Sample records for calcified pleural plaques

  1. Fibrous Pleural Plaques Detected at Autopsy

    PubMed Central

    TÜRKMEN, Nursel; EREN, Bülent; GÜNDO?MU?, Ümit Naci

    2014-01-01

    The reported case was a 84-year-old male, dead after a traffic accident. The death was considered to be suspicious by prosecutor and an autopsy was mandated. In macroscopic autopsy investigation left tibia, fibula and multiple rib fractures, widespread seborrheic keratoses, and hyperpigmented skin lesions were detected. In the left chest cavity blood content and white colored lesions spread on the left parietal pleura and chest surface of the thoracic diaphragm were observed. The histological examination of the pleural lesions revealed fibrotic hyalinized structures with calcified foci. Investigation of pleural plaques in forensic autopsy is important for scientific classification of this interesting entity. PMID:25705312

  2. Association between Randall's Plaque and Calcifying Nanoparticles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Citfcioglu, Neva; Vejdani, Kaveh; Lee, Olivia; Mathew, Grace; Aho, Katja M.; Kajander, Olavi; McKay, David S.; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Stoller, Marshall L.

    2007-01-01

    Randall initially described calcified subepithelial papillary plaques, which he hypothesized as nidi for kidney stone formation. The discovery of calcifying nanoparticles (CNP) in many calcifying processes of human tissues has raised another hypothesis about their possible involvement in urinary stone formation. This research is the first attempt to investigate the potential association of these two hypotheses. We collected renal papilla and blood samples from 17 human patients who had undergone laparoscopic nephrectomy due to neoplasia. Immunohistochemical staining (IHS) was applied on the tissue samples using monoclonal antibody 8D10 (mAb) against CNP. Homogenized papillary tissues and serum samples were cultured for CNP. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis were performed on fixed papillary samples. Randall's plaques were visible on gross inspection in 11 out of 17 collected samples. IHS was positive for CNP antigen in 8 of these 11 visually positive samples, but in only 1 of the remaining 6 samples. SEM revealed spherical apatite formations in 14 samples, all of which had calcium and phosphate peaks detected by EDS analysis. From this study, there was some evidence of a link between the presence of Randall's plaques and the detection of CNP, also referred to as nanobacteria. Although causality was not demonstrated, these results suggest that further studies with negative control samples should be made to explore the etiology of Randall's plaque formation, thus leading to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of stone formation.

  3. Association between Randall's Plaque and Calcifying Nanoparticles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciftcioglu, Neva; Vejdani, Kaveh; Lee, Olivia; Mathew, Grace; Aho, Katja M.; Kajander, Olavi; McKay, David S.; Jones, Jeff A.; Hayat, Matthew; Stoller, Marshall L.

    2007-01-01

    Randall's plaques, first described by Alexander Randall in the 1930s, are small subepithelial calcifications in the renal papillae (RP) that also extend deeply into the renal medulla. Despite the strong correlation between the presence of these plaques and the formation of renal stones, the precise origin and pathogenesis of Randall s plaque formation remain elusive. The discovery of calcifying nanoparticles (CNP) and their detection in many calcifying processes of human tissues has raised hypotheses about their possible involvement in renal stone formation. We collected RP and blood samples from 17 human patients who had undergone laparoscopic nephrectomy due to neoplasia. Homogenized RP tissues and serum samples were cultured for CNP. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis were performed on fixed RP samples. Immunohistochemical staining (IHS) was applied on the tissue samples using CNP-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb). Randall s plaques were visible on gross inspection in 11 out of 17 collected samples. Cultures of all serum samples and 13 tissue homogenates had CNP growth within 4 weeks. SEM revealed spherical apatite formations in 14 samples, with calcium and phosphate peaks detected by EDS analysis. IHS was positive in 9 out of 17 samples. A strong link was found between the presence of Randall s plaques and the detection of CNP, also referred to as nanobacteria. These results suggest new insights into the etiology of Randall's plaque formation, and will help us understand the pathogenesis of stone formation. Further studies on this topic may lead us to new approaches on early diagnosis and novel medical therapies of kidney stone formation.

  4. The pathology of parietal pleural plaques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Hefin Roberts

    1971-01-01

    The incidence, morbid anatomy, histology, and relationship of hyaline pleural plaques to exposure to asbestos has been studied.Plaques were found in 12·3% of 334 hospital necropsies (in an urban population in Glasgow, 41 cases). In 85·3% (35 cases) asbestos bodies were found in the lungs. There is evidence of a dose-response relationship between the number of asbestos bodies found in

  5. Localized pleural plaques and lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Partanen, T.; Nurminen, M.; Zitting, A.; Koskinen, H.; Wiikeri, M.; Ahlman, K. (Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki (Finland))

    1992-01-01

    In a mass chest radiography survey conducted in 1971 for 7,986 residents of three Finnish communities, 604 subjects (7.6%) with pleural plaques but not other asbestos-related radiographic signs were identified. The same number of referents, each individually matched to each plaque carrier on sex, birth year, and community, was selected from among persons in the same source population with no pleural plaques. The two groups were followed for investigation of incidence of lung cancer during 1972-1989. Twenty-eight of those with plaques and 25 referents contracted lung cancer (crude conditional RR = 1.1; CL95 = 0.7, 1.9). The application of the proportional hazards model, with adjustment for sex, age, and residence, resulted in a hazard ratio of 1.1 (CL = 0.6, 1.8). The risk ratio estimate may be biased; hence, the result is inconclusive in regard to the predictive assessment of lung cancer risk among carriers of pleural plaques.

  6. Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis with calcified pleural plaques

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Balbir; Sabharwal, Raghu; Singh, Mandeep; Singh, Amarjeet

    2010-01-01

    Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) is a rare disease. Herein we report a case of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis who was suspected to have the disease on chest X-ray and was confirmed on high resolution CT and transbronchial lung biopsy. These investigations showed characteristic features of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis with diffuse interstitial pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:21139727

  7. Lung asbestos bodies and pleural plaques at autopsy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alberto Andrion; Alessandro Colombo; Franco Mollo

    1982-01-01

    Summary  Examination for lung asbestos bodies and pleural plaques was made in 996 consecutive unselected autopsies in Torino. The prevalence\\u000a of asbestos bodies was 12.4% and that of pleural plaques 19.1%. Both findings were found with significantly greater frequency\\u000a in men, and in the age group above 50 years. In addition, their occurrence increased with age up to 70 years, then

  8. A rotational ablation tool for calcified atherosclerotic plaque removal.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Hyeng; Kim, Hyung-Jung; Kim, Nicholas N; Yoon, Hae-Sung; Ahn, Sung-Hoon

    2011-12-01

    Atherosclerosis is a major cardiovascular disease involving accumulations of lipids, white blood cells, and other materials on the inside of artery walls. Since the calcification found in the advanced stage of atherosclerosis dramatically enhances the mechanical properties of the plaque, restoring the original lumen of the artery remains a challenge. High-speed rotational atherectomy, when performed with an ablating grinder to remove the plaque, produces much better results in the treatment of calcified plaque compared to other methods. However, the high-speed rotation of the Rotablator commercial rotational atherectomy device produces microcavitation, which should be avoided because of the serious complications it can cause. This research involves the development of a high-speed rotational ablation tool that does not generate microcavitation. It relies on surface modification to achieve the required surface roughness. The surface roughness of the tool for differential cutting was designed based on lubrication theory, and the surface of the tool was modified using Nd:YAG laser beam engraving. Electron microscope images and profiles indicated that the engraved surface of the tool had approximately 1 ?m of root mean square surface roughness. The ablation experiment was performed on hydroxyapatite/polylactide composite with an elastic modulus similar to that of calcified plaque. In addition, differential cutting was verified on silicone rubber with an elastic modulus similar to that of a normal artery. The tool performance and reliability were evaluated by measuring the ablation force exerted, the size of the debris generated during ablation, and through visual inspection of the silicone rubber surface. PMID:21792606

  9. Elemental analysis of soft plaque and calcified plaque deposits from human coronary arteries and aorta.

    PubMed

    Murungi, J I; Thiam, S; Tracy, R E; Robinson, J W; Warner, I M

    2004-01-01

    Twenty-five samples of soft plaque and calcified plaque deposits from human hearts or aorta were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The determined elements were Ca, P, Na, K, Mg, Zn, Cu, Ba, Pb, Fe, Al, Si, and S. Results showed that the concentration of all elements in the soft plaque was at the micromolar level. In the calcified deposits, the concentrations of Ca and P were at least an order of magnitude higher than the soft plaque, but the other elements were at the same order of magnitude. In the calcified plaque the molar ratios of Ca/P suggested that a significant portion existed as hydroxyapatite Ca10(PO4)6(OH)3. However, their absolute concentrations indicated that this compound was not a major component of the plaque although it may play a major role in determining the crystal structure of the deposit. In some samples the Ca/P ratio was too high to conform to hydroxyapatite. In others it was too low. This indicated that both the calcium and phosphorus existed in other chemical forms which varied from sample to sample. In the soft tissue the P level was high indicating it existed primarily in chemical forms other than hydroxyapatite. The presence of homocysteine is often associated with heart disease. However, the low levels of sulfur indicate that although it may be present, it is not a major component of the plaque, but may nevertheless play an important role in its formation. PMID:15244331

  10. Automated Detection Framework of the Calcified Plaque with Acoustic Shadowing in IVUS Images

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin; Huang, Wenhua; Zhang, Heye; Tan, Ning; Hau, William Kongto; Zhang, Yuan-Ting; Liu, Huafeng

    2014-01-01

    Intravascular Ultrasound (IVUS) is one ultrasonic imaging technology to acquire vascular cross-sectional images for the visualization of the inner vessel structure. This technique has been widely used for the diagnosis and treatment of coronary artery diseases. The detection of the calcified plaque with acoustic shadowing in IVUS images plays a vital role in the quantitative analysis of atheromatous plaques. The conventional method of the calcium detection is manual drawing by the doctors. However, it is very time-consuming, and with high inter-observer and intra-observer variability between different doctors. Therefore, the computer-aided detection of the calcified plaque is highly desired. In this paper, an automated method is proposed to detect the calcified plaque with acoustic shadowing in IVUS images by the Rayleigh mixture model, the Markov random field, the graph searching method and the prior knowledge about the calcified plaque. The performance of our method was evaluated over 996 in-vivo IVUS images acquired from eight patients, and the detected calcified plaques are compared with manually detected calcified plaques by one cardiology doctor. The experimental results are quantitatively analyzed separately by three evaluation methods, the test of the sensitivity and specificity, the linear regression and the Bland-Altman analysis. The first method is used to evaluate the ability to distinguish between IVUS images with and without the calcified plaque, and the latter two methods can respectively measure the correlation and the agreement between our results and manual drawing results for locating the calcified plaque in the IVUS image. High sensitivity (94.68%) and specificity (95.82%), good correlation and agreement (>96.82% results fall within the 95% confidence interval in the Student t-test) demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in the detection of the calcified plaque with acoustic shadowing in IVUS images. PMID:25372784

  11. Improving visualization of intracranial arteries at the skull base for CT angiography with calcified plaques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Adam; Lee, Chung-Wei; Yang, Chung-Yi; Liu, Hon-Man

    2010-03-01

    Bony structures at the skull base were the main obstacle to detection and estimation of arterial stenoses and aneurysms for CT angiography in the brain. Direct subtraction and the matched mask bone elimination (MMBE) have become two standard methods for removing bony structures. However, clinicians regularly find that calcified plaques at or near the carotid canal cannot be removed satisfactorily by existing methods. The blood-plaque boundary tends to be blurred by subtraction operation while plaque size is constantly overestimated by the bone mask dilation operation in the MMBE approach. In this study, we propose using the level of enhancement to adjust the MMBE bone mask more intelligently on the artery- and tissue-bone/plaque boundaries. The original MMBE method is only applied to the tissue-bone boundary voxels; while the artery-bone/blood-plaque boundary voxels, identified by a higher enhancement level, are processed by direct subtraction instead. A dataset of 6 patients (3 scanned with a regular dose and 3 scanned with a reduced dose) with calcified plaques at or near the skull base is used to examine our new method. Preliminary results indicate that the visualization of intracranial arteries with calcified plaques at the skull base can be improved effectively and efficiently.

  12. Feature-based characterization of motion-contaminated calcified plaques in cardiac multidetector CT

    SciTech Connect

    King, Martin; Giger, Maryellen L.; Suzuki, Kenji; Pan, Xiaochuan [Department of Radiology, Committee on Medical Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

    2007-12-15

    In coronary calcium scoring, motion artifacts affecting calcified plaques are commonly characterized using descriptive terms, which incorporate an element of subjectivity in their interpretations. Quantitative indices may improve the objective characterization of these motion artifacts. In this paper, an automated method for generating 12 quantitative indices, i.e., features that characterize the motion artifacts affecting calcified plaques, is presented. This method consists of using the rapid phase-correlated region-of-interest (ROI) tracking algorithm for reconstructing ROI images of calcified plaques automatically from the projection data obtained during a cardiac scan, and applying methods for extracting features from these images. The 12 features include two dynamic, six morphological, and four intensity-based features. The two dynamic features are three-dimensional (3D) velocity and 3D acceleration. The six morphological features include edge-based volume, threshold-based volume, sphericity, irregularity, average margin gradient, and variance of margin gradient. The four intensity-based features are maximum intensity, mean intensity, minimum intensity, and standard deviation of intensity. The 12 features were extracted from 54 reconstructed sets of simulated four-dimensional images from the dynamic NCAT phantom involving six calcified plaques under nine heart rate/multi-sector gating combinations. In order to determine how well the 12 features correlated with a plaque motion index, which was derived from the trajectory of the plaque, partial correlation coefficients adjusted for heart rate, number of gated sectors, and mean feature values of the six plaques were calculated for all 12 features. Features exhibiting stronger correlations (|r| set-membership sign [0.60,1.00]) with the motion index were 3D velocity, maximum intensity, and standard deviation of intensity. Features demonstrating stronger correlations (|r| set-membership sign [0.60,1.00]) with other features mostly involved intensity-based features. Edge-based volume/irregularity and average margin gradient/variance of margin gradient were the only two feature pairs out of 12 with stronger correlations that did not involve intensity-based features. Automatically extracted features of the motion artifacts affecting calcified plaques in cardiac computed tomography images potentially can be used to develop models for predicting image assessability with respect to motion artifacts.

  13. Computerized assessment of motion-contaminated calcified plaques in cardiac multidetector CT

    SciTech Connect

    King, Martin; Giger, Maryellen L.; Suzuki, Kenji; Bardo, Dianna M. E.; Greenberg, Brent; Lan Li; Pan Xiaochuan [Department of Radiology, Committee on Medical Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

    2007-12-15

    An automated method for evaluating the image quality of calcified plaques with respect to motion artifacts in noncontrast-enhanced cardiac computed tomography (CT) images is introduced. This method involves using linear regression (LR) and artificial neural network (ANN) regression models for predicting two patient-specific, region-of-interest-specific, reconstruction-specific and temporal phase-specific image quality indices. The first is a plaque motion index, which is derived from the actual trajectory of the calcified plaque and is represented on a continuous scale. The second is an assessability index, which reflects the degree to which a calcified plaque is affected by motion artifacts, and is represented on an ordinal five-point scale. Two sets of assessability indices were provided independently by two radiologists experienced in evaluating cardiac CT images. Inputs for the regression models were selected from 12 features characterizing the dynamic, morphological, and intensity-based properties of the calcified plaques. Whereas LR-velocity (LR-V) used only a single feature (three-dimensional velocity), the LR-multiple (LR-M) and ANN regression models used the same subset of these 12 features selected through stepwise regression. The regression models were parameterized and evaluated using a database of simulated calcified plaque images from the dynamic NCAT phantom involving nine heart rate/multi-sector gating combinations and 40 cardiac phases covering two cardiac cycles. Six calcified plaques were used for the plaque motion indices and three calcified plaques were used for both sets of assessability indices. In one configuration, images from the second cardiac cycle were used for feature selection and regression model parameterization, whereas images from the first cardiac cycle were used for testing. With this configuration, repeated measures concordance correlation coefficients (CCCs) and associated 95% confidence intervals for the LR-V, LR-M, and ANN were 0.817 [0.785, 0.848], 0.894 [0.869, 0.916], and 0.917 [0.892, 0.936] for the plaque motion indices. For the two sets of assessability indices, CCC values for the ANN model were 0.843 [0.791, 0.877] and 0.793 [0.747, 0.828]. These two CCC values were statistically greater than the CCC value of 0.689 [0.648, 0.727], which was obtained by comparing the two sets of assessability indices with each other. These preliminary results suggest that the variabilities of assessability indices provided by regression models can lie within the variabilities of the indices assigned by independent observers. Thus, the potential exists for using regression models and assessability indices for determining optimal phases for cardiac CT image interpretation.

  14. Spectrometric analysis and scanning electronic microscopy of two pleural plaques from mediaeval Portuguese period.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, T; Granja, R; Thillaud, P L

    2014-01-01

    During an archaeological excavation at a mediaeval monastery (Flor da Rosa, Crato, Portugal), a skeleton of a adult woman was found with two calcifications in the thoracic cage. The location and the macroscopic analysis of the calcifications allowed them to be assigned as pleural plaques. Spectrometric analysis and scanning electronic microscopy enabled to establish that it originated with an infectious process. These results associated with the lesions found in the ribs and vertebrae strongly suggest tuberculosis as the cause of these pleural plaques. PMID:24957681

  15. Site-specific intravascular ultrasound analysis of remodelling index and calcified necrosis patterns reveals novel blueprints for coronary plaque instability

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Billal; Stables, Rodney H.; Perry, Raphael A.; Palmer, Nicholas D.

    2014-01-01

    Aims Post-mortem pathological studies have shown that a “vulnerable” plaque is the dominant patho-physiological mechanism responsible for acute coronary syndromes (ACS). One way to improve our understanding of these plaques in vivo is by using histological “surrogates” created by intravascular ultrasound derived virtual histology (IVUS-VH). Our aim in this analysis was to determine the relationship between site-specific differences in individual plaque areas between ACS plaques and stable plaques (SP), with a focus on remodelling index and the pattern of calcifying necrosis. Methods and results IVUS-VH was performed before percutaneous intervention in both ACS culprit plaques (CP) n=70 and stable disease (SP) n=35. A total of 210 plaque sites were examined in 105 lesions at the minimum lumen area (MLA) and the maximum necrotic core site (MAX NC). Each plaque site had multiple measurements made including some novel calculations to ascertain the plaque calcification equipoise (PCE) and the calcified interface area (CIA). CP has greater amounts of positive remodelling at the MLA (RI@MLA): 1.1 (±0.17) vs. 0.95 (±0.14) (P<0.001); lower values for PCE 30% vs. 54% (P<0.001) but a higher CIA 5.38 (±2.72) vs. 3.58 (±2.26) (P=0.001). These features can provide discriminatory ability between plaque types with area under the curve (AUC) measurements between 0.65-0.86. The cut-off values with greatest sensitivity and specificity to discriminate CP morphologies were: RI @ MLA >1.12; RI @ MAX NC >1.22; PCE @ MLA <47.1%; PCE @MAX NC <47.3%; CIA @ MLA >2.6; CIA @ MAX NC >3.1. Conclusions Determining the stage of calcifying necrosis, along with the remodelling index can discriminate between stable and ACS related plaques. These findings could be applied in the future to help detect plaques that have a vulnerable phenotype. PMID:25276614

  16. Computerized assessment of coronary calcified plaques in CT images of a dynamic cardiac phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodgers, Zachary B.; King, Martin; Giger, Maryellen L.; Vannier, Michael; Bardo, Dianna M. E.; Suzuki, Kenji; Lan, Li

    2008-03-01

    Motion artifacts in cardiac CT are an obstacle to obtaining diagnostically usable images. Although phase-specific reconstruction can produce images with improved assessability (image quality), this requires that the radiologist spend time and effort evaluating multiple image sets from reconstructions at different phases. In this study, ordinal logistic regression (OLR) and artificial neural network (ANN) models were used to automatically assign assessability to images of coronary calcified plaques obtained using a physical, dynamic cardiac phantom. 350 plaque images of 7 plaques from five data sets (heart rates 60, 60, 70, 80, 90) and ten phases of reconstruction were obtained using standard cardiac CT scanning parameters on a Phillips Brilliance 64-channel clinical CT scanner. Six features of the plaques (velocity, acceleration, edge-based volume, threshold-based volume, sphericity, and standard deviation of intensity) as well as mean feature values and heart rate were used for training the OLR and ANN in a round-robin re-sampling scheme based on training and testing groups with independent plaques. For each image, an ordinal assessability index rating on a 1-5 scale was assigned by a cardiac radiologist (D.B.) for use as a "truth" in training the OLR and ANN. The mean difference between the assessability index truth and model-predicted assessability index values was +0.111 with SD=0.942 for the OLR and +0.143 with SD=0.916 for the ANN. Comparing images from the repeat 60 bpm scans gave concordance correlation coefficients (CCCs) of 0.794 [0.743, 0.837] (value, 95% CI) for the radiologist assigned values, 0.894 [0.856, 0.922] for the OLR, and 0.861 [0.818, 0.895] for the ANN. Thus, the variability of the OLR and ANN assessability index values appear to lie within the variability of the radiologist assigned values.

  17. In Vivo Diagnosis of Plaque Erosion and Calcified Nodule in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome by Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Haibo; Abtahian, Farhad; Aguirre, Aaron D; Lee, Stephen; Chia, Stanley; Lowe, Harry; Kato, Koji; Yonetsu, Taishi; Vergallo, Rocco; Hu, Sining; Tian, Jinwei; Lee, Hang; Park, Seung-Jung; Jang, Yang-Soo; Raffel, Owen C.; Mizuno, Kyoichi; Uemura, Shiro; Itoh, Tomonori; Kakuta, Tsunekazu; Choi, So-Yeon; Dauerman, Harold L.; Prasad, Abhiram; Toma, Catalin; McNulty, Iris; Zhang, Shaosong; Yu, Bo; Fuster, Valentine; Narula, Jagat; Virmani, Renu; Jang, Ik-Kyung

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To characterize the morphological features of plaque erosion and calcified nodule in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) by optical coherence tomography (OCT). Background Plaque erosion and calcified nodule have not been systematically investigated in vivo. Methods One hundred and twenty-six patients with ACS who had undergone pre-intervention OCT imaging were included. The culprit lesions were classified as plaque rupture (PR), erosion (OCT-erosion), calcified nodule (OCT-CN), or others using a new set of diagnostic criteria for OCT. Results The incidences of PR, OCT-erosion, and OCT-CN were 43.7%, 31.0%, and 7.9%, respectively. Patients with OCT-erosion were the youngest compared with those with PR and OCT-CN (53.8±13.1 years vs. 60.6±11.5 years, 65.1±5.0 years, p=0.005). Compared with patients with PR, presentation with non-ST-segment elevation ACS (NSTE-ACS) was more common in patients with OCT-erosion (61.5% vs. 29.1%, p=0.008) and OCT-CN (100% vs. 29.1%, p<0.001). OCT-erosion had a lower frequency of lipid plaque (43.6% vs. 100%, p<0.001), thicker fibrous cap (169.3±99.1 ?m vs. 60.4±16.6 ?m, p<0.001), and smaller lipid arc (202.8±73.6° vs. 275.8±60.4°, p<0.001) than PR. The diameter stenosis was least severe in OCT-erosion followed by OCT-CN and PR (55.4±14.7% vs. 66.1±13.5% vs. 68.8±12.9%, p<0.001). Conclusions OCT is a promising modality for identifying OCT-erosion and OCT-CN in vivo. OCT-erosion is a frequent finding in patients with ACS, especially in those with NSTE-ACS and younger patients. OCT-CN is the least common etiology for ACS and is more common in older patients. PMID:23810884

  18. Functional Properties of CD8+ Lymphocytes in Patients with Pleural Plaque and Malignant Mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Kumagai-Takei, Naoko; Nishimura, Yasumitsu; Maeda, Megumi; Hayashi, Hiroaki; Matsuzaki, Hidenori; Lee, Suni; Kishimoto, Takumi; Fukuoka, Kazuya; Nakano, Takashi; Otsuki, Takemi

    2014-01-01

    It is known that asbestos exposure can cause malignant mesothelioma (MM) and that CD8+ T cells play a critical role in antitumor immunity. We examined the properties of peripheral blood CD8+ lymphocytes from asbestos-exposed patients with pleural plaque (PL) and MM. The percentage of CD3+CD8+ cells in PBMCs did not differ among the three groups, although the total numbers of PBMCs of the PL and MM groups were lower than those of the healthy volunteers (HV). The percentage of IFN-?+ and CD107a+ cells in PMA/ionomycin-stimulated CD8+ lymphocytes did not differ among the three groups. Percentages of perforin+ cells and CD45RA? cells in fresh CD8+ lymphocytes of PL and MM groups were higher than those of HV. Percentages of granzyme B+ and perforin+ cells in PMA/ionomycin-stimulated CD8+ lymphocytes were higher in PL group compared with HV. The MM group showed a decrease of perforin level in CD8+ lymphocytes after stimulation compared with patients with PL. These results indicate that MM patients have characteristics of impairment in stimulation-induced cytotoxicity of peripheral blood CD8+ lymphocytes and that PL and MM patients have a common character of functional alteration in those lymphocytes, namely, an increase in memory cells, possibly related to exposure to asbestos. PMID:25045719

  19. Non-calcified coronary atherosclerotic plaque characterization by dual energy computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Yamak, Didem; Panse, Prasad; Pavlicek, William; Boltz, Thomas; Akay, Metin

    2014-05-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the most prevalent cause of death worldwide. Atherosclerosis which is the condition of plaque buildup on the inside of the coronary artery wall is the main cause of CHD. Rupture of unstable atherosclerotic coronary plaque is known to be the cause of acute coronary syndrome. Vulnerability of atherosclerotic plaque has been related to a large lipid core covered by a fibrous cap. Non-invasive assessment of plaque characterization is necessary due to prognostic importance of early stage identification. The purpose of this study is to use the additional attenuation data provided by dual energy computed tomography (DECT) for plaque characterization. We propose to train supervised learners on pixel values recorded from DECT monochromatic X-ray and material basis pairs images, for more precise classification of fibrous and lipid plaques. The interaction of the pixel values from different image types is taken into consideration, as single pixel value might not be informative enough to separate fibrous from lipid. Organic phantom plaques scanned in a fabricated beating heart phantom were used as ground truth to train the learners. Our results show that support vector machines, artificial neural networks and random forests provide accurate results both on phantom and patient data. PMID:24808227

  20. Correction of lumen contrast-enhancement influence on non-calcified coronary atherosclerotic plaque quantification on CT.

    PubMed

    Kristanto, Wisnumurti; Tuncay, Volkan; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; van Ooijen, Peter M A; Oudkerk, Matthijs

    2015-02-01

    Lumen contrast-enhancement influences non-calcified atherosclerotic plaque Hounsfield-unit (HU) values in computed tomography (CT). This study aimed to construct and validate an algorithm to correct for this influence. Three coronary vessel phantoms with 1, 2, and 4 mm circular hollow lumina; with normal and plaque-infested walls were scanned simultaneously in oil using a dual-source CT scanner. Scanning was repeated as the lumina were alternately filled with water and four contrast solutions (100-400 HU, at 100 HU intervals). Images were reconstructed at 0.4 mm x-y pixel size. Pixel-by-pixel comparisons of contrast-enhanced and non-contrast-enhanced images confirmed exponential declining patterns in lumen contrast-enhancement influence on wall HU-values from the lumen border (y = Ae(-?x) + c). The median difference of the inside and outside 2-pixel radius part of the contrast-enhanced coronary phantom wall to the reference (non-contrast-enhanced images) was 45 and 2 HU, respectively. Based on the lumen contrast-enhancement influence patterns, a generalized correction algorithm was formulated. Application of the generalized correction algorithm to the inside 2-pixel radius part of the wall reduced the median difference to the reference to 4 HU. In conclusion, lumen contrast-enhancement influence on the vessel wall can be defined by an exponential approximation, allowing correction of the CT density of the vessel wall closest to the lumen. With this correction, a more accurate determination of vessel wall composition can be made. PMID:25326412

  1. Contrast-enhanced MR imaging of atherosclerosis using citrate-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: calcifying microvesicles as imaging target for plaque characterization

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Susanne; Schnorr, Jörg; Ludwig, Antje; Stangl, Verena; Ebert, Monika; Hamm, Bernd; Taupitz, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the suitability of citrate-coated very small superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (VSOP) as a contrast agent for identifying inflammation in atherosclerotic lesions using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods and results VSOP, which have already been evaluated as a blood pool contrast agent for MR angiography in human clinical trials, were investigated in Watanabe heritable hyper-lipidemic rabbits to determine to what extent their accumulation in atherosclerotic lesions is a function of macrophage density and other characteristics of progressive atherosclerotic plaques. In advanced atherosclerotic lesions, a significant MRI signal loss was found within 1 hour after intravenous administration of VSOP at the intended clinical dose of 0.05 mmol Fe/kg. Histological examinations confirmed correlations between the loss of MRI signal in the vessel wall and the presence of Prussian blue-stained iron colocalized with macrophages in the plaque cap, but surprisingly also with calcifying microvesicles at the intimomedial interface. Critical electrolyte magnesium chloride concentration in combination with Alcian blue stain indicates that highly sulfated glycosaminoglycans are a major constituent of these calcifying microvesicles, which may serve as the key molecules for binding VSOP due to their highly complexing properties. Conclusion Calcifying microvesicles and macrophages are the targets for intravenously injected VSOP in atherosclerotic plaques, suggesting that VSOP-enhanced MRI may render clinically relevant information on the composition and inflammatory activity of progressive atherosclerotic lesions at risk of destabilization. PMID:23450179

  2. Sequencing ancient calcified dental plaque shows changes in oral microbiota with dietary shifts of the Neolithic and Industrial revolutions.

    PubMed

    Adler, Christina J; Dobney, Keith; Weyrich, Laura S; Kaidonis, John; Walker, Alan W; Haak, Wolfgang; Bradshaw, Corey J A; Townsend, Grant; So?tysiak, Arkadiusz; Alt, Kurt W; Parkhill, Julian; Cooper, Alan

    2013-04-01

    The importance of commensal microbes for human health is increasingly recognized, yet the impacts of evolutionary changes in human diet and culture on commensal microbiota remain almost unknown. Two of the greatest dietary shifts in human evolution involved the adoption of carbohydrate-rich Neolithic (farming) diets (beginning ?10,000 years before the present) and the more recent advent of industrially processed flour and sugar (in ?1850). Here, we show that calcified dental plaque (dental calculus) on ancient teeth preserves a detailed genetic record throughout this period. Data from 34 early European skeletons indicate that the transition from hunter-gatherer to farming shifted the oral microbial community to a disease-associated configuration. The composition of oral microbiota remained unexpectedly constant between Neolithic and medieval times, after which (the now ubiquitous) cariogenic bacteria became dominant, apparently during the Industrial Revolution. Modern oral microbiotic ecosystems are markedly less diverse than historic populations, which might be contributing to chronic oral (and other) disease in postindustrial lifestyles. PMID:23416520

  3. Computerized method for evaluating diagnostic image quality of calcified plaque images in cardiac CT: Validation on a physical dynamic cardiac phantom

    PubMed Central

    King, Martin; Rodgers, Zachary; Giger, Maryellen L.; Bardo, Dianna M. E.; Patel, Amit R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In cardiac computed tomography (CT), important clinical indices, such as the coronary calcium score and the percentage of coronary artery stenosis, are often adversely affected by motion artifacts. As a result, the expert observer must decide whether or not to use these indices during image interpretation. Computerized methods potentially can be used to assist in these decisions. In a previous study, an artificial neural network (ANN) regression model provided assessability (image quality) indices of calcified plaque images from the software NCAT phantom that were highly agreeable with those provided by expert observers. The method predicted assessability indices based on computer-extracted features of the plaque. In the current study, the ANN-predicted assessability indices were used to identify calcified plaque images with diagnostic calcium scores (based on mass) from a physical dynamic cardiac phantom. The basic assumption was that better quality images were associated with more accurate calcium scores. Methods: A 64-channel CT scanner was used to obtain 500 calcified plaque images from a physical dynamic cardiac phantom at different heart rates, cardiac phases, and plaque locations. Two expert observers independently provided separate sets of assessability indices for each of these images. Separate sets of ANN-predicted assessability indices tailored to each observer were then generated within the framework of a bootstrap resampling scheme. For each resampling iteration, the absolute calcium score error between the calcium scores of the motion-contaminated plaque image and its corresponding stationary image served as the ground truth in terms of indicating images with diagnostic calcium scores. The performances of the ANN-predicted and observer-assigned indices in identifying images with diagnostic calcium scores were then evaluated using ROC analysis. Results: Assessability indices provided by the first observer and the corresponding ANN performed similarly (AUCOBS1=0.80 [0.73,0.86] vs AUCANN1=0.88 [0.82,0.92]) as that of the second observer and the corresponding ANN (AUCOBS2=0.87 [0.83,0.91] vs AUCANN2=0.90 [0.85,0.94]). Moreover, the ANN-predicted indices were generated in a fraction of the time required to obtain the observer-assigned indices. Conclusions: ANN-predicted assessability indices performed similar to observer-assigned assessability indices in identifying images with diagnostic calcium scores from the physical dynamic cardiac phantom. The results of this study demonstrate the potential of using computerized methods for identifying images with diagnostic clinical indices in cardiac CT images. PMID:21158289

  4. Computerized method for evaluating diagnostic image quality of calcified plaque images in cardiac CT: Validation on a physical dynamic cardiac phantom

    SciTech Connect

    King, Martin; Rodgers, Zachary; Giger, Maryellen L.; Bardo, Dianna M. E.; Patel, Amit R. [Department of Radiology, Committee on Medical Physics, University of Chicago, 5841 South Maryland Avenue, MC 2026, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Oregon Health and Science University, 3181 Southwest Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, Oregon 97239 (United States); Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, 5841 South Maryland Avenue, MC 5084, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: In cardiac computed tomography (CT), important clinical indices, such as the coronary calcium score and the percentage of coronary artery stenosis, are often adversely affected by motion artifacts. As a result, the expert observer must decide whether or not to use these indices during image interpretation. Computerized methods potentially can be used to assist in these decisions. In a previous study, an artificial neural network (ANN) regression model provided assessability (image quality) indices of calcified plaque images from the software NCAT phantom that were highly agreeable with those provided by expert observers. The method predicted assessability indices based on computer-extracted features of the plaque. In the current study, the ANN-predicted assessability indices were used to identify calcified plaque images with diagnostic calcium scores (based on mass) from a physical dynamic cardiac phantom. The basic assumption was that better quality images were associated with more accurate calcium scores. Methods: A 64-channel CT scanner was used to obtain 500 calcified plaque images from a physical dynamic cardiac phantom at different heart rates, cardiac phases, and plaque locations. Two expert observers independently provided separate sets of assessability indices for each of these images. Separate sets of ANN-predicted assessability indices tailored to each observer were then generated within the framework of a bootstrap resampling scheme. For each resampling iteration, the absolute calcium score error between the calcium scores of the motion-contaminated plaque image and its corresponding stationary image served as the ground truth in terms of indicating images with diagnostic calcium scores. The performances of the ANN-predicted and observer-assigned indices in identifying images with diagnostic calcium scores were then evaluated using ROC analysis. Results: Assessability indices provided by the first observer and the corresponding ANN performed similarly (AUC{sub OBS1}=0.80 [0.73,0.86] vs AUC{sub ANN1}=0.88 [0.82,0.92]) as that of the second observer and the corresponding ANN (AUC{sub OBS2}=0.87 [0.83,0.91] vs AUC{sub ANN2}=0.90 [0.85,0.94]). Moreover, the ANN-predicted indices were generated in a fraction of the time required to obtain the observer-assigned indices. Conclusions: ANN-predicted assessability indices performed similar to observer-assigned assessability indices in identifying images with diagnostic calcium scores from the physical dynamic cardiac phantom. The results of this study demonstrate the potential of using computerized methods for identifying images with diagnostic clinical indices in cardiac CT images.

  5. North American Erionite-Associated Mesothelioma with Pleural Plaques and Pulmonary Fibrosis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kliment, Corrine R.; Clemens, Kristen; Oury, Tim D.

    2009-01-01

    Erionite, a fibrous zeolite mineral, has been categorized as a class I carcinogenic agent for its causative role in mesothelioma. In select villages in Turkey, erionite is the cause of more than 50% of mesotheliomas. In contrast, in the United States mesotheliomas are frequently associated with asbestos exposure. We describe the first reported case of a patient with erionite-associated pleural mesothelioma with classic pathologic changes typical of asbestos-related pulmonary and pleural pathology. This case report indicates that in addition to Turkey, erionite-associated disease can occur in North America and that subjects with erionite exposure are not only at risk of developing mesothelioma, but may develop interstitial fibrosis and additional pulmonary pathology impacting lung function and patient survival. PMID:19158938

  6. Influence of trigger type, tube voltage and heart rate on calcified plaque imaging in dual source cardiac computed tomography: phantom study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To investigate the impact of high pitch cardiac CT vs. retrospective ECG gated CT on the quantification of calcified vessel stenoses, with assessment of the influence of tube voltage, reconstruction kernel and heart rate. Methods A 4D cardiac movement phantom equipped with three different plaque phantoms (12.5%, 25% and 50% stenosis at different calcification levels), was scanned with a 128-row dual source CT scanner, applying different trigger types (gated vs. prospectively triggered high pitch), tube voltages (100-120 kV) and heart rates (50–90 beats per minute, bpm). Images were reconstructed using different standard (B26f, B46f, B70f) and iterative (I26f, I70f) convolution kernels. Absolute and relative plaque sizes were measured and statistically compared. Radiation dose associated with the different methods (gated vs. high pitch, 100 kV vs. 120 kV) were compared. Results Compared to the known diameters of the phantom plaques and vessels both CT-examination techniques overestimated the degrees of stenoses. Using the high pitch CT-protocol plaques appeared larger (0.09?±?0.31 mm, 2?±?8 percent points, PP) in comparison to the ECG-gated CT-scans. Reducing tube voltage had a similar effect, resulting in higher grading of the same stenoses by 3?±?8 PP. In turn, sharper convolution kernels lead to a lower grading of stenoses (differences of up to 5%). Pairwise comparison of B26f and I26f, B46f and B70f, and B70f and I70f showed differences of 0–1?±?6–8 PP of the plaque depiction. Motion artifacts were present only at 90 bpm high pitch experiments. High-pitch protocols were associated with significantly lower radiation doses compared with the ECG-gated protocols (258.0 mGy vs. 2829.8 mGy CTDIvol, p???0.0001). Conclusion Prospectively triggered high-pitch cardiac CT led to an overestimation of plaque diameter and degree of stenoses in a coronary phantom. This overestimation is only slight and probably negligible in a clinical situation. Even at higher heart rates high pitch CT-scanning allowed reliable measurements of plaque and vessel diameters with only slight differences compared ECG-gated protocols, although motion artifacts were present at 90 bpm using the high pitch protocols. PMID:25178653

  7. Human Carotid Plaque Calcification and Vulnerability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carl-Magnus Wahlgren; Wei Zheng; Wael Shaalan; Jun Tang; Hisham S. Bassiouny

    2009-01-01

    Background: Inflammation is a key mechanism in human atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability and disruption. The objective was to determine the differential gene expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory factors in the fibrous cap and shoulder region of noncalcified and calcified carotid endarterectomy plaques. Methods: Thirty carotid endarterectomy plaques were classified as type Va (noncalcified, n = 15) and type Vb (calcified, n

  8. Calcifying nanoparticles associated encrusted urinary bladder cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Jelic, Tomislav M; Roque, Rod; Yasar, Uzay; Tomchin, Shayna B; Serrato, Jose M; Deem, Samuel G; Tierney, James P; Chang, Ho-Huang

    2008-01-01

    Encrusted cystitis is a subtype of chronic cystitis characterized by multiple calcifications in the form of plaques located in the interstitium of the urinary bladder mucosa and frequently associated with mucosal ulcers. It is a very rare disease of controversial etiology. Our transmission electron microscopy of the calcified plaques of encrusted cystitis has revealed that the smallest formed particles (elementary units) of these calcifications are electron-dense shells surrounding an electron lucent core, diagnostic of calcifying nanoparticles (previously called nanobacteria). We pioneer the notion that calcifying nanoparticles are the causative agents of encrusted urinary bladder cystitis. PMID:18990947

  9. Pleural effusion

    MedlinePLUS

    Fluid in the chest; Fluid on the lung; Pleural fluid ... Your body produces pleural fluid in small amounts to lubricate the surfaces of the pleura. This is the thin tissue that lines the chest cavity ...

  10. Comparison of Frequency of Calcified Versus Non-Calcified Coronary Lesions by Computed Tomographic Angiography in Patients With Stable Versus Unstable Angina Pectoris

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthijs F. L. Meijs; W. Bob Meijboom; Michiel L. Bots; Stamatis Kyrzopoulos; Rick Neoh Eu; Mathias Prokop; Pieter A. Doevendans; Pim J. de Feyter; Maarten J. Cramer

    2009-01-01

    Computed tomographic coronary angiography (CTCA) can noninvasively identify calcified and noncalcified coronary plaques. The aim of this study was to compare the phenotypes of all plaques and of culprit plaques between patients with unstable angina pectoris (UAP) and those with stable angina pectoris (SAP), because plaque characteristics may differ between these patients. In 110 patients with UAP and 189 with

  11. Replacement of the heavily calcified ascending aorta in aortic valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Kazuhisa; Hisashi, Yosuke; Imoto, Yutaka

    2015-03-01

    A totally calcified ascending aorta prevents aortic crossclamping and aortotomy during aortic valve replacement, and replacement of the ascending aorta is a valid option in these cases. We describe a simple technique for calcified ascending aorta replacement using the Cavitron Ultrasonic Surgical Aspirator. This can be used in aortic endarterectomy for removal of the calcified plaque in the anastomotic part. PMID:24928643

  12. Pleural fluid culture

    MedlinePLUS

    Culture - pleural fluid ... is used to get a sample of pleural fluid. The sample is sent to a laboratory and ... around the lungs, called the pleural space. As fluid drains into a collection bottle, you may cough ...

  13. Detection, modeling and matching of pleural thickenings from CT data towards an early diagnosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaisaowong, Kraisorn; Kraus, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    Pleural thickenings can be caused by asbestos exposure and may evolve into malignant pleural mesothelioma. While an early diagnosis plays the key role to an early treatment, and therefore helping to reduce morbidity, the growth rate of a pleural thickening can be in turn essential evidence to an early diagnosis of the pleural mesothelioma. The detection of pleural thickenings is today done by a visual inspection of CT data, which is time-consuming and underlies the physician's subjective judgment. Computer-assisted diagnosis systems to automatically assess pleural mesothelioma have been reported worldwide. But in this paper, an image analysis pipeline to automatically detect pleural thickenings and measure their volume is described. We first delineate automatically the pleural contour in the CT images. An adaptive surface-base smoothing technique is then applied to the pleural contours to identify all potential thickenings. A following tissue-specific topology-oriented detection based on a probabilistic Hounsfield Unit model of pleural plaques specify then the genuine pleural thickenings among them. The assessment of the detected pleural thickenings is based on the volumetry of the 3D model, created by mesh construction algorithm followed by Laplace-Beltrami eigenfunction expansion surface smoothing technique. Finally, the spatiotemporal matching of pleural thickenings from consecutive CT data is carried out based on the semi-automatic lung registration towards the assessment of its growth rate. With these methods, a new computer-assisted diagnosis system is presented in order to assure a precise and reproducible assessment of pleural thickenings towards the diagnosis of the pleural mesothelioma in its early stage.

  14. The clinical relevance of asbestos-induced pleural fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, D.A. (Department of Internal Medicine, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, (United States))

    1991-12-31

    Asbestos-induced pleural fibrosis is the most common radiographic abnormality among asbestos-exposed persons. Circumscribed pleural plaques and diffuse pleural thickening account for more than 90% of the asbestos-induced chest wall abnormalities, and their prevalence is expected to increase for the next 15 to 20 years. Several investigators have recently found that pleural plaques and diffuse pleural thickening independently contribute to the development of restrictive lung function. The work presented in this paper indicates that asbestos-induced pleural fibrosis is also associated with evidence of interstitial lung abnormalities, even among those with normal parenchyma on chest X-ray film. These parenchymal abnormalities include an increased percentage of lymphocytes on bronchoalveolar lavage and an increase in the interstitial changes observed on high-resolution chest computerized tomography (HRCT) scan. However, neither a lymphocytic alveolitis nor an interstitial parenchymal fibrosis influenced the relationship between pleural fibrosis and restrictive lung function. We conclude that asbestos-induced pleural disease contributes to the development of restrictive lung function and identify a group of exposed individuals who are at excess risk of asbestosis.

  15. Detection of Hydroxyapatite in Calcified Cardiovascular Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae Sam; Morrisett, Joel D.; Tung, Ching-Hsuan

    2012-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study is to develop a method for selective detection of the calcific (hydroxyapatite) component in human aortic smooth muscle cells in vitro and in calcified cardiovascular tissues ex vivo. This method uses a novel optical molecular imaging contrast dye, Cy-HABP-19, to target calcified cells and tissues. Methods A peptide that mimics the binding affinity of osteocalcin was used to label hydroxyapatite in vitro and ex vivo. Morphological changes in vascular smooth muscle cells were evaluated at an early stage of the mineralization process induced by extrinsic stimuli, osteogenic factors and a magnetic suspension cell culture. Hydroxyapatite components were detected in monolayers of these cells in the presence of osteogenic factors and a magnetic suspension environment. Results Atherosclerotic plaque contains multiple components including lipidic, fibrotic, thrombotic, and calcific materials. Using optical imaging and the Cy-HABP-19 molecular imaging probe, we demonstrated that hydroxyapatite components could be selectively distinguished from various calcium salts in human aortic smooth muscle cells in vitro and in calcified cardiovascular tissues, carotid endarterectomy samples and aortic valves, ex vivo. Conclusion Hydroxyapatite deposits in cardiovascular tissues were selectively detected in the early stage of the calcification process using our Cy-HABP-19 probe. This new probe makes it possible to study the earliest events associated with vascular hydroxyapatite deposition at the cellular and molecular levels. This target-selective molecular imaging probe approach holds high potential for revealing early pathophysiological changes, leading to progression, regression, or stabilization of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:22877867

  16. Calcified right atrial mass

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, H. A.; Stovin, P. G. I.

    1972-01-01

    This is the report of a case of a grossly calcified right atrial mass in a woman of 40 who also suffered from systemic hypertension, pyelonephritis, and hepatic cirrhosis. The differential diagnosis, surgical treatment, and necropsy findings are described along with a review of the literature. Images PMID:5039455

  17. Coronary CT angiography in patients with high calcium score: evaluation of plaque characteristics and diagnostic accuracy.

    PubMed

    Park, Mi Jung; Jung, Jung Im; Choi, Yun-Seok; Ann, Soe Hee; Youn, Ho-Joong; Jeon, Gyeong Nyeo; Choi, Ho Cheol

    2011-12-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the plaque characteristics of coronary arteries related to significant stenosis with coronary CT angiography (CCTA) and to discuss the diagnostic accuracy of CCTA in patients with high calcium scores. After institutional review board approval, 110 patients (63 men; mean age: 67.1 ± 7.9 years) with Agatston scores >400 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients underwent Agatston calcium scoring and 64-slice CCTA, in addition to invasive coronary angiography (CAG). The composition (calcified, mixed, and non-calcified) and configuration (concentric, eccentric) of coronary artery plaques were analyzed on a per-segment basis by CCTA. We analyzed the differences in plaque composition and configuration between significant (? 50%) and non-significant (<50%) stenosis. Additionally, the diagnostic accuracy of stenosis according to plaque composition was evaluated by CCTA, using CAG as a reference method. Significant differences in plaque composition and configurations were observed between the two groups. In cases of significant stenosis, the proportions of concentric, mixed, and non-calcified plaques were significantly higher than those of eccentric and calcified plaques (P < 0.001). The sensitivity and positive predictive value of mixed (97.4, 87.6%) and non-calcified plaques (97.8, 95.7%) were significantly higher than those of calcified plaques (87.6, 67.2%). Although CCTA has limited value due to low diagnostic accuracy of calcified plaques, knowledge about the high frequencies of mixed and non-calcified plaques in significant stenosis help to make an accurate assessment of CAD with CCTA in patients with high calcium scores. PMID:22048849

  18. Automated coronary CT angiography plaque-lumen segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cline, Harvey E.; Krishnan, Karthik; Napel, Sandy; Rubin, Geoffrey D.; Turner, Wesley D.; Avila, Ricardo S.

    2009-02-01

    We are investigating the feasibility of a computer-aided detection (CAD) system to assist radiologists in diagnosing coronary artery disease in ECG gated cardiac multi-detector CT scans having calcified plaque. Coronary artery stenosis analysis is challenging if calcified plaque or the iodinated blood pool hides viable lumen. The research described herein provides an improved presentation to the radiologist by removing obscuring calcified plaque and blood pool. The algorithm derives a Gaussian estimate of the point spread function (PSF) of the scanner responsible for plaque blooming by fitting measured CTA image profiles. An initial estimate of the extent of calcified plaque is obtained from the image evidence using a simple threshold. The Gaussian PSF estimate is then convolved with the initial plaque estimate to obtain an estimate of the extent of the blooming artifact and this plaque blooming image is subtracted from the CT image to obtain an image largely free of obscuring plaque. In a separate step, the obscuring blood pool is suppressed using morphological operations and adaptive region growing. After processing by our algorithm, we are able to project the segmented plaque-free lumen to form synthetic angiograms free from obstruction. We can also analyze the coronary arteries with vessel tracking and centerline extraction to produce cross sectional images for measuring lumen stenosis. As an additional aid to radiologists, we also produce plots of calcified plaque and lumen cross-sectional area along selected blood vessels. The method was validated using digital phantoms and actual patient data, including in one case, a validation against the results of a catheter angiogram.

  19. Expression of NPP1 is regulated during atheromatous plaque calcification

    PubMed Central

    Nitschke, Yvonne; Hartmann, Simone; Torsello, Giovanni; Horstmann, Rüdiger; Seifarth, Harald; Weissen-Plenz, Gabriele; Rutsch, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Mutations of the ENPP1 gene encoding ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (NPP1) are associated with medial calcification in infancy. While the inhibitory role of matrix proteins such as osteopontin (OPN) with respect to atherosclerotic plaque calcification has been established, the role of NPP1 in plaque calcification is not known. We assessed the degree of plaque calcification (computed tomography), NPP1 and OPN localization (immunohistochemistry) and expression (RT-PCR) in a cohort of 45 patients undergoing carotid endatherectomy for significant stenosis of the internal carotid artery and in normal arteries (N= 50). We correlated NPP1 and OPN expression levels to the degree of plaque calcification, to pro-atherogenic factors and statin therapy. NPP1 was demonstrated in the base and in the shoulder of atherosclerotic plaques. Compared to normal arteries and non-calcified plaques, in calcified plaques NPP1 mRNA was decreased (P < 0.0001). OPN mRNA levels were up-regulated in carotid atheroma. NPP1 and OPN expression levels positively correlated with the degree of plaque calcification (R= 0.54, P= 0.00019 and R= 0.46, P= 0.017, respectively) and with risk factors of atherosclerosis. Expression of the calcification inhibitor NPP1 is down-regulated in calcified atherosclerotic plaques. Our correlation data point to a counter-active mechanism, which in the end turns out to be insufficient to prevent further progression of calcification. PMID:20015201

  20. Early relapsing calcified cerebral embolism.

    PubMed

    Cerase, Alfonso; Grazzini, Irene

    2015-05-01

    Calcified cerebral emboli are rarely reported, but may be recurrent and devastating. Misdiagnosis at interpretation of initial brain computed tomography (CT) scan may occur in up to 27% of cases. The purpose of this case report was to describe clinical, CT, and CT angiography findings in a 79-year-old woman undergoing early recurrent stroke from calcified cerebral embolism. Neuroradiology should not overlook calcified cerebral embolism, and this confirms the role of CT in the assessment of stroke. PMID:25817624

  1. Definitive diagnosis of cerebrospinal fluid leak into the pleural space using 111In-DTPA cisternography.

    PubMed

    Howard, Brandon A; Gray, Linda; Isaacs, Robert E; Borges-Neto, Salvador

    2015-03-01

    A 58-year-old woman with a calcified disk extrusion causing severe spinal stenosis underwent T8 to T9 diskectomy and spinal fusion. A postoperative pseudomeningocele was treated with lumbar drain and fibrin glue. Performed for persistent right pleural effusion, CT myelogram failed to show communication between the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and pleural space--even on 2-hour delayed images. Subsequent 111In-DTPA cisternogram clearly demonstrated CSF leakage into the right pleural space at 2 hours, and surgical repair yielded good results. Radionuclide cisternography is a highly useful method to detect CSF leak, especially when it is occult on CT yet suspected clinically. PMID:25243944

  2. Tuberculous Pleural Effusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José M. Porcel

    2009-01-01

    Tuberculous pleural effusion is one of the most common forms of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB). The immediate cause of the\\u000a effusion is a delayed hypersensitivity response to mycobacterial antigens in the pleural space. For this reason microbiological\\u000a analyses are often negative and limited by the lengthy delay in obtaining results. In areas with high TB prevalence, pleural\\u000a fluid adenosine deaminase (ADA)

  3. Pleural function and lymphatics.

    PubMed

    Negrini, D; Moriondo, A

    2013-02-01

    The pleural space plays an important role in respiratory function as the negative intrapleural pressure regimen ensures lung expansion and in the mean time maintains the tight mechanical coupling between the lung and the chest wall. The efficiency of the lung-chest wall coupling depends upon pleural liquid volume, which in turn reflects the balance between the filtration of fluid into and its egress out of the cavity. While filtration occurs through a single mechanism passively driving fluid from the interstitium of the parietal pleura into the cavity, several mechanisms may co-operate to remove pleural fluid. Among these, the pleural lymphatic system emerges as the most important one in quantitative terms and the only one able to cope with variable pleural fluid volume and drainage requirements. In this review, we present a detailed account of the actual knowledge on: (a) the complex morphology of the pleural lymphatic system, (b) the mechanism supporting pleural lymph formation and propulsion, (c) the dependence of pleural lymphatic function upon local tissue mechanics and (d) the effect of lymphatic inefficiency in the development of clinically severe pleural and, more in general, respiratory pathologies. PMID:23009260

  4. Pleural Infection and Empyema

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Increasing incidence of pleural infection has been reported worldwide in recent decades. The pathogens responsible for pleural infection are changing and differ from those in community acquired pneumonia. The main treatments for pleural infection are antibiotics and drainage of infected pleural fluid. The efficacy of intrapleural fibrinolytics remains unclear, although a recent randomized control study showed that the novel combination of tissue plasminogen activator and deoxyribonuclease had improved clinical outcomes. Surgical drainage is a critical treatment in patient with progression of sepsis and failure in tube drainage. PMID:24851128

  5. Calcified retroperitoneal fibroma.

    PubMed

    Illuminati, G; Bertagni, A; Montesano, G; Soda, G; Baiocchini, A; Melis, M; Vietri, F

    1997-01-01

    A case of 31-year-old male with a retroperitoneal tumor is described. Abdominal ultrasound revealed a left para-aortic calcific mass, adjacent to the left lobe of the liver and to the upper pole of the left kidney. A CT-scan of the abdomen showed the mass to originate from the left adrenal gland. At operation, a large, retroperitoneal mass, adherent to the left kidney and the spleen, but not infiltrating, was excised. Histologically the tumor was diagnosed as a calcified osteo-producing fibroma. Benign retroperitoneal tumors represent about 25% of all retroperitoneal neoplasm. This reported case represents a retroperitoneal tumor of slow growth and benign clinical course whose characteristic consists of the heavy calcifications which are normally absent in a fibroma type mass. PMID:9558778

  6. Vulnerable Plaque

    MedlinePLUS

    ... pH of plaque. Can vulnerable plaque be prevented? Patients can lower their C-reactive protein levels in the same ways that they can cut their heart attack risk: take aspirin, eat a proper diet, quit smoking, and begin an exercise program. Researchers also think that obesity and diabetes ...

  7. Enrichment of calcifying extracellular vesicles using density-based ultracentrifugation protocol

    PubMed Central

    Hutcheson, Joshua D.; Goettsch, Claudia; Pham, Tan; Iwashita, Masaya; Aikawa, Masanori; Singh, Sasha A.; Aikawa, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Calcifying extracellular vesicles (EVs) released from cells within atherosclerotic plaques have received increased attention for their role in mediating vascular calcification, a major predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, little is known about the difference between this pathologic vesicle population and other EVs that contribute to physiological cellular processes. One major challenge that hinders research into these differences is the inability to selectively isolate calcifying EVs from other vesicle populations. In this study, we hypothesized that the formation of mineral within calcifying EVs would increase the density of the vesicles such that they would pellet at a faster rate during ultracentrifugation. We show that after 10 min of ultracentrifugation at 100,000×g, calcifying EVs are depleted from the conditioned media of calcifying coronary artery smooth muscle cells and are enriched in the pelleted portion. We utilized mass spectrometry to establish functional proteomic differences between the calcifying EVs enriched in the 10 min ultracentrifugation compared to other vesicle populations preferentially pelleted by longer ultracentrifugation times. The procedures established in this study will allow us to enrich the vesicle population of interest and perform advanced proteomic analyses to find subtle differences between calcifying EVs and other vesicle populations that may be translated into therapeutic targets for vascular calcification. Finally, we will show that the differences in ultracentrifugation times required to pellet the vesicle populations can also be used to estimate physical differences between the vesicles. PMID:25491249

  8. Vascular Calcifying Progenitor Cells Possess Bidirectional Differentiation Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ho-Jae; Song, Myung-Kang; Seo, Ji-Yun; Bae, Yeon-Hee; Kim, Ju-Young; Lee, Hae-Young; Lee, Whal; Koo, Bon-Kwon; Oh, Byung-Hee; Park, Young-Bae; Kim, Hyo-Soo

    2013-01-01

    Vascular calcification is an advanced feature of atherosclerosis for which no effective therapy is available. To investigate the modulation or reversal of calcification, we identified calcifying progenitor cells and investigated their calcifying/decalcifying potentials. Cells from the aortas of mice were sorted into four groups using Sca-1 and PDGFR? markers. Sca-1+ (Sca-1+/PDGFR?+ and Sca-1+/PDGFR??) progenitor cells exhibited greater osteoblastic differentiation potentials than Sca-1? (Sca-1?/PDGFR?+ and Sca-1?/PDGFR??) progenitor cells. Among Sca-1+ progenitor populations, Sca-1+/PDGFR?? cells possessed bidirectional differentiation potentials towards both osteoblastic and osteoclastic lineages, whereas Sca-1+/PDGFR?+ cells differentiated into an osteoblastic lineage unidirectionally. When treated with a peroxisome proliferator activated receptor ? (PPAR?) agonist, Sca-1+/PDGFR?? cells preferentially differentiated into osteoclast-like cells. Sca-1+ progenitor cells in the artery originated from the bone marrow (BM) and could be clonally expanded. Vessel-resident BM-derived Sca-1+ calcifying progenitor cells displayed nonhematopoietic, mesenchymal characteristics. To evaluate the modulation of in vivo calcification, we established models of ectopic and atherosclerotic calcification. Computed tomography indicated that Sca-1+ progenitor cells increased the volume and calcium scores of ectopic calcification. However, Sca-1+/PDGFR?? cells treated with a PPAR? agonist decreased bone formation 2-fold compared with untreated cells. Systemic infusion of Sca-1+/PDGFR?? cells into Apoe?/? mice increased the severity of calcified atherosclerotic plaques. However, Sca-1+/PDGFR?? cells in which PPAR? was activated displayed markedly decreased plaque severity. Immunofluorescent staining indicated that Sca-1+/PDGFR?? cells mainly expressed osteocalcin; however, activation of PPAR? triggered receptor activator for nuclear factor-?B (RANK) expression, indicating their bidirectional fate in vivo. These findings suggest that a subtype of BM-derived and vessel-resident progenitor cells offer a therapeutic target for the prevention of vascular calcification and that PPAR? activation may be an option to reverse calcification. PMID:23585735

  9. Simulation of human atherosclerotic femoral plaque tissue: the influence of plaque material model on numerical results

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Due to the limited number of experimental studies that mechanically characterise human atherosclerotic plaque tissue from the femoral arteries, a recent trend has emerged in current literature whereby one set of material data based on aortic plaque tissue is employed to numerically represent diseased femoral artery tissue. This study aims to generate novel vessel-appropriate material models for femoral plaque tissue and assess the influence of using material models based on experimental data generated from aortic plaque testing to represent diseased femoral arterial tissue. Methods Novel material models based on experimental data generated from testing of atherosclerotic femoral artery tissue are developed and a computational analysis of the revascularisation of a quarter model idealised diseased femoral artery from a 90% diameter stenosis to a 10% diameter stenosis is performed using these novel material models. The simulation is also performed using material models based on experimental data obtained from aortic plaque testing in order to examine the effect of employing vessel appropriate material models versus those currently employed in literature to represent femoral plaque tissue. Results Simulations that employ material models based on atherosclerotic aortic tissue exhibit much higher maximum principal stresses within the plaque than simulations that employ material models based on atherosclerotic femoral tissue. Specifically, employing a material model based on calcified aortic tissue, instead of one based on heavily calcified femoral tissue, to represent diseased femoral arterial vessels results in a 487 fold increase in maximum principal stress within the plaque at a depth of 0.8 mm from the lumen. Conclusions Large differences are induced on numerical results as a consequence of employing material models based on aortic plaque, in place of material models based on femoral plaque, to represent a diseased femoral vessel. Due to these large discrepancies, future studies should seek to employ vessel-appropriate material models to simulate the response of diseased femoral tissue in order to obtain the most accurate numerical results. PMID:25602515

  10. Pleural Fluid Analysis Test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... set of tests (cell count, protein, albumin, or lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level, and appearance of the fluid) ... on exudate fluid may include: Pleural fluid glucose, lactate, amylase, triglyceride, and/or tumor markers Microscopic examination – ...

  11. Relationship Between Ultrasonic Attenuation, Size and Axial Strain Parameters for Ex Vivo Atherosclerotic Carotid Plaque

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hairong Shi; Tomy Varghese; Robert J. Dempsey; Mohammed S. Salamat; James A. Zagzebski

    2008-01-01

    Many ultrasonic parameters, primarily related to attenuation and scatterer size, have been used to characterize the composition of atherosclerotic plaque tissue. In this study, we combine elastographic (axial strain ratio) and ultrasonic tissue characterization parameters, namely the attenuation coefficient and a scattering parameter associated with an “equivalent” scatterer size to delineate between fibrous, calcified, and lipidic plaque tissue. We present

  12. Artery buckling affects the mechanical stress in atherosclerotic plaques

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Tortuous arteries are often seen in patients with hypertension and atherosclerosis. While the mechanical stress in atherosclerotic plaque under lumen pressure has been studied extensively, the mechanical stability of atherosclerotic arteries and subsequent effect on the plaque stress remain unknown. To this end, we investigated the buckling and post-buckling behavior of model stenotic coronary arteries with symmetric and asymmetric plaque. Methods Buckling analysis for a model coronary artery with symmetric and asymmetric plaque was conducted using finite element analysis based on the dimensions and nonlinear anisotropic materials properties reported in the literature. Results Artery with asymmetric plaque had lower critical buckling pressure compared to the artery with symmetric plaque and control artery. Buckling increased the peak stress in the plaque and led to the development of a high stress concentration in artery with asymmetric plaque. Stiffer calcified tissue and severe stenosis increased the critical buckling pressure of the artery with asymmetric plaque. Conclusions Arteries with atherosclerotic plaques are prone to mechanical buckling which leads to a high stress concentration in the plaques that can possibly make the plaques prone to rupture. PMID:25603490

  13. [Pleural effusion: Diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Pastré, J; Roussel, S; Israël Biet, D; Sanchez, O

    2014-11-28

    Pleural effusion management is a common clinical situation associated with numerous pulmonary, pleural or extra-pulmonary diseases. A systematic approach is needed to enable a rapid diagnosis and an appropriate treatment. Pleural fluid analysis is the first step to perform which allows a presumptive diagnosis in most cases. Otherwise, further analysis of the pleural fluid or thoracic imaging or pleural biopsy may be necessary. This review aims at highlighting the important elements of the work-up required by a pleural effusion. PMID:25438932

  14. JAMA Patient Page: Pleural Effusion

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cough • Chest pain CAUSES OF PLEURAL EFFUSIONS • Congestive heart failure (ineffective pumping of blood through the circulatory system ... with antibiotics usually resolves pleural effusion. • Treating congestive heart failure with diuretics (medication that removes excess fluid from ...

  15. Pleurisy and Other Pleural Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... abscess. When this happens, it's called an empyema (em-pi-E-ma). You can develop a pleural ... failure , cancer, or pulmonary embolism (PULL-mun-ary EM-bo-lizm) can lead to a pleural effusion. ...

