These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Removal of phosphate from greenhouse wastewater using hydrated lime.  

PubMed

Phosphate (P) contamination in nutrient-laden wastewater is currently a major topic of discussion in the North American greenhouse industry. Precipitation of P as calcium phosphate minerals using hydrated lime could provide a simple, inexpensive method for retrieval. A combination of batch experiments and chemical equilibrium modelling was used to confirm the viability of this P removal method and determine lime addition rates and pH requirements for greenhouse wastewater of varying nutrient compositions. Lime: P ratio (molar ratio of CaMg(OH)?: PO??P) provided a consistent parameter for estimating lime addition requirements regardless of initial P concentration, with a ratio of 1.5 providing around 99% removal of dissolved P. Optimal P removal occurred when lime addition increased the pH from 8.6 to 9.0, suggesting that pH monitoring during the P removal process could provide a simple method for ensuring consistent adherence to P removal standards. A Visual MINTEQ model, validated using experimental data, provided a means of predicting lime addition and pH requirements as influenced by changes in other parameters of the lime-wastewater system (e.g. calcium concentration, temperature, and initial wastewater pH). Hydrated lime addition did not contribute to the removal of macronutrient elements such as nitrate and ammonium, but did decrease the concentration of some micronutrients. This study provides basic guidance for greenhouse operators to use hydrated lime for phosphate removal from greenhouse wastewater. PMID:25176490

Dunets, C Siobhan; Zheng, Youbin

2014-01-01

2

Molecular models of a hydrated calcite mineral surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrated mineral surfaces play an important role in many processes in biological, geological, and industrial applications. An energy force field was developed for molecular mechanics and molecular dynamics simulations of hydrated carbonate minerals and was applied to investigate the behavior of water on the (101¯4) calcite surface. The force field is a significant development for large-scale molecular simulations of these

Thomas D. Perry; Randall T. Cygan; Ralph Mitchell

2007-01-01

3

Impacts of ocean acidification and mitigative hydrated lime addition on Pacific oyster larvae  

E-print Network

Impacts of ocean acidification and mitigative hydrated lime addition on Pacific oyster larvae No.: 577 Title of Project: Impacts of ocean acidification and mitigative hydrated lime addition Anthropogenic CO2 emissions are rapidly altering marine chemistry, significantly impacting calcifying organisms

4

Effects of direct land application of calcitic lime and lime- and cement kiln dust-sanitized biosolids on the chemical and spectroscopic characteristics of soil lipids  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the extent to which applications of calcitic lime and sanitized biosolids affect the quality of soil organic matter (SOM), lipids extracted from an unamended soil (CON) and from soils amended with calcitic lime (CAL), and lime (LSB)- and cement kiln dust (CDB)-sanitized biosolids were characterized by chemical analysis and Pyrolysis-Gas chromatography (Py-GC). From diethyl ether (DEE) and CHCl[sub

H. Dinel; M. Schnitzer; T. Pare; E. Topp; L. Lemee; A. Ambles; N. Pelzer

1999-01-01

5

Kinetic study of hydrated lime reaction with HCl.  

PubMed

Hydrochloride (HCl) is an acidic pollutant present in the flue gas of most municipal or hazardous waste incinerators. Hydrated lime (Ca(OH)2) is often used as a dry sorbent for injection in a spray reactor to remove HCI. However, due to the short residence time encountered, this control method has generally been found to have low conversion efficiencies which results in the high lime usage and generates large amount of fly ash as solid wastes. A fundamental study was carried outto investigate the kinetics of HCl-lime reaction under simulated flue gas conditions in order to better understand the process thereby providing a basis for an optimized lime usage and reduced fly ash production. The initial reaction rate and conversion of three limes were studied using a thermogravimetric analyzer by varying the gas flow rate, temperature (170-400 degrees C), and HCI concentrations (600-1200 mg/m3) as well as the associated particle size and surface area of the limes. The initial lime conversions were found to rely mostly on the residence time, while the ultimate lime conversions were strongly influenced by temperature and the reaction products. CaOHCI was found to be the primary product in most cases, while for one specific lime, CaCl2 was the ultimate conversion product after an extended time period. The true utilization of lime in flue gas cleanup is thus higher when CaOHCl is considered as the final product than those based on CaCl2 as the final product, which has been commonly used in previous studies. The initial reaction was controlled by diffusion of HCl in gas phase and the subsequent reaction by gaseous diffusion through the developing product layer. Increasing the HCI concentration raised the initial rate as well as conversion. However, overloading the lime with excessive HCI caused clogging at its surface and a drop in the ultimate conversion. Limes with smaller particle diameters and higher surface areas were found to be more reactive. The effect of gas-phase mass transfer was minimized when an optimum flow rate was chosen, and in the absence of internal diffusion the reaction was found to be first order with respect to HCI concentration. PMID:12831043

Yan, Rong; Chin, Terence; Liang, David Tee; Laursen, Karin; Ong, Wan Yean; Yao, Kaiwen; Tay, Joo Hwa

2003-06-01

6

Effects of direct land application of calcitic lime and lime- and cement kiln dust-sanitized biosolids on the chemical and spectroscopic characteristics of soil lipids  

SciTech Connect

To determine the extent to which applications of calcitic lime and sanitized biosolids affect the quality of soil organic matter (SOM), lipids extracted from an unamended soil (CON) and from soils amended with calcitic lime (CAL), and lime (LSB)- and cement kiln dust (CDB)-sanitized biosolids were characterized by chemical analysis and Pyrolysis-Gas chromatography (Py-GC). From diethyl ether (DEE) and CHCl[sub 3] soluble lipids, and from weight ratios of the extracts, the organic matter in the soil amended with CDB-treated biosolids seemed to be more biodegraded and biochemically inert than the organic matter in soils that received LSB-treated biosolids and calcitic lime and that in the control soil.

Dinel, H.; Schnitzer, M.; Pare, T.; Topp, E. (Agriculture and AgriFood Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)); Lemee, L.; Ambles, A. (Univ. de Poitiers (France). Lab. de Chimie); Pelzer, N. (Univ. du Quebec, Montreal (Canada))

1999-05-01

7

Advanced treatment of swine wastewater using an agent synthesized from amorphous silica and hydrated lime.  

PubMed

Advanced treatment using an agent synthesized from amorphous silica and hydrated lime (M-CSH-lime) was developed and applied to swine wastewater treatment. Biologically treated wastewater and M-CSH-lime (approximately 6 w/v% slurry) were fed continuously into a column-shaped reactor from its bottom. Accumulated M-CSH-lime gradually formed a bed layer. The influent permeated this layer and contacted the M-CSH-lime, and the treatment reaction progressed. Treated liquid overflowing from the top of the reactor was neutralized with CO2 gas bubbling. The colour removal rate approximately exceeded 50% with M-CSH-lime addition rates of>0.15 w/v%. The removal rate of [Formula: see text] exceeded 80% with the addition of>0.03 w/v% of M-CSH-lime. The removal rates of coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli exceeded 99.9% with>0.1 w/v%. Accumulated M-CSH-lime in the reactor was periodically withdrawn from the upper part of the bed layer. The content of citric-acid-soluble P2O5 in the recovered matter was>15% when the weight ratio of influent [Formula: see text] to added M-CSH-lime was>0.15. This content was comparable with commercial phosphorus fertilizer. The inhibitory effect of recovered M-CSH-lime on germination and growth of leafy vegetable komatsuna (Brassica rapa var. perviridis) was evaluated by an experiment using the Neubauer's pot. The recovered M-CSH-lime had no negative effect on germination and growth. These results suggest that advanced water treatment with M-CSH-lime was effective for simultaneous removal of colour, [Formula: see text] and coliform bacteria at an addition rate of 0.03-0.15 w/v%, and that the recovered M-CSH-lime would be suitable as phosphorus fertilizer. PMID:25189846

Tanaka, Yasuo; Hasegawa, Teruaki; Sugimoto, Kiyomi; Miura, Keiichi; Aketo, Tsuyoshi; Minowa, Nobutaka; Toda, Masaya; Kinoshita, Katsumi; Yamashita, Takahiro; Ogino, Akifumi

2014-12-01

8

Evaluating Pond Shoreline Treatments of Slurried Hydrated Lime for Reducing Marsh Rams-Horn Snail Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trematode parasites can cause massive infections in commercially raised fish. The most promising approach for the control of these infections is the reduction or elimination of snails that serve as vectors for the trematodes. A recent approach, the application of high concentrations of slurried hydrated lime (SHL) or copper sulfate pentahydrate (CSP) along pond margins (shoreline treatment), has shown promise

Andrew J. Mitchell; Scott Snyder; David J. Wise; Charles C. Mischke

2007-01-01

9

The role of brick pebbles and dust in conglomerates based on hydrated lime and crushed bricks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phoenicians were probably the first ones to use mortars based on hydrated lime and crushed or dust bricks, followed by all other people who were in contact with them. The Romans employed those mortars any time they needed a rendering exposed to severe environment or a floor at a very humid ground level, in foundations where the water table was

G. Baronio; L. Binda; N. Lombardini

1997-01-01

10

Methanogenic calcite, 13C-depleted bivalve shells, and gas hydrate from a mud volcano offshore southern California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methane and hydrogen sulfide vent from a cold seep above a shallowly buried methane hydrate in a mud volcano located 24 km offshore southern California in 800 m of water. Bivalves, authigenic calcite, and methane hydrate were recovered in a 2.1 m piston core. Aragonite shells of two bivalve species are unusually depleted in 13C (to -19‰ ?13C), the most 13C-depleted shells of marine macrofauna yet discovered. Carbon isotopes for both living and dead specimens indicate that they used, in part, carbon derived from anaerobically oxidized methane to construct their shells. The ?13C values are highly variable, but most are within the range -12‰ to -19‰. This variability may be diagnostic for identifying cold-seep hydrate systems in the geologic record. Authigenic calcite is abundant in the cores down to ˜1.5 m subbottom, the top of the methane hydrate. The calcite is depleted in 13C (?13C = -46‰ to -58‰), indicating that carbon produced by anaerobically oxidized methane is the main source of the calcite. Methane sources include a geologic hydrocarbon reservoir from Miocene source rocks, and biogenic and thermogenic degradation of organic matter in basin sediments. Oxygen isotopes indicate that most calcite formed out of isotopic equilibrium with ambient bottom water, under the influence of gas hydrate dissociation and strong methane flux. High metal content in the mud volcano sediment indicates leaching of basement rocks by fluid circulating along an underlying fault, which also allows for a high flux of fossil methane.

Hein, James R.; Normark, William R.; McIntyre, Brandie R.; Lorenson, Thomas D.; Powell, Charles L., II

2006-02-01

11

CONTROL OF SOX EMISSIONS BY IN-FURNACE SORBENT INJECTION: CARBONATES VS HYDRATES  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper provides high-temperature isothermal data on SO2 capture by calcium-based sorbents, obtained in a dispersed-phase reactor for limestones, dolomites, hydrated calcitic limes, and hydrated dolomitic limes as a function of Ca/S molar ratio, temperature, and SO2 partial pre...

12

Full quantitative phase analysis of hydrated lime using the Rietveld method  

SciTech Connect

Full quantitative phase analysis (FQPA) using X-ray powder diffraction and Rietveld refinements is a well-established method for the characterization of various hydraulic binders such as Portland cement and hydraulic limes. In this paper, the Rietveld method is applied to hydrated lime, a non-hydraulic traditional binder. The potential presence of an amorphous phase in this material is generally ignored. Both synchrotron radiation and a conventional X-ray source were used for data collection. The applicability of the developed control file for the Rietveld refinements was investigated using samples spiked with glass. The results were cross-checked by other independent methods such as thermal and chemical analyses. The sample microstructure was observed by transmission electron microscopy. It was found that the consistency between the different methods was satisfactory, supporting the validity of FQPA for this material. For the samples studied in this work, the amount of amorphous material was in the range 2-15 wt.%.

Lassinantti Gualtieri, Magdalena, E-mail: magdalena.gualtieri@unimore.it [Dipartimento Ingegneria dei Materiali e dell'Ambiente, Universita Degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via Vignolese 905/a, I-41100 Modena (Italy); Romagnoli, Marcello; Miselli, Paola; Cannio, Maria [Dipartimento Ingegneria dei Materiali e dell'Ambiente, Universita Degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via Vignolese 905/a, I-41100 Modena (Italy)] [Dipartimento Ingegneria dei Materiali e dell'Ambiente, Universita Degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via Vignolese 905/a, I-41100 Modena (Italy); Gualtieri, Alessandro F. [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universita Degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, I-41100 Modena (Italy)] [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universita Degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, I-41100 Modena (Italy)

2012-09-15

13

DISPOSAL, RECYCLE, AND UTILIZATION OF MODIFIED FLY ASH FROM HYDRATED LIME INJECTION INTO COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of an assessment of the disposal, utilization, and recycle os a modified fly ash from the injection of hydrated lime into a coal-fired utility boiler. The process, developed as a low-cost alternative for achieving moderate degrees of SO2 control at coal-fi...

14

Methanogenic calcite, 13C-depleted bivalve shells, and gas hydrate from a mud volcano offshore southern California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Methane and hydrogen sulfide vent from a cold seep above a shallowly buried methane hydrate in a mud volcano located 24 km offshore southern California in?? 800 m of water. Bivalves, authigenic calcite, and methane hydrate were recovered in a 2.1 m piston core. Aragonite shells of two bivalve species are unusually depleted in 13C (to -91??? ??13C), the most 13C-depleted shells of marine macrofauna yet discovered. Carbon isotopes for both living and dead specimens indicate that they used, in part, carbon derived from anaerobically oxidized methane to construct their shells. The ??13C values are highly variable, but most are within the range -12??? to -91???. This variability may be diagnostic for identifying cold-seep-hydrate systems in the geologic record. Authigenic calcite is abundant in the cores down to ???1.5 m subbottom, the top of the methane hydrate. The calcite is depleted in 13C (??13C = -46??? to -58???), indicating that carbon produced by anaerobically oxidized methane is the main source of the calcite. Methane sources include a geologic hydrocarbon reservoir from Miocene source rocks, and biogenic and thermogenic degradation of organic matter in basin sediments. Oxygen isotopes indicate that most calcite formed out of isotopic equilibrium with ambient bottom water, under the influence of gas hydrate dissociation and strong methane flux. High metal content in the mud volcano sediment indicates leaching of basement rocks by fluid circulating along an underlying fault, which also allows for a high flux of fossil methane. ?? 2006 Geological Society of America.

Hein, J.R.; Normark, W.R.; McIntyre, B.R.; Lorenson, T.D.; Powell, C.L., II

2006-01-01

15

In-place stabilization of pond ash deposits by hydrated lime columns  

SciTech Connect

Abandoned coal ash ponds cover up vast stretches of precious land and cause environmental problems. Application of suitable in situ stabilization methods may bring about improvement in the geotechnical properties of the ash deposit as a whole, converting it to a usable site. In this study, a technique of in-place stabilization by hydrated lime columns was applied to large-scale laboratory models of ash ponds. Samples collected from different radial distances and different depths of the ash deposit were tested to study the improvements in the water content, dry density, particle size distribution, unconfined compressive strength, pH, hydraulic conductivity, and leachate characteristics over a period of one year. The in-place stabilization by lime column technique has been found effective in increasing the unconfined compressive strength and reducing hydraulic conductivity of pond ash deposits in addition to modifying other geotechnical parameters. The method has also proved to be useful in reducing the contamination potential of the ash leachates, thus mitigating the adverse environmental effects of ash deposits.

Chand, S.K.; Subbarao, C. [Indira Gandhi Institute of Technology, Orissa (India). Dept. of Civil Engineering

2007-12-15

16

Three-dimensional hydration layer mapping on the (10.4) surface of calcite using amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy.  

PubMed

Calcite, the most stable modification of calcium carbonate, is a major mineral in nature. It is, therefore, highly relevant in a broad range of fields such as biomineralization, sea water desalination and oil production. Knowledge of the surface structure and reactivity of the most stable cleavage plane, calcite (10.4), is pivotal for understanding the role of calcite in these diverse areas. Given the fact that most biological processes and technical applications take place in an aqueous environment, perhaps the most basic - yet decisive - question addresses the interaction of water molecules with the calcite (10.4) surface. In this work, amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy is used for three-dimensional (3D) mapping of the surface structure and the hydration layers above the surface. An easy-to-use scanning protocol is implemented for collecting reliable 3D data. We carefully discuss a comprehensible criterion for identifying the solid-liquid interface within our data. In our data three hydration layers form a characteristic pattern that is commensurate with the underlying calcite surface. PMID:25074402

Marutschke, Christoph; Walters, Deron; Walters, Deron; Hermes, Ilka; Bechstein, Ralf; Kühnle, Angelika

2014-08-22

17

Investigation of fatigue properties of granite asphalt mixtures containing hydrated lime  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the results of a laboratory study of evaluating the fatigue characteristics of granite asphalt mixtures (GAM) using different testing methods. In the study, the fatigue performances of GAM were evaluated with Superpave indirect tensile test (IDT) and four-point beam fatigue test. Specimens were conditioned by four different methods: (1) one cycle of freeze-thaw (F-T), (2) two cycles of F-T, (3) immersion in 60°C water bath for 30min (4) immersion in 60°C water bath for 48h, and contrastive analysis was made with unconditioned specimens. Investigation of moisture damage influence on the fatigue properties of GAM with and without Hydrated Lime (HL) was done. The results from this study indicated that both Superpave IDT and four-point beam fatigue test agreed with each other in ranking the fatigue property of GAM. Increasing F-T cycles or immersion time would decrease fatigue life in GAM, and the addition of HL was effective to prolong the fatigue life in GAM.

Wu, Shaopeng; Huang, Xu

2010-03-01

18

Investigation of fatigue properties of granite asphalt mixtures containing hydrated lime  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the results of a laboratory study of evaluating the fatigue characteristics of granite asphalt mixtures (GAM) using different testing methods. In the study, the fatigue performances of GAM were evaluated with Superpave indirect tensile test (IDT) and four-point beam fatigue test. Specimens were conditioned by four different methods: (1) one cycle of freeze-thaw (F-T), (2) two cycles of F-T, (3) immersion in 60°C water bath for 30min (4) immersion in 60°C water bath for 48h, and contrastive analysis was made with unconditioned specimens. Investigation of moisture damage influence on the fatigue properties of GAM with and without Hydrated Lime (HL) was done. The results from this study indicated that both Superpave IDT and four-point beam fatigue test agreed with each other in ranking the fatigue property of GAM. Increasing F-T cycles or immersion time would decrease fatigue life in GAM, and the addition of HL was effective to prolong the fatigue life in GAM.

Wu, Shaopeng; Huang, Xu

2009-12-01

19

The effect of hydrated lime on Salmonella enteritidis survival in poultry litter and poult performance  

E-print Network

The presence of Salmonella and/or Campylobacter in poultry litter may contribute to contaminated processed carcasses. Initially in our first study, we evaluated the effect of 5, 10, or 20% added lime on in vitro survival of Salmonella enteritidis...

Stanush, Deborah Denise

2000-01-01

20

Genesis and geometry of the Meiklejohn Peak lime mud-mound, Bare Mountain Quadrangle, Nevada, USA: Ordovician limestone with submarine frost heave structures—a possible response to gas clathrate hydrate evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the Early Middle Ordovician (Early Whiterockian) the Meiklejohn Peak lime mud-mound, a large whaleback or dolphin back dome, grew on a carbonate ramp tens to hundreds of kilometres offshore. This ramp extended from the northwest margin of Laurentia into the open waters of the ancestral Pacific Ocean to the north. The mound developed in an outer ramp environment, in relatively deep and cold water. A steep northern margin with a slope that exceeds 55° characterizes the mound. This margin is split by a 14-m long vertical fracture that separates a zone of slumped, drag-folded and brecciated rocks from the main mass of the mound. Failure along this fracture occurred subcutaneously, as highlighted by covering beds that are folded next to the mound. Brecciated blocks and clasts contain zebra and stromatactis structures indicating that these rocks and structures were lithified early in the history of the mound. The southern end of the mound is less steep and is characterized by large, echinodermal grainstone cross-beds. These deposits are part of a large, subaqueous dune that grew northwards and preceded the main development of the mound. Southward dipping and downlapping layers of mud-mound mudstone and wackestone overlie the dune. These muddy limestone layers are cut in several places by injection dykes and are pierced, near the contact with the underlying dune, by a 25-m long pipe filled with rotated nodular and brecciated mud-mound clasts. This long pipe extends to the edge of the mound and appears to have been a conduit where fluidized materials that came from the mound's interior were vented. The interior of the mound is typified by light grey limestone with zebra bands and stromatactis structures. Both structures represent former cavity systems that are filled with fibrous and bladed calcite and pelleted and laminated geopetal mudstone. Spar bands of zebra limestone often extend for several metres and appear to have been unsupported over these distances. Zebra banded rocks are also accompanied by snout and socket structures and, in some instances, are folded and sheared by curving kink bands. Zebra and stromatactis limestone structures found throughout the mud-mound resemble frost heave and cryoturbation structures identified in both Holocene and Pleistocene cryosols, and in laboratory experiments with advancing freezing fronts in clay-size sediment. Significantly, modern occurrences of methane clathrate hydrate (methane-charged ice) display parallel and digitate layering similar in depositional appearance to that of zebra and stromatactis limestone from Meiklejohn Peak. Early carbonate cements are also commonly associated with these modern clathrate hydrate deposits. Consequently, gas clathrate hydrates may have been the propping agent for zebra and stromatactis structures observed in the mud-mound. In this scenario, carbonate cements would have precipitated and stabilized these structures, both with the consolidation and dissociation of gas clathrate hydrates, and with the oxidation and reduction of associated gases. Stable ?13C and ?18O isotope ratios collected from mudstone and spar of zebra and stromatactis structures indicate that they were lithified in equilibrium with Ordovician seawater. The ?13C isotope ratios recorded at Meiklejohn Peak are similar to ?13C isotopic ratios obtained from ?CO 2 evolving from modern seafloor. These isotopic ratios may indicate that frost heave structures in the Meiklejohn Peak mud-mound are the result of consolidation and dissociation of carbon dioxide clathrate hydrates. Even though the bulk of gas clathrate hydrates identified to date in modern ocean floors are composed of methane, carbon dioxide clathrate hydrates are known from the modern seafloor of the Okinawa Trough. They may also be common in areas of abundant carbonate sediment accumulation, as suggested by recent observations from the Great Australian Bight.

Krause, Federico F.

2001-12-01

21

Kinetics of the reaction of hydrated lime with SO{sub 2} at low temperatures: effects of the presence of CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and NOx  

SciTech Connect

The effects of the presence Of CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and NOx in the flue gas on the kinetics of the sulfation of hydrated lime at low temperatures were studied using a differential fixed-bed reactor. When O{sub 2} and NOx were not present together the reaction kinetics was about the same as that under gas mixtures containing SO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and N2 only. When both O{sub 2} and NOx were present, sulfation of hydrated lime was greatly enhanced, forming a large amount of calcium sulfate in addition to calcium sulfite. Sulfation of hydrated lime was well described by the surface coverage model, despite the gas-phase conditions being different. Relative humidity is the major factor affecting the reaction, and its effect was more marked when both O{sub 2} and NOx were present. The kinetic model equations obtained in this work can be used to describe the sulfation of hydrated lime in the low-temperature dry and semidry flue gas desulfurization processes with or without an upstream NOx removal unit.

Liu, C.F.; Shih, S.M. [National Taiwan University, Taipei (Taiwan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

2008-12-15

22

Evaluation of Ohio fly ash/hydrated lime slurries and Type 1 cement sorbent slurries in the U.C. Pilot spray dryer facility. Final report, September 1, 1993--August 31, 1994  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this year`s work included an evaluation of the performance of fly ash/hydrated lime as well as hydrated cement sorbents for spray drying adsorption (SDA) of SO{sub 2} from a simulated high-sulfur flue gas. These sorbents were evaluated for several different hydration methods, and under different SDA operating conditions. In addition, the physical properties of surface area and porosity of the sorbents was determined. The most reactive fly ash/hydrated lime sorbent studied was prepared at room temperature with milled fly ash. Milling fly ash prior to hydration with lime did have a beneficial effect on calcium utilization. No benefit in utilization was experienced either by hydrating the slurries at a temperature of 90{degrees}C as compared to hydration at room temperature, or by increasing hydration time. While the surface areas varied greatly from sorbent to sorbent, the pore size distributions indicated ``ink bottle`` pores with surface porosity on the order of 0.5 microns. No correlation could be drawn between the surface area of the sorbents and calcium utilization. These results suggest that the composition of the resulting sorbent might be more important than its surface area. The most effective sorbent studied this year was produced by hydrating cement for 3 days at room temperature. This sorbent provided a removal efficiency and a calcium utilization over 25 percent higher than baseline results at an approach to saturation temperature of 30{degrees}F and a stoichiometric ratio of 0.9. A maximum SO{sub 2} removal efficiency of about 90 percent was experienced with this sorbent at an approach to saturation temperature of 20{degrees}F.

Keener, T.C.; Khang, S.J.; Meyers, G.R. [Cincinnati Univ., OH (United States)

1995-02-01

23

Heated fly ash/hydrated lime slurries for SO[sub 2] removal in spray dryer absorbers  

SciTech Connect

Coal fly ashes have been slurried with quicklime at elevated temperatures to determine their reactivity with SO[sub 2] in a minipilot spray dryer. Bench-scale experimental results indicate that this hydration process greatly increases the total surface area of the solids. Minipilot-scale spray dryer tests reveal that the slurry reaction step can significantly increase calcium utilization and SO[sub 2] removal of these fly ash/quicklime sorbents, depending on the type of fly ash used. One type of fly ash showed considerably better reactivity in the spray dryer tests. This enhancement is considered due to the presence of calcium silica hydrate material formed from the reaction between calcium and the alumina silicate found in the fly ashes and the difference in reactivity due to the type of calcium silica hydrate material formed. The benefit, however, decreases with the calcium feed rate. Pozzolanic strength tests were performed on the fly ashes used, and the measured unconfined compressive strengths followed the reactivity results in the spray dryer; the most reactive fly ash possessed the highest pozzolanic activity.

Sanders, J.F.; Keener, T.C.; Wang, J. (Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering)

1995-01-01

24

A Reacidification Model for Acidified Lakes Neutralized With Calcite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In lake liming operations in Sweden, acidified lakes are reclaimed by neutralization with calcite powder. The amount added is intended to neutralize the water column as well as to delay the reacidification. The reacidification of limed lakes is dependent on the dilution of the dissolved calcium carbonate with time and, for a limited period of time, the dissolution of calcite from the lake sediments. Calcite on the lake bottom will, in addition to being covered by sedimentation, become inactivated by precipitates of humus and clay minerals clogging the calcite surfaces. A model has been developed to calculate the reacidification of a limed lake which includes the following mechanisms: (1) the dissolution of calcite and a subsequent neutralization of acid water, (2) owing to the increase inpH value, occurrence of precipitation of humus and dissolved metals onto the calcite surface and inhibition of the dissolution of calcite (3) reversible sorbtion of calcium from the water column by sediments not covered with calcite, and (4) diffusive transport through a boundary bottom layer to the water column. In a first approach the lake was modeled as a continuously stirred tank. The equations were derived from a mass balance and the dissolution kinetics for calcite to describe the long-term development ofpH, alkalinity, and calcium concentration in the lake. The differential equations describing the mechanisms were solved with the help of a computer code. The model accurately describes the reacidification and the mass balances observed in several limed lakes.

Sverdrup, Harald; Warfvinge, Per

1985-09-01

25

Sulfate induced heave in lime stabilized soil  

E-print Network

The addition of hydrated lime to clay soils is one of the most common methods of soil stabilization. However, when sulfates are present in the soil, the calcium in the lime reacts with the sulfates to form ettringite, an expandable mineral...

Bredenkamp, Sanet

2012-06-07

26

Nickel and manganese interaction with calcite  

SciTech Connect

Many divalent metal cations sorb to calcite surfaces and incorporate into calcite to varying degrees. Since calcite may sorb trace elements in the environment, the factors controlling metal-calcite interactions are critical to understanding element cycling. The interaction of divalent metal cations with calcite can be critical to toxic metal immobilization, nutrient cycling, interpretation of past redox conditions, tracing fluid flow, for example. Sorption of Ni and Mn on calcite surfaces was studied by Zachara et al.. At any particular pH, the sorption of Mn on calcite was greater than Ni. This was attributed in part to the similarity of divalent Mn and Ca with respect to ion size. Although direct spectroscopic evidence was not available, sorption/desorption results suggested that Mn quickly forms a surface precipitate or solid solution while Ni forms a hydrated surface complex that may incorporate into calcite much more slowly via recrystallization. Because Mn(II) ionic radius is similar to that of Ca(II) (0.80 versus 1.0{angstrom}), and because MnCO{sub 3} has a structure similar to calcite, it is likely that Mn can substitute directly for Ca in the calcite structure. The ionic radius of Ni(II) is significantly smaller (0.69{angstrom}) and Ni(OH){sub 2} precipitation is likely to be favored in most systems. For Ni, direct substitution for Ca is less likely or may require more significant calcite lattice deformation.

Doner, H; Zavarin, M

1999-08-09

27

Immobilisation of Fe floc: Part 1, pre-treatment of floc with slaked lime  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of radioactive iron (Fe 3+) hydroxide flocs are produced during reprocessing of nuclear fuel at Sellafield, UK. Before the flocs can be successfully encapsulated in a pulverised fuel ash/ordinary Portland cement composite cement to form a durable cemented wasteform, they need to be pre-treated with slaked lime. This paper reports results after investigating the reaction between a simulant floc and the slaked lime and shows that the floc reacts readily to form an X-ray amorphous hydrated calcium ferrite. Calcite (CaCO 3), formed from carbonation of Ca(OH) 2, appears to contribute to the formation of a crystalline iron hydroxy carbonate phase (Fe 6(OH) 12(CO 3)). This work concludes that pre-treatment allows a pozzolanic reaction to occur between the pulverised fuel ash and the Ca(OH) 2 produced during cement hydration. This increases the quantity of C sbnd S sbnd H formed and increases the compressive strength of the hardened wasteform enough to withstand forces generated during curing and prevent cracking.

Collier, N. C.; Milestone, N. B.; Hill, J.; Godfrey, I. H.

2009-08-01

28

Phosphorus removal from piggery effluents of varying quality using lime and physico-chemical treatment methods.  

PubMed

The choice of management practices for the treatment of piggery effluent prior to its disposal to waterways or land is governed by the desire to simultaneously minimise the cost of treatment whilst minimising pollution of the environment. Laboratory experiments were conducted to compare the removal of total and total filterable phosphorus (P) (<0.45 microm) from ortho-phosphate solutions or piggery effluent by hydrated lime or lime kiln dust alone, or from recycled piggery effluent by lime and physico-chemical treatment methods. In addition, the ability of lime to remove P from recycled piggery effluent at an intensive piggery was assessed. Most P in lime treated effluent was present in the >0.45 microm fraction because of the presence of unsettled flocs of P impregnated lime. The efficiency of total P removal by hydrated lime and lime kiln dust decreased as effluent quality declined. The efficiency of removal of total filterable P by hydrated lime or lime kiln dust was not affected by effluent quality. Hydrated lime was more efficient in removing P from effluent or ortho-phosphate solutions, but lime kiln dust was more cost effective. More than 95% of total P was removed from recycled piggery effluent when physico-chemical treatment followed settling with or without lime. The physico-chemical treatment decreased total P mainly by decreasing the number of suspended particles in the effluent and by precipitating some total filterable P as iron, aluminium or calcium compounds. PMID:15091694

Weaver, D M; Ritchie, G S

1994-01-01

29

An integrated study of limestone behavior during calcination and hydration processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most important processes in industrial scale, represents the dissociation of carbonates to lime and CO2. This process, called calcination, occur at relative high temperatures (>9000C). Lime rapidly reacts with the water, liberating high amounts of heat producing Ca(OH)2. For the purpose of the present study five samples of different limestones from different quarries from Greece were collected. The aim of the study was to analyze the behavior of the limestones during calcination and test the hydraulic properties of the quick lime. Limestone particles (1.6-2 cm) were reacted in a pre-heated oven at three different temperatures (900, 1050 and 1200oC) for 30 min in order to produce quick lime. Petrographic features of studied limestones were done using secondary electron microscopy (SEM). X-ray diffractometry and Raman micro-spectroscopy were applied in order to identify the carbonate phases (calcite and dolomite) in the studied limestones. Chemical composition of limestones and limes were determined by Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) method. 25 gr of the produced lime were hydrated by adding 100 ml distilled water having a room temperature (~250C) to produce Ca(OH)2 through the exothermic reaction CaO(s) + H2O(l)-Ca(OH)2(aq). We measured the temperature difference in the water until a maximum value is reached; this value represents the reactivity of the produced slaked lime. Chemical composition and reactivity estimation were done following European Standards EN-459-2. The reactivity of quick lime depends on various factors with the most important being the internal structure of the limestone, calcination temperature/duration applied to the limestone, the admixtures such as the MgO content, hard-burned phenomena etc. The treatment of the experimental results suggests the following: i) The (CaO+MgO)Lime value have similar variation for both samples calcined at temperatures of 1050oC (58-90 wt%) and 1200oC (57-94 wt%); whereas the samples calcined at 900oC share a small (CaO+MgO)Lime value (5-17wt%). ii) The limestones calcined at 9000C have the lowest reactivity values in oppose to the samples calcined at 10500C which show the highest reactivity. The temperature rise of the limestone samples calcined at 12000C was lower than that of the 10500C. iii) At constant reactivity rate the water required to complete hydration is lower; for example, the quick lime calcined at temperature of 10500C needs much less water for hydration relative to the equivalent samples at 12000C. A thorough interpretation of our results suggest that the low reactivity values for the samples calcined at 9000C could be due to the low calcination temperature or the calcination time of 30 min was too short to produce enough lime. The differences in hydraulic behavior of the samples calcined at higher temperatures of 12000C probably indicates that the structure of quick lime becomes more dense and compact and the grains recrystallized tending to become larger, leading to reduction of the existing pore space. Consequently, the hydration process cannot entirely proceed into the interior mass of the quick lime requiring more time to be accomplished.

Leontakianakos, George; Baziotis, Ioannis; Kiousis, George; Giavis, Dimitrios; Tsimas, Stamatios

2010-05-01

30

Modeling the calcite Lysocline  

Microsoft Academic Search

A numerical model of calcite dissolution in contact with sediment pore water is used to predict the depth and shape of the calcite lysocline in the deep sea. Model results are compared with lysocline data from 13 regions in the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. The model lysocline shape is sensitive to the calcite dissolution rate constant, the calcite, organic

David Archer

1991-01-01

31

Thermogravimetric and X-ray powder diffraction analysis of precipitator dust from a rotating lime kiln  

Microsoft Academic Search

Precipitator dust was sampled from kilns six and seven of the Lime Acres plant, South Africa, and a mixture analysed for its chemical composition. It mainly consists of Si, Al and Ca compounds, with some Mg compounds also present. The phases were determined to be mainly calcite, with some portlandite, lime, CaSO4 anhydrite, mullite and a small amount of carbon.

C. A. Strydom; Q. I. Roode; J. H. Potgieter

1996-01-01

32

Pressure effect on magnesian calcite coating calcite and synthetic magnesian calcite seeds added to seawater in a closed system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When pure crystalline calcite seeds are added to supersaturated seawater, precipitation results in a coating which with time equilibrates at atmospheric pressure with seawater and corresponds to a calcite containing probably only 2 or 3% of MgCO 3 (mole fraction). If synthetic crystalline magnesian calcite is added, the surface layer equilibrates not only with respect to seawater but also in relation with the crystalline sites initiating precipitation. Adding Mg 0.03Ca 0.97CO 3 results in a coating with a solubility close to that of calcite. This confirms that the surface coating on pure calcite seeds contains about 2 or 3% MgCO 3 ( K' sp = 10-6.30). The surface layer precipitated on a synthetic Mg 0.08Ca 0.92CO 3 equilibrates finally with a carbonate more soluble than calcite ( K' sp = 10-5.94) corresponding to the seeds composition. Experiments at 1000 kg cm t-2 imply that when magnesian calcites are precipitated at the surface of calcite or magnesian calcite seeds, the precipitate must be hydrated, otherwise pressure accelerated recrystallization or rearrangement with loss of Mg would thermodynamically be impossible. By changing the pressure of a seawater sample originally saturated with a solid carbonate phase, changes in pH result from the effect of pressure on the dissociation constants of carbonic acid and boric acid causing either undersaturation or supersaturation with respect to the solid. By changing pressure we can show whether precipitation, dissolution and recrystallization are reversible processes if pH is taken as criteria of reversibility.

Koch, B.; Disteche, A.

1984-03-01

33

Kinetics of the reaction of iron blast furnace slag/hydrated lime sorbents with SO{sub 2} at low temperatures: effects of the presence of CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and NOx  

SciTech Connect

The effects of the presence of CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and NOx in the flue gas on the kinetics of the sulfation of blast furnace slag/hydrated lime sorbents at low temperatures were studied using a differential fixed-bed reactor. When O{sub 2} and NOx were not present simultaneously, the reaction kinetics was about the same as that under the gas mixtures containing SO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and N{sub 2} only, being affected mainly by the relative humidity. The sulfation of sorbents can be described by the surface coverage model and the model equations derived for the latter case. When both O{sub 2} and NOx, were present, the sulfation of sorbents was greatly enhanced, forming a great amount of sulfate in addition to sulfite. The surface coverage model is still valid in this case, but the model equations obtained show a more marked effect of relative humidity and negligible effects of SO{sub 2} concentration and temperature on the reaction. The effect of sorbent composition on the reaction kinetics was entirely represented by the effects of the initial specific surface area (S{sub g0}) and the Ca molar content (M{sup -1}) of sorbent. The initial conversion rate of sorbent increased linearly with increasing S{sub g0}, and the ultimate conversion increased linearly with increasing S{sub g0}M{sup -1}. The model equations obtained in this work are applicable to describe the kinetics of the sulfation of the sorbents in the low-temperature dry and semidry fine gas desulfurization processes either with an upstream NOx, removal unit or without.111

Liu, C.F.; Shih, S.M. [Industrial Technological Research Institute, Hsinchu (Taiwan)

2009-09-15

34

Efficiency of natural calcite precipitation compared to lake marl application used for water quality improvement in an eutrophic lake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the 1980s, several in-lake restoration methods for eutrophied lakes have been developed based on artificially induced calcite precipitation and lime additions. The aim of these measures is to improve water quality and reduce the incidence of cyanobacterial blooms by increasing P adsorption and removal through natural calcite precipitation. The authors compared the relative efficiencies of lake marl application and

Eva Walpersdorf; Thomas Neumann; Doris Stüben

2004-01-01

35

The mechanism of vapor phase hydration of calcium oxide: implications for CO2 capture.  

PubMed

Lime-based sorbents are used for fuel- and flue-gas capture, thereby representing an economic and effective way to reduce CO2 emissions. Their use involves cyclic carbonation/calcination which results in a significant conversion reduction with increasing number of cycles. To reactivate spent CaO, vapor phase hydration is typically performed. However, little is known about the ultimate mechanism of such a hydration process. Here, we show that the vapor phase hydration of CaO formed after calcination of calcite (CaCO3) single crystals is a pseudomorphic, topotactic process, which progresses via an intermediate disordered phase prior to the final formation of oriented Ca(OH)2 nanocrystals. The strong structural control during this solid-state phase transition implies that the microstructural features of the CaO parent phase predetermine the final structural and physicochemical (reactivity and attrition) features of the product hydroxide. The higher molar volume of the product can create an impervious shell around unreacted CaO, thereby limiting the efficiency of the reactivation process. However, in the case of compact, sintered CaO structures, volume expansion cannot be accommodated in the reduced pore volume, and stress generation leads to pervasive cracking. This favors complete hydration but also detrimental attrition. Implications of these results in carbon capture and storage (CCS) are discussed. PMID:25233236

Kud?acz, Krzysztof; Rodriguez-Navarro, Carlos

2014-10-21

36

High surface area calcite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calcite (CaCO3) is important in many fields—in nature, because it is a component of aquifers, oil reservoirs and prospective CO2 storage sites, and in industry, where it is used in products as diverse as paper, toothpaste, paint, plastic and aspirin. It is difficult to obtain high purity calcite with a high surface area but such material is necessary for industrial applications and for fundamental calcite research. Commercial powder is nearly always contaminated with growth inhibitors such as sugars, citrate or pectin and most laboratory synthesis methods deliver large precipitates, often containing vaterite or aragonite. To address this problem, we (i) adapted the method of carbonating a Ca(OH)2 slurry with CO2 gas to develop the first simple, cheap, safe and reproducible procedure using common laboratory equipment, to obtain calcite that reproducibly had a surface area of 14-17 m2/g and (ii) conducted a thorough characterization of the product. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed nanometer scale, rhombohedral crystals. X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and infrared spectroscopy (IR) confirmed highly crystalline, pure calcite that more closely resembles the dimensions of the biogenic calcite produced by algae in coccoliths than other methods for synthesizing calcite. We suggest that this calcite is useful when purity and high surface area are important.

