diseased femoral tissue in order to obtain the most accurate numerical results. PMID:25602515

2015-01-01

36

Tuberculous Pleural Effusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tuberculous pleural effusion is one of the most common forms of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB). The immediate cause of the\\u000a effusion is a delayed hypersensitivity response to mycobacterial antigens in the pleural space. For this reason microbiological\\u000a analyses are often negative and limited by the lengthy delay in obtaining results. In areas with high TB prevalence, pleural\\u000a fluid adenosine deaminase (ADA)

José M. Porcel

2009-01-01

37

Artery buckling affects the mechanical stress in atherosclerotic plaques  

PubMed Central

Background Tortuous arteries are often seen in patients with hypertension and atherosclerosis. While the mechanical stress in atherosclerotic plaque under lumen pressure has been studied extensively, the mechanical stability of atherosclerotic arteries and subsequent effect on the plaque stress remain unknown. To this end, we investigated the buckling and post-buckling behavior of model stenotic coronary arteries with symmetric and asymmetric plaque. Methods Buckling analysis for a model coronary artery with symmetric and asymmetric plaque was conducted using finite element analysis based on the dimensions and nonlinear anisotropic materials properties reported in the literature. Results Artery with asymmetric plaque had lower critical buckling pressure compared to the artery with symmetric plaque and control artery. Buckling increased the peak stress in the plaque and led to the development of a high stress concentration in artery with asymmetric plaque. Stiffer calcified tissue and severe stenosis increased the critical buckling pressure of the artery with asymmetric plaque. Conclusions Arteries with atherosclerotic plaques are prone to mechanical buckling which leads to a high stress concentration in the plaques that can possibly make the plaques prone to rupture. PMID:25603490

2015-01-01

38

Bone morphogenetic protein -7 increases thrombogenicity of lipid-rich atherosclerotic plaques via activation of tissue factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thrombogenicity of atherosclerotic plaques largely depends on plaque morphology. Tissue factor (TF) expression is higher in lipid-rich than in calcified lesions. Although bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) -7 is a known inhibitor of vascular calcification, the role of BMP-7 in the development of plaque thrombogenicity is uncertain. We hypothesized that increased thrombogenic potential of lipid-rich plaques is attributed to activation of

M. A. Sovershaev; E. M. Egorina; V. Y. Bogdanov; N. Seredkina; J. T. Fallon; A. Y. Valkov; B. Østerud; J. B. Hansen

2010-01-01

39

Diagnostic Tools of Pleural Effusion  

PubMed Central

Pleural effusion is not a rare disease in Korea. The diagnosis of pleural effusion is very difficult, even though the patients often complain of typical symptoms indicating of pleural diseases. Pleural effusion is characterized by the pleural cavity filled with transudative or exudative pleural fluids, and it is developed by various etiologies. The presence of pleural effusion can be confirmed by radiological studies including simple chest radiography, ultrasonography, or computed tomography. Identifying the causes of pleural effusions by pleural fluid analysis is essential for proper treatments. This review article provides information on the diagnostic approaches of pleural effusions and further suggested ways to confirm their various etiologies, by using the most recent journals for references. PMID:24920946

2014-01-01

40

Plaque and thrombus evaluation by optical coherence tomography.  

PubMed

Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography has been explored as an imaging tool for vessel wall and thrombus characterization. OCT enables a high resolution arterial wall imaging, and light properties allow tissue characterization. It has been proved one of the most valuable imaging modalities for the evaluation of vulnerable plaque and thrombus. OCT has a unique capacity in volumetric quantification of calcium, and unlike ultrasound, light can easily penetrate calcified plaques. Finally, this review paper will address aspects of the validation method of plaque characterization and potential pitfalls and put in perspective new approaches that may help the evolution of the field. PMID:21336556

Kubo, Takashi; Xu, Chenyang; Wang, Zhao; van Ditzhuijzen, Nienke S; Bezerra, Hiram G

2011-02-01

41

Pleural fluid culture  

MedlinePLUS

Culture - pleural fluid ... sample is also placed in a special dish (culture). It is then watched to see if bacteria ... RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods . 22nd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier ...

42

Pleural culture (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... and sent to the labarotory for testing. The sample pleural fluid is placed on culture plates containing growth media. When colonies of microorganisms have reached sufficient size, a series of biochemical tests can be performed ...

43

Pleural Fluid Analysis Test  

MedlinePLUS

... exudate fluid may include: Pleural fluid glucose, lactate, amylase, triglyceride, and/or tumor markers Microscopic examination – Normal ... increase with infectious pleuritis, either bacterial or tuberculosis . Amylase levels may increase with pancreatitis , esophageal rupture, or ...

44

Pleural tuberculosis presented as multiple pleural masses: An atypical presentation  

PubMed Central

Tuberculous involvement of the pleura usually presents as pleural effusion, empyema or pleural thickening. Pleural tuberculosis presenting with multiple masses without parenchymal involvement or lymphadenopathy has been reported rarely in the English literature. We report a case of a 68-year-old male with unilateral pleural tuberculosis presenting as multiple different sized nodular masses evident on computed tomography (CT) of the chest with a large hemorrhagic pleural effusion, which initially raised a possibility of mesothelioma. Pleuroscopy also revealed multiple pleural masses. Pathological examination of the biopsy specimen showed multiple epitheloid cell granulomas confirming the diagnosis. PMID:23661917

Patel, Anand; Choudhury, Sushmita

2013-01-01

45

Calcified chronic subdural hematoma: case report.  

PubMed

Calcified or ossified chronic subdural hematoma is a rare entity that usually presents as a space-occupying lesion over the cerebral convexity. We report a case of calcified and ossified chronic subdural hematoma in an unusual location that has not been previously reported. A 24-year-old man with a history of tonic-clonic convulsions since 7 months of age was admitted because of increasing frequency and duration of seizures. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a fusiform extra-axial lesion just above the tentorium and adjacent to the cerebral falx. A calcified and ossified chronic subdural hematoma was noted and was almost completely removed by craniotomy. Better seizure control was achieved by removal of the calcified chronic subdural hematoma. Calcified subdural hematoma, calcified epidural hematoma, calcified empyema, meningioma, calcified arachnoid cyst, and calcified convexity of the dura mater with acute epidural hematoma should be considered for the differential diagnosis of an extra-axial calcified lesion. PMID:10074745

Yan, H J; Lin, K E; Lee, S T; Tzaan, W C

1998-12-01

46

High incidence of malignant pleural mesothelioma in neighbouring villages of Northwestern Greece.  

PubMed

Between 1981 and 1985 seven patients from three villages of the Metsovo area in Northwestern Greece (population 5000) developed malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). The diagnosis was made with pleural biopsy and pleural fluid cytology. Six of these patients have died 18-24 months after the first symptoms (usually dyspnea on exertion) and 1 is still alive after 24 months. Seven MPMs in 5,000 in five years is about 280 times the expected incidence of 1/1,000,000/year. In the same area, endemic pleural calcifications linked to nonoccupational asbestos exposure have recently been reported, but none of our patients with MPM had pleural calcifications. The combination of MPM and pleural plaques in such a high frequency in the same area strongly suggests asbestos fiber as a common etiologic agent. On the other hand, the fact that the combination of MPM and pleural plaques did not occur in the same individuals, suggests a different response to this common offending agent. PMID:3659577

Constantopoulos, S H; Malamou-Mitsi, V D; Goudevenos, J A; Papathanasiou, M P; Pavlidis, N A; Papadimitriou, C S

1987-01-01

47

[Sarcoid pleural effusion.  

PubMed

Pleural effusion (PE) is a very uncommon manifestation of sarcoidosis. It is equally observed in men and women, can appear at any age and in all radiologic stages, though it is more common in stages i and ii. Effusions have usually a mild or medium size and mainly involve the right side. Various mechanisms can be implicated. PE will be a serous exudate if there is an increase in the capillary permeability due to direct involvement of the pleural membrane, a chylothorax if mediastinum lymph nodes compress the thoracic duct and/or the lymphatic drainage from the pleural cavity, an hemothorax if granuloma compress or invade pleural small vessels or capillaries, and even a transudate if there is compression of the inferior vena cava, atelectasis due to complete bronchial obstruction or when the resolution of the PE is incomplete with chronic thickening of visceral pleura (trapped lung). It manifests biochemically as a pauci-cellular exudate with a predominance of lymphocytes, though there can be a preponderance of eosinophils or neutrophils. Protein concentrations are usually proportionately higher than lactate dehidrogenase, adenosine deaminase is normally low and it is possible to find increased levels of CA-125 in women. The tuberculin test is negative and pleural or lung biopsies yield the diagnosis by confirming the presence of non-caseating granulomata. These PE can have a favorable self-limited outcome, even though in most cases treatment with corticosteroids is needed, while surgery is required in a few cases. PMID:24486113

Rodríguez-Núñez, Nuria; Rábade, Carlos; Valdés, Luis

2014-12-01

48

JAMA Patient Page: Pleural Effusion  

MedlinePLUS

... is the most common cause of pleural effusion. • Pneumonia is a common lung infection and may result ... the fluid for laboratory analysis. TREATMENT • Treating bacterial pneumonia with antibiotics usually resolves pleural effusion. • Treating congestive ...

49

Nonmalignant pleural lesions due to environmental exposure to asbestos: a field-based, cross-sectional study.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to investigate the frequencies of asbestos-related benign pleural diseases in villagers environmentally exposed to asbestos and the factors affecting these frequencies. A field-based, cross-sectional study was designed. In total, 991 villagers from 10 villages, randomly chosen from 67 villages with known use of asbestos-containing white soil in central Anatolia (Turkey), were investigated. The type of asbestos in the white soil was determined for each village, as well as air-borne fibre concentrations. The villagers were investigated with small-size chest roentgenograms and epidemiological features were recorded. The air-borne fibre levels were generally low. Despite this, pleural plaques were found in 14.4% of the villagers, 10.4% had diffuse pleural fibrosis and 0.4% asbestosis. The significant variables for plaques were age, sex, type of asbestos fibre, e.g. actinolite and tremolite, and exposure duration, while there was a negative relationship with cumulative exposure. The variables affecting diffuse pleural fibrosis were age, exposure duration and cumulative exposure. In conclusion, villagers exposed to environmental asbestos have high frequencies of pleural plaques and diffuse pleural fibrosis, similar to occupationally exposed asbestos cohorts. Different types of asbestos appear to result in different frequencies of pleural lesions. PMID:16264049

Metintas, M; Metintas, S; Hillerdal, G; Ucgun, I; Erginel, S; Alatas, F; Yildirim, H

2005-11-01

50

The Relationship of Epicardial Fat Volume to Coronary Plaque, Severe Coronary Stenosis, and High-Risk Coronary Plaque Features Assessed by Coronary CT Angiography  

PubMed Central

Background Associations of epicardial fat volume (EFV) measured on non-contrast cardiac computed tomography (NCT) include coronary plaque, myocardial ischemia and adverse cardiac events. Objectives This study aimed to define the relationship of EFV to coronary plaque type, severe coronary stenosis, and to the presence of high-risk plaque features (HRPFs). Methods We retrospectively evaluated 402 consecutive patients, with no prior history of coronary artery disease, who underwent same day non-contrast cardiac computed tomography (NCT) and coronary CT angiography (CTA). EFV was measured on NCT using validated, semi-automated, software. The coronary arteries were evaluated for coronary plaque type [calcified (CP), non-calcified (NCP) or partially-calcified (MP)] and coronary stenosis severity ?70% using coronary CTA. For patients with NCP and PCP, 2 high risk plaque features were evaluated: Low-attenuation plaque and positive remodeling. Results There were 402 patients with a median age of 66 years (range 23–92) of whom 226 (56%) were male. The EFV was larger in patients with CP (112 ± 55 cm3 vs. 89 ± 39 cm3), PCP (110 ± 57 cm3 vs. 98 ± 45 cm3) and NCP (115 ± 44 cm3 vs. EFV 100 ± 52 cm3. In the 192 patients with PCP or NCP, on multivariable analysis, after adjusting for conventional cardiovascular risk factors, EFV was an independent predictor of ?70% coronary artery stenosis (OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.3–6.6, p=0.008), any high risk plaque features (OR 1.7, 95% CI 0.9–3.4, p=0.04) and low attention plaque (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.1–5.1, p=0.02), but not of positive remodeling. Conclusions Epicardial fat volume is larger in patients with CP, PCP and NCP. In patients with NCP and PCP, EFV is significantly associated with severe coronary stenosis, high risk plaque features and low attenuation plaque. PMID:23622507

Rajani, Ronak; Shmilovich, Haim; Nakazato, Ryo; Nakanishi, Rine; Otaki, Yuka; Cheng, Victor Y.; Hayes, Sean W.; Thomson, Louise E.J.; Friedman, John D.; Slomka, Piotr J.; Min, James K.; Berman, Daniel S.; Dey, Damini

2013-01-01

51

Lower ratio of high-molecular-weight adiponectin level to total may be associated with coronary high-risk plaque  

PubMed Central

Background Although high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin is believed to protect against atherosclerosis, the association between HMW adiponectin and the composition of coronary plaques is unknown. We evaluated whether the HMW to total adiponectin ratio was associated with the presence of coronary plaque and its composition using multi-slice computed tomography coronary angiography (MSCTCA). Methods Serum total and HMW adiponectin levels were measured in 53 consecutive patients (age, 71) with >50% coronary artery stenosis detected by MSCTCA. A low-attenuation coronary plaque was defined as a plaque with a mean CT density <50 Hounsfield units. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the predictors of the presence of low-attenuation coronary plaques, which is thought to be high risk, on CT. Results Decreased serum levels of total as well as HMW adiponectin were significantly associated with the presence of at least one calcified or non-calcified coronary artery plaque (total adiponectin level: odds ratio 0.76, 95% CI 0.58–0.99, P?=?0.048; HMW adiponectin level: odds ratio 0.65, 95% CI 0.42–0.99, P?=?0.047). A low ratio of HMW to total adiponectin was significantly associated with the presence of low-attenuation coronary plaques (4.55, 1.94–21.90, P?=?0.049). However, neither the total adiponectin nor the HMW adiponectin level was associated with the presence of low-attenuation coronary plaques. Conclusion Lower total or HMW adiponectin levels are associated with the presence of calcified and non-calcified coronary plaques, whereas a lower ratio of HMW to total adiponectin associated with the presence of low-attenuation coronary plaques (thought to be high risk). Measurement of total and HMW adiponectin levels and the HMW to total adiponectin ratio may be useful for risk stratification of coronary artery plaques. PMID:23497474

2013-01-01

52

Parenchymal and pleural fibrosis in construction workers.  

PubMed

Exposure to mineral dust was studied among construction workers (N = 437) with the aid of a questionnaire and a chest X-ray examination of the lungs. The results of the questionnaire showed that 81% of the construction workers had been exposed to asbestos. Exposure had occurred in all of the occupational groups studied. Pleural plaques and/or lung fibrosis (ILO greater than or equal to 1/1) were found in 26% of the examined workers; the prevalence varied from 18 to 40% among the various occupational groups. Comparison with a representative sample of the Finnish male population from another investigation indicates that the frequency of lung fibrosis (ILO greater than or equal to 1/1) is at least two times higher among the examined construction workers than among the general population. It seems likely that exposure to asbestos dust can be considered an etiological factor for an appreciable number of the X-ray findings. PMID:1580260

Oksa, P; Koskinen, H; Rinne, J P; Zitting, A; Roto, P; Huuskonen, M S

1992-01-01

53

Magnetic resonance of calcified tissues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MRI of the human body is largely made possible by the favorable relaxation properties of protons of water and triacyl glycerides prevalent in soft tissues. Hard tissues - key among them bone - are generally less amenable to measurement with in vivo MR imaging techniques, not so much as a result of the lower proton density but rather due to the extremely short life-times of the proton signal in water bound to solid-like entities, typically collagen, or being trapped in micro-pores. Either mechanism can enhance T2 relaxation by up to three orders of magnitude relative to their soft-tissue counterparts. Detection of these protons requires solid-state techniques that have emerged in recent years and that promise to add a new dimension to the study of hard tissues. Alternative approaches to probe calcified tissues exploit their characteristic magnetic properties. Bone, teeth and extra-osseous calcium-containing biomaterials are unique in that they are more diamagnetic than all other tissues and thus yield information indirectly by virtue of the induced magnetic fields present in their vicinity. Progress has also been made in methods allowing very high-resolution structural imaging of trabecular and cortical bone relying on detection of the surrounding soft-tissues. This brief review, much of it drawn from work conducted in the author's laboratory, seeks to highlight opportunities with focus on early-stage developments for image-based assessment of structure, function, physiology and mechanics of calcified tissues in humans via liquid and solid-state approaches, including proton, deuteron and phosphorus NMR and MRI.

Wehrli, Felix W.

2013-04-01

54

Pleural fluid characteristics of pleuropulmonary paragonimiasis masquerading as pleural tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Pleuropulmonary paragonimiasis produces no specific symptoms or radiologic findings, allowing for the possibility of misdiagnosis. We evaluated the specific clinical and pleural fluid features of pleuropulmonary paragonimiasis masquerading as pleural tuberculosis. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the clinical and radiologic characteristics of 20 patients diagnosed with pleuropulmonary paragonimiasis between 2001 and 2011. Results In total, 17 patients presented with respiratory symptoms, including dyspnea (30%), hemoptysis (20%), cough (20%), and pleuritic chest pain (15%). Chest radiographs revealed intrapulmonary parenchymal lesions, including air-space consolidation (30%), nodular opacities (20%), cystic lesions (15%), ground-glass opacities (10%), and pneumothorax (5%). A pleural f luid examination revealed eosinophilia, low glucose levels, and high lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels in 87%, 76%, and 88% of the patients, respectively. These traits helped to distinguish pleuropulmonary paragonimiasis from other pleural diseases such as parapneumonic effusion, malignancy, and pleural tuberculosis. Conclusions Pleuropulmonary paragonimiasis is often initially misdiagnosed as other pleural diseases. Therefore, it is important to establish the correct diagnosis. In patients with unexplained pleural effusion living in paragonimiasis-endemic areas, pleural fluid obtained by thoracentesis should be examined to distinguish pleuropulmonary paragonimiasis. When marked eosinophilia, high LDH levels, and low glucose levels are identified in pleural fluid, physicians could consider a diagnosis of pleuropulmonary paragonimiasis. PMID:25589836

Hwang, Ki-Eun; Song, Hyo-Yeop; Jung, Jae-Wan; Oh, Su-Jin; Yoon, Kwon-Ha; Park, Do-Sim; Jeong, Eun-Taik

2015-01-01

55

Ultrasound-guided pleural access.  

PubMed

Ultrasonography of the thorax has become a more recognized tool in pulmonary medicine, thanks to continuing clinical research that has proven its many valuable roles in the day-to-day management of pulmonary and pleural diseases. Ultrasound examination is a cost-effective imaging modality that permits the pulmonologist to obtain information about the pathologies in the thorax without the risk of exposure to ionizing radiation, providing the examiner with real-time and immediate results. Its ease of use and training along with its portability to the patient's bedside and accurate examination of the pleural space has allowed for safer pleural procedures such as thoracentesis, chest tube placement, tunneled pleural catheter placement, and medical thoracoscopy. In this review, we summarize the technique of chest ultrasonography, compare ultrasound to other frequently used thoracic imaging modalities, and focus on its use in obtaining pleural access while performing invasive pleural procedures. PMID:25463160

Shojaee, Samira; Argento, A Christine

2014-12-01

56

Pleural complications of hydatid disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aim of this retrospective study was to review pleural and pericardial complications of patients with hydatid cysts and to analyze the management of therapy for these patients. Methods: Between 1991 and 2001, 43 (29.7%) of 145 patients presented with pleural and pericardial complications. These patients had spontaneous pneumothorax (6.2%), empyema (7.6%), pleural thickening (10.3%), hepatopleural fistula (2.8%), pericarditis

Olgun Kadir Aribas; Fikret Kanat; Niyazi Gormus; Emel Turk

2002-01-01

57

Calcifying tendinitis of the gluteus maximus.  

PubMed

A case of calcifying tendinitis of the insertion of the gluteus maximus tendon is presented. Plain-film roentgenograms showed amorphous calcific densities extending from the posterior border of the femur. Computed tomography showed cortical erosion associated with the calcified mass. The patient responded well to needle lavage and injection with local anesthesia and corticosteroids. Fifteen-month follow-up roentgenograms showed resolution of the calcification. Recognition of this entity may make a workup and a biopsy unnecessary. PMID:11683448

Thomason, H C; Bos, G D; Renner, J B

2001-10-01

58

A computational fluid-structure interaction model for plaque vulnerability assessment in atherosclerotic human coronary arteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coronary artery disease is responsible for a third of global deaths worldwide. Computational simulations of blood flow can be used to understand the interactions of artery/plaque and blood in coronary artery disease and to better predict the rupture of atherosclerotic plaques. So far, the mechanical properties of animals' coronary artery have been mostly used for hemodynamic simulation of atherosclerotic arteries. The mechanical properties of animals' coronary arteries are often not accurate enough and can be only used for an approximate estimation and comparative assessment of the cognate parameters in human. In this study, a three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid-structure interactions model with three different plaque types is presented to perform a more accurate plaque vulnerability assessment for human atherosclerotic plaques. The coronary arteries of twenty-two male individuals were removed during autopsy and subjected to uniaxial tensile loading. The hyperelastic material coefficients of coronary arteries were calculated and implemented to the computational model. The fully coupled fluid and structure models were solved using the explicit dynamics finite element code LS-DYNA. The normal and shear stresses induced within the plaques were significantly affected by different plaque types. The highest von Mises (153 KPa) and shear (57 KPa) stresses were observed for hypocellular plaques, while the lowest von Mises (70 KPa) and shear (39 KPa) stresses were observed on the stiffer calcified plaques. The results suggest that the risk of plaque rupture due to blood flow is lower for cellular and hypocellular plaques, while higher for calcified plaques with low fracture stresses.

Karimi, Alireza; Navidbakhsh, Mahdi; Razaghi, Reza; Haghpanahi, Mohammad

2014-04-01

59

Tremolite whitewashing and pleural calcifications.  

PubMed

Radiologic screening of 688 inhabitants of the Metsovo area in Northwest Greece revealed that 323 (46.9 percent) had pleural calcifications. The percentage of positive examinations rose with age. Calcifications were observed in all four villages of the area where a material ("luto" soil) had been extensively used for whitewashing until 1940 to 1950. In four other villages in the immediate vicinity, where "luto" had never been used, pleural calcifications were not observed. Results suggest that Metsovo tremolite may have caused pleural calcifications to all individuals born in Metsovo before 1940. This is the first study indicating that environmental asbestos exposure can cause abnormalities in everyone exposed to it. PMID:2820656

Constantopoulos, S H; Saratzis, N A; Kontogiannis, D; Karantanas, A; Goudevenos, J A; Katsiotis, P

1987-10-01

60

Calcified vestibular schwannoma in the cerebellopontine angle.  

PubMed

Although vestibular schwannoma is a common tumor in the cerebellopontine angle, calcified vestibular schwannoma is rare. A 59-year-old woman with sudden onset epileptic seizures, was referred to Hokkaido Neurosurgical Memorial Hospital. Neurological examination revealed left Bruns nystagmus, left deafness and left cerebellar ataxia. Brain MRI revealed a mass, about 3cm in diameter, in the left cerebellopontine angle. The mass showed heterogeneous intensity on T1- and T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images. Hydrocephalus was seen. On CT scan, the tumor was calcified. Preoperatively, vestibular schwannoma, meningioma, cavernous hemangioma, or thrombosed giant aneurysm were considered as differential diagnoses. The pathological diagnosis was schwannoma. For a calcified mass in the cerebellopontine angle, vestibular schwannoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis to plan appropriate treatment strategies. PMID:17884507

Katoh, Masahito; Aida, Toshimitsu; Imamura, Hiroyuki; Aoki, Takeshi; Yoshino, Masami; Kashiwazaki, Daina; Takei, Hidetoshi

2007-12-01

61

Transverse Colon Diverticulitis with Calcified Fecalith  

PubMed Central

Left colonic diverticula are common in Western populations, whereas right colonic diverticulosis primarily occurs in Oriental populations. Diverticulitis of the transverse colon is very rare, with very few cases reported in the literature. Herein, we report a case of transverse colon diverticulitis caused by a calcified stone in a 69-year-old female. This was a solitary diverticulum. The signs and symptoms of the disease are similar to acute pancreatitis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing the MRI findings of a patient with trans-verse colon diverticulitis caused by a calcified stone.

Solak, Aynur; Solak, Ilhami; Genç, Berhan; Sahin, Neslin; Yalaz, Seyhan

2013-01-01

62

Pleurisy and Other Pleural Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... the pleura is inflamed. The pleura is a membrane that consists of two large, thin layers of ... a detailed view of an infected lung with thickened and inflamed pleural layers. A small pneumothorax may ...

63

A finite element study of balloon expandable stent for plaque and arterial wall vulnerability assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stresses induced within plaque tissues and arterial layers during stent expansion inside an atherosclerotic artery can be exceeded from the yield stresses of those tissues and, consequently, lead to plaque or arterial layer rupture. The distribution and magnitude of the stresses in each component involved in stenting might be clearly different for different plaque types and different arterial layers. In this study, a nonlinear finite element simulation was employed to investigate the effect of plaque composition (calcified, cellular, and hypocellular) on the stresses induced in the arterial layers (intima, media, and adventitia) during implantation of a balloon expandable coronary stent into a stenosed artery. The atherosclerotic artery was assumed to consist of a plaque and normal/healthy arterial tissues on its outer side. The results indicated a significant influence of plaque types on the maximum stresses induced within the plaque wall and arterial layers during stenting but not when computing maximum stress on the stent. The stress on the stiffest calcified plaque wall was in the fracture level (2.38 MPa), whereas cellular and hypocellular plaques remain stable owing to less stress on their walls. Regardless of plaque types, the highest von Mises stresses were observed on the stiffest intima layer, whereas the lowest stresses were seen to be located in less stiff media layer. The computed stresses on the intima layer were found to be high enough to initiate a rupture in this stiff layer. These findings suggest a higher risk of arterial vascular injury for the intima layer, while a lower risk of arterial injury for the media and adventitia layers.

Karimi, Alireza; Navidbakhsh, Mahdi; Razaghi, Reza

2014-07-01

64

Calcified primary tumors of the gastrointestinal tract  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dominant pattern and location of calcifications occurring within 23 primary gastrointestinal tumors have been analysed and correlated with the data from the literature. The provided guidelines for radiologic diagnosis of such calcified tumors include: (1) a retrocardiac mass containing amorphous calcifications is typical of leiomyoma of the esophagus; (2) calcific deposits similar to that in uterine fibroids may be

Gary G. Ghahremani; Morton A. Meyers; Ronald B. Port

1977-01-01

65

Identification of Noncalcified Plaque in Young Persons with Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Purpose Coronary computed tomographic angiography (CTA) is a valuable tool for assessing coronary artery disease (CAD). Although statin use is widely recommended for persons with diabetes older than age 40, little is known about the presence and severity of CAD in younger patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). We evaluated coronary artery calcium (CAC) and coronary CTA in young persons with both DM1 and DM2 in an attempt to detect the earliest objective evidence of arteriosclerosis eligible for primary prevention. Methods and Materials We prospectively enrolled 40 persons with DM (25 type 1 and 15 type 2) between the ages of 19 and 35 presenting with diabetes for 5 years or longer. All patients underwent coronary CTA and CAC scans to evaluate for early atherosclerotic disease. Each plaque in the coronary artery was classified as noncalcified or calcified-mixed. We also evaluated all segments with stenosis, dividing them into mild (<50%), moderate (50–70%), and severe (>70%). Results The average age of the DM1 subjects were 26 ± 4 (SD) years and 30 ± 4 years for DM2 patients (P < .01), with duration of diabetes of 8 ± 5 years and average HbA1c% of 8.7 ± 1.6 (norm = 4.6–6.2). Abnormal scans were present in 57.5%, noncalcified in 35% and calcified-mixed plaque in 22.5%. Persons with DM2 had a higher prevalence of positive coronary CTA scans than DM1: 80% versus 44% (P < .03) and more positive CAC scores 53% versus 4%, (P < .01). The total segment score of 2.1 ± 3.4 (P < .01) and total plaque score 1.9 ± 2.8 (P < .01) were highly correlated to each other. Plaque was almost uniformly absent below age 25, and became increasingly common in individuals over the age of 25 years for both groups. The average radiation exposure was 2.5 ± 1.3 mSv. Conclusion Our study verifies that early CAD can be diagnosed with coronary CTA and minimal radiation exposure in young adults with DM. A negative CAC score was not sufficient to exclude early CAD as we observed a preponderance of noncalcified plaque in this cohort. Coronary CTA in young DM patients older than age 25 may provide earlier identification of disease than does a CAC because only non-calcified plaque is frequently present. Coronary CTA provides an opportunity to consider initiation of earlier primary CAD prevention rather than waiting for the age of 40 as currently recommended by the American Diabetes Association guidelines. PMID:22542200

Madaj, Paul M.; Budoff, Matthew J.; Li, Dong; Tayek, John A.; Karlsberg, Ronald P.; Karpman, Harold L.

2014-01-01

66

What Causes Pleurisy and Other Pleural Disorders?  

MedlinePLUS

... buildup of air or gas in the pleural space). Such lung diseases may include COPD (chronic obstructive ... effusion (a buildup of fluid in the pleural space) is heart failure . Lung cancer, LAM, pneumonia, tuberculosis, ...

67

Primary pleural liposarcoma, pleomorphic variant.  

PubMed

Primary pleural liposarcoma (PPL) is a rare tumor derived from primitive mesenchymal tissue. We report a case of a 49-year-old female patient complaining of thoracic pain and dyspnea for 3 months. The chest X-ray showed a left basal opacity of lobulated contours and the thoracic computer tomography (CT) scan revealed a left pleural collection/mass, of 18 HU density and passive pulmonary atelectasis. The patient was taken to surgery and the cytologic examination of the gelatinous mass found in the procedure confirmed the diagnosis of a pleomorphic variant of pleural liposarcoma. We emphasise in the importance of careful inspection of the origin of the tumor in the diagnostic images to allow accurate diagnosis. PMID:25276389

Carrillo B, Jorge Alberto; Navarrete, Constanza; López Arias, María Alejandra; Peláez, Mauricio

2014-09-01

68

[Primitive pleural hydatid cyst: case report].  

PubMed

Even in endemic countries, the primitive pleural hydatid cyst is exceptionnal and it's very difficult to distinguish from other pleural and parietal cystic masses all the more the immunologic tests are negative. We report the case of a primitive pleural hydatid cyst diagnosed in 43 years old man. Throug this case, imaging features are emphasized. PMID:17853674

Harzallah, L; Bacha, M; Garrouche, A; Messak, A; Ben Chérifa, L; Bakir, D; Kraiem, Ch

2007-01-01

69

Traumatic subarachnoid-pleural fistula  

SciTech Connect

Traumatic subarachnoid-pleural fistulas are rare. The authors found nine cases reported since 1959. Seven have been secondary to trauma and two following thoracotomy. One patient's death is thought to be directly related to the fistula. The diagnosis should be suspected in patients with a pleural effusion and associated vertebral trauma. The diagnosis can usually be confirmed with contrast or radioisotopic myelography. Successful closure of the fistula will usually occur spontaneously with closed tube drainage and antibiotics; occasionally, thoracotomy is necessary to close the rent in the dura.

Brown, W.H.; Stothert, J.C. Jr.

1985-11-01

70

Material-specific imaging of atherosclerotic plaque using coherently scattered x rays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation and development of plaques in the arterial wall is a direct consequence of atherosclerosis. The composition of a plaque is of particular interest as it is thought to be an important indicator of vulnerability, or risk of rupture and thrombosis. Current diagnostic methods do not yet have the ability to fully characterize plaque composition. Coherent-scatter imaging, a technique being developed in our laboratory, produces images based on the low-angle scattering properties of tissue. As these properties depend on molecular structure, material-specific maps of the different components in a tissue can be created. Material-specific images were produced for an atherosclerotic carotid artery. The image distributions of fatty and calcified deposits agreed with visual examination of the specimen. Preliminary results indicate that fat and calcifications, two typical plaque constituents, can be identified and distinguished from the undiseased vessel wall using coherently scattered x rays.

Davidson, Melanie T. M.; Batchelar, Deidre L.; Cunningham, Ian A.

2002-05-01

71

MRI appearances of calcified regions within intracranial tumours.  

PubMed

The MRI appearances of calcification within intracranial tumours was assessed by reviewing MR images of 11 calcified tumours documented by CT. The signal intensity of the calcified regions was varied and nonspecific on both T1- and T2-weighted images. They were seen as signal void exclusively on T2-weighted images in only 2 patients. Gadolinium enhancement of the calcified portion occurred in 7 of 10 patients. These findings reflect the presence of tumour parenchyma within the calcified region, as proved in 5 lesions examined histologically. PMID:8327106

Tsuchiya, K; Makita, K; Furui, S; Nitta, K

1993-01-01

72

Calcified intracranial metastatic tumor mimicking meningioma--case report.  

PubMed

A 60-year-old female presented with mild cerebellar dysfunction due to a calcified tumor attached to the undersurface of the tentorium cerebelli demonstrated by cranial computed tomography, and a lung mass on a chest x-ray film. The calcified nature and location made preoperative differentiation between metastatic brain tumor and meningioma difficult. Operation subsequently revealed that the brain tumor was a metastasis from lung adenocarcinoma. Metastatic brain tumors can be calcified, and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of calcified intracranial lesions. PMID:7514757

Umezu, H; Sano, T; Aiba, T; Unakami, M

1994-02-01

73

Mechanical, biological and structural characterization of human atherosclerotic femoral plaque tissue.  

PubMed

The failure of endovascular treatments of peripheral arterial disease represents a critical clinical issue. Specialized data are required to tailor such procedures to account for the mechanical response of the diseased femoral arterial tissue to medical device deployment. The purpose of this study is to characterize the mechanical response of atherosclerotic femoral arterial tissue to large deformation, the conditions typical of angioplasty and stenting, and also to determine the mechanically induced failure properties and to relate this behaviour to biological content and structural composition using uniaxial testing, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Mechanical and biological characterization of 20 plaque samples obtained from femoral endarterectomy identified three distinct classifications. "Lightly calcified" samples display linear mechanical responses and fail at relatively high stretch. "Moderately calcified" samples undergo an increase in stiffness and ultimate strength coupled with a decrease in ductility. Structural characterization reveals calcified nodules within this group that may be acting to reinforce the tissue matrix, thus increasing the stiffness and ultimate strength. "Heavily calcified" samples account for the majority of samples tested and exhibit significantly reduced ultimate strength and ductility compared to the preceding groups. Structural characterization of this group reveals large areas of calcified tissue dominating the failure cross-sections of the samples. The frequency and structural dominance of these features solely within this group offers an explanation as to the reduced ultimate strength and ductility and highlights the need for modern peripheral endovascular devices to account for this behaviour during novel medical device design. PMID:25242646

Cunnane, E M; Mulvihill, J J E; Barrett, H E; Healy, D A; Kavanagh, E G; Walsh, S R; Walsh, M T

2015-01-01

74

Plaque regression and plaque stabilisation in cardiovascular diseases  

PubMed Central

Atherosclerosis is characterized by formation of plaques on the inner walls of arteries that threatens to become the leading cause of death worldwide via its sequelae of myocardial infarction and stroke. Endothelial dysfunction leads to cholesterol uptake and accumulation of inflammatory markers within the plaque. The stability of a plaque eventually depends on the balance between vascular smooth muscle cells that stabilize it and the inflammatory cells like macrophages and T lymphocytes that make it prone to rupture. The current approach to manage atherosclerosis focuses on the treatment of a ruptured plaque and efforts have been made to reduce the risk of plaque rupture by identifying vulnerable plaques and treating them before they precipitate into clinical events. New diagnostic approaches such as IVUS and CIMT ultrasound are now being preferred over traditional coronary angiography because of their better accuracy in measuring plaque volume rather than the level of stenosis caused. The present review highlights the literature available on two prevalent approaches to manage a vulnerable plaque, namely, plaque stabilization and plaque regression, and their validation through various treatment modalities in recent plaque management studies. Plaque stabilization focuses on stabilizing the content of plaque and strengthening the overlying endothelium, while plaque regression focuses on the overall reduction in plaque volume and to reverse the arterial endothelium to its normal functional state. Although earlier studies contemplated the practicality of plaque regression and focused greatly on stabilization of a vulnerable plaque, our review indicated that, aided by the use of superior diagnostics tools, more intensive lipid modifying therapies have resulted in actual plaque regression. PMID:24381872

Dave, Tarun; Ezhilan, J.; Vasnawala, Hardik; Somani, Vinod

2013-01-01

75

Talc mediates angiostasis in malignant pleural effusions via endostatin induction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Talc remains the most effective sclerosing agent for pleurodesis. However, its mechanism of action in resolving pleural malignant disease remains unclear. The present study evaluated the angiogenic balance in the pleural space in patients with malignant pleural effusions (MPE) following talc insufflation. Patient pleural fluid samples were collected both before and after talc insufflation. The ability of pleural mesothelial cells

N. Najmunnisa; K. A. Mohammed; S. Brown; Y. Su; P. S. Sriram; B. Moudgil; R. Loddenkemper; V. B. Antony

2007-01-01

76

Calcifying species sensitivity distributions for ocean acidification.  

PubMed

Increasing CO2 atmospheric levels lead to increasing ocean acidification, thereby enhancing calcium carbonate dissolution of calcifying species. We gathered peer-reviewed experimental data on the effects of acidified seawater on calcifying species growth, reproduction, and survival. The data were used to derive species-specific median effective concentrations, i.e., pH50, and pH10, via logistic regression. Subsequently, we developed species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) to assess the potentially affected fraction (PAF) of species exposed to pH declines. Effects on species growth were observed at higher pH than those on species reproduction (mean pH10 was 7.73 vs 7.63 and mean pH50 was 7.28 vs 7.11 for the two life processes, respectively) and the variability in the sensitivity of species increased with increasing number of species available for the PAF (pH10 standard deviation was 0.20, 0.21, and 0.33 for survival, reproduction, and growth, respectively). The SSDs were then applied to two climate change scenarios to estimate the increase in PAF (?PAF) by future ocean acidification. In a high CO2 emission scenario, ?PAF was 3 to 10% (for pH50) and 21 to 32% (for pH10). In a low emission scenario, ?PAF was 1 to 4% (for pH50) and 7 to 12% (for pH10). Our SSDs developed for the effect of decreasing ocean pH on calcifying marine species assemblages can also be used for comparison with other environmental stressors. PMID:25551400

Azevedo, Ligia B; De Schryver, An M; Hendriks, A Jan; Huijbregts, Mark A J

2015-02-01

77

Statins use and coronary artery plaque composition: Results from the International Multicenter CONFIRM Registry  

PubMed Central

Objective The effect of statins on coronary artery plaque features beyond stenosis severity is not known. Coronary CT angiography (CCTA) is a novel non-invasive method that permits direct visualization of coronary atherosclerotic features, including plaque composition. We evaluated the association of statin use to coronary plaque composition type in patients without known coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing CCTA. Methods From consecutive individuals, we identified 6673 individuals (2413 on statin therapy and 4260 not on statin therapy) with no known CAD and available statin use status. We studied the relationship between statin use and the presence and extent of specific plaque composition types, which was graded as non-calcified (NCP), mixed (MP), or calcified (CP) plaque. Results The mean age was 59 ± 11 (55% male). Compared to the individuals not taking statins, those taking statins had higher prevalence of risk factors and obstructive CAD. In multivariable analyses, statin use was associated with increased the presence of MP [odds ratio (OR) 1.46, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.27–1.68), p < 0.001] and CP (OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.36–1.74, p < 0.001), but not NCP (OR 1.11, 95% CI 0.96–1.29, p = 0.1). Further, in multivariable analyses, statin use was associated with increasing numbers of coronary segments possessing MP (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.34–1.73, p < 0.001) and CP (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.36–1.70, p < 0.001), but not coronary segments with NCP (OR 1.09, 95% CI 0.94–1.25, p = 0.2). Conclusion Statin use is associated with an increased prevalence and extent of coronary plaques possessing calcium. The longitudinal effect of statins on coronary plaque composition warrants further investigation. PMID:22981406

Nakazato, Ryo; Gransar, Heidi; Berman, Daniel S.; Cheng, Victor Y.; Lin, Fay Y.; Achenbach, Stephan; Al-Mallah, Mouaz; Budoff, Matthew J.; Cademartiri, Filippo; Callister, Tracy Q.; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Cury, Ricardo C.; Chinnaiyan, Kavitha; Chow, Benjamin J.W.; Delago, Augustin; Hadamitzky, Martin; Hausleiter, Joerg; Kaufmann, Philipp; Maffei, Erica; Raff, Gilbert; Shaw, Leslee J.; Villines, Todd C.; Dunning, Allison; Feuchtner, Gudrun; Kim, Yong-Jin; Leipsic, Jonathon; Min, James K.

2014-01-01

78

Spontaneous esophageal-pleural fistula.  

PubMed

Spontaneous esophageal-pleural fistula (EPF) is a rare entity. We describe a case in a middle-aged female who presented with severe retrosternal chest pain and shortness of breadth. Chest computed tomography showed right EPF and hydropneumothorax. She was managed conservatively keeping the chest tube drainage and performing feeding jejunostomy. A brief review of the imaging finding and management of EPF is discussed. PMID:22084548

Vyas, Sameer; Prakash, Mahesh; Kaman, Lileshwar; Bhardwaj, Nidhi; Khandelwal, Niranjan

2011-10-01

79

Spontaneous esophageal-pleural fistula  

PubMed Central

Spontaneous esophageal-pleural fistula (EPF) is a rare entity. We describe a case in a middle-aged female who presented with severe retrosternal chest pain and shortness of breadth. Chest computed tomography showed right EPF and hydropneumothorax. She was managed conservatively keeping the chest tube drainage and performing feeding jejunostomy. A brief review of the imaging finding and management of EPF is discussed. PMID:22084548

Vyas, Sameer; Prakash, Mahesh; Kaman, Lileshwar; Bhardwaj, Nidhi; Khandelwal, Niranjan

2011-01-01

80

Diagnostic approach to pleural effusion.  

PubMed

Pleural effusion affects more than 1.5 million people in the United States each year and often complicates the management of heart failure, pneumonia, and malignancy. Pleural effusion occurs when fluid collects between the parietal and visceral pleura. Processes causing a distortion in body fluid mechanics, such as in heart failure or nephrotic syndrome, tend to cause transudative effusions, whereas localized inflammatory or malignant processes are often associated with exudative effusions. Patients can be asymptomatic or can present with cough, dyspnea, and pleuritic chest pain. Dullness to percussion on physical examination suggests an effusion; chest radiography can confirm the diagnosis. Thoracentesis may be indicated to diagnose effusion and relieve symptoms. Ultrasound guidance is preferred when aspirating fluid. Routine assays for aspirated fluid include protein and lactate dehydrogenase levels, Gram staining, cytology, and pH measurement. Light's criteria should be used to differentiate exudative from transudative effusions. Additional laboratory assays, bronchoscopy, percutaneous pleural biopsy, or thoracoscopy may be required for diagnosis if the initial test results are inconclusive. PMID:25077579

Saguil, Aaron; Wyrick, Kristen; Hallgren, John

2014-07-15

81

TGF-beta 1 and 25-hydroxycholesterol stimulate osteoblast-like vascular cells to calcify.  

PubMed Central

Previous studies in our laboratory demonstrated messenger RNA for bone morphogenetic protein-2a in human calcified plaque, suggesting that arterial calcification is a regulated process, similar to osteogenesis. To further test this hypothesis, we have isolated and cloned a subpopulation of cells from bovine aortic media that show osteoblastic potential. These novel cells are primarily distinguished from smooth muscle cells by expression of a surface marker preliminarily identified as a modified form of the ganglioside sialyl-lactosylceramide (GM3). Osteoblastic potential was indicated by high levels of alkaline phosphatase and collagen I, expression of osteopontin and osteonectin (SPARC), and production of bone-specific osteocalcin and hydroxyapatite. Cultures of these cells were stimulated to form increased numbers of calcium-mineral-producing nodules by the oxysterol 25-hydroxycholesterol as well as by transforming growth factor-beta 1, both known to be present in atherosclerotic lesions. The stimulation of calcifying vascular cells in the artery wall by these two factors suggests a possible mechanism for the colocalization of calcification with atherosclerosis in vivo. Images PMID:8182141

Watson, K E; Boström, K; Ravindranath, R; Lam, T; Norton, B; Demer, L L

1994-01-01

82

Prevalence of calcified carotid artery atheromas on panoramic images of individuals with primary hyperparathyroidism  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT), affecting 1% of the population, is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The presence of calcified carotid artery plaque (CCAP) on panoramic images is a validated risk indicator of future adverse cardiovascular events. We hypothesized that military veterans aged 50 years or older diagnosed with PHPT by increased parathyroid hormone and calcium levels would frequently have CCAP on their images. Methods: We determined the prevalence rates of CCAP on the images of patients diagnosed with PHPT and evaluated their atherogenic risk profiles, including hypertension, dyslipidaemia, diabetes and obesity. Comparisons of atherogenic risk factors were made between subjects with and without observed CCAP on their panoramic images. Results: Of the 60 patients (86.7% males and 13.3% females, mean age 73.2 ± 11.3 years) with PHPT, 40% had atheromas. There were no significant differences between CCAP+ and CCAP? groups in gender or race (p > 0.05). The atherogenic profile (age, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidaemia) in the CCAP+ and CCAP? groups was not significantly different (p > 0.05). Conclusions: Calcified carotid artery atheromas are often seen on the panoramic images of patients with PHPT. Thus, dentists must be uniquely vigilant for these lesions when evaluating these studies. PMID:23775925

Friedlander, A H; Aghazadehsanai, N; Chang, T I; Harada, N; Garrett, N R

2013-01-01

83

Calcified right atrial thrombus in HIV infected patient  

PubMed Central

Calcified right atrial thrombi are rare cardiac masses that may be complicated by pulmonary embolism. Although they can be discovered by a transthoracic echocardiography, they may need histological examination to differentiate them from other cardiac masses. We report a case of a 44-year-old woman who presented with a calcified right atrial thrombus and progressive dyspnoea. PMID:23819008

Mwita, Julius Chacha; Goepamang, Monkgogi; Mkubwa, Jack Joseph; Gunness, Teeluck Kumar; Reebye, Deshmukh; Motumise, Kelebogile

2013-01-01

84

Outpatient Management of Malignant Pleural Effusion by a Chronic Indwelling Pleural Catheter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Previous studies have shown that a chronic indwelling pleural catheter (PC) safely and ef- fectively relieved dyspnea, maintained quality of life, and reduced hospitalization in patients with malignant pleural effusions. Outpatient management of malignant pleural effusion with a PC may reduce length of stay and early (7-day) charges compared with inpatient manage- ment with chest tube and sclerosis. Methods.

Joe B. Putnam; Garrett L. Walsh; Stephen G. Swisher; Jack A. Roth; Douglas M. Suell; Ara A. Vaporciyan; W. Roy Smythe; Kelly W. Merriman; Linda L. DeFord

2010-01-01

85

Outpatient management of malignant pleural effusion by a chronic indwelling pleural catheter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Previous studies have shown that a chronic indwelling pleural catheter (PC) safely and effectively relieved dyspnea, maintained quality of life, and reduced hospitalization in patients with malignant pleural effusions. Outpatient management of malignant pleural effusion with a PC may reduce length of stay and early (7-day) charges compared with inpatient management with chest tube and sclerosis.Methods. A retrospective review

Joe B Putnam Jr; Garrett L Walsh; Stephen G Swisher; Jack A Roth; Douglas M Suell; Ara A Vaporciyan; W. Roy Smythe; Kelly W Merriman; Linda L DeFord

2000-01-01

86

Malignant pleural effusion from prostate adenocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Prostate adenocarcinoma is the most common newly diagnosed cancer in males. Pulmonary and pleural metastasis are not uncommon on autopsy, but malignant effusions are not common clinical findings. There are no current recommendations to guide prostate specific antigen level assessment in pleural fluid. A 73 yo w/prostate cancer presented with complaints of subacute worsening of exertional dyspnea. He underwent a CT of the chest which excluded pulmonary emboli but did show moderate to large bilateral pleural effusions. The patient had a thoracentesis performed which confirmed an exudative effusion with atypical cells and elevated PSA levels. Metastatic visceral & parietal foci of prostate adenocarcinoma were found on medical pleuroscopy. The patient was symptomatically treated with bilateral tunneled chest tube catheters for intermittent drainage. Pulmonary metastasis secondary to prostate cancer is commonly found on autopsy, with pulmonary metastasis in 46% of patients and pleural metastasis in 21% of patients. Pleural effusions are not common, in one series, only 6/620 (1%) were found to have pleural masses/nodules or effusions. Diagnosis of pleural effusion secondary to metastatic prostate cancer can be achieved by direct cytology evaluation and/or PSA level elevation in the fluid. While specific, the sensitivity is not high enough to rule out disease if negative. Elevated pleural fluid PSA levels may aid in the diagnosis; however, there are no current recommendations as to what level may be considered diagnostic. Further studies are needed to define the sensitivity and specificity of PSA in pleural fluid.

Knight, James C.; Ray, Malia A.; Benzaquen, Sadia

2014-01-01

87

Pleural endometriosis: findings on magnetic resonance imaging.  

PubMed

Endometriosis is a benign gynecological disorder associated with pelvic pain and infertility, primarily affecting women of reproductive age. Thoracic endometriosis affects the pulmonary parenchyma or pleura. We report the cases of two patients with pleural endometriosis who presented with recurrent pneumothorax. In both cases, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the chest showed right hydropneumothorax and well-defined, rounded nodules on the pleural surface in the right hemithorax. We conclude that MRI is a good option for the characterization of pleural endometriotic nodules and hemorrhagic pleural effusion. PMID:23288127

Marchiori, Edson; Zanetti, Gláucia; Rodrigues, Rosana Souza; Souza, Luciana Soares; Souza Junior, Arthur Soares; Francisco, Flávia Angélica Ferreira; Hochhegger, Bruno

2012-01-01

88

Vitamin K-Antagonists Accelerate Atherosclerotic Calcification and Induce a Vulnerable Plaque Phenotype  

PubMed Central

Background Vitamin K-antagonists (VKA) are treatment of choice and standard care for patients with venous thrombosis and thromboembolic risk. In experimental animal models as well as humans, VKA have been shown to promote medial elastocalcinosis. As vascular calcification is considered an independent risk factor for plaque instability, we here investigated the effect of VKA on coronary calcification in patients and on calcification of atherosclerotic plaques in the ApoE?/? model of atherosclerosis. Methodology/Principal Findings A total of 266 patients (133 VKA users and 133 gender and Framingham Risk Score matched non-VKA users) underwent 64-slice MDCT to assess the degree of coronary artery disease (CAD). VKA-users developed significantly more calcified coronary plaques as compared to non-VKA users. ApoE?/? mice (10 weeks) received a Western type diet (WTD) for 12 weeks, after which mice were fed a WTD supplemented with vitamin K1 (VK1, 1.5 mg/g) or vitamin K1 and warfarin (VK1&W; 1.5 mg/g & 3.0 mg/g) for 1 or 4 weeks, after which mice were sacrificed. Warfarin significantly increased frequency and extent of vascular calcification. Also, plaque calcification comprised microcalcification of the intimal layer. Furthermore, warfarin treatment decreased plaque expression of calcification regulatory protein carboxylated matrix Gla-protein, increased apoptosis and, surprisingly outward plaque remodeling, without affecting overall plaque burden. Conclusions/Significance VKA use is associated with coronary artery plaque calcification in patients with suspected CAD and causes changes in plaque morphology with features of plaque vulnerability in ApoE?/? mice. Our findings underscore the need for alternative anticoagulants that do not interfere with the vitamin K cycle. PMID:22952653

Schurgers, Leon J.; Chatrou, Martijn L. L.; Herfs, Marjolein; Winkens, Mark H. M.; Westenfeld, Ralf; Veulemans, Verena; Krueger, Thilo; Shanahan, Catherine M.; Jahnen-Dechent, Willi; Biessen, Erik; Narula, Jagat; Vermeer, Cees; Hofstra, Leonard; Reutelingsperger, Chris P.