  16. Association between calcifying nanoparticles and placental calcification

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yanan; Zhang, Dechun; Lu, He; Luo, Shuang; Shen, Xuecheng

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine the possible contribution of calcifying nanoparticles to the pathogenesis of placental calcification. Methods Calcified placental tissues and distal tissue samples were collected from 36 confirmed placental calcification cases. In addition, 20 normal placental tissue samples were obtained as a control group. All the tissue samples were cultured using special nanobacterial culture methods. The cultured calcifying nanoparticles were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and their growth was monitored by optical density (OD) at a wavelength of 650 nm. 16S rRNA gene expression of the cultured calcifying nanoparticles was also isolated and sequenced. Results Novel calcifying nanoparticles wrapped with electron-dense shells between 50 nm to 500 nm in diameter were observed in the extracellular matrix of calcified placental tissues. They were detected in placental villi and hydroxyapatite crystals, and contained “nucleic acid-like materials”. After isolation and four weeks of culture, 28 of 36 calcified placental tissue samples showed white granular precipitates attached to the bottom of the culture tubes. OD650 measurements indicated that the precipitates from the calcified placental tissues were able to grow in culture, whereas no such precipitates from the control tissues were observed. The 16S rRNA genes were isolated from the cultured calcifying nanoparticles and calcified placental tissues, and their gene sequencing results implied that calcifying nanoparticles were novel nanobacteria (GenBank JF823648). Conclusion Our results suggest that these novel calcifying nanoparticles may play a role in placental calcification. PMID:22615531

  17. Cap buckling as a potential mechanism of atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Abdelali, Maria; Reiter, Steven; Mongrain, Rosaire; Bertrand, Michel; L'Allier, Philippe L; Kritikou, Ekaterini A; Tardif, Jean-Claude

    2014-04-01

    Plaque rupture in atherosclerosis is the primary cause of potentially deadly coronary events, yet about 40% of ruptures occur away from the plaque cap shoulders and cannot be fully explained with the current biomechanical theories. Here, cap buckling is considered as a potential destabilizing factor which increases the propensity of the atherosclerotic plaque to rupture and which may also explain plaque failure away from the cap shoulders. To investigate this phenomenon, quasistatic 2D finite element simulations are performed, considering the salient geometrical and nonlinear material properties of diverse atherosclerotic plaques over the range of physiological loads. The numerical results indicate that buckling may displace the location of the peak von Mises stresses in the deflected caps. Plaque buckling, together with its deleterious effects is further observed experimentally in plaque caps using a physical model of deformable mock coronary arteries with fibroatheroma. Moreover, an analytical approach combining quasistatic equilibrium equations with the Navier-Bresse formulas is used to demonstrate the buckling potential of a simplified arched slender cap under intraluminal pressure and supported by foundations. This analysis shows that plaque caps - calcified, fibrotic or cellular - may buckle in specific undulated shapes once submitted to critical loads. Finally, a preliminary analysis of intravascular ultrasonography recordings of patients with atherosclerotic coronary arteries corroborates the numerical, experimental and theoretical findings and shows that various plaque caps buckle in vivo. By displacing the sites of high stresses in the plaque cap, buckling may explain the atherosclerotic plaque cap rupture at various locations, including cap shoulders. PMID:24491969

  18. Open pleural biopsy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... biopsy . The test is most often done to rule out mesothelioma . It is also performed when there is fluid in the chest cavity, or when a direct view of the pleura and the lungs is needed. This procedure may also be done to examine a metastatic pleural tumor .

  19. Coronary Plaque Type and Burden By Computed Tomography Angiography Without Association to C-Reactive Protein

    PubMed Central

    Navaravong, Leenhapong; Steenson, Carol; Sigurdsson, Gardar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Contrast-enhanced computed tomography angiography (CTA) of the coronaries allows identification of plaques. Limited data exists on the relationship between C-reactive protein (CRP) and the plaque type or plaque burden detected by CTA. Aims: We studied relationship between CRP and coronary atherosclerosis. Materials and Methods: 92 patients without history of coronary disease underwent coronary CTA for chest pain. Coronary arteries were evaluated with each detected plaque labeled as calcified, noncalcified or mixed. Logarithmic transformation was done on CRP values for statistical analysis. Results: 1380 coronary segments were evaluated. The average age was 57 years (SE 1.0) and basal metabolic index (BMI) 28.9 kg/m2 (SE 0.5). Median CRP level was 2.75 mg/L (range 0.17-16.98). No association was found between CRP quartiles and plaque type. In stepwise multivariate analysis, only diabetes was associated with noncalcified plaque (P < 0.001). When calcified and mixed plaques were added to the model, age (P < 0.001), diabetes (P < 0.02), and statin use (P < 0.05) were associated with an increased number of plaques per subject. No association was found between log-CRP for any type of plaque. Conclusion: There was no association between CRP and plaque type by CTA. Lack of association is likely due to limited spatial resolution and underestimation of noncalcified plaque burden by CTA. PMID:25006560

  20. Effect of iterative reconstruction algorithms on peripheral MDCT angiography virtual histology plaque volumes: have we been overestimating disease burden?

    PubMed

    Patil, Vivek V; Tanenbaum, Lawrence N; Lookstein, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to compare plaque volumes of multidetector computed tomographic images reconstructed using adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR), model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR), and filtered back projection (FBP). We reviewed 25 patients for a total of 50 extremities imaged on the same scanner. Calcified plaque FBP volume (3468.2 ± 2634.8 mm(3)) was higher than ASIR (2548.1 ± 2166.5 mm(3)). Calcified plaque FBP volume was higher than MBIR (mean=2345.7 ± 1935.4 mm(3)). Our findings suggest that traditional FBP methods overestimate disease compared to newer reconstruction methods. PMID:25069752

  1. Pleural fluid characteristics of pleuropulmonary paragonimiasis masquerading as pleural tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Ki-Eun; Song, Hyo-Yeop; Jung, Jae-Wan; Oh, Su-Jin; Yoon, Kwon-Ha; Park, Do-Sim; Jeong, Eun-Taik

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Pleuropulmonary paragonimiasis produces no specific symptoms or radiologic findings, allowing for the possibility of misdiagnosis. We evaluated the specific clinical and pleural fluid features of pleuropulmonary paragonimiasis masquerading as pleural tuberculosis. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the clinical and radiologic characteristics of 20 patients diagnosed with pleuropulmonary paragonimiasis between 2001 and 2011. Results In total, 17 patients presented with respiratory symptoms, including dyspnea (30%), hemoptysis (20%), cough (20%), and pleuritic chest pain (15%). Chest radiographs revealed intrapulmonary parenchymal lesions, including air-space consolidation (30%), nodular opacities (20%), cystic lesions (15%), ground-glass opacities (10%), and pneumothorax (5%). A pleural f luid examination revealed eosinophilia, low glucose levels, and high lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels in 87%, 76%, and 88% of the patients, respectively. These traits helped to distinguish pleuropulmonary paragonimiasis from other pleural diseases such as parapneumonic effusion, malignancy, and pleural tuberculosis. Conclusions Pleuropulmonary paragonimiasis is often initially misdiagnosed as other pleural diseases. Therefore, it is important to establish the correct diagnosis. In patients with unexplained pleural effusion living in paragonimiasis-endemic areas, pleural fluid obtained by thoracentesis should be examined to distinguish pleuropulmonary paragonimiasis. When marked eosinophilia, high LDH levels, and low glucose levels are identified in pleural fluid, physicians could consider a diagnosis of pleuropulmonary paragonimiasis. PMID:25589836

  2. Cytology exam of pleural fluid

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the lungs. This area is called the pleural space. Cytology means the study of cells. ... A sample of fluid from the pleural space is needed. The sample is taken using a procedure called thoracentesis . The procedure is done in the following way: You sit on a ...

  3. Physiology of the pleural space

    PubMed Central

    Charalampidis, Charalampos; Youroukou, Andrianna; Lazaridis, George; Baka, Sofia; Mpoukovinas, Ioannis; Karavasilis, Vasilis; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Papaiwannou, Antonis; Karavergou, Anastasia; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Sarika, Eirini; Kapanidis, Konstantinos; Sakkas, Leonidas; Korantzis, Ipokratis; Lampaki, Sofia; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    The pleural cavity is created between the 4th and 7th week of embryologic development. These embryonic components of visceral and parietal pleurae develop different anatomic characteristics with regard to vascular, lymphatic, and nervous supply. There are two layers: a superficial mesothelial cell layer facing the pleural space and an underlying connective tissue layer. The pleura might present inflammatory response and maintenance of the pleural fluid is observed. The latter function is especially important in the mechanical coupling of the lung and chest wall. Fluid is filtered into the pleural space according to the net hydrostatic oncotic pressure gradient. It flows downward along a vertical pressure gradient, presumably determined by hydrostatic pressure and resistance to viscous flow. There also may be a net movement of fluid from the costal pleura to the mediastinal and interlobar regions. In these areas, pleural fluid is resorbed primarily through lymphatic stomata on the parietal pleural surface. In the current review we will present the physiology of the pleural space in a step by step manner. PMID:25774305

  4. Physiology of the pleural space.

    PubMed

    Charalampidis, Charalampos; Youroukou, Andrianna; Lazaridis, George; Baka, Sofia; Mpoukovinas, Ioannis; Karavasilis, Vasilis; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Papaiwannou, Antonis; Karavergou, Anastasia; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Sarika, Eirini; Kapanidis, Konstantinos; Sakkas, Leonidas; Korantzis, Ipokratis; Lampaki, Sofia; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Zarogoulidis, Paul

    2015-02-01

    The pleural cavity is created between the 4(th) and 7(th) week of embryologic development. These embryonic components of visceral and parietal pleurae develop different anatomic characteristics with regard to vascular, lymphatic, and nervous supply. There are two layers: a superficial mesothelial cell layer facing the pleural space and an underlying connective tissue layer. The pleura might present inflammatory response and maintenance of the pleural fluid is observed. The latter function is especially important in the mechanical coupling of the lung and chest wall. Fluid is filtered into the pleural space according to the net hydrostatic oncotic pressure gradient. It flows downward along a vertical pressure gradient, presumably determined by hydrostatic pressure and resistance to viscous flow. There also may be a net movement of fluid from the costal pleura to the mediastinal and interlobar regions. In these areas, pleural fluid is resorbed primarily through lymphatic stomata on the parietal pleural surface. In the current review we will present the physiology of the pleural space in a step by step manner. PMID:25774305

  5. Magnetic resonance of calcified tissues.

    PubMed

    Wehrli, Felix W

    2013-04-01

    MRI of the human body is largely made possible by the favorable relaxation properties of protons of water and triacyl glycerides prevalent in soft tissues. Hard tissues--key among them bone--are generally less amenable to measurement with in vivo MR imaging techniques, not so much as a result of the lower proton density but rather due to the extremely short life-times of the proton signal in water bound to solid-like entities, typically collagen, or being trapped in micro-pores. Either mechanism can enhance T2 relaxation by up to three orders of magnitude relative to their soft-tissue counterparts. Detection of these protons requires solid-state techniques that have emerged in recent years and that promise to add a new dimension to the study of hard tissues. Alternative approaches to probe calcified tissues exploit their characteristic magnetic properties. Bone, teeth and extra-osseous calcium-containing biomaterials are unique in that they are more diamagnetic than all other tissues and thus yield information indirectly by virtue of the induced magnetic fields present in their vicinity. Progress has also been made in methods allowing very high-resolution structural imaging of trabecular and cortical bone relying on detection of the surrounding soft-tissues. This brief review, much of it drawn from work conducted in the author's laboratory, seeks to highlight opportunities with focus on early-stage developments for image-based assessment of structure, function, physiology and mechanics of calcified tissues in humans via liquid and solid-state approaches, including proton, deuteron and phosphorus NMR and MRI. PMID:23414678

  6. Diffuse pleural thickening in an asbestos-exposed population: prevalence and causes

    SciTech Connect

    McLoud, T.C.; Woods, B.O.; Carrington, C.B.; Epler, G.R.; Gaensler, E.A.

    1985-01-01

    Two types of pleural reaction have been described in association with asbestos exposure: pleural plaques and diffuse pleural thickening. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence and causes of diffuse thickening in asbestos-exposed persons. Serial chest radiographs in 1373 exposed individuals and 717 controls were interpreted according to the ILO scheme by two B readers. Among the exposed group, plaques and diffuse thickening occurred with almost equal frequency, 16.5% and 13.5%, respectively. Of the 185 cases with diffuse thickening, the radiographic appearance was most often due to the residual of a benign asbestos effusion (31.3%) or confluent plaques (25.4%). The most commonly held explanation of diffuse thickening, an extension of pulmonary fibrosis to the visceral and parietal pleura, was actually infrequent (10.2%). Among the group with diffuse thickening without asbestosis, the forced vital capacity and single-breath diffusing capacity were significantly lower than those of comparable normal persons and those with confluent plaques.

  7. Rapid diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis by Xpert MTB/RIF assay using pleural biopsy and pleural fluid specimens

    PubMed Central

    Du, Jinghui; Huang, Zikun; Luo, Qing; Xiong, Guoliang; Xu, Xiaomeng; Li, Weiting; Liu, Xu; Li, Junming

    2015-01-01

    Background: Early pleural tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis is particularly difficult. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of the Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA) assay using pleural biopsy and pleural fluid specimens in patients with suspected pleural TB but who had a negative sputum acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear. Materials and Methods: In this study, 134 sputum smear-negative suspected pleural TB patients were selected. Paired pleural fluid and pleural biopsy specimens were tested for Mycobacterium tuberculosis by standard smear-microscopy, Lowenstein-Jensen and mycobacterial growth indicator tube (MGIT) culture, and the Xpert assay. Mycobacterial culture from pleural biopsy specimens was used as a reference standard for sensitivity and specificity calculations. Detection of rifampicin resistance was compared with the MGIT method. Results: Of 126 evaluable patients, 55 received a diagnosis of pleural TB. The sensitivity of the Xpert assay using pleural biopsy specimens for the diagnosis of pleural TB was 85.5%, and specificity was 97.2%. The sensitivity and specificity of the Xpert assay in pleural fluid were 43.6% and 98.6%, respectively. The Xpert assay correctly identified 90.0% of phenotypic rifampicin-resistant cases and 93.9% of phenotypic rifampicin-susceptible cases. Conclusion: The Xpert assay on pleural biopsy specimens may provide an accurate diagnosis of pleural TB in patients who had a negative AFB smear.

  8. Diffuse Calcifications Protect Carotid Plaques regardless of the Amount of Neoangiogenesis and Related Histological Complications

    PubMed Central

    Vasuri, Francesco; Fittipaldi, Silvia; Pini, Rodolfo; Degiovanni, Alessio; Mauro, Raffaella; D'Errico-Grigioni, Antonia; Faggioli, Gianluca; Stella, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Background. Neoangiogenesis is crucial in plaque progression and instability. Previous data from our group showed that Nestin-positive intraplaque neovessels correlated with histological complications. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the relationship between neoangiogenesis, plaque morphology, and clinical instability of the plaque. Materials and Methods. Seventy-three patients (53 males and 20 females, mean age 71 years) were consecutively enrolled. Clinical data and 14 histological variables, including intraplaque hemorrhage and calcifications, were collected. Immunohistochemistry for CD34 and Nestin was performed. RT-PCR was performed to evaluate Nestin mRNA (including 5 healthy arteries as controls). Results. Diffusely calcified plaques (13/73) were found predominantly in females (P = 0.017), with a significantly lower incidence of symptoms (TIA/stroke (P = 0.019) than noncalcified plaques but with the same incidence of histological complications (P = 0.156)). Accordingly, calcified and noncalcified plaques showed similar mean densities of positivity for CD34 and Nestin. Nestin density, but not CD34, correlated with the occurrence of intraplaque hemorrhage. Conclusions. Plaques with massive calcifications show the same incidence of histological complications but without influencing symptomatology, especially in female patients, and regardless of the amount of neoangiogenesis. These results can be applied in a future presurgical identification of patients at major risk of developing symptoms.

  9. What Causes Pleurisy and Other Pleural Disorders?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... buildup of air or gas in the pleural space). Such lung diseases may include COPD (chronic obstructive ... effusion (a buildup of fluid in the pleural space) is heart failure . Lung cancer, LAM, pneumonia, tuberculosis, ...

  10. Secondary pleural hydatidosis: Complication of intrapulmonary echinococcosis

    PubMed Central

    Feki, Walid; Ketata, Wajdi; Bahloul, Najla; Msaad, Sameh; Kammoun, Samy

    2014-01-01

    Hydatid disease has a wide geographic distribution around the world. In human, the liver is the most commonly affected organ, followed by the lungs. Intrathoracic extrapulmonary locations are generally the mediastinum, pleura, pericardium and chest wall. Pleural involvement usually follows the rupture of a pulmonary or hepatic cyst inside the pleural space causing secondary pleural hydatidosis. We report four cases of patients who were referred to our hospital for management of pleural hydatid disease as a complication of intrapulmonary echinococcosis. PMID:25125817

  11. Technique Optimization of Orbital Atherectomy in Calcified Peripheral Lesions of the Lower Extremities: The CONFIRM Series, A Prospective Multicenter Registry

    PubMed Central

    Das, Tony; Mustapha, Jihad; Indes, Jeffrey; Vorhies, Robert; Beasley, Robert; Doshi, Nilesh; Adams, George L

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of CONFIRM registry series was to evaluate the use of orbital atherectomy (OA) in peripheral lesions of the lower extremities, as well as optimize the technique of OA. Background Methods of treating calcified arteries (historically a strong predictor of treatment failure) have improved significantly over the past decade and now include minimally invasive endovascular treatments, such as OA with unique versatility in modifying calcific lesions above and below-the-knee. Methods Patients (3135) undergoing OA by more than 350 physicians at over 200 US institutions were enrolled on an “all-comers” basis, resulting in registries that provided site-reported patient demographics, ABI, Rutherford classification, co-morbidities, lesion characteristics, plaque morphology, device usage parameters, and procedural outcomes. Results Treatment with OA reduced pre-procedural stenosis from an average of 88–35%. Final residual stenosis after adjunctive treatments, typically low-pressure percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA), averaged 10%. Plaque removal was most effective for severely calcified lesions and least effective for soft plaque. Shorter spin times and smaller crown sizes significantly lowered procedural complications which included slow flow (4.4%), embolism (2.2%), and spasm (6.3%), emphasizing the importance of treatment regimens that focus on plaque modification over maximizing luminal gain. Conclusion The OA technique optimization, which resulted in a change of device usage across the CONFIRM registry series, corresponded to a lower incidence of adverse events irrespective of calcium burden or co-morbidities. © 2013 The Authors. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23737432

  12. Transverse Colon Diverticulitis with Calcified Fecalith

    PubMed Central

    Solak, Aynur; Solak, Ilhami; Genç, Berhan; Sahin, Neslin; Yalaz, Seyhan

    2013-01-01

    Left colonic diverticula are common in Western populations, whereas right colonic diverticulosis primarily occurs in Oriental populations. Diverticulitis of the transverse colon is very rare, with very few cases reported in the literature. Herein, we report a case of transverse colon diverticulitis caused by a calcified stone in a 69-year-old female. This was a solitary diverticulum. The signs and symptoms of the disease are similar to acute pancreatitis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing the MRI findings of a patient with trans-verse colon diverticulitis caused by a calcified stone. PMID:25610254

  13. A finite element study of balloon expandable stent for plaque and arterial wall vulnerability assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, Alireza; Navidbakhsh, Mahdi; Razaghi, Reza

    2014-07-01

    The stresses induced within plaque tissues and arterial layers during stent expansion inside an atherosclerotic artery can be exceeded from the yield stresses of those tissues and, consequently, lead to plaque or arterial layer rupture. The distribution and magnitude of the stresses in each component involved in stenting might be clearly different for different plaque types and different arterial layers. In this study, a nonlinear finite element simulation was employed to investigate the effect of plaque composition (calcified, cellular, and hypocellular) on the stresses induced in the arterial layers (intima, media, and adventitia) during implantation of a balloon expandable coronary stent into a stenosed artery. The atherosclerotic artery was assumed to consist of a plaque and normal/healthy arterial tissues on its outer side. The results indicated a significant influence of plaque types on the maximum stresses induced within the plaque wall and arterial layers during stenting but not when computing maximum stress on the stent. The stress on the stiffest calcified plaque wall was in the fracture level (2.38 MPa), whereas cellular and hypocellular plaques remain stable owing to less stress on their walls. Regardless of plaque types, the highest von Mises stresses were observed on the stiffest intima layer, whereas the lowest stresses were seen to be located in less stiff media layer. The computed stresses on the intima layer were found to be high enough to initiate a rupture in this stiff layer. These findings suggest a higher risk of arterial vascular injury for the intima layer, while a lower risk of arterial injury for the media and adventitia layers.

  14. Pleural effusion disease in rabbits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. L. Fennestad; B. Mansa; S. Larsen

    1981-01-01

    Summary Baby rabbits surviving infection with pleural effusion disease virus (PEDV) developed viraemia persisting for at least six months. Only the infectious serum samples collected during the first 2 months of disease could transfer the typical PED. Six months after neonatal infection, virus concentration in serum was 102 to 104 rabbit-infectious doses per ml, the level of IgG appeared elevated,

  15. 051. Diagnostic approach to pleural effusion

    PubMed Central

    Papakala, Elena; Porpodis, Konstantinos; Spiratos, Dionisios; Papaioannou, Antonis; Kostanta, Soultana; Vlogiaris, Eleftherios; Lampaki, Sofia

    2015-01-01

    A pleural effusion is an abnormal collection of fluid in the pleural cavity. Pleural effusion is a common manifestation in a wide range of diseases, including pleural, pulmonary and extra-pulmonary disorders, where the most frequent of these are congestive heart failure, pneumonia and malignancy. This review provides a systematic approach to manage the patient with pleural effusion in order to have a correct diagnosis quickly and without additional invasive methods beginning with medical history, clinical examination, radiology, pleural fluid analysis and finally, if there is a need, a pleural biopsy and/or thoracoscopy. The first step of the fluid analysis includes differentiation transudate from exudates based on Light’s criteria and after that suggests the tests which are necessary for the further investigation of exudates (biochemical characteristics, cultivation, cytology, test for tuberculosis, immunological tests). These steps are very important because early diagnosis improves prognosis and minimizes complications.

  16. Medical Thoracoscopy vs Closed Pleural Biopsy in Pleural Effusions: A Randomized Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    K.P., Suraj; T.P., Rajagopal; P.T., James; Chetambath, Ravindran

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pleural effusion is a common diagnostic dilemma for the pulmonologist. A histological diagnosis would many a time steer the way to an accurate diagnosis of the aetiologies of pleural effusions. This study has compared two methods for obtaining histological specimens in cases of undiagnosed pleural effusions. Aim: To compare the efficacy of closed pleural biopsy with Abrahm’s needle and medical thoracoscopic biopsy in the diagnosis of undiagnosed exudative pleural effusions at a tertiary care setting. Study Design: Randomized controlled study. Study Period: November 2008–October 2010. Methodology: All patients who were admitted with pleural effusions underwent a clinical workup for pleural effusions. Light’s criterion was used to differentiate between exudative and transudative pleural effusions. Those patients with exudative pleural effusions, who did not have a specific diagnosis, were included in the study. Fifty eight patients were included in the study and they were randomized into 2 Groups of 29 patients each. One group was subjected to medical thoracoscopic pleural biopsy and the other to closed pleural biopsy with Abrahm’s needle. Demographic, clinical and biochemical characteristics, diagnostic yields and the complications among the two groups were compared. Result: Medical thoracoscopy has a diagnostic yield of 86.2% with complication rate of 10.3% compared to 62.1% and 17.2% respectively in closed pleural biopsy group. Conclusion: Medical thoracoscopic pleural biopsy had a better diagnostic yield with a lower complication rate as compared to closed pleural biopsy with Abrahm’s needle. PMID:24995201

  17. Dental plaque formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Burton Rosan; Richard J Lamont

    2000-01-01

    Dental plaque is a complex biofilm that accumulates on the hard tissues (teeth) in the oral cavity. Although over 500 bacterial species comprise plaque, colonization follows a regimented pattern with adhesion of initial colonizers to the enamel salivary pellicle followed by secondary colonization through interbacterial adhesion. A variety of adhesins and molecular interactions underlie these adhesive interactions and contribute to

  18. Atherosclerotic carotid plaque segmentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. P. Loizou; C. S. Pattichis; R. S. H. Istepanian; M. Pantziaris; A. Nicolaides

    2004-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is the major cause of heart attack and stroke in the western world. In this paper we present a computerized method for segmenting the athrerosclerotic carotid plaque from ultrasound images. The method uses the blood flow image first to detect the initial contour of the plaque, and then despeckle filtering and snakes to deform the initial contour for best

  19. Biomarkers of plaque instability.

    PubMed

    Shah, P K

    2014-12-01

    Atherosclerosis is the proximate cause of arterial thrombosis, leading to acute occlusive cardiovascular syndromes. Thrombosis in atherosclerosis usually results from rupture of the fibrous cap of atherosclerotic plaques with a smaller proportion resulting from superficial endothelial erosion. Ruptured plaques are often associated with intimal and adventitial inflammation, increased size of lipid-rich necrotic core with thinned out collagen-depleted fibrous cap, outward remodeling, increased plaque neovascularity, intraplaque hemorrhage, and microcalcification. By inference, non-ruptured plaques with similar compositional features are considered to be at risk for rupture and hence are labeled vulnerable plaques or high-risk plaques. Identification of vulnerable plaques may help in predicting the risk of acute occlusive syndromes and may also allow targeting for aggressive systemic and possibly local therapies. Plaque rupture is believed to result from extracellular matrix (which comprises the protective fibrous cap) dysregulation due to excessive proteolysis in the context of diminished matrix synthesis. Inflammation is believed to play a key role by providing matrix-degrading metalloproteinases and also by inducing death of matrix-synthesizing smooth muscle cells. Systemic markers of inflammation are thus the most logical forms of potential biomarkers which may predict the presence of vulnerable or high-risk plaques. Several studies have suggested the potential prognostic value of a variety of systemic markers, but regrettably, their overall clinical predictive value is modestly incremental at best, especially for individual subjects compared to groups of patients. Nevertheless, continued investigation of reliable, cost-effective biomarkers that predict the presence of a high-risk plaque and future athero-thrombotic cardiovascular events with greater sensitivity and specificity is warranted. PMID:25326730

  20. Pleural effusion in hepatic vena cava disease.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, S M

    2007-01-01

    Pleural effusion is not uncommon in developing countries. It is usually considered to be due to tuberculosis and treated with anti-tubercular chemotherapy without much diagnostic workup. Hepatic vena cava disease (HVD), a disease caused by obliterative lesion of the hepatic portion of inferior vena cava induced by bacterial infection is common in developing countries. We report here the occurrence of pleural effusion in 10% of the cases of HVD. Four patients, one with acute and three with chronic HVD that presented with pleural effusion are described. Pleural effusion in HVD responded to treatment with antibiotic and diuretic. In developing countries HVD should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pleural effusion. It is postulated that bacterial infection and sodium retention resulting from acute caval obstruction are important in the pathogenesis of pleural effusion in HVD. PMID:18604023

  1. Pleural lavage cytology in esophageal cancer without pleural effusions: clinicopathologic analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaolong Jiao; Minghe Zhang; Zaoqing Wen; Mark J Krasna

    2000-01-01

    Objective: The literature of pleural lavage cytology (PLC) is focused on lung cancer. We conducted this pilot study to determine the incidence of malignant pleural cytologies in patients without pleural effusions who undergo curative resection for esophageal cancer, and to evaluate the clinicopathologic significance of positive cytology. Methods: Forty-eight patients underwent esophagectomy for thoracic esophageal cancer in our unit from

  2. Pleural lavage cytology in esophageal cancer without pleural effusions: clinicopathologic analysis q

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaolong Jiao; Minghe Zhang; Zaoqing Wen; Mark J. Krasna

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The literature of pleural lavage cytology (PLC) is focused on lung cancer. We conducted this pilot study to determine the incidence of malignant pleural cytologies in patients without pleural effusions who undergo curative resection for esophageal cancer, and to evaluate the clinicopathologic significance of positive cytology. Methods: Forty-eight patients underwent esophagectomy for thoracic esophageal cancer in our unit from

  3. Pleural lavage cytology in esophageal cancer without pleural effusions: clinicopathologic analysisq

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaolong Jiao; Minghe Zhang; Zaoqing Wen; Mark J. Krasna

    Objective: The literature of pleural lavage cytology (PLC) is focused on lung cancer. We conducted this pilot study to determine the incidence of malignant pleural cytologies in patients without pleural effusions who undergo curative resection for esophageal cancer, and to evaluate the clinicopathologic significance of positive cytology. Methods: Forty-eight patients underwent esophagectomy for thoracic esophageal cancer in our unit from

  4. Pleural resection and pleural infusion chemotherapy for therapy of malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Zhang, Q; Zhao, W; Duan, J; Huang, T

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate effective treatment methods of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). Twenty-three patients with MPM were cured by pleural infusion chemotherapy after surgery. Median survival time and the 1-, 2-, and 3-year survival rates were analyzed on the basis of follow-up. Median survival time of all patients was 15 months (range: 3 to 89 months); the 1-, 2-, and 3-year survival rates were 69.6, 43.5, and 13.0%, respectively. The 1-year survival rates of patients in stages I, II, and III were 83.3, 62.5, and 33.3%, respectively, the 2-year survival rates were 50, 37.5, and 33.3%, respectively, and the 3-year survival rates were 34, 23, and 0%, respectively. Surgery-oriented comprehensive treatment was adopted for MPM, which could improve the prognosis and life quality of patients to some extent. PMID:24535876

  5. The Pleural Sandwich Sign in Two Cases of Primary Pleural Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Myungjae; Ryu, Yon Ju; Cho, Min-Sun

    2015-01-01

    The sandwich sign is used to describe mesenteric lymphoma in which mesenteric vessels and fat are enveloped by enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes. We present two cases of primary pleural lymphoma demonstrating the "pleural sandwich sign". Contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed conglomerated parietal pleural and extrapleural masses encasing the intercostal arteries. Histopathological examinations confirmed low grade marginal zone B-cell lymphoma in an 80-year-old man and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in a 68-year-old man. The pleural sandwich sign may suggest the diagnosis of primary pleural lymphoma. PMID:25598693

  6. Sintered plaque characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaidyanathan, H.

    1982-01-01

    The structural transformations occurring during sintering, the fabrication of a slurry produced sintered plaque, are detailed. Degradation of the positive electrode in performance in cycling in a nickel hydrogen battery were traced to the quality of the sintered plaque. Electrode degradation was found to be a limiting factor in the battery cycle life. Details of microstructural characterization and distribution of pores, examination of plastic flow during shrinkage, and observations of the rounding of nickel powder particles during the slurry process are presented.

  7. [Drug induced eosinophilic pleural effusion].

    PubMed

    Vasilescu, Raluca

    2014-01-01

    The hypersensitivity reactions induced by drugs, some widely used, like central nervous system medication, can have various presentations. The lung is a frequent target for such events. We present the case of 40-year-old male patient, non-smoker, with infant encephalopaty, seizures since age of 6 with polimorphic crisis (mainly absences), with anticonvulsivant treatment since 2011 (carbamazepine, sodium valproate, levetiracetam), with no respiratory medical history. Current symptoms started two weeks before, with chest pain, dry cough. He received no antibiotics. Chest X-ray and thoracic CT scan (27 June 2013) showed a left pleral effusion. Left exploratory thoracocentesis extracted 20 ml reddish pleural fluid: eosinophilic exsudate (60%) with normal adenosin deaminase. He also presents moderate blood eosinophilia (13.7%-1780/mm3). Pulmonary infarction with secondary pleurisy, thoracic trauma, acute pancreatitis with secondary pleurisy were excluded. No Loeffler transient infiltrates were documented, serology for Toxocara is IgG positive (historical) and not significant for current episode, no symptoms suggestive for toxocarosis (characteristic to young children, patient had no liver enlargement etc.), no hidatidosis or trichinelosis were found. As an exclusion diagnosis, a hypersensitivity reaction to anticonvulsivant medication was considered (mentioned in literature) carbamazepine and sodium valproate (even if medication was taken for a longer time), with blood and pleural eosinophilia. Together with the neurologist, the mentioned drugs were stopped and he was started on lamotrigine 2 tb/day and levetiracetam 1 tb/day, well tolerated, no absences were noticed. Total remission of blood eosinophilia and partial remission of pleural effusion were noticed. Subsequent follow-ups confirm favourable evolution, with healing of pleurisy and normal blood cell count, which are stable at 7 months after changing anticonvulsivant treatment. PMID:25241560

  8. Pleural effusion in aluminum phosphide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Garg, Kranti; Mohapatra, Prasanta R; Sodhi, Mandeep K; Janmeja, Ashok K

    2012-10-01

    Aluminium phosphide (ALP) is a common agrochemical pesticide poisoning with high mortality rate. Primary manifestations are due to myocardial and gastrointestinal involvement. Pleural effusion in ALP poisoning is occasionally reported. We report a case of pleural effusion that developed after ALP ingestion and resolved along with recovery from poisoning. PMID:23243353

  9. Pleural effusion in aluminum phosphide poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Kranti; Mohapatra, Prasanta R.; Sodhi, Mandeep K.; Janmeja, Ashok K.

    2012-01-01

    Aluminium phosphide (ALP) is a common agrochemical pesticide poisoning with high mortality rate. Primary manifestations are due to myocardial and gastrointestinal involvement. Pleural effusion in ALP poisoning is occasionally reported. We report a case of pleural effusion that developed after ALP ingestion and resolved along with recovery from poisoning. PMID:23243353

  10. Primary peritoneal adenocarcinoma causes pleural effusion

    PubMed Central

    Shameem, Mohammad; Akhtar, Jamal; Baneen, Ummul; Bhargava, Rakesh; Ahmed, Zuber; Sharma, Prakhar; Khan, Nafees Ahmad; Hassan, Mohd Jaseem

    2010-01-01

    Context: The most common malignancies associated with malignant pleural effusions are carcinomas of the breast, lung, gastrointestinal tract, ovary and lymphomas. Primary peritoneal adenocarcinoma is a very rare cause of malignant pleural effusion. Case Report: A 72-year old female patient presented to us with shortness of breath for the last 2 months. A contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) scan of her-thorax revealed only bilateral pleural effusion with absence of any mass lesion or any mediastinal lymphadenopathy. A cytologic examination of pleural fluid revealed adenocarcinoma cells. A CECT of her abdomen and pelvis revealed heterogenous thickening of omentum with nodular appearances and small amount of ascites. Her ovaries were normal and no other mass lesion was detected. A histological examination of a peritoneal lesion was suggestive of adenocarcinoma. Conclusions: The patient was diagnosed with a rare case of primary peritoneal adenocarcinoma with bilateral pleural effusion. PMID:22574304

  11. Correlation between Plaque Composition as assessed by Virtual Histology and C-reactive Protein

    PubMed Central

    Siqueira, Dimytri Alexandre de Alvim; Sousa, Amanda Guerra Moraes R.; Costa Junior, José de Ribamar; da Costa, Ricardo Alves; Staico, Rodolfo; Tanajura, Luis Fernando Leite; Centemero, Marinella Patrizia; Feres, Fausto; Abizaid, Alexandre Antonio Cunha; Sousa, J. Eduardo Moraes R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that coronary plaque composition plays a pivotal role in plaque instability, and imaging modalities and serum biomarkers have been investigated to identify vulnerable plaque. Virtual histology IVUS (VH-IVUS) characterizes plaque components as calcified, fibrotic, fibrofatty, or necrotic core. C-reactive protein (hsCRP) is an independent risk factor and a powerful predictor of future coronary events. However, a relationship between inflammatory response indicated by CRP and plaque characteristics in ACS patients remains not well established. Objective To determine, by using VH-IVUS, the relation between coronary plaque components and plasma high-sensitivity CRP levels in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Methods 52 patients with ACS were enrolled in this prospective study. Electrocardiographically-gated VH-IVUS were performed in the culprit lesion before PCI. Blood sample was drawn from all patients before the procedure and after 24 hours, and hs-CRP levels were determined. Results Mean age was 55.3±4.9 years, 76.9% were men and 30.9% had diabetes. Mean MLA was 3.9±1.3 mm2, and plaque burden was 69±11.3%, as assessed by IVUS. VH-IVUS analysis at the minimum luminal site identified plaque components: fibrotic (59.6±15.8%), fibrofatty (7.6±8.2%), dense calcium (12.1±9.2%) and necrotic core (20.7±12.7%). Plasma hs-CRP (mean 16.02±18.07 mg/L) did not correlate with necrotic core (r=-0.089, p = 0.53) and other plaque components. Conclusions In this prospective study with patients with ACS, the predominant components of the culprit plaque were fibrotic and necrotic core. Serum hs C-reactive protein levels did not correlate with plaque composition. PMID:23752339

  12. [Pleural metastases of renal carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Giigoruk, O G; Lazarev, A F; Doroshenko, V S

    2007-01-01

    Metastases in renal carcinoma are diagnosed at initial diagnosis in 25% examinees. Traditional renal carcinoma has higher metastatic potential, is associated with worse survival of the patients compared to papillary cancer. We studied cytological characteristics of renal carcinoma metastases to the pleura in comparison with histological studies of the primary lesion using immunohistochemical findings. We examined cytologically pleural liquid in renal carcinoma metastases to the pleura in 6 patients (2.3% of carcinomatous pleuricies). High efficacy was shown by a cytocentrifuge CYTOSPIN-4. In 3 cases initial cancer was renal cell carcinoma, pleural exudation developed 2 years later, clear cell carcinoma appeared 6 years later and papillary cancer--10 years later. In the other 3 cases malignant cells were detected in new-onset cases. Renal carcinoma was diagnosed in one case. Cytological preparations were studied with identification of cytological signs typical for classic clear cell, granulocell and papillary renal cancer. Immunohistochemical examination of primary tumor lesion in the kidney discovered high proliferative activity of tumor cells by Ki-67 index to 5.28%. The tumors had solitary Bcl-2 positive cells. Expression of mutant p-53 took place in 0.93%. Her-2/neu hyperexpression was not found in the tumors of the above patients. Such immunohistochemical parameters point to poor prognosis. This is confirmed by renal carcinoma metastases to the pleura. PMID:17578198

  13. The clinical utility of pleural YKL-40 levels in diagnosing pleural effusions

    PubMed Central

    Gumus, Aziz; Cinarka, Halit; Murat, Naci; Yilmaz, Adnan; Bedir, Recep; Sahin, Unal

    2013-01-01

    Background and objective Recent evidence suggests that YKL-40 is a relatively new biomarker of inflammation and it is involved in the pathogenesis of several pulmonary diseases. Details of serum and pleural YKL-40 in pleural effusions however, remain unknown. We aimed to assess whether serum and pleural YKL-40 is an accurate biomarker of pleural effusions. Methods This clinical study was prospective, observational and cross-sectional. The concentrations of serum and pleural fluid YKL-40 and conventional pleural marker levels were measured in 80 subjects with pleural effusions, including 23 transudates caused by congestive heart failure (CHF), and 57 exudates including 23 parapneumonic, 22 malignant and 12 tuberculous pleural effusions (TBPEs). Results Median pleural fluid YKL-40 levels were higher in exudates than in transudates (219.4 and 205.9 ng/mL, respectively, P<0.001). High pleural YKL-40 levels, with a cutoff value of >215 ng/mL, yielded a 73% sensitivity, 73% specificity, likelihood ratio 2.8 for diagnosing exudate, with an area under the curve of 0.770 [95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.657-0.884]. Pleural YKL-40/serum YKL-40 ratio >1.5 yielded a 75% sensitivity, 72% specificity and likelihood ratio 2.6 for diagnosing TBPE, with an area under the curve of 0.825 (95% CI: 0.710-0.940). Conclusions High concentrations of pleural YKL-40 level may help to differentiate exudate from transudate and a high pleural YKL-40/serum YKL-40 ratio may be helpful in seperating TBPE from non-tuberculous effusions. PMID:24255777

  14. Prevalence of calcified carotid artery atheromas on panoramic images of individuals with primary hyperparathyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Friedlander, A H; Aghazadehsanai, N; Chang, T I; Harada, N; Garrett, N R

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT), affecting 1% of the population, is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The presence of calcified carotid artery plaque (CCAP) on panoramic images is a validated risk indicator of future adverse cardiovascular events. We hypothesized that military veterans aged 50 years or older diagnosed with PHPT by increased parathyroid hormone and calcium levels would frequently have CCAP on their images. Methods: We determined the prevalence rates of CCAP on the images of patients diagnosed with PHPT and evaluated their atherogenic risk profiles, including hypertension, dyslipidaemia, diabetes and obesity. Comparisons of atherogenic risk factors were made between subjects with and without observed CCAP on their panoramic images. Results: Of the 60 patients (86.7% males and 13.3% females, mean age 73.2 ± 11.3 years) with PHPT, 40% had atheromas. There were no significant differences between CCAP+ and CCAP? groups in gender or race (p > 0.05). The atherogenic profile (age, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidaemia) in the CCAP+ and CCAP? groups was not significantly different (p > 0.05). Conclusions: Calcified carotid artery atheromas are often seen on the panoramic images of patients with PHPT. Thus, dentists must be uniquely vigilant for these lesions when evaluating these studies. PMID:23775925

  15. 10. Detail, dedication plaque on the bridge's northeast end (plaque ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Detail, dedication plaque on the bridge's northeast end (plaque on southwest end of bridge is identical - Big Cottonwood River Bridge No. 246, Spanning Big Cottonwood River at Cottonwood Street (City Road No. 165), New Ulm, Brown County, MN

  16. Massive Pleural Effusion as the Presenting Feature of a Subarachnoid-Pleural Fistula

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryan D’Souza; Amita Doshi; Shekhar Bhojraj; Prashant Shetty; Zarir Udwadia

    2002-01-01

    A 14-year-old boy presented with a large symptomatic transudative pleural effusion 4 months after spinal surgery for kyphoscoliosis. Computed tomography myelography confirmed a subarachnoid-pleural fistula (SPF) with a pseudo-meningocele communicating with the left pleural space. A review of the literature indicates this to be a rare finding. The possibility of SPF should be entertained in patients who present with a

  17. Mycobacterium intracellulare Pleurisy Identified on Liquid Cultures of the Pleural Fluid and Pleural Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jong Gu; O, Sei Won; Lee, Ki Dong; Suk, Dong Keun; Jung, Tae Young; Shim, Tae Sun

    2013-01-01

    Pleural effusion is a rare complication in non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection. We report a case of Mycobacterium intracellulare pleuritis with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in a 69-year-old man presenting with dyspnea. Pleural effusion revealed lymphocyte dominant exudate. M. intracellulare was identified using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method and liquid cultures of pleural effusion and pleural biopsy. After combination therapy for M. intracellulare pulmonary disease, the patient was clinically well at a 1-month follow-up. PMID:23579554

  18. Is There a Role for a Needle Thoracoscopic Pleural Biopsy under Local Anesthesia for Pleural Effusions?

    PubMed Central

    Son, Ho Sung; Darlong, Laleng Mawia; Jung, Jae Seong; Sun, Kyung; Kim, Kwang Taik; Kim, Hee Jung; Lee, Kanghoon; Lee, Seung Hun; Lee, Jong Tae

    2014-01-01

    Background A closed pleural biopsy is commonly performed for diagnosing patients exhibiting pleural effusion if prior thoracentesis is not diagnostic. However, the diagnostic yield of such biopsies is unsatisfactory. Instead, a thoracoscopic pleural biopsy is more useful and less painful. Methods We compared the diagnostic yield of needle thoracoscopic pleural biopsy performed under local anesthesia with that of closed pleural biopsy. Sixty-seven patients with pleural effusion were randomized into groups A and B. Group A patients were subjected to closed pleural biopsies, and group B patients were subjected to pleural biopsies performed using needle thoracoscopy under local anesthesia. Results The diagnostic yields and complication rates of the two groups were compared. The diagnostic yield was 55.6% in group A and 93.5% in group B (p<0.05). Procedure-related complications developed in seven group A patients but not in any group B patients. Of the seven complications, five were pneumothorax and two were vasovagal syncope. Conclusion Needle thoracoscopic pleural biopsy under local anesthesia is a simple and safe procedure that has a high diagnostic yield. This procedure is recommended as a useful diagnostic modality if prior thoracentesis is non-diagnostic. PMID:24782961

  19. Prognostic significance of calcified plaque among symptomatic patients with nonobstructive coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Sana; Bellam, Naveen; Leipsic, Jonathon; Berman, Daniel S.; Quyyumi, Arshed; Hausleiter, Jörg; Achenbach, Stephan; Al-Mallah, Mouaz; Budoff, Matthew J.; Cademartiri, Fillippo; Callister, Tracy Q.; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Chow, Benjamin J. W.; Cury, Ricardo C.; Delago, Augustin J.; Dunning, Allison L.; Feuchtner, Gudrun M.; Hadamitzky, Martin; Karlsberg, Ronald P.; Kaufmann, Philipp A.; Lin, Fay Y.; Chinnaiyan, Kavitha M.; Maffei, Erica; Raff, Gilbert L.; Villines, Todd C.; Gomez, Millie J.; Min, James K.; Shaw, Leslee J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Coronary artery calcium (CAC) is a well-established predictor of clinical outcomes for population screening. Limited evidence is available as to its predictive value in symptomatic patients without obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). The aim of the current study was to assess the prognostic value of CAC scores among symptomatic patients with nonobstructive CAD. Methods From the COronary Computed Tomographic Angiography EvaluatioN For Clinical Outcomes: An InteRnational Multicenter (CONFIRM) registry, 7,200 symptomatic patients with nonobstructive CAD (<50% coronary stenosis) on coronary-computed tomographic angiography were prospectively enrolled and followed for a median of 2.1 years. Patients were categorized as without (0% stenosis) or with (>0% but <50% coronary stenosis) a luminal stenosis. CAC scores were calculated using the Agatston method. Univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were employed to estimate all-cause mortality and/or myocardial infarction (MI). Four-year death and death or MI rates were 1.9% and 3.3%. Results Of the 4,380 patients with no luminal stenosis, 86% had CAC scores of <10 while those with a luminal stenosis had more prevalent and extensive CAC with 31.9% having a CAC score of ?100. Among patients with no luminal stenosis, CAC was not predictive of all-cause mortality (P = .44). However, among patients with a luminal stenosis, 4-year mortality rates ranged from 0.8% to 9.8% for CAC scores of 0 to ?400 (P < .0001). The mortality hazard was 6.0 (P = .004) and 13.3 (P < .0001) for patients with a CAC score of 100–399 and ?400. In patients with a luminal stenosis, CAC remained independently predictive in all-cause mortality (P < .0001) and death or MI (P < .0001) in multivariable models containing CAD risk factors and presenting symptoms. Conclusions CAC allows for the identification of those at an increased hazard for death or MI in symptomatic patients with nonobstructive disease. From the CONFIRM registry, the extent of CAC was an independent estimator of long-term prognosis among symptomatic patients with luminal stenosis and may further define risk and guide preventive strategies in patients with nonobstructive CAD. PMID:24683047

  20. An IR Navigation System for Pleural PDT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Timothy; Liang, Xing; Kim, Michele; Finlay, Jarod; Dimofte, Andreea; Rodriguez, Carmen; Simone, Charles; Friedberg, Joseph; Cengel, Keith

    2015-03-01

    Pleural photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been used as an adjuvant treatment with lung-sparing surgical treatment for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). In the current pleural PDT protocol, a moving fiber-based point source is used to deliver the light. The light fluences at multiple locations are monitored by several isotropic detectors placed in the pleural cavity. To improve the delivery of light fluence uniformity, an infrared (IR) navigation system is used to track the motion of the light source in real-time at a rate of 20 - 60 Hz. A treatment planning system uses the laser source positions obtained from the IR camera to calculate light fluence distribution to monitor the light dose uniformity on the surface of the pleural cavity. A novel reconstruction algorithm is used to determine the pleural cavity surface contour. A dual-correction method is used to match the calculated fluences at detector locations to the detector readings. Preliminary data from a phantom shows superior light uniformity using this method. Light fluence uniformity from patient treatments is also shown with and without the correction method.

  1. Pulverisation of calcified and non-calcified gall bladder stones: extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy used alone.

    PubMed Central

    Soehendra, N; Nam, V C; Binmoeller, K F; Koch, H; Bohnacker, S; Schreiber, H W

    1994-01-01

    Using a modified electromagnetic lithotripter (Siemens), extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) was performed in 260 patients with gall bladder stones. Exclusion criteria for treatment were a non-functioning gall bladder, subcostal gall bladder location, and multiple stones occupying more than three quarters of the gall bladder volume. Stone pulverisation was the end point of ESWL. The number of shock wave discharges and sessions was not limited. Pulverisation was achieved in 250 patients (96.1%) after a median of three ESWL sessions (range 1-21). The number of sessions required depended upon stone composition and burden. More than three sessions were required in 60.2% of patients with calcified stones compared with 35.9% of patients with non-calcified stones (p < 0.001). 65.8% of patients with stones measuring more than 30 mm in total diameter required more than three sessions compared with 42.9% of patients with a stone burden less than 30 mm (p < 0.01). At 18-24 (8-12) months follow up, stone clearance was achieved in 94.3% (80.4%) of patients with non-calcified stones, compared with 89.5% (76.8%) in patients with calcified stones and in 75% (71.4%) of patients with a total stone diameter more than 30 mm compared with 95.7% (80.4%) for patients with a total stone diameter less than 30 mm (p < 0.05). ESWL related complications (gross haematuria) occurred in three patients. Thirty six (13.8%) patients experienced biliary colic; four had cholecystectomy, and five endoscopic papillotomy because of common bile duct obstruction. Stone recurrence was seen in 5.3% of patients over a follow up period of up to two years (median 16.6 months). PMID:8150358

  2. Formation and diagenesis of modern marine calcified cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Planavsky, N; Reid, R P; Lyons, T W; Myshrall, K L; Visscher, P T

    2009-12-01

    Calcified cyanobacterial microfossils are common in carbonate environments through most of the Phanerozoic, but are absent from the marine rock record over the past 65 Myr. There has been long-standing debate on the factors controlling the formation and temporal distribution of these fossils, fostered by the lack of a suitable modern analog. We describe calcified cyanobacteria filaments in a modern marine reef setting at Highborne Cay, Bahamas. Our observations and stable isotope data suggest that initial calcification occurs in living cyanobacteria and is photosynthetically induced. A single variety of cyanobacteria, Dichothrix sp., produces calcified filaments. Adjacent cyanobacterial mats form well-laminated stromatolites, rather than calcified filaments, indicating there can be a strong taxonomic control over the mechanism of microbial calcification. Petrographic analyses indicate that the calcified filaments are degraded during early diagenesis and are not present in well-lithified microbialites. The early diagenetic destruction of calcified filaments at Highborne Cay indicates that the absence of calcified cyanobacteria from periods of the Phanerozoic is likely to be caused by low preservation potential as well as inhibited formation. PMID:19796131

  3. Irregularly calcified eggs and eggshells of Caiman latirostris (Alligatoridae: Crocodylia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, Mariela Soledad; Simoncini, Melina Soledad; Dyke, Gareth

    2013-05-01

    We describe irregularly calcified egg and eggshell morphologies for the first time in nests of the broad-snouted caiman, Caiman latirostris. Research is based on detailed descriptions of 270 eggs from a total sample of 46,800 collected between 2005 and 2011 in Santa Fe Province, Argentina, and encompasses animals from both natural habitats and held in captivity. We discuss possible reasons for the occurrence of eggs with different mineralisation patterns in our extensive C. latirostris field sample and its conservation significance; the chemistry of egg laying in amniotes is sensitive to environmental contamination which, in turn, has biological implications. Based on our egg sample, we identify two caiman eggshell abnormalities: (1) regularly calcified eggs with either calcitic nodules or superficial wrinkles at one egg end and (2) irregularly calcified eggs with structural gaps that weaken the shell. Some recently laid clutches we examined included eggs with most of the shell broken and detached from the flexible membrane. Most type 1 regularly calcified eggs lost their initial calcified nodules during incubation, suggesting that these deposits do not affect embryo survival rates. In contrast, irregularly calcified caiman eggs have a mean hatching success rate of 8.9 % (range 0-38 %) across our sample compared to a mean normal success of 75 %. Most irregularly calcified caiman eggs probably die because of infections caused by fungi and bacteria in the organic nest material, although another possible explanation that merits further investigation could be an increase in permeability, leading to embryo dehydration.

  4. Nuclear analytical methods in calcified tissue research.

    PubMed

    Chaudhri, M A

    1995-01-01

    Various nuclear analytical methods have been developed and applied to determine the elemental composition of calcified tissues (teeth and bones). Fluorine was determined by prompt gamma-activation analysis through the 19F(rho, alpha, gamma)16O reaction. Carbon was measured by activation analysis with 3He ions, and the technique of proton-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) was applied to simultaneously determine calcium, phosphorus, and trace elements in well-documented teeth. Dental hard tissues (enamel, dentine, cementum, and their junctions) and different parts of the same tissue were examined separately. With the use of a proton microprobe, we measured the surface distribution of fluorine and other elements on and around carious lesions on the enamel. The depth profiles of fluorine, and other elements were also measured right up to the amelodentin junction. We discuss the development of various nuclear techniques and their applications, mainly in the field of dental health and to some extent in the study of the role of lead in mental retardation. We do not mention other important areas of calcified tissue research where these techniques could play an important role (e.g., in accurate and nondestructive measurements of calcium, phosphorus, and other elements in small bone biopsies taken from patients with metabolic bone disorders). No suitable chemical method appears to be available that can provide accurate assessment of calcium, phosphorus, and other trace elements in small bone biopsies. Moreover, the nondestructive nature of the nuclear methods has an extra advantage in that the bone samples, which are normally rather small in quantity, subsequently can be used for histologic examination. PMID:8748217

  5. Relationship between Ultrasonic Attenuation, Size and Axial Strain Parameters for ex-vivo Atherosclerotic Carotid Plaque

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Hairong; Varghese, T.; Dempsey, R.J.; Salamat, M.S.; Zagzebski, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Many ultrasonic parameters, primarily related to attenuation and scatterer size, have been used to characterize the composition of atherosclerotic plaque tissue. In this study we combine elastographic (axial strain ratio) and ultrasonic tissue characterization parameters, namely the attenuation coefficient and a scattering parameter associated with an “equivalent” scatterer size to delineate between fibrous, calcified, and lipidic plaque tissue. We present results obtained from 44 ex-vivo atherosclerotic plaque specimens obtained after carotid endarterectomy on human patients. Our results in the frequency range 2.5~7.5MHz indicate that softer plaques (with higher values of the strain ratio) are usually associated with larger equivalent scatterer size estimates (200 ~500 µm) and lower values of the attenuation coefficient slope (<1 dB/cm/MHz). On the other hand, stiffer plaques (with lower strain ratio values) are associated with smaller equivalent scatterer size estimates (100 ~200 µm) and higher values of the attenuation coefficient slope (1~3 dB/cm/MHz). These results indicate that ultrasonic tissue characterization and strain parameters have the potential to differentiate between different plaque types. These parameters can also be estimated from radiofrequency data acquired under in-vivo conditions and may help the clinician decide on appropriate interventional techniques. PMID:18490099

  6. Relationship between ultrasonic attenuation, size and axial strain parameters for ex vivo atherosclerotic carotid plaque.

    PubMed

    Shi, Hairong; Varghese, Tomy; Dempsey, Robert J; Salamat, Mohammed S; Zagzebski, James A

    2008-10-01

    Many ultrasonic parameters, primarily related to attenuation and scatterer size, have been used to characterize the composition of atherosclerotic plaque tissue. In this study, we combine elastographic (axial strain ratio) and ultrasonic tissue characterization parameters, namely the attenuation coefficient and a scattering parameter associated with an "equivalent" scatterer size to delineate between fibrous, calcified, and lipidic plaque tissue. We present results obtained from 44 ex vivo atherosclerotic plaque specimens obtained after carotid endarterectomy on human patients. Our results in the frequency range 2.5 - 7.5 MHz indicate that softer plaques (with higher values of the strain ratio) are usually associated with larger equivalent scatterer size estimates (200 - 500 microm) and lower values of the attenuation coefficient slope (<1 dB/cm/MHz). On the other hand, stiffer plaques (with lower strain ratio values) are associated with smaller equivalent scatterer size estimates (100 - 200 microm) and higher values of the attenuation coefficient slope (1 - 3 dB/cm/MHz). These results indicate that ultrasonic tissue characterization and strain parameters have the potential to differentiate between different plaque types. These parameters can be estimated from radio-frequency data acquired under in vivo conditions and may help the clinician decide on appropriate interventional techniques. PMID:18490099

  7. Calcifying odontogenic cyst immunohistochemical detection of keratin and involucrin in cyst wall

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshiro Yamamoto; Yasuhiko Hiranuma; Mitsuyoshi Eba; Mitsuhisa Okitsu; Nobuo Utsumi; Yoshifumi Tajima; Yukihiro Tatemoto; Masahiko Mori

    1988-01-01

    Calcifying odontogenic cysts (COC) were immunohistochemically described using different keratin proteins and involucrin as well as histopathology. The cystic lining epithelium was composed of calcifying, keratinizing, squamous, and columnar epithelial cells, and included calcified masses of irregular shape and various size as well as ghost cells. Calcifying epithelium gave negative or only trace staining for keratins detected with low molecular

  8. The pleural mesothelium in development and disease

    PubMed Central

    Batra, Hitesh; Antony, Veena B.

    2014-01-01

    The pleural mesothelium, derived from the embryonic mesoderm, is formed by a metabolically active monolayer of cells that blanket the chest wall and lungs on the parietal and visceral surfaces, respectively. The pleura and lungs are formed as a result of an intricate relationship between the mesoderm and the endoderm during development. Mesenchymal signaling pathways such as Wnt/B-catenin, Bmp4, and sonic hedgehog appear to be quintessential for lung development. Pleural Mesothelial Cells (PMCs) are known to express Wilms tumor-1 (Wt1) gene and in lineage labeling studies of the developing embryo, PMCs were found to track into the lung parenchyma and undergo mesothelial-mesenchymal transition (MMT) to form ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA)-positive cells of the mesenchyme and vasculature. There is definite evidence that mesothelial cells can differentiate and this seems to play an important role in pleural and parenchymal pathologies. Mesothelial cells can differentiate into adipocytes, chondrocytes, and osteoblasts; and have been shown to clonally generate fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells in murine models. This supports the possibility that they may also modulate lung injury-repair by re-activation of developmental programs in the adult reflecting an altered recapitulation of development, with implications for regenerative biology of the lung. In a mouse model of lung fibrosis using lineage-tracing studies, PMCs lost their polarity and cell-cell junctional complexes, migrated into lung parenchyma, and underwent phenotypic transition into myofibroblasts in response to the pro-fibrotic mediator, transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1). However, intra-pleural heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1) induction inhibited PMC migration after intra-tracheal fibrogenic injury. Intra-pleural fluorescein isothiocyanate labeled nanoparticles decorated with a surface antibody to mesothelin, a surface marker of mesothelial cells, migrate into the lung parenchyma with PMCs supporting a potential role for pleural based therapies to modulate pleural mesothelial activation and parenchymal disease progression. PMID:25136318

  9. Pleural lipoma: a non-surgical lesion?

    PubMed

    Jayle, Christophe; Hajj-Chahine, Jamil; Allain, Geraldine; Milin, Serge; Soubiron, Laurent; Corbi, Pierre

    2012-06-01

    Pleural lipomas are benign tumours that develop at the expense of adipose tissues, and they never evolve towards liposarcoma. Located usually at the mediastinal, bronchial and pulmonary levels, a pleural situation is extremely rare. Chest X-rays usually detect them and computed tomography scans confirm the diagnosis. As complications occur, a wait-and-see policy is common. We report our pleural lipoma surgical exeresis experience since 1999. We have operated on five cases of pleural lipomas among nearly 1800 cases of thoracic exeresis: three male and two female patients, without obesity (in all cases, body mass index (BMI) < 28). The mean age was 54.6 years (range 35-72 years). Four patients were electively operated and one in emergency, three with video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) procedure and two with open chest surgery, without recurrent cases. Advancements in VATS have greatly reduced the morbidity rate of these benign tumours especially if exeresis is performed early on a small, uncomplicated adhesion-free tumour. On the other hand, the operation may be deleterious, complicated by the presence of a large lipoma or in a complicating situation. In our opinion, we should revise the wait-and-see policy when facing these lesions considering their evolutionary potential. We should advise VATS in pleural lipomas. PMID:22371386

  10. Multiple calcifying hyperplastic dental follicles: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Aydin, Ulkem; Baykul, Timucin; Yildirim, Benay; Yildirim, Derya; Karaduman, Ayse

    2013-01-01

    This report describes a 31-year-old female patient with six impacted teeth. The crowns of the impacted teeth were surrounded with cyst-like lesions with a mixed internal structure and well-defined cortical borders. Microscopic examination of the specimen obtained from the follicle of the left mandibular third molar tooth revealed loose to moderately dense collagenous connective tissue with abundant calcified material and sparse epithelial islands. A diagnosis of multiple calcifying hyperplastic dental follicles was made. PMID:24380071

  11. Malignant pleural mesothelioma in Italy.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Claudio; Bianchi, Tommaso

    2009-08-01

    This study reviews a series of 811 malignant pleural mesothelioma cases, diagnosed at hospitals in Trieste and Monfalcone districts of north eastern Italy, a narrow coastal strip with a population of about three lakh, in the period 1968-2008. The diagnosis was based on histological examination in 801 cases, and cytological findings in 10. Necropsy was performed in 610 cases. Occupational histories were obtained directly from the patients or their relatives through personal or telephone interviews. Routine lung sections were examined for asbestos bodies in 500 cases. In 143 cases asbestos bodies were isolated and counted by chemical digestion of the lung tissue using the Smith-Naylor method. The series included 717 men and 94 women aged between 32 and 93 years (mean 69.2 years). Detailed occupational data was obtained for 732 cases.The majority of patients had marine jobs - shipbuilding (449 cases), maritime trades (56 cases), and port activities (39 cases). The nature of work of other patients included a variety of occupations, with non-shipbuilding industries being the most common. Thirty-four women cleaned the work clothes of family members occupationally exposed and hence had a history of asbestos exposure at home. Most of the patients had their first exposure to asbestos before 1960. The latency period ranged between 13 and 73 years (mean 48.2). Latency period among insulators and dock workers were shorter than other categories. Asbestos bodies were detected on routine lung sections in 343 cases (68.6%). Lung asbestos body burdens after isolation ranged between two to 10 millions bodies per gram of dried tissue. Despite some limitations in the use of asbestos in this area since the 1970s, the incidence of tumor remained high during the last years. PMID:20386624

  12. Primary systemic amyloidosis: A rare cause for pleural effusion

    PubMed Central

    George, Sunny; Ravindran, M.; Anandan, P.T.; Kiran, V.N.

    2014-01-01

    Pleural effusion is a common problem dealt by most of the practicing clinicians. Some causes for pleural effusion are less often considered as a differential diagnosis owing to its rarity. Here we report a case of renal amyloidosis on alternate day haemodialysis for about two months time presenting with left sided pleural effusion. On evaluation this turned out to be a case of amyloidosis on thoracoscopic pleural biopsy suggesting the possibility of Primary systemic amyloidosis.