Schultz, L. N.; Andersson, M. P.; Dalby, K. N.; Müter, D.; Okhrimenko, D. V.; Fordsmand, H.; Stipp, S. L. S.

2013-05-01

37

The effects of lime and amines on the aging of asphalts and recycling agents  

E-print Network

amounts of quick lime (CaO) and hydrated lime (Ca(OH),) on SHRP AAA-I and SHRP AAF-1. The second experiment was to determine the effects of three different amines and various amounts of CaO on aged SHRP AAA-I and SHRP AAF-I rejuvenated with ABM-F2, YBF-F2...

Wisneski, Mary Luvola

2012-06-07

38

Molecular Structure of Calcite  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Calcite is an essential mineral in limestone and marble which are used in the building, steel, chemical, and glass industries. It is found in abundance on the earth. Calcite was first produced in translucent ("Iceland Spar") form in the seventeenth century for optical uses. In 1928, William Nicol used it for Polaroid Sunglasses in an effort to deflect the sunlight. Today, calcite has a large number of uses: optical and crystallography research; as a component of animal feed, antacids, statues, and dough strengthener; in the production of paper and photography; and to make mortar, cement, concrete and asphalt.

2002-08-14

39

LIMESTONE AND LIME NEUTRALIZATION OF FERROUS IRON ACID MINE DRAINAGE  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency conducted a 2-yr study on hydrated lime and rock-dust limestone neutralization of acid mine drainage containing ferrous iron at the EPA Crown Mine Drainage Control Field Site near Rivesville, West Virginia. The study investigated optimizat...

40

PRIMARY CALCITE Cfluid << Csolid ~  

E-print Network

to foraminfer nannofossil ooze nannofossil chalk to foraminfer nannofossil chalk nannofossil chalk to foraminfer nannofossil chalk Determinng the fractionation factor between Ca in calcite and Ca in solu- tion is important

Fantle, Matthew

41

4, 961991, 2007 foraminiferal calcite  

E-print Network

BGD 4, 961­991, 2007 Copper in foraminiferal calcite L. J. de Nooijer et al. Title Page Abstract in foraminiferal calcite: results from culturing experiments L. J. de Nooijer, G. J. Reichart, A. Due Copper in foraminiferal calcite L. J. de Nooijer et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction Conclusions

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

42

Uranyl incorporation in natural calcite.  

SciTech Connect

The occurrence of trace amounts of uranyl in natural calcite has posed a long-standing problem in crystal chemistry because of speculation that the size and shape of the uranyl ion may preclude its incorporation in a stable lattice position in calcite. This also defines an important environmental problem because of its bearing on the transport and sequestration of uranyl released from nuclear facilities and uranium mining operations. Calcite is a nearly ubiquitous mineral in soils and groundwater aquifers. X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence microprobe studies of uranium in relatively U-rich {approx}13700-year-old calcite from a speleothem in northernmost Italy indicate substitution of uranyl for a calcium and two adjacent carbonate ions in calcite. These new data imply that uranyl has a stable lattice position in natural calcite, indicating that it may be reliably sequestered in calcite over long time scales.

Kelly, S. D.; Newville, M. G.; Cheng, L.; Kemner, K. M.; Sutton, S. R.; Fenter, P.; Sturchio, N. C.; Spotl, C.; Environmental Research; Univ. of Chicago; Univ. of Illiois at Chicago; Univ. of Innsbruck

2003-01-01

43

Hydrate detection  

SciTech Connect

Project objectives were: (1) to create methods of analyzing gas hydrates in natural sea-floor sediments, using available data, (2) to make estimates of the amount of gas hydrates in marine sediments, (3) to map the distribution of hydrates, (4) to relate concentrations of gas hydrates to natural processes and infer the factors that control hydrate concentration or that result in loss of hydrate from the sea floor. (VC)

Dillon, W.P.; Ahlbrandt, T.S.

1992-01-01

44

Hydrate detection  

SciTech Connect

Project objectives were: (1) to create methods of analyzing gas hydrates in natural sea-floor sediments, using available data, (2) to make estimates of the amount of gas hydrates in marine sediments, (3) to map the distribution of hydrates, (4) to relate concentrations of gas hydrates to natural processes and infer the factors that control hydrate concentration or that result in loss of hydrate from the sea floor. (VC)

Dillon, W.P.; Ahlbrandt, T.S.

1992-06-01

45

Liming Terminology and Analysis  

E-print Network

Liming Terminology and Analysis Carrie Laboski University of Wisconsin-Madison Soil Science #12 mesh Michigan ­ 8, 60 mesh #12;Effect of Particle Size on Soil pH over 3 years Figure 3-10 from Havlin., 2005To raise soil pH to 7.0 #12;Wisconsin #12;Total Fineness Efficiency in IA Sieve % of Particles

Balser, Teri C.

46

Defining reactive sites on hydrated mineral surfaces: Rhombohedral carbonate minerals  

E-print Network

on the structural properties of the hydrated (10.4) cleav- age calcite surface, this mineral was chosenDefining reactive sites on hydrated mineral surfaces: Rhombohedral carbonate minerals Adria properties of mineral surfaces, their construct is sometimes incompatible with fundamental chemical and

Long, Bernard

47

Lime-induced phytophotodermatitis  

PubMed Central

This case describes a scenario of lime-induced phytophotodermatitis. Phytophotodermatitis is a dermatitis caused after the skin is exposed to photosensitizing compounds in plants and then exposed to sunlight. Many common plants including citrus fruits, celery, and wild parsnip contain these photosensitizing compounds which cause phytophotodermatitis. It is important for a physician to be aware of phytophotodermatitis because it may often be misdiagnosed as other skin conditions including fungal infection, cellulitis, allergic contact dermatitis, and even child abuse. PMID:25317269

Hankinson, Andrew; Lloyd, Benjamin; Alweis, Richard

2014-01-01

48

Lime-induced phytophotodermatitis.  

PubMed

This case describes a scenario of lime-induced phytophotodermatitis. Phytophotodermatitis is a dermatitis caused after the skin is exposed to photosensitizing compounds in plants and then exposed to sunlight. Many common plants including citrus fruits, celery, and wild parsnip contain these photosensitizing compounds which cause phytophotodermatitis. It is important for a physician to be aware of phytophotodermatitis because it may often be misdiagnosed as other skin conditions including fungal infection, cellulitis, allergic contact dermatitis, and even child abuse. PMID:25317269

Hankinson, Andrew; Lloyd, Benjamin; Alweis, Richard

2014-01-01

49

COMBINATION LIMESTONE-LIME NEUTRALIZATION OF FERROUS IRON ACID MINE DRAINAGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Studies were conducted on ferrous-iron acid mine drainage (AMD) treatment by a two-step neutralization process in which rock-dust limestone was mixed with the influent AMD and then hydrated lime was added in a polishing reactor. This combination treatment process resulted in reag...

50

Setting process of lime-based conservation mortars with barium hydroxide  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the effect of barium hydroxide on the setting mechanism of lime-based conservation mortars, when used as an additive material. The study focuses on the monitoring of the setting process and the identification of the mineral phases formed, which are essential for furthering the study of the durability of barium mixtures against chemical degradation. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermal analysis (DTA-TG) were used to monitor the setting processes of these mixtures and identify new phases formed. The results suggest that barium hydroxide is evenly distributed within the lime and produces a homogeneous binding material, consisting of calcite (CaCO{sub 3}), witherite (BaCO{sub 3}) and barium-calcium carbonate [BaCa(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}]. Finally, it was found that barium carbonate can be directly bonded to calcitic aggregates and therefore increases its chemical compatibility with the binding material.

Karatasios, Ioannis [Institute of Materials Science, NCSR Demokritos, Aghia Paraskevi, 153 10 Athens (Greece)]. E-mail: ikarat@ims.demokritos.gr; Kilikoglou, Vassilis [Institute of Materials Science, NCSR Demokritos, Aghia Paraskevi, 153 10 Athens (Greece); Colston, Belinda [Department of Forensic and Biomedical Sciences, University of Lincoln, Lincoln, LN6 7TS (United Kingdom); Theoulakis, Panagiotis [Department of Conservation of Antiquities and Works of Art, TEI of Athens, Athens, 122 10 (Greece); Watt, David [Hutton and Rostron Environmental Investigations Limited/Centre for Sustainable Heritage, University College London (United Kingdom)

2007-06-15

51

Evolution and the Calcite Eye Lens  

E-print Network

Calcite is a uniaxial, birefringent crystal, which in its optically transparent form, has been used for animal eye lenses, the trilobite being one such animal. Because of the calcite birefringence there is a difficulty in using calcite as a lens. When the propagation direction of incoming light is not exactly on the c-axis, the mages blur. In this paper, calcite blurring is evaluated, and the non-blurring by a crystallin eye lens is compared to a calcite one.

Williams, Vernon L

2013-01-01

52

Evolution and the Calcite Eye Lens  

E-print Network

Calcite is a uniaxial, birefringent crystal, which in its optically transparent form, has been used for animal eye lenses, the trilobite being one such animal. Because of the calcite birefringence there is a difficulty in using calcite as a lens. When the propagation direction of incoming light is not exactly on the c-axis, the mages blur. In this paper, calcite blurring is evaluated, and the non-blurring by a crystallin eye lens is compared to a calcite one.

Vernon L. Williams

2013-04-03

53

A study on engineering characteristics of asphalt concrete using filler with recycled waste lime.  

PubMed

This study focuses on determining the engineering characteristics of asphalt concrete using mineral fillers with recycled waste lime, which is a by-product of the production of soda ash (Na(2)CO(3)). The materials tested in this study were made using a 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% mixing ratio based on the conventional mineral filler ratio to analyze the possibility of using recycled waste lime. The asphalt concretes, made of recycled waste lime, hydrated lime, and conventional asphalt concrete, were evaluated through their fundamental engineering properties such as Marshall stability, indirect tensile strength, resilient modulus, permanent deformation characteristics, moisture susceptibility, and fatigue resistance. The results indicate that the application of recycled waste lime as mineral filler improves the permanent deformation characteristics, stiffness and fatigue endurance of asphalt concrete at the wide range of temperatures. It was also determined that the mixtures with recycled waste lime showed higher resistance against stripping than conventional asphalt concrete. It was concluded from various test results that a waste lime can be used as mineral filler and, especially, can greatly improve the resistance of asphalt concrete to permanent deformation at high temperatures. PMID:17408942

Sung Do, Hwang; Hee Mun, Park; Suk keun, Rhee

2008-01-01

54

Adhesion force between cyclopentane hydrate and mineral surfaces.  

PubMed

Clathrate hydrate adhesion forces play a critical role in describing aggregation and deposition behavior in conventional energy production and transportation. This manuscript uses a unique micromechanical force apparatus to measure the adhesion force between cyclopentane hydrate and heterogeneous quartz and calcite substrates. The latter substrates represent models for coproduced sand and scale often present during conventional energy production and transportation. Micromechanical adhesion force data indicate that clathrate hydrate adhesive forces are 5-10× larger for calcite and quartz minerals than stainless steel. Adhesive forces further increased by 3-15× when increasing surface contact time from 10 to 30 s. In some cases, liquid water from within the hydrate shell contacted the mineral surface and rapidly converted to clathrate hydrate. Further measurements on mineral surfaces with physical control of surface roughness showed a nonlinear dependence of water wetting angle on surface roughness. Existing adhesive force theory correctly predicted the dependence of clathrate hydrate adhesive force on calcite wettability, but did not accurately capture the dependence on quartz wettability. This comparison suggests that the substrate surface may not be inert, and may contribute positively to the strength of the capillary bridge formed between hydrate particles and solid surfaces. PMID:24266729

Aman, Zachary M; Leith, William J; Grasso, Giovanny A; Sloan, E Dendy; Sum, Amadeu K; Koh, Carolyn A

2013-12-17

55

A multi-phase kinetic model to simulate hydration of slag–cement blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ground granulated blast furnace slag, which shows cementitious behavior (latent hydraulic activity) and pozzolanic characteristics (reaction with lime), has been widely used as a mineral admixture in normal and high strength concretes. Hydration of slag–blended cement is much more complex than that of ordinary Portland cement because of the mutual interactions between the cement hydration and the slag reaction. This

Xiao-Yong Wang; Han-Seung Lee; Ki-Bong Park; Jae-Jun Kim; Jay S. Golden

2010-01-01

56

A thermodynamic approach to the hydration of sulphate-resisting Portland cement  

SciTech Connect

A thermodynamic approach is used to model changes in the hydrate assemblage and the composition of the pore solution during the hydration of calcite-free and calcite-containing sulphate-resisting Portland cement CEM I 52.5 N HTS. Modelling is based on thermodynamic data for the hydration products and calculated hydration rates for the individual clinker phases, which are used as time-dependent input parameters. Model predictions compare well with the composition of the hydrate assemblage as observed by TGA and semi-quantitative XRD and with the experimentally determined compositions of the pore solutions. The calculations show that in the presence of small amounts of calcite typically associated with Portland cement, C-S-H, portlandite, ettringite and calcium monocarbonate are the main hydration products. In the absence of calcite in the cement, however, siliceous hydrogarnet instead of calcium monocarbonate is observed to precipitate. The use of a higher water-to-cement ratio for the preparation of a calcite-containing cement paste has a minor effect on the composition of the hydrate assemblage, while it significantly changes the composition of the pore solution. In particular, lower pH value and higher Ca concentrations appear that could potentially influence the solubility and uptake of heavy metals and anions by cementitious materials.

Lothenbach, Barbara [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, Laboratory for Concrete and Construction Chemistry, Uberlandstrasse 129, 8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland)]. E-mail: barbara.lothenbach@empa.ch; Wieland, Erich [Paul Scherrer Institute, Nuclear Energy and Safety Department, Laboratory for Waste Management, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

2006-07-01

57

The role of background electrolytes on the kinetics and mechanism of calcite dissolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of background electrolytes on the mechanism and kinetics of calcite dissolution was investigated using in situ Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Experiments were carried out far from equilibrium by passing alkali halide salt (NaCl, NaF, NaI, KCl and LiCl) solutions over calcite cleavage surfaces. This AFM study shows that all the electrolytes tested enhance the calcite dissolution rate. The effect and its magnitude is determined by the nature and concentration of the electrolyte solution. Changes in morphology of dissolution etch pits and dissolution rates are interpreted in terms of modification in water structure dynamics (i.e. in the activation energy barrier of breaking water-water interactions), as well as solute and surface hydration induced by the presence of different ions in solution. At low ionic strength, stabilization of water hydration shells of calcium ions by non-paired electrolytes leads to a reduction in the calcite dissolution rate compared to pure water. At high ionic strength, salts with a common anion yield similar dissolution rates, increasing in the order Cl - < I - < F - for salts with a common cation due to an increasing mobility of water around the calcium ion. Changes in etch pit morphology observed in the presence of F - and Li + are explained by stabilization of etch pit edges bonded by like-charged ions and ion incorporation, respectively. As previously reported and confirmed here for the case of F -, highly hydrated ions increased the etch pit nucleation density on calcite surfaces compared to pure water. This may be related to a reduction in the energy barrier for etch pit nucleation due to disruption of the surface hydration layer.

Ruiz-Agudo, E.; Kowacz, M.; Putnis, C. V.; Putnis, A.

2010-02-01

58

Carbon13 fractionation between aragonite and calcite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aragonite and calcite were precipitated from bicarbonate solutions by slow removal of carbon dioxide at 25°C. Carbon isotope fractionation factors (expressed as 1000 ln ) are: calcite-bicarbonate ion 0.9 ± 0.2; aragonite-bicarbonate ion 2.7 ± 0.2; aragonite-calcite 1.8 ± 0.2. Theoretical calculation of the aragonite-calcite fractionation gives 0.9.

Michael Rubinson; Robert N. Clayton

1969-01-01

59

Is calcite (1014) a chiral surface? Open Questions Is Calcite (1014) a Chiral Surface?  

E-print Network

Is calcite (1014) a chiral surface? Open Questions Is Calcite (1014) a Chiral Surface? Philipp of the most stable calcite (1014) surface is achiral due to a glide plane symmetry,[14] the existence properties of the calcite (1014) surface, unambigu- ously concluding that the bulk-truncated surface

Kühnle, Angelika

60

Authigenic carbonates from the Cascadia subduction zone and their relation to gas hydrate stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Authigenic carbonates are intercalated with massive gas hydrates in sediments of the Cascadia margin. The deposits were recovered from the uppermost 50 cm of sediments on the southern summit of the Hydrate Ridge during the RV Sonne cruise SO110. Two carbonate lithologies that differ in chemistry, mineralogy, and fabric make up these deposits. Microcrystalline high-magnesium calcite (14 to 19 mol%

Gerhard Bohrmann; Jens Greinert; Erwin Suess; Marta Torres

1998-01-01

61

BACTERIALLY-INDUCED DISSOLUTION OF CALCITE  

E-print Network

BACTERIALLY-INDUCED DISSOLUTION OF CALCITE: THE ROLE OF BACTERIA IN LIMESTONE WEATHERING Fatimah The interaction between microorganisms and the calcite mineral surface in aqueous solutions, under earth surface and metabolism increase the dissolution rates of calcite crystals and alter their surfaces in solution. A natural

62

Nanostructured Calcite Single Crystals with Gyroid Morphologies  

E-print Network

Nanostructured Calcite Single Crystals with Gyroid Morphologies By Alexander S. Finnemore, Maik R of which has a complex, sponge-like structure, and yet is a single crystal of calcite.[2] In contrast calcite crystals. Biologically controlled mineralization depends on the interplay between a number

Steiner, Ullrich

63

5, 123, 2008 Calcite dissolution by  

E-print Network

BGD 5, 1­23, 2008 Calcite dissolution by microzooplankton and copepod grazing A. N. Antia et al of coccolithophorid calcite by microzooplankton and copepod grazing A. N. Antia 1 , K. Suffrian 1 , L. Holste 2 , M. N (aantia@ifm-geomar.de) 1 #12;BGD 5, 1­23, 2008 Calcite dissolution by microzooplankton and copepod grazing

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

64

Precipitation of different calcite crystal morphologies in the presence of sodium stearate.  

PubMed

The influence of sodium stearate (NaSt) on the precipitation of calcium carbonate during the semicontinuous process of slaked lime carbonation was studied in the systems in which process parameters, like concentration of total dissolved calcium, temperature, CO(2) flow rate and initial addition rate of slaked lime, were controlled. It was found that calcite was the only calcium carbonate polymorph that appeared under the investigated experimental conditions, while FT-IR spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis of samples confirmed the presence of stearate on the surface of precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC). Specific surface area of PCC increased with increasing stearate content: the highest value, s = 52.8 m(2) g(-1), was obtained at t = 20 degrees C, c(tot) = 17.0 mmol dm(-3) and the stearate content of m(NaSt)/m(CaO) = 0.03. It was also found that hydrophobic calcite crystals in the form of rhombohedral and scalenohedral morphology can be produced at m(NaSt)/m(CaO) > 0.01. The exception is the case of nanosized PCC production, when much higher concentration of NaSt is needed, m(NaSt)/m(CaO) = 0.22. Minimal amount of stearate necessary to build up the monolayer and corresponding cross sectional area of one stearate molecule were estimated for the obtained calcite morphologies. PMID:18848702

Ukrainczyk, Marko; Kontrec, Jasminka; Kralj, Damir

2009-01-01

65

The Needs of Texas Soils for Lime.  

E-print Network

TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS W. B. BIZZELL, President BULLETIN NO. 243 MARCH, 1919 DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY THE NEED OF TEXAS SOILS FOR LIME B. YOUNGBLOOD, DIRECTOR COLLEGE STATION, BRtl... Department of Agriculture. STS PAGE ............................................. What lime does 5 ............................................. Acidity of soils 7 ............................................. Sources of lime 8...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

1919-01-01

66

Calcite precipitation by marine bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcite precipitation occurs when trimethylamino?N?oxide and medium are added to surface waters collected above Lodestone and Keeper Reefs of the Great Barrier Reef. The calcium content of the water was initially 430 ppm. After 30 days incubation at 28 °C, the pH had risen and only 90 ppm of calcium remained in solution. The precipitate was analyzed by X?ray diffraction

Richard Y. Morita

1980-01-01

67

A model for trace metal sorption processes at the calcite surface: Adsorption of Cd2+ and subsequent solid solution formation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The rate of Cd2+ sorption by calcite was determined as a function of pH and Mg2+ in aqueous solutions saturated with respect to calcite but undersaturated with respect to CdCO3. The sorption is characterized by two reaction steps, with the first reaching completion within 24 hours. The second step proceeded at a slow and nearly constant rate for at least 7 days. The rate of calcite recrystallization was also studied, using a Ca2+ isotopic exchange technique. Both the recrystallization rate of calcite and the rate of slow Cd2+ sorption decrease with increasing pH or with increasing Mg2+. The recrystallization rate could be predicted from the number of moles of Ca present in the hydrated surface layer. A model is presented which is consistent with the rates of Cd2+ sorption and Ca2+ isotopic exchange. In the model, the first step in Cd2+ sorption involves a fast adsorption reaction that is followed by diffusion of Cd2+ into a surface layer of hydrated CaCO3 that overlies crystalline calcite. Desorption of Cd2+ from the hydrated layer is slow. The second step is solid solution formation in new crystalline material, which grows from the disordered mixture of Cd and Ca carbonate in the hydrated surface layer. Calculated distribution coefficients for solid solutions formed at the surface are slightly greater than the ratio of equilibrium constants for dissolution of calcite and CdCO3, which is the value that would be expected for an ideal solid solution in equilibrium with the aqueous solution. ?? 1987.

Davis, J.A.; Fuller, C.C.; Cook, A.D.

1987-01-01

68

Lime application for the efficient production of nutraceutical glucooligosaccharides from Leuconostoc mesenteroides NRRL B-742 (ATCC13146).  

PubMed

We have previously demonstrated the production of glucooligosaccharides via a fermentation of sucrose with Leuconostoc mesenteroides NRRL B-742 using sodium hydroxide (NaOH) to control the pH. Because NaOH is expensive, we sought to minimize the cost of our process by substituting hydrated lime and saccharate of lime (lime sucrate) in its place. The yield of glucooligosaccharides using either 5 % lime (41.4 ± 0.5 g/100 g) or 5 % lime sucrate (40.0 ± 1.4 g/100 g) were both similar to the NaOH control (42.4 ± 1.5 g/100 g). Based on this, it appears that the cost associated with pH control in our process can be reduced by a factor of approximately 2.4 using lime instead of NaOH. Because our chromatographic stage is based on a Ca(2+)-form resin to separate glucooligosaccharides, the use of lime not only negates the need for costly de-salting via ion-exchange (elimination of two ion-exchange sections) prior to separation, but also greatly reduces the resin regeneration cost. PMID:25533635

Moon, Young Hwan; Madsen, Lee; Chung, Chang-Ho; Kim, Doman; Day, Donal F

2015-02-01

69

LIMESTONE PARTICLE SIZE AND RESIDUAL LIME CONCENTRATION AFFECT PH BUFFERING IN CONTAINER SUBSTRATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective was to quantify how the concentration and particle size of unreacted “residual” limestone affected pH buffering capacity for ten commercial and nine research container substrates that varied in residual calcium carbonate equivalents (CCE) from 0.3 to 4.9 g CCE·L. The nine research substrates contained 70% peat:30% perlite (by volume) with dolomitic hydrated lime at 2.1 g·L, followed by

Jinsheng Huang; Paul R. Fisher; W. E. Horner; William R. Argo

2010-01-01

70

Simulating Succinate-Promoted Dissolution at Calcite {104} Steps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic molecules of a wide range of molecular weights from small organic acids, amino-acids, acidic peptides and acidic proteins to humic and fulvic acids play a key role in modulating nucleation, crystal growth and dissolution of calcium carbonate polymorphs. In general, these acidic molecules inhibit calcite growth and, promote dissolution preferentially along specific crystallographic directions, in the process, regulating crystal shape and size, and even whether a metastable polymorph (e.g., vaterite or aragonite) is nucleated first. For example, chiral faces of calcite are selected by chiral amino-acids and the unusual {hk0} faces are expressed in the presence of amino-acids [Orme et al., 2001], and unusual heptagonal dissolution etch-pit are seen in the presence of succinate compared to the normal rhombohedral pits in water alone [Teng et al., 2006]. Thus, the presence of unusual crystal morphologies may indicate organic-mediated growth, thus serving as a biosignature. We have conducted the Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations using the Consistent Valence Force Field (CVFF) as implemented in the FORCITE© module of the Materials Studio © software package (Accelrys, Inc. TM) to model the adsorption of succinate, a dicarboxylic acid, and charge- balancing Na+ ions on dry and hydrated steps in different directions on the {104} cleavage face of calcite [Mkhonto and Sahai, in prep.]. At the site of succinate adsorption, we find elongation of the interatomic distances (Ca-OCO3,i) between surface Ca2+ cation and the oxygen of the underlying inorganic CO32- anion the first surface layer of calcite, compared to the corresponding distances in the presence of water alone, suggesting greater ease of surface Ca2+ detachment. This result is consistent with the empirically observed increase in overall dissolution rate with succinate [Teng et al., 2006]. Furthermore, succinate adsorption lowers the step energies, which explains the appearance of steps in the unsusual [42-1] and [010] directions in the presence of succinate as observed by Atomic Force Microscopy [Teng et al., 2006]. Finally, the calculated succinate adsorption energies at hydrated steps decreases in the sequence [-441] > [42-1] > [010], which also corresponds to the sequence of steps opening at dissolution etch-pits in the presence of succinate [Teng et al., 2006]. Our study provides a strong example of the utility of MD simulations in exploring organic-mediated mineral crystal dissolution (and growth) mechanisms, resulting in unusual morphologies, that may serve as biosignatures on Earth, and potentially on Mars and other worlds.

Mkhonto, D.; Sahai, N.

2008-12-01

71

Shock-induced devolatilization of calcite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental measurements of the release adiabats by Vizgirda (1981) indicate that substantial vaporization takes place upon release from shock pressures of 37 GPa for calcite and 14 GPa for aragonite. The present investigation includes the first controlled partial vaporization experiments on calcite. The experiments were conducted to test the predictions of the release adiabat experiments. The quantities of the gaseous species produced from shocked calcite and their carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions were determined, and the shock-induced effect on the Mn(2+) electron spin resonance spectrum in the shock-recovered calcite was observed. On the basis of the obtained results, it is concluded that shock stresses at the 17-18 GPa level give rise to volatilization of 0.03-0.3 (mole) percent of calcite to CO2 and CO. The devolatilization of calcite occurs at low pressure at significantly lower entropy densities than predicted on the basis of thermodynamic continuum models.

Boslough, M. B.; Ahrens, T. J.; Vizgirda, J.; Becker, R. H.; Epstein, S.

1982-01-01

72

Geochemical controls on a calcite precipitating spring  

Microsoft Academic Search

A small spring fed stream was found to precipitate calcite by mainly inorganic processes and in a nonuniform manner. The spring water originated by rainwater falling in a 0.8 km2 basin, infiltrating, and dissolving calcite and dolomite followed by dissolution of gypsum or anhydrite. The Ca2+\\/Mg2+ indicates that calcite is probably precipitated in the subsurface from a supersaturated solution. This

Roger L. Jacobson; Eberhard Usdowski

1975-01-01

73

Specific effects of background electrolytes on the kinetics of step propagation during calcite growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanisms by which background electrolytes modify the kinetics of non-equivalent step propagation during calcite growth were investigated using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), at constant driving force and solution stoichiometry. Our results suggest that the acute step spreading rate is controlled by kink-site nucleation and, ultimately, by the dehydration of surface sites, while the velocity of obtuse step advancement is mainly determined by hydration of calcium ions in solution. According to our results, kink nucleation at acute steps could be promoted by carbonate-assisted calcium attachment. The different sensitivity of obtuse and acute step propagation kinetics to cation and surface hydration could be the origin of the reversed geometries of calcite growth hillocks (i.e., rate of obtuse step spreading < rate of acute step spreading) observed in concentrated (ionic strength, IS = 0.1) KCl and CsCl solutions. At low IS (0.02), ion-specific effects seem to be mainly associated with changes in the solvation environment of calcium ions in solution. With increasing electrolyte concentration, the stabilization of surface water by weakly paired salts appears to become increasingly important in determining step spreading rate. At high ionic strength (IS = 0.1), overall calcite growth rates increased with increasing hydration of calcium in solution (i.e., decreasing ion pairing of background electrolytes for sodium-bearing salts) and with decreasing hydration of the carbonate surface site (i.e., increasing ion pairing for chloride-bearing salts). Changes in growth hillock morphology were observed in the presence of Li +, F - and SO42-, and can be interpreted as the result of the stabilization of polar surfaces due to increased ion hydration. These results increase our ability to predict crystal reactivity in natural fluids which contain significant amounts of solutes.

Ruiz-Agudo, Encarnación; Putnis, Christine V.; Wang, Lijun; Putnis, Andrew

2011-07-01

74

Trace concentration - Huge impact: Nitrate in the calcite/Eu(III) system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interactions of trivalent lanthanides and actinides with secondary mineral phases such as calcite is of high importance for the safety assessment of deep geological repositories for high level nuclear waste (HLW). Due to similar ionic radii, calcium-bearing mineral phases are suitable host minerals for Ln(III) and An(III) ions. Especially calcite has been proven to retain these metal ions effectively by both surface complexation and bulk incorporation. Since anionic ligands (e.g., nitrate) are omnipresent in the geological environment and due to their coordinating properties, their influence on retentive processes should not be underestimated. Nitrate is a common contaminant in most HLW forms as a result of using nitric acid in fuel reprocessing. It is also formed by microbial activity under aerobic conditions. In this study, atomic force microscopy investigations revealed a major influence of nitrate upon the surface of calcite crystals. NaNO3 causes serious modifications even in trace amounts (<10-7 M) and forms a soft surface layer of low crystallinity on top of the calcite crystal. Time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy of Eu(III) showed that, within this layer, Eu(III) ions are incorporated, while losing most of their hydration shell. The results show that solid solution modelling for actinides in calcite must take into account the presence of nitrate in pore and ground waters.

Hofmann, Sascha; Voïtchovsky, Kislon; Schmidt, Moritz; Stumpf, Thorsten

2014-01-01

75

SOIL INFORMATION Last Lime Application  

E-print Network

Industrial Lawns - Bermudagrass Routine (soil pH, P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Mn, Cu, Fe, B, and estimated CEC) $10SOIL INFORMATION Last Lime Application Months Previous Rate Tons/Acre ­ 0 ­ 6 7 ­ 12 13 ­ 18 19+ 0 0.1 ­ 1.0 1.1 ­ 2.0 2.1 ­ 3.0 3.1+ Soil Sample Information Sheet for Golf Courses and Industrial

Liskiewicz, Maciej

76

Atomistic Simulations of Corrosion Inhibitors Adsorbed on Calcite Surfaces I. Force field Parameters for Calcite  

E-print Network

ARTICLES Atomistic Simulations of Corrosion Inhibitors Adsorbed on Calcite Surfaces I. Force field Parameters for Calcite Sungu Hwang, Mario Blanco, and William A. Goddard III* Materials and Process, 2001 We report a new force field for calcite suitable to study scale formation and squeeze treatments

Goddard III, William A.

77

Lime for environmental uses. STP 931  

SciTech Connect

This book STP 931 discusses the use of lime and industrial limestone for the control of factors that influence the environment - including the treatment of gaseous, liquid, and solid wastes. Current research shows that lime is one of the key chemicals that can help solve the problem of air, water, and land pollution. Topics covered are: the many environmental uses of lime including water treatment, sewage and industrial waste treatment, and the scrubbing of sulfur dioxide from power plant gases; various lime types and the engineering considerations in the design of lime handling systems; a hazardous waste incident where the waste was solidified with quicklime and lime kiln dust for burial; the growing use of lime and fly-ash for stabilizing scrubber sludges produced in wet scrubbing installations at more than 20 power plants in the United States; use of lime for stabilizing sewage sludge for land fill disposal; neutralization of calcium and magnesium calcium hydroxides through the use of carbon dioxide; and lime stabilization of expansive clays and silty clays for use in earth dams, irrigation canals, and levees.

Gutschick, K.A. (Ed.)

1987-01-01

78

Fly ash chemical classification based on lime  

SciTech Connect

Typically, total lime content (CaO) of fly ash is shown in fly ash reports, but its significance is not addressed in US specifications. For certain applications a low lime ash is preferred. When a class C fly ash must be cementitious, lime content above 20% is required. A ternary S-A-C phase diagram pilot is given showing the location of fly ash compositions by coal rank and source in North America. Fly ashes from subbituminous coal from the Powder River Basin usually contain sufficient lime to be cementitious but blending with other coals may result in calcium being present in phases other than tricalcium aluminate. 9 refs., 1 fig.

Fox, J. [BASF Construction Chemicals, LLC (United States)

2007-07-01

79

Step dynamics and spiral growth on calcite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present novel in situ observations of the dynamics of monomolecular growth steps on calcite. Steps do not interact at separations of [approximately]10 nm and above, indicating that surface diffusion does not control calcite growth. Instead, steps advance by material addition from solution onto step sites or a narrow adjacent zone. Step nucleation is primarily at growth spirals, and

A. J. Gratz; P. E. Hillner; P. K. Hansma

1993-01-01

80

HEMATITE AND CALCITE COATINGS ON FOSSIL VERTEBRATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hematite coatings are common on vertebrate fossils from Paleocene\\/Eocene paleosol deposits in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming. In general, hematite coatings are found only on fossils and are limited to soils exhibiting hydromorphic features and moderate maturity. Pet- rographic and isotopic evidence suggests that hematite and micritic calcite formed at nearly the same time in a pedogenic environment, whereas sparry calcite

HUIMING BAO; PAUL L. KOCH; ROBERT P. HEPPLE

81

46 CFR 148.230 - Calcium oxide (lime, unslaked).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Calcium oxide (lime, unslaked). 148.230...for Certain Materials § 148.230 Calcium oxide (lime, unslaked). (a) When transported by barge, unslaked lime (calcium oxide) must be carried in an...

2011-10-01

82

46 CFR 148.230 - Calcium oxide (lime, unslaked).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Calcium oxide (lime, unslaked). 148.230...for Certain Materials § 148.230 Calcium oxide (lime, unslaked). (a) When transported by barge, unslaked lime (calcium oxide) must be carried in an...

2012-10-01

83

46 CFR 148.230 - Calcium oxide (lime, unslaked).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Calcium oxide (lime, unslaked). 148.230...for Certain Materials § 148.230 Calcium oxide (lime, unslaked). (a) When transported by barge, unslaked lime (calcium oxide) must be carried in an...

2014-10-01

84

46 CFR 148.230 - Calcium oxide (lime, unslaked).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Calcium oxide (lime, unslaked). 148.230...for Certain Materials § 148.230 Calcium oxide (lime, unslaked). (a) When transported by barge, unslaked lime (calcium oxide) must be carried in an...

2013-10-01

85

Olefin hydration  

SciTech Connect

An improved process for the hydration of olefins to alcohols is described wherein the improvement comprises contacting said olefins with the catalytic composition comprising a perfluorinated ion-exchange polymer containing sulfonic acid groups supported on an inert carrier wherein said carrier comprises calcined shot coke with a mean pore diameter of about 1,000 Angstroms in the presence of water at a temperature of from about 180 C to about 250 C.

Butt, M.H.D.; Waller, F.J.

1993-08-03

86

Lime for environmental uses. STP 931  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book STP 931 discusses the use of lime and industrial limestone for the control of factors that influence the environment - including the treatment of gaseous, liquid, and solid wastes. Current research shows that lime is one of the key chemicals that can help solve the problem of air, water, and land pollution. Topics covered are: the many environmental

Gutschick

1987-01-01

87

Effects of carbonation on the pore structure of non-hydraulic lime mortars  

SciTech Connect

The pore structures of carbonated non-hydraulic lime mortars made with a range of different aggregates and concentrations of lime have been determined using mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP). MIP data have been correlated with scanning electron microscopy images and other porosity data. During carbonation there is an increase in pore volume in the {approx} 0.1 {mu}m pore diameter range across all mortar types which is attributed to the transformation of portlandite to calcite. Also there is a monotonic increase in the volumes of pores with diameters below 0.03 {mu}m. A model is proposed for the changes in pore structure caused by carbonation. This attributes the increase in the volume of sub 0.03 {mu}m pores to the attachment of calcite crystals to the surface of aggregate particles, and in some cases to the surface of portlandite crystals. This phenomenon may explain the continuing presence of portlandite in mortars that, apparently, have fully carbonated.

Lawrence, Robert M. [Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering, University of Bath, BATH, BA2 7AY (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: mike@cc-w.co.uk; Mays, Timothy J. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Bath, BATH, BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Rigby, Sean P. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Bath, BATH, BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Walker, Peter [Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering, University of Bath, BATH, BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); D'Ayala, Dina [Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering, University of Bath, BATH, BA2 7AY (United Kingdom)

2007-07-15

88

The effectiveness of lime-based amendments and bauxite residues at removing phosphorus from piggery effluent.  

PubMed

Piggery effluent may contribute to the eutrophication of waterways, if it is not treated before disposal, because of high levels of phosphorus. Limes and red muds (a residue from bauxite refining) were used to remove phosphorus from piggery effluent (41 mg litre(-1) total P). Lime-based amendments were more effective than the red muds at removing phosphorus when compared at the same liquid: solid ratios. Based on laboratory data, the cost of treating effluent increased rapidly as the final required phosphorus concentration decreased to less than 4 mg litre(-1). Kiln dust was the cheapest amendment tested down to 2 mg litre(-1). Hydrated lime was able to clarify and flocculate the effluent to 1 mg litre(-1) within 60 min. The re-useability of all limes may be determined by a simple pH test. Red mud could be used to remove phosphorus when its pH was lowered to 6.0-6.5 and it is used at liquid:solid ratios <20:1. PMID:15092727

Weaver, D M; Ritchie, G S

1987-01-01

89

Comparison of solidification/stabilization effects of calcite between Australian and South Korean cements  

SciTech Connect

The differences in the effect of calcite on the strength and stability of Pb-rich wastes solidified and stabilized using Australian and South Korean ordinary Portland cements are examined in this study. Pb-rich waste stabilized using Australian OPC has been shown to possess both substantially higher unconfined compressive strength and lead immobilization ability than South Korean OPC as a result of its higher C{sub 3}S content and the associated enhanced degree of precipitation of lead on the surfaces of silicate phases present. Calcite addition is observed to have an accelerating effect on the OPC-induced solidification/stabilization of Pb-rich wastes as gauged by the unconfined compressive strength and leachability of the solids formed. This effect is observed to be far more dramatic for South Korean OPC than for Australian OPC. Using scanning electron microscopy, waste stabilized with cement and calcite was observed to develop significantly greater proportions of hydrated crystals than wastes stabilized with cement alone. The results of X-ray diffraction studies have shown that the presence of calcite in South Korean OPC results in greater acceleration in the formation of portlandite than is the case for Australian OPC.

Lee, Dongjin [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Waite, T. David [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)]. E-mail: d.waite@unsw.edu.au; Swarbrick, Gareth [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Lee, Sookoo [School of Environmental Engineering, Seoul National University of Technology, Nowon-Gu, Seoul, 139-743 (Korea, Republic of)

2005-11-15

90

Influence of Bacillus subtilis Cell Walls and EDTA on Calcite  

E-print Network

Influence of Bacillus subtilis Cell Walls and EDTA on Calcite Dissolution Rates and Crystal Surface features on the calcite {101h4} surface. The calcite dissolution rates are compared at equivalent for by a decrease of the saturation state of the solution with respect to calcite resulting from bonding

Long, Bernard

91

Spectroscopic characterization of natural calcite minerals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The FT-IR, FT-Raman, NMR spectral data of ten different limestone samples have been compared. FT-IR and FT-Raman spectral data show that calcium carbonate in limestone, principally in the form of calcite, as identified by its main absorption bands at 1426, 1092, 876 and 712cm?1. The sharp diffractions at the d-spacings, 3.0348, 1.9166 and 1.8796 confirm the presence of calcite structure

S. Gunasekaran; G. Anbalagan

2007-01-01

92

Diffusion of Ca and Mg in Calcite  

SciTech Connect

The self-diffusion of Ca and the tracer diffusion of Mg in calcite have been experimentally measured using isotopic tracers of {sup 25}Mg and {sup 44}Ca. Natural single crystals of calcite were coated with a thermally-sputtered oxide thin film and then annealed in a CO{sub 2} gas at one atmosphere total pressure and temperatures from 550 to 800 C. Diffusion coefficient values were derived from the depth profiles obtained by ion microprobe analysis. The resultant activation energies for Mg tracer diffusion and Ca self-diffusion are respectively: E{sub a}(Mg) = 284 {+-} 74 kJ/mol and E{sub a}(Ca) = 271 {+-} 80 kJ/mol. For the temperature ranges in these experiments, the diffusion of Mg is faster than Ca. The results are generally consistent in magnitude with divalent cation diffusion rates obtained in previous studies and provide a means of interpreting the thermal histories of carbonate minerals, the mechanism of dolomitization, and other diffusion-controlled processes. The results indicate that cation diffusion in calcite is relatively slow and cations are the rate-limiting diffusing species for the deformation of calcite and carbonate rocks. Application of the calcite-dolomite geothermometer to metamorphic assemblages will be constrained by cation diffusion and cooling rates. The direct measurement of Mg tracer diffusion in calcite indicates that dolomitization is unlikely to be accomplished by Mg diffusion in the solid state but by a recrystallization process.