2012-01-01

89

Superoxide dismutase 2 as a marker to differentiate tuberculous pleural effusions from malignant pleural effusions  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: Our previous study demonstrated that superoxide dismutase levels were higher in tuberculous pleural effusions than in malignant pleural effusions, but that this difference could not be used to discriminate between the two. The objective of the present study was to investigate the levels of superoxide dismutase 2 in pleural effusions and to evaluate the diagnostic significance of pleural effusion superoxide dismutase 2. METHODS: Superoxide dismutase 2 concentrations were determined in pleural effusions from 54 patients with tuberculous pleural effusion and 33 with malignant pleural effusion using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Pleural effusion interferon gamma and tumor necrosis factor alpha levels were also analyzed by ELISA. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to evaluate the significance of differences. Associations between superoxide dismutase 2 concentrations and sex, age and smoking habits were assessed using Spearman's or Pearson's correlation coefficient analysis. Receiver operator characteristic analysis was performed to evaluate the value of superoxide dismutase 2 levels in the discrimination of tuberculous pleural effusion from malignant pleural effusion. RESULTS: Superoxide dismutase 2 levels were significantly higher in patients with tuberculous pleural effusion compared with those with malignant pleural effusion (p<0.05). When superoxide dismutase 2 was used to differentiate between tuberculous pleural effusions and malignant pleural effusions, the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve was 0.909 (95% confidence interval, 0.827-0.960; p<0.01). With a cut-off value of 54.2 ng/mL, the sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio and negative likelihood ratio were 75.8% (95%CI: 57.7-88.9%), 98.1% (95%CI: 90.1-99.7%), 40.91 and 0.25, respectively. Furthermore, significant correlations between pleural effusion superoxide dismutase 2 and interferon gamma (r?=?0.579, p<0.01) and between pleural effusion superoxide dismutase 2 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (r?=?0.396, p<0.01) were observed. CONCLUSION: Pleural effusion superoxide dismutase 2 can serve as a biomarker for differentiating between tuberculous pleural effusions and malignant pleural effusions. Because of the high correlations of superoxide dismutase 2 with pleural effusion interferon gamma and tumor necrosis factor alpha levels, this marker may act as an inflammatory factor that plays an important role in the development of tuberculous pleural effusion.

Wang, Maoshui; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Wang, Xinfeng

2014-01-01

90

Establishment of epithelial cell line MDA-MB-157 from metastatic pleural effusion of human breast carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  An epithelial cell line, MDA-MB-157, has been established from the pleural fluid of a metastatic human breast carcinoma. The\\u000a cell line is characterized by rapid growth of cells in dense plaques and in suspension. The cells were originally isolated\\u000a in a complex medium containing Leibovitz's L-15, Waymouth's MB752\\/1 and Ham's F-10 media with 16% fetal calf serum, glutathione,\\u000a cortisol, insulin,

R. K. Young; R. M. Cailleau; B. Mackay; W. J. Reeves

1974-01-01

91

The Pleural Sandwich Sign in Two Cases of Primary Pleural Lymphoma  

PubMed Central

The sandwich sign is used to describe mesenteric lymphoma in which mesenteric vessels and fat are enveloped by enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes. We present two cases of primary pleural lymphoma demonstrating the "pleural sandwich sign". Contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed conglomerated parietal pleural and extrapleural masses encasing the intercostal arteries. Histopathological examinations confirmed low grade marginal zone B-cell lymphoma in an 80-year-old man and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in a 68-year-old man. The pleural sandwich sign may suggest the diagnosis of primary pleural lymphoma. PMID:25598693

Lee, Myungjae; Ryu, Yon Ju; Cho, Min-Sun

2015-01-01

92

[Drug induced eosinophilic pleural effusion].  

PubMed

The hypersensitivity reactions induced by drugs, some widely used, like central nervous system medication, can have various presentations. The lung is a frequent target for such events. We present the case of 40-year-old male patient, non-smoker, with infant encephalopaty, seizures since age of 6 with polimorphic crisis (mainly absences), with anticonvulsivant treatment since 2011 (carbamazepine, sodium valproate, levetiracetam), with no respiratory medical history. Current symptoms started two weeks before, with chest pain, dry cough. He received no antibiotics. Chest X-ray and thoracic CT scan (27 June 2013) showed a left pleral effusion. Left exploratory thoracocentesis extracted 20 ml reddish pleural fluid: eosinophilic exsudate (60%) with normal adenosin deaminase. He also presents moderate blood eosinophilia (13.7%-1780/mm3). Pulmonary infarction with secondary pleurisy, thoracic trauma, acute pancreatitis with secondary pleurisy were excluded. No Loeffler transient infiltrates were documented, serology for Toxocara is IgG positive (historical) and not significant for current episode, no symptoms suggestive for toxocarosis (characteristic to young children, patient had no liver enlargement etc.), no hidatidosis or trichinelosis were found. As an exclusion diagnosis, a hypersensitivity reaction to anticonvulsivant medication was considered (mentioned in literature) carbamazepine and sodium valproate (even if medication was taken for a longer time), with blood and pleural eosinophilia. Together with the neurologist, the mentioned drugs were stopped and he was started on lamotrigine 2 tb/day and levetiracetam 1 tb/day, well tolerated, no absences were noticed. Total remission of blood eosinophilia and partial remission of pleural effusion were noticed. Subsequent follow-ups confirm favourable evolution, with healing of pleurisy and normal blood cell count, which are stable at 7 months after changing anticonvulsivant treatment. PMID:25241560

Vasilescu, Raluca

2014-01-01

93

Pleural effusion in aluminum phosphide poisoning  

PubMed Central

Aluminium phosphide (ALP) is a common agrochemical pesticide poisoning with high mortality rate. Primary manifestations are due to myocardial and gastrointestinal involvement. Pleural effusion in ALP poisoning is occasionally reported. We report a case of pleural effusion that developed after ALP ingestion and resolved along with recovery from poisoning. PMID:23243353

Garg, Kranti; Mohapatra, Prasanta R.; Sodhi, Mandeep K.; Janmeja, Ashok K.

2012-01-01

94

Diagnosis exjuvantibus of a persistent pleural effusion  

PubMed Central

The diagnosis of uremia-associated effusion is one of exclusion. A patient with an unexplained chronic pleural exudate, which cleared with dialysis, is reported. The differential diagnosis of pleural effusions in patients with chronic kidney disease and the management of uremic pleuritis is briefly discussed. PMID:24392214

Porcel, José M.

2013-01-01

95

Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma: Visual Assessment by Using Pleural Pointillism at Diffusion-weighted MR Imaging.  

PubMed

Purpose To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the visual assessment of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) on magnetic resonance (MR) images by using two known visual markers (mediastinal pleural thickness and shrinking of the lung) and a newly introduced one (pleural pointillism). Materials and Methods With the approval of the local ethics committee, 100 consecutive patients (mean age, 61.4 years; age range, 18-87 years; 75 men, 25 women) suspected of having MPM pleural abnormalities underwent positron emission tomography/computed tomography and MR imaging, including diffusion-weighted (DW) MR imaging, followed by explorative thoracoscopy or guided biopsy with histopathologic confirmation. Because visual assessment is still the preferred method of image interpretation, the diagnostic accuracy of mediastinal pleural thickening, shrinking lung (hemithorax volume decrease due to fibrosis), and pleural pointillism were examined. Pleural pointillism was denoted by the presence of multiple, hyperintense pleural spots on high-b-value DW images. Histopathologic findings in the surgical specimen served as the reference standard. McNemar tests with Bonferroni correction were used to assess differences in accuracy among the three examined markers. Results Of 100 patients, 33 had benign pleural alterations, and 67 had malignant pleural diseases (MPDs); 57 of 67 had MPM. A total of 78 patients received a correct diagnosis (benign vs malignant) on the basis of mediastinal pleural thickening (sensitivity, 81%; specificity, 73%; accuracy, 78%); and 66 patients, on the basis of shrinking lung (sensitivity, 60%; specificity, 79%; accuracy, 66%). The correct diagnosis was indicated on the basis of pleural pointillism in 88 patients (sensitivity, 93%; specificity, 79%; accuracy, 88%). Conclusion Visual assessment of pleural pointillism on high-b-value DW images is useful to differentiate MPD from benign alterations, performing substantially better than mediastinal pleural thickness and shrinking lung, and might obviate unnecessary invasive procedures for MPM. © RSNA, 2014. PMID:25243538

Coolen, Johan; De Keyzer, Frederik; Nafteux, Philippe; De Wever, Walter; Dooms, Christophe; Vansteenkiste, Johan; Derweduwen, Aurélie; Roebben, Ilse; Verbeken, Eric; De Leyn, Paul; Van Raemdonck, Dirk; Nackaerts, Kristiaan; Dymarkowski, Steven; Verschakelen, Johny

2014-09-19

96

Pleural macrophage recruitment and activation in asbestos-induced pleural injury.  

PubMed Central

The pathogenesis of asbestos-induced pleural fibrosis is poorly understood. Moreover, there has been a long-standing controversy regarding the relative potential of different commercial types of asbestos to cause pleural disease. We postulated that inhaled asbestos fibers translocate to the pleural space where they stimulate the recruitment and activation of pleural macrophages. To test this hypothesis, and to determine whether there are differences between inhaled amphibole and serpentine asbestos, Fischer 344 rats were exposed by intermittent inhalation (6 hr/day for 5 days/week over 2 weeks) to either National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) crocidolite (average concentration 7.55 mg/m3) or NIEHS chrysotile fibers (average concentration 8.51 mg/m3). Comparisons were made with sham-exposed rats. The rats were sacrificed at 1 and 6 weeks after the cessation of exposure. More pleural macrophages were recovered at 1 and 6 weeks after crocidolite and chrysotile exposure than after sham exposure. Small numbers of crocidolite fibers (approximately 1 per 4000 cells) were detected in the pleural cell pellet of one crocidolite-exposed rat by scanning electron microscopy. Pleural macrophage supernatants were assayed for production of nitric oxide (NO) (by the Griess reaction) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) (by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method). Significantly greater amounts of NO as well as TNF-alpha were generated by pleural macrophages at 1 and 6 weeks after either crocidolite or chrysotile inhalation than after sham exposure. Conceivably, translocation of asbestos fibers to the pleural space may provide a stimulus for persistent pleural space inflammation, cytokine production, and the generation of toxic oxygen and nitrogen radicals. Enhanced cytokine secretion within the pleural space may in turn upregulate adhesion molecule expression and the synthesis of extracellular matrix constituents by pleural mesothelial cells. Thus, our findings may have significance for the development of asbestos-induced pleural injury. Images Figure 1. PMID:9400734

Choe, N; Tanaka, S; Xia, W; Hemenway, D R; Roggli, V L; Kagan, E

1997-01-01

97

Pleural macrophage recruitment and activation in asbestos-induced pleural injury.  

PubMed

The pathogenesis of asbestos-induced pleural fibrosis is poorly understood. Moreover, there has been a long-standing controversy regarding the relative potential of different commercial types of asbestos to cause pleural disease. We postulated that inhaled asbestos fibers translocate to the pleural space where they stimulate the recruitment and activation of pleural macrophages. To test this hypothesis, and to determine whether there are differences between inhaled amphibole and serpentine asbestos, Fischer 344 rats were exposed by intermittent inhalation (6 hr/day for 5 days/week over 2 weeks) to either National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) crocidolite (average concentration 7.55 mg/m3) or NIEHS chrysotile fibers (average concentration 8.51 mg/m3). Comparisons were made with sham-exposed rats. The rats were sacrificed at 1 and 6 weeks after the cessation of exposure. More pleural macrophages were recovered at 1 and 6 weeks after crocidolite and chrysotile exposure than after sham exposure. Small numbers of crocidolite fibers (approximately 1 per 4000 cells) were detected in the pleural cell pellet of one crocidolite-exposed rat by scanning electron microscopy. Pleural macrophage supernatants were assayed for production of nitric oxide (NO) (by the Griess reaction) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) (by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method). Significantly greater amounts of NO as well as TNF-alpha were generated by pleural macrophages at 1 and 6 weeks after either crocidolite or chrysotile inhalation than after sham exposure. Conceivably, translocation of asbestos fibers to the pleural space may provide a stimulus for persistent pleural space inflammation, cytokine production, and the generation of toxic oxygen and nitrogen radicals. Enhanced cytokine secretion within the pleural space may in turn upregulate adhesion molecule expression and the synthesis of extracellular matrix constituents by pleural mesothelial cells. Thus, our findings may have significance for the development of asbestos-induced pleural injury. PMID:9400734

Choe, N; Tanaka, S; Xia, W; Hemenway, D R; Roggli, V L; Kagan, E

1997-09-01

98

Talc-induced inflammation in the pleural cavity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Talc administration into the pleural cavity induces pleurodesis. To obtain further insight into the inflammatory process that causes pleurodesis, the cellu- lar kinetics in the pleural space after the administration of talc was studied, along with its relation to chemokine concentrations in the pleural fluid. Thirteen consecutive patients with idiopathic spontaneous pneumothorax and eight patients with malignant pleural effusions received

M. M. Van Den Heuvel; H. J. M. Smit; S. B. Barbierato; C. E. G. Havenith; R. H. J. Beelen; P. E. Postmus

1998-01-01

99

BIOMECHANICS OF FLEXIBLE JOINTS IN THE CALCIFIED SEAWEED CALLIARTHRON CHEILOSPORIOIDES  

E-print Network

BIOMECHANICS OF FLEXIBLE JOINTS IN THE CALCIFIED SEAWEED CALLIARTHRON CHEILOSPORIOIDES evolution. In this dissertation, I explore the biomechanics and tissue construction of genicula features found in terrestrial plant xylem but unknown in marine algae. By exploring the biomechanics

Denny, Mark

100

Mycobacterium intracellulare Pleurisy Identified on Liquid Cultures of the Pleural Fluid and Pleural Biopsy  

PubMed Central

Pleural effusion is a rare complication in non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection. We report a case of Mycobacterium intracellulare pleuritis with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in a 69-year-old man presenting with dyspnea. Pleural effusion revealed lymphocyte dominant exudate. M. intracellulare was identified using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method and liquid cultures of pleural effusion and pleural biopsy. After combination therapy for M. intracellulare pulmonary disease, the patient was clinically well at a 1-month follow-up. PMID:23579554

Lim, Jong Gu; O, Sei Won; Lee, Ki Dong; Suk, Dong Keun; Jung, Tae Young; Shim, Tae Sun

2013-01-01

101

Highly accurate diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis by immunological analysis of the pleural effusion.  

PubMed

Pleural TB is notoriously difficult to diagnose due to its paucibacillary nature yet it is the most common cause of pleural effusions in TB endemic countries such as The Gambia. We identified both cellular and soluble biomarkers in the pleural fluid that allowed highly accurate diagnosis of pleural TB compared to peripheral blood markers. Multi-plex cytokine analysis on unstimulated pleural fluid showed that IP-10 resulted in a positive likelihood ratio (LR) of 9.6 versus 2.8 for IFN-?; a combination of IP-10, IL-6 and IL-10 resulted in an AUC of 0.96 and positive LR of 10. A striking finding was the significantly higher proportion of PPD-specific IFN-?+TNF-?+ cell population (PPD-IGTA) in the pleural fluid compared to peripheral blood of TB subjects. Presence of this pleural PPD-IGTA population resulted in 95% correct classification of pleural TB disease with a sensitivity of 95% and specificity of 100%. These data suggest that analysis of the site of infection provides superior diagnostic accuracy compared to peripheral blood for pleural TB, likely due to the sequestration of effector cells at this acute stage of disease. PMID:22295081

Sutherland, Jayne S; Garba, Danlani; Fombah, Augustin E; Mendy-Gomez, Awa; Mendy, Francis S; Antonio, Martin; Townend, John; Ideh, Readon C; Corrah, Tumani; Ota, Martin O C

2012-01-01

102

Highly Accurate Diagnosis of Pleural Tuberculosis by Immunological Analysis of the Pleural Effusion  

PubMed Central

Pleural TB is notoriously difficult to diagnose due to its paucibacillary nature yet it is the most common cause of pleural effusions in TB endemic countries such as The Gambia. We identified both cellular and soluble biomarkers in the pleural fluid that allowed highly accurate diagnosis of pleural TB compared to peripheral blood markers. Multi-plex cytokine analysis on unstimulated pleural fluid showed that IP-10 resulted in a positive likelihood ratio (LR) of 9.6 versus 2.8 for IFN-?; a combination of IP-10, IL-6 and IL-10 resulted in an AUC of 0.96 and positive LR of 10. A striking finding was the significantly higher proportion of PPD-specific IFN-?+TNF-?+ cell population (PPD-IGTA) in the pleural fluid compared to peripheral blood of TB subjects. Presence of this pleural PPD-IGTA population resulted in 95% correct classification of pleural TB disease with a sensitivity of 95% and specificity of 100%. These data suggest that analysis of the site of infection provides superior diagnostic accuracy compared to peripheral blood for pleural TB, likely due to the sequestration of effector cells at this acute stage of disease. PMID:22295081

Sutherland, Jayne S.; Garba, Danlani; Fombah, Augustin E.; Mendy-Gomez, Awa; Mendy, Francis S.; Antonio, Martin; Townend, John; Ideh, Readon C.; Corrah, Tumani; Ota, Martin O. C.

2012-01-01

103

Tight junction physiology of pleural mesothelium  

PubMed Central

Pleura consists of visceral and parietal cell layers, producing a fluid, which is necessary for lubrication of the pleural space. Function of both mesothelial cell layers is necessary for the regulation of a constant pleural fluid volume and composition to facilitate lung movement during breathing. Recent studies have demonstrated that pleural mesothelial cells show a distinct expression pattern of tight junction proteins which are known to ubiquitously determine paracellular permeability. Most tight junction proteins provide a sealing function to epithelia, but some have been shown to have a paracellular channel function or ambiguous properties. Here we provide an in-depth review of the current knowledge concerning specific functional contribution of these proteins determining transport and barrier function of pleural mesothelium. PMID:25009499

Markov, Alexander G.; Amasheh, Salah

2014-01-01

104

Combining Immunotoxin and Chemotherapy for Pleural Mesothelioma  

Cancer.gov

In this trial, patients with inoperable epithelial pleural mesothelioma will be given SS1P immunotoxin in combination with pemetrexed and cisplatin to determine the maximum tolerated dose of SS1P and side effects profile in these patients.

105

Investigating a Case of Recurrent Pleural Effusion  

PubMed Central

We describe the case of a patient with long-standing Parkinson's disease and recurrent bilateral pleural effusions. The pleural fluid was an exudate, rich in normal lymphocytes, and the echocardiogram, chest computerized axial tomography, and immunological, microbiological and cytological studies were negative. The patient had been taking bromocriptine, which can be related to chronic pleural effusions. Using Pubmed, we found about 40 cases of pleuropulmonary changes or constrictive pericarditis that were related to bromocriptine. We decided to suspend this drug, with resolution of the pleural effusion and respiratory complaints for more than a year now. We discuss possible underlining mechanisms for this and emphasize the importance of collecting the past medical history and medication and of considering possible iatrogenic effects. PMID:22937429

Rodrigues, Patrícia; Neves, Maria; Ferreira, João Pedro; Abreu, Miguel Araújo; Almeida, Fernanda

2011-01-01

106

Pleural Effusion and Sarcoidosis: An Unusual Combination.  

PubMed

Pleural involvement in sarcoidosis is uncommon and appears in several forms. To document the incidence and characteristics of pleural effusion in sarcoidosis patients, a review of the cases diagnosed in our centre between January 2001 and December 2012 was carried out. One hundred and ninety-five patients with sarcoidosis were identified; three (two men and one woman) presented with unilateral pleural effusion (1.5%): one in the right side and two in the left. Two were in stageii and one was in stageiv. The pleural fluid of the two patients who underwent thoracocentesis was predominantly lymphocytic. One of these patients presented chylothorax and the other had high CA-125levels. In general, these effusions are lymphocyte-rich, paucicellular, serous exudates (sometimes chylothorax) and contain proportionally higher levels of protein than LDH. Most cases are treated with corticosteroids, although it may resolve spontaneously. PMID:24565689

Ferreiro, Lucía; San José, Esther; González-Barcala, Francisco Javier; Suárez-Antelo, Juan; Toubes, M Elena; Valdés, Luis

2014-12-01

107

Pleural space complications associated with lung transplantation.  

PubMed

Lung transplantation represents a life-saving option for some end-stage lung diseases. Despite the magnitude of anatomic manipulation and the fragility of the patient population, the procedures have become progressively safer. Perioperative morbidity, however, remains high. Pleural space complications are particularly common. This article discusses hemothorax, chylothorax, air leak or pneumothorax, recurrent effusion, empyema, trapped lung, and chronic pleural complications. PMID:25430432

Arndt, Andrew; Boffa, Daniel J

2015-01-01

108

Aortic dissection presenting as pleural effusion  

PubMed Central

Aortic dissection is a life threatening emergency. This case illustrates the unusual way an aortic dissection can present. This patient presented with sharp, left interscapular pain, which subsided after a while and left-sided pleural effusion. Further investigations revealed that this was a case of thoracic aortic dissection with a leak into pleural space. She underwent thoracic endovascular aortic repair with stent graft insertion. PMID:22692486

Somasamudra, Pramod; Smith, Ed; Tandan, Ronja

2011-01-01

109

The effect of iterative reconstruction on quantitative computed tomography assessment of coronary plaque composition.  

PubMed

To compare coronary plaque size and composition as well as degree of coronary artery stenosis on coronary Computed Tomography angiography (CCTA) using three levels of iterative reconstruction (IR) with standard filtered back projection (FBP). In 63 consecutive patients with a clinical indication for CCTA 55 coronary plaques were analysed. Raw data were reconstructed using standard FBP and levels 2, 4 and 6 of a commercially available IR algorithm (iDose(4)). CT attenuation and noise were measured in the aorta and two coronary arteries. Both signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were calculated. The amount of lipid, fibrous and calcified plaque components and mean cross-sectional luminal area were analysed using dedicated software. Image noise was reduced by 41.6% (p < 0.0001) and SNR and CNR in the aorta were improved by 73.4% (p < 0.0001) and 72.9% (p < 0.0001) at IR level 6, respectively. IR improved objective image quality measures more in the aorta than in the coronary arteries. Furthermore, IR had no significant effect on measurements of plaque volume and cross-sectional luminal area. The application of IR significantly improves objective image quality, and does not alter quantitative analysis of coronary plaque volume, composition and luminal area. PMID:24046026

Takx, Richard A P; Willemink, Martin J; Nathoe, Hendrik M; Schilham, Arnold M R; Budde, Ricardo P J; de Jong, Pim A; Leiner, Tim

2014-01-01

110

The Immune Response Is Involved in Atherosclerotic Plaque Calcification: Could the RANKL/RANK/OPG System Be a Marker of Plaque Instability?  

PubMed Central

Atherogenesis is characterized by an intense inflammatory process, involving immune and vascular cells. These cells play a crucial role in all phases of atherosclerotic plaque formation and complication through cytokine, protease, and prothrombotic factor secretion. The accumulation of inflammatory cells and thus high amounts of soluble mediators are responsible for the evolution of some plaques to instable phenotype which may lead to rupture. One condition strongly associated with plaque rupture is calcification, a physiopathological process orchestrated by several soluble factors, including the receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)?B ligand (RANKL)/receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)?B (RANK)/osteoprotegerin (OPG) system. Although some studies showed some interesting correlations with acute ischemic events, at present, more evidences are needed to evaluate the predictive and diagnostic value of serum sRANKL and OPG levels for clinical use. The major limitation is probably the poor specificity of these factors for cardiovascular disease. The identification of tissue-specific isoforms could increase the importance of sRANKL and OPG in predicting calcified plaque rupture and the dramatic ischemic consequences in the brain and the heart. PMID:18320012

Montecucco, Fabrizio; Steffens, Sabine; Mach, François

2007-01-01

111

Sarcoidosis presenting with massive pleural effusion and elevated serum and pleural fluid carbohydrate antigen-125 levels.  

PubMed

A 55-year-old woman was admitted for an elevated serum carbohydrate antigen-125 (CA-125) level, and a left pleural effusion, which were detected at a routine health examination. Computed tomography of the chest was performed upon admission, revealing extensive bilateral paratracheal and mediastinal lymph node enlargement with a massive left-sided pleural effusion. Subsequent analysis of the pleural fluid demonstrated consistency with an exudate, no evidence of malignant cells, and a normal adenosine deaminase. However, the pleural fluid and serum CA-125 levels were 2,846.8 U/mL and 229.5 U/mL, respectively. A positron emission tomography did not reveal any primary focus of malignancy. Finally, a surgical mediastinoscopic biopsy of several mediastinal lymph nodes was performed, revealing non-necrotizing granulomas, consistent with sarcoidosis. After a month of treatment of prednisolone, the left pleural effusion had resolved, and after 2 months the serum CA-125 level was normalized. PMID:23319994

Lee, In Seon; Kim, Sae Byul; Moon, Chan Soo; Jung, Sung Mo; Kim, Song Yee; Kim, Eun Young; Jung, Ji Ye; Kang, Young Ae; Kim, Young Sam; Kim, Se Kyu; Chang, Joon; Park, Moo Suk

2012-12-01

112

The pleural mesothelium in development and disease  

PubMed Central

The pleural mesothelium, derived from the embryonic mesoderm, is formed by a metabolically active monolayer of cells that blanket the chest wall and lungs on the parietal and visceral surfaces, respectively. The pleura and lungs are formed as a result of an intricate relationship between the mesoderm and the endoderm during development. Mesenchymal signaling pathways such as Wnt/B-catenin, Bmp4, and sonic hedgehog appear to be quintessential for lung development. Pleural Mesothelial Cells (PMCs) are known to express Wilms tumor-1 (Wt1) gene and in lineage labeling studies of the developing embryo, PMCs were found to track into the lung parenchyma and undergo mesothelial-mesenchymal transition (MMT) to form ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA)-positive cells of the mesenchyme and vasculature. There is definite evidence that mesothelial cells can differentiate and this seems to play an important role in pleural and parenchymal pathologies. Mesothelial cells can differentiate into adipocytes, chondrocytes, and osteoblasts; and have been shown to clonally generate fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells in murine models. This supports the possibility that they may also modulate lung injury-repair by re-activation of developmental programs in the adult reflecting an altered recapitulation of development, with implications for regenerative biology of the lung. In a mouse model of lung fibrosis using lineage-tracing studies, PMCs lost their polarity and cell-cell junctional complexes, migrated into lung parenchyma, and underwent phenotypic transition into myofibroblasts in response to the pro-fibrotic mediator, transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1). However, intra-pleural heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1) induction inhibited PMC migration after intra-tracheal fibrogenic injury. Intra-pleural fluorescein isothiocyanate labeled nanoparticles decorated with a surface antibody to mesothelin, a surface marker of mesothelial cells, migrate into the lung parenchyma with PMCs supporting a potential role for pleural based therapies to modulate pleural mesothelial activation and parenchymal disease progression. PMID:25136318

Batra, Hitesh; Antony, Veena B.

2014-01-01

113

Identification of calcified intracardiac lesions using gradient echo MR imaging.  

PubMed

Gradient echo signal imaging (GEI) has expanded the clinical role of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the heart. The role of GEI to evaluate intracardiac calcified lesions was studied. All patients were imaged with both conventional spin echo (SE) techniques and GEI. The GEI demonstrated that calcific cardiac lesions exhibit magnetic susceptibility differences and produce marked hypointensity throughout the calcified area. All patients had echocardiographic and fluoroscopic evidence of cardiac calcification and surgical confirmation of calcified lesions. The SE MR was unable to define the intracardiac calcification. Gradient echo imaging may be a helpful adjunct in the complete definition of intracardiac calcific lesions. When profound signal void areas are detected on cardiac GEI studies, calcification should be suspected. PMID:2398152

Pucillo, A L; Schechter, A G; Kay, R H; Moggio, R; Herman, M V

1990-01-01

114

Intracranial calcified pseudocyst reaction to a shunt catheter.  

PubMed

A 9-year-old boy with spina bifida, Chiari II malformation, and hydrocephalus presented with signs of increased intracranial pressure consistent with a shunt malfunction. Radiological investigations revealed an intracranial calcified lesion along the ventricular catheter. A shunt tap revealed a translucent milky white fluid. The patient underwent a ventriculostomy and, eventually, a shunt revision. Pathology findings were consistent with the formation of dystrophic calcification and a pseudocyst around the shunt catheter. Postoperatively, the patient returned to his neurological baseline. This is, to the best of the authors' knowledge, the first report of an intracranial calcified pseudocyst in a patient with normal renal function. PMID:24329159

Yowtak, June; Hughes, Douglas; Heger, Ian; Macomson, Samuel D

2014-02-01

115

The role of interventional therapy for pleural diseases.  

PubMed

Pleural diseases encompass a vast and heterogeneous group of diseases that have traditionally received relatively little attention from researchers, resulting in empiric approaches to patient management based largely on expert opinions and anecdotal evidence. Yet, paradoxically, pleural diseases represent a considerable burden for patients, providers, and the healthcare system as a whole, with a rising incidence of malignant pleural effusions and pleural space infections, in increasingly complex patients. Fortunately, the last decade has witnessed unprecedented research efforts from the pleural community, which have resulted in substantial advances in risk-stratification, patient selection, treatment efficacy and the development of evidence-based recommendations ultimately leading to improved patient care. In this review, we will present a summary of the current evidence for the management of pleural diseases with an emphasis on interventional procedures, and highlight the need for future research efforts in the field of malignant pleural effusions, pleural space infections and pneumothorax. PMID:24976255

DePew, Zachary S; Maldonado, Fabien

2014-08-01

116

Comparison of the effects of pitavastatin versus pravastatin on coronary artery plaque phenotype assessed by tissue characterization using serial virtual histology intravascular ultrasound.  

PubMed

Thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA) is the most common type of vulnerable plaque and is the precursor of plaque rupture. However, rupture of a TCFA is not the only mechanism underlying thrombus formation or acute coronary syndrome. Although statin therapy changes the composition of coronary artery plaques, the effects of statins, particularly different types of statins, on plaque phenotype have not been fully examined. This study compared the effects of pitavastatin versus pravastatin on coronary artery plaque phenotype assessed by virtual histology (VH) intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) in patients with angina pectoris (AP). Coronary atherosclerosis in nonculprit lesions was evaluated using VH-IVUS at baseline and 8 months after statin therapy; analyzable IVUS data were obtained from 83 patients with stable AP (39 patients treated with pitavastatin and 44 with pravastatin) and 36 patients with unstable AP (19 patients treated with pitavastatin and 17 with pravastatin). Pitavastatin had a strong effect on reducing pathologic intimal thickening (PIT), especially in patients with unstable AP, but had no impact on VH-TCFA or fibroatheroma (FA). By contrast, pravastatin had weak effects on reducing PIT, VH-TCFA, or FA. Increases in the number of calcified plaques were observed for both statins. In conclusion, pitavastatin and pravastatin changed coronary artery plaque phenotype as assessed by VH-IVUS in patients with AP. However, the effects of these statins on coronary artery plaque phenotype were different. PMID:24337500

Nozue, Tsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Shingo; Tohyama, Shinichi; Fukui, Kazuki; Umezawa, Shigeo; Onishi, Yuko; Kunishima, Tomoyuki; Sato, Akira; Nozato, Toshihiro; Miyake, Shogo; Takeyama, Youichi; Morino, Yoshihiro; Yamauchi, Takao; Muramatsu, Toshiya; Hibi, Kiyoshi; Terashima, Mitsuyasu; Michishita, Ichiro

2015-01-01

117

Morphological and histochemical study of supragingival human calculus and dental plaque using ruthenium hexammine trichloride and acridine orange.  

PubMed

Ruthenium hexammine trichloride (RHT) and acridine orange were used to preserve and visualize anionic groups in human plaque and dental calculus. RHT-reacting material was present on the membrane of micro-organisms and in intermicrobial spaces of the calcifying areas, and seems to correspond to, and derive from, acidic glyco- and phospholipids of the plasma membrane of the micro-organisms. However, the presence of acidic salivary peptidoglycans cannot be ruled out. Two types of calcification were found: extramicrobial and intramicrobial. The former consisted of calcified deposits irregularly scattered in the intermicrobial matrix. They were in close relationship with RHT-reacting material, or were placed inside vesicular structures delimited by a membrane. Intramicrobial calcification consisted of small aggregates of needle-shaped crystals and/or of granular deposits; in both cases, they either masked the whole cytoplasm of the micro-organisms, or were located only over the plasma membrane. These results suggest that mineral deposition occurs in connection with acidic components of intermicrobial matrix, microbial plasma membranes, and cytoplasms. The addition of RHT and acridine orange to fixing and decalcifying solutions yields satisfactory preservation of dental calculus and plaque, and apparently reduces loss of their anionic organic components and increases their electron density. However, these substances are not sufficient to preserve all ultrastructural details in decalcified areas, probably because the inorganic substance prevents reaction of acridine orange and RHT with the organic components of the calcified matrix. PMID:1380849

Silvestrini, G; Lo Storto, S; Bonucci, E

1992-01-01

118

Swinging cardiac calcified amorphous tumour arising from a calcified mitral annulus in a patient with normal renal function.  

PubMed

A 67-year-old man was referred to our institution for the management of a left-sided intracardiac mass discovered following two cardioembolic events. Imaging studies revealed a highly mobile mass attached to the ventricular side of a calcified mitral annulus. The mass had not been present on echocardiography 1?year earlier. Surgical resection was performed. Microscopic examination confirmed the diagnosis of a calcified amorphous tumour. The postoperative course was unremarkable, and the patient remains asymptomatic and without recurrence of a mass or neurological event after a 12-month follow-up. PMID:25568275

de Hemptinne, Quentin; Bar, Jean-Paul; de Cannière, Didier; Unger, Philippe

2015-01-01

119

[Pleural trichomoniasis due to trichomonas tenax].  

PubMed

Thoracic infections due to Trichomonas species often go unrecognised as they are seldom described in the literature. We describe a case that, to our knowledge, is the first reported case of empyema caused by this organism. A 59 year old man with metastatic adenocarcinoma of the lung developed a right pyopneumothorax following treatment with corticosteroids and radiotherapy. The pleural fluid was purulent and fetid, and contained large numbers of Trichomonas tenax amongst a mixed bacterial flora. Pleural drainage and antibiotic therapy with metronidazole, ciprofloxacin and gentalline were instituted immediately, but the patient died 4 days later. Trichomonas tenax is part of the normal oral floral and may on occasions colonize the airways. It can thus become involved during aspiration pneumonia or cause pleural infection following the rupture of a pulmonary abscess. Such infection tends to be associated with concurrent respiratory pathology or with immunodepression. The significance Trichomonas tenax when found in the airways is unclear and their pathogenic role is discussed. PMID:17546821

Porcheret, H; Maisonneuve, L; Estève, V; Jagot, J L; Le Pennec, M P

2002-02-01

120

Effects of bacteriophage traits on plaque formation  

PubMed Central

Background The appearance of plaques on a bacterial lawn is one of the enduring imageries in modern day biology. The seeming simplicity of a plaque has invited many hypotheses and models in trying to describe and explain the details of its formation. However, until now, there has been no systematic experimental exploration on how different bacteriophage (phage) traits may influence the formation of a plaque. In this study, we constructed a series of isogenic ? phages that differ in their adsorption rate, lysis timing, or morphology so that we can determine the effects if these changes on three plaque properties: size, progeny productivity, and phage concentration within plaques. Results We found that the adsorption rate has a diminishing, but negative impact on all three plaque measurements. Interestingly, there exists a concave relationship between the lysis time and plaque size, resulting in an apparent optimal lysis time that maximizes the plaque size. Although suggestive in appearance, we did not detect a significant effect of lysis time on plaque productivity. Nonetheless, the combined effects of plaque size and productivity resulted in an apparent convex relationship between the lysis time and phage concentration within plaques. Lastly, we found that virion morphology also affected plaque size. We compared our results to the available models on plaque size and productivity. For the models in their current forms, a few of them can capture the qualitative aspects of our results, but not consistently in both plaque properties. Conclusions By using a collection of isogenic phage strains, we were able to investigate the effects of individual phage traits on plaque size, plaque productivity, and average phage concentration in a plaque while holding all other traits constant. The controlled nature of our study allowed us to test several model predictions on plaque size and plaque productivity. It seems that a more realistic theoretical approach to plaque formation is needed in order to capture the complex interaction between phage and its bacterium host in a spatially restricted environment. PMID:21827665

2011-01-01

121

Cerebral air embolism after pleural streptokinase instillation.  

PubMed

Iatrogenic pulmonary barotrauma and cerebral arterial gas embolism (CAGE) may complicate a variety of medical procedures, such as certain types of surgery, drug administration through thoracic drainage, pneumoperitoneum, cystoscopy, bronchoscopy, etc. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment following the guidelines for CAGE in diving is the treatment of choice. Pleural streptokinase instillation is a common treatment for parapneumonic pleural effusion and may lead to CAGE. We present such a complication in a 79-year-old woman with a left-sided empyema. Neurological recovery was reasonable, but a left hemiparesis persisted. Prompt treatment of CAGE is necessary to avoid permanent injury and severe disability. PMID:24510333

Janisch, Thorsten; Siekmann, Ullrich; Kopp, Rüdger

2013-12-01

122

Herniation of calcified cervical intervertebral disk in children.  

PubMed

Childhood intervertebral disk calcification is a rare clinical entity and usually has a benign course, generally undergoing spontaneous resolution. However, rapid neurologic deterioration due to herniation, found in both of our cases of calcified cervical intervertebral disks, required urgent anterior discectomy and fusion, resulting in excellent recovery. PMID:1298105

Mohanty, S; Sutter, B; Mokry, M; Ascher, P W

1992-12-01

123

DIRECTION OF IN VITRO CALCIFIED CHITOSAN MEMBRANES FOR TECHNOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some calcium compounds, such as hydroxyapatite (HA), are widely recognized as materials capable of separating proteins, nucleic acids, and viruses in aqueous systems using chromatography. For this reason, exploring alternative routes for forming calcified resins is of great interest. One of these routes is the biomineralization or biomimetic process. The present study analyzes the calcification deposits obtained on chitosan substrates

M. M. BEPPU; C. C. SANTANA

2004-01-01

124

Macrophage-Derived Matrix Vesicles: An Alternative Novel Mechanism for Microcalcification in Atherosclerotic Plaques  

PubMed Central

Rationale We previously showed that early calcification of atherosclerotic plaques associates with macrophage accumulation. Chronic renal disease (CRD) and mineral imbalance accelerates calcification and the subsequent release of matrix vesicles (MVs) — precursors of microcalcification. Objective We tested the hypothesis that macrophage-derived MVs contribute directly to microcalcification. Methods and Results Macrophages associated with regions of calcified vesicular structures in human carotid plaques (n=136 patients). In vitro, macrophages released MVs with high calcification and aggregation potential. MVs expressed exosomal markers (CD9 and TSG101), and contained S100A9 and annexin V (Anx5). Silencing S100A9 in vitro and genetic deficiency in S100A9?/? mice reduced MV calcification, while stimulation with S100A9 increased calcification potential. Externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) after Ca/P stimulation and interaction of S100A9 and Anx5, indicated that a PS-Anx5-S100A9 membrane complex facilitates hydroxyapatite nucleation within the macrophage-derived MV membrane. Conclusions Our results support the novel concept that macrophages release calcifying MVs enriched in S100A9 and Anx5, which contribute to accelerated microcalcification in CRD. PMID:23616621

New, Sophie E.; Goettsch, Claudia; Aikawa, Masanori; Marchini, Julio F.; Shibasaki, Manabu; Yabusaki, Katsumi; Libby, Peter; Shanahan, Catherine M.; Croce, Kevin; Aikawa, Elena

2013-01-01

125

Pioneer F Plaque Symbology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Pioneer F spacecraft, destined to be the first man made object to escape from the solar system into interstellar space, carries this pictorial plaque. It is designed to show scientifically educated inhabitants of some other star system, who might intercept it millions of years from now, when Pioneer was launched, from where, and by what kind of beings. (With the hope that they would not invade Earth.) The design is etched into a 6 inch by 9 inch gold-anodized aluminum plate, attached to the spacecraft's attenna support struts in a position to help shield it from erosion by interstellar dust. The radiating lines at left represents the positions of 14 pulsars, a cosmic source of radio energy, arranged to indicate our sun as the home star of our civilization. The '1-' symbols at the ends of the lines are binary numbers that represent the frequencies of these pulsars at the time of launch of Pioneer F relative of that to the hydrogen atom shown at the upper left with a '1' unity symbol. The hydrogen atom is thus used as a 'universal clock,' and the regular decrease in the frequencies of the pulsars will enable another civilization to determine the time that has elapsed since Pioneer F was launched. The hydrogen is also used as a 'universal yardstick' for sizing the human figures and outline of the spacecraft shown on the right. The hydrogen wavelength, about 8 inches, multiplied by the binary number representing '8' shown next to the woman gives her height, 64 inches. The figures represent the type of creature that created Pioneer. The man's hand is raised in a gesture of good will. Across the bottom are the planets, ranging outward from the Sun, with the spacecraft trajectory arching away from Earth, passing Mars, and swinging by Jupiter.

1972-01-01

126

Indwelling pleural drain for mobile management of malignant pleural effusion-combining benefits of both methods  

PubMed Central

Malignant pleural effusion is a leading cause of morbidity in lung cancer patients requiring repeated pleural aspirations or persistent intercostal drainage tube. Using an indigenous method of putting icd tube of smaller size with subcutaneous tunneling would allow draining fluid from lungs easily and painlessly when needed and avoid the need for repeated injections and chest tube insertion every time the fluid is to be drained. PMID:25624601

Mehta, Dinesh; Gupta, Anshu; Singhal, Sameer; Bansal, Sachin

2015-01-01

127

Effects of Stent Design and Atherosclerotic Plaque Composition on Arterial Wall Biomechanics  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To examine the solid mechanical effects of varying stent design and atherosclerotic plaque stiffness on the biomechanical environment induced in a diseased artery wall model. Methods: Computational modeling techniques were employed to investigate the final radius of the lumen and artery wall stresses after stent implantation. Two stent designs were studied (one stiff and one less stiff). The stenotic artery was modeled as an axisymmetrical diseased vessel with a 20% stenosis by diameter. The material properties of the diseased tissue in the artery models varied. Atherosclerotic plaques half as stiff (0.5×), of equal stiffness (1.0×), or twice as stiff (2.0×) as the artery wall were investigated. Results: Final lumen radius was dependent on stent design, and the stiffer stent deformed the artery to an approximately 10% greater radius than the more compliant design. Alternatively, circumferential stress levels were dependent on both stent design and plaque material properties. Overall, the stiffer stent subjected the artery wall to much higher stress values than the more compliant design, with differences in peak values of 0.50, 0.31, and 0.09 MPa for the 2.0×, 1.0×, and 0.5× stiff plaques, respectively. Conclusion: Evidence suggests that a judicious choice of stent design can minimize stress while maintaining a patent lumen in stenotic arteries. If confronted with a rigid, calcified plaque, stent design is more important, as design differences can impose dramatically different stress fields, while still providing arterial patency. Alternatively, stent design is not as much of an issue when treating a soft, lipid-laden plaque, as stress fields do not vary significantly among stent designs. PMID:19090628

Timmins, Lucas H.; Meyer, Clark A.; Moreno, Michael R.; Moore, James E.

2008-01-01

128

Comparison of biochemical parameters in pleural effusion.  

PubMed

A comparison of various biochemical parameters used in differentiation of nature of pleural effusion in transudate and exudate was done in 84 patient of pleural effusion. Pleural fluid (P) cholesterol and bilirubin which have gained an importance in recent years were compared with pleural fluid protein, LDH, P/S protein, P/S LDH and Light's criteria. It was seen that Light's criteria is still the best in differentiation. Sensitivity of individual test was nearly same for Pl. protein (94.11%), P/S Protein (94.11%), Pl. LDH (95.5%), P/S LDH (92.75%). Pl cholesterol (88.3%) and P/S cholesterol (91.42%) had slightly lower sensitivity. Pl. Protein and P/S LDH had 100% specificity. Lights criteria had 100% specificity and sensitivity % of cases misclassified by various criteria were Pl Protein 5.95%, P/S protein 5.95%, PLDH 4.76%, P/S LDH 4.76% P. Cholesterol 13% and P/S Cholesterol 9.52% Measurement of Bilirubin did not provide any correlation in classifying the effusion and thus did not hold any value. PMID:9251372

Lakhotia, M; Shah, P K; Yadav, A; Gupta, A; Modi, R K; Sinha, H V

1996-09-01

129

Automatic spatiotemporal matching of detected pleural thickenings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pleural thickenings can be found in asbestos exposed patient's lung. Non-invasive diagnosis including CT imaging can detect aggressive malignant pleural mesothelioma in its early stage. In order to create a quantitative documentation of automatic detected pleural thickenings over time, the differences in volume and thickness of the detected thickenings have to be calculated. Physicians usually estimate the change of each thickening via visual comparison which provides neither quantitative nor qualitative measures. In this work, automatic spatiotemporal matching techniques of the detected pleural thickenings at two points of time based on the semi-automatic registration have been developed, implemented, and tested so that the same thickening can be compared fully automatically. As result, the application of the mapping technique using the principal components analysis turns out to be advantageous than the feature-based mapping using centroid and mean Hounsfield Units of each thickening, since the resulting sensitivity was improved to 98.46% from 42.19%, while the accuracy of feature-based mapping is only slightly higher (84.38% to 76.19%).

Chaisaowong, Kraisorn; Keller, Simon Kai; Kraus, Thomas

2014-01-01

130

Progress in atherosclerotic plaque imaging  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular diseases are the primary cause of mortality in the industrialized world, and arterial obstruction, triggered by rupture-prone atherosclerotic plaques, lead to myocardial infarction and cerebral stroke. Vulnerable plaques do not necessarily occur with flow-limiting stenosis, thus conventional luminographic assessment of the pathology fails to identify unstable lesions. In this review we discuss the currently available imaging modalities used to investigate morphological features and biological characteristics of the atherosclerotic plaque. The different imaging modalities such as ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, nuclear imaging and their intravascular applications are illustrated, highlighting their specific diagnostic potential. Clinically available and upcoming methodologies are also reviewed along with the related challenges in their clinical translation, concerning the specific invasiveness, accuracy and cost-effectiveness of these methods. PMID:22937215

Soloperto, Giulia; Casciaro, Sergio

2012-01-01

131

Real-time plaque characterization and visualization with spectral analysis of intravascular ultrasound data.  

PubMed

Coronary artery disease is the number one cause of death in the United States and the Western world, and approximately 250,000 affected people die per year without ever being admitted to a hospital. One of the main reasons of such a high death-rate without any diagnosis is that more than 50 or heart-attacks) occur in patients with no prior history of known heart disease or symptoms. Coronary artery disease leads to the occlusion of arteries that are vital in providing nutrients to the heart muscles. The disease develops by progressive accumulation or formation of "plaque" within an artery. Certain types of plaques could occlude blood flow and yet might be "stable". These plaques usually have a high fibrous content, and are known as hard plaques. On the other hand, "unstable" or "soft" plaques might not cause much occlusion but could be vulnerable to rupture. Rupture of such plaques could lead to total or partial occlusion in arteries resulting in sudden cardiac death or heart-attack. In fact, 68 coronary arteries are less than 50.Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) is a minimally invasive imaging modality that provides cross-section images of arteries in real-time, allowing visualization of atherosclerotic plaques in vivo. In standard IVUS gray-scale images, calcified regions of plaque and dense fibrous components generally reflect ultrasound energy well and thus appear bright and homogeneous on IVUS images. Conversely, regions of low echo reflectance in IVUS images are usually labeled "soft" or "mixed" plaque. However, this visual interpretation has been demonstrated to be very inconsistent in accurately determining plaque composition and does not allow real-time assessment of quantitative plaque constituents.Spectral analysis of the backscattered radiofrequency (RF) ultrasound signals allows detailed assessment of plaque composition. Advanced mathematical techniques can be employed to extract spectral information from these RF data to determine composition. The spectral content or signature of RF data reflected from tissue depends on density, compressibility, concentration, size, etc. A combination of spectral parameters were used to develop statistical classification schemes for analysis of in vivo IVUS data in real-time. The clinical data acquisition system is ECG gated and the analysis software developed by our group reconstructs IVUS gray-scale images from the acquired RF data. A combination of spectral parameters and active contour models is used for real-time 3D plaque segmentation followed by computation of color-coded tissue maps for each image cross-section and longitudinal views of the entire vessel. The "fly-through" mode allows one to visualize the complete length of the artery internally with the histology components at the lumen surface. In addition, vessel and plaque metrics such as areas and volumes of individual plaque components (collagen, fibro-lipid, calcium, lipid-core) are also available. PMID:15923746

Nair, Anuja; Klingensmith, Jon D; Vince, D Geoffrey

2005-01-01

132

Treatment of Necrotic Calcified Tooth Using Intentional Replantation Procedure  

PubMed Central

Introduction. If the teeth are impacted by a chronic irritant, the pulp space possibly will undergo calcific changes that may impede access opening during root canal treatment. In such cases that conventional endodontic treatment is impossible or impractical, intentional replantation may be considered as a last solution to preserve the tooth. Methods. After failing to perform conventional root canal therapy for a necrotic calcified right mandibular second premolar, the tooth was gently extracted. The root apex was resected and the root end cavity was prepared and filled with calcium enriched mixture (CEM) cement. Then, the extracted tooth was replanted in its original position. Results. After a year the tooth was asymptomatic, and the size of periapical radiolucency was remarkably reduced and no clinical sign of ankylosis was observed. Conclusion. Intentional replantation of the necrotic calcified teeth could be considered as an alternative to teeth extraction, especially for the single-rooted teeth and when nonsurgical and surgical endodontic procedures seem impossible. PMID:24716000

Arvin, Armita; Darvish, Alireza; Aflaki, Sareh

2014-01-01

133

Calcified-tissue investigations using synchrotron x-ray microscopy  

SciTech Connect

Synchrotron x-ray microscopy (SXRM) in both emission and absorption modes has been used to examine elemental distributions in specimens of rat tibia, human deciduous teeth, and an orthopedic implant phantom. The work was performed with a spatial resolution of 8 {mu}m for the emission work and 25 {mu}m for the absorption work. The results illustrate the usefulness of SXRM for measurements of different types of calcified tissue. 3 figs.