  13. Psoriasis (chronic plaque)

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that affects 1% to 3% of the population, in some people causing changes to the nails and joints as well as skin lesions. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of non-drug (other than ultraviolet light), topical drug, ultraviolet light, and systemic drug treatments for chronic plaque psoriasis? What are the effects of combined treatment with drugs plus ultraviolet light for chronic plaque psoriasis? What are the effects of combined systemic plus topical drug treatments for chronic plaque psoriasis? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to August 2007 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 122 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: acupuncture, adding calcipotriol (topical) to psoralen plus ultraviolet light A or ultraviolet light B, adding oral retinoids to psoralen plus ultraviolet A (PUVA), alefacept, balneotherapy, ciclosporin, dithranol, T cell-targeted therapies, cytokine blocking agents, emollients (alone or plus ultraviolet light B), etanercept, fish oil supplementation, fumaric acid derivatives, Goeckerman treatment, heliotherapy, infliximab, Ingram regimen, keratolytics (salicylic acid, urea), leflunomide, methotrexate, oral pimecrolimus, oral retinoids (alone or with ultraviolet light B), phototherapy plus balneotherapy, psoralen plus ultraviolet A, psychotherapy, systemic drug treatments plus topical vitamin D derivatives, tars, tazarotene, topical corticosteroids (alone or plus oral retinoids), topical Vitamin D derivatives, ultraviolet light A, and ultraviolet light B. PMID:19445765

  14. Evolution of Atherosclerotic Carotid Plaque Morphology: Do Ulcerated Plaques Heal? A Serial Multidetector CT Angiography Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. van Gils; P. J. Homburg; S. Rozie; T. T. de Weert; D. W. J. Dippel; A. van der Lugt

    2011-01-01

    Background: Atherosclerotic carotid plaque rupture may lead to thromboembolization, causing transient ischemic attack or ischemic stroke. Carotid plaque ulceration on angiography is associated with plaque rupture. Although healing of ruptured plaques has been described in coronary arteries, little is known about the natural development of plaque ulcerations in carotid arteries. We therefore explored the evolution of carotid plaque surface morphology

  15. Association between increased epicardial adipose tissue volume and coronary plaque composition.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Kennosuke; Yamamoto, Myong Hwa; Ebara, Seitarou; Okabe, Toshitaka; Saito, Shigeo; Hoshimoto, Koichi; Yakushiji, Tadayuki; Isomura, Naoei; Araki, Hiroshi; Obara, Chiaki; Ochiai, Masahiko

    2014-09-01

    To assess the relationship between epicardial adipose tissue volume (EATV) and plaque vulnerability in significant coronary stenosis using a 40-MHz intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging system (iMap-IVUS), we analyzed 130 consecutive patients with coronary stenosis who underwent dual-source computed tomography (CT) and cardiac catheterization. Culprit lesions were imaged by iMap-IVUS before stenting. The iMAP-IVUS system classified coronary plaque components as fibrous, lipid, necrotic, or calcified tissue, based on the radiofrequency spectrum. Epicardial adipose tissue was measured as the tissue ranging from -190 to -30 Hounsfield units. EATV, calculated as the sum of the fat areas on short-axis images, was 85.0 ± 34.0 cm(3). There was a positive correlation between EATV and the percentage of necrotic plaque tissue (R (2) = 0.34, P < 0.01), while there was a negative correlation between EATV and the percentage of fibrous tissue (R (2) = 0.24, P < 0.01). Multivariate analysis revealed that an increased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level (? = 0.15, P = 0.03) and EATV (? = 0.14, P = 0.02) were independently associated with the percentage of necrotic plaque tissue. An increase in EATV was associated with the development of coronary atherosclerosis and, potentially, with the most dangerous type of plaque. PMID:23982316

  16. Indwelling pleural drain for mobile management of malignant pleural effusion-combining benefits of both methods

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Dinesh; Gupta, Anshu; Singhal, Sameer; Bansal, Sachin

    2015-01-01

    Malignant pleural effusion is a leading cause of morbidity in lung cancer patients requiring repeated pleural aspirations or persistent intercostal drainage tube. Using an indigenous method of putting icd tube of smaller size with subcutaneous tunneling would allow draining fluid from lungs easily and painlessly when needed and avoid the need for repeated injections and chest tube insertion every time the fluid is to be drained. PMID:25624601

  17. Effect of age and plaque morphology on diagnostic accuracy of dual source multidetector computed tomography coronary angiography

    PubMed Central

    Sunman, Hamza; Aytemir, Kudret; Yorgun, Hikmet; Canpolat, U?ur; Taher, Ali; Demiri, Edis; Haz?rolan, Tuncay; ?ahiner, Levent; Kaya, Ergün B.; Kabakç?, Giray; Tokgözo?lu, Lale; Oto, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) coronary angiography represents one of the most exciting technological revolutions in cardiac imaging and it has been increasingly used in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of age and coronary plaque calcification on diagnostic accuracy of MDCT. Methods The patients were examined by using dual-source MDCT and conventional coronary angiography. MDCT results were analyzed with regard to the severity (> 50% stenosis) and morphology (non-calcified, mixed, or calcified) of coronary atherosclerotic plaques evaluated in a 16-segment model. Results In total, 181 patients (94 men and 87 women) with 2,687 coronary artery segments were examined with MDCT. Ninety three patients were older than 65 years of age (group A, 42 men) and 88 were younger (group B, 52 men). Two-hundred nine coronary artery segments (7.2%) were excluded because of small distal coronary vessel segments and/or motion artifacts. The overall number of segments with non-diagnostic image quality was similar in both groups of patients. Of the 2,687 evaluated segments, 157 (5.8%) were significantly diseased, and 144 of them were correctly detected by MDCT. Diagnostic evaluation showed that the sensitivity, positive predictive value, specificity, and negative predictive value were 89.5%, 62.5%, 96.0%, and 99.2%, respectively in group A, and 95.2%, 64.8%, 97.5%, and 99.8% in group B, respectively. In addition, detailed segment-based analyses in coronary segments with non-calcified, mixed and calcified plaques in both groups were similar diagnostic accuracy. Conclusions Very high diagnostic accuracy observed in this study suggests that MDCT coronary angiography could be a suitable diagnostic tool for not only younger patients but also for older patients. PMID:25009559

  18. Denitrification in human dental plaque

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Schreiber; Peter Stief; Armin Gieseke; Ines M Heisterkamp; Willy Verstraete; Dirk de Beer; Paul Stoodley

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Microbial denitrification is not considered important in human-associated microbial communities. Accordingly, metabolic investigations of the microbial biofilm communities of human dental plaque have focused on aerobic respiration and acid fermentation of carbohydrates, even though it is known that the oral habitat is constantly exposed to nitrate (NO3-) concentrations in the millimolar range and that dental plaque houses bacteria that

  19. Recurrent infantile myofibromatosis in a 19-month-old boy presenting as ulcerated plaque.

    PubMed

    Hocar, Ouafa; Sab, Imane Ait; Akhdari, Nadia; Amal, Said; Ouladsiad, Mohamed; Belaabidia, Badiaa

    2013-01-01

    A 19-month-old boy presented to our department with ulcerated plaque on the right lumbar region. The lesion was known to have been growing for about 5 months. At another center 9 months prior to presenting to our department, the patient's parents reported a history of cutaneous nodules from the same lumbar region. Their total excision was performed, and the pathology report stated that it was infantile calcifying fibromatosis or nodular fasciitis. The patient was healthy with a nonsignificant, medical history including no use of medications, no known drug allergies, and no significant family history of disease. PMID:24517046

  20. Pleural disease and acquired immune deficiency syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W. Light; H. Hamm

    1997-01-01

    Patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) do not frequently have pleural complications. However, pneumothorax is a troublesome complication of patients with AIDS. At some medical centres, more than 50% of patients with spontaneous pneumothorax have AIDS. Most patients with sponta- neous pneumothorax and AIDS have Pneumocystis carinii infection and necrotic subpleural blebs. The pneumothoraces in these patients usually cannot

  1. Automatic spatiotemporal matching of detected pleural thickenings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaisaowong, Kraisorn; Keller, Simon Kai; Kraus, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Pleural thickenings can be found in asbestos exposed patient's lung. Non-invasive diagnosis including CT imaging can detect aggressive malignant pleural mesothelioma in its early stage. In order to create a quantitative documentation of automatic detected pleural thickenings over time, the differences in volume and thickness of the detected thickenings have to be calculated. Physicians usually estimate the change of each thickening via visual comparison which provides neither quantitative nor qualitative measures. In this work, automatic spatiotemporal matching techniques of the detected pleural thickenings at two points of time based on the semi-automatic registration have been developed, implemented, and tested so that the same thickening can be compared fully automatically. As result, the application of the mapping technique using the principal components analysis turns out to be advantageous than the feature-based mapping using centroid and mean Hounsfield Units of each thickening, since the resulting sensitivity was improved to 98.46% from 42.19%, while the accuracy of feature-based mapping is only slightly higher (84.38% to 76.19%).

  2. Diffuse malignant pleural mesothelioma and asbestos exposure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Whitwell; Rachel M. Rawcliffe

    1971-01-01

    Pleural mesothelioma has been diagnosed in 52 patients in three hospitals on Merseyside between 1955 and 1970, 60% being diagnosed from operation specimens and the rest from postmortem tissues. Necropsies eventually held on nearly half the operation cases confirmed the diagnosis, giving a necropsy rate of 70% for the series. The morbid anatomy conformed to earlier descriptions except that widespread

  3. Malignant pleural mesothelioma presenting as a spontaneous pneumothorax

    PubMed Central

    Mitsui, Ai; Saji, Hisashi; Shimmyo, Takuo; Mochizuki, Atsushi; Kurimoto, Noriaki; Nakamura, Haruhiko

    2015-01-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is thought to arise from the mesothelial cells that line the pleural cavities. Most patients initially experience the insidious onset of chest pain or shortness of breath and have a history of asbestos exposure. MPM rarely presents as spontaneous pneumothorax. We report two male patients who presented with a spontaneous hydropneumothorax. One was exposed to asbestos and the other was not. Computed tomography showed tiny nodules with pleural thickness. They both underwent pleural effusion cytology and/or pleural biopsy. Therefore, the pathological diagnosis of MPM was obtained in both cases. We also reviewed 16 Japanese MPM cases with pneumothorax including our two patients. More than half of the patients suffered from pneumothorax repeatedly. We emphasize the need to obtain a pathological diagnosis of pleural effusion cytology and/or pleural biopsy in older patients presenting with a spontaneous hydropneumothorax.

  4. Malignant pleural mesothelioma presenting as a spontaneous pneumothorax.

    PubMed

    Mitsui, Ai; Saji, Hisashi; Shimmyo, Takuo; Mochizuki, Atsushi; Kurimoto, Noriaki; Nakamura, Haruhiko

    2015-03-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is thought to arise from the mesothelial cells that line the pleural cavities. Most patients initially experience the insidious onset of chest pain or shortness of breath and have a history of asbestos exposure. MPM rarely presents as spontaneous pneumothorax. We report two male patients who presented with a spontaneous hydropneumothorax. One was exposed to asbestos and the other was not. Computed tomography showed tiny nodules with pleural thickness. They both underwent pleural effusion cytology and/or pleural biopsy. Therefore, the pathological diagnosis of MPM was obtained in both cases. We also reviewed 16 Japanese MPM cases with pneumothorax including our two patients. More than half of the patients suffered from pneumothorax repeatedly. We emphasize the need to obtain a pathological diagnosis of pleural effusion cytology and/or pleural biopsy in older patients presenting with a spontaneous hydropneumothorax. PMID:25802741

  5. The Immune Response Is Involved in Atherosclerotic Plaque Calcification: Could the RANKL/RANK/OPG System Be a Marker of Plaque Instability?

    PubMed Central

    Montecucco, Fabrizio; Steffens, Sabine; Mach, François

    2007-01-01

    Atherogenesis is characterized by an intense inflammatory process, involving immune and vascular cells. These cells play a crucial role in all phases of atherosclerotic plaque formation and complication through cytokine, protease, and prothrombotic factor secretion. The accumulation of inflammatory cells and thus high amounts of soluble mediators are responsible for the evolution of some plaques to instable phenotype which may lead to rupture. One condition strongly associated with plaque rupture is calcification, a physiopathological process orchestrated by several soluble factors, including the receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)?B ligand (RANKL)/receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)?B (RANK)/osteoprotegerin (OPG) system. Although some studies showed some interesting correlations with acute ischemic events, at present, more evidences are needed to evaluate the predictive and diagnostic value of serum sRANKL and OPG levels for clinical use. The major limitation is probably the poor specificity of these factors for cardiovascular disease. The identification of tissue-specific isoforms could increase the importance of sRANKL and OPG in predicting calcified plaque rupture and the dramatic ischemic consequences in the brain and the heart. PMID:18320012

  6. PLEURAL EFFECTS OF INDIUM PHOSPHIDE IN B6C3F1 MICE: NONFIBROUS PARTICULATE INDUCED PLEURAL FIBROSIS

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, Patrick J.; Shines, Cassandra J.; Taylor, Genie J.; Bousquet, Ronald W.; Price, Herman C.; Everitt, Jeffrey I.; Morgan, Daniel L.

    2010-01-01

    The mechanism(s) by which chronic inhalation of indium phosphide (InP) particles causes pleural fibrosis is not known. Few studies of InP pleural toxicity have been conducted because of the challenges in conducting particulate inhalation exposures, and because the pleural lesions developed slowly over the 2-year inhalation study. The authors investigated whether InP (1 mg/kg) administered by a single oropharyngeal aspiration would cause pleural fibrosis in male B6C3F1 mice. By 28 days after treatment, protein and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were significantly increased in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), but were unchanged in pleural lavage fluid (PLF). A pronounced pleural effusion characterized by significant increases in cytokines and a 3.7-fold increase in cell number was detected 28 days after InP treatment. Aspiration of soluble InCl3 caused a similar delayed pleural effusion; however, other soluble metals, insoluble particles, and fibers did not. The effusion caused by InP was accompanied by areas of pleural thickening and inflammation at day 28, and by pleural fibrosis at day 98. Aspiration of InP produced pleural fibrosis that was histologically similar to lesions caused by chronic inhalation exposure, and in a shorter time period. This oropharyngeal aspiration model was used to provide an initial characterization of the progression of pleural lesions caused by InP. PMID:19995279

  7. MicroRNA and mRNA Features of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma and Benign Asbestos-Related Pleural Effusion

    PubMed Central

    Ak, Guntulu; Tomaszek, Sandra C.; Kosari, Farhad; Metintas, Muzaffer; Jett, James R.; Metintas, Selma; Yildirim, Huseyin; Dundar, Emine; Dong, Jie; Aubry, Marie Christine; Wigle, Dennis A.; Thomas, Charles F.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. We investigated the expression of microRNAs and mRNAs in pleural tissues from patients with either malignant pleural mesothelioma or benign asbestos-related pleural effusion. Methods. Fresh frozen tissues from a total of 18 malignant pleural mesothelioma and 6 benign asbestos-related pleural effusion patients were studied. Expression profiling of mRNA and microRNA was performed using standard protocols. Results. We discovered significant upregulation of multiple microRNAs in malignant pleural mesothelioma compared to benign asbestos-related pleural effusion. Hsa-miR-484, hsa-miR-320, hsa-let-7a, and hsa-miR-125a-5p were able to discriminate malignant from benign disease. Dynamically regulated mRNAs were also identified. MET was the most highly overexpressed gene in malignant pleural mesothelioma compared to benign asbestos-related pleural effusion. Integrated analyses examining microRNA-mRNA interactions suggested multiple altered targets within the Notch signaling pathway. Conclusions. Specific microRNAs and mRNAs may have diagnostic utility in differentiating patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma from benign asbestos-related pleural effusion. These studies may be particularly helpful in patients who reside in a region with a high incidence of mesothelioma. PMID:25756049

  8. MicroRNA and mRNA Features of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma and Benign Asbestos-Related Pleural Effusion.

    PubMed

    Ak, Guntulu; Tomaszek, Sandra C; Kosari, Farhad; Metintas, Muzaffer; Jett, James R; Metintas, Selma; Yildirim, Huseyin; Dundar, Emine; Dong, Jie; Aubry, Marie Christine; Wigle, Dennis A; Thomas, Charles F

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. We investigated the expression of microRNAs and mRNAs in pleural tissues from patients with either malignant pleural mesothelioma or benign asbestos-related pleural effusion. Methods. Fresh frozen tissues from a total of 18 malignant pleural mesothelioma and 6 benign asbestos-related pleural effusion patients were studied. Expression profiling of mRNA and microRNA was performed using standard protocols. Results. We discovered significant upregulation of multiple microRNAs in malignant pleural mesothelioma compared to benign asbestos-related pleural effusion. Hsa-miR-484, hsa-miR-320, hsa-let-7a, and hsa-miR-125a-5p were able to discriminate malignant from benign disease. Dynamically regulated mRNAs were also identified. MET was the most highly overexpressed gene in malignant pleural mesothelioma compared to benign asbestos-related pleural effusion. Integrated analyses examining microRNA-mRNA interactions suggested multiple altered targets within the Notch signaling pathway. Conclusions. Specific microRNAs and mRNAs may have diagnostic utility in differentiating patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma from benign asbestos-related pleural effusion. These studies may be particularly helpful in patients who reside in a region with a high incidence of mesothelioma. PMID:25756049

  9. How Does Calcification Influence Plaque Vulnerability? Insights from Fatigue Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Baijian; Pei, Xuan; Li, Zhi-Yong

    2014-01-01

    Background. Calcification is commonly believed to be associated with cardiovascular disease burden. But whether or not the calcifications have a negative effect on plaque vulnerability is still under debate. Methods and Results. Fatigue rupture analysis and the fatigue life were used to evaluate the rupture risk. An idealized baseline model containing no calcification was first built. Based on the baseline model, we investigated the influence of calcification on rupture path and fatigue life by adding a circular calcification and changing its location within the fibrous cap area. Results show that 84.0% of calcified cases increase the fatigue life up to 11.4%. For rupture paths 10D far from the calcification, the life change is negligible. Calcifications close to lumen increase more fatigue life than those close to the lipid pool. Also, calcifications in the middle area of fibrous cap increase more fatigue life than those in the shoulder area. Conclusion. Calcifications may play a positive role in the plaque stability. The influence of the calcification only exists in a local area. Calcifications close to lumen may be influenced more than those close to lipid pool. And calcifications in the middle area of fibrous cap are seemly influenced more than those in the shoulder area. PMID:24955401

  10. Pioneer F Plaque Location

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Pioneer F spacecraft, destined to be the first man made object to escape from the solar system into interstellar space, carries this pictorial plaque. It is designed to show scientifically educated inhabitants of some other star system, who might intercept it millions of years from now, when Pioneer was launched, from where, and by what kind of beings. (Hopefully, any aliens reading the plaque will not use this knowledge to immediately invade Earth.) The design is etched into a 6 inch by 9 inch gold-anodized aluminum plate, attached to the spacecraft's attenna support struts in a position to help shield it from erosion by interstellar dust. The radiating lines at left represents the positions of 14 pulsars, a cosmic source of radio energy, arranged to indicate our sun as the home star of our civilization. The '1-' symbols at the ends of the lines are binary numbers that represent the frequencies of these pulsars at the time of launch of Pioneer F relative of that to the hydrogen atom shown at the upper left with a '1' unity symbol. The hydrogen atom is thus used as a 'universal clock,' and the regular decrease in the frequencies of the pulsars will enable another civilization to determine the time that has elapsed since Pioneer F was launched. The hydrogen is also used as a 'universal yardstick' for sizing the human figures and outline of the spacecraft shown on the right. The hydrogen wavelength, about 8 inches, multiplied by the binary number representing '8' shown next to the woman gives her height, 64 inches. The figures represent the type of creature that created Pioneer. The man's hand is raised in a gesture of good will. Across the bottom are the planets, ranging outward from the Sun, with the spacecraft trajectory arching away from Earth, passing Mars, and swinging by Jupiter.

  11. Primary mediastinal adenocarcinoma originating from a calcified nodule

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gang; Qiu, Xiaoming; Liu, Yi; Qiao, Yanjie; Shi, Tao; Chen, Jun; Zhou, Qinghua

    2014-01-01

    Primary mediastinal adenocarcinoma is rare, but its originating from a calcified nodule is even more unusual. We present herein a 55-year-old female with a superior mediastinal mass, first discovered 2 years prior that changed dramatically from its original appearance as a calcified nodule. The mass was completely resected, and histopathological examination revealed a primary adenocarcinoma. The patient has been disease-free for over 13 months since surgery. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of mediastinal adenocarcinoma to demonstrate such a surprising course of development. PMID:25126198

  12. Multiple peritoneal calcifying fibrous tumors revealed by ischemic colitis.

    PubMed

    Farah, Rita Bou; Dimet, Stéphanie; Bidault, Anne Thirot; Benbraheim, Cedric; Ndiaye, Nafissatou; Lazure, Thierry; Gayral, François; Buffet, Catherine; Pelletier, Gilles

    2007-12-01

    We report the case of a 41-year-old man presenting with multiple calcifying fibrous tumor (CFT) revealed by ischemic colitis. Peritoneal nodular lesions involved omental, mesenteric, mesorectal, and mesocolic serosal surfaces. Histologically, nodules were composed of dense bundles of collagen, calcifications, and lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate. These findings were diagnostic of CFTs, a rare and often asymptomatic benign fibrous process. Multiple peritoneal CFTs are very uncommon and usually occur in women. Calcifying fibrous tumors are usually cured by surgical excision. The differential diagnosis and histogenesis of this entity are discussed. PMID:18022134

  13. Making a Lightweight Battery Plaque

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, M. A.; Post, R. E.; Soltis, D.

    1986-01-01

    Plaque formed in porous plastic by electroless plating. Lightweight plaque prepared by electroless plating of porous plastic contains embedded wire or expanded metal grid. Plastic may or may not be filled with soluble pore former. If it contains soluble pore former, treated to remove soluble pore former and increase porosity. Porous plastic then clamped into rig that allows plating solutions to flow through plastic. Lightweight nickel plaque used as electrode substrate for alkaline batteries, chiefly Ni and Cd electrodes, and for use as electrolyte-reservoir plates for fuel cells.

  14. Prospective study of asbestos-related diseases incidence cases in primary health care in an area of Barcelona province

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Magdalena Rosell-Murphy; Rafael Abós-Herrŕndiz; Josep Tarrés; Xavier Martínez-Artés; Isabel García-Allas; Ilona Krier; Gloria Cantarell; Miguel Gallego; Ramon Orriols; Constança Albertí

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Asbestos related diseases include a number of conditions due to inhalation of asbestos fibres at work, at home or in the environment, such as pleural mesothelioma, asbestosis and calcified pleural plaques. Few epidemiological studies have established the incidence of asbestos related diseases in our area. The present proposal is based on a retrospective study externally funded in 2005 that

  15. Pleural Fluid Mesothelin as an Adjunct to the Diagnosis of Pleural Malignant Mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Amanda; Olsen, Nola; Dick, Ian M.; Musk, A. W(Bill); Skates, Steven J.; Robinson, Bruce W.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale. The diagnosis of pleural malignant mesothelioma (MM) by effusion cytology may be difficult and is currently controversial. Effusion mesothelin levels are increased in patients with MM but the clinical role of this test is uncertain. Objectives. To determine the clinical value of measuring mesothelin levels in pleural effusion supernatant to aid diagnosis of MM. Methods and Measurements. Pleural effusion samples were collected prospectively from 1331 consecutive patients. Mesothelin levels were determined by commercial ELISA in effusions and their relationship to concurrent pathology reporting and final clinical diagnosis was determined. Results. 2156 pleural effusion samples from 1331 individuals were analysed. The final clinical diagnosis was 183 MM, 436 non-MM malignancy, and 712 nonmalignant effusions. Effusion mesothelin had a sensitivity of 67% for MM at 95% specificity. Mesothelin was elevated in over 47% of MM cases in effusions obtained before definitive diagnosis of MM was established. In the setting of inconclusive effusion cytology, effusion mesothelin had a positive predictive value of 79% for MM and 94% for malignancy. Conclusions. A mesothelin-positive pleural effusion, irrespective of the identification of malignant cells, indicates the likely presence of malignancy and adds weight to the clinical rationale for further investigation to establish a malignant diagnosis. PMID:25505814

  16. Municipal pleural cancer mortality in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Abente, G; Hernandez-Barrera, V; Pollan, M; Aragones, N; Perez-Gomez, B

    2005-01-01

    Background: Pleural cancer is a recognised indicator of exposure to asbestos and mesothelioma mortality. Aims: To investigate the distribution of municipal mortality due to this tumour, using the autoregressive spatial model proposed by Besag, York, and Mollič. Methods: It was possible to compile and ascertain the posterior distribution of relative risk on the basis of a single Bayesian spatial model covering all of Spain's 8077 municipal areas. Maps were plotted depicting standardised mortality ratios, smoothed relative risk (RR) estimates, and the distribution of the posterior probability that RR >1. Results: There was a higher risk of death due to pleural cancer in well defined towns and areas, many of which correspond to municipalities where asbestos using industries once existed for many years, the prime example being the municipal pattern registered for Barcelona Province. The quality of mortality data, the suitability of the model used, and the usefulness of municipal atlases for environmental surveillance are discussed. PMID:15723885

  17. Denture plaque and denture cleansers.

    PubMed

    Abelson, D C

    1981-04-01

    Literature concerning the relationship between denture plaque, oral pathology, and the nature and effectiveness of the products commercially available for cleaning dentures has been reviewed. The literature reports indicate that (1) plaque on the tissue surface side of the denture is unquestionably a major etiologic factor in the pathogenesis of denture stomatitis, inflammatory papillary hyperplasia, and chronic candidiasis and (2) there are shortcomings in the popular products used by the public to clean their dentures. The protocol and results of a study to test the plaque removal effectiveness of a new denture cleansing product are described. In this study, the plaque removal effectiveness of the ultrasonic device tested, when used with water alone, was found to be substantially greater than that of two popular alkaline-peroxide soak-type denture cleansers, Efferdent and Polident. PMID:6939844

  18. Dental plaque identification at home

    MedlinePLUS

    ... special tablets that contain a red dye that stains the plaque. One tablet is chewed thoroughly, moving ... this method is that it leaves no pink stains in the mouth. In the office, dentists are ...

  19. EMT in NSCLC and malignant pleural mesothelioma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Soltermann; I. Opitz; V. Tischler; S. Thies; L. Morra; R. A. Stahel; W. Weder; H. Moch

    2010-01-01

    Summary  Both NSCLC and MPM are composed of different histotypes. These histotypes are clinically relevant, since both mutational profiles\\u000a and response to chemotherapeutic drugs are different. Next to histotype markers, predictors such as EGFR are increasingly\\u000a required in clinical pathology, also on cell blocks from pleural effusions. Such effusions can arise from both lung adenocarcinoma\\u000a and MPM, thus are a valid

  20. Acutely calcified hematoma mimicking a displaced medial epicondyle fracture

    PubMed Central

    Majed, Addie; Thomas, Joanna; Ahrens, Philip

    2009-01-01

    We present an interesting and unusual case of an acutely calcified pin-site infection hematoma mimicking a displaced cartilaginous medial epicondyle, in a child with a Gartland type III fracture. The treatment of such pathology could be confusing and may interfere with the correct clinical decision-making process. To our knowledge, this is the first presentation of such a case. PMID:20661398

  1. Clinical features of 46 eyes with calcified hydrogel intraocular lenses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexis Ka Fai Yu; Kenneth Yan Wing Kwan; David Ho Yin Chan; Daniel Yee Tak Fong

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To clarify the clinical features of delayed calcification of hydrogel intraocular lenses (IOLs) based on observation of a large case series.Setting: Ophthalmology department of 2 university teaching hospitals, Hong Kong, China.Methods: The first 44 patients with a known diagnosis of calcified IOL were recruited. Medical and ophthalmic histories were obtained. Surgical details, surgical complications, and visual acuity before and

  2. Ghost cell odontogenic carcinoma arising in calcifying odontogenic cyst

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Utaroh Motosugi; Ikuko Ogawa; Tetsuya Yoda; Takahiro Abe; Masashi Sugasawa; Shin-ichi Murata; Masanori Yasuda; Takaki Sakurai; Yoshihiko Shimizu; Michio Shimizu

    2009-01-01

    A case of exceptionally rare odontogenic malignant tumor, called ghost cell odontogenic carcinoma, is described. The tumor was considered to be derived from calcifying odontogenic cyst, which had been resected 5 years before. In the present resected specimen, cellular atypia, mitotic activity, Ki-67 labeling index, and p53 positivity were all increased in comparison with the initially resected specimen. This is

  3. Chromosomal alterations in atherosclerotic plaques.

    PubMed

    Matturri, L; Cazzullo, A; Turconi, P; Lavezzi, A M; Vandone, P L; Gabrielli, L; Fernández Alonso, G; Grana, D; Milei, J

    2001-02-15

    Alterations of chromosomes 7 and 11 have been involved in the progression of atherosclerosis. Twenty-three carotid endarterectomy specimens were studied for the presence of alterations in chromosomes 7 and 11, and fibroblastic growth factor-3 (FGF-3) gene amplification. Besides classic histological stainings, immunophenotyping of cellular and vascular components and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were performed. At the caps, unstable plaques (n=18) showed inflammatory infiltration of macrophages, smooth muscle cells, and T-lymphocytes. Specifically in these regions, the FISH showed varying percentages of trisomy (15/18) and tetrasomy (8/15) of chromosome 7. In four cases polisomy 7 was noted in some nuclei. Monosomy of chromosome 11 and gene amplification of FGF-3 gene was observed. The FISH of the five stable plaques and normal arterial walls showed no chromosome alterations; furthermore, chromosome 3, which is not involved in atherosclerotic progression, presented a normal ploidy of smooth muscle cells in stable and unstable plaques and normal arterial walls. In conclusion, chromosome 7 and 11 alterations and FGF-3 gene amplification are components of unstable plaques, and might contribute to the evolution of stable plaques into complicated plaques. PMID:11257279

  4. An unusual case of pleural empyema in a tsunami survivor.

    PubMed

    Ota, Hideki; Kawai, Hideki

    2012-06-01

    A 74-year-old man who survived the tsunami after the Great East Japan Earthquake, was admitted to our department because of respiratory distress. He developed aspiration pneumonia and pleural empyema of the right thorax. Decortication was performed by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. An unsuspected aspirated pine tree branch and pulmonary pleural fistula were discovered. The branch was removed, the pleural fistula was opened for drainage of the intrapulmonary abscess, and the patient made a good recovery. PMID:22718730

  5. Fibre distribution in the lungs and pleura of subjects with asbestos related diffuse pleural fibrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, A R; Stephens, M; Griffiths, D M; Blight, B J; Pooley, F D

    1991-01-01

    The lungs from 13 cases of diffuse pleural fibrosis associated with a history of exposure to asbestos were examined. Samples were taken from the visceral pleura and central and subpleural zones of the lungs for histopathological and mineralogical studies. The fibre type, size, and number were estimated for each of these regions by transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive x ray analysis. Amphibole fibre counts were raised when compared with a non-occupationally exposed group and matched those seen in cases of pleural plaques, mild asbestosis, and mesothelioma. A wide case to case variation of distribution was seen. No significant difference was apparent between central and subpleural zones, whereas low asbestos counts were found in the pleura; these were mainly short chrysotile fibres. Within the lungs more (45%) of the longer (greater than 4 microns) and thinner (less than 0.25 micron) amphibole fibres were retained in keeping with other studies implicating such fibre profiles in the pathogenesis of asbestos related disease. PMID:1659443

  6. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of pleural fluid: differentiation of transudative vs exudative pleural effusions.

    PubMed

    Baysal, T; Bulut, T; Gökirmak, M; Kalkan, S; Dusak, A; Dogan, M

    2004-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of diffusion-weighted MRI in differentiating transudative from exudative pleural effusions. Fifty-seven patients with pleural effusion were studied. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) was performed with an echo-planar imaging (EPI) sequence (b values 0, 1000 s/mm(2)) in 52 patients. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were reconstructed from three different regions. Subsequently, thoracentesis was performed and the pleural fluid was analyzed. Laboratory results revealed 20 transudative and 32 exudative effusions. Transudates had a mean ADC value of 3.42+/-0.76 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s. Exudates had a mean ADC value of 3.18+/-1.82 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s. The optimum cutoff point for ADC values was 3.38 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s with a sensitivity of 90.6% and specificity of 85%. A significant negative correlation was seen between ADC values and pleural fluid protein, albumin concentrations and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) measurements ( r=-0.69, -0.66, and -0.46, respectively; p<0.01). The positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and diagnostic accuracy of ADC values were determined to be 90.6, 85, and 88.5%, respectively. The application of diffusion gradients to analyze pleural fluid may be an alternative to the thoracentesis. Non-invasive characterization of a pleural effusion by means of DWI with single-shot EPI technique may obviate the need for thoracentesis with its associated patient morbidity. PMID:12904883

  7. Extensibility changes of calcified soft tissue strips from human aorta.

    PubMed

    Sherebrin, M H; Bernans, H A; Roach, M R

    1987-09-01

    Some degree of calcification was noted in more than half of the 59 aortas of individuals aged from 15 to 88 we have examined at autopsy. The calcification, which is determined by x-raying the opened and flat aorta, is in patches. We have studied the influence of calcification on stress versus strain, breaking strength, and modulus of elasticity of strips of aorta to determine its importance in vascular disease. Strips of aortic wall 5 x 30 mm were cut with orientation parallel or perpendicular to the vessel axis. Elongation versus load was measured with an Instron tensile testing machine. The true stress and true strain were calculated for both calcified and uncalcified strips from the thoracic and abdominal regions in both orientations. From the stress-strain curve the following values were selected: strain, stress, and slope at 80 mmHg equivalent pressure (1 mmHg = 133.3 Pa); maximum stress, strain, and slope; and breaking stress, strain, and slope if the sample broke. There were statistically significant differences in 13 of the 36 categories between calcified and uncalcified strips. The breaking strength and strain is lower in the calcified strips. The stress-strain curve for the uncalcified strip was mathematically transformed by reducing the amount of elongation so that the curve coincided with that of the calcified strip for eight matched pairs from the same individuals. The calcification appears to immobilize part of the strip, probably causing the boundary of the calcified tissue to be a region of high stress where tissue breakdown can occur. PMID:3690406

  8. Comparison of Plaque Characteristics in Narrowings With ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI), Non-STEMI/Unstable Angina Pectoris and Stable Coronary Artery Disease (from the ADAPT-DES IVUS Substudy).

    PubMed

    Dong, Liang; Mintz, Gary S; Witzenbichler, Bernhard; Metzger, D Christopher; Rinaldi, Michael J; Duffy, Peter L; Weisz, Giora; Stuckey, Thomas D; Brodie, Bruce R; Yun, Kyeong Ho; Xu, Ke; Kirtane, Ajay J; Stone, Gregg W; Maehara, Akiko

    2015-04-01

    Assessment of Dual Antiplatelet Therapy With Drug-Eluting Stents (ADAPT-DES) was a prospective, multicenter registry of 8,582 consecutive stable and unstable patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention using a drug-eluting stent. We sought to identify key morphologic features leading to ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) versus non-STEMI (NSTEMI) or unstable angina pectoris (UA) versus stable coronary artery disease (CAD) presentation. In the prespecified grayscale and virtual histology (VH) substudy of ADAPT-DES, preintervention imaging identified 676 patients with a single culprit lesion. The relation between lesion morphology and clinical presentation was compared among patients with (1) STEMI, (2) NSTEMI or UA, and (3) stable CAD. Intravascular ultrasound identified more plaque rupture and VH thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA) in STEMI lesions compared with NSTEMI/UA or stable CAD lesions; conversely, fibroatheromas appeared more often calcified with a thick fibrous cap in stable CAD. Minimum lumen cross-sectional area (MLA) was smaller with larger plaque burden and positive remodeling in STEMI lesions. Lesions with plaque rupture versus those without plaque rupture showed higher prevalence of VH-TCFA and larger plaque burden with positive remodeling, especially in patients with STEMI. Multivariate analysis showed that in the lesions with plaque rupture, plaque burden at the MLA site was the only independent predictor for STEMI (cutoff of plaque burden = 85%) and in lesions without plaque rupture, MLA was the only independent predictor for STEMI (cutoff of MLA = 2.3 mm(2)). In conclusion, culprit lesions causing STEMI have smaller lumen areas, greater plaque burden, and more plaque rupture or VH-TCFA compared with NSTEMI/UA or stable CAD; in lesions with plaque rupture, only plaque burden predicted STEMI, and in lesions without plaque rupture, only MLA area predicted STEMI. PMID:25661569

  9. Tension pneumothorax after placement of a tunneled pleural drainage catheter in a patient with recurrent malignant pleural effusions.

    PubMed

    Wachsman, A M; Hoffer, E K; Forauer, A R; Silas, A M; Gemery, J M

    2007-01-01

    A case of tension pneumothorax developed after placement of a tunneled pleural catheter for treatment of malignant pleural effusion in a patient with advanced lung cancer. The catheter placement was carried out by an experienced operator under direct ultrasound guidance, and the patient showed immediate symptomatic improvement with acute decompensation occurring several hours later. Possible mechanisms for this serious complication of tunneled pleural catheter placement are described, and potential strategies to avoid or prevent it in future are discussed. PMID:16967212

  10. Pioneer F Plaque Symbology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Pioneer F spacecraft, destined to be the first man made object to escape from the solar system into interstellar space, carries this pictorial plaque. It is designed to show scientifically educated inhabitants of some other star system, who might intercept it millions of years from now, when Pioneer was launched, from where, and by what kind of beings. (With the hope that they would not invade Earth.) The design is etched into a 6 inch by 9 inch gold-anodized aluminum plate, attached to the spacecraft's attenna support struts in a position to help shield it from erosion by interstellar dust. The radiating lines at left represents the positions of 14 pulsars, a cosmic source of radio energy, arranged to indicate our sun as the home star of our civilization. The '1-' symbols at the ends of the lines are binary numbers that represent the frequencies of these pulsars at the time of launch of Pioneer F relative of that to the hydrogen atom shown at the upper left with a '1' unity symbol. The hydrogen atom is thus used as a 'universal clock,' and the regular decrease in the frequencies of the pulsars will enable another civilization to determine the time that has elapsed since Pioneer F was launched. The hydrogen is also used as a 'universal yardstick' for sizing the human figures and outline of the spacecraft shown on the right. The hydrogen wavelength, about 8 inches, multiplied by the binary number representing '8' shown next to the woman gives her height, 64 inches. The figures represent the type of creature that created Pioneer. The man's hand is raised in a gesture of good will. Across the bottom are the planets, ranging outward from the Sun, with the spacecraft trajectory arching away from Earth, passing Mars, and swinging by Jupiter.

  11. Effects of Stent Design and Atherosclerotic Plaque Composition on Arterial Wall Biomechanics

    PubMed Central

    Timmins, Lucas H.; Meyer, Clark A.; Moreno, Michael R.; Moore, James E.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the solid mechanical effects of varying stent design and atherosclerotic plaque stiffness on the biomechanical environment induced in a diseased artery wall model. Methods: Computational modeling techniques were employed to investigate the final radius of the lumen and artery wall stresses after stent implantation. Two stent designs were studied (one stiff and one less stiff). The stenotic artery was modeled as an axisymmetrical diseased vessel with a 20% stenosis by diameter. The material properties of the diseased tissue in the artery models varied. Atherosclerotic plaques half as stiff (0.5×), of equal stiffness (1.0×), or twice as stiff (2.0×) as the artery wall were investigated. Results: Final lumen radius was dependent on stent design, and the stiffer stent deformed the artery to an approximately 10% greater radius than the more compliant design. Alternatively, circumferential stress levels were dependent on both stent design and plaque material properties. Overall, the stiffer stent subjected the artery wall to much higher stress values than the more compliant design, with differences in peak values of 0.50, 0.31, and 0.09 MPa for the 2.0×, 1.0×, and 0.5× stiff plaques, respectively. Conclusion: Evidence suggests that a judicious choice of stent design can minimize stress while maintaining a patent lumen in stenotic arteries. If confronted with a rigid, calcified plaque, stent design is more important, as design differences can impose dramatically different stress fields, while still providing arterial patency. Alternatively, stent design is not as much of an issue when treating a soft, lipid-laden plaque, as stress fields do not vary significantly among stent designs. PMID:19090628

  12. Pleural tuberculosis following lung cancer chemotherapy: a report of two cases proven pathologically by pleural biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Madan, Karan; Singh, Navneet; Das, Ashim; Behera, Digambar

    2013-01-01

    Malignancy per se and cytotoxic chemotherapy given for its treatment both are recognised risk factors for the development of tuberculosis (TB). However, individual case descriptions of pleural tuberculosis (TB-PE) following chemotherapy for lung cancer (LC) have not been published previously. We herein report the first two cases of histopathologically proven TB-PE following LC chemotherapy. The first patient was a 38-year-old man with stage IV non-small cell LC (adenocarcinoma) who developed TB-PE following four cycles of chemotherapy (pemetrexed-cisplatin). The second patient was a 49-year-old man with extensive disease small cell LC who developed TB-PE after six cycles of chemotherapy (irinotecan-cisplatin). In both patients, diagnosis of TB-PE was established by demonstration of granulomatous inflammation, caseous necrosis and positive stain for acid-fast bacilli in pleural biopsy specimens. Both cases responded to standard four-drug antitubercular therapy. These cases highlight the importance of carrying out an extensive evaluation for exudative pleural effusions in LC patients receiving chemotherapy, especially in countries with high TB prevalence. Attributing such pleural effusions to disease progression, without histopathological confirmation, may be associated with disastrous consequences. PMID:23345502

  13. Outpatient Management of Malignant Pleural Effusions with Small-Bore, Tunneled Pleural Catheters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali I. Musani; Andrew R. Haas; Luis Seijo; Mary Wilby; Daniel H. Sterman

    2004-01-01

    Background: Malignant pleural effusions (MPEs) can produce significant respiratory symptoms and diminished quality of life in patients with terminal malignancies. Control of MPEs to palliate respiratory symptoms can be performed via several different approaches. Ideally, a minimally invasive procedure to control MPEs and to provide relief of respiratory symptoms would be optimal. Objective: To ascertain if control of MPEs can

  14. [Magnetic resonance imaging of atherosclerotic plaque].

    PubMed

    Ruehm, Stefan G

    2003-09-01

    Recent advances in terms of spatial and temporal resolution have enabled magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to be used to display atherosclerotic plaque. MRI permits not only to detect atherosclerotic lesions but also enables determination of plaque volume and plaque characterization. It allows to display different plaque components such as lipid core, fibrous cap, calcium, and thrombus. To improve the spatial resolution, different invasive approaches based on intravascular coils have been evaluated. Novel contrast agent developments aim at the detection of inflammatory plaque activity in order to identify lesions with a high vascular risk (vulnerable plaque). PMID:14564414

  15. IL-5 in post-traumatic eosinophilic pleural effusion.

    PubMed Central

    Schandené, L; Namias, B; Crusiaux, A; Lybin, M; Devos, R; Velu, T; Capel, P; Bellens, R; Goldman, M

    1993-01-01

    Thoracic trauma or pneumothorax can result in pleural fluid eosinophilia. In this study we investigated the role of the eosinophilopoietic cytokine IL-5 in three cases of post-traumatic eosinophilic pleural effusions (EPE). Using a specific immunoenzymatic assay, significant levels of IL-5 were found in EPE (range 100-3000 pg/ml), while IL-5 was undetectable (< 25 pg/ml) in corresponding serum samples and in non-eosinophilic pleural fluids. IL-5 present in pleural fluids was found bioactive in a proliferative assay using a mouse CTLL-2 cell line transfected with the cDNA corresponding to the alpha chain of the human IL-5 receptor. Using a reverse polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method, we found IL-5 mRNA expression within pleural mononuclear cells from patients with EPE, but not in corresponding peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), confirming that IL-5 is synthesized locally in the pleural cavity. In the two cases in which pleural CD4+ cells were purified, these cells were identified as the major source of IL-5. Taken together, these data indicate that the development of post-traumatic EPE is related to a local secretion of IL-5 by CD4+ cells present in the pleural cavity. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8100745

  16. Thoracoscopic collagen pleurodesis in the treatment of malignant pleural effusions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrei L. Akopov; Vladimir I. Egorov; Vladimir V. Varlamov; Yuri N. Levashev; Dmitri Y. Artioukh

    Objective: Pleurodesis is of a potential benefit in pleural carcinomatosis and symptomatic malignant effusions, but the best way of achieving this is still uncertain. The aim of this prospective study was to analyse the results of pleurodesis after intra-pleural thoracoscopic administration of collagen powder. Methods: 45 patients (19 men and 26 women; median age of 64 years, range from 36

  17. Thoracoscopic collagen pleurodesis in the treatment of malignant pleural effusions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrei L. Akopov; Vladimir I. Egorov; Vladimir V. Varlamov; Yuri N. Levashev; Dmitri Y. Artioukh

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Pleurodesis is of a potential benefit in pleural carcinomatosis and symptomatic malignant effusions, but the best way of achieving this is still uncertain. The aim of this prospective study was to analyse the results of pleurodesis after intra-pleural thoracoscopic administration of collagen powder. Methods: 45 patients (19 men and 26 women; median age of 64 years, range from 36

  18. Unilateral pleural effusion without ascites in liver cirrhosis

    SciTech Connect

    Faiyaz, U.; Goyal, P.C.

    1983-09-01

    The source of massive pleural effusion was not apparent in a 58-year-old man who had cirrhosis but no demonstrable ascites. Intraperitoneal injection of technetium Tc 99m sulfur colloid established the presence of peritoneopleural communication. This diagnostic technique can be helpful in evaluating patients with cirrhosis of the liver and pleural effusion with or without ascites.

  19. Progress in atherosclerotic plaque imaging

    PubMed Central

    Soloperto, Giulia; Casciaro, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the primary cause of mortality in the industrialized world, and arterial obstruction, triggered by rupture-prone atherosclerotic plaques, lead to myocardial infarction and cerebral stroke. Vulnerable plaques do not necessarily occur with flow-limiting stenosis, thus conventional luminographic assessment of the pathology fails to identify unstable lesions. In this review we discuss the currently available imaging modalities used to investigate morphological features and biological characteristics of the atherosclerotic plaque. The different imaging modalities such as ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, nuclear imaging and their intravascular applications are illustrated, highlighting their specific diagnostic potential. Clinically available and upcoming methodologies are also reviewed along with the related challenges in their clinical translation, concerning the specific invasiveness, accuracy and cost-effectiveness of these methods. PMID:22937215

  20. Imaging Atherosclerosis and Vulnerable Plaque

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Mehran M.; Glover, David K.; Lanza, Gregory M.; Fayad, Zahi A.; Johnson, Lynne L.

    2010-01-01

    Identifying patients at high risk for an acute cardiovascular event such as myocardial infarction or stroke and assessing the total atherosclerotic burden are clinically important. Currently available imaging modalities can delineate vascular wall anatomy and, with novel probes, target biologic processes important in plaque evolution and plaque stability. Expansion of the vessel wall involving remodeling of the extracellular matrix can be imaged, as can angiogenesis of the vasa vasorum, plaque inflammation, and fibrin deposits on early nonocclusive vascular thrombosis. Several imaging platforms are available for targeted vascular imaging to acquire information on both anatomy and pathobiology in the same imaging session using either hybrid technology (nuclear combined with CT) or MRI combined with novel probes targeting processes identified by molecular biology to be of importance. This article will discuss the current state of the art of these modalities and challenges to clinical translation. PMID:20395341

  1. Intracytoplasmic barium salts in pleural fluid.

    PubMed

    Chan, A C; Collins, R J; Cheung, T K

    1993-10-01

    Cytological examination of the pleural effusion fluid obtained from a 66-yr-old Chinese lady showed numerous intra- and extracytoplasmic colourless refractile non-birefringent crystals. X-ray analysis of the crystals identified barium salts. On further inquiry, it was learnt that the fluid obtained had been placed in a specimen bottle provided by the x-ray department. This container was presumably contaminated with barium salts. The case highlights an unusual aspect of specimen contamination and the usefulness of x-ray analysis in the identification of crystals/substances. PMID:8165010

  2. A Case of Peritoneal Free Floating Calcified Fibromyoma

    PubMed Central

    Sahadev, Ramaiah

    2014-01-01

    Giant peritoneal loose bodies are rare and few reported cases are found in literature. These are commonly found in the pelvis. Preoperatively these cases are diagnosed accidentally on abdominopelvic evaluation. We report one such case in a male patient who presented to us with acute gangrenous cholecystitis. We had diagnosed the lesion accidentally on a routine ultrasound of the abdomen and pelvis as a calcified leiomyoma of sigmoid colon. On laparoscopy, it was freely floating in the peritoneal cavity without any kind of peritoneal attachment or attachment to any intraperitoneal organ. The peritoneal loose body was removed by a small abdominal incision. Histopathologically the lesion was reported as benign calcified fibromyoma. Small peritoneal loose bodies are relatively common but a large peritoneal loose body is very rare. PMID:24995211

  3. The use of ultrasonic spectroscopy to characterize calcified lesions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rooney, J. A.; Gammell, P. M.; Hestenes, J. D.; Chin, H. P.; Blankenhorn, D. H.

    1981-01-01

    A quantitative basis is developed for the medical application of ultrasonic spectroscopy, particularly in the characterization of calcified lesions associated with atherosclerotic conditions. A theory of the field radiation patterns of disk and ring sources is presented which can be used to predict minima in the reflection spectra of a target as a function of frequency and angle relative to the acoustic axis. The theory is then tested experimentally for objects of known geometry by the use of a time delay spectroscopy system using a swept frequency technique, and results are obtained which demonstrate the usefulness of the technique. Finally, the theory is verified in the determination of lesion diameter and orientation from spectra received from calcified lesions on in vitro arterial specimens as a function of angle.

  4. COMPUTER AIDED EVALUATION OF PLEURAL EFFUSION USING CHEST CT IMAGES

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jianhua; Han, Wei; Summers, Ronald M.

    2009-01-01

    A pleural effusion is a condition where there is a buildup of abnormal fluid within the pleural space. This paper presents an automated method to evaluate the severity of pleural effusion using regular chest CT images. First the lungs are segmented using region growing, mathematical morphology and anatomical knowledge. Then the visceral and parietal layers of the pleura are extracted based on anatomical landmarks, curve fitting and active contour models. Finally, the pleural space is segmented and the pleural effusion is quantified. Our method was tested on 15 chest CT studies. The automated segmentation is validated against manual tracing and radiologist’s qualitative grading. The Pearson correlation between computer evaluation and radiologist’s grading is 0.956 (P=10?7). The Dice coefficient between the automated and manual segmentation is 0.74±0.07, which is comparable to the variation between two different manual tracings. PMID:20407621

  5. Malignant melanoma presenting as an isolated pleural effusion.

    PubMed

    Shameem, M; Akhtar, J; Baneen, U; Khan, N Ahmad; Bhargava, R; Ahmed, Z; Shahid, M; Siddiqui, M Azfar

    2011-06-01

    Isolated pleural effusion is a very rare presentation of malignant melanoma. A 46 year-old male patient presented to us with complaints of shortness of breath during the previous month. A contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT) imaging scan of his thorax showed right-sided pleural effusion with the absence of any mass lesion or mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Cytology of his pleural fluid showed pigmented cells suggestive of malignant melanoma. Staining of the pleural fluid cells with immunohistological markers for melanoma (HMB 45 and S 100) were positive. An examination of his skin did not reveal any pigmented lesion, nor was there a past history of malignant melanoma for this patient. The patient responded well to therapy for malignant melanoma and has remained asymptomatic for the last year. This patient was diagnosed with a rare case of primary malignant melanoma of the pleura presenting as isolated pleural effusion. PMID:21932700

  6. Apollo 16 Moon Plaque Installation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Working inside the Apollo 16 Saturn V space vehicle at the launch pad, Grumman Aerospace Corporation technician Ken Crow attaches a plaque bearing the names and signatures of the Apollo 16 crew to the front leg of the lunar module's descent stage. The stainless steel plaque, which will remain on the lunar surface, measures 18 by 23 cm (seven by nine inches) and will bear the names of the Apollo 16 astronauts, John W. Young, mission Commander; Thomas K. Mattingly II, Command Module Pilot; and Charles M. Duke, Jr., Lunar Module Pilot.

  7. Calcified amorphous tumor in left atrium presenting with cerebral infarction

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Jong Hui; Kwon, Jong Bum; Park, Kuhn

    2014-01-01

    Calcified amorphous tumor (CAT) of the heart is an extremely rare cardiac mass. We describe a case of cardiac CAT in a 70-year-old Korean female who presented with acute onset dysarthria and right side weakness. Echocardiography and chest computed tomography revealed a left atrial mass that originated from the interatrial septum. The patient underwent surgical resection and pathologic examination demonstrated CAT. Postoperative course was uneventful and she was followed without recurrence. PMID:25276375

  8. Hybrid odontogenic tumor of calcifying odontogenic cyst and ameloblastic fibroma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jung Hoon Yoon; Hyung Jun Kim; Jong In Yook; In Ho Cha; Gary L Ellis; Jin Kim

    2004-01-01

    Odontogenic tumors composed of 2 distinct types of lesions are unusual. We report an odontogenic tumor that was composed of calcifying odontogenic cyst and ameloblastic fibroma that occurred in the right posterior maxilla of a 22-year-old Korean woman. The tumor had a cystic component with an ameloblastic epithelial lining and conglomerates of so-called ghost cells, and there were deposits of

  9. CALCIFIED ECTODERMAL COLLAGENS OF SHARK TOOTH ENAMEL AND TELEOST SCALE.

    PubMed

    MOSS, M L; JONES, S J; PIEZ, K A

    1964-08-28

    Amino acid analysis of protein from the enamel of shark teeth and from teleost scales shows the presence of collagens which can be classified chemically as ectodermal. This finding, together with results from a histological examination of the development of these tissues, constitutes strong evidence that both proteins are derived from the ectoderm, like the enamel of higher vertebrates. Since both are calcified, calcification cannot be a specific property of collagens of mesodermal origin alone. PMID:14163820

  10. Ocean acidification and calcifying reef organisms: a mesocosm investigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. L. Jokiel; K. S. Rodgers; I. B. Kuffner; A. J. Andersson; E. F. Cox; F. T. Mackenzie

    2008-01-01

    A long-term (10 months) controlled experiment was conducted to test the impact of increased partial pressure of carbon dioxide\\u000a (pCO2) on common calcifying coral reef organisms. The experiment was conducted in replicate continuous flow coral reef mesocosms\\u000a flushed with unfiltered sea water from Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii. Mesocosms were located in full sunlight and experienced\\u000a diurnal and seasonal fluctuations in temperature

  11. Gastric calcifying fibrous tumor: a very rare case report.

    PubMed

    Vasilakaki, T; Skafida, E; Tsavari, A; Arkoumani, E; Koulia, K; Myoteri, D; Grammatoglou, X; Moustou, E; Firfiris, N; Zisis, D

    2012-05-01

    Calcifying fibrous tumor is a very rare benign mesenchymal tumor which shows a predilection for soft tissue, mesentery and peritoneum. Up to date only 7 cases have been reported in the literature confined to the gastric wall. We report a rare case of a calcifying fibrous tumor of the stomach in a 60-year-old man who presented with dyspepsia, flatulence and feeling weight. A clinical and laboratory investigation was performed with normal results. Gastroscopy revealed a bulge in the gastric body measuring 1 cm with normal overlying mucosa, and mucosal biopsies showed chronic gastritis. Endoscopic ultrasound of the gastric bulge showed a 1 × 0.8 cm hypoechoic lesion involving the gastric wall. After the above finding a wedge resection of the stomach was performed. Microscopically the lesion consisted of well-circumscribed hypocellular hyalinized fibrosclerotic tissue with lympoplasmatic infiltrates, lymphoid aggregates and psammomatous calcifications. Lesional cells were positive for vimentin and factor XIII and negative for actin, desmin, S100p, CD117, CD34, CD31 and ALK-1. The lesion involved the muscularis propria with variable submucosal extension. Calcifying fibrous tumor has shown an excellent prognosis with recurrences being rare and showing the same morphology as the primary lesion. PMID:23109921

  12. Gastric calcifying fibrous tumor removed by endoscopic submucosal dissection

    PubMed Central

    Ogasawara, Naotaka; Izawa, Shinya; Mizuno, Mari; Tanabe, Atsushi; Ozeki, Tomonori; Noda, Hisatsugu; Takahashi, Emiko; Sasaki, Makoto; Yokoi, Toyoharu; Kasugai, Kunio

    2013-01-01

    The World Health Organization describes calcifying fibrous tumors (CFTs) as rare, benign lesions characterized by hypocellular, densely hyalinized collagenization with lymphoplasmacytic infiltration. These tumors rarely involve the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. A routine endoscopic upper gastrointestinal screen detected a 10-mm submucosal tumor (SMT) in the lesser curvature of the lower corpus of the stomach of an apparently healthy, 37-year-old woman with no history of Helicobacter pylori infection. Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) localized the internally isoechoic, homogeneous SMT mainly within the submucosa. Malignancy was ruled out using endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). A pathological examination confirmed complete resection of the SMT, and defined a hypocellular, spindle-cell tumor with a densely hyalinized, collagenous matrix, scattered lymphoplasmacytic aggregates as well as a few psammomatous, dystrophic calcified foci. The mass was immunohistochemically positive for vimentin and negative for CD117 (c-kit protein), CD34, desmin, smooth muscle actin (SMA) and S100. Therefore, the histological findings were characteristic of a CFT. To date, CFT resection by ESD has not been described. This is the first case report of a gastric calcifying fibrous tumor being completely resected by ESD after endoscopic ultrasonography. PMID:24044047

  13. Calcifying epithelial odontogenic cyst associated with complex odontome of maxilla.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Vikalp; Pandilwar, Prashant K

    2013-03-01

    The term calcifying odontogenic cyst was first introduced by Gorlin in 1962 (Eshghyar et al., Acta Med Iran 44(1):59-62, 2006). The lesion is unusual in that it has some features of a cyst but also has many characteristics of a solid neoplasm (Cysts and tumors of odontogenic origin: textbook of oral pathology, 2006). It is classified into two types-Type I-the cystic variant, Type II-solid tumor variant. This case report present Type I B-odontome producing intraosseous calcifying odontogenic cyst and Type I C-with ameloblastomatous proliferation in a 19 years old male patient in the right maxillary quadrant. The lesion involved an unerupted permanent maxillary central incisor, which was displaced to the infraorbital ridge of right side and the radiograph revealed a calcified mass in the periapical region of right incisor that was later recognized histopathologically as complex composite odontoma. The lesion was removed surgically. This case report emphasizes on the presence of this Type I B and C lesion and the need to keep them in follow up. PMID:24431819

  14. Effect of Ocean acidification on growth, calcification and recruitment of calcifying and non-calcifying epibionts of brown algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saderne, V.; Wahl, M.

    2012-03-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of CO2 are leading to an acidification of the oceans by 0.4 pH units in the course of this century according to the more severe model scenarios. The excess of CO2 could notably affect the benthic communities of calcifiers and macrophytes in different aspects (photosynthesis, respiration and calcification). Seaweeds are key species of nearshore benthic ecosystems of the Baltic Sea. They frequently are the substratum of fouling epibionts like bryozoans and tubeworms. Most of those species secrete calcified structures and could therefore be impacted by the seawater pCO2. On the other hand, the biological activity of the host may substantially modulate the pH and pCO2 conditions in the thallus boundary layer where the epibionts live. The aim of the present study was to test the sensitivity of seaweed macrofouling communities to higher pCO2 concentrations. Fragments of the macroalga Fucus serratus bearing the calcifiers Spirorbis spirorbis (Annelida) and Electra pilosa (Bryozoa) and the non-calcifier Alcyonidium gelatinosum (Bryozoa) were maintained for 30 days under three pCO2 conditions: natural 460 ± 59 ?atm and enriched 1193 ± 166 ?atm and 3150 ± 446 ?atm. Our study showed a significant reduction of growth rates and recruitment of Spirorbis individuals only at the highest pCO2. At a finer temporal resolution, the tubeworm recruits exhibited enhanced calcification of 40% during irradiation hours compared to dark hours, presumably due to the effect of photosynthetic and respiratory activities of the host alga on the carbonate system. Electra colonies showed significantly increased growth rates at 1193 ?atm. No effect on Alcyonidium colonies growth rates was observed. Those results suggest a remarkable resistance of the algal macro-epibiontic communities to the most elevated pCO2 foreseen in year 2100 for open ocean (~1000 ?atm) conditions possibly due to the modulation of environmental conditions by the biological activities of the host alga.

  15. Effect of Ocean acidification on growth, calcification and reproduction of calcifying and non-calcifying epibionts of brown algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saderne, V.; Wahl, M.

    2012-04-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of CO2 are leading to an acidification of the oceans of 0.4 pH units in the course of this century according to the more severe model scenarios. The excess of CO2 could notably affect the benthic communities of calcifiers and macrophytes in different aspects (photosynthesis, respiration and calcification). Seaweeds are one of the key species of nearshore benthic ecosystems of the Baltic Sea. They are the substratum of several fouling epibionts like bryozoans and tubeworms. Most of those species are bearing calcified structures and could therefore be potentially impacted by the seawater pCO2. On the other hand, the biological activity of the host may substantially modulate the pH and pCO2 conditions in the boundary layer where the epibionts live. The aim of the present study was to test the sensitivity of seaweed macrofouling communities to higher pCO2 concentration. Fragments of macroalgae Fucus serratus bearing the calcifiers Spirorbis spirorbis (Annelida) and Electra pilosa (Bryozoa) and the non-calcifier Alcyonidium gelatinosum (Bryozoa) were maintained for 30 days under three pCO2: natural 460 ± 59 µatm and enriched 1193 ± 166 µatm and 3150 ± 446 µatm. Our study showed a significant reduction of growth rates and reproduction of Spirorbis individuals at the highest pCO2. Tubeworms Juveniles exhibited enhanced calcification of 40 % when in the light compare to dark, presumably due to effect of photosynthetic and respiratory activities of the host alga. Electra colonies showed significantly improved growth rates at 1193 µatm. The overall net dissolution of the communities was significantly higher at 3150 µatm. No effect on Alcyonidium colonies growth rates was observed. Those results suggest a remarkable resistance of the algal macro-epibiontic communities to the most elevated pCO2 predicted for 2100 for open ocean (~1000 µatm) conditions. Concerns remains with regards to higher pCO2 possibly found in the future Baltic Sea.

  16. Association of Randall's Plaques with Collagen Fibers and Membrane Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Saeed R.; Rodriguez, Douglas E.; Gower, Laurie B.; Monga, Manoj

    2013-01-01

    Background Idiopathic calcium oxalate (CaOx) kidney stones develop by deposition of CaOx crystals on Randall's plaques (RP). Mechanisms involved in RP formation are still unclear. Objective It is our hypotheses that RP formation is similar to vascular calcification involving components of extracellular matrix including membrane bound vesicles (MV) and collagen fibers. In order to verify our hypothesis we critically examined renal papillary tissue from stone patients. Methods 4 mm cold-cup biopies of renal papillae were performed on fifteen idiopathic stone patients undergoing PCNL. Tissue was immediately fixed and processed for analyses by various light and electron microscopic techniques. Results and Limitations Spherulitic CaP crystals, the hallmark of RP's, were seen in all samples examined. They were seen in interstitium as well as laminated basement membrane of tubular epithelia. Large crystalline deposits comprised of dark elongated strands mixed with spherulites. Strands showed banded patterns similar to collagen. Crystal deposits were surrounded by collagen fibers and membrane bound vesicles. Energy dispersive x-ray microanalyses (EDX) and electron diffraction identified the crystals as hydroxyapatite. The number of kidneys examined is small and urinary data was not available for all the patients. Conclusions Results presented here show that crystals in the Randall's plaques are associated with both the collagen as well as MV. Collagen fibers appeared calcified and vesicles contained crystals. We conclude that crystal deposition in renal papillae may have started with membrane vesicle induced nucleation and grew by addition of crystals on the periphery within a collagen framework. PMID:22266007

  17. 77 FR 34389 - Determination of Regulatory Review Period for Purposes of Patent Extension; Progel Pleural Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ...Patent Extension; Progel Pleural Air Leak Sealant AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration...review period for Progel Pleural Air Leak Sealant and is publishing this notice of that...medical device, Progel Pleural Air Leak Sealant. Progel Pleural Air Leak Sealant is...

  18. Role of CT in assessing pleural malignancy prior to thoracoscopy.

    PubMed

    Hallifax, R J; Haris, M; Corcoran, J P; Leyakathalikhan, S; Brown, E; Srikantharaja, D; Manuel, A; Gleeson, F V; Munavvar, M; Rahman, N M

    2015-02-01

    The definitive diagnosis of pleural malignancy depends upon histological confirmation by pleural biopsy. CT is reported to have a high sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of malignant pleural disease, and is part of the routine diagnostic workup of these patients. The aim of this study was to assess the sensitivity and specificity of CT in detecting pleural malignancy prior to definitive histology obtained via thoracoscopy in a large cohort of patients with suspected malignant pleural disease. Retrospective review of thoracoscopies between January 2008 and January 2013 at two UK tertiary referral centres: Oxford and Preston. The histological results were compared with the CT reported diagnosis before the procedure. CT scan reports were assessed by independent respiratory physicians as to whether the radiologist concluded evidence of malignant pleural disease or benign features only. 211 (57%) of 370 patients included in the analysis had malignant disease: CT scans were reported as 'malignant' in 144, giving a sensitivity of 68% (95% CI 62% to 75%). Of the 159 patients with benign disease, 124 had CT scans reported as benign: specificity 78% (72% to 84%). The positive predictive value of a malignant CT report was 80% (75% to 86%), with a negative predictive value of 65% (58% to 72%). A significant proportion of patients being investigated for malignant disease will have malignancy despite a negative CT report. The use of CT alone in determining which patients should have invasive pleural biopsies should be re-evaluated, and further studies to define the diagnostic pathway are now required. PMID:25077699

  19. Pneumococcal serotypes causing pneumonia with pleural effusion in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jigui; Salamon, Douglas; Marcon, Mario; Nahm, Moon H

    2011-02-01

    To determine the prevalence of serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae responsible for pneumonia with pleural effusion, we determined the capsular polysaccharide (PS) type directly on 49 pleural fluid specimens collected from pediatric patients during 2007 to 2009 with laboratory-confirmed pneumococcal pneumonia by using monoclonal antibodies and a multiplex, bead array immunoassay. Because the fluids had to be heated to remove nonspecific reactivity before being tested in the immunoassay and type 19A PS is heat labile, the pleural fluid samples were also tested for serotype 19A capsule gene locus by PCR. Use of the multiplex immunoassay combined with type-specific 19A PCR allowed for serotype determination on 40 of 49 pleural fluids. Pneumococcal pneumonia with pleural effusion was associated with a limited number of serotypes, with types 1, 3, 7F/A, and 19A accounting for 75% of the typeable cases. The concentration of capsular PS in the pleural fluids was often greater than 1 ?g/ml and sufficient to inhibit the opsonic capacity of sera from individuals who had received the 23-valent pneumococcal PS vaccine. Based on the serotypes observed before and after introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, the recently licensed 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine may reduce the incidence of pneumonia with pleural effusions. PMID:21123535

  20. Pleural Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) for Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma (MPM)

    PubMed Central

    Rosenzweig, Kenneth E.; Zauderer, Marjorie G.; Laser, Benjamin; Krug, Lee M.; Yorke, Ellen; Sima, Camelia S.; Rimner, Andreas; Flores, Raja; Rusch, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) who are unable to undergo a pneumonectomy, it is difficult to deliver tumoricidal doses of radiation to the pleura without significant toxicity. We have implemented a technique of using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) to treat these patients, and we hereby report the feasibility and toxicity of this approach. Methods and Materials Between 2005 and 2010, 36 patients with MPM and two intact lungs (i.e. no prior pneumonectomy) were treated with pleural IMRT to the hemithorax (median dose: 46.8 Gy, range: 41.4–50.4 Gy) at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. Results Patient characteristics were: right sided (56%), histology (epithelial – 78%, sarcomatoid – 6%, mixed – 17%), stage (I – 6%, II – 28%, III – 33%, IV – 33%). Thirty-two patients (89%) received induction chemotherapy (mostly cisplatin and pemetrexed). 56% underwent pleurectomy/decortication (P/D) prior to IMRT and 44% did not undergo resection. Of 36 patients evaluable for acute toxicity, 7 (20%) had grade 3 or worse pneumonitis (including one death) and 2 had grade 3 fatigue. In 30 patients assessable for late toxicity, 5 had continuing grade 3 pneumonitis. For patients treated with surgery, the 1-year and 2-year survival rates were 75%, 53%, and the median survival was 26 months. For patients who did not have surgical resection, the 1-year and 2-year survival rates were 69%, 28%, and the median survival was 17 months. Conclusions Treating the intact lung with pleural IMRT in patients with MPM is a safe and feasible treatment option with an acceptable rate of pneumonitis. Additionally, the survival rates were encouraging in this retrospective series, particularly for the patients who underwent P/D. We have initiated a phase II trial of induction chemotherapy with pemetrexed and cisplatin +/? pleurectomy/decortication followed by pleural IMRT in order to prospectively evaluate toxicity and survival. PMID:22607910

  1. Pleural effusion segmentation in thin-slice CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donohue, Rory; Shearer, Andrew; Bruzzi, John; Khosa, Huma

    2009-02-01

    A pleural effusion is excess fluid that collects in the pleural cavity, the fluid-filled space that surrounds the lungs. Surplus amounts of such fluid can impair breathing by limiting the expansion of the lungs during inhalation. Measuring the fluid volume is indicative of the effectiveness of any treatment but, due to the similarity to surround regions, fragments of collapsed lung present and topological changes; accurate quantification of the effusion volume is a difficult imaging problem. A novel code is presented which performs conditional region growth to accurately segment the effusion shape across a dataset. We demonstrate the applicability of our technique in the segmentation of pleural effusion and pulmonary masses.