Cygan, R.T.; Fisler, D.K.

1999-02-10

93

Nickel adsorption on chalk and calcite.  

PubMed

Nickel uptake from solution by two types of chalk and calcite was investigated in batch sorption studies. The goal was to understand the difference in sorption behavior between synthetic and biogenic calcite. Experiments at atmospheric partial pressure of CO2, in solutions equilibrated with calcite and chalk and pH ranging from 7.7 to 8.8, explored the influence of initial concentration and the amount and type of sorbent on Ni uptake. Adsorption increases with increased surface area and pH. A surface complexation model describes the data well. Stability constants for the Ni surface complex are log KNi=-1.12 on calcite and log KNi=-0.43 and -0.50 on the two chalk samples. The study confirms that synthetic calcite and chalk both take up nickel, but Ni binds more strongly on the biogenic calcite than on inorganically precipitated, synthetic powder, because of the presence of trace amounts of polysaccharides and clay nanoparticles on the chalk surface. PMID:25300061

Belova, D A; Lakshtanov, L Z; Carneiro, J F; Stipp, S L S

2014-12-01

94

Nickel adsorption on chalk and calcite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nickel uptake from solution by two types of chalk and calcite was investigated in batch sorption studies. The goal was to understand the difference in sorption behavior between synthetic and biogenic calcite. Experiments at atmospheric partial pressure of CO2, in solutions equilibrated with calcite and chalk and pH ranging from 7.7 to 8.8, explored the influence of initial concentration and the amount and type of sorbent on Ni uptake. Adsorption increases with increased surface area and pH. A surface complexation model describes the data well. Stability constants for the Ni surface complex are log KNi = - 1.12 on calcite and log KNi = - 0.43 and - 0.50 on the two chalk samples. The study confirms that synthetic calcite and chalk both take up nickel, but Ni binds more strongly on the biogenic calcite than on inorganically precipitated, synthetic powder, because of the presence of trace amounts of polysaccharides and clay nanoparticles on the chalk surface.

Belova, D. A.; Lakshtanov, L. Z.; Carneiro, J. F.; Stipp, S. L. S.

2014-12-01

95

Characteristics and reactivity of rapidly hydrated sorbent for semidry flue gas desulfurization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The semidry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process has many advantages over the wet FGD process for moving sulfur dioxide emissions from pulverized coal-fired power plants. Semidry FGD with a rapidly hydrated sorbent was studied in a pilot-scale circulating fluidized bed (CFB) experimental facility. The sorbent was made from lumps of lime and coal fly ash. The desulfurization efficiency was measured

Jie Zhang; Changfu You; Suwei Zhao; Changhe Chen; Haiying Qi

2008-01-01

96

Differentiating between anthropogenic calcite in plaster, ash and natural calcite using infrared spectroscopy: implications in archaeology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infrared spectroscopy provides information not only on the type of calcium carbonate polymorph, but also on the extent of atomic order. In calcite, three major infrared absorption peaks are identified: ?3, ?2, and ?4. It was shown that the ratio between ?2 and ?4 bands reflects the order of the calcite crystal structure. In this paper we analyse this ratio

Vikki Chu; Lior Regev; Steve Weiner; Elisabetta Boaretto

2008-01-01

97

Basic Principles of Liming John Peters  

E-print Network

Basic Principles of Liming John Peters UW Soil Science Department #12;#12;#12;Soil pH affects many · Herbicide performance #12;#12;#12;What factors determine the lime needs of a soil · Soil pH ­ determined by soil test · Buffer pH ­ determined by soil test #12;Buffer pH Organic matter Soil pH #12;Figure 3

Balser, Teri C.

98

The coordination of Mg in foraminiferal calcite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mg/Ca ratio of foraminiferal calcite is a widely accepted and applied empirical proxy for ocean temperature. The analysis of foraminifera preserved in ocean sediments has been instrumental in developing our understanding of global climate, but the mechanisms behind the proxy are largely unknown. Analogies have been drawn to the inorganic precipitation of calcite, where the endothermic substitution of Mg for Ca is favoured at higher temperatures. However, evidence suggests that foraminiferal Mg incorporation may be more complex: foraminiferal magnesium is highly heterogeneous at the sub-micron scale, and high Mg areas coincide with elevated concentrations of organic molecules, Na, S and other trace elements. Fundamentally, the incorporation mode of Mg in foraminifera is unknown. Here we show that Mg is uniformly substituted for Ca within the calcite mineral lattice. The consistency of Mg-specific X-ray spectra gathered from nano-scale regions across the shell (‘test’) reveals that the coordination of Mg is uniform. The similarity of these spectra to that produced by dolomite shows that Mg is present in an octahedral coordination, ideally substituted for Ca in a calcite crystal structure. This demonstrates that Mg is heterogeneous in concentration, but not in structure. The degree of this uniformity implies the action of a continuous Mg incorporation mechanism, and therefore calcification mechanism, across these compositional bands in foraminifera. This constitutes a fundamental step towards a mechanistic understanding of foraminiferal calcification processes and the incorporation of calcite-bound palaeoenvironment proxies, such as Mg.

Branson, Oscar; Redfern, Simon A. T.; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Sadekov, Aleksey; Langer, Gerald; Kimoto, Katsunori; Elderfield, Henry

2013-12-01

99

A field application for lime stabilization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents the improvements achieved as a result of the lime stabilization application conducted by the joint effort of the Turkish Association of Lime Industrialists and the General Directorate of Rural Services on the 200 m long section of the Ankara Province Yukar? Yurtçu Village road where green and brown clays are dominant. The study also numerically demonstrates the impacts of these improvements on the road section based on the results of various laboratory and field tests. The lime stabilization in field conditions was performed with 5% lime for both clays and was applied as a 30 cm thick single layer. In the soaked California bearing-ratio (CBR) tests conducted in the laboratory, increases that reach up from 16 and 21 times compared to initial soaked CBR values were observed in green and brown clays, respectively, at the end of 28 days. The high increases observed in soaked CBR values would reduce the upper layer thickness of the roads. The similar improvements are also achieved in unconfined compression and plate loading tests. The comparisons performed with the plate loading tests clearly demonstrated the behavior of the surface to lime and its cure impact.

Kavak, Ayd?n; Akyarl?, Adnan

2007-01-01

100

Cyclic Cratonic Carbonates and Phanerozoic Calcite Seas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses causes of cyclicity in cratonic carbonate sequences and evidence for and potential significance of postulated primary calcite sediment components in past Paleozoic seas, outlining problems, focusing on models explaining existing data, and identifying background. Future sedimentary geologists will need to address these and related areas…

Wilkinson, Bruce H.

1982-01-01

101

The calcite-aragonite transition, reinvestigated  

Microsoft Academic Search

The calcite-aragonite equilibrium has been investigated between 200 and 600° C both in a carefully calibrated hydrothermal apparatus and in a piston-cylinder device of high precision. The equilibrium pressure is 5 kb at 180° C, 7 kb at 300° C, 9 kb at 400° C, and 11 kb at 480° C.

W. Johannes; D. Puhan

1971-01-01

102

Interaction of alcohols with the calcite surface.  

PubMed

A clearer understanding of calcite interactions with organic molecules would contribute to a range of fields including harnessing the secrets of biomineralisation where organisms produce hard parts, increasing oil production from spent reservoirs, remediating contaminated soils and drinking water aquifers and improving manufacturing methods for industrial products such as pigments, soft abrasives, building materials and optical devices. Biomineralisation by some species of blue green algae produces beautifully elaborate platelets of calcite where the individual crystals are of nanometer scale. Controlling their growth requires complex polysaccharides. Polysaccharide activity depends on the functionality of OH groups, so to simplify the system in order to get closer to a molecular level understanding, we investigated the interaction of OH from a suite of alcohols with clean, freshly cleaved calcite surfaces. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) provided binding energies and revealed the extent of surface coverage. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations supplemented with information about molecule ordering, orientation and packing density. The results show that all alcohols studied bond with the calcite surface through the OH group, with their carbon chains sticking away in a standing-up orientation. Alcohol molecules are closely packed and form a well-ordered monolayer on the surface. PMID:25533590

Bovet, N; Yang, M; Javadi, M S; Stipp, S L S

2015-02-01

103

Hydration of obsidian  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydration of obsidian is studied by measuring hydrogen concentration profiles of natural samples hydrated at 90°C, using the 15N resonance nuclear reaction method. The results of this study are well reproduced by the interdiffusion model of Doremus. The importance of the non-amorphous phase of obsidian is discussed. It is pointed out that the precision methods of measuring hydration profiles

T. Laursen; W. A. Lanford

1978-01-01

104

62. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE LIME KILN BUILDING, LOOKING AT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

62. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE LIME KILN BUILDING, LOOKING AT THE LIME KILNS AND MOTOR DRIVES FOR THE KILNS. (DATE UNKNOWN). - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

105

& Microarrays Calcite Microneedle Arrays Produced by Inorganic Ion-Assisted  

E-print Network

& Microarrays Calcite Microneedle Arrays Produced by Inorganic Ion-Assisted Anisotropic Dissolution of Bulk Calcite Crystal Xia Long,[a] Ruijie Meng,[b] Weike Wu,[c] Yurong Ma,*[a] Dong Yang,[b] and Limin and fabricate crystals with complicated morphologies. The formation of ordered arrays of c-axis-oriented calcite

Qi, Limin

106

Single-contact pressure solution creep on calcite monocrystals  

E-print Network

1 Single-contact pressure solution creep on calcite monocrystals Sergey Zubtsov1,2 , François Corresponding author: François Renard Abbreviated title: Pressure solution on calcite monocrystals hal-00202090: Pressure solution creep rates and interface structures have been measured by two methods on calcite single

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

107

Radiation damage in diopside and calcite crystals from uranothorianite inclusions.  

E-print Network

Radiation damage in diopside and calcite crystals from uranothorianite inclusions. ANNE of UTh grains surrounded by both aluminous diopside (Cpx) and calcite (Cc1) crystals. Optical microscope) a wide "reaction zone" at the Cpx/UTh interface, composed of "secondary calcite" (Cc2) with low

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

108

Surface-Potential Heterogeneity of Reacted Calcite and Rhodochrosite  

E-print Network

Surface-Potential Heterogeneity of Reacted Calcite and Rhodochrosite C H O N G Z H E N G N A , T R, nanostructures on the (101h4) surfaces of calcite and rhodochrosite are characterized by their surface potentials using Kelvin probe force microscopy. Water- induced nanostructures on calcite have a topographic height

109

The crystal structure of calcite III Joseph R. Smyth  

E-print Network

The crystal structure of calcite III Joseph R. Smyth Department of Geological Sciences, University of Technology, Pasadena, CA. Abstract. The crystal structure of calcite III has been deduced from existing high of the calcite I structure. The structure is monoclinic with space group C2 and a Z of 6. There are two Ca

Smyth, Joseph R.

110

Sequestration of Selenium on Calcite Surfaces Revealed by Nanoscale Imaging  

E-print Network

Sequestration of Selenium on Calcite Surfaces Revealed by Nanoscale Imaging Christine V. Putnis, ISTerre, BP 53, F-38041 Grenoble, France *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: Calcite, a widespread natural and for human health. In the form of selenite (Se(IV) ), selenium can be incorporated into calcite during growth

111

Synthesis of a Se0 /calcite composite using hydrothermal1  

E-print Network

1 Synthesis of a Se0 /calcite composite using hydrothermal1 carbonation of Ca(OH)2 coupled )/calcite composite. Under O2-poor conditions, the composite was mainly characterized6 by red spherical selenium nanoparticles "non crystalline elemental selenium" (calcite matrix

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

112

Temperature limits for preservation of primary calcite clumped isotope paleotemperatures  

E-print Network

Temperature limits for preservation of primary calcite clumped isotope paleotemperatures Gregory A in the calcite lattice can alter the clumped isotope composition of paleotemperature archives such as fossil experiments involve heating fossil brachiopod calcite at different temperatures and times to directly observe

Grossman, Ethan L.

113

Calcite precipitation induced by polyurethane-immobilized Bacillus pasteurii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyurethane (PU) foam was used to immobilize the whole cell of Bacillus pasteurii. The immobilized cells exhibited the rates of calcite precipitation and ammonia production as high as those of the free cells. Scanning electron micrographs identified the cells embedded in calcite crystals throughout PU matrices. Calcite in PU showed little effect on the elastic modulus and tensile strength of

Sookie S. Bang; Johnna K. Galinat; V. Ramakrishnan

2001-01-01

114

Brittlestar-Inspired Microlens Arrays Made of Calcite Single Crystals.  

PubMed

Unique concave microlens arrays (MLAs) made of calcite single crystals with tunable crystal orientations can be readily fabricated by template-assisted epitaxial growth in solution without additives under ambient conditions. While the non-birefringent calcite (001) MLA showed excellent imaging performance like brittlestar's microlens arrays, the birefringent calcite (104) MLA exhibited remarkable polarization-dependent optical properties. PMID:25366272

Ye, Xiaozhou; Zhang, Fei; Ma, Yurong; Qi, Limin

2014-11-01

115

Comparative investigation of plastic properties and water permeance of cement-lime mortars and cement-lime replacement mortars  

SciTech Connect

A research program was developed to investigate relative properties of three mortars containing lime-replacement additives compared to the properties of four traditional Portland cement-lime mortars used in masonry construction. Plastic and hardened properties were determined using standard ASTM test methods. The test program indicates that, although the three lime-replacement mortars have comparable compressive strengths to Portland cement-lime mortars, they have significantly different water retention and air content percentages and, as tested, the lime-replacement mortars do not meet specification requirements of either ASTM or ICBO. In addition, masonry walls constructed with the three lime-replacement mortars studied in this program were less resistant to water penetration than walls constructed with Portland cement-lime mortars. It is suggested that ASTM specifications and test methods currently under development consider the essential properties of water retention, air content, and water penetration resistance in addition to compressive strength for acceptance of lime-replacement materials.

Schuller, M.P.; Hoeven, R.S.K. van der; Thomson, M.L.

1999-07-01

116

LIME STABILIZATION AND ULTIMATE DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER SLUDGES  

EPA Science Inventory

Twenty-eight lime stabilization facilities were visited. None of these plants were originally designed for sludge lime stabilization. Lime stabilization was instituted either as a permanent sludge handling mechanism to replace a more costly process, as an interim sludge handling ...

117

Calcite growth-rate inhibition by fulvic acid and magnesium ion—Possible influence on biogenic calcite formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increases in ocean surface water dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations retard biocalcification by reducing calcite supersaturation (?c). Reduced calcification rates may influence growth-rate dependent magnesium ion (Mg) incorporation into biogenic calcite modifying the use of calcifying organisms as paleoclimate proxies. Fulvic acid (FA) at biocalcification sites may further reduce calcification rates. Calcite growth-rate inhibition by FA and Mg, two common constituents of seawater and soil water involved in the formation of biogenic calcite, was measured separately and in combination under identical, highly reproducible experimental conditions. Calcite growth rates (pH=8.5 and ?c=4.5) are reduced by FA (0.5 mg/L) to 47% and by Mg (10-4 M) to 38%, compared to control experiments containing no added growth-rate inhibitor. Humic acid (HA) is twice as effective a calcite growth-rate inhibitor as FA. Calcite growth rate in the presence of both FA (0.5 mg/L) and Mg (10-4 M) is reduced to 5% of the control rate. Mg inhibits calcite growth rates by substitution for calcium ion at the growth site. In contrast, FA inhibits calcite growth rates by binding multiple carboxylate groups on the calcite surface. FA and Mg together have an increased affinity for the calcite growth sites reducing calcite growth rates.

Reddy, Michael M.

2012-08-01

118

Calcite growth-rate inhibition by fulvic acid and magnesium ion—Possible influence on biogenic calcite formation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Increases in ocean surface water dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations retard biocalcification by reducing calcite supersaturation (?c). Reduced calcification rates may influence growth-rate dependent magnesium ion (Mg) incorporation into biogenic calcite modifying the use of calcifying organisms as paleoclimate proxies. Fulvic acid (FA) at biocalcification sites may further reduce calcification rates. Calcite growth-rate inhibition by FA and Mg, two common constituents of seawater and soil water involved in the formation of biogenic calcite, was measured separately and in combination under identical, highly reproducible experimental conditions. Calcite growth rates (pH=8.5 and ?c=4.5) are reduced by FA (0.5 mg/L) to 47% and by Mg (10?4 M) to 38%, compared to control experiments containing no added growth-rate inhibitor. Humic acid (HA) is twice as effective a calcite growth-rate inhibitor as FA. Calcite growth rate in the presence of both FA (0.5 mg/L) and Mg (10?4 M) is reduced to 5% of the control rate. Mg inhibits calcite growth rates by substitution for calcium ion at the growth site. In contrast, FA inhibits calcite growth rates by binding multiple carboxylate groups on the calcite surface. FA and Mg together have an increased affinity for the calcite growth sites reducing calcite growth rates.

Reddy, Michael M.

2012-01-01

119

Influence of water vapour and carbon dioxide on free lime during storage at 80 °C, studied by Raman spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Micro-Raman spectroscopy has been used to follow the reaction of free lime (CaO) exposed for 24h to moist air at 80 °C under conditions of different relative humidities (10-80% RH). X-ray diffraction and SEM imaging were applied as complementary techniques. The conversion of lime to calcium hydroxide and its subsequent carbonation to various calcium carbonate polymorphs was found to strongly depend on the relative humidity. At low RH (10-20%), only Raman spectroscopy revealed the formation of early amorphous CaCO3 which in the XRD patterns was detected only at ?40% RH. However, XRD analysis could identify the crystalline polymorphs formed at higher relative humidities. Thus, between 20 and 60% RH, all three CaCO3 polymorphs (calcite, aragonite and vaterite) were observed via XRD whereas at high relative humidity (80%), calcite was the predominant reaction product. The results demonstrate the usefulness of Raman spectroscopy in the study of minor cement constituents and their reaction products on air, especially of amorphous character. PMID:23639205

Dubina, E; Korat, L; Black, L; Strupi-Šuput, J; Plank, J

2013-07-01

120

Oxygen isotope fractionation in synthetic magnesian calcite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mg-bearing calcite was precipitated at 25°C in closed system free-drift experiments from solutions containing NaHCO 3, CaCl 2 and MgCl 2. The chemical and isotope composition of the solution and precipitate were investigated during time course experiments of 24-h duration. Monohydrocalcite and calcite precipitated early in the experiments (<8 h), while Mg-calcite was the predominant precipitate (>95%) thereafter. Solid collected at the end of the experiments displayed compositional zoning from pure calcite in crystal cores to up to 23 mol% MgCO 3 in the rims. Smaller excursions in Mg were superimposed on this chemical record, which is characteristic of oscillatory zoning observed in synthetic and natural solid-solution carbonates of differing solubility. Magnesium also altered the predominant morphology of crystals over time from the {104} to {100} and {110} growth forms. The oxygen isotope fractionation factor for the magnesian-calcite-water system (as 10 3ln? Mg-cl-H 2O ) displayed a strong dependence on the mol% MgCO 3 in the solid phase, but quantification of the relationship was difficult due to the heterogeneous nature of the precipitate. Considering only the Mg-content and ? 18O values for the bulk solid, 10 3ln? Mg-cl-H 2O increased at a rate of 0.17 ± 0.02 per mol% MgCO 3; this value is a factor of three higher than the single previous estimate (Tarutani T., Clayton R.N., and Mayeda T. K. (1969) The effect of polymorphims and magnesium substitution on oxygen isotope fractionation between calcium carbonate and water. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 33, 987-996). Nevertheless, extrapolation of our relationship to the pure calcite end member yielded a value of 27.9 ± 0.02, which is similar in magnitude to published values for the calcite-water system. Although no kinetic effect was observed on 10 3ln? Mg-cl-H 2O for precipitation rates that ranged from 10 3.21 to 10 4.60 ?mol · m -2 · h -1, it was impossible to disentangle the potential effect(s) of precipitation rate and Mg-content on 10 3ln? Mg-cl-H 2O due to the heterogeneous nature of the solid. The results of this study suggest that paleotemperatures inferred from the ? 18O values of high magnesian calcite (>10 mol% MgCO 3) may be significantly underestimated. Also, the results underscore the need for additional experiments to accurately characterize the effect of Mg coprecipitation on the isotope systematics of calcite from a chemically homogeneous precipitate or a heterogeneous material that is analyzed at the scale of chemical and isotopic zonation.

Jiménez-López, Concepción; Romanek, Christopher S.; Huertas, F. Javier; Ohmoto, Hiroshi; Caballero, Emilia

2004-08-01

121

Determination of the pozzolanic activity of fluid catalytic cracking residue. Thermogravimetric analysis studies on FC3R-lime pastes  

SciTech Connect

Spent fluid catalytic cracking catalyst (FC3R) from a petrol refinery played a pozzolanic role in portland cement system as revealed by previous experimental data. In the present study, the pozzolanic activity of FC3R was investigated by means thermogravimetry (TG) of cured lime-FC3R pastes. The influence of pozzolan/lime ratio on the pozzolanic activity was investigated. Due to the chemical composition of FC3R is similar to metakaolin (MK), and knowing that MK has a high pozzolanic activity, the latter was used as a material of comparison in this study. The scope of the study is the determination of the pozzolanic activity of FC3R and the evaluation of amount and nature of pozzolanic products. The products obtained from the reaction between FC3R components (SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and calcium hydroxide (CH) have been characterized, finding that the main pozzolanic reaction product was similar to hydrated gehlenite (calcium aluminosilicate hydrate) CSH and CAH were also formed in the reaction. FC3R showed higher pozzolanic reactivity than metakaolin, for low-lime content pastes and early curing age. Thermogravimetry, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) became very useful techniques for evaluation of reactivity.

Paya, J.; Monzo, J.; Borrachero, M.V.; Velazquez, S.; Bonilla, M

2003-07-01

122

Gas hydrate and humans  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The potential effects of naturally occurring gas hydrate on humans are not understood with certainty, but enough information has been acquired over the past 30 years to make preliminary assessments possible. Three major issues are gas hydrate as (1) a potential energy resource, (2) a factor in global climate change, and (3) a submarine geohazard. The methane content is estimated to be between 1015 to 1017 m3 at STP and the worldwide distribution in outer continental margins of oceans and in polar regions are significant features of gas hydrate. However, its immediate development as an energy resource is not likely because there are various geological constraints and difficult technological problems that must be solved before economic recovery of methane from hydrate can be achieved. The role of gas hydrate in global climate change is uncertain. For hydrate methane to be an effective greenhouse gas, it must reach the atmosphere. Yet there are many obstacles to the transfer of methane from hydrate to the atmosphere. Rates of gas hydrate dissociation and the integrated rates of release and destruction of the methane in the geo/hydro/atmosphere are not adequately understood. Gas hydrate as a submarine geohazard, however, is of immediate and increasing importance to humans as our industrial society moves to exploit seabed resources at ever-greater depths in the waters of our coastal oceans. Human activities and installations in regions of gas-hydrate occurrence must take into account the presence of gas hydrate and deal with the consequences of its presence.

Kvenvolden, K.A.

2000-01-01

123

A mild alkali treated jute fibre controlling the hydration behaviour of greener cement paste.  

PubMed

To reduce the antagonistic effect of jute fibre on the setting and hydration of jute reinforced cement, modified jute fibre reinforcement would be a unique approach. The present investigation deals with the effectiveness of mild alkali treated (0.5%) jute fibre on the setting and hydration behaviour of cement. Setting time measurement, hydration test and analytical characterizations of the hardened samples (viz., FTIR, XRD, DSC, TGA, and free lime estimation) were used to evaluate the effect of alkali treated jute fibre. From the hydration test, the time (t) required to reach maximum temperature for the hydration of control cement sample is estimated to be 860?min, whilst the time (t) is measured to be 1040?min for the hydration of a raw jute reinforced cement sample. However, the time (t) is estimated to be 1020?min for the hydration of an alkali treated jute reinforced cement sample. Additionally, from the analytical characterizations, it is determined that fibre-cement compatibility is increased and hydration delaying effect is minimized by using alkali treated jute fibre as fibre reinforcement. Based on the analyses, a model has been proposed to explain the setting and hydration behaviour of alkali treated jute fibre reinforced cement composite. PMID:25592665

Jo, Byung-Wan; Chakraborty, Sumit

2015-01-01

124

A mild alkali treated jute fibre controlling the hydration behaviour of greener cement paste  

PubMed Central

To reduce the antagonistic effect of jute fibre on the setting and hydration of jute reinforced cement, modified jute fibre reinforcement would be a unique approach. The present investigation deals with the effectiveness of mild alkali treated (0.5%) jute fibre on the setting and hydration behaviour of cement. Setting time measurement, hydration test and analytical characterizations of the hardened samples (viz., FTIR, XRD, DSC, TGA, and free lime estimation) were used to evaluate the effect of alkali treated jute fibre. From the hydration test, the time (t) required to reach maximum temperature for the hydration of control cement sample is estimated to be 860?min, whilst the time (t) is measured to be 1040?min for the hydration of a raw jute reinforced cement sample. However, the time (t) is estimated to be 1020?min for the hydration of an alkali treated jute reinforced cement sample. Additionally, from the analytical characterizations, it is determined that fibre-cement compatibility is increased and hydration delaying effect is minimized by using alkali treated jute fibre as fibre reinforcement. Based on the analyses, a model has been proposed to explain the setting and hydration behaviour of alkali treated jute fibre reinforced cement composite. PMID:25592665

Jo, Byung-Wan; Chakraborty, Sumit

2015-01-01

125

A mild alkali treated jute fibre controlling the hydration behaviour of greener cement paste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To reduce the antagonistic effect of jute fibre on the setting and hydration of jute reinforced cement, modified jute fibre reinforcement would be a unique approach. The present investigation deals with the effectiveness of mild alkali treated (0.5%) jute fibre on the setting and hydration behaviour of cement. Setting time measurement, hydration test and analytical characterizations of the hardened samples (viz., FTIR, XRD, DSC, TGA, and free lime estimation) were used to evaluate the effect of alkali treated jute fibre. From the hydration test, the time (t) required to reach maximum temperature for the hydration of control cement sample is estimated to be 860 min, whilst the time (t) is measured to be 1040 min for the hydration of a raw jute reinforced cement sample. However, the time (t) is estimated to be 1020 min for the hydration of an alkali treated jute reinforced cement sample. Additionally, from the analytical characterizations, it is determined that fibre-cement compatibility is increased and hydration delaying effect is minimized by using alkali treated jute fibre as fibre reinforcement. Based on the analyses, a model has been proposed to explain the setting and hydration behaviour of alkali treated jute fibre reinforced cement composite.

Jo, Byung-Wan; Chakraborty, Sumit

2015-01-01

126

Effects of calcite and magnesite application to a declining Masson pine forest on strongly acidified soil in Southwestern China.  

PubMed

Liming of strongly acidified soil under a Masson pine (Pinus massoniana Lamb.) forest was studied through a seven-year field manipulation experiment at Tieshanping, Chongqing in Southwestern China. To distinguish between the individual effects of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) addition, we separately applied calcite (CaCO3) and magnesite (MgCO3), rather than using dolomite [CaMg(CO3)2]. Both calcite and magnesite additions caused a significant increase in pH and a decrease in dissolved inorganic monomeric aluminium (Ali) concentration of soil water. Ecological recovery included increases of herb biomass (both treatments) and Mg content in Masson pine needles (magnesite treatment only). However, the growth rate of Masson pine did not increase under either treatment, possibly because of nutrient imbalance due to phosphorus (P) deficiency or limited observation period. In China, acid deposition in forest ecosystems commonly coincides with large inputs of atmogenic Ca(2+), both enhancing Mg(2+) leaching. Calcite addition may further decrease the Mg(2+) availability in soil water, thereby exacerbating Mg(2+) deficiency in the acidified forest soils of southern and southwestern China. The effect of anthropogenic acidification of naturally acid forest soils on P availability needs further study. PMID:24631610

Huang, Yongmei; Kang, Ronghua; Ma, Xiaoxiao; Qi, Yu; Mulder, Jan; Duan, Lei

2014-05-15

127

Phosphorus leaching in soils amended with piggery effluent or lime residues from effluent treatment.  

PubMed

Phosphorus (P) in wastes from piggeries may contribute to the eutrophication of waterways if not disposed of appropriately. Phosphorus leaching, from three soils with different P sorption characteristics (two with low P retention and one with moderate P retention) when treated with piggery effluent (with or without struvite), was investigated using batch and leaching experiments. The leaching of P retained in soil from the application of struvite effluent was determined. In addition, P leaching from lime residues (resulting from the treatment of piggery effluent with lime to remove P) was determined in comparison to superphosphate when applied to the same three soils. Most P was leached from sandy soils with low P retention when effluent with or without struvite was applied. More than 100% of the filterable P applied in struvite effluent was leached in sandy soils with low P retention. Solid, inorganic forms of P (struvite) became soluble and potentially leachable at pH<7 or were sorbed after dissolution if there were sufficient sorption sites. In sandy soils with low P retention, more than 39% of the total filterable P applied in recycled effluent (without struvite) was leached. Soil P increased mainly in surface layers after treatment with effluent. Sandy soils pre-treated with struvite effluent leached 40% of the P retained in the previous application. Phosphorus decreased in surface layers and increased at depth in the soil with moderate P retention after leaching the struvite effluent pre-treated soil with water. The soils capacity to adsorb P and the soil pH were the major soil properties that affected the rate and amount of P leaching, whereas the important characteristics of the effluent were pH, P concentration and the forms of P in the effluent. Phosphorus losses from soils amended with hydrated lime and lime kiln dust residues were much lower than losses from soils amended with superphosphate. Up to 92% of the P applied as superphosphate was leached from sandy soils with low P retention, whereas only up to 60% of the P applied in lime residues was leached. The P source contributing least to P leaching was the lime kiln dust residue. The amount of P leached depended on the water-soluble P content, neutralising value and application rate of the P source, and the pH and P sorption capacity of the soil. PMID:15091693

Weaver, D M; Ritchie, G S

1994-01-01

128

Lime Disease in the Gold Coast  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Disease of seedling lime trees in the Cape Coast district, Gold Coast Colony, is threatening to destroy the industry. Research has revealed the cause of the malady to be a virus existing in at least two strains. In the first of these, symptoms include a one-sided death of the tree coupled with veinal fleckings on the young leaves and

W. A. Hughes; C. A. Lister

1949-01-01

129

Sorption of divalent metals on calcite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sorption of seven divalent metals (Ba, Sr, Cd, Mn, Zn, Co, and Ni) was measured on calcite over a large initial metal (Me) concentration range in constant ionic strength (I = 0.1), equilibrium CaCOâ(s)-CaCOâ(aq) suspensions that varied in pH. At higher initial Me concentrations (10⁻⁵ to 10⁻⁴ mol\\/L) geochemical calculations indicated that the equilibrium solutions were saturated with discrete

J. M. Zachara; C. E. Cowan; C. T. Resch

1991-01-01

130

Origins of hydration lubrication.  

PubMed

Why is friction in healthy hips and knees so low? Hydration lubrication, according to which hydration shells surrounding charges act as lubricating elements in boundary layers (including those coating cartilage in joints), has been invoked to account for the extremely low sliding friction between surfaces in aqueous media, but not well understood. Here we report the direct determination of energy dissipation within such sheared hydration shells. By trapping hydrated ions in a 0.4-1 nm gap between atomically smooth charged surfaces as they slide past each other, we are able to separate the dissipation modes of the friction and, in particular, identify the viscous losses in the subnanometre hydration shells. Our results shed light on the origins of hydration lubrication, with potential implications both for aqueous boundary lubricants and for biolubrication. PMID:25585501

Ma, Liran; Gaisinskaya-Kipnis, Anastasia; Kampf, Nir; Klein, Jacob

2015-01-01

131

Methane Hydrate Field Program  

SciTech Connect

This final report document summarizes the activities undertaken and the output from three primary deliverables generated during this project. This fifteen month effort comprised numerous key steps including the creation of an international methane hydrate science team, determining and reporting the current state of marine methane hydrate research, convening an international workshop to collect the ideas needed to write a comprehensive Marine Methane Hydrate Field Research Plan and the development and publication of that plan. The following documents represent the primary deliverables of this project and are discussed in summary level detail in this final report. • Historical Methane Hydrate Project Review Report • Methane Hydrate Workshop Report • Topical Report: Marine Methane Hydrate Field Research Plan • Final Scientific/Technical Report

None

2013-12-31

132

Origins of hydration lubrication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Why is friction in healthy hips and knees so low? Hydration lubrication, according to which hydration shells surrounding charges act as lubricating elements in boundary layers (including those coating cartilage in joints), has been invoked to account for the extremely low sliding friction between surfaces in aqueous media, but not well understood. Here we report the direct determination of energy dissipation within such sheared hydration shells. By trapping hydrated ions in a 0.4–1 nm gap between atomically smooth charged surfaces as they slide past each other, we are able to separate the dissipation modes of the friction and, in particular, identify the viscous losses in the subnanometre hydration shells. Our results shed light on the origins of hydration lubrication, with potential implications both for aqueous boundary lubricants and for biolubrication.

Ma, Liran; Gaisinskaya-Kipnis, Anastasia; Kampf, Nir; Klein, Jacob

2015-01-01

133

Fly ash as a liming material for corn production  

SciTech Connect

Fly ash produced as a by-product of subbituminous coal combustion can potentially serve as an alternative liming material without negatively affecting corn (Zea mays L.) production in areas where use of conventional liming materials can be uneconomical due to transportation costs. A study was conducted to determine if fly ash produced from the Nebraska Public Power District Gerald Gentleman Power Station located in Sutherland, NE could be used as an alternative liming material. Combinations of dry fly ash (DFA), wet fly ash (WFA), beet lime (by-product of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) processing) (BL), and agricultural lime (AGL) were applied at rates ranging from 0.43 to 1.62 times the recommended lime rate to plots on four acidic soils (Anselmo fine sandy loam, Hord fine sandy loam, Holdrege sandy loam, and Valentine fine sand). Soil samples were collected to a depth of 0.2 m from plots and analyzed for pH before lime applications and twice periodically after lime application. The Hord and Valentine soils were analyzed for exchangeable Ca, Mg, K, Na,and Al for determination of percent Al saturation on selected treatments and sampling dates. Corn grain yields were determined annually. It is concluded that the fly ash utilized in this study and applied at rates in this study, increases soil pH comparable to agricultural lime and is an appropriate alternative liming material.

Tarkalson, D.D.; Hergert, G.W.; Stevens, W.B.; McCallister, D.L.; Kackman, S.D. [University of Nebraska, North Platte, NE (US)

2005-05-01

134

AMS 14C dating of lime mortar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method for refining lime mortar samples for 14C dating has been developed. It includes mechanical and chemical separation of mortar carbonate with optical control of the purity of the samples. The method has been applied to a large series of AMS datings on lime mortar from three medieval churches on the Åland Islands, Finland. The datings show convincing internal consistency and confine the construction time of the churches to AD 1280-1380 with a most probable date just before AD 1300. We have also applied the method to the controversial Newport Tower, Rhode Island, USA. Our mortar datings confine the building to colonial time in the 17th century and thus refute claims of Viking origin of the tower. For the churches, a parallel series of datings of organic (charcoal) inclusions in the mortar show less reliable results than the mortar samples, which is ascribed to poor association with the construction time.

Heinemeier, Jan; Jungner, Högne; Lindroos, Alf; Ringbom, Åsa; von Konow, Thorborg; Rud, Niels

1997-03-01

135

Zinc isotope fractionation during adsorption on calcite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zinc is an important element as a nutrient in the marine biosphere. However, our understanding of its biogeochemical cycling in the oceans is relatively limited. The Zn stable isotope system holds the promise of providing novel insights, since published Zn isotopic values for various natural samples reveal significant fractionations in the marine environment. Surface seawater, basalts, shales, deep-sea clay sediments, sediment trap material, bulk plankton and zooplankton samples, and eolian dust fall within a tight range (?66/64Zn from -0.1 to 0.5‰), but modern ferromanganese crusts (?66/64Zn from 0.5 to 1.2‰), as well as carbonates (?66/64Zn from 0.3 to 1.4‰), are notably enriched in heavy Zn isotopes [1-4]. In this study we seek to constrain the mechanism by which carbonates are enriched in heavier isotopes. In particular, we have conducted experiments to quantify isotope fractionation during adsorption of Zn onto the surfaces of calcite crystals that are in equilibrium with solution. The adsorption experiments were carried out in a series of small-volume batch reactions in a clean laboratory environment, using high-purity reagents and calcite seed crystals. The calcite was equilibrated with the solution prior to addition of Zn at atmospheric CO2 pressure (i.e., in air) for 5 days until a stable pH of 8.3 was reached. Later, a small aliquot of dissolved ZnCl2 was added such that the solution remained undersaturated with respect to hydrozincite. Experimental duration varied among the replicates from 6 to 144 hours, and then all solids and solutions were separated by filtration, purified by ion exchange chromatography, and analyzed by MC-ICP-MS. Zn adsorbed on calcite is isotopically heavier than in the co-existing solutions, with ?68/66Zncalcite-solution of approximately 0.3‰. The variation of ?68/66Zncalcite-solution beyond 24 hours is insignificant, so we infer that isotopic equilibrium is reached by this time. Previous work strongly suggests that a difference in coordination number between dissolved Zn and adsorbed Zn is drives the observed fractionation. Elzinga and Reeder[5] determined using EXAFS (Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure) that Zn adsorbed to calcite surfaces is tetrahedrally coordinated, sharing three oxygens with the calcite surface. Meanwhile density functional theory calculations[6] predicted that tetrahedral Zn-O species should be heavier than octahedral Zn-O species. Thus we infer that equilibrium between octahedrally coordinated, dissolved Zn and tetrahedrally coordinated, adsorbed Zn is the mechanism of fractionation in our experiments. Our further studies will determine whether the isotopically heavy pool of adsorbed Zn becomes the Zn incorporated within carbonates; if so, then we are closer to understanding the mechanism by which carbonate rocks in nature are enriched in heavier isotopes of zinc. [1] Bermin et al., 2006, Chem. Geol. 226, 280. [2] Maréchal et al., 2000, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 1, 1999GC-000029. [3] Dong et al., 2013, Talanta 114, 103-109. [4] Pichat et al., 2003, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 210, 167-178. [5] Elzinga and Reeder, 2002, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 66, 3943-3954. [6] Schauble, 2003, EOS, Trans. AGU, Fall Meet. Suppl. 84(46), B12B-0781.

Dong, S.; Wasylenki, L. E.

2013-12-01

136

Magnesium content of calcite in carapaces of benthic armine Ostracoda  

E-print Network

- skeletal magnesium calcite is known to occur in deep-sea and intra-reef environments (Friedman, Amiel, & Schneidermann, 1974), synthesis of inorganic magnesium calcite in the laboratory has not been achieved except by using solutions with salt... magnesium for their assumed phylogenetic level, including ostracodes, decapods, and echinoderms. Moberly (1968) used an electron microprobe to study calcite of coral- line algae and bivalves from temperate localities where there is seasonal temperature...

Cadot, H. M.; Kaesler, R. L.

1977-07-22

137

Removal of organic magnesium in coccolithophore calcite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coccolithophore calcite refers to the plates of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) produced by the calcifying phytoplankton, coccolithophores. The empirical study of the elemental composition has a great potential in the development of paleoproxies. However, the difficulties to separate coccolithophore carbonates from organic phases hamper the investigation of coccoliths magnesium to calcium ratios (Mg/Ca) in biogeochemical studies. Magnesium (Mg) is found in organic molecules in the cells at concentrations up to 400 times higher than in inorganically precipitated calcite in present-day seawater. The aim of this study was to optimize a reliable procedure for organic Mg removal from coccolithophore samples to ensure reproducibility in measurements of inorganic Mg in calcite. Two baseline methods comprising organic matter oxidations with (1) bleach and (2) hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were tested on synthetic pellets, prepared by mixing reagent grade CaCO3 with organic matter from the non-calcifying marine algae Chlorella autotrophica and measured with an ICP-AES (inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer). Our results show that treatments with a reductive solution [using hydroxylamine-hydrochloride (NH2OH·HCl + NH4OH)] followed by three consecutive oxidations (using H2O2) yielded the best cleaning efficiencies, removing >99% of organic Mg in 24 h. P/Ca and Fe/Ca were used as indicators for organic contamination in the treated material. The optimized protocol was tested in dried coccolithophore pellets from batch cultures of Emiliania huxleyi, Calcidiscus leptoporus and Gephyrocapsa oceanica. Mg/Ca of treated coccolithophores were 0.151 ± 0.018, 0.220 ± 0.040, and 0.064 ± 0.023 mmol/mol, respectively. Comparison with Mg/Ca literature coccolith values, suggests a tight dependence on modern seawater Mg/Ca, which changes as a consequence of different seawater origins (<10%). The reliable determination of Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca, and the low levels of organic contamination (Fe/Ca and P/Ca) make this protocol applicable to field and laboratory studies of trace elemental composition in coccolithophore calcite.