Jones, K.W.; Spanne, P.; Schidlovsky, G.; Dejun, X. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA)); Bockman, R.S. (Cornell Univ., New York, NY (USA). Medical Coll.); Rabinowitz, M.B. (Children's Hospital Medical Center, Boston, MA (USA)); Hammond, P.B.; Bornschein, R.L. (Cincinnati Univ., OH (USA)); Hoeltzel, D.A. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (USA))

1990-10-01

134

Ocean acidification and calcifying reef organisms: a mesocosm investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A long-term (10 months) controlled experiment was conducted to test the impact of increased partial pressure of carbon dioxide\\u000a (pCO2) on common calcifying coral reef organisms. The experiment was conducted in replicate continuous flow coral reef mesocosms\\u000a flushed with unfiltered sea water from Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii. Mesocosms were located in full sunlight and experienced\\u000a diurnal and seasonal fluctuations in temperature

P. L. Jokiel; K. S. Rodgers; I. B. Kuffner; A. J. Andersson; E. F. Cox; F. T. Mackenzie

2008-01-01

135

Vascular MR segmentation: wall and plaque  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiovascular events frequently result from local rupture of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque. Non-invasive assessment of plaque vulnerability is needed to allow institution of preventive measures before heart attack or stroke occur. A computerized method for segmentation of arterial wall layers and plaque from high-resolution volumetric MR images is reported. The method uses dynamic programming to detect optimal borders in each MRI

Fuxing Yang; Gerhard Holzapfel; Christian Schulze-Bauer; Rudolf Stollberger; Daniel Thedens; Lizann Bolinger; Alan Stolpen; Milan Sonka

2003-01-01

136

Effect of Ocean acidification on growth, calcification and reproduction of calcifying and non-calcifying epibionts of brown algae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropogenic emissions of CO2 are leading to an acidification of the oceans of 0.4 pH units in the course of this century according to the more severe model scenarios. The excess of CO2 could notably affect the benthic communities of calcifiers and macrophytes in different aspects (photosynthesis, respiration and calcification). Seaweeds are one of the key species of nearshore benthic ecosystems of the Baltic Sea. They are the substratum of several fouling epibionts like bryozoans and tubeworms. Most of those species are bearing calcified structures and could therefore be potentially impacted by the seawater pCO2. On the other hand, the biological activity of the host may substantially modulate the pH and pCO2 conditions in the boundary layer where the epibionts live. The aim of the present study was to test the sensitivity of seaweed macrofouling communities to higher pCO2 concentration. Fragments of macroalgae Fucus serratus bearing the calcifiers Spirorbis spirorbis (Annelida) and Electra pilosa (Bryozoa) and the non-calcifier Alcyonidium gelatinosum (Bryozoa) were maintained for 30 days under three pCO2: natural 460 ± 59 µatm and enriched 1193 ± 166 µatm and 3150 ± 446 µatm. Our study showed a significant reduction of growth rates and reproduction of Spirorbis individuals at the highest pCO2. Tubeworms Juveniles exhibited enhanced calcification of 40 % when in the light compare to dark, presumably due to effect of photosynthetic and respiratory activities of the host alga. Electra colonies showed significantly improved growth rates at 1193 µatm. The overall net dissolution of the communities was significantly higher at 3150 µatm. No effect on Alcyonidium colonies growth rates was observed. Those results suggest a remarkable resistance of the algal macro-epibiontic communities to the most elevated pCO2 predicted for 2100 for open ocean (~1000 µatm) conditions. Concerns remains with regards to higher pCO2 possibly found in the future Baltic Sea.

Saderne, V.; Wahl, M.

2012-04-01

137

Effect of Ocean acidification on growth, calcification and recruitment of calcifying and non-calcifying epibionts of brown algae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropogenic emissions of CO2 are leading to an acidification of the oceans by 0.4 pH units in the course of this century according to the more severe model scenarios. The excess of CO2 could notably affect the benthic communities of calcifiers and macrophytes in different aspects (photosynthesis, respiration and calcification). Seaweeds are key species of nearshore benthic ecosystems of the Baltic Sea. They frequently are the substratum of fouling epibionts like bryozoans and tubeworms. Most of those species secrete calcified structures and could therefore be impacted by the seawater pCO2. On the other hand, the biological activity of the host may substantially modulate the pH and pCO2 conditions in the thallus boundary layer where the epibionts live. The aim of the present study was to test the sensitivity of seaweed macrofouling communities to higher pCO2 concentrations. Fragments of the macroalga Fucus serratus bearing the calcifiers Spirorbis spirorbis (Annelida) and Electra pilosa (Bryozoa) and the non-calcifier Alcyonidium gelatinosum (Bryozoa) were maintained for 30 days under three pCO2 conditions: natural 460 ± 59 ?atm and enriched 1193 ± 166 ?atm and 3150 ± 446 ?atm. Our study showed a significant reduction of growth rates and recruitment of Spirorbis individuals only at the highest pCO2. At a finer temporal resolution, the tubeworm recruits exhibited enhanced calcification of 40% during irradiation hours compared to dark hours, presumably due to the effect of photosynthetic and respiratory activities of the host alga on the carbonate system. Electra colonies showed significantly increased growth rates at 1193 ?atm. No effect on Alcyonidium colonies growth rates was observed. Those results suggest a remarkable resistance of the algal macro-epibiontic communities to the most elevated pCO2 foreseen in year 2100 for open ocean (~1000 ?atm) conditions possibly due to the modulation of environmental conditions by the biological activities of the host alga.

Saderne, V.; Wahl, M.

2012-03-01

138

Municipal pleural cancer mortality in Spain  

PubMed Central

Background: Pleural cancer is a recognised indicator of exposure to asbestos and mesothelioma mortality. Aims: To investigate the distribution of municipal mortality due to this tumour, using the autoregressive spatial model proposed by Besag, York, and Molliè. Methods: It was possible to compile and ascertain the posterior distribution of relative risk on the basis of a single Bayesian spatial model covering all of Spain's 8077 municipal areas. Maps were plotted depicting standardised mortality ratios, smoothed relative risk (RR) estimates, and the distribution of the posterior probability that RR >1. Results: There was a higher risk of death due to pleural cancer in well defined towns and areas, many of which correspond to municipalities where asbestos using industries once existed for many years, the prime example being the municipal pattern registered for Barcelona Province. The quality of mortality data, the suitability of the model used, and the usefulness of municipal atlases for environmental surveillance are discussed. PMID:15723885

Lopez-Abente, G; Hernandez-Barrera, V; Pollan, M; Aragones, N; Perez-Gomez, B

2005-01-01

139

Fibre distribution in the lungs and pleura of subjects with asbestos related diffuse pleural fibrosis.  

PubMed Central

The lungs from 13 cases of diffuse pleural fibrosis associated with a history of exposure to asbestos were examined. Samples were taken from the visceral pleura and central and subpleural zones of the lungs for histopathological and mineralogical studies. The fibre type, size, and number were estimated for each of these regions by transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive x ray analysis. Amphibole fibre counts were raised when compared with a non-occupationally exposed group and matched those seen in cases of pleural plaques, mild asbestosis, and mesothelioma. A wide case to case variation of distribution was seen. No significant difference was apparent between central and subpleural zones, whereas low asbestos counts were found in the pleura; these were mainly short chrysotile fibres. Within the lungs more (45%) of the longer (greater than 4 microns) and thinner (less than 0.25 micron) amphibole fibres were retained in keeping with other studies implicating such fibre profiles in the pathogenesis of asbestos related disease. PMID:1659443

Gibbs, A R; Stephens, M; Griffiths, D M; Blight, B J; Pooley, F D

1991-01-01

140

[Pleural effusion: criteria for distinguishing between transudates and exudates].  

PubMed

The first step in the diagnostic study of a pleural effusion is to classify as a transudate or exudate. Light's criteria (pleural fluid/serum proteines > 0.5; lactatedehydrogenase [LDH] > 2/3 of the upper normal limit in serum; pleural fluid/serum LDH > 0.6) usually used, incorrectly classify some cases, especially transudates. For this reason, different alternative criteria has been proposed: pleural fluid cholesterol, pleural fluid/serum cholesterol ratio, pleural fluid/serum bilirubin ratio, and serum/pleura albumin ratio. Althought the first results suggested better results that those obtained with the Light's criteria, after the analysis of the different studys we conclude that a method to diferentiate perfectly transudates and exudates is not yet available. PMID:8948822

Garcia Pachon, E; Padilla Navas, I

1996-02-01

141

Diagnosis and Treatment of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma.  

PubMed

There are three major challenges in the diagnosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma: mesothelioma must be distinguished from benign mesothelial hyperplasia; malignant mesothelioma (and its subtypes) must be distinguished from metastatic carcinoma; and invasion of structures adjacent to the pleura must be demonstrated. The basis for clarifying the first two aspects is determination of a panel of monoclonal antibodies with appropriate immunohistochemical evaluation performed by highly qualified experts. Clarification of the third aspect requires sufficiently abundant, deep biopsy material, for which thoracoscopy is the technique of choice. Video-assisted needle biopsy with real-time imaging can be of great assistance when there is diffuse nodal thickening and scant or absent effusion. Given the difficulties of reaching an early diagnosis, cure is not generally achieved with radical surgery (pleuropneumonectomy), so liberation of the tumor mass with pleurectomy/decortication combined with chemo- or radiation therapy (multimodal treatment) has been gaining followers in recent years. In cases in which surgery is not feasible, chemotherapy (a combination of pemetrexed and platinum-derived compounds, in most cases) with pleurodesis or a tunneled pleural drainage catheter, if control of pleural effusion is required, can be considered. Radiation therapy is reserved for treatment of pain associated with infiltration of the chest wall or any other neighboring structure. In any case, comprehensive support treatment for pain control in specialist units is essential: this acquires particular significance in this type of malignancy. PMID:25059587

Rodríguez Panadero, Francisco

2014-07-21

142

Malignant Pleural Effusions: Appropriate Treatment Approaches  

PubMed Central

Malignant pleural effusion (MPE) is a common and important clinical condition. A complication in many types of tumors, its presence indicates the onset of the terminal stages of cancer. Dyspnea is the most common symptom of MPE. The most common underlying tumors are lymphomas and cancers of the lung, breast and ovaries, which account for 75% of cases. The diagnosis of MPE can be established by the presence of malignant cells in the pleural fluid or tissue. Median survival in these patients ranges from 3 to 12 months, with the shortest survival period presenting in lung cancer patients. The aim of MPE therapeutic approaches should be effective treatment and a short hospital stay. There are many different treatment options for patients who suffer from MPE, including serial thoracentesis, tube thoracostomy, pleurodesis, long term pleural catheter, pleuroperitoneal shunt, decortication, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The choice of therapy is determined based on a patient’s clinical situation as well as the underlying disease. Today, intercostal tube insertion and chemical pleurodesis are the most commonly prescribed treatment modalities.

Aydin, Yener; Turkyilmaz, Atila; Intepe, Yavuz Selim; Eroglu, Atilla

2009-01-01

143

Assessment of the N-PCR Assay in Diagnosis of Pleural Tuberculosis: Detection of M.tuberculosis in Pleural Fluid and Sputum Collected in Tandem  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe nonspecific clinical presentation and paucibacillary nature of tuberculous pleuritis remains a challenge for diagnosis. Diagnosis of tuberculous pleural effusion depends on the demonstration of the presence of tubercle bacilli in the sputum, pleural fluid, or pleural biopsy specimen, or demonstration of granuloma in pleura by histological examination. We examined the clinical utility of the diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis using

Parameet Kumar; Manas K. Sen; Devendra S. Chauhan; Vishwa M. Katoch; Sarman Singh; Hanumanthappa K. Prasad; Igor Mokrousov

2010-01-01

144

Radiotracer imaging of atherosclerotic plaque biology.  

PubMed

Traditional imaging modalities used in the assessment of atherosclerotic plaque have focused on anatomic characteristics of size, location and luminal encroachment. The ability to identify plaques that are at risk for rupture, and thus may go on to cause clinical events, remains limited, however. By labeling tracer compounds capable of identifying important cellular or molecular processes involved in plaque vulnerability with radioactive isotopes, there is now potential for the noninvasive identification of vulnerable plaques. This article discusses several radiotracers that can report on high-risk plaque pathophysiology. PMID:19306774

Elkhawad, Maysoon; Rudd, James H F

2009-05-01

145

Malignant pleural mesothelioma initially diagnosed on cervical lymph node biopsy.  

PubMed

Reported herein is a case of malignant pleural mesothelioma, initially diagnosed on cervical lymph node biopsy. A 58-year-old man, without obvious evidence of asbestos exposure, exhibited repeated pleural effusion (cause unclear), which was resolved by diuretics. A neck mass was apparent and was identified pathologically as a lymph node metastasis of malignant mesothelioma. F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/CT established the diagnosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma. Two conclusions emerge from this report: (i) cervical lymph node metastasis of pleural mesothelioma, although rare, should be included in differential diagnosis; and (ii) positron emission tomography/CT is useful for establishing a diagnosis of mesothelioma. PMID:19627545

Ogata, Sho; Hiroi, Sadayuki; Tominaga, Akira; Aida, Shinsuke; Kobayashi, Ayako; Tamura, Katsumi; Abe, Yoshiyuki; Kawai, Toshiaki

2009-08-01

146

IVUS-based histology of atherosclerotic plaques: improving longitudinal resolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although Virtual Histology (VH) is the in-vivo gold standard for atherosclerosis plaque characterization in IVUS images, it suffers from a poor longitudinal resolution due to ECG-gating. In this paper, we propose an image-based approach to overcome this limitation. Since each tissue have different echogenic characteristics, they show in IVUS images different local frequency components. By using Redundant Wavelet Packet Transform (RWPT), IVUS images are decomposed in multiple sub-band images. To encode the textural statistics of each resulting image, run-length features are extracted from the neighborhood centered on each pixel. To provide the best discrimination power according to these features, relevant sub-bands are selected by using Local Discriminant Bases (LDB) algorithm in combination with Fisher's criterion. A structure of weighted multi-class SVM permits the classification of the extracted feature vectors into three tissue classes, namely fibro-fatty, necrotic core and dense calcified tissues. Results shows the superiority of our approach with an overall accuracy of 72% in comparison to methods based on Local Binary Pattern and Co-occurrence, which respectively give accuracy rates of 70% and 71%.

Taki, Arash; Pauly, Olivier; Setarehdan, S. Kamaledin; Unal, Gozde; Navab, Nassir

2010-03-01

147

Influence of convolution filtering on coronary plaque attenuation values: observations in an ex vivo model of multislice computed tomography coronary angiography.  

PubMed

Attenuation variability (measured in Hounsfield Units, HU) of human coronary plaques using multislice computed tomography (MSCT) was evaluated in an ex vivo model with increasing convolution kernels. MSCT was performed in seven ex vivo left coronary arteries sunk into oil followingthe instillation of saline (1/infinity) and a 1/50 solution of contrast material (400 mgI/ml iomeprol). Scan parameters were: slices/collimation, 16/0.75 mm; rotation time, 375 ms. Four convolution kernels were used: b30f-smooth, b36f-medium smooth, b46f-medium and b60f-sharp. An experienced radiologist scored for the presence of plaques and measured the attenuation in lumen, calcified and noncalcified plaques and the surrounding oil. The results were compared by the ANOVA test and correlated with Pearson's test. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were calculated. The mean attenuation values were significantly different between the four filters (p < 0.0001) in each structure with both solutions. After clustering for the filter, all of the noncalcified plaque values (20.8 +/- 39.1, 14.2 +/- 35.8, 14.0 +/- 32.0, 3.2 +/- 32.4 HU with saline; 74.7 +/- 66.6, 68.2 +/- 63.3, 66.3 +/- 66.5, 48.5 +/- 60.0 HU in contrast solution) were significantly different, with the exception of the pair b36f-b46f, for which a moderate-high correlation was generally found. Improved SNRs and CNRs were achieved by b30f and b46f. The use of different convolution filters significantly modifief the attenuation values, while sharper filtering increased the calcified plaque attenuation and reduced the noncalcified plaque attenuation. PMID:17245583

Cademartiri, Filippo; La Grutta, Ludovico; Runza, Giuseppe; Palumbo, Alessandro; Maffei, Erica; Mollet, Nico R A; Bartolotta, Tommaso Vincenzo; Somers, Pamela; Knaapen, Michiel; Verheye, Stefan; Midiri, Massimo; Hamers, Ronald; Bruining, Nico

2007-07-01

148

Calcified schwannoma of the orbit and differential diagnosis of orbital calcification.  

PubMed

Calcified schwannoma of the orbit is rarely reported in the world literature. A 38-year-old Chinese male presented with a 5-year history of slow progressive left-sided axial proptosis. A smooth, retrobulbar and intracornal mass with central calcification and high internal reflectivity was found on computed tomography and sonographic study. From the clinical and radiologic features, the presumptive diagnosis of orbital cavernous hemangioma or meningioma was made and orbitotomy with tumor exicision was performed. Tumor excision revealed the rare diagnosis of calcified schwannoma. The differential diagnoses of a calcified orbital mass and the radiologic and clinical findings of the calcified schwannoma are described and discussed. PMID:11076436

Kao, S C; Tsai, C Y; Tsai, C C; Hsu, W M

2000-10-01

149

Tension Pneumothorax After Placement of a Tunneled Pleural Drainage Catheter in a Patient with Recurrent Malignant Pleural Effusions  

SciTech Connect

A case of tension pneumothorax developed after placement of a tunneled pleural catheter for treatment of malignant pleural effusion in a patient with advanced lung cancer. The catheter placement was carried out by an experienced operator under direct ultrasound guidance, and the patient showed immediate symptomatic improvement with acute decompensation occurring several hours later. Possible mechanisms for this serious complication of tunneled pleural catheter placement are described, and potential strategies to avoid or prevent it in future are discussed.

Wachsman, A.M., E-mail: ariw@fusemail.com; Hoffer, E.K.; Forauer, A.R.; Silas, A.M.; Gemery, J.M. [Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States)

2007-06-15

150

Automated tissue characterization of in vivo atherosclerotic plaques by intravascular optical coherence tomography images  

PubMed Central

Intravascular optical coherence tomography (IVOCT) is rapidly becoming the method of choice for the in vivo investigation of coronary artery disease. While IVOCT visualizes atherosclerotic plaques with a resolution <20µm, image analysis in terms of tissue composition is currently performed by a time-consuming manual procedure based on the qualitative interpretation of image features. We illustrate an algorithm for the automated and systematic characterization of IVOCT atherosclerotic tissue. The proposed method consists in a supervised classification of image pixels according to textural features combined with the estimated value of the optical attenuation coefficient. IVOCT images of 64 plaques, from 49 in vivo IVOCT data sets, constituted the algorithm’s training and testing data sets. Validation was obtained by comparing automated analysis results to the manual assessment of atherosclerotic plaques. An overall pixel-wise accuracy of 81.5% with a classification feasibility of 76.5% and per-class accuracy of 89.5%, 72.1% and 79.5% for fibrotic, calcified and lipid-rich tissue respectively, was found. Moreover, measured optical properties were in agreement with previous results reported in literature. As such, an algorithm for automated tissue characterization was developed and validated using in vivo human data, suggesting that it can be applied to clinical IVOCT data. This might be an important step towards the integration of IVOCT in cardiovascular research and routine clinical practice. PMID:23847728

Ughi, Giovanni Jacopo; Adriaenssens, Tom; Sinnaeve, Peter; Desmet, Walter; D’hooge, Jan

2013-01-01

151

Small calcified coronary atherosclerotic plaque simulation model: minimal size and attenuation detectable by 64MDCT and MicroCT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zero calcium score may not reflect the absence of calcifications as small calcifications could be missed. This study aimed\\u000a to evaluate minimal size and minimal attenuation of coronary calcifications detectable by computed tomography (CT) and to\\u000a determine the minimal spatial resolution required for detecting calcification onset. Using open source CT simulation software,\\u000a CTSim©, several 50%-stenotic coronary artery phantoms were designed

Wisnumurti Kristanto; Peter M. A. van Ooijen; Jaap M. Groen; Rozemarijn Vliegenthart; Matthijs Oudkerk

152

Plaque and arterial vulnerability investigation in a three-layer atherosclerotic human coronary artery using computational fluid-structure interaction method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coronary artery disease is the common form of cardiovascular diseases and known to be the main reason of deaths in the world. Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) simulations can be employed to assess the interactions of artery/plaque and blood to provide a more precise anticipation for rupture of arterial tissue layers and plaque tissues inside an atherosclerotic artery. To date, the arterial tissue in computational FSI simulations has been considered as a one-layer structure. However, a single layer assumption might have deeply bounded the results and, consequently, more computational simulation is needed by considering the arterial tissue as a three-layer structure. In this study, a three-dimensional computational FSI model of an atherosclerotic artery with a three-layer structure and different plaque types was established to perform a more accurate arterial wall/plaque tissue vulnerability assessment. The hyperelastic material coefficients of arterial layers were calculated and implemented in the computational model. The fully coupled fluid and structure models were solved using the explicit dynamics finite element code LS-DYNA. The results revealed the significant role of plaque types in the normal and shear stresses induced within the arterial tissue layers. The highest von Mises and shear stresses were observed on the stiffest calcified plaque with 3.59 and 3.27 MPa, while the lowest von Mises and shear stresses were seen on the hypocellular plaque with 1.15 and 0.63 MPa, respectively. Regardless of plaque types, the media and adventitia layers were played protective roles by displaying less stress on their wall, whilst the intima layer was at a high risk of rupture. The findings of this study have implications not only for determining the most vulnerable arterial layer/plaque tissue inside an atherosclerotic coronary artery but also for balloon-angioplasty, stenting, and bypass surgeries.

Karimi, Alireza; Navidbakhsh, Mahdi; Razaghi, Reza

2014-08-01

153

Ophthalmic zoster: mucous plaque keratitis.  

PubMed Central

Data taken from 1221 patients attending the Zoster Clinic of Moorfields Eye Hospital over the past 15 years were used to characterise the clinical appearance and behaviour of zoster mucous plaque keratitis (MPK). The typical greyish branching plaques are usually accompanied by a limbitis, stromal keratitis, or decrease in corneal sensation and are commonly associated with cataract, raised intraocular pressure, or corneal ulceration. MPK may begin at any time within two years of onset of the rash, but when it appears after three months there are more complications. Usually MPK settles within one month if appropriate treatment with topical steroids and acetylcysteine drops is given, but surgical intervention is sometimes required to control glaucoma or neuroparalytic keratitis or to remove cataracts. The results of surgery are surprisingly good. Images PMID:3499932

Marsh, R. J.; Cooper, M.

1987-01-01

154

Stickland reactions of dental plaque.  

PubMed Central

Dental plaque samples from monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were shown to contain proline reduction activity in coupled Stickland reactions with other amino acids and also with certain end products of bacterial glucose metabolism. The unusually high concentration of bound and free proline in the oral environment may be of importance in both the production of base and in the removal of acid from the tooth surface after dietary carbohydrate ingestion. PMID:6618673

Curtis, M A; Kemp, C W; Robrish, S A; Bowen, W H

1983-01-01

155

Calcified angioleiomyoma of foot arising from the posterior tibial artery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Case  A 77-year-old woman was presented with a mass in the plantar side of left foot. Physical examinations revealed 30?×?20-mm-sized\\u000a hard mass with tenderness. Plane X-ray and computed tomography showed heterogenously calcified tumor that contacted with posterior\\u000a tibial artery. Magnetic resonance imaging indicated spindle-shaped tumor in subcutis. That was isointense and hypointense\\u000a on the T1-weighted image and hyperintense on the T2-weighted

Masaru Kadowaki; Soichiro Yamamoto; Yuji Uchio

2010-01-01

156

Calcified vocal cord nodule - a unique case report.  

PubMed

Vocal cord nodules are benign neoplastic lesions which occur due to submucosal oedema and haemorrhage, leading to fibrosis and hyalinization. Calcification in vocal cord nodules has not been reported so far in literature. It is thought to be a laryngeal counterpart of idiopathic calcinosis cutis. Here, we are reporting a case of a 38-year-old male patient who presented with a change in voice, which had a duration of one month. Laryngoscopic examination revealed a globular, yellowish white, sessile mass which arose from anterior commissure region of right vocal cord. Micro laryngeal excision was done. Histopathological examination was suggestive of a calcified nodule in vocal cord. PMID:24783113

Sundarapandian, S; Suresh, Revathy V

2014-03-01

157

Pleural tuberculosis following lung cancer chemotherapy: a report of two cases proven pathologically by pleural biopsy  

PubMed Central

Malignancy per se and cytotoxic chemotherapy given for its treatment both are recognised risk factors for the development of tuberculosis (TB). However, individual case descriptions of pleural tuberculosis (TB-PE) following chemotherapy for lung cancer (LC) have not been published previously. We herein report the first two cases of histopathologically proven TB-PE following LC chemotherapy. The first patient was a 38-year-old man with stage IV non-small cell LC (adenocarcinoma) who developed TB-PE following four cycles of chemotherapy (pemetrexed-cisplatin). The second patient was a 49-year-old man with extensive disease small cell LC who developed TB-PE after six cycles of chemotherapy (irinotecan-cisplatin). In both patients, diagnosis of TB-PE was established by demonstration of granulomatous inflammation, caseous necrosis and positive stain for acid-fast bacilli in pleural biopsy specimens. Both cases responded to standard four-drug antitubercular therapy. These cases highlight the importance of carrying out an extensive evaluation for exudative pleural effusions in LC patients receiving chemotherapy, especially in countries with high TB prevalence. Attributing such pleural effusions to disease progression, without histopathological confirmation, may be associated with disastrous consequences. PMID:23345502

Madan, Karan; Singh, Navneet; Das, Ashim; Behera, Digambar

2013-01-01

158

Outpatient Management of Malignant Pleural Effusions with Small-Bore, Tunneled Pleural Catheters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Malignant pleural effusions (MPEs) can produce significant respiratory symptoms and diminished quality of life in patients with terminal malignancies. Control of MPEs to palliate respiratory symptoms can be performed via several different approaches. Ideally, a minimally invasive procedure to control MPEs and to provide relief of respiratory symptoms would be optimal. Objective: To ascertain if control of MPEs can

Ali I. Musani; Andrew R. Haas; Luis Seijo; Mary Wilby; Daniel H. Sterman

2004-01-01

159

Defect in recruiting effector memory CD8+ T-cells in malignant pleural effusions compared to normal pleural fluid  

PubMed Central

Background Malignant pleural effusions (MPE) are a common and fatal complication in cancers including lung or breast cancers, or malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). MPE animal models and immunotherapy trials in MPM patients previously suggested defects of the cellular immunity in MPE. However only few observational studies of the immune response were done in MPM patients, using questionable control groups (transudate…). Methods We compared T cell populations evaluated by flow cytometry from blood and pleural effusion of untreated patients with MPM (n?=?58), pleural metastasis of adenocarcinoma (n?=?30) or with benign pleural lesions associated with asbestos exposure (n?=?23). Blood and pleural fluid were also obtained from healthy subjects, providing normal values for T cell populations. Results Blood CD4+ or CD8+ T cells percentages were similar in all groups of patients or healthy subjects. Whereas pleural fluid from healthy controls contained mainly CD8+ T cells, benign or malignant pleural effusions included mainly CD4+ T cells. Effector memory T cells were the main T cell subpopulation in pleural fluid from healthy subjects. In contrast, there was a striking and selective recruitment of central memory CD4+ T cells in MPE, but not of effector cells CD8+ T cells or NK cells in the pleural fluid as one would expect in order to obtain an efficient immune response. Conclusions Comparing for the first time MPE to pleural fluid from healthy subjects, we found a local defect in recruiting effector CD8+ T cells, which may be involved in the escape of tumor cells from immune response. Further studies are needed to characterize which subtypes of effector CD8+ T cells are involved, opening prospects for cell therapy in MPE and MPM. PMID:23816056

2013-01-01

160

Unilateral pleural effusion without ascites in liver cirrhosis  

SciTech Connect

The source of massive pleural effusion was not apparent in a 58-year-old man who had cirrhosis but no demonstrable ascites. Intraperitoneal injection of technetium Tc 99m sulfur colloid established the presence of peritoneopleural communication. This diagnostic technique can be helpful in evaluating patients with cirrhosis of the liver and pleural effusion with or without ascites.

Faiyaz, U.; Goyal, P.C.

1983-09-01

161

PATOLOGIA PLEURAL EN PACIENTES INFECTADOS POR EL VIH  

Microsoft Academic Search

with the immunologic status and evolution of the patients infected with the HIV. METHODS: The medical records of 419 patients hospitalized infected with the HIV from January-85 to November-93 were reviewed. RESULTS: We identified 51 (12%) patients with pleural pathology (PP). We analyze the immunologic status, risk factors, years of infection, characteristic of pleural fluid, treatment, evolution and follow-up. Ali

J. Hernández Borge; J. Muñoz Méndez; R. Villagómez Cerrato; C. García Polo

162

[A case of pulmonary Mycobacterium gordonae infection with pleural effusion].  

PubMed

A 65-year-old woman, treated with prednisolone (5 mg daily) for rheumatoid arthritis, visited our hospital because of right chest pain. Chest CT showed small nodular shadows in the right lung accompanied with right pleural effusion. A pulmonary Mycobacterium gordonae infection was diagnosed, since M. gordonae was identified twice from her sputum. She was treated with rifampicin, ethambutol and streptomycin for two months, and then streptomycin was replaced with clarithromycin. Three months after the initial treatment, M. gordonae was eradicated from her sputum. Pleural puncture revealed bloody, exudative, lymphocytotic pleural effusion, but no malignant cells were identified. Although pathological diagnosis by thoracoscopic pleural biopsy could not be performed, it is likely that the pleural effusion was associated with the pulmonary M. gordonae infection in the present case. PMID:14768374

Saeki, Sachiko; Matsuse, Hiroto; Shimoda, Terufumi; Soejima, Yoshifumi; Ohno, Hideaki; Kohno, Shigeru

2004-01-01

163

MID-LATE DEVONIAN CALCIFIED MARINE ALGAE AND CYANOBACTERIA, SOUTH CHINA  

E-print Network

MID-LATE DEVONIAN CALCIFIED MARINE ALGAE AND CYANOBACTERIA, SOUTH CHINA QI FENG,1 YI-MING GONG,1 contain microfossils generally regarded as calcified algae and cyanobacteria. These are present in 61 out with differing degrees of confidence, and placed in algae, cyanobacteria or microproblematica. Algae: Halysis

Riding, Robert

164

Ocean acidification: documenting its impact on calcifying phytoplankton at basin scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we evaluate several approaches to discern the impact of ocean acidifica- tion on calcifying plankton, over basin scales. We focus on estimates of the standing stock of particu- late inorganic carbon (PIC) associated with calcifying plankton since it is thought that these organ- isms will be the most sensitive to ocean acidification. Chemical techniques provide the greatest

William M. Balch; Victoria J. Fabry

2008-01-01

165

A cryoSEM Method for Preservation and Visualization of Calcified Shark Cartilage  

E-print Network

in a backscatter electron micrograph where calcified tissue is white) are greatly distorted by collapseA cryoSEM Method for Preservation and Visualization of Calcified Shark Cartilage (And OtherSEM the calci- fied cartilage of sharks and rays (elasmobranch fishes), a layered biocomposite that has

Summers, Adam P.

166

A Voltage-Gated H+ Channel Underlying pH Homeostasis in Calcifying Coccolithophores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine coccolithophorid phytoplankton are major producers of biogenic calcite, playing a significant role in the global carbon cycle. Predicting the impacts of ocean acidification on coccolithophore calcification has received much recent attention and requires improved knowledge of cellular calcification mechanisms. Uniquely amongst calcifying organisms, coccolithophores produce calcified scales (coccoliths) in an intracellular compartment and secrete them to the cell surface,

Alison R. Taylor; Abdul Chrachri; Glen Wheeler; Helen Goddard; Colin Brownlee

2011-01-01

167

Ceramides and sphingomyelinases in senile plaques.  

PubMed

The senile plaque is a hallmark lesion of Alzheimer disease (AD). We compared, without a priori, the lipidome of the senile plaques and of the adjacent plaque-free neuropil. The analysis by liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry revealed that laser microdissected senile plaques were enriched in saturated ceramides Cer(d18:1/18:0) and Cer(d18:1/20:0) by 33 and 78% respectively with respect to the surrounding neuropil. This accumulation of ceramides was not explained by their affinity for A? deposits: no interaction between ceramide-liposomes and A? fibrils was observed in vitro by surface plasmon resonance and fluorescent ceramide-liposomes showed no affinity for the senile plaques in AD brain tissue. Accumulation of ceramides could be, at least partially, the result of a local production by acid and neutral sphingomyelinases that we found to be present in the corona of the senile plaques. PMID:24486621

Panchal, Maï; Gaudin, Mathieu; Lazar, Adina N; Salvati, Elisa; Rivals, Isabelle; Ayciriex, Sophie; Dauphinot, Luce; Dargère, Delphine; Auzeil, Nicolas; Masserini, Massimo; Laprévote, Olivier; Duyckaerts, Charles

2014-05-01

168

Serum PDGF-AB in pleural mesothelioma.  

PubMed

Overexpression of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) has been observed in lung and pleural tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic role of serum PDGF in pleural mesothelioma (PM). Four groups of subjects were studied: 93 malignant PM patients, 33 primary non small cell lung cancer patients, 51 subjects exposed to asbestos, defined as high-risk controls, and 24 healthy controls. PDGF-AB mean concentration was higher in PM patients (45.8 ng/ml) than in high-risk controls (33.1 ng/ml) and healthy controls (26.8 ng/ml). Using the cut-off level of 49.8 ng/ml, corresponding to the mean+2SD of PDGF-AB in healthy controls, 43% of PM patients showed positive PDGF-AB levels. Survival was evaluated in 82 PM patients. At the end of the follow-up (median 9.8 months) 80.5% of patients had died. Median survival was 13.1 and 7.9 months for patients with PDGF-AB lower and higher than the cut-off, respectively. Adjusting for age, sex, histology and platelet count, positive PDGF-AB levels were associated with lower survival (OR=1.2, 95%CI: 0.9-1.6), even if not significantly so. In conclusion, serum PDGF may represent a useful additional parameter to prognostic factors already available for PM. PMID:16103743

Filiberti, Rosa; Marroni, Paola; Neri, Monica; Ardizzoni, Andrea; Betta, Pier Giacomo; Cafferata, Mara A; Canessa, Pier Aldo; Puntoni, Riccardo; Ivaldi, Giovanni Paolo; Paganuzzi, Michela

2005-01-01

169

[Diagnosis delay of pleural and pulmonary tuberculosis].  

PubMed

Tuberculosis (TB) is still being endemic in our country. Time until management determines both evolution and prognosis of this condition. The aim of this work is to evaluate the delay in diagnosis of TB in a respiratory unit from a university hospital series. The authors conducted a cross-sectional study including patients with pulmonary TBC and/or pleural. An evaluation of time management was conducted from the beginning of symptoms and various consultations with reference to the date of hospitalization and treatment set up. One hundred patients were included (pulmonary TB: 68 cases, pleural TB 23 cases, miliary pulmonary TB: 4 cases, pulmonary TB associated with other extrathoracic locations: 5 cases). The mean time of patient delay and total delay institution were respectively 43.6, 25.7 and 69.3 days. Variables responsible for long delays were: number of consultations more than 3 before hospitalization, empirical antibiotic therapy, of a regional hospital first consultation and the presence of extra-respiratory impairment. The patient delay was considered long. A reorganization of the TB control program, in particular by partial decentralization of care and health education is imperative in order to improve the quality of tuberculosis management in our country. PMID:24874402

Cherif, J; Mjid, M; Ladhar, A; Toujani, S; Mokadem, S; Louzir, B; Mehiri, N; Béji, M

2014-08-01

170

Evaluation of Cepheid's Xpert MTB/RIF Test on Pleural Fluid in the Diagnosis of Pleural Tuberculosis in a High Prevalence HIV/TB Setting  

PubMed Central

Background Diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis (TB) using routinely available diagnostic methods is challenging due to the paucibacillary nature of the disease. Histopathology and pleural tissue TB culture involves an invasive procedure which requires expertise and appropriate equipment, both often unavailable in many health units. Xpert MTB/Rif test has been widely evaluated in sputum specimens but data on its performance in pleural TB is scarce. We evaluated the accuracy of Cepheid's Xpert MTB/Rif test on pleural fluid in the diagnosis of pleural TB in Uganda. Methods Consenting adult patients with exudative pleural effusions underwent pleural biopsy and the tissue obtained subjected to Lowenstein-Jensen and mycobacterial growth indicator tube MTB cultures and histopathology. Pleural fluid for Xpert MTB/Rif testing was also collected. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, clinical symptoms, HIV status and CD4 count were also collected. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of Xpert MTB/Rif test on pleural fluid in pleural TB diagnosis were calculated using pleural tissue MTB culture and/or histopathology as the reference standard. Results Of the 116 participants [female 50%, mean age 34 (SD ±13], 87/116 (75%) had pleural TB confirmed on pleural tissue culture and/or histopathology. The Xpert MTB/Rif test identified 25 (28.7%) of the 87 confirmed pleural TB cases. The sensitivity and specificity of Xpert MTB/Rif test were 28.7% and 96.6% respectively while the positive and negative predictive values were 96.1% and 31.1% respectively. Conclusion Xpert MTB/Rif test on pleural fluid does not accurately diagnose pleural TB and therefore cannot be used as an initial evaluation test in patients with suspected pleural TB. New, rapid and accurate tests for the diagnosis of pleural TB are still warranted. PMID:25051491

Kirenga, Bruce J.; Kiragga, Agnes; Lukande, Robert; Nsereko, Maria; Ssengooba, Willy; Katamba, Achilles; Worodria, William; Joloba, Moses L.; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet

2014-01-01

171

The relevance of Randall's plaques  

PubMed Central

The pathophysiology of nephrolithiasis is not fully understood. The pioneering work of Alexander Randall in the 1940s sought to clarify our understanding of stone formation. This review traces the inception of the theory of Randall's plaques and the refinement of the hypothesis in the early days of kidney stone research. It then reviews the contemporary findings utilizing sophisticated investigative techniques that shed additional light on the pathophysiology and redefine the seminal findings of Dr. Randall that were made 70 years ago. PMID:24497683

Strakosha, Ruth; Monga, Manoj; Wong, Michael Y. C.

2014-01-01

172

77 FR 34389 - Determination of Regulatory Review Period for Purposes of Patent Extension; Progel Pleural Air...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Patent Extension; Progel Pleural Air Leak Sealant AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration...review period for Progel Pleural Air Leak Sealant and is publishing this notice of that...medical device, Progel Pleural Air Leak Sealant. Progel Pleural Air Leak Sealant is...

2012-06-11

173

The pleural curtain of the camel (Camelus dromedarius).  

PubMed

The visceral pleura of the camel (Camelus dromedarius) possesses a fibrous curtain of pleural threads or extensions along its basal margins, which extends into the pleural cavity of the costophrenic recesses. These threads are lined by mesothelium and have a core or stroma, which is largely collagenous. Small threads are avascular and nearly acellular. In larger proximal threads, blood vessels in the stroma are often arranged in a branching network, with irregular endothelia surrounded by several incomplete basal laminae. Lymphocytes and other inflammatory cell types aggregate in the stroma near blood vessels. The threads are lined by typical mesothelium except in patches close to the main pleural surface. These patches consist of layers of loosely applied cells with numerous cellular processes and features suggestive of phagocytosis. The position of the pleural curtain in the costophrenic recess and the presence of possibly phagocytotic cells suggest that the pleural curtain stirs, samples, and cleans the pleural fluid. The pleural curtain appears to be a feature of camelids and has also been seen in giraffes. PMID:20652936

Buzzell, Gerald R; Kinne, Joerg; Tariq, Saeed; Wernery, Ulrich

2010-10-01

174

Prevention of Pleural Adhesions by Bioactive Polypeptides - A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Objective: Postoperative pleural adhesions lead to major problems in repeated thoracic surgery. To date, no antiadhesive product has been proven clinically effective. Previous studies of differently charged polypeptides, poly-L-lysine (PL) and poly-L-glutamate (PG) have shown promising results reducing postoperative abdominal adhesions in experimental settings. This pilot study examined the possible pleural adhesion prevention by using the PL+PG concept after pleural surgery and its possible effect on key parameters; plasmin activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and tissue growth factor beta 1 (TGFb) in the fibrinolytic process. Methods: A total of 22 male rats were used in the study, one control group (n=10) and one experimental group (n=12). All animals underwent primary pleural surgery, the controls receiving saline in the pleural cavity and the experimental group the PL+PG solution administered by spray. The animals were evaluated on day 7. Macroscopic appearance of adhesions was evaluated by a scoring system. Histology slides of the adhesions and pleural biopsies for evaluation of PAI-1 and TGFb1 were taken on day 7. Results: A significant reduction of adhesions in the PL+PG group (p<0.05) was noted at day 7 both regarding the length and severity of adhesions. There were no significant differences in the concentration of PAI-1 and TGFb1 when comparing the two groups. Conclusions: PL+PG may be used to prevent pleural adhesions. The process of fibrinolysis, and fibrosis was though not affected after PLPG administration. PMID:24151443

Åkerberg, D.; Posaric-Bauden, M.; Isaksson, K.; Andersson, R.; Tingstedt, B.

2013-01-01

175

Macrophage heterogeneity in atherosclerotic plaques  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review The varied behaviour of macrophages and foam cells during atherosclerosis and its clinical sequelae prompt the question whether all these activities can be the property of a single cell population. Recent findings Subsets of monocytes with distinct patterns of surface markers and behaviours during inflammation have recently been characterized and shown to have complementary roles during progression of atherosclerosis. A variety of macrophage phenotypes derived from these monocyte subsets in response to mediators of innate and acquired immunity have also been found in plaques. Based on functional properties and genomic signatures, they may have different impacts on facets of plaque development, including fibrous cap and lipid core formation. Summary Monocyte and macrophage phenotypic diversity is important in atherogenesis. More work is needed to define consistent marker sets for the different foam cell phenotypes in experimental animals and humans. Cell tracking studies are needed to establish their relationship with monocyte subtypes. In addition, genetic and pharmacological manipulation of phenotypes will be useful to define their functions and exploit the resulting therapeutic potential. PMID:19741337

Johnson, Jason L.; Newby, Andrew C.

2010-01-01

176

Biomechanics and Inflammation in Atherosclerotic Plaque Erosion and Plaque Rupture: Implications for Cardiovascular Events in Women  

PubMed Central

Objective Although plaque erosion causes approximately 40% of all coronary thrombi and disproportionally affects women more than men, its mechanism is not well understood. The role of tissue mechanics in plaque rupture and regulation of mechanosensitive inflammatory proteins is well established, but their role in plaque erosion is unknown. Given obvious differences in morphology between plaque erosion and rupture, we hypothesized that inflammation in general as well as the association between local mechanical strain and inflammation known to exist in plaque rupture may not occur in plaque erosion. Therefore, our objective was to determine if similar mechanisms underlie plaque rupture and plaque erosion. Methods and Results We studied a total of 74 human coronary plaque specimens obtained at autopsy. Using lesion-specific computer modeling of solid mechanics, we calculated the stress and strain distribution for each plaque and determined if there were any relationships with markers of inflammation. Consistent with previous studies, inflammatory markers were positively associated with increasing strain in specimens with rupture and thin-cap fibroatheromas. Conversely, overall staining for inflammatory markers and apoptosis were significantly lower in erosion, and there was no relationship with mechanical strain. Samples with plaque erosion most closely resembled those with the stable phenotype of thick-cap fibroatheromas. Conclusions In contrast to classic plaque rupture, plaque erosion was not associated with markers of inflammation and mechanical strain. These data suggest that plaque erosion is a distinct pathophysiological process with a different etiology and therefore raises the possibility that a different therapeutic approach may be required to prevent plaque erosion. PMID:25365517

Campbell, Ian C.; Suever, Jonathan D.; Timmins, Lucas H.; Veneziani, Alessandro; Vito, Raymond P.; Virmani, Renu; Oshinski, John N.; Taylor, W. Robert

2014-01-01

177

Pleural Cholesterol to the Diagnosis of Exudative Effusion  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Diagnostic approaches to patients with a pleural effusion must be precise because many procedures depend on the nature of the fluid in the effusion. To date, no biochemical test is considered an appropriate alternative to Light’s criteria. This study compared the absolute pleural cholesterol (PC) level and the pleural cholesterol/serum cholesterol (PC/SC) ratio with Light’s criteria to determine exudative pleural effusions. Materials and Methodology: This study was a case series of 100 consecutive patients with pleural effusions. The clinical parameters that were used to diagnosis an exudative effusion included the cholesterol level, a pleural cholesterol level ? 50 mg/dL, a pleural/serum ratio ? 0.4, and Light’s criteria. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of each test for the diagnosis of an exudative effusion were assessed. Results: A total of 79 patients were definitively diagnosed with an exudative effusion and were included in the trial and analyzed. The mean PC level in the exudates was 90.39 mg/dL. The PC levels demonstrated a sensitivity of 97.22%, a specificity of 85.71%, a positive predictive value of 98.59% and a negative predictive value of 75%. The PC/SC ratio demonstrated a sensitivity of 81.48%, a specificity of 57.14%, a positive predictive value of 93.61% and a negative predictive value of 28.57%. Conclusion: The pleural cholesterol dosage level and the pleural/serum cholesterol ratio can be utilized as unique biomarkers to identify an exudative effusion and replace Light’s criteria. PMID:24799966

Rufino, Rogério; Marques, Bruna L.; Azambuja, Renato de Lima; Mafort, Thiago; Pugliese, José G.; da Costa, Cláudia Henrique

2014-01-01

178

Pseudodistal ureteral stone resulting from calcified Deflux implantation.  

PubMed

Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is a common clinical problem affecting 1% of pediatric patients. Subureteral endoscopic injection of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid (Deflux) is a minimally invasive treatment option for VUR that is rapidly gaining popularity. Histologic studies have demonstrated that in a minority of patients, the Deflux injection site can be associated with microcalcification. We report the case of a 12-year-old girl with a history of VUR who had previously been treated with Deflux and presented with abdominal pain and was noted to have a small hyperdense mass in the bladder wall on imaging. The presumptive diagnosis of a distal ureteral stone was ultimately ruled out by cystoscopy and retrograde pyelography, which revealed that the lesion seen on imaging represented the intramural Deflux deposit. This is the second reported case in which a calcified Deflux implant was mistaken for a distal ureteral stone in a patient presenting with abdominal pain. PMID:19616832

Polcari, Anthony J; Kim, Dae Y; Helfand, Brian T; Lewis, Jane M; Chaviano, Antonio H

2009-10-01

179

Calcified Amorphous Tumor of the Heart with Purple Digit  

PubMed Central

A calcified amorphous tumor (CAT) of the right atrium (RA) is an exceedingly rare non-neoplastic cardiac mass. It was initially described in 1997 and only a handful of cases has been published so far. We present a case of tumor in 77-year-old male, in the RA that attached to the rim of the fossa ovalis, with classic pathological and clinical findings. Under cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and bicaval and aortic cannulation and cardioplegic arrest, right atrial mass, was resected and septal defect was repaired with a fresh pericardial patch. Pathological exam of the mass revealed CAT. The patient had an uneventful hospitalization and his blue discoloration of finger recovered normally. PMID:25610560

Sabzi, Feridoun; Karim, Hosein; Eizadi, Babak; Faraji, Reza; Javid, Nasrin

2014-01-01

180

Effect of calcifying bacteria on permeation properties of concrete structures.  

PubMed

Microbially enhanced calcite precipitation on concrete or mortar has become an important area of research regarding construction materials. This study examined the effect of calcite precipitation induced by Sporosarcina pasteurii (Bp M-3) on parameters affecting the durability of concrete or mortar. An inexpensive industrial waste, corn steep liquor (CSL), from starch industry was used as nutrient source for the growth of bacteria and calcite production, and the results obtained with CSL were compared with those of the standard commercial medium. Bacterial deposition of a layer of calcite on the surface of the specimens resulted in substantial decrease of water uptake, permeability, and chloride penetration compared with control specimens without bacteria. The results obtained with CSL medium were comparable to those obtained with standard medium, indicating the economization of the biocalcification process. The results suggest that calcifying bacteria play an important role in enhancing the durability of concrete structures. PMID:21104104

Achal, V; Mukherjee, A; Reddy, M S

2011-09-01

181

Characterization of Porcine Aortic Valvular Interstitial Cell ‘Calcified’ Nodules  

PubMed Central

Valve interstitial cells populate aortic valve cusps and have been implicated in aortic valve calcification. Here we investigate a common in vitro model for aortic valve calcification by characterizing nodule formation in porcine aortic valve interstitial cells (PAVICs) cultured in osteogenic (OST) medium supplemented with transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-?1). Using a combination of materials science and biological techniques, we investigate the relevance of PAVICs nodules in modeling the mineralised material produced in calcified aortic valve disease. PAVICs were grown in OST medium supplemented with TGF-?1 (OST+TGF-?1) or basal (CTL) medium for up to 21 days. Murine calvarial osteoblasts (MOBs) were grown in OST medium for 28 days as a known mineralizing model for comparison. PAVICs grown in OST+TGF-?1 produced nodular structures staining positive for calcium content; however, micro-Raman spectroscopy allowed live, noninvasive imaging that showed an absence of mineralized material, which was readily identified in nodules formed by MOBs and has been identified in human valves. Gene expression analysis, immunostaining, and transmission electron microscopy imaging revealed that PAVICs grown in OST+TGF-?1 medium produced abundant extracellular matrix via the upregulation of the gene for Type I Collagen. PAVICs, nevertheless, did not appear to further transdifferentiate to osteoblasts. Our results demonstrate that ‘calcified’ nodules formed from PAVICs grown in OST+TGF-?1 medium do not mineralize after 21 days in culture, but rather they express a myofibroblast-like phenotype and produce a collagen-rich extracellular matrix. This study clarifies further the role of PAVICs as a model of calcification of the human aortic valve. PMID:23110195

Cloyd, Kristy L.; El-Hamamsy, Ismail; Boonrungsiman, Suwimon; Hedegaard, Martin; Gentleman, Eileen; Sarathchandra, Padmini; Colazzo, Francesca; Gentleman, Molly M.; Yacoub, Magdi H.; Chester, Adrian H.; Stevens, Molly M.

2012-01-01

182

Characteristics of normal rabbit pleural fluid: Physiologic and biochemical implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Each normal rabbit pleural space contains approximately 0.2 ml of collectable, clear liquid. This fluid has a total cell count\\u000a of 1503?414 cells\\/mm3, the majority of which are monocytic cells. Pleural fluid total protein concentration (1.4?0.1 gm\\/100 ml) is approximately\\u000a 20%, and lactic dehydrogenase concentration (129?6 Wrobleski U\\/ml) is approximately 40% of that found in blood. Pleural fluid\\u000a and blood

St. A. Sahn; Mary L. Willcox; J. T. Good; D. E. Potts; G. F. Filley

1979-01-01

183

Asbestos exposure upregulates the adhesion of pleural leukocytes to pleural mesothelial cells via VCAM-1.  

PubMed

This study was designed to assess the effects of in vitro and in vivo asbestos exposure on the adhesion of rat pleural leukocytes (RPLs) labeled with the fluorochrome calcein AM to rat pleural mesothelial cells (RPMCs). Exposure of RPMCs for 24 h to either crocidolite or chrysotile fibers (1.25-10 microgram/cm(2)) increased the adhesion of RPLs to RPMCs in a dose-dependent fashion, an effect that was potentiated by interleukin-1beta. These findings were not observed with nonfibrogenic carbonyl iron particles. Crocidolite and chrysotile plus interleukin-1beta also upregulated vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 mRNA and protein expression in RPMCs, and the binding of RPL to asbestos-treated RPMCs was abrogated by anti-vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 antibody. PRLs exposed by intermittent inhalation to crocidolite for 2 wk manifested significantly greater binding to RPMCs than did RPLs from sham-exposed animals. The ability of asbestos fibers to upregulate RPL adhesion to RPMCs may play a role in the induction and/or potentiation of asbestos-induced pleural injury. PMID:10444523

Choe, N; Zhang, J; Iwagaki, A; Tanaka, S; Hemenway, D R; Kagan, E

1999-08-01

184

Fibrin Deposition in Peyronie's Disease Plaque  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposePeyronie's disease is a pathological fibrosis characterized by excessive deposition of collagen in the plaque. Although the etiology of Peyronie's disease is unknown, trauma has been hypothesized as the inciting event. In an effort to obtain more insight into the pathogenesis of Peyronie's disease plaque tissue was examined for collagen, elastic fiber, and fibrin content and distribution.

Kenneth D. Somers; Dawn M. Dawson

1997-01-01

185

Iron plaque formation on seagrasses: Why not?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron (Fe) plaque formation is a well known phenomenon in wetland, freshwater and salt marsh species; however there are no reports about Fe plaque occurrence in seagrasses. Here we review the main factors regulating Fe deposition on the roots and rhizomes of plants from reduced sediments\\/soils, and discuss these factors in relation to marine environment. Moreover, we present some early

K atrina Povidisa; Marianne Holmer

2008-01-01

186

Efficacy of lacrosse NSE using the "leopard-crawl" technique on severely calcified lesions.  