  2. View of Commemorative Plaque for ASTP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A close-up view of the Commemorative Plaque for the Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP). Two plaques divided into four quarters each will be flown on the ASTP mission. A four-part plaque is completely assembled here. The American ASTP crew will carry the four U.S. quarter pieces aboard Apollo; and the Soviet ASTP crew will carry the four USSR quarter sections aboard Soyuz. The eight quarter pieces will be joined together to form two complete commemorative plaques after the two spacecraft rendezvous and dock in Earth orbit. One complete plaque then will be returned to Earth by the astronauts; the other complete plaque will be brought back by the cosmonauts. The plaque is written in both English and Russian.

  3. Plaque and arterial vulnerability investigation in a three-layer atherosclerotic human coronary artery using computational fluid-structure interaction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, Alireza; Navidbakhsh, Mahdi; Razaghi, Reza

    2014-08-01

    Coronary artery disease is the common form of cardiovascular diseases and known to be the main reason of deaths in the world. Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) simulations can be employed to assess the interactions of artery/plaque and blood to provide a more precise anticipation for rupture of arterial tissue layers and plaque tissues inside an atherosclerotic artery. To date, the arterial tissue in computational FSI simulations has been considered as a one-layer structure. However, a single layer assumption might have deeply bounded the results and, consequently, more computational simulation is needed by considering the arterial tissue as a three-layer structure. In this study, a three-dimensional computational FSI model of an atherosclerotic artery with a three-layer structure and different plaque types was established to perform a more accurate arterial wall/plaque tissue vulnerability assessment. The hyperelastic material coefficients of arterial layers were calculated and implemented in the computational model. The fully coupled fluid and structure models were solved using the explicit dynamics finite element code LS-DYNA. The results revealed the significant role of plaque types in the normal and shear stresses induced within the arterial tissue layers. The highest von Mises and shear stresses were observed on the stiffest calcified plaque with 3.59 and 3.27 MPa, while the lowest von Mises and shear stresses were seen on the hypocellular plaque with 1.15 and 0.63 MPa, respectively. Regardless of plaque types, the media and adventitia layers were played protective roles by displaying less stress on their wall, whilst the intima layer was at a high risk of rupture. The findings of this study have implications not only for determining the most vulnerable arterial layer/plaque tissue inside an atherosclerotic coronary artery but also for balloon-angioplasty, stenting, and bypass surgeries.

  4. [Current surgical therapy for malignant pleural mesothelioma].

    PubMed

    Takuwa, Teruhisa; Hasegawa, Seiki

    2015-01-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare tumor and associated with very poor prognosis. The median survival time( MST) was 8.9 months for those treated by palliative care only. For a radical treatment, total removal of the tumor is the main therapy as well as other solid tumors, but these diffuse and infiltrate growth pattern of tumor make it difficult. The MST was 13 months for patients treated by surgery only. On the other hand, MST using pemetrexed/cisplatin was 12.1 months. There are negative opinions for invasive surgical treatment such as extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP). Currently surgical treatment of mesothelioma is conducted as part of the multidisciplinary treatment combined with chemotherapy and radiation therapy. PMID:25595163

  5. [Experimental gluing of the pleural cavity].

    PubMed

    Barcikowski, S; Otulski, H; Majchrzak, K; Gaszy?ski, W; Kajca, Z

    1979-04-01

    In experimental research on rabbits the authors assessed the usefulness of tissue adhesive-GRF in obtaining tissue union in the pleural cavity to replace aspiration drainage after thoracosurgical operations. The experiments were carried out on rabbits under general anaesthesia in two groups. First group had thoracotomy and after expansion of the lungs the chest was closed tightly. In second group after thoracotomy the lungs were stabilized with gelatin-resorcin-formaldehyde glue. Aspiration drainage was not used. The observation included: radiologic examination, measurements of pulmonary ventilation using Wright's volumometer and gasometric determination. Moreover the alveolar-capillary oxygen difference and the percent of lung shunt were determined. The authors underline good function glued lungs. PMID:573025

  6. Aberrant DNA methylation profile in pleural fluid for differential diagnosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Masanori; Fujimoto, Nobukazu; Hiraki, Akio; Gemba, Kenichi; Aoe, Keisuke; Umemura, Shigeki; Katayama, Hideki; Takigawa, Nagio; Kiura, Katsuyuki; Tanimoto, Mitsune; Kishimoto, Takumi

    2012-03-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) usually develops pleural fluid. We investigated the value of DNA methylation in the pleural fluid for differentiating MPM from lung cancer (LC). Pleural fluid was collected from 39 patients with MPM, 46 with LC, 25 with benign asbestos pleurisy (BAP) and 30 with other causes. The methylation of O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), p16(INK4a) , ras association domain family 1A (RASSF1A), death-associated protein kinase (DAPK), and retinoic acid receptor ? (RAR?) was examined using quantitative real-time PCR. DNA methylation of RASSF1A, p16(INK4a), RAR?, MGMT and DAPK was detected in 12 (30.8%), 3 (7.7%), 11 (28.2%), 0 (0.0%) and five patients (12.8%) with MPM, and in 22 (47.8%), 14 (30.4%), 24 (52.2%), 1 (2.2%) and six patients (13.0%) with LC, respectively. The mean methylation ratios of RASSF1A, p16(INK4a) and RAR? were 0.37 (range 0.0-2.84), 0.11 (0.0-2.67) and 0.44 (0.0-3.32) in MPM, and 0.87 (0.0-3.14), 1.16 (0.0-5.35) and 1.69 (0.0-6.49) in LC, respectively. The methylation ratios for the three genes were significantly higher in LC than in MPM (RASSF1A, P = 0.039; p16(INK4a), P = 0.005; and RAR?, P = 0.002). Patients with methylation in at least one gene were 3.51 (95% confidence interval, 1.09-11.34) times more likely to have LC. Hypermethylation seemed no greater with MPM than with BAP. Extended exposure to asbestos (?30 years) was correlated with an increased methylation frequency (P = 0.020). Hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes in pleural fluid DNA has the potential to be a valuable marker for differentiating MPM from LC. PMID:22146010

  7. Calcified Vocal Cord Nodule – A Unique Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Sundarapandian, S; Suresh, Revathy V

    2014-01-01

    Vocal cord nodules are benign neoplastic lesions which occur due to submucosal oedema and haemorrhage, leading to fibrosis and hyalinization. Calcification in vocal cord nodules has not been reported so far in literature. It is thought to be a laryngeal counterpart of idiopathic calcinosis cutis. Here, we are reporting a case of a 38-year-old male patient who presented with a change in voice, which had a duration of one month. Laryngoscopic examination revealed a globular, yellowish white, sessile mass which arose from anterior commissure region of right vocal cord. Micro laryngeal excision was done. Histopathological examination was suggestive of a calcified nodule in vocal cord. PMID:24783113

  8. Extracorporeal shockwave therapy in calcifying tendinitis of the shoulder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sebastian Farr; Florian Sevelda; Patrick Mader; Alexandra Graf; Gert Petje; Manuel Sabeti-Aschraf

    Purpose  Strategies for extracorporeal shockwave therapy in calcifying tendinitis of the rotator cuff vary concerning quantity of sessions\\u000a and doses. The purpose of this prospective pilot study was to determine the difference between the outcome of a single high-dosage\\u000a extracorporeal shockwave therapy and two sessions of low-dosage extracorporeal shockwave therapy.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  This study compared a single high-level middle-energetic extracorporeal shockwave therapy (0.3 mJ\\/mm2)

  9. Targeting Angiogenesis-Dependent Calcified Neoplasms Using Combined Polymer Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Ehud; Pan, Huaizhong; Ofek, Paula; Udagawa, Taturo; Kope?ková, Pavla; Kope?ek, Jind?ich; Satchi-Fainaro, Ronit

    2009-01-01

    Background There is an immense clinical need for novel therapeutics for the treatment of angiogenesis-dependent calcified neoplasms such as osteosarcomas and bone metastases. We developed a new therapeutic strategy to target bone metastases and calcified neoplasms using combined polymer-bound angiogenesis inhibitors. Using an advanced “living polymerization” technique, the reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT), we conjugated the aminobisphosphonate alendronate (ALN), and the potent anti-angiogenic agent TNP-470 with N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymer through a Glycine-Glycine-Proline-Norleucine linker, cleaved by cathepsin K, a cysteine protease overexpressed at resorption sites in bone tissues. In this approach, dual targeting is achieved. Passive accumulation is possible due to the increase in molecular weight following polymer conjugation of the drugs, thus extravasating from the tumor leaky vessels and not from normal healthy vessels. Active targeting to the calcified tissues is achieved by ALN's affinity to bone mineral. Methods and Finding The anti-angiogenic and antitumor potency of HPMA copolymer-ALN-TNP-470 conjugate was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. We show that free and conjugated ALN-TNP-470 have synergistic anti-angiogenic and antitumor activity by inhibiting proliferation, migration and capillary-like tube formation of endothelial and human osteosarcoma cells in vitro. Evaluation of anti-angiogenic, antitumor activity and body distribution of HPMA copolymer-ALN-TNP-470 conjugate was performed on severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) male mice inoculated with mCherry-labeled MG-63-Ras human osteosarcoma and by modified Miles permeability assay. Our targeted bi-specific conjugate reduced VEGF-induced vascular hyperpermeability by 92% and remarkably inhibited osteosarcoma growth in mice by 96%. Conclusions This is the first report to describe a new concept of a narrowly-dispersed combined polymer therapeutic designed to target both tumor and endothelial compartments of bone metastases and calcified neoplasms at a single administration. This new approach of co-delivery of two synergistic drugs may have clinical utility as a potential therapy for angiogenesis-dependent cancers such as osteosarcoma and bone metastases. PMID:19381291

  10. Calcified vocal cord nodule - a unique case report.

    PubMed

    Sundarapandian, S; Suresh, Revathy V

    2014-03-01

    Vocal cord nodules are benign neoplastic lesions which occur due to submucosal oedema and haemorrhage, leading to fibrosis and hyalinization. Calcification in vocal cord nodules has not been reported so far in literature. It is thought to be a laryngeal counterpart of idiopathic calcinosis cutis. Here, we are reporting a case of a 38-year-old male patient who presented with a change in voice, which had a duration of one month. Laryngoscopic examination revealed a globular, yellowish white, sessile mass which arose from anterior commissure region of right vocal cord. Micro laryngeal excision was done. Histopathological examination was suggestive of a calcified nodule in vocal cord. PMID:24783113

  11. Plaque-Based Competitive Hybridization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zoltán Villányi; István Gyurján; Viktor Stéger; László Orosz

    2008-01-01

    The authors have developed a simple, cost-saving experimental design, plaque-based competitive hybridization (PBCH), for genome-wide identification of genes differentially expressed in different tissues. PBCH offers advantages in comparison with other methods used in comparative genomics by combining the principles of differential hybridization with the subtractive hybridization. PBCH is particularly advantageous when libraries with few differences are to be analyzed. The

  12. Methotrexate-induced pleuropericarditis and eosinophilic pleural effusion.

    PubMed

    Cudzilo, Corey; Aragaki, Alejandro; Guitron, Julian; Benzaquen, Sadia

    2014-01-01

    A 41-year-old man developed widespread skin rash involving his knees, elbows, and gluteal region. He received methotrexate for approximately 1 month and later developed dyspnea and a left-sided eosinophilic pleural effusion. He was transiently placed on oral steroids. Subsequent skin biopsy showed psoriatric arthritis. Methotrexate was restarted and 8 weeks into the treatment, he developed dyspnea, a hemorrhagic pericardial effusion, and a right-sided eosinophilic pleural effusion. Methotrexate was discontinued, but patient developed dyspnea with a recurrent right eosinophilic pleural effusion, 2 weeks later. Pleural biopsies were obtained through medical pleuroscopy that revealed mild chronic inflammation with prominent eosinophils and no evidence for malignancy. Oral steroids were restarted with significant improvement in his symptoms. PMID:24419196

  13. Dantrolene and pleural effusion: case report and review of literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B Lę-Quang; P Calmels; E Valayer-Chaléat; I Fayolle-Minon; V Gautheron

    2004-01-01

    Study design: Single-subject case (a quadriplegic female, 56 years).Objectives: To describe a new case of eosinophilic pleural effusion induced by dantrolene chronic administration.Setting: Physical medicine and rehabilitation unit in a teaching hospital, France.Methods: Diagnosis of an eosinophilic pleural effusion induced by dantrolene without any respiratory symptoms, except a decrease of breath sounds on the right lung base.Results: Chest radiograph revealed

  14. Disposition of phosphomycin in patients with pleural effusion.

    PubMed Central

    Lastra, C F; Marińo, E L; Barrueco, M; Gervós, M S; Gil, A D

    1984-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of phosphomycin were studied in seven patients with pleural effusion of varied etiologies. All patients received a single intravenous bolus of 30 mg of antibiotic per kg. Phosphomycin levels in plasma and pleural fluid were determined simultaneously. Antibiotic levels in plasma followed a two-compartment open kinetic model. In the pleural fluid, maximum concentrations of phosphomycin, 42.63 +/- 16.03 micrograms/ml (mean +/- standard deviation), were reached at 3.69 +/- 1.08 h after administration of the antibiotic. The disappearance constant of the antibiotic from the pleural fluid was significantly smaller (0.16 +/- 0.06 h-1) than the elimination constant determined from the levels of drug in plasma (0.73 +/- 0.26 h-1). Phosphomycin persisted in antibacterial concentrations in the pleural fluid for a considerable period of time. The low accessibility of phosphomycin observed in one of the patients in the study, with a maximum concentration value of 2.16 micrograms of phosphomycin per ml of pleural fluid, could be due to the existence of pachypleuritis in that patient; this was later confirmed in clinical and histological studies done after the research described here. PMID:6732214

  15. [Pancreaticomediastinal fistula as a rare cause of recurrent pleural effusions].

    PubMed

    Sandmann, M; Fähndrich, M; Heike, M

    2007-10-01

    A 45-year-old male with chronic alcoholism was transferred to our hospital with progressive dyspnoea, bilateral pleural effusions and ascites. Serum concentrations of lipase and CRP were increased. Pleural effusions recurred despite repeated thoracentesis, antibiotic therapy and total parenteral nutrition. A CT scan of chest and abdomen showed a lipomatous pancreas without signs of necrosis. Endosonography (EUS) demonstrated as signs of chronic pancreatitis an increased lobularity of the parenchyma without calcifications and two small cystic lesions in the pancreatic head. The pleural fluid lipase levels were markedly increased compared to a low lipase concentration in ascites. As an explanation for the pleural effusions ERCP showed a retroperitoneal fistula in the head/body region into the mediastinum and a stenosis of the pancreatic duct in the pancreatic head. For the ascites an inflammatory pathogenesis due to the exacerbation of chronic pancreatitis had to be assumed because the analysis showed an exudate with leukocytosis. After papillotomy via the pancreatic duct a 10 French wide 9 cm long stent was inserted into the pancreatic duct bridging the pancreatic fistula. Within 10 days pleural effusions had completely receded. After three weeks pancreaticography showed a total regression of the fistula and the stent was exchanged. After 6 weeks the pancreatic stent was removed with a lasting remission of the pleural effusions. PMID:17924302

  16. Intra-Pleural Colistin Methanesulfonate Therapy for Pleural Infection caused by Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter Baumannii: A Successful Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Muhammad Asim; Rahman, Basheer Abd El; Mady, Ahmed Fouad; Odat, Mohammed Al; AlHarthy, Abdurehman; Ramadan, Omar El Sayed; Mumtaz, Shahzad Ahmed; Omrani, Ali S.

    2014-01-01

    Infections caused by carbapenem-resistant, Gram-negative bacteria are an increasing clinical challenge, since the antimicrobial treatment options are often limited to colistin methanesulfonate. No data are available regarding the pharmacokinetics of colistin in pleural fluid. We report the case of a 92-year old man with ventilator-associated pneumonia and pleurisy caused by Acinetobacter baumannii and Escherichia coli, which were both multidrug-resistant. After an unsuccessful treatment with intravenous colistin methanesulfonate and imipen-em-cilastatin, the addition of intra-pleural colistin methanesulfonate to the intravenous treatment led to a prompt clinical, radiological and microbiological resolution. This is the first report of a successful use of intra-pleural colistin in the literature. The intra-pleural colistin therapy should be considered in selected cases of pleurisy caused by multi-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:25276329

  17. Calcified cartilage morphometry and its relation to subchondral bone remodeling in equine arthrosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W Norrdin; C. E Kawcak; B. A Capwell; C. W McIlwraith

    1999-01-01

    The calcified layer of articular cartilage is known to be affected by age and mechanical factors that may play a role in the development of arthrosis. Because these factors are also related to subchondral remodeling and sclerosis, a morphometric study was carried out in fluorochrome-labeled animals to determine whether the level of subchondral remodeling affected the thickness of the calcified

  18. MID-LATE DEVONIAN CALCIFIED MARINE ALGAE AND CYANOBACTERIA, SOUTH CHINA

    E-print Network

    Riding, Robert

    MID-LATE DEVONIAN CALCIFIED MARINE ALGAE AND CYANOBACTERIA, SOUTH CHINA QI FENG,1 YI-MING GONG,1 contain microfossils generally regarded as calcified algae and cyanobacteria. These are present in 61 out with differing degrees of confidence, and placed in algae, cyanobacteria or microproblematica. Algae: Halysis

  19. Ghost Cells in Calcifying Odontogenic Cyst Express Enamel-related Proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Takata; M. Zhao; H. Nikai; T. Uchida; T. Wang

    2000-01-01

    The so-called ghost cell is a unique cell type occurring in a variety of odontogenic and non-odontogenic lesions. However, the true nature of ghost cells has not been determined. In the present study, we examined the immunoreactivity of ghost cells in calcifying odontogenic cysts and dermal calcifying epitheliomas, with antibodies against amelogenin, enamelin, sheath protein (sheathlin) and enamelysin, in an

  20. CT and US features of renal matrix stones with calcified center

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Seung H.; Lee, Sang E.; Park, In A. [Seoul National Univ. Hospital (Korea, Republic of)] [Seoul National Univ. Hospital (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-05-01

    We report imaging findings of renal matrix stones in a patient with congenital ureteropelvic junction obstruction associated with urinary tract infection. The stones were composed of a calcified center and a non-calcified peripheral matrix that was slightly high attenuated on CT and nonshadowing on US. 8 refs., 1 fig.

  1. Extraction of high quality DNA from biological materials and calcified tissues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Stray; Allison Holt; Maxim Brevnov; Lisa M. Calandro; Manohar R. Furtado; Jaiprakash G. Shewale

    2009-01-01

    Calcified tissues, such as bone and tooth, and some other sample types, such as those containing adhesive, present a challenge to standard extraction protocols. We have developed a lysis reagent, BTA™ lysis buffer, which is designed for use with PrepFiler™ Kit reagents. The BTA™ lysis buffer disrupts calcified tissue matrices and achieves effective extraction of DNA from pulverized bone and

  2. A Voltage-Gated H+ Channel Underlying pH Homeostasis in Calcifying Coccolithophores

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alison R. Taylor; Abdul Chrachri; Glen Wheeler; Helen Goddard; Colin Brownlee

    2011-01-01

    Marine coccolithophorid phytoplankton are major producers of biogenic calcite, playing a significant role in the global carbon cycle. Predicting the impacts of ocean acidification on coccolithophore calcification has received much recent attention and requires improved knowledge of cellular calcification mechanisms. Uniquely amongst calcifying organisms, coccolithophores produce calcified scales (coccoliths) in an intracellular compartment and secrete them to the cell surface,

  3. Species-specific responses of calcifying algae to changing seawater carbonate chemistry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerald Langer; Markus Geisen; Karl-Heinz Baumann; Jessica Kläs; Ulf Riebesell; Silke Thoms; Jeremy R. Young

    2006-01-01

    Uptake of half of the fossil fuel CO2 into the ocean causes gradual seawater acidification. This has been shown to slow down calcification of major calcifying groups, such as corals, foraminifera, and coccolithophores. Here we show that two of the most productive marine calcifying species, the coccolithophores Coccolithus pelagicus and Calcidiscus leptoporus, do not follow the CO2-related calcification response previously

  4. Ocean acidification: documenting its impact on calcifying phytoplankton at basin scales

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William M. Balch; Victoria J. Fabry

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate several approaches to discern the impact of ocean acidifica- tion on calcifying plankton, over basin scales. We focus on estimates of the standing stock of particu- late inorganic carbon (PIC) associated with calcifying plankton since it is thought that these organ- isms will be the most sensitive to ocean acidification. Chemical techniques provide the greatest

  5. Micro-Raman spectroscopic investigation of dental calcified tissues.

    PubMed

    Schulze, K A; Balooch, M; Balooch, G; Marshall, G W; Marshall, S J

    2004-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if dental calcified junctions (DEJs/CDJs) in human teeth contain different compositional phases compared to the adjacent dental calcified tissues. Peak positions and intensities were determined from micro-Raman spectra for PO(3-) (4) and the C--H modes and compared among the mineralized tissues and their junctions. Values of width were determined from the intersections of intensity regression lines through the junctions and in the adjacent tissues. The peaks were measured in 1-microm steps along a l00-microm line across the junction. High-resolution analysis revealed that PO(3-) (4) band peaks for dentin, the DEJ, enamel, the CDJ, and cementum were at the same position (959 cm(-1)), while for the C--H stretching mode a significant shift of 4.6 cm(-1) was found between enamel, the DEJ, and dentin. The mean width of the DEJ was 7.6 (+/- 2.8) microm using the PO(3-) (4) band and 8.6 (+/- 3.6) microm using the C--H stretching mode. Across the DEJ, the mineral content monotonically decreased from enamel to dentin while the organic component monotonically increased. The DEJ width was in agreement with prior nanoindentation studies. No width estimate was possible for the CDJ because the compositional differences between cementum and dentin were small. PMID:15058001

  6. ACTIVATION OF T LYMPHOCYTES IN ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES

    PubMed Central

    Grivel, Jean-Charles; Ivanova, Oxana; Pinegina, Natalia; Blank, Paul S.; Shpektor, Alexander; Margolis, Leonid B.; Vasilieva, Elena

    2011-01-01

    Objective To decipher the immunological mechanisms of plaque maturation and rupture, it is necessary to analyze the phenotypes and distribution of individual lymphocytes which migrate to the plaques as well as their activation at different stages of plaque formation. Methods and Results We developed a protocol to isolate plaque-residing immune cells and analyze their status using polychromatic flow cytometry. We found that the composition and phenotype of T lymphocytes in the plaques differs from that in blood. CD4 and, in particular, CD8+ T cells in plaques are highly activated; the fraction of CD8 T cells co-expressing CD25 and HLA-DR in plaques was 10 times larger than in blood. Conclusions The first flow-cytoanalysis of individual T cells in atherosclerotic plaques indicates that plaques represent a separate immunological compartment from blood with lymphocytes characterized by a high level of T cells activation, which is compatible with the presence of antigen(s) that trigger infiltration activation of these cells. The ability to isolate and characterize these cells may lead to the identification of such antigens. PMID:21960562

  7. Biomechanical structural stresses of atherosclerotic plaques.

    PubMed

    Sadat, Umar; Teng, Zhongzhao; Gillard, Jonathan H

    2010-10-01

    Atherosclerotic plaques may rupture without warning, causing fatal clinical events such as myocardial infarction and stroke. Degree of stenosis, which is the current criterion for assessment of atherosclerotic disease severity, has been observed to have poor correlation with plaque vulnerability. Under physiological conditions, plaque undertakes mechanical loadings due to blood pressure and flow. From the material view point, rupture possibly occurs when the extra loading exceeds the material strength of the plaque. Therefore, morphological and mechanical features should be considered in an integrated way for a more accurate assessment of plaque vulnerability and for identification of the at-risk patient. Biomechanical stress analysis is a technique that allows such comprehensive assessment. This article focuses on the mechanical stresses in the plaque structure, which are believed to be of greater magnitude than the associated wall shear stress and are thought to be more closely associated with plaque rupture. We discuss the basic mechanics that govern plaque behavior, the material properties of atherosclerotic tissues and the studies investigating the association between high biomechanical stresses and plaque rupture. Parameter studies investigating the effect of morphologic factors on the critical biomechanical stresses and limitations of current simulation models are also reviewed. PMID:20936933

  8. The relevance of Randall's plaques

    PubMed Central

    Strakosha, Ruth; Monga, Manoj; Wong, Michael Y. C.

    2014-01-01

    The pathophysiology of nephrolithiasis is not fully understood. The pioneering work of Alexander Randall in the 1940s sought to clarify our understanding of stone formation. This review traces the inception of the theory of Randall's plaques and the refinement of the hypothesis in the early days of kidney stone research. It then reviews the contemporary findings utilizing sophisticated investigative techniques that shed additional light on the pathophysiology and redefine the seminal findings of Dr. Randall that were made 70 years ago. PMID:24497683

  9. Amyloid plaques in PSAPP mice bind less metal than plaques in human Alzheimer's disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreana C. Leskovjan; Antonio Lanzirotti; Lisa M. Miller

    2009-01-01

    Amyloid beta (A?) is the primary component of Alzheimer's disease (AD) plaques, a key pathological feature of the disease. Metal ions of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), and calcium (Ca) are elevated in human amyloid plaques and are thought to be involved in neurodegeneration. Transgenic mouse models of AD also exhibit amyloid plaques, but fail to exhibit the high

  10. Biomechanics and Inflammation in Atherosclerotic Plaque Erosion and Plaque Rupture: Implications for Cardiovascular Events in Women

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Ian C.; Suever, Jonathan D.; Timmins, Lucas H.; Veneziani, Alessandro; Vito, Raymond P.; Virmani, Renu; Oshinski, John N.; Taylor, W. Robert

    2014-01-01

    Objective Although plaque erosion causes approximately 40% of all coronary thrombi and disproportionally affects women more than men, its mechanism is not well understood. The role of tissue mechanics in plaque rupture and regulation of mechanosensitive inflammatory proteins is well established, but their role in plaque erosion is unknown. Given obvious differences in morphology between plaque erosion and rupture, we hypothesized that inflammation in general as well as the association between local mechanical strain and inflammation known to exist in plaque rupture may not occur in plaque erosion. Therefore, our objective was to determine if similar mechanisms underlie plaque rupture and plaque erosion. Methods and Results We studied a total of 74 human coronary plaque specimens obtained at autopsy. Using lesion-specific computer modeling of solid mechanics, we calculated the stress and strain distribution for each plaque and determined if there were any relationships with markers of inflammation. Consistent with previous studies, inflammatory markers were positively associated with increasing strain in specimens with rupture and thin-cap fibroatheromas. Conversely, overall staining for inflammatory markers and apoptosis were significantly lower in erosion, and there was no relationship with mechanical strain. Samples with plaque erosion most closely resembled those with the stable phenotype of thick-cap fibroatheromas. Conclusions In contrast to classic plaque rupture, plaque erosion was not associated with markers of inflammation and mechanical strain. These data suggest that plaque erosion is a distinct pathophysiological process with a different etiology and therefore raises the possibility that a different therapeutic approach may be required to prevent plaque erosion. PMID:25365517

  11. Protocol of the Australasian Malignant Pleural Effusion (AMPLE) trial: a multicentre randomised study comparing indwelling pleural catheter versus talc pleurodesis

    PubMed Central

    Fysh, Edward T H; Thomas, Rajesh; Read, Catherine A; Lam, Ben C H; Yap, Elaine; Horwood, Fiona C; Lee, Pyng; Piccolo, Francesco; Shrestha, Ranjan; Garske, Luke A; Lam, David C L; Rosenstengel, Andrew; Bint, Michael; Murray, Kevin; Smith, Nicola A; Lee, Y C Gary

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Malignant pleural effusion can complicate most cancers. It causes breathlessness and requires hospitalisation for invasive pleural drainages. Malignant effusions often herald advanced cancers and limited prognosis. Minimising time spent in hospital is of high priority to patients and their families. Various treatment strategies exist for the management of malignant effusions, though there is no consensus governing the best choice. Talc pleurodesis is the conventional management but requires hospitalisation (and substantial healthcare resources), can cause significant side effects, and has a suboptimal success rate. Indwelling pleural catheters (IPCs) allow ambulatory fluid drainage without hospitalisation, and are increasingly employed for management of malignant effusions. Previous studies have only investigated the length of hospital care immediately related to IPC insertion. Whether IPC management reduces time spent in hospital in the patients’ remaining lifespan is unknown. A strategy of malignant effusion management that reduces hospital admission days will allow patients to spend more time outside hospital, reduce costs and save healthcare resources. Methods and analysis The Australasian Malignant Pleural Effusion (AMPLE) trial is a multicentred, randomised trial designed to compare IPC with talc pleurodesis for the management of malignant pleural effusion. This study will randomise 146 adults with malignant pleural effusions (1:1) to IPC management or talc slurry pleurodesis. The primary end point is the total number of days spent in hospital (for any admissions) from treatment procedure to death or end of study follow-up. Secondary end points include hospital days specific to pleural effusion management, adverse events, self-reported symptom and quality-of-life scores. Ethics and dissemination The Sir Charles Gairdner Group Human Research Ethics Committee has approved the study as have the ethics boards of all the participating hospitals. The trial results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at scientific conferences. Trial registration numbers Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry—ACTRN12611000567921; National Institutes of Health—NCT02045121. PMID:25377015

  12. Calcified neurocysticercosis lesions and hippocampal sclerosis: potential dual pathology?

    PubMed

    Rathore, Chaturbhuj; Thomas, Bejoy; Kesavadas, Chandrasekharan; Radhakrishnan, Kurupath

    2012-04-01

    In areas where cysticercosis is endemic, calcified neurocysticercosis lesion(s) (CNL) and hippocampal sclerosis (HS) commonly coexist in patients with localization-related epilepsies. To understand the pathogenesis of HS associated with CNL, we compared the characteristics of three groups of patients with antiepileptic drug-resistant epilepsies: CNL with HS, CNL without HS (CNL alone), and HS without CNL (HS alone). In comparison to patients with CNL alone, those with CNL with HS had CNL more frequently located in the ipsilateral temporal lobe. Those with CNL with HS had a lower incidence of febrile seizures, older age at initial precipitating injury and at onset of habitual complex partial seizures, and more frequent clustering of seizures and extratemporal/bitemporal interictal epileptiform discharges as compared to patients with HS alone. Our study illustrates that HS associated with CNL might have a different pathophysiologic basis as compared to classical HS. PMID:22242912

  13. Effect of calcifying bacteria on permeation properties of concrete structures.

    PubMed

    Achal, V; Mukherjee, A; Reddy, M S

    2011-09-01

    Microbially enhanced calcite precipitation on concrete or mortar has become an important area of research regarding construction materials. This study examined the effect of calcite precipitation induced by Sporosarcina pasteurii (Bp M-3) on parameters affecting the durability of concrete or mortar. An inexpensive industrial waste, corn steep liquor (CSL), from starch industry was used as nutrient source for the growth of bacteria and calcite production, and the results obtained with CSL were compared with those of the standard commercial medium. Bacterial deposition of a layer of calcite on the surface of the specimens resulted in substantial decrease of water uptake, permeability, and chloride penetration compared with control specimens without bacteria. The results obtained with CSL medium were comparable to those obtained with standard medium, indicating the economization of the biocalcification process. The results suggest that calcifying bacteria play an important role in enhancing the durability of concrete structures. PMID:21104104

  14. Calcified Amorphous Tumor of the Heart with Purple Digit

    PubMed Central

    Sabzi, Feridoun; Karim, Hosein; Eizadi, Babak; Faraji, Reza; Javid, Nasrin

    2014-01-01

    A calcified amorphous tumor (CAT) of the right atrium (RA) is an exceedingly rare non-neoplastic cardiac mass. It was initially described in 1997 and only a handful of cases has been published so far. We present a case of tumor in 77-year-old male, in the RA that attached to the rim of the fossa ovalis, with classic pathological and clinical findings. Under cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and bicaval and aortic cannulation and cardioplegic arrest, right atrial mass, was resected and septal defect was repaired with a fresh pericardial patch. Pathological exam of the mass revealed CAT. The patient had an uneventful hospitalization and his blue discoloration of finger recovered normally. PMID:25610560

  15. Nuclear analytical methods for trace element studies in calcified tissues.

    PubMed

    Chaudhri, M A

    1990-01-01

    Various nuclear analytical methods have been developed and applied to determine the elemental composition of calcified tissues (teeth and bones). Fluorine was determined by prompt gamma activation analysis through the 19F(p, alpha gamma) 16O reaction. Carbon was measured by activation analysis with He-3 ions, and the technique of Proton-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) was applied to simultaneously determine Ca, P, and trace elements in well-documented teeth. Dental hard tissues: enamel, dentine, cementum, and their junctions, as well as different parts of the same tissue, were examined separately. Furthermore, using a Proton Microprobe, we measured the surface distribution of F and other elements on and around carious lesions on the enamel. The depth profiles of F, and other elements, were also measured right up to the amelodentin junction. PMID:1704714

  16. Primary Pleural Angiosarcoma in a 63-Year-Old Gentleman

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Shamayel

    2013-01-01

    Primary pleural angiosarcomas are extremely rare. As of 2010, only around 50 case reports have been documented in the literature. Herein, we report the case of a 63-year-old gentleman who presented with a 3-month history of right-sided chest pain, dyspnea, and hemoptysis. Chest X-ray showed bilateral pleural effusion with partial bibasilar atelectasis. Ultrasound-guided thoracocentesis showed bloody and exudative pleural fluid. Cytologic examination was negative for malignant cells. An abdominal contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) scan showed two right diaphragmatic pleural masses. Whole-body positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scan showed two hypermetabolic fluorodeoxyglucose- (FDG-) avid lesions involving the right diaphragmatic pleura. CT-guided needle-core biopsy was performed and histopathological examination showed neoplastic cells growing mainly in sheets with focal areas suggestive of vascular spaces lined by cytologically malignant epithelioid cells. Immunohistochemical analysis showed strong positivity for vimentin, CD31, CD68, and Fli-1 markers. The overall pathological and immunohistochemical features supported the diagnosis of epithelioid angiosarcoma. The patient was scheduled for surgery in three weeks. Unfortunately, the patient died after one week after discharge secondary to pulseless ventricular tachycardia arrest followed by asystole. Moreover, we also present a brief literature review on pleural angiosarcoma. PMID:23844302

  17. Detection of Atherosclerotic Coronary Plaques by Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Angioscopy

    E-print Network

    Thomas, Patrick A.

    2010-10-12

    Vulnerable plaque is a clinically silent condition of atherosclerotic plaque that leaves a large number of patients at risk of a coronary event. A method to detect vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque would greatly enhance the ability of clinicians...

  18. Aspects of mineral structure in normally calcifying avian tendon.

    PubMed

    Siperko, L M; Landis, W J

    2001-09-01

    Structural characteristics of normally calcifying leg tendons of the domestic turkey Meleagris gallopavo have been observed for the first time by tapping mode atomic force microscopy (TMAFM), and phase as well as corresponding topographic images were acquired to gain insight into the features of mineralizing collagen fibrils and fibers. Analysis of different regions of the tendon has yielded new information concerning the structural interrelationships in vivo between collagen fibrils and fibers and mineral crystals appearing in the form of plates and plate aggregates. TMAFM images show numerous mineralized collagen structures exhibiting characteristic periodicity (54-70 nm), organized with their respective long axes parallel to each other. In some instances, mineral plates (30-40 nm thick) are found interspersed between and in intimate contact with the mineralized collagen. The edges of such plates lie parallel to the neighboring collagen. Many of these plates appear to be aligned to form larger aggregates (475-600 nm long x 75-90 nm thick) that also retain collagen periodicity along their exposed edges. Intrinsic structural properties of the mineralizing avian tendon have not previously been described on the scale reported in this study. These data provide the first visual evidence supporting the concept that larger plates form from parallel association of smaller ones, and the data fill a gap in knowledge between macromolecular- and anatomic-scale studies of the mineralization of avian tendon and connective tissues in general. The observed organization of mineralized collagen, plates, and plate aggregates maintaining a consistently parallel nature demonstrates the means by which increasing structural complexity may be achieved in a calcified tissue over greater levels of hierarchical order. PMID:11722171

  19. Characterization of Porcine Aortic Valvular Interstitial Cell ‘Calcified’ Nodules

    PubMed Central

    Cloyd, Kristy L.; El-Hamamsy, Ismail; Boonrungsiman, Suwimon; Hedegaard, Martin; Gentleman, Eileen; Sarathchandra, Padmini; Colazzo, Francesca; Gentleman, Molly M.; Yacoub, Magdi H.; Chester, Adrian H.; Stevens, Molly M.

    2012-01-01

    Valve interstitial cells populate aortic valve cusps and have been implicated in aortic valve calcification. Here we investigate a common in vitro model for aortic valve calcification by characterizing nodule formation in porcine aortic valve interstitial cells (PAVICs) cultured in osteogenic (OST) medium supplemented with transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-?1). Using a combination of materials science and biological techniques, we investigate the relevance of PAVICs nodules in modeling the mineralised material produced in calcified aortic valve disease. PAVICs were grown in OST medium supplemented with TGF-?1 (OST+TGF-?1) or basal (CTL) medium for up to 21 days. Murine calvarial osteoblasts (MOBs) were grown in OST medium for 28 days as a known mineralizing model for comparison. PAVICs grown in OST+TGF-?1 produced nodular structures staining positive for calcium content; however, micro-Raman spectroscopy allowed live, noninvasive imaging that showed an absence of mineralized material, which was readily identified in nodules formed by MOBs and has been identified in human valves. Gene expression analysis, immunostaining, and transmission electron microscopy imaging revealed that PAVICs grown in OST+TGF-?1 medium produced abundant extracellular matrix via the upregulation of the gene for Type I Collagen. PAVICs, nevertheless, did not appear to further transdifferentiate to osteoblasts. Our results demonstrate that ‘calcified’ nodules formed from PAVICs grown in OST+TGF-?1 medium do not mineralize after 21 days in culture, but rather they express a myofibroblast-like phenotype and produce a collagen-rich extracellular matrix. This study clarifies further the role of PAVICs as a model of calcification of the human aortic valve. PMID:23110195

  20. Emergency operation of a patient with spontaneous rupture and massive hemorrhage of pleural solitary fibrous tumor

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Feng; Pan, Yanqing

    2014-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare pleural disease with asymptomatic clinical course. We report a case of a patient with spontaneous rupture and massive hemorrhage of pleural SFT, which was treated by emergency operation. PMID:25364532

  1. Emergency operation of a patient with spontaneous rupture and massive hemorrhage of pleural solitary fibrous tumor.

    PubMed

    Shao, Feng; Yang, Rusong; Pan, Yanqing

    2014-10-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare pleural disease with asymptomatic clinical course. We report a case of a patient with spontaneous rupture and massive hemorrhage of pleural SFT, which was treated by emergency operation. PMID:25364532

  2. Subarachnoid-pleural fistula—case report and review of literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norman Shannon; Brian Kendall; DGT Thomas; H Baker

    1982-01-01

    The investigation and surgical closure of a subarachnoid pleural fistula following direct trauma to the dorsal spinal theca and spinal cord are described and a review of the literature on spinal subarachnoid-pleural fistula is presented.

  3. Noninvasive imaging of atheromatous carotid plaques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhi-Yong Li; Martin J Graves; Tjun Y Tang; Jonathan H Gillard; Umar Sadat

    2009-01-01

    Atherothrombosis is a systemic disease of the arterial wall that affects the carotid, coronary, and peripheral vascular beds, and the aorta. This condition is associated with complications such as stroke, myocardial infarction, and peripheral vascular disease, which usually result from unstable atheromatous plaques. The study of atheromatous plaques can provide useful information about the natural history and progression of the

  4. MagnetresonanztomographischeBildgebung der atherosklerotischen Plaque

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan G. Ruehm

    2003-01-01

    Zusammenfassung. Mit zunehmender räumlicher und zeitlicher Auflösung hat sich die Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) im Verlauf der letzten Jahre zu einem viel versprechenden Verfahren zur Bildgebung atherosklerotischer Plaques entwickelt. Die MRT erlaubt neben der Detektion, Volumenbestimmung und Verlaufsbeurteilung atherosklerotischer Plaques auch die Charakterisierung verschiedener Plaquekomponenten, wie Fettkern („lipid core“), fibröse Kappe („fibrous cap“), Calcium und Thrombus. Zur Verbesserung der räumlichen Auflösung erweisen

  5. Maladies gingivales induites par la plaque

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Boschin; H. Boutigny; E. Delcourt-Debruyne

    2004-01-01

    Dental plaque-induced gingival diseases are infectious diseases. They reflect the local inflammatory and host-specific immune responses to the dental bacterial biofilm. According to the new classification, they include those gingivitis associated with dental plaque only, and the gingival diseases that are modified by general factors. The diagnosis of gingivitis is based on gingival changes in colour, consistency and texture, without

  6. Intravascular probe for detection of vulnerable plaque

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bradley E. Patt; Jan S. Iwanczyk; Lawrence R. MacDonald; Yuko Yamaguchi; Carolyn R. Tull; Martin Janecek; Edward J. Hoffman; H. William Strauss; Ross Tsugita; Vartan Ghazarossian

    2001-01-01

    Coronary angiography is unable to define the status of the atheroma, and only measures the luminal dimensions of the blood vessel, without providing information about plaque content. Up to 70% of heart attacks are caused by minimally obstructive vulnerable plaques, which are too small to be detected adequately by angiography. We have developed an intravascular imaging detector to identify vulnerable

  7. Iron plaque formation on seagrasses: Why not?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K atrina Povidisa; Marianne Holmer

    2008-01-01

    Iron (Fe) plaque formation is a well known phenomenon in wetland, freshwater and salt marsh species; however there are no reports about Fe plaque occurrence in seagrasses. Here we review the main factors regulating Fe deposition on the roots and rhizomes of plants from reduced sediments\\/soils, and discuss these factors in relation to marine environment. Moreover, we present some early

  8. Calcifying nanoparticles (nanobacteria): an additional potential factor for urolithiasis in space flight crews.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jeffrey A; Ciftcioglu, Neva; Schmid, Josef F; Barr, Yael R; Griffith, Donald

    2009-01-01

    Spaceflight-induced microgravity appears to be a risk factor for the development of urinary calculi, resulting in urolithiasis during and after spaceflight. Calcifying nanoparticles, or nanobacteria, multiply more rapidly in simulated microgravity and create external shells of calcium phosphate. The question arises whether calcifying nanoparticles are nidi for calculi and contribute to the development of clinically significant urolithiasis in those who are predisposed to the development of urinary calculi because of intrinsic or extrinsic factors. This case report describes a calculus recovered after flight from an astronaut that, on morphologic and immunochemical analysis (including specific monoclonal antibody staining), demonstrated characteristics of calcifying nanoparticles. PMID:18718644

  9. Artigo Original Avaliaçăo dos valores sérico e pleural dos marcadores tumorais CEA, CYFRA21-1 e CA 15-3 em portadores de derrame pleural* Evaluation of serum and pleural levels of the tumor markers CEA, CYFRA21-1 and CA 15-3 in patients with pleural effusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isabella Coimbra Wagner; Murilo José de Barros; Lilian Karine; Neves da Silva; Francisco Montenegro de Melo; Maria Tereza Cartaxo Muniz

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine the levels of the tumor markers carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cytokeratin 19 fragment (CYFRA21-1) and carbohydrate antigen 15-3 (CA 15-3) in the blood and pleural fluid of patients with benign or malignant pleural effusion, evaluating the sensitivity of each marker in these fluids. Methods: We prospectively evaluated 85 patients with pleural effusion. The study of the pleural fluid

  10. Haemodynamical stress in mouse aortic arch with atherosclerotic plaques: Preliminary study of plaque progression

    PubMed Central

    Assemat, P.; Siu, K.K.; Armitage, J.A.; Hokke, S.N.; Dart, A.; Chin-Dusting, J.; Hourigan, K.

    2014-01-01

    Atherosclerotic plaques develop at particular sites in the arterial tree, and this regional localisation depends largely on haemodynamic parameters (such as wall shear stress; WSS) as described in the literature. Plaque rupture can result in heart attack or stroke and hence understanding the development and vulnerability of atherosclerotic plaques is critically important. The purpose of this study is to characterise the haemodynamics of blood flow in the mouse aortic arch using numerical modelling. The geometries are digitalised from synchrotron imaging and realistic pulsatile blood flow is considered under rigid wall assumptions. Two cases are considered; arteries with and without plaque. Mice that are fed under fat diet present plaques in the aortic arch whose size is dependent on the number of weeks under the diet. The plaque distribution in the region is however relatively constant through the different samples. This result underlines the influence of the geometry and consequently of the wall shear stresses for plaque formation with plaques growing in region of relative low shear stresses. A discussion of the flow field in real geometry in the presence and absence of plaques is conducted. The presence of plaques was shown to alter the blood flow and hence WSS distribution, with regions of localised high WSS, mainly on the wall of the brachiocephalic artery where luminal narrowing is most pronounced. In addition, arch plaques are shown to induce recirculation in the blood flow, a phenomenon with potential influence on the progression of the plaques. The oscillatory shear index and the relative residence time have been calculated on the geometry with plaques to show the presence of this recirculation in the arch, an approach that may be useful for future studies on plaque progression. PMID:25349678

  11. Cautious Application of Pleural N-Terminal Pro-B-Type Natriuretic Peptide in Diagnosis of Congestive Heart Failure Pleural Effusions among Critically Ill Patients

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Jiann-Horng; Huang, Chun-Ta; Liu, Chia-Hsiung; Ruan, Sheng-Yuan; Tsai, Yi-Ju; Chien, Ying-Chun; Yang, Ching-Yao; Huang, Chun-Kai; Hsu, Chia-Lin; Kuo, Lu-Cheng; Lee, Pei-Lin; Ku, Shih-Chi; Kuo, Ping-Hung; Yu, Chong-Jen

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective Several studies on diagnostic accuracy of pleural N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) for effusions from congestive heart failure (CHF) conclude that pleural NT-pro-BNP is a useful biomarker with high diagnostic accuracy for distinguishing CHF effusions. However, its applicability in critical care settings remains uncertain and requires further investigations. Methods NT-proBNP was measured in pleural fluid samples of a prospective cohort of intensive care unit patients with pleural effusions. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to determine diagnostic accuracy of pleural NT-proBNP for prediction of CHF effusions. Results One hundred forty-seven critically ill patients were evaluated, 38 (26%) with CHF effusions and 109 (74%) with non-CHF effusions of various causes. Pleural NT-proBNP levels were significantly elevated in patients with CHF effusions. Pleural NT-pro-BNP demonstrated the area under the curve of 0.87 for diagnosing effusions due to CHF. With a cutoff of 2200 pg/mL, pleural NT-proBNP displayed high sensitivity (89%) but moderate specificity (73%). Notably, 29 (27%) of 109 patients with non-CHF effusions had pleural NT-proBNP levels >2200 pg/mL and these patients were more likely to experience septic shock (18/29 vs. 10/80, P<0.001) or acute kidney injury (19/29 vs. 9/80, P<0.001). Conclusions Among critically ill patients, pleural NT-proBNP measurements remain a useful diagnostic aid in evaluation of pleural effusions. However, patients with non-CHF effusions may exhibit high pleural NT-proBNP concentrations if they suffer from septic shock or acute kidney injury. Accordingly, it is suggested that clinical context should be taken into account when interpreting pleural NT-proBNP values in critical care settings. PMID:25502236

  12. Comparison of pulmonary and pleural responses of rats and hamsters to inhaled refractory ceramic fibers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas R. Gelzleichter; Edilberto Bermudez; James B. Mangum; Brian A. Wong; Derek B. Janszen; Owen R. Moss; Jeffrey I. Everitt

    1999-01-01

    The present study was designed to determine whether pleural fiber burdens or subchronic pleural fibroproliferative and inflam- matory changes can help explain the marked interspecies differ- ences in pleural fibrosis and mesothelioma that are observed fol- lowing long-term inhalation of RCF-1 ceramic fibers by rats and hamsters. Fischer 344 rats and Syrian golden hamsters were ex- posed to RCF-1 for

  13. Intrathoracic giant pleural lipoma: case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This report describes a giant pleural lipoma that arose from the pleura of the 7th anterior intercostal space and occupied approximately 75% of the right pleural cavity in a 49-year-old woman. The tumor was completely excised by right thoracotomy. The complete histopathological investigation showed pleural lipoma, and we made a review of literature. PMID:24120207

  14. [Pleuroscopy and talc pleurodesis in recurrent pleural effusions: experience with 51 cases].

    PubMed

    Panebianco, V; Calanducci, F; Poli, A; Blandino, R; Pistritto, A; Ferreri, M E; Grasso, A; Puzzo, L; Messina, D; Magnano, V

    1995-10-01

    From January '92 up to January '94 thoracoscopy was performed in 51 patients with recurrent pleural effusion: 49 of these patients underwent talc pleurodesis. 10 pleural mesotheliomas, 29 diffuse metastasic pleural involvement and 12 benign effusions were diagnosed. Intrapleural talc therapy allowed a definitive pleurodesis in 43 patients with a success rate of 87%. PMID:8588987

  15. Pleural Interleukin1? in Differentiating Transudates and Exudates: Comparative Analysis with Other Biochemical Parameters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael G. Alexandrakis; Despina Kyriakou; Rea Alexandraki; Konstantina A. Pappa; Nikolaos Antonakis; Demosthenes Bouros

    2002-01-01

    Background: The differential diagnosis of pleural effusion is a frequent clinical problem. The possible role of pleural fluid cytokines in discriminating transudates from exudates has not been studied adequately. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum and pleural fluid levels of interleukin-1? (IL-1?) and to compare it with common biochemical parameters such as cholesterol (CHOL), lactate

  16. Plaque-based competitive hybridization.

    PubMed

    Villányi, Zoltán; Gyurján, István; Stéger, Viktor; Orosz, László

    2008-01-01

    The authors have developed a simple, cost-saving experimental design, plaque-based competitive hybridization (PBCH), for genome-wide identification of genes differentially expressed in different tissues. PBCH offers advantages in comparison with other methods used in comparative genomics by combining the principles of differential hybridization with the subtractive hybridization. PBCH is particularly advantageous when libraries with few differences are to be analyzed. The authors demonstrate the use of PBCH by identifying 3 genes, up-regulated in the developing velvet antler of red deer (Cervus elaphus): ApoD, C011A2, and S100a1. The fidelity and sensitivity of PBCH is also shown: 1 specific clone among a library sample of 15,000 can be recognized. Possibilities for further utilizations are discussed. PMID:18227228

  17. Vascular plaque characterization using intravascular ultrasound elastography and NIR Raman spectroscopy in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Korte, Chris L.; Buschman, Hendrik P. J.; van de Poll, Sweder W. E.; van der Steen, Anton F. W.; Puppels, Gerwin J.; van der Laarse, Arnoud

    2000-04-01

    The composition and morphology of the atherosclerotic lesion are considered to be important determinants of acute coronary ischemic syndromes. We investigated the potentials of a combination of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) elastography and intravascular Near Infrared Raman (NIR) spectroscopy, to assess the physical and chemical composition of the vessel wall and plaque. Intact human coronary arteries were mounted in an in vitro pressurized perfusion setup and investigated with a 20 MHz VisionsR IVUS catheter. At selected cross- sections, two echo-frames were acquired at intraluminal pressures of 80 and 100 mmHg to strain the tissue in order to obtain elastograms. Next, Raman spectra were obtained during 30 seconds at 4 angles (0, 90, 180 and 270 degrees) using a sideways viewing probe. Spectra were modeled to obtain quantitative chemical information, while leaving the specimens intact. Calcified areas were identifiable on the echograms, elastograms and Raman spectra. A combination of geometric information provided by the echogram, chemical information as obtained with Raman spectroscopy, and high stress regions determined by the elastogram, may prove to be a valuable tool to identify plaque vulnerability.

  18. [Videothoracoscopic interventions in the treatment of pleural empyema].

    PubMed

    Shipulin, P P; Severgin, V E; Ba?dan, V V; Ba?dan, V I; Martyniuk, V A; Kiriliuk, A A

    2008-09-01

    The experience of treatment of patients, suffering an acute or chronic pleural empyema (PE), using modern videothoracoscopic technique, was presented. The methods of operative interventions performance, using general narcosis or local anesthesia, in different severity of affection and etiology of purulent process were depicted. Comparative estimation of videothoracoscopic operations vs other methods, performed for PE, was performed. Intraoperative AIG-laser coagulation and electrocoagulation of pleural fistulas were applied for the treatment efficacy rising. There were noted the treatment efficacy rising, relatively low rate of postoperative complications (7.5%), the shortening of the patients stationary treatment period as well as postoperative rehabilitation and disability periods. All the patients are alive. PMID:19275035

  19. An unexpected cause of pleural effusion in paediatric emergency medicine

    PubMed Central

    Ozbek, Seda; Gumus, Meltem; Yuksekkaya, Hasan Ali; Batur, Abdussamed

    2013-01-01

    Pancreaticopleural fistula (PPF) is an uncommon complication of chronic pancreatitis leading to a large and recurrent pleural effusion. Since the patients presented predominantly with respiratory symptoms, diagnosis and treatment were often delayed. We describe a child who was admitted to our paediatric emergency department with an acute onset of dyspnoea and unilateral massive pleural effusion caused by PPF. Multidetector CT is an easily accessible method that is able to show both the thoracic and abdominal findings non-invasively. The clinical and imaging features of this unusual entity are discussed. PMID:23595187

  20. The Potential Role of Optical Coherence Tomography in the Evaluation of Vulnerable Carotid Atheromatous Plaques: A Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Prabhudesai, Vikramaditya [St. Joseph's Hospital, Diagnostic Imaging (Canada); Phelan, Cordelia [University Hospital of North Staffordshire, NHS Trust, Department of Pathology (United Kingdom); Yang, Ying [Institute of Science and Technology in Medicine, Keele University (United Kingdom)], E-mail: bea00@keele.ac.uk; Wang, Ruikang K. [Oregon Health and Science University, Department of Biomedical Engineering (United States); Cowling, Mark G. [University Hospital of North Staffordshire, NHS Trust, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

    2006-12-15

    Purpose. The decision to intervene surgically in patients with carotid artery disease is based on the presence of symptoms, along with the severity of carotid artery stenosis as assessed by ultrasound or X-ray computed tomography (CT). Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a relatively new imaging technique that offers potential in the identification of, as well as the distinction between, stable and unstable atherosclerotic plaques. The purpose of our study was to evaluate whether OCT can be used as a noninvasive diagnostic tool to reveal the morphology of carotid stenosis from the adventitial surface of the carotid artery. To achieve this aim, excised atheromatous plaques were scanned by OCT from the external surface. Methods. Plaques removed at carotid endarterectomy were scanned by OCT from the external surface within 72 hr of surgery and then examined histologically. The images of the histologic slides and the scans were then compared. Results. We examined 10 carotid endarterectomy specimens and were able to identify calcification, cholesterol crystal clefts, and lipid deposits in the OCT images with histologic correlation. The strong light scattering from the calcified tissue and cholesterol crystal clefts limited the depth of light penetration, making observation of the intimal surface and the detail of the fibrous cap difficult. However, we were able to confidently identify the absence of an atherosclerotic plaque by OCT scans even from the external surface. Conclusion. The results of this pilot study demonstrate that OCT can reveal the main features of carotid stenosis but that plaque vulnerability cannot be reliably and precisely assessed if scanned from the external surface with OCT in its present form.

  1. A mechanistic analysis of the role of microcalcifications in atherosclerotic plaque stability: potential implications for plaque rupture

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado, Natalia; Kelly-Arnold, Adreanne; Vengrenyuk, Yuliya; Laudier, Damien; Fallon, John T.; Virmani, Renu; Cardoso, Luis

    2012-01-01

    The role of microcalcifications (?Calcs) in the biomechanics of vulnerable plaque rupture is examined. Our laboratory previously proposed (Ref. 44), using a very limited tissue sample, that ?Calcs embedded in the fibrous cap proper could significantly increase cap instability. This study has been greatly expanded. Ninety-two human coronary arteries containing 62 fibroatheroma were examined using high-resolution microcomputed tomography at 6.7-?m resolution and undecalcified histology with special emphasis on calcified particles <50 ?m in diameter. Our results reveal the presence of thousands of ?Calcs, the vast majority in lipid pools where they are not dangerous. However, 81 ?Calcs were also observed in the fibrous caps of nine of the fibroatheroma. All 81 of these ?Calcs were analyzed using three-dimensional finite-element analysis, and the results were used to develop important new clinical criteria for cap stability. These criteria include variation of the Young's modulus of the ?Calc and surrounding tissue, ?Calc size, and clustering. We found that local tissue stress could be increased fivefold when ?Calcs were closely spaced, and the peak circumferential stress in the thinnest nonruptured cap (66 ?m) if no ?Calcs were present was only 107 kPa, far less than the proposed minimum rupture threshold of 300 kPa. These results and histology suggest that there are numerous ?Calcs < 15 ?m in the caps, not visible at 6.7-?m resolution, and that our failure to find any nonruptured caps between 30 and 66 ?m is a strong indication that many of these caps contained ?Calcs. PMID:22777419

  2. Calcifying Ghost Cell Odontogenic Cyst: Report of a Case and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Sonone, Archana; Sabane, V. S.; Desai, Rajeev

    2011-01-01

    The calcifying ghost cell odontogenic cyst (CGCOC) was first described by Gorlin et al. in 1962. Calcifying ghost cell odontogenic cyst is comparatively rare in occurrence, constituting about 0.37% to 2.1% of all odontogenic tumors. The most notable features of this pathologic entity are histopathological features which include a cystic lining demonstrating characteristic “Ghost” epithelial cells with a propensity to calcify. In addition, the CGCOC may be associated with other recognized odontogenic tumors, most commonly odontomas. There are variants of CGCOC according to clinical, histopathological, and radiological characteristics. Therefore a proper categorization of the cases is needed for better understanding of the pathogenesis of each variant. Here, we report a classical case of calcifying odontogenic cyst along with a brief review of literature. PMID:22567434

  3. Comprehensive plaque assessment by coronary CT angiography.

    PubMed

    Maurovich-Horvat, Pál; Ferencik, Maros; Voros, Szilard; Merkely, Béla; Hoffmann, Udo

    2014-07-01

    Most acute coronary syndromes are caused by sudden luminal thrombosis due to atherosclerotic plaque rupture or erosion. Preventing such an event seems to be the only effective strategy to reduce mortality and morbidity of coronary heart disease. Coronary lesions prone to rupture have a distinct morphology compared with stable plaques, and provide a unique opportunity for noninvasive imaging to identify vulnerable plaques before they lead to clinical events. The submillimeter spatial resolution and excellent image quality of modern computed tomography (CT) scanners allow coronary atherosclerotic lesions to be detected, characterized, and quantified. Large plaque volume, low CT attenuation, napkin-ring sign, positive remodelling, and spotty calcification are all associated with a high risk of acute cardiovascular events in patients. Computation fluid dynamics allow the calculation of lesion-specific endothelial shear stress and fractional flow reserve, which add functional information to plaque assessment using CT. The combination of morphologic and functional characteristics of coronary plaques might enable noninvasive detection of vulnerable plaques in the future. PMID:24755916

  4. Fibrillar Amyloid Plaque Formation Precedes Microglial Activation

    PubMed Central

    Steinbach, Sonja; Blazquez-Llorca, Lidia; Herms, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    In Alzheimer’s disease (AD), hallmark ?-amyloid deposits are characterized by the presence of activated microglia around them. Despite an extensive characterization of the relation of amyloid plaques with microglia, little is known about the initiation of this interaction. In this study, the detailed investigation of very small plaques in brain slices in AD transgenic mice of the line APP-PS1(dE9) revealed different levels of microglia recruitment. Analysing plaques with a diameter of up to 10 ?m we find that only the half are associated with clear morphologically activated microglia. Utilizing in vivo imaging of new appearing amyloid plaques in double-transgenic APP-PS1(dE9)xCX3CR1+/- mice further characterized the dynamic of morphological microglia activation. We observed no correlation of morphological microglia activation and plaque volume or plaque lifetime. Taken together, our results demonstrate a very prominent variation in size as well as in lifetime of new plaques relative to the state of microglia reaction. These observations might question the existing view that amyloid deposits by themselves are sufficient to attract and activate microglia in vivo. PMID:25799372

  5. Ependymoma and intraparenchymal calcifying pseudoneoplasm of the neural axis: incidental collision or unique reactive phenomenon?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fausto J. Rodriguez; Bernd W. Scheithauer; Daryl R. Fourney; Christopher A. Robinson

    2008-01-01

    The so-called “calcifying pseudoneoplasm of the neural axis” is a rare tumefactive lesion presumed to be reactive in nature.\\u000a To our knowledge, association with a true neoplasm has not been previously reported. We recently encountered the case of a\\u000a 67-year-old woman who underwent resection of an incidentally discovered cerebellar cystic mass with a distinct, calcified\\u000a component. Histology demonstrated a partially

  6. Atherosclerotic Plaque Component Segmentation in Combined Carotid MRI and CTA Data Incorporating Class Label Uncertainty

    PubMed Central

    van Engelen, Arna; Niessen, Wiro J.; Klein, Stefan; Groen, Harald C.; Verhagen, Hence J. M.; Wentzel, Jolanda J.; van der Lugt, Aad; de Bruijne, Marleen

    2014-01-01

    Atherosclerotic plaque composition can indicate plaque vulnerability. We segment atherosclerotic plaque components from the carotid artery on a combination of in vivo MRI and CT-angiography (CTA) data using supervised voxelwise classification. In contrast to previous studies the ground truth for training is directly obtained from 3D registration with histology for fibrous and lipid-rich necrotic tissue, and with CT for calcification. This registration does, however, not provide accurate voxelwise correspondence. We therefore evaluate three approaches that incorporate uncertainty in the ground truth used for training: I) soft labels are created by Gaussian blurring of the original binary histology segmentations to reduce weights at the boundaries between components, and are weighted by the estimated registration accuracy of the histology and in vivo imaging data (measured by overlap), II) samples are weighted by the local contour distance of the lumen and outer wall between histology and in vivo data, and III) 10% of each class is rejected by Gaussian outlier rejection. Classification was evaluated on the relative volumes (% of tissue type in the vessel wall) for calcified, fibrous and lipid-rich necrotic tissue, using linear discriminant (LDC) and support vector machine (SVM) classification. In addition, the combination of MRI and CTA data was compared to using only one imaging modality. Best results were obtained by LDC and outlier rejection: the volume error per vessel was 0.91.0% for calcification, 12.77.6% for fibrous and 12.18.1% for necrotic tissue, with Spearman rank correlation coefficients of 0.91 (calcification), 0.80 (fibrous) and 0.81 (necrotic). While segmentation using only MRI features yielded low accuracy for calcification, and segmentation using only CTA features yielded low accuracy for necrotic tissue, the combination of features from MRI and CTA gave good results for all studied components. PMID:24762678

  7. Atherosclerosis and Atheroma Plaque Rupture: Imaging Modalities in the Visualization of Vasa Vasorum and Atherosclerotic Plaques

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Invasive angiography has been widely accepted as the gold standard to diagnose cardiovascular pathologies. Despite its superior resolution of demonstrating atherosclerotic plaque in terms of degree of lumen stenosis, the morphological assessment for the plaque is insufficient for the analysis of plaque components, and therefore, unable to predict the risk status or vulnerability of atherosclerotic plaque. There is an increased body of evidence to show that the vasa vasorum play an important role in the initiation, progression, and complications of atherosclerotic plaque leading to major adverse cardiac events. This paper provides an overview of the evidence-based reviews of various imaging modalities with regard to their potential value for comprehensive characterization of the composition, burden, and neovascularization of atherosclerotic plaque. PMID:24688380

  8. Massive pleural effusion in a renal transplant recipient on tacrolimus

    PubMed Central

    Nayagam, L. S.; Vijayanand, B.; Balasubramanian, S.