Blanco-Ameijeiras, S.; Lebrato, M.; Stoll, H. M.; Iglesias-Rodriguez, M. D.; Méndez-Vicente, A.; Sett, S.; Müller, M. N.; Oschlies, A.; Schulz, K. G.

2012-07-01

138

Effects of Spatial Heterogeneity on Calcite Dissolution Rates.  

E-print Network

??The prediction of carbonate reservoirs behavior, including rock and fluid interactions, is challenging due to their complex mineralogy, porosity, and permeability heterogeneities. Calcite dissolution, one… (more)

Skocik, Mariya

2014-01-01

139

Gas Hydrates Burning  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

An image of gas hydrates burning. Gas hydrates are naturally-occurring “ice-like” combinations of natural gas and water that have the potential to provide an immense resource of natural gas from the world’s oceans and polar regions....

140

Mallik Gas Hydrate Sample  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A sample of gas hydrates collected from Mallik, Canada. Gas hydrates are naturally-occurring “ice-like” combinations of natural gas and water that have the potential to provide an immense resource of natural gas from the world’s oceans and polar regions....

141

Characterization and lime treatment of olive mill wastewater.  

PubMed

Seventeen olive mill wastewater (OMW) samples were characterized. For characterization of the samples, amount of total, fixed, volatile, suspended, volatile-suspended solids, COD, oil-grease, polyphenol, volatile phenol, nitrogen and reducing sugar were determined. Effects of lime treatment on the waste samples were investigated. Reduction of contents of the samples treated with the lime was described. The effect of the addition of lime on an artificial phenolic mixture was also examined. PMID:11358317

Aktas, E S; Imre, S; Ersoy, L

2001-06-01

142

Sorption and desorption of arsenate and arsenite on calcite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The adsorption and desorption of arsenate (As(V)) and arsenite (As(III)) on calcite was investigated in a series of batch experiments in calcite-equilibrated solutions. The solutions covered a broad range of pH, alkalinity, calcium concentration and ionic strength. The initial arsenic concentrations were kept low (<33 ?M) to avoid surface precipitation. The results show that little or no arsenite sorbs on calcite within 24 h at an initial As concentration of 0.67 ?M. In contrast, arsenate sorbs readily and quickly on calcite. Likewise, desorption of arsenate from calcite is fast and complete within hours, indicating that arsenate is not readily incorporated into the calcite crystal lattice. The degree of arsenate sorption depends on the solution chemistry. Sorption increases with decreasing alkalinity, indicating a competition for sorption sites between arsenate and (bi)carbonate. pH also affects the sorption behavior, likely in response to changes in arsenate speciation or protonation/deprotonation of the adsorbing arsenate ion. Finally, sorption is influenced by the ionic strength, possibly due to electrostatic effects. The sorption of arsenate on calcite was modeled successfully using a surface complexation model comprising strong and weak sites. In the model, the adsorbing arsenate species were HAsO4- and CaHAsO40. The model was able to correctly predict the adsorption of arsenate in the wide range of calcite-equilibrated solutions used in the batch experiments and to describe the non-linear shape of the sorption isotherms. Extrapolation of the experimental results to calcite bearing aquifers suggests a large variability in the mobility of arsenic. Under reduced conditions, arsenite, which does not sorb on calcite, will dominate and, hence, As will be highly mobile. In contrast, when conditions are oxidizing, arsenate is the predominant species and, because arsenate adsorbs strongly on calcite, As mobility will be significantly retarded. The estimated retardation factors for arsenate in carbonate aquifers range from 25 to 200.

Sø, Helle U.; Postma, Dieke; Jakobsen, Rasmus; Larsen, Flemming

2008-12-01

143

Comparative effectiveness of different organic and industrial wastes on peanut: Plant growth, yield, oil content, protein content, mineral composition and hydration coefficient of kernels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study aimed to evaluate the relative efficacy of different organic and industrial wastes, namely, farmyard manure (FYM), water hyacinth (WH) and paper factory sludge (PFS) in combination with chemical fertilizer (CF) along with or without soil amendments like lime or rice husk ash (RHA) on plant growth, yield, mineral composition, oil content, protein content and hydration coefficient of

Manisha Basu; Pratap Bhanu Singh Bhadoria; Subhas Chandra Mahapatra

2007-01-01

144

Accelerated microstructural evolution of a calcium-silicate-hydrate (CSH) phase in pozzolanic pastes using fine siliceous sources: Comparison with historic pozzolanic mortars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional pozzolanic mortars such as those from Rhodes, Greece, or Hagia Sophia, Turkey, revealed the presence of a calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H) binding phase. This phase, which is similar to that found in ordinary Portland cement (OPC), is produced under the pozzolanic reaction of slaked lime with fine reactive siliceous sources at temperatures

A. Moropoulou; A. Cakmak; K. C. Labropoulos; R. Van Grieken; K. Torfs

2004-01-01

145

Hydration rate of obsidian.  

PubMed

The hydration rates of 12 obsidian samples of different chemical compositions were measured at temperatures from 95 degrees to 245 degrees C. An expression relating hydration rate to temperature was derived for each sample. The SiO(2) content and refractive index are related to the hydration rate, as are the CaO, MgO, and original water contents. With this information it is possible to calculate the hydration rate of a sample from its silica content, refractive index, or chemical index and a knowledge of the effective temperature at which the hydration occurred. The effective hydration temperature can be either measured or approximated from weather records. Rates have been calculated by both methods, and the results show that weather records can give a good approximation to the true EHT, particularly in tropical and subtropical climates. If one determines the EHT by any of the methods suggested, and also measures or knows the rate of hydration of the particular obsidian used, it should be possible to carry out absolute dating to +/- 10 percent of the true age over periods as short as several years and as long as millions of years. PMID:17782901

Friedman, I; Long, W

1976-01-30

146

COLOR REMOVAL FROM KRAFT PULPING EFFLUENT BY LIME ADDITION. CAPSULE REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

A full scale process for lime decolorization of kraft pulping total mill effluent was operated. Slaked lime addition was followed by primary sedimentation for removal of mixed fibrous and lime decolorization sludges. The clarified effluent subsequently underwent biochemical stabi...

147

Experimental calcite dissolution under stress: Evolution of grain contact microstructure during  

E-print Network

Experimental calcite dissolution under stress: Evolution of grain contact microstructure during calcite dissolution under stress. The obtained results enabled identification of the relative importance that pressure solution of calcite crystals at the grain scale occurred by two different mechanisms. Diffusion

148

The coordination of Mg in foraminiferal calcite. Supplementary Material Branson et al, 2013.  

E-print Network

The coordination of Mg in foraminiferal calcite. Supplementary Material Branson et. al., 2013 to assess the coordination of Mg in foraminiferal calcite. We calcite, and the efficacy of the fitting algorithm used to assess

Cambridge, University of

149

Oxygen isotope fractionation in quartz, albite, anorthite and calcite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory measurements of equilibrium oxygen isotope fractionation in quartz, albite, anorthite, and calcite have been carried out by anhydrous exchange between silicates and calcite at temperatures of 600°C and above. Exchange in these systems is as rapid as exchange between silicates and water. In this paper results are compared with published theoretical estimates as well as data derived from hydrothermal

Robert N. Clayton; Julian R. Goldsmith; Toshiko K. Mayeda

1989-01-01

150

Single-contact pressure solution creep on calcite monocrystals  

E-print Network

Pressure solution creep rates and interface structures have been measured by two methods on calcite single crystals. In the first kind of experiments, calcite monocrystals were indented at 40 degrees C for six weeks using ceramic indenters under stresses in the 50-200 MPa range in a saturated solution of calcite and in a calcite-saturated aqueous solution of NH4Cl. The deformation (depth of the hole below the indenter) is measured ex-situ at the end of the experiment. In the second type of experiment, calcite monocrystals were indented by spherical glass indenters for 200 hours under stresses in the 0-100 MPa range at room temperature in a saturated aqueous solution of calcite. The displacement of the indenter was continuously recorded using a specially constructed differential dilatometer. The experiments conducted in a calcite-saturated aqueous solution of NH4Cl show an enhanced indentation rate owing to the fairly high solubility of calcite in this solution. In contrast, the experiments conducted in a calc...

Zubtsov, Sergei; Gratier, Jean-Pierre; Dysthe, Dag; Traskine, Vladimir

2005-01-01

151

Lead and cadmium immobilization on calcitic limestone materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcite minerals are used as an alternative low-cost retention material for metal removal in aquatic systems. The pollutant retention process occurring on the surface of these minerals has not been studied in sufficient detail particularly as regards the influence of surface characteristics of calcite-containing soil. To tackle the above, batch equilibrium sorption tests of three sampled limestone solids with different

G. Rangel-Porras; J. B. García-Magno; M. P. González-Muñoz

2010-01-01

152

Calcite deposition at Miravalles geothermal field, Costa Rica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The calcite deposition problem at Miravalles has been studied since it was observed in the first three wells drilled on the slopes of the Miravalles Volcano. Long-term tests have been carried out to study reservoir characteristics. The change in the production behavior of the wells with the restriction imposed by the deposited calcite has been studied trying to evaluate and

L. Vaca; A. Alvarado; R. Corrales

1989-01-01

153

Discovery of a Cretaceous Scleractinian Coral with a Calcitic Skeleton  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been generally thought that scleractinian corals form purely aragonitic skeletons. We show that a well- preserved fossil coral, Coelosmilia sp. from the Upper Cretaceous (ca. 70 Ma), has preserved skeletal structural features identical to those observed in present day scleractinians. However, the skeleton of Coelosmilia sp. is entirely calcitic. Its fine-scale structure and chemistry indicate that the calcite

J. Stolarski; A. Meibom; R. Przenioslo; M. Mazur

2007-01-01

154

Dissolution of coccolithophorid calcite by microzooplankton and copepod grazing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Independent of the ongoing acidification of surface seawater, the majority of the calcium carbonate produced in the pelagial is dissolved by natural processes above the lysocline. We investigate to what extent grazing and passage of coccolithophorids through the guts of copepods and the food vacuoles of microzooplankton contribute to calcite dissolution. In laboratory experiments where the coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi was fed to the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis, the heterotrophic flagellate Oxyrrhis marina and the copepod Acartia tonsa, calcite dissolution rates of 45-55%, 37-53% and 5-22% of ingested calcite were found. We ascribe higher loss rates in microzooplankton food vacuoles as compared to copepod guts to the strongly acidic digestion and the individual packaging of algal cells. In further experiments, specific rates of calcification and calcite dissolution were also measured in natural populations during the PeECE III mesocosm study under differing ambient pCO2 concentrations. Microzooplankton grazing accounted for between 27 and 70% of the dynamic calcite stock being lost per day, with no measurable effect of CO2 treatment. These measured calcite dissolution rates indicate that dissolution of calcite in the guts of microzooplankton and copepods can account for the calcite losses calculated for the global ocean using budget and model estimates.

Antia, A. N.; Suffrian, K.; Holste, L.; Müller, M. N.; Nejstgaard, J. C.; Simonelli, P.; Carotenuto, Y.; Putzeys, S.

2008-01-01

155

An AFM study of calcite dissolution in concentrated electrolyte solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcite-solution interactions are of a paramount importance in a range of processes such as the removal of heavy metals, carbon dioxide sequestration, landscape modeling, weathering of building stone and biomineralization. Water in contact with minerals often carries significant amounts of solutes; additionally, their concentration may vary due to evaporation and condensation. It is well known that calcite dissolution is affected

E. Ruiz Agudo; C. V. Putnis; A. Putnis; C. Rodriguez-Navarro

2009-01-01

156

Capture of gas-phase arsenic oxide by lime: kinetic and mechanistic studies.  

PubMed

Trace metal emission from coal combustion is a major concern for coal-burning utilities. Toxic compounds such as arsenic species are difficult to control because of their high volatility. Mineral sorbents such as lime and hydrated lime have been shown to be effective in capturing arsenic from the gas phase over a wide temperature range. In this study, the mechanism of interaction between arsenic oxide (As2O3) and lime (CaO) is studied over the range of 300-1000 degrees C. The interaction between these two components is found to depend on the temperature; tricalcium orthoarsenate (Ca3As2O8) is found to be the product of the reaction below 600 degrees C, whereas dicalcium pyroarsenate (Ca2As2O7) is found to be the reaction product in the range of 700-900 degrees C. Maximum capture of arsenic oxide is found to occur in the range of 500-600 degrees C. At 500 degrees C, a high reactivity calcium carbonate is found to capture arsenic oxide by a combination of physical and chemical adsorption. Intrinsic kinetics of the reaction between calcium oxide and arsenic oxide in the medium-temperature range of 300-500 degrees C is studied in a differential bed flow-through reactor. Using the shrinking core model, the order of reaction with respect to arsenic oxide concentration is found to be about 1, and the activation energy is calculated to be 5.1 kcal/mol. The effect of initial surface area of CaO sorbent is studied over a range of 2.7-45 m2/g using the grain model. The effect of other major acidic flue gas species (SO2 and HCl) on arsenic capture is found to be minimal under the conditions of the experiment. PMID:11349294

Jadhav, R A; Fan, L S

2001-02-15

157

Rheological behaviour of hydraulic lime-based grouts. Shear-time and temperature dependence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with the coupled effect of temperature and fly ash (FA) addition on rheological behaviour of natural hydraulic lime (NHL5) based grouts, currently used in masonry consolidation. The use of a grout injection technique for masonry consolidation may lead to an increase of hydrostatic pressure and lead to structural damage. This means that the thixotropic effects become self-evident in grout design. It was shown that there is a relation between the structuration rate of each grout and the pressure that occurs inside masonry during its consolidation. According to the results, it seems also that there is a grout threshold temperature ( T limit) that separates a domain where the grout build-up structure area is almost constant, from another where flocculation area starts to increase significantly. We believe that in the first region the thixotropic effects are almost isolated from the irreversible effects (due to hydration). For the NHL5 based grout T limit=20 °C and for the grout with NHL5+15 % of FA T limit=15 °C. Grouts' characterization based on maximum resisting time, structuration rate and on the analysis of the hydraulic lime grout behaviour tested at different shear rates was performed using a shear thinning model and assuming that the structure is shear- and time-dependent. The goal is to use this methodology during mix proportioning and design for masonry injection purpose. The tested grout compositions were optimized compositions obtained in previous research using the design of experiments method.

Bras, Ana; Henriques, Fernando M. A.; Cidade, M. T.

2013-05-01

158

EVALUATION OF HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATION IN A LIME KILN: ROCKWELL LIME COMPANY  

EPA Science Inventory

During a one-week test burn, hazardous waste was used as supplemental fuel and co-fired with petroleum coke in a lime kiln in eastern Wisconsin. Detailed sampling and analysis was conducted on the stack gas for principal organic hazardous constituents (POHCs), particulates, parti...

159

Hydrate morphology: Physical properties of sands with patchy hydrate saturation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The physical properties of gas hydrate-bearing sediments depend on the volume fraction and spatial distribution of the hydrate phase. The host sediment grain size and the state of effective stress determine the hydrate morphology in sediments; this information can be used to significantly constrain estimates of the physical properties of hydrate-bearing sediments, including the coarse-grained sands subjected to high effective stress that are of interest as potential energy resources. Reported data and physical analyses suggest hydrate-bearing sands contain a heterogeneous, patchy hydrate distribution, whereby zones with 100% pore-space hydrate saturation are embedded in hydrate-free sand. Accounting for patchy rather than homogeneous hydrate distribution yields more tightly constrained estimates of physical properties in hydrate-bearing sands and captures observed physical-property dependencies on hydrate saturation. For example, numerical modeling results of sands with patchy saturation agree with experimental observation, showing a transition in stiffness starting near the series bound at low hydrate saturations but moving toward the parallel bound at high hydrate saturations. The hydrate-patch size itself impacts the physical properties of hydrate-bearing sediments; for example, at constant hydrate saturation, we find that conductivity (electrical, hydraulic and thermal) increases as the number of hydrate-saturated patches increases. This increase reflects the larger number of conductive flow paths that exist in specimens with many small hydrate-saturated patches in comparison to specimens in which a few large hydrate saturated patches can block flow over a significant cross-section of the specimen.

Dai, S.; Santamarina, J.C.; Waite, William F.; Kneafsey, T.J.

2012-01-01

160

AAS, XRPD, SEM\\/EDS, and FTIR characterization of Zn 2+ retention by calcite, calcite–kaolinite, and calcite–clinoptilolite minerals  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the sorption behavior of Zn2+ on calcite, kaolinite, and clinoptilolite, in addition to mixtures of calcite with kaolinite and clinoptilolite, was investigated at various loadings and mixture compositions using atomic absorption spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy\\/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared techniques. According to the obtained results, within the experimental operating conditions, the

T. Shahwan; B. Zünbül; Ö. Tunuso?lu; A. E. Ero?lu

2005-01-01

161

Sulfate attack in lime-treated subbases  

SciTech Connect

Sulfate-induced heave or buckling in pavements is the phenomenon that occurs when the calcium in various lime-based stabilizers combines with the alumina and sulfate present in clay to form calcium sulfoaluminate, or ettringite. Ettringite, a crystal, can grow between clay particles, pushing them apart and causing swelling in the soil. When this happens in pavement subbases, the resulting heaving may cause the pavement to rupture and fail, sometimes in a dramatic way. In this paper the authors examine the mechanism of sulfate attack, review some of the work done on this problem, and present some examples of pavement failures.

Day, D.C.; Salami, M.R. [North Carolina A and T State Univ., Greensboro, NC (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Rollings, R.S. [Army Engineering Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS (United States). Pavement Div.

1995-06-01

162

Lime Stabilization of bentonite sludge from tunnel boring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stabilization of soils with conglomerate materials applied to the improvement of road embankments and sub-grades, is one of the best alternatives from a functional, environmental and economic point of view. One of the main advantages of using lime as a binder is the improvement of soil's mechanical properties.This work shows the results obtained from lime treatment of four bentonite sludge

Daniel Castro-Fresno; Diana Movilla-Quesada; Ángel Vega-Zamanillo; Miguel A. Calzada-Pérez

2011-01-01

163

Fly ash as a liming material for corn production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fly ash produced as a by-product of subbituminous coal combustion can potentially serve as an alternative liming material without negatively affecting corn (Zea mays L.) production in areas where use of conventional liming materials can be uneconomical due to transportation costs. A study was conducted to determine if fly ash produced from the Nebraska Public Power District Gerald Gentleman Power

D. D. Tarkalson; G. W. Hergert; W. B. Stevens; D. L. McCallister; S. D. Kackman

2005-01-01

164

Uptake of chloride and carbonate ions by calcium monosulfoaluminate hydrate  

SciTech Connect

Decommissioning of old nuclear reactors may produce waste streams containing chlorides and carbonates, including radioactive {sup 36}Cl{sup -} and {sup 14}CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}. Their insolubilization by calcium monosulfoaluminate hydrate was investigated. Carbonates were readily depleted from the solution, giving at thermodynamic equilibrium monocarboaluminate, monocarboaluminate + calcite, or calcite only, depending on the initial ratio between the anion and calcium monosulfoaluminate hydrate. Chloride ions reacted more slowly and were precipitated as Kuzel's salt, Kuzel's and Friedel's salts, or Friedel's salt only. Rietveld refinement of X-Ray powder diffraction patterns was successfully used to quantify the phase distributions, which were compared to thermodynamic calculations. Moreover, analysing the lattice parameters of Kuzel's salt as a function of its chloride content showed the occurrence of a restricted solid solution towards the sulfate side with general formula 3CaO{center_dot}Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}{center_dot}xCaCl{sub 2}{center_dot}(1 - x)CaSO{sub 4}{center_dot}(12 - 2x){center_dot}H{sub 2}O (0.36 {<=} x {<=} 0.50).

Mesbah, Adel [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, CEA DEN/DTCD/SPDE, F-30207 Bagnols sur Ceze (France); Clermont Universite, ENSCCF, Laboratoire des Materiaux Inorganiques, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); Cau-dit-Coumes, Celine, E-mail: celine.cau-dit-coumes@cea.fr [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, CEA DEN/DTCD/SPDE, F-30207 Bagnols sur Ceze (France); Renaudin, Guillaume [Clermont Universite, ENSCCF, Laboratoire des Materiaux Inorganiques, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); CNRS, UMR 6002, F-63177 Aubiere (France); Frizon, Fabien [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, CEA DEN/DTCD/SPDE, F-30207 Bagnols sur Ceze (France); Leroux, Fabrice [Clermont Universite, Universite Blaise Pascal, Laboratoire des Materiaux Inorganiques, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); CNRS, UMR 6002, F-63177 Aubiere (France)

2012-08-15

165

Wetland vegetation responses to liming an Adirondack watershed  

SciTech Connect

Watershed liming as a long-term mitigation strategy to neutralize lake acidity, from increasing acid deposition, was initiated in North America at Woods Lake in the west central Adirondack region of New York. In October 1989, a dose of 10 MT lime (83.5% CaCO[sub 3]) ha[sup [minus]1] was aerially applied to 48% of the watershed. The wetlands adjacent to Woods Lake showed two distinct community types: one dominated by Chamaedaphne calyculata, and one dominated by graminoids and other herbaceous species. Within two years, liming did not alter the structure of either community type, and changed the cover or frequency of only 6 of 64 individual taxa. Most of these changes occurred in the herbaceous community type. The only strong positive response to liming was a nearly threefold increase in cover of the rhizomatous sedge Cladium mariscoides. The cover of Carex interior and Sphagnum spp. benefited from lime addition, while cover of Drosera intermedia and Muhlenbergia uniflora, and frequency of Hypericum canadense responded negatively to lime. Liming influenced the competitive release of only three taxa, all forbs with small growth forms. The tissue chemistry of foliage and twigs of Myrica gale, Chamaedaphne calyculata, and Carex stricta in the Chamaedaphne calyculata community type clearly illustrated species-specific patterns of nutrient accumulation and allocation both before and after liming. Concentrations of 17 of 20 elements responded to liming, although the responses varied among species and plant parts. Carex foliage was least responsive to liming, and Chamaedaphne twigs were most responsive. Elemental changes in plant tissues will be reflected in litter and many influence long-term nutrient dynamics in the wetland community.

Mackun, I.R.

1993-01-01

166

Uranyl incorporation into calcite and aragonite: XAFS and luminescence studies  

SciTech Connect

X-ray absorption, luminescence, and Raman spectroscopic studies of U(VI)-containing calcite and aragonite show that the UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} ion, the dominant and mobile form of dissolved uranium in near-surface waters, has a disordered and apparently less stable coordination environment when incorporated into calcite in comparison to aragonite, both common polymorphs of CaCO{sub 3}. Their findings suggest that calcite, a widely distributed authigenic mineral in soils and near-surface sediments and a principal weathering product of concrete-based containment structures, is not likely to be a suitable host for the long-term sequestration of U(VI). The more stable coordination provided by aragonite suggests that its long-term retention should be favored in this phase, until it inverts to calcite. Consequently, future remobilization of U(VI) coprecipitated with calcium carbonate minerals should not be ruled out in assessments of contaminated sites. Their observation of a similar equatorial coordination of UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} in aragonite and the dominant aqueous species [UO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3}{sup 4{minus}}] but a different coordination in calcite indicates that a change in UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} coordination is required for its incorporation into calcite. This may explain the observed preferential uptake of U(VI) by aragonite relative to calcite.

Reeder, R.J.; Nugent, M.; Lamble, G.M.; Tait, C.D.; Morris, D.E.

2000-02-15

167

Strontium Incorporation into Calcite Generated by Bacterial Ureolysis  

SciTech Connect

Strontium incorporation into calcite generated by bacterial ureolysis was investigated as part of an assessment of a proposed remediation approach for 90Sr contamination in groundwater. Urea hydrolysis produces ammonium and carbonate and elevates pH, resulting in the promotion of calcium carbonate precipitation. Urea hydrolysis by the bacterium Bacillus pasteurii in a medium designed to mimic the chemistry of the Snake River Plain Aquifer in Idaho resulted in a pH rise from 7.5 to 9.1. Measured average distribution coefficients (DEX) for Sr in the calcite produced by ureolysis (0.5) were up to an order of magnitude higher than values reported in the literature for natural and synthetic calcites (0.02–0.4). They were also higher than values for calcite produced abiotically by ammonium carbonate addition (0.3). The precipitation of calcite in these experiments was verified by X-ray diffraction. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF SIMS) depth profiling (up to 350 nm) suggested that the Sr was not merely sorbed on the surface, but was present at depth within the particles. X-ray absorption near edge spectra showed that Sr was present in the calcite samples as a solid solution. The extent of Sr incorporation appeared to be driven primarily by the overall rate of calcite precipitation, where faster precipitation was associated with greater Sr uptake into the solid. The presence of bacterial surfaces as potential nucleation sites in the ammonium carbonate precipitation treatment did not enhance overall precipitation or the Sr distribution coefficient. Because bacterial ureolysis can generate high rates of calcite precipitation, the application of this approach is promising for remediation of 90Sr contamination in environments where calcite is stable over the long term.

Yoshiko Fujita; George D. Redden; Jani C. Ingram; Marnie M. Cortez; Robert W. Smith

2004-08-01

168

Mechanical and leaching behaviour of slag-cement and lime-activated slag stabilised/solidified contaminated soil.  

PubMed

Stabilisation/solidification (S/S) is an effective technique for reducing the leachability of contaminants in soils. Very few studies have investigated the use of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) for S/S treatment of contaminated soils, although it has been shown to be effective in ground improvement. This study sought to investigate the potential of GGBS activated by cement and lime for S/S treatment of a mixed contaminated soil. A sandy soil spiked with 3000mg/kg each of a cocktail of heavy metals (Cd, Ni, Zn, Cu and Pb) and 10,000mg/kg of diesel was treated with binder blends of one part hydrated lime to four parts GGBS (lime-slag), and one part cement to nine parts GGBS (slag-cement). Three binder dosages, 5, 10 and 20% (m/m) were used and contaminated soil-cement samples were compacted to their optimum water contents. The effectiveness of the treatment was assessed using unconfined compressive strength (UCS), permeability and acid neutralisation capacity (ANC) tests with determination of contaminant leachability at the different acid additions. UCS values of up to 800kPa were recorded at 28days. The lowest coefficient of permeability recorded was 5×10(-9)m/s. With up to 20% binder dosage, the leachability of the contaminants was reduced to meet relevant environmental quality standards and landfill waste acceptance criteria. The pH-dependent leachability of the metals decreased over time. The results show that GGBS activated by cement and lime would be effective in reducing the leachability of contaminants in contaminated soils. PMID:21420148

Kogbara, Reginald B; Al-Tabbaa, Abir

2011-05-01

169

Performance of lime-BHA solidified plating sludge in the presence of Na2SiO3 and Na2CO3.  

PubMed

This research investigated the performance of lime-BHA (black rice husk ash) solidified plating sludge with 2 wt% NaO from Na(2)SiO(3) and Na(2)CO(3) at the level of 0, 30 and 50 wt%. The sludge was evaluated for strength development, leachability, solution chemistry and microstructure. The lime-BHA solidified plating sludge with Na(2)SiO(3) and Na(2)CO(3) had higher early strength when compared to the control. The addition of Na(2)SiO(3) and Na(2)CO(3) increased the OH(-) concentration and decreased the Ca(2+) and heavy metal ions in solution after the first minute. The XRD patterns showed that the addition of Na(2)SiO(3) resulted in the formation of calcium silicate hydrates, while the addition of Na(2)CO(3) resulted in CaCO(3). The heavy metals from the plating sludge, especially Zn, were immobilized in calcium zincate and calcium zinc silicate forms for the lime-BHA with and without Na(2)SiO(3) solidified wastes, while samples with Na(2)CO(3) contained Zn that was fixed in the form of CaZnCO(3). The cumulative leaching of Fe, Cr and Zn from the lime-BHA solidified plating sludge decreased significantly when activators were added, especially Na(2)CO(3). PMID:21549500

Piyapanuwat, Rungroj; Asavapisit, Suwimol

2011-09-01

170

The relative merits of dolomitic and calcitic limestone in detoxifying and revegetating acidic, nickel- and copper-contaminated soils in the Sudbury mining and smelting region of Canada  

SciTech Connect

Soils in the Sudbury mining and smelting region have been rendered phytotoxic and barren by acidification and Particulate metal contamination, but can be detoxified revegetated by the surface application of an growth is better on soil treated ground limestone. On certain barren sites, plant growth is better on soil treated with dolomitic limestone than with calcitic limestone and greenhouse experiments using mung beans (Vigna radiata) have shown superior root and shoot growth on certain contaminated soils when the limestone is dolomitic rather than calcitic. Results of experiments with species used in revegetation (Agrostis gigantea and Lotus corniculatus) suggest that leguminous species are more sensitive to Ca:Mg ratio than grasses, that the plant response to this ratio is greater at lowering liming levels, and that the response is more marked on more toxic soils. The effects of calcium:magnesium ratio of the limestone used in revegetating acidic, metal-contaminated soils are clearly complex, interactive and difficult to interpret. Further studies are needed, but meanwhile it is recommended that the practice of using dolomitic limestone to detoxify barren Sudbury soils be continued, since there is a risk of induced magnesium deficiency at certain sites when calcitic limestone is used.

McHale, D.; Winterhalder, K. [Laurentian Univ., Sudbury, Ontario (Canada)

1996-12-31

171

Evaluation of hazardous waste incineration in a lime kiln: Rockwell Lime Company. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

During a one-week test burn, hazardous waste was used as supplemental fuel and co-fired with petroleum coke in a lime kiln in eastern Wisconsin. Detailed sampling and analysis was conducted on the stack gas for principal organic hazardous constituents (POHCs), particulates, particulate metals, HCl, SO2, NOx, CO, and THC and on process streams for metals and chlorine. POHCs were also

D. R. Day; L. A. Cox

1984-01-01

172

Lime kiln source characterization: Lime manufacturing industry Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this testing program is to obtain uncontrolled and controlled hydrogen chloride (HCl) and speciated hydrocarbon Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) emissions data from lime production plants to support a national emission standard for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP). This report presents data from the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements. FTIR source testing was conducted for the following purposes: Quantify HCl emission levels; and Gather screening (i.e., qualitative) data on other HAP emissions.

Toney, M.L.

1999-07-01

173

Effect of lime concentration on gelatinized maize starch dispersions properties.  

PubMed

Maize starch was lime-cooked at 92°C with 0.0-0.40% w/w Ca(OH)2. Optical micrographs showed that lime disrupted the integrity of insoluble remnants (ghosts) and increased the degree of syneresis of the gelatinized starch dispersions (GSD). The particle size distribution was monomodal, shifting to smaller sizes and narrower distributions with increasing lime concentration. X-ray patterns and FTIR spectra showed that crystallinity decreased to a minimum at lime concentration of 0.20% w/w. Lime-treated GSD exhibited thixotropic and viscoelastic behaviour. In the linear viscoelastic region the storage modulus was higher than the loss modulus, but a crossover between these moduli occurred in the non-linear viscoelastic region. The viscoelastic properties decreased with increased lime concentration. The electrochemical properties suggested that the amylopectin-rich remnants and the released amylose contained in the continuous matrix was firstly attacked by calcium ions at low lime levels (<0.20% w/w), disrupting the starch gel microstructure. PMID:25442564

Lobato-Calleros, C; Hernandez-Jaimes, C; Chavez-Esquivel, G; Meraz, M; Sosa, E; Lara, V H; Alvarez-Ramirez, J; Vernon-Carter, E J

2015-04-01

174

DEFINITIVE SOX CONTROL PROCESS EVALUATIONS: LIMESTONE, LIME, AND MAGNESIA FGD PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives economic and ground-to-ground energy evaluations of limestone slurry, lime slurry, and magnesia (producing sulfuric acid) flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes. The lime slurry process, using purchased lime and lime calcined onsite, remains lower in capital in...

175

Paleoclimatic and paleohydrologic records from secondary calcite: Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

Stable isotope analyses of calcite and opal, fluid inclusion formation conditions and gas compositions, Sr isotope ratios, and REE compositions all support formation of secondary calcite in the unsaturated zone of Yucca Mountain from infiltration of surface-derived (and soil zone buffered) waters of meteoric origin. Detailed sampling of growth-banding preserved by the secondary calcite should provide a record of past variations in the stable isotope chemistry of these infiltrating waters, and, hence, of precipitation at Yucca Mountain, i.e., a proxy of past climate at Yucca Mountain. The precision of this record depends on how well it can be dated. The distribution and texture of secondary calcite occurrences, if mapped in careful detail from existing bore hole samples and underground workings (as exposures become accessible), could provide a time/space map of fracture and fault unsaturated-zone ground water flow-paths during past wetter climates which might prevail in the future with change in climate.

Whelan, J.F.; Stuckless, J.S.; Moscati, R.J. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Vaniman, D.T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1994-12-31

176

O of cellulose organic fraction combined with 18 O of calcite and 18  

E-print Network

1 18 O of cellulose organic fraction combined with 18 O of calcite and 18 O of diatoms in lake of authigenic calcite and 18 O of diatoms (if available). The results of 18 O of authigenic calcite, diatom and cellulose are presented in Fig.3. Fig. 3. Oxygen isotopic composition of authigenic calcite, diatom

Edwards, Thomas W.D.

177

Biogenic and synthetic high magnesium calcite A review q Xia Long, Yurong Ma  

E-print Network

Review Biogenic and synthetic high magnesium calcite ­ A review q Xia Long, Yurong Ma , Limin Qi e i n f o Article history: Available online 26 November 2013 Keywords: High-Mg calcite Biominerals-Mg calcites in different marine organisms were summarized in detail in this review. The high-Mg calcites

Qi, Limin

178

HYDRATE CORE DRILLING TESTS  

SciTech Connect

The ''Methane Hydrate Production from Alaskan Permafrost'' project is a three-year endeavor being conducted by Maurer Technology Inc. (MTI), Noble, and Anadarko Petroleum, in partnership with the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The project's goal is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition. The project team plans to design and implement a program to safely and economically drill, core and produce gas from arctic hydrates. The current work scope includes drilling and coring one well on Anadarko leases in FY 2003 during the winter drilling season. A specially built on-site core analysis laboratory will be used to determine some of the physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. Prior to going to the field, the project team designed and conducted a controlled series of coring tests for simulating coring of hydrate formations. A variety of equipment and procedures were tested and modified to develop a practical solution for this special application. This Topical Report summarizes these coring tests. A special facility was designed and installed at MTI's Drilling Research Center (DRC) in Houston and used to conduct coring tests. Equipment and procedures were tested by cutting cores from frozen mixtures of sand and water supported by casing and designed to simulate hydrate formations. Tests were conducted with chilled drilling fluids. Tests showed that frozen core can be washed out and reduced in size by the action of the drilling fluid. Washing of the core by the drilling fluid caused a reduction in core diameter, making core recovery very difficult (if not impossible). One successful solution was to drill the last 6 inches of core dry (without fluid circulation). These tests demonstrated that it will be difficult to capture core when drilling in permafrost or hydrates without implementing certain safeguards. Among the coring tests was a simulated hydrate formation comprised of coarse, large-grain sand in ice. Results with this core showed that the viscosity of the drilling fluid must also be carefully controlled. When coarse sand was being cored, the core barrel became stuck because the drilling fluid was not viscous enough to completely remove the large grains of sand. These tests were very valuable to the project by showing the difficulties in coring permafrost or hydrates in a laboratory environment (as opposed to a field environment where drilling costs are much higher and the potential loss of equipment greater). Among the conclusions reached from these simulated hydrate coring tests are the following: Frozen hydrate core samples can be recovered successfully; A spring-finger core catcher works best for catching hydrate cores; Drilling fluid can erode the core and reduces its diameter, making it more difficult to capture the core; Mud must be designed with proper viscosity to lift larger cuttings; and The bottom 6 inches of core may need to be drilled dry to capture the core successfully.

John H. Cohen; Thomas E. Williams; Ali G. Kadaster; Bill V. Liddell

2002-11-01

179

Spectroscopic study of phase transitions in natural calcite mineral  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process and the formation of new minerals upon heating the carbonate rocks containing clay minerals, together with calcite are determined with thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, infrared and Raman spectroscopy. The calcite-calcium oxide phase transition sequence was followed up to 947°C in naturally occurring limestone samples. The spectral variations of the internal modes of the carbonate trigonal (?1, ?2, ?3

S. Gunasekaran; G. Anbalagan

2008-01-01

180

A Cretaceous Scleractinian Coral with a Calcitic Skeleton  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been generally thought that scleractinian corals form purely aragonitic skeletons. We show that a well-preserved fossil coral, Coelosmilia sp. from the Upper Cretaceous (about 70 million years ago), has preserved skeletal structural features identical to those observed in present-day scleractinians. However, the skeleton of Coelosmilia sp. is entirely calcitic. Its fine-scale structure and chemistry indicate that the calcite

Jaroslaw Stolarski; Anders Meibom; Radoslaw Przenioslo; Maciej Mazur

2007-01-01

181

Precipitation of Calcite by Indigenous Microorganisms to Strengthen Liquefiable Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enrichments for indigenous microorganisms capable of hydrolyzing urea in the presence of CaCl2 were performed on potentially liquefiable saturated soils in both the laboratory and in situ. Following enrichment, treatment of soils with nutrients, CaCl2 and urea resulted in significant in situ precipitation of calcite, even at depth, by indigenous microorganisms. The biomineralized soils showed properties that indicate calcite precipitation

Malcolm B. Burbank; Thomas J. Weaver; Tonia L. Green; Barbara C. Williams; Ronald L. Crawford

2011-01-01

182

The differnces between bond lengths in biogenic and geologocal calcite.  

SciTech Connect

We used high-resolution neutron powder diffraction to accurately measure the atomic positions and bond lengths in biogenic and geological calcite. A special procedure for data analysis was developed in order to take into account the considerable amounts of magnesium present in all the investigated samples. As a result, in biogenic calcite we found some atomic bonds to have significantly different lengths as compared to those in geological calcite, after the contribution of magnesium is accounted for. The maximum effect (elongation up to 0.7%) was found for the C-O bonds. We also analyzed changes in frequencies and spectral widths of normal vibrations of carbonate groups in biogenic calcite (as compared to geological calcite) measured by Raman and Fourier transform IR techniques. Surprisingly, the frequency shifts after subtracting the magnesium contribution are close to zero. At the same time, substantial spectral broadening (up to 1.2%) in biogenic calcite as compared to geological samples was detected. Possible explanations for the experimental findings are discussed.

Zlotoyabko, E.; Caspi, E. N.; Fieramosca, J. S.; Von Dreele, R. B.; Marin, F.; Mor, G.; Politi, Y.; Addadi, L.; Weiner, S. (X-Ray Science Division); ( PNS); (Technion-Israel Inst. of Tech.); (Nuclear Research Centre); (Univ. de Bourgogne); (Weizmann Inst. of Science)

2010-01-01

183

Incorporation of Pb at the calcite (104)-water interface.  

PubMed

Lead (Pb) is a common environmental pollutant, and its transport in surface waters and groundwater is controlled in part by sorption and precipitation reactions at mineral surfaces. Using in situ specular and resonant anomalous X-ray reflectivity measurements, we investigated the interaction of the calcite (104) surface with a dilute Pb- and EDTA-bearing solution that is slightly undersaturated with respect to calcite. The X-ray results reveal Pb coherently substituting for Ca in the near-surface layers of strained calcite with Pb/(Pb + Ca) atom fractions as high as 0.28 in the outermost layer. The larger ionic radius of Pb(2+) relative to Ca(2+) is accommodated in calcite by vertical displacements of Pb relative to the Ca site. In situ atomic force microscopy images obtained during the reaction suggest that Pb incorporation below the surface occurs after initial dissolution followed by regrowth of a strained epitaxial Pb-rich calcite solid-solution at the calcite (104)-water interface. This process could produce a widespread host phase for Pb in groundwater aquifers and soil pore fluids. PMID:25007415

Callagon, Erika; Fenter, Paul; Nagy, Kathryn L; Sturchio, Neil C

2014-08-19

184

Growth of calcite seeds in a magnetized environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the constant-composition technique, the growth rates of calcite seeds in a simulated cooling-water environment, i.e., at a temperature higher than room temperature and in the presence of impurity, were measured in a stirred-tank crystallizer under the influence of a magnetic field. When the impurity was absent, the magnetic field would gradually reduce the growth rate of calcite seeds and would have varying impact on the time needed for the seeds to stop growing for different levels of supersaturation, temperature, and pH. In the presence of impurities, including Sr2+ and Fe2+ in the concentration range between 0 and 2.0 ppm, the growth experiments were conducted at two temperatures, i.e., 25 °C and 35 °C. In the presence of Sr2+ the calcite seeds grew steadily after a premagnetization time of 20 h, which was long enough to completely stop the growth of calcite seeds in the absence of impurities. On the other hand, the effect of Fe2+ on calcite growth rate in the presence of magnetic field was rather complicated; either reduced or enhanced rate has been observed. The magnetic field indeed inhibited or stopped the growth of calcite seed for some instances.