PubMed

Calcified lesions often encounter difficulties associated with stent delivery and underexpansion. Lesion preparation of calcified lesions prior to stent implantation is important to facilitate stent delivery and provide concentric stent expansion. The Lacrosse NSE, a balloon catheter with 3 nylon elements, provides an efficacious scoring effect when used for predilatation of calcified lesions. Although bench testing on a calcified model verified that Lacrosse NSE and other scoring catheters provide a greater scoring effect compared to conventional plain old balloon angioplasty, delivery to target lesion location using standard delivery techniques for severely calcified lesions is typically more problematic. One method for overcoming the obstacles faced by difficult delivery is use of the "leopard-crawl" technique. This technique uses a low inflation pressure to create a wedge into the calcification and then subsequently advances the catheter during balloon deflation to facilitate catheter delivery across the stenosis. This technique is well suited for the Lacrosse NSE due to the unique catheter design. We hereby report on the initial clinical use of the leopard-crawl technique for facilitating catheter delivery in cases of severely calcified lesions in which standard delivery was unsuccessful, while creating an efficacious scoring effect into the calcified lesion that reflects the results of bench testing. PMID:24088433

Ashida, Kazuhiro; Hayase, Taichiro; Shinmura, Takayuki

2013-10-01

187

Malignant pleural effusion and algorithm management  

PubMed Central

Involvement of the pleura in lung cancer is a common manifestation accompanying with reduced life expectancy. Symptoms relief and improvement of the quality of life are the primary goals of the management of malignant pleural effusion (MPE). Histological confirmation is essential for optimal patient management. Lung cancer patients, with life expectancy more than 3 months, resistant to chemotherapy should be treated with thoracentesis, intercoastal tube drainage and installation of a sclerosant agent or pleurodesis through thoracospopic procedures or placement of an indwelling pleura catheter. Talc pleurodesis (sterile asbestos-free graded, particle size >15 ?m), as “poudrage” or “slurry” still remains the treatment of choice in patients with MPE resistant to chemotherapy. PMID:24102015

Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Darwiche, Kaid; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Courcoutsakis, Nikolaos; Terzi, Eirini; Zaric, Bojan; Huang, Haidong; Freitag, Lutz; Spyratos, Dionysios

2013-01-01

188

Environmental asbestos exposure and malignant pleural mesothelioma.  

PubMed

Asbestos-related benign and malignant pleural diseases are endemic in some rural parts of central Turkey because of environmental exposure to asbestos fibres. We report here epidemiological data on 113 patients with diffuse malignant pleural mesothelioma (DMPM) diagnosed in our clinic in Eski?ehir, located in central Turkey. Of the 113 patients, 59 were men and 54 women (male:female ratio = 1). Ninety-seven patients (86%) had non-occupational asbestos exposure; all were living in villages. Their mean age was 56 years. As the patients had been exposed to asbestos from birth, the latency period was equivalent to the age of the patients. Twenty-eight patients (29%) had lived in villages their entire lives. The other 69 (71%) had been born in a village but migrated to the city or had given up white-soil usage for various reasons. The mean exposure time was 55 years for those with a long exposure period and 25 years for those with a short exposure period, but there was no significant difference between the age of the disease appearance for both groups (55 and 56 years, respectively). Thus, the latency time of mesothelioma due to environmental exposure to asbestos was longer than that due to occupational exposure, but independent of the length of exposure. Soil samples from 67 villages were analysed, comprising a population of 10,120 villagers. Tremolite and some other types of asbestos were found. In conclusion, DMPM in our region is due to mainly to environmental exposure to asbestos. The risk is substantial as a large proportion of the villagers are exposed. After smoking, asbestos exposure is one of the most serious health hazards in our rural population. PMID:10464903

Metintas, M; Ozdemir, N; Hillerdal, G; Uçgun, I; Metintas, S; Baykul, C; Elbek, O; Mutlu, S; Kolsuz, M

1999-05-01

189

Haemodynamical stress in mouse aortic arch with atherosclerotic plaques: Preliminary study of plaque progression.  

PubMed

Atherosclerotic plaques develop at particular sites in the arterial tree, and this regional localisation depends largely on haemodynamic parameters (such as wall shear stress; WSS) as described in the literature. Plaque rupture can result in heart attack or stroke and hence understanding the development and vulnerability of atherosclerotic plaques is critically important. The purpose of this study is to characterise the haemodynamics of blood flow in the mouse aortic arch using numerical modelling. The geometries are digitalised from synchrotron imaging and realistic pulsatile blood flow is considered under rigid wall assumptions. Two cases are considered; arteries with and without plaque. Mice that are fed under fat diet present plaques in the aortic arch whose size is dependent on the number of weeks under the diet. The plaque distribution in the region is however relatively constant through the different samples. This result underlines the influence of the geometry and consequently of the wall shear stresses for plaque formation with plaques growing in region of relative low shear stresses. A discussion of the flow field in real geometry in the presence and absence of plaques is conducted. The presence of plaques was shown to alter the blood flow and hence WSS distribution, with regions of localised high WSS, mainly on the wall of the brachiocephalic artery where luminal narrowing is most pronounced. In addition, arch plaques are shown to induce recirculation in the blood flow, a phenomenon with potential influence on the progression of the plaques. The oscillatory shear index and the relative residence time have been calculated on the geometry with plaques to show the presence of this recirculation in the arch, an approach that may be useful for future studies on plaque progression. PMID:25349678

Assemat, P; Siu, K K; Armitage, J A; Hokke, S N; Dart, A; Chin-Dusting, J; Hourigan, K

2014-07-01

190

Haemodynamical stress in mouse aortic arch with atherosclerotic plaques: Preliminary study of plaque progression  

PubMed Central

Atherosclerotic plaques develop at particular sites in the arterial tree, and this regional localisation depends largely on haemodynamic parameters (such as wall shear stress; WSS) as described in the literature. Plaque rupture can result in heart attack or stroke and hence understanding the development and vulnerability of atherosclerotic plaques is critically important. The purpose of this study is to characterise the haemodynamics of blood flow in the mouse aortic arch using numerical modelling. The geometries are digitalised from synchrotron imaging and realistic pulsatile blood flow is considered under rigid wall assumptions. Two cases are considered; arteries with and without plaque. Mice that are fed under fat diet present plaques in the aortic arch whose size is dependent on the number of weeks under the diet. The plaque distribution in the region is however relatively constant through the different samples. This result underlines the influence of the geometry and consequently of the wall shear stresses for plaque formation with plaques growing in region of relative low shear stresses. A discussion of the flow field in real geometry in the presence and absence of plaques is conducted. The presence of plaques was shown to alter the blood flow and hence WSS distribution, with regions of localised high WSS, mainly on the wall of the brachiocephalic artery where luminal narrowing is most pronounced. In addition, arch plaques are shown to induce recirculation in the blood flow, a phenomenon with potential influence on the progression of the plaques. The oscillatory shear index and the relative residence time have been calculated on the geometry with plaques to show the presence of this recirculation in the arch, an approach that may be useful for future studies on plaque progression. PMID:25349678

Assemat, P.; Siu, K.K.; Armitage, J.A.; Hokke, S.N.; Dart, A.; Chin-Dusting, J.; Hourigan, K.

2014-01-01

191

The clinical value of histological femoral artery plaque analysis.  

E-print Network

??This thesis shows that the dissected femoral atherosclerotic plaque contains a predictive value for clinical outcome after femoral endarterectomy. Plaque histology analysis should be incorporated… (more)

Derksen, W.J.M.

2011-01-01

192

Synchronous occurrence of pulmonary adenocarcinoma and pleural diffuse malignant mesothelioma.  

PubMed

We report a rare case of diffuse malignant pleural mesothelioma synchronous with a localized adenocarcinoma of lung in a 68-year old man with a suspicious history of asbestos exposure. Computed tomography revealed a sub-pleural mass in the lower lobe and an irregular dense area of medium lobe of right lung with thickening of pleura encasing the lung parenchyma and homolateral pleural effusion 1 cm thick. The patient underwent surgery and a right medium and lower lobectomy was performed. Upon frozen sections, intraoperative diagnosis was adenocarcinoma with a poorly differentiated component of lung infiltrating the pleura. The postoperative histological definitive diagnosis with an important contribution of immunostaining was synchronous pulmonary adenocarcinoma and pleural diffuse malignant epithelioid mesothelioma. PMID:24730341

Imenpour, H; Ivaldi, G P; Brianti, A; Pastorino, G; Biggi, S; Auriati, L; Simonassi, C

2013-12-01

193

Pleural effusions in patients with acute leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome.  

PubMed

Pleural effusions are rarely observed in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)/myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN). Therefore the underlying etiology of pleural effusions and the efficacy and safety of pleural procedures in this population has not been well studied. In a retrospective review of cases from 1997 to 2007, we identified 111 patients with acute leukemia or MDS/MPN who underwent pleural procedures. Clinical characteristics were reviewed, and survival outcomes were estimated by Kaplan-Meier methods. A total of 270 pleural procedures were performed in 111 patients (69 AML, 27 ALL, 15 MDS/MPN). The main indications for pleural procedures were possible infection (49%) and respiratory symptoms (48%), and concomitant clinical symptoms included fever (34%), dyspnea (74%), chest pain (24%) and cough (37%). Most patients had active disease (61%). The most frequent etiology of pleural effusions was infection (47%), followed by malignancy (36%). Severe thrombocytopenia (platelet count < 20 × 10(3)/µL) was present in 43% of the procedures, yet the procedural complication rate was only 1.9%. Multivariate analysis revealed that older age, AML, MDS/MPN and active disease status were associated with a shorter median overall survival. Infection and malignant involvement are the most common causes of pleural effusion in patients with acute leukemia or MDS. After optimizing platelet count and coagulopathy, thoracentesis may be performed safely and with high diagnostic yield in this population. Survival in these patients is determined by the response to treatment of the hematologic malignancy. PMID:22812422

Faiz, Saadia A; Bashoura, Lara; Lei, Xiudong; Sampat, Keeran R; Brown, Tiffany C; Eapen, George A; Morice, Rodolfo C; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Jimenez, Carlos A

2013-02-01

194

[The treatment of parapneumonic effusions and pleural empyemas].  

PubMed

Pleural effusions of infectious origin usually present as a complication of pneumonia, or, more rarely, of thoracic surgical procedures. Treatment is based upon the clinical picture, the appearance of the pleural fluid, on certain laboratory parameters, and upon the success of therapeutic interventions. The initial antibiotic regimen should cover the causative organisms that may empirically be expected in the individual setting of the patient. Similar to the situation in pneumonias, the spectrum of organisms in community-acquired effusions or empyemas differs substantially from that in hospital-acquired pleural infections. The management of pleural empyemas should follow an interdisciplinary strategy which involves the pulmonologist and the thoracic surgeon. The single most important intervention is the early and effective drainage of the pleural cavity. Loculated effusions that do not promptly improve after drainage can additionally be treated by a trial of intrapleural fibrinolysis for a period of approximately three days. However, the precise role of fibrinolytics in the setting of complicated pleural effusions and empyemas remains to be better defined. Early definitive surgical treatment, preferentially by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS), should be the goal in all patients who do not promptly respond to drainage and/or intrapleural fibrinolytic therapy and who qualify for a surgical intervention. PMID:16222582

Hamm, H

2005-10-01

195

Management of malignant pleural effusion associated with trapped lung syndrome.  

PubMed

Management of recurrent malignant pleural effusion associated with trapped lung syndrome remains problematic. An alternative treatment using a pleural catheter has been advocated. Between August 1999 and August 2002, 127 patients underwent thoracoscopy for malignant pleural effusion. Of these, 52 (41%) with trapped lung were managed by insertion of a pleural catheter. Mean age was 66 years (range, 42-89 years). The most frequent diagnosis was breast cancer. Spontaneous pleurodesis (drainage < 10 mL) occurred in 25 (48%) patients whose catheter was removed after 30 to 255 days (mean, 93.8 days). Symptomatic relief was achieved in 49 (94%) patients. Mean dyspnea score improved significantly from 3.0 to 1.9. Complications comprised catheter blockage, surgical emphysema, cellulitis, and loculated effusion in 2 patients each. Mean length of hospital stay was 3 days (range, 1-16 days). Median survival was 126 days (range, 10-175 days). We conclude that long-term placement of a pleural catheter provides effective palliation for malignant pleural effusion associated with trapped lung syndrome. PMID:18381869

Qureshi, Rizwan A; Collinson, Sandra L; Powell, Roy J; Froeschle, Peter O; Berrisford, Richard G

2008-04-01

196

A mechanistic analysis of the role of microcalcifications in atherosclerotic plaque stability: potential implications for plaque rupture  

PubMed Central

The role of microcalcifications (?Calcs) in the biomechanics of vulnerable plaque rupture is examined. Our laboratory previously proposed (Ref. 44), using a very limited tissue sample, that ?Calcs embedded in the fibrous cap proper could significantly increase cap instability. This study has been greatly expanded. Ninety-two human coronary arteries containing 62 fibroatheroma were examined using high-resolution microcomputed tomography at 6.7-?m resolution and undecalcified histology with special emphasis on calcified particles <50 ?m in diameter. Our results reveal the presence of thousands of ?Calcs, the vast majority in lipid pools where they are not dangerous. However, 81 ?Calcs were also observed in the fibrous caps of nine of the fibroatheroma. All 81 of these ?Calcs were analyzed using three-dimensional finite-element analysis, and the results were used to develop important new clinical criteria for cap stability. These criteria include variation of the Young's modulus of the ?Calc and surrounding tissue, ?Calc size, and clustering. We found that local tissue stress could be increased fivefold when ?Calcs were closely spaced, and the peak circumferential stress in the thinnest nonruptured cap (66 ?m) if no ?Calcs were present was only 107 kPa, far less than the proposed minimum rupture threshold of 300 kPa. These results and histology suggest that there are numerous ?Calcs < 15 ?m in the caps, not visible at 6.7-?m resolution, and that our failure to find any nonruptured caps between 30 and 66 ?m is a strong indication that many of these caps contained ?Calcs. PMID:22777419

Maldonado, Natalia; Kelly-Arnold, Adreanne; Vengrenyuk, Yuliya; Laudier, Damien; Fallon, John T.; Virmani, Renu; Cardoso, Luis

2012-01-01

197

Intra-Pleural Colistin Methanesulfonate Therapy for Pleural Infection caused by Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter Baumannii: A Successful Case Report.  

PubMed

Infections caused by carbapenem-resistant, Gram-negative bacteria are an increasing clinical challenge, since the antimicrobial treatment options are often limited to colistin methanesulfonate. No data are available regarding the pharmacokinetics of colistin in pleural fluid. We report the case of a 92-year old man with ventilator-associated pneumonia and pleurisy caused by Acinetobacter baumannii and Escherichia coli, which were both multidrug-resistant. After an unsuccessful treatment with intravenous colistin methanesulfonate and imipen-em-cilastatin, the addition of intra-pleural colistin methanesulfonate to the intravenous treatment led to a prompt clinical, radiological and microbiological resolution. This is the first report of a successful use of intra-pleural colistin in the literature. The intra-pleural colistin therapy should be considered in selected cases of pleurisy caused by multi-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:25276329

Rana, Muhammad Asim; Rahman, Basheer Abd El; Mady, Ahmed Fouad; Odat, Mohammed Al; AlHarthy, Abdurehman; Ramadan, Omar El Sayed; Mumtaz, Shahzad Ahmed; Omrani, Ali S

2014-08-13

198

Biomechanical factors and macrophages in plaque stability.  

PubMed

Thin-cap fibroatheromas (TCFAs) or vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques are considered a high-risk phenotype for acute cardiovascular events. TCFAs are identified by a thin rupture-prone fibrous cap, a large necrotic core, and a high content of leucocytes. Atherogenesis is dependent upon complex patterns of blood flow. Slow-flowing blood imposing low shear stress on the arterial wall up-regulates inflammatory signalling in endothelial cells and leucocytes, and modulates microRNAs to promote inflammation and monocyte recruitment. Hence, low shear stress is believed to promote conditions conducive to vulnerable plaque development. In this review, we explore how biomechanical factors modulate macrophage phenotype and plaque stability. PMID:23687352

Seneviratne, Anusha; Hulsmans, Maarten; Holvoet, Paul; Monaco, Claudia

2013-07-15

199

Extracorporeal shock wave therapy for chronic calcifying tendinitis of the shoulder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past few years, extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) has been introduced for the treatment of some orthopedic\\u000a diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of ESWT on chronic calcifying tendinitis of the shoulder through\\u000a a prospective study. We studied 30 patients (mean age, 56.6 years) with chronic calcifying tendinitis of the shoulder. The\\u000a patients

R. Padua; R. Bondì; E. Ceccarelli; S. Ripanti; L. Bondì; A. Campi

2002-01-01

200

Arm position during extracorporeal shock wave therapy for calcifying tendinitis of the shoulder: a randomized study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To generate data on optimal shoulder position comparing two ultrasound-guided extracorporeal shock wave therapy techniques for the treatment of calcifying tendinitis of the shoulder.Design: Random assignment to two groups of treatment with three months follow-up.Setting: The data were collected in outpatients.Subjects: Thirty-five subjects affected by calcifying tendinitis of the shoulder were examined.Interventions: Each subject received three sessions of ultrasound-guided

Davide Tornese; Enrico Mattei; Marco Bandi; Alberto Zerbi; Alessandro Quaglia; Gianluca Melegati

2011-01-01

201

Compensatory response of the unicellular-calcifying alga Emiliania huxleyi (Coccolithophoridales, Haptophyta) to ocean acidification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ocean acidification damages calcareous organisms, such as calcifying algae, foraminifera, corals, and shells. In this study,\\u000a we made a device equipped with a Clark-type oxygen electrode and a pH-stat to examine how the most abundant calcifying phytoplankton,\\u000a the coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi, responded to acidification and alkalization of the seawater medium. When E. huxleyi was incubated at pH 8.2, close to

Shin-ya Fukuda; Iwane Suzuki; Takeo Hama; Yoshihiro Shiraiwa

2011-01-01

202

Atherosclerosis and Atheroma Plaque Rupture: Imaging Modalities in the Visualization of Vasa Vasorum and Atherosclerotic Plaques  

PubMed Central

Invasive angiography has been widely accepted as the gold standard to diagnose cardiovascular pathologies. Despite its superior resolution of demonstrating atherosclerotic plaque in terms of degree of lumen stenosis, the morphological assessment for the plaque is insufficient for the analysis of plaque components, and therefore, unable to predict the risk status or vulnerability of atherosclerotic plaque. There is an increased body of evidence to show that the vasa vasorum play an important role in the initiation, progression, and complications of atherosclerotic plaque leading to major adverse cardiac events. This paper provides an overview of the evidence-based reviews of various imaging modalities with regard to their potential value for comprehensive characterization of the composition, burden, and neovascularization of atherosclerotic plaque. PMID:24688380

2014-01-01

203

Calcified epidural hematoma in pediatric age group: A report of two cases.  

PubMed

The authors present a rare case of calcified (ossified) chronic epidural hematoma developed in a six-and-a-half-year-old female patient who was operated for cerebellar astrocytoma 6 months earlier. There was no history of trauma. Ossified epidural hematoma was seen as an incidental finding in the follow-up in computed tomography scan after 6 months of primary glioma surgery. Ossified chronic epidural hematoma with thick collagenous wall and newly formed bone on dura was excised. The development of calcified chronic subdural hematoma after decompressive intracranial surgery is a well-known occurrence, but the fact that a calcified epidural hematoma, which is rare and which can also develop after decompressive surgery, and the occurrence of calcified (ossified) epidural hematoma after postfossa a glioma surgery is not yet reported. The second case is a 9-year-old male anemic child with a history of fall while playing 5 months earlier who presented with headache of 3 months duration. He had bifrontal calcified epidural hematoma operated by craniotomy and excision of calcified dural edge. PMID:21808510

Trivedi, A; Hiran, S

2010-07-01

204

Moxifloxacin pharmacokinetics and pleural fluid penetration in patients with pleural effusion.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and penetration of moxifloxacin (MXF) in patients with various types of pleural effusion. Twelve patients with empyema/parapneumonic effusion (PPE) and 12 patients with malignant pleural effusion were enrolled in the study. A single-dose pharmacokinetic study was performed after intravenous administration of 400 mg MXF. Serial plasma (PL) and pleural fluid (PF) samples were collected during a 24-h time interval after drug administration. The MXF concentration in PL and PF was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography, and main pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated. Penetration of MXF in PF was determined by the ratio of the area under the concentration-time curve from time zero to 24 h (AUC24) in PF (AUC24PF) to the AUC24 in PL. No statistically significant differences in the pharmacokinetics in PL were observed between the two groups, despite the large interindividual variability in the volume of distribution, clearance, and elimination half-life. The maximum concentration in PF (CmaxPF) in patients with empyema/PPE was 2.23±1.31 mg/liter, and it was detected 7.50±2.39 h after the initiation of the infusion. In patients with malignant effusion, CmaxPF was 2.96±1.45 mg/liter, but it was observed significantly earlier, at 3.58±1.38 h (P<0.001). Both groups revealed similar values of AUC24PF (31.83±23.52 versus 32.81±12.66 mg·h/liter). Penetration of MXF into PF was similarly good in both patient groups (1.11±0.74 versus 1.17±0.39). Despite similar plasma pharmacokinetics, patients with empyema/parapneumonic effusion showed a significant delay in achievement of PF maximum MXF levels compared to those with malignant effusion. However, in both groups, the degree of MXF PF penetration and the on-site drug exposure, expressed by AUC24PF, did not differ according to the type of pleural effusion. PMID:24323477

Chatzika, Kalliopi; Manika, Katerina; Kontou, Paschalina; Pitsiou, Georgia; Papakosta, Despina; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Kioumis, Ioannis

2014-01-01

205

Role of inflammation and metalloproteinases in plaque disruption and thrombosis.  

PubMed

Numerous pathological, clinical, angiographic and angioscopic studies have demonstrated that acute coronary syndromes (unstable angina, acute myocardial infarction and ischemic sudden death) are most frequently the consequence of plaque disruption (plaque rupture or superficial plaque erosion) and consequent coronary thrombosis. Several serial angiographic studies have demonstrated that nearly 60-70% of acute coronary syndromes evolve from mildly to moderately obstructive atherosclerotic plaques. Coronary plaque disruption appears to be a function of both the composition of the plaque (plaque vulnerability ) as well as extrinsic triggers that may precipitate plaque disruption in a vulnerable plaque. Vulnerability for plaque disruption appears to be largely determined by the size of the lipid-rich atheromatous core, the thickness of the fibrous cap covering the core, and the presence of ongoing inflammation within and underneath the cap. Inflammatory cells may play a critical role in plaque disruption through the elaboration of matrix degrading metalloproteinases or MMPs (collagenases, gelatinases, stromelysins and matrilysin) and by inhibition of function and survival of matrix-synthesizing smooth muscle cells. Inflammatory cells may also play a critical role in triggering thrombosis following plaque disruption through the tissue factor pathway. In addition, stresses resulting from hemodynamic and mechanical forces may precipitate plaque disruption, particularly at points where the fibrous cap is weakest, such as at its shoulders. The degree of thrombosis following plaque disruption is determined by the thrombogenicity of the disrupted plaque, disturbed local rheology and systemic thrombotic-thrombolytic milieu. Surges in sympathetic activity provoked by sudden vigorous exercise, emotional stress -- including anger, or cold weather, may also trigger plaque disruption. These observations have led to the concept of plaque stabilization as a new clinical strategy for the prevention of acute coronary syndromes. Plaque stabilization can be achieved through pharmacologic and lifestyle-modifying interventions that reduce vulnerability to plaque disruption by altering plaque composition and/or inflammatory activity within the plaque. PMID:9892512

Shah, P K

1998-01-01

206

Atherosclerotic Plaque Component Segmentation in Combined Carotid MRI and CTA Data Incorporating Class Label Uncertainty  

PubMed Central

Atherosclerotic plaque composition can indicate plaque vulnerability. We segment atherosclerotic plaque components from the carotid artery on a combination of in vivo MRI and CT-angiography (CTA) data using supervised voxelwise classification. In contrast to previous studies the ground truth for training is directly obtained from 3D registration with histology for fibrous and lipid-rich necrotic tissue, and with CT for calcification. This registration does, however, not provide accurate voxelwise correspondence. We therefore evaluate three approaches that incorporate uncertainty in the ground truth used for training: I) soft labels are created by Gaussian blurring of the original binary histology segmentations to reduce weights at the boundaries between components, and are weighted by the estimated registration accuracy of the histology and in vivo imaging data (measured by overlap), II) samples are weighted by the local contour distance of the lumen and outer wall between histology and in vivo data, and III) 10% of each class is rejected by Gaussian outlier rejection. Classification was evaluated on the relative volumes (% of tissue type in the vessel wall) for calcified, fibrous and lipid-rich necrotic tissue, using linear discriminant (LDC) and support vector machine (SVM) classification. In addition, the combination of MRI and CTA data was compared to using only one imaging modality. Best results were obtained by LDC and outlier rejection: the volume error per vessel was 0.91.0% for calcification, 12.77.6% for fibrous and 12.18.1% for necrotic tissue, with Spearman rank correlation coefficients of 0.91 (calcification), 0.80 (fibrous) and 0.81 (necrotic). While segmentation using only MRI features yielded low accuracy for calcification, and segmentation using only CTA features yielded low accuracy for necrotic tissue, the combination of features from MRI and CTA gave good results for all studied components. PMID:24762678

van Engelen, Arna; Niessen, Wiro J.; Klein, Stefan; Groen, Harald C.; Verhagen, Hence J. M.; Wentzel, Jolanda J.; van der Lugt, Aad; de Bruijne, Marleen

2014-01-01

207

Post-polymerization of urease-induced calcified, polymer hydrogels.  

PubMed

Urease-induced calcification is an innovative method to artificially produce highly filled CaCO3 -based composite materials by intrinsic mineralization of hydrogels. The mechanical properties of these hybrid materials based on poly(2-hydroxyethylacrylate) cross-linked by triethylene glycol dimethacrylate are poor. Increasing the degree of calcification to up to 94 wt% improves the Young's moduli (YM) of the materials from some 40 MPa to more than 300 MPa. The introduction of calcium carbonate affine groups to the hydrogel matrix by copolymerizing acrylic acid and [2-(methacryloyloxy) ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride, respectively, does not increase the stiffness of the composites. A Young's modulus of more than 1 GPa is achieved by post-polymerization (PP) of the calcified hydrogels, which proves that the size of the contact area between the matrix and calcium carbonate crystals is the most crucial parameter for controlling the stiffness of hybrid materials. Switching from low Tg to high Tg hydrogel matrices (based on poly(N,N-dimethyl acrylamide)) results in a YM of up to 3.5 GPa after PP. PMID:25284027

Rauner, Nicolas; Buenger, Lea; Schuller, Stefanie; Tiller, Joerg C

2015-01-01

208

Bioconvection in Cultures of the Calcifying Unicellular Alga Pleurochrysis Carterae  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The unicellular, marine, calcifying alga P leurochiysis carterae--a model to study cell morphogenesis, cell polarity, calcification, gravitaxis, reproduction and development-- has extremely flexible culture requirements. Support studies for a flight experiment addressing cell motility suggested that cell density (cells/ml) affects cell movement in P. carterae cultures through the gradual establishment of bioconvection as the culture grows. To assess the effect of cell density on direction of the movement, without the effects of aging of the culture, swimming behavior was analyzed in aliquots from a series of dilutions obtained from a stock culture. Results showed that at low concentrations cells swim randomly. As the concentration increases, upswimming patterns overtake random swimming. Gradually, up and down movement patterns prevail, representative of bioconvection. This oriented swimming of P. carterae occurs in a wide range of concentrations, adding to the list of flexible requirements, in this case, cell concentration, to be used for spaceflight studies addressing cell motility and bioconvection in a unicellular model of biologically directed mineralization.

Montufar-Solis, Dina; Duke, P. Jackie; Marsh, Mary E.

2003-01-01

209

Historical Plaque at Marshall Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This plaque, displayed on the grounds of Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, commemorates the Redstone Test Stand as an Alabama Historic Civil Engineering Landmark. The site was desinated as such in 1979.

2002-01-01

210

CONFIRMED VIRUSES VERSUS UNCONFIRMED PLAQUES IN SEWAGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Ninety-two treated and untreated sewage samples from seven wastewater treatment plants in Chicago, Illinois, Memphis, Tennessee, and Cincinnati, Ohio were examined for their virus content. Concentrated and unconcentrated samples were plaque assayed in five different cell culture ...

211

Vascular MR segmentation: wall and plaque  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cardiovascular events frequently result from local rupture of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque. Non-invasive assessment of plaque vulnerability is needed to allow institution of preventive measures before heart attack or stroke occur. A computerized method for segmentation of arterial wall layers and plaque from high-resolution volumetric MR images is reported. The method uses dynamic programming to detect optimal borders in each MRI frame. The accuracy of the results was tested in 62 T1-weighted MR images from 6 vessel specimens in comparison to borders manually determined by an expert observer. The mean signed border positioning errors for the lumen, internal elastic lamina, and external elastic lamina borders were -0.12+/-0.14 mm, 0.04+/-0.12mm, and -0.15+/-0.13 mm, respectively. The presented wall layer segmentation approach is one of the first steps towards non-invasive assessment of plaque vulnerability in atherosclerotic subjects.

Yang, Fuxing; Holzapfel, Gerhard; Schulze-Bauer, Christian; Stollberger, Rudolf; Thedens, Daniel; Bolinger, Lizann; Stolpen, Alan; Sonka, Milan

2003-05-01

212

Carotid Plaque Age Is a Feature of Plaque Stability Inversely Related to Levels of Plasma Insulin  

PubMed Central

Background The stability of atherosclerotic plaques determines the risk for rupture, which may lead to thrombus formation and potentially severe clinical complications such as myocardial infarction and stroke. Although the rate of plaque formation may be important for plaque stability, this process is not well understood. We took advantage of the atmospheric 14C-declination curve (a result of the atomic bomb tests in the 1950s and 1960s) to determine the average biological age of carotid plaques. Methodology/Principal Finding The cores of carotid plaques were dissected from 29 well-characterized, symptomatic patients with carotid stenosis and analyzed for 14C content by accelerator mass spectrometry. The average plaque age (i.e. formation time) was 9.6±3.3 years. All but two plaques had formed within 5–15 years before surgery. Plaque age was not associated with the chronological ages of the patients but was inversely related to plasma insulin levels (p?=?0.0014). Most plaques were echo-lucent rather than echo-rich (2.24±0.97, range 1–5). However, plaques in the lowest tercile of plaque age (most recently formed) were characterized by further instability with a higher content of lipids and macrophages (67.8±12.4 vs. 50.4±6.2, p?=?0.00005; 57.6±26.1 vs. 39.8±25.7, p<0.0005, respectively), less collagen (45.3±6.1 vs. 51.1±9.8, p<0.05), and fewer smooth muscle cells (130±31 vs. 141±21, p<0.05) than plaques in the highest tercile. Microarray analysis of plaques in the lowest tercile also showed increased activity of genes involved in immune responses and oxidative phosphorylation. Conclusions/Significance Our results show, for the first time, that plaque age, as judge by relative incorporation of 14C, can improve our understanding of carotid plaque stability and therefore risk for clinical complications. Our results also suggest that levels of plasma insulin might be involved in determining carotid plaque age. PMID:21490968

Hägg, Sara; Salehpour, Mehran; Noori, Peri; Lundström, Jesper; Possnert, Göran; Takolander, Rabbe; Konrad, Peter; Rosfors, Stefan; Ruusalepp, Arno; Skogsberg, Josefin; Tegnér, Jesper; Björkegren, Johan

2011-01-01

213

Transcriptome sequencing of malignant pleural mesothelioma tumors  

PubMed Central

Cancers arise by the gradual accumulation of mutations in multiple genes. We now use shotgun pyrosequencing to characterize RNA mutations and expression levels unique to malignant pleural mesotheliomas (MPMs) and not present in control tissues. On average, 266 Mb of cDNA were sequenced from each of four MPMs, from a control pulmonary adenocarcinoma (ADCA), and from normal lung tissue. Previously observed differences in MPM RNA expression levels were confirmed. Point mutations were identified by using criteria that require the presence of the mutation in at least four reads and in both cDNA strands and the absence of the mutation from sequence databases, normal adjacent tissues, and other controls. In the four MPMs, 15 nonsynonymous mutations were discovered: 7 were point mutations, 3 were deletions, 4 were exclusively expressed as a consequence of imputed epigenetic silencing, and 1 was putatively expressed as a consequence of RNA editing. Notably, each MPM had a different mutation profile, and no mutated gene was previously implicated in MPM. Of the seven point mutations, three were observed in at least one tumor from 49 other MPM patients. The mutations were in genes that could be causally related to cancer and included XRCC6, PDZK1IP1, ACTR1A, and AVEN. PMID:18303113

Sugarbaker, David J.; Richards, William G.; Gordon, Gavin J.; Dong, Lingsheng; De Rienzo, Assunta; Maulik, Gautam; Glickman, Jonathan N.; Chirieac, Lucian R.; Hartman, Mor-Li; Taillon, Bruce E.; Du, Lei; Bouffard, Pascal; Kingsmore, Stephen F.; Miller, Neil A.; Farmer, Andrew D.; Jensen, Roderick V.; Gullans, Steven R.; Bueno, Raphael

2008-01-01

214

Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma  

PubMed Central

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare and aggressive cancer of the mesothelium with only a limited range of treatment options that are largely ineffective in improving survival. Recent efforts have turned toward the analysis of specific, dysregulated biologic pathways for insight into new treatment targets. Epigenetic regulation of tumor suppressor genes through chromatin condensation and decondensation has emerged as an important mechanism that leads to tumorogenesis. A family of histone acetyltransferases and deacetylases regulates this balance, with the latter facilitating chromatin condensation, thus preventing gene transcription, resulting in the loss of heterozygosity of tumor suppressors. Inhibition of this process, coupled with a similar inhibition of nonhistone protein deacetylation, ultimately leads to the promotion of apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and inhibition of angiogenesis. An increasing amount of preclinical data highlighting the effectiveness of histone deacetylase inhibition in MPM cell lines and mouse xenograft models has led to a number of early phase clinical trials in patients with MPM. The results of these efforts have led to a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled phase III study of the histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat in patients with advanced MPM, offering hope for a new and effective therapy in patients with this disease. PMID:20035240

Paik, Paul K.; Krug, Lee M.

2014-01-01

215

New therapy of pleural empyema by deoxyribonuclease.  

PubMed

Empyema is a severe complication of different diseases and traumas. Management of this complication is difficult and should comprise general and local procedures. The general procedure is mainly based on administering wide-spectrum antibiotics. Local management depends on patient general condition, but in all cases the essential procedure is to insert a drain into the pleural cavity and to evacuate the pus. Sometimes pus is very thick and its evacuation and following re-expansion of the lung is rather impossible. In these patients surgical intervention is needed. The use of intrapleural enzymes to support the drainage was first described in 1949 by Tillett and Sherry using a mixture of streptokinase and streptococcal deoxyribonuclease. Nowadays, purified streptokinase has come into widespread use, but recent studies reported no streptokinase effect on pus viscosity. On the other side, deoxyribonuclease reduces pus viscosity and may be more useful in treatment. We report two cases of intrapleural administration of Pulmozyme (alfa dornase - deoxyribonuclease (HOFFMANN-LA ROCHE AG) in dosage 2×2.5mg with a significant improvement caused by changes in pus viscosity. PMID:23332886

Kacprzak, Grzegorz; Majewski, Andrzej; Kolodziej, Jerzy; Rzechonek, Adam; Gürlich, Robert; Bobek, Vladimir

2013-01-01

216

Diffuse malignant pleural mesothelioma and asbestos exposure  

PubMed Central

Pleural mesothelioma has been diagnosed in 52 patients in three hospitals on Merseyside between 1955 and 1970, 60% being diagnosed from operation specimens and the rest from postmortem tissues. Necropsies eventually held on nearly half the operation cases confirmed the diagnosis, giving a necropsy rate of 70% for the series. The morbid anatomy conformed to earlier descriptions except that widespread metastases were much commoner than has usually been described. Histological findings agreed with previous accounts of the tumour, except that, in our hands, special acid mucopolysaccharide staining was less reliable than Southgate's mucicarmine, which was of value in differential diagnosis. Association with asbestos was confirmed from industrial histories in 80% of cases, the commonest industries involved being shipbuilding and repairing in men and sackware repairing in women. Lungs of industrial mesothelioma cases showed basal asbestosis in 17% and excessive asbestos bodies in almost all the rest. Quantitative comparison of asbestos bodies in lung smears from mesothelioma cases compared with lung smears from other Merseyside adults showed much higher counts in the mesothelioma cases. The interval from first exposure to asbestos until appearance of mesothelioma ranged between 13 and 63 years, with a mean of 42 years. We think the incidence of mesothelioma will continue to rise with the increased use of asbestos until about 40 years after adequate protective measures have been taken. Images PMID:5101273

Whitwell, F.; Rawcliffe, Rachel M.

1971-01-01

217

[Treatment of malignant pleural effusion by pleurodesis with talc].  

PubMed

In some types of cancer (breast, lung) a malignant pleural effusion may be present during the evolution of the neoplastic disease in more than 50% of cases. The main therapeutic option for palliative purposes in these cases is chemical pleurodesis with talc. The aims of this study were to report on our experience with the use of pleurodesis with talc in the treatment of patients affected by malignant pleural effusions and to analyse the results in the short and mean term. Over the period from January 1998 to December 1999, 16 patients were included in the study. The causes of the pleural effusion were a pleural mesothelioma in 1 patient and pleural metastases in 15 patients (from lung and breast cancers in 62%). We treated 14 of these patients with talc poudrage and 2 patients with talc slurry. The talc was applied under video-assisted thorascopic management in 15 patients, while in 1 patient the talc was injected via the thoracic drainage tube. Two patients died within the first month as a result of progression of the neoplastic disease and one patient was withdrawn from the study owing to failure to collaborate. Of the other 13 patients, 11 (84%) had a total or partial response to the pleurodesis; in 9 of these patients (69.2%) the response remained stable until death, while in 2 patients the pleural effusion reappeared after 3 and 5 months, respectively. Failure of the pleurodesis occurred in 2/13 patients owing to reappearance of the pleural effusion within the first month. PMID:11190547

Filippetti, M; Crucitti, G; Vanni, B; Della Giulia, M; Foggi, P; Del Monte, G

2000-01-01

218

Semirigid thoracoscopy: an effective method for diagnosing pleural malignancies  

PubMed Central

Background Thoracoscopy with a semirigid instrument is a recent technique for diagnosing pleural diseases. The purpose of this study was to report diagnostic yield and complications of the method. Patients and methods. Patients with pleural effusion of unknown origin and/or pleural irregularities suspicious for pleural malignancy were included after less invasive means of diagnosis had failed. All procedures were performed under local anaesthesia with intravenous sedation/analgesia with a single point of entry with a semirigid thoracoscope (Olympus LTF-160). Data were collected prospectively between 2008 and 2012. Results One hundred fifteen thoracoscopies were performed on 111 patients. The median age was 65 years (range 28–86 years), 14.4% were female and 85.6% male. Seventy-three (65.8%) patients had malignant pleural disease (malignant mesothelioma, metastatic cancer) and 38 (34.2%) had benign disease. The sensitivity, negative predictive value, and accuracy of the procedure for malignancy were 96.0%, 93.0%, and 97.4% respectively. Pleurodesis was carried out in 34 patients; in 32 (94.1%) it was assessed as successful after 1 month. There were 24 adverse events: three empyemas/pleural infections, three bronchopleural fistulae after chest tube placement and lung re-expansion, five patients had excessive pain after pleurodesis, six patients had sedation-associated hypotension, and seven patients had self-limited fever after plerodesis. One patient died 11 days after a procedure for advanced carcinoma. Conclusions Semirigid thoracoscopy is an accurate and safe method for evaluation of pleural diseases and useful for therapeutic talc pleurodesis. PMID:24587782

Rozman, Ales; Camlek, Luka; Kern, Izidor; Malovrh, Mateja Marc

2014-01-01

219

Imaging of the carotid artery vulnerable plaque.  

PubMed

Atherosclerosis involving the carotid arteries has a high prevalence in the population worldwide. This condition is significant because accidents of the carotid artery plaque are associated with the development of cerebrovascular events. For this reason, carotid atherosclerotic disease needs to be diagnosed and those determinants that are associated to an increased risk of stroke need to be identified. The degree of stenosis typically has been considered the parameter of choice to determine the therapeutical approach, but several recently published investigations have demonstrated that the degree of luminal stenosis is only an indirect indicator of the atherosclerotic process and that direct assessment of the plaque structure and composition may be key to predict the development of future cerebrovascular ischemic events. The concept of "vulnerable plaque" was born, referring to those plaque's parameters that concur to the instability of the plaque making it more prone to the rupture and distal embolization. The purpose of this review is to describe the imaging characteristics of "vulnerable carotid plaques." PMID:23912494

Saba, Luca; Anzidei, Michele; Marincola, Beatrice Cavallo; Piga, Mario; Raz, Eytan; Bassareo, Pier Paolo; Napoli, Alessandro; Mannelli, Lorenzo; Catalano, Carlo; Wintermark, Max

2014-06-01

220

Protocol of the Australasian Malignant Pleural Effusion (AMPLE) trial: a multicentre randomised study comparing indwelling pleural catheter versus talc pleurodesis  

PubMed Central

Introduction Malignant pleural effusion can complicate most cancers. It causes breathlessness and requires hospitalisation for invasive pleural drainages. Malignant effusions often herald advanced cancers and limited prognosis. Minimising time spent in hospital is of high priority to patients and their families. Various treatment strategies exist for the management of malignant effusions, though there is no consensus governing the best choice. Talc pleurodesis is the conventional management but requires hospitalisation (and substantial healthcare resources), can cause significant side effects, and has a suboptimal success rate. Indwelling pleural catheters (IPCs) allow ambulatory fluid drainage without hospitalisation, and are increasingly employed for management of malignant effusions. Previous studies have only investigated the length of hospital care immediately related to IPC insertion. Whether IPC management reduces time spent in hospital in the patients’ remaining lifespan is unknown. A strategy of malignant effusion management that reduces hospital admission days will allow patients to spend more time outside hospital, reduce costs and save healthcare resources. Methods and analysis The Australasian Malignant Pleural Effusion (AMPLE) trial is a multicentred, randomised trial designed to compare IPC with talc pleurodesis for the management of malignant pleural effusion. This study will randomise 146 adults with malignant pleural effusions (1:1) to IPC management or talc slurry pleurodesis. The primary end point is the total number of days spent in hospital (for any admissions) from treatment procedure to death or end of study follow-up. Secondary end points include hospital days specific to pleural effusion management, adverse events, self-reported symptom and quality-of-life scores. Ethics and dissemination The Sir Charles Gairdner Group Human Research Ethics Committee has approved the study as have the ethics boards of all the participating hospitals. The trial results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at scientific conferences. Trial registration numbers Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry—ACTRN12611000567921; National Institutes of Health—NCT02045121. PMID:25377015

Fysh, Edward T H; Thomas, Rajesh; Read, Catherine A; Lam, Ben C H; Yap, Elaine; Horwood, Fiona C; Lee, Pyng; Piccolo, Francesco; Shrestha, Ranjan; Garske, Luke A; Lam, David C L; Rosenstengel, Andrew; Bint, Michael; Murray, Kevin; Smith, Nicola A; Lee, Y C Gary

2014-01-01

221

Life on the margin: implications of ocean acidification on Mg-calcite, high latitude and cold-water marine calcifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future anthropogenic emissions of CO2 and the resulting ocean acidification may have severe consequences for marine calcifying organisms and ecosystems. Marine calcifiers depositing calcitic hard parts that contain significant concentrations of magnesium, i.e. Mg-calcite, and calcify- ing organisms living in high latitude and\\/or cold-water environments are at immediate risk to ocean acidification and decreasing seawater carbonate saturation because they are

Andreas J. Andersson; Fred T. Mackenzie; Nicholas R. Bates

2008-01-01

222

Emergency operation of a patient with spontaneous rupture and massive hemorrhage of pleural solitary fibrous tumor  

PubMed Central

Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare pleural disease with asymptomatic clinical course. We report a case of a patient with spontaneous rupture and massive hemorrhage of pleural SFT, which was treated by emergency operation. PMID:25364532

Shao, Feng; Pan, Yanqing

2014-01-01

223

Emergency operation of a patient with spontaneous rupture and massive hemorrhage of pleural solitary fibrous tumor.  

PubMed

Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare pleural disease with asymptomatic clinical course. We report a case of a patient with spontaneous rupture and massive hemorrhage of pleural SFT, which was treated by emergency operation. PMID:25364532

Shao, Feng; Yang, Rusong; Pan, Yanqing

2014-10-01

224

Ocean acidification and calcifying reef organisms: A mesocosm investigation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A long-term (10 months) controlled experiment was conducted to test the impact of increased partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) on common calcifying coral reef organisms. The experiment was conducted in replicate continuous flow coral reef mesocosms flushed with unfiltered sea water from Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii. Mesocosms were located in full sunlight and experienced diurnal and seasonal fluctuations in temperature and sea water chemistry characteristic of the adjacent reef flat. Treatment mesocosms were manipulated to simulate an increase in pCO2 to levels expected in this century [midday pCO2 levels exceeding control mesocosms by 365 ?? 130 ??atm (mean ?? sd)]. Acidification had a profound impact on the development and growth of crustose coralline algae (CCA) populations. During the experiment, CCA developed 25% cover in the control mesocosms and only 4% in the acidified mesocosms, representing an 86% relative reduction. Free-living associations of CCA known as rhodoliths living in the control mesocosms grew at a rate of 0.6 g buoyant weight year-1 while those in the acidified experimental treatment decreased in weight at a rate of 0.9 g buoyant weight year-1, representing a 250% difference. CCA play an important role in the growth and stabilization of carbonate reefs, so future changes of this magnitude could greatly impact coral reefs throughout the world. Coral calcification decreased between 15% and 20% under acidified conditions. Linear extension decreased by 14% under acidified conditions in one experiment. Larvae of the coral Pocillopora damicornis were able to recruit under the acidified conditions. In addition, there was no significant difference in production of gametes by the coral Montipora capitata after 6 months of exposure to the treatments. ?? 2008 Springer-Verlag.

Jokiel, P.L.; Rodgers, K.S.; Kuffner, I.B.; Andersson, A.J.; Cox, E.F.; MacKenzie, F.T.

2008-01-01

225

Microscopic Observation of Self-Propagation of Calcifying Nanoparticles (Nanobacteria)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biologists typically define living organisms as carbon and water-based cellular forms with :self-replication" as the fundamental trait of the life process. However, this standard dictionary definition of life does not help scientists to categorize self-replicators like viruses, prions, proteons and artificial life. CNP also named nanobacteria were discovered in early 1990s as about 100 nanometer-sized bacteria-like particles with unique apatite mineral-shells around them, and found to be associated with pathological-calcification related diseases. Although CNP have been isolated and cultured from mammalian blood and diseased calcified tissues, and their biomineralizing properties well established, their biological nature and self-replicating capability have always been severely challenged. The terms "self-replication", "self-assembly" or "self-propagation" have been widely used for all systems including nanomachines, crystals, computer viruses and memes. In a simple taxonomy, all biological and non-biological "self replicators", have been classified into "living" or "nonliving" based on the properties of the systems and the amount of support they require to self-replicate. To enhance our understanding about self-replicating nature of CNP, we have investigated their growth in specific culture conditions using conventional inverted light microscope and BioStation IM, Nikon s latest time-lapse imaging system. Their morphological structure was examined using scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy. This present study, in conjunction with previous findings of metabolic activity, antibiotic sensitivity, antibody specificity, morphological aspects and infectivity, all concomitantly validate CNP as living self-replicators.

Mathew, Grace; McKay, David S.; Ciftcioglu, Neva

2007-01-01

226

Persistent Seroconversion after Accidental Eye Exposure to Calcifying Nanoparticles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biosafety of nanomaterials has attracted much attention recently. We report here a case where accidental human eye exposure to biogenic nanosized calcium phosphate in the form of calcifying nanoparticles (CNP) raised a strong IgG immune response against proteins carried by CNP. The antibody titer has persisted over ten years at the high level. The IgG was detected by ELISA using CNPs propagated in media containing bovine and human serum as antigen. The exposure incident occurred to a woman scientist (WS) at a research laboratory in Finland at 1993. CNP, also termed "nanobacteria", is a unique self-replicating agent that has not been fully characterized and no data on biohazards were available at that time. Before the accident, her serum samples were negative for both CNP antigen and anti-CNP antibody using specific ELISA tests (Nanobac Oy, Kuopio, Finland). The accident occurred while WS was harvesting CNP cultures. Due to a high pressure in pipetting, CNP pellet splashed into her right eye. Both eyes were immediately washed with water and saline. The following days there was irritation and redness in the right eye. These symptoms disappeared within two weeks without any treatment. Three months after the accident, blood and urine samples of WS were tested for CNP cultures (2), CNP-specific ELISA tests, and blood cell counts. Blood cell counts were normal, CNP antigen and culture tests were negative. A high IgG anti-CNP antibody titer was detected (see Figure). The antibodies of this person have been used thereafter as positive control and standard in ELISA manufacturing (Nano-Sero IgG ELISA, Nanobac Oy, Kuopio, Finland).

Ciftcioglu, Neva; Aho, Katja M.; McKay, David S.; Kajander, E. Olavi

2007-01-01

227

Supplementary Prognostic Variables for Pleural Mesothelioma  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The staging system for malignant pleural mesothelioma is controversial. To revise this system, the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer Staging Committee developed an international database. This report analyzes prognostic variables in a surgical population, which are supplementary to previously published CORE variables (stage, histology, sex, age, and type of procedure). Methods: Supplementary prognostic variables were studied in three scenarios: (1) all data available, that is, patient pathologically staged and other CORE variables available (2) only clinical staging available along with CORE variables, and (3) only age, sex, histology, and laboratory parameters are known. Survival was analyzed by Kaplan–Meier, prognostic factors by log rank and stepwise Cox regression modeling after elimination of nonsignificant variables. p value less than 0.05 was significant. Results: A total of 2141 patients with best tumor, node, metastasis (TNM) stages (pathologic with/without clinical staging) had nonmissing age, sex, histology, and type of surgical procedure. Three prognostic models were defined. Scenario A (all parameters): best pathologic stage, histology, sex, age, type of surgery, adjuvant treatment, white blood cell count (WBC) (?15.5 or not), and platelets (?400 k or not) (n = 550). Scenario B (no surgical staging): clinical stage, histology, sex, age, type of surgery, adjuvant treatment, WBC, hemoglobin (<14.6 or not), and platelets (n = 627). Scenario C (limited data): histology, sex, age, WBC, hemoglobin, and platelets (n = 906). Conclusion: Refinement of these models could define not only the appropriate patient preoperatively for best outcomes after cytoreductive surgery but also stratify surgically treated patients after clinical and pathologic staging who do or do not receive adjuvant therapy. PMID:24807157

Giroux, Dorothy; Kennedy, Catherine; Ruffini, Enrico; Cangir, Ayten K.; Rice, David; Asamura, Hisao; Waller, David; Edwards, John; Weder, Walter; Hoffmann, Hans; van Meerbeeck, Jan P.; Rusch, Valerie W.