    2014-01-01

    Fluid and salt retention have been described as a side effect of tacrolimus therapy. We report a case of unexplained massive fluid retention with pleural effusion and ascites in the immediate post-transplant period. The patient recovered immediately on conversion from tacrolimus to sirolimus. PMID:25249724

  9. Pathogenetic observations on pleural effusion disease in rabbits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. L. Fennestad

    1985-01-01

    Summary A pathogenetic study of pleural effusion disease (PED) in rabbits was made, using the virulent PED agent or virus (PEDV) and an avirulent derivate of this isolate. Independent of infective dose within the range examined, the virulent isolate caused fatal clinical disease, whereas the avirulent isolate caused subclinical infection. The two isolates differed in rapidity of initial spread of

  10. Pleural effusion disease in rabbits. Properties of the aetiological agent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. L. Fennestad; M. R. MacNaughton

    1983-01-01

    Summary The size and heat sensitivity of Pleural effusion disease (PED) agent or virus (PEDV) propagated in rabbits were examined. The infectious particles were estimated to be between 25 and 50 nm by filtration. Residual infectivity of infectious serum was 0.1 per cent after heating at 56° C for 4 hours.

  11. BTS guidelines for the management of pleural infection in children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I M Balfour-Lynn; E Abrahamson; G Cohen; J Hartley; S King; D Parikh; D Spencer; A H Thomson; D Urquhart

    2005-01-01

    of the abstracted bullet points from,each section. Following that is an algorithm,summarising,the management,of pleural infection,in children (fig 1). Each section starts with,bulleted points of key recommendations,using the revised SIGN grading,system,(table 1) available,on,http:\\/\\/ www.sign.ac.uk\\/guidelines\\/fulltext\\/50\\/section6.

  12. VEGF Correlates with Inflammation and Fibrosis in Tuberculous Pleural Effusion

    PubMed Central

    Bien, Mauo-Ying; Wu, Ming-Ping; Chen, Wei-Lin; Chung, Chi-Li

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the relationship among angiogenic cytokines, inflammatory markers, and fibrinolytic activity in tuberculous pleural effusion (TBPE) and their clinical importance. Methods. Forty-two patients diagnosed with TBPE were studied. Based on chest ultrasonography, there were 26 loculated and 16 nonloculated TBPE patients. The effusion size radiological scores and effusion vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin- (IL-) 8, plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1), and tissue type plasminogen activator (tPA) were measured. Treatment outcome and pleural fibrosis, defined as radiological residual pleural thickening (RPT), were assessed at 6-month follow-up. Results. The effusion size and effusion lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), VEGF, IL-8, PAI-1, and PAI-1/tPA ratio were significantly higher, while effusion glucose, pH value, and tPA were significantly lower, in loculated than in nonloculated TBPE. VEGF and IL-8 correlated positively with LDH and PAI-1/tPA ratio and negatively with tPA in both loculated and nonloculated TBPE. Patients with higher VEGF or greater effusion size were prone to develop RPT (n = 14; VEGF, odds ratio 1.28, P = 0.01; effusion size, odds ratio 1.01, P = 0.02), and VEGF was an independent predictor of RPT in TBPE (receiver operating characteristic curve AUC = 0.985, P < 0.001). Conclusions. Effusion VEGF correlates with pleural inflammation and fibrosis and may be targeted for adjunct therapy for TBPE.

  13. Clinical Significance of Soluble CD26 in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Fujimoto, Nobukazu; Ohnuma, Kei; Aoe, Keisuke; Hosono, Osamu; Yamada, Taketo; Kishimoto, Takumi; Morimoto, Chikao

    2014-01-01

    There is no established single diagnostic marker for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). CD26 is a 110 kDa, multifunctional, membrane-bound glycoprotein that has dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV) enzyme activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical significance of soluble CD26 (sCD26) in patients with MPM. The study included 80 MPM patients, 79 subjects with past asbestos exposure (SPE), and 134 patients with other benign pleural diseases (OPD) that were included as a control group. sCD26 levels and DPPIV activity in serum and/or pleural fluid were determined using an ELISA kit. Serum sCD26 levels and DPPIV enzyme activity in patients with MPM were significantly decreased compared with those in the SPE group (P?=?0.000). The level of serum sCD26 was significantly decreased in patients with advanced stages of MPM compared with those with earlier stages (P?=?0.047). The median OS of patients with MPM who had higher DPPIV enzyme activity was significantly longer than that of those with lower DPPIV enzyme activity (P?=?0.032). The sCD26 levels in the pleural fluid of MPM patients with an epithelioid subtype were significantly increased compared with the OPD cohort (P?=?0.012). Moreover, DPPIV enzyme activity in the pleural fluid of patients with MPM with an epithelioid subtype were significantly increased compared with those in the OPD cohort (P?=?0.009). Patients with MPM who had lower specific DPPIV activity, determined as DPPIV/sCD26, showed significantly prolonged survival compared with those with higher specific DPPIV activity (P?=?0.028). Serum sCD26 and DPPIV enzyme activity appear to be useful biomarkers for differentiating patients with MPM from SPE. The sCD26 levels or DPPIV enzyme activity in pleural fluid appear to be biomarkers in patients with an epithelioid subtype of MPM. DPPIV activity in serum or pleural fluid appears to be predictive for the prognosis of patients with MPM. PMID:25526639

  14. Assessment of vulnerable coronary plaque by intravascular elasticity imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsuyoshi Shiina; Naotaka Nitta; Hiroyuki Endo; Masakazu Yamagishi

    2004-01-01

    Plaque rupture is regarded as one of the main causes of acute coronary syndromes. To prevent plaque rupture and guide a pharmacological treatment, it is important to image the weak (fragile) part of atherosclerotic plaque. Our preliminary experiments revealed the feasibility of a strain image using IVUS (intravascular ultrasound) to discriminate between different types of plaque. For the purpose of

  15. Atherosclerotic plaque rupture in symptomatic carotid artery stenosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra Carr; Andrew Farb; William H. Pearce; Renu Virmani; James S. T. Yao

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Plaque rupture is often the precipitating event in acute coronary syndromes. We hypothesized that a similar process occurs in stenotic carotid plaques in association with ischemic neurologic symptoms. Our purpose was to examine several morphologic features of stenotic carotid plaques and to determine which characteristics are more commonly associated with plaques obtained from patients with symptomatic carotid artery disease

  16. Post-polymerization of urease-induced calcified, polymer hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Rauner, Nicolas; Buenger, Lea; Schuller, Stefanie; Tiller, Joerg C

    2015-01-01

    Urease-induced calcification is an innovative method to artificially produce highly filled CaCO3-based composite materials by intrinsic mineralization of hydrogels. The mechanical properties of these hybrid materials based on poly(2-hydroxyethylacrylate) cross-linked by triethylene glycol dimethacrylate are poor. Increasing the degree of calcification to up to 94 wt% improves the Young's moduli (YM) of the materials from some 40 MPa to more than 300 MPa. The introduction of calcium carbonate affine groups to the hydrogel matrix by copolymerizing acrylic acid and [2-(methacryloyloxy) ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride, respectively, does not increase the stiffness of the composites. A Young's modulus of more than 1 GPa is achieved by post-polymerization (PP) of the calcified hydrogels, which proves that the size of the contact area between the matrix and calcium carbonate crystals is the most crucial parameter for controlling the stiffness of hybrid materials. Switching from low Tg to high Tg hydrogel matrices (based on poly(N,N-dimethyl acrylamide)) results in a YM of up to 3.5 GPa after PP. PMID:25284027

  17. Bioconvection in Cultures of the Calcifying Unicellular Alga Pleurochrysis Carterae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montufar-Solis, Dina; Duke, P. Jackie; Marsh, Mary E.

    2003-01-01

    The unicellular, marine, calcifying alga P leurochiysis carterae--a model to study cell morphogenesis, cell polarity, calcification, gravitaxis, reproduction and development-- has extremely flexible culture requirements. Support studies for a flight experiment addressing cell motility suggested that cell density (cells/ml) affects cell movement in P. carterae cultures through the gradual establishment of bioconvection as the culture grows. To assess the effect of cell density on direction of the movement, without the effects of aging of the culture, swimming behavior was analyzed in aliquots from a series of dilutions obtained from a stock culture. Results showed that at low concentrations cells swim randomly. As the concentration increases, upswimming patterns overtake random swimming. Gradually, up and down movement patterns prevail, representative of bioconvection. This oriented swimming of P. carterae occurs in a wide range of concentrations, adding to the list of flexible requirements, in this case, cell concentration, to be used for spaceflight studies addressing cell motility and bioconvection in a unicellular model of biologically directed mineralization.

  18. The role of calcifying nanoparticles in biology and medicine

    PubMed Central

    Kutikhin, Anton G; Brusina, Elena B; Yuzhalin, Arseniy E

    2012-01-01

    Calcifying nanoparticles (CNPs) (nanobacteria, nanobacteria-like particles, nanobes) were discovered over 25 years ago; nevertheless, their nature is still obscure. To date, nobody has been successful in credibly determining whether they are the smallest self-replicating life form on Earth, or whether they represent mineralo-protein complexes without any relation to living organisms. Proponents of both theories have a number of arguments in favor of the validity of their hypotheses. However, after epistemological analysis carried out in this review, all arguments used by proponents of the theory about the physicochemical model of CNP formation may be refuted on the basis of the performed investigations, and therefore published data suggest a biological nature of CNPs. The only obstacle to establish CNPs as living organisms is the absence of a fairly accurately sequenced genome at the present time. Moreover, it is clear that CNPs play an important role in etiopathogenesis of many diseases, and this association is independent from their nature. Consequently, emergence of CNPs in an organism is a pathological, not a physiological, process. The classification and new directions of further investigations devoted to the role of CNPs in biology and medicine are proposed. PMID:22287843

  19. Association between dental pulp stones and calcifying nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Jinfeng; Yang, Fang; Zhang, Wei; Gong, Qimei; Du, Yu; Ling, Junqi

    2011-01-01

    The etiology of dental pulp stones, one type of extraskeletal calcification disease, remains elusive to date. Calcifying nanoparticles (CNPs), formerly referred to as nanobacteria, were reported to be one etiological factor in a number of extraskeletal calcification diseases. We hypothesized that CNPs are involved in the calcification of the dental pulp tissue, and therefore investigated the link between CNPs and dental pulp stones. Sixty-five freshly collected dental pulp stones, each from a different patient, were analyzed. Thirteen of the pulp stones were examined for the existence of CNPs in situ by immunohistochemical staining (IHS), indirect immunofluorescence staining (IIFS), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The remaining 52 pulp stones were used for isolation and cultivation of CNPs; the cultured CNPs were identified and confirmed via their shape and growth characteristics. Among the dental pulp stones examined in situ, 84.6% of the tissue samples staines positive for CNPs antigen by IHS; the corresponding rate by IIFS was 92.3 %. In 88.2% of the cultured samples, CNPs were isolated and cultivated successfully. The CNPs were visible under TEM as 200–400 nm diameter spherical particles surrounded by a compact crust. CNPs could be detected and isolated from a high percentage of dental pulp stones, suggesting that CNPs might play an important role in the calcification of dental pulp. PMID:21289988

  20. CONFIRMED VIRUSES VERSUS UNCONFIRMED PLAQUES IN SEWAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ninety-two treated and untreated sewage samples from seven wastewater treatment plants in Chicago, Illinois, Memphis, Tennessee, and Cincinnati, Ohio were examined for their virus content. Concentrated and unconcentrated samples were plaque assayed in five different cell culture ...

  1. Historical Plaque at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This plaque, located on the grounds of Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama,commemorates the designation of the Saturn V Rocket as a National Historic Mechanical Engineering Landmark by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers in 1980.

  2. Historical Plaque at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This plaque, displayed on the grounds of Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, commemorates the Redstone Test Stand as an Alabama Historic Civil Engineering Landmark. The site was desinated as such in 1979.

  3. Historical Plaque at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This plaque, displayed on the grounds of Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, commemorates the Saturn V Space Vehicle's induction into the National Register of Historic Places by the United States Department of the Interior.

  4. Vascular MR segmentation: wall and plaque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fuxing; Holzapfel, Gerhard; Schulze-Bauer, Christian; Stollberger, Rudolf; Thedens, Daniel; Bolinger, Lizann; Stolpen, Alan; Sonka, Milan

    2003-05-01

    Cardiovascular events frequently result from local rupture of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque. Non-invasive assessment of plaque vulnerability is needed to allow institution of preventive measures before heart attack or stroke occur. A computerized method for segmentation of arterial wall layers and plaque from high-resolution volumetric MR images is reported. The method uses dynamic programming to detect optimal borders in each MRI frame. The accuracy of the results was tested in 62 T1-weighted MR images from 6 vessel specimens in comparison to borders manually determined by an expert observer. The mean signed border positioning errors for the lumen, internal elastic lamina, and external elastic lamina borders were -0.12+/-0.14 mm, 0.04+/-0.12mm, and -0.15+/-0.13 mm, respectively. The presented wall layer segmentation approach is one of the first steps towards non-invasive assessment of plaque vulnerability in atherosclerotic subjects.

  5. Plaque on Spirit Honors Columbia Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    A plaque commemorating the astronauts who died in the tragic accident of the Space Shuttle Columbia is mounted on the back of the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's high-gain antenna. The plaque was designed by Mars Exploration Rover engineers. The astronauts are also honored by the new name of the rover landing site, the Columbia Memorial Station. This image was taken on Mars by Spirit's navigation camera.

  6. Oral biofilm models for mechanical plaque removal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martinus J. Verkaik; Henk J. Busscher; Minie Rustema-Abbing; Anje M. Slomp; Frank Abbas; Henny C. van der Mei

    2010-01-01

    In vitro plaque removal studies require biofilm models that resemble in vivo dental plaque. Here, we compare contact and non-contact\\u000a removal of single and dual-species biofilms as well as of biofilms grown from human whole saliva in vitro using different\\u000a biofilm models. Bacteria were adhered to a salivary pellicle for 2 h or grown after adhesion for 16 h, after which, their

  7. Current Concepts and Occurrence of Epithelial Odontogenic Tumors: II. Calcifying Epithelial Odontogenic Tumor Versus Ghost Cell Odontogenic Tumors Derived from Calcifying Odontogenic Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeon Sook

    2014-01-01

    Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumors (CEOTs) and ghost cell odontogenic tumors (GCOTs) are characteristic odontogenic origin epithelial tumors which produce calcifying materials from transformed epithelial tumor cells. CEOT is a benign odontogenic tumor composed of polygonal epithelial tumor cells that show retrogressive calcific changes, amyloid-like deposition, and clear cytoplasm. Differentially, GCOTs are a group of transient tumors characterized by ghost cell presence, which comprise calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor (CCOT), dentinogenic ghost cell tumor (DGCT), and ghost cell odontogenic carcinoma (GCOC), all derived from calcifying odontogenic cysts (COCs). There is considerable confusion about COCs and GCOTs terminology, but these lesions can be classified as COCs or GCOTs, based on their cystic or tumorous natures, respectively. GCOTs include ameloblastomatous tumors derived from dominant odontogenic cysts classified as CCOTs, ghost cell-rich tumors producing dentinoid materials as DGCTs, and the GCOT malignant counterpart, GCOCs. Many authors have reported CEOTs and GCOTs variably express keratins, ?-catenin, BCL-2, BSP, RANKL, OPG, Notch1, Jagged1, TGF-?, SMADs, and other proteins. However, these heterogeneous lesions should be differentially diagnosed to allow for accurate tumor progression and prognosis prediction. PMID:25013415

  8. Life on the margin: implications of ocean acidification on Mg-calcite, high latitude and cold-water marine calcifiers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas J. Andersson; Fred T. Mackenzie; Nicholas R. Bates

    2008-01-01

    Future anthropogenic emissions of CO2 and the resulting ocean acidification may have severe consequences for marine calcifying organisms and ecosystems. Marine calcifiers depositing calcitic hard parts that contain significant concentrations of magnesium, i.e. Mg-calcite, and calcify- ing organisms living in high latitude and\\/or cold-water environments are at immediate risk to ocean acidification and decreasing seawater carbonate saturation because they are

  9. Untargeted mass spectrometry-based metabolomic profiling of pleural effusions: fatty acids as novel cancer biomarkers for malignant pleural effusions.

    PubMed

    Lam, Ching-Wan; Law, Chun-Yiu

    2014-09-01

    Untargeted mass spectrometry-based metabolomic profiling is a powerful analytical method used for broad-spectrum identification and quantification of metabolites in biofluids in human health and disease states. In this study, we exploit metabolomic profiling for cancer biomarker discovery for diagnosis of malignant pleural effusions. We envisage the result will be clinically useful since currently there are no cancer biomarkers that are accurate enough for the diagnosis of malignant pleural effusions. Metabolomes of 32 malignant pleural effusions from lung cancer patients and 18 benign effusions from patients with pulmonary tuberculosis were analyzed using reversed-phase liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) using AB SCIEX TripleTOF 5600. MS spectra were analyzed using XCMS, PeakView, and LipidView. Metabolome-Wide Association Study (MWAS) was performed by Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve Explorer and Tester (ROCCET). Insignificant markers were filtered out using a metabolome-wide significance level (MWSL) with p-value < 2 × 10(-5) for t test. Only compounds in Human Metabolome Database (HMDB) will be used as cancer biomarkers. ROCCET analysis of ESI positive and negative MS spectra revealed free fatty acid (FFA) 18:1 (oleic acid) had the largest area-under-ROC of 0.96 (95% CI = 0.87-1.00) in malignant pleural effusions. Using a ratio of FFA 18:1-to-ceramide (d18:1/16:0), the area-under-ROC was further increased to 0.99 (95% CI = 0.91-1.00) with sensitivity 93.8% and specificity 100.0%. Using untargeted metabolomic profiling, the diagnostic cancer biomarker with the largest area-under-ROC can be determined objectively. This lipogenic phenotype could be explained by overexpression of fatty acid synthase (FASN) in cancer cells. The diagnostic performance of FFA 18:1-to-ceramide (d18:1/16:0) ratio supports its use for diagnosis of malignant pleural effusions. PMID:25117182

  10. Improved treatment planning for COMS eye plaques

    SciTech Connect

    Astrahan, Melvin A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Southern California Norris Cancer Hospital, Los Angeles, CA (United States)]. E-mail: astrahan@usc.edu

    2005-03-15

    Purpose: A recent reanalysis of the Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS) medium tumor trial concluded that incorporating factors to account for anisotropy, line source approximation, the gold plaque, and attenuation in the Silastic seed carrier into the dose calculations resulted in a significant and consistent reduction of calculated doses to structures of interest within the eye. The authors concluded that future eye plaque dosimetry should be 'performed using the most up-to-date parameters available.' The reason these factors are important is attributable to the low energy {sup 125}I radiation (approximately 28 keV) that is primarily absorbed by the photoelectric process. Photoelectric absorption is quite dependent on the atomic composition of the absorbing material. Being 40% silicon by weight, the effective atomic number of Silastic is significantly greater than that of water. Although the AAPM TG43 brachytherapy formalism inherently addresses the issues of source anisotropy and geometry, its parameter that accounts for scatter and attenuation, the radial dose function g(r), assumes that the source is immersed in infinite homogeneous water. In this work, factors are proposed for {sup 125}I that correct for attenuation in the Silastic carrier and scatter deficits resulting from the gold plaque and nearby air. The implications of using {sup 103}Pd seeds in COMS plaques are also discussed. Methods and materials: An existing TG43-based ophthalmic plaque planning system was modified to incorporate additional scatter and attenuation correction factors that better account for the path length of primary radiation in the Silastic seed carrier and the distance between the dose calculation point and the eye-air interface. Results: Compared with homogeneous water, the dose-modifying effects of the Silastic and gold are greatest near the plaque surface and immediately adjacent to the plaque, while being least near the center of the eye. The calculated dose distribution surrounding a single {sup 125}I seed centered in a COMS 20 mm plaque was found to be consistent with previously published examples that used thermoluminescent dosimetry measurements and Monte Carlo methods. For fully loaded 12 and 20 mm plaques, calculated dose to critical ocular structures ranged from 16%-50% less than would have been reported using the standard COMS dose calculation protocol. Conclusions: Treatment planning for COMS eye plaques that accurately accounts for the presence of the gold, Silastic and extraocular air is both possible and practical.

  11. Coronary plaque imaging with 256-slice multidetector computed tomography: interobserver variability of volumetric lesion parameters with semiautomatic plaque analysis software

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oliver Klass; Susanne Kleinhans; Matthew J. Walker; Mark Olszewski; Sebastian Feuerlein; Markus Juchems; Martin H. K. Hoffmann

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential clinical value of coronary plaque imaging with a new generation CT\\u000a scanner and the interobserver variability of coronary plaque assessment with a new semiautomatic plaque analysis application.\\u000a Thirty-five isolated plaques of the left anterior descending coronary artery from 35 patients were evaluated with a new semiautomatic\\u000a plaque analysis application. All

  12. Persistent Seroconversion after Accidental Eye Exposure to Calcifying Nanoparticles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciftcioglu, Neva; Aho, Katja M.; McKay, David S.; Kajander, E. Olavi

    2007-01-01

    Biosafety of nanomaterials has attracted much attention recently. We report here a case where accidental human eye exposure to biogenic nanosized calcium phosphate in the form of calcifying nanoparticles (CNP) raised a strong IgG immune response against proteins carried by CNP. The antibody titer has persisted over ten years at the high level. The IgG was detected by ELISA using CNPs propagated in media containing bovine and human serum as antigen. The exposure incident occurred to a woman scientist (WS) at a research laboratory in Finland at 1993. CNP, also termed "nanobacteria", is a unique self-replicating agent that has not been fully characterized and no data on biohazards were available at that time. Before the accident, her serum samples were negative for both CNP antigen and anti-CNP antibody using specific ELISA tests (Nanobac Oy, Kuopio, Finland). The accident occurred while WS was harvesting CNP cultures. Due to a high pressure in pipetting, CNP pellet splashed into her right eye. Both eyes were immediately washed with water and saline. The following days there was irritation and redness in the right eye. These symptoms disappeared within two weeks without any treatment. Three months after the accident, blood and urine samples of WS were tested for CNP cultures (2), CNP-specific ELISA tests, and blood cell counts. Blood cell counts were normal, CNP antigen and culture tests were negative. A high IgG anti-CNP antibody titer was detected (see Figure). The antibodies of this person have been used thereafter as positive control and standard in ELISA manufacturing (Nano-Sero IgG ELISA, Nanobac Oy, Kuopio, Finland).

  13. Ocean acidification and calcifying reef organisms: A mesocosm investigation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jokiel, P.L.; Rodgers, K.S.; Kuffner, I.B.; Andersson, A.J.; Cox, E.F.; MacKenzie, F.T.

    2008-01-01

    A long-term (10 months) controlled experiment was conducted to test the impact of increased partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) on common calcifying coral reef organisms. The experiment was conducted in replicate continuous flow coral reef mesocosms flushed with unfiltered sea water from Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii. Mesocosms were located in full sunlight and experienced diurnal and seasonal fluctuations in temperature and sea water chemistry characteristic of the adjacent reef flat. Treatment mesocosms were manipulated to simulate an increase in pCO2 to levels expected in this century [midday pCO2 levels exceeding control mesocosms by 365 ?? 130 ??atm (mean ?? sd)]. Acidification had a profound impact on the development and growth of crustose coralline algae (CCA) populations. During the experiment, CCA developed 25% cover in the control mesocosms and only 4% in the acidified mesocosms, representing an 86% relative reduction. Free-living associations of CCA known as rhodoliths living in the control mesocosms grew at a rate of 0.6 g buoyant weight year-1 while those in the acidified experimental treatment decreased in weight at a rate of 0.9 g buoyant weight year-1, representing a 250% difference. CCA play an important role in the growth and stabilization of carbonate reefs, so future changes of this magnitude could greatly impact coral reefs throughout the world. Coral calcification decreased between 15% and 20% under acidified conditions. Linear extension decreased by 14% under acidified conditions in one experiment. Larvae of the coral Pocillopora damicornis were able to recruit under the acidified conditions. In addition, there was no significant difference in production of gametes by the coral Montipora capitata after 6 months of exposure to the treatments. ?? 2008 Springer-Verlag.

  14. Microscopic Observation of Self-Propagation of Calcifying Nanoparticles (Nanobacteria)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathew, Grace; McKay, David S.; Ciftcioglu, Neva

    2007-01-01

    Biologists typically define living organisms as carbon and water-based cellular forms with :self-replication" as the fundamental trait of the life process. However, this standard dictionary definition of life does not help scientists to categorize self-replicators like viruses, prions, proteons and artificial life. CNP also named nanobacteria were discovered in early 1990s as about 100 nanometer-sized bacteria-like particles with unique apatite mineral-shells around them, and found to be associated with pathological-calcification related diseases. Although CNP have been isolated and cultured from mammalian blood and diseased calcified tissues, and their biomineralizing properties well established, their biological nature and self-replicating capability have always been severely challenged. The terms "self-replication", "self-assembly" or "self-propagation" have been widely used for all systems including nanomachines, crystals, computer viruses and memes. In a simple taxonomy, all biological and non-biological "self replicators", have been classified into "living" or "nonliving" based on the properties of the systems and the amount of support they require to self-replicate. To enhance our understanding about self-replicating nature of CNP, we have investigated their growth in specific culture conditions using conventional inverted light microscope and BioStation IM, Nikon s latest time-lapse imaging system. Their morphological structure was examined using scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy. This present study, in conjunction with previous findings of metabolic activity, antibiotic sensitivity, antibody specificity, morphological aspects and infectivity, all concomitantly validate CNP as living self-replicators.

  15. Calcified microbes in Neoproterozoic carbonates: implications for our understanding of the Proterozoic/Cambrian transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knoll, A. H.; Fairchild, I. J.; Swett, K.

    1993-01-01

    Tidal flat and lagoonal dolostones of the Neoproterozoic Draken Formation, Spitsbergen, exhibit excellent preservation of carbonate fabrics, including heavily calcified microfossils. The crust-forming cyanobacterium Polybessurus is preserved locally by carbonate precipitated on and within sheaths in mildly evaporitic upper intertidal to supratidal environments. In contrast, calcified filaments in columnar stromatolites reflect subtidal precipitation. Filament molds in dolomicrites independently document extremely early lithification. The presence of heavily calcified cyanobacteria in Draken and other Proterozoic carbonates constrains potential explanations for the widespread appearance of calcified microorganisms near the Proterozoic-Cambrian boundary. We propose that the rarity of Proterozoic examples principally reflects the abundance and wide distribution of carbonate crystals precipitated on the sea floor or in the water column. Cyanobacterial sheaths would have competed effectively as sites for carbonate nucleation and growth only where calcitic and/or aragonitic nuclei were absent. In this view, the Proterozoic-Cambrian expansion of calcified microfossils primarily reflects the emergence of skeletons as principal agents of carbonate deposition.

  16. Micromechanical modeling of calcifying human costal cartilage using the generalized method of cells.

    PubMed

    Lau, Anthony G; Kindig, Matthew W; Salzar, Rob S; Kent, Richard W

    2015-05-01

    Various tissues in the human body, including cartilage, are known to calcify with aging. There currently is no material model that accounts for the calcification in the costal cartilage, which could affect the overall structural response of the rib cage, and thus change the mechanisms and resistance to injury. The goal of this study is to investigate, through the development of a calcifying cartilage model, whether the calcification morphologies present in the costal cartilage change its effective material properties. A calcified cartilage material model was developed using the morphologies of calcifications obtained from microCT and the relaxed elastic modulus of the human costal cartilage obtained from indentation testing. The homogenized model of calcifying cartilage found that calcifications alter the effective material behavior of the cartilage, and this effect is highly dependent on the microstructural connectivity of the calcification. Calcifications which are not contiguous with the rib bone and constitute 0-18% of the cartilage volume increase the effective elastic modulus from its baseline value of 5MPa to up to 8MPa. Calcifications which are attached to the rib bone, which typically constitute 18-25% of the cartilage volume, result in effective moduli of 20-66MPa, depending on the microstructure, and introduce marked anisotropy into the material. The calcifying cartilage model developed in this study can be incorporated into biomechanical models of the aging thorax to better understand how calcifications in the aging thorax affect the structural response of the rib cage. PMID:25712387

  17. Automatic segmentation and measurement of pleural effusions on CT.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jianhua; Bliton, John; Summers, Ronald M

    2013-07-01

    Pleural effusion is an important biomarker for the diagnosis of many diseases. We develop an automated method to evaluate pleural effusion on CT scans, the measurement of which is prohibitively time consuming when performed manually. The method is based on parietal and visceral pleura extraction, active contour models, region growing, Bezier surface fitting, and deformable surface modeling. Twelve CT scans with three manual segmentations were used to validate the automatic segmentation method. The method was then applied on 91 additional scans for visual assessment. The segmentation method yielded a correlation coefficient of 0.97 and a Dice coefficient of 0.72±0.13 when compared to a professional manual segmentation. The visual assessment estimated 83% cases with negligible or small segmentation errors, 14% with medium errors, and 3% with large errors. PMID:23372069

  18. Automatic Segmentation and Measurement of Pleural Effusions on CT

    PubMed Central

    Bliton, John; Summers, Ronald M.

    2015-01-01

    Pleural effusion is an important biomarker for the diagnosis of many diseases. We develop an automated method to evaluate pleural effusion on CT scans, the measurement of which is prohibitively time consuming when performed manually. The method is based on parietal and visceral pleura extraction, active contour models, region growing, Bezier surface fitting, and deformable surface modeling. Twelve CT scans with three manual segmentations were used to validate the automatic segmentation method. The method was then applied on 91 additional scans for visual assessment. The segmentation method yielded a correlation coefficient of 0.97 and a Dice coefficient of 0.72 ± 0.13 when compared to a professional manual segmentation. The visual assessment estimated 83% cases with negligible or small segmentation errors, 14% with medium errors, and 3% with large errors. PMID:23372069

  19. Mixed lubrication after rewetting of blotted pleural mesothelium.

    PubMed

    Bodega, Francesca; Sironi, Chiara; Porta, Cristina; Pecchiari, Matteo; Zocchi, Luciano; Agostoni, Emilio

    2013-01-15

    Coefficient of kinetic friction (?) of pleural mesothelium blotted with filter paper, and rewetted with Ringer solution markedly increases; this increase is removed if a sufficient amount of sialomucin or hyaluronan is added to Ringer (Bodega et al., 2012. Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology 180, 34-39). In this research we found that ? of pleural mesothelium blotted, rewetted, and sliding at physiological velocities and loads, decreased with increase of velocity, mainly at low velocities. Despite this decrease, ? at highest velocity was still double that before blotting. With small concentration of sialomucin or hyaluronan ? was markedly smaller at each velocity, decreased less with increase of velocity, and at highest velocity approached preblotting value. These findings indicate a regime of mixed lubrication in post-blotting Ringer, at variance with boundary lubrication occurring before blotting or postblotting with sufficient macromolecule addition. Greater roughness of mesothelial surface, caused by blotting, likely induces zones of elastohydrodynamic lubrication, which increase with velocity, while contact area decreases. PMID:22982215

  20. Pleural Effusion Due to Streptococcus milleri: Case Descriptions.

    PubMed

    Madrid-Carbajal, Claudia Janeth; Molinos, Luis; García-Clemente, Marta; Pando-Sandoval, Ana; Fleites, Ana; Casan-Clarŕ, Pere

    2014-09-01

    In this study we analyzed the characteristics of patients with pleural effusion secondary to Streptococcus milleri studied retrospectively between January and March 2013 and found seven patients with a mean age of 60 years, 43% of which were smokers and 57% with a drinking habit. The most common associated factors were alcoholism, previous pneumonia and diabetes. Other bacteria were identified as Enterobacter aerogenes, Bacteroides and Prevotella intermedia capillosus in two patients. The mean duration of antibiotic therapy was 28 days; six patients underwent pleural drainage by chest tube and one patient needed surgery due to poor clinical progress. The mean duration of hospitalization was 30 days with satisfactory outcome in all cases, despite some changes in residual function. PMID:24439468

  1. Functional expression of dental plaque microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Scott N.; Meissner, Tobias; Su, Andrew I.; Snesrud, Erik; Ong, Ana C.; Schork, Nicholas J.; Bretz, Walter A.

    2014-01-01

    Dental caries remains a significant public health problem and is considered pandemic worldwide. The prediction of dental caries based on profiling of microbial species involved in disease and equally important, the identification of species conferring dental health has proven more difficult than anticipated due to high interpersonal and geographical variability of dental plaque microbiota. We have used RNA-Seq to perform global gene expression analysis of dental plaque microbiota derived from 19 twin pairs that were either concordant (caries-active or caries-free) or discordant for dental caries. The transcription profiling allowed us to define a functional core microbiota consisting of nearly 60 species. Similarities in gene expression patterns allowed a preliminary assessment of the relative contribution of human genetics, environmental factors and caries phenotype on the microbiota's transcriptome. Correlation analysis of transcription allowed the identification of numerous functional networks, suggesting that inter-personal environmental variables may co-select for groups of genera and species. Analysis of functional role categories allowed the identification of dominant functions expressed by dental plaque biofilm communities, that highlight the biochemical priorities of dental plaque microbes to metabolize diverse sugars and cope with the acid and oxidative stress resulting from sugar fermentation. The wealth of data generated by deep sequencing of expressed transcripts enables a greatly expanded perspective concerning the functional expression of dental plaque microbiota. PMID:25177549

  2. Pleural empyema caused by Klebsiella oxytoca: A case series.

    PubMed

    Suthers, Elizabeth; Rosenstengel, Andrew; Hart, Julie; Lewis, Joshua R; Kay, Ian; Waterer, Grant; Lee, Y C Gary; Brims, Fraser

    2015-04-01

    We report on 19 patients from Western Australia of pleural empyema with Klebsiella oxytoca, an organism never before reported in association with this condition. Median age was 65 years, 14/17 (83%) had been in hospital within 30 days prior to diagnosis, 12/18 (67%) had active cancer, 9/17 (53%) had been in intensive care and 7/17 (41%) had prior surgery. Nine patients died at the time of censure, five within 90 days of infection. PMID:25677866

  3. Role of therapeutic thoracentesis in tuberculous pleural effusion

    PubMed Central

    Bhuniya, Sourin; Arunabha, Datta C.; Choudhury, Sabyasachi; Saha, Indranil; Roy, T. Sumit; Saha, Mita

    2012-01-01

    CONTEXT: Prevalence of tuberculous pleural effusion is very high in the Asian subcontinent but very few studies have come up from this part of the world about the course of recovery of pulmonary functions after institution of anti-tubercular therapy (ATT) and thoracentesis. AIMS: To study initial lung function impairment, changes over time after institution of ATT and thoracentesis and residual abnormalities left at the end of six months of treatment. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Randomized open level interventional study over two years in 52 patients at a tertiary level teaching hospital. METHODS: The study population was divided into two equal groups, A (therapeutic thoracentesis) and B (diagnostic thoracentesis). Spirometry, chest radiograph and ultrasonography of thorax were done initially and at each follow-up visit up to six months. Statistical analysis was done (P value < 0.05 considered significant). RESULTS: Both groups were comparable initially. After six months none in group A and five patients in group B had minimal pleural effusion. During follow up, mean percentage predicted of FEV1 and FVC increased more in A than in B and the differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Pleural thickening, initially absent in both groups, was found to be more in B as compared to A at subsequent follow-up visits and this was statistically significant (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Thoracentesis should be considered in addition to anti-TB treatment, especially in large effusions, in order to relieve dyspnea, avoid possibility of residual pleural thickening and risk of developing restrictive functional impairment. PMID:23189098

  4. The challenge of prognostic markers in pleural mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Castiglioni, Massimo; Mortara, Lorenzo; Nardecchia, Elisa; Rotolo, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a very aggressive tumor, highly resistant to chemo- and radio-therapy. Treatment of MPM patients is often disappointing, regardless of the modality used. Inter-individual variability of response to multimodal treatment remains a challenge and generally the MPM prognosis continues to be poor. Knowledge of predicting factors of outcome is currently insufficient; therefore, it would be highly desirable to find specific prognostic markers for MPM. Translational research projects are to be implemented. PMID:23825744

  5. Pleural tissue repair with cord blood platelet gel

    PubMed Central

    Rosso, Lorenzo; Parazzi, Valentina; Damarco, Francesco; Righi, Ilaria; Santambrogio, Luigi; Rebulla, Paolo; Gatti, Stefano; Ferrero, Stefano; Nosotti, Mario; Lazzari, Lorenza

    2014-01-01

    Background Prolonged air leak is the major cause of morbidity after pulmonary resection. In this study we used in vitro and in vivo experiments to investigate an innovative approach based on the use of human umbilical cord blood platelet gel. Materials and methods In vitro, a scratch assay was performed to test the tissue repair capability mediated by cord blood platelet gel compared to the standard culture conditions using human primary mesothelial cells. In vivo, an iatrogenic injury was made to the left lung of 54 Wistar rats. Cord blood platelet gel was placed on the injured area only in treated animals and at different times histological changes and the presence of pleural adhesions were evaluated. In addition, changes in the pattern of soluble inflammatory factors were investigated using a multiplex proteome array. Results In vitro, mesothelial cell damage was repaired in a shorter time by cord blood platelet gel than in the control condition (24 versus 35 hours, respectively). In vivo, formation of new mesothelial tissue and complete tissue recovery were observed at 45±1 and 75±1 hours in treated animals and at 130±2.5 and 160±6 hours in controls, respectively. Pleural adhesions were evident in 43% of treated animals compared to 17% of controls. No complications were observed. Interestingly, some crucial soluble factors involved in inflammation were significantly reduced in treated animals. Discussion Cord blood platelet gel accelerates the repair of pleural damage and stimulates the development of pleural adhesions. Both properties could be particularly useful in the management of prolonged air leak, and to reduce inflammation. PMID:23736928

  6. [Treatment methods in multiple hepatic, pulmonary and pleural hydatidosis].

    PubMed

    Galie, N; Stoica, R; Cadar, G; Posea, R; Brânzea, R

    2001-01-01

    The modern treatment of hepato-pleural-pulmonary hydatidosis is based on surgical excision and medical treatment with drugs like: Mebendazol, Albendazol or Praziquantel. There are presented 23 patients with multiple hepato-pleuro-pulmonary hydatidosis, operated in the last 4 years. Surgical excision in pleuro-pulmonary hydatidosis is adapted to cysts topography, aiming to eliminate the intact cysts and to close the remaining cavities. PMID:11374380

  7. Cokeromyces recurvatus isolated from pleural and peritoneal fluid: case report.

    PubMed Central

    Munipalli, B; Rinaldi, M G; Greenberg, S B

    1996-01-01

    The zygomycetous mold Cokeromyces recurvatus was isolated from the pleural and peritoneal fluids of a 64-year-old man with a history of peptic ulcer disease and alcohol abuse. The patient presented to the hospital with severe abdominal pain and a ruptured duodenal ulcer. This is one of the few times that C.recurvatus has been isolated from a human source, and the organism may have contributed to the death of this patient. PMID:8880530

  8. The detection of pleural effusion using a parametric EIT technique.

    PubMed

    Arad, M; Zlochiver, S; Davidson, T; Shoenfeld, Y; Adunsky, A; Abboud, S

    2009-04-01

    The bioimpedance technique provides a safe, low-cost and non-invasive alternative for routine monitoring of lung fluid levels in patients. In this study we have investigated the feasibility of bioimpedance measurements to monitor pleural effusion (PE) patients. The measurement system (eight-electrode thoracic belt, opposite sequential current injections, 3 mA, 20 kHz) employed a parametric reconstruction algorithm to assess the left and right lung resistivity values. Bioimpedance measurements were taken before and after the removal of pleural fluids, while the patient was sitting at rest during tidal respiration in order to minimize movements of the thoracic cavity. The mean resistivity difference between the lung on the side with PE and the lung on the other side was -48 Omega cm. A high correlation was found between the mean lung resistivity value before the removal of the fluids and the volume of pleural fluids removed, with a sensitivity of -0.17 Omega cm ml(-1) (linear regression, R=0.53). The present study further supports the feasibility and applicability of the bioimpedance technique, and specifically the approach of parametric left and right lung resistivity reconstruction, in monitoring lung patients. PMID:19332893

  9. Calcifying Pseudoneoplasms of the Skull Base Presenting with Cranial Neuropathies: Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Nonaka, Yoichi; Aliabadi, Hamid R.; Friedman, Allan H.; Odere, Fred G.; Fukushima, Takanori

    2012-01-01

    Objectives?We report our institutional experience with calcifying pseudoneoplasms of the skull base that presented with cranial neuropathies. These lesions are also known as fibro-osseous lesions, cerebral calculi, or brain stones. Results?One patient presented with facial numbness and retro-orbital pain secondary to compression of the maxillary branch of the trigeminal nerve at the anterior portion of the infratemporal fossa. The other patient presented with occipital headaches and hypoglossal nerve palsy. This patient was found to have a calcified lesion in the posterior fossa, which eroded the left occipital condyle. Conclusion?Calcifying pseudoneoplasms are benign, slow-growing masses that are apparently cured by gross total resection. Even with incomplete tumor resection, the prognosis is considered to be favorable. We advocate a minimally invasive surgical resection of such tumors involving the cranial nerves. PMID:23946925

  10. Ultrasonic decalcification of calcified valve and annulus during heart valve replacement.

    PubMed Central

    Unal, M; Saniso?lu, I; Konuralp, C; Akay, H; Orhan, G; Aydo?an, H; Aka, S A; Eren, E E

    1996-01-01

    A heavily calcified heart valve annulus increases the likelihood of sequelae after prosthetic valve replacement. Such sequelae include cerebral embolism, paravalvular leakage, valvular dysfunction, rhythm disturbance, hemolysis, communication of the heart chambers, and rupture of the posterior wall of the left ventricle. From January 1991 through June 1994, we performed heart valve replacement on 30 patients, using an ultrasonic surgical aspirator to remove calcific deposits. We placed aortic valve prostheses in 12 patients, mitral valve prostheses in 13 patients, and both aortic and mitral prostheses in 5 patients, after ultrasonic débridement of calcified annuli. All patients were re-examined 6 months after surgery: echocardiographic study showed no paravalvular leakage or valve-related complications. In our experience, ultrasonic decalcification of the annulus is superior to traditional methods. We advocate the use of ultrasonic débridement as an adjunctive tool in calcified heart valve replacement. PMID:8792537

  11. Infliximab for the treatment of plaque psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Gall, Jennifer S; Kalb, Robert E

    2008-01-01

    Infliximab is a monoclonal antibody that targets tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF?). It is used in the treatment of a number of inflammatory disorders including severe plaque psoriasis. TNF? is thought to have a major role in psoriasis by promoting an inflammatory infiltrate into the skin and inducing keratinocyte proliferation and preventing keratinocyte apoptosis, which directly contributes to the characteristic plaque skin lesions. Based on four randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trials and nine open-label uncontrolled trials of the use of infliximab in plaque psoriasis, it was found that infliximab is a highly efficacious, rapid, sustainable, and relatively safe therapy. Yet as with any biologic, caution is recommended in its use as infusion reactions, lupus-like syndromes, infections, malignancies including lymphomas, as well as other rare events have been reported. PMID:19707434

  12. Serum Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Pediatric Patients with Community-Acquired Pneumonia and Pleural Effusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seong Hwan Choi; Eun Young Park; Hye Lim Jung; Jae Won Shim; Deok Soo Kim; Moon Soo Park; Jung Yeon Shim

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels in children with community-acquired pneumonia. Serum VEGF levels were mea- sured in patients with pneumonia (n=29) and in control subjects (n=27) by a sand- wich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The pneumonia group was classified into bronchopneumonia with pleural effusion (n=1), bronchopneumonia without pleural effusion (n=15), lobar pneumonia with pleural effusion

  13. CD4CD25 Regulatory T Lymphocytes in Malignant Pleural Effusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi-Qiang Chen; Huan-Zhong Shi; Xue-Jun Qin; Wu-Ning Mo; Xiang-Dong Liang; Ze-Xin Huang; Hai-Bo Yang; Cong Wu

    Background: Active suppression by CD4CD25 regulatory T lym- phocytes plays an important role in the downregulation of T-cell responses to foreign and self-antigens. Objective:Toanalyzewhether theCD4CD25regulatoryT lympho- cytes exist and function normally in malignant pleural effusion. Methods: The percentages of CD4CD25 T lymphocytes in pleural effusion and peripheral blood from patients with lung cancer with malignant effusion, pleural lavage and peripheral

  14. Utility of semi-rigid thoracoscopy in undiagnosed exudative pleural effusion

    PubMed Central

    Nattusamy, Loganathan; Madan, Karan; Mohan, Anant; Hadda, Vijay; Jain, Deepali; Madan, Neha Kawatra; Arava, Sudheer; Khilnani, Gopi C; Guleria, Randeep

    2015-01-01

    Background: Semi-rigid thoracoscopy is a safe and efficacious procedure in patients with undiagnosed pleural effusion. Literature on its utility from developing countries is limited. We herein describe our initial experience on the utility of semi-rigid thoracoscopy from a tertiary care teaching and referral center in north India. We also perform a systematic review of studies reporting the utility of semi-rigid thoracoscopy from India. Patients and Methods: The primary objective was to evaluate the diagnostic utility of semi-rigid thoracoscopy in patients with undiagnosed exudative pleural effusion. Semi-rigid thoracoscopy was performed under local anesthesia and conscious sedation in the bronchoscopy suite. Results: A total of 48 patients underwent semi-rigid thoracoscopy between August 2012 and December 2013 for undiagnosed pleural effusion. Mean age was 50.9 ± 14.1 years (range: 17–78 years). Pre-procedure clinico-radiological diagnoses were malignant pleural effusion [36 patients (75%)], tuberculosis (TB) [10 (20.83%) patients], and empyema [2 patients (4.17%)]. Patients with empyema underwent the procedure for pleural biopsy, optimal placement of intercostal tube and adhesiolysis. Thoracoscopic pleural biopsy diagnosed pleural malignancy in 30 (62.5%) patients and TB in 2 (4.17%) patients. Fourteen (29.17%) patients were diagnosed with non-specific pleuritis and normal pleura was diagnosed on a pleural biopsy in 2 (4.17%) patients. Overall, a definitive diagnosis of either pleural malignancy or TB was obtained in 32 (66.7%) patients. Combined overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of thoracoscopic pleural biopsy for malignant pleural effusion were 96.77%, 100%, 100% and 66.67%, respectively. There was no procedure-related mortality. On performing a systematic review of literature, four studies on semi-rigid thoracoscopy from India were identified. Conclusion: Semi-rigid thoracoscopy is a safe and efficacious procedure in patients with undiagnosed exudative pleural effusions.

  15. A multi-modal multiphoton investigation of microstructure in the deep zone and calcified cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Mansfield, Jessica C; Peter Winlove, C

    2012-01-01

    Multi-modal multiphoton microscopy was used to investigate tissue microstructure in the zone of calcified cartilage, focussing on the collagen fibre organisation at the tidemark and cement line. Thick, unstained and unfixed sagittal sections were prepared from the equine metacarpophalangeal joint. Second harmonic generation (SHG) provided contrast for collagen, two-photon fluorescence (TPF) for endogenous fluorophores, and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) allowed the cells to be visualised. The structure of radial and calcified cartilage was found to vary with location across the joint, with the palma regions showing a more ordered parallel arrangement of collagen fibres than the cortical ridge and dorsal regions. These patterns may be associated with regional variations in joint loading. In addition, the cell lacunae had a greater diameter in the dorsal region than in the palmar region. At the cement line some collagen fibres were observed crossing between the calcified cartilage and the subchondral bone. At the tidemark the fibres were parallel and continuous between the radial and calcified cartilage. Beneath early superficial lesions the structure of the tidemark and calcified cartilage was disrupted with discontinuities and gaps in the fibrillar organisation. Cartilage microstructure varies in the deep zones between regions of different loading. The variations in collagen structure observed may be significant to the local mechanical properties of the cartilage and therefore may be important to its mechanical interactions with the subchondral bone. The calcified cartilage is altered even below early superficial lesions and therefore is important in the understanding of the aetiology of osteoarthritis. PMID:22332832

  16. Statistical segmentation of carotid plaque neovascularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akkus, Zeynettin; Bosch, Johan G.; Sánchez-Ferrero, Gonzalo V.; Carvalho, Diego D. B.; Renaud, Guillaume; van den Oord, Stijn C. H.; ten Kate, Gerrit L.; Schinkel, Arend F. L.; de Jong, Nico; van der Steen, Antonius F. W.

    2013-03-01

    In several studies, intraplaque neovascularization (IPN) has been linked with plaque vulnerability. The recent development of contrast enhanced ultrasound enables IPN detection, but an accurate quantification of IPN is a big challenge due to noise, motion, subtle contrast response, blooming of contrast and artifacts. We present an algorithm that automatically estimates the location and amount of contrast within the plaque over time. Plaque pixels are initially labeled through an iterative expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm. The used algorithm avoids several drawbacks of standard EM. It is capable of selecting the best number of components in an unsupervised way, based on a minimum message length criterion. Next, neighborhood information using a 5×5 kernel and spatiotemporal behavior are combined with the known characteristics of contrast spots in order to group components, identify artifacts and finalize the classification. Image sequences are divided into 3-seconds subgroups. A pixel is relabeled as an artifact if it is labeled as contrast for more than 1.5 seconds in at least two subgroups. For 10 plaques, automated segmentation results were validated with manual segmentation of contrast in 10 frames per clip. Average Dice index and area ratio were 0.73+/-0.1 (mean+/-SD) and 98.5+/-29.6 (%) respectively. Next, 45 atherosclerotic plaques were analyzed. Time integrated IPN surface area was calculated. Average area of IPN was 3.73+/-3.51 mm2. Average area of 45 plaques was 11.6+/-8.6 mm2. This method based on EM contrast segmentation provides a new way of IPN quantification.

  17. Plaque fluoride and mutans streptococci in plaque and saliva before and after discontinuation of water fluoridation.

    PubMed

    Seppä, L; Hausen, H; Kärkkäinen, S

    1996-08-01

    Our aim was to compare plaque fluoride and the level of mutans streptococci in saliva and plaque before and 1 and 2 years after discontinuation of water fluoridation in Kuopio, Finland. For comparison, a low-fluoride community was included in the study. Pooled plaque and saliva were collected from a random sample of 12-year-olds in both communities (n = 139). Enumeration of mutans streptococci in plaque was made on MSB agar and the level of salivary mutans streptococci was measured using the Strip mutans method. Fluoride was analyzed using a fluoride specific electrode. Caries, gingival status, fluoride varnish applications and self-reported oral health habits were recorded at baseline. Before discontinuation of fluoridation, the level of mutans streptococci in saliva was significantly lower in the fluoridated than in the non-fluoridated community. The difference in plaque mutans streptococci was not statistically significant. After discontinuation of water fluoridation, there was a significant shift towards elevated values of salivary mutans streptococci in the fluoridated community, but the level of mutans streptococci in plaque remained at the baseline level. There was no significant difference between the communities in the fluoride content of plaque either before or after discontinuation of fluoridation. From the background factors, only caries scores (higher in the non-fluoridated community) and oral hygiene (better in the non-fluoridated community) were significantly different between the communities. PMID:8930582

  18. Characteristics of pleural effusions in systemic lupus erythematosus: differential diagnosis of lupus pleuritis.

    PubMed

    Choi, B Y; Yoon, M J; Shin, K; Lee, Y J; Song, Y W

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the clinical characteristics of pleural effusion in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). A prospective analysis of 17 SLE patients with pleural effusion (seven lupus pleuritis, eight transudative effusions and two parapneumonic effusions) was performed. Thirty non-SLE patients with pleural effusion were recruited as controls. A pleural fluid ANA titer ?1:160 was found in 8/17 (47.1%) SLE patients and none of the 30 non-SLE patients (p?=?0.0001). Pleural fluid to serum C3 ratios were significantly lower in SLE than in non-SLE (median (minimum-maximum) 0.29 (0.03-0.43) versus 0.52 (0.26-0.73), p?=?0.0002). Among SLE patients, pleural fluid ANA titers ?1:160 were more frequently found in patients with lupus pleuritis than in those with pleural effusion from causes other than lupus itself (85.7% versus 20.0%, p?=?0.0152). Serum CRP levels were significantly increased in patients with lupus pleuritis compared with SLE patients with transudative pleural effusion (2.30 (0.30-5.66) versus 0.7 (0.12-1.47) mg/dl, p?=?0.0062). In conclusion, pleural fluid ANA titer and serum CRP levels are significantly increased in lupus pleuritis. PMID:25318967

  19. Medical thoracoscopic removal of a metal needle from the pleural space.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Richa; James, Prince; Thangakunam, Balamugesh; Christopher, Devasahayam Jesudas

    2014-01-01

    Medical thoracoscopy is an excellent diagnostic and therapeutic tool for management of pleural diseases. There have been case reports of removal of foreign bodies from pleural spaces with video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery under general anaesthesia by thoracic surgeons. We present a case of successful removal of an 8?cm long metal needle from the pleural space with single port medical semirigid thoracoscopy under local anaesthesia by a chest physician. Removal of a foreign body from the pleural space is one more indication for medical thoracoscopy, however, an experienced chest physician and proper case selection are very important for safety and a successful outcome of this procedure. PMID:25301430

  20. Calcifying fibrous tumor of the small intestine associated with Castleman-like lymphadenopathy.

    PubMed

    Valladolid, Genaro; Weisenberg, Elliot; Sundaresan, Ramamoorthy; Maker, Ajay V

    2014-06-01

    Calcifying fibrous tumor is a rare mesenchymal tumor that most commonly presents in younger individuals. We report the case of a 25-year-old woman that presented with severe abdominal pain and a small bowel mass at the site of an ileocolic intussusception with associated mesenteric lymphadenopathy. Surgical resection was performed, and pathologic analysis revealed that the mass was a calcifying fibrous tumor associated with Castleman-like adenopathy. This case intends to support a possible association between these two entities. PMID:24452381

  1. The "Hoover" (vacuum cleaner) technique for calcifying tendonitis deposits excision and removal of the calcific debris.

    PubMed

    Ehud, Atoun; Ehud, Rath; Alexander, Van Tongel; Ali, Narvani; Giusseppe, Sforza; Ofer, Levy

    2012-07-01

    A new technical tip for the improvement of the arthroscopic treatment of symptomatic calcifying tendinitis is described. Arthroscopic excision of calcifying tendonitis may result with multiple minute calcific debris in the subacromial bursa, causing severe post operative pain due to chemical irritation of the bursa. We suggest the use of a bladeless shaver barrel as a "Hoover" (vacuum cleaner) for arthroscopic clearance of these miniature calcific debris from the subacromial space after resection of the major deposits. The use of this technique resulted in good clinical outcome with improved post operative pain. PMID:23204765

  2. Assessment of vulnerable plaque composition by matching the deformation of a parametric plaque model to measured plaque deformation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Radj A. Baldewsing; Johannes A. Schaar; Frits Mastik; Cees. W. J. Oomens; Antonius F. W. van der Steen

    2005-01-01

    Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) elastography visualizes local radial strain of arteries in so-called elastograms to detect rupture-prone plaques. However, due to the unknown arterial stress distribution these elastograms cannot be directly interpreted as a morphology and material composition image. To overcome this limitation we have developed a method that reconstructs a Young's modulus image from an elastogram. This method is especially

  3. Pre-clinical mouse models of primary and metastatic pleural cancers of the lung and breast and the use of bioluminescent imaging to monitor pleural tumor burden.

    PubMed

    Servais, Elliot L; Colovos, Christos; Kachala, Stefan S; Adusumilli, Prasad S

    2011-09-01

    Malignant pleural disease (MPD) results in an estimated 150,000 cases of malignant pleural effusions (MPE) annually. The most common malignancies associated with MPD are primary malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) and metastatic lung cancer, breast cancer, and lymphoma. MPM is a rare, regionally aggressive malignancy whose incidence is increasing secondarily to the latency of disease progression. MPD is characteristic of advanced-stage pleural disease and portends a grave clinical prognosis with a median survival between 3 and 12 months. Preclinical investigations conducted in flank and intraperitoneal tumor models do not fully recapitulate the pleural tumor microenvironment, and the results are not directly translatable to the clinical setting. The protocol described herein provides a mouse model of MPM and MPD from nonhematogenous tumors, resulting in reproducible tumor location, tumor progression, animal survival, and histopathology. Pleural tumor growth in this model resembles the regionally aggressive clinical course and tumor microenvironment of human pleural cancers and provides an optimal animal model to investigate MPD biology and therapies. PMID:21898334

  4. Differential responses of calcifying and non-calcifying epibionts of a brown macroalga to present-day and future upwelling pCO2.

    PubMed

    Saderne, Vincent; Wahl, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Seaweeds are key species of the Baltic Sea benthic ecosystems. They are the substratum of numerous fouling epibionts like bryozoans and tubeworms. Several of these epibionts bear calcified structures and could be impacted by the high pCO2 events of the late summer upwellings in the Baltic nearshores. Those events are expected to increase in strength and duration with global change and ocean acidification. If calcifying epibionts are impacted by transient acidification as driven by upwelling events, their increasing prevalence could cause a shift of the fouling communities toward fleshy species. The aim of the present study was to test the sensitivity of selected seaweed macrofoulers to transient elevation of pCO2 in their natural microenvironment, i.e. the boundary layer covering the thallus surface of brown seaweeds. Fragments of the macroalga Fucus serratus bearing an epibiotic community composed of the calcifiers Spirorbis spirorbis (Annelida) and Electra pilosa (Bryozoa) and the non-calcifier Alcyonidium hirsutum (Bryozoa) were maintained for 30 days under three pCO2 conditions: natural 460 ± 59 µatm, present-day upwelling1193 ± 166 µatm and future upwelling 3150 ± 446 µatm. Only the highest pCO2 caused a significant reduction of growth rates and settlement of S. spirorbis individuals. Additionally, S. spirorbis settled juveniles exhibited enhanced calcification of 40% during daylight hours compared to dark hours, possibly reflecting a day-night alternation of an acidification-modulating effect by algal photosynthesis as opposed to an acidification-enhancing effect of algal respiration. E. pilosa colonies showed significantly increased growth rates at intermediate pCO2 (1193 µatm) but no response to higher pCO2. No effect of acidification on A. hirsutum colonies growth rates was observed. The results suggest a remarkable resistance of the algal macro-epibionts to levels of acidification occurring at present day upwellings in the Baltic. Only extreme future upwelling conditions impacted the tubeworm S. spirorbis, but not the bryozoans. PMID:23894659

  5. DIFFERENTIAL EFFECT OF TETRAZOLIUM UPON BACTERIOPHAGE PLAQUE ASSAY TITERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study examined whether the practice of incorporating either tetrazolium red ortetrazolium violet dye into plaque assay medium deleteriously influences plaque assay titers. epresentative members of six different virus families were studied: ystoviridae (06), Leviviridae (MS2)...

  6. Coronary CT Angiography in the Quantitative Assessment of Coronary Plaques

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) has been recently evaluated for its ability to assess coronary plaque characteristics, including plaque composition. Identification of the relationship between plaque composition by CCTA and patient clinical presentations may provide insight into the pathophysiology of coronary artery plaque, thus assisting identification of vulnerable plaques which are associated with the development of acute coronary syndrome. CCTA-generated 3D visualizations allow evaluation of both coronary lesions and lumen changes, which are considered to enhance the diagnostic performance of CCTA. The purpose of this review is to discuss the recent developments that have occurred in the field of CCTA with regard to its diagnostic accuracy in the quantitative assessment of coronary plaques, with a focus on the characterization of plaque components and identification of vulnerable plaques. PMID:25162010

  7. Historical Plaque at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This plaque, displayed on the grounds of Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, commemorates the Redstone Test Stand as a National Historic Landmark. The site was designated as such in 1985 by the National Park Service of the United States Department of the Interior.

  8. Historical Plaque at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This plaque, displayed on the grounds of Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, commemorates the Saturn V Launch Vehicle as a National Historic Landmark. The site was designated as such in 1984 by the National Park Service of the United States Department of the Interior.

  9. Historical Plaque at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This plaque, displayed on the grounds of Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, commemorates the designation of the Propulsion and Structural Test Facility as a National Historic Landmark by the National Park Service of the United States Interior. The site was designated as a landmark in 1985.

  10. Historical Plaque at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This plaque, displayed on the grounds of Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, commemorates the Saturn V Dynamic Test Stand as a National Historic Landmark. The site was designated as such in 1985 by the National Park Service of the United States Department of the Interior.

  11. Historical Plaque at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This plaque, displayed on the grounds of Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama commemorates the Neutral Buoyancy Space Simulator as a National Historic Landmark. The site was designated as such in 1986 by the National Park Service of the United States Department of the Interior.

  12. Shear stress in atherosclerotic plaque determination.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaohong; Yang, Qin; Wang, Zuo; Wei, Dangheng

    2014-12-01

    Atherosclerosis initiates at predictable focal sites near arterial branches and curves, where blood flow is disturbed and shear stress is complex. Endothelial shear stress is the tangential stress derived from the friction of the flowing blood on the endothelial surface of the arterial wall. It is a key factor in modulating endothelial cell gene expression and vascular development and remodeling. Increasing evidences suggest that shear stress patterns have a strong relationship with atherosclerotic features. Moreover, variations in the local artery geometry during atherogenesis further modify flow shear stress characteristics, which contribute to the rupture site at the plaque upstream. In this study, we summarize the mechanistic evidences that associate shear stress patterns with determined atherosclerotic plaque features. An enhanced understanding of the relationship and pathophysiological function of shear stress patterns in atherosclerotic plaque features is essential, which may provide early prediction of clinical risk and guide individualized treatment strategies. In the current review, we analyzed the function of shear stress on the determination of atherosclerotic lesion and provided an update on the mechanotransduction of shear stress, gene expression regulation, and atherosclerotic plaque development and rupture. PMID:25165867

  13. Lipidome of Atherosclerotic Plaques from Hypercholesterolemic Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Bojic, Lazar A.; McLaren, David G.; Shah, Vinit; Previs, Stephen F.; Johns, Douglas G.; Castro-Perez, Jose M.

    2014-01-01

    The cellular, macromolecular and neutral lipid composition of the atherosclerotic plaque has been extensively characterized. However, a comprehensive lipidomic analysis of the major lipid classes within atherosclerotic lesions has not been reported. The objective of this study was to produce a detailed framework of the lipids that comprise the atherosclerotic lesion of a widely used pre-clinical model of plaque progression. Male New Zealand White rabbits were administered regular chow supplemented with 0.5% cholesterol (HC) for 12 weeks to induce hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis. Our lipidomic analyses of plaques isolated from rabbits fed the HC diet, using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and high-resolution mass spectrometry, detected most of the major lipid classes including: Cholesteryl esters, triacylglycerols, phosphatidylcholines, sphingomyelins, diacylglycerols, fatty acids, phosphatidylserines, lysophosphatidylcholines, ceramides, phosphatidylglycerols, phosphatidylinositols and phosphatidylethanolamines. Given that cholesteryl esters, triacylglycerols and phosphatidylcholines comprise greater than 75% of total plasma lipids, we directed particular attention towards the qualitative and quantitative assessment of the fatty acid composition of these lipids. We additionally found that sphingomyelins were relatively abundant lipid class within lesions, and compared the abundance of sphingomyelins to their precursor phosphatidylcholines. The studies presented here are the first approach to a comprehensive characterization of the atherosclerotic plaque lipidome. PMID:25517033

  14. Influence of microcalcifications on vulnerable plaque mechanics using FSI modeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Danny Bluestein; Yared Alemu; Idit Avrahami; Morteza Gharib; Kris Dumont; John J. Ricotta; Shmuel Einav

    Sudden heart attacks remain one of the primary causes of premature death in the developed world. Asymptomatic vulnerable plaques that rupture are believed to prompt such fatal heart attacks and strokes. The role of microcalcifications in the vulnerable plaque rupture mechanics is still debated. Recent studies suggest the microcalcifications increase the plaque vulnerability. In this manuscript we present a numerical

  15. Influence of microcalcifications on vulnerable plaque mechanics using FSI modeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Danny Bluestein; Yared Alemu; Idit Avrahami; Morteza Gharib; Kris Dumont; John J. Ricotta; Shmuel Einav

    2008-01-01

    Sudden heart attacks remain one of the primary causes of premature death in the developed world. Asymptomatic vulnerable plaques that rupture are believed to prompt such fatal heart attacks and strokes. The role of microcalcifications in the vulnerable plaque rupture mechanics is still debated. Recent studies suggest the microcalcifications increase the plaque vulnerability. In this manuscript we present a numerical

  16. Intravascular Modalities for Detection of Vulnerable Plaque Current Status

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Briain D. MacNeill; Harry C. Lowe; Masamichi Takano; Valentin Fuster; Ik-Kyung Jang

    Progress in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease is dependent on a greater understanding of the mechanisms of coronary plaque progression. Autopsy studies have characterized a subgroup of high-risk, or vulnerable, plaques that result in acute coronary syndromes or sudden cardiac death. These angiographically modest plaques share certain pathologic characteristics: a thin, fibrous cap, lipid-rich core,

  17. Intravascular photoacoustic imaging to detect and differentiate atherosclerotic plaques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Sethuraman; S. Aglyamov; J. Amirian; R. Smalling; S. Emelianov

    2005-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a systemic disease characterized by the development of a plaque leading to several acute coronary syndromes. Imaging of plaque structure and composition is important in diagnosing the disease and further guiding coronary interventions. Currently, there is no clinical imaging technique capable of providing comprehensive morphological and functional information of the plaques. Several emerging techniques including palpography and thermography

  18. View of plaque Apollo 11 astronauts left on moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Closeup view of the plaque which the Apollo 11 astronauts left on the moon in commemoration of the historic lunar landing mission. The plaque was attached to the ladder on the landing gear strut on the descent stage of the Apollo 11 Lunar Module. The plaque was covered with a thin sheet of stainless steel during flight.