Tai, Clifford Y.; Chang, Meng-Chun; Liu, Chong-Chang; Wang, Steven S.-S.

2014-03-01

185

Effect of microstructure and microchemistry on improvement of hydration and slag attack resistance of ilmenite-doped refractory limestone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work studies densification, resistance to hydration and slag attack of 0.0-2.0 wt% ilmenite-doped lime refractories in relation to their thermal equilibrium and microfabric after firing at 1,400-1,700 °C. XRF, XRD, SEM-EDAX, transmitted light microscopy and mercury intrusion methods were used to characterize the fired samples. The ternary diagram CaO-C2S-C4AF was applied to the thermal equilibrium data. The rates of hydration and attack by steel-slag were also assessed using cathode-luminescence microscope. Doping limestone with 0.5 wt% ilmenite leads maximizes the rate of densification after firing for 2 h at 1,600 °C. A direct-bonded CaO-CaO network is found in the doped sample with separated islands of Ca-silicate, alumino-ferrite and TiO2-rich Ca, Mg- solid solutions all filling the pores and triple points of the lime grains. Due to the dense microstructure of the doped sample with the direct-bonded lime grains, hydration and slag-attack resistance are enhanced compared with the un-doped sample.

Soltan, Abdel Monem; Serry, Mohamed

2015-02-01

186

Infrared spectroscopic investigations of the calcite-rhodochrosite and parts of the calcite-magnesite mineral series  

Microsoft Academic Search

The infrared spectroscopic measurements of synthetic and natural carbonate samples show that significant frequency shifts in the v2 and v4 vibrational bands of the carbonate ion group occur in the calcite-rhodochrosite and calcite-magnesite mineral series as a function of the chemical composition. These shifts are due to cationic substitution, reflecting the different ionic raddii and masses of the end-members. A

M. E. Böttcher; P.-L. Gehlken; E. Usdowski

1992-01-01

187

EVALUATION OF LIME PRECIPITATION FOR TREATING BOILER TUBE CLEANING WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an evaluation of lime precipitation for treating boiler tube cleaning wastes. In this project, wastewater samples were collected from six boiler tubeside chemical cleanings, using complexing and chelating agents. The samples represented: (1) ammoniacal...

188

63. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE LIME KILN BUILDING, LOOKING AT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

63. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE LIME KILN BUILDING, LOOKING AT THE FIRE BOX AND KILN FOR DILLUTANT. APRIL 22, 1919. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

189

Long-Term Effects of a Watershed Liming Experiment on Soils and Surface Waters at Woods Lake, New York  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In October 1989, approximately 1000 Mg of pelletized limestone was applied to two subcatchments of the Woods Lake Watershed located in the western Adirondacks of New York State. This experiment was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of calcite addition to watershed soils as a strategy to mitigate the effects of surface water acidification from acidic deposition. Woods Lake is 23 ha in size and lies within a 207 ha thin-till dominated watershed. In 1979 the lake was highly acidic (pH 4.8, ANC -8 ?eq/L). The watershed treatment followed two earlier lake liming experiments. These experiments successfully raised the pH and ANC of the lake but only for a short time as the residence time of water in the lake is only 174 days. Because calcite applied to the soil would be continuously exposed to precipitation falling on the land surface, it was hypothesized that watershed liming would have a much longer impact. The limed subcatchments (102 ha) were treated with limestone that had been crushed to the consistency of fine sand and pelletized with a lignosulfonate binder to form pellets 1.41 to 4.00 mm in diameter. The chemical composition of the pellets was approximately 82% CaCO3, 8% MgCO3, 4% organic binder, and 6% inorganic salts and insoluble silicate minerals. Application rates were targeted at 10 Mg CaCO3/ha but limefall collectors measured lower rates with a mean of 7.85 Mg/ha falling in subcatchment II and 3.42 Mg/ha in subcatchment IV. During the first two years after watershed liming lake pH averaged 6.62, ANC 138 ?eq/L and Ca2+ 119 ?eq/L. Samples collected during the summer of 2005 show that, even after 16 years, the lake has maintained its positive ANC (37.7 ?eq/L) and still has high concentrations of Ca2+ (151.7 ?eq/L). A viable fish population has also survived in this previously fishless lake. Even more surprising, soil samples collected in 2005 still have significant quantities of undissolved CaCO3. In the time since treatment, the CaCO3 has been displaced downward through the organic horizon of the soil through seasonal deposition of organic debris from above. It now lies within an Oa horizon having a pH of approximately 4.5. Organic coatings on the CaCO3 are likely inhibiting reactions with soil water. Some reaction must still be occurring as the pH is higher and exchangeable acidity lower in treated catchments as compared to untreated control catchments. The pH of the organic horizons in the control catchments is as low as 3.6 while the exchangeable acidity is as high as 11.2 meq/100 gm. Exchangeable acidity of organic horizons in the treated catchments is generally less than 2 meq/100 gm. Calcite weathering rates are likely lower in this field experiment than expected due to the presence of organic coatings on the mineral grain surfaces that are formed during organic decomposition reactions in the soil. Despite this, the rate of Ca2+ release from the treated catchments is high enough to maintain a positive ANC in the lake.

Newton, R. M.

2005-12-01

190

Aluminum Sulfate 18 Hydrate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A chemical laboratory information profile (CLIP) of the chemical, aluminum sulfate 18 hydrate, is presented. The profile lists physical and harmful properties, exposure limits, reactivity risks, and symptoms of major exposure for the benefit of teachers and students using the chemical in the laboratory.

Young, Jay A.

2004-01-01

191

Soda-lime dust contamination of breathing circuits.  

PubMed

A case report of soda-lime dust contamination of the breathing circuit of an anesthesia machine causing bronchospasm in a patient is presented. Various factors in absorber design and increased dusting of soda lime due to high-flow techniques and lack of wetting are described. A modification of the Fraser-Sweatman absorber leading the fresh gas into an area free of dust accumulation has resulted in near-complete elimination of the problem. PMID:1130729

Lauria, J I

1975-05-01

192

Primary magmatic calcite reveals origin from crustal carbonate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated lava flows representative of the whole eruptive history of the Colli Albani ultrapotassic volcanic district (Central Italy). One of the most intriguing features concerning some of these lava flows is the occurrence of primary, magmatic calcite in the groundmass. The primary, magmatic nature of calcite has been inferred by microtextural investigations showing that it typically occurs i) interstitially, associated with clinopyroxene, nepheline and phlogopite, ii) in spherical ocelli, associated with nepheline, fluorite and tangentially arranged clinopyroxene, and iii) in corona-like reaction zones around K-feldspar xenocrysts. These microtextural features distinctly indicate that calcite crystallized from a carbonate melt in a partially molten groundmass, implying that the temperature of the system was above the solidus of the hosted lava flow (> 850 °C). Geochemical features of calcite crystals (i.e., stable isotope values and trace element patterns) corroborate their primary nature and give insights into the origin of the parental carbonate melt. The trace element patterns testify to a high-temperature crystallization process (not hydrothermal) involving a carbonate melt coexisting with a silicate melt. The high ?18O (around 27‰ SMOW) and wide ?13C (- 18 to + 5‰ PDB) values measured in the calcites preclude a mantle origin, but are consistent with an origin in the crust. In this framework, the crystallization of calcite can be linked to the interaction between magmas and carbonate-bearing wall rocks and, in particular, to the entrapment of solid and/or molten carbonate in the silicate magma. The stability of carbonate melt at low pressure and the consequent crystallization of calcite in the lava flow groundmass are ensured by the documented, high activity of fluorine in the studied system and by the limited ability of silicate and carbonate melts to mix at syn-eruptive time scales.

Gozzi, Fernando; Gaeta, Mario; Freda, Carmela; Mollo, Silvio; Di Rocco, Tommaso; Marra, Fabrizio; Dallai, Luigi; Pack, Andreas

2014-03-01

193

CO2 adhesion on hydrated mineral surfaces.  

PubMed

Hydrated mineral surfaces in the environment are generally hydrophilic but in certain cases can strongly adhere CO2, which is largely nonpolar. This adhesion can significantly alter the wettability characteristics of the mineral surface and consequently influence capillary/residual trapping and other multiphase flow processes in porous media. Here, the conditions influencing adhesion between CO2 and homogeneous mineral surfaces were studied using static pendant contact angle measurements and captive advancing/receding tests. The prevalence of adhesion was sensitive to both surface roughness and aqueous chemistry. Adhesion was most widely observed on phlogopite mica, silica, and calcite surfaces with roughness on the order of ~10 nm. The incidence of adhesion increased with ionic strength and CO2 partial pressure. Adhesion was very rarely observed on surfaces equilibrated with brines containing strong acid or base. In advancing/receding contact angle measurements, adhesion could increase the contact angle by a factor of 3. These results support an emerging understanding of adhesion of, nonpolar nonaqueous phase fluids on mineral surfaces influenced by the properties of the electrical double layer in the aqueous phase film and surface functional groups between the mineral and CO2. PMID:24040744

Wang, Shibo; Tao, Zhiyuan; Persily, Sara M; Clarens, Andres F

2013-10-15

194

Interpretation of the lime column penetration test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dry soil mix (DSM) columns are used to reduce the settlement and to improve the stability of embankments constructed on soft clays. During construction the shear strength of the columns needs to be confirmed for compliance with technical assumptions. A specialized blade shaped penetrometer known as the lime column probe, has been developed for testing DSM columns. This test can be carried out as a pull out resistance test (PORT) or a push in resistance test (PIRT). The test is considered to be more representative of average column shear strength than methods that test only a limited area of the column. Both PORT and PIRT tests require empirical correlations of measured resistance to an absolute measure of shear strength, in a similar manner to the cone penetration test. In this paper, finite element method is used to assess the probe factor, N, for the PORT test. Due to the large soil deformations around the probe, an Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) based finite element formulation has been used. Variation of N with rigidity index and the friction at the probe-soil interface are investigated to establish a range for the probe factor.

Liyanapathirana, D. S.; Kelly, R. B.

2010-06-01

195

Nuclear anomalies in the buccal cells of calcite factory workers  

PubMed Central

The micronucleus (MN) assay on exfoliated buccal cells is a useful and minimally invasive method for monitoring genetic damage in humans. To determine the genotoxic effects of calcite dust that forms during processing, MN assay was carried out in exfoliated buccal cells of 50 (25 smokers and 25 non-smokers) calcite factory workers and 50 (25 smokers and 25 non-smokers) age- and sex-matched control subjects. Frequencies of nuclear abnormalities (NA) other than micronuclei, such as binucleates, karyorrhexis, karyolysis and ‘broken eggs', were also evaluated. Micronuclei and the other aforementioned anomalies were analysed by two way analysis of covariance. The linear correlations between the types of micronucleus and nuclear abnormalities were determined by Spearman's Rho. There was a positive correlation between micronuclei and other types of nuclear abnormalities in accordance with the Spearman's Rho test. Results showed statistically significant difference between calcite fabric workers and control groups. MN and NA frequencies in calcite fabric workers were significantly higher than those in control groups (p < 0.05). The results of this study indicate that calcite fabric workers are under risk of significant cytogenetic damage. PMID:21637497

2010-01-01

196

Evaluation of hazardous waste incineration in a lime kiln: Rockwell Lime Company. Final report  

SciTech Connect

During a one-week test burn, hazardous waste was used as supplemental fuel and co-fired with petroleum coke in a lime kiln in eastern Wisconsin. Detailed sampling and analysis was conducted on the stack gas for principal organic hazardous constituents (POHCs), particulates, particulate metals, HCl, SO2, NOx, CO, and THC and on process streams for metals and chlorine. POHCs were also analyzed in the waste fuel. Sampling was conducted during three baseline and five waste fuel test burn days. The program objectives were to determine the destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) for each POHC, determine concentration of stack gas pollutants under baseline and waste fuel test burn conditions, determine the fate of chlorine, sulfur, and trace metals in the kiln process, and evaluate kiln performance when operating with hazardous waste as supplemental fuel. Results show average DRE's greater than 99.99 percent for each POHC and little change in pollutant emissions from baseline to waste fuel test conditions. In addition, material balance results show that 95 percent of chlorine enters the process from the limestone feed and the chlorine exits the kiln in the baghouse dust and lime product at 61 percent and 38 percent, respectively.

Day, D.R.; Cox, L.A.

1984-08-01

197

Nutrition, Hydration & Health  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The following resource is a NFL sponsored, National Science Foundation funded program intended to teach students about scientific concepts by using the popular sport of Football. Each lesson is accompanied by an informative and fast paced video. In this lesson, athletic trainers from the Pittsburgh Steelers explain what NFL players must do to stay hydrated and replenish the essential nutrients needed to maintain good health during rigorous practices.

2010-01-01

198

Uranium and thorium isotope concentrations in foraminiferal calcite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uranium and thorium isotope activities were measured by isotope dilution alpha spectrometry in four late Pleistocene and Holocene foraminiferal calcite samples. Sample cleaning methods were utilized to separate calcite tests from contaminating clay and surface oxide coatings. The maximum concentration of lattice bound uranium is 0.023 ppm (10 × 10 -9 moles U/mole Ca), consistent with the lowest reported value, 0.025 ppm [1]. 230Th/ 234U activity ratios in samples cleaned as described above are much greater than one, indicating that the cleaning methods used do not effectively remove 230Th from the surfaces of the calcite. The upper limit for lattice bound 232Th is 0.039 ppm (17 × 10 -9 moles Th/mole Ca).

Delaney, Margaret Lois; Boyle, Edward A.

1983-02-01

199

Surfactant effects on gas hydrate formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micellar solutions were found to increase gas hydrate formation rate and alter formation mechanism for ethane and natural gas hydrates. A critical micellar concentration (CMC) of sodium dodecyl sulfate water solution was found to be 242 ppm at hydrate-forming conditions, where CMC was best determined by hydrate induction time. At surfactant concentrations above the CMC, hydrate formation rates in a

Y. Zhong; R. E. Rogers

2000-01-01

200

Methane Clathrate Hydrate Prospecting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of prospecting for methane has been devised. The impetus for this method lies in the abundance of CH4 and the growing shortages of other fuels. The method is intended especially to enable identification of subpermafrost locations where significant amounts of methane are trapped in the form of methane gas hydrate (CH4(raised dot)6H2O). It has been estimated by the U.S. Geological Survey that the total CH4 resource in CH4(raised dot) 6H2O exceeds the energy content of all other fossil fuels (oil, coal, and natural gas from non-hydrate sources). Also, CH4(raised dot)6H2O is among the cleanest-burning fuels, and CH4 is the most efficient fuel because the carbon in CH4 is in its most reduced state. The method involves looking for a proxy for methane gas hydrate, by means of the combination of a thermal-analysis submethod and a field submethod that does not involve drilling. The absence of drilling makes this method easier and less expensive, in comparison with prior methods of prospecting for oil and natural gas. The proposed method would include thermoprospecting in combination with one more of the other non-drilling measurement techniques, which could include magneto-telluric sounding and/or a subsurface-electrical-resistivity technique. The method would exploit the fact that the electrical conductivity in the underlying thawed region is greater than that in the overlying permafrost.

Duxbury, N.; Romanovsky, V.

2003-01-01

201

Microbially Induced Calcite Precipitation for Subsurface Immobilization of Contaminants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subsurface radionuclide and metal contaminants throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex pose one of the greatest challenges for long-term stewardship. One promising stabilization mechanism for divalent trace ions, such as the short-lived radionuclide 90Sr, is co-precipitation in calcite. We have found that calcite precipitation and co-precipitation of Sr can be accelerated by the activity of urea hydrolyzing microorganisms, that higher calcite precipitation rates can result in increased Sr partitioning, and that nutrient additions can stimulate ureolytic activity. To extend our understanding of microbially induced calcite precipitation (MICP) in an aquifer setting a continuous recirculation field experiment evaluating MICP was conducted at the Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site located at Rifle, CO. In this experiment, groundwater extracted from an onsite well was amended with urea (total mass of 42.5 kg) and molasses (a carbon and electron donor) and re-injected into a well approximately 4 meters up-gradient for a period of 12 days followed by 10 months of groundwater sampling and monitoring. Crosshole radar and electrical tomographic data were collected prior, during, and after the MICP treatment. The urea and molasses treatment resulted in an enhanced population of sediment associated urea hydrolyzing organisms as evidenced by increases in the number of ureC gene copies, increases in 14C urea hydrolysis rates, and long-term observations of ammonium (a urea hydrolysis product) in the injection, extraction and down gradient monitoring wells. Permeability changes and increases in the calcite saturation indexes in the well field suggest that mineral precipitation has occurred; ongoing analysis of field samples seeks to confirm this. Changes in dielectric constant and electrical conductivity were used to interpret the spatiotemporal distribution of the injectate and subsequent calcite precipitation. Modeling activities are underway to define field-scale urea hydrolysis rates.

Smith, R. W.; Fujita, Y.; Ginn, T. R.; Hubbard, S. S.; Dafflon, B.; Delwiche, M.; Gebrehiwet, T.; Henriksen, J. R.; Peterson, J.; Taylor, J. L.

2011-12-01

202

Rapid gas hydrate formation process  

DOEpatents

The disclosure provides a method and apparatus for forming gas hydrates from a two-phase mixture of water and a hydrate forming gas. The two-phase mixture is created in a mixing zone which may be wholly included within the body of a spray nozzle. The two-phase mixture is subsequently sprayed into a reaction zone, where the reaction zone is under pressure and temperature conditions suitable for formation of the gas hydrate. The reaction zone pressure is less than the mixing zone pressure so that expansion of the hydrate-forming gas in the mixture provides a degree of cooling by the Joule-Thompson effect and provides more intimate mixing between the water and the hydrate-forming gas. The result of the process is the formation of gas hydrates continuously and with a greatly reduced induction time. An apparatus for conduct of the method is further provided.

Brown, Thomas D.; Taylor, Charles E.; Unione, Alfred J.

2013-01-15

203

Sulfated Macromolecules as Templates for Calcite Nucleation and Growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mineralization of egg and seashells is controlled by an intimate association of inorganic materials with organic macromolecules. Among them, particular polyanionic sulfated macromolecules referred to as proteoglycans have been described to be involved in the calcification of these biominerals. The sulfated moieties of the proteoglycans are part of polymer chains constituted of building-blocks of disaccharide units, referred to as sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), which are covalently attached to a protein core. By using a sitting drop crystallization assay under controlled conditions of time, pH and reactants concentration, we have tested several sulfated and non-sulfated GAGs (i.e.: dermatan and keratan sulfate, hyaluronic acid and heparin), differing in their sulfonate and carboxylate degree and pattern, in their ability to modify calcium carbonate crystal morphology as observed under scanning electron microscopy. Without the addition of GAGs, regular \\{104\\} rhombohedral calcite crystals were obtained. When hyaluronic acid (HA), a non-sulfated but carboxylated GAG, was added, 20 mm long piles of unmodified calcite crystals were observed. When desulfated dermatan, which is an epimeric form of HA but shorter polymer, having their carboxylate groups in an inverted configuration, was added, isolated rhombohedral \\{104\\} calcite crystals showing rounded corners with planes oriented parallel to the c axis were observed. When dermatan sulfated was added, isolated calcite crystals exhibit a columnar morphology as a \\{hk0\\} cylinder with three \\{104\\} faces forming a cap at both ends. Heparin activity depends on the fraction added. Fast-moving heparin fraction (FM), is an undersulfated, low-molecular-weight heterogeneous polymer, while slow-moving heparin fraction (SM) is an high-molecular-weight homogeneous polymer rich in trisulfated-disaccharide units. When FM was added, isolated calcite crystals displayed rhombohedrical \\{104\\} faces but flat corners of \\{111\\} faces. The addition of the hypersulfated heparin SM induce the formation of large rosette-like aggregated calcite crystals, where the majority of the \\{104\\} faces appeared not to be lost, although aggregation is done by different kind of faces. It is concluded that, the variation of the sulfate and carboxylate content and configuration drastically changed the morphology of the calcite crystals. The production of calcite particles with defined morphologies could be interesting for the design of novel materials with desirable shape- and texture-depending properties. Granted by FONDAP 11980002.

David, M.; Passalacqua, K.; Neira, A. C.; Fernandez, M. S.

2003-12-01

204

Discovery of a Cretaceous Scleractinian Coral with a Calcitic Skeleton  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been generally thought that scleractinian corals form purely aragonitic skeletons. We show that a well- preserved fossil coral, Coelosmilia sp. from the Upper Cretaceous (ca. 70 Ma), has preserved skeletal structural features identical to those observed in present day scleractinians. However, the skeleton of Coelosmilia sp. is entirely calcitic. Its fine-scale structure and chemistry indicate that the calcite is primary and did not from via diagenetic alteration of aragonite. This result implies that corals, like other groups of marine, calcium carbonate- producing organisms, can form skeletons of different carbonate polymorphs. Implications for coral biomineralization and evolution will be discussed.

Stolarski, J.; Meibom, A.; Przenioslo, R.; Mazur, M.

2007-12-01

205

A Cretaceous scleractinian coral with a calcitic skeleton.  

PubMed

It has been generally thought that scleractinian corals form purely aragonitic skeletons. We show that a well-preserved fossil coral, Coelosmilia sp. from the Upper Cretaceous (about 70 million years ago), has preserved skeletal structural features identical to those observed in present-day scleractinians. However, the skeleton of Coelosmilia sp. is entirely calcitic. Its fine-scale structure and chemistry indicate that the calcite is primary and did not form from the diagenetic alteration of aragonite. This result implies that corals, like other groups of marine, calcium carbonate-producing organisms, can form skeletons of different carbonate polymorphs. PMID:17916731

Stolarski, Jaroslaw; Meibom, Anders; Przenioslo, Radoslaw; Mazur, Maciej

2007-10-01

206

Magnesium stable isotope fractionation in marine biogenic calcite and aragonite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This survey of magnesium stable isotope compositions in marine biogenic aragonite and calcite includes samples from corals, sclerosponges, benthic porcelaneous and planktonic perforate foraminifera, coccolith oozes, red algae, and an echinoid and brachiopod test. The analyses were carried out using MC-ICP-MS with an external repeatability of ±0.22‰ (2SD for ? 26Mg; n = 37), obtained from a coral reference sample (JCp-1). Magnesium isotope fractionation in calcitic corals and sclerosponges agrees with published data for calcitic speleothems with an average ? 26Mg calcite-seawater = -2.6 ± 0.3‰ that appears to be weakly related to temperature. With one exception ( Vaceletia spp.), aragonitic corals and sclerosponges also display uniform Mg isotope fractionations relative to seawater with ? 26Mg biogenic aragonite-seawater = -0.9 ± 0.2. Magnesium isotopes in high-Mg calcites from red algae, echinoids and perhaps some porcelaneous foraminifera as well as in all low-Mg calcites (perforate foraminifera, coccoliths and brachiopods) display significant biological influences. For planktonic foraminifera, the Mg isotope data is consistent with the fixation of Mg by organic material under equilibrium conditions, but appears to be inconsistent with Mg removal from vacuoles. Our preferred model, however, suggests that planktonic foraminifera synthesize biomolecules that increase the energetic barrier for Mg incorporation. In this model, the need to remove large quantities of Mg from vacuole solutions is avoided. For the high-Mg calcites from echinoids, the precipitation of amorphous calcium carbonate may be responsible for their weaker Mg isotope fractionation. Disregarding superimposed biological effects, it appears that cation light isotope enrichments in CaCO 3 principally result from a chemical kinetic isotope effect, related to the incorporation of cations at kink sites. In this model, the systematics of cation isotope fractionations in CaCO 3 relate to the activation energy required for cation incorporation, which probably reflects the dehydration of the cation and the crystal surface and bond formation at the incorporation site. This kinetic incorporation model predicts (i) no intrinsic dependence on growth rate, unless significant back reaction upon slow growth reduces the isotope fractionation towards that characteristic for equilibrium isotope partitioning (this may be observed for Ca isotopes in calcites), (ii) a small decrease of isotope fractionation with increasing temperature that may be amplified if higher temperatures promote back reaction and (iii) a sensitivity to changes in the activation barrier caused by additives such as anions or biomolecules or by the initial formation of amorphous CaCO 3.

Wombacher, F.; Eisenhauer, A.; Böhm, F.; Gussone, N.; Regenberg, M.; Dullo, W.-Chr.; Rüggeberg, A.

2011-10-01

207

Recovery of aluminum oxide by the Ames lime-soda sinter process: scale-up using a rotary kiln  

SciTech Connect

The Ames Lime-Soda Sinter Process provides a means for recovering aluminum oxide from power plant fly ash while producing a residue that can be used in the manufacture of sulfate resistant (Type V) portland cement. The process has been fully researched and its feasibility is now being demonstrated through pilot plant scale investigation. This paper reports results of the pelletized feed preparation by agglomeration in a rotary pan granulator, continuous feed sintering in an electrically heated rotary kiln, and product recovery from the clinker by aqueous extraction, desilication of the filtrate, and precipitation of a hydrated aluminum oxide. Results from earlier bench-scale research have been found to apply consistently to the pilot plant scale work.

Murtha, M.J.; Burnet, G.; Harnby, N.

1985-01-01

208

Hydration of a low-alkali CEM III/B-SiO{sub 2} cement (LAC)  

SciTech Connect

The hydration of a low-alkali cement based on CEM III/B blended with 10 wt.% of nanosilica has been studied. The nanosilica reacted within the first days and 90% of the slag reacted within 3.5 years. C-S-H (Ca/Si {approx} 1.2, Al/Si {approx} 0.12), calcite, hydrotalcite, ettringite and possibly straetlingite were the main hydrates. The pore water composition revealed ten times lower alkali concentrations than in Portland cements. Reducing conditions (HS{sup -}) and a pH value of 12.2 were observed. Between 1 month and 3.5 years of hydration more hydrates were formed due to the ongoing slag reaction but no significant differences in the composition of the pore solution or solid phase assemblage were observed. On the basis of thermodynamic calculations it is predicted that siliceous hydrogarnet could form in the long-term and, in the presence of siliceous hydrogarnet, also thaumasite. Nevertheless, even after 3.5 year hydration, neither siliceous hydrogarnet nor thaumasite have been observed.

Lothenbach, Barbara, E-mail: barbara.lothenbach@empa.ch [Empa, Laboratory for Concrete and Construction Chemistry, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Le Saout, Gwenn; Ben Haha, Mohsen; Figi, Renato [Empa, Laboratory for Concrete and Construction Chemistry, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Wieland, Erich [PSI, Laboratory for Waste Management, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

2012-02-15

209

78 FR 37536 - Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office...This notice announces a meeting of the Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee. The Federal...of the Committee: The purpose of the Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee is to...

2013-06-21

210

75 FR 9886 - Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department...This notice announces a meeting of the Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee. Federal Advisory...of the Committee: The purpose of the Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee is to...

2010-03-04

211

78 FR 26337 - Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office...This notice announces a meeting of the Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee. The Federal...of the Committee: The purpose of the Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee is to...

2013-05-06

212

77 FR 40032 - Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office...This notice announces a meeting of the Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee. The Federal...of the Committee: The purpose of the Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee is to...

2012-07-06

213

76 FR 59667 - Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office...This notice announces a meeting of the Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee. Federal Advisory...of the Committee: The purpose of the Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee is to...

2011-09-27

214

The LIME Interface Specification Language and Runtime Monitoring Tool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes an interface specification language designed in the LIME project (LIME ISL) and the supporting runtime monitoring tool. The interface specification language is tailored for the Java programming language and supports two kinds of specifications: (i) call specifications that specify requirements for the allowed call sequences to a Java object instance and (ii) return specifications that specify the allowed behaviors of the Java object instance. Both the call and return specifications can be expressed with Java annotations in several different ways: as past time LTL formulas, as (safety) future LTL formulas, as regular expressions, and as nondeterministic finite automata. We also describe the supporting LIME interface monitoring tool which is an open source implementation of runtime monitoring for the interface specifications implemented using AspectJ.

Kähkönen, Kari; Lampinen, Jani; Heljanko, Keijo; Niemelä, Ilkka

215

REMOVAL OF BERYLLIUM FROM DRINKING WATER BY CHEMICAL COAGULATION AND LIME SOFTENING  

EPA Science Inventory

The effectiveness of conventional drinking water treatment and lime softening was evaluated for beryllium removal from two drinking water sources. ar test studies were conducted to determine how common coagulants (aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride and lime softening performed ...

216

Aragonite and Calcite as Constituents of Adult Oyster Shells.  

PubMed

Adult oyster shells are composed mainly of calcite, but there are five small areas of aragonite: the resilium, the two pads at which the adductor muscle is inserted, and the two pads at which Quenstedt's muscles are inserted. Quenstedt's muscles are proposed as a name for the small modified, one-time pedal muscles of unknown function, discovered by Quenstedt. PMID:17834841

Stenzel, H B

1963-10-11

217

A data-driven model of the global calcite lysocline  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gridded maps of sediment calcium carbonate (calcite) concentration and overlying water saturation state [Archer, 1996] are combined with maps of benthic oxygen fluxes and sediment accumulation rates from Jahnke [1996] and Cweink [1986] to drive a diagenetic model of calcium carbonate preservation in deep-sea sediments. The only model input for which we cannot draw a detailed map is the rain

David Archer

1996-01-01

218

Control of Aragonite or Calcite Polymorphism by Mollusk Shell Macromolecules  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many mineralizing organisms selectively form either calcite or aragonite, two polymorphs of calcium carbonate with very similar crystalline structures. Understanding how these organisms achieve this control has represented a major challenge in the field of biomineralization. Macromolecules extracted from the aragonitic shell layers of some mollusks induced aragonite formation in vitro when preadsorbed on a substrate of beta-chitin and silk

Giuseppe Falini; Shira Albeck; Steve Weiner; Lia Addadi

1996-01-01

219

Use of coupled passivants and consolidants on calcite mineral surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deterioration of monuments, buildings, and works of art constructed of carbonate-based stone potentially can be arrested by applying a combination of chemical passivants and consolidants that prevent hydrolytic attack and mechanical weakening. The authors used molecular modeling and laboratory synthesis to develop an improved passivating agent for the calcite mineral surface based on binding strength and molecular packing density. The

K. L. Nagy; R. T. Cygan; C. J. Brinker; C. S. Ashley; C. S. Scotto

1997-01-01

220

Copper incorporation in foraminiferal calcite: results from culturing experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A partition coefficient for copper (DCu) in foraminiferal calcite has been determined by culturing individuals of two benthic species under controlled laboratory conditions. The partition coefficient of a trace element (TE) is an emperically determined relation between the TE/Ca ratio in seawater and the TE/Ca ratio in foraminiferal calcite and has been established for many divalent cations. Despite its potential to act as a tracer of human-induced, heavy metal pollution, data is not yet available for copper. Since partition coefficients are usually a function of multiple factors (seawater temperature, pH, salinity, metabolic activity of the organism, etc.), we chose to analyze calcite from specimens cultured under controlled laboratory conditions. They were subjected to different concentrations of Cu2+ (0.1-20 µmol/l) and constant temperature (10 and 20°C), seawater salinity and pH. We monitored the growth of new calcite in specimens of the temperate, shallow-water foraminifer Ammonia tepida and in the tropical, symbiont-bearing Heterostegina depressa. Newly formed chambers were analyzed for Cu/Ca ratios by laser ablation-ICP-MS. The estimated partition coefficient (0.1-0.4) was constant to within experimental error over a large range of (Cu/Ca)seawater ratios and was remarkably similar for both species. Neither did the presence or absence of symbionts affect the DCu, nor did we find a significant effect of temperature or salinity on Cu-uptake.

de Nooijer, L. J.; Reichart, G. J.; Dueñas-Bohórquez, A.; Wolthers, M.; Ernst, S. R.; Mason, P. R. D.; van der Zwaan, G. J.

2007-07-01

221

Copper incorporation in foraminiferal calcite: results from culturing experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A partition coefficient for copper (DCu) in foraminiferal calcite has been determined by culturing individuals of two benthic species under controlled laboratory conditions. The partition coefficient of a trace element (TE) is an emperically determined relation between the TE/Ca ratio in seawater and the TE/Ca ratio in foraminiferal calcite and has been established for many divalent cations. Despite its potential to act as a tracer of human-induced, heavy metal pollution, data is not yet available for copper. Since partition coefficients are usually a function of multiple factors (seawater temperature, pH, salinity, metabolic activity of the organism, etc.), we chose to analyze calcite from specimens cultured under controlled laboratory conditions. They were subjected to different concentrations of Cu2+ (0.1-20 µmol/l) and constant temperature (10 and 20°C), seawater salinity and pH. We monitored the growth of new calcite in specimens of the temperate, shallow-water foraminifer Ammonia tepida and in the tropical, symbiont-bearing Heterostegina depressa. Newly formed chambers were analyzed for Cu/Ca ratios by laser ablation-ICP-MS. The calculated partition coefficient (0.1-0.4) was constant to within experimetnal error over a large range of (Cu/Ca)seawater ratios and was remarkably similar for both species. Neither did the presence or absence of symbionts affect the DCu, nor did we find a significant effect of temperature or salinity on Cu-uptake.

de Nooijer, L. J.; Reichart, G. J.; Dueñas-Bohórquez, A.; Wolthers, M.; Ernst, S. R.; Mason, P. R. D.; van der Zwaan, G. J.

2007-04-01

222

Utricular otoconia of some amphibians have calcitic morphology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report concerns the morphological features of otoconia removed from the inner ear of four amphibian species. Results from scanning electron microscopic examination are compared based on the site of origin. These results show that utricular otoconia have a mineral structure that mimics calcite, rather than the widely accepted idea that they are mineralized by calcium carbonate of the aragonite polymorph.

Pote, K. G.; Ross, M. D.

1993-01-01

223

Catalytic iron oxide for lime regeneration in carbonaceous fuel combustion  

DOEpatents

Lime utilization for sulfurous oxides absorption in fluidized combustion of carbonaceous fuels is improved by impregnation of porous lime particulates with iron oxide. The impregnation is achieved by spraying an aqueous solution of mixed iron sulfate and sulfite on the limestone before transfer to the fluidized bed combustor, whereby the iron compounds react with the limestone substrate to form iron oxide at the limestone surface. It is found that iron oxide present in the spent limestone acts as a catalyst to regenerate the spent limestone in a reducing environment. With only small quantities of iron oxide the calcium can be recycled at a significantly increased rate.

Shen, Ming-Shing (Rocky Point, NY); Yang, Ralph T. (Middle Island, NY)

1980-01-01

224

SUPPORTING INFORMATION Surface-Potential Heterogeneity of Reacted Calcite and Rhodochrosite  

E-print Network

S1 SUPPORTING INFORMATION Surface-Potential Heterogeneity of Reacted Calcite and Rhodochrosite histograms of steps and terraces for calcite and rhodochrosite surfaces of Figure 1. Figure S4: Topography for data shown in Figure 3 Sample Dependent Variable Probability (> F-Test Value)* h(nano) 2.6Ã?10-4 calcite

225

Direct Observation of the Transition from Calcite to Aragonite Growth as Induced by Abalone Shell Proteins  

E-print Network

Direct Observation of the Transition from Calcite to Aragonite Growth as Induced by Abalone Shell are known to cause the nucleation and growth of aragonite on calcite seed crystals in supersaturated with calcite crystals did not observe this transition because no information about the crystal polymorph

Fygenson, Deborah Kuchnir

226

Selenium incorporation into calcite and its effect on crystal growth: An atomic force microscopy study  

E-print Network

Selenium incorporation into calcite and its effect on crystal growth: An atomic force microscopy December 2012 Available online 7 January 2013 Editor: J. Fein Keywords: Calcite Atomic force microscopy Crystal growth Selenium The atomic processes leading to calcite growth are still debated. The presence

Montes-Hernandez, German

227

The solubility of fish-produced high magnesium calcite in seawater Ryan J. Woosley,1  

E-print Network

The solubility of fish-produced high magnesium calcite in seawater Ryan J. Woosley,1 Frank J calcite as part of the physiological mechanisms responsible for maintaining salt and water balance 0.09) is approximately two times higher than aragonite and similar to the high magnesium calcite

Grosell, Martin

228

Arsenite sorption and co-precipitation with calcite G. Romn-Ross1#  

E-print Network

1 Arsenite sorption and co-precipitation with calcite G. Román-Ross1# , G. J. Cuello2 , X Girona, Spain. E-mail: gabriela.roman@udg.es Keywords: calcite, arsenite, adsorption, coprecipitation hal : 10.1016/j.chemgeo.2006.04.007 #12;2 Abstract Sorption of As(III) by calcite was investigated

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

229

Estimation of surface precipitation constants for sorption of divalent metals onto hydrous ferric oxide and calcite  

E-print Network

oxide and calcite Chen Zhu * Department of Geology and Planetary Science, University of Pittsburgh for modeling surface precipitation of divalent metals, M2+ , onto hydrous ferric oxide and calcite were+ . D 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Surface adsorption; Iron oxide; Calcite

Polly, David

230

Phosphoric acid fractionation factors for calcite and aragonite between 25 and 75 C: Revisited  

E-print Network

Phosphoric acid fractionation factors for calcite and aragonite between 25 and 75 °C: Revisited-determine the phosphoric acid fractionation factor for calcite and aragonite in order to improve the accuracy and limit the uncertainty of this very important quantity. The 18 O/16 O ratio of 100% of the oxygen in calcite

Long, Bernard

231

Inter-relations entre aiguilles de calcite et hyphes Gabriel CALLOT, Andr GUYON Daniel MOUSAIN  

E-print Network

Inter-relations entre aiguilles de calcite et hyphes mycéliens Gabriel CALLOT, André GUYON Daniel'intérieur des hyphes de Basidiomycètes. Ces concentrations minérales s'identifient aux aiguilles de calcite, mycorhizes. SUMMARY Relation between calcite needles and fungal hyphae in the soil. Study of soil

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

232

In situ AFM study of the dissolution and recrystallization behaviour of polished and stressed calcite surfaces  

E-print Network

calcite surfaces J. Bisschop a,*, D.K. Dysthe a , C.V. Putnis b , B. Jamtveit a a Physics of Geological in revised form 12 December 2005 Abstract We investigated the dissolution behaviour of polished calcite to study the effects of applied surface stress and crystallographic orientation on calcite dissolution

Dysthe, Dag Kristian

233

Research paper Nanostructured calcite precipitated under hydrothermal conditions in the presence  

E-print Network

Research paper Nanostructured calcite precipitated under hydrothermal conditions in the presence-L-cystine Crystallographic incorporation into calcite Selenium Selenium is an important trace metalloid, whose global cycle associated with carbonate phases, with Se being gener- ally incorporated as an impurity in calcite crystals

234

Molecular Self-Assembly of Enantiopure Heptahelicene-2-Carboxylic Acid on Calcite (1014)  

E-print Network

Molecular Self-Assembly of Enantiopure Heptahelicene-2-Carboxylic Acid on Calcite (1014)-heptahelicene-2-carboxylic acid ((M)-[7]HCA) on the calcite (1014) cleavage plane under ultrahigh vacuum along the calcite [0110] direction. Here, we investigate the enantiopure (M)- [7]HCA compound, resulting

Kühnle, Angelika

235

Synthesis of Calcite Single Crystals with Porous Surface by Templating of Polymer Latex Particles  

E-print Network

Synthesis of Calcite Single Crystals with Porous Surface by Templating of Polymer Latex Particles in solution. After template removal, well-defined, calcite single crystals exhibiting a rhombohedral morphology and uniform surface pores are obtained. The surface pore size of the calcite single crystals can

Qi, Limin

236

Calcite crystal growth orientation: implications for trace metal uptake into coccoliths  

E-print Network

Calcite crystal growth orientation: implications for trace metal uptake into coccoliths V. E. PAYNE, OX1 3PR, UK ABSTRACT Inorganic calcite precipitation experiments were conducted to determine whether inducing specific orientations of calcite crystal growth can cause the enrichment of cations larger than Ca

Benning, Liane G.