2014-01-01

228

Amyloid Plaques in PSAPP Mice Bind Less Metal than Plaques in Human Alzheimer's Disease  

SciTech Connect

Amyloid beta (A{Beta}) is the primary component of Alzheimer's disease (AD) plaques, a key pathological feature of the disease. Metal ions of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), and calcium (Ca) are elevated in human amyloid plaques and are thought to be involved in neurodegeneration. Transgenic mouse models of AD also exhibit amyloid plaques, but fail to exhibit the high degree of neurodegeneration observed in humans. In this study, we imaged the Zn, Cu, Fe, and Ca ion distribution in the PSAPP transgenic mouse model representing end-stage AD (N = 6) using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microprobe. In order to account for differences in density in the plaques, the relative protein content was imaged with synchrotron Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIRM) on the same samples. FTIRM results revealed a 61% increase in protein content in the plaques compared to the surrounding tissue. After normalizing to protein density, we found that the PSAPP plaques contained only a 29% increase in Zn and there was actually less Cu, Fe, and Ca in the plaque compared to the surrounding tissue. Since metal binding to A{beta} is thought to induce redox chemistry that is toxic to neurons, the reduced metal binding in PSAPP mice is consistent with the lack of neurodegeneration in these animals. These findings were in stark contrast to the high metal ion content observed in human AD plaques, further implicating the role of metal ions in human AD pathology.

Leskovjan, A.; Lanzirotti, A; Miller, L

2009-01-01

229

Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome with pleural effusion: a case report  

PubMed Central

Background To report a case of severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) with right pleural effusion following controlled ovarian hyperstimulation. Case presentation A 24-year-old woman had severe OHSS as a complication of gonadotropin stimulation. The clinical picture showed enlarged ovaries, massive ascites, pleural effusion, abdominal pain, and dyspnea. Beside the medical treatment, abdominal paracentesis for the drainage of the massive ascites and tube thoracostomy were performed, resulting in expansion of the lung. Conclusion Physicians can reduce the risk of OHSS by monitoring gonadotropin therapy and by withholding human chorionic gonadotropin medication. In in vitro fertilization protocols it can be advantageous to postpone the embryo transfer by freezing the embryos. Placement of a chest tube is a safe and efficient method for the treatment of pleural effusion. PMID:19017384

Yildizhan, Recep; Adali, Ertan; Kolusari, Ali; Kurdoglu, Mertihan; Ozgokce, Cagdas; Adali, Fulya

2008-01-01

230

Cautious Application of Pleural N-Terminal Pro-B-Type Natriuretic Peptide in Diagnosis of Congestive Heart Failure Pleural Effusions among Critically Ill Patients  

PubMed Central

Background and Objective Several studies on diagnostic accuracy of pleural N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) for effusions from congestive heart failure (CHF) conclude that pleural NT-pro-BNP is a useful biomarker with high diagnostic accuracy for distinguishing CHF effusions. However, its applicability in critical care settings remains uncertain and requires further investigations. Methods NT-proBNP was measured in pleural fluid samples of a prospective cohort of intensive care unit patients with pleural effusions. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to determine diagnostic accuracy of pleural NT-proBNP for prediction of CHF effusions. Results One hundred forty-seven critically ill patients were evaluated, 38 (26%) with CHF effusions and 109 (74%) with non-CHF effusions of various causes. Pleural NT-proBNP levels were significantly elevated in patients with CHF effusions. Pleural NT-pro-BNP demonstrated the area under the curve of 0.87 for diagnosing effusions due to CHF. With a cutoff of 2200 pg/mL, pleural NT-proBNP displayed high sensitivity (89%) but moderate specificity (73%). Notably, 29 (27%) of 109 patients with non-CHF effusions had pleural NT-proBNP levels >2200 pg/mL and these patients were more likely to experience septic shock (18/29 vs. 10/80, P<0.001) or acute kidney injury (19/29 vs. 9/80, P<0.001). Conclusions Among critically ill patients, pleural NT-proBNP measurements remain a useful diagnostic aid in evaluation of pleural effusions. However, patients with non-CHF effusions may exhibit high pleural NT-proBNP concentrations if they suffer from septic shock or acute kidney injury. Accordingly, it is suggested that clinical context should be taken into account when interpreting pleural NT-proBNP values in critical care settings. PMID:25502236

Yeh, Jiann-Horng; Huang, Chun-Ta; Liu, Chia-Hsiung; Ruan, Sheng-Yuan; Tsai, Yi-Ju; Chien, Ying-Chun; Yang, Ching-Yao; Huang, Chun-Kai; Hsu, Chia-Lin; Kuo, Lu-Cheng; Lee, Pei-Lin; Ku, Shih-Chi; Kuo, Ping-Hung; Yu, Chong-Jen

2014-01-01

231

Pleural effusion lipoproteins measured by NMR spectroscopy for diagnosis of exudative pleural effusions: a novel tool for pore-size estimation.  

PubMed

High-resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry of biofluids has been increasingly used in laboratory diagnosis of various diseases. In this study, we extended the use of (1)H NMR spectroscopy for laboratory diagnosis of exudative pleural effusions using pleural fluids. We compared this new NMR-based test with Light's criteria, the current gold standard for laboratory diagnosis of exudative pleural effusions. We analyzed 67 samples of pleural effusions from patients with pulmonary malignancy (N = 32), pulmonary tuberculosis (N = 18), and congestive heart failure (N = 17). The metabolomes of pleural effusions were analyzed using (1)H NMR spectroscopy on a Bruker 600 MHz spectrometer. Through a metabolome-wide association approach with filtering of insignificant markers (p value <4 × 10(-6)) and multivariate analysis (principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis), lipoprotein was found to be the best biomarker that distinguished exudates from transudates. Using NMR-based lipoprotein profiling to classify exudative pleural effusions from transudates, the area-under-receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.96 with sensitivity of 98%, specificity of 88%, and accuracy of 98%. In contrast, the current gold standard, Light's criteria, give a specificity of only 65% at the same sensitivity level of 98%. Using the principle of size exclusion, NMR-based lipoprotein profiling of pleural fluids has an unprecedented diagnostic performance superiority over the Light's criteria. The capillary leaks secondary to inflammation result in a larger pleural pore-size, which allows the large-sized lipoproteins to accumulate in exudative pleural effusions. In contrast, the pleural permeability is intact in transudates, which allow only small-sized lipoproteins to pass into the pleural effusions. The average capillary pore-size of the pleura can therefore be determined by using NMR-based lipoprotein profiling of pleural fluids. We believe this new test will change the current clinical practice for management of pleural effusions and will become a new standard for clinical practice. PMID:25072840

Lam, Ching-Wan; Law, Chun-Yiu

2014-09-01

232

Calcified microbes in Neoproterozoic carbonates: implications for our understanding of the Proterozoic/Cambrian transition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tidal flat and lagoonal dolostones of the Neoproterozoic Draken Formation, Spitsbergen, exhibit excellent preservation of carbonate fabrics, including heavily calcified microfossils. The crust-forming cyanobacterium Polybessurus is preserved locally by carbonate precipitated on and within sheaths in mildly evaporitic upper intertidal to supratidal environments. In contrast, calcified filaments in columnar stromatolites reflect subtidal precipitation. Filament molds in dolomicrites independently document extremely early lithification. The presence of heavily calcified cyanobacteria in Draken and other Proterozoic carbonates constrains potential explanations for the widespread appearance of calcified microorganisms near the Proterozoic-Cambrian boundary. We propose that the rarity of Proterozoic examples principally reflects the abundance and wide distribution of carbonate crystals precipitated on the sea floor or in the water column. Cyanobacterial sheaths would have competed effectively as sites for carbonate nucleation and growth only where calcitic and/or aragonitic nuclei were absent. In this view, the Proterozoic-Cambrian expansion of calcified microfossils primarily reflects the emergence of skeletons as principal agents of carbonate deposition.

Knoll, A. H.; Fairchild, I. J.; Swett, K.

1993-01-01

233

[Transthoracic transvertebral approach for resection of an anteriorly located, calcified meningioma. Case report].  

PubMed

We report the case of a 61-year-old woman, who developed progressive paraparesia over a period of 8 months. Conventional X-rays of the thoracic spine showed an intra-spinal calcified lesion at T10. On CT-scan and MRI, the lesion appeared anterior to the cord, thus making a posterior approach hazardous. Total resection of this calcified meningioma was achieved through a right transthoracic transcorporeal approach, under close monitoring of the somatosensory evoked potentials. Despite a delayed pseudomeningocele formation requiring an additional thoracotomy, outcome after 7 years is excellent with no residual neurological deficit. No recurrence was seen on a CT-scan performed two years after the surgery. Calcified anterior meningiomas of the spine are rare lesions. Surgical outcome has been unfavorable for a long time in relation with posterior or postero-lateral approaches. Although anterior transthoracic procedures are routinely performed for extradural spinal lesions, this approach is rarely used for intradural lesions. A calcified anterior spinal thoracic meningioma should be managed like the more frequent calcified thoracic disk hernia, despite the increased risk of cerebrospinal fluid effusion requiring subsequent repair. PMID:11972152

Jenny, B; Rilliet, B; May, D; Pizzolato, G P

2002-02-01

234

Prevalence of Calcified Carotid Artery on Panoramic Radiographs in Postmenopausal Women  

PubMed Central

Background and aims This study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of calcified carotid artery in 50 year-old and older postmenopausal dental outpatients for early diagnosis of individuals at risk of stroke. Materials and methods This is a descriptive study of 200 panoramic radiographs. These radiographs included post-menopausal women referring to the Department of Oral Medicine at Shahid Beheshti Faculty of Dentistry during 2006-2007. The x-ray machine, developer and film type were the same for all the radiographs. Statistical analysis included chi-square test and Fisher’s exact test. Results We found 22 calcified carotid arteries. The left and right carotid arteries were involved in 7 and 9 cases, respec-tively. In 6 cases both carotid arteries were calcified. Four individuals had no vascular risk factor excluding age and others had at least one risk factor. We found significant statistical correlation between hypertension, past history of myocardial infarction, and hypercholesterolemia with calcified carotid artery on panoramic radiographs. Conclusion Under the limitations of the present study, prevalence of calcified carotid arteries is 11.0 % in 50 year-old and older postmenopausal dental outpatients. PMID:23230481

Taheri, Jamileh Beigom; Moshfeghi, Mahkameh

2009-01-01

235

Functional expression of dental plaque microbiota.  

PubMed

Dental caries remains a significant public health problem and is considered pandemic worldwide. The prediction of dental caries based on profiling of microbial species involved in disease and equally important, the identification of species conferring dental health has proven more difficult than anticipated due to high interpersonal and geographical variability of dental plaque microbiota. We have used RNA-Seq to perform global gene expression analysis of dental plaque microbiota derived from 19 twin pairs that were either concordant (caries-active or caries-free) or discordant for dental caries. The transcription profiling allowed us to define a functional core microbiota consisting of nearly 60 species. Similarities in gene expression patterns allowed a preliminary assessment of the relative contribution of human genetics, environmental factors and caries phenotype on the microbiota's transcriptome. Correlation analysis of transcription allowed the identification of numerous functional networks, suggesting that inter-personal environmental variables may co-select for groups of genera and species. Analysis of functional role categories allowed the identification of dominant functions expressed by dental plaque biofilm communities, that highlight the biochemical priorities of dental plaque microbes to metabolize diverse sugars and cope with the acid and oxidative stress resulting from sugar fermentation. The wealth of data generated by deep sequencing of expressed transcripts enables a greatly expanded perspective concerning the functional expression of dental plaque microbiota. PMID:25177549

Peterson, Scott N; Meissner, Tobias; Su, Andrew I; Snesrud, Erik; Ong, Ana C; Schork, Nicholas J; Bretz, Walter A

2014-01-01

236

Growth of Necrotic Cores in Vulnerable Plaque  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plaques are fatty deposits that grow mainly in arteries and develop as a result of a chronic inflammatory response. Plaques are called vulnerable when they are prone to mechanical rupture. Vulnerable Plaques (VPs) are characterized by lipid-rich, necrotic cores that are heavily infiltrated with macrophages. The rupture of VPs releases thrombogenic agents into the bloodstream, usually resulting in myocardial infarctions. We propose a quantitative model to predict the development of a plaque's necrotic core. By solving coupled reaction-diffusion equations for macrophages and dead cells, we explore the joint effects of hypoxic cell death and chemo-attraction to Ox-LDL, a molecule that is strongly linked to atherosclerosis. Our model predicts cores that have approximately the right size and shape. Normal mode analysis and subsequent calculation of the smallest eigenvalues allow us to compute the times required for the system to reach its steady state. This study allows us to make quantitative predictions for how quickly vulnerable plaques develop and how their growth depends on system parameters such as chemotactic coefficients and cell death rates.

Fok, Pak-Wing

2011-03-01

237

Malignant Pleural Effusion: Medical Approaches for Diagnosis and Management  

PubMed Central

Malignant pleural effusions (MPEs) are the second leading cause of exudative pleural effusions after parapneumonic effusions. In the vast majority of cases, a MPE signifies incurable disease associated with high morbidity and mortality. Considerable advances have been made for the diagnosis of MPEs, through the development of improved methods in the specialized cytological and imaging studies. The cytological or histological confirmation of malignant cells is currently important in establishing a diagnosis. Furthermore, despite major advancements in cancer treatment for the past two decades, management of MPE remains palliative. This article presents a comprehensive review of the medical approaches for diagnosis and management of MPE. PMID:24920947

2014-01-01

238

Use of pleural fluid ceruloplasmin in the differentiation of exudative and transudative pleural effusion  

PubMed Central

Background: Differentiating into transudate or exudate is the first step in the evaluation of effusions. Light's criteria is the standard but a significant number of transudates may not be differentiated based on these criteria. Acute phase proteins (APP) are present in plasma, which increase or decrease by about 25% during an acute inflammatory response. Ceruloplasmin (CP) is a positive APP. Hence, this study was done to know the diagnostic value of pleural fluid (pf) CP and pf to serum ceruloplasmin ratio (CPr) to differentiate the pleural effusion (PE) into exudate and transudate as compared to Light's criteria. Materials and Methods: Setting: Medical wards of St John's Medical College Hospital, Bangalore. Design: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Patients with PE were divided into exudate and transudate by definitive diagnosis. pfCP, CPr and Light's criteria were compared with definitive diagnosis for the differentiation of pf into exudate and transudate. Results: The mean value of the pfCP and CPr was found to be significantly different between exudates and transudates. Sensitivity and specificity of pfCP at ? 13.34 mg/dl is 89.7% and 83.3%, CPr at ? 0.37 is 91.4% and 83.3%, Light's criteria 94.82% and 83.3%, respectively. Light's criteria, pfCP and CPr have similar PPV (98%) with Light's criteria having higher NPV (62.5%) than pfCP (45%) and CPr (50%), respectively. CPr has higher NPV than pfCP. Conclusions: pfCP and CPr can differentiate pf into exudate and transudate with comparable PPV to Light's criteria. PMID:25624589

Shanthaveeranna, Girish K.; Thykadavil, Vinod G.; D’souza, George A.

2015-01-01

239

Multifocal calcifying fibrous tumor at six sites in one patient: a case report  

PubMed Central

Calcifying fibrous tumors (CFT) are rare benign tumors. They usually affect children and young adults and the incidence is equal in males and females. The usual clinical presentation is that of a painless mass. A computed tomography scan typically reveals a well-demarcated calcified lesion. CFT usually presents as a solitary mass and the commonest sites of occurrence are in soft tissues, the pleura, or the peritoneum. Multifocal occurrences at the same site have also been reported. The first case of CFT was reported in 1988. We present a rare case of multiple calcifying fibrous tumors at multiple sites in the same patient. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first ever reported case of multifocal CFT atsix different anatomical sites in one patient. PMID:25070647

2014-01-01

240

Explicit planktic calcifiers in the University of Victoria Earth System Climate Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine calcifiers as a plankton functional type (PFT) are a crucial part of the global carbon cycle, being responsible for much of the carbon export to the deep ocean entering via biological pathways. Deep ocean carbon export through calcifiers is controlled by physiological, ecological and biogeochemical factors. This paper describes the implementation of a phytoplankton coccolithophore PFT in the University of Victoria Earth System Climate Model (UVic ESCM), and improvements to the representation of zooplankton calcification and carbon export therein. The described modifications improve model performance with respect to carbon and nutrient fluxes. Primary production, export production, particulate organic carbon and calcite fluxes all fall within independent estimates.

Kvale, K. F.; Meissner, K. J.; Keller, D. P.; Eby, M.; Schmittner, A.

2014-03-01

241

Pleural mesothelioma presenting as periumbilical metastasis: the first clinical documentation.  

PubMed

Introduction. Pleural mesothelioma with metastasis to the subcutaneous tissue of the abdominal wall at first diagnosis and without penetration into the peritoneum is an extremely rare clinical presentation. Methods. Patients with pleural mesothelioma have low survival rate. Usually, the disease at presentation is confined to its site of origin (most often the pleural cavity). A 55-year-old man was referred to our center due to increasing dyspnea and a painful periumbilical mass in the anterior abdominal wall. CT scan revealed both advanced mesothelioma of the pleura and a tumor mass confined to the subcutaneous fatty tissue without penetration through the peritoneum. Results. Video-assisted thoracoscopy confirmed the diagnosis of epithelioid pleural mesothelioma, which was also confirmed by a biopsy of the periumbilical mass. Systemic chemotherapy with cisplatin and pemetrexed was initiated. Under the ongoing systemic chemotherapy, the evaluation revealed partial remission of pleura mesothelioma and its subcutaneous manifestation of the abdominal wall. Conclusion. Mesothelioma of the pleura with a simultaneous metastasis to the subcutaneous fatty tissue of the abdominal wall at presentation without penetration of peritoneum is a rare clinical presentation of mesothelioma disease. The knowledge of its natural history is very limited. This is the first ever clinical documentation of a patient with pleura mesothelioma and simultaneous subcutaneous manifestation of abdominal wall. PMID:23691382

Falkenstern-Ge, R F; Kimmich, M; Bode-Erdmann, S; Friedel, G; Ott, G; Kohlhäufl, M

2013-01-01

242

Surgery for malignant pleural mesothelioma: why, when and what?  

PubMed

Malignant pleural mesothelioma is a fatal cancer developing in the pleural cavity, linked to asbestos exposure. Various therapies have been tried in the past 50 years including surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy and more recently, targeted therapy. Radical surgery remains controversial in malignant pleural mesothelioma and two procedures have been offered in the past to obtain maximal cytoreduction: extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP) and pleurectomy/decortication (P/D). Despite growing evidence that EPP might be detrimental, many believe that radical surgery should still be part of multimodality therapy in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma. Recent evidence suggests that P/D is well tolerated and produces low mortality and morbidity. The role of adjuvant intrapleural therapies remains to be determined and evaluated in large prospective trials. Pleurectomy/decortication does not jeopardize the chance of having chemotherapy, or chemoradiotherapy either. Many now believe that it should be the default procedure in multimodality regimens. However, this remains to be proven in a large randomized trial. Palliative surgery still has an important role to play in mesothelioma, in establishing or refining diagnosis and in controlling symptoms and improving quality of life in many patients whose life expectancy is limited. Recent progress in molecular analyses and biomarkers should help with patient selection for surgery, immunotherapy and systemic therapies in the near future. PMID:24602395

Lang-Lazdunski, Loic

2014-05-01

243

Malignant pleural mesothelioma cells resist anoikis as quiescent pluricellular aggregates.  

PubMed

Pleural fluid accumulation is a frequent clinical observation in diffuse malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). The cytological analysis of pleural fluid often reveals the presence of free spheroid aggregates of malignant cells, giving rise to the question of the ability of non-adherent tumor cells to resist the loss of anchorage-induced apoptosis (termed as anoikis), and to develop new tumor foci in the pleural cavity. Here, we show that MPM cells cultured under non-adherent conditions form well-organized aggregates composed of viable cells, which progressively enter in G(0). Although the PI3K/Akt, ERK and SAPK/JNK signaling pathways are activated in adherent MPM cells, loss of anchorage results in the inactivation of these pathways. By comparison, we show that the non-tumoral mesothelial cells MeT-5A enter anoikis in an SAPK/JNK-, Bim- and caspase-9-dependent pathway. The survival of MPM cells can be reversed by activating SAPK/JNK with anisomycin, according to a Bim-dependent mitochondrial pathway. Finally, our findings show that impairment of cell aggregation activates SAPK/JNK and Bim and induces anoikis. Our results underline the importance of intercellular contacts in the anoikis resistance of MPM cells. PMID:19343038

Daubriac, J; Fleury-Feith, J; Kheuang, L; Galipon, J; Saint-Albin, A; Renier, A; Giovannini, M; Galateau-Sallé, F; Jaurand, M-C

2009-08-01

244

Clinical Significance of Soluble CD26 in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma  

PubMed Central

There is no established single diagnostic marker for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). CD26 is a 110 kDa, multifunctional, membrane-bound glycoprotein that has dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV) enzyme activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical significance of soluble CD26 (sCD26) in patients with MPM. The study included 80 MPM patients, 79 subjects with past asbestos exposure (SPE), and 134 patients with other benign pleural diseases (OPD) that were included as a control group. sCD26 levels and DPPIV activity in serum and/or pleural fluid were determined using an ELISA kit. Serum sCD26 levels and DPPIV enzyme activity in patients with MPM were significantly decreased compared with those in the SPE group (P?=?0.000). The level of serum sCD26 was significantly decreased in patients with advanced stages of MPM compared with those with earlier stages (P?=?0.047). The median OS of patients with MPM who had higher DPPIV enzyme activity was significantly longer than that of those with lower DPPIV enzyme activity (P?=?0.032). The sCD26 levels in the pleural fluid of MPM patients with an epithelioid subtype were significantly increased compared with the OPD cohort (P?=?0.012). Moreover, DPPIV enzyme activity in the pleural fluid of patients with MPM with an epithelioid subtype were significantly increased compared with those in the OPD cohort (P?=?0.009). Patients with MPM who had lower specific DPPIV activity, determined as DPPIV/sCD26, showed significantly prolonged survival compared with those with higher specific DPPIV activity (P?=?0.028). Serum sCD26 and DPPIV enzyme activity appear to be useful biomarkers for differentiating patients with MPM from SPE. The sCD26 levels or DPPIV enzyme activity in pleural fluid appear to be biomarkers in patients with an epithelioid subtype of MPM. DPPIV activity in serum or pleural fluid appears to be predictive for the prognosis of patients with MPM. PMID:25526639

Fujimoto, Nobukazu; Ohnuma, Kei; Aoe, Keisuke; Hosono, Osamu; Yamada, Taketo; Kishimoto, Takumi; Morimoto, Chikao

2014-01-01

245

18. Photocopy of drawing of bronze dedication plaque, circa 1903 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

18. Photocopy of drawing of bronze dedication plaque, circa 1903 (original drawing in possession of City Engineer's Office Grand Rapids, Michigan) DEDICATION PLAQUE. - Bridge Street Bridge, Spanning Grand River, Michigan & Bridge Streets, Grand Rapids, Kent County, MI

246

Estimation of nonlinear mechanical properties of atherosclerotic plaques  

E-print Network

A numerical method has been developed to estimate the mechanical properties of atherosclerotic plaques by combining genetic algorithm with finite element methods. Plaque images derived from optical coherence tomography ...

Zhu, Ting F. (Ting Fredrick)

2005-01-01

247

Treating cardiovascular atherosclerotic plaques with Tongmaijiangzhi (TMJZ) capsule.  

PubMed

Atherosclerotic plaques can cause serious syndromes and mortality. Cholesterol accumulation in the plaques can disrupt the arterial flow, with lumen narrowing and stenosis, which contributes to heart attack and sudden cardiac death. The pharmacological treatment to atherosclerotic plaques can be anti-hypertensives, anti-cholesterol, and cleaning of the existed plaques. This work examined the effects of pharmacological Tongmaijiangzhi (TMJZ) capsule on atherosclerotic plaques. The radiological findings of the atherosclerotic plaques of 107 patients receiving TMJZ treatment were analyzed. We found that the TMJZ administration decreases plaque volume and alters the composition in a relatively short period, showing highly promising effects. TMJZ treatment is able to remove the existed atherosclerotic plaques with no side effects observed. PMID:24311866

Ren, Hong-Qiang; Zhao, Li; Zhang, Zhong Shuang; Wang, Zhong; Wang, Li; Duan, Jun Cang; Li, Li; Zhai, Zhi Hong; Qu, De Tao; Huang, Hui

2013-01-01

248

Coronary CT Angiography in the Quantitative Assessment of Coronary Plaques  

PubMed Central

Coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) has been recently evaluated for its ability to assess coronary plaque characteristics, including plaque composition. Identification of the relationship between plaque composition by CCTA and patient clinical presentations may provide insight into the pathophysiology of coronary artery plaque, thus assisting identification of vulnerable plaques which are associated with the development of acute coronary syndrome. CCTA-generated 3D visualizations allow evaluation of both coronary lesions and lumen changes, which are considered to enhance the diagnostic performance of CCTA. The purpose of this review is to discuss the recent developments that have occurred in the field of CCTA with regard to its diagnostic accuracy in the quantitative assessment of coronary plaques, with a focus on the characterization of plaque components and identification of vulnerable plaques. PMID:25162010

2014-01-01

249

Differential responses of calcifying and non-calcifying epibionts of a brown macroalga to present-day and future upwelling pCO2.  

PubMed

Seaweeds are key species of the Baltic Sea benthic ecosystems. They are the substratum of numerous fouling epibionts like bryozoans and tubeworms. Several of these epibionts bear calcified structures and could be impacted by the high pCO2 events of the late summer upwellings in the Baltic nearshores. Those events are expected to increase in strength and duration with global change and ocean acidification. If calcifying epibionts are impacted by transient acidification as driven by upwelling events, their increasing prevalence could cause a shift of the fouling communities toward fleshy species. The aim of the present study was to test the sensitivity of selected seaweed macrofoulers to transient elevation of pCO2 in their natural microenvironment, i.e. the boundary layer covering the thallus surface of brown seaweeds. Fragments of the macroalga Fucus serratus bearing an epibiotic community composed of the calcifiers Spirorbis spirorbis (Annelida) and Electra pilosa (Bryozoa) and the non-calcifier Alcyonidium hirsutum (Bryozoa) were maintained for 30 days under three pCO2 conditions: natural 460 ± 59 µatm, present-day upwelling1193 ± 166 µatm and future upwelling 3150 ± 446 µatm. Only the highest pCO2 caused a significant reduction of growth rates and settlement of S. spirorbis individuals. Additionally, S. spirorbis settled juveniles exhibited enhanced calcification of 40% during daylight hours compared to dark hours, possibly reflecting a day-night alternation of an acidification-modulating effect by algal photosynthesis as opposed to an acidification-enhancing effect of algal respiration. E. pilosa colonies showed significantly increased growth rates at intermediate pCO2 (1193 µatm) but no response to higher pCO2. No effect of acidification on A. hirsutum colonies growth rates was observed. The results suggest a remarkable resistance of the algal macro-epibionts to levels of acidification occurring at present day upwellings in the Baltic. Only extreme future upwelling conditions impacted the tubeworm S. spirorbis, but not the bryozoans. PMID:23894659

Saderne, Vincent; Wahl, Martin

2013-01-01

250

Quantification of pleural effusion from single area measurements on CT.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine if area measurements of pleural fluid on computed tomography (CT) reflect the actual pleural fluid volume (PEvol) as measured at autopsy, to establish a formula to estimate the volume of pleural effusion (PEest), and to test the accuracy and observer reliability of PEest.132 human cadavers, with pleural effusion were divided into phase 1 (n?=?32) and phase 2 (n?=?100). In phase 1, PEvol was compared to area measurements on axial (axA), sagittal (sagA), and coronal (corA) CT images. Linear regression analysis was used to create a formula to calculate PEest. In phase 2, intra-class correlation (ICC) was used to assess inter-reader reliability and determine the agreement between PEest and PEvol. PEvol correlated to a higher degree to axA (r s mean?=?0.738; p?Pleural effusions may be quantified in a rapid, reliable, and reasonably accurate fashion using single area measurements on CT. PMID:23504333

Veljkovic, Branislav; Franckenberg, Sabine; Hatch, Gary M; Bucher, Matthias; Schwendener, Nicole; Ampanozi, Garyfalia; Thali, Michael J; Ruder, Thomas D

2013-08-01

251

Red plaque on a high school wrestler.  

PubMed

A 15-year-old freshman on a nationally ranked high school wrestling team had a 1-week history of a pruritic plaque on his left arm. He had no history of atopic dermatitis or a similar lesion. He had been treating the lesion with over-the-counter 1% hydrocortisone cream for 7 days without resolution. PMID:20086564

Adams, B B

2001-02-01

252

Shear stress in atherosclerotic plaque determination.  

PubMed

Atherosclerosis initiates at predictable focal sites near arterial branches and curves, where blood flow is disturbed and shear stress is complex. Endothelial shear stress is the tangential stress derived from the friction of the flowing blood on the endothelial surface of the arterial wall. It is a key factor in modulating endothelial cell gene expression and vascular development and remodeling. Increasing evidences suggest that shear stress patterns have a strong relationship with atherosclerotic features. Moreover, variations in the local artery geometry during atherogenesis further modify flow shear stress characteristics, which contribute to the rupture site at the plaque upstream. In this study, we summarize the mechanistic evidences that associate shear stress patterns with determined atherosclerotic plaque features. An enhanced understanding of the relationship and pathophysiological function of shear stress patterns in atherosclerotic plaque features is essential, which may provide early prediction of clinical risk and guide individualized treatment strategies. In the current review, we analyzed the function of shear stress on the determination of atherosclerotic lesion and provided an update on the mechanotransduction of shear stress, gene expression regulation, and atherosclerotic plaque development and rupture. PMID:25165867

Li, Xiaohong; Yang, Qin; Wang, Zuo; Wei, Dangheng

2014-12-01

253

Microanalysis of Alzheimer disease NFT and plaques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electron probe energy dispersive microanalysis of isolated andin situ neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) and neuritic (senile) plaque cores have been done to investigate the levels of Al, Si, Ca and Fe in the leading lesions of Alzheimer disease neuropathology. Varying levels of Si and Al, and to a lesser extent Ca, have been co-localized in about one half of the NFT

R. C. Moretz; K. Iqbal; H. M. Wisniewski

1990-01-01

254

Lipidome of Atherosclerotic Plaques from Hypercholesterolemic Rabbits  

PubMed Central

The cellular, macromolecular and neutral lipid composition of the atherosclerotic plaque has been extensively characterized. However, a comprehensive lipidomic analysis of the major lipid classes within atherosclerotic lesions has not been reported. The objective of this study was to produce a detailed framework of the lipids that comprise the atherosclerotic lesion of a widely used pre-clinical model of plaque progression. Male New Zealand White rabbits were administered regular chow supplemented with 0.5% cholesterol (HC) for 12 weeks to induce hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis. Our lipidomic analyses of plaques isolated from rabbits fed the HC diet, using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and high-resolution mass spectrometry, detected most of the major lipid classes including: Cholesteryl esters, triacylglycerols, phosphatidylcholines, sphingomyelins, diacylglycerols, fatty acids, phosphatidylserines, lysophosphatidylcholines, ceramides, phosphatidylglycerols, phosphatidylinositols and phosphatidylethanolamines. Given that cholesteryl esters, triacylglycerols and phosphatidylcholines comprise greater than 75% of total plasma lipids, we directed particular attention towards the qualitative and quantitative assessment of the fatty acid composition of these lipids. We additionally found that sphingomyelins were relatively abundant lipid class within lesions, and compared the abundance of sphingomyelins to their precursor phosphatidylcholines. The studies presented here are the first approach to a comprehensive characterization of the atherosclerotic plaque lipidome. PMID:25517033

Bojic, Lazar A.; McLaren, David G.; Shah, Vinit; Previs, Stephen F.; Johns, Douglas G.; Castro-Perez, Jose M.

2014-01-01

255

Linear milia en plaque on the forearm.  

PubMed

A 64-year-old man presented with asymptomatic eruption on his right forearm and the dorsum of the hand present for 2 weeks. There was no history of trauma, prolonged sun exposure, or application of or contact with any substance prior to the development of lesions. He was a known hypertensive and diabetic and was taking treatment for these conditions. The rest of his history was noncontributory. On examination, multiple grouped tiny white papules were found on both normal skin and on the erythematous plaque. These papules were of almost uniform size (2-4 mm) and were notable for absence of umbilication. The erythematous plaque was roughly 15 cm in length and was extending along the ulnar border of forearm and dorsum of hand in a linear pattern (Figure 1). The surface temperature of the plaque appeared similar to the surrounding area, and the surface was studded with multiple tiny white papules. There were no lesions suggestive of chronic actinic damage in the surrounding area. The papules revealed solid whitish material on expression with a needle. The rest of the mucocutaneous examination was noncontributory. Based on clinical presentation, a diagnosis of linear milia en plaque was made. PMID:25335356

Kumar, Piyush; Gharami, Ramesh Chandra

2014-01-01

256

Lipidome of atherosclerotic plaques from hypercholesterolemic rabbits.  

PubMed

The cellular, macromolecular and neutral lipid composition of the atherosclerotic plaque has been extensively characterized. However, a comprehensive lipidomic analysis of the major lipid classes within atherosclerotic lesions has not been reported. The objective of this study was to produce a detailed framework of the lipids that comprise the atherosclerotic lesion of a widely used pre-clinical model of plaque progression. Male New Zealand White rabbits were administered regular chow supplemented with 0.5% cholesterol (HC) for 12 weeks to induce hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis. Our lipidomic analyses of plaques isolated from rabbits fed the HC diet, using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and high-resolution mass spectrometry, detected most of the major lipid classes including: Cholesteryl esters, triacylglycerols, phosphatidylcholines, sphingomyelins, diacylglycerols, fatty acids, phosphatidylserines, lysophosphatidylcholines, ceramides, phosphatidylglycerols, phosphatidylinositols and phosphatidylethanolamines. Given that cholesteryl esters, triacylglycerols and phosphatidylcholines comprise greater than 75% of total plasma lipids, we directed particular attention towards the qualitative and quantitative assessment of the fatty acid composition of these lipids. We additionally found that sphingomyelins were relatively abundant lipid class within lesions, and compared the abundance of sphingomyelins to their precursor phosphatidylcholines. The studies presented here are the first approach to a comprehensive characterization of the atherosclerotic plaque lipidome. PMID:25517033

Bojic, Lazar A; McLaren, David G; Shah, Vinit; Previs, Stephen F; Johns, Douglas G; Castro-Perez, Jose M

2014-01-01

257

Diagnostic value of pleural interleukin 17 and carcinoembryonic antigen in lung cancer patients with malignant pleural effusions.  

PubMed

Interleukin 17 (IL-17) has been found to be increased in some human cancers; however, the possible implication of IL-17 in regulating antitumor responses in lung cancer patients with malignant pleural effusions (MPE) remains to be elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the diagnostic value of pleural IL-17 and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in MPE and benign pleural effusions (BPE). Pleural effusion samples from 108 patients were classified on the basis of diagnosis as MPE (n = 56) and BPE (n = 52). The concentration of IL-17 was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The CEA levels were also determined in all patients. A significant difference was observed in the levels of CEA (P < 0.01) between MPE and BPE. The concentration of IL-17 in MPE was significantly higher compared to that in BPE (P < 0.01). With a cutoff point of 15.7 pg/ml, IL-17 had a sensitivity of 76.8 % and a specificity of 80.8 % for differential diagnosis. The combined detection of IL-17 and CEA had a sensitivity of 96.4 % and a specificity of 92.3 % to distinguish MPE from BPE. The combined detection of IL-17 and CEA may be more valuable in the differential diagnosis between MPE and BPE. PMID:24072496

Xu, Chun-Hua; Zhan, Ping; Yu, Li-Ke; Zhang, Xiu-Wei

2014-02-01

258

Biomechanics of Plaque Rupture: Progress, Problems, and New Frontiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plaque rupture has become identified as a critical step in the evolution of arterial plaques, especially as clinically significant events occur in critical arteries. It has become common in the past dozen years or so to consider which plaques are vulnerable, even though not yet ruptured. Thrombotic events have remained significant, but in a context where they are seen as

Peter D. Richardson

2002-01-01

259

IVUS-based Histology of Atherosclerotic plaques: Improving Longitudinal Resolution  

E-print Network

IVUS-based Histology of Atherosclerotic plaques: Improving Longitudinal Resolution Arash Takia ABSTRACT Although Virtual Histology (VH) is the in-vivo gold standard for atherosclerosis plaque is the Virtual Histology (VH).3 VH provides a colored coded plaque characterization image by analyzing

Yanikoglu, Berrin

260

In vivo imaging reveals sigmoidal growth kinetic of ?-amyloid plaques  

PubMed Central

A major neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease is the deposition of amyloid plaques in the brains of affected individuals. Amyloid plaques mainly consist of fibrillar ?-amyloid, which is a cleavage product of the amyloid precursor protein. The amyloid-cascade-hypothesis postulates A? accumulation as the central event in initiating a toxic cascade leading to Alzheimer’s disease pathology and, ultimately, loss of cognitive function. We studied the kinetics of ?-amyloid deposition in Tg2576 mice, which overexpress human amyloid precursor protein with the Swedish mutation. Utilizing long-term two-photon imaging we were able to observe the entire kinetics of plaque growth in vivo. Essentially, we observed that plaque growth follows a sigmoid-shaped curve comprising a cubic growth phase, followed by saturation. In contrast, plaque density kinetics exhibited an asymptotic progression. Taking into account the fact that a critical concentration of A? is required to seed new plaques, we can propose the following kinetic model of ?-amyloid deposition in vivo. In the early cubic phase, plaque growth is not limited by A? concentration and plaque density increases very fast. During the transition phase, plaque density stabilizes whereas plaque volume increases strongly reflecting a robust growth of the plaques. In the late asymptotic phase, A? peptide production becomes rate-limiting for plaque growth. In conclusion, the present study offers a direct link between in vitro and in vivo studies facilitating the translation of A?-lowering strategies from laboratory models to patients. PMID:24678659

2014-01-01

261

In Vivo MRI Atherosclerotic Plaque Characterization Using Magnetic Susceptibility Distinguishes Symptom-Producing Plaques  

PubMed Central

Objectives We investigated iron's role in atherosclerosis and plaque instability with a novel approach to in vivo atherosclerotic plaque characterization using noninvasive, noncontrast magnetic resonance-based T2* measurement. We validated this approach using ex vivo plaque analyses to establish that T2* reflects intraplaque iron composition. Background Iron catalyzes free radical production, a key step for lipid peroxidation and atherosclerosis development. The parameter T2* measures tissue magnetic susceptibility, historically has been used to quantify hepatic and myocardial iron. To date, T2* measurement has not been previously developed for in vivo plaque characterization in patients with atherosclerosis. Methods Thirty-nine patients referred for carotid endarterectomy were prospectively enrolled to undergo preoperative carotid MRI and postoperative analysis of the explanted plaque. Clinical history of any symptoms attributable to each carotid lesion was recorded. Results MRI could not be completed in 4 subjects due to claustrophobia, and three patients scanned prior to the use of a neck stabilizer had motion artifact precluding quantification. In the remaining subjects, symptomatic compared to asymptomatic patients had significantly lower plaque T2* values (20.0±1.8 vs. 34.4±2.7 ms, respectively, p<0.001). Analytical methods demonstrated similar total iron (138.6±36.5 vs. 165.8±48.3 mg/kg, p=NS) but less low-molecular weight Fe(III) (7.3±3.8 vs. 17.7±4.0 nmol/mg, p<0.05) in the explanted plaques of symptomatic versus asymptomatic patients, respectively, consistent with a shift in iron from Fe(III) to higher amounts of T2*-shortening forms of iron. Mass spectroscopy also showed significantly lower calcium (37.5±10.8 vs. 123.6±19.3 g/kg, p<0.01) and higher copper (3.2±0.5 vs. 1.7±0.1 mg/kg, p<0.01) in plaques from symptomatic patients. Conclusions In vivo measurement of intraplaque T2* using MRI is feasible and reproducible, and distinguishes symptom-producing from non-symptom producing plaques in patients with carotid artery atherosclerosis. Symptom-producing plaques demonstrated characteristic changes in iron forms by ex vivo analysis, supporting the dynamic presence of iron in the microenvironment of atherosclerotic plaque. PMID:19356405

Raman, Subha V.; Winner, Marshall W.; Tran, Tam; Velayutham, Murugesan; Simonetti, Orlando P.; Baker, Peter B.; Olesik, John; McCarthy, Beth; Ferketich, Amy K.; Zweier, Jay L.

2009-01-01

262

Untargeted mass spectrometry-based metabolomic profiling of pleural effusions: fatty acids as novel cancer biomarkers for malignant pleural effusions.  

PubMed

Untargeted mass spectrometry-based metabolomic profiling is a powerful analytical method used for broad-spectrum identification and quantification of metabolites in biofluids in human health and disease states. In this study, we exploit metabolomic profiling for cancer biomarker discovery for diagnosis of malignant pleural effusions. We envisage the result will be clinically useful since currently there are no cancer biomarkers that are accurate enough for the diagnosis of malignant pleural effusions. Metabolomes of 32 malignant pleural effusions from lung cancer patients and 18 benign effusions from patients with pulmonary tuberculosis were analyzed using reversed-phase liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) using AB SCIEX TripleTOF 5600. MS spectra were analyzed using XCMS, PeakView, and LipidView. Metabolome-Wide Association Study (MWAS) was performed by Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve Explorer and Tester (ROCCET). Insignificant markers were filtered out using a metabolome-wide significance level (MWSL) with p-value < 2 × 10(-5) for t test. Only compounds in Human Metabolome Database (HMDB) will be used as cancer biomarkers. ROCCET analysis of ESI positive and negative MS spectra revealed free fatty acid (FFA) 18:1 (oleic acid) had the largest area-under-ROC of 0.96 (95% CI = 0.87-1.00) in malignant pleural effusions. Using a ratio of FFA 18:1-to-ceramide (d18:1/16:0), the area-under-ROC was further increased to 0.99 (95% CI = 0.91-1.00) with sensitivity 93.8% and specificity 100.0%. Using untargeted metabolomic profiling, the diagnostic cancer biomarker with the largest area-under-ROC can be determined objectively. This lipogenic phenotype could be explained by overexpression of fatty acid synthase (FASN) in cancer cells. The diagnostic performance of FFA 18:1-to-ceramide (d18:1/16:0) ratio supports its use for diagnosis of malignant pleural effusions. PMID:25117182

Lam, Ching-Wan; Law, Chun-Yiu

2014-09-01

263

A direct vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque elasticity reconstruction method based on an original material-finite element formulation: theoretical framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The peak cap stress (PCS) amplitude is recognized as a biomechanical predictor of vulnerable plaque (VP) rupture. However, quantifying PCS in vivo remains a challenge since the stress depends on the plaque mechanical properties. In response, an iterative material finite element (FE) elasticity reconstruction method using strain measurements has been implemented for the solution of these inverse problems. Although this approach could resolve the mechanical characterization of VPs, it suffers from major limitations since (i) it is not adapted to characterize VPs exhibiting high material discontinuities between inclusions, and (ii) does not permit real time elasticity reconstruction for clinical use. The present theoretical study was therefore designed to develop a direct material-FE algorithm for elasticity reconstruction problems which accounts for material heterogeneities. We originally modified and adapted the extended FE method (Xfem), used mainly in crack analysis, to model material heterogeneities. This new algorithm was successfully applied to six coronary lesions of patients imaged in vivo with intravascular ultrasound. The results demonstrated that the mean relative absolute errors of the reconstructed Young's moduli obtained for the arterial wall, fibrosis, necrotic core, and calcified regions of the VPs decreased from 95.3±15.56%, 98.85±72.42%, 103.29±111.86% and 95.3±10.49%, respectively, to values smaller than 2.6 × 10-8±5.7 × 10-8% (i.e. close to the exact solutions) when including modified-Xfem method into our direct elasticity reconstruction method.

Bouvier, Adeline; Deleaval, Flavien; Doyley, Marvin M.; Yazdani, Saami K.; Finet, Gérard; Le Floc'h, Simon; Cloutier, Guy; Pettigrew, Roderic I.; Ohayon, Jacques

2013-12-01

264

Long-term trends in calcifying plankton and pH in the North Sea.  

PubMed

Relationships between six calcifying plankton groups and pH are explored in a highly biologically productive and data-rich area of the central North Sea using time-series datasets. The long-term trends show that abundances of foraminiferans, coccolithophores, and echinoderm larvae have risen over the last few decades while the abundances of bivalves and pteropods have declined. Despite good coverage of pH data for the study area there is uncertainty over the quality of this historical dataset; pH appears to have been declining since the mid 1990s but there was no statistical connection between the abundance of the calcifying plankton and the pH trends. If there are any effects of pH on calcifying plankton in the North Sea they appear to be masked by the combined effects of other climatic (e.g. temperature), chemical (nutrient concentrations) and biotic (predation) drivers. Certain calcified plankton have proliferated in the central North Sea, and are tolerant of changes in pH that have occurred since the 1950s but bivalve larvae and pteropods have declined. An improved monitoring programme is required as ocean acidification may be occurring at a rate that will exceed the environmental niches of numerous planktonic taxa, testing their capacities for acclimation and genetic adaptation. PMID:23658686

Beare, Doug; McQuatters-Gollop, Abigail; van der Hammen, Tessa; Machiels, Marcel; Teoh, Shwu Jiau; Hall-Spencer, Jason M

2013-01-01

265

Calcifying fibrous tumor: an unrecognized IgG4-related disease?  

PubMed

Calcifying fibrous tumor is a rare benign mass lesion characterized by bland spindle cells embedded in abundant collagenous matrix, interspersed dystrophic or psammomatous calcifications, and lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate. It shares several clinical and morphologic features with IgG4-related disease, a newly recognized fibroinflammatory disorder. Characteristic histologic features of IgG4-related lesions include dense fibrosis and abundant lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, similar to calcifying fibrous tumor. They contain high numbers of IgG4-positive plasma cells in the tissue. Patients also often have elevated serum IgG4 levels. We report the case of a patient with an ileal calcifying fibrous tumor that contained 69 IgG4-positive plasma cells per high-power field and an IgG4-to-IgG ratio of 56% in lesional plasma cells. The patient's serum IgG4 level was 185 mg/dL, more than double the normal value. Altogether, these features suggest that calcifying fibrous tumor could be an unrecognized lesion of IgG4-related disease. PMID:25244325

Larson, Brent K; Balzer, Bonnie; Goldwasser, Jerome; Dhall, Deepti

2014-09-22

266

Calcified neurocysticercosis associates with hippocampal atrophy: a population-based study.  

PubMed

Calcified neurocysticercosis has been associated with hippocampal atrophy in patients with refractory epilepsy, but the relevance of this association in the population at large is unknown. We assessed calcified cysticerci and its association with hippocampal atrophy in elderly persons living in Atahualpa, an Ecuadorian village endemic for neurocysticercosis. All Atahualpa residents ? 60 years of age were invited to undergo computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging for neurocysticercosis detection. Twenty-eight (11%) out of 248 enrolled persons had calcified cysticerci (case-patients) and were matched 1:1 by age, sex, and years of education to individuals without neurocysticercosis on computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (controls). Four case-patients and none of the controls had epilepsy (P = 0.134). Cognitive performance was similar across both groups. The Scheltens' medial temporal atrophy scale was used for hippocampal rating in case-patients and matched controls without neurocysticercosis. Mean score in the Scheltens' scale was higher in case-patients than in controls (P < 0.001). Atrophic hippocampi were noticed in 19 case-patients and five controls (P = 0.003). Atrophy was bilateral in 11 case-patients and unilateral in eight. All case-patients with unilateral hippocampal atrophy had at least one ipsilateral calcification. This study shows an association between calcified cysticerci and hippocampal atrophy and raises the possibility of an inflammation-mediated hippocampal damage as the responsible mechanism for these findings. PMID:25349375

Del Brutto, Oscar H; Salgado, Perla; Lama, Julio; Del Brutto, Victor J; Campos, Xavier; Zambrano, Mauricio; García, Héctor H

2015-01-01

267

Long-Term Trends in Calcifying Plankton and pH in the North Sea  

PubMed Central

Relationships between six calcifying plankton groups and pH are explored in a highly biologically productive and data-rich area of the central North Sea using time-series datasets. The long-term trends show that abundances of foraminiferans, coccolithophores, and echinoderm larvae have risen over the last few decades while the abundances of bivalves and pteropods have declined. Despite good coverage of pH data for the study area there is uncertainty over the quality of this historical dataset; pH appears to have been declining since the mid 1990s but there was no statistical connection between the abundance of the calcifying plankton and the pH trends. If there are any effects of pH on calcifying plankton in the North Sea they appear to be masked by the combined effects of other climatic (e.g. temperature), chemical (nutrient concentrations) and biotic (predation) drivers. Certain calcified plankton have proliferated in the central North Sea, and are tolerant of changes in pH that have occurred since the 1950s but bivalve larvae and pteropods have declined. An improved monitoring programme is required as ocean acidification may be occurring at a rate that will exceed the environmental niches of numerous planktonic taxa, testing their capacities for acclimation and genetic adaptation. PMID:23658686

Beare, Doug; McQuatters-Gollop, Abigail; van der Hammen, Tessa; Machiels, Marcel; Teoh, Shwu Jiau; Hall-Spencer, Jason M.

2013-01-01

268

Effects of seawater pCO2 changes on the calcifying fluid of scleractinian corals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations due to anthropogenic emissions induce changes in the ocean carbonate chemistry and a drop in ocean pH. This acidification process is expected to harm calcifying organisms like coccolithophores, molluscs, echinoderms, and corals. A severe decline in coral abundance is, for example, expected by the end of this century with associated disastrous effects on reef ecosystems. Despite the growing importance of the topic, little progress has been made with respect to modelling the impact of acidification on coral calcification. Here we present a model for a coral polyp that simulates the carbonate system in four different compartments: the seawater, the polyp tissue, the coelenteron, and the calicoblastic layer. Precipitation of calcium carbonate takes place in the metabolically controlled calicoblastic layer beneath the polyp tissue. The model is adjusted to a state of activity as observed by direct microsensor measurements in the calcifying fluid. Simulated CO2 perturbation experiments reveal decreasing calcification rates under elevated pCO2 despite strong metabolic control of the calcifying fluid. Diffusion of CO2 through the tissue into the calicoblastic layer increases with increasing seawater pCO2 leading to decreased aragonite saturation in the calcifying fluid of the coral polyp. Our modelling study provides important insights into the complexity of the calcification process at the organism level and helps to quantify the effect of ocean acidification on corals.

Hohn, S.; Merico, A.

2012-03-01

269

Past constraints on the vulnerability of marine calcifiers to massive carbon dioxide release  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing concentrations of carbon dioxide in sea water are driving a progressive acidification of the ocean. Although the associated changes in the carbonate chemistry of surface and deep waters may adversely affect marine calcifying organisms, current experiments do not always produce consistent results for a given species. Ocean sediments record past biological responses to transient greenhouse warming and ocean acidification.

Andy Ridgwell; Daniela N. Schmidt

2010-01-01

270

Bilateral tonsilloliths and calcified carotid atheromas: case report and literature review.  