  19. Cosmonaut Leonov and Astronaut Stafford display ASTP commemorative plaque

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Cosmonaut Aleksey A. Leonov (on left) and Astronaut Thomas P. Stafford display the Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) commemorative plaque. The two commanders of their respective crews are in the Apollo Command Module trainer in bldg 35 at JSC. The two plaques divided into four quarters each will be flown on the ASTP mission. The plaque is written in both English and Russian.

  20. IVUS-based Histology of Atherosclerotic plaques: Improving Longitudinal Resolution

    E-print Network

    Yanikoglu, Berrin

    IVUS-based Histology of Atherosclerotic plaques: Improving Longitudinal Resolution Arash Takia ABSTRACT Although Virtual Histology (VH) is the in-vivo gold standard for atherosclerosis plaque is the Virtual Histology (VH).3 VH provides a colored coded plaque characterization image by analyzing

  1. Videocapillaroscopic Findings in the Microcirculation of the Psoriatic Plaque

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rossella De Angelis; Leonardo Bugatti; Patrizia Del Medico; Massimiliano Nicolini; Giorgio Filosa

    2002-01-01

    Background: Videocapillaroscopy (VCP) is a method to study the morphology and dynamics of microcirculation, but information about capillaroscopic features of the psoriatic plaque is limited. Objective: To investigate the distribution, morphology and density of capillaries in lesional and perilesional skin of the psoriatic plaque. Methods: VCP of a well-delimited plaque of the trunk, arms or legs in 15 consecutive patients

  2. In Vivo MRI Atherosclerotic Plaque Characterization Using Magnetic Susceptibility Distinguishes Symptom-Producing Plaques

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Subha V.; Winner, Marshall W.; Tran, Tam; Velayutham, Murugesan; Simonetti, Orlando P.; Baker, Peter B.; Olesik, John; McCarthy, Beth; Ferketich, Amy K.; Zweier, Jay L.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives We investigated iron's role in atherosclerosis and plaque instability with a novel approach to in vivo atherosclerotic plaque characterization using noninvasive, noncontrast magnetic resonance-based T2* measurement. We validated this approach using ex vivo plaque analyses to establish that T2* reflects intraplaque iron composition. Background Iron catalyzes free radical production, a key step for lipid peroxidation and atherosclerosis development. The parameter T2* measures tissue magnetic susceptibility, historically has been used to quantify hepatic and myocardial iron. To date, T2* measurement has not been previously developed for in vivo plaque characterization in patients with atherosclerosis. Methods Thirty-nine patients referred for carotid endarterectomy were prospectively enrolled to undergo preoperative carotid MRI and postoperative analysis of the explanted plaque. Clinical history of any symptoms attributable to each carotid lesion was recorded. Results MRI could not be completed in 4 subjects due to claustrophobia, and three patients scanned prior to the use of a neck stabilizer had motion artifact precluding quantification. In the remaining subjects, symptomatic compared to asymptomatic patients had significantly lower plaque T2* values (20.0±1.8 vs. 34.4±2.7 ms, respectively, p<0.001). Analytical methods demonstrated similar total iron (138.6±36.5 vs. 165.8±48.3 mg/kg, p=NS) but less low-molecular weight Fe(III) (7.3±3.8 vs. 17.7±4.0 nmol/mg, p<0.05) in the explanted plaques of symptomatic versus asymptomatic patients, respectively, consistent with a shift in iron from Fe(III) to higher amounts of T2*-shortening forms of iron. Mass spectroscopy also showed significantly lower calcium (37.5±10.8 vs. 123.6±19.3 g/kg, p<0.01) and higher copper (3.2±0.5 vs. 1.7±0.1 mg/kg, p<0.01) in plaques from symptomatic patients. Conclusions In vivo measurement of intraplaque T2* using MRI is feasible and reproducible, and distinguishes symptom-producing from non-symptom producing plaques in patients with carotid artery atherosclerosis. Symptom-producing plaques demonstrated characteristic changes in iron forms by ex vivo analysis, supporting the dynamic presence of iron in the microenvironment of atherosclerotic plaque. PMID:19356405

  3. A direct vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque elasticity reconstruction method based on an original material-finite element formulation: theoretical framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouvier, Adeline; Deleaval, Flavien; Doyley, Marvin M.; Yazdani, Saami K.; Finet, Gérard; Le Floc'h, Simon; Cloutier, Guy; Pettigrew, Roderic I.; Ohayon, Jacques

    2013-12-01

    The peak cap stress (PCS) amplitude is recognized as a biomechanical predictor of vulnerable plaque (VP) rupture. However, quantifying PCS in vivo remains a challenge since the stress depends on the plaque mechanical properties. In response, an iterative material finite element (FE) elasticity reconstruction method using strain measurements has been implemented for the solution of these inverse problems. Although this approach could resolve the mechanical characterization of VPs, it suffers from major limitations since (i) it is not adapted to characterize VPs exhibiting high material discontinuities between inclusions, and (ii) does not permit real time elasticity reconstruction for clinical use. The present theoretical study was therefore designed to develop a direct material-FE algorithm for elasticity reconstruction problems which accounts for material heterogeneities. We originally modified and adapted the extended FE method (Xfem), used mainly in crack analysis, to model material heterogeneities. This new algorithm was successfully applied to six coronary lesions of patients imaged in vivo with intravascular ultrasound. The results demonstrated that the mean relative absolute errors of the reconstructed Young's moduli obtained for the arterial wall, fibrosis, necrotic core, and calcified regions of the VPs decreased from 95.3±15.56%, 98.85±72.42%, 103.29±111.86% and 95.3±10.49%, respectively, to values smaller than 2.6 × 10-8±5.7 × 10-8% (i.e. close to the exact solutions) when including modified-Xfem method into our direct elasticity reconstruction method.

  4. Plaque pHandMicroflora ofDental Plaque onSoundandCarious RootSurfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Aamdal-Scheiel; W.-M. Luan; G. Dahlen

    Giventhehypothesis that root caries istheresult of acidformation byacidogenic micro-organisms, thepresent study wasperformed torelate sucrose-induced pHresponse ofdentalplaqueon rootsurfaces tothemicrobial composition oftheoverlying plaque. Seventeen caries-active elderly Chinese withpoororal hygiene andwithbothsound andcarious rootsurfaces wereexamined. Plaque pH was measured before anduptoonehourafter acontrolled sucrose mouthrinse. Plaquesamples formicrobiologic analyses werecollected from2soundand2or3carious pH- measurement sites ineachsubject. Theprevalence ofthe following micro-organisms wasassessed as% oftotal viable countsonBrucella agar: Prevotella

  5. Simple Method for Plating Escherichia coli Bacteriophages Forming Very Small Plaques or No Plaques under Standard Conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Los; Piotr Golec; G. Wegrzyn; A. Wegrzyn; M. Los

    2008-01-01

    The use of low concentrations (optimally 2.5 to 3.5 g\\/ml, depending on top agar thickness) of ampicillin in the bottom agar of the plate allows for formation of highly visible plaques of bacteriophages which otherwise form extremely small plaques or no plaques on Escherichia coli lawns. Using this method, we were able to obtain plaques of newly isolated bacteriophages, propagated

  6. Calcified neurocysticercosis associates with hippocampal atrophy: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Del Brutto, Oscar H; Salgado, Perla; Lama, Julio; Del Brutto, Victor J; Campos, Xavier; Zambrano, Mauricio; García, Héctor H

    2015-01-01

    Calcified neurocysticercosis has been associated with hippocampal atrophy in patients with refractory epilepsy, but the relevance of this association in the population at large is unknown. We assessed calcified cysticerci and its association with hippocampal atrophy in elderly persons living in Atahualpa, an Ecuadorian village endemic for neurocysticercosis. All Atahualpa residents ? 60 years of age were invited to undergo computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging for neurocysticercosis detection. Twenty-eight (11%) out of 248 enrolled persons had calcified cysticerci (case-patients) and were matched 1:1 by age, sex, and years of education to individuals without neurocysticercosis on computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (controls). Four case-patients and none of the controls had epilepsy (P = 0.134). Cognitive performance was similar across both groups. The Scheltens' medial temporal atrophy scale was used for hippocampal rating in case-patients and matched controls without neurocysticercosis. Mean score in the Scheltens' scale was higher in case-patients than in controls (P < 0.001). Atrophic hippocampi were noticed in 19 case-patients and five controls (P = 0.003). Atrophy was bilateral in 11 case-patients and unilateral in eight. All case-patients with unilateral hippocampal atrophy had at least one ipsilateral calcification. This study shows an association between calcified cysticerci and hippocampal atrophy and raises the possibility of an inflammation-mediated hippocampal damage as the responsible mechanism for these findings. PMID:25349375

  7. The Elastic Lamellae of Devitalized Arteries Calcify When Incubated in Serum

    E-print Network

    Price, Paul A.

    The Elastic Lamellae of Devitalized Arteries Calcify When Incubated in Serum Evidence for a Serum whether serum contains an activity that induces artery calcification. Methods and Results--The elastic circulation. The SCF does not initiate medial elastin calcification in living arteries, which suggests

  8. Effects of seawater pCO2 changes on the calcifying fluid of scleractinian corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohn, S.; Merico, A.

    2012-03-01

    Rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations due to anthropogenic emissions induce changes in the ocean carbonate chemistry and a drop in ocean pH. This acidification process is expected to harm calcifying organisms like coccolithophores, molluscs, echinoderms, and corals. A severe decline in coral abundance is, for example, expected by the end of this century with associated disastrous effects on reef ecosystems. Despite the growing importance of the topic, little progress has been made with respect to modelling the impact of acidification on coral calcification. Here we present a model for a coral polyp that simulates the carbonate system in four different compartments: the seawater, the polyp tissue, the coelenteron, and the calicoblastic layer. Precipitation of calcium carbonate takes place in the metabolically controlled calicoblastic layer beneath the polyp tissue. The model is adjusted to a state of activity as observed by direct microsensor measurements in the calcifying fluid. Simulated CO2 perturbation experiments reveal decreasing calcification rates under elevated pCO2 despite strong metabolic control of the calcifying fluid. Diffusion of CO2 through the tissue into the calicoblastic layer increases with increasing seawater pCO2 leading to decreased aragonite saturation in the calcifying fluid of the coral polyp. Our modelling study provides important insights into the complexity of the calcification process at the organism level and helps to quantify the effect of ocean acidification on corals.

  9. AUTOMATIC DETECTION OF CALCIFIED LESIONS IN THE DESCENDING AORTA USING CONTRAST ENHANCED CT SCANS

    E-print Network

    van Vliet, Lucas J.

    AUTOMATIC DETECTION OF CALCIFIED LESIONS IN THE DESCENDING AORTA USING CONTRAST ENHANCED CT SCANS R and Technology, Faculty of Applied Science, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands 3 Dept enhanced Computed Tomography (CT) scans. This CT scan is generally followed by a contrast enhanced

  10. Past constraints on the vulnerability of marine calcifiers to massive carbon dioxide release

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andy Ridgwell; Daniela N. Schmidt

    2010-01-01

    Increasing concentrations of carbon dioxide in sea water are driving a progressive acidification of the ocean. Although the associated changes in the carbonate chemistry of surface and deep waters may adversely affect marine calcifying organisms, current experiments do not always produce consistent results for a given species. Ocean sediments record past biological responses to transient greenhouse warming and ocean acidification.

  11. The lateral radiograph: an aid to labiolingual position during treatment of calcified anterior teeth.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, R P; De Mayo, T J; Roahen, J O

    1994-04-01

    A technique is described to obtain a lateral view of an anterior tooth using a regular periapical film. This procedure helps determine the relative labiolingual position of instruments during the nonsurgical treatment of calcified canals. No additional armamentarium is required other than what is used in the daily practice of endodontics. This technique has other applications as well. PMID:8035159

  12. Ultrastructural characteristics of ostrich eggshell: outer shell membrane and the calcified layers.

    PubMed

    Richards, P D; Richards, P A; Lee, M E

    2000-06-01

    The ultrastructure of the eggshell of the domestic hen has been well researched and structural studies of other avian species, such as the ostrich, often base their interpretation of egg shell structure on that of the chicken. In the ostrich, lowered hatchability and hatching trauma may be due to shell ultrastructural abnormalities. In the present study the ultrastructure of the calcified portion, and the outer shell membrane (OSM), of domesticated ostrich eggshells was investigated using standard electron microscopic techniques. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy studies demonstrated intimate contact between cup-shaped structures present on the OSM and the mammillary layer of the calcified portion of the shell. The initial calcium carbonate growth of the calcified shell was of a dendritic nature with nucleation sites on the surface of the cup's contents. The dendritic growth gave way to a more randomly-orientated, smaller crystallite growth structure, which changed in form as it neared the vertical crystal layer (VCL). The VCL is described as being both amorphous and 'crumbly' depending on the plane of fracture. These observations suggest that firstly, initial calcification is contained within the cups and is then directed outwards to form the shell and that secondly, the VCL may contain an evolutionary, calcified cuticular layer. These observations serve as a baseline for studies investigating the effect of shell structure and strength on hatchling trauma and the influence of maternal diet. PMID:11030359

  13. Long-Term Trends in Calcifying Plankton and pH in the North Sea

    PubMed Central

    Beare, Doug; McQuatters-Gollop, Abigail; van der Hammen, Tessa; Machiels, Marcel; Teoh, Shwu Jiau; Hall-Spencer, Jason M.

    2013-01-01

    Relationships between six calcifying plankton groups and pH are explored in a highly biologically productive and data-rich area of the central North Sea using time-series datasets. The long-term trends show that abundances of foraminiferans, coccolithophores, and echinoderm larvae have risen over the last few decades while the abundances of bivalves and pteropods have declined. Despite good coverage of pH data for the study area there is uncertainty over the quality of this historical dataset; pH appears to have been declining since the mid 1990s but there was no statistical connection between the abundance of the calcifying plankton and the pH trends. If there are any effects of pH on calcifying plankton in the North Sea they appear to be masked by the combined effects of other climatic (e.g. temperature), chemical (nutrient concentrations) and biotic (predation) drivers. Certain calcified plankton have proliferated in the central North Sea, and are tolerant of changes in pH that have occurred since the 1950s but bivalve larvae and pteropods have declined. An improved monitoring programme is required as ocean acidification may be occurring at a rate that will exceed the environmental niches of numerous planktonic taxa, testing their capacities for acclimation and genetic adaptation. PMID:23658686

  14. Light dosimetry and dose verification for pleural PDT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimofte, Andreea; Sharikova, Anna V.; Meo, Julia L.; Simone, Charles B.; Friedberg, Joseph S.; Zhu, Timothy C.

    2013-03-01

    In-vivo light dosimetry for patients undergoing photodynamic therapy (PDT) is critical for predicting PDT outcome. Patients in this study are enrolled in a Phase I clinical trial of HPPH-mediated PDT for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer with pleural effusion. They are administered 4mg per kg body weight HPPH 48 hours before the surgery and receive light therapy with a fluence of 15-45 J/cm2 at 661 and 665nm. Fluence rate (mW/cm2) and cumulative fluence (J/cm2) are monitored at 7 sites during the light treatment delivery using isotropic detectors. Light fluence (rate) delivered to patients is examined as a function of treatment time, volume and surface area. In a previous study, a correlation between the treatment time and the treatment volume and surface area was established. However, we did not include the direct light and the effect of the shape of the pleural surface on the scattered light. A real-time infrared (IR) navigation system was used to separate the contribution from the direct light. An improved expression that accurately calculates the total fluence at the cavity wall as a function of light source location, cavity geometry and optical properties is determined based on theoretical and phantom studies. The theoretical study includes an expression for light fluence rate in an elliptical geometry instead of the spheroid geometry used previously. The calculated light fluence is compared to the measured fluence in patients of different cavity geometries and optical properties. The result can be used as a clinical guideline for future pleural PDT treatment.

  15. Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumour: Report of a Rare Form with Exclusive Pleural Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Sara Lemos; Lopes, Joăo Madeira; Santos, Joăo Meneses; Oliveira, Pedro Soares; Victorino, Rui M. M.

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour (IMT) is a rare scleroinflammatory lesion, characterized by a myofibroblastic proliferation with inflammatory infiltrates, with many possible locations and diagnosis based on immunohistochemistry. Pleural IMT is uncommon and is usually an extension of a pulmonary involvement. We report on a 28-year-old woman with a new form of this rare entity, characterized by exclusive pleural involvement. PMID:25525549

  16. Lung scan perfusion defects limited to matching pleural effusions: low probability of pulmonary embolism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard A. Bedont; F. L. Datz

    1985-01-01

    Patients with a new pleural effusion are often sent for a ventilation-perfusion scan to exclude a pulmonary embolism. This retrospective study assessed the probability of pulmonary embolism when a pleural effusion and a perfusion defect of similar size are the only significant imaging abnormalities. In 451 reports of patients who were scanned for suspected pulmonary embolism, 53 had perfusion defects

  17. Pleural Effusion and Pulmonary Hypertension in a Patient With Parkinson Disease Treated With Cabergoline

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manuel Haro-Estarriol; Gladis Sabater-Talaverano; Francisco Rodríguez-Jerez; Anton Obrador-Lagares; David Genís-Batlle; Salvi Sendra-Salillas

    2009-01-01

    Cabergoline is a synthetic dopamine agonist used to treat Parkinson disease. The drug occasionally induces pleuropulmonary adverse effects, which manifest as pleural thickening or effusion, interstitial pneumonitis, pulmonary infiltrates, or fibrosis. We report a rare case of pleural effusion and severe pulmonary hypertension in a 79-year-old man with Parkinson disease who had been treated with cabergoline for 1 year. The

  18. Derrame pleural e hipertensión pulmonar en un paciente con enfermedad de Parkinson en tratamiento con cabergolina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manuel Haro-Estarriol; Gladis Sabater-Talaverano; Francisco Rodríguez-Jerez; Anton Obrador-Lagares; David Genís-Batlle; Salvi Sendra-Salillas

    2009-01-01

    Cabergoline is a synthetic dopamine agonist used to treat Parkinson disease. The drug occasionally induces pleuropulmonary adverse effects, which manifest as pleural thickening or effusion, interstitial pneumonitis, pulmonary infiltrates, or fibrosis. We report a rare case of pleural effusion and severe pulmonary hypertension in a 79-year-old man with Parkinson disease who had been treated with cabergoline for 1 year. The

  19. Diagnostic and Prognostic Value of Soluble Syndecan-1 in Pleural Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Metintas, Muzaffer; Hjerpe, Anders; Dobra, Katalin

    2014-01-01

    Background. The distinction between malignant and benign pleural effusions is a diagnostic challenge today and measuring soluble biomarkers could add to the diagnostic accuracy. Syndecan-1 is a proteoglycan involved in various cellular functions and is cleaved from the cell surface in a regulated manner. The shed fragment, which can be recovered in effusion supernatant and in serum, retains its binding capacities, but often with different functions and signalling properties than the cell-bound form. Aim. This study aimed to investigate the diagnostic and prognostic value of soluble syndecan-1 in pleural effusions and sera from patients with pleural malignancies. Study Design. Using two cohorts of patients, we assessed the diagnostic and prognostic value of soluble syndecan-1 in pleural effusions and sera, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Results. In pleural effusions, syndecan-1 distinguished malignant and benign diseases, with an odds ratio of 8.59 (95% CI 3.67 to 20.09). Furthermore, syndecan-1 in pleural effusions predicted a survival difference for patients with pleural metastatic disease and malignant mesothelioma of 11.2 and 9.2 months, respectively. However, no such effects were seen when syndecan-1 was measured in serum. Conclusion. Soluble syndecan-1 is a promising candidate biomarker for the cytopathological diagnosis and prognostication of malignant pleural effusions. PMID:25147801

  20. Pleural Effusions Following Cardiac Injury and Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard W. Light

    2001-01-01

    This article discusses the pleural effusions that occur with the post-cardiac in- jury (Dressler's) syndrome (PCIS) and those that occur after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. The PCIS can occur after any type of cardiac injury and is thought to be due to antimyocardial antibodies. The primary symptoms are fever and chest pain, and pericarditis is frequently present. Pleural

  1. [Malignant pleural mesothelioma after radiation treatment for Hodgkin lymphoma].

    PubMed

    Vandenbos, F; Figueredo, M; Dumon-Gubeno, M-C; Nicolle, I; Tarhini, A; Butori, C; Mouroux, J

    2013-10-01

    Malignant mesothelioma is a relatively uncommon malignancy. Although the pathogenesis is primarily related to asbestos, the role of ionizing radiation is more controversial. We report the case of a 41-year-old male who developed pleural mesothelioma. He had both, a prior short asbestos exposure and a thoracic radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease 26years before. The evidence for radiotherapy as cause for mesothelioma is expanding and the diagnosis of mesothelioma in patients who had previous irradiation should be kept in mind. PMID:23796498

  2. Pleural solitary fibrous tumor complicated with autoimmune hemolytic anemia.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hiroshi; Ohkawara, Hiroshi; Ikeda, Kazuhiko; Harada-Shirado, Kayo; Furukawa, Miki; Sukegawa, Masumi; Shichishima-Nakamura, Akiko; Noji, Hideyoshi; Wakamatsu, Saho; Tasaki, Kazuhiro; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Ogawa, Kazuei; Takeishi, Yasuchika

    2014-01-01

    We herein report a 74-year-old woman who presented with autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) associated with pleural solitary fibrous tumor (SFT). Her AIHA was initially treated with 1 mg/kg daily of oral prednisolone (PSL) for 2 months, which had a limited effect. However, after surgical tumor resection, the patient showed remarkable improvement of AIHA with normalizations of serum lactate dehydrogenase and bilirubin levels, and we were able to rapidly reduce the PSL dosage. This is the first description of a case of AIHA caused by SFT. PMID:25030571

  3. Industrial pollution and pleural cancer mortality in Spain.

    PubMed

    López-Abente, Gonzalo; Fernández-Navarro, Pablo; Boldo, Elena; Ramis, Rebeca; García-Pérez, Javier

    2012-05-01

    Pleural cancer mortality is an acknowledged indicator of exposure to asbestos and mesothelioma mortality but in 15%-20% of cases no exposure can be recalled. In the past, asbestos was used in many industries and it is still found in many installations. Our objective was to ascertain whether there might be excess pleural cancer mortality among populations residing in the vicinity of Spanish industrial installations that are governed by the Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) Directive and the European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register Regulation and report their emissions to air. An ecological study was designed to examine pleural cancer mortality at a municipal level (8098 Spanish towns) over the period 1997-2006, during which 2146 deaths were registered. We conducted an exploratory "near vs. far" analysis to estimate the relative risks (RRs) of towns situated at a distance of <2 km from installations. This analysis was repeated for each of the 24 industrial groups. RR and their 95% credible intervals (95% CIs) were estimated on the basis of a Poisson conditional autoregressive Bayesian model with explanatory variables. Integrated nested Laplace approximations were used as a Bayesian inference tool. Analysis showed statistically significant RRs in both sexes in the vicinity of 7 of the 24 industrial groups studied (RR, 95% CI), namely, biocide facilities (2.595, 1.459-4.621), ship-building (2.321, 1.379-3.918), glass and mineral fibre production (1.667, 1.041-2.665), non-hazardous waste treatment (1.737, 1.077-2.799), galvanising (1.637, 1.139-2.347), organic chemical plants (1.386, 1.075-1.782) and the food and beverage sector (1.255, 1.006-1.562). In the proximity of sources pertaining to the biocide, organic chemical and galvanising sectors, the risk was seen to be rising among men and women, a finding that could indicate airborne environmental exposure. These results support that residing in the vicinity of IPPC-registered industries that release pollutants to the air constitutes a risk factor for pleural cancer. PMID:22444064

  4. Therapeutic strategies to deplete macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques

    PubMed Central

    De Meyer, Inge; Martinet, Wim; De Meyer, Guido R. Y.

    2012-01-01

    Macrophages can be found in all stages of atherosclerosis and are major contributors of atherosclerotic plaque development, progression and destabilization. Continuous recruitment of monocytes drives this chronic inflammatory disease, which can be intervened by several strategies: reducing the inflammatory stimulus by lowering circulating lipids and promoting cholesterol efflux from plaque, direct and indirect targeting of adhesion molecules and chemokines involved in monocyte adhesion and transmigration and inducing macrophage death in atherosclerotic plaques in combination with anti-inflammatory drugs. This review discusses the outlined strategies to deplete macrophages from atherosclerotic plaques to promote plaque stabilization. PMID:22309283

  5. Diagnostic utility of serum and pleural levels of adenosine deaminase 1–2, and interferon-? in the diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To evaluate and compare the diagnostic efficiency of serum (s) and pleural (p) levels of adenosine deaminase (ADA)-1, ADA-2, total ADA, and interferon-gamma (IFN-?) for the differential diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis (TB). Methods Clinical and analytic data of 93 consecutive patients with pleural effusions from May 2012 to February 2013 were prospectively evaluated. The study population included 43 pleural TB, 23 malignancies, and 27 other exudates. The median and interquartile range of ADA-1, ADA-2, total ADA, and IFN-? were evaluated according to their underlying diseases. Results There were no significant differences in sADA-1 and sIFN-? values among each group. pADA-1, pADA-2, total pADA, and pIFN-? levels were significantly higher in patients with pleural TB than in other patients (p?pleural TB receiving operating characteristic (ROC) curves identified the following results. The best cut-off value for pADA-2 was 20.37 U/L and it yielded a sensitivity and specificity of 95.35% and 86%, respectively. Taking a cut-off value of 40.68 U/L for total pADA, the sensitivity and the specificity were found to be 88.37% and 88%, respectively. ROC curve identified 110 U/L as the best cut-off value for p?g/ml, while the sensitivity and the specificity were 74.42% and 68%, respectively. Finally, the best cut-off value for pADA-1 was 16.8 U/L and yielded a sensitivity and specificity of 69.77% and 68%, respectively. Conclusions To distinguish pleural TB, pleural levels of ADA-2 have the highest sensitivity among the different diagnostic parameters and may find a place as routine investigation for early detection of TB in the future. PMID:24602306

  6. Reduction of lung parenchyma compliance as a factor in the genesis of pleural effusion in neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Felekis, V A

    2002-02-01

    It is well known that bronchial obstruction causes an increase in negative pressure in the pleural cavity and is considered to be one of the factors giving rise to pleural fluid. We suggest that a reduction in the compliance of the lung parenchyma, whatever its cause (apart from bronchial obstruction), may also lead to an increase in negative pressure in the pleural cavity and may contribute, together with the other known factors, as an additional mechanism in the appearance of pleural fluid. We believe that this factor is valid in neoplastic pleurisy and may also apply in pleurisy, and possibly in other pathological conditions. The presence of pleural effusion may be better interpreted if we bear this factor in mind. We arrived at this view principally through the study of simple chest X-rays of normal subjects and of patients, mainly cancer patients. PMID:11812189

  7. Pleural metastasis of thyroid carcinoma diagnosed by thoracoscopy under local anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Noda, Kazushige; Murase, Kyoko; Otaki, Yoshihiro; Yasuda, Jun-ichi

    2014-01-01

    A 79-year-old male patient with no symptoms was referred to us with incidentally detected pleural effusion and nodules. He had previously been diagnosed with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and had undergone left subtotal thyroidectomy 12 years before his referral. Four years after the operation, he experienced a relapse limited to the cervical lymph node and was treated with neck dissection. He experienced no further recurrence until his referral. Thoracoscopy was performed under local anesthesia to confirm the diagnosis because thoracentesis was precluded by the small quantity of pleural effusion and the nodules. Many vivid red pleural masses were evident as was a small amount of bloody pleural effusion. The patient was diagnosed with pleural metastasis of PTC, which has a poor prognosis. Because of this poor prognosis, prompt diagnosis is essential. Thoracoscopy under local anesthesia can allow the prompt diagnosis of cases in which safe thoracentesis would be difficult. PMID:25473564

  8. An unusual cause of unilateral pleural effusion in the setting of aortic stenosis: acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Fatih, Tufan; Selim, Yavuz; Mesut, Ayer; Demirel, Yildirim Naciye; Yuksel, Pekcelen

    2007-01-01

    Pleural effusion has various causes. In the setting of aortic stenosis, new onset pleural effusion is generally considered as a consequence of heart failure. Here, we describe a 50-year-old male patient who had been followed with aortic stenosis for 30 years. During his admission he presented with exertional dyspnea and pleuritic chest pain. He had no other symptoms or findings of cardiac failure. Complete blood count revealed neutrophilic leukocytosis, a normal hemoglobin level and normal platelet count. Left sided pleural effusion was noted on the posteroanterior chest X-ray. Examination of the pleural fluid revealed myeloid blasts. Bone marrow aspiration smear and flow cytometric analysis of the bone marrow and pleural fluid were consistent with acute myeloid leukemia. PMID:17380003

  9. Gallium scanning in differentiating malignant from benign asbestos-related pleural disease

    SciTech Connect

    Teirstein, A.S.; Chahinian, P.; Goldsmith, S.J.; Sorek, M.

    1986-01-01

    In order to assess the utility of 67gallium citrate in delineating malignant pleural mesothelioma from benign asbestos-related pleural disease, 49 patients with malignant mesothelioma and 16 with benign asbestos-related pleural disease were studied. Seven patients with malignant mesothelioma had no history of asbestos exposure, while the remaining 58 patients were exposed. Forty-three of the 49 patients (88%) with malignant mesothelioma had a positive 67gallium scan including 36 of the 42 (86%) patients with asbestos exposure and all 7 patients without a history of asbestos exposure. Three of 16 patients (19%) with benign asbestos-related pleural disease had a positive scan. 67Gallium radionuclide imaging is nonspecific but may be valuable in noninvasive monitoring of asbestos-exposed populations, which have a high risk for the late development of benign and/or malignant pleural disease.

  10. High resolution ex vivo magnetic resonance imaging of in situ coronary and aortic atherosclerotic plaque in a porcine model.

    PubMed

    Worthley, S G; Helft, G; Fuster, V; Fayad, Z A; Fallon, J T; Osende, J I; Roqué, M; Shinnar, M; Zaman, A G; Rodriguez, O J; Verhallen, P; Badimon, J J

    2000-06-01

    Atherosclerotic plaque composition is central to the pathogenesis of plaque disruption and acute thrombosis. Thus, there is a need for accurate imaging and characterization of atherosclerotic lesions. Even though there is no ideal animal model of atherosclerosis, the porcine model is considered to most closely resemble human atherosclerosis. We report the feasibility of MR imaging and characterizing of atherosclerotic lesions from in situ coronary arteries and aortas in an ex vivo setting and validate this with histopathology. Coronary and aortic atherosclerosis was induced in Yucatan mini-swine (n=4) by a combination of atherogenic diet (6 months) and balloon injury. All coronary arteries were imaged ex vivo on the intact heart, preserving the curvature of their course. The aorta also underwent MR imaging. The MR images were correlated with the matched histopathology sections for both the coronary arteries (n=54) and the aortas (n=43). MR imaging accurately characterized complex atherosclerotic lesions, including calcified, lipid rich, fibrocellular and hemorrhagic regions. Mean wall thickness for the coronary arteries (r=0.94, slope: 0.81) and aortas (r=0.94, slope: 0.81) as well as aortic plaque area (r=0.97, slope: 0.90) was accurately determined by MR imaging (P<0.0001). Coronary artery MR imaging is not limited by the curvature of the coronary arteries in the heart. MR imaging accurately quantifies and characterizes coronary and aortic atherosclerotic lesions, including the vessel wall, in this experimental porcine model of complex atherosclerosis. This model may be useful for future study of MR imaging of atherosclerosis in vivo. PMID:10856524

  11. Real-time treatment feedback guidance of Pleural PDT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Timothy C.; Kim, Michele M.; Liang, Xing; Liu, Baochang; Meo, Julia L.; Finlay, Jarod C.; Dimofte, Andreea; Rodriguez, Carmen; Simone, Charles; Cengel, Keith; Friedberg, Joseph

    2013-03-01

    Pleural photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been used as an adjuvant treatment with lung-sparing surgical treatment for mesothelioma with remarkable results. In the current intrapleural PDT protocol, a moving fiber-based point source is used to deliver the light and the light dose are monitored by 7 detectors placed in the pleural cavity. To improve the delivery of light dose uniformity, an infrared (IR) camera system is used to track the motion of the light sources. A treatment planning system uses feedback from the detectors as well as the IR camera to update light fluence distribution in real-time, which is used to guide the light source motion for uniform light dose distribution. We have improved the GUI of the light dose calculation engine to provide real-time light fluence distribution suitable for guiding the surgery to delivery light more uniformly. A dual-correction method is used in the feedback system, so that fluence calculation can match detector readings using both direct and scatter light models. An improved measurement device is developed to automatically acquire laser position for the point source. Comparison of the effects of the guidance is presented in phantom study.

  12. Pleural Mesothelioma: An Institutional Experience of 66 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Soomin; Choi, In Ho; Kim, Jhingook; Ahn, Myung-Ju

    2014-01-01

    Background Malignant mesothelioma of the pleura is an aggressive tumor known to be associated with asbestos. Histological diagnosis of mesothelioma is challenging and is usually aided by immunohistochemical markers. Methods During an 18-year period (1995-2012), 66 patients with pleural mesothelioma were diagnosed at the Samsung Medical Center in Seoul. We reviewed hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemical slides of pleural mesothelioma and evaluated their pathological and clinical features. Results The male-to-female ratio was 1.75:1, and age of patients ranged from 28 to 80 years with an average age of 56.84 years. Twenty-two out of 66 patients underwent curative pneumonectomy. Follow-up data was available in 60 patients (90.9%), and 50 of them (83.3%) died from the disease. The average overall survival was 15.39 months. Histologically, the epithelioid type was the most common, followed by the sarcomatoid and the biphasic types. Epidemiologic information was not available in most cases, and only one patient was confirmed to have a history of asbestos exposure. Conclusions Malignant mesothelioma of the pleura is a fatal tumor, and the therapeutic benefit of pneumonectomy remains unproven. The combination of calretinin, Wilms tumor 1, HMBE-1, and thyroid transcription factor-1 may provide high diagnostic accuracy in diagnosing mesothelioma. PMID:24868221

  13. Enucleation versus plaque irradiation for choroidal melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Straatsma, B.R.; Fine, S.L.; Earle, J.D.; Hawkins, B.S.; Diener-West, M.; McLaughlin, J.A.

    1988-07-01

    The Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS) is an international, multicenter-controlled study. The organization includes an Executive Committee, Steering Committee, 6 Central Units, 32 Clinical Centers, and a Data and Safety Monitoring Committee. Scientifically, the COMS consists of (1) a randomized trial of patients with medium choroidal melanoma treated with enucleation versus iodine-125 plaque irradiation, (2) a randomized trial of patients with large choroidal melanoma treated with enucleation versus preenucleation external beam irradiation and enucleation, and (3) a prospective observational study of patients with small choroidal melanoma to determine whether a randomized trial of treatment is appropriate. In design and conduct of the COMS, special consideration is given to biostatistics and sample size considerations, iodine-125 plaque irradiation of choroidal melanoma, and coordinated ocular melanoma research. Recruitment is in progress. However, the pool of eligible patients is limited and the COMS needs the continued support and cooperation of ophthalmologists throughout the United States and Canada.

  14. Choroidal melanoma: I-125 plaque therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Bosworth, J.L.; Packer, S.; Rotman, M.; Ho, T.; Finger, P.T.

    1988-10-01

    An iodine-125 eye plaque was used to treat 58 patients with choroidal melanoma. Patients were followed up for a mean of 48.7 months. Fifty patients had medium-sized lesions (height between 3.1 and 8.0 mm and base diameter less than 16.0 mm), and six patients had large lesions. There were 24 lesions less than 3.0 mm from the optic nerve. The average radiation dose to the apex of the tumor was 8,468 cGy (dose rate, 71 cGy per hour). Initial local disease control was achieved in 50 patients (86.2%). One patient with local treatment failure received another plaque treatment, which controlled disease, so the total disease control rate was 87.9%. Only eight patients died of their disease. Complications were similar to those with other treatment methods, but none of the patients in this study developed optic nerve atrophy.

  15. Annular plaques on the back and flanks.

    PubMed

    Bankhead, Sarah; Jackson, Jeremy; Brodell, Robert

    2015-01-01

    An 86-year-old African American woman sought care for an asymptomatic rash on her back and flanks that she'd had for 14 months. Physical examination of her trunk revealed 3 to 6 cm annular/arcuate plaques with central clearing. The lesions also had a delicate trailing scale behind a slightly raised erythematous rim. The combination of a ring-shaped rash on the patient's torso and a foot infection led us to the diagnosis. PMID:25574507

  16. Intravascular Thermography for Assessing Vulnerable Plaques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Konstantinos Toutouzas; Maria Drakopoulou; Andreas Synetos; Christodoulos Stefanadis

    2010-01-01

    Atherosclerosis and its cardiovascular complications remain the leading cause of death in developed countries. Current knowledge\\u000a of coronary artery disease progression has significantly evolved and the interest has been focused on the development of new\\u000a imaging techniques for the early detection of vulnerable lesions. Intracoronary thermography is a method that detects local\\u000a plaque inflammation. Clinical studies with intracoronary thermography have

  17. Earliest Known Roman London Plaque Discovered

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Grinnell, Max

    2002-01-01

    Earlier today, archaeologists working on a massive dig on the southern banks of the River Thames uncovered the oldest known plaque inscribed with the city's Roman name, Londinium. While the exact date of the plaque is unknown, it is believed to date from between 50 and 150 AD, and would most likely have been placed on some type of building or in a shrine. Equally important, the plaque offers some initial concrete evidence that there was an emerging merchant class in London during this period. The actual location of the plaque's discovery is near the junction of what were three key roads in Roman Britain, and the finding represents only a small portion of what may be unearthed in this 40-week archaeology project.The first link is to a recent news story about the recent find in London. The second site leads to the Council for British Archaeology, which features numerous links to ongoing research projects within Britain and frequent updates about new findings from the field. The third site offers some perspective on the historical notion of Roman Britain, and particularly how scholars understand that epoch. The fourth site is a link to the complete work "Roman Roads in Britain," a historical study that seeks to describe and delineate the exact location of these very important Roman pathways. Information about the Museum of London, which is working jointly on this project, is provided by the fifth link. The last link, Britannia, is a nice omnibus listing of sites dealing with various aspects of Roman Britain history and archaeology, provided by the Dalton School in New York.

  18. Choroidal melanoma: I-125 plaque therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Bosworth; S. Packer; M. Rotman; T. Ho; P. T. Finger

    1988-01-01

    An iodine-125 eye plaque was used to treat 58 patients with choroidal melanoma. Patients were followed up for a mean of 48.7 months. Fifty patients had medium-sized lesions (height between 3.1 and 8.0 mm and base diameter less than 16.0 mm), and six patients had large lesions. There were 24 lesions less than 3.0 mm from the optic nerve. The

  19. Differential Responses of Calcifying and Non-Calcifying Epibionts of a Brown Macroalga to Present-Day and Future Upwelling pCO2

    PubMed Central

    Saderne, Vincent; Wahl, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Seaweeds are key species of the Baltic Sea benthic ecosystems. They are the substratum of numerous fouling epibionts like bryozoans and tubeworms. Several of these epibionts bear calcified structures and could be impacted by the high pCO2 events of the late summer upwellings in the Baltic nearshores. Those events are expected to increase in strength and duration with global change and ocean acidification. If calcifying epibionts are impacted by transient acidification as driven by upwelling events, their increasing prevalence could cause a shift of the fouling communities toward fleshy species. The aim of the present study was to test the sensitivity of selected seaweed macrofoulers to transient elevation of pCO2 in their natural microenvironment, i.e. the boundary layer covering the thallus surface of brown seaweeds. Fragments of the macroalga Fucus serratus bearing an epibiotic community composed of the calcifiers Spirorbis spirorbis (Annelida) and Electra pilosa (Bryozoa) and the non-calcifier Alcyonidium hirsutum (Bryozoa) were maintained for 30 days under three pCO2 conditions: natural 460±59 µatm, present-day upwelling1193±166 µatm and future upwelling 3150±446 µatm. Only the highest pCO2 caused a significant reduction of growth rates and settlement of S. spirorbis individuals. Additionally, S. spirorbis settled juveniles exhibited enhanced calcification of 40% during daylight hours compared to dark hours, possibly reflecting a day-night alternation of an acidification-modulating effect by algal photosynthesis as opposed to an acidification-enhancing effect of algal respiration. E. pilosa colonies showed significantly increased growth rates at intermediate pCO2 (1193 µatm) but no response to higher pCO2. No effect of acidification on A. hirsutum colonies growth rates was observed. The results suggest a remarkable resistance of the algal macro-epibionts to levels of acidification occurring at present day upwellings in the Baltic. Only extreme future upwelling conditions impacted the tubeworm S. spirorbis, but not the bryozoans. PMID:23894659

  20. Amyloid plaques in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (prion diseases).

    PubMed

    Liberski, Pawe? P

    2004-01-01

    Amyloid plaques are encountered in all cases of kuru and Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker disease (GSS) and in some 10-15% of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) cases. In variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob (vCJD) the particular type of plaque known as "florid" or "daisy" plaque exists in 100% of cases. By electron microscopy several types of amyloid plaque were delineated, corresponding to those seen by PrP immunohistochemistry. Unicentric "kuru" plaques consisted of stellate arrangements (stars or cores) of amyloid bundles emanating from a dense interwoven centre. A proportion of kuru plaques formed very dense stars, reminiscent of sea urchins in shape. Others presented a looser pattern. Amyloid stars were enveloped by astrocytic processes. High-power electron micrographs revealed that amyloid bundles were concealed within grooves of obscure cellular origin. Interestingly, basement membranes lined with electron-dense material were observed at the periphery of many amyloid plaques of GSS. Dystrophic neurites were seen only rarely. Microglial cells formed a significant part of the amyloid plaques. Occasionally clusters composed of several kuru plaques were found. These were intermediate forms to multi-centric plaques, which consisted of several merging stellate cores. Smaller amyloid deposits surrounded larger cores. In contrast to the kuru plaques, associated with a limited number of dystrophic neurites (DN), numerous such structures were seen at the periphery. The DN were filled with abnormal organelles such as electron-dense bodies, multi-vesicular bodies and multilamellar bodies and thus were indistinguishable from those seen in scrapie and CJD or Alzheimer's disease, except that they did not contain paired helical filaments (PHF). Instead, piled neurofilaments were often detected in the centres of DN. Similar DN were observed but these were not associated with any plaques. The last and, by the same token, the rarest type of plaque was the purely neuritic plaque. These consisted of large areas filled with DN of different sizes and shapes (sometimes bizarre) but not amyloid bundles. Analogously to the kuru and multi-centric plaques, astrocytic processes were observed at the periphery. By means of light microscopy and semi-thin (1 microm) sections discrete PrP-immunopositive plaques were observed (data not shown), in the subependymal region but not in the deep brain neuroparenchyma, in both 263K and 22C-H scrapie-infected hamster brains. These plaques were not discernible by routine haematoxylin and eosin staining. Ultrastructurally, plaques were recognised as areas of low electron density containing haphazardly-oriented fibrils which, when immunogold techniques were applied, were heavily decorated with PrP-conjugated gold particles. PMID:16903146

  1. Bacterial Diversity in Human Subgingival Plaque

    PubMed Central

    Paster, Bruce J.; Boches, Susan K.; Galvin, Jamie L.; Ericson, Rebecca E.; Lau, Carol N.; Levanos, Valerie A.; Sahasrabudhe, Ashish; Dewhirst, Floyd E.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the bacterial diversity in the human subgingival plaque by using culture-independent molecular methods as part of an ongoing effort to obtain full 16S rRNA sequences for all cultivable and not-yet-cultivated species of human oral bacteria. Subgingival plaque was analyzed from healthy subjects and subjects with refractory periodontitis, adult periodontitis, human immunodeficiency virus periodontitis, and acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis. 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) bacterial genes from DNA isolated from subgingival plaque samples were PCR amplified with all-bacterial or selective primers and cloned into Escherichia coli. The sequences of cloned 16S rDNA inserts were used to determine species identity or closest relatives by comparison with sequences of known species. A total of 2,522 clones were analyzed. Nearly complete sequences of approximately 1,500 bases were obtained for putative new species. About 60% of the clones fell into 132 known species, 70 of which were identified from multiple subjects. About 40% of the clones were novel phylotypes. Of the 215 novel phylotypes, 75 were identified from multiple subjects. Known putative periodontal pathogens such as Porphyromonas gingivalis, Bacteroides forsythus, and Treponema denticola were identified from multiple subjects, but typically as a minor component of the plaque as seen in cultivable studies. Several phylotypes fell into two recently described phyla previously associated with extreme natural environments, for which there are no cultivable species. A number of species or phylotypes were found only in subjects with disease, and a few were found only in healthy subjects. The organisms identified only from diseased sites deserve further study as potential pathogens. Based on the sequence data in this study, the predominant subgingival microbial community consisted of 347 species or phylotypes that fall into 9 bacterial phyla. Based on the 347 species seen in our sample of 2,522 clones, we estimate that there are 68 additional unseen species, for a total estimate of 415 species in the subgingival plaque. When organisms found on other oral surfaces such as the cheek, tongue, and teeth are added to this number, the best estimate of the total species diversity in the oral cavity is approximately 500 species, as previously proposed. PMID:11371542

  2. Intravascular probe for detection of vulnerable plaque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patt, Bradley E.; Iwanczyk, Jan S.; MacDonald, Lawrence R.; Yamaguchi, Yuko; Tull, Carolyn R.; Janecek, Martin; Hoffman, Edward J.; Strauss, H. William; Tsugita, Ross; Ghazarossian, Vartan

    2001-12-01

    Coronary angiography is unable to define the status of the atheroma, and only measures the luminal dimensions of the blood vessel, without providing information about plaque content. Up to 70% of heart attacks are caused by minimally obstructive vulnerable plaques, which are too small to be detected adequately by angiography. We have developed an intravascular imaging detector to identify vulnerable coronary artery plaques. The detector works by sensing beta or conversion electron radiotracer emissions from plaque-binding radiotracers. The device overcomes the technical constraints of size, sensitivity and conformance to the intravascular environment. The detector at the distal end of the catheter uses six 7mm long by 0.5mm diameter scintillation fibers coupled to 1.5m long plastic fibers. The fibers are offset from each other longitudinally by 6mm and arranged spirally around a guide wire in the catheter. At the proximal end of the catheter the optical fibers are coupled to an interface box with a snap on connector. The interface box contains a position sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT) to decode the individual fibers. The whole detector assembly fits into an 8-French (2.7 mm in diameter) catheter. The PSPMT image is further decoded with software to give a linear image, the total instantaneous count rate and an audio output whose tone corresponds to the count rate. The device was tested with F-18 and Tl-204 sources. Spectrometric response, spatial resolution, sensitivity and beta to background ratio were measured. System resolution is 6 mm and the sensitivity is >500 cps / micrometers Ci when the source is 1 mm from the detector. The beta to background ratio was 11.2 for F-18 measured on a single fiber. The current device will lead to a system allowing imaging of labeled vulnerable plaque in coronary arteries. This type of signature is expected to enable targeted and cost effective therapies to prevent acute coronary artery diseases such as: unstable angina, acute myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death.

  3. An Additional Potential Factor for Kidney Stone Formation during Space Flights: Calcifying Nanoparticles (Nanobacteria): A Case Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jeffrey A.; Ciftcioglu, Neva; Schmid, Joseph; Griffith, Donald

    2007-01-01

    Spaceflight-induced microgravity appears to be a risk factor for the development of urinary calculi due to skeletal calcium liberation and other undefined factors, resulting in stone disease in crewmembers during and after spaceflight. Calcifying nanoparticles, or nanobacteria, reproduce at a more rapid rate in simulated microgravity conditions and create external shells of calcium phosphate in the form of apatite. The questions arises whether calcifying nanoparticles are niduses for calculi and contribute to the development of clinical stone disease in humans, who possess environmental factors predisposing to the development of urinary calculi and potentially impaired immunological defenses during spaceflight. A case of a urinary calculus passed from an astronaut post-flight with morphological characteristics of calcifying nanoparticles and staining positive for a calcifying nanoparticle unique antigen, is presented.

  4. Bilateral pleural effusion as an initial manifestation of multiple myeloma: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    JIANG, AI-GUI; YANG, YU-TIAN; GAO, XIAO-YAN; LU, HUI-YU

    2015-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a rare type of malignant hematological neoplasm. Although primarily involving the bone marrow, MM has a significant risk of metastasizing to other organs and may present with various clinical symptoms. However, the involvement of the respiratory system in the course of MM is extremely uncommon, particularly presenting with bilateral pleural effusion as the sole initial manifestation, which may result in a delayed diagnosis of MM. The present study describes the extremely rare case of a patient with MM presenting with myelomatous pleural effusion (MPE). The 78-year-old patient was admitted to the Department of Respiratory Medicine, Taizhou People’s Hospital (Taizhou, China) in March 2014, complaining of persistent dyspnea. Following admission, chest computed tomography scans revealed bilateral pleural effusion and a small amount of pericardial effusion, but no evident mass lesion. Thoracentesis was performed and the resulting pleural effusion was exudative and slightly bloody. In the following cytological examination, myeloma cells were identified in the pleural effusion. The patient was diagnosed definitively with MM following a histopathological study of the bone marrow aspiration. Therefore, the observations of the present case report may promote the consideration of MM in the differential diagnosis of patients with unexplained and refractory pleural effusion. The present study also reviewed the literature with regard to the association between MM and pleural effusion. PMID:25667674

  5. Accuracy of chest sonography and polymorphonuclear elastase in the assessment of bacterial pleural effusion.

    PubMed

    Alemán, Carmen; Alegre, José; Andreu, Jordi; Segura, Rosa Ma; Armadans, Lluís; Sureda, Delia; Vázquez, Ana; Iglesias, Daniel; Fernández De Sevilla, Tomás

    2004-04-01

    Background: The relationship between chest sonography findings and inflammatory markers for assessing bacterial pleural effusion is not well established. We decided to study the accuracy of chest sonography in determining the nature of bacterial pleural effusion and its relationship with polymorphonuclear elastase (PMN-E) results. Methods: Pleural sonography and PMN-E were evaluated in a prospective study of 144 consecutive patients with pleural effusion of various etiologies: 25 complicated parapneumonic, 18 uncomplicated parapneumonic, 33 tuberculous, 17 malignant, 12 transudates, and 39 of unknown etiology. The sonographer distinguished between anechoic and septated pattern. The relationship between sonographic appearance and inflammatory markers was evaluated. Results: All of the complicated parapneumonic, 11 uncomplicated parapneumonic, and 28 tuberculous effusions were septated. Septated pattern and PMN-E value were independent predictors of infectious pleural disease (p <0.05). The simultaneous presence of a septated pattern and a PMN-E higher than 100 microg/l had a sensitivity of 79.1% and a specificity of 91.1% for the diagnosis of bacterial effusions. Conclusions: PMN-E level and the sonographic pattern of pleural fluid may be useful in the diagnosis of bacterial pleural effusions. PMID:15172022

  6. Bacterial Infection Elicits Heat Shock Protein 72 Release from Pleural Mesothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Varano della Vergiliana, Julius F.; Lansley, Sally M.; Porcel, Jose M.; Bielsa, Silvia; Brown, Jeremy S.; Creaney, Jenette; Temple, Suzanna E. L.; Waterer, Grant W.; Lee, Y. C. Gary

    2013-01-01

    Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) has been implicated in infection-related processes and has been found in body fluids during infection. This study aimed to determine whether pleural mesothelial cells release HSP70 in response to bacterial infection in vitro and in mouse models of serosal infection. In addition, the in vitro cytokine effects of the HSP70 isoform, Hsp72, on mesothelial cells were examined. Further, Hsp72 was measured in human pleural effusions and levels compared between non-infectious and infectious patients to determine the diagnostic accuracy of pleural fluid Hsp72 compared to traditional pleural fluid parameters. We showed that mesothelial release of Hsp72 was significantly raised when cells were treated with live and heat-killed Streptococcus pneumoniae. In mice, intraperitoneal injection of S. pneumoniae stimulated a 2-fold increase in Hsp72 levels in peritoneal lavage (p<0.01). Extracellular Hsp72 did not induce or inhibit mediator release from cultured mesothelial cells. Hsp72 levels were significantly higher in effusions of infectious origin compared to non-infectious effusions (p<0.05). The data establish that pleural mesothelial cells can release Hsp72 in response to bacterial infection and levels are raised in infectious pleural effusions. The biological role of HSP70 in pleural infection warrants exploration. PMID:23704948

  7. Diagnostic accuracy of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interferon-gamma, interlukine-10 and adenosine deaminase 2 in differential diagnosis between tuberculous pleural effusion and malignant pleural effusion

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The current study was performed to investigate the potential biomarkers for the differential diagnosis of tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE) and malignant pleural effusions (MPE). Methods Among ninety patients (n?=?90) involved in the study, 47 with tuberculous pleural effusion aged from 18 to 70 and 43 with secondary malignant pleural effusion aged from 34 to 78. We tested the pleural levels of TNF-?, IFN-? and IL-10 as well as the enzyme activity of ADA2, and then we compared the differential diagnostic efficiencies of those biochemical parameters with ADA between the two groups. Results Our results show that, the concentrations of pleural TNF-? (45.55?±?15.85 ng/L), IFN-? (114.97?±?27.85 ng/L) as well as activities of ADA2 (35.71?±?10.00 U/L) and ADA (39.39?±?10.60 U/L) in tuberculous group were significantly higher compared to malignant group. Furthermore, according to the ROC curve analysis the thresholds of TNF-?, IFN-?, ADA2 and ADA were found to be 30.3 ng/L, 103.65 ng/L, 29.45 U/L, and 39.00 U/L, respectively. TNF-?, IFN-? and ADA2 yielded better sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the diagnosis than ADA. Our investigation further revealed that the combinations of TNF-? and ADA2 further increased the specificity and accuracy for the differential diagnosis. Conclusion In conclusion, we found that TNF-?, IFN-?, ADA and ADA2 all increased in TPE. Combinations of the TNF-? and ADA2 yielded the best specificity and accuracy for the differential diagnosis of TPE from MPE. Our investigation suggests that the applications of TNF-? together with ADA2 may contribute to more efficient diagnosis strategies in the management of discrimination between tuberculous and malignant pleural effusions. PMID:24984978

  8. Pleural Fluid Adenosine Deaminase (Pfada) in the Diagnosis of Tuberculous Effusions in a Low Incidence Population

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, David T.; Bhatnagar, Rahul; Fairbanks, Lynette D.; Zahan-Evans, Natalie; Clive, Amelia O.; Morley, Anna J.; Medford, Andrew R. L.; Maskell, Nicholas A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Previous studies have assessed the diagnostic ability of pleural fluid adenosine deaminase (pfADA) in detecting tuberculous pleural effusions, with good specificity and sensitivity reported. However, in North Western Europe pfADA is not routinely used in the investigation of a patient with an undiagnosed pleural effusion, mainly due to a lack of evidence as to its utility in populations with low mycobacterium tuberculosis (mTB) incidence. Methods Patients presenting with an undiagnosed pleural effusion to a tertiary pleural centre in South-West England over a 3 year period, were prospectively recruited to a pleural biomarker study. Pleural fluid from consecutive patients with robust 12-month follow up data and confirmed diagnosis were sent for pfADA analysis. Results Of 338 patients enrolled, 7 had confirmed tuberculous pleural effusion (2%). All mTB effusions were lymphocyte predominant with a median pfADA of 72.0 IU/L (range- 26.7 to 91.5) compared to a population median of 12.0 IU/L (range- 0.3 to 568.4). The optimal pfADA cut off was 35 IU/L, which had a negative predictive value (NPV) of 99.7% (95% CI; 98.2-99.9%) for the exclusion of mTB, and sensitivity of 85.7% (95% CI; 42.2-97.6%) with an area under the curve of 0.88 (95% CI; 0.732–1.000). Discussion This is the first study examining the diagnostic utility of pfADA in a low mTB incidence area. The chance of an effusion with a pfADA under 35 IU/L being of tuberculous aetiology was negligible. A pfADA of over 35 IU/L in lymphocyte-predominant pleural fluid gives a strong suspicion of mTB. PMID:25647479

  9. Automated extraction of pleural effusion in three-dimensional thoracic CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kido, Shoji; Tsunomori, Akinori

    2009-02-01

    It is important for diagnosis of pulmonary diseases to measure volume of accumulating pleural effusion in threedimensional thoracic CT images quantitatively. However, automated extraction of pulmonary effusion correctly is difficult. Conventional extraction algorithm using a gray-level based threshold can not extract pleural effusion from thoracic wall or mediastinum correctly, because density of pleural effusion in CT images is similar to those of thoracic wall or mediastinum. So, we have developed an automated extraction method of pulmonary effusion by use of extracting lung area with pleural effusion. Our method used a template of lung obtained from a normal lung for segmentation of lungs with pleural effusions. Registration process consisted of two steps. First step was a global matching processing between normal and abnormal lungs of organs such as bronchi, bones (ribs, sternum and vertebrae) and upper surfaces of livers which were extracted using a region-growing algorithm. Second step was a local matching processing between normal and abnormal lungs which were deformed by the parameter obtained from the global matching processing. Finally, we segmented a lung with pleural effusion by use of the template which was deformed by two parameters obtained from the global matching processing and the local matching processing. We compared our method with a conventional extraction method using a gray-level based threshold and two published methods. The extraction rates of pleural effusions obtained from our method were much higher than those obtained from other methods. Automated extraction method of pulmonary effusion by use of extracting lung area with pleural effusion is promising for diagnosis of pulmonary diseases by providing quantitative volume of accumulating pleural effusion.

  10. Malignant pleural mesothelioma: A single-center experience in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Sezer, Ahmet; Sümbül, Ahmet Taner; Abal?, Hüseyin; Mertsoylu, Hüseyin; Özy?lkan, Özgür

    2014-01-01

    Background Malignant pleural mesothelioma is a rare lethal malignancy caused by asbestos exposure. It is more frequently seen in certain regions in Turkey. In this retrospective study, we aimed to analyse demographic, clinical, and pathological data and treatment-related features in 54 patients. Material/Methods The study included 54 patients diagnosed with malignant mesothelioma that were followed and treated. Results Of the 54 patients, 34 (55.6%) were male. The median age in men and women were 60.3 (38.2–77.2) and 65.8 (37.7–77.5) years, respectively. In 35 (64.8%), exposure to asbestosis was present. Epithelial type was found in 27 (50.0%), followed by mixed type in 7 (13.0%) patients, and in 20 (37.0%) patients the subtype could not be determined. The disease was staged as IV in 37 (68.5%) patients. In 28 patients (51.9%), it was right-sided and in 1 (1.9%) it was bilateral. The most frequent metastatic sites (in decreasing order) were lungs, mediastinum, diaphragm, liver, and thoracal wall. Of the 54 patients, 36 (66.6%) received 1st-line chemotherapy and 20 (37%) 2nd-line chemotherapy. Eighteen patients (33.3%) received radiotherapy; 11 (20.3%) with palliative intention and 7 (12.9%) with curative intention. Median overall survival (OS) was 12.03 months (95% CI 7.2–16.8). OS was not affected by sex (p=0.32), smoking history (p=0.51), alcohol consumption (p=0.36), family history (p=0.67), pleural effusion presence (p=0.80), operation (p=0.14), clinical stage (p=0.072), symptom at presentation (p=0.66), having mixed type histology (p=0.079), asbestos exposure (p=0.06), and type of 1st-line chemotherapy (p=0.161). On the contrary, it may be positively affected by good ECOG PS (0–1) (p<0.01), age below 65 (p=0.03), left-sided disease (p=0.01), receiving chemotherapy (p<0.01), having unilateral pleural effusion (p=0.018), and type of 2nd-line chemotherapy (p=0.025). Conclusions OS of our patients was better than that found in the literature, seeming to be positively affected by early stages, better ECOG PS, age below 65 years, left side involvement, and having second-line chemotherapy with cisplatin-gemcitabine or 3M. Overall treatment success seems to be comparable to what is currently expected. PMID:24842043

  11. Clear cell variant of calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor: Case report with immunohistochemical findings.

    PubMed

    Turatti, Eveline; Brasil, Juviano; de Andrade, Bruno-Augusto-Benevenuto; Romańach, Mário-José; de Almeida, Oslei-Paes

    2015-02-01

    Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT) is a rare benign odontogenic neoplasm, locally aggressive, characterized by sheets and nests of polyhedral epithelial cells exhibiting eosinophilic cytoplasm or less often clear cytoplasm. Additional features include nuclear pleomorphism without mitotic activity, concentric calcifications, and deposits of amyloid. Herein, we present an additional example of clear cell variant of CEOT occurring in a 25-year-old female. Microscopically, the tumor consisted on proliferation of epithelial cells with eosinophilic, clear vacuolated cytoplasm interspersed with focal areas of amyloid deposition. Tumor cells were immunopositive for AE1/AE3, CK14, CK19, ?-catenin, CD138, and p63. Key words:Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor, clear cell, histopathology, immunohistochemistry. PMID:25810830

  12. Clear cell variant of calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor: Case report with immunohistochemical findings

    PubMed Central

    Turatti, Eveline; Brasil, Juviano; Romańach, Mário-José; de Almeida, Oslei-Paes

    2015-01-01

    Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT) is a rare benign odontogenic neoplasm, locally aggressive, characterized by sheets and nests of polyhedral epithelial cells exhibiting eosinophilic cytoplasm or less often clear cytoplasm. Additional features include nuclear pleomorphism without mitotic activity, concentric calcifications, and deposits of amyloid. Herein, we present an additional example of clear cell variant of CEOT occurring in a 25-year-old female. Microscopically, the tumor consisted on proliferation of epithelial cells with eosinophilic, clear vacuolated cytoplasm interspersed with focal areas of amyloid deposition. Tumor cells were immunopositive for AE1/AE3, CK14, CK19, ?-catenin, CD138, and p63. Key words:Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor, clear cell, histopathology, immunohistochemistry.