237

Cite this: CrystEngComm, 2013, 15, Calcite formation by hydrothermal carbonation of  

E-print Network

Cite this: CrystEngComm, 2013, 15, 3392 Calcite formation by hydrothermal carbonation-Hernandezb and C. Noguera*cd The present study complements experimental results of calcite nanoparticle formation calcite particles ­ are considered. The simulation is performed with the help of the NANOKIN code

Montes-Hernandez, German

238

Strong kinetic effects on Sr/Ca ratios in the calcitic bivalve Pecten maximus  

E-print Network

G22048 Strong kinetic effects on Sr/Ca ratios in the calcitic bivalve Pecten maximus Anne Lorrain Although Sr/Ca ratios in abiogenic calcite are strongly controlled by precipitation rates, such a kinetic effect has never been demonstrated in calcitic bivalve shells. Therefore, we report 1 hal-00452403

Brest, Université de

239

Tip-Induced Calcite Single Crystal Nanowear Ramakrishna Gunda, and Alex A. Volinsky  

E-print Network

Tip-Induced Calcite Single Crystal Nanowear Ramakrishna Gunda, and Alex A. Volinsky Department Wear behavior of freshly cleaved single crystal calcite (CaCO3) was investigated by continuous scanning of effects. The wear regime is due to abrasive wear. Single crystal calcite hardness of 2.8±0.3 GPa

Volinsky, Alex A.

240

Measurement of c-axis angular orientation in calcite (CaCO3) nanocrystals using  

E-print Network

Measurement of c-axis angular orientation in calcite (CaCO3) nanocrystals using X-ray absorption are demonstrated here on geologic calcite (CaCO3) and used to investigate the prismatic layer of a mollusk shell, Pinctada fucata. These XANES-PEEM data reveal multiply oriented nanocrystals within calcite prisms

Coppersmith, Susan N.

241

Peptide Controls on Calcite Mineralization: Polyaspartate Chain Length Affects Growth Kinetics and Acts as a Stereochemical  

E-print Network

Peptide Controls on Calcite Mineralization: Polyaspartate Chain Length Affects Growth Kinetics interactions with step edges. Here, we show that the morphology and growth kinetics of calcite are modified suggest a process by which small fluctuations in primary structure in proteins can control calcite shape

Dove, Patricia M.

242

Atomistic simulations of calcite nanoparticles and their interaction David J. Cooke and James A. Elliotta  

E-print Network

Atomistic simulations of calcite nanoparticles and their interaction with water David J. Cooke 12 September 2007 Molecular dynamics MD simulations have been used to study the stability of calcite, an understand- ing of the chemical and physical properties of calcium car- bonate polymorphs, especially calcite

Elliott, James

243

Author's personal copy Selenium incorporation into calcite and its effect on crystal growth: An atomic force  

E-print Network

Author's personal copy Selenium incorporation into calcite and its effect on crystal growth December 2012 Accepted 29 December 2012 Available online 7 January 2013 Editor: J. Fein Keywords: Calcite Atomic force microscopy Crystal growth Selenium The atomic processes leading to calcite growth are still

244

Tetrahedral calcite crystals facilitate self-assembly at the air-water interface S. M. Hashmi  

E-print Network

Tetrahedral calcite crystals facilitate self-assembly at the air-water interface S. M. Hashmi; published 26 October 2005 Calcite crystals often nucleate and grow in solutions of calcium carbonate out of aqueous solution is known to form fractal aggregates of micron-sized rhombohedral calcite

245

The kinetics and mechanisms of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) crystallization to calcite, via vaterite.  

E-print Network

The kinetics and mechanisms of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) crystallization to calcite, via calcium carbonate (ACC) crystallization to calcite, via vaterite, were studied at a range, the vaterite transforms to calcite via a dissolution and reprecipitation mechanism with the reaction rate

Benning, Liane G.

246

ELSEVIER Tectonophysics 305 (1999) 275286 SevierLaramide deformation of the continental interior from calcite  

E-print Network

from calcite twinning analysis, west-central North America John P. Craddock a,L , Ben A. van der Pluijm by mechanically twinned calcite. Shortening directions are generally parallel to the Sevier thrust as 2000 km into the plate interior. The inferred calcite twinning differential stress magnitudes generally

247

Atomic-Scale Study of Calcite Nucleation in Calcium Oxide Rmy Besson*  

E-print Network

Atomic-Scale Study of Calcite Nucleation in Calcium Oxide Rémy Besson* Groupe de MétallurgieO, by considering insertion of CO2 within the subsurface, in configurations characteristic of calcite surface a mechanism for calcite nucleation, as well as a plausible explanation for the degradation of performances

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

248

Temperature Dependence of1 Oxygen Isotope Fractionation in Coccolith Calcite:2  

E-print Network

Temperature Dependence of1 Oxygen Isotope Fractionation in Coccolith Calcite:2 A Culture and Core temperature dependence of 18 O fractionation in biogenic calcite was first established in the 1950s and26 the objective of the present study is to re-evaluate this temperature dependence in coccolith calcite27

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

249

hal-00194999,version1-8Dec2007 Arsenic uptake by gypsum and calcite  

E-print Network

hal-00194999,version1-8Dec2007 Arsenic uptake by gypsum and calcite: Modeling and probing studies performed on As-doped gypsum (CaSO4 2H2O) and calcite (CaCO3), using neutron (D20-ILL) and x- ray As gets into the bulk of gypsum and calcite structures or is simply adsorbed on the surface. Different

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

250

Fluids in the Crust Redox effects on calcite-portlandite-fluid equilibria at forearc conditions: Carbon  

E-print Network

Fluids in the Crust Redox effects on calcite-portlandite-fluid equilibria at forearc conditions: Carbon mobility, methanogenesis, and reduction melting of calcite Codi lazar*,1,2 , Chi zhang1,3 , Craig­10 kbar). Experimental calcite solubility was constant at O2 values from quartz-fayalite-magnetite (QFM

Manning, Craig

251

Effect of Celestite-Calcite Mineralogy on Their Separation by Attrition Scrubbing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Celestite ore is one of the principle economic resources of strantium element. Naturally, it contains some impurities, with the main one being the calcite mineral. In this article, the separation of celestite from calcite was conducted using attrition scrubbing based on the difference in the hardness between the two minerals. Due to the friability of calcite, it was expected to

Ayman A. El-Midany; Ali Q. Selim; Suzan S. Ibrahim

2011-01-01

252

Mallik Gas Hydrates Test Well  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A test-well for collecting gas hydrates in Mallik, Canada. Gas hydrates are naturally-occurring “ice-like” combinations of natural gas and water that have the potential to provide an immense resource of natural gas from the world’s oceans and polar regions....

253

TECHNICAL REPORTS Agricultural liming materials are used to correct soil acidity  

E-print Network

considerably in their pH, and most temperate crops grow best when soil pH is approximately 6.5 to 7.0. For many centuries, lime in various forms has been used to raise soil pH and thereby improve soil fertility. LimeTECHNICAL REPORTS 2058 Agricultural liming materials are used to correct soil acidity

254

Gas Hydrate Petroleum System Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a gas hydrate petroleum system, the individual factors that contribute to the formation of gas hydrate accumulations, such as (1) gas hydrate pressure-temperature stability conditions, (2) gas source, (3) gas migration, and (4) the growth of the gas hydrate in suitable host sediment can identified and quantified. The study of know and inferred gas hydrate accumulations reveal the occurrence of concentrated gas hydrate is mostly controlled by the presence of fractures and/or coarser grained sediments. Field studies have concluded that hydrate grows preferentially in coarse-grained sediments because lower capillary pressures in these sediments permit the migration of gas and nucleation of hydrate. Due to the relatively distal nature of the deep marine geologic settings, the overall abundance of sand within the shallow geologic section is usually low. However, drilling projects in the offshore of Japan, Korea, and in the Gulf of Mexico has revealed the occurrence of significant hydrate-bearing sand reservoirs. The 1999/2000 Japan Nankai Trough drilling confirmed occurrence of hydrate-bearing sand-rich intervals (interpreted as turbidite fan deposits). Gas hydrate was determined to fill the pore spaces in these deposits, reaching saturations up to 80% in some layers. A multi-well drilling program titled "METI Toaki-oki to Kumano-nada" also identified sand-rich reservoirs with pore-filling hydrate. The recovered hydrate-bearing sand layers were described as very-fine- to fine-grained turbidite sand layers measuring from several centimeters up to a meter thick. However, the gross thickness of the hydrate-bearing sand layers were up to 50 m. In 2010, the Republic of Korea conducted the Second Ulleung Basin Gas Hydrate (UBGH2) Drilling Expedition. Seismic data clearly showed the development of a thick, potential basin wide, sedimentary sections characterized by mostly debris flows. The downhole LWD logs and core data from Site UBGH2-5 reveal that each debris flows is characterized by basal silt- to sand-rich clay dominated stratigraphic units. The upper most debris flow at Site UBGH2-5 extends into the overlying gas hydrate stability zone and IR core scans indicate that this section contains some amount of gas hydrate. The UBGH2 LWD and coring program also confirmed the occurrence of numerous volcaniclastic and siliciclastic sand reservoirs that were deposited as part of local to basin-wide turbidite events. Gas hydrate saturations within the turbidite sands ranged between 60-80 percent. In 2009, the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) Joint Industry Project (JIP) drilled seven wells at three sites, finding gas hydrate at high concentration in sands in four wells, with suspected gas hydrate at low to moderate saturations in two other wells. In the northern GOM, high sedimentation rates in conjunction with salt tectonism, has promoted the formation of complex seafloor topography. As a result, coarse-grained deposition can occur as gravity-driven sedimentation traversing the slope within intra-slope "ponded" accommodation spaces.

Collett, T. S.

2012-12-01

255

Crystal growth of calcite from calcium bicarbonate solutions at constant PCO2 and 25??C: a test of a calcite dissolution model  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A highly reproducible seeded growth technique was used to study calcite crystallization from calcium bicarbonate solutions at 25??C and fixed carbon dioxide partial pressures between 0.03 and 0.3 atm. The results are not consistent with empirical crystallization models that have successfully described calcite growth at low PCO2 (< 10-3 atm). Good agreement was found between observed crystallization rates and those calculated from the calcite dissolution rate law and mechanism proposed by Plummer et al. (1978). ?? 1981.

Reddy, M.M.; Plummer, L.N.; Busenberg, E.

1981-01-01

256

Fluid mediated transformation of aragonitic cuttlebone to calcite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aragonite to calcite transition has been studied extensively over the years because of its wide spectra of applications and of its significant geochemical interest. While studies of kinetics (e.g. Topor et al., 1981), thermodynamics (e.g. Wolf et al., 1996) and behavior of ions such as Sr and Mg (e.g. Yoshioka et al., 1986) have been made there are still unanswered questions regarding this reaction especially in the cases where the effects of fluid composition are considered. It is well known that when heated in air, aragonite transforms by a solid state reaction to calcite. The aragonite cuttlebone of the sepia officinalis that was used for our experiments undergoes a phase transition at ~370-390Ë? C, measured by in situ heating experiments in a Philips X'pert X-ray powder diffractometer equipped with a HTK 1200 High temperature oven. Successive X-ray scans were taken at isothermal temperatures at 200C intervals. A similar temperature range was found by Vongsavat et al. 2006, who studied this transition in Acropora corals. It is possible however to promote this transition at considerably lower temperatures by means of a fluid mediated reaction where the replacement takes place by a dissolution-precipitation mechanism (Putnis & Putnis, 2007). We have successfully carried out hydrothermal experiments where cuttlebone has been converted to calcite at 200Ë? C. Using the PhreeqC program we calculated the required composition of a solution that would be undersaturated with respect to aragonite and saturated with respect to calcite leading to dissolution of the aragonite and to a consequent precipitation of the new calcite phase, similar to the experiments described in an earlier study (Perdikouri et al, 2008). This reaction is not pseudomorphic and results in the destruction of the morphology, presumably due to the molar volume increase. A total transformation of the cuttlebone produced a fine calcite powder. The cuttlebone exhibits a unique microstructure, made up of interconnected chambers. The aragonite grown during biomineralization of the cuttlebone is interlaced with a β-chitin organic phase that provides the framework for the morphology that is observed. Experiments carried out with the same constant conditions but for different periods of time have revealed the evolution of the transformation to calcite. At shorter reaction times the product was made up of calcite powder and of well preserved aragonite septa, as was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction. In other words, the vertical pillars appear to react at faster rates than the horizontal septa. It has been reported by Florek et al. 2008 that the septa contain higher quantities of β-chitin. The aim of this study is the investigation of these observations and the determination of the effect of the organic component on the kinetics of the aragonite to calcite transformation. Florek M., Fornal E., Gómez-Romero P., Zieba E., Paszkowicz W., Lekki J.,Nowak J., Kuczumow A. Materials Science and Engineering C, In Press (2008) Perdikouri C., Kasioptas A., Putnis C.V., Putnis A. Mineralogical Magazine 72, 111-114 (2008) Putnis A., Putnis C.V. Solid State Chemistry 180, 1783-1786 (2007) Topor N. D., Tolokonnikova L. I., Kadenatsi B. M. Journal of Thermal Analysis 20, 169-174 (1981) Vongsavat V., Winotai P., Meejoo S. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 243, 167-173 (2006) Wolf G., Lerchner J., Schmidt H., Gamsjäger H., Königsberger E., Schmidt P. Journal of Thermal Analysis 46, 353-359 (1996) Yoshioka S., Ohde S., Kitano Y., Kanamori N. Marine Chemistry 18, 35-48 (1986)

Perdikouri, C.; Kasioptas, A.; Putnis, A.

2009-04-01

257

Imaging surface contacts: Power law contact distributions and contact stresses in quartz, calcite, glass and acrylic plastic  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A procedure has been developed to obtain microscope images of regions of contact between roughened surfaces of transparent materials, while the surfaces are subjected to static loads or undergoing frictional slip. Static loading experiments with quartz, calcite, soda-lime glass and acrylic plastic at normal stresses to 30 MPa yield power law distributions of contact areas from the smallest contacts that can be resolved (3.5 ??m2) up to a limiting size that correlates with the grain size of the abrasive grit used to roughen the surfaces. In each material, increasing normal stress results in a roughly linear increase of the real area of contact. Mechanisms of contact area increase are by growth of existing contacts, coalescence of contacts and appearance of new contacts. Mean contacts stresses are consistent with the indentation strength of each material. Contact size distributions are insensitive to normal stress indicating that the increase of contact area is approximately self-similar. The contact images and contact distributions are modeled using simulations of surfaces with random fractal topographies. The contact process for model fractal surfaces is represented by the simple expedient of removing material at regions where surface irregularities overlap. Synthetic contact images created by this approach reproduce observed characteristics of the contacts and demonstrate that the exponent in the power law distributions depends on the scaling exponent used to generate the surface topography.

Dieterich, J.H.; Kilgore, B.D.

1996-01-01

258

Lime pretreatment and fermentation of enzymatically hydrolyzed sugarcane bagasse.  

PubMed

Sugarcane bagasse was subjected to lime (calcium hydroxide) pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis for second-generation ethanol production. A central composite factorial design was performed to determine the best combination of pretreatment time, temperature, and lime loading, as well as to evaluate the influence of enzymatic loadings on hydrolysis conversion. The influence of increasing solids loading in the pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis stages was also determined. The hydrolysate was fermented using Saccharomyces cerevisiae in batch and continuous mode. In the continuous fermentation, the hydrolysates were concentrated with molasses. Lime pretreatment significantly increased the enzymatic digestibility of sugarcane bagasse without the need for prior particle size reduction. In the optimal pretreatment conditions (90 h, 90 °C, 0.47 glime/g bagasse) and industrially realistic conditions of hydrolysis (12.7 FPU/g of cellulase and 7.3 CBU/g of ?-glucosidase), 139.6 kglignin/ton raw bagasse and 126.0 kg hemicellulose in the pretreatment liquor per ton raw bagasse were obtained. The hydrolysate from lime pretreated sugarcane bagasse presented low amounts of inhibitors, leading to ethanol yield of 164.1 kgethanol/ton raw bagasse. PMID:23334836

Rabelo, Sarita C; Maciel Filho, Rubens; Costa, Aline C

2013-03-01

259

Wet waste flue gas desulfurizing process using lime as absorbent  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wet waste flue gas desulfurizing process using lime as absorbent is disclosed wherein a sulfur oxide-containing waste flue gas is washed with a liquid absorbent containing calcium hydroxide or calcium carbonate for the purpose of removing the sulfur oxide from said waste flue gas, characterized in that an absorbing device is divided into two stages, i.e., a former stage

M. Atsukawa; K. Kamei; N. Shinoda; H. Ushio

1977-01-01

260

Shock-wave properties of soda-lime glass  

SciTech Connect

Planar impact experiments and wave profile measurements provided single and double shock equation of state data to 30 GPa. Both compression wave wave profile structure and release wave data were used to infer time-dependent strength and equation of state properties for soda-lime glass.

Grady, D.E. [Applied Research Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Chhabildas, L.C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1996-11-01

261

COMPUTERIZED SHAWNEE LIME/LIMESTONE SCRUBBING MODEL USERS MANUAL  

EPA Science Inventory

The manual gives a general description of a computerized model for estimating design and cost of lime or limestone scrubber systems for flue gas desulfurization (FGD). It supplements PB80-123037 by extending the number of scrubber options which can be evaluated. It includes spray...

262

K'qizaghetnu Ht'ana (Stories from Lime Village).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A cross section of Athabascan life as related by eight inhabitants of Lime Village, Alaska, is given in this document. The short narratives are printed in English and in Dena'ina. Illustrations accompany the text. The stories tell of making eagle feather robes, birchbark or mooseskin boats, a raincoat from black bear intestines, and boots from…

Bobby, Pete; And Others

263

Wood Residues as Fuel Source for Lime Kilns  

E-print Network

One of the main obstacles to total energy self sufficiency of kraft mills appears to be the fossil fuel requirements of the lime kilns. If an economical technology can be developed which allows fossil fuel to be replaced in whole or in part by wood...

Azarniouch, M. K.; Philp, R. J.

1984-01-01

264

Liming and quality of guava fruit cultivated in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was conducted on guava trees Psidium guajava L. (cv. Paluma) grown in the Experimental Citrus Culture Station of Bebedouro, SP, on dystrophic, acid Typical Hapludox in order to assess the effects of application of increasing lime doses to the soil on the quality of guava fruits on the basis of the physicochemical changes observed in the fruits after

Renato de Mello Prado; William Natale; José Antônio Alberto da Silva

2005-01-01

265

Liming and quality of guava fruit cultivated in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was conducted on guava trees Psidium guajava L. (cv. Paluma) grown in the Experimental Citrus Culture Station of Bebedouro, SP, on dystrophic, acid Typical Hapludox in order to assess the effects of application of increasing lime doses to the soil on the quality of guava fruits on the basis of the physicochemical changes observed in the fruits after

Renato de Mello Prado; William Natale; JoseAntonio Alberto da Silva

266

HAZARDOUS WASTE COMBUSTION IN INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES: CEMENT AND LIME KILNS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes the results of several studies relating to hazardous waste combustion in cement and lime kilns. The tests included in the study are four kilns tested by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, four kilns tested by State agencies or the kiln operator, two C...

267

Saturn's emitted power Liming Li,1,2  

E-print Network

Saturn's emitted power Liming Li,1,2 Barney J. Conrath,2 Peter J. Gierasch,2 Richard K. Achterberg Composite Infrared Spectrometer are analyzed to precisely measure Saturn's emitted power and its meridional the interannual variability of emitted power and effective temperature between the epoch of Voyager (1 Saturn year

268

CHARACTERIZATION OF CARBIDE LIME TO IDENTIFY SULFITE OXIDATION INHIBITORS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study of carbide lime--a by-product of acetylene manufacture, primarily calcium hydroxide--used in a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system at Louisville Gas and Electric (LGE). The study was undertaken to: identify sulfite ion oxidation inhibitors in...

269

Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in lime spray dryer ash  

SciTech Connect

Four lime spray dryer (LSD) ash samples were collected from a spreader stoker boiler and measured for their concentrations of 16 U.S. EPA specified polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Results showed that the total measured PAH concentration correlated with the organic carbon content of the LSD ash. Each LSD ash sample was then separated using a 140 mesh sieve into two fractions: a carbon-enriched fraction ({gt}140 mesh) and a lime-enriched fraction ({lt}140 mesh). Unburned carbon was further separated from the carbon-enriched fraction with a lithiumheteropolytungstate (LST) solution. PAH measurements on these different fractions showed that unburned carbon had the highest PAH concentrations followed by the carbon-enriched fraction, indicating that PAHs were primarily associated with the carbonaceous material in LSD ash. However, detectable levels of PAHs were also found in the lime-enriched fraction, suggesting that the fine spray of slaked lime may sorb PAH compounds from the flue gas in the LSD process. 37 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

Ping Sun; Panuwat Taerakul; Linda K. Weavers; Harold W. Walker [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States). Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Geodetic Science

2005-10-01

270

Fracture-aperture alteration induced by calcite precipitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mineral precipitation significantly alters the transport properties of fractured rock. Chemical solubility gradients that favor precipitation induce mineral growth, which decreases the local aperture and alters preferential flow paths. Understanding the resulting development of spatial heterogeneities is necessary to predict the evolution of transport properties in the subsurface. We present experimental results that quantify the relationship between mineral precipitation and aperture alteration in a transparent analog fracture, 7.62cm x 7.62cm, with a uniform aperture of ~200 ?m. Prior to flow experiments, a pump circulated a super-saturated calcite solution over the bottom glass, coating the glass surface with calcite. This method of seeding resulted in clusters of calcite crystals with large reactive surface area and provided micro-scale variability in the aperture field. A continuous flow syringe pump injected a reactive fluid into the fracture at 0.5 ml/min. The fluid was a mixture of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, 0.02M) and calcium chloride (CaCl2 0.0004M) with a saturation index, ?, of 8.51 with respect to calcite. A strobed LED panel backlit the fracture and a high-resolution CCD camera monitored changes in transmitted light intensity. Light transmission techniques provided a quantitative measurement of fracture aperture over the flow field. Results from these preliminary experiments showed growth near the inlet of the fracture, with decreasing precipitation rates in the flow direction. Over a period of two weeks, the fracture aperture decreased by 17% within the first 4mm of the inlet. Newly precipitated calcite bridged individual crystal clusters and smoothed the reacting surface. This observation is an interesting contradiction to the expectation of surface roughening induced by mineral growth. Additionally, the aperture decreased uniformly across the width of the fracture due to the initial aperture distribution. Future experiments of precipitation within variable-aperture fields will investigate the dependency of growth patterns on heterogeneous aperture distributions. (a) Aperture strain (?b/bi) after 14 days. Precipitation is concentrated near the inlet and decreases in the flow direction. (b) Width-averaged profiles of the initial and final aperture field show changes in aperture and smoothing that results from calcite precipitation between the initial discrete crystals.

Jones, T.; Detwiler, R. L.

2013-12-01

271

Adhesive carrier particles for rapidly hydrated sorbent for moderate-temperature dry flue gas desulfurization.  

PubMed

A rapidly hydrated sorbent for moderate-temperature dry flue gas desulfurization was prepared by rapidly hydrating adhesive carrier particles and lime. The circulation ash from a circulating fluidized bed boiler and chain boiler ash, both of which have rough surfaces with large specific surface areas and specific pore volumes, can improve the adhesion, abrasion resistance, and desulfurization characteristics of rapidly hydrated sorbent when used as the adhesive carrier particles. The adhesion ability of sorbent made from circulation ash is 67.4% higher than that of the existing rapidly hydrated sorbent made from fly ash, the abrasion ratio is 76.2% lower, and desulfurization ability is 14.1% higher. For sorbent made from chain boiler ash, the adhesion ability is increased by 74.7%, the desulfurization ability is increased by 30.3%, and abrasion ratio is decreased by 52.4%. The abrasion ratios of the sorbent made from circulation ash having various average diameters were all about 9%, and their desulfurization abilities were similar (approximately 150 mg/g). PMID:20481549

Li, Yuan; You, Changfu; Song, Chenxing

2010-06-15

272

Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius Endospores Function as Nuclei for the Formation of Single Calcite Crystals  

PubMed Central

Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius colonies were placed on an agar hydrogel containing acetate, calcium ions, and magnesium ions, resulting in the formation of single calcite crystals (calcites) within and peripheral to the plating area or parent colony. Microscopic observation of purified calcites placed on the surface of soybean casein digest (SCD) nutrient medium revealed interior crevices from which bacterial colonies originated. Calcites formed on the gel contained [1-13C]- and [2-13C]acetate, demonstrating that G. thermoglucosidasius utilizes carbon derived from acetate for calcite formation. During calcite formation, vegetative cells swam away from the parent colony in the hydrogel. Hard-agar hydrogel inhibited the formation of calcites peripheral to the parent colony. The calcite dissolved completely in 1 M HCl, with production of bubbles, and the remaining endospore-like particles were easily stained with Brilliant green dye. The presence of DNA and protein in calcites was demonstrated by electrophoresis. We propose that endospores initiate the nucleation of calcites. Endospores of G. thermoglucosidasius remain alive and encapsulated in calcites. PMID:23455343

Murai, Rie

2013-01-01

273

Chemistry and petrography of calcite in the KTB pilot borehole, Bavarian Oberpfalz, Germany  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The KTB pilot borehole in northeast Bavaria, Germany, penetrates 4000 m of gneiss, amphibolite, and subordinate calc-silicate, lamprophyre and metagabbro. There are three types of calcite in the drilled section: 1) metamorphic calcite in calc-silicate and marble; 2) crack-filling calcite in all lithologies; and 3) replacement calcite in altered minerals. Crack-filling and replacement calcite postdate metamorphic calcite. Multiple calcite generations in individual cracks suggest that different generations of water repeatedly flowed through the same cracks. Crack-filling mineral assemblages that include calcite originally formed at temperatures of 150-350??C. Presently, crack-filling calcite is in chemical and isotopic equilibrium with saline to brackish water in the borehole at temperatures of ???120??C. The saline to brackish water contains a significant proportion of meteoric water. Re-equilibration of crack-filling calcite to lower temperatures means that calcite chemistry tells us little about water-rock interactions in the crystal section of temperatures higher than ~120??C. -from Author

Komor, S.C.

1995-01-01

274

Evaluation of strengthening mechanisms in calcite single crystals from mollusk shells.  

PubMed

Biogenic single-crystal calcite is often reported to be harder and tougher than geologic calcite in the form of Iceland spar. However, the mechanistic origins of the superior mechanical properties of the biogenic materials are still debated. We investigate the hardness and modulus of biogenic calcite from the prismatic layer of the mollusk Atrina rigida compared with a pure geologic calcite, Iceland spar. On the {001} face, biogenic calcite is found to be 50-70% harder than geologic calcite. This range is due to the fact that changes in azimuthal angle of the indenter tip lead to a hardness variation of ?20% in A. rigida but only ?7% in Iceland spar. The higher hardness and increased anisotropy of biogenic calcite could be accounted for by hardening mechanisms based on hindered dislocation motion rather than crack deflection. PMID:23036948

Kunitake, Miki E; Mangano, Lauren M; Peloquin, John M; Baker, Shefford P; Estroff, Lara A

2013-02-01

275

Microbially-Mediated Subsurface Calcite Precipitation for Removal of Hazardous Divalent Cations  

SciTech Connect

We are investigating microbially-mediated acceleration of calcite precipitation and co-precipitation of hazardous divalent cations (e.g., 90Sr) in calcite saturated subsurface systems. In theory, the addition of urea to an aquifer or vadose zone and its subsequent hydrolysis by indigenous microbes will cause an increase in alkalinity, pH and calcite precipitation. Lab studies indicated the ability of various bacteria to precipitate calcite through urea hydrolysis and that incorporation of strontium in biogenically-formed calcite is greater than in abiotically formed calcite. Results from a field experiment in a pristine location in the Snake River Plain aquifer involving the phased addition of molasses and then urea showed increases in total cell numbers, rate of urea hydrolysis and calcite formation during the study. The combined diagnostic approaches of microbiology, molecular ecology and analytical chemistry demonstrate the feasibility of this biogeochemical manipulation for subsurface remediation at arid Western DOE sites such as Hanford and INEEL.

Colwell, Frederick S.; Smith, R.W.; Ferris, F. Gratn; Ingram, Jani C.; Reysenbach, A.-L.; Fujita, Yoshiko; Tyler, T.L.; Taylor, J.L.; Banta, A.; Delwiche, M.E.; McLing, T.; Cortez, Marnie, M.; Watwood, M.E.

2003-03-27

276

Free gas in the regional hydrate stability zone: Implications for hydrate distribution and fracturing behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that hydrate distribution and fracture genesis in the hydrate stability zone are largely governed by the phase of methane supply. In systems where methane is supplied primarily as free gas, hydrate saturation increases upwards in the hydrate stability zone, and fractures nucleate in the middle of the stability zone where hydrate saturation is highest. In systems where methane

H. Daigle; B. Dugan

2010-01-01

277

Physical properties of sediments containing gas hydrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to better understand the occurrence and distribution of gas hydrates and their effects on acoustic and thermal measurements in ocean sediments, the authors have conducted a program of experimental research to study thermal conductivity and acoustic wave velocity in hydrates and sediments containing hydrate. The most significant result of these studies is that the formation of hydrate tends

Robert D. Stoll; George M. Bryan

1979-01-01

278

New waste based clinkers: Belite and lime formulations  

SciTech Connect

This work describes the formulation of new belite-based (CR2) and lime-based (CR3) cementitious materials derived from industrial wastes, such as sludges (generated in the Al-anodising and surface coating industrial processes, potable water filtration/cleaning operations and in marble sawing processes) and foundry sand. Powder mixtures were prepared and fired at different temperatures. For comparison, similar formulations were prepared with pre-treated and commercially available natural raw materials and processed in similar conditions. The thermal process was followed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and high-temperature powder X-ray diffraction (HT-XRD) studies. The CR2 clinker was found to contain belite as the main cementitious phase, the main polymorph being identified by NMR. The CR3 clinker contained common cementitious phases, such as C{sub 3}A and C{sub 3}S, but free lime and calcium aluminium oxide sulphates were also identified by high temperature XRD and NMR. Then the corresponding cement was prepared and the evolution of the mechanical strength with time was evaluated. The lime-based cement obtained from wastes shows a stronger hardening character than the standard material, which tends to show dusting phenomena due to the presence of a reasonable amount of free lime (as the result of its expansive reaction with ambient moisture). Some fluxing impurities (e.g. alkalis) present in the waste materials improve the overall reactivity of the mixture and induces the combination of the lime in CR3. Raman, XPS and FIB techniques were used to fully characterise the aged cements.

Raupp-Pereira, Fabiano [Ceramics and Glass Engineering Department, CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Ball, Richard James [University of Bristol, Interface Analysis Centre, Oldbury House, 121 St Michael's Hill, Bristol, BS2 8BS (United Kingdom)], E-mail: richard.ball@bristol.ac.uk; Rocha, Joao [Department of Chemistry, CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Labrincha, Joao A. [Ceramics and Glass Engineering Department, CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Allen, Geoffrey C. [University of Bristol, Interface Analysis Centre, Oldbury House, 121 St Michael's Hill, Bristol, BS2 8BS (United Kingdom)

2008-04-15

279

Water, Hydration and Health  

PubMed Central

This review attempts to provide some sense of our current knowledge of water including overall patterns of intake and some factors linked with intake, the complex mechanisms behind water homeostasis, the effects of variation in water intake on health and energy intake, weight, and human performance and functioning. Water represents a critical nutrient whose absence will be lethal within days. Water’s importance for prevention of nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases has emerged more recently because of the shift toward large proportions of fluids coming from caloric beverages. Nevertheless, there are major gaps in knowledge related to measurement of total fluid intake, hydration status at the population level, and few longer-term systematic interventions and no published random-controlled longer-term trials. We suggest some ways to examine water requirements as a means to encouraging more dialogue on this important topic. PMID:20646222

Popkin, Barry M.; D’Anci, Kristen E.; Rosenberg, Irwin H.

2010-01-01

280

Hydrates represent gas source, drilling hazard  

SciTech Connect

Gas hydrates look like ordinary ice. However, if a piece of such ice is put into warm water its behavior will be different from the ordinary melting of normal ice. In contrast, gas hydrates cause bubbles in the warm water, which indicates the high content of gas in the hydrate crystals. The presence of four components is required: gas itself, water, high pressure, and low temperature. The paper discusses how hydrates form, hydrates stability, South Caspian hydrates, and hydrates hazards for people, ships, pipelines, and drilling platforms.

Bagirov, E. [Azerbaijan Academy of Sciences, Baku (Azerbaijan); Lerche, I. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

1997-12-01

281

Dynamics of Protein Hydration Water  

E-print Network

We present the frequency- and temperature-dependent dielectric properties of lysozyme solutions in a broad concentration regime, measured at subzero temperatures and compare the results with measurements above the freezing point of water and on hydrated lysozyme powder. Our experiments allow examining the dynamics of unfreezable hydration water in a broad temperature range including the so-called No Man's Land (160 - 235 K). The obtained results prove the bimodality of the hydration shell dynamics and are discussed in the context of the highly-debated fragile-to-strong transition of water.

M. Wolf; S. Emmert; R. Gulich; P. Lunkenheimer; A. Loidl

2014-12-08

282

U(VI) behaviour in hyperalkaline calcite systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The behaviour of U(VI) in hyperalkaline fluid/calcite systems was studied over a range of U(VI) concentrations (5.27 × 10-5 ?M to 42.0 ?M) and in two high pH systems, young and old synthetic cement leachate in batch sorption experiments. These systems were selected to be representative of young- (pH 13.3) and old-stage (pH 10.5) leachate evolution within a cementitious geological disposal facility. Batch sorption experiments, modelling, extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, electron microscopy, small angle X-ray scattering and luminescence spectroscopy were used to define the speciation of U(VI) across the systems of study. At the lowest concentrations (5.27 × 10-5 ?M 232U(VI)) significant U removal was observed for both old and young cement leachates, and this was successfully modelled using a first order kinetic adsorption modelling approach. At higher concentrations (>4.20 ?M) in the young cement leachate, U(VI) showed no interaction with the calcite surface over an 18 month period. Small angle X-ray scattering techniques indicated that at high U concentrations (42.0 ?M) and after 18 months, the U(VI) was present in a colloidal form which had little interaction with the calcite surface and consisted of both primary and aggregated particles with a radius of 7.6 ± 1.1 and 217 ± 24 Å, respectively. In the old cement leachate, luminescence spectroscopy identified two surface binding sites for U(VI) on calcite: in the system with 0.21 ?M U(VI), a liebigite-like Ca2UO2(CO3)3 surface complex was identified; at higher U(VI) concentrations (0.42 ?M), a second binding site of undetermined coordination was identified. At elevated U(VI) concentrations (>2.10 ?M) in old cement leachate, both geochemical data and luminescence spectroscopy suggested that surface mediated precipitation was controlling U(VI) behaviour. A focused ion beam mill was used to create a section across the U(VI) precipitate-calcite interface. Transmission electron microscope images of the section revealed that the calcite surface was coated with a nano crystalline, U containing phase. Selected area electron diffraction images of the U precipitate which was formed at a U(VI) concentration of 4.20 ?M were consistent with the formation of calcium uranate. XAS spectroscopy at higher concentrations (?21.0 ?M) suggested the formation of a second U(VI) phase, possibly a uranyl oxyhydroxide phase. These results indicated that in the young cement leachate, U(VI) did not react with the calcite surface unless U(VI) concentrations were very low (5.27 × 10-5 ?M). At higher concentrations, speciation calculations suggested that U(VI) was significantly oversaturated and experimental observations confirmed it existed in a colloidal form that interacted with the mineral surface only weakly. In the old cement leachate systems at low concentrations batch sorption and luminescence data suggested that U(VI) removal was being driven by a surface complexation mechanism. However, at higher concentrations, spectroscopic methods suggest a combination of both surface complexation and surface mediated precipitation was responsible for the observed removal. Overall, U(VI) behaviour in hyperalkaline calcite systems is distinct from that at circumneutral pH conditions: at high pH and anything but low U(VI) concentrations, a surface mediated precipitation mechanism occurs; this is in contrast to circumneutral pH conditions where U(VI) surface complexation reactions tend to dominate.

Smith, Kurt F.; Bryan, Nicholas D.; Swinburne, Adam N.; Bots, Pieter; Shaw, Samuel; Natrajan, Louise S.; Mosselmans, J. Frederick W.; Livens, Francis R.; Morris, Katherine

2015-01-01

283

Cosmogenic Chlorine36 Production in Calcite by Muons  

Microsoft Academic Search

At depths below a few metres, 36Cl production in calcite is initiated almost entirely by cosmic ray muons. The principal reactions are (1) direct negative muon capture by Ca; 40Ca(??,?)36Cl, and (2) capture by 35Cl of secondary neutrons produced in muon capture and muon-induced photodisintegration reactions. We have determined rates for 36Cl and neutron production due to muon capture in

J. O. H. Stone; J. M. Evans; L. K. Fifield; G. L. Allan; R. G. Cresswell

1998-01-01

284

Relating Mechanical Behavior and Microstructural Observations in Calcite Fault Gouge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many important earthquakes, magnitude 5-7, nucleate and/or propagate through carbonate-dominated lithologies. Additionally, the presence of precipitated calcite in (cement) and near (vein fill) faults indicates that the mechanical behavior of carbonate-dominated material likely plays an important role in shallow- and mid-crustal faulting. We report on laboratory experiments designed to explore the mechanical behavior of calcite and relate that behavior to post experiment microstructural observations. We sheared powdered gouge of Carrara Marble, >98% CaCO3, at constant normal stresses between 1 and 50 MPa under saturated conditions at room temperature. We performed velocity-stepping tests, 0.1-1000 ?m/s, to evaluate frictional stability, and slide-hold-slide tests, 1-10,000 seconds, to measure the amount of frictional healing. Small subsets of experiments were performed under different environmental conditions and shearing velocities to better elucidate physicochemical processes and their role in the mechanical behavior of calcite fault gouge. All experimental samples were collected for SEM analysis. We find that the frictional healing rate is 7X higher under saturated conditions than under nominally dry conditions. We also observe a divergence between the rates of creep relaxation (increasing) and frictional healing (decreasing) as shear velocity is increased from 1 to 3000 ?m/s. Our highest healing rates are observed at our lowest normal stresses. We observe a frictional strength of ? = 0.64, consistent with previous data under similar conditions. Furthermore, although we observe velocity-weakening frictional behavior in both the saturated and dry cases, rate- and-state friction parameters are distinctly different for each case. Our combined observations of rapid healing and of velocity-weakening frictional behavior indicate that faults where calcite-dominated gouge is present are likely to be seismic and have the ability to regain their strength quickly. Furthermore, our mechanical results highlight the important role of fluids in the evolution of frictional strength and thus fault behavior.

Carpenter, B. M.; Di Stefano, G.; Viti, C.; Collettini, C.

2013-12-01

285

X-ray interfacial crystallography of water on calcite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The atomic structure of the calcite-water interface has been found using in-situ x-ray interfacial crystallography. This technique determines structure by fitting parameters of an atomic-scale model of the interface to rods of scattering in reciprocal space, called crystal truncation rods (CTRs), that originate from the abrupt change in structure at a crystal surface. Seven allowed and two crystallographically forbidden CTRs

Marc Phillip Geissbuhler

2000-01-01

286

A re-evaluation of aragonite versus calcite seas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some workers have argued that the mineralogy of ancient carbonates may have been different from that of modern sediments,\\u000a with calcite being considered the dominant mineral during the Ordovician, Devonian-mid Carboniferous, and Jurassic-Cretaceous\\u000a to Early\\/Middle Cenozoic (e.g. Sandberg 1983; Wilkinson and Algeo 1989). Variation in carbonate mineralogy has been related\\u000a to the position of global sea level (emergent or submergent

Mohammad H. Adabi

2004-01-01

287

OBSERVED GAS HYDRATE MORPHOLOGIES IN MARINE SEDIMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small-scale morphology of gas hydrate is important for understanding the formation of gas hydrate deposits, for estimating the concentrations of gas hydrate from geophysical data, and for predicting their response to climate change or commercial production. The recent use of borehole pressure coring tools has allowed marine gas-hydrate-bearing sediments to be recovered with centimeter to sub-millimeter gas hydrate structures preserved

Melanie Holland; Peter Schultheiss; John Roberts; Matthew Druce

288

Arsenite sorption and co-precipitation with calcite  

E-print Network

Sorption of As(III) by calcite was investigated as a function of As(III) concentration, time and pH. The sorption isotherm, i.e. the log As(III) vs. log [As(OH)3 degrees / Assat] plot is S-shaped and has been modelled on an extended version of the surface precipitation model. At low concentrations, As(OH)3 degrees is adsorbed by complexation to surface Ca surface sites, as previously described by the X-ray standing wave technique. The inflexion point of the isotherm, where As(OH)3 degrees is limited by the amount of surface sites (ST), yields 6 sites nm-2 in good agreement with crystallographic data. Beyond this value, the amount of sorbed arsenic increases linearly with solution concentration, up to the saturation of arsenic with respect to the precipitation of CaHAsO3(s). The solid solutions formed in this concentration range were examined by X-ray and neutron diffraction. The doped calcite lattice parameters increase with arsenic content while c/a ratio remains constant. Our results made on bulk calcite on...