PubMed

Tonsilloliths and calcified carotid atheromas are dystrophic calcifications that can be identified in routine oral radiographs. This case report is the first description in the English literature of the simultaneous occurrence of bilateral tonsilloliths and calcified carotid atheromas. Panoramic oral radiographs from a 62-year-old woman presented bilateral radiopaque images of the left and right ramus of the mandible; multiple and well-defined radiopacities below the left angle of the mandible, next to the C3-C4 cervical vertebrae; and a single radiopacity on the right side between the hyoid bone and the mandible base. Computed tomography confirmed the exact location of the calcifications in the oropharyngeal and carotid spaces. A diagnosis of bilateral tonsilloliths and calcified carotid atheromas was reached. Doppler ultrasound indicated a degree of stenosis of ± 20% within the right and left carotids. The patient was referred to a vascular surgeon to evaluate the calcified carotid atheromas. Follow-up of the tonsilloliths was also performed. PMID:22867758

de Oliveira, Camila de Nazaré Alves; Amaral, Tania Mara Pimenta; Abdo, Evandro Neves; Mesquita, Ricardo Alves

2013-03-01

271

An early, non-calcified, dasycladalean alga from the Lower Devonian of Yunnan Province, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

New data on the morphology of Uncatoella verticillata from the Lower Devonian Xiaxishancun Formation (Yunnan Province, China) demonstrate an affinity with Dasycladales rather than Charophyta as previously thought. The thallus is non-calcified and comprises a main axis with much branched, simple (acrophore) laterals in whorls (euspondyl). Occasional pseudodichotomies of the main axis are a unique feature of the species. Solitary,

Paul Kenrick; Cheng-Sen Li

1998-01-01

272

AUTOMATIC DETECTION OF CALCIFIED LESIONS IN THE DESCENDING AORTA USING CONTRAST ENHANCED CT SCANS  

E-print Network

in CTA scans would allow an imaging protocol without a CT scan, thus reducing scanning time and radiationAUTOMATIC DETECTION OF CALCIFIED LESIONS IN THE DESCENDING AORTA USING CONTRAST ENHANCED CT SCANS R enhanced Computed Tomography (CT) scans. This CT scan is generally followed by a contrast enhanced

van Vliet, Lucas J.

273

Morphological characterization of lineages within the calcified tropical seaweed genus Halimeda (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Halimeda Lamouroux constitutes a genus of calcified and segmented green seaweeds within the Bryopsidales. Molecular phylogenetic assessments have uncovered five principal monophyletic lineages within the genus. In the present study we define these lineages morphologically. We gathered morphological data from specimens used in the molecular analyses as well as from collections having a similar morphology and originating from the same

Heroen Verbruggen; Wiebe HCF Kooistra

2004-01-01

274

The Elastic Lamellae of Devitalized Arteries Calcify When Incubated in Serum  

E-print Network

The Elastic Lamellae of Devitalized Arteries Calcify When Incubated in Serum Evidence for a Serum whether serum contains an activity that induces artery calcification. Methods and Results--The elastic circulation. The SCF does not initiate medial elastin calcification in living arteries, which suggests

Price, Paul A.

275

Comparative studies of inorganic carbon utilization in Emiliania huxleyi and some non-calcifying marine microalgae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inorganic carbon utilization in the non-calcifying marine microalgae, Nannochloropsis oculata, Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Porphyridium purpureum was compared with high- and low-calcifying strains of Emiliania huxleyi grown in artificial seawater medium aerated with either air (0.03% V/V CO2) or CO2-free air. For high-calcifying strain of E. oculata and P. tricornutem, similar growth patterns were observed in air-and CO2-free air-grown cultures. P. purpureum showed a less final cell density in CO2-free air than in air-grown culture. However, low-calcifying strain of E. huxleyi was able to grow only in air-grown culture, but not in CO2-free air-grown culture. Measurements of alkalinity, pH, concentration of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and free CO2 showed different patterns of DIC utilization. With N. oculata, P. tricornutum and P. purpureum the pattern of DIC utilization was characterized by an increase of pH and a decrease of DIC but a constant alkalinity in the cultures aerated with air or CO2-free air, suggesting that bicarbonate utilization was concomitant with an efflux of OH-. Both alkalinity and pH were maintained rather constant in air-grown culture of low-calcifying strain of E. huxleyi, suggesting that diffusive entry of CO2 could meet the requirement of DIC for its photosynthesis and growth. High-calcifying strain of E. huxleyi, however, showed a pattern of decrease of alkalinity and DIC but an almost constant pH, indicating that bicarbonate was the major form of inorganic carbon utilised by this organism and bicarbonate uptake is unlikely to be accompanied by an efflux of OH-. The final pH values reached by N. oculata, P. tricornutum and P. purpureum in a closed system were 10.75, 10.60 and 9.85 respectively, showing that bicarbonate utilisation is concomitant with an efflux of OH-. While the final pH of 8.4 in high-calcifying E. huxleyi suggests that bicarbonate utilization was not accompanied by an efflux of OH-.

Liang-Feng, Dong; Merrett, M. J.; Chao-Yuan, Wu

1999-09-01

276

Therapeutic strategies to deplete macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques  

PubMed Central

Macrophages can be found in all stages of atherosclerosis and are major contributors of atherosclerotic plaque development, progression and destabilization. Continuous recruitment of monocytes drives this chronic inflammatory disease, which can be intervened by several strategies: reducing the inflammatory stimulus by lowering circulating lipids and promoting cholesterol efflux from plaque, direct and indirect targeting of adhesion molecules and chemokines involved in monocyte adhesion and transmigration and inducing macrophage death in atherosclerotic plaques in combination with anti-inflammatory drugs. This review discusses the outlined strategies to deplete macrophages from atherosclerotic plaques to promote plaque stabilization. PMID:22309283

De Meyer, Inge; Martinet, Wim; De Meyer, Guido R. Y.

2012-01-01

277

Facts and artefacts in research on human dental plaque fluid.  

PubMed

In 1966, Jenkins suggested that the plaque fluid environment was likely to have higher concentrations of extracellular solutes than was apparent from analyses of total plaque concentrations. Early work on plaque fluid confirmed this contention, but some artefact was also generated by the prolonged centrifugation used for separation. The solute concentrations in plaque fluid mostly exceed those in saliva or crevicular fluid. Thus, the environmental conditions are distinctly different from those based on the assumption that saliva readily permeates films of dental plaque. In contrast, the presence of serum proteins suggests a crevicular input to plaque fluid. These data suggest that exchange between dental plaque and its environment is apparently restricted. Diffusion rates measured in dental plaque by different methods do not agree on how restricted it is. However, measuring diffusion in plaque introduces artefacts in packing density, a major determinant of the diffusion rate. The conditions used for collection and analysis have been reported to produce artefactual changes in plaque fluid potassium, a predominantly intracellular ion. Measurements of predominantly extracellular ions, such as calcium, are no less prone to artefact, whether based on ion-selective electrodes or on total calcium. We have much to learn about the fluid environment of the teeth and about dynamic changes in plaque fluid composition and properties during perturbations. Such information can give insights into pathological processes such as tooth demineralization and dental caries, calculus formation, and gingival inflammation. PMID:2191981

Tatevossian, A

1990-06-01

278

Pleural, peritoneal and pericardial effusions – a biochemical approach  

PubMed Central

The pathological accumulation of serous fluids in the pleural, peritoneal and pericardial space occurs in a variety of conditions. Since patient management depends on right and timely diagnosis, biochemical analysis of extravascular body fluids is considered a valuable tool in the patient management process. The biochemical evaluation of serous fluids includes the determination of gross appearance, differentiation of transudative from exudative effusions and additional specific biochemical testing to assess the effusion etiology. This article summarized data from the most relevant literature concerning practice with special emphasis on usefulness of biochemical tests used for the investigation of pleural, peritoneal and pericardial effusions. Additionally, preanalytical issues concerning serous fluid analysis were addressed and recommendations concerning acceptable analytical practice in serous fluid analysis were presented. PMID:24627721

Kopcinovic, Lara Milevoj; Culej, Jelena

2014-01-01

279

Model for a pump that drives circulation of pleural fluid.  

PubMed

Physical and mathematical models were used to study a mechanism that could maintain the layer of pleural fluid that covers the surface of the lung. The pleural space was modeled as a thin layer of viscous fluid lying between a membrane carrying tension (T), representing the lung, and a rigid wall, representing the chest wall. Flow of the fluid was driven by sliding between the membrane and wall. The physical model consisted of a cylindrical balloon with strings stretched along its surface. When the balloon was inflated inside a vertical circular cylinder containing a viscous fluid, the strings formed narrow vertical channels between broad regions in which the balloon pressed against the outer cylinder. The channels simulated the pleural space in the regions of lobar margins. Oscillatory rotation of the outer cylinder maintained a lubricating layer of fluid between the balloon and the cylinder. The thickness of the fluid layer (h), measured by fluorescence videomicroscopy, was larger for larger fluid viscosity (mu), larger sliding velocity (U), and smaller pressure difference (delta P) between the layer and the channel. A mathematical model of the flow in a horizontal section was analyzed, and numerical solutions were obtained for parameter values of mu, U, delta P, and T that matched those of the physical model. The computed results agreed reasonably well with the experimental results. Scaling laws yield the prediction that h is approximately (T/delta P)(microU/T)2/3. For physiological values of the parameters, the predicted value of h is approximately 10(-3) cm, in good agreement with the observed thickness of the pleural space. PMID:7713817

Butler, J P; Huang, J; Loring, S H; Lai-Fook, S J; Wang, P M; Wilson, T A

1995-01-01

280

Role of therapeutic thoracentesis in tuberculous pleural effusion  

PubMed Central

CONTEXT: Prevalence of tuberculous pleural effusion is very high in the Asian subcontinent but very few studies have come up from this part of the world about the course of recovery of pulmonary functions after institution of anti-tubercular therapy (ATT) and thoracentesis. AIMS: To study initial lung function impairment, changes over time after institution of ATT and thoracentesis and residual abnormalities left at the end of six months of treatment. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Randomized open level interventional study over two years in 52 patients at a tertiary level teaching hospital. METHODS: The study population was divided into two equal groups, A (therapeutic thoracentesis) and B (diagnostic thoracentesis). Spirometry, chest radiograph and ultrasonography of thorax were done initially and at each follow-up visit up to six months. Statistical analysis was done (P value < 0.05 considered significant). RESULTS: Both groups were comparable initially. After six months none in group A and five patients in group B had minimal pleural effusion. During follow up, mean percentage predicted of FEV1 and FVC increased more in A than in B and the differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Pleural thickening, initially absent in both groups, was found to be more in B as compared to A at subsequent follow-up visits and this was statistically significant (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Thoracentesis should be considered in addition to anti-TB treatment, especially in large effusions, in order to relieve dyspnea, avoid possibility of residual pleural thickening and risk of developing restrictive functional impairment. PMID:23189098

Bhuniya, Sourin; Arunabha, Datta C.; Choudhury, Sabyasachi; Saha, Indranil; Roy, T. Sumit; Saha, Mita

2012-01-01

281

Pleural tissue repair with cord blood platelet gel  

PubMed Central

Background Prolonged air leak is the major cause of morbidity after pulmonary resection. In this study we used in vitro and in vivo experiments to investigate an innovative approach based on the use of human umbilical cord blood platelet gel. Materials and methods In vitro, a scratch assay was performed to test the tissue repair capability mediated by cord blood platelet gel compared to the standard culture conditions using human primary mesothelial cells. In vivo, an iatrogenic injury was made to the left lung of 54 Wistar rats. Cord blood platelet gel was placed on the injured area only in treated animals and at different times histological changes and the presence of pleural adhesions were evaluated. In addition, changes in the pattern of soluble inflammatory factors were investigated using a multiplex proteome array. Results In vitro, mesothelial cell damage was repaired in a shorter time by cord blood platelet gel than in the control condition (24 versus 35 hours, respectively). In vivo, formation of new mesothelial tissue and complete tissue recovery were observed at 45±1 and 75±1 hours in treated animals and at 130±2.5 and 160±6 hours in controls, respectively. Pleural adhesions were evident in 43% of treated animals compared to 17% of controls. No complications were observed. Interestingly, some crucial soluble factors involved in inflammation were significantly reduced in treated animals. Discussion Cord blood platelet gel accelerates the repair of pleural damage and stimulates the development of pleural adhesions. Both properties could be particularly useful in the management of prolonged air leak, and to reduce inflammation. PMID:23736928

Rosso, Lorenzo; Parazzi, Valentina; Damarco, Francesco; Righi, Ilaria; Santambrogio, Luigi; Rebulla, Paolo; Gatti, Stefano; Ferrero, Stefano; Nosotti, Mario; Lazzari, Lorenza

2014-01-01

282

Effect of fibrous glass on rat pleural mesothelium. Histopathologic observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female Fisher 344 rats (n = 25) were inoculated intrapleurally with a single 20-mg dose of (JM-100) fibrous glass. The mean length (2.2 microns) and width (0.15 microns) of the fibrous glass particles was within respirable range. Following inoculation, the rats were killed at timed intervals ranging from 2 to 430 d from inoculation. The pleural histopathologic changes were independently

Armando E. Fraire; S. Donald Greenberg; Harlan J. Spjut; Victor L. Roggli; Ronald F. Dodson; Joiner Cartwright; Glenn Williams; Stephen P. Baker

1994-01-01

283

Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in malignant pleural mesothelioma: a possible guardian for long-term survival  

PubMed Central

Malignant pleural mesothelioma is a rare and aggressive malignancy of the pleura correlated with exposure to asbestos, with a medium survival of 11–12 months after diagnosis. A case of a 67-year-old male who had previously worked in the asbestos industry and is a current smoker is reported. The computed tomography evaluation revealed a right pleural mass with pleural thickening, and the pleural biopsy confirmed a diagnosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma. He was treated with chemotherapy consisting of etoposide, paclitaxel, and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin hydrochloride. After completion of chemotherapy, radiologic evaluation confirmed a reduction of pleural thickening and improvement in his symptoms. A complete presentation of each drug formulation and characteristics are also included in this paper. The patient’s follow-up is continuing, and computed tomography reveals stable disease 9 years after initial examination. PMID:23055748

Zarogoulidis, Paul; Mavroudi, Maria; Porpodis, Konstantinos; Domvri, Kalliopi; Sakkas, Antonios; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Stylianaki, Aikaterini; Tsiotsios, Anastasios; Courcoutsakis, Nikolaos; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

2012-01-01

284

Intradural extramedullary tuberculoma mimicking en plaque meningioma.  

PubMed

In this paper we report an 18 year old woman with an intradural extramedullary tuberculoma mimicking en plaque meningioma located in the thoracic region. The patient was operated via thoracic laminoplasty and tumor was totally resected. On the follow-up examination the magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated the total excision of the tumor. Here we describe a case of intradural extramedullary tuberculoma of the spinal cord as a complication of tuberculosis meningitis in a previously healthy young female. PMID:19439860

Ozek, Erdinc; Iplkcioglu, A Celal; Erdal, Mustafa

2009-01-01

285

Earliest Known Roman London Plaque Discovered  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earlier today, archaeologists working on a massive dig on the southern banks of the River Thames uncovered the oldest known plaque inscribed with the city's Roman name, Londinium. While the exact date of the plaque is unknown, it is believed to date from between 50 and 150 AD, and would most likely have been placed on some type of building or in a shrine. Equally important, the plaque offers some initial concrete evidence that there was an emerging merchant class in London during this period. The actual location of the plaque's discovery is near the junction of what were three key roads in Roman Britain, and the finding represents only a small portion of what may be unearthed in this 40-week archaeology project.The first link is to a recent news story about the recent find in London. The second site leads to the Council for British Archaeology, which features numerous links to ongoing research projects within Britain and frequent updates about new findings from the field. The third site offers some perspective on the historical notion of Roman Britain, and particularly how scholars understand that epoch. The fourth site is a link to the complete work "Roman Roads in Britain," a historical study that seeks to describe and delineate the exact location of these very important Roman pathways. Information about the Museum of London, which is working jointly on this project, is provided by the fifth link. The last link, Britannia, is a nice omnibus listing of sites dealing with various aspects of Roman Britain history and archaeology, provided by the Dalton School in New York.

Grinnell, Max

2002-01-01

286

Regional differences in pleural lymphatic albumin concentration in sheep  

SciTech Connect

We used quantitative reflectance autoradiography to compare the concentration of albumin in visceral pleural lymphatics at the cranial and caudal ends of the sheep's lung in the vertical (60 degrees head-up) and horizontal (supine) positions. Twelve to fourteen hours after injecting 125I-albumin intravenously we placed four anesthetized sheep in the vertical position to establish a microvascular hydrostatic pressure gradient along the vertical height of the lung. We placed two anesthetized sheep in the horizontal position. Four hours later, we fixed the left lung and removed visceral pleural tissue blocks from the cranial and caudal ends, separated by a 15-cm distance, along the costovertebral margin. We measured the silver grain density in the pleural lymphatic autoradiograms by dark-field reflectance microspectrophotometry. In the vertical position, the lymph albumin concentration at the cranial end (top) of the lung averaged 2.5 +/- 0.4 g/dl compared with the caudal end (bottom), which averaged 1.8 +/- 0.3 g/dl. The difference (42% greater at the top than the bottom) is significant (P less than 0.05). The computed gradient in perimicrovascular interstitial albumin osmotic pressure was 0.26 +/- 0.13 cmH2O/cm lung height. There were no differences between the cranial and caudal lymphatic groups in the two horizontal sheep. We conclude that in the sheep lung there is a gradient in perimicrovascular albumin concentration due to the vertical gradient in microvascular hydrostatic pressure.

Albertine, K.H.; Schultz, E.L.; Wiener-Kronish, J.P.; Staub, N.C.

1987-01-01

287

[Asbestos exposure and pleural calcification : functional effects in 34 patients].  

PubMed

Respiratory function disturbances were evaluated in 34 patients, mostly retired naval shipyard workers, with asbestos-related pleural calcifications. All patients had spirography tests, while 20 of them were studied by CO transfer in steady-state and measurements of arterial gases. Results were correlated with previous clinical history (chronic bronchopathy and/or pleural effusions), smoking habits, and the duration of exposure to asbestos dust. Patients with no previous history had mean spirographic values close to the normal (VC: 96% of lower limits; TC: 113%, mean VEMS/CV: 72.5%). Previous clinical history had a very much more marked effect on spirographic results than on gas exchanges: whereas CO transfer and blood gases were usually fairly normal (97% of normal for TCO and DuCO, mean PaO2 at 78 mmHg, mean PaCO2 at 34,5 mmHg), many patients had markedly altered altered values. A clear correlation was found for TCO, DuCO, Du a and PaCO2 with the duration of exposure. This suggests that in some cases there is a certain degree of pulmonary fibrosis associated with the pleural thickening. PMID:7100058

Chailleux, E; Eveillard, M F; Ordronneau, J; Ginet, J D; Moigneteau, C

1982-01-01

288

Microwave plaque thermoradiotherapy for choroidal melanoma.  

PubMed Central

Microwave thermoradiotherapy was used as a primary treatment for 44 patients with choroidal melanoma. An episcleral dish-shaped microwave antenna was placed beneath the tumour at the time of plaque brachytherapy. While temperatures were measured at the sclera, the tumour's apex was targeted to receive a minimum of 42 degrees C for 45 minutes. In addition, the patients received full or reduced doses of plaque radiotherapy. No patients have been lost to follow-up. Two eyes have been enucleated: one for rubeotic glaucoma, and one for uveitic glaucoma. Though six patients have died, only one death was due to metastatic choroidal melanoma (39 months after treatment). Clinical observations suggest that the addition of microwave heating to plaque radiation therapy of choroidal melanoma has been well tolerated. There has been a 97.7% local control rate (with a mean follow-up of 22.2 months). We have reduced the minimum tumour radiation dose (apex dose) to levels used for thermoradiotherapy of cutaneous melanomas (50 Gy/5000 rad). Within the range of this follow-up period no adverse effects which might preclude the use of this microwave heat delivery system for treatment of choroidal melanoma have been noted. Images PMID:1622949

Finger, P. T.

1992-01-01

289

Differential Responses of Calcifying and Non-Calcifying Epibionts of a Brown Macroalga to Present-Day and Future Upwelling pCO2  

PubMed Central

Seaweeds are key species of the Baltic Sea benthic ecosystems. They are the substratum of numerous fouling epibionts like bryozoans and tubeworms. Several of these epibionts bear calcified structures and could be impacted by the high pCO2 events of the late summer upwellings in the Baltic nearshores. Those events are expected to increase in strength and duration with global change and ocean acidification. If calcifying epibionts are impacted by transient acidification as driven by upwelling events, their increasing prevalence could cause a shift of the fouling communities toward fleshy species. The aim of the present study was to test the sensitivity of selected seaweed macrofoulers to transient elevation of pCO2 in their natural microenvironment, i.e. the boundary layer covering the thallus surface of brown seaweeds. Fragments of the macroalga Fucus serratus bearing an epibiotic community composed of the calcifiers Spirorbis spirorbis (Annelida) and Electra pilosa (Bryozoa) and the non-calcifier Alcyonidium hirsutum (Bryozoa) were maintained for 30 days under three pCO2 conditions: natural 460±59 µatm, present-day upwelling1193±166 µatm and future upwelling 3150±446 µatm. Only the highest pCO2 caused a significant reduction of growth rates and settlement of S. spirorbis individuals. Additionally, S. spirorbis settled juveniles exhibited enhanced calcification of 40% during daylight hours compared to dark hours, possibly reflecting a day-night alternation of an acidification-modulating effect by algal photosynthesis as opposed to an acidification-enhancing effect of algal respiration. E. pilosa colonies showed significantly increased growth rates at intermediate pCO2 (1193 µatm) but no response to higher pCO2. No effect of acidification on A. hirsutum colonies growth rates was observed. The results suggest a remarkable resistance of the algal macro-epibionts to levels of acidification occurring at present day upwellings in the Baltic. Only extreme future upwelling conditions impacted the tubeworm S. spirorbis, but not the bryozoans. PMID:23894659

Saderne, Vincent; Wahl, Martin

2013-01-01

290

Ghrelin receptor deficiency aggravates atherosclerotic plaque instability and vascular inflammation.  

PubMed

Ghrelin has been found to be associated with anti-inflammatory effects, inhibition of atherosclerotic plaque formation, and plaque stability in the cardiovascular system. We investigated whether ghrelin affected atherosclerotic plaque and inflammation found in atherosclerosis. We crossed ghrelin receptor knock out mice (growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR)-/-) and low-density lipoprotein receptor-null (low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR)-/-) mice. In this model, atherosclerotic lesions were promoted by administering a high-fat, high-cholesterol, Western-type diet for 18 weeks. Serum lipid levels, atherosclerotic plaque on the aortic arches, and expression of intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), T cells, macrophages, and smooth muscle cells of atherosclerotic plaque were observed. Although serum lipid levels and atherosclerotic plaque in aortic arches were not significantly different between GHSR+/+/LDLR-/- and GHSR -/-LDLR-/- mice, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 protein expression in atherosclerotic plaques were increased in GHSR -/-LDLR-/- mice compared with GHSR+/+/LDLR-/- mice. T cells and macrophages were increased, while smooth muscle cells of atherosclerotic plaques were less in GHSR -/-LDLR-/- mice than that in GHSR+/+/LDLR-/- mice. In conclusion, ghrelin receptor deficiency aggravates atherosclerotic plaque instability and vascular inflammation but not the surface area of atherosclerotic plaque. This information will provide novel avenues for the treatment of patients with atherosclerosis.  PMID:25553467

Zhang, Min; Qu, Xinkai; Yuan, Fang; Yang, Yiqing; Xu, Lei; Dai, Jinjie; Wang, Weigang; Fei, Jian; Hou, Xumin; Fang, Weiyi

2015-01-01

291

Intravascular probe for detection of vulnerable plaque  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coronary angiography is unable to define the status of the atheroma, and only measures the luminal dimensions of the blood vessel, without providing information about plaque content. Up to 70% of heart attacks are caused by minimally obstructive vulnerable plaques, which are too small to be detected adequately by angiography. We have developed an intravascular imaging detector to identify vulnerable coronary artery plaques. The detector works by sensing beta or conversion electron radiotracer emissions from plaque-binding radiotracers. The device overcomes the technical constraints of size, sensitivity and conformance to the intravascular environment. The detector at the distal end of the catheter uses six 7mm long by 0.5mm diameter scintillation fibers coupled to 1.5m long plastic fibers. The fibers are offset from each other longitudinally by 6mm and arranged spirally around a guide wire in the catheter. At the proximal end of the catheter the optical fibers are coupled to an interface box with a snap on connector. The interface box contains a position sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT) to decode the individual fibers. The whole detector assembly fits into an 8-French (2.7 mm in diameter) catheter. The PSPMT image is further decoded with software to give a linear image, the total instantaneous count rate and an audio output whose tone corresponds to the count rate. The device was tested with F-18 and Tl-204 sources. Spectrometric response, spatial resolution, sensitivity and beta to background ratio were measured. System resolution is 6 mm and the sensitivity is >500 cps / micrometers Ci when the source is 1 mm from the detector. The beta to background ratio was 11.2 for F-18 measured on a single fiber. The current device will lead to a system allowing imaging of labeled vulnerable plaque in coronary arteries. This type of signature is expected to enable targeted and cost effective therapies to prevent acute coronary artery diseases such as: unstable angina, acute myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death.

Patt, Bradley E.; Iwanczyk, Jan S.; MacDonald, Lawrence R.; Yamaguchi, Yuko; Tull, Carolyn R.; Janecek, Martin; Hoffman, Edward J.; Strauss, H. William; Tsugita, Ross; Ghazarossian, Vartan

2001-12-01

292

Bacterial Diversity in Human Subgingival Plaque  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to determine the bacterial diversity in the human subgingival plaque by using culture-independent molecular methods as part of an ongoing effort to obtain full 16S rRNA sequences for all cultivable and not-yet-cultivated species of human oral bacteria. Subgingival plaque was analyzed from healthy subjects and subjects with refractory periodontitis, adult periodontitis, human immunodeficiency virus periodontitis, and acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis. 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) bacterial genes from DNA isolated from subgingival plaque samples were PCR amplified with all-bacterial or selective primers and cloned into Escherichia coli. The sequences of cloned 16S rDNA inserts were used to determine species identity or closest relatives by comparison with sequences of known species. A total of 2,522 clones were analyzed. Nearly complete sequences of approximately 1,500 bases were obtained for putative new species. About 60% of the clones fell into 132 known species, 70 of which were identified from multiple subjects. About 40% of the clones were novel phylotypes. Of the 215 novel phylotypes, 75 were identified from multiple subjects. Known putative periodontal pathogens such as Porphyromonas gingivalis, Bacteroides forsythus, and Treponema denticola were identified from multiple subjects, but typically as a minor component of the plaque as seen in cultivable studies. Several phylotypes fell into two recently described phyla previously associated with extreme natural environments, for which there are no cultivable species. A number of species or phylotypes were found only in subjects with disease, and a few were found only in healthy subjects. The organisms identified only from diseased sites deserve further study as potential pathogens. Based on the sequence data in this study, the predominant subgingival microbial community consisted of 347 species or phylotypes that fall into 9 bacterial phyla. Based on the 347 species seen in our sample of 2,522 clones, we estimate that there are 68 additional unseen species, for a total estimate of 415 species in the subgingival plaque. When organisms found on other oral surfaces such as the cheek, tongue, and teeth are added to this number, the best estimate of the total species diversity in the oral cavity is approximately 500 species, as previously proposed. PMID:11371542

Paster, Bruce J.; Boches, Susan K.; Galvin, Jamie L.; Ericson, Rebecca E.; Lau, Carol N.; Levanos, Valerie A.; Sahasrabudhe, Ashish; Dewhirst, Floyd E.

2001-01-01

293

Characteristics of pleural effusions in systemic lupus erythematosus: differential diagnosis of lupus pleuritis.  

PubMed

We investigated the clinical characteristics of pleural effusion in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). A prospective analysis of 17 SLE patients with pleural effusion (seven lupus pleuritis, eight transudative effusions and two parapneumonic effusions) was performed. Thirty non-SLE patients with pleural effusion were recruited as controls. A pleural fluid ANA titer ?1:160 was found in 8/17 (47.1%) SLE patients and none of the 30 non-SLE patients (p?=?0.0001). Pleural fluid to serum C3 ratios were significantly lower in SLE than in non-SLE (median (minimum-maximum) 0.29 (0.03-0.43) versus 0.52 (0.26-0.73), p?=?0.0002). Among SLE patients, pleural fluid ANA titers ?1:160 were more frequently found in patients with lupus pleuritis than in those with pleural effusion from causes other than lupus itself (85.7% versus 20.0%, p?=?0.0152). Serum CRP levels were significantly increased in patients with lupus pleuritis compared with SLE patients with transudative pleural effusion (2.30 (0.30-5.66) versus 0.7 (0.12-1.47) mg/dl, p?=?0.0062). In conclusion, pleural fluid ANA titer and serum CRP levels are significantly increased in lupus pleuritis. PMID:25318967

Choi, B Y; Yoon, M J; Shin, K; Lee, Y J; Song, Y W

2015-03-01

294

Pleural effusion following ventriculopleural shunt: Case reports and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Ventriculo-pleural shunt (VPLS) is an acceptable alternative in the management of hydrocephalus. Imbalance between the production and absorption of cerebrospinal fluid an lead to formation of pleural effusion in patient with VPLS and on occasion produce symptoms. Pleural effusion could be a transudate or a non-specific exudate. We report our experience with this modality in relation to formation of pleural effusion and review the literature to make recommendation for its management. Information related to patients’ demographics, smoking history, prior pulmonary and occupational history, indication, duration and complications of the VPLS and their management was gathered to substantiate current recommendation with our experience. PMID:20835312

Küpeli, Elif; Yilmaz, Cem; Akçay, ?ule

2010-01-01

295

Eosinophilic Pleural Effusion: A Rare Complication of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy  

PubMed Central

Background. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy has been widely used to treat renal stones. The procedure is relatively safe with minor complications. Case. The patient is a 32-year-old man who presented with left sided pleural effusion after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Results. The pleural effusion study revealed an exudative fluid rich in eosinophils (30%). So, the diagnosis of eosinophilic pleural effusion as a complication of lithotripsy was made. Conclusion. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy should be regarded as an etiology of unexplained eosinophilic pleural effusion after this procedure. PMID:23935633

Mokhtari, Maral; Kumar, Perikala Vijayananda; Ghayumi, Mohammad-Ali

2013-01-01

296

An Additional Potential Factor for Kidney Stone Formation during Space Flights: Calcifying Nanoparticles (Nanobacteria): A Case Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spaceflight-induced microgravity appears to be a risk factor for the development of urinary calculi due to skeletal calcium liberation and other undefined factors, resulting in stone disease in crewmembers during and after spaceflight. Calcifying nanoparticles, or nanobacteria, reproduce at a more rapid rate in simulated microgravity conditions and create external shells of calcium phosphate in the form of apatite. The questions arises whether calcifying nanoparticles are niduses for calculi and contribute to the development of clinical stone disease in humans, who possess environmental factors predisposing to the development of urinary calculi and potentially impaired immunological defenses during spaceflight. A case of a urinary calculus passed from an astronaut post-flight with morphological characteristics of calcifying nanoparticles and staining positive for a calcifying nanoparticle unique antigen, is presented.

Jones, Jeffrey A.; Ciftcioglu, Neva; Schmid, Joseph; Griffith, Donald

2007-01-01

297

Micro-analysis of plaque fluid from single-site fasted plaque  

SciTech Connect

Despite the site-specific nature of caries, nearly all data on the concentration of ions relevant to the level of saturation of plaque fluid with respect to calcium phosphate minerals or enamel are from studies that used pooled samples. A procedure is described for the collection and analysis of inorganic ions relevant to these saturation levels in plaque fluid samples collected from a single surface on a single tooth. Various methods for examining data obtained by this procedure are described, and a mathematical procedure employing potential plots is recommended.

Vogel, G.L.; Carey, C.M.; Chow, L.C.; Tatevossian, A. (American Dental Association Health Foundation, Gaithersburg, MD (USA))

1990-06-01

298

Recurrent bilateral gingival peripheral calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (Pindborg tumor): a case report.  

PubMed

Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT) is an extremely rare, benign neoplasm, accounting for approximately 1% of all odontogenic tumors. Peripheral CEOTs commonly resemble oral hyperplastic or reactive lesions and are histologically similar to their intraosseous counterparts. We report an unusual case of multifocal peripheral CEOT. A 40-year-old female presented with bilateral soft, painful, erythematous, gingival swellings localized in premolar areas of the mandibular gingiva. The presumptive diagnosis was bilateral pyogenic granuloma. The masses were surgically excised under local anesthesia without bone curettage and both recurred 12 months later. Morphologic features, and histochemical and immunohistochemical tests revealed bilateral peripheral calcifying odontogenic epithelial tumor. There is no clinical or radiographic evidence of recurrence 3.5 years after excision. This multifocal phenomenon has been reported previously only for intraosseous CEOT. Gingival masses must be carefully evaluated for clinical and histologic evidence of neoplasia. PMID:19716494

Abrahão, Aline Corrêa; Camisasca, Danielle Resende; Bonelli, Beatriz R M Venturi; Cabral, Márcia Grillo; Lourenço, Simone Q C; Torres, Sandra R; Pinto, Décio Santos

2009-09-01

299

An Unusual Type II Dens Invaginatus with Calcified Canals in a Maxillary Lateral Incisor – A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Dens invaginatus is a developmental malformation resulting from the invagination of enamel organ into the dental papilla. Management of dens invaginatus is an endodontic challenge. Presence of calcified canals in dens invaginatus makes it even more complicated. Modification of the treatment plan is required to treat such cases. This case report deals with the management of a Type II Dens Invaginatus in a lateral incisor with calcified canals. PMID:24179951

Subbiya, Arunajatesan; Geethapriya, Nagarajan; Pradeepkumar, Angambakam Rajasekaran; Vivekanandhan, Paramasivam

2013-01-01

300

Transcriptome and proteome analysis of Pinctada margaritifera calcifying mantle and shell: focus on biomineralization  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The shell of the pearl-producing bivalve Pinctada margaritifera is composed of an organic cell-free matrix that plays a key role in the dynamic process of biologically-controlled biomineralization. In order to increase genomic resources and identify shell matrix proteins implicated in biomineralization in P. margaritifera, high-throughput Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) pyrosequencing was undertaken on the calcifying mantle, combined with a

Caroline Joubert; David Piquemal; Benjamin Marie; Laurent Manchon; Fabien Pierrat; Isabelle Zanella-Cléon; Nathalie Cochennec-Laureau; Yannick Gueguen; Caroline Montagnani

2010-01-01

301

Dose backscatter factors for selected beta sources as a function of source, calcified plaque and contrast agent using Monte Carlo calculations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electron backscattering is a prominent secondary effect in beta dosimetry, and is closely correlated with factors such as the geometries of the source and the scattering material, as well as the composition of the scattering material. Previous results were varied depending on the experimental setup and detector resolution, and were generally performed for monoenergetic electron beams, which makes direct application of these factors to beta sources difficult. In this work, backscattering factors were calculated with MCNP 4C for selected beta sources currently in use (32P and 90Sr/90Y) as well as for sources of potential therapeutic use (45Ca, 142Pr and 185W). Specifically, the calculations used beta spectra generated by the SADDE MOD2 code. The factors were calculated as a function of the distance from the interface between water and scatterers. The scatterers include source surroundings, source supporting materials and contrast agents commonly used for imaging purposes in brachytherapy. The results were fit by a simple function for future incorporation into a dose point kernel code. Due to the high-Z material content (iodine, Z = 53) in the contrast agent, a significant dose backscatter was observed near the water interface. Different cross-section algorithms in the MCNP code (inherent and ITS 3.0) affect the factor calculations. The results generated by the ITS 3.0 algorithm closely matched the EGS4 calculations for 32P. The dependence of backscatter factors on log(Z + 1) (Baily 1980 Med. Phys. 7 514-9) was observed for all the beta sources with a high correlation coefficient, R (>0.95). The overall results indicate that the backscattering effect is significant at short distances from the surface of the interface between water and the scattering material. This model can also aid in choosing a source support or mixing materials for beta brachytherapy sources.

Lee, Sung-Woo; Reece, Warren Daniel

2004-02-01

302

Dosimetric Benefit of a New Ophthalmic Radiation Plaque  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine whether the computed dosimetry of a new ophthalmic plaque, EP917, when compared with the standard Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS) plaques, could reduce radiation exposure to vision critical structures of the eye. Methods and Materials: One hundred consecutive patients with uveal melanoma treated with COMS radiation plaques between 2007 and 2010 were included in this study. These treatment plans were generated with the use of Bebig Plaque Simulator treatment-planning software, both for COMS plaques and for EP917 plaques using I-125. Dose distributions were calculated for a prescription of 85 Gy to the tumor apex. Doses to the optic disc, opposite retina, lens, and macula were obtained, and differences between the 2 groups were analyzed by standard parametric methods. Results: When compared with the COMS plaques, the EP917 plaques used fewer radiation seeds by an average difference of 1.94 (P<.001; 95% confidence interval [CI], -2.8 to -1.06) and required less total strength of radiation sources by an average of 17.74 U (air kerma units) (P<.001; 95% CI, -20.16 to -15.32). The total radiation doses delivered to the optic disc, opposite retina, and macula were significantly less by 4.57 Gy, 0.50 Gy, and 11.18 Gy, respectively, with the EP917 plaques vs the COMS plaques. Conclusion: EP917 plaques deliver less overall radiation exposure to critical vision structures than COMS treatment plaques while still delivering the same total therapeutic dose to the tumor.

Marwaha, Gaurav, E-mail: marwahg2@ccf.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Center, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Center, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Wilkinson, Allan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Center, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Center, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Bena, James [Department of Quantitative Health Sciences, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States) [Department of Quantitative Health Sciences, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Macklis, Roger [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Center, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Center, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Singh, Arun D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Center, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Center, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Department of Ophthalmic Oncology, Cole Eye Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States)

2012-12-01

303

Multimodality imaging of carotid atherosclerotic plaque: Going beyond stenosis  

PubMed Central

Apart from the degree of stenosis, the morphology of carotid atherosclerotic plaques and presence of neovascularization are important factors that may help to evaluate the risk and ‘vulnerability’ of plaques and may also influence the choice of treatment. In this article, we aim to describe the techniques and imaging findings on CTA, high resolution MRI and contrast enhanced ultrasound in the evaluation of carotid atherosclerotic plaques. We also discuss a few representative cases from our institute with the related clinical implications. PMID:23986615

Hingwala, Divyata; Kesavadas, Chandrasekharan; Sylaja, Padmavathy N; Thomas, Bejoy; Kapilamoorthy, Tirur Raman

2013-01-01

304

Palladium103 versus iodine-125 for ophthalmic plaque radiotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dosimetry study compared the use of I-125 vs. Pd-103 radioactive seeds for ophthalmic plaque brachytherapy. Pd-103 seeds in ophthalmic plaques were used to treat 15 patients with intraocular malignant melanoma. Computer-aided simulations were performed to evaluate the intraocular dose distribution of I-125 versus Pd-103 ophthalmic plaques (delivering equivalent apex doses). Seven target points were selected. Starting at the outer

Paul T. Finger; Dongfeng Lu; Alfonso Buffa; Daniels Deblasio; Jay L. Bosworth

1993-01-01

305

Pacific-wide contrast highlights resistance of reef calcifiers to ocean acidification.  

PubMed

Ocean acidification (OA) and its associated decline in calcium carbonate saturation states is one of the major threats that tropical coral reefs face this century. Previous studies of the effect of OA on coral reef calcifiers have described a wide variety of outcomes for studies using comparable partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) ranges, suggesting that key questions remain unresolved. One unresolved hypothesis posits that heterogeneity in the response of reef calcifiers to high pCO2 is a result of regional-scale variation in the responses to OA. To test this hypothesis, we incubated two coral taxa (Pocillopora damicornis and massive Porites) and two calcified algae (Porolithon onkodes and Halimeda macroloba) under 400, 700 and 1000 ?atm pCO2 levels in experiments in Moorea (French Polynesia), Hawaii (USA) and Okinawa (Japan), where environmental conditions differ. Both corals and H. macroloba were insensitive to OA at all three locations, while the effects of OA on P. onkodes were location-specific. In Moorea and Hawaii, calcification of P. onkodes was depressed by high pCO2, but for specimens in Okinawa, there was no effect of OA. Using a study of large geographical scale, we show that resistance to OA of some reef species is a constitutive character expressed across the Pacific. PMID:25056628

Comeau, S; Carpenter, R C; Nojiri, Y; Putnam, H M; Sakai, K; Edmunds, P J

2014-09-01

306

Multimodal spectroscopy detects features of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque  

E-print Network

Early detection and treatment of rupture-prone vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques is critical to reducing patient mortality associated with cardiovascular disease. The combination of reflectance, fluorescence, and Raman ...

Scepanovic, Obrad R.

307

DETAIL OF PLAQUE WITH ADDITIONAL DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION INFORMATION, SOUTHEAST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DETAIL OF PLAQUE WITH ADDITIONAL DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION INFORMATION, SOUTHEAST ABUTMENT - Connecticut Avenue Bridge, Spans Rock Creek & Potomac Parkway at Connecticut Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

308

Nature or The Natural Evolution of Plaque: What Matters?  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Progression to major acute cardiovascular events often is triggered by an atherosclerotic plaque complicated by rupture or erosion, namely the vulnerable plaque. Early and secure identification of these plaques would allow the development of individualized therapeutic and pharmacological strategies, applied in a timely manner. Imaging methods have a huge potential in detecting and monitoring the evolution of vulnerable plaque. Even though there are multiple invasive and noninvasive techniques, clinical application is for now a matter of choosing the relevant imaging feature for the prognosis, the methodo­logy of study and the target population. PMID:24790659

AURSULESEI, Viviana

2013-01-01

309

Non-invasive detection of vulnerable coronary plaque  

PubMed Central

Critical coronary stenoses have been shown to contribute to only a minority of acute coronary syndromes and sudden cardiac death. Autopsy studies have identified a subgroup of high-risk patients with disrupted vulnerable plaque and modest stenosis. Consequently, a clinical need exists to develop methods to identify these plaques prospectively before disruption and clinical expression of disease. Recent advances in invasive and non-invasive imaging techniques have shown the potential to identify these high-risk plaques. Non-invasive imaging with magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography and positron emission tomography holds the potential to differentiate between low- and high-risk plaques. There have been significant technological advances in non-invasive imaging modalities, and the aim is to achieve a diagnostic sensitivity for these technologies similar to that of the invasive modalities. Molecular imaging with the use of novel targeted nanoparticles may help in detecting high-risk plaques that will ultimately cause acute myocardial infarction. Moreover, nanoparticle-based imaging may even provide non-invasive treatments for these plaques. However, at present none of these imaging modalities are able to detect vulnerable plaque nor have they been shown to definitively predict outcome. Further trials are needed to provide more information regarding the natural history of high-risk but non-flow-limiting plaque to establish patient specific targeted therapy and to refine plaque stabilizing strategies in the future. PMID:21860703

Sharif, Faisal; Lohan, Derek G; Wijns, William

2011-01-01

310

Comparison of Methods for Monitoring Changes in the pH of Human Dental Plaque  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in human dental plaque pH can be used to obtain estimates of the acidogenic potential of ingested foods. The presence of acid in plaque is influenced by a large number of host, microbial, and substrate factors. Several useful methods have been developed for monitoring changes in plaque pH. Plaque sampling involves repeated removal of small samples of plaque from

C. F. Schachtele; M. E. Jensen

1982-01-01

311

Congenital Milia En Plaque on Scalp  

PubMed Central

Milia en plaque is a rare disease entity characterized by confluence of multiple keratin-filled cysts resulting from the obstruction of hair follicle without any preceding primary dermatosis. Fewer than 40 cases have been reported so far in dermatological literature, and most cases are described to occur in adults and in the peri-auricular area. We describe a case of congenital MEP on scalp of a five-year-old boy with a blaschkoid extension into posterior nuchal area. This case report claims its uniqueness because of the unusual site and congenital presentation. PMID:25657433

Ghosh, Sangita; Sangal, Shikha

2015-01-01

312

Intradural extramedullary tuberculoma mimicking en plaque meningioma.  

PubMed

A 24-year-old man with tuberculosis meningitis developed acute paraplegia and sensory disturbances 5 weeks after receiving conventional antituberculous therapy. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an intradural extramedullary long segmental mass mimicking en plaque meningioma at the T2-T6 vertebrae levels. Prompt surgical decompression was performed. A histology examination of the mass revealed a tuberculoma. After surgery, the patient showed improved motor power and a normal bladder function. Intradural extramedullary tuberculoma of the spinal cord is rare complication of tuberculosis meningitis, which can occur as a response to conventional antituberculous therapy. PMID:21119945

Shim, Dae Moo; Oh, Sung Kyun; Kim, Tae Kyun; Chae, Soo Uk

2010-12-01

313

Intradural Extramedullary Tuberculoma Mimicking En Plaque Meningioma  

PubMed Central

A 24-year-old man with tuberculosis meningitis developed acute paraplegia and sensory disturbances 5 weeks after receiving conventional antituberculous therapy. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an intradural extramedullary long segmental mass mimicking en plaque meningioma at the T2-T6 vertebrae levels. Prompt surgical decompression was performed. A histology examination of the mass revealed a tuberculoma. After surgery, the patient showed improved motor power and a normal bladder function. Intradural extramedullary tuberculoma of the spinal cord is rare complication of tuberculosis meningitis, which can occur as a response to conventional antituberculous therapy. PMID:21119945

Shim, Dae Moo; Kim, Tae Kyun; Chae, Soo Uk

2010-01-01

314

Congenital milia en plaque on scalp.  

PubMed

Milia en plaque is a rare disease entity characterized by confluence of multiple keratin-filled cysts resulting from the obstruction of hair follicle without any preceding primary dermatosis. Fewer than 40 cases have been reported so far in dermatological literature, and most cases are described to occur in adults and in the peri-auricular area. We describe a case of congenital MEP on scalp of a five-year-old boy with a blaschkoid extension into posterior nuchal area. This case report claims its uniqueness because of the unusual site and congenital presentation. PMID:25657433

Ghosh, Sangita; Sangal, Shikha

2015-01-01

315

Plaque rupture with severe pre-existing stenosis precipitating coronary thrombosis. Characteristics of coronary atherosclerotic plaques underlying fatal occlusive thrombi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ruptured atheromatous plaques were identified by step-sectioning technique as responsible for 40 of 51 recent coronary artery thrombi and 63 larger intimal haemorrhages. The degree of pre-existing luminal narrowing at the site of rupture was decisive for whether plaque rupture caused occlusive thrombosis or just intimal haemorrhage. If the pre-existing stenosis was greater than 90% (histologically determined) then plaque rupture

E Falk

1983-01-01

316

Light dosimetry and dose verification for pleural PDT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In-vivo light dosimetry for patients undergoing photodynamic therapy (PDT) is critical for predicting PDT outcome. Patients in this study are enrolled in a Phase I clinical trial of HPPH-mediated PDT for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer with pleural effusion. They are administered 4mg per kg body weight HPPH 48 hours before the surgery and receive light therapy with a fluence of 15-45 J/cm2 at 661 and 665nm. Fluence rate (mW/cm2) and cumulative fluence (J/cm2) are monitored at 7 sites during the light treatment delivery using isotropic detectors. Light fluence (rate) delivered to patients is examined as a function of treatment time, volume and surface area. In a previous study, a correlation between the treatment time and the treatment volume and surface area was established. However, we did not include the direct light and the effect of the shape of the pleural surface on the scattered light. A real-time infrared (IR) navigation system was used to separate the contribution from the direct light. An improved expression that accurately calculates the total fluence at the cavity wall as a function of light source location, cavity geometry and optical properties is determined based on theoretical and phantom studies. The theoretical study includes an expression for light fluence rate in an elliptical geometry instead of the spheroid geometry used previously. The calculated light fluence is compared to the measured fluence in patients of different cavity geometries and optical properties. The result can be used as a clinical guideline for future pleural PDT treatment.

Dimofte, Andreea; Sharikova, Anna V.; Meo, Julia L.; Simone, Charles B.; Friedberg, Joseph S.; Zhu, Timothy C.

2013-03-01

317

Characteristics of patients with yellow nail syndrome and pleural effusion.  

PubMed

Yellow nail syndrome (YNS) can be associated with a pleural effusion (PE) but the characteristics of these patients are not well defined. We performed a systematic review across four electronic databases for studies reporting clinical findings, PE characteristics, and most effective treatment of YNS. Case descriptions and retrospective studies were included, unrestricted by year of publication. We reviewed 112 studies (150 patients), spanning a period of nearly 50 years. The male/female ratio was 1.2/1. The median age was 60 years (range: 0-88). Seventy-eight percent were between 41-80 years old. All cases had lymphoedema and 85.6% had yellow nails. PEs were bilateral in 68.3%. The appearance of the fluid was serous in 75.3%, milky in 22.3% and purulent in 3.5%. The PE was an exudate in 94.7% with lymphocytic predominance in 96% with a low count of nucleated cells. In 61 of 66 (92.4%) of patients, pleural fluid protein values were >3?g/dL, and typically higher than pleural fluid LDH. Pleurodesis and decortication/pleurectomy were effective in 81.8% and 88.9% of cases, respectively, in the treatment of symptomatic PEs. The development of YNS and PE occurs between the fifth to eighth decade of life and is associated with lymphoedema. The PE is usually bilateral and behaves as a lymphocyte-predominant exudate. The most effective treatments appear to be pleurodesis and decortication/pleurectomy. PMID:25123563

Valdés, Luis; Huggins, John T; Gude, Francisco; Ferreiro, Lucía; Alvarez-Dobaño, José M; Golpe, Antonio; Toubes, María E; González-Barcala, Francisco J; José, Esther San; Sahn, Steven A

2014-10-01

318

Talc poudrage versus talc slurry in the treatment of malignant pleural effusion. A prospective comparative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness, safety and appropriate mode of administration of intrapleural talc for pleurodesis, in the treatment of malignant pleural effusion (MPE). Methods: Prospective not randomized trial was conducted to compare thoracoscopic talc poudrage (TP) with tube thoracostomy and talc slurry (TS) for the local control of malignant pleural effusion. Both procedures

Alessandro Stefani; Pamela Natali; Christian Casali; Uliano Morandi

319

Pleurectomy\\/decortication for palliation in malignant pleural mesothelioma: results of surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Surgery can only offer palliation in an attempt to slow the progression of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). We want to assess the effectiveness and safety of pleurectomy\\/decortication in establishing a tissue diagnosis, and controlling pleural fluid accumulation and symptoms in patients with MPM. Methods: We reviewed our pleurectomy results in 100 patients with MPM over a 19 year period.