  13. [Pleural amyloidosis. Apropos of a case and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Quinquenel, M L; Le Coz, A; Desrues, B; Caulet-Maugendre, S; Lena, H; Belleguic, C; Lineau, C; Delaval, P

    1996-01-01

    The main respiratory manifestations of amylosis are tracheobronchial involvement and modular or diffuse parenchymal disease. Amyloid deposits in the pleura are exceptional. We observed transsudative pleural effusion and heart failure in a patient with multiple myeloma, leading to the discovery of pleural amylosis. Amyloid deposits in the pleura may be fortuitous discoveries since pleural effusion is not necessarily observed. It is however important to be aware of this possibility since the localization is easily accessible for diagnosis. Specific stains are effective diagnostic tools even for transsudative effusions, particularly in suggestive clinical conditions such as multiple myeloma. PMID:8731756

  14. Randomised controlled trial of intrapleural streptokinase in community acquired pleural infection

    PubMed Central

    Davies, R. J.; Traill, Z. C.; Gleeson, F. V.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Standard treatment for pleural infection includes catheter drainage and antibiotics. Tube drainage often fails if the fluid is loculated by fibrinous adhesions when surgical drainage is needed. Streptokinase may aid the process of pleural drainage, but there have been no controlled trials to assess its efficacy. METHODS: Twenty four patients with infected community acquired parapneumonic effusions were studied. All had either frankly purulent/culture or Gram stain positive pleural fluid (13 cases; 54%) or fluid which fulfilled the biochemical criteria for pleural infection. Fluid was drained with a 14F catheter. The antibiotics used were cefuroxime and metronidazole or were guided by culture. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive intrapleural streptokinase, 250,000 i.u. daily, or control saline flushes for three days. The primary end points related to the efficacy of pleural drainage--namely, the volume of pleural fluid drained and the chest radiographic response to treatment. Other end points were the number of pleural procedures needed and blood indices of inflammation. RESULTS: The streptokinase group drained more pleural fluid both during the days of streptokinase/control treatment (mean (SD) 391 (200) ml versus 124 (44) ml; difference 267 ml, 95% confidence interval (CI) 144 to 390; p < .001) and overall (2564 (1663) ml, 95% CI 465 to 2545; p < 0.01). They showed greater improvement on the chest radiograph at discharge, measured as the fall in the maximum dimension of the pleural collection (6.0 (2.7) cm versus 3.4 (2.7) cm; difference 2.9 cm, 95% CI 0.3 to 4.4; p < 0.05) and the overall reduction in pleural fluid collection size (p < 0.05, two-tailed Fisher's exact test). Systemic fibrinolysis and bleeding complications did not occur. Surgery was required by three control patients but none in the streptokinase group. CONCLUSIONS: Intrapleural streptokinase probably aids the treatment of pleural infections by improving pleural drainage without causing systemic fibrinolysis or local haemorrhage. ??? PMID:9176531

  15. Spontaneous regression and reaccumulation of pleural effusion in a fetus. A case report.

    PubMed

    Tarim, Ebru; Oguzkurt, Pelin; Kilicdag, Esra; Ba?is, Tayfun; Erkanli, Serkan; Aslan, Erdogan; Lembet, Arda

    2004-01-01

    Isolated pleural effusion is rare and occurs when varying degrees of fluid surround the fetal lung without concomitant hydrops. The effusion may regress spontaneously, remain stable in size, or progress to involve both sides of the chest causing fetal hydrops. This may result in pulmonary hypoplasia and fetal or neonatal demise. In this article, we report a case in which spontaneous resolution of an isolated right-sided fetal pleural effusion occurred at 23 weeks of gestation and reappeared bilaterally at 34 weeks. Serial ultrasonographic evaluation of the fetus should be continued even if a spontaneous resolution of a preexisting pleural effusion has occurred. PMID:15305097

  16. Shockwave application in calcifying tendinitis of the shoulder – prediction of outcome by imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Maier; A. Stäbler; A. Lienemann; S. Köhler; A. Feitenhansl; H. R. Dürr; M. Pfahler; H. J. Refior

    2000-01-01

    This prospective study examined 62 patients (65 shoulders) with chronic courses of calcifying tendinitis of the shoulder\\u000a before and after low-energy extracorporeal shockwave application (ESWA) in order to identify variables associated with the\\u000a outcome of this treatment. Before ESWA, radiographs and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the affected\\u000a shoulders were obtained in order to document the size and morphology

  17. Ablation of calcified biological tissue using pulsed hydrogen fluoride laser radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOSEPH A. IZATT; NORRIS D. SANKEY; FIROOZ PARTOVI; MARYANNE FITZMAURICE; RICHARD P. RAVA; J. Itzkan; M. S. Feld

    1990-01-01

    Calcified tissue (primarily beef shank bone) was ablated in air with an HF laser beam focused on a spot diameter of 150 ?m and at several wavelengths in the 2.7-3.0-?m range. Pulse irradiances ranged from 0.2 to 1.0 MW\\/mm2, pulse durations from 350 to 1000 ns, and the pulse repetition rate was 0.5 Hz. Under histologic examination, tissue craters appeared

  18. Case report: Calcifying fibrous tumor presenting as an asymptomatic pelvic mass

    PubMed Central

    Giardino, Angela A; Ramaiya, Nikhil H; Shinagare, Atul B; Jagannathan, Jyothi P; Stachler, Matthew D; Raut, Chandrajit P

    2011-01-01

    Calcifying fibrous tumor (CFT) is a rare benign mesenchymal tumor most commonly found in the soft tissues of the extremities and pleura. It is characterized by hyalinized collagenous fibrous tissue, with bland spindle cells, psammomatous or dystrophic calcifications, and focal lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate. CFT of the gastrointestinal tract is exceedingly uncommon. We report a case of CFT arising from the small intestine and associated mesentery; this case was identified incidentally in an otherwise healthy 45-year-old man. PMID:22223947

  19. Computer Simulations of Atherosclerotic Plaque Growth in Coronary Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Biyue; Tang, Dalin

    2011-01-01

    A three dimensional mathematical model with a linear plaque growth function was developed to investigate the geometrical adaptation of atherosclerotic plaques in coronary arteries and study the influences of flow wall shear stress (WSS), blood viscosity and the inlet flow rate on the growth of atherosclerotic plaques using computational plaque growth simulations. The simulation results indicated that the plaque wall thickness at the neck of the stenosis increased at a decreasing rate in the atherosclerosis progression. The simulation results also showed a strong dependence of the plaque wall thickness increase on the blood viscosity and the inlet flow rate. The progression rate in a coronary artery was lower with a higher inlet velocity flow rate and higher with a smaller value of the blood viscosity. PMID:21141673

  20. Plaque Size Heterogeneity: a Genetic Trait of Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus

    PubMed Central

    Pulkkinen, A. J.; Pfau, C. J.

    1970-01-01

    All of the ten strains of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus assayed on BHK 21/13S cells showed various degrees of plaque size heterogeneity. The amount of virus released from these plaques was usually very small because of rapid photodynamic inactivation by neutral red. When virus from large and small plaques of a specific strain was plated, the same distribution of plaque size was obtained from each clone. Although it was shown that surface virus could possibly be randomly distributed at the time of addition of neutral red overlays, no virus could be isolated from nonplaque areas. Two different strains of virus (CA1371 and WE) with markedly different plaque size ranges were separated by plaque excision from plates infected with a mixture of both viruses. Images PMID:4195608

  1. Proteomic analysis of the organic matrix of the abalone Haliotis asinina calcified shell

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The formation of the molluscan shell is regulated to a large extent by a matrix of extracellular macromolecules that are secreted by the shell forming tissue, the mantle. This so called "calcifying matrix" is a complex mixture of proteins and glycoproteins that is assembled and occluded within the mineral phase during the calcification process. While the importance of the calcifying matrix to shell formation has long been appreciated, most of its protein components remain uncharacterised. Results Recent expressed sequence tag (EST) investigations of the mantle tissue from the tropical abalone (Haliotis asinina) provide an opportunity to further characterise the proteins in the shell by a proteomic approach. In this study, we have identified a total of 14 proteins from distinct calcified layers of the shell. Only two of these proteins have been previously characterised from abalone shells. Among the novel proteins are several glutamine- and methionine-rich motifs and hydrophobic glycine-, alanine- and acidic aspartate-rich domains. In addition, two of the new proteins contained Kunitz-like and WAP (whey acidic protein) protease inhibitor domains. Conclusion This is one of the first comprehensive proteomic study of a molluscan shell, and should provide a platform for further characterization of matrix protein functions and interactions. PMID:21050442

  2. Past constraints on the vulnerability of marine calcifiers to massive carbon dioxide release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridgwell, Andy; Schmidt, Daniela N.

    2010-03-01

    Increasing concentrations of carbon dioxide in sea water are driving a progressive acidification of the ocean. Although the associated changes in the carbonate chemistry of surface and deep waters may adversely affect marine calcifying organisms, current experiments do not always produce consistent results for a given species. Ocean sediments record past biological responses to transient greenhouse warming and ocean acidification. During the Palaeocene-Eocene thermal maximum, for example, the biodiversity of benthic calcifying organisms decreased markedly, whereas extinctions of surface dwellers were very limited. Here we use the Earth system model GENIE-1 to simulate and compare directly past and present environmental changes in the marine realm. In our simulation of future ocean conditions, we find an undersaturation with respect to carbonate in the deep ocean that exceeds that experienced during the Palaeocene-Eocene thermal maximum and could endanger calcifying organisms. Furthermore, our simulations show higher rates of environmental change at the surface for the future than the Palaeocene-Eocene thermal maximum, which could potentially challenge the ability of plankton to adapt.

  3. Proteomic evaluation of biologic nanoparticles isolated from human kidney stones and calcified arteries

    PubMed Central

    Shiekh, Farooq A.; Charlesworth, Jon E.; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Hunter, Larry W.; Jayachandran, Muthuvel; Miller, Virginia M.; Lieske, John C.

    2010-01-01

    Calcifying biologic nanoparticles (NPs) develop under cell culture conditions from homogenates of diverse tissue samples displaying extraosseous mineralization, including kidney stones and calcified aneurysms. Probes to definitively identify NPs in biologic systems are lacking. Therefore, the aim of this study was to begin to establish a proteomic biosignature of NPs in order to facilitate more definitive investigation of their contribution to disease. Biologic NPs derived from human kidney stones and calcified aneurysms were completely decalcified by overnight treatment with EDTA or brief incubation in HCl, as evidenced by lack of a calcium shell and of Alizarin Red S staining, by transmission electron microscopy and confocal microscopy, respectively. Decalcified NPs contained numerous proteins including some from bovine serum and others of prokaryotic origin. Most prominent of the latter group was EF-Tu, which appeared identical to EF-Tu from S. epidermidis. A monoclonal antibody against human EF-Tu recognized a protein in Western blots of total NP lysate, as well as in intact NPs by immunofluorescence and immunogold EM. Approximately 8% of NPs were quantitatively recognized by the antibody by flow cytometry. Therefore, we have defined methods to reproducibly decalcify biologic NPs, and identified key components of their proteome. These elements, including EF-Tu, can be used as biomarkers to further define processes which mediate propagation of biologic NPs and their contribution to disease. PMID:20466084

  4. Pacific-wide contrast highlights resistance of reef calcifiers to ocean acidification.

    PubMed

    Comeau, S; Carpenter, R C; Nojiri, Y; Putnam, H M; Sakai, K; Edmunds, P J

    2014-09-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) and its associated decline in calcium carbonate saturation states is one of the major threats that tropical coral reefs face this century. Previous studies of the effect of OA on coral reef calcifiers have described a wide variety of outcomes for studies using comparable partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) ranges, suggesting that key questions remain unresolved. One unresolved hypothesis posits that heterogeneity in the response of reef calcifiers to high pCO2 is a result of regional-scale variation in the responses to OA. To test this hypothesis, we incubated two coral taxa (Pocillopora damicornis and massive Porites) and two calcified algae (Porolithon onkodes and Halimeda macroloba) under 400, 700 and 1000 ?atm pCO2 levels in experiments in Moorea (French Polynesia), Hawaii (USA) and Okinawa (Japan), where environmental conditions differ. Both corals and H. macroloba were insensitive to OA at all three locations, while the effects of OA on P. onkodes were location-specific. In Moorea and Hawaii, calcification of P. onkodes was depressed by high pCO2, but for specimens in Okinawa, there was no effect of OA. Using a study of large geographical scale, we show that resistance to OA of some reef species is a constitutive character expressed across the Pacific. PMID:25056628

  5. Siglec receptors and hiding plaques in Alzheimer's disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antero Salminen; Kai Kaarniranta

    2009-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease. One hallmark of this disease is the continuous increase\\u000a in the numbers and size of aggregating amyloid plaques. The accumulation of extracellular plaques is an immunologically interesting\\u000a phenomenon since microglial cells, brain-specific macrophages, should be able to cleanse the aggregating material from the\\u000a human brain. Immunotherapy targeting ?-amyloid peptides in plaques with

  6. Correlations between Numbers of Microf lora in Plaque and Saliva

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sheila A. Mundorff; Arthur D. Eisenberg; Dennis H. Leverett; Mark A. Espeland; Howard M. Proskin

    1990-01-01

    An epidemiologic investigation to reliably identify caries-susceptible subjects by microbiological and chemical assessment of plaque and saliva is currently in progress. As part of that study, the numerical relationships of mutans streptococci, lactobacilli and total viable microflora in plaque and saliva among 12- to 15-year-old children in a fluoridated community were determined. Paraffin-stimulated whole saliva and pooled dental plaque were

  7. Stability Analysis of a Model of Atherosclerotic Plaque Growth

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Sushruth; Seshaiyer, Padmanabhan

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis, the formation of life-threatening plaques in blood vessels, is a form of cardiovascular disease. In this paper, we analyze a simplified model of plaque growth to derive physically meaningful results about the growth of plaques. In particular, the main results of this paper are two conditions, which express that the immune response increases as LDL cholesterol levels increase and that diffusion prevails over inflammation in a healthy artery.

  8. Dosimetric Benefit of a New Ophthalmic Radiation Plaque

    SciTech Connect

    Marwaha, Gaurav, E-mail: marwahg2@ccf.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Center, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Center, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Wilkinson, Allan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Center, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Center, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Bena, James [Department of Quantitative Health Sciences, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States) [Department of Quantitative Health Sciences, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Macklis, Roger [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Center, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Center, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Singh, Arun D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Center, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Center, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Department of Ophthalmic Oncology, Cole Eye Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the computed dosimetry of a new ophthalmic plaque, EP917, when compared with the standard Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS) plaques, could reduce radiation exposure to vision critical structures of the eye. Methods and Materials: One hundred consecutive patients with uveal melanoma treated with COMS radiation plaques between 2007 and 2010 were included in this study. These treatment plans were generated with the use of Bebig Plaque Simulator treatment-planning software, both for COMS plaques and for EP917 plaques using I-125. Dose distributions were calculated for a prescription of 85 Gy to the tumor apex. Doses to the optic disc, opposite retina, lens, and macula were obtained, and differences between the 2 groups were analyzed by standard parametric methods. Results: When compared with the COMS plaques, the EP917 plaques used fewer radiation seeds by an average difference of 1.94 (P<.001; 95% confidence interval [CI], -2.8 to -1.06) and required less total strength of radiation sources by an average of 17.74 U (air kerma units) (P<.001; 95% CI, -20.16 to -15.32). The total radiation doses delivered to the optic disc, opposite retina, and macula were significantly less by 4.57 Gy, 0.50 Gy, and 11.18 Gy, respectively, with the EP917 plaques vs the COMS plaques. Conclusion: EP917 plaques deliver less overall radiation exposure to critical vision structures than COMS treatment plaques while still delivering the same total therapeutic dose to the tumor.

  9. Management of malignant pleural mesothelioma—The European experience

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Management of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) remains a clinical challenge and the incidence of the disease will continue to increase worldwide. Several aspects of mesothelioma treatment are discussed controversially, in particular, regarding extent and best type of surgery, radiotherapy, and the role of neoadjuvant or adjuvant treatment. However, best survival data is reported from groups using multimodality treatment including macroscopic complete resection (MCR) achieved by either extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP) or (extended) pleurectomy/decortication for patients qualifying from the tumor biology, stage, and patient’s performance status and comorbidities. Several aspects have to be considered during surgery but morbidity and mortality have been reduced at experienced centres. The final analysis of extended selection algorithms is pending. PMID:24868442

  10. Nature or The Natural Evolution of Plaque: What Matters?

    PubMed Central

    AURSULESEI, Viviana

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Progression to major acute cardiovascular events often is triggered by an atherosclerotic plaque complicated by rupture or erosion, namely the vulnerable plaque. Early and secure identification of these plaques would allow the development of individualized therapeutic and pharmacological strategies, applied in a timely manner. Imaging methods have a huge potential in detecting and monitoring the evolution of vulnerable plaque. Even though there are multiple invasive and noninvasive techniques, clinical application is for now a matter of choosing the relevant imaging feature for the prognosis, the methodo­logy of study and the target population. PMID:24790659

  11. Multimodal spectroscopy detects features of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque

    E-print Network

    Scepanovic, Obrad R.

    Early detection and treatment of rupture-prone vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques is critical to reducing patient mortality associated with cardiovascular disease. The combination of reflectance, fluorescence, and Raman ...

  12. Plaque which Apollo 11 astronauts will leave on the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Closeup view of the plaque which the Apollo 11 astronauts will leave behind on the moon is commemoration of the historic event. The plaque is made of stainless steel measuring nine by seven and five-eighths inches, and one-sixteenth inch thick. The plaque will be attached to the ladder on the landing gear strut on the descent stage of the Apollo 11 Lunar Module. Covering the plaque during flight will be a thin sheet of stainless steel which will be removed on the lunar surface.

  13. Retinal atheromatous plaques: their recognition by elevating the intraocular pressure.

    PubMed Central

    Hedges, T R

    1976-01-01

    Recognition and further study of existing retinal atheromatous plaques in the central retinal artery may be enhanced by pressure on the globe. This simple maneuver should be used when patients with transient ischemic attacks (cerebral or ocular) are examined with or without atheromatous disease of the carotid artery. Previously unseen or suspected plaques may be brought into view. Plaques already visible may appear larger or vary greatly in both color and texture giving indication of their composition. The recognition of these atheromatous plaques is important in the diagnosis of atheromatous disease. Images FIGURE 1 A FIGURE 1 B FIGURE 1 C FIGURE 1 D PMID:867624

  14. Retinal atheromatous plaques: their recognition by elevating the intraocular pressure.

    PubMed

    Hedges, T R

    1976-01-01

    Recognition and further study of existing retinal atheromatous plaques in the central retinal artery may be enhanced by pressure on the globe. This simple maneuver should be used when patients with transient ischemic attacks (cerebral or ocular) are examined with or without atheromatous disease of the carotid artery. Previously unseen or suspected plaques may be brought into view. Plaques already visible may appear larger or vary greatly in both color and texture giving indication of their composition. The recognition of these atheromatous plaques is important in the diagnosis of atheromatous disease. PMID:867624

  15. DETAIL OF PLAQUE DESCRIBING LION SCULPTURES BY ROLAND HINTON PERRY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF PLAQUE DESCRIBING LION SCULPTURES BY ROLAND HINTON PERRY, NORTHWEST ABUTMENT - Connecticut Avenue Bridge, Spans Rock Creek & Potomac Parkway at Connecticut Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  16. Stress analysis of carotid plaque rupture based on in vivo high resolution MRI

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhi-Yong Li; Simon Howarth; Rikin A. Trivedi; Jean M. U-King-Im; Martin J. Graves; Andrew Brown; Liqun Wang; Jonathan H. Gillard

    2006-01-01

    Atheromatous carotid plaque rupture is responsible for the majority of ischaemic strokes in the developed world. Plaque rupture has been associated with plaque morphology, plaque components’ properties, inflammation and local stress concentration. High resolution multi-spectral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has allowed the plaque components to be visualized in vivo. This study combined the recent advances in finite element analysis (FEA)

  17. [Plaque surgery for Peyronie's disease: heterologous grafts].

    PubMed

    Paradiso, Matteo; Sedigh, Omid; Milan, Gian Luca

    2003-06-01

    Surgical treatment of Induratio Penis Plastica includes conservative procedures (phalloplasty), substitutive procedures (prosthesis) and combined procedures (phalloplasty plus prosthesis). Our policy for conservative treatment is based on radical removal of the plaque and replacement with biological patches. During a 15 year experience we employed lyophilized dura mater, autologous dermal graft, preputial skin, cadaveric dermal graft (AlloDerm), venous graft and porcine SIS (Small Intestine Submucosa) graft. Our experience confirms the superiority of venous grafts, but preliminary results with SIS grafts are encouraging. PMID:12868152

  18. Relative motion of lung and chest wall promotes uniform pleural space thickness.

    PubMed

    Lai, Jean; Gouldstone, Andrew; Butler, James P; Federspiel, William J; Loring, Stephen H

    2002-08-01

    The pleural space is modeled in two dimensions as a thin layer of fluid separating a deformable membrane and a rigid surface containing a bump. We computed the steady-state membrane configuration and fluid pressure distribution during relative sliding of the two surfaces. For physiologically relevant values of membrane tension, shear flow-induced pressures near the bump and far-field pressure gradients are similar to those measured in vivo within the pleural space (e.g. Lai-Fook et al.) [J. Appl. Physiol.: Respirat. Environ. Exercise Physiol. 56 (1984) 1633-1639]. Deformation of the membrane over the bump suggests that the pressure field generated by the sliding motion promotes an even layer of fluid in the pleural space, preventing asperities from touching. Results also suggest a possible mechanism for pleural fluid redistribution during breathing, whereby irreversible fluid motion is associated with the deformability of the membrane. PMID:12126924

  19. High pleural ammonia negatively interferes with the measurement of adenosine deaminase activity

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Tze Ping; Tan, Karen Mei Ling; Chew, Suru; Chan, Douglas S G

    2013-01-01

    Pleural adenosine deaminase activity (ADA) is a sensitive and specific test for tuberculous pleurisy. Here, we report a case of undetectable ADA in the pleural fluid of a man presenting with chronic cough, fever and night sweats. Subsequent laboratory investigations and review revealed that the presence of high concentrations of ammonia in pleural fluid, commonly seen in empyema, negatively interferes with ADA results when measured by the Guisti and Galanti method. The source of ammonia may come from deamination of amino acids, ammonia-producing microbes and/or leucocytes. This interference invalidates ADA results and is present in ?2% of our laboratory requests. It is important to keep this interference in mind when tuberculosis/ammonia-producing bacteria coinfections are suspected and during early phases of tuberculous pleurisy, when neutrophils predominate in the pleural fluids. PMID:23389721

  20. Sterile empyematous pleural effusion in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus: a diagnostic challenge

    PubMed Central

    Kriegel, MA; Van Beek, C; Mostaghimi, A; Kyttaris, VC

    2009-01-01

    Herein we present a case of a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and a sterile empyematous pleural effusion, a complication not generally associated with SLE. A discussion of the diagnostic and treatment dilemmas follows the case presentation. PMID:19433457

  1. Successful treatment of a recalcitrant pleural effusion with rib fracture fixation.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Benjamin C; French, Bruce G

    2013-02-01

    Pulmonary complications of rib fractures typically occur in the immediate postinjury period, as a result of the forces causing the injury or subsequent rib fracture displacement. Pneumothorax, hemothorax, pulmonary contusions, or parenchymal lacerations are frequently seen with significant chest wall trauma. Hemopneumothorax is typically treated with tube thoracostomy, and full resolution of the pleural injury is expected; continued pleural fluid accumulation despite these measures is unanticipated, rare, and quite problematic. We report a case of hemorrhagic pleural effusion after rib fractures that were recurrent despite several tube thoracostomies and computed tomography-guided aspirations. The patient subsequently underwent operative fixation of her rib fractures, with successful resolution of her symptomatic pleural effusion. PMID:24426851

  2. Cerebral Air Embolism Following Pigtail Catheter Insertion for Pleural Fluid Drainage

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sa Il; Kwak, Hyun Jung; Moon, Ji-Yong; Kim, Sang-Heon; Kim, Tae Hyung; Sohn, Jang Won; Shin, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Soo

    2013-01-01

    Pigtail catheter drainage is a common procedure for the treatment of pleural effusion and pneumothorax. The most common complications of pigtail catheter insertion are pneumothorax, hemorrhage and chest pains. Cerebral air embolism is rare, but often fatal. In this paper, we report a case of cerebral air embolism in association with the insertion of a pigtail catheter for the drainage of a pleural effusion. A 67-year-old man is being presented with dyspnea, cough and right-side chest pains and was administered antibiotics for the treatment of pneumonia. The pneumonia failed to resolve and a loculated parapneumonic pleural effusion developed. A pigtail catheter was inserted in order to drain the pleural effusion, which resulted in cerebral air embolism. The patient was administered high-flow oxygen therapy and recovered without any neurologic complications. PMID:23814602

  3. A topology-oriented and tissue-specific approach to detect pleural thickenings from 3D CT data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buerger, C.; Chaisaowong, K.; Knepper, A.; Kraus, T.; Aach, T.

    2009-02-01

    Pleural thickenings are caused by asbestos exposure and may evolve into malignant pleural mesothelioma. The detection of pleural thickenings is today mostly done by a visual inspection of CT data, which is time-consuming and underlies the physician's subjective judgment. We propose a new detection algorithm within our computer-assisted diagnosis (CAD) system to automatically detect pleural thickenings within CT data. First, pleura contours are identified by thresholding and contour relaxation with a probabilistic model. Subsequently, the approach to automatically detect pleural thickenings is proposed as a two-step procedure. Step one; since pleural thickenings appear as fine-scale occurrences on the rather large-scale pleura contour, a surface-based smoothing algorithm is developed. Pleural thickenings are initially detected as the difference between the original contours and the resulting "healthy" model of the pleura. Step two; as pleural thickenings can expand into the surrounding thoracic tissue, a subsequent tissue-specific segmentation for the initially detected pleural thickenings is performed in order to separate pleural thickenings from the surrounding thoracic tissue. For this purpose, a probabilistic Hounsfield model for pleural thickenings as a mixture of Gaussian distributions has been constructed. The parameters were estimated by applying the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm. A model fitting technique in combination with the application of a Gibbs-Markov random field (GMRF) model then allows the tissuespecific segmentation of pleural thickenings with high precision. With these methods, a new approach is presented in order to assure a precise and reproducible detection of pleural mesothelioma in its early stage.

  4. Non-occupational malignant pleural mesothelioma due to asbestos and non-asbestos fibres

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Proietti; L. Spicuzza; A. Di Maria; R. Polos; E. Sebastian Torres; V. Asero; G. U. Di Maria

    Non-occupational malignant pleural mesothelioma due to asbestos and non-asbestos fibres. L. Proietti, L. Spicuzza, A. Di Maria, R. Polosa, E. Sebastian Torres, V. Asero, G.U. Di Maria. Background and aim. The occurrence of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) has been reported among population groups with no documented professional expo- sure to asbestos fibres living in different geographic areas. This paper reviews

  5. Surgical and other invasive approaches to recurrent pleural effusion with malignant etiology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siyamek Neragi-Miandoab

    2008-01-01

    With an increasing number of cancer survivors, the annual incidence of malignant pleural effusions has been rising in recent\\u000a decades worldwide. Many patients with various forms of cancer develop malignant pleural effusions at some point in their life.\\u000a Patients most commonly present with progressive dyspnea. These effusions are refractory and are associated with impaired quality\\u000a of life for these patients.

  6. CT-Guided Core Needle Biopsy of Pleural Lesions: Evaluating Diagnostic Yield and Associated Complications

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Xiang-Ke; Bhetuwal, Anup

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and complications of CT-guided core needle biopsy (CT-guided CNB) of pleural lesion and the possible effects of influencing factors. Materials and Methods From September 2007 to June 2013, 88 consecutive patients (60 men and 28 women; mean [± standard deviation] age, 51.1 ± 14.4 years; range, 19-78 years) underwent CT-guided CNB, which was performed by two experienced chest radiologists in our medical center. Out of 88 cases, 56 (63%) were diagnosed as malignant, 28 (31%) as benign and 4 (5%) as indeterminate for CNB of pleural lesions. The final diagnosis was confirmed by either histopathological diagnosis or clinical follow-up. The diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and complication rates were statistically evaluated. Influencing factors (patient age, sex, lesion size, pleural-puncture angle, patient position, pleural effusion, and number of pleural punctures) were assessed for their effect on accuracy of CT-guided CNB using univariate and subsequent multivariate analysis. Results Diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV were 89.2%, 86.1%, 100%, 100%, and 67.8%, respectively. The influencing factors had no significant effect in altering diagnostic accuracy. As far as complications were concerned, occurrence of pneumothorax was observed in 14 (16%) out of 88 patients. Multivariate analysis revealed lesion size/pleural thickening as a significant risk factor (odds ratio [OR]: 8.744, p = 0.005) for occurrence of pneumothorax. Moreover, presence of pleural effusion was noted as a significant protective factor (OR: 0.171, p = 0.037) for pneumothorax. Conclusion CT-guided CNB of pleural lesion is a safe procedure with high diagnostic yield and low risk of significant complications. PMID:25598692

  7. Usefulness of MR Signal Intensity in Distinguishing Benign from Malignant Pleural Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabio Falaschi; Luigi Battolla; Vimna Zampa; Alessandmo Antonelli; Carlo rt

    OBJECTIVE. The aim of this study was to analyze the potential usefulness of MR signal intensity in differentiating malignant from benign pleural disease. SUBJECTS AND METHODS. Forty-five patients with pleural lesions identified on CT scans were subsequently examined by MR imaging at 0.5 T. Ti -weighted, proton density-weighted, T2-weighted, and enhanced Ti-weighted spin-echo images were obtained. For 34 patIents, a

  8. Pleural mycobacterium avium complex infection in an immunocompetent female with no risk factors.

    PubMed

    Manglani, Ravi P; Khaja, Misbahuddin; Hennessey, Karen; Kennedy, Omonuwa

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infections rarely affect the pleura, accounting for 5-15% of pulmonary MAC. We report a case of MAC pleural effusion in an otherwise immunocompetent young patient. A 37-year-old healthy female with no past medical history was admitted to the hospital with two weeks of right sided pleuritic chest pain, productive cough, and fever. She was febrile, tachycardic, and tachypneic with signs of right sided pleural effusion which were confirmed by chest X-ray and chest CT. Thoracentesis revealed lymphocytic predominant exudative fluid. The patient underwent pleural biopsy, bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage, and video assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS), all of which failed to identify the causative organism. Six weeks later, MAC was identified in the pleural fluid and pleural biopsy by DNA hybridization and culture. The patient was started on clarithromycin, ethambutol, and rifampin. After six months of treatment, she was asymptomatic with complete radiological resolution of the effusion. The presence of lymphocytic effusion should raise the suspicion for both tuberculous and nontuberculous mycobacterial disease. Pleural biopsy must be considered to make the diagnosis. Clinicians must maintain a high index of suspicion of MAC infection in an otherwise immunocompetent patient presenting with a unilateral lymphocytic exudative effusion. PMID:25793135

  9. Pleural Mycobacterium Avium Complex Infection in an Immunocompetent Female with No Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Manglani, Ravi P.; Khaja, Misbahuddin; Hennessey, Karen; Kennedy, Omonuwa

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infections rarely affect the pleura, accounting for 5–15% of pulmonary MAC. We report a case of MAC pleural effusion in an otherwise immunocompetent young patient. A 37-year-old healthy female with no past medical history was admitted to the hospital with two weeks of right sided pleuritic chest pain, productive cough, and fever. She was febrile, tachycardic, and tachypneic with signs of right sided pleural effusion which were confirmed by chest X-ray and chest CT. Thoracentesis revealed lymphocytic predominant exudative fluid. The patient underwent pleural biopsy, bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage, and video assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS), all of which failed to identify the causative organism. Six weeks later, MAC was identified in the pleural fluid and pleural biopsy by DNA hybridization and culture. The patient was started on clarithromycin, ethambutol, and rifampin. After six months of treatment, she was asymptomatic with complete radiological resolution of the effusion. The presence of lymphocytic effusion should raise the suspicion for both tuberculous and nontuberculous mycobacterial disease. Pleural biopsy must be considered to make the diagnosis. Clinicians must maintain a high index of suspicion of MAC infection in an otherwise immunocompetent patient presenting with a unilateral lymphocytic exudative effusion.

  10. Human parietal pleura present electrophysiology variations according to location in pleural cavity.

    PubMed

    Kouritas, Vassilios K; Hatzoglou, Chrisi; Foroulis, Christophoros N; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos I

    2008-08-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate if human pleura from different anatomical locations presents electrophysiology differences. Specimens were stripped over the 2nd-5th rib (cranial), 8th-10th rib (caudal), and mediastinum during open surgery and were mounted between Ussing chambers. Amiloride and ouabain were added towards mesothelial surface and trans-mesothelial potential difference (PD) was measured after 1, 5, 10 and 20 min. Trans-membrane resistance (R) was calculated from Ohm's law. R increased after amiloride addition, for cranial (net increase of 0.40 Omega x cm(2)) and caudal (1.16 Omega x cm(2)) pleural pieces. Mediastinal pleura R remained unchanged (0.09 Omega x cm(2)). R increase was higher for caudal than cranial (P=0.029) or mediastinal tissues (P=0.002). R increased after ouabain addition for caudal (1.35 Omega x cm(2)) and cranial (0.56 Omega x cm(2)) pleural pieces. Mediastinal pleural tissue did not respond (0.20 Omega x cm(2)). Caudally located pleura responded greater than cranial (P=0.043) or mediastinal (P=0.003) pleural tissues. Human pleura shows electrophysiology differences according to the location within the pleural cavity. Surgeons may waste mediastinal pleura when needed but should leave intact caudal parietal pleura, which seems to be electrophysiologically the most important part of the pleural cavity. PMID:18469008

  11. Mesothelial cells activate the plasma kallikrein-kinin system during pleural inflammation.

    PubMed

    Varano Della Vergiliana, Julius F; Lansley, Sally; Tan, Ai Ling; Creaney, Jenette; Lee, Y C Gary; Stewart, Geoffrey A

    2011-07-01

    Abstract Pleural inflammation underlies the formation of most exudative pleural effusions and the plasma kallikrein-kinin system (KKS) is known to contribute. Mesothelial cells are the predominant cell type in the pleural cavity, but their potential role in plasma KKS activation and BK production has not been studied. Bradykinin concentrations were higher in pleural fluids than the corresponding serum samples in patients with a variety of diseases. Bradykinin concentrations did not correlate with disease diagnosis, but were elevated in exudative effusions. It was demonstrated, using a range of primary and transformed mesothelial and mesothelioma cell lines, that cells assembled high molecular weight kininogen and plasma prekallikrein to liberate bradykinin, a process inhibited by novobiocin, a heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) inhibitor, cysteine, bradykinin and protamine sulphate. Of the common plasma prekallikrein activators, mesothelial cells expressed HSP90, but not prolylcarboxypeptidase or Factor XII. Calcium mobilisation was induced in some mesothelium-derived cell lines by bradykinin. Des-Arg(9)-bradykinin was inactive, indicating that mesothelial cells are responsive to bradykinin, mediated via the bradykinin receptor subtype 2. In summary, pleural mesothelial cells support the assembly and activation of the plasma KKS by a mechanism dependent on HSP90, and may contribute to KKS-mediated inflammation in pleural disease. PMID:21627535

  12. Long-term results of pleurodesis in malignant pleural effusions: Doxycycline vs Bleomycin

    PubMed Central

    Rafiei, Rahmatollah; Yazdani, Behnam; Ranjbar, Sayed Milad; Torabi, Zahra; Asgary, Sedigheh; Najafi, Somayeh; Keshvari, Mahtab

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to compare the response of doxycycline and bleomycin in pleurodesis of malignant pleural effusions. Materials and Methods: The radiologic and clinical responses of doxycycline and bleomycin in pleurodesis of malignant pleural effusions were compared in this randomized clinical trial. Forty-two patients were randomized to receive either bleomycin 45 mg or doxycycline 600 mg as the sclerotherapy agent. Chest X-rays were taken before and after intervention, 10 days and 2 months later to compare the radiologic response. Dyspnea and other side effects, before and after intervention, 10 days and 2 months later were recorded and compared. Chi-square test was applied to analyze the data. Results: The prevalence of dyspnea and its different severities, 10 days and 2 months after intervention were significantly different (P < 0.05) between the two groups. Analysis of pleural effusions revealed a significant difference (P < 0.05) between Doxycycline vs. Bleomycin 2 months after the intervention. Three months after pleurodesis, only one patient in bleomycin group needed pleural fluid drainage. Conclusion: Pleural effusions did not change with use of doxycycline and bleomycin in short time but long-term results of doxycycline sclerotherapy was better than bleomycin sclerotherapy in malignant pleural effusions that was supported by this study. However, additional studies with larger sample size are necessary to confirm the results. PMID:25221752

  13. 76 FR 66307 - Scientific Information Request on Phototherapy for Treatment of Chronic Plaque Psoriasis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-26

    ...Phototherapy for Treatment of Chronic Plaque Psoriasis AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research...devices for treatment of chronic plaque psoriasis. Scientific information is being solicited...Phototherapy for Treatment of Chronic Plaque Psoriasis, which is currently being...

  14. Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations of Hemodynamics in Plaque Erosion

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Ian C.; Timmins, Lucas H.; Giddens, Don P.; Virmani, Renu; Veneziani, Alessandro; Rab, S. Tanveer; Samady, Habib; McDaniel, Michael C.; Finn, Aloke V.; Taylor, W. Robert; Oshinski, John N.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We investigated whether local hemodynamics were associated with sites of plaque erosion and hypothesized that patients with plaque erosion have locally elevated WSS magnitude in regions where erosion has occurred. Methods We generated 3D, patient-specific models of coronary arteries from biplane angiographic images in 3 human patients with plaque erosion diagnosed by optical coherence tomography (OCT). Using computational fluid dynamics, we simulated pulsatile blood flow and calculated both wall shear stress (WSS) and oscillatory shear index (OSI). We also investigated anatomic features of plaque erosion sites by examining branching and local curvature in x-ray angiograms of barium-perfused autopsy hearts. Results Neither high nor low magnitudes of mean WSS were associated with sites of plaque erosion. OSI and local curvature were also not associated with erosion. Anatomically, 8 of 13 hearts had a nearby bifurcation upstream of the site of plaque erosion. Conclusions This study provides preliminary evidence that neither hemodynamics nor anatomy are predictors of plaque erosion, based upon a very unique dataset. Our sample sizes are small, but this dataset suggests that high magnitudes of wall shear stress, one potential mechanism for inducing plaque erosion, are not necessary for erosion to occur. PMID:24223678

  15. Complement factor C5a induces atherosclerotic plaque disruptions

    PubMed Central

    Wezel, Anouk; de Vries, Margreet R; Lagraauw, H Maxime; Foks, Amanda C; Kuiper, Johan; Quax, Paul HA; Bot, Ilze

    2014-01-01

    Complement factor C5a and its receptor C5aR are expressed in vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques; however, a causal relation between C5a and plaque rupture has not been established yet. Accelerated atherosclerosis was induced by placing vein grafts in male apoE?/? mice. After 24 days, when advanced plaques had developed, C5a or PBS was applied locally at the lesion site in a pluronic gel. Three days later mice were killed to examine the acute effect of C5a on late stage atherosclerosis. A significant increase in C5aR in the plaque was detectable in mice treated with C5a. Lesion size and plaque morphology did not differ between treatment groups, but interestingly, local treatment with C5a resulted in a striking increase in the amount of plaque disruptions with concomitant intraplaque haemorrhage. To identify the potential underlying mechanisms, smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells were treated in vitro with C5a. Both cell types revealed a marked increase in apoptosis after stimulation with C5a, which may contribute to lesion instability in vivo. Indeed, apoptosis within the plaque was seen to be significantly increased after C5a treatment. We here demonstrate a causal role for C5a in atherosclerotic plaque disruptions, probably by inducing apoptosis. Therefore, intervention in complement factor C5a signalling may be a promising target in the prevention of acute atherosclerotic complications. PMID:25124749

  16. Plaque the Apollo 14 crew will leave on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A close-up view of the plaque which the Apollo 14 crew will leave behind on the Moon during their lunar landing mission. The seven by nine-inch stainless steel plaque will be attached to the ladder on the landing gear strut on the Lunar Module's descent stage.

  17. Apollo Soyuz Test Project Commemorative plaque in orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) Commemorative Plaque is assembled in the Soviet Soyuz Orbital Module during the joint U.S.-U.S.S.R. Apollo-Soyuz Test Project docking in Earth orbit mission. The plaque is written both in English and Russian.

  18. Scanning Electron Microscope Study of the Formation of Dental Plaque

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. Saxton

    1973-01-01

    Few investigations on the development of dental have considered the first changes which can occur on a cleaned tooth surface during the first 4 h of exposure to the Plaque oral environment. The present study has investigated, using the scanning electron microscope, the colonization of enamel surfaces in vivo, and some of the factors influencing plaque formation during the initial

  19. Effect of polyol gums on dental plaque in orthodontic patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. P. Isotupa; S. Gunn; C.-Y. Chen; D. Lopatin; K. K. Mäkinen

    1995-01-01

    Sixty 11- to 15-year-old children wearing fixed orthodontic appliances were given chewing gums containing polyol for daily use after meals and snacks, to study whether the chewing of gums that contained slowly fermentable polyols (xylitol and sorbitol) affects the amount of dental plaque and the number of mutans streptococci present in plaque and saliva. The 60 subjects were randomly divided

  20. Increased production of plasminogen activator inhibitor in vitro by pleural leukocytes from rats intratracheally instilled with crocidolite asbestos

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao Yang Li; Brown, G.M.; Donaldson, K. (Inst. of Occupational Medicine, Edinburgh (Scotland)); Lamb, D. (Univ. of Edinburgh (Scotland))

    1991-08-01

    The authors have previously reported that normal pleural leukocytes secrete a urokinase-type plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI) in culture. In view of the pathogenic effects of asbestos on the pleura, in particular pleural fibrosis, they have extended these observation to crocidolite asbestos-exposed rats. Pleural leukocytes from rats exposed to crocidolite asbestos were found to secrete more PAI in culture than controls. The activity of PAI in pleural leukocyte-conditioned medium increased in a dose-dependent manner in relation to the quantity of asbestos injected into the lung. However, with increasing time post asbestos instillation, there was no significant change in the secretion of PAI by pleural leukocytes in culture compared with earlier time points of crocidolite-exposed rats. Plasminogen activator was not detectable in the conditioned medium at any time point. The data derived from this study may help to elucidate the pathogenesis of some pleural disorders caused by exposure to fibrous dusts in the lungs.

  1. P34. Exploring cell plasticity in malignant pleural mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Christina; Schelch, Karin; Hoda, Mir Alireza; Klikovits, Thomas; Reid, Glen; Berger, Walter; Hegedus, Balazs; Dome, Balazs; Klepetko, Walter; Grusch, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma (MPM) is a relatively rare, highly aggressive tumor which originates from pleural mesothelial cells. It has three distinct histological subtypes: the epithelioid, the sarcomatoid (which has a more fibroblast-like morphology than the epithelioid) and the biphasic subtype, the latter being a mixed type of the others. MPM is highly resistant to current chemo- and radiotherapy, resulting in a poor prognosis. Epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process best known for its role in development, but it is also known to be involved in the progression of cancer and in chemoresistance. During this process typical epithelial characteristics like cell-polarity and junctions between the cells are lost, and the cells gain migratory and invasive abilities. Understanding of the role of EMT in MPM is currently very limited. Aim of this study was to characterize the influence of growth factors, especially fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), on MPM cell lines regarding EMT-like changes. Methods Changes in the gene and miRNA expression were determined by qPCR and array hybridisation. To characterize the influence of growth factors and/or inhibitors, various treatments (and treatment combinations) were applied to MPM cells in migration and proliferation assays. For analysis of involved downstream signalling pathways immunoblotting was used. Results Treatment with FGF2 or EGF induced a transition to a more fibroblastoid/sarcomatoid morphology in several biphasic MPM cell lines, transmitted by the MAP kinase pathway. Other cytokines like TGF-?, HGF or PDGF did not induce these changes. Additionally also the migration of the FGF2 treated cells increased. Several epithelial markers were down-regulated and mesenchymal markers were up-regulated in the treated cell lines, suggesting not only a switch to a more sarcomatoid morphology but also an underlying EMT in those cells. In addition to the expression-changes of typical EMT-markers some novel FGF2/EGF regulated genes were identified. FGF2 treatment also affected microRNA expression, possibly accounting for some of the observed alterations in the expression of protein-coding genes. Conclusions These cell lines from biphasic MPM may represent interesting models to study the link between EMT, histological subtype and tumor progression in MPM.

  2. Nonlinear registration of serial coronary CT angiography (CCTA) for assessment of changes in atherosclerotic plaque

    SciTech Connect

    Woo, Jonghye; Dey, Damini; Cheng, Victor Y.; Hong, Byung-Woo; Ramesh, Amit; Sundaramoorthi, Ganesh; Nakazato, Ryo; Berman, Daniel S.; Germano, Guido; Kuo, C.-C. Jay; Slomka, Piotr J. [Departments of Imaging and Medicine, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California 90048 (United States); Departments of Imaging and Medicine, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California 90048 and Department of Medicine, David-Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California 90049 (United States); Departments of Imaging and Medicine, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California 90048 (United States); School of Computer Science and Engineering, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Departments of Imaging and Medicine, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California 90048 (United States); Computer Science, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Departments of Imaging and Medicine, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California 90048 (United States); Departments of Imaging and Medicine, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California 90048 and Department of Medicine, David-Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California 90049 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-2564 (United States); Departments of Imaging and Medicine, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California 90048 and Department of Medicine, David-Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California 90049 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Purpose: Coronary CT angiography (CCTA) is a high-resolution three-dimensional imaging technique for the evaluation of coronary arteries in suspected or confirmed coronary artery disease (CAD). Coregistration of serial CCTA scans would allow precise superimposition of images obtained at two different points in time, which could aid in recognition of subtle changes and precise monitoring of coronary plaque progression or regression. To this end, the authors aimed at developing a fully automatic nonlinear volume coregistration for longitudinal CCTA scan pairs. Methods: The algorithm combines global displacement and local deformation using nonlinear volume coregistration with a volume-preserving constraint. Histogram matching of intensities between two serial scans is performed prior to nonlinear coregistration with dense nonparametric local deformation in which sum of squared differences is used as a similarity measure. The approximate segmentation of coronary arteries obtained from commercially available software provides initial anatomical landmarks for the coregistration algorithm that help localize and emphasize the structure of interest. To avoid possible bias caused by incorrect segmentation, the authors convolve the Gaussian kernel with the segmented binary coronary tree mask and define an extended weighted region of interest. A multiresolution approach is employed to represent coarse-to-fine details of both volumes and the energy function is optimized using a gradient descent method. The authors applied the algorithm in ten paired CCTA datasets (20 scans in total) obtained within 10.7{+-}5.7 months from each other on a dual source CT scanner to monitor progression of CAD. Results: Serial CCTA coregistration was successful in 9/10 cases as visually confirmed. The global displacement and local deformation of target registration error obtained from four anatomical landmarks were 2.22{+-}1.15 and 1.56{+-}0.74 mm, respectively, and the inverse consistency error of local deformation was 0.14{+-}0.06 mm. The observer variability between two expert observers was 1.31{+-}0.91 mm. Conclusions: The proposed coregistration algorithm demonstrates potential to accurately register serial CCTA scans, which may allow direct comparison of calcified and noncalcified atherosclerotic plaque changes between the two scans.

  3. Caries-related plaque microcosm biofilms developed in microplates.

    PubMed

    Filoche, S K; Soma, K J; Sissons, C H

    2007-04-01

    In vivo dental plaque biofilms consist of complex communities of oral bacteria that are a challenge to replicate in vitro. The aim of this investigation was to establish human dental plaque microcosms in microplates to reflect conditions that are relevant to dental caries. Microcosm plaque biofilms were initiated from the saliva of two different donors, grown for up to 10 days in 24-welled microplates on Thermanox coverslips in various types of artificial saliva with and without sucrose, which were replaced daily. Microbiota composition of 40 species associated with oral health and dental caries was monitored in the plaques using Checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization analysis. pH was measured as an indicator of cariogenic potential. The composition of the saliva inocula was different, and yielded plaque microcosms with different composition and growth responses to sucrose. Artificial saliva type and presence of sucrose, and the resulting growth and pH conditions, modified the growth of individual species and hence the ecological profile of the microplate plaques during development. Complex population shifts were observed during development, and older plaques comprised predominantly facultative anaerobic species. Sucrose supplementation limited the decline of Streptococci over time but did not increase the abundance of mutans Streptococci. Sucrose at 0.15% increased levels of caries-associated species including Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Actinomyces gerensceriae; these were further increased with sucrose at 0.5%, in addition to Actinomyces israelii, Rothia dentocariosa and Capnocytophaga gingivalis. The microplate plaques demonstrated complex community dynamics that appeared to reflect the maturation of natural plaques, and sucrose induced a cariogenic plaque composition and pH. PMID:17311629

  4. Elastography can effectively decrease the number of fine-needle aspiration biopsies in patients with calcified thyroid nodules.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Hee; Luo, Si; Ko, Sun Hee; Jung, So-Lyung; Lim, Dong-Jun; Kim, Yongmin

    2014-10-01

    When calcification, frequently found in both benign and malignant nodules, is present in thyroid nodules, non-invasive differentiation with ultrasound becomes challenging. The goal of this study was to evaluate the utility of elastography in differentiating calcified thyroid nodules. Consecutive patients (165 patients with 196 nodules) referred for fine-needle aspiration who had undergone both ultrasound elastography and B-mode examinations were analyzed retrospectively. Calcification was present in 45 benign and 20 malignant nodules. On 65 calcified nodules, elastography had 95% sensitivity, 51.1% specificity, 46.3% positive predictive value and 95.8% negative predictive value in detecting malignancy. Twenty-three of 45 benign calcified nodules were correctly diagnosed with elastography compared with 4 of 45 by B-mode ultrasound. Although it is difficult to differentiate benign and malignant calcified thyroid nodules solely with B-mode ultrasound, elastography has the potential to reduce the number of fine-needle aspiration biopsies performed on calcified nodules. PMID:25023099

  5. Predominance of heavily calcified coccolithophores at low CaCO3 saturation during winter in the Bay of Biscay

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Helen E. K.; Tyrrell, Toby; Charalampopoulou, Anastasia; Dumousseaud, Cynthia; Legge, Oliver J.; Birchenough, Sarah; Pettit, Laura R.; Garley, Rebecca; Hartman, Sue E.; Hartman, Mark C.; Sagoo, Navjit; Daniels, Chris J.; Achterberg, Eric P.; Hydes, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Coccolithophores are an important component of the Earth system, and, as calcifiers, their possible susceptibility to ocean acidification is of major concern. Laboratory studies at enhanced pCO2 levels have produced divergent results without overall consensus. However, it has been predicted from these studies that, although calcification may not be depressed in all species, acidification will produce “a transition in dominance from more to less heavily calcified coccolithophores” [Ridgwell A, et al., (2009) Biogeosciences 6:2611–2623]. A recent observational study [Beaufort L, et al., (2011) Nature 476:80–83] also suggested that coccolithophores are less calcified in more acidic conditions. We present the results of a large observational study of coccolithophore morphology in the Bay of Biscay. Samples were collected once a month for over a year, along a 1,000-km-long transect. Our data clearly show that there is a pronounced seasonality in the morphotypes of Emiliania huxleyi, the most abundant coccolithophore species. Whereas pH and CaCO3 saturation are lowest in winter, the E. huxleyi population shifts from <10% (summer) to >90% (winter) of the heavily calcified form. However, it is unlikely that the shifts in carbonate chemistry alone caused the morphotype shift. Our finding that the most heavily calcified morphotype dominates when conditions are most acidic is contrary to the earlier predictions and raises further questions about the fate of coccolithophores in a high-CO2 world. PMID:22615387

  6. Effect of in situ plaque mineral supplementation on the state of saturation of plaque fluid during sugar-induced acidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Pearce, E I; Margolis, H C; Kent, R L

    1999-08-01

    Dental plaque fluid is normally supersaturated with respect to enamel mineral but this may change to a state of undersaturation when plaque pH falls following sugar exposure, placing the adjacent enamel at risk of caries. We have determined the saturation status of the fluid in both resting and fermenting plaque following mineral supplementation. Eleven subjects abstained from oral hygiene and rinsed their mouth 3 times/d for 3 d with a placebo solution or with test solutions designed to enrich plaque with hydroxyapatite or fluorhydroxyapatite. On the morning of day 4, plaque samples were collected before and after exposure to 10% sucrose. Compared to the placebo, use of the test rinses resulted in significantly higher concentrations of Ca, P and F in plaque residue. In plaque fluid, higher post-sucrose Ca2+ free concentrations and saturation levels with respect to enamel mineral and fluorapatite were found after use of the hydroxyapatite rinse compared to the placebo, effects that probably resulted from the release of cell-bound Ca2+ as well as from the dissolution of apatite. Thus, some evidence was obtained that the test mouthrinses can counteract the fall in saturation level found when plaque is exposed briefly to sucrose. Potential long-term benefits of the test mouthrinses deserve further study. PMID:10467940

  7. Focused Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy in Calcifying Tendinitis of the Shoulder

    PubMed Central

    Vavken, Patrick; Holinka, Johannes; Rompe, Jan Dirk; Dorotka, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study is to assess the effectiveness of extracorporeal shock wave therapy in the management of calcifying tendinitis of the shoulder. Furthermore, a dose-response relationship was sought as a secondary confirmation of effectiveness. Hypothesis: Focused extracorporeal shock wave therapy has a high, dose-responsive effectiveness in the management of calcifying tendinitis of the shoulder. Study Design: Meta-analysis. Methods: Studies were identified from online databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Controlled Trials Register), manual searches, and personal communication with experts in the field. After assessment of heterogeneity, a random effects model was generated. The primary end points were identified as pain and function by using the visual analog scale and the Constant-Murley Score, respectively. These end points were pooled and the weighted mean differences and 95% confidence intervals were estimated. Odds ratios of the secondary end point deposit resorption were pooled. Results: In 14 studies, shock wave therapy led to a significantly higher reduction of pain (weighted mean difference, ?2.8 points; 95% confidence interval, ?4.2 to ?1.5 points) and improvement of function (weighted mean difference, 19.8 points; 95% confidence interval, 13.4-26.3 points), compared to other treatments and placebo. High-energy treatment produced significantly better results than low-energy treatment for pain reduction (weighted mean difference, 1.7 points; 95% confidence interval, 0.7-2.6 points) and improvement of function (weighted mean difference, 10.7 points; 95% confidence interval, 7.2-14.1 points). These results are consistent with a dose-response relationship supporting the effectiveness of shock wave therapy. Conclusion: Shock wave therapy for calcifying tendinitis of the shoulder is effective in pain relief, function restoration, and deposit resorption; however, these conclusions are susceptible to bias arising from the limitations of the included studies. PMID:23015865

  8. The ultrastructure of the organic phase associated with the inorganic substance in calcified tissues.

    PubMed

    Bonucci, E; Silvestrini, G; Di Grezia, R

    1988-08-01

    An organic phase is closely associated with the mineral substance is all calcified matrices, where it can be demonstrated as crystal-bound proteins by biochemical methods and as crystal ghosts by electron microscopy. Interest in crystal ghosts derives chiefly from the observation that they have the same shape, arrangement, and orientation as inorganic crystallites, which suggests they may have a role in their formation. Histochemically, crystal ghosts of epiphyseal cartilage react with colloidal iron (pH 2.0), acidic phosphotungstic acid, ruthenium red, and a number of cations including calcium, barium, magnesium, lanthanum, strontium, and terbium chloride. Their reactivity is removed by methylation and only incompletely restored by saponification. Moreover, the crystal ghosts located at the periphery of the calcified areas contain vic-glycol groups, as shown by their reactivity with periodic acid-silver nitrate and periodic acid-thiosemicarbazide-osmium. All these reactions show that the crystal ghosts of epiphyseal cartilage contain acidic, probably sulfate groups and, at least initially, vic-glycol groups. Their reactivity decreases as the calcification process is completed. Although the available data are not sufficient to allow a full understanding of the nature and function of these structures, they seem to play an important role in calcification. The hypothesis is presented that crystal ghosts are preformed in calcifying matrices and are activated by the unmasking of the reactive groups in their polymeric molecule; the unmasked groups then link up with inorganic ions in such a way to form organic-inorganic structures the inorganic ions of which are arranged in an apatitelike configuration and the filamentlike shape of which is the same as that of the polymeric molecule. PMID:3042232

  9. A voltage-gated H+ channel underlying pH homeostasis in calcifying coccolithophores.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Alison R; Chrachri, Abdul; Wheeler, Glen; Goddard, Helen; Brownlee, Colin

    2011-06-01

    Marine coccolithophorid phytoplankton are major producers of biogenic calcite, playing a significant role in the global carbon cycle. Predicting the impacts of ocean acidification on coccolithophore calcification has received much recent attention and requires improved knowledge of cellular calcification mechanisms. Uniquely amongst calcifying organisms, coccolithophores produce calcified scales (coccoliths) in an intracellular compartment and secrete them to the cell surface, requiring large transcellular ionic fluxes to support calcification. In particular, intracellular calcite precipitation using HCO?? as the substrate generates equimolar quantities of H+ that must be rapidly removed to prevent cytoplasmic acidification. We have used electrophysiological approaches to identify a plasma membrane voltage-gated H+ conductance in Coccolithus pelagicus ssp braarudii with remarkably similar biophysical and functional properties to those found in metazoans. We show that both C. pelagicus and Emiliania huxleyi possess homologues of metazoan H(v)1 H+ channels, which function as voltage-gated H+ channels when expressed in heterologous systems. Homologues of the coccolithophore H+ channels were also identified in a diversity of eukaryotes, suggesting a wide range of cellular roles for the H(v)1 class of proteins. Using single cell imaging, we demonstrate that the coccolithophore H+ conductance mediates rapid H+ efflux and plays an important role in pH homeostasis in calcifying cells. The results demonstrate a novel cellular role for voltage gated H+ channels and provide mechanistic insight into biomineralisation by establishing a direct link between pH homeostasis and calcification. As the coccolithophore H+ conductance is dependent on the trans-membrane H+ electrochemical gradient, this mechanism will be directly impacted by, and may underlie adaptation to, ocean acidification. The presence of this H+ efflux pathway suggests that there is no obligate use of H+ derived from calcification for intracellular CO? generation. Furthermore, the presence of H(v)1 class ion channels in a wide range of extant eukaryote groups indicates they evolved in an early common ancestor. PMID:21713028

  10. Apollo 11 5th Annivesary Commemoration Plaque

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    On July 3, 1974 NASA commemorated the 5th anniversary of the Apollo 11, first lunar landing mission, at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Launch Pad 39, from which astronauts Neil Armstrong, Edwin Aldrin, and Michael Collins first embarked on their historic journey to the Moon, was dedicated as a national landmark. Apollo 11 was launched at 9:32 am on July 16, 1969 and made the first successful lunar landing July 20th. During the 45 minute ceremony, the three Apollo 11 astronauts unveiled this plaque which was placed at the launch site. Other participating dignitaries included Dr. James Fletcher and Dr. George H. Low, NASA Administrator and Deputy Administrator respectively; Florida Governor Rubin Askew; Senator frank E. Moss; Congressman Olin E. Teague, and Kurt Debus, KSC Director. Apollo 11 launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via a Saturn V launch which was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun.

  11. Subtle radiographic presentation of a pleural effusion secondary to a cancer of unknown primary: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Blanchette, Marc-André; Grenier, Julie-Marthe

    2014-01-01

    Carcinoma of unknown primary sites is a clinical syndrome that represents many types of cancer. The mortality rate associate to this type of cancer is elevated and a rapid medical referral is required for patients presenting this condition. Pleural effusion may be the only visible sign. We report a case of pleural effusion secondary to a cancer of unknown primary site in a 60-year-old man that sought chiropractic care for radiating low back pain. The radiographic studies revealed a pleural effusion as one of the only significant finding. This article will address the clinical presentation, radiographic studies and a discussion on the radiographic detection of pleural effusion. PMID:25202155

  12. Subtle radiographic presentation of a pleural effusion secondary to a cancer of unknown primary: a case study.

    PubMed

    Blanchette, Marc-André; Grenier, Julie-Marthe

    2014-09-01

    Carcinoma of unknown primary sites is a clinical syndrome that represents many types of cancer. The mortality rate associate to this type of cancer is elevated and a rapid medical referral is required for patients presenting this condition. Pleural effusion may be the only visible sign. We report a case of pleural effusion secondary to a cancer of unknown primary site in a 60-year-old man that sought chiropractic care for radiating low back pain. The radiographic studies revealed a pleural effusion as one of the only significant finding. This article will address the clinical presentation, radiographic studies and a discussion on the radiographic detection of pleural effusion. PMID:25202155

  13. Hydrogen sulfide production from subgingival plaque samples.

    PubMed

    Basic, A; Dahlén, G

    2014-09-30

    Periodontitis is a polymicrobial anaerobe infection. Little is known about the dysbiotic microbiota and the role of bacterial metabolites in the disease process. It is suggested that the production of certain waste products in the proteolytic metabolism may work as markers for disease severity. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a gas produced by degradation of proteins in the subgingival pocket. It is highly toxic and believed to have pro-inflammatory properties. We aimed to study H2S production from subgingival plaque samples in relation to disease severity in subjects with natural development of the disease, using a colorimetric method based on bismuth precipitation. In remote areas of northern Thailand, adults with poor oral hygiene habits and a natural development of periodontal disease were examined for their oral health status. H2S production was measured with the bismuth method and subgingival plaque samples were analyzed for the presence of 20 bacterial species with the checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization technique. In total, 43 subjects were examined (age 40-60 years, mean PI 95 ± 6.6%). Fifty-six percent had moderate periodontal breakdown (CAL > 3 < 7 mm) and 35% had severe periodontal breakdown (CAL > 7 mm) on at least one site. Parvimonas micra, Filifactor alocis, Porphyromonas endodontalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum were frequently detected. H2S production could not be correlated to periodontal disease severity (PPD or CAL at sampled sites) or to a specific bacterial composition. Site 21 had statistically lower production of H2S (p = 0.02) compared to 16 and 46. Betel nut chewers had statistically significant lower H2S production (p = 0.01) than non-chewers. Rapid detection and estimation of subgingival H2S production capacity was easily and reliably tested by the colorimetric bismuth sulfide precipitation method. H2S may be a valuable clinical marker for degradation of proteins in the subgingival pocket. PMID:25280920

  14. Large Bilateral Adrenal Leiomyomas Presenting as Calcified Adrenal Masses: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Nanjappa, Bhuvanesh; Agrawal, Pallavi; Pushkarna, Arawat

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a 55-year-old woman with bilateral, large, calcified adrenal tumors who was treated by laparoscopic adrenalectomy. The patient presented with upper abdominal discomfort for the past 5 years. Her imaging showed bilateral enlarged adrenal glands up to 10-cm size with punctate calcifications. Positron emission tomography scan demonstrated moderate fluorodeoxyglucose avidity in the left adrenal mass. Bilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy was performed through a transperitoneal approach. The postoperative period was uneventful, and the patient was discharged on the third postoperative day. Histology findings were consistent with adrenal leiomyomatosis. PMID:24868343

  15. The fine structure of calcified Mandl's corpuscles in teleost fish scales.

    PubMed

    Schönbörner, A A; Meunier, F J; Castanet, J

    1981-01-01

    Calcified Mandl's corpuscles present in the internal layer (or fibrillary plate) of the teleost fish scale were studied by transmission and scanning electron microscopy for a better understanding of this special type of mineralization process. The corpuscles show a great variability in their structure, form and surface features depending on the arrangement of the collagen fibrils in the internal layer of the different fish species studied, on the localization of the corpuscles in the scale and on the technical treatment to which the scale is subjected. PMID:6172882

  16. Relationship between Watershed Infarcts and Recent Intra Plaque Haemorrhage in Carotid Atherosclerotic Plaque

    PubMed Central

    Isabel, Clothilde; Lecler, Augustin; Turc, Guillaume; Naggara, Olivier; Schmitt, Emmanuelle; Belkacem, Samia; Oppenheim, Catherine; Touzé, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Objective Watershed infarcts (WSI) are thought to result from hemodynamic mechanism, but studies have suggested that microemboli from unstable carotid plaques may distribute preferentially in watershed areas, i.e., between two cerebral arterial territories. Intraplaque haemorrhage (IPH) is an emerging marker of plaque instability and microembolic activity. We assessed the association between WSI and IPH in patients with recently symptomatic moderate carotid stenosis. Methods and Results We selected 65 patients with symptomatic moderate (median NASCET degree of stenosis?=?31%) carotid stenosis and brain infarct on Diffusion-Weighted Imaging (DWI) on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) from a multicentre prospective study. Fourteen (22%) had WSI (cortical, n?=?8; internal, n?=?4; cortical and internal, n?=?2). Patients with WSI were more likely to have IPH than those without WSI although the difference was not significant (50% vs. 31%, OR?=?2.19; 95% CI, 0.66–7.29; P?=?0.20). After adjustment for degree of stenosis, age and gender, the results remained unchanged. Conclusion About one in fifth of brain infarcts occurring in patients with moderate carotid stenosis were distributed in watershed areas. Albeit not significant, an association between IPH - more generally plaque component - and WSI, still remains possible. PMID:25272160

  17. [A case of primary pleural angiosarcoma metastasing to the bladder].

    PubMed

    Otsubo, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shingo; Kamiryo, Yoriyuki; Okumur, Koji; Shimokama, Tatsuro; Kinjo, Mitsuru

    2011-09-01

    The patient was a 79-year-old man who underwent right extrapleural lucite ball plombage for pulmonary tuberculosis at aged 19. He was followed BPH with medication from May 2008 at our hospital. He presented with macrohematuria in January 2010, but cystoscopy and CT scan showed no significant abnormalities. He was admitted to complaining of general fatigue and anemia in February 2010. TURBT was performed 10 days after admission, and showed the bleeding sites with oozing in mucosa at the bilateral and posterior wall of the bladder. Neither CT nor cytological examinations were helpful in diagnosing this disease, although histological observation implied a possibility of malignant vasoformative tumor. He died one month after admission. Autopsy revealed a huge bloody mass at the right upper thoracic wall and same metastatic tumors of both adrenals, the bone, the stomach and the urinary bladder. Microscopic examination revealed that atypical cells had proliferated and formed vascular structures, which were stained positively with CD31, and vimentin. Finally, the diagnosis was made of pleural angiosarcoma and multiple metastasis. Metastatic angiosarcoma of the bladder is very rare and difficult to make definite diagnosis, however we have to keep in mind the presence of this disease. PMID:22191277

  18. Intercellular communication in malignant pleural mesothelioma: properties of tunneling nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Ady, Justin W.; Desir, Snider; Thayanithy, Venugopal; Vogel, Rachel I.; Moreira, André L.; Downey, Robert J.; Fong, Yuman; Manova-Todorova, Katia; Moore, Malcolm A. S.; Lou, Emil

    2014-01-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma is a particularly aggressive and locally invasive malignancy with a poor prognosis despite advances in understanding of cancer cell biology and development of new therapies. At the cellular level, cultured mesothelioma cells present a mesenchymal appearance and a strong capacity for local cellular invasion. One important but underexplored area of mesothelioma cell biology is intercellular communication. Our group has previously characterized in multiple histological subtypes of mesothelioma a unique cellular protrusion known as tunneling nanotubes (TnTs). TnTs are long, actin filament-based, narrow cytoplasmic extensions that are non-adherent when cultured in vitro and are capable of shuttling cellular cargo between connected cells. Our prior work confirmed the presence of nanotube structures in tumors resected from patients with human mesothelioma. In our current study, we quantified the number of TnTs/cell among various mesothelioma subtypes and normal mesothelial cells using confocal microscopic techniques. We also examined changes in TnT length over time in comparison to cell proliferation. We further examined potential approaches to the in vivo study of TnTs in animal models of cancer. We have developed novel approaches to study TnTs in aggressive solid tumor malignancies and define fundamental characteristics of TnTs in malignant mesothelioma. There is mounting evidence that TnTs play an important role in intercellular communication in mesothelioma and thus merit further investigation of their role in vivo. PMID:25400582

  19. Protumorigenic effects of mir-145 loss in malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Cioce, M; Ganci, F; Canu, V; Sacconi, A; Mori, F; Canino, C; Korita, E; Casini, B; Alessandrini, G; Cambria, A; Carosi, M A; Blandino, R; Panebianco, V; Facciolo, F; Visca, P; Volinia, S; Muti, P; Strano, S; Croce, C M; Pass, H I; Blandino, G

    2014-11-13

    We identified a discrete number of microRNAs differentially expressed in benign or malignant mesothelial tissues. We focused on mir-145 whose levels were significantly downregulated in malignant mesothelial tissues and malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) cell lines as compared to benign tissues (pleura, peritoneum or cysts). We show that promoter hyper-methylation caused very low levels in MPM cell lines and specimens. Treatment of MPM cell lines with mir-145 agonists negatively modulated some protumorigenic properties of MPM cells, such as clonogenicity, cell migration and resistance to pemetrexed treatment. The main effector mechanism of the clonogenic death induced by mir-145 was that of accelerated senescence. We found that mir-145 targeted OCT4 via specific binding to its 3'-UTR. Increased intracellular levels of mir-145 decreased the levels of OCT4 and its target gene ZEB1, thereby counteracting the increase of OCT4 induced by pemetrexed treatment which is known to favor the development of chemoresistant cells. In line with this, reintroduction of OCT4 into mimic-145 treated cells counteracted the effects on clonogenicity and replicative senescence. This further supports the relevance of the mir-145-OCT4 interaction for the survival of MPM cells. The potential use of mir-145 expression levels to classify benign vs malignant mesothelial tissues and the differences between pemetrexed-induced senescence and that induced by the re-expression of mir-145 are discussed. PMID:24240684

  20. [Malignant pleural mesothelioma: new aspects of medical therapy].