Roman-Ross, Gabriela; Turrillas, Xavier; Fernandez-Martinez, Alejandro; Charlet, Laurent

2008-01-01

289

Earthworm-produced calcite granules: A new terrestrial palaeothermometer?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we show for the first time that calcite granules, produced by the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris, and commonly recorded at sites of archaeological interest, accurately reflect temperature and soil water ?18O values. Earthworms were cultivated in an orthogonal combination of two different (granule-free) soils moistened by three types of mineral water and kept at three temperatures (10, 16 and 20 °C) for an acclimatisation period of three weeks followed by transfer to identical treatments and cultivation for a further four weeks. Earthworm-secreted calcite granules were collected from the second set of soils. ?18O values were determined on individual calcite granules (?18Oc) and the soil solution (?18Ow). The ?18Oc values reflect soil solution ?18Ow values and temperature, but are consistently enriched by 1.51 (± 0.12)‰ in comparison to equilibrium in synthetic carbonates. The data fit the equation 1000 ln ? = [20.21 ± 0.92] (103 T-1) - [38.58 ± 3.18] (R2 = 0.95; n = 96; p < 0.0005). As the granules are abundant in modern soils, buried soils and archaeological contexts, and can be dated using U-Th disequilibria, the developed palaeotemperature relationship has enormous potential for application to Holocene and Pleistocene time intervals.

Versteegh, Emma A. A.; Black, Stuart; Canti, Matthew G.; Hodson, Mark E.

2013-12-01

290

Calcite deposition at Miravalles geothermal field, Costa Rica  

SciTech Connect

The calcite deposition problem at Miravalles has been studied since it was observed in the first three wells drilled on the slopes of the Miravalles Volcano. Long-term tests have been carried out to study reservoir characteristics. The change in the production behavior of the wells with the restriction imposed by the deposited calcite has been studied trying to evaluate and quantify the scaling problem. Work is being done on predictions of the deposition rate, location and distribution of the deposited mineral inside the wells. This work was compared with real data obtained from caliper logs of the wells before and after production. The feasibility of the first 55 MW power plant has been demonstrated. It was considered that the solution for the calcite problem is the reaming during discharge of the wells trying at the same time to minimize the cleaning interventions with a new well design. It is believed, due to the thermodynamics and chemical characteristics of the extracted fluids, that it is possible to find a non-deposition zone which will permit the drilling of wells without a scaling problem.

Vaca, L.; Alvarado, A.; Corrales, R. (Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad, San Jose (Costa Rica))

1989-01-01

291

Nucleation, growth and evolution of calcium phosphate films on calcite.  

PubMed

Marble, a stone composed of the mineral calcite, is subject to chemically induced weathering in nature due to its relatively high dissolution rate in acid rain. To protect monuments and sculpture from corrosion, we are investigating the application of thin layers of hydroxyapatite (HAP) onto marble. The motivation for using HAP is its low dissolution rate and crystal and lattice compatibility with calcite. A mild, wet chemical synthesis route, in which diammonium hydrogen phosphate salt was reacted with marble, alone and with cationic and anionic precursors under different reaction conditions, was used to produce inorganic HAP layers on marble. Nucleation and growth on the calcite substrate was studied, as well as metastable phase evolution, using scanning electron microscopy, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, and atomic force microscopy. Film nucleation was enhanced by surface roughness. The rate of nucleation and the growth rate of the film increased with cationic (calcium) and anionic (carbonate) precursor additions. Calcium additions also influenced phase formation, introducing a metastable phase (octacalcium phosphate) and a different phase evolution sequence. PMID:25233226

Naidu, Sonia; Scherer, George W

2014-12-01

292

Crystallization of a polymorphic hydrate system.  

PubMed

Nitrofurantoin can form two monohydrates, which have the same chemical composition and molar ratio of water, but differ in the crystal arrangements. The two monohydrates (hydrates I and II) could be produced independently via evaporative crystallization, where supersaturation and solvent composition were both found to have an effect. Hydrate I showed much slower crystallization than hydrate II. During cooling crystallization, the nucleation and growth of hydrate II was again dominant, consuming all supersaturation and leading to no hydrate I formation. Seeding of hydrate I during cooling crystallization was also applied, but the hydrate I seeds were not able to initiate its nucleation rather than dissolving into crystallizing solution. Although solubility tests revealed that hydrate II is more stable than hydrate I due to its lower solubility (110 +/- 4 and 131 +/- 12 microg/mL for hydrates II and I, respectively), this difference is rather small. Therefore, the small free energy difference between the two hydrates, together with the slow crystallization of hydrate I, both lead to a hindrance of hydrate I formation. Furthermore, the crystal structure of hydrate II demonstrated a higher H-bonding extent than hydrate I, suggesting its more favorable crystallization. This is in good agreement with experimental results. PMID:19569226

Tian, F; Qu, H; Louhi-Kultanen, M; Rantanen, J

2010-02-01

293

Deep water cycle: Mantle hydration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fate of water that enters the mantle within subducting slabs is unclear. Laboratory experiments indicate that subducted crust can transport large amounts of water into the deep Earth, and the lower mantle may become more hydrated over time.

Nishi, Masayuki

2015-01-01

294

Module 11 – Withdrawing Nutrition, Hydration  

Cancer.gov

Module eleven of the EPEC-O Self-Study Original Version discusses the general aspects of withholding or withdrawing of life-sustaining therapies, and presents a specific application to artificial nutrition and hydration.

295

Obsidian hydration dates glacial loading?  

PubMed

Three different groups of hydration rinds have been measured on thin sections of obsidian from Obsidian Cliff, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. The average thickness of the thickest (oldest) group of hydration rinds is 16.3 micrometers and can be related to the original emplacement of the flow 176,000 years ago (potassium-argon age). In addition to these original surfaces, most thin sections show cracks and surfaces which have average hydration rind thicknesses of 14.5 and 7.9 micrometers. These later two hydration rinds compare closely in thickness with those on obsidian pebbles in the Bull Lake and Pinedale terminal moraines in the West Yellowstone Basin, which are 14 to 15 and 7 to 8 micrometers thick, respectively. The later cracks are thought to have been formed by glacial loading during the Bull Lake and Pinedale glaciations, when an estimated 800 meters of ice covered the Obsidian Cliff flow. PMID:17806883

Friedman, I; Pierce, K L; Obradovich, J D; Long, W D

1973-05-18

296

Obsidian Hydration: A New Paleothermometer  

SciTech Connect

The natural hydration of obsidian was first proposed as a dating technique for young geological and archaeological specimens by Friedman and Smith (1960), who noted that the thickness of the hydrated layer on obsidian artifacts increases with time. This approach is, however, sensitive to temperature and humidity under earth-surface conditions. This has made obsidian hydration dating more difficult, but potentially provides a unique tool for paleoclimatic reconstructions. In this paper we present the first successful application of this approach, based on combining laboratory-based experimental calibrations with archaeological samples from the Chalco site in the Basin of Mexico, dated using stratigraphically correlated 14C results and measuring hydration depths by secondary ion mass spectrometry. The resultant data suggest, first, that this approach is viable, even given the existing uncertainties, and that a cooling trend occurred in the Basin of Mexico over the past 1450 yr, a result corroborated by other paleoclimatic data.

Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M [ORNL; Riciputi, Lee R [ORNL; Cole, David R [ORNL; Fayek, Mostafa [ORNL; Elam, J. Michael [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

2006-01-01

297

Obsidian hydration dates glacial loading?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Three different groups of hydration rinds have been measured on thin sections of obsidian from Obsidian Cliff, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming . The average thickness of the thickest (oldest) group of hydration rinds is 16.3 micrometers and can be related to the original emplacement of the flow 176,000 years ago (potassium-argon age). In addition to these original surfaces, most thin sections show cracks and surfaces which have average hydration rind thicknesses of 14.5 and 7.9 micrometers. These later two hydration rinds compare closely in thickness with those on obsidian pebbles in the Bull Lake and Pinedale terminal moraines in the West Yellowstone Basin, which are 14 to 15 and 7 to 8 micrometers thick, respectively. The later cracks are thought to have been formed by glacial loading during the Bull Lake and Pinedale glaciations, when an estimated 800 meters of ice covered the Obsidian Cliff flow.

Friedman, I.; Pierce, K.L.; Obradovich, J.D.; Long, W.D.

1973-01-01

298

Protein Hydration in Aqueous Solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance studies of protein hydration in aqueous solution show that there are two qualitatively different types of hydration sites. A well-defined, small number of water molecules in the interior of the protein are in identical locations in the crystal structure and in solution, and their residence times are in the range from about 10-2 to 10-8

Gottfried Otting; Edvards Liepinsh; Kurt Wuthrich

1991-01-01

299

Nutrient limitations and their implications on the effects of atmospheric deposition in coastal dunes; lime-poor and lime-rich sites in the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 A survey of plant and soil parameters was carried out in dry dune grasslands along the Dutch coast in the lime- and iron-poor Wadden district and initially lime- and iron-rich Renodunaal district, in order to detect differences in nutrient availability related to soil characteristics and potential sensitivity to atmospheric deposition of nitrogen. 2 Plant biomass and phosphorus pools in

A. M. Kooijman; J. C. R. Dopheide; J. Sevink; I. Takken; J. M. Verstraten

1998-01-01

300

LOW VELOCITY SHPERE IMPACT OF SODA LIME SILICATE GLASS  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes TARDEC-sponsored work at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during the FY11 involving low velocity ( 30 m/s or 65 mph) ball impact testing of Starphire soda lime silicate glass. The intent was to better understand low velocity impact response in the Starphire for sphere densities that bracketed that of rock. Five sphere materials were used: borosilicate glass, soda-lime silicate glass, steel, silicon nitride, and alumina. A gas gun was fabricated to produce controlled velocity delivery of the spheres against Starphire tile targets. Minimum impact velocities to initiate fracture in the Starphire were measured and interpreted in context to the kinetic energy of impact and the elastic property mismatch between the any of the five sphere-Starphire-target combinations.

Morrissey, Timothy G [ORNL; Fox, Ethan E [ORNL; Wereszczak, Andrew A [ORNL; Vuono, Daniel J [ORNL

2012-01-01

301

Lime, molybdenum, and cultivar effects on molybdenum deficiency of poinsettia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. ex Klotz) cultivars ‘Annette Hegg Brilliant Diamond’ (AH), ‘Gutbier V?14 Glory’ (GG), and ‘Eckespoint C?1 Red’ (ER) were grown in a peat?perlite potting medium to study lime and Mo effects on the occurrence of Mo deficiency. Two rates of dolomitic limestone, 0 and 3 kg\\/mof growing medium, and weekly applications of micronutrient solutions containing 0.0 or

Douglas A. Cox

1988-01-01

302

Radiation shielding of concretes containing different lime\\/silica ratios  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shielding of ?-rays and fast neutrons by concrete has been studied for concretes containing different lime\\/silica ratios. Calculations were carried out for six different concrete samples. The total mass attenuation coefficients (?\\/?, cm2g?1) have been computed at photon energies of 1keV to 100GeV using the personal computer software package WinXCom. Also the macroscopic effective fast neutron removal cross-sections (?R,

A. M. El-Khayatt

2010-01-01

303

Energy reduction in beet sugar processing by cossette liming  

SciTech Connect

Under appropriate conditions of temperature and fresh Ca(OH)/sub 2/ application, demethylation occurs in the pectin in the cell walls of sugar beet cossettes, allowing Ca/sup 2 +/ to precipitate the pectin as calcium pectate. The calcium pectate will not degrade and pass into solution during subsequent hot extraction of sugar from the cossettes. This retention of pectin in the pulp was shown by 10 to 20% increases in solids weight in the pulp for a number of processing conditions. The toughened pulp produced by retention of calcium pectate allowed easier mechanical dewatering of the pulp which could save considerably on the heat normally required to dry the pulp for cattle feed. Beyond data reported in this paper, there are qualitative indications that the sugar juice extracted from limed cossettes is purer than standard juice, for pectin and colloidal materials remain in the pulp. Thus, much less purification of the juice with lime would be necessary than is required in standard beet-sugar processing, and the current 2% CaO used for purification may be cut almost in half. This represents another energy saving, for production of CaO at the factory is a major consumer of energy. These, along with other possible energy savings resulting from cossette liming (such as less water used for extraction, cold extraction, ion exchange of the purer juice), could produce an overall saving up to 20% of the energy currently used in beet-sugar processing. Some of these possibilities will be further investigated.

Randall, J.M.; Camirand, W.M.; Neumann, H.J.

1981-01-01

304

Preliminary Results of Bacteria Distribution in Chinese Loess and Their Control on the Calcite Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuous loess-paleosol sequences on the Chinese Loess Plateau are viewed as one of best continental archives of paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental changes of the Late Cenozoic era. Carbonate, mainly calcite, commonly occurs throughout the entire sequence; though some are detrital, most are in-situ pedogenic. TEM studies have shown various morphologies of calcites in Chinese loess, especially nano-rod calcite widely occurring in

Y. Chen; B. Lian; Q. Hu; H. H. Teng; T. Wu; J. Ji; J. Chen

2005-01-01

305

The ubiquitous nature of accessory calcite in granitoid rocks: Implications for weathering, solute evolution, and petrogenesis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Calcite is frequently cited as a source of excess Ca, Sr and alkalinity in solutes discharging from silicate terrains yet, no previous effort has been made to assess systematically the overall abundance, composition and petrogenesis of accessory calcite in granitoid rocks. This study addresses this issue by analyzing a worldwide distribution of more than 100 granitoid rocks. Calcite is found to be universally present in a concentration range between 0.028 to 18.8 g kg-1 (mean = 2.52 g kg-1). Calcite occurrences include small to large isolated anhedral grains, fracture and cavity infillings, and sericitized cores of plagioclase. No correlation exists between the amount of calcite present and major rock oxide compositions, including CaO. Ion microprobe analyses of in situ calcite grains indicate relatively low Sr (120 to 660 ppm), negligible Rb and 87Sr/86Sr ratios equal to or higher than those of coexisting plagioclase. Solutes, including Ca and alkalinity produced by batch leaching of the granitoid rocks (5% CO2 in DI water for 75 d at 25??C), are dominated by the dissolution of calcite relative to silicate minerals. The correlation of these parameters with higher calcite concentrations decreases as leachates approach thermodynamic saturation. In longer term column experiments (1.5 yr), reactive calcite becomes exhausted, solute Ca and Sr become controlled by feldspar dissolution and 87Sr/ 86Sr by biotite oxidation. Some accessory calcite in granitoid rocks is related to intrusion into carbonate wall rock or produced by later hydrothermal alteration. However, the ubiquitous occurrence of calcite also suggests formation during late stage (subsolidus) magmatic processes. This conclusion is supported by petrographic observations and 87Sr/86Sr analyses. A review of thermodynamic data indicates that at moderate pressures and reasonable CO2 fugacities, calcite is a stable phase at temperatures of 400 to 700??C. Copyright ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd.

White, A.F.; Schulz, M.S.; Lowenstern, J. B.; Vivit, D.V.; Bullen, T.D.

2005-01-01

306

EFFETS RAMAN STIMULS DANS LA CALCITE Par G. BISSON et G. MAYER.  

E-print Network

97. EFFETS RAMAN STIMUL�S DANS LA CALCITE Par G. BISSON et G. MAYER. Département de Recherches Nous décrivons des expériences conçues pour vérifier dans la calcite la théorie des effets Raman been designed to check in calcite the theory of first order stimulated Raman effects. For the Stokes

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

307

Les calcites de Fontainebleau : une cl pour dater la silicification des grs ?  

E-print Network

0 Les calcites de Fontainebleau : une clé pour dater la silicification des grès ? Sortie géologique du 25 novembre 2012 état des lieux 238 ans après la première publication relative aux calcites de-00762302,version1-6Dec2012 #12;1 Les calcites de Fontainebleau : une clé pour dater la silicification des

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

308

Effects of chitosan on the alignment, morphology and shape of calcite crystals nucleating under Langmuir monolayers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanisms governing selective CaCO3 crystal nucleation in living organisms remain unclear. For example, nacreous layers from the inner surfaces of shells are built as brick-and-mortar complexes of plate-like aragonite single crystals and organic layers. Unstable [001] surfaces of calcite columns in prismatic layers are also stabilized by organic molecules. Biogenic calcite crystals show different morphologies compared to geological calcite

Kyungil Kim

2008-01-01

309

Influence of Calcite and Dissolved Calcium on Uranium(VI) Sorption to a Hanford Subsurface Sediment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of calcite and dissolved calcium on U(VI) adsorption was investigated using a calcite-containing sandy silt\\/clay sediment from the U. S. Department of Energy Hanford site. U(VI) adsorption to sediment, treated sediment, and sediment size fractions was studied in solutions that both had and had not been preequilibrated with calcite, at initial [U(VI)] - 10-7-10-5 mol\\/L and final pH

Wenming Dong; William P. Ball; Chongxuan Liu; Zheming Wang; Alan T. Stone; Jing Bai; John M. Zachara

2005-01-01

310

Scleractinian corals produce calcite, and grow more slowly, in artificial Cretaceous seawater  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mineralogies of most biotic and abiotic carbonates have alternated in synchroneity between the calcite (hexagonal) and aragonite (orthorhombic) polymorphs of CaCO3 throughout the Phanerozoic Eon. These intervals of calcite and aragonite production, or calcite seas and aragonite seas, are thought to be caused primarily by secular variation in the molar magnesium\\/calcium ratio of seawater (mMg\\/Ca > 2 = aragonite

Justin B. Ries; Steven M. Stanley; Lawrence A. Hardie

2006-01-01

311

Water release patterns of heated speleothem calcite and hydrogen isotope composition of fluid inclusions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Speleothem fluid inclusions are a potential paleo-precipitation proxy to reconstruct past rainwater isotopic composition (?18O, ?D). To get a better insight in the extraction of inclusion water from heated speleothem calcite, we monitored the water released from crushed and uncrushed speleothem calcite, heated to 900 °C at a rate of 300 °C\\/h, with a quadrupole mass spectrometer. Crushed calcite released water in

Sophie Verheyden; Dominique Genty; Olivier Cattani; Martin R. van Breukelen

2008-01-01

312

Retrofit costs for lime/limestone FGD and lime spray drying at coal-fired utility boilers  

SciTech Connect

The paper gives results of a research program the objective of which was to significantly improve engineering cost estimates currently being used to evaluate the economic effects of applying SO2 controls to existing coal-fired utility boilers. The costs of retrofitting conventional lime/limestone wet flue gas desulfurization (L/LS FGD) and lime spray drying (LSD) FGD at 100-200 coal-fired power plants are being estimated under this program. The retrofit capital cost estimating procedures used for L/LS FGD and LSD FGD make two cost adjustments to current procedures used to estimate FGD costs: cost adders (for items not normally included in FGD system costs; e.g., demolition and relocation of existing facilities) and cost multipliers (to adjust capital costs for site access, congestion, and underground obstructions).

Emmel, T.E.; Jones, J.W.

1990-01-01

313

Principles of Calcite Dissolution in Human and Artificial Otoconia  

PubMed Central

Human otoconia provide mechanical stimuli to deflect hair cells of the vestibular sensory epithelium for purposes of detecting linear acceleration and head tilts. During lifetime, the volume and number of otoconia are gradually reduced. In a process of degeneration morphological changes occur. Structural changes in human otoconia are assumed to cause vertigo and balance disorders such as benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). The aim of this study was to investigate the main principles of morphological changes in human otoconia in dissolution experiments by exposure to hydrochloric acid, EDTA, demineralized water and completely purified water respectively. For comparison reasons artificial (biomimetic) otoconia (calcite gelatin nanocomposits) and natural calcite were used. Morphological changes were detected in time steps by the use of environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). Under in vitro conditions three main dissolution mechanisms were identified as causing characteristic morphological changes of the specimen under consideration: pH drops in the acidic range, complex formation with calcium ions and changes of ion concentrations in the vicinity of otoconia. Shifts in pH cause a more uniform reduction of otoconia size (isotropic dissolution) whereas complexation reactions and changes of the ionic concentrations within the surrounding medium bring about preferred attacks at specific areas (anisotropic dissolution) of human and artificial otoconia. Owing to successive reduction of material, all the dissolution mechanisms finally produce fragments and remnants of otoconia. It can be assumed that the organic component of otoconia is not significantly attacked under the given conditions. Artificial otoconia serve as a suitable model system mimicking chemical attacks on biogenic specimens. The underlying principles of calcite dissolution under in vitro conditions may play a role in otoconia degeneration processes such as BPPV. PMID:25048115

Walther, Leif Erik; Blödow, Alexander; Buder, Jana; Kniep, Rüdiger

2014-01-01

314

The sensitized luminescence of manganese-activated calcite  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Synthetic manganese-activated calcites are shown to be practically inert to ultraviolet excitation in the range 2000-3500A, while they are luminescent under cathode-ray excitation. The incorporation of small amounts of an auxiliary impurity along with the manganese produces the strong response to ultraviolet radiation hitherto ascribed to CaCO3:Mn itself. Three such impurities have been studied: lead, thallium, and cerium. The first two induce excitation in the neighborhood of the mercury resonance line, while the cerium introduces a response principally to longer wave ultraviolet. The strong response to 2537A excitation shown by some natural calcites is likewise found to be due to the presence of lead along with the manganese, rather than to the manganese alone. The data do not warrant ascribing the longer wave-length ultraviolet-excited luminescence of all natural calcites to the action of an auxiliary impurity. The essential identity of the cathode-ray excited luminescence spectra of CaCO 3:Mn, CaCO3: (Pb+Mn), CaCO3:(Tl+Mn), and CaCO3:(Ce+Mn) with the 2537A-excited spectra of the latter three is evidence that the luminescent center in all cases is the manganese ion or the MnO6 group. It is shown that a "cascade" mechanism for the action of the auxiliary impurities, lead, thallium, and cerium, is incorrect; and that the phenomenon must be considered as a case of sensitized luminescence. Owing to the nature of cathode-ray excitation, the manganese activator can be excited by this agent even in the absence of a second impurity. For optical excitation, however, an absorption band for the ultraviolet must be established by building into the CaCO3:Mn a second impurity or "sensitizer.".

Schulman, J.H.; Evans, L.W.; Ginther, R.J.; Murata, K.J.

1947-01-01

315

Comparison of stromal hydration techniques for clear corneal cataract incisions: conventional hydration versus anterior stromal pocket hydration.  

PubMed

Anterior stromal pocket hydration was compared with conventional hydration for preventing wound leak after 2.8 mm uniplanar clear corneal incisions (CCIs) in patients having routine cataract surgery. Conventional hydration involves hydration of the lateral walls of the main incision with visible whitening of the stroma. The anterior stromal pocket hydration technique involves creation of an additional supraincisional stromal pocket overlying the main incision, which is then hydrated instead of the main incision. Sixty-six eyes of 48 patients were included in the data analysis with 33 assigned to each study group. The anterior stromal pocket hydration technique was significantly better than conventional hydration in preventing wound leak due to direct pressure on the posterior lip of the incision. PMID:22624890

Mifflin, Mark D; Kinard, Krista; Neuffer, Marcus C

2012-06-01

316

Evidence for an organic origin of pedogenic calcitic nanofibres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calcium carbonate nanofibres are found in numerous terrestrial environments, often associated with needle fibre calcite. This study attempts to mimic the natural system and generate comparable crystalline structures. A comparison of natural and synthesized nanofibre structures, using HRTEM as well as electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and electron spectroscopic imaging (ESI), has demonstrated that this type of nanocrystal can result from precipitation on organic templates, most likely cellulose nanofibres. This study emphasizes the fundamental role of organic templates in the precipitation of calcium carbonate in vadose environments, even at the nanoscale.

Cailleau, Guillaume; Dadras, Massoud; Abolhassani-Dadras, Sousan; Braissant, Olivier; Verrecchia, Eric P.

2009-04-01

317

Characteristics and reactivity of rapidly hydrated sorbent for semidry flue gas desulfurization  

SciTech Connect

The semidry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process has many advantages over the wet FGD process for moving sulfur dioxide emissions from pulverized coal-fired power plants. Semidry FGD with a rapidly hydrated sorbent was studied in a pilot-scale circulating fluidized bed (CFB) experimental facility. The sorbent was made from lumps of lime and coal fly ash. The desulfurization efficiency was measured for various operating parameters, including the sorbent recirculation rate and the water spray method. The experimental results show that the desulfurization efficiencies of the rapidly hydrated sorbent were 1.5-3.0 times higher than a commonly used industrial sorbent for calcium to sulfur molar ratios from 1.2 to 3.0, mainly due to the higher specific surface area and pore volume. The Ca(OH){sub 2} content in the cyclone separator ash was about 2.9% for the rapidly hydrated sorbent and was about 0.1% for the commonly used industrial sorbent, due to the different adhesion between the fine Ca(OH){sub 2} particles and the fly ash particles, and the low cyclone separation efficiency for the fine Ca(OH){sub 2} particles that fell off the sorbent particles. Therefore the actual recirculation rates of the active sorbent with Ca(OH){sub 2} particles were higher for the rapidly hydrated sorbent, which also contributed to the higher desulfurization efficiency. The high fly ash content in the rapidly hydrated sorbent resulted in good operating stability. The desulfurization efficiency with upstream water spray was 10-15% higher than that with downstream water spray. 20 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Jie Zhang; Changfu You; Suwei Zhao; Changhe Chen; Haiying Qi [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China). Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering

2008-03-01

318

Littoral microcrustaceans (Cladocera and Copepoda) as indices of recovery of a limed water system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 7 year study (1992–1998) of littoral microcrustaceans (Cladocera and Copepoda) in the watercourse of the River Rore, South Norway, illustrates that qualitative data on cladocerans and copepods are well suited to indicate the recovery of lakes following liming. Eight limed, two acid and two circum neutral reference lakes, were sampled twice a year (June\\/July and September\\/October). In the limed

Bjørn Walseng; Gunnar Halvorsen; Svein-Erik Sloreid

2001-01-01

319

Short-term responses of wetland vegetation after liming of an Adirondack watershed  

SciTech Connect

Watershed liming has been suggested as a long-term mitigation strategy for lake acidity, particularly in areas subject to high levels of acidic deposition. However, virtually no information has been available on the impacts of liming on wetland vegetation. In 1989, 1100 Mg of limestone (83.5% CaCO[sub 3]) were aerially applied to 48% (100 ha) of the Woods Lake watershed in the west-central Adirondack region of New York as part of the first comprehensive watershed liming study in North America. We inventoried wetland vegetation in 1.0-m[sup 2] plots before liming and during the subsequent 2 yr. Within this period liming influenced the cover, frequency, or importance values of only 6 of 64 wetland taxa. The cover of Sphagnum spp. and of the cespitose sedge Carex interior decreased in control relative to limed plots, and cover of the rhizomatous sedge Cladium mariscoides increased nearly threefold in limed areas. These two sedges, which are relatively tall, are characteristic of more calcareous habitats. Cover of the grass Muhlenbergia uniflora, cover and importance were adversely affected or inhibited by lime. It is unclear whether liming directly inhibited the growth of these three small-statured species, or whether the adverse effects of lime were mediated through shifts in competitive interactions with other species. The limited responses that we observed to liming, along with changes that occurred in control plots over the study period, may indicate that in the short term watershed liming was no more of a perturbation than the environmental factors responsible for natural annual variation in wetland communities.

Mackun, I.R.; Leopold, D.J.; Raynal, D.J. (State Univ. of New York, Syracuse, NY (United States))

1994-08-01

320

Masonry repair lime-based mortars: factors affecting the mechanical behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing use of lime-based mortars for the restoration of historic buildings and structures justifies the research on these materials. The focus of this paper is the effect of technological variables on pore structure and mechanical properties of lime-based mortars. The influence of curing time, binder–aggregate (B\\/Ag) ratio, aggregate attributes and porosity is discussed. Mortars prepared with aerial lime, varying

J. Lanas; José I Alvarez-Galindo

2003-01-01

321

Does forest liming impact the enzymatic profiles of ectomycorrhizal communities through specialized fungal symbionts?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liming (Ca–Mg soil amendment) is a forestry practice used to correct soil acidification and restore health and productivity\\u000a in declining stands. Liming is known to modify tree mineral nutrition beyond the sole Ca and Mg. We hypothesized that liming\\u000a also modifies the very functioning of the tree absorbing system (that is the ectomycorrhizal fine roots) in a way that facilitates

François Rineau; Jean Garbaye

2009-01-01

322

The effect of liming on antibacterial and hormone levels in wastewater biosolids.  

PubMed

This study analyzes the effect of liming on levels of triclocarban (TCC), triclosan (TCS), estrone (E1), and progesterone (P), two antimicrobial agents and two natural hormones, respectively. Factors studied include lime particle size, mixing time, and overall lime contact time. The study results suggest that coarse lime may be more active than fine lime due to less interaction with surrounding air. Both TCS and TCC concentrations were lower in coarse limed samples versus unlimed samples and the decrease was a function of time. A similar, but statistically insignificant trend in TCC and TCS levels was observed in fine lime samples with respect to unlimed samples. Liming was also found to decrease apparent E1 levels, with more notable decreases in samples amended with coarse lime. P-levels significantly increased after 1-day of contact time, stabilizing over the next 14 days of the study period. This increase and stabilization of P-levels was attributed to the pH and moisture-driven conversion of more chemically complex steroids into P. PMID:23485235

Olszewski, Jennifer M; Lozano, Nuria; Haines, Christine; Rice, Clifford P; Ramirez, Mark; Torrents, Alba

2013-01-01

323

Compact apparatus for photogeneration of hydrated electrons  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flash-photolysis instrument generates hydrated electrons and studies their reactions. It has a three-dimensional, multiple-reaction cell and the capacity to produce up to .1 micromole hydrated electron in a single 40 microsec light pulse.

Hart, E.; Schmidt, K.

1970-01-01

324

Polymorphs and hydrates of acyclovir.  

PubMed

Acyclovir (ACV) has been commonly used as an antiviral for decades. Although the crystal structure of the commercial form, a 3:2 ACV/water solvate, has been known since 1980s, investigation into the structure of anhydrous ACV has been limited. Here, we report the characterization of four anhydrous forms of ACV and a new hydrate in addition to the known hydrate. Two of the anhydrous forms appear as small needles and are stable to air exposure, whereas the third form is morphologically similar but quickly absorbs water from the atmosphere and converts back to the commercial form. The high-temperature modification is achieved by heating anhydrous form I above 180 °C. The crystal structures of anhydrous form I and a novel hydrate are reported for the first time. PMID:21280051

Lutker, Katie M; Quiñones, Rosalynn; Xu, Jiadi; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy; Matzger, Adam J

2011-03-01

325

Sedimentological Control on Hydrate Saturation Distribution in Arctic Gas-Hydrate-Bearing Deposits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grain size variations along with the relative rates of fluid phases migrating into the zone of hydrate stability, plays an important role in gas-hydrate distribution and its morphologic characteristics. In the Arctic, strata several meters thick containing large saturations of gas hydrate are often separated by layers containing small but nonzero hydrate saturations. Examples are Mt. Elbert, Alaska and Mallik,

J. Behseresht; Y. Peng; S. L. Bryant

2010-01-01

326

Hydrate problems in deepwater flowlines  

SciTech Connect

In the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), the ambient temperature below about 100 meters water depth (the thermocline), is as low as 44 F. The hydrate formation temperature for natural gas at the reservoir pressures encountered in the deeper waters of the GOM is substantially higher than the 44 F ambient temperature. In fact, below about 1,500 foot water depth, naturally occurring gas hydrates are present as ice-like lenses just below the sea floor. Classic dehydration is not possible. The injection of dew point depressants such as methanol or glycol is possible. Insulation is also a possibility. As an example of one selection process for deriving a workable solution to hydrate prevention/control in deepwater flow lines from subsea completions, this paper examines the approach taken to select the solution to the hydrate formation problems on Enserch`s Mississippi Canyon Block MC 441 Field Development Project. The project involved connecting dual flow lines from each well at two 3-well templates in about 1,525 feet of water to a shallow water production facilities platform located m 380 feet of water. Calculations indicated that the gas temperature in an uninsulated flow line would fall to ambient temperature in less than 1 mile from the wellhead. Considering that the platform was located about 3 and 6 miles from the two subsea well templates, and that free water would occur, hydrates were expected to be formed in the flow lines if nothing was done. Various possible hydrate control/prevention methods, including some of those currently in use in the North Sea, were investigated. The method chosen as the cost effective solution for the MC441 field development is a combination of low Cost open cell insulation around the six flow lines in a casing and methanol injection at the wellhead/manifold.

Wang, X.; Bomba, J.G. [R.J. Brown and Associates, Houston, TX (United States). Division of Kvaerner Earl and Wright

1994-12-31

327

Gas Hydrate and Pore Pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many efforts have been devoted to quantify excess pore pressures related to gas hydrate dissociation in marine sediments below the BSR using several approaches. Dissociation of gas hydrates in proximity of the BSR, in response to a change in the physical environment (i.e., temperature and/or pressure regime), can liberate excess gas incrising the local pore fluid pressure in the sediment, so decreasing the effective normal stress. So, gas hydrate dissociation may lead to excess pore pressure resulting in sediment deformation or failure, such as submarine landslides, sediment slumping, pockmarks and mud volcanoes, soft-sediment deformation and giant hummocks. Moreover, excess pore pressure may be the result of gas hydrate dissociation due to continuous sedimentation, tectonic uplift, sea level fall, heating or inhibitor injection. In order to detect the presence of the overpressure below the BSR, we propose two approachs. The fist approach models the BSR depth versus pore pressure; in fact, if the free gas below the BSR is in overpressure condition, the base of the gas hydrate stability is deeper with respect to the hydrostatic case. This effect causes a discrepancy between seismic and theoretical BSR depths. The second approach models the velocities versus gas hydrate and free gas concentrations and pore pressure, considering the approximation of the Biot theory in case of low frequency, i.e. seismic frequency. Knowing the P and S seismic velocity from seismic data analysis, it is possibile to jointly estimate the gas hydrate and free gas concentrations and the pore pressure regime. Alternatively, if the S-wave velocity is not availbale (due to lack of OBS/OBC data), an AVO analysis can be performed in order to extract information about Poisson ratio. Our modeling suggests that the areas characterized by shallow waters (i.e., areas in which human infrastructures, such as pipelines, are present) are significantly affected by the presence of overpressure condition. Moreover, the knoweledge of seismic velocities can be considered an powerful tool to detect the overpressure in case that the pore pressure is equal to the hydrostatic pressure plus the 50% of the difference between the lithostatic and the hydrostatic pressure. In conclusions, an accurate analysis of the BSR nature and the pore pressure are required to improve the reliability of the gas-phase estimation for different target, such as gas hydrate and free gas exploitations and environmental studies.

Tinivella, Umberta; Giustiniani, Michela

2014-05-01

328

Hydration of highly charged ions  

PubMed Central

Based on a series of ab initio quantum mechanical charge field molecular dynamics (QMCF MD) simulations, the broad spectrum of structural and dynamical properties of hydrates of trivalent and tetravalent ions is presented, ranging from extreme inertness to immediate hydrolysis. Main group and transition metal ions representative for different parts of the periodic system are treated, as are 2 threefold negatively charged anions. The results show that simple predictions of the properties of the hydrates appear impossible and that an accurate quantum mechanical simulation in cooperation with sophisticated experimental investigations seems the only way to obtain conclusive results. PMID:22298911

Hofer, Thomas S.; Weiss, Alexander K.H.; Randolf, Bernhard R.; Rode, Bernd M.

2011-01-01

329

Structure and reactivity of the calcite-water interface.  

PubMed

The zetapotential of calcite in contact with aqueous solutions of varying composition is determined for pre-equilibrated suspensions by means of electrophoretic measurements and for non-equilibrium solutions by means of streaming potential measurements. Carbonate and calcium are identified as charge determining ions. Studies of the equilibrium solutions show a shift of isoelectric point with changing CO(2) partial pressure. Changes in pH have only a weak effect in non-equilibrium solutions. The surface structure of (104)-faces of single crystal calcite in contact to solutions corresponding to those of the zetapotential investigations is determined from surface diffraction measurements. The results reveal no direct indication of calcium or carbonate inner-sphere surface species. The surface ions are found to relax only slightly from their bulk positions; the most significant relaxation is a ?4° tilt of the surface carbonate ions towards the surface. Two ordered layers of water molecules are identified, the first at 2.35±0.05Å above surface calcium ions and the second layer at 3.24±0.06Å above the surface associated with surface carbonate ions. A Basic-Stern surface complexation model is developed to model observed zetapotentials, while only considering outer-sphere complexes of ions other than protons and hydroxide. The Basic-Stern SCM successfully reproduces the zetapotential data and gives reasonable values for the inner Helmholtz capacitance, which are in line with the Stern layer thickness estimated from surface diffraction results. PMID:21087772

Heberling, Frank; Trainor, Thomas P; Lützenkirchen, Johannes; Eng, Peter; Denecke, Melissa A; Bosbach, Dirk

2011-02-15

330

Acceleration of calcite kinetics by abalone nacre proteins  

SciTech Connect

The fascinating shapes and hierarchical designs of biomineralized structures have long been an inspiration to materials scientists because of the potential they suggest for biomolecular control over synthesis of crystalline materials. One prevailing view is that mineral-associated macromolecules are responsible for initiating and stabilizing non-equilibrium crystal polymorphs and morphologies through interactions between anionic moieties and cations in solution or at mineral surfaces. Indeed, numerous studies have demonstrated that bio-organic additives can dramatically alter crystal shapes and growth-rates in vitro. However, previous molecular-scale studies revealing mechanisms of growth modification focused on small molecules such as amino acids or peptides and always observed growth inhibition. In contrast, studies using full proteins were non-quantitative and underlying sources of growth modification were ill-defined. Here we investigate interactions between proteins isolated from abalone shell nacre and growing surfaces of calcite. We find that these proteins significantly accelerate the molecular-scale kinetics and, though much larger than atomic steps, alter growth morphology through step-specific interactions that lower their free energies. We propose that these proteins act as surfactants to promote ion attachment at calcite surfaces.

Fu, G; Qiu, S R; Orme, C A; Morse, D E; De Yoreo, J J

2005-06-09

331

Crystallographic orientation inhomogeneity and crystal splitting in biogenic calcite  

PubMed Central

The calcitic prismatic units forming the outer shell of the bivalve Pinctada margaritifera have been analysed using scanning electron microscopy–electron back-scatter diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. In the initial stages of growth, the individual prismatic units are single crystals. Their crystalline orientation is not consistent but rather changes gradually during growth. The gradients in crystallographic orientation occur mainly in a direction parallel to the long axis of the prism, i.e. perpendicular to the shell surface and do not show preferential tilting along any of the calcite lattice axes. At a certain growth stage, gradients begin to spread and diverge, implying that the prismatic units split into several crystalline domains. In this way, a branched crystal, in which the ends of the branches are independent crystalline domains, is formed. At the nanometre scale, the material is composed of slightly misoriented domains, which are separated by planes approximately perpendicular to the c-axis. Orientational gradients and splitting processes are described in biocrystals for the first time and are undoubtedly related to the high content of intracrystalline organic molecules, although the way in which these act to induce the observed crystalline patterns is a matter of future research. PMID:23804442

Checa, Antonio G.; Bonarski, Jan T.; Willinger, Marc G.; Faryna, Marek; Berent, Katarzyna; Kania, Bogusz; González-Segura, Alicia; Pina, Carlos M.; Pospiech, Jan; Morawiec, Adam

2013-01-01

332

Upscaling Calcite Growth Rates From the Mesoscale to the Macroscale  

SciTech Connect

Quantitative prediction of mineral reaction rates in the subsurface remains a daunting task partly because a key parameter for macroscopic models, the reactive site density, is poorly constrained. Here we report atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements on the calcite surface of monomolecular step densities, treated as equivalent to the reactive site density, as a function of aqueous calcium-to-carbonate ratio and saturation index. Data for the obtuse step orientation are combined with existing step velocity measurements to generate a model that predicts overall macroscopic calcite growth rates. The model is quantitatively consistent with several published macroscopic rates under a range of alkaline solution conditions, particularly for two of the most comprehensive data sets without the need for additional fit parameters. The model reproduces peak growth rates and its functional form is simple enough to be incorporated into reactive transport or other macroscopic models designed for predictions in porous media. However, it currently cannot model equilibrium, pH effects, and may overestimate rates at high aqueous calcium-to-carbonate ratios. The discrepancies in rates at high calcium-to-carbonate ratios may be due to differences in pre-treatment, such as exposing the seed material to SI 1.0 to generate/develop growth hillocks, or other factors.