Ö Soysal; N Karao?lano?lu; S Demircan; S Topçu; ? Ta?tepe; S Kaya; M Ünlü; G Çetin

1997-01-01

320

Extramedullary Acute Myeloid Leukemia: Leukemic Pleural Effusion, Case Report and Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Objective and Importance: Malignant pleural effusions occur in the setting of both solid and hematologic malignancies. Pleural effusion caused by leukemic infiltration is an unusual extramedullary manifestation of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with fewer than 20 cases reported (1–11). We report a case of pericardial and pleural effusions in a patient with AML and review the literature. Clinical Presentation: In this case, a 55-year-old man with previous history of myeloproliferative neoplasm experienced transformation AML, heralded by appearance of leukemic pleural effusions. The patient was identified to have leukemic pleural effusion based on the extended cytogenetic analysis of the pleural fluid, as morphologic analysis alone was insufficient. Intervention: The patient was treated with hypomethylator-based and intensive chemotherapy strategies, both of which maintained resolution of the effusions in the remission setting. Conclusion: Due to the rarity of diagnosis of leukemic pleural effusions, both cytogenetic and fluorescence in situ hybridization testing are recommended. Furthermore, systemic chemotherapy directed at the AML can lead to complete resolution of leukemic pleural effusions. PMID:24918086

Pemmaraju, Naveen; Chang, Elaine; Daver, Naval; Patel, Keyur; Jorgensen, Jeffrey; Sabloff, Bradley; Verstovsek, Srdan; Borthakur, Gautam

2014-01-01

321

Lung abscess predicts the surgical outcome in patients with pleural empyema  

PubMed Central

Objectives Most cases of pleural empyema are caused by pulmonary infections, which are usually combined with pneumonia or lung abscess. The mortality of patients with pleural empyema remains high (up to 20%). It also contributes to higher hospital costs and longer hospital stays. We studied pleural empyema with combined lung abscess to determine if abscess was associated with mortality. Methods From January 2004 to December 2006, we retrospectively reviewed 259 patients diagnosed with pleural empyema who received thoracscopic decortications of the pleura in a single medical center. We evaluated their clinical data and analyzed their chest computed tomography scans. Outcomes of pleural empyema were compared between groups with and without lung abscess. Results Twenty-two pleural empyema patients had lung abscesses. Clinical data showed significantly higher incidences in the lung abscess group of pre-operative leukocytosis, need for an intensive care unit stay and mortality. Conclusion Patients with pleural empyema and lung abscess have higher intensive care unit admission rate, higher mortality during 30 days and overall mortality than patients with pleural empyema. The odds ratio of lung abscess is 4.685. Physician shall pay more attention on high risk patient of lung abscess for early detection and management. PMID:20961413

2010-01-01

322

Development of a Rabbit Pleural Cancer Model by Using VX2 Tumors  

PubMed Central

Primary and secondary pleural cancer remains an important clinical problem, with research progress limited by the lack of a suitable moderate- to large-sized (3 to 4 kg) animal model of pleural cancer. Many potential pleura-based imaging and treatment modalities cannot be investigated sufficiently by using currently available small murine animal models because their pleural space is not comparable to that of humans and therefore does not allow for the use of standard thoracoscopic techniques. Here we describe the development of a reproducible model of pleural malignancy in moderate-sized immunocompetent rabbits. Under thoracoscopic guidance, 9–15 × 106 VX2 carcinoma cells were inoculated into the plural space of 3 to 4 kg New Zealand white rabbits that had undergone gentle pleural abrasion. Malignant tumor involvement developed on the visceral and parietal pleural surfaces in an average of 2 to 4 wk. This novel pleural tumor model induction method likely will facilitate a broad range of investigations of pleural cancer diagnostics and therapeutics. PMID:18589872

Kreuter, Kelly A.; El-Abbadi, Naglaa; Shbeeb, Alia; Tseng, Lillian; Mahon, Sari Brenner; Narula, Navneet; Burney, Tanya; Colt, Henri; Brenner, Matthew

2008-01-01

323

Clozapine-Induced Liver Injury and Pleural Effusion  

PubMed Central

Clozapine, whilst associated commonly with a transient and benign increase in liver enzymes, has also been associated with varying presentations of hepatitis in existing case reports. This report describes what we believe to be the first documented case of acute liver injury and pleural effusion associated with clozapine, resolving after cessation of the agent. The case supports existing literature in advocating a high index of suspicion, particularly in the 4-5 weeks following clozapine initiation, when considering nonspecific clinical symptoms and signs. PMID:25553232

O’Neill, Francis A.

2014-01-01

324

Pleural solitary fibrous tumor complicated with autoimmune hemolytic anemia.  

PubMed

We herein report a 74-year-old woman who presented with autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) associated with pleural solitary fibrous tumor (SFT). Her AIHA was initially treated with 1 mg/kg daily of oral prednisolone (PSL) for 2 months, which had a limited effect. However, after surgical tumor resection, the patient showed remarkable improvement of AIHA with normalizations of serum lactate dehydrogenase and bilirubin levels, and we were able to rapidly reduce the PSL dosage. This is the first description of a case of AIHA caused by SFT. PMID:25030571

Takahashi, Hiroshi; Ohkawara, Hiroshi; Ikeda, Kazuhiko; Harada-Shirado, Kayo; Furukawa, Miki; Sukegawa, Masumi; Shichishima-Nakamura, Akiko; Noji, Hideyoshi; Wakamatsu, Saho; Tasaki, Kazuhiro; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Ogawa, Kazuei; Takeishi, Yasuchika

2014-01-01

325

MRI features of pleural endometriosis after catamenial haemothorax.  

PubMed

A 43-year-old multiparous woman with a history of pelvic endometriosis and myocardial infarction presented with acute onset of right hemithorax pain and dyspnoea coinciding with dysmenorrhoeic menstruation. A chest CT confirmed the presence of a right hydropneumothorax which was drained. A video-assisted thoracoscopy was unremarkable but at a subsequent menses, an MRI chest demonstrated a lesion in the right costophrenic angle. The patient underwent a hysterectomy and oophorectomy for treatment of endometriosis. Six months later, she was free of thoracic symptoms and a repeat MRI scan showed resolution of the right pleural abnormality. PMID:21686570

Picozzi, Giulia; Beccani, Davide; Innocenti, Florio; Grazzini, Michela; Mascalchi, Mario

2009-01-01

326

Clozapine-induced liver injury and pleural effusion.  

PubMed

Clozapine, whilst associated commonly with a transient and benign increase in liver enzymes, has also been associated with varying presentations of hepatitis in existing case reports. This report describes what we believe to be the first documented case of acute liver injury and pleural effusion associated with clozapine, resolving after cessation of the agent. The case supports existing literature in advocating a high index of suspicion, particularly in the 4-5 weeks following clozapine initiation, when considering nonspecific clinical symptoms and signs. PMID:25553232

Kane, Joseph P M; O'Neill, Francis A

2014-09-01

327

[Pulmonary and pleural reaction patterns to artificial mineral fibers --rockwool].  

PubMed

Epidemiological and animal studies about the fibrogenic and carcinogenic properties of natural mineral fibers required the development of man made vitreous fibers as substitutes for asbestos containing material. The question about the possible fibrogenic and carcinogenic properties of man-made vitreous fibers is not yet answered. By means of different experimental animal studies we tried to investigate the man made vitreous fibers-related pulmonary and pleural diseases. The experimental administration of rockwool induce lesions in the lung of the rats. The lung showed an extensive granulomatous inflammation. In the observation time of 10 months we did not find any malignant tumor of the lung and the pleura. PMID:7511301

Respondek, M; Voss, B; Wiethege, T; Kerenyi, T; Müller, K M

1993-01-01

328

Diagnostic utility of serum and pleural levels of adenosine deaminase 1–2, and interferon-? in the diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Background To evaluate and compare the diagnostic efficiency of serum (s) and pleural (p) levels of adenosine deaminase (ADA)-1, ADA-2, total ADA, and interferon-gamma (IFN-?) for the differential diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis (TB). Methods Clinical and analytic data of 93 consecutive patients with pleural effusions from May 2012 to February 2013 were prospectively evaluated. The study population included 43 pleural TB, 23 malignancies, and 27 other exudates. The median and interquartile range of ADA-1, ADA-2, total ADA, and IFN-? were evaluated according to their underlying diseases. Results There were no significant differences in sADA-1 and sIFN-? values among each group. pADA-1, pADA-2, total pADA, and pIFN-? levels were significantly higher in patients with pleural TB than in other patients (p?pleural TB receiving operating characteristic (ROC) curves identified the following results. The best cut-off value for pADA-2 was 20.37 U/L and it yielded a sensitivity and specificity of 95.35% and 86%, respectively. Taking a cut-off value of 40.68 U/L for total pADA, the sensitivity and the specificity were found to be 88.37% and 88%, respectively. ROC curve identified 110 U/L as the best cut-off value for p?g/ml, while the sensitivity and the specificity were 74.42% and 68%, respectively. Finally, the best cut-off value for pADA-1 was 16.8 U/L and yielded a sensitivity and specificity of 69.77% and 68%, respectively. Conclusions To distinguish pleural TB, pleural levels of ADA-2 have the highest sensitivity among the different diagnostic parameters and may find a place as routine investigation for early detection of TB in the future. PMID:24602306

2014-01-01

329

Intravital imaging of amyloid plaques in a transgenic mouse model using optical-resolution  

E-print Network

Intravital imaging of amyloid plaques in a transgenic mouse model using optical imaging of amyloid plaques in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model. Validation using conventional-dimensional morphology of amyloid plaques and the surrounding microvasculature are imaged simultaneously through

Wang, Lihong

330

RTN\\/Nogo in forming Alzheimer's neuritic plaques  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the pathological hallmarks in brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the presence of neuritic plaques, in which amyloid deposits are surrounded by reactive gliosis and dystrophic neurites. Within neuritic plaques, reticulon 3 (RTN3), a homolog of Nogo protein, appears to regulate the formation of both amyloid deposition via negative modulation of BACE1 activity and dystrophic neurites

Marguerite Prior; Qi Shi; Xiangyou Hu; Wanxia He; Allan Levey; Riqiang Yan

2010-01-01

331

24. View of one of the plaques from Clark Fork ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

24. View of one of the plaques from Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge. Presently located at the Bonner County Historical Museum in Sandpoint, Idaho. A plaque was attached at each end of the bridge. Only one remains. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

332

Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations of Hemodynamics in Plaque Erosion  

PubMed Central

Purpose We investigated whether local hemodynamics were associated with sites of plaque erosion and hypothesized that patients with plaque erosion have locally elevated WSS magnitude in regions where erosion has occurred. Methods We generated 3D, patient-specific models of coronary arteries from biplane angiographic images in 3 human patients with plaque erosion diagnosed by optical coherence tomography (OCT). Using computational fluid dynamics, we simulated pulsatile blood flow and calculated both wall shear stress (WSS) and oscillatory shear index (OSI). We also investigated anatomic features of plaque erosion sites by examining branching and local curvature in x-ray angiograms of barium-perfused autopsy hearts. Results Neither high nor low magnitudes of mean WSS were associated with sites of plaque erosion. OSI and local curvature were also not associated with erosion. Anatomically, 8 of 13 hearts had a nearby bifurcation upstream of the site of plaque erosion. Conclusions This study provides preliminary evidence that neither hemodynamics nor anatomy are predictors of plaque erosion, based upon a very unique dataset. Our sample sizes are small, but this dataset suggests that high magnitudes of wall shear stress, one potential mechanism for inducing plaque erosion, are not necessary for erosion to occur. PMID:24223678

Campbell, Ian C.; Timmins, Lucas H.; Giddens, Don P.; Virmani, Renu; Veneziani, Alessandro; Rab, S. Tanveer; Samady, Habib; McDaniel, Michael C.; Finn, Aloke V.; Taylor, W. Robert; Oshinski, John N.

2013-01-01

333

Oxysterols and symptomatic versus asymptomatic human atherosclerotic plaque.  

PubMed

Atherosclerosis is the most common cause of mortality in the Western world, contributing to about 50% of all deaths. Atherosclerosis is characterized by deposition of lipids onto the coronary or carotid arterial wall and formation of an atherosclerotic plaque. Atherosclerotic plaques are categorized into two groups: symptomatic and asymptomatic. The symptomatic plaques tend to be unstable and prone to rupture, and are associated with an increase in ischemic events. Oxysterols, products of cholesterol oxidation, are cytotoxic materials. Their level and type may be associated with plaque formation, development and stability. Oxysterols stimulate the formation of foam cells, advance atherosclerotic plaque progression, and contribute to plaque vulnerability and instability due to their cytotoxicity and their ability to induce cell apoptosis. Studies indicate that plasma 7?-OH CH level can be used as a biomarker for detecting carotid and coronary artery disease. Further clinical studies are needed to evaluate the potential of oxysterols for use as biomarkers for plaque vulnerability and instability. The identification of biomarkers in the blood that can distinguish between symptomatic and asymptomatic plaques remains an unresolved issue. PMID:24393847

Khatib, Soliman; Vaya, Jacob

2014-04-11

334

Scanning Electron Microscope Study of the Formation of Dental Plaque  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few investigations on the development of dental have considered the first changes which can occur on a cleaned tooth surface during the first 4 h of exposure to the Plaque oral environment. The present study has investigated, using the scanning electron microscope, the colonization of enamel surfaces in vivo, and some of the factors influencing plaque formation during the initial

C. A. Saxton

1973-01-01

335

Characterization of bacteriophage communities and CRISPR profiles from dental plaque  

PubMed Central

Background Dental plaque is home to a diverse and complex community of bacteria, but has generally been believed to be inhabited by relatively few viruses. We sampled the saliva and dental plaque from 4 healthy human subjects to determine whether plaque was populated by viral communities, and whether there were differences in viral communities specific to subject or sample type. Results We found that the plaque was inhabited by a community of bacteriophage whose membership was mostly subject-specific. There was a significant proportion of viral homologues shared between plaque and salivary viromes within each subject, suggesting that some oral viruses were present in both sites. We also characterized Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPRs) in oral streptococci, as their profiles provide clues to the viruses that oral bacteria may be able to counteract. While there were some CRISPR spacers specific to each sample type, many more were shared across sites and were highly subject specific. Many CRISPR spacers matched viruses present in plaque, suggesting that the evolution of CRISPR loci may have been specific to plaque-derived viruses. Conclusions Our findings of subject specificity to both plaque-derived viruses and CRISPR profiles suggest that human viral ecology may be highly personalized. PMID:24981669

2014-01-01

336

Small entities with large impact: microcalcifications and atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review Atherosclerotic plaque rupture and subsequent acute events, such as myocardial infarction and stroke, contribute to the majority of cardiovascular-related deaths. Calcification has emerged as a significant predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, challenging previously held notions that calcifications stabilize atherosclerotic plaques. In this review, we address this discrepancy through recent findings that not all calcifications are equivalent in determining plaque stability. Recent findings The risk associated with calcification is inversely associated with calcification density. As opposed to large calcifications that potentially stabilize the plaque, biomechanical modeling indicates that small microcalcifications within the plaque fibrous cap can lead to sufficient stress accumulation to cause plaque rupture. Microcalcifications appear to derive from matrix vesicles enriched in calcium-binding proteins that are released by cells within the plaque. Clinical detection of microcalcifications has been hampered by the lack of imaging resolution required for in-vivo visualization; however, recent studies have demonstrated promising new techniques to predict the presence of microcalcifications. Summary Microcalcifications play a major role in destabilizing atherosclerotic plaques. The identification of critical characteristics that lead to instability along with new imaging modalities to detect their presence in vivo may allow early identification and prevention of acute cardiovascular events. PMID:25188916

Hutcheson, Joshua D.; Maldonado, Natalia; Aikawa, Elena

2014-01-01

337

Human endothelial cell culture plaques induced by Rickettsia rickettsii.  

PubMed Central

Primary cultures of human umbilical vein endothelial cells were inoculated with plaque-purified Rickettsia rickettsii. After adsorption of rickettsiae, monolayers were overlaid with medium containing 0.5% agarose. Small plaques appeared on day 4 postinoculation, and distinct 1- to 2-mm plaques were observed on day 5. Plaquing efficiency was less than that of primary chicken embryo cells in the same medium. Human endothelial cell monolayers were susceptible to infection by R. rickettsii and underwent necrosis as demonstrated by supravital staining. The topographic association of endothelial cell necrosis and rickettsial infection in the plaque model confirmed the direct cytopathic effect of R. rickettsii on human endothelium. Uninfected cells appeared normal by supravital staining and transmission electron microscopy. This model offers the possibility of investigating rickettsial pathogenesis and mechanisms of enhanced severity of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in specific genetically determined conditions. Images PMID:6809631

Walker, D H; Firth, W T; Edgell, C J

1982-01-01

338

Aortic Arch Plaques and Risk of Recurrent Stroke and Death  

PubMed Central

Background Aortic arch plaques are a risk factor for ischemic stroke. Although the stroke mechanism is conceivably thromboembolic, no randomized studies have evaluated the efficacy of antithrombotic therapies in preventing recurrent events. Methods and Results The relationship between arch plaques and recurrent events was studied in 516 patients with ischemic stroke, double–blindly randomized to treatment with warfarin or aspirin as part of the Patent Foramen Ovale in Cryptogenic Stroke Study (PICSS), based on the Warfarin-Aspirin Recurrent Stroke Study (WARSS). Plaque thickness and morphology was evaluated by transesophageal echocardiography. End-points were recurrent ischemic stroke or death over a 2-year follow-up. Large plaques (?4mm) were present in 19.6% of patients, large complex plaques (those with ulcerations or mobile components) in 8.5 %. During follow-up, large plaques were associated with a significantly increased risk of events (adjusted Hazard Ratio 2.12, 95% Confidence Interval 1.04-4.32), especially those with complex morphology (HR 2.55, CI 1.10-5.89). The risk was highest among cryptogenic stroke patients, both for large plaques (HR 6.42, CI 1.62-25.46) and large-complex plaques (HR 9.50, CI 1.92-47.10). Event rates were similar in the warfarin and aspirin groups in the overall study population (16.4% vs. 15.8%; p=0.43). Conclusions In patients with stroke, and especially cryptogenic stroke, large aortic plaques remain associated with an increased risk of recurrent stroke and death at two years despite treatment with warfarin or aspirin. Complex plaque morphology confers a slight additional increase in risk. PMID:19380621

Di Tullio, Marco R.; Russo, Cesare; Jin, Zhezhen; Sacco, Ralph L.; Mohr, J.P.; Homma, Shunichi

2010-01-01

339

Intravascular ultrasound assessment of the association between spatial orientation of ruptured coronary plaques and remodeling morphology of culprit plaques in ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the association between the spatial location of plaque rupture and remodeling pattern of culprit lesions in acute anterior myocardial infarction (MI). Positive remodeling suggests a potential surrogate marker of plaque vulnerability, whereas plaque rupture causes thrombus formation followed by coronary occlusion and MI. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) can determine the precise spatial orientation of coronary plaque formation. We studied 52 consecutive patients with acute anterior MI caused by plaque rupture of the culprit lesion as assessed by preintervention IVUS. The plaques were divided into those with and without positive remodeling. We divided the plaques into three categories according to the spatial orientation of plaque rupture site: myocardial (inner curve), epicardial (outer curve), and lateral quadrants (2 intermediate quadrants). Among 52 plaque ruptures in 52 lesions, 27 ruptures were oriented toward the epicardial side (52%), 18 toward the myocardial side (35%), and 7 in the 2 lateral quadrants (13%). Among 35 plaques with positive remodeling, plaque rupture was observed in 21 (52%) on the epicardial side, 12 (34%) on the myocardial side, and 2 (6%) on the lateral side. However, among 17 plaques without positive remodeling, plaque rupture was observed in 6 (35%), 6 (35%), and 5 (30%), respectively (p = 0.047). Atherosclerotic plaques with positive remodeling showed more frequent plaque rupture on the epicardial side of the coronary vessel wall in anterior MI than those without positive remodeling. PMID:21892739

Kusama, Ikuyoshi; Hibi, Kiyoshi; Kosuge, Masami; Sumita, Shinnichi; Tsukahara, Kengo; Okuda, Jun; Ebina, Toshiaki; Umemura, Satoshi; Kimura, Kazuo

2012-11-01

340

Relationship between Watershed Infarcts and Recent Intra Plaque Haemorrhage in Carotid Atherosclerotic Plaque  

PubMed Central

Objective Watershed infarcts (WSI) are thought to result from hemodynamic mechanism, but studies have suggested that microemboli from unstable carotid plaques may distribute preferentially in watershed areas, i.e., between two cerebral arterial territories. Intraplaque haemorrhage (IPH) is an emerging marker of plaque instability and microembolic activity. We assessed the association between WSI and IPH in patients with recently symptomatic moderate carotid stenosis. Methods and Results We selected 65 patients with symptomatic moderate (median NASCET degree of stenosis?=?31%) carotid stenosis and brain infarct on Diffusion-Weighted Imaging (DWI) on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) from a multicentre prospective study. Fourteen (22%) had WSI (cortical, n?=?8; internal, n?=?4; cortical and internal, n?=?2). Patients with WSI were more likely to have IPH than those without WSI although the difference was not significant (50% vs. 31%, OR?=?2.19; 95% CI, 0.66–7.29; P?=?0.20). After adjustment for degree of stenosis, age and gender, the results remained unchanged. Conclusion About one in fifth of brain infarcts occurring in patients with moderate carotid stenosis were distributed in watershed areas. Albeit not significant, an association between IPH - more generally plaque component - and WSI, still remains possible. PMID:25272160

Isabel, Clothilde; Lecler, Augustin; Turc, Guillaume; Naggara, Olivier; Schmitt, Emmanuelle; Belkacem, Samia; Oppenheim, Catherine; Touzé, Emmanuel

2014-01-01

341

A review of uncommon cytopathologic diagnoses of pleural effusions from a chest diseases center in Turkey  

PubMed Central

Background: After pneumonia, cancer involving the pleura is the leading cause of exudative pleural effusion. Cytologic examination of pleural effusions is an important initial step in management of malignant effusions. The aim of this study is to evaluate the spectrum of uncommon malignant pleural effusions in a chest disease center in Turkey. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of samples of pleural effusions submitted to Ataturk Chest Diseases and Chest Surgery Education and Research Hospital Department of Pathology between March 2005 and November 2008 was performed. Results: Out of a total of 4684 samples reviewed 364 (7.8%) were positive for cancer cells. Of the malignant pleural effusions 295 (81%) were classified as adenocarcinoma or carcinoma not otherwise specified (NOS). Pleural effusion specimens revealing a diagnosis other than adenocarcinoma/carcinoma NOS were: 32 (8.8%) malignant mesotheliomas, 14 (3.8%) small cell carcinomas, 13 (3.5%) hematolymphoid malignancies and 10 (2.7%) squamous cell carcinoma. Hematolymphoid malignancies included non- Hodgkin lymphoma (diffuse B large cell lymphoma, mantle cell lymphoma), multiple myeloma, chronic myeloid leukemia, and acute myeloid leukemia. Conclusions: Despite that adenocarcinoma is the most common cause of malignant pleural effusions, there is a significant number of hematological and non-hematological uncommon causes of such effusions. Cytopathologists and clinicians must keep in mind these uncommon entities in routine practice for an accurate diagnosis. PMID:21799700

Cakir, Ebru; Demirag, Funda; Aydin, Mehtap; Erdogan, Yurdanur

2011-01-01

342

Bacterial Infection Elicits Heat Shock Protein 72 Release from Pleural Mesothelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) has been implicated in infection-related processes and has been found in body fluids during infection. This study aimed to determine whether pleural mesothelial cells release HSP70 in response to bacterial infection in vitro and in mouse models of serosal infection. In addition, the in vitro cytokine effects of the HSP70 isoform, Hsp72, on mesothelial cells were examined. Further, Hsp72 was measured in human pleural effusions and levels compared between non-infectious and infectious patients to determine the diagnostic accuracy of pleural fluid Hsp72 compared to traditional pleural fluid parameters. We showed that mesothelial release of Hsp72 was significantly raised when cells were treated with live and heat-killed Streptococcus pneumoniae. In mice, intraperitoneal injection of S. pneumoniae stimulated a 2-fold increase in Hsp72 levels in peritoneal lavage (p<0.01). Extracellular Hsp72 did not induce or inhibit mediator release from cultured mesothelial cells. Hsp72 levels were significantly higher in effusions of infectious origin compared to non-infectious effusions (p<0.05). The data establish that pleural mesothelial cells can release Hsp72 in response to bacterial infection and levels are raised in infectious pleural effusions. The biological role of HSP70 in pleural infection warrants exploration. PMID:23704948

Varano della Vergiliana, Julius F.; Lansley, Sally M.; Porcel, Jose M.; Bielsa, Silvia; Brown, Jeremy S.; Creaney, Jenette; Temple, Suzanna E. L.; Waterer, Grant W.; Lee, Y. C. Gary

2013-01-01

343

Bilateral pleural effusion as an initial manifestation of multiple myeloma: A case report and literature review  

PubMed Central

Multiple myeloma (MM) is a rare type of malignant hematological neoplasm. Although primarily involving the bone marrow, MM has a significant risk of metastasizing to other organs and may present with various clinical symptoms. However, the involvement of the respiratory system in the course of MM is extremely uncommon, particularly presenting with bilateral pleural effusion as the sole initial manifestation, which may result in a delayed diagnosis of MM. The present study describes the extremely rare case of a patient with MM presenting with myelomatous pleural effusion (MPE). The 78-year-old patient was admitted to the Department of Respiratory Medicine, Taizhou People’s Hospital (Taizhou, China) in March 2014, complaining of persistent dyspnea. Following admission, chest computed tomography scans revealed bilateral pleural effusion and a small amount of pericardial effusion, but no evident mass lesion. Thoracentesis was performed and the resulting pleural effusion was exudative and slightly bloody. In the following cytological examination, myeloma cells were identified in the pleural effusion. The patient was diagnosed definitively with MM following a histopathological study of the bone marrow aspiration. Therefore, the observations of the present case report may promote the consideration of MM in the differential diagnosis of patients with unexplained and refractory pleural effusion. The present study also reviewed the literature with regard to the association between MM and pleural effusion.

JIANG, AI-GUI; YANG, YU-TIAN; GAO, XIAO-YAN; LU, HUI-YU

2015-01-01

344

Pleural Fluid Adenosine Deaminase (Pfada) in the Diagnosis of Tuberculous Effusions in a Low Incidence Population  

PubMed Central

Introduction Previous studies have assessed the diagnostic ability of pleural fluid adenosine deaminase (pfADA) in detecting tuberculous pleural effusions, with good specificity and sensitivity reported. However, in North Western Europe pfADA is not routinely used in the investigation of a patient with an undiagnosed pleural effusion, mainly due to a lack of evidence as to its utility in populations with low mycobacterium tuberculosis (mTB) incidence. Methods Patients presenting with an undiagnosed pleural effusion to a tertiary pleural centre in South-West England over a 3 year period, were prospectively recruited to a pleural biomarker study. Pleural fluid from consecutive patients with robust 12-month follow up data and confirmed diagnosis were sent for pfADA analysis. Results Of 338 patients enrolled, 7 had confirmed tuberculous pleural effusion (2%). All mTB effusions were lymphocyte predominant with a median pfADA of 72.0 IU/L (range- 26.7 to 91.5) compared to a population median of 12.0 IU/L (range- 0.3 to 568.4). The optimal pfADA cut off was 35 IU/L, which had a negative predictive value (NPV) of 99.7% (95% CI; 98.2-99.9%) for the exclusion of mTB, and sensitivity of 85.7% (95% CI; 42.2-97.6%) with an area under the curve of 0.88 (95% CI; 0.732–1.000). Discussion This is the first study examining the diagnostic utility of pfADA in a low mTB incidence area. The chance of an effusion with a pfADA under 35 IU/L being of tuberculous aetiology was negligible. A pfADA of over 35 IU/L in lymphocyte-predominant pleural fluid gives a strong suspicion of mTB. PMID:25647479

Arnold, David T.; Bhatnagar, Rahul; Fairbanks, Lynette D.; Zahan-Evans, Natalie; Clive, Amelia O.; Morley, Anna J.; Medford, Andrew R. L.; Maskell, Nicholas A.

2015-01-01

345

Malignant pleural mesothelioma: A single-center experience in Turkey  

PubMed Central

Background Malignant pleural mesothelioma is a rare lethal malignancy caused by asbestos exposure. It is more frequently seen in certain regions in Turkey. In this retrospective study, we aimed to analyse demographic, clinical, and pathological data and treatment-related features in 54 patients. Material/Methods The study included 54 patients diagnosed with malignant mesothelioma that were followed and treated. Results Of the 54 patients, 34 (55.6%) were male. The median age in men and women were 60.3 (38.2–77.2) and 65.8 (37.7–77.5) years, respectively. In 35 (64.8%), exposure to asbestosis was present. Epithelial type was found in 27 (50.0%), followed by mixed type in 7 (13.0%) patients, and in 20 (37.0%) patients the subtype could not be determined. The disease was staged as IV in 37 (68.5%) patients. In 28 patients (51.9%), it was right-sided and in 1 (1.9%) it was bilateral. The most frequent metastatic sites (in decreasing order) were lungs, mediastinum, diaphragm, liver, and thoracal wall. Of the 54 patients, 36 (66.6%) received 1st-line chemotherapy and 20 (37%) 2nd-line chemotherapy. Eighteen patients (33.3%) received radiotherapy; 11 (20.3%) with palliative intention and 7 (12.9%) with curative intention. Median overall survival (OS) was 12.03 months (95% CI 7.2–16.8). OS was not affected by sex (p=0.32), smoking history (p=0.51), alcohol consumption (p=0.36), family history (p=0.67), pleural effusion presence (p=0.80), operation (p=0.14), clinical stage (p=0.072), symptom at presentation (p=0.66), having mixed type histology (p=0.079), asbestos exposure (p=0.06), and type of 1st-line chemotherapy (p=0.161). On the contrary, it may be positively affected by good ECOG PS (0–1) (p<0.01), age below 65 (p=0.03), left-sided disease (p=0.01), receiving chemotherapy (p<0.01), having unilateral pleural effusion (p=0.018), and type of 2nd-line chemotherapy (p=0.025). Conclusions OS of our patients was better than that found in the literature, seeming to be positively affected by early stages, better ECOG PS, age below 65 years, left side involvement, and having second-line chemotherapy with cisplatin-gemcitabine or 3M. Overall treatment success seems to be comparable to what is currently expected. PMID:24842043

Sezer, Ahmet; Sümbül, Ahmet Taner; Abal?, Hüseyin; Mertsoylu, Hüseyin; Özy?lkan, Özgür

2014-01-01

346

Effect of listerine on dental plaque and gingivitis.  

PubMed

The present study was performed in 10 adults in order to evaluate the effect of an antiseptic mouthrinse (Listerine) on the rate of dental plaque formation and gingivitis development during a 2-week period when all efforts towards active mechanical oral hygiene were withdrawn. The study was performed as a crossover study and was carried out during four consecutive 2-week periods. During the first and third periods (preparatory periods) the participants were subjected to repeated professional tooth cleanings in order to establish plaque- and gingivitis-free dentitions. During the second and fourth periods (test and control periods) the participants were not allowed to brush their teeth but rinsed their mouths three times a day with Listerine or a placebo mouthwash. Plaque Index, Gingival Index, gingival fluid flow, and crevicular leukocytes were assessed on d 0, 2, 4, 7, and 14. On d 7 and 14, dental plaque was removed from the right and left jaws respectively and the wet weights determined. The chemotactic activity elaborated by the plaques was studied in Boyden chambers. During the Listerine test period, significantly lower Plaque and Gingival Index values were scored and lower amounts of plaque could be sampled in comparison to the control period. PMID:1094528

Fornell, J; Sundin, Y; Lindhe, J

1975-01-01

347

The Vulnerable Plaque: the Real Villain in Acute Coronary Syndromes  

PubMed Central

The term "vulnerable plaque" refers to a vascular lesion that is prone to rupture and may result in life-threatening events which include myocardial infarction. It consists of thin-cap fibroatheroma and a large lipid core which is highly thrombogenic. Acute coronary syndromes often result from rupture of vulnerable plaques which frequently are only moderately stenosed and not visible by conventional angiography. Several invasive and non-invasive strategies have been developed to assess the burden of vulnerable plaques. Intravascular ultrasound provides a two-dimensional cross-sectional image of the arterial wall and can help assess the plaque burden and composition. Optical coherent tomography offers superior resolution over intravascular ultrasound. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging provides non-invasive imaging for visualizing fibrous cap thickness and rupture in plaques. In addition, it may be of value in assessing the effects of treatments, such as lipid-lowering therapy. Technical issues however limit its clinical applicability. The role of multi-slice computed tomography, a well established screening tool for coronary artery disease, remains to be determined. Fractional flow reserve (FFR) may provide physiological functional assessment of plaque vulnerability; however, its role in the management of vulnerable plaque requires further studies. Treatment of the vulnerable patient may involve systemic therapy which currently include statins, ACE inhibitors, beta-blockers, aspirin, and calcium-channel blockers and in the future local therapeutic options such as drug-eluting stents or photodynamic therapy. PMID:21673834

Liang, Michael; Puri, Aniket; Devlin, Gerard

2011-01-01

348

Dental plaque biofilm in oral health and disease.  

PubMed

Dental plaque is an archetypical biofilm composed of a complex microbial community. It is the aetiological agent for major dental diseases such as dental caries and periodontal disease. The clinical picture of these dental diseases is a net result of the cross-talk between the pathogenic dental plaque biofilm and the host tissue response. In the healthy state, both plaque biofilm and adjacent tissues maintain a delicate balance, establishing a harmonious relationship between the two. However, changes occur during the disease process that transform this 'healthy' dental plaque into a 'pathogenic' biofilm. Recent advances in molecular microbiology have improved the understanding of dental plaque biofilm and produced numerous clinical benefits. Therefore, it is imperative that clinicians keep abreast with these new developments in the field of dentistry. Better understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind dental diseases will facilitate the development of novel therapeutic strategies to establish a 'healthy dental plaque biofilm' by modulating both host and microbial factors. In this review, the present authors aim to summarise the current knowledge on dental plaque as a microbial biofilm and its properties in oral health and disease. PMID:22319749

Seneviratne, Chaminda Jayampath; Zhang, Cheng Fei; Samaranayake, Lakshman Perera

2011-01-01

349

Pleural procedures and patient safety: a national BTS audit of practice.  

PubMed

The BTS pleural procedures audit collected data over a 2-month period in June and July 2011. In contrast with the 2010 audit, which focussed simply on chest drain insertions, data on all pleural aspirations and local anaesthetic thoracoscopy (LAT) was also collected. Ninety hospitals submitted data, covering a patient population of 33 million. Twenty-one per cent of centres ran a specialist pleural disease clinic, 71% had a nominated chest drain safety lead, and 20% had thoracic surgery on site. Additionally, one-third of centres had a physician-led LAT service. PMID:24658342

Hooper, Clare E; Welham, Sally A; Maskell, Nick A

2015-02-01

350

Open thoracotomy and pleural abrasion in the treatment of spontaneous pneumothorax in cystic fibrosis.  

PubMed

The various treatments of spontaneous pneumothorax in cystic fibrosis are examined over a 15-yr period. Open thoracotomy with pleural abrasion is compared to observation, tube thoracostomy, and tube thoracostomy with instillation of quinacrine. Open thoracotomy with pleural abrasion has been performed 31 times in 20 patients. Discussion centers around selection of patients, preoperative preparation, operative technique, and postoperative care and follow-up, including analysis of pulmonary function studies. In our experience, open thoracotomy with pleural abrasion is a safe and effective method that should be utilized in the management of pneumothorax in patients with cystic fibrosis. PMID:671188

Rich, R H; Warwick, W J; Leonard, A S

1978-06-01

351

Pleural Effusion: A Rare Side Effect of Nilotinib—A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Pleural effusion, as a side effect of tyrosine kinases, may be seen as most commonly associated with dasatinib and very rarely seen with nilotinib. In this report we present a chronic phase of CML case that was treated with nilotinib due to imatinib (Gleevec) allergy and had pleural effusion with nilotinib at 5th year of treatment. If pleural effusion develops in patients taking nilotinib and if this effusion is exudative and lymphocyte predominant, after ruling out pulmonary and cardiac etiologies, it must be associated with nilotinib; according to stage of effusion drug should be discontinued and/or steroid should be started and/or surgery should be performed. PMID:25276139

Üsküdar Teke, Hava; Akay, Olga Meltem; Gören ?ahin, Deniz; Karagülle, Mustafa; Gündüz, Eren; And?ç, Neslihan

2014-01-01

352

Intracranial subdural osteoma: a rare benign tumor that can be differentiated from other calcified intracranial lesions utilizing MR imaging.  

PubMed

We report the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging characteristics of subdural osteoma and other benign calcified intracranial lesions to highlight imaging features that differentiate between these disease entities. A 63-year-old woman presented with progressively altered mental status. Non-contrast CT demonstrated a densely calcified right middle cranial fossa extra-axial mass. MR imaging of the lesion demonstrated T1 and T2 hypointensity without evidence of contrast enhancement, parenchymal abnormality, or connection to adjacent venous structures. Diffusion weighted imaging demonstrated markedly decreased signal intensity and artificially reduced diffusion on apparent diffusion coefficient map. Histologically, the tumor was predominantly composed of lamellar bone and small fragments of residual dura consistent with subdural osteoma. This case demonstrates that radiological examination can provide additional insight into the origin of intracranial osteomas (extradural versus subdural versus sinonasal) and help distinguish from other diagnostic considerations including benign meningeal ossification and calcified meningioma prior to surgical resection. PMID:22197691

Barajas, Ramon F; Perry, Arie; Sughrue, Michael; Aghi, Manish; Cha, Soonmee

2012-10-01

353

The effect of hypodynamia on mineral and protein metabolism in calcified tissues of the maxillodental system (experimental radioisotope study)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mineral and protein metabolism was studied in experiments on 60 white rats, using P-32 and Ca-45 uptake in the mineral fractions, 2C-14-glycine in the protein fractions, and P-32 in both fractions of calcified tissues as indices over a 100 day period of experimental hypodynamia. Combined alterations in mineral and protein metabolism occurred in the calcified tissues of the experimental animals. The most pronounced changes were found in P-32 and 2C-14-glycine metabolism. In the incisors and femoral bones, these alterations occurred in two phases: P-32 and 2C-14-glycine uptake first increased, then decreased. Changes in Ca-45 metabolism were less pronounced, particularly in the initial period of the experiment. A marked reduction in P-32, Ca-45, and 2C-14-glycine uptake was found in various fractions of the calcified tissues on the 100th day of experimental hypodynamia.

Prokhonchukov, A. A.; Kovalenko, Y. A.; Kolesnik, A. G.; Kondratyev, Y. I.; Ilyushko, N. A.

1980-01-01

354

[Comparison of imaging technics in pleural and thoracic pathology].  

PubMed

Conventional frontal and lateral chest X-rays, supplemented by a picture in the lateral decubitus position with a horizontal beam, are usually sufficient to explore the pathology of the pleura and the chest wall. Ultrasound is particularly helpful for demonstrating localized fluid accumulation and locating the diaphragm; it does not irradiate the patient and can be used at the bedside. CT scan provides highly contrasted images and a picture of the anatomy on the entire depth of the transverse plane. Resonance magnetic imaging, thanks to its ability to provide high resolution pictures in the frontal, sagittal and transverse planes, is especially useful for the study of regions of highly complex anatomy, such as the pulmonary apex and brachial plexus. The use of radionuclides is rarely required for demonstration of loculated pleural effusion. More prospective studies are needed to determine the respective yield of each of these techniques. PMID:3055272

Leuenberger, P

1988-09-24

355

Management of malignant pleural mesothelioma—The European experience  

PubMed Central

Management of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) remains a clinical challenge and the incidence of the disease will continue to increase worldwide. Several aspects of mesothelioma treatment are discussed controversially, in particular, regarding extent and best type of surgery, radiotherapy, and the role of neoadjuvant or adjuvant treatment. However, best survival data is reported from groups using multimodality treatment including macroscopic complete resection (MCR) achieved by either extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP) or (extended) pleurectomy/decortication for patients qualifying from the tumor biology, stage, and patient’s performance status and comorbidities. Several aspects have to be considered during surgery but morbidity and mortality have been reduced at experienced centres. The final analysis of extended selection algorithms is pending. PMID:24868442

2014-01-01

356

Effects of diffuse pleural thickening on respiratory mechanics.  

PubMed

Five patients with radiographic and computed tomography (CT) evidence of extensive pleural thickening were studied. All had a restrictive ventilatory defect. The single breath carbon monoxide transfer factor (TLCO) was reduced in each case (mean 76% predicted) but in four patients the transfer coefficient (KCO) was increased (mean 116% predicted), which is consistent with lung 'en cuirasse'. Static pressure-volume curves of the lungs showed that the maximum transpulmonary pressure was greater than normal and pulmonary compliance was reduced; the curves were therefore indistinguishable from those obtained in patients with pulmonary fibrosis. Transdiaphragmatic pressures during maximal inspiratory efforts were moderately impaired and the proportions of each tidal breath contributed by anterposterior (AP) motion of rib cage and abdomen were similar to normal in both erect and supine postures, suggesting that diaphragmatic mobility was well preserved. PMID:3384077

Corris, P A; Best, J J; Gibson, G J

1988-03-01

357

Management of malignant pleural mesothelioma-The European experience.  

PubMed

Management of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) remains a clinical challenge and the incidence of the disease will continue to increase worldwide. Several aspects of mesothelioma treatment are discussed controversially, in particular, regarding extent and best type of surgery, radiotherapy, and the role of neoadjuvant or adjuvant treatment. However, best survival data is reported from groups using multimodality treatment including macroscopic complete resection (MCR) achieved by either extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP) or (extended) pleurectomy/decortication for patients qualifying from the tumor biology, stage, and patient's performance status and comorbidities. Several aspects have to be considered during surgery but morbidity and mortality have been reduced at experienced centres. The final analysis of extended selection algorithms is pending. PMID:24868442

Opitz, Isabelle

2014-05-01

358

Dural lucent line: characteristic sign of hyperostosing meningioma en plaque  

SciTech Connect

Hyperostosis of the skull associated with en plaque form of meningioma may present a diagnostic challenge, since the intracranial part of the tumor is not visualized by skull radiography, computed tomography (CT), or other neuroradiologic methods. The authors report four cases of hyperostosing meningioma en plaque demonstrating a characteristic feature: a subdural layer of ossification along the hyperostotic bone with a dural lucent interface. Polytomography or high-resolution CT at bone window settings is necessary to identify the dural lucent line. The absence of this sign does not exclude meningioma en plaque.

Kim, K.S.; Rogers, L.F.; Lee, C.

1983-12-01

359

Tuberculoma of the cervical spinal canal mimicking en plaque meningioma.  

PubMed

A previously healthy, HIV-negative, 40-year-old man presented with a 2-month history of progressive weakness of his left arm. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an intradural, extramedullary plaque-shaped lesion at C6-T1 levels with high contrast enhancement. Based on the patient's clinical and radiologic findings, it was believed that the patient had an en plaque meningioma, and he was operated on. Histologic examination of the mass revealed granulomas with multinucleated and Langhans-type giant cells, typical of a tuberculoma. Intradural extramedullary tuberculomas should be considered in the differential diagnosis of en plaque meningioma as a rare entity. PMID:15800442

Mirzai, Hasan

2005-04-01

360

Complement activation in amyloid plaques in Alzheimer’s dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Amyloid plaques in Alzheimer’s dementia contain complement factors C1q, C4 and C3. In the present study we demonstrate complement\\u000a activation in amyloid plaques using immunoenzymatical techniques and specific antibodies against subunits of individual complement\\u000a components and activated complement products. Amyloid plaques contain C1q and activated C3 fragments (C3c and C3d, g) but\\u000a no C1s and C3a. These findings demonstrate that

P. Eikelenboom; C. E. Hack; J. M. Rozemuller; F. C. Stam

1988-01-01

361

Non-pulsed electrochemical impregnation of flexible metallic battery plaques  

DOEpatents

A method of loading active battery material into porous, flexible, metallic battery plaques, comprises the following steps: precipitating nickel hydroxide active material within the plaque, by making the plaque cathodic, at a high current density, in an electro-precipitation cell also containing a consumable nickel anode and a solution comprising nickel nitrate, having a pH of between 2.0 and 2.8; electrochemically oxidizing the precipitate in caustic formation solution; and repeating the electro-precipitation step at a low current density.

Maskalick, Nicholas J. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1982-01-01

362

Surgical management of a mobile floating carotid plaque.  

PubMed

A mobile floating carotid plaque (MFCP) is an infrequent pathological lesion with an unknown natural history caused by thinning and rupture of the fibrous cap of the atheromatous plaque; it may result in repeated ischaemic strokes. Duplex carotid ultrasound is a non-invasive technique useful in defining the plaque morphology with high sensitivity and specificity. Due to the lack of evidence, treatment remains controversial. We present a patient with an asymptomatic MFCP diagnosed by ultrasound and treated with carotid endarterectomy without neurological complications due to the procedure and without restenosis nor residual flaps during the follow-up. PMID:25476457

Moncayo, Karla Elizabeth; Vidal, Juan Jose; García, Raúl; Pereira, David

2014-12-01

363

A molecular epidemiology case control study on pleural malignant mesothelioma.  

PubMed

Pleural malignant mesothelioma is an uncommon neoplasm usually associated with asbestos exposure. The increasing incidence of malignant mesothelioma cases involving individuals with low levels of asbestos exposure suggests a complex carcinogenetic process with the involvement of other cofactors. Cytogenetic studies revealed the complexity of the genetic changes involved in this neoplasm reflecting the accumulation of genomic damage. One of the most used methodologies for assessing genomic damage is the cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus test applied in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). This approach allows the detection of chromosomal alterations expressed in binucleated cells after nuclear division in vitro. This marker could provide a tool for assessing genetically determined constitutional differences in chromosomal instability. A biomonitoring study was carried out to evaluate the micronuclei frequency in PBLs of patients with pleural malignant mesothelioma with respect to lung cancer, healthy, and risk controls as a marker of cancer susceptibility in correlation with the presence of SV40. A significant increased micronuclei frequency was observed in patients with malignant mesothelioma in comparison with all the other groups, the mean micronuclei frequency was double in patients with malignant mesothelioma compared with healthy controls, risk controls, and patients with lung adenocarcinoma (median 11.4 binucleated cells with micronuclei/1,000 binucleated cells versus 6.2, 6.1, and 5.1, respectively). Our data indicate that human T lymphocyte samples carry DNA sequences coding for SV40 large T antigen at low prevalence, both in cancer cases and controls. Evidence of cytogenetic damage revealed as micronuclei frequency in mesothelioma cancer patients could be related to exogenous and endogenous cofactors besides asbestos exposure. PMID:16030111

Bolognesi, Claudia; Martini, Fernanda; Tognon, Mauro; Filiberti, Rosa; Neri, Monica; Perrone, Emanuela; Landini, Eleonora; Canessa, Paolo A; Ivaldi, Gian Paolo; Betta, Pietro; Mutti, Luciano; Puntoni, Riccardo

2005-07-01

364

Clinical implications of calcifying nanoparticles in dental diseases: a critical review  

PubMed Central

Background Unknown cell-culture contaminants were described by Kajander and Ciftçio?lu in 1998. These contaminants were called nanobacteria initially and later calcifying nanoparticles (CNPs). Their exact nature is unclear and controversial. CNPs have unique and unusual characteristics, which preclude placing them into any established evolutionary branch of life. Aim The aim of this systematic review was to assess published data concerning CNPs since 1998 in general and in relation to dental diseases in particular. Materials and methods The National Library of Medicine (PubMed) and Society of Photographic Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) electronic and manual searches were conducted. Nanobacteria and calcifying nanoparticles were used as keywords. The search yielded 135 full-length papers. Further screening of the titles and abstracts that followed the review criteria resulted in 43 papers that met the study aim. Conclusion The review showed that the existence of nanobacteria is still controversial. Some investigators have described a possible involvement of CNPs in pulpal and salivary gland calcifications, as well as the possible therapeutic use of CNPs in the treatment of cracked and/or eroded teeth. PMID:24376354

Alenazy, Mohammed S; Mosadomi, Hezekiah A

2014-01-01

365

Tumor necrosis factor alpha and high sensitivity C-reactive protein in diagnosis of exudative pleural effusion  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Differentiation between exudative and transudative pleural effusions is the initial step in assessment of pleural effusion. The aim of this study was to determine whether high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?) are diagnostic utilities for exudative pleural effusion. METHODS: This experimental study assessed 79 patients with pleural effusion who underwent diagnostic evaluations at Imam Reza hospital, Mashhad, Iran in 2009-2010. The complete biochemical analysis of pleural fluid, pleural fluid culture, and pathological examination of pleural fluid and tissue were performed. Moreover, hsCRP and TNF? concentrations were measured in pleural fluid samples. The data was analyzed by student's t-test and Mann-Whitney test. RESULTS: According to Light's criteria, 50 patients (63.30%) had exudative effusions while 29 subjects (36.70%) had transudative effusion. The pleural fluid concentrations of hsCRP and TNF? were significantly higher in the exudative group than the transudative group (p < 0.05). At a cutoff value of 5 mg/L for hsCRP, the results showed 94% sensitivity and 96.6% specificity. Regarding TNF?, a cutoff value of 12.9 ng/dl represented 96% sensitivity and 93% specificity. CONCLUSIONS: HsCRP and TNF? levels may be considered as beneficial diagnostic factors for detecting exudative effusion in patients with pleural effusion. PMID:22973340

Rezaeetalab, Fariba; Parizadeh, Seyed Mohhamad Reza; Esmaeely, Habibollah; Akbari, Hadi; Akbari, Farzaneh; Saberi, Soheila

2011-01-01

366

Symptomatic Isolated Pleural Effusion as an Atypical Presentation of Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) presents in ~33% of ovarian stimulation cycles with clinical manifestations varying from mild to severe. Its pathogenesis is unknown. Pleural effusion is reported in ~10% of severe OHSS cases and is usually associated with marked ascites. The isolated finding of pleural effusions without ascites, as the main presenting symptom of OHSS is not frequently reported and its pathogenesis is also unknown. We describe two unusual cases of OHSS where dyspnea secondary to unilateral pleural effusion was the only presenting symptom. By reporting our experience, we would like to heighten physicians' awareness in detecting these cases early, as it is our belief that the incidence of pleural effusion in the absence of most commonly recognized risk factors for OHSS may be underestimated and may significantly compromise the health of the patient if treatment is not initiated in a reasonable amount of time. PMID:22567522

Mullin, Christine M.; Fino, M. Elizabeth; Reh, Andrea; Grifo, Jamie A.; Licciardi, Frederick

2011-01-01

367

A rare pleural mucinous cystadenocarcinoma mimicking loculated empyema initially: A case report.  

PubMed

We report a case of pleural mucinous cystadenocarcinoma which was mistaken to be a loculated empyema on chest CT. To the best of our knowledge, this entity has never been previously reported in literature. PMID:24604931

Moon, Sung Min; Seon, Hyun Ju; Choi, Yoo-Duk; Song, Sang-Yun

2013-10-01

368

26. BOLLING MEMORIAL GROVE PLAQUE, AVENUE OF THE GIANTS, OLD ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

26. BOLLING MEMORIAL GROVE PLAQUE, AVENUE OF THE GIANTS, OLD HIGHWAY 101. HUMBOLDT COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. LOOKING E. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

369

Coronary plaque imaging by coronary computed tomography angiography  

PubMed Central

Coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) has become the useful noninvasive imaging modality alternative to the invasive coronary angiography for detecting coronary artery stenoses in patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). With the development of technical aspects of coronary CTA, clinical practice and research are increasingly shifting toward defining the clinical implication of plaque morphology and patients outcomes by coronary CTA. In this review we discuss the coronary plaque morphology estimated by CTA beyond coronary angiography including the comparison to the currently available other imaging modalities used to examine morphological characteristics of the atherosclerotic plaque. Furthermore, this review underlies the value of a combined assessment of coronary anatomy and myocardial perfusion in patients with CAD, and adds to an increasing body of evidence suggesting an added diagnostic value when combining both modalities. We hope that an integrated, multi-modality imaging approach will become the gold standard for noninvasive evaluation of coronary plaque morphology and outcome data in clinical practice. PMID:24876919

Sato, Akira

2014-01-01

370

Elevation view of dedication plaque on east wall of south ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Elevation view of dedication plaque on east wall of south lobby - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Pacific Branch, Main Mental Health Building, 11301 Wilshire Boulevard, West Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

371

38. 100 foot through truss bridge original identification plaque ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

38. 100 foot through truss - bridge original identification plaque located on the top of the north portal entrance. - Weidemeyer Bridge, Spanning Thomes Creek at Rawson Road, Corning, Tehama County, CA

372

32. STUDIO VIEW OF PLAQUE PLACED ON MILL HOUSE AT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

32. STUDIO VIEW OF PLAQUE PLACED ON MILL HOUSE AT TIME OF COMPLETION, COMMEMORATING EDWARD J. LUKE (SEE TEXT) - Sperry Corn Elevator Complex, Weber Avenue (North side), West of Edison Street, Stockton, San Joaquin County, CA

373

A helical microwave antenna for welding plaque during balloon angioplasty  

SciTech Connect

A catheter-based microwave helix antenna has been developed in an attempt to improve the long-term success of balloon angioplasty treatment of arteriosclerosis. When the balloon is inflated to widen vessels obstructed with plaque, microwave power is deposited in the plaque, heating it, and thereby fixing it in place. By optimizing the helix pitch angle and excitation frequency, the antenna radiation pattern can be adjusted to deposit microwave power preferentially in the plaque while avoiding overheating the healthy artery. The optimal power deposition patterns of helical antennas are analytically computed for four-layered concentric and four-layered nonconcentric cylindrical geometries, which model symmetric and asymmetric occluded arteries. Experiments were performed on occluded artery phantom models with a prototype antenna for both symmetric and asymmetric models, which matched the theoretical predictions well, indicating almost complete power absorption in the low-water-content simulated plaque.