    PubMed

    Kurz, S; Grohé, C

    2014-05-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma, a typical long-term consequence of exposure to asbestos, represents a therapeutic challenge. In the early stages of the disease, trimodal therapy combining surgery, radiation and chemotherapy is used as standard care. In advanced stages, the combination of cisplatin and pemetrexed has been approved as first-line therapy, but there is a lack of randomised controlled drug trials for second-line treatment. Monotherapy with pemetrexed, vinorelbine or gemcitabine may provide some survival benefit compared to treatment aiming at symptom control only. Immunotherapy seems to be a promising new concept. The so-called frustrated phagocytosis, with continuing antigen presentation leading to persisting local inflammation and antigen tolerance, can be interrupted by blocking the T-cell surface protein CTLA-4. The monoclonal antibodies ipilimumab and tremelimumab that block CTLA-4 can stimulate immune response and thus increase the number of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. Clinical studies exploring this avenue of treatment are being awaited with great excitement. PMID:24615668

  1. Monte Carlo simulation of light fluence calculation during pleural PDT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meo, Julia L.; Zhu, Timothy

    2013-03-01

    A thorough understanding of light distribution in the desired tissue is necessary for accurate light dosimetry in PDT. Solving the problem of light dose depends, in part, on the geometry of the tissue to be treated. When considering PDT in the thoracic cavity for treatment of malignant, localized tumors such as those observed in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), changes in light dose caused by the cavity geometry should be accounted for in order to improve treatment efficacy. Cavity-like geometries demonstrate what is known as the "integrating sphere effect" where multiple light scattering off the cavity walls induces an overall increase in light dose in the cavity. We present a Monte Carlo simulation of light fluence based on a spherical and an elliptical cavity geometry with various dimensions. The tissue optical properties as well as the non-scattering medium (air and water) varies. We have also introduced small absorption inside the cavity to simulate the effect of blood absorption. We expand the MC simulation to track photons both within the cavity and in the surrounding cavity walls. Simulations are run for a variety of cavity optical properties determined using spectroscopic methods. We concluded from the MC simulation that the light fluence inside the cavity is inversely proportional to the surface area.

  2. Higher hospital caseload is associated with better treatment outcomes of patients with pleural infection.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hsiu-Nien; Lu, Chin-Li; Li, Chung-Yi

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between hospital caseload or volume and the outcome of various surgical procedures has been well documented. However, such hospital caseload-outcome relationship (HCOR) has been seldom addressed in rare medical conditions, such as pleural infection, which is usually associated with pneumonia and may progress to systemic inflammation and severe sepsis. Pleural infection can be treated with medical or surgical pleural space drainage, but the treatment is still unstandardized. This population-based study, using Taiwan's medical claim data, investigated the HCOR in patients with pleural infection. A total of 24,876 patients with pleural infection (median age of 65 years; men, 76.6%) were identified between 1997 and 2008. Hospital caseload was calculated with the average number of cases per hospital annually. The primary outcome is hospital mortality, and the secondary outcomes include hospital length of stay and charges. The risk of mortality among patients treated in hospitals with the highest caseload quartile (? 14 cases per hospital annually) is less than those treated in hospitals with the lowest caseload (1 case per hospital annually) by 27% (adjusted odds ratio = 0.73, 95% confidence interval = 0.55 to 0.96). Such beneficial effect disappeared after adjustment for therapeutic procedures. Hospital caseload explained only a small portion of variation in hospital mortality (-2 log likelihood % = 0.26%). These findings suggest that higher hospital caseload is associated with better outcomes of patients with pleural infection. The difference in therapeutic procedures for pleural infection contributes to the observed effect of hospital caseload on hospital mortality. PMID:24717777

  3. The treatment of chronic pleural empyema with laparoscopic omentoplasty. Initial report

    PubMed Central

    Makarewicz, Wojciech; Bobowicz, Maciej; Sawicka, Wioletta; Rzyman, Witold

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Pleural empyema is the most serious, life-threatening postoperative complication of pneumonectomy, observed after 1–12% of all pneumonectomies, with bronchopleural fistula being its main cause. Aim The aim of this publication is to present early outcomes of minimally invasive surgical management of pleural empyema. Patients were subjected to a single, complex procedure, consisting of the laparoscopic mobilization of the greater omentum and its transposition via the diaphragm into the pleural cavity to fill in the empyema cavity with the consecutive pleuro-cutaneous fistuloplasty (thoracoplasty). Material and methods Between May 2011 and April 2013, 8 patients were qualified to undergo the procedure. The mean age was 61 years (range: 46–77 years). Presence of bronchopleural fistula was confirmed in 3 cases. The median time of treatment with thoracostomy was 14.5 months. Results The mean operative time was 125 min. The mean duration of post-operative hospital stay was 13.5 days (range: 7–31 days). In 6 patients (75%) the objective of permanent resolution of pleural empyema was achieved. In total, 4 patients had complications: pleural empyema recurrence (2 patients), splenic injury, hiatal hernia, gastrointestinal bleed. Two patients with empyema recurrence had Staphylococcus aureus infections prior to surgery. They were successfully managed both with prolonged thoracic drainage and antibiotics. Conclusions Use of the greater omentum that was laparoscopically mobilized and transpositioned into the pleural cavity allows simultaneous management of the pleural empyema cavity and thoracostomy. The procedure is safe, with few direct complications. It is well tolerated and has at least a satisfactory cosmetic effect. The minimally invasive approach allows faster recovery and return to daily activities in comparison to the fully open technique. PMID:25561992

  4. The effect of hypodynamia on mineral and protein metabolism in calcified tissues of the maxillodental system (experimental radioisotope study)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prokhonchukov, A. A.; Kovalenko, Y. A.; Kolesnik, A. G.; Kondratyev, Y. I.; Ilyushko, N. A.

    1980-01-01

    Mineral and protein metabolism was studied in experiments on 60 white rats, using P-32 and Ca-45 uptake in the mineral fractions, 2C-14-glycine in the protein fractions, and P-32 in both fractions of calcified tissues as indices over a 100 day period of experimental hypodynamia. Combined alterations in mineral and protein metabolism occurred in the calcified tissues of the experimental animals. The most pronounced changes were found in P-32 and 2C-14-glycine metabolism. In the incisors and femoral bones, these alterations occurred in two phases: P-32 and 2C-14-glycine uptake first increased, then decreased. Changes in Ca-45 metabolism were less pronounced, particularly in the initial period of the experiment. A marked reduction in P-32, Ca-45, and 2C-14-glycine uptake was found in various fractions of the calcified tissues on the 100th day of experimental hypodynamia.

  5. Human oral, gut, and plaque microbiota in patients with atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Koren, Omry; Spor, Aymé; Felin, Jenny; Fĺk, Frida; Stombaugh, Jesse; Tremaroli, Valentina; Behre, Carl Johan; Knight, Rob; Fagerberg, Björn; Ley, Ruth E.; Bäckhed, Fredrik

    2011-01-01

    Periodontal disease has been associated with atherosclerosis, suggesting that bacteria from the oral cavity may contribute to the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, the gut microbiota may affect obesity, which is associated with atherosclerosis. Using qPCR, we show that bacterial DNA was present in the atherosclerotic plaque and that the amount of DNA correlated with the amount of leukocytes in the atherosclerotic plaque. To investigate the microbial composition of atherosclerotic plaques and test the hypothesis that the oral or gut microbiota may contribute to atherosclerosis in humans, we used 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes to survey the bacterial diversity of atherosclerotic plaque, oral, and gut samples of 15 patients with atherosclerosis, and oral and gut samples of healthy controls. We identified Chryseomonas in all atherosclerotic plaque samples, and Veillonella and Streptococcus in the majority. Interestingly, the combined abundances of Veillonella and Streptococcus in atherosclerotic plaques correlated with their abundance in the oral cavity. Moreover, several additional bacterial phylotypes were common to the atherosclerotic plaque and oral or gut samples within the same individual. Interestingly, several bacterial taxa in the oral cavity and the gut correlated with plasma cholesterol levels. Taken together, our findings suggest that bacteria from the oral cavity, and perhaps even the gut, may correlate with disease markers of atherosclerosis. PMID:20937873

  6. Palladium-103 versus iodine-125 for ophthalmic plaque radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, P.T. (Cornell Univ. Medical College, New York, NY (United States) New York Eye and Ear Infirmary, New York, NY (United States)); Lu, D.; Buffa, A.; DeBlasio, D.S.; Bosworth, J.L. (Cornell Univ. Medical College, New York, NY (United States))

    1993-11-15

    A dosimetry study compared the use of I-125 vs. Pd-103 radioactive seeds for ophthalmic plaque brachytherapy. Pd-103 seeds in ophthalmic plaques were used to treat 15 patients with intraocular malignant melanoma. Computer-aided simulations were performed to evaluate the intraocular dose distribution of I-125 versus Pd-103 ophthalmic plaques (delivering equivalent apex doses). Seven target points were selected. Starting at the outer scleral surface, four were located along the central axis of the plaque: the 1 mm point (the inner sclera), the 6 mm point, the tumors apex, and the opposite eye wall. They also evaluated the fovea, optic nerve, and the lens because they were considered to be critical structures. These studies demonstrated that the lower energy photons generated by Pd-103 seeds (average 21 KeV) in ophthalmic plaques were more rapidly absorbed in tissue than photons generated by I-125 (average 28 KeV). Therefore, during ophthalmic plaque radiotherapy, Pd-103 photons were found to be more rapidly absorbed within the tumor and less likely to reach most normal ocular structures. On average, the use of Pd-103 decreased the dose to the fovea by 5.7%, to the optic nerve by 8.4%, to the lens by 26%, and to the opposite eye wall by 38.4%. Pd-103 ophthalmic plaque brachytherapy resulted in slightly more irradiation of the tumor and less radiation to most normal ocular structures. 36 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  7. Dural lucent line: characteristic sign of hyperostosing meningioma en plaque

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.S.; Rogers, L.F.; Lee, C.

    1983-12-01

    Hyperostosis of the skull associated with en plaque form of meningioma may present a diagnostic challenge, since the intracranial part of the tumor is not visualized by skull radiography, computed tomography (CT), or other neuroradiologic methods. The authors report four cases of hyperostosing meningioma en plaque demonstrating a characteristic feature: a subdural layer of ossification along the hyperostotic bone with a dural lucent interface. Polytomography or high-resolution CT at bone window settings is necessary to identify the dural lucent line. The absence of this sign does not exclude meningioma en plaque.

  8. Surgical management of a mobile floating carotid plaque.

    PubMed

    Moncayo, Karla Elizabeth; Vidal, Juan Jose; García, Raúl; Pereira, David

    2015-03-01

    A mobile floating carotid plaque (MFCP) is an infrequent pathological lesion with an unknown natural history caused by thinning and rupture of the fibrous cap of the atheromatous plaque; it may result in repeated ischaemic strokes. Duplex carotid ultrasound is a non-invasive technique useful in defining the plaque morphology with high sensitivity and specificity. Due to the lack of evidence, treatment remains controversial. We present a patient with an asymptomatic MFCP diagnosed by ultrasound and treated with carotid endarterectomy without neurological complications due to the procedure and without restenosis nor residual flaps during the follow-up. PMID:25476457

  9. Replica of Plaque Left on Moon by Apollo 17 Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    This image is a photographic replica of the plaque that the Apollo 17 astronauts left on the Moon at the Taurus-Littrow landing site. Apollo 17 was the final lunar landing mission in NASA's Apollo program. The commemorative plaque was unveiled at the close of the third extravehicular activity (EVA-3). The plaque was made of stainless steel measuring nine by seven and five-eighths inches, and one-sixteenth inch thick. It was attached to the ladder on the landing gear strut on the descent stage of Apollo 17 Lunar Module 'Challenger.'

  10. Complement activation in amyloid plaques in Alzheimer’s dementia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Eikelenboom; C. E. Hack; J. M. Rozemuller; F. C. Stam

    1988-01-01

    Summary  Amyloid plaques in Alzheimer’s dementia contain complement factors C1q, C4 and C3. In the present study we demonstrate complement\\u000a activation in amyloid plaques using immunoenzymatical techniques and specific antibodies against subunits of individual complement\\u000a components and activated complement products. Amyloid plaques contain C1q and activated C3 fragments (C3c and C3d, g) but\\u000a no C1s and C3a. These findings demonstrate that

  11. Non-pulsed electrochemical impregnation of flexible metallic battery plaques

    DOEpatents

    Maskalick, Nicholas J. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1982-01-01

    A method of loading active battery material into porous, flexible, metallic battery plaques, comprises the following steps: precipitating nickel hydroxide active material within the plaque, by making the plaque cathodic, at a high current density, in an electro-precipitation cell also containing a consumable nickel anode and a solution comprising nickel nitrate, having a pH of between 2.0 and 2.8; electrochemically oxidizing the precipitate in caustic formation solution; and repeating the electro-precipitation step at a low current density.

  12. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension from calcified thoracic disc protrusions causing CSF leak successfully treated with targeted epidural blood patch.

    PubMed

    Allmendinger, Andrew M; Lee, Thomas C

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous spinal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks are increasingly recognized in patients presenting with orthostatic headache and ultimately diagnosed with intracranial hypotension. While the precise cause of these spontaneous leaks is unknown, it is thought to result from underlying weakness in the spinal meninges and may be associated with meningeal diverticula or Tarlov cysts. Rarely, calcified intervertebral discs or bony osteophytes can result in CSF leakage, which has been described in the surgery literature but not well recognized in the radiology literature. The authors present three cases of patients presenting with CSF leaks from calcified thoracic disc protrusions that were successfully treated with epidural blood patches. PMID:23395554

  13. Clinical implications of calcifying nanoparticles in dental diseases: a critical review

    PubMed Central

    Alenazy, Mohammed S; Mosadomi, Hezekiah A

    2014-01-01

    Background Unknown cell-culture contaminants were described by Kajander and Ciftçio?lu in 1998. These contaminants were called nanobacteria initially and later calcifying nanoparticles (CNPs). Their exact nature is unclear and controversial. CNPs have unique and unusual characteristics, which preclude placing them into any established evolutionary branch of life. Aim The aim of this systematic review was to assess published data concerning CNPs since 1998 in general and in relation to dental diseases in particular. Materials and methods The National Library of Medicine (PubMed) and Society of Photographic Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) electronic and manual searches were conducted. Nanobacteria and calcifying nanoparticles were used as keywords. The search yielded 135 full-length papers. Further screening of the titles and abstracts that followed the review criteria resulted in 43 papers that met the study aim. Conclusion The review showed that the existence of nanobacteria is still controversial. Some investigators have described a possible involvement of CNPs in pulpal and salivary gland calcifications, as well as the possible therapeutic use of CNPs in the treatment of cracked and/or eroded teeth. PMID:24376354

  14. Unshelled abalone and corrupted urchins: development of marine calcifiers in a changing ocean

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Maria; Ho, Melanie; Wong, Eunice; Soars, Natalie A.; Selvakumaraswamy, Paulina; Shepard-Brennand, Hannah; Dworjanyn, Symon A.; Davis, Andrew R.

    2011-01-01

    The most fragile skeletons produced by benthic marine calcifiers are those that larvae and juveniles make to support their bodies. Ocean warming, acidification, decreased carbonate saturation and their interactive effects are likely to impair skeletogenesis. Failure to produce skeleton in a changing ocean has negative implications for a diversity of marine species. We examined the interactive effects of warming and acidification on an abalone (Haliotis coccoradiata) and a sea urchin (Heliocidaris erythrogramma) reared from fertilization in temperature and pH/pCO2 treatments in a climatically and regionally relevant setting. Exposure of ectodermal (abalone) and mesodermal (echinoid) calcifying systems to warming (+2°C to 4°C) and acidification (pH 7.6–7.8) resulted in unshelled larvae and abnormal juveniles. Haliotis development was most sensitive with no interaction between stressors. For Heliocidaris, the percentage of normal juveniles decreased in response to both stressors, although a +2°C warming diminished the negative effect of low pH. The number of spines produced decreased with increasing acidification/pCO2, and the interactive effect between stressors indicated that a +2°C warming reduced the negative effects of low pH. At +4°C, the developmental thermal tolerance was breached. Our results show that projected near-future climate change will have deleterious effects on development with differences in vulnerability in the two species. PMID:21177689

  15. Quantitative laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis of calcified tissue samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samek, O.; Beddows, D. C. S.; Telle, H. H.; Kaiser, J.; Liška, M.; Cáceres, J. O.; Gonzáles Ureńa, A.

    2001-06-01

    We report on the application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to the analysis of important minerals and the accumulation of potentially toxic elements in calcified tissue, to trace e.g. the influence of environmental exposure, and other medical or biological factors. This theme was exemplified for quantitative detection and mapping of Al, Pb and Sr in representative samples, including teeth (first teeth of infants, second teeth of children and teeth of adults) and bones (tibia and femur). In addition to identifying and quantifying major and trace elements in the tissues, one- and two-dimensional profiles and maps were generated. Such maps (a) provide time/concentration relations, (b) allow to follow mineralisation of the hydroxyapatite matrix and the migration of the elements within it and (c) enable to identify disease states, such as caries in teeth. In order to obtain quantitative calibration, reference samples in the form of pressed pellets with calcified tissue-equivalent material (majority compound of pellets is CaCO 3) were used whose physical properties closely resembled hydroxyapatite. Compounds of Al, Sr and Pb were added to the pellets, containing atomic concentrations in the range 100-10 000 ppm relative to the Ca content of the matrix. Analytical results based on this calibration against artificial samples for the trace elements under investigation agree with literature values, and with our atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) cross-validation measurements.

  16. Serum and Pleural Fluid Procalcitonin in Predicting Bacterial Infection in Patients with Parapneumonic Effusion

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Yang-Ching; Hsu, Chi-Sen; Dai, Mong-Ping; Ou, Chien-Chih; Kao, Chih-Hsiung

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the value of procalcitonin (PCT) levels in pleural effusion to differentiate the etiology of parapneumonic effusion (PPE). Forty-one consecutive PPE patients were enrolled and were divided into bacterial and non-bacterial PPE. Blood and pleural effusion samples were collected for PCT measurement on admission and analyzed for diagnostic evaluation. PCT of pleural fluid was significantly increased in the bacterial PPE group (0.24 ng/mL) compared to the non-bacterial PPE group (0.09 ng/mL), but there was no significant difference for serum PCT. A PCT concentration of pleural fluid >0.174 ng/mL (best cut-off value) was considered positive for a diagnosis of bacterial PPE (sensitivity, 80%; specificity, 76%; AUC, 0.84). Pleural effusion PCT in the bacterial PPE is significantly different from those of the non-bacterial PPE and control groups, so the diagnostic use of PCT still warrants further investigation. PMID:19543500

  17. FISH analysis of intrapulmonary malignant mesothelioma without a clinically detectable primary pleural lesion: an autopsy case.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Mizue; Sakai, Fumikazu; Sato, Akitoshi; Tsubomizu, Sayuri; Arimura, Ken; Katsura, Hideki; Koh, Eitetsu; Sekine, Yasuo; Wu, Di; Hiroshima, Kenzo

    2014-12-01

    Patients with malignant mesothelioma typically present with a pleural effusion or pleural thickening and masses. A rare autopsy case of mesothelioma presenting with multiple bilateral lung nodules without clinically detectable pleural lesions is presented. A definitive diagnosis of the video-assisted thoracic surgery specimen could not be made, though a pattern of fibrosis mimicking organizing pneumonia was identified. Despite corticosteroid therapy, follow-up chest computed tomography showed enlargement of multiple nodules accompanied by the appearance of pleural thickening and effusions. The patient died of respiratory failure 11 months after initial presentation. Autopsy and retrospective analysis of the video-assisted thoracic surgery specimen using a p16 fluorescence in situ hybridization assay showed p16 homozygous deletion. The final diagnosis was sarcomatoid mesothelioma, and the lung nodules were intrapulmonary metastases from a clinically undetectable pleural sarcomatoid mesothelioma. It is important both to consider the possibility of mesothelioma with unusual clinical, radiological and pathological presentations and to remember that p16 fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis can play an important role in the diagnosis of mesothelioma. PMID:25425731

  18. Combined detections of interleukin-33 and adenosine deaminase for diagnosis of tuberculous pleural effusion

    PubMed Central

    Li, Diandian; Shen, Yongchun; Fu, Xiaomin; Li, Min; Wang, Tao; Wen, Fuqiang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the diagnostic accuracy of the combination of interleukin-33 (IL-33) and adenosine deaminase (ADA) for differentiating TPE from pleural effusions with the other etiologies. Methods: Pleural effusion samples were collected from 32 TPE patients and 55 non-TPE patients. Pleural levels of IL-33 and ADA were measured by ELISA. The corresponding biochemical indexes were also simultaneously determined. Results: The pleural levels of IL-33 and ADA in the TPE group were significantly higher than those in the non-TPE group. With a cut-off value of 68.3 pg/ml, the sensitivity and specificity for IL-33 were 83.9% and 70.9%, respectively. While for ADA, the sensitivity and specificity were 87.5% and 87.3%, respectively at a cut-off value of 10.25 U/L. Combined use of IL-33 and ADA measurements further increased the sensitivity or specificity. Conclusion: Our study suggests that the applications of new biomarker IL-33, along with ADA, may serve as efficient diagnosis strategies in the management of pleural TB. Further studies at a large scale should be performed to validate our findings. PMID:25755791

  19. BMVC test, an improved fluorescence assay for detection of malignant pleural effusions.

    PubMed

    Lin, I-Ting; Tsai, Yu-Lin; Kang, Chi-Chih; Huang, Wei-Chun; Wang, Chiung-Lin; Lin, Mei-Ying; Lou, Pei-Jen; Shih, Jin-Yuan; Wang, Hao-Chien; Wu, Huey-Dong; Tsai, Tzu-Hsiu; Jan, I-Shiow; Chang, Ta-Chau

    2014-02-01

    The diagnosis of malignant pleural effusions is an important issue in the management of malignancy patients. Generally, cytologic examination is a routine diagnostic technique. However, morphological interpretation of cytology is sometimes inconclusive. Here an ancillary method named BMVC test is developed for rapid detection of malignant pleural effusion to improve the diagnostic accuracy at low cost. A simple assay kit is designed to collect living cells from clinical pleural effusion and a fluorescence probe, 3,6-Bis(1-methyl-4-vinylpyridinium) carbazole diiodide (BMVC), is used to illuminate malignant cells. The fluorescence intensity is quantitatively analyzed by ImageJ program. This method yields digital numbers for the test results without any grey zone or ambiguities in the current cytology tests due to intra-observer and inter-observer variability. Comparing with results from double-blind cytologic examination, this simple test gives a good discrimination between malignant and benign specimens with sensitivity of 89.4% (42/47) and specificity of 93.3% (56/60) for diagnosis of malignant pleural effusion. BMVC test provides accurate results in a short time period, and the digital output could assist cytologic examination to become more objective and clear-cut. This is a convenient ancillary tool for detection of malignant pleural effusions. PMID:24408009

  20. Proton Therapy for Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma After Extrapleural Pleuropneumonectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Krayenbuehl, Jerome [Department of Radiation Oncology, Zurich University Hospital, Zurich (Switzerland); Hartmann, Matthias; Lomax, Anthony J. [Center for Proton Radiation Therapy, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland)

    2010-10-01

    Purpose: To perform comparative planning for intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and proton therapy (PT) for malignant pleural mesothelioma after radical surgery. Methods and Materials: Eight patients treated with IMRT after extrapleural pleuropneumonectomy (EPP) were replanned for PT, comparing dose homogeneity, target volume coverage, and mean and maximal dose to organs at risk. Feasibility of PT was evaluated regarding the dose distribution with respect to air cavities after EPP. Results: Dose coverage and dose homogeneity of the planning target volume (PTV) were significantly better for PT than for IMRT regarding the volume covered by >95% (V95) for the high-dose PTV. The mean dose to the contralateral kidney, ipsilateral kidney, contralateral lung, liver, and heart and spinal cord dose were significantly reduced with PT compared with IMRT. After EPP, air cavities were common (range, 0-850 cm{sup 3}), decreasing from 0 to 18.5 cm{sup 3}/day. In 2 patients, air cavity changes during RT decreased the generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) in the case of using an a value of < - 10 to the PTV2 to <2 Gy in the presence of changing cavities for PT, and to 40 Gy for IMRT. Small changes were observed for gEUD of PTV1 because PTV1 was reached by the beams before air. Conclusion: Both PT and IMRT achieved good target coverage and dose homogeneity. Proton therapy accomplished additional dose sparing of most organs at risk compared with IMRT. Proton therapy dose distributions were more susceptible to changing air cavities, emphasizing the need for adaptive RT and replanning.

  1. Ultrasonographic and histologic characteristics of symptom-free and symptomatic carotid plaque

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. G. Kardoulas; A. N. Katsamouris; P. Th. Gallis; Th. Ph. Philippides; N. K. Anagnostakos; D. S. Gorgoyannis; N. C. Gourtsoyannis

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the reliability of ultrasonography in assessing plaque pathology and to relate it to clinical symptoms. Ten symptom-free patients and 26 with symptomatic carotid plaques with a stenosis >70%, as detected by arteriography, were assessed by duplex. The findings were compared with the clinical presentation and plaque pathology. Pathological specimens of the plaque

  2. Advances in mechanisms, imaging and management of the unstable plaque.

    PubMed

    Niccoli, Giampaolo; Liuzzo, Giovanna; Montone, Rocco A; Crea, Filippo

    2014-04-01

    Post-mortem observations demonstrated that plaque fissure was the final event leading to coronary thrombosis and occlusion in about two-thirds of cases of sudden coronary death. Plaques prone to fissure have, therefore, been defined "vulnerable plaques" and are identified by specific anatomic features including thin inflamed fibrous cap, large lipidic core and positive remodeling. Accordingly, elegant imaging modalities have been developed in order to identify this "holy grail". However, the results of prognostic studies based on the identification of vulnerable plaques have not been encouraging because of the low positive predictive value for major cardiovascular events. This observation is not surprising as the pathogenesis of acute coronary syndromes is complex and multifactorial. In this review we propose a pathogenetic classification of acute coronary syndromes in the attempt to identify homogeneous groups of patients with a common mechanism of coronary instability which can be identified by using specific biomarkers and imaging techniques, and become a specific therapeutic target. PMID:24530781

  3. A helical microwave antenna for welding plaque during balloon angioplasty

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, P.; Rappaport, C.M. [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States). Electrical and Computer Engineering Dept.

    1996-10-01

    A catheter-based microwave helix antenna has been developed in an attempt to improve the long-term success of balloon angioplasty treatment of arteriosclerosis. When the balloon is inflated to widen vessels obstructed with plaque, microwave power is deposited in the plaque, heating it, and thereby fixing it in place. By optimizing the helix pitch angle and excitation frequency, the antenna radiation pattern can be adjusted to deposit microwave power preferentially in the plaque while avoiding overheating the healthy artery. The optimal power deposition patterns of helical antennas are analytically computed for four-layered concentric and four-layered nonconcentric cylindrical geometries, which model symmetric and asymmetric occluded arteries. Experiments were performed on occluded artery phantom models with a prototype antenna for both symmetric and asymmetric models, which matched the theoretical predictions well, indicating almost complete power absorption in the low-water-content simulated plaque.

  4. 10. VIEW OF PLAQUE ON ILLINOIS DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HEADQUARTERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW OF PLAQUE ON ILLINOIS DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HEADQUARTERS GROUND, SPRINGFIELD, ILLINOIS; NOW IN CUSTODY OF WARREN COUNTY HIGHWAY SUPERINTENDENT - Campbell Bridge, Spanning Cedar Creek at Sumner Township Road 22, Little York, Warren County, IL

  5. VIEW TO THE SOUTHEAST. MEMORIAL WITH BRONZE PLAQUE IN HONOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW TO THE SOUTHEAST. MEMORIAL WITH BRONZE PLAQUE IN HONOR OF KELLER, MARKS THE CENTER OF THE BRIDGE. - Keller Memorial Bridge, Spanning Tennessee River at U.S. Highway 31, Decatur, Morgan County, AL

  6. 156. 1932 UNITED DAUGHTERS OF CONFEDERACY, DISTRICT CHAPTERS MEMORIAL PLAQUE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    156. 1932 UNITED DAUGHTERS OF CONFEDERACY, DISTRICT CHAPTERS MEMORIAL PLAQUE AND REPLACEMENT RED OAK MEMORIAL PLANTING. - George Washington Memorial Parkway, Along Potomac River from McLean to Mount Vernon, VA, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, VA

  7. 38. 100 foot through truss bridge original identification plaque ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. 100 foot through truss - bridge original identification plaque located on the top of the north portal entrance. - Weidemeyer Bridge, Spanning Thomes Creek at Rawson Road, Corning, Tehama County, CA

  8. Clathrin and Cx43 gap junction plaque endoexocytosis

    SciTech Connect

    Nickel, Beth M.; DeFranco, B. Hewa; Gay, Vernon L. [Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, University of Pittsburgh, School of Medicine, 324 South Biomedical Science Tower, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Murray, Sandra A. [Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, University of Pittsburgh, School of Medicine, 324 South Biomedical Science Tower, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States)], E-mail: smurray@pitt.edu

    2008-10-03

    In earlier transmission electron microscopic studies, we have described pentilaminar gap junctional membrane invaginations and annular gap junction vesicles coated with short, electron-dense bristles. The similarity between these electron-dense bristles and the material surrounding clathrin-coated pits led us to suggest that the dense bristles associated with gap junction structures might be clathrin. To confirm that clathrin is indeed associated with annular gap junction vesicles and gap junction plaques, quantum dot immuno-electron microscopic techniques were used. We report here that clathrin associates with both connexin 43 (Cx43) gap junction plaques and pentilaminar gap junction vesicles. An important finding was the preferential localization of clathrin to the cytoplasmic surface of the annular or of the gap junction plaque membrane of one of the two contacting cells. This is consistent with the possibility that the direction of gap junction plaque internalization into one of two contacting cells is regulated by clathrin.

  9. Clathrin and Cx43 gap junction plaque endoexocytosis.

    PubMed

    Nickel, Beth M; DeFranco, B Hewa; Gay, Vernon L; Murray, Sandra A

    2008-10-01

    In earlier transmission electron microscopic studies, we have described pentilaminar gap junctional membrane invaginations and annular gap junction vesicles coated with short, electron-dense bristles. The similarity between these electron-dense bristles and the material surrounding clathrin-coated pits led us to suggest that the dense bristles associated with gap junction structures might be clathrin. To confirm that clathrin is indeed associated with annular gap junction vesicles and gap junction plaques, quantum dot immuno-electron microscopic techniques were used. We report here that clathrin associates with both connexin 43 (Cx43) gap junction plaques and pentilaminar gap junction vesicles. An important finding was the preferential localization of clathrin to the cytoplasmic surface of the annular or of the gap junction plaque membrane of one of the two contacting cells. This is consistent with the possibility that the direction of gap junction plaque internalization into one of two contacting cells is regulated by clathrin. PMID:18675253

  10. Radiolabeled bioactive benzoheterocycles for imaging ?-amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yanping; Cui, Mengchao

    2014-11-24

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a debilitating neurodegenerative dementia that involves substantial neuronal loss. Extracellular deposition of neurotoxic ?-amyloid (A?) plaques in the brain has been recognized as the central histological characteristic of AD. In the past decade, precise detection of the A? plaques at preclinical AD with positron emission tomography (PET) or single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has achieved continued development. A big category of A? imaging agents was benzoheterocycles which derived from Thioflavin-T (ThT), a traditional amyloid binding dye. This review summarizes the past and current status of radioactive benzoheterocycles designed to selectively bind to A? plaques. Separate sections discuss the chemical synthesis, in vitro and in vivo investigations of radiolabeled benzothiazole, benzoxazole, benzofuran, benzothiophene, indole, imidazopyridine and quinoxaline analogs to act as PET/SPECT candidates for imaging A? plaques. PMID:25305715

  11. 32. STUDIO VIEW OF PLAQUE PLACED ON MILL HOUSE AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. STUDIO VIEW OF PLAQUE PLACED ON MILL HOUSE AT TIME OF COMPLETION, COMMEMORATING EDWARD J. LUKE (SEE TEXT) - Sperry Corn Elevator Complex, Weber Avenue (North side), West of Edison Street, Stockton, San Joaquin County, CA

  12. 6. VIEW OF COMMEMORATIVE PLAQUE, EAST APPROACH GUARDRAIL, WHICH STATES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF COMMEMORATIVE PLAQUE, EAST APPROACH GUARDRAIL, WHICH STATES 'SALINE RIVER; ARK. GENERAL CONST. CO.; CONTRACTOR; ARKANSAS; STATE HIGHWAY DEPARTMENT; 1928, BRIDGE NO. __.' - Saline River Bridge, County Highway 365 across Saline River, Benton, Saline County, AR

  13. Elevation view of dedication plaque on east wall of south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevation view of dedication plaque on east wall of south lobby - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Pacific Branch, Main Mental Health Building, 11301 Wilshire Boulevard, West Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  14. 26. BOLLING MEMORIAL GROVE PLAQUE, AVENUE OF THE GIANTS, OLD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. BOLLING MEMORIAL GROVE PLAQUE, AVENUE OF THE GIANTS, OLD HIGHWAY 101. HUMBOLDT COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. LOOKING E. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  15. Impact of pleural effusion pH on the efficacy of thoracoscopic mechanical pleurodesis in patients with breast carcinoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Crnjac; M. Sok; M. Kamenik

    2004-01-01

    Objective: A prospective randomised study was conducted to compare the efficacy of treating malignant pleural effusions (MPE) in patients with breast carcinoma by thoracoscopic mechanical pleurodesis (TMP) as a new palliative treatment and talc pleurodesis (TP) at various pleural fluid pH levels and to determine whether at low pH values, when the success of TP is reduced, TMP is more

  16. Diagnostic value of CA 549 in pleural fluid. Comparison with CEA, CA 15.3 and CA 72.4

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victoria Villena; Angel López-Encuentra; José Echave-Sustaeta; Pedro Mart??n-Escribano; Blanca Ortuńo-de-Solo; Juana Estenoz-Alfaro

    2003-01-01

    Several tumor markers have been evaluated in pleural fluid, but their clinical role has not been firmly established. The aim of this study is to determine the diagnostic value of carbohydrate antigen 549 (CA 549) levels in pleural fluid, and to compare it with another previously studied tumor markers: carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), CA 15.3 and CA 72.4. We prospectively studied

  17. The suction mechanism as a factor in intrathoracic oedema, connective tissue or pleural effusion.

    PubMed

    Felekis, Vasilios A

    2002-10-01

    In pathological conditions, the negative intrapleural pressures (Ppl) may increase unequally. At some sites they may remain increased. We maintain that at these sites the increased pressures may lead to the production of oedema in the adjacent pleural walls and in adjacent pre-existing connective tissue, which may remain as oedema or may become connective tissue. Occasionally the increased negative Ppl may contribute to the production of pleural effusion. We term all these processes the suction mechanism (SM). This mechanism affords an interpretation of a series of images observed in chest X-rays. According to this view, lung shrinkage, narrowing of the pulmonary vessels and impairment of the lung function are not caused by the diffuse pleural fibrosis, but result from damage to the lung parenchyma. We also interpret the apical cap, the blunting of the costophrenic sulci, the broadening of the mediastinum and the retrosternal stripe in terms of the SM. PMID:12208189

  18. [A case of pleural tuberculoma with new pulmonary infiltration during anti-tuberculosis therapy].

    PubMed

    Haranaga, Shusaku; Hirai, Jun; Higa, Futoshi; Miyagi, Kazuya; Astumi, Eriko; Tateyama, Masao; Fujita, Jiro

    2013-11-01

    A 61-year-old woman who had received treatment for tuberculous pleurisy for 2 months visited our outpatient clinic. Chest computed tomography (CT) showed the presence of a lens-shaped pleural mass with pulmonary infiltration, despite the decreased pleural effusion. Two weeks later, chest CT showed an increase in the size of the mass and expansion of the intrapulmonary shadow. Percutaneous CT-guided lung biopsy was performed, and histopathological examination revealed granulomatous inflammation without caseous necrosis or acid-fast bacilli. Sputum culture was negative for acid-fast bacilli. Anti-tuberculosis medication was continued, and the lesions eventually resolved. These lesions were diagnosed as pleural tuberculomas, and the intrapulmonary infiltration was considered to be due to the paradoxical worsening of the patient's condition. PMID:24432482

  19. Strongyloides stercoralis induced bilateral blood stained pleural effusion in patient with recurrent Non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Win, T T; Sitiasma, H; Zeehaida, M

    2011-04-01

    Infections and malignancies are common causes of pleural effusion. Among infectious causes, hyperinfection syndrome of Strongyloides stercoralis may occur in immunosuppressive patient. A 62-year-old man, known case of Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) was presented with recurrent NHL stage IV and had undergone salvage chemotherapy. Patient subsequently developed pneumonia with bilateral pleural effusion and ascites. We reported rhabditiform larvae of S. stercoralis in pleural fluid of both lungs without infiltration by lymphoma cells. Stool for microscopic examination also revealed rhabditiform larvae of S. stercoralis. This patient was a known case of NHL receiving chemotherapy resulting in immunosuppression state. Although S. stercoralis infection is not very common compared to other parasitic infections, it is common in immunosuppressive patients and may present with hyperinfection. Therefore, awareness of this parasite should be kept in mind in immunosuppressive patients. PMID:21602770

  20. Thoraco-amniotic shunting for fetal pleural effusion--a case series.

    PubMed

    Walsh, J; Mahony, R; Higgins, S; McParland, P; Carroll, S; McAuliffe, F

    2011-01-01

    Fetal pleural effusion is a rare occurrence, with an incidence of 1 per 10-15,000 pregnancies. The prognosis is related to the underlying cause and is often poor. There is increasing evidence that in utero therapy with thoraco-amniotic shunting improves prognosis by allowing lung expansion thereby preventing hydrops and pulmonary hypoplasia. This is a review of all cases of fetal pleural effusion managed over an eight year period the National Maternity Hospital Dublin. Over the nine year period there were 21 cases of fetal pleural effusion giving an overall incidence of 1 per 9281 deliveries. Of these, 15 underwent thoraco-amniotic shunting. There were associated anomalies diagnosed in 5 (33%) of cases. The overall survival in our cohort was 53%. The presence of hydrops was a poor prognostic factor, with survival in cases with hydrops of 33% (3/9) compared to 83% (5/6) in those cases without associated hydrops. PMID:21957687

  1. Malignant pleural mesothelioma due to environmental mineral fiber exposure in Turkey. Analysis of 135 cases.

    PubMed

    Selçuk, Z T; Cöplü, L; Emri, S; Kalyoncu, A F; Sahin, A A; Bari?, Y I

    1992-09-01

    We reviewed data from 135 patients with environment-associated malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) from the Central Anatolian region of Turkey. The most significant factors suggesting the diagnosis of MPM were the village where the patient resided and the typical presenting symptoms and signs of unilateral exudative pleural effusion associated with nonpleuritic chest pain. Computed tomography and ultrasonography were very useful for evaluating the extension of the tumor in the thoracic and abdominal cavities and chest wall. The tissue diagnosis was established by either thoracoscopy (39 percent) or pleural biopsy (39 percent) in the majority of the cases. The median survival after diagnosis was 13.52 months for erionite-associated MPM and 21.56 months for asbestos-associated MPM. The actuarial survival curves for the fibrous minerals were significantly different for survival computed both from onset of the symptoms and after diagnosis. Medical or surgical treatment or both did not change the outcome of the disease. PMID:1325339

  2. Empyema Necessitans Complicating Pleural Effusion Associated with Proteus Species Infection: A Diagnostic Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Yauba, M. S.; Ahmed, H.; Imoudu, I. A.; Yusuf, M. O.; Makarfi, H. U.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Empyema necessitans, a rare complication of pleural effusion, could result in significant morbidity and mortality in children. It is characterized by the dissection of pus through the soft tissues and the skin of the chest wall. Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Actinomyces israelii are common causes but Gram negative bacilli could be a rare cause. However, there were challenges in differentiating between Mycobacterium tuberculosis and nontuberculous empyema in a resource poor setting like ours. We report a child with pleural effusion and empyema necessitans secondary to Proteus spp. infection. Methods. We describe a 12-year-old child with empyema necessitans complicating pleural effusion and highlight management challenges. Results. This case was treated with quinolones, antituberculous drugs, chest tube drainage, and nutritional rehabilitation. Conclusion. Empyema necessitatis is a rare condition that can be caused by Gram negative bacterial pathogens like Proteus species.

  3. Plaque-like cutaneous mucinosis: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Wriston, Cooper C; Rubin, Adam I; Martin, Linda K; Kossard, Steven; Murrell, Dedee F

    2012-06-01

    Midline mucinosis was observed in a 14-year-old man, which was confined to the midline of the back and appeared as asymptomatic, nonindurated, hyperpigmented plaques. Skin biopsies showed prominent interstitial mucinosis with perivascular lymphocytic infiltration. A literature review of plaque-like mucinosis revealed 14 previous cases with this distinct presentation that may overlap with reticular erythematous mucinosis and connective tissue disease. Midline mucinosis has been previously reported in prepubertal children but is rare. PMID:22617136

  4. Antibacterial effect of taurolidine (2%) on established dental plaque biofilm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicole Birgit Arweiler; Thorsten Mathias Auschill; Anton Sculean

    Preliminary data have suggested that taurolidine may bear promising disinfectant properties for the therapy of bacterial infections.\\u000a However, at present, the potential antibacterial effect of taurolidine on the supragingival plaque biofilm is unknown. To\\u000a evaluate the antibacterial effect of taurolidine on the supragingival plaque biofilm using the vital fluorescence technique\\u000a and to compare it with the effect of NaCl and

  5. An interactive treatment planning system for ophthalmic plaque radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Astrahan, M.A.; Luxton, G.; Jozsef, G.; Kampp, T.D.; Liggett, P.E.; Sapozink, M.D.; Petrovich, Z. (Univ. of Southern California School of Medicine, Los Angeles (USA))

    1990-03-01

    Brachytherapy using removable episcleral plaques containing sealed radioisotope sources is being studied as an alternative to enucleation in the treatment of choroidal melanoma and other tumors of the eye. Encouraging early results have been reported, but late complications which lead to loss of vision continue to be a problem. A randomized national study, the Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS) is currently in progress to evaluate the procedure. The COMS specified isotope is 125I. Precise dosimetric calculations near the plaque may correlate strongly with complications and could also be used to optimize isotope loading patterns in the plaques. A microcomputer based treatment planning system has been developed for ophthalmic plaque brachytherapy. The program incorporates an interactive, 3-dimensional, solid-surface, color-graphic interface. The program currently supports 125I and 192Ir seeds which are treated as anisotropic line sources. Collimation effects related to plaque structure are accounted for, permitting detailed study of shielding effectiveness near the lip of a plaque. A dose distribution matrix may be calculated in any subregion of a transverse, sagittal, or coronal planar cross section of the eye, in any plane transecting the plaque and crossing the eye diametrically, or on a spherical surface within or surrounding the eye. Spherical surfaces may be displayed as 3-dimensional perspective projections or as funduscopic diagrams. Isodose contours are interpolated from the dose matrix. A pointer is also available to explicitly calculate and display dose at any location on the dosimetry surface. An interactive editing capability allows new plaque designs to be rapidly added to the system.

  6. Detail of plaque beneath column on the south parapet at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of plaque beneath column on the south parapet at the west end of the bridge. The plaque reads ?1914; Mayor E.J. Drussel; Councilmen E.S. Henry, E.F. Hogan, R.P. Lamdin, C.F. Ross, J.H. Shuppert; Leonard & Day, Engineers; C.H. Gildersleeve, Builder.? - First Street Bridge, Spanning Napa River at First Street between Soscol Avenue & Juarez Street, Napa, Napa County, CA

  7. Methotrexate toxicity presenting as cutaneous ulcerations on psoriatic plaques.

    PubMed

    Koçak, Asl?han Yonca; Koçak, O?uzhan; Aslan, Figen; Tekta?, Mustafa

    2013-10-01

    Methotrexate (MTX) is an effective but potentially toxic treatment for psoriasis. We describe a patient who administered 20?mg daily of MTX for 5?d and presented with ulcerated and necrotic lesions on the psoriatic plaques, mouth erosions and hair loss. However, his psoriatic plaques and ulcerations totally healed rapidly within two weeks and no recurrence has been observed for the 6 months of follow up. PMID:23537374

  8. Effect of rinse with calcium enriched milk on plaque fluid.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, M; Matsunaga, K; Kadoma, Y

    1999-09-01

    Previous research has shown that rinsing the mouth with milk significantly diminished the pH in dental plaque fluid; however, the degree of saturation with respect to the dental enamel (DS) was not significantly decreased because of an increase in the calcium ion concentration in plaque fluid. The aim of this study was to investigate the cariostatic effect of adding calcium to milk on the DS value of the plaque fluid after rinsing. Plaque samples were collected from 8 Japanese male dental students. Prior to plaque collection, all subjects refrained from practicing oral hygiene for 48 hr and fasted overnight. Supragingival plaque samples were collected from one side of the mouth of each subject, and then collected from the other side, following a 30-second rinse with 15 mL of calcium-enriched milk, which was prepared by adding calcium carbonate to ordinary milk, and a 10-minute waiting period. The samples were cleared by centrifugation, and the plaque fluid was analyzed for inorganic ions and pH, using an ion chromatograph and pH microelectrode, respectively. The calcium ion concentration of the milk was 6.4 mM, which was about 36% higher than that of ordinary milk. The pH decreased significantly (p<5%) from 6.4 to 6.1 following the rinse with calcium enriched milk, as tested by the paired t-test. The decrease in pH might have caused a reduction of the DS value; however, it was compensated for by a significant (p<0.5%) increase in the calcium ion concentration of plaque fluid. PMID:12160258

  9. Diagnostic values of soluble mesothelin-related peptides for malignant pleural mesothelioma: updated meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Ai; Jin, Xiao-Guang; Zhai, Kan; Tong, Zhao-Hui; Shi, Huan-Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Objective Although the values of soluble mesothelin-related peptides (SMRPs), including mesothelin and megakaryocyte potentiating factor, in serum and/or pleural fluid for diagnosing malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) have been extensively studied, the exact diagnostic accuracy of these SMRPs remains controversial. The purpose of the present meta-analysis is to update the overall diagnostic accuracy of SMRPs in serum and, furthermore, to establish diagnostic accuracy of SMRPs in pleural fluid for MPM. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods A total of 30 articles of diagnostic studies were included in the current meta-analysis. Sensitivity, specificity and other measures of accuracy of SMRPs in serum and pleural fluid for the diagnosis of MPM were pooled using random effects models. Summary receiver operating characteristic curves were used to summarise overall test performance. Results The summary estimates of sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio and diagnostic OR were 0.61, 0.87, 5.71, 0.43 and 14.43, respectively, for serum and 0.79, 0.85, 4.78, 0.30 and 19.50, respectively, for pleural fluid. It was also found that megakaryocyte potentiating factor in serum had a superior diagnostic accuracy compared with mesothelin for MPM. Conclusions SMRPs in both serum and pleural fluid are helpful markers for diagnosing MPM with similar diagnostic accuracy. The negative results of SMRP determinations are not sufficient to exclude non-MPM, and the positive test results indicate that further invasive diagnostic steps might be necessary for the diagnosis of MPM. PMID:24566531

  10. Challenges in the Development of an Immunochromatographic Interferon-Gamma Test for Diagnosis of Pleural Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Denkinger, Claudia M.; Kalantri, Yatiraj; Schumacher, Samuel G.; Michael, Joy S.; Shankar, Deepa; Saxena, Arvind; Sriram, Natarajan; Balamugesh, Thangakunam; Luo, Robert; Pollock, Nira R.; Pai, Madhukar; Christopher, Devasahayam J.

    2013-01-01

    Existing diagnostic tests for pleural tuberculosis (TB) have inadequate accuracy and/or turnaround time. Interferon-gamma (IFNg) has been identified in many studies as a biomarker for pleural TB. Our objective was to develop a lateral flow, immunochromatographic test (ICT) based on this biomarker and to evaluate the test in a clinical cohort. Because IFNg is commonly present in non-TB pleural effusions in low amounts, a diagnostic IFNg-threshold was first defined with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for IFNg in samples from 38 patients with a confirmed clinical diagnosis (cut-off of 300pg/ml; 94% sensitivity and 93% specificity). The ICT was then designed; however, its achievable limit of detection (5000pg/ml) was over 10-fold higher than that of the ELISA. After several iterations in development, the prototype ICT assay for IFNg had a sensitivity of 69% (95% confidence interval (CI): 50-83) and a specificity of 94% (95% CI: 81-99%) compared to ELISA on frozen samples. Evaluation of the prototype in a prospective clinical cohort (72 patients) on fresh pleural fluid samples, in comparison to a composite reference standard (including histopathological and microbiologic test results), showed that the prototype had 65% sensitivity (95% CI: 44-83) and 89% specificity (95% CI: 74-97). Discordant results were observed in 15% of samples if testing was repeated after one freezing and thawing step. Inter-rater variability was limited (3%; 1out of 32). In conclusion, despite an iterative development and optimization process, the performance of the IFNg ICT remained lower than what could be expected from the published literature on IFNg as a biomarker in pleural fluid. Further improvements in the limit of detection of an ICT for IFNg, and possibly combination of IFNg with other biomarkers such as adenosine deaminase, are necessary for such a test to be of value in the evaluation of pleural tuberculosis. PMID:24376880

  11. Near Infrared Photoimmunotherapy in the Treatment of Pleural Disseminated NSCLC: Preclinical Experience

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Kazuhide; Nagaya, Tadanobu; Choyke, Peter L.; Kobayashi, Hisataka

    2015-01-01

    Pleural metastases are common in patients with advanced thoracic cancers and are a cause of considerable morbidity and mortality yet is difficult to treat. Near Infrared Photoimmunotherapy (NIR-PIT) is a cancer treatment that combines the specificity of intravenously injected antibodies for targeting tumors with the toxicity induced by photosensitizers after exposure to NIR-light. Herein, we evaluate the efficacy of NIR-PIT in a mouse model of pleural disseminated non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). In vitro and in vivo experiments were conducted with a HER2, luciferase and GFP expressing NSCLC cell line (Calu3-luc-GFP). An antibody-photosensitizer conjugate (APC) consisting of trastuzumab and a phthalocyanine dye, IRDye-700DX, was synthesized. In vitro NIR-PIT cytotoxicity was assessed with dead staining, luciferase activity, and GFP fluorescence intensity. In vivo NIR-PIT was performed in mice with tumors implanted intrathoracic cavity or in the flank, and assessed by tumor volume and/or bioluminescence and fluorescence thoracoscopy. In vitro NIR-PIT-induced cytotoxicity was light dose dependent. In vivo NIR-PIT led significant reductions in both tumor volume (p = 0.002 vs. APC) and luciferase activity (p = 0.0004 vs. APC) in a flank model, and prolonged survival (p < 0.0001). Bioluminescence indicated that NIR-PIT lead to significant reduction in pleural dissemination (1 day after PIT; p = 0.0180). Fluorescence thoracoscopy confirmed the NIR-PIT effect on disseminated pleural disease. In conclusion, NIR-PIT has the ability to effectively treat pleural metastases caused by NSCLC in mice. Thus, NIR-PIT is a promising therapy for pleural disseminated tumors.

  12. Computed tomography-guided cutting needle pleural biopsy: Accuracy and complications.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yi-Yuan; Fan, Na; Xing, Fen; Xu, Li-Ying; Qu, Yan-Juan; Liao, Mei-Yan

    2015-01-01

    In cases of pleural lesion, tissue samples can be obtained through thoracoscopy or closed needle biopsy for histopathological analysis. Cutting needle biopsy is a relatively recent addition to these techniques. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and safety of computed tomography-guided cutting needle pleural biopsy (CT-CNPB), as well as the associated complications, in patients with pleural lesion. This study was a retrospective analysis of 92 percutaneous CT-CNPBs on 90 patients between March 2008 and May 2013. For group comparisons, ?(2) tests were used to detect the risk factors for diagnostic accuracy (false-negative rate). Of the 92 CT-CNPBs, malignant lesions were diagnosed in 55 cases (mesothelioma in 12, metastatic pleural disease in 36, synoviosarcoma in one, indeterminate-origin disease in one and false-negative lesion in five) and benign pleural disease was diagnosed in 37 cases (inflammation in 15, tuberculosis in 10, granuloma in three, solitary fibrous tumor in two, hematoma in one, fungus in one and indeterminate-origin disease in five). The sensitivity of diagnostic malignant lesion was 90.9%, and the specificity and positive and negative predictive values were 100, 100 and 88.1%, respectively. The overall diagnostic accuracy was 94.6%. A specific diagnosis was achieved in 89.1% of malignant lesions and 86.4% of benign lesions. Univariate analysis of the risk factors affecting accuracy (false-negative rate) did not reveal any significant differences (all P>0.05). The complication rates were 6.5% for pneumothorax, 8.7% for hemorrhage and 1.1% for hemothorax. In conclusion, CT-CNPB is a safe and accurate diagnostic technique that can be recommended as the primary method of diagnosis in patients with pleural thickening or lesions observed by CT scan. PMID:25452813

  13. Meigs' syndrome: a rare cause of recurrent pleural effusion in scleroderma.

    PubMed

    Su, Feng; Cummings, Kristopher W; Krigman, Hannah; Ranganathan, Prabha

    2013-10-01

    Meigs' syndrome represents a triad of pleural effusion, ascites, and an ovarian tumor, usually benign, occurring together. We describe here a case of Meigs' syndrome in a patient with systemic sclerosis, the first such report to our knowledge, in systemic sclerosis. A 53-year-old woman with systemic sclerosis presented with recurrent right-sided pleural effusion, which led to symptoms of shortness of breath, chest tightness, and a non-productive cough. Physical examination revealed a palpable, mobile mass in the right lower quadrant, in addition to typical physical features of scleroderma. Thoracentesis yielded exudative pleural fluid with cytology negative for malignancy. Pleural biopsy was consistent with inflammatory changes, but negative for malignancy. CT scan of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis revealed a soft tissue mass in the pelvis, which appeared to arise from the left ovary. The patient's cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) level was elevated at 222 U/mL (normal range, 0-30 U/mL). The patient underwent a total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. Histology of the left ovarian mass was consistent with an ovarian fibrothecoma, a benign tumor of the ovary. At her 1-month follow-up appointment, the patient had complete resolution of the right-sided pleural effusion. To date, at 10 months past the initial presentation, she has not had recurrence of pleural effusion. Although rare, Meigs' syndrome should be considered as a possible cause of recurrent serositis in women with rheumatologic diseases. Removal of the ovarian tumor leads to prompt resolution of the serositis. PMID:22538500

  14. Factors predictive of the failure of medical treatment in patients with pleural infection

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung-Kyoung; Kang, Chul Ung; Song, So Hyang; Cho, Deog Gon; Cho, Kyu Do

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims The clinical outcomes of some patients with pleural infection may be favorable with medical treatment alone, but in others, the disease progresses and requires additional surgical treatment. However, little is known about the factors affecting this difference. The aim of this study was to investigate the factors predictive of failure of medical treatment in patients with pleural infection. Methods A cohort of 127 consecutive patients who were admitted to the hospital with pleural infection was studied. Clinical manifestations and laboratory findings in patients in whom medical treatment succeeded or failed were reviewed. Results In univariate analysis, the significant factors associated with medical treatment outcome were age, smoking history, duration of chief complaint, serum albumin level, and pleural fluid glucose and lactate dehydrogenase levels (p < 0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified age and duration of chief complaint as independent predictive factors for failure of medical treatment, with odds ratios of 0.871 (p = 0.013) and 0.797 (p = 0.026), respectively. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis determined cutoff values of 50.5 years for age and 4.5 days for duration of chief complaint. Conclusions We demonstrated that a younger age < 50.5 years and shorter duration of chief complaint < 4.5 days were independent predictive factors for the failure of medical treatment in patients with pleural infection. This suggests their role as evaluative criteria in setting indications for the optimal treatment in patients with pleural infection. A larger, prospective study is required to confirm these findings. PMID:25228836

  15. Usefulness of pneumococcal antigen detection in pleural effusion for the rapid diagnosis of infection by Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Casado Flores, Juan; Nieto Moro, Montserrat; Berrón, Sonsoles; Jiménez, Raquel; Casal, Julio

    2010-05-01

    Pleural effusion is increasingly reported in children. Standard culture of blood or pleural fluid is frequently negative and molecular diagnosis by polymerase chain reaction is not available in all hospitals. The Binax NOW Streptococcus pneumoniae Antigen test (Binax, Portland, USA) is a rapid immunochromatographic test (ICT) for the detection of the C polysaccharide antigen. We evaluated the Binax NOW test on the pleural fluid of 73 children hospitalized with pleural effusion over a period of 4 years. In our sample, the sensitivity and specificity of ICT were high (88% and 71%, respectively), with a positive predictive value of 96%. Detection of the pneumococcal antigen in pleural fluid by ICT is easy and quick, and enables us to identify the pneumococcal origin of the effusion, thus, making the treatment of complicated pneumonia suitably and early. PMID:19806363

  16. Automatic plaque assay for the pharmaceutical industry using machine vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilder, Joseph; Tsai, Augustine; Festa, J. M.

    1995-10-01

    A crucial step in the manufacture of vaccines is the verification of their potency. An assay of the potency must be carried out on every batch produced to determine the safety and efficacy of the vaccine. Currently, human inspectors count the number of plaques (holes) in a cell layer in a petri dish to estimate the potency.They must determine whether nearby plaques that have overgrown each other's borders are single or multiple plaques and distinguish between plaques and small tears in the cell layer resulting from the processing operations (the edges of tears differ in appearance from the edges of plaques). Because of the judgments required to make these subtle distinctions, human inspectors are inconsistent. In cooperation with Merck & Co., Inc., the Rutgers University Center for Computer Aids for Industrial Productivity has demonstrated the feasibility of achieving consistent automatic counting of plaques by a prototype intelligent machine vision system. The David Sarnoff Research Center developed materials handling equipment and factory information system interfaces to enable this prototype system to be installed in a quality control facility at Merck. This paper describes the overall operation of the machine vision aspects of the system, including optics, illumination, sensing, preprocessing, feature extraction and shape recognition. Results of initial tests of the system are also reported.

  17. An Ultrasonographic Risk Score For Detecting Symptomatic Carotid Atherosclerotic Plaques.

    PubMed

    Afonso, David; Seabra, Jose; Pedro, Luis; E Fernandes, Jose Fernandes; Sanches, Joao

    2014-09-19

    This paper proposes a risk score computed from ultrasound data that correlates to plaque activity. It has the twofold purpose of detecting symptomatic plaques and estimating the likelihood of the asymptomatic lesion to become symptomatic. The proposed ultrasonographic activity index (UAI) relies on the plaque active profile which is a combination of the most discriminate ultrasound parameter associated with symptoms. These features are extracted by the automatic algorithm and also by the physician from the ultrasound images and from some transformations on it, such as monogenic decomposition which is a novelty in this clinical problem. This information is used to compute a risk score from the conditional probabilities of either symptomatic or asymptomatic groups. Symptom detection performance is evaluated on a transversal dataset of 146 plaques, where UAI obtained 83:5% accuracy, 84:1% sensitivity and 83:7% specificity. Performance is also assessed on a longitudinal study of 112 plaques, where UAI shows a significant improvement over the gold standard degree of stenosis, demonstrating higher power at predicting which asymptomatic plaques developed symptoms in an average follow-up of 10 months. Results suggest that this score could have a positive impact on early stroke prevention and treatment planning. PMID:25252286

  18. Medical image retrieval based on plaque appearance and image registration.

    PubMed

    Amores, Jaume; Radeva, Petia

    2005-01-01

    The increasing amount of medical images produced and stored daily in hospitals needs a datrabase management system that organizes them in a meaningful way, without the necessity of time-consuming textual annotations for each image. One of the basic ways to organize medical images in taxonomies consists of clustering them depending of plaque appearance (for example, intravascular ultrasound images). Although lately, there has been a lot of research in the field of Content-Based Image Retrieval systems, mostly these systems are designed for dealing a wide range of images but not medical images. Medical image retrieval by content is still an emerging field, and few works are presented in spite of the obvious applications and the complexity of the images demanding research studies. In this chapter, we overview the work on medical image retrieval and present a general framework of medical image retrieval based on plaque appearance. We stress on two basic features of medical image retrieval based on plaque appearance: plaque medical images contain complex information requiring not only local and global descriptors but also context determined by image features and their spatial relations. Additionally, given that most objects in medical images usually have high intra- and inter-patient shape variance, retrieval based on plaque should be invariant to a family of transformations predetermined by the application domain. To illustrate the medical image retrieval based on plaque appearance, we consider a specific image modality: intravascular ultrasound images and present extensive results on the retrieval performance. PMID:15923736

  19. Dosimetry for 125I seed (model 6711) in eye plaques.

    PubMed

    Chiu-Tsao, S T; Anderson, L L; O'Brien, K; Stabile, L; Liu, J C

    1993-01-01

    The effect of eye plaque materials (gold backing and silastic seed-carrier insert) on the dose distribution around a single 125I seed has been measured, using cubic lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) 1 mm on an edge, in a solid water eye phantom embedded in a solid water head phantom. With an 125I seed (model 6711) positioned in the center slot of the silastic insert for a 20-mm plaque of the design used in the collaborative ocular melanoma study (COMS), dose was measured at 2-mm intervals along the plaque central axis (the seed's transverse axis) and at various off-axis points, both with and without the COMS gold backing placed over the insert. Monte Carlo calculations (MORSE code) were performed, as well, for these configurations and closely the same geometry but assuming a large natural water phantom. Additional Monte Carlo calculations treated the case, both for 20- and 12-mm gold plaques, where the silastic insert is replaced by natural water. Relative to previous measurements taken in homogeneous medium of the same material (without the eye plaque), the dose reduction found by both Monte Carlo and TLD methods was greater at points farther from the seed along the central axis and, for a given central-axis depth, at larger off-axis distances. Removal of the gold backing from the plaque did not make measurable difference in the dose reduction results (10% at 1 cm). PMID:8497229

  20. Clinical studies of plaque control agents: an overview.

    PubMed

    Lobene, R R

    1979-12-01

    Dental plaque is massed packed bacterial cells which accumulate on the supra- and subgingival surfaces of the teeth as well as on the oral mucosa. The microorganisms of plaque have been shown to be associated with both dental caries and periodontal disease. This overview of clinical studies of plaque control agents reviews the properties and effects of chemical compounds which have demonstrated a potential for the control of plaque microorganisms. The search for clinically effective antiplaque agents has been stimulated by findings in laboratory and animal studies of plaque dynamics. Based upon these in vitro and in vivo experiments, chemotherapeutic agents such as antibiotics, antiseptics, enzymes, detergents, bacteriosides, antimetabolites, and oxidizing agents have been evaluated against human plaque microorganisms using the ultimate biological model -- man. Continued study of chemotherapeutic agents should be encouraged because many of these drugs have been shown to be safe for human use and may require only the development of a delivery system to potentiate their concentration in a specific local site. Use of these chemotherapeutic agents, which can be self-administered, becomes an attractive way of providing the public with a cost-effective method of preventing caries and periodontal disease. PMID:117032