Liu, P.; Rappaport, C.M. [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States). Electrical and Computer Engineering Dept.

1996-10-01

374

6. VIEW OF COMMEMORATIVE PLAQUE, EAST APPROACH GUARDRAIL, WHICH STATES ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. VIEW OF COMMEMORATIVE PLAQUE, EAST APPROACH GUARDRAIL, WHICH STATES 'SALINE RIVER; ARK. GENERAL CONST. CO.; CONTRACTOR; ARKANSAS; STATE HIGHWAY DEPARTMENT; 1928, BRIDGE NO. __.' - Saline River Bridge, County Highway 365 across Saline River, Benton, Saline County, AR

375

10. VIEW OF PLAQUE ON ILLINOIS DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HEADQUARTERS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. VIEW OF PLAQUE ON ILLINOIS DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HEADQUARTERS GROUND, SPRINGFIELD, ILLINOIS; NOW IN CUSTODY OF WARREN COUNTY HIGHWAY SUPERINTENDENT - Campbell Bridge, Spanning Cedar Creek at Sumner Township Road 22, Little York, Warren County, IL

376

Symptomatic hemorrhagic pleural effusion: A rare presentation of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Isolated unilateral pleural effusion is uncommon presentation of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. The pathogenesis of this syndrome involves an increased permeability of ovarian capillaries and mesothelial vessels triggered by the release of vasoactive substances by the ovaries under human chorionic gonadotropin stimulation. Physicians should consider this potentially life-threatening diagnosis in all patients who undergo ovarian hyperstimulation. This case highlights a rare clinical manifestation of isolated hemorrhagic pleural effusion associated with ovarian hyperstimulation PMID:24533029

Alaraj, Ali

2013-01-01

377

Surgical and other invasive approaches to recurrent pleural effusion with malignant etiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

With an increasing number of cancer survivors, the annual incidence of malignant pleural effusions has been rising in recent\\u000a decades worldwide. Many patients with various forms of cancer develop malignant pleural effusions at some point in their life.\\u000a Patients most commonly present with progressive dyspnea. These effusions are refractory and are associated with impaired quality\\u000a of life for these patients.

Siyamek Neragi-Miandoab

2008-01-01

378

CT-Guided Core Needle Biopsy of Pleural Lesions: Evaluating Diagnostic Yield and Associated Complications  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and complications of CT-guided core needle biopsy (CT-guided CNB) of pleural lesion and the possible effects of influencing factors. Materials and Methods From September 2007 to June 2013, 88 consecutive patients (60 men and 28 women; mean [± standard deviation] age, 51.1 ± 14.4 years; range, 19-78 years) underwent CT-guided CNB, which was performed by two experienced chest radiologists in our medical center. Out of 88 cases, 56 (63%) were diagnosed as malignant, 28 (31%) as benign and 4 (5%) as indeterminate for CNB of pleural lesions. The final diagnosis was confirmed by either histopathological diagnosis or clinical follow-up. The diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and complication rates were statistically evaluated. Influencing factors (patient age, sex, lesion size, pleural-puncture angle, patient position, pleural effusion, and number of pleural punctures) were assessed for their effect on accuracy of CT-guided CNB using univariate and subsequent multivariate analysis. Results Diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV were 89.2%, 86.1%, 100%, 100%, and 67.8%, respectively. The influencing factors had no significant effect in altering diagnostic accuracy. As far as complications were concerned, occurrence of pneumothorax was observed in 14 (16%) out of 88 patients. Multivariate analysis revealed lesion size/pleural thickening as a significant risk factor (odds ratio [OR]: 8.744, p = 0.005) for occurrence of pneumothorax. Moreover, presence of pleural effusion was noted as a significant protective factor (OR: 0.171, p = 0.037) for pneumothorax. Conclusion CT-guided CNB of pleural lesion is a safe procedure with high diagnostic yield and low risk of significant complications.

Niu, Xiang-Ke; Bhetuwal, Anup

2015-01-01

379

Ultrasound-guided pleural puncture in supine or recumbent lateral position - feasibility study  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study is to evaluate feasibility, safety and efficacy of accessing the pleural space with the patient supine or in lateral recumbent position, under constant ultrasonic guidance along the costophrenic sinus. Methods All patients with pleural effusion, referred to thoracentesis or pleural drainage from February 2010 to January 2011 in two institutions, were drained either supine or in lateral recumbent position through an echomonitored cannulation of the costophrenic sinus. The technique is described in detail and an analysis of safety and feasibility is carried out. Results One hundred and one thoracenteses were performed on 76 patients and 30 pigtail catheters were inserted in 30 patients (for a total of 131 pleural procedures in 106 patients enrolled). The feasibility of the procedures was 100% and in every case it was possible to follow real time needle tip passage in the pleural space. Ninety eight thoracenteses (97%) and all catheter drainages were successfully completed. Four thoracenteses were stopped because of the appearance of complications while no pigtail drainage procedure was stopped. After 24 hour follow up, one chest pain syndrome (1.3% of completed thoracenteses) and two pneumothoraces (1.4%) occurred. The mean acquisition time of pleural space was 76 ± 9 seconds for thoracentesis and 185 ± 46 seconds for drainage insertion (p < 0.05). Conclusions This study highlights the safety and efficacy of this technique of real time echo-monitored pleural space puncture, that offers a more comfortable patient position, an easier approach for the operator, a very low rate of complications with short acquisition time of pleural space. PMID:23497643

2013-01-01

380

Cholesterol in the senile plaque: often mentioned, never seen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lipid components of the senile plaque (SP) remain largely unknown. Senile plaques were said to be enriched in cholesterol\\u000a in a few studies using the cholesterol probe filipin and a histoenzymatic method based upon cholesterol oxidase activity.\\u000a We provide data that strongly suggest that these results are false-positive: the SPs were still stained in the absence of\\u000a the enzyme

Thibaud Lebouvier; Claire Perruchini; Maï Panchal; Marie-Claude Potier; Charles Duyckaerts

2009-01-01

381

Prion protein expression in senile plaques in Alzheimer's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prion protein (PrPC) is a glycolipid-anchored cell membrane sialoglycoprotein that localises in presynaptic membranes. Since synapses are vulnerable to Alzheimer's disease (AD), the present study examines PrPC expression in senile plaques, one of the major structural abnormalities in AD, by single- and double-labelling immunohistochemistry. Punctate PrPC immunoreactivity is found in diffuse plaques, whereas isolated large coarse PrPC-positive granules reminiscent of

I. Ferrer; R. Blanco; M. Carmona; B. Puig; R. Ribera; M. J. Rey; T. Ribalta

2001-01-01

382

Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy for the characterization of atherosclerotic plaques  

PubMed Central

Atherosclerotic plaque composition has been associated with plaque instability and rupture. This study investigates the use of fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) for mapping plaque composition and assessing features of vulnerability. Measurements were conducted in atherosclerotic human aortic samples using an endoscopic FLIM system (spatial resolution of 35 ?m; temporal resolution 200 ps) developed in our lab which allows mapping in one measurement the composition within a volume of 4 mm diameter × 250 ?m depth. Each pixel in the image represents a corresponding fluorescence lifetime value; images are formed through a flexible 0.6 mm side-viewing imaging bundle which allows for further intravascular applications. Based on previously recorded spectra of human atherosclerotic plaque, fluorescence emission was collected through two filters: f1: 377/50 and f2: 460/60 (center wavelength/bandwidth), which together provides the greatest discrimination between intrinsic fluorophores related to plaque vulnerability. We have imaged nine aortas and lifetime images were retrieved using a Laguerre expansion deconvolution technique and correlated with histopathology. Early results demonstrate discrimination using fluorescence lifetime between early, lipid-rich, and collagen-rich lesions which are consistent with previously reported time-resolved atherosclerotic plaque measurements. PMID:19606277

Phipps, Jennifer; Sun, Yinghua; Saroufeem, Ramez; Hatami, Nisa; Marcu, Laura

2009-01-01

383

Dosimetry for 125I seed (model 6711) in eye plaques.  

PubMed

The effect of eye plaque materials (gold backing and silastic seed-carrier insert) on the dose distribution around a single 125I seed has been measured, using cubic lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) 1 mm on an edge, in a solid water eye phantom embedded in a solid water head phantom. With an 125I seed (model 6711) positioned in the center slot of the silastic insert for a 20-mm plaque of the design used in the collaborative ocular melanoma study (COMS), dose was measured at 2-mm intervals along the plaque central axis (the seed's transverse axis) and at various off-axis points, both with and without the COMS gold backing placed over the insert. Monte Carlo calculations (MORSE code) were performed, as well, for these configurations and closely the same geometry but assuming a large natural water phantom. Additional Monte Carlo calculations treated the case, both for 20- and 12-mm gold plaques, where the silastic insert is replaced by natural water. Relative to previous measurements taken in homogeneous medium of the same material (without the eye plaque), the dose reduction found by both Monte Carlo and TLD methods was greater at points farther from the seed along the central axis and, for a given central-axis depth, at larger off-axis distances. Removal of the gold backing from the plaque did not make measurable difference in the dose reduction results (10% at 1 cm). PMID:8497229

Chiu-Tsao, S T; Anderson, L L; O'Brien, K; Stabile, L; Liu, J C

1993-01-01

384

Automatic plaque assay for the pharmaceutical industry using machine vision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A crucial step in the manufacture of vaccines is the verification of their potency. An assay of the potency must be carried out on every batch produced to determine the safety and efficacy of the vaccine. Currently, human inspectors count the number of plaques (holes) in a cell layer in a petri dish to estimate the potency.They must determine whether nearby plaques that have overgrown each other's borders are single or multiple plaques and distinguish between plaques and small tears in the cell layer resulting from the processing operations (the edges of tears differ in appearance from the edges of plaques). Because of the judgments required to make these subtle distinctions, human inspectors are inconsistent. In cooperation with Merck & Co., Inc., the Rutgers University Center for Computer Aids for Industrial Productivity has demonstrated the feasibility of achieving consistent automatic counting of plaques by a prototype intelligent machine vision system. The David Sarnoff Research Center developed materials handling equipment and factory information system interfaces to enable this prototype system to be installed in a quality control facility at Merck. This paper describes the overall operation of the machine vision aspects of the system, including optics, illumination, sensing, preprocessing, feature extraction and shape recognition. Results of initial tests of the system are also reported.

Wilder, Joseph; Tsai, Augustine; Festa, J. M.

1995-10-01

385

First evidence of chitin in calcified coralline algae: new insights into the calcification process of Clathromorphum compactum.  

PubMed

Interest in calcifying coralline algae has been increasing over the past years due to the discovery of extensive coralline algal dominated ecosystems in Arctic and Subarctic latitudes, their projected sensitivity to ocean acidification and their utility as palaeoenvironmental proxies. Thus, it is crucial to obtain a detailed understanding of their calcification process. We here extracted calcified skeletal organic matrix components including soluble and insoluble fractions from the widely-distributed Subarctic and Arctic coralline alga Clathromorphum compactum. The lyophilized skeletal organic matrix fractions showed comparatively high concentrations of soluble and insoluble organic matrices comprising 0.9% and 4.5% of skeletal weight, respectively. This is significantly higher than in other skeletal marine calcifiers. Attenuated Total Reflection-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) results indicate that chitin is present in the skeletal organic matrices of C. compactum. This polymer exhibits similar hierarchical structural organizations with collagen present in the matrix and serves as a template for nucleation and controls the location and orientation of mineral phases. Chitin contributes to significantly increasing skeletal strength, making C. compactum highly adapted for living in a shallow high-latitude benthic environment. Furthermore, chitin containing polysaccharides can increase resistance of calcifiers to negative effects of ocean acidification. PMID:25145331

Rahman, M Azizur; Halfar, Jochen

2014-01-01

386

First evidence of chitin in calcified coralline algae: new insights into the calcification process of Clathromorphum compactum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interest in calcifying coralline algae has been increasing over the past years due to the discovery of extensive coralline algal dominated ecosystems in Arctic and Subarctic latitudes, their projected sensitivity to ocean acidification and their utility as palaeoenvironmental proxies. Thus, it is crucial to obtain a detailed understanding of their calcification process. We here extracted calcified skeletal organic matrix components including soluble and insoluble fractions from the widely-distributed Subarctic and Arctic coralline alga Clathromorphum compactum. The lyophilized skeletal organic matrix fractions showed comparatively high concentrations of soluble and insoluble organic matrices comprising 0.9% and 4.5% of skeletal weight, respectively. This is significantly higher than in other skeletal marine calcifiers. Attenuated Total Reflection-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) results indicate that chitin is present in the skeletal organic matrices of C. compactum. This polymer exhibits similar hierarchical structural organizations with collagen present in the matrix and serves as a template for nucleation and controls the location and orientation of mineral phases. Chitin contributes to significantly increasing skeletal strength, making C. compactum highly adapted for living in a shallow high-latitude benthic environment. Furthermore, chitin containing polysaccharides can increase resistance of calcifiers to negative effects of ocean acidification.

Rahman, M. Azizur; Halfar, Jochen

2014-08-01

387

Isolation and sequence of the vitamin K-dependent matrix Gla protein from the calcified cartilage of the soupfin shark.  

E-print Network

Isolation and sequence of the vitamin K-dependent matrix Gla protein from the calcified cartilage Department of Biology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla. High levels of the vitamin K contains 4 residues of the vitamin K-dependent amino acid gamma- carboxyglutamic acid in its 102 residue

Price, Paul A.

388

First evidence of chitin in calcified coralline algae: new insights into the calcification process of Clathromorphum compactum  

PubMed Central

Interest in calcifying coralline algae has been increasing over the past years due to the discovery of extensive coralline algal dominated ecosystems in Arctic and Subarctic latitudes, their projected sensitivity to ocean acidification and their utility as palaeoenvironmental proxies. Thus, it is crucial to obtain a detailed understanding of their calcification process. We here extracted calcified skeletal organic matrix components including soluble and insoluble fractions from the widely-distributed Subarctic and Arctic coralline alga Clathromorphum compactum. The lyophilized skeletal organic matrix fractions showed comparatively high concentrations of soluble and insoluble organic matrices comprising 0.9% and 4.5% of skeletal weight, respectively. This is significantly higher than in other skeletal marine calcifiers. Attenuated Total Reflection-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) results indicate that chitin is present in the skeletal organic matrices of C. compactum. This polymer exhibits similar hierarchical structural organizations with collagen present in the matrix and serves as a template for nucleation and controls the location and orientation of mineral phases. Chitin contributes to significantly increasing skeletal strength, making C. compactum highly adapted for living in a shallow high-latitude benthic environment. Furthermore, chitin containing polysaccharides can increase resistance of calcifiers to negative effects of ocean acidification. PMID:25145331

Rahman, M. Azizur; Halfar, Jochen

2014-01-01

389

Increasing Costs Due to Ocean Acidification Drives Phytoplankton to Be More Heavily Calcified: Optimal Growth Strategy of Coccolithophores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ocean acidification is potentially one of the greatest threats to marine ecosystems and global carbon cycling. Amongst calcifying organisms, coccolithophores have received special attention because their calcite precipitation plays a significant role in alkalinity flux to the deep ocean (i.e., inorganic carbon pump). Currently, empirical effort is devoted to evaluating the plastic responses to acidification, but evolutionary considerations are missing

Takahiro Irie; Kazuhiro Bessho; Helen S. Findlay; Piero Calosi

2010-01-01

390

Densely Calcified Atypical Choroid Plexus Papilloma at the Cerebellopontine Angle in an Adult  

PubMed Central

Choroid plexus papilloma is a rare benign tumor accounting for 0.5% of all intracranial tumors. The majority of choroid plexus papillomas occur during the first 2 years of life in the ventricular system. Moreover, dense calcification of the tumor is uncommon. We report an adult case of densely calcified, atypical choroid plexus papilloma that originated from the cerebellopontine angle without connection to the forth ventricle. Because the case involves a rare combination of four features—adult, dense calcification, atypical form, and cerebellopontine angle—each characteristic associated with the choroid plexus papilloma was discussed. The finding of calcification at the cerebellopontine angle in an adult should suggest the possible presence of choroid plexus papilloma. PMID:24303341

Wanibuchi, Masahiko; Margraf, Russell R.; Fukushima, Takanori

2013-01-01

391

Postoperative hemorrhage in an elderly patient with a glioblastoma multiform and a calcified chronic subdural hematoma  

PubMed Central

Background Cases with brain tumor and subdural hematoma are rare; surgical management of the elderly patients with a glioblastoma multiform (GBM) and a chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) can be intractable. Case description We report a 77-year-old patient, who had a left front lobe GBM and a giant, calcified, left frontoparietaloccipitotemporal CSDH. The patient recovered well from anesthesia after removal of the GBM and CSDH. However, the patient developed severe hemiplegia and aphasia because of the in-situ hemorrhage 1 day later. Laboratory tests indicated disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) leading to the postoperative hemorrhage. The patient was left with hemiparesis and alalia after the in-situ hematoma evacuation. Conclusions We presume elderly patients have a higher incidence of postoperative hemorrhage in residual intracranial cavity owing to higher possibility to get DIC. A less aggressive surgical management could be a more appropriate choice. PMID:24754873

2014-01-01

392

Coral calcifying fluid pH dictates response to ocean acidification  

PubMed Central

Ocean acidification driven by rising levels of CO2 impairs calcification, threatening coral reef growth. Predicting how corals respond to CO2 requires a better understanding of how calcification is controlled. Here we show how spatial variations in the pH of the internal calcifying fluid (pHcf) in coral (Stylophora pistillata) colonies correlates with differential sensitivity of calcification to acidification. Coral apexes had the highest pHcf and experienced the smallest changes in pHcf in response to acidification. Lateral growth was associated with lower pHcf and greater changes with acidification. Calcification showed a pattern similar to pHcf, with lateral growth being more strongly affected by acidification than apical. Regulation of pHcf is therefore spatially variable within a coral and critical to determining the sensitivity of calcification to ocean acidification. PMID:24903088

Holcomb, M.; Venn, A. A.; Tambutté, E.; Tambutté, S.; Allemand, D.; Trotter, J.; McCulloch, M.

2014-01-01

393

Coral calcifying fluid pH dictates response to ocean acidification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ocean acidification driven by rising levels of CO2 impairs calcification, threatening coral reef growth. Predicting how corals respond to CO2 requires a better understanding of how calcification is controlled. Here we show how spatial variations in the pH of the internal calcifying fluid (pHcf) in coral (Stylophora pistillata) colonies correlates with differential sensitivity of calcification to acidification. Coral apexes had the highest pHcf and experienced the smallest changes in pHcf in response to acidification. Lateral growth was associated with lower pHcf and greater changes with acidification. Calcification showed a pattern similar to pHcf, with lateral growth being more strongly affected by acidification than apical. Regulation of pHcf is therefore spatially variable within a coral and critical to determining the sensitivity of calcification to ocean acidification.

Holcomb, M.; Venn, A. A.; Tambutté, E.; Tambutté, S.; Allemand, D.; Trotter, J.; McCulloch, M.

2014-06-01

394

[Giant calcified meningioma after radiation therapy for previous ependymoma: a case report].  

PubMed

We presented a case of secondary giant meningioma with dense calcification (brain stone) after radiation therapy for primary ependymoma removed 25 years before. A 31-year-old man was referred to our hospital because of generalized convulsion. He had received extirpation of an ependymoma in the left frontoparietal region and postoperative radiation therapy 25 years before. Skull X-ray and CT revealed a giant brain stone in the left parietal region. It was totally removed en bloc. Photomicrograph of the specimen showed proliferation of arachnoid cell-like tumor cells in narrow spaces surrounded by marked calcified lesions which showed partial ossification. The etiology and therapy of this tumor were discussed. PMID:8377902

Zenke, K; Fukumoto, S; Ohta, S; Sakaki, S; Matsui, S

1993-09-01

395

Coral calcifying fluid pH dictates response to ocean acidification.  

PubMed

Ocean acidification driven by rising levels of CO2 impairs calcification, threatening coral reef growth. Predicting how corals respond to CO2 requires a better understanding of how calcification is controlled. Here we show how spatial variations in the pH of the internal calcifying fluid (pHcf) in coral (Stylophora pistillata) colonies correlates with differential sensitivity of calcification to acidification. Coral apexes had the highest pHcf and experienced the smallest changes in pHcf in response to acidification. Lateral growth was associated with lower pHcf and greater changes with acidification. Calcification showed a pattern similar to pHcf, with lateral growth being more strongly affected by acidification than apical. Regulation of pHcf is therefore spatially variable within a coral and critical to determining the sensitivity of calcification to ocean acidification. PMID:24903088

Holcomb, M; Venn, A A; Tambutté, E; Tambutté, S; Allemand, D; Trotter, J; McCulloch, M

2014-01-01

396

Sutureless Medtronic 3f Enable aortic valve replacement in a heavily calcified aortic root.  

PubMed

The case is reported of a surgical aortic valvular stenosis with a severely calcified ascending aortic root in a 76-year-old woman. The morphology and size of the aortic annulus were unsuitable for transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI); thus, surgery was scheduled. Aortic calcifications allowed a transverse aortotomy 4 cm superior to the sinotubular junction, with a remote endoaortic view of the valve. A Medtronic 3f Enable sutureless bioprosthesis was then implanted after aortic annular decalcification. Sutureless bioprostheses are new tools that promise to reduce technical difficulties and cross-clamp times in minimally invasive aortic valve replacement surgery. In addition, sutureless techniques may have other possible advantages in special circumstances requiring full sternotomy access, such as in the present case. PMID:24151774

Vola, Marco; Fuzellier, Jean-Francois; Kasra, Azarnoush; Morel, Jérôme; Campisi, Salvatore; Ruggeri, Gianvito; Favre, Jean Pierre

2013-05-01

397

Species-specific responses of calcifying algae to changing seawater carbonate chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uptake of half of the fossil fuel CO2 into the ocean causes gradual seawater acidification. This has been shown to slow down calcification of major calcifying groups, such as corals, foraminifera, and coccolithophores. Here we show that two of the most productive marine calcifying species, the coccolithophores Coccolithus pelagicus and Calcidiscus leptoporus, do not follow the CO2-related calcification response previously found. In batch culture experiments, particulate inorganic carbon (PIC) of C. leptoporus changes with increasing CO2 concentration in a nonlinear relationship. A PIC optimum curve is obtained, with a maximum value at present-day surface ocean pCO2 levels (˜360 ppm CO2). With particulate organic carbon (POC) remaining constant over the range of CO2 concentrations, the PIC/POC ratio also shows an optimum curve. In the C. pelagicus cultures, neither PIC nor POC changes significantly over the CO2 range tested, yielding a stable PIC/POC ratio. Since growth rate in both species did not change with pCO2, POC and PIC production show the same pattern as POC and PIC. The two investigated species respond differently to changes in the seawater carbonate chemistry, highlighting the need to consider species-specific effects when evaluating whole ecosystem responses. Changes of calcification rate (PIC production) were highly correlated to changes in coccolith morphology. Since our experimental results suggest altered coccolith morphology (at least in the case of C. leptoporus) in the geological past, coccoliths originating from sedimentary records of periods with different CO2 levels were analyzed. Analysis of sediment samples was performed on six cores obtained from locations well above the lysocline and covering a range of latitudes throughout the Atlantic Ocean. Scanning electron micrograph analysis of coccolith morphologies did not reveal any evidence for significant numbers of incomplete or malformed coccoliths of C. pelagicus and C. leptoporus in last glacial maximum and Holocene sediments. The discrepancy between experimental and geological results might be explained by adaptation to changing carbonate chemistry.

Langer, Gerald; Geisen, Markus; Baumann, Karl-Heinz; KläS, Jessica; Riebesell, Ulf; Thoms, Silke; Young, Jeremy R.

2006-09-01

398

Raised Soluble P-Selectin Moderately Accelerates Atherosclerotic Plaque Progression  

PubMed Central

Soluble P-selectin (sP-selectin), a biomarker of inflammatory related pathologies including cardiovascular and peripheral vascular diseases, also has pro-atherosclerotic effects including the ability to increase leukocyte recruitment and modulate thrombotic responses in vivo. The current study explores its role in progressing atherosclerotic plaque disease. Apoe?/? mice placed on a high fat diet (HFD) were given daily injections of recombinant dimeric murine P-selectin (22.5 µg/kg/day) for 8 or 16 weeks. Saline or sE-selectin injections were used as negative controls. In order to assess the role of sP-selectin on atherothrombosis an experimental plaque remodelling murine model, with sm22?-hDTR Apoe?/? mice on a HFD in conjunction with delivery of diphtheria toxin to induce targeted vascular smooth muscle apoptosis, was used. These mice were similarly given daily injections of sP-selectin for 8 or 16 weeks. While plaque mass and aortic lipid content did not change with sP-selectin treatment in Apoe?/? or SM22?-hDTR Apoe?/? mice on HFD, increased plasma MCP-1 and a higher plaque CD45 content in Apoe?/? HFD mice was observed. As well, a significant shift towards a more unstable plaque phenotype in the SM22?-hDTR Apoe?/? HFD mice, with increased macrophage accumulation and lower collagen content, leading to a lower plaque stability index, was observed. These results demonstrate that chronically raised sP-selectin favours progression of an unstable atherosclerotic plaque phenotype. PMID:24846287

Andrews, Karen L.; Aprico, Andrea; Harris, Emma; Irvine, Jennifer C.; Jefferis, Ann-maree; Fang, Lu; Kanellakis, Peter; Bobik, Alex; Chin-Dusting, Jaye P. F.

2014-01-01

399

Can anti-erosion dentifrices also provide effective plaque control?  

PubMed Central

Objective: While gingivitis and caries continue to be prevalent issues, there is growing concern about dental erosion induced by dietary acids. An oral hygiene product that protects against all these conditions would be beneficial. This study investigated the potential of two anti-erosion dentifrices to inhibit plaque. Methods: This was a randomized, three-period, two-treatment, double-blind, crossover study evaluating a stannous chloride/sodium fluoride dentifrice (SnCl2/NaF, blend-a-med® Pro Expert) and a popular anti-erosion dentifrice (NaF, Sensodyne® ProNamel™). During Period 3, subjects were randomized to repeat one treatment to evaluate any product carryover effects. Each treatment period was 17 days. Test dentifrices were used with a standard manual toothbrush. Digital plaque image analysis (DPIA) was employed at the end of each period to evaluate plaque levels (i) overnight (am prebrush); (ii) post-brushing with the test product (am post-brush); and (iii) mid-afternoon (pm). Analysis was conducted via an objective computer algorithm, which calculated total area of visible plaque. Results: Twenty-seven subjects completed the study. At all time points, subjects had statistically significantly (P ? 0.0001) lower plaque levels after using the SnCl2/NaF dentifrice than the NaF dentifrice. The antiplaque benefit for the SnCl2/NaF dentifrice versus the NaF dentifrice was: am prebrush = 26.0%; am post-brushing = 27.9%; pm = 25.7%. Conclusions: The SnCl2/NaF dentifrice provided significantly greater daytime and overnight plaque inhibition than the NaF toothpaste. When recommending dentifrice to patients susceptible to dental erosion, clinicians can consider one that also inhibits plaque. PMID:21356021

Bellamy, PG; Prendergast, M; Strand, R; Yu, Z; Day, TN; Barker, ML; Mussett, AJ

2011-01-01

400

Thrombosis formation on atherosclerotic lesions and plaque rupture.  

PubMed

Atherosclerosis is a silent chronic vascular pathology that is the cause of the majority of cardiovascular ischaemic events. The evolution of vascular disease involves a combination of endothelial dysfunction, extensive lipid deposition in the intima, exacerbated innate and adaptive immune responses, proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells and remodelling of the extracellular matrix, resulting in the formation of an atherosclerotic plaque. High-risk plaques have a large acellular lipid-rich necrotic core with an overlying thin fibrous cap infiltrated by inflammatory cells and diffuse calcification. The formation of new fragile and leaky vessels that invade the expanding intima contributes to enlarge the necrotic core increasing the vulnerability of the plaque. In addition, biomechanical, haemodynamic and physical factors contribute to plaque destabilization. Upon erosion or rupture, these high-risk lipid-rich vulnerable plaques expose vascular structures or necrotic core components to the circulation, which causes the activation of tissue factor and the subsequent formation of a fibrin monolayer (coagulation cascade) and, concomitantly, the recruitment of circulating platelets and inflammatory cells. The interaction between exposed atherosclerotic plaque components, platelet receptors and coagulation factors eventually leads to platelet activation, aggregation and the subsequent formation of a superimposed thrombus (i.e. atherothrombosis) which may compromise the arterial lumen leading to the presentation of acute ischaemic syndromes. In this review, we will describe the progression of the atherosclerotic lesion along with the main morphological characteristics that predispose to plaque rupture, and discuss the multifaceted mechanisms that drive platelet activation and subsequent thrombus formation. Finally, we will consider the current scientific challenges and future research directions. PMID:25156650

Badimon, L; Vilahur, G

2014-12-01

401

Survival of human dental plaque flora in various transport media.  

PubMed

Dental plaque samples from (i) subjects with no apparent oral disease, (ii) mentally retarded subjects with periodontal disease, and (iii) subjects with active caries were collected in three transport media viz. a dithiothreitol poised balanced mineral salt solution designated as reduced transport fluid (RTF), VMG II, and modified Stuart medium (SBL). The samples were dispersed by sonic treatment, diluted in the respective medium in which they were collected, and cultured on MM10 sucrose agar. The efficiency of the transport media in the survival of dental plaque flora was determined by comparing the quantitative recovery (expressed as percentage of the initial viable count) from the specimens stored for various lengths of time. The data showed a great variation in the recovery of the oral bacterial flora from the plaque samples. VMG II and SBL served better than RTF as storage media for non-disease-associated dental plaque cultured under strict anaerobic conditions. Recoveries of bacteria from periodontal plaque specimens stored in RTF were higher than SBL and VMG II under identical conditions. The organisms present in the carious plaque samples appeared to survive much better in RTF and VMG II than in SBL as determined by conventional anaerobic culturing technique. However, VMG II showed a higher recovery of organisms from these specimens with an increase in the storage period, suggesting multiplication of the plaque flora. RTF did not allow the growth of oral bacterial flora under all experimental conditions. On the basis of the relative performance of these media it is suggested that RTF is a satisfactory medium for the transport of oral bacteria present in the samples. PMID:4628799

Syed, S A; Loesche, W J

1972-10-01

402

Macrophage-targeted photodynamic detection of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rupture of a vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque (VP) leading to coronary thrombosis is the chief cause of sudden cardiac death. VPs are angiographically insignificant lesions, which are excessively inflamed and characterized by dense macrophage infiltration, large necrotic lipid cores, thin fibrous caps, and paucity of smooth muscle cells. We have recently shown that chlorin(e6) conjugated with maleylated albumin can target macrophages with high selectivity via the scavenger receptor. We report the potential of this macrophage-targeted fluorescent probe to localize in VPs in a rabbit model of atherosclerosis, and allow detection and/or diagnosis by fluorescence spectroscopy or imaging. Atherosclerotic lesions were induced in New Zealand White rabbit aortas by balloon injury followed by administration of a high-fat diet. 24-hours after IV injection of the conjugate into atherosclerotic or normal rabbits, the animals were sacrificed, and aortas were removed, dissected and examined for fluorescence localization in plaques by fiber-based spectrofluorimetry and confocal microscopy. Dye uptake within the aortas was also quantified by fluorescence extraction of samples from aorta segments. Biodistribution of the dye was studied in many organs of the rabbits. Surface spectrofluorimetry after conjugate injection was able to distinguish between plaque and adjacent aorta, between atherosclerotic and normal aorta, and balloon-injured and normal iliac arteries with high significance. Discrete areas of high fluorescence (up to 20 times control were detected in the balloon-injured segments, presumably corresponding to macrophage-rich plaques. Confocal microscopy showed red ce6 fluorescence localized in plaques that showed abundant foam cells and macrophages by histology. Extraction data on aortic tissue corroborated the selectivity of the conjugate for plaques. These data support the strategy of employing macrophage-targeted fluorescent dyes to detect VP by intravascular spectrofluorimetry. It may also be possible to use macrophage-targeted PDT to therapeutically modify inflammatory cell-laden VPs leading to plaque stabilization and reduction of sudden cardiovascular death.

Hamblin, Michael R.; Tawakol, Ahmed; Castano, Ana P.; Gad, Faten; Zahra, Touqir; Ahmadi, Atosa; Stern, Jeremy; Ortel, Bernhard; Chirico, Stephanie; Shirazi, Azadeh; Syed, Sakeena; Muller, James E.

2003-06-01

403

Relationship between plaque development and local hemodynamics in coronary arteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanisms of plaque development in coronary arteries are not yet completely understood. Vessel geometry influences the local hemodynamics within a vessel, and the resulting wall shear stress in turn influences plaque development. Previously, we showed in-vivo that plaque tends to accumulate more on the inner curvature of a vessel than on its outer curvature. While vessel curvature is preserved during plaque progression, the local wall shear stresses change with lumen narrowing. The aim of this study was to test how the hypothesis that locations of low wall shear stress coincide with circumferentially larger plaque accumulation depends on vascular remodeling with or without lumen narrowing. We have analyzed 39 in-vivo intravascular-ultrasound pullbacks, for which geometrically accurate 3-D models were obtained by fusion with x-ray angiography. Distorting subsegments (branches, calcifications, stents) were discarded, and the relative number of vessel locations was determined within a 10-40% area-stenosis range. This range corresponds to compensatory enlargement (outward or positive vessel remodeling), but not yet lumen narrowing, and these vessel segments were a focus of our study. For each segment, we determined the relative number of vessel locations for which circumferentially low wall shear stress coincided with larger plaque thickness and vice versa. The inverse association between wall shear stress and plaque thickness was significantly more pronounced (p<0.005) in vessel cross sections exhibiting compensatory enlargement without luminal narrowing than when the full spectrum of vessel stenosis severity was considered. Thus, the hypothesis is supported more in subsegments with less developed disease.

Wahle, Andreas; Lopez, John J.; Olszewski, Mark E.; Vigmostad, Sarah C.; Braddy, Kathleen C.; Brennan, Theresa M. H.; Bokhari, Syed W.; Bennett, J. Gray; Holper, Elizabeth M.; Rossen, James D.; Chandran, Krishnan B.; Sonka, Milan

2005-04-01

404

Association between Variations in Coagulation System Genes and Carotid Plaque  

PubMed Central

Objective Genetic variation in coagulation and fibrinolysis may affect the development of subclinical atherosclerosis modifying the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease. However, data on the relationship between subclinical atherosclerosis and genes involved in the coagulation system are sparse. The objective of this study is to examine the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in coagulation system genes and subclinical carotid plaque phenotypes. Methods From the Genetic Determinants of Subclinical Carotid Disease study, 287 Dominicans were examined for carotid plaque presence, thickness, and surface irregularity by high-resolution B-mode carotid ultrasound. Logistic regression was used to test for association between 101 SNPs in 23 coagulation system genes and plaque phenotypes while controlling for age, sex, smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes. Within gene haplotypes and interactions between genes were examined. A follow-up of SNPs in moderate to high (r2>0.25) linkage disequilibrium (LD) with those implicated in the discovery analysis (p?0.01) was performed in an independent sample of 301 Dominicans. Results The prevalence of carotid plaque (47% discovery; 46% follow-up) as well as the mean age (65±8 discovery; 65±9 follow-up) of the participants was similar in both datasets. Two genes (vWF and THBS1) were associated (p?0.01) with plaque size and surface irregularity. In followup, 5 SNPs in vWF were associated (p?0.05) with plaque size. SERPINE1 was an additional gene of interest in the haplotype and interaction analyses. Conclusions Variation in the vWF, THBS1, and SERPINE1 gene may play an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic plaque. PMID:22982001

Della-Morte, David; Beecham, Ashley; Dong, Chuanhui; Wang, Liyong; McClendon, Mark S.; Gardener, Hannah; Blanton, Susan H.; Sacco, Ralph L.; Rundek, Tatjana

2012-01-01

405

Subtle radiographic presentation of a pleural effusion secondary to a cancer of unknown primary: a case study.  

PubMed

Carcinoma of unknown primary sites is a clinical syndrome that represents many types of cancer. The mortality rate associate to this type of cancer is elevated and a rapid medical referral is required for patients presenting this condition. Pleural effusion may be the only visible sign. We report a case of pleural effusion secondary to a cancer of unknown primary site in a 60-year-old man that sought chiropractic care for radiating low back pain. The radiographic studies revealed a pleural effusion as one of the only significant finding. This article will address the clinical presentation, radiographic studies and a discussion on the radiographic detection of pleural effusion. PMID:25202155

Blanchette, Marc-André; Grenier, Julie-Marthe

2014-09-01

406

Subtle radiographic presentation of a pleural effusion secondary to a cancer of unknown primary: a case study  

PubMed Central

Carcinoma of unknown primary sites is a clinical syndrome that represents many types of cancer. The mortality rate associate to this type of cancer is elevated and a rapid medical referral is required for patients presenting this condition. Pleural effusion may be the only visible sign. We report a case of pleural effusion secondary to a cancer of unknown primary site in a 60-year-old man that sought chiropractic care for radiating low back pain. The radiographic studies revealed a pleural effusion as one of the only significant finding. This article will address the clinical presentation, radiographic studies and a discussion on the radiographic detection of pleural effusion. PMID:25202155

Blanchette, Marc-André; Grenier, Julie-Marthe

2014-01-01

407

Dynamics of pleural fluid effusion and chylothorax in the fetus and newborn: role of the lymphatic system.  

PubMed

Pleural fluid effusion particularly chylothorax is a relatively rare occurrence in the newborn, but when it occurs it is often life-threatening. In this article, we describe and illustrate the morphologic features of the visceral and parietal pleura including pleural lymphatics and the physiology and pathophysiology of pleural fluid balance. The role and function of the lymphatic system in controlling the volume and composition of pleural liquid are detailed and a conceptual scheme presented. Finally, the crucial role of inadequate lymphatic drainage (either functional overload from an imbalance in Starling forces or mechanical insufficiency from lymphatic dysplasia) is emphasized. PMID:24354106

Bellini, C; Ergaz, Z; Boccardo, F; Bellini, T; Campisi, C C; Bonioli, E; Ramenghi, L A

2013-06-01

408

[Malignant pleural mesothelioma: new aspects of medical therapy].  

PubMed

Malignant pleural mesothelioma, a typical long-term consequence of exposure to asbestos, represents a therapeutic challenge. In the early stages of the disease, trimodal therapy combining surgery, radiation and chemotherapy is used as standard care. In advanced stages, the combination of cisplatin and pemetrexed has been approved as first-line therapy, but there is a lack of randomised controlled drug trials for second-line treatment. Monotherapy with pemetrexed, vinorelbine or gemcitabine may provide some survival benefit compared to treatment aiming at symptom control only. Immunotherapy seems to be a promising new concept. The so-called frustrated phagocytosis, with continuing antigen presentation leading to persisting local inflammation and antigen tolerance, can be interrupted by blocking the T-cell surface protein CTLA-4. The monoclonal antibodies ipilimumab and tremelimumab that block CTLA-4 can stimulate immune response and thus increase the number of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. Clinical studies exploring this avenue of treatment are being awaited with great excitement. PMID:24615668

Kurz, S; Grohé, C

2014-05-01

409

Risk factors for the development of pleural empyema in children.  

PubMed

Pediatric pleural empyema has increased substantially over the past 20 years and reasons for this rise remain not fully explained. We investigated potential risk factors for the development of empyema in children by examining a cohort of patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Demographic, clinical, and socioeconomic characteristics, use of Ibuprofen prior to presentation and selected potential epidemiological risk factors were analyzed. Data were collected from a prospective etiological study of radiologically confirmed pneumonia in hospitalized children aged ?16 years. One hundred sixty children were enrolled; 56% were male and 69% aged <5 years. Empyema complication developed in 40 (25%) children. Children with empyema were more frequently prescribed Ibuprofen prior to admission to hospital than those without (82% vs. 46.2%; OR 1.94, 97.5% credible interval 0.80-3.18). Bacterial infection was strongly associated with the development of empyema (OR 3.34, 97.5% credible interval 1.70-5.14). In contrast age, sex, maternal age, parental smoking, level of socioeconomic status, nursery attendance, asthma, household characteristics (bedrooms and number of occupants) were not significantly different between groups. In conclusion, children with pneumonia who developed empyema had more often received Ibuprofen prior to hospitalization and confirmed bacterial infection. We suggest a population-based study involving both primary and secondary care settings would help to investigate the role of Ibuprofen use in modulating the course of disease in children with pneumonia. Pediatr Pulmonol. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24692118

Elemraid, Mohamed A; Thomas, Matthew F; Blain, Alasdair P; Rushton, Stephen P; Spencer, David A; Gennery, Andrew R; Clark, Julia E

2014-04-01

410

EMT markers in lung adenocarcinoma pleural effusion spheroid cells.  

PubMed

Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process in which cells undergo a developmental switch from epithelial to mesenchymal phenotype. This process has been related to embryologic morphogenesis but also to cancer progression and metastasis. The aim of the current study was to investigate the expression of EMT-related markers in adherent and spheroid cell cultures derived from malignant pleural effusions (MPEs) of patients affected by lung adenocarcinoma. On the basis of efficient in vitro propagation, six cases of MPEs were selected and analyzed by immunocytochemistry staining for EMT markers and by RT-PCR for transcription factors known to orchestrate EMT. EMT markers immunostaining showed in spheroids a statistically significant correlation between the loss of E-cadherin immunoreactivity and overexpression of N-cadherin (P < 0.001). Likewise loss of EpCAM epithelial marker was coincident with Vimentin overexpression (P < 0.001). RT-PCR analysis of transcription factors Snail, Slug, and Twist showed a highly variable expression, although a general trend to increase was observed. Importantly, in some selected cases it was possible to establish a precise relationship between spheroid formation, EMT switch and increased upregulation of the marker related to cancer stemness such as ALDH positivity. Therefore, MPE-derived cell cultures, while recapitulating the heterogeneity of lung cancer, are a suitable system to study the mechanisms at the basis of EMT and to understand its relationship with the generation of cancer stem cells. PMID:23255165

Giarnieri, Enrico; De Vitis, Claudia; Noto, Alessia; Roscilli, Giuseppe; Salerno, Gerardo; Mariotta, Salvatore; Ricci, Alberto; Bruno, Pierdonato; Russo, Giuseppe; Laurenzi, Andrea; Giovagnoli, Maria Rosaria; Ciliberto, Gennaro; Mancini, Rita

2013-08-01

411

The diagnostic value of tuberculostearic acid in tuberculous pleural effusions.  

PubMed

Tuberculostearic acid (TBSA) (10-methyloctadecanoic acid) is a structural component of mycobacteria and is not normally present in human tissues. The detection of this fatty acid in various clinical specimens, such as sputum, bronchial aspirate, pleural fluid and cerebrospinal fluid, is a rapid, sensitive and specific test for the diagnosis of tuberculosis. As rapid diagnostic methods are also needed in tuberculous pleurisy, this study was planned on 21 patients with pleurisy. The methods of gas chromatography, mass spectrophotometry combined with selected ion monitoring were used. The patients were divided into two groups: 11 with tuberculous effusion and 10 with nontuberculous patients. In the tuberculous group, TBSA was detected in 6 of the 11 patients, whereas in the nontuberculous group it was detected in 12 of the 10 patients. The sensitivity of the test was 54%, the specificity was 80%, the positive predictive value was 75%, the negative predictive value was 61%, and the efficacy was 66%. Therefore, tuberculostearic acid cannot be considered to be more useful than conventional methods in the diagnosis of tuberculous effusions, due to low sensitivity and high cost. PMID:8680374

Yorgancio?lu, A; Akin, M; Dereli, S; Akto?u, S; Ilis, Z; Sezgin, A

1996-04-01

412

Optimal management of malignant pleural effusions (results of CALGB 30102).  

PubMed

The optimal strategy to achieve palliation of malignant pleural effusions (MPEs) is unknown. This multi-institutional, prospective, randomized trial compares 2 established methods for controlling symptomatic unilateral MPEs. Patients with unilateral MPEs were randomized to either daily tunneled catheter drainage (TCD) or bedside talc pleurodesis (TP). This trial is patterned after a previous randomized trial that showed that bedside TP was equivalent to thoracoscopic TP (CALGB 9334). The primary end point of the current study was combined success: consistent/reliable drainage/pleurodesis, lung expansion, and 30-day survival. A secondary end point, survival with effusion control, was added retrospectively. This trial randomized 57 patients who were similar in terms of age (62 years), active chemotherapy (28%), and histologic diagnosis (lung, 63%; breast, 12%; other/unknown cancers, 25%) to either bedside TP or TCD. Combined success was higher with TCD (62%) than with TP (46%; odds ratio, 5.0; P = .064). Multivariate regression analysis revealed that patients treated with TCD had better 30-day activity without dyspnea scores (8.7 vs. 5.9; P = .036), especially in the subgroup with impaired expansion (9.1 vs. 4.6; P = .042). Patients who underwent TCD had better survival with effusion control at 30 days compared with those who underwent TP (82% vs. 52%, respectively; P = .024). In this prospective randomized trial, TCD achieved superior palliation of unilateral MPEs than TP, particularly in patients with trapped lungs. PMID:22878823

Demmy, Todd L; Gu, Lin; Burkhalter, Jack E; Toloza, Eric M; D'Amico, Thomas A; Sutherland, Susan; Wang, Xiaofei; Archer, Laura; Veit, Linda J; Kohman, Leslie

2012-08-01

413

Intercellular communication in malignant pleural mesothelioma: properties of tunneling nanotubes  

PubMed Central

Malignant pleural mesothelioma is a particularly aggressive and locally invasive malignancy with a poor prognosis despite advances in understanding of cancer cell biology and development of new therapies. At the cellular level, cultured mesothelioma cells present a mesenchymal appearance and a strong capacity for local cellular invasion. One important but underexplored area of mesothelioma cell biology is intercellular communication. Our group has previously characterized in multiple histological subtypes of mesothelioma a unique cellular protrusion known as tunneling nanotubes (TnTs). TnTs are long, actin filament-based, narrow cytoplasmic extensions that are non-adherent when cultured in vitro and are capable of shuttling cellular cargo between connected cells. Our prior work confirmed the presence of nanotube structures in tumors resected from patients with human mesothelioma. In our current study, we quantified the number of TnTs/cell among various mesothelioma subtypes and normal mesothelial cells using confocal microscopic techniques. We also examined changes in TnT length over time in comparison to cell proliferation. We further examined potential approaches to the in vivo study of TnTs in animal models of cancer. We have developed novel approaches to study TnTs in aggressive solid tumor malignancies and define fundamental characteristics of TnTs in malignant mesothelioma. There is mounting evidence that TnTs play an important role in intercellular communication in mesothelioma and thus merit further investigation of their role in vivo. PMID:25400582

Ady, Justin W.; Desir, Snider; Thayanithy, Venugopal; Vogel, Rachel I.; Moreira, André L.; Downey, Robert J.; Fong, Yuman; Manova-Todorova, Katia; Moore, Malcolm A. S.; Lou, Emil

2014-01-01

414

The treatment of chronic pleural empyema with laparoscopic omentoplasty. Initial report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Pleural empyema is the most serious, life-threatening postoperative complication of pneumonectomy, observed after 1–12% of all pneumonectomies, with bronchopleural fistula being its main cause. Aim The aim of this publication is to present early outcomes of minimally invasive surgical management of pleural empyema. Patients were subjected to a single, complex procedure, consisting of the laparoscopic mobilization of the greater omentum and its transposition via the diaphragm into the pleural cavity to fill in the empyema cavity with the consecutive pleuro-cutaneous fistuloplasty (thoracoplasty). Material and methods Between May 2011 and April 2013, 8 patients were qualified to undergo the procedure. The mean age was 61 years (range: 46–77 years). Presence of bronchopleural fistula was confirmed in 3 cases. The median time of treatment with thoracostomy was 14.5 months. Results The mean operative time was 125 min. The mean duration of post-operative hospital stay was 13.5 days (range: 7–31 days). In 6 patients (75%) the objective of permanent resolution of pleural empyema was achieved. In total, 4 patients had complications: pleural empyema recurrence (2 patients), splenic injury, hiatal hernia, gastrointestinal bleed. Two patients with empyema recurrence had Staphylococcus aureus infections prior to surgery. They were successfully managed both with prolonged thoracic drainage and antibiotics. Conclusions Use of the greater omentum that was laparoscopically mobilized and transpositioned into the pleural cavity allows simultaneous management of the pleural empyema cavity and thoracostomy. The procedure is safe, with few direct complications. It is well tolerated and has at least a satisfactory cosmetic effect. The minimally invasive approach allows faster recovery and return to daily activities in comparison to the fully open technique. PMID:25561992

Makarewicz, Wojciech; Bobowicz, Maciej; Sawicka, Wioletta; Rzyman, Witold

2014-01-01

415

ROPES eye plaque dosimetry: commissioning and verification of an ophthalmic brachytherapy treatment planning system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the Plaque SimulatorTM eye plaque brachytherapy planning system was commissioned for ROPES eye plaques and Amersham Health model 6711 Iodine 125 seeds, using TG43-UI data. The brachytherapy module of the RADCALC® independent checking program was configured to allow verification of the accuracy of the dose calculated by Plaque SimulatorTM. Central axis depth dose distributions were compared and observed to agree to within 2% for all ROPES plaque models and depths of interest. Experimental measurements were performed with a customized PRESAGEm 3-D type dosimeter to validate the calculated depth dose distributions. Preliminary results have shown the effect of the stainless steel plaque backing decreases the measured fluorescence intensity by up to 25%, and 40% for the 15 mm and 10 mm diameter ROPES plaques respectively. This effect, once fully quantified should be accounted for in the Plaque SimulatorTM eye plaque brachytherapy planning system.

Poder, J.; Annabell, N.; Geso, M.; Alqathami, M.; Corde, S.

2013-06-01

416

Identifying Vulnerable Plaques with Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rupture of arterial plaques is the most common cause of ischemic complications including stroke, the fourth leading cause of death and number one cause of long term disability in the United States. Unfortunately, because conventional diagnostic tools fail to identify plaques that confer the highest risk, often a disabling stroke and/or sudden death is the first sign of disease. A diagnostic method capable of characterizing plaque vulnerability would likely enhance the predictive ability and ultimately the treatment of stroke before the onset of clinical events. This dissertation evaluates the hypothesis that Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) imaging can noninvasively identify lipid regions, that have been shown to increase a plaque's propensity to rupture, within carotid artery plaques in vivo. The work detailed herein describes development efforts and results from simulations and experiments that were performed to evaluate this hypothesis. To first demonstrate feasibility and evaluate potential safety concerns, finite- element method simulations are used to model the response of carotid artery plaques to an acoustic radiation force excitation. Lipid pool visualization is shown to vary as a function of lipid pool geometry and stiffness. A comparison of the resulting Von Mises stresses indicates that stresses induced by an ARFI excitation are three orders of magnitude lower than those induced by blood pressure. This thesis also presents the development of a novel pulse inversion harmonic tracking method to reduce clutter-imposed errors in ultrasound-based tissue displacement estimates. This method is validated in phantoms and was found to reduce bias and jitter displacement errors for a marked improvement in image quality in vivo. Lastly, this dissertation presents results from a preliminary in vivo study that compares ARFI imaging derived plaque stiffness with spatially registered composition determined by a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) gold standard in human carotid artery plaques. It is shown in this capstone experiment that lipid filled regions in MRI correspond to areas of increased displacement in ARFI imaging while calcium and loose matrix components in MRI correspond to uniformly low displacements in ARFI imaging. This dissertation provides evidence to support that ARFI imaging may provide important prognostic and diagnostic information regarding stroke risk via measurements of plaque stiffness. More generally, the results have important implications for all acoustic radiation force based imaging methods used clinically.

Doh