Bracco, Jacquelyn N [ORNL; Stack, Andrew G [ORNL; Steefel, Carl I [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)

2013-01-01

333

Cd 2+ uptake by calcite, solid-state diffusion, and the formation of solid-solution: Interface processes observed with near-surface sensitive techniques (XPS, LEED, and AES)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cadmium uptake by calcite from aqueous solution was studied using techniques sensitive to the near-surface: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), low-energy electron diffraction (LEED), and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). These techniques allowed direct observations of structure and bonding environments at the calcite surface. The results indicate that the main processes involved in cadmium uptake by calcite are adsorption and solid-state diffusion into the crystal, which leads eventually to the formation of solid-solution. Pure calcite crystals were cleaved from precleaned Iceland spar and were briefly exposed to aqueous solutions containing various concentrations of Cd 2+, CO 32-, ClO 4-, and/or Cl -. Some Cd 2+ was radiolabelled. LEED results demonstrate that the calcite surface is atomically ordered, even after hydration and cadmium uptake. ?-scintillation data from crystals exposed briefly to solutions of 109Cd 2+ indicate that surface uptake ranged from the equivalent of about 1 to 4 monolayers. XPS analyses in the first 2 hours after exposure detected Cd within the top 30 Å, but crystals stored in air or in ultra-high vacuum showed a decrease in Cd surface concentration with time such that after two days, Cd was barely detectable in the near-surface region. In other experiments, LEED verified the crystallinity of otavite (CdCO 3) grown epitaxially over the {101} cleavage faces of calcite, and XPS showed almost no Ca in the near-surface on scans taken immediately after precipitation; but after storage for a month in ultrahigh vacuum, binding energy shifts and the presence of a Ca peak strongly suggested the development of solid-solution by diffusion through the solid. No Cd enrichment was observed at sites of surface defects using AES, indicating that solid-state diffusion into the mineral surface was not accomplished simply by migration along microfractures alone. This work suggests that solid-state diffusion may play a role in the rate and extent of uptake of certain trace metals from solution and probably leads to the formation of solid-solution in calcite and other carbonate minerals. It also suggests that the process of diffusion into the solid mineral host should be considered in hydrogeochemical models that intend to simulate and predict trace-metal mobility in carbonate terrains.

Stipp, Susan L.; Hochella, Michael F., Jr.; Parks, George A.; Leckie, James O.

1992-05-01

334

SEMI-BATCH PRECIPITATION OF CALCIUM SULFATE DIHYDRATE FROM CALCITE AND SULFURIC ACID  

E-print Network

SEMI-BATCH PRECIPITATION OF CALCIUM SULFATE DIHYDRATE FROM CALCITE AND SULFURIC ACID Frédéric BARD1 a calcite suspension to a sulfuric acid solution from industrial waste. The morphology of the precipitated, sulfuric acid, industrial waste. 1. INTRODUCTION Gypsum is a mineral compound of first importance

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

335

Amorphous Calcium Carbonate Transforms into Calcite during Sea Urchin Larval Spicule Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sea urchin larvae form an endoskeleton composed of a pair of spicules. For more than a century it has been stated that each spicule comprises a single crystal of the CaCO3 mineral, calcite. We show that an additional mineral phase, amorphous calcium carbonate, is present in the sea urchin larval spicule, and that this inherently unstable mineral transforms into calcite

Elia Beniash; Joanna Aizenberg; Lia Addadi; Stephen Weiner

1997-01-01

336

Influence of temperature on the composition of magnesian calcite overgrowths precipitated from seawater  

Microsoft Academic Search

A constant disequilibrium technique was used to determine the composition of magnesian calcite overgrowths precipitated on pure calcite seeds from artificial seawater at 5, 25 and 40°C. The amount of magnesium incorporated in the overgrowths at a given temperature is independent of the precipitation rate over a wide range of saturation states and is believed to correspond to a composition

Alfonso Mucci

1987-01-01

337

The role of disseminated calcite in the chemical weathering of granitoid rocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accessory calcite, present at concentrations between 300 and 3000 mg kg?1, occurs in fresh granitoid rocks sampled from the Merced watershed in Yosemite National Park, CA, USA; Loch Vale in Rocky Mountain National Park CO USA; the Panola watershed, GA USA; and the Rio Icacos, Puerto Rico. Calcite occurs as fillings in microfractures, as disseminated grains within the silicate matrix,

Art F White; T HOMAS D. BULLEN; DAVISON V. VIVIT; MARJORIE S. SCHULZ; DAVID W. CLOW

1999-01-01

338

Assessing the potential for using biogenic calcites as dosemeters for luminescence dating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium carbonate emits an intense thermoluminescence (TL) signal and previous work has explored the potential of using this signal to date both inorganic carbonates such as limestones and stalagmites and biogenic calcite produced by marine organisms. Luminescence analysis of biogenic calcites directly dates the secretion of the mineral by the organism and is therefore not reliant upon exposure of the

G. A. T. Duller; K. E. H. Penkman; A. G. Wintle

2009-01-01

339

Research paper Uranium loss and aragoniteecalcite age discordance in a calcitized aragonite  

E-print Network

Research paper Uranium loss and aragoniteecalcite age discordance in a calcitized aragonite Aragonite Recrystallization Uranium series dating Laser ablation MC-ICPMS a b s t r a c t We analyzed uranium-series concentrations and isotopic ratios in a mixed aragonite and calcite stalagmite from

Asmerom, Yemane

340

Uranium in foraminiferal calcite as a recorder of seawater uranium concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present results of an investigation of uranium\\/calcium ratios in cleaned foraminiferal calcite as a recorder of seawater uranium concentrations. For accurate reconstruction of past seawater uranium content, shell calcite must incorporate uranium in proportion to seawater concentration and must preserve its original uranium composition over time. Laboratory culture experiments with live benthic (Amphistegina lobifera) and live planktonic (Globigerinell

A. D. Russell; S. Emerson; B. K. Nelson; J. Erez; D. W. Lea

1994-01-01

341

Attraction between hydrated hydrophilic surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to common knowledge, hydrophilic surfaces repel via hydration forces while hydrophobic surfaces attract, but mounting experimental evidence suggests that also hydrophilic surfaces can attract. Using all-atom molecular dynamics simulations at prescribed water chemical potential we study the crossover from hydration repulsion to hydrophobic attraction for planar polar surfaces of varying stiffness and hydrogen-bonding capability. Rescaling the partial charges of the polar surface groups, we cover the complete spectrum from very hydrophobic surfaces (characterized by contact angles ? ? 135°) to hydrophilic surfaces exhibiting complete wetting (? = 0°). Indeed, for a finite range ?adh < ? < 90°, we find a regime where hydrophilic surfaces attract at sub-nanometer separation and stably adhere without intervening water. The adhesive contact angle ?adh depends on surface type and lies in the range 65° < ?adh < 80°, in good agreement with experiments. Analysis of the total number of hydrogen bonds (HBs) formed by water and surface groups rationalizes this crossover between hydration repulsion and hydrophilic attraction in terms of a subtle balance: Highly polar surfaces repel because of strongly bound hydration water, less polar hydrophilic surfaces attract because water-water HBs are preferred over surface-water HBs. Such solvent reorganization forces presumably underlie also other important phenomena, such as selective ion adsorption to interfaces as well as ion pair formation.

Kandu?, Matej; Schneck, Emanuel; Netz, Roland R.

2014-08-01

342

Hydration rind dates rhyolite flows.  

PubMed

Hydration of obsidian has been used to date rhyolite flows, containing obsidian or porphyritic glass, at Glass Mountain (Medicine Lake Highlands) and Mono Lake, California. The method is simple and rapid and can be used to date flows that erupted between 200 and approximately 200,000 years ago. PMID:17768978

Friedman, I

1968-02-23

343

Hydration rind dates rhyolite flows  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hydration of obsidian has been used to date rhyolite flows, containing obsidian or porphyritic glass, at Glass Mountain (Medicine Lake Highlands) and Mono Lake, California. The method is simple and rapid and can be used to date flows that erupted between 200 and approximately 200,000 years ago.

Friedman, I.

1968-01-01

344

Isotopic composition of a calcite-cemented layer in the Lower Jurassic Bridport Sands, southern England: Implications for formation of laterally extensive calcite-cemented layers  

SciTech Connect

[delta][sup 18]O[sub PDB] and [delta][sup 13]C[sub PDB] values have been measured on 107 calcite cement samples from a laterally extensive (> 3 km) and continuous calcite-cemented layer 0.5 m thick in the coastal exposures of the Lower Jurassic shallow-marine Bridport Sands in Dorset, southern England. The samples were taken from a two-dimensional grid with 10-cm horizontal and vertical spacing between samples and along individual vertical lines across the calcite-cemented layer, [delta][sup 18]O[sub PDB] values vary between [minus]4.8% and [minus]9.2% and decrease radially outwards from points with lateral spacings on the order of 0.5-1 m in the middle of the calcite-cemented layer. The [delta][sup 18]O[sub PDB] values therefore indicate that the calcite-cemented layer was formed by merging of concretions. All [delta][sup 13]C[sub PDB] values measured are in the narrow range [minus]2.2% to [minus]0.5%, which suggests that the dominant source of calcite cement in the layer was biogenic carbonate.

Bjoerkum, P.A. (Statoil, Stavanger (Norway)); Walderhaug, O. (Rogaland Research, Stavanger (Norway))

1993-07-01

345

Gas hydrate reservoir characteristics and economics  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of the DOE-funded USGS Gas Hydrate Program is to assess the production characteristics and economic potential of gas hydrates in northern Alaska. The objectives of this project for FY-1992 will include the following: (1) Utilize industry seismic data to assess the distribution of gas hydrates within the nearshore Alaskan continental shelf between Harrison Bay and Prudhoe Bay; (2) Further characterize and quantify the well-log characteristics of gas hydrates; and (3) Establish gas monitoring stations over the Eileen fault zone in northern Alaska, which will be used to measure gas flux from destabilized hydrates.

Collett, T.S.; Bird, K.J.; Burruss, R.C.; Lee, Myung W.

1992-01-01

346

Gas hydrate reservoir characteristics and economics  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of the DOE-funded USGS Gas Hydrate Program is to assess the production characteristics and economic potential of gas hydrates in northern Alaska. The objectives of this project for FY-1992 will include the following: (1) Utilize industry seismic data to assess the distribution of gas hydrates within the nearshore Alaskan continental shelf between Harrison Bay and Prudhoe Bay; (2) Further characterize and quantify the well-log characteristics of gas hydrates; and (3) Establish gas monitoring stations over the Eileen fault zone in northern Alaska, which will be used to measure gas flux from destabilized hydrates.

Collett, T.S.; Bird, K.J.; Burruss, R.C.; Lee, Myung W.

1992-06-01

347

Hydration of the DNA bases is local.  

PubMed Central

Ordered hydration sites were determined for the nucleotide bases in B-type conformations using the crystal structure data on 14 B-DNA decamer structures. A method of density representation was extended so that positions, occupancies, and distributions of the hydration sites were predicted around a B-DNA double helix by a method analogous to crystallographic refinement. The predicted hydration sites correctly reproduce the main features of hydration around the B-DNA dodecamer. In contrast to the previous observations, the newly available crystal data show the same extent of hydration of guanine and adenine, and of cytosine and thymine. Images FIGURE 5 PMID:8599672

Schneider, B; Berman, H M

1995-01-01

348

Experimental study on the reuse of spent rapidly hydrated sorbent for circulating fluidized bed flue gas desulfurization.  

PubMed

Rapidly hydrated sorbent, prepared by rapidly hydrating adhesive carrier particles and lime, is a highly effective sorbent for moderate temperature circulating fluidized bed flue gas desulfurization (CFB-FGD) process. The residence time of fine calcium-containing particles in CFB reactors increases by adhering on the surface of larger adhesive carrier particles, which contributes to higher sorbent calcium conversion ratio. The circulation ash of CFB boilers (?-adhesive carrier particles) and the spent sorbent (? and ?-adhesive carrier particles) were used as adhesive carrier particles for producing the rapidly hydrated sorbent. Particle physical characteristic analysis, abrasion characteristics in fluidized bed and desulfurization characteristics in TGA and CFB-FGD systems were investigated for various types of rapidly hydrated sorbent (?, ?, and ?-sorbent). The adhesion ability of ?-sorbent was 50.1% higher than that of ?-sorbent. The abrasion ratio of ? and ?-sorbent was 16.7% lower than that of ?-sorbent. The desulfurization abilities of the three sorbent in TGA were almost same. The desulfurization efficiency in the CFB-FGD system was up to 95% at the bed temperature of 750 °C for the ?-sorbent. PMID:21928832

Li, Yuan; Zheng, Kai; You, Changfu

2011-11-01

349

Influence of calcite on uranium(VI) reactive transport in the groundwater–river mixing zone  

SciTech Connect

Calcite is an important mineral that can affect uranyl reactive transport in subsurface sediments. This study investigated the distribution of calcite and its influence on uranyl adsorption and reactive transport in the groundwater-river mixing zone at US Hanford 300A, Washington State. Simulations using a 2D reactive transport model under field-relevant hydrogeochemical conditions revealed a complex distribution of calcite concentration as a result of dynamic groundwater-river interactions. The calcite concentration distribution in turn affected the spatial and temporal changes in aqueous carbonate, calcium, and pH, which subsequently influenced U(VI) mobility and discharge rates into the river. The results implied that calcite distribution and its concentration dynamics is an important consideration for field characterization, monitoring, and reactive transport prediction.

Ma, Rui; Liu, Chongxuan; Greskowiak, Janek; Prommer, Henning; Zachara, John M.; Zheng, Chunmiao

2014-01-23

350

Physical activity, hydration and health.  

PubMed

Since the beginning of mankind, man has sought ways to promote and preserve health as well as to prevent disease. Hydration, physical activity and exercise are key factors for enhancing human health. However, either a little dose of them or an excess can be harmful for health maintenance at any age. Water is an essential nutrient for human body and a major key to survival has been to prevent dehydration. However, there is still a general controversy regarding the necessary amount to drink water or other beverages to properly get an adequate level of hydration. In addition, up to now the tools used to measure hydration are controversial. To this end, there are several important groups of variables to take into account such as water balance, hydration biomarkers and total body water. A combination of methods will be the most preferred tool to find out any risk or situation of dehydration at any age range. On the other hand, physical activity and exercise are being demonstrated to promote health, avoiding or reducing health problems, vascular and inflammatory disea ses and helping weight management. Therefore, physical activity is also being used as a pill within a therapy to promote health and reduce risk diseases, but as in the case of drugs, dose, intensity, frequency, duration and precautions have to be evaluated and taken into account in order to get the maximum effectiveness and success of a treatment. On the other hand, sedentariness is the opposite concept to physical activity that has been recently recognized as an important factor of lifestyle involved in the obesogenic environment and consequently in the risk of the non-communicable diseases. In view of the literature consulted and taking into account the expertise of the authors, in this review a Decalogue of global recommendations is included to achieve an adequate hydration and physical activity status to avoid overweight/obesity consequences. PMID:24972459

Marcos, Ascensión; Manonelles, Pedro; Palacios, Nieves; Wärnberg, Julia; Casajús, José A; Pérez, Margarita; Aznar, Susana; Benito, Pedro J; Martínez-Gomez, David; Ortega, Francisco B; Ortega, Eduardo; Urrialde, Rafael

2014-01-01

351

Toward Molecular Nanowires Self-Assembled on an Insulating Substrate: Heptahelicene-2-carboxylic acid on Calcite (101j4)  

E-print Network

acid on Calcite (101j4) Philipp Rahe,,§ Markus Nimmrich,,§ Andreas Greuling, Jens Schu¨tte, Irena G) cleavage plane of calcite. The molecule used is racemic heptahelicene-2-carboxylic acid, which forms

Kühnle, Angelika

352

Production, oxygen respiration rates, and sinking velocity of copepod fecal pellets: Direct measurements of ballasting by opal and calcite  

E-print Network

measurements of ballasting by opal and calcite Helle Ploug1 Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine independent on diet (range: 0.08­ 0.21 d21). Because of ballasting of opal and calcite, sinking velocities

Matthews, Adrian

353

Well log evaluation of gas hydrate saturations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The amount of gas sequestered in gas hydrates is probably enormous, but estimates are highly speculative due to the lack of previous quantitative studies. Gas volumes that may be attributed to a gas hydrate accumulation within a given geologic setting are dependent on a number of reservoir parameters; one of which, gas-hydrate saturation, can be assessed with data obtained from downhole well logging devices. The primary objective of this study was to develop quantitative well-log evaluation techniques which will permit the calculation of gas-hydrate saturations in gas-hydrate-bearing sedimentary units. The "standard" and "quick look" Archie relations (resistivity log data) yielded accurate gas-hydrate and free-gas saturations within all of the gas hydrate accumulations assessed in the field verification phase of the study. Compressional wave acoustic log data have been used along with the Timur, modified Wood, and the Lee weighted average acoustic equations to calculate accurate gas-hydrate saturations in all of the gas hydrate accumulations assessed in this study. The well log derived gas-hydrate saturations calculated in the field verification phase of this study, which range from as low as 2% to as high as 97%, confirm that gas hydrates represent a potentially important source of natural gas.

Collett, T.S.

1998-01-01

354

Long-term manuring effect on weed flora in acid and limed soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dominant soils of eastern and western Lithuania are acid. Liming and application of organic fertilizers are therefore the most effective ways to improve properties. Accordingly, two permanent liming and organic manuring trials were initiated in 1949 on an acid soil in the Vezaiciai Branch of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture. This study reports the effects of long term manuring

Steponas Ciuberkis; Stasys Bernotas; Steponas Raudonius

2006-01-01

355

May 2003 Issue #1 2003 Terminology used for Reporting Lime Recommendations  

E-print Network

May 2003 Issue #1 ­ 2003 Terminology used for Reporting Lime Recommendations John Peters and Keith Kelling Department of Soil Science, Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison Although all of the states in the upper the fineness value of a liming material. The main source of confusion comes from the terminology used

Balser, Teri C.

356

Root growth and mineral nutrition of corn hybrids as affected by phosphorus and lime  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of triple superphosphate (TS) and liming on macronutrient accumulation and root growth of Pioneer 3072 and Cargill 505 corn hybrids were studied. Corn plants were grown up to 30 days in pots with 7 L of a dark red Latosol sandy loam (Haplortox). Lime was applied to raise base saturation to 30, 50, and 70%, in two levels

Ciro A. Rosolem; Joston S. Assis; Antonio D. Santiago

1994-01-01

357

The effects of liming and reacidification on the growth of Juncus bulbosus: a mesocosm experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth of J. bulbosus was investigated in a cultivation experiment with a two-way factorial design for liming and reacidification. The growth of J. bulbosus on limed sediment in a reacidified water layer clearly differed from the growth in the other treatments. Dry weight was approximately five times higher after a growth period of five months which was the result

Esther C. H. E. T Lucassen; Roland Bobbink; Mireille M. A Oonk; Tor-Erik Brandrud; Jan G. M Roelofs

1999-01-01

358

Enhanced growth of the macrophyte Juncus bulbosus in S Norwegian limed lakes. A regional survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of liming on the aquatic macrophyte vegetation have been investigated in S and SW Norway. In the western part of the study area, Juncus bulbosus was considerably more frequent in the limed than in the unlimed lakes, whilst in the eastern part there were no such differences, and the J. bulbosus populations were generally not so vital. In

T. E. Brandrud; J. G. M. Roelofs

1995-01-01

359

First New World Documentation of an Old World Citrus Pest, the Lime Swallowtail  

E-print Network

demoleus, invasive species, citrus pest. P apilio demoleus L., commonly known as the lemon, lime, citrusFirst New World Documentation of an Old World Citrus Pest, the Lime Swallowtail Papilio demoleus Boyce, and Brian D. Farrell Abstract. Papilio demoleus L., a well-known citrus pest in the Old World

Farrell, Brian D.

360

SUMMARY REPORT: SULFUR OXIDES CONTROL TECHNOLOGY SERIES: FGD LIME/LIMESTONE PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

This summary report describes the use of lime or limestone as an option for the treatment of sulfur oxides at fossil fuel steam and electric generating facilities. n this treatment, an aqueous slurry of slaked lime or wet ground limestone absorbs sulfur oxide from flue gas. bsorb...

361

Effects of Liming on Forage Availability and Nutrient Content in a Forest Impacted by Acid Rain  

PubMed Central

Acidic deposition and subsequent forest soil acidification and nutrient depletion can affect negatively the growth, health and nutrient content of vegetation, potentially limiting the availability and nutrient content of forage for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and other forest herbivores. Liming is a mitigation technique that can be used to restore forest health in acidified areas, but little is known about how it affects the growth or nutrient content of deer forage. We examined the effects of dolomitic limestone application on the growth and chemical composition of understory plants in an acidified forest in central Pennsylvania, with a focus on vegetative groups included as white-tailed deer forage. We used a Before-After-Control-Impact study design with observations 1 year before liming and up to 5 years post-liming on 2 treated and 2 untreated 100-ha sites. Before liming, forage availability and several nutrients were below levels considered optimal for white-tailed deer, and many vegetative characteristics were related to soil chemistry. We observed a positive effect of liming on forb biomass, with a 2.7 fold increase on limed sites, but no biomass response in other vegetation groups. We observed positive effects of liming on calcium and magnesium content and negative effects on aluminum and manganese content of several plant groups. Responses to liming by forbs and plant nutrients show promise for improving vegetation health and forage quality and quantity for deer. PMID:22761890

Pabian, Sarah E.; Ermer, Nathan M.; Tzilkowski, Walter M.; Brittingham, Margaret C.

2012-01-01

362

Barley seedling growth in soils amended with fly ash or agricultural lime followed by acidification  

SciTech Connect

Calcium-rich coal combustion fly ash can be used as an amendment to neutralize soil acidity because of its oxides and carbonate content, but its aluminum content could inhibit plant growth if soil pH values fall below optimal agronomic levels. This study measured root and shoot growth of an acid-sensitive barley (Hordeum vulgare L. 'Kearney') grown in the greenhouse on three naturally acid soils. The soils were either untreated or amended with various liming materials (dry fly ash, wet fly ash, and agricultural lime) at application rates of 0, .5, 1, and 1.5 times the recommended lime requirement, then treated with dilute acid solutions to simulate management-induced acidification. Plant growth indexes were measured at 30 days after planting. Root mass per plant and root length per plant were greater for the limed treatments than in the acidified check. Root growth in the limed treatments did not differ from root growth in the original nonacidified soils. Top mass per plant in all limed soils was either larger than or not different from that in the original nonacidified soils. Based on top mass per plant, no liming material or application rate was clearly superior. Both fly ash and agricultural lime reduced the impact of subsequent acidification on young barley plants. Detrimental effects of aluminum release on plant growth were not observed. Calcium-rich fly ash at agronomic rates is an acceptable acid-neutralizing material with no apparent negative effects.

Renken, R.R.; McCallister, D.L.; Tarkalson, D.D.; Hergert, G.W.; Marx, D.B. [University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States)

2006-05-15

363

Control of Lime Kiln Heat Balance is Key to Reduced Fuel Consumption  

E-print Network

This article discusses the various heat loads in a pulp mill lime sludge kiln, pointing out which heat loads cannot be reduced and which heat loads can, and how a reduction in energy use can be achieved. In almost any existing rotary lime sludge...

Kramm, D. J.

1982-01-01

364

Response of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) to Lime and Phosphorus Fertilization in an Acid Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pot experiment was conducted to determine the effect of lime (CaCO ) and phosphorus (P) 3 application on the growth and yield of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) on an acid soil. This was followed by a field trial to validate the findings from the pot study. Three rates of lime equivalent to 0, 500 and 1000 kg CaCO ha? and

F. I. Oluwatoyinbo; M. O. Akande; J. A. Adediran

365

Effects of liming on forage availability and nutrient content in a forest impacted by acid rain.  

PubMed

Acidic deposition and subsequent forest soil acidification and nutrient depletion can affect negatively the growth, health and nutrient content of vegetation, potentially limiting the availability and nutrient content of forage for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and other forest herbivores. Liming is a mitigation technique that can be used to restore forest health in acidified areas, but little is known about how it affects the growth or nutrient content of deer forage. We examined the effects of dolomitic limestone application on the growth and chemical composition of understory plants in an acidified forest in central Pennsylvania, with a focus on vegetative groups included as white-tailed deer forage. We used a Before-After-Control-Impact study design with observations 1 year before liming and up to 5 years post-liming on 2 treated and 2 untreated 100-ha sites. Before liming, forage availability and several nutrients were below levels considered optimal for white-tailed deer, and many vegetative characteristics were related to soil chemistry. We observed a positive effect of liming on forb biomass, with a 2.7 fold increase on limed sites, but no biomass response in other vegetation groups. We observed positive effects of liming on calcium and magnesium content and negative effects on aluminum and manganese content of several plant groups. Responses to liming by forbs and plant nutrients show promise for improving vegetation health and forage quality and quantity for deer. PMID:22761890

Pabian, Sarah E; Ermer, Nathan M; Tzilkowski, Walter M; Brittingham, Margaret C

2012-01-01

366

Liming effects on slash pine (Pinus elliottii Englm.) seedlings growing on acid soils  

E-print Network

. . . . . . . . . . lg Comparison of treatment means on selected soils using Duncan's New Nultiple Range Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . , 20 pH and percent exchangeable Al neutralized with lime rates based on initial exchangeable Al content... . . . . . . . . . . . 21 The ratio of exchangeable Al neutralized to soil acidity neutralized . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Liming effects on total cation exchange capacity on three soils ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ . . . . ~ ~ ~ . ~ . ~ . . . ~ ~ ~ ~ 26...

Elzner, John Thomas

2012-06-07

367

Scleractinian corals produce calcite, and grow more slowly, in artificial Cretaceous seawater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mineralogies of most biotic and abiotic carbonates have alternated in synchroneity between the calcite (hexagonal) and aragonite (orthorhombic) polymorphs of CaCO3 throughout the Phanerozoic Eon. These intervals of calcite and aragonite production, or calcite seas and aragonite seas, are thought to be caused primarily by secular variation in the molar magnesium/calcium ratio of seawater (mMg/Ca > 2 = aragonite + high-Mg calcite; mMg/Ca < 2 = low-Mg calcite), a ratio that has oscillated between 1.0 and 5.2 throughout the Phanerozoic. In laboratory experiments, we show that three species of scleractinian corals, which produce aragonite in modern seawater and which have flourished as important reef builders primarily during aragonite seas of the past, began producing calcite in artificial seawater with an ambient mMg/Ca ratio below that of modern seawater (5.2). The corals produced progressively higher percentages of calcite and calcified at lower rates with further reduction of the ambient mMg/Ca ratio. In artificial seawater of imputed Late Cretaceous composition (mMg/Ca = 1.0), which favors the precipitation of the calcite polymorph, scleractinian corals produced skeletons containing >30% low-Mg calcite (skeletal mMg/Ca < 0.04). These results indicate that the skeletal mineral used by scleractinian corals is partially determined by seawater chemistry. Furthermore, slow calcification rates, resulting from the production of largely aragonitic skeletons in chemically unfavorable seawater (mMg/Ca < 2), probably contributed to the scleractinians' diminished reef-building role in the calcite seas of Late Cretaceous and early Cenozoic time.

Ries, Justin B.; Stanley, Steven M.; Hardie, Lawrence A.

2006-07-01

368

Structural evolution of calcite at high temperatures: Phase V unveiled  

PubMed Central

The calcite form of calcium carbonate CaCO3 undergoes a reversible phase transition between Rc and Rm at ~1240?K under a CO2 atmosphere of ~0.4?MPa. The joint probability density function obtained from the single-crystal X-ray diffraction data revealed that the oxygen triangles of the CO3 group in the high temperature form (Phase V) do not sit still at specified positions in the space group Rm, but migrate along the undulated circular orbital about carbon. The present study also shows how the room temperature form (Phase I) develops into Phase V through an intermediate form (Phase IV) in the temperature range between ~985?K and ~1240?K. PMID:24084871

Ishizawa, Nobuo; Setoguchi, Hayato; Yanagisawa, Kazumichi

2013-01-01

369

Shock-induced effects in calcite from Cactus Crater  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper discusses shock metamorphism of calcite from coralline limestone samples retrieved from a borehole drilled into rocks beneath Cactus Crater, a nuclear explosion crater at Eniwetok Atoll. The metamorphism was detected and quantified using electron spin resonance (ESR); the ESR spectra of Mn(+) present as a trace constituent in the coral samples, show a consistent decrease in hyperfine peak splitting with decreasing depth of sample. It is suggested that the decrease in hyperfine peak splitting reflects a decrease in crystal field splitting, and therefore, small increases on cation-anion distances produced by mechanical energy input during the shock process. Two alternative crater models suggested by the ESR results are a depiction of a steady decay of the shock wave, and a delineation of a breccia lens with a breccia-bedrock interface at 20 plus or minus 5 m.

Vizgirda, J.; Ahrens, T. J.; Tsay, F.-D.

1980-01-01

370

Calcite orientations and composition ranges within teeth across Echinoidea.  

PubMed

Sea urchin's teeth from four families of order Echinoida and from orders Temnopleuroida, Arbacioida and Cidaroida were studied with synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The high and very high Mg calcite phases of the teeth, i.e. the first and second stage mineral constituents, respectively, have the same crystallographic orientations. The co-orientation of first and second stage mineral, which the authors attribute to epitaxy, extends across the phylogenic width of the extant regular sea urchins and demonstrates that this is a primitive character of this group. The range of compositions ?x for the two phases of Ca1-xMgxCO3 is about 0.20 or greater and is consistent with a common biomineralization process. PMID:25158180

Stock, Stuart R; Ignatiev, Konstantin; Lee, Peter L; Almer, Jonathan D

2014-08-01

371

Age constraints on fluid inclusions in calcite at Yucca Mountain  

SciTech Connect

The {sup 207}Pb/{sup 235}U ages for 14 subsamples of opal or chalcedony layers younger than calcite formed at elevated temperature range between 1.88 {+-} 0.05 and 9.7 {+-} 1.5 Ma with most values older than 6-8 Ma. These data indicate that fluids with elevated temperatures have not been present in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain since about 1.9 Ma and most likely since 6-8 Ma. Discordant U-Pb isotope data for chalcedony subsamples representing the massive silica stage in the formation of the coatings are interpreted using a model of the diffusive loss of U decay products. The model gives an age estimate for the time of chalcedony formation around 10-11 Ma, which overlaps ages of clay minerals formed in tuffs below the water table at Yucca Mountain during the Timber Mountain thermal event.

Neymark, Leonid A.; Amelin, Yuri V.; Paces, James B.; Peterman, Zell E.; Whelan, Joseph F.

2001-04-29

372

Authigenic low-Mg calcite in Lake Turkana, Kenya  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lake Turkana is an important modern analog to ancient rift environments in east Africa and elsewhere. Carbonate is second in abundance after the detrital silicate fraction of the sediments in the lake. It consists of ostracod tests and a silt-sized micrite. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the micrite to be euhedral crystals of low-Mg calcite about 10 microns in length. Carbon isotope values of the micrite indicate that it forms in the upper water column rather than in the sediments after burial. The oxygen isotope analyses indicate that the micrite could be at isotopic equilibrium with the modern lake waters at temperatures of 36°C. This suggests that the micrite forms either in the surface waters of the open lake or in isolated shallow bays, and is then transported to the deep lake.

Halfman, John D.; Johnson, Thomas C.; Showers, William J.; Lister, Guy S.

373

Thermal conductivity of hydrate-bearing sediments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A thorough understanding of the thermal conductivity of hydrate-bearing sediments is necessary for evaluating phase transformation processes that would accompany energy production from gas hydrate deposits and for estimating regional heat flow based on the observed depth to the base of the gas hydrate stability zone. The coexistence of multiple phases (gas hydrate, liquid and gas pore fill, and solid sediment grains) and their complex spatial arrangement hinder the a priori prediction of the thermal conductivity of hydrate-bearing sediments. Previous studies have been unable to capture the full parameter space covered by variations in grain size, specific surface, degree of saturation, nature of pore filling material, and effective stress for hydrate-bearing samples. Here we report on systematic measurements of the thermal conductivity of air dry, water- and tetrohydrofuran (THF)-saturated, and THF hydrate-saturated sand and clay samples at vertical effective stress of 0.05 to 1 MPa (corresponding to depths as great as 100 m below seafloor). Results reveal that the bulk thermal conductivity of the samples in every case reflects a complex interplay among particle size, effective stress, porosity, and fluid-versus-hydrate filled pore spaces. The thermal conductivity of THF hydrate-bearing soils increases upon hydrate formation although the thermal conductivities of THF solution and THF hydrate are almost the same. Several mechanisms can contribute to this effect including cryogenic suction during hydrate crystal growth and the ensuing porosity reduction in the surrounding sediment, increased mean effective stress due to hydrate formation under zero lateral strain conditions, and decreased interface thermal impedance as grain-liquid interfaces are transformed into grain-hydrate interfaces. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

Cortes, D.D.; Martin, A.I.; Yun, T.S.; Francisca, F.M.; Santamarina, J.C.; Ruppel, C.

2009-01-01

374

Pre-desilication and digestion of gibbsitic bauxite with lime in sodium aluminate liquor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of lime on the pre-desilication and digestion of gibbsitic bauxite in synthetic sodium aluminate liquor at different temperatures was investigated. The bauxite is comprised of gibbsite, aluminogoethite, hematite, kaolin, quartz, and minor boehmite. Lime increases the desilication efficiency of the bauxite during the pre-desilication process by promoting the conversion of sodalite and cancrinite to hydrogarnet. Desilication reactions during the digestion process promoted by lime result in the loss of Al2O3 entering the red mud, but the amount of aluminogoethite-to-hematite conversion promoted by lime leads to the increase of aluminogoethitic Al2O3 entering the digested liquor. The alumina digestion rate at 245°C is higher than that at 145°C due to the more pronounced conversion of aluminogoethite to hematite. The soda consumption during the digestion process decreases due to lime addition, especially at higher temperatures.

Pan, Xiao-lin; Yu, Hai-yan; Dong, Kai-wei; Tu, Gan-feng; Bi, Shi-wen

2012-11-01

375

Santaclaraite, a new calcium-manganese silicate hydrate from California.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Santaclaraite, ideally CaMn4(Si5O14(OH))(OH).H2O, occurs as pink and tan veins and masses in Franciscan chert in the Diablo Range, Santa Clara and Stanislaus counties, California. It is associated with four unidentified Mn silicates, Mn-howieite, quartz, braunite, calcite, rhodochrosite, kutnahorite, baryte, harmotome, chalcopyrite and native copper. Santaclaraite is triclinic, space group B1, a 15.633(1), b 7.603(1) , c 12.003(1) A, alpha 109.71(1)o, beta 88.61(1)o, gamma 99.95(1) o, V 1322.0(3) A3; Z = 4. The strongest lines of the X-ray pattern are 7.04(100), 3.003(84), 3.152(80), 7.69(63), 3.847(57) A. Crystals are lamellar to prismatic (flattened on (100)), with good cleavage on (100) and (010); H. 61/2 Dcalc. 3.398 g/cm3, Dmeas. 3.31 (+ or -0.01); optically biaxial negative, alpha 1.681, beta 1.696, gamma 1.708 (all + or - 0.002), 2Valpha 83 (+ or -1)o. Although chemically a hydrated rhodonite, santaclaraite dehydrates to Mn-bustamite at approx 550oC (in air) . Santaclaraite is a five-tetrahedral-repeat single-chain silicate and has structural affinities with rhodonite, nambulite, marsturite, babingtonite and inesite.-J.A.Z.

Erd, R.C.; Ohashi, Y.

1984-01-01

376

Thermodynamics of magnesian calcite solid-solutions at 25??C and 1 atm total pressure  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The stability of magnesian calcites was reexamined, and new results are presented for 28 natural inorganic, 12 biogenic, and 32 synthetic magnesian calcites. The magnesian calcite solid-solutions were separated into two groups on the basis of differences in stoichiometric solubility and other physical and chemical properties. Group I consists of solids of mainly metamorphic and hydrothermal origin, synthetic calcites prepared at high temperatures and pressures, and synthetic solids prepared at low temperature and very low calcite supersaturations (??calcite ??? 1.5) from artificial sea water or NaClMgCl2CaCl2 solutions. Group I solids are essentially binary s of CaCO2 and MgCO2, and are thought to be relatively free of structural defects. Group II solid-solutions are of either biogenic origin or are synthetic magnesian calcites and protodolomites (0-20 and ??? 45 mole percent MgCO3) prepared at high calcite supersaturations (??calcite??? 3) from NaClNa2SO4MgCl2CaCl2 or NaClMgCl2CaCl2 solutions. Group II solid-solutions are treated as massively defective solids. The defects include substitution foreign ions (Na+ and SO42-) in the magnesian calcite lattice (point defects) and dislocations (~2 ?? 109 cm-2). Within each group, the excess free energy of mixing, GE, is described by the mixing model ge = X(1- x)[A0 + A1(2x - 1)], where x is the mole fraction of the end-member Ca0.5Mg0.5CO3 in the solid-solution. The values of A0 and A1 for Group I and II solids were evaluated at 25??C. The equilibrium constants of all the solids are closely described by the equation ln Kx = x(1-x) RT[A0 + A1(2x- 1)]+ (1 - x) ln [KC(1- x)]+ x ln (KDx), where KC and KD are the equilibrium constants of calcite and Ca0.5Mg0.5CO3. Group I magnesian calcites were modeled as sub-regular solid-solutions between calcite and dolomite, and between calcite and "disordered dolomite". Both models yield almost identical equilibrium constants for these magnesian calcites. The Group II magnesian calcites were modeled as sub-regular solid-solutions between defective calcite and protodolomite. Group I and II solid-solutions differ significantly in stability. The rate of crystal growth and the chemical composition of the aqueous solutions from which the solids were formed are the main factors controlling stoichiometric solubility of the magnesian calcites and the density of crystal defects. The literature on the occurrence and behavior of magnesian calcites in sea water and other aqueous solutions is also examined. ?? 1989.

Busenberg, E.; Niel, Plummer L.

1989-01-01

377

Enhancement of gas desulfurization with hydrated lime at low temperature by the presence of NO{sub 2}  

SciTech Connect

The effect of NO{sub 2} on the desulfurization reaction of simulated flue gas by Ca(OH){sub 2} was investigated in a fixed-bed reactor at 333-353 K and at relative humidities (RHs) in the range of 30%-70%. NO{sub 2} was determined to be a promoter for SO{sub 2} uptake, because its retention can be increased up to 200%. The effect of NO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} concentration on the kinetics of the desulfurization reaction was surveyed and successfully simulated by means of a deactivation model implemented with an inverse shrinking-core model (DM-ISCM). Solid analyses were also performed to identify the reaction products and provide insight into the chemistry of the process.

Bausach, M.; Pera-Titus, M.; Fite, C.; Cunill, F.; Izquierdo, J.F.; Tejero, J.; Iborra, M. [University of Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

2005-11-01

378

Project EARTH-13-RR1: A Sea Change: Resolving the most recent Calcite-Aragonite Sea transition  

E-print Network

Project EARTH-13-RR1: A Sea Change: Resolving the most recent Calcite-Aragonite Sea transition of `sea change': changes in the major-ion composition of the ocean and termed `calcite' and `aragonite. The aim of this project is therefore to investigate the most recent transition from `calcite

Henderson, Gideon

379

True Atomic-Resolution Imaging of (10j14) Calcite in Aqueous Solution by Frequency Modulation Atomic Force Microscopy  

E-print Network

True Atomic-Resolution Imaging of (10j14) Calcite in Aqueous Solution by Frequency ModulationVed October 16, 2008. ReVised Manuscript ReceiVed January 2, 2009 Calcite (CaCO3) is one of the most abundant stable cleavage plane of calcite under liquid conditions using frequency modulation atomic force

Kühnle, Angelika

380

Porous, Biphasic CaCO3-Calcium Phosphate Biomedical Cement Scaffolds from Calcite (CaCO3) Powder  

E-print Network

Porous, Biphasic CaCO3-Calcium Phosphate Biomedical Cement Scaffolds from Calcite (CaCO3) Powder A. Cuneyt Tas* Department of Biomedical Engineering, Yeditepe University, Istanbul 34755, Turkey Calcite (CaH 3.2 by adding NaOH, to form biphasic, micro-, and macroporous calcite-apatitic calcium phosphate (Ap

Tas, A. Cuneyt

381

Well-defined star-shaped calcite crystals formed in agarose gels Dong Yang, Limin Qi* and Jiming Ma  

E-print Network

Well-defined star-shaped calcite crystals formed in agarose gels Dong Yang, Limin Qi* and Jiming Ma April 2003 Single crystals of calcite exhibiting a morphology of well- defined 8-armed stars, which evolved from original rhombo- hedral calcite crystals with their 8 points extending radially into eight

Qi, Limin

382

PII S0016-7037(02)00888-8 EXAFS study of rare-earth element coordination in calcite  

E-print Network

PII S0016-7037(02)00888-8 EXAFS study of rare-earth element coordination in calcite E. J. ELZINGA,1 , Sm3 , Dy3 , Yb3 ) coprecipitated with calcite in minor concentrations from room-temperature aqueous are longer than the Ca-O distance in calcite and longer than what is consistent with ionic radii sums

Peale, Robert E.

383

Sr isotopes and pore fluid chemistry in carbonate sediment of the Ontong Java Plateau: Calcite recrystallization rates and evidence  

E-print Network

Sr isotopes and pore fluid chemistry in carbonate sediment of the Ontong Java Plateau: Calcite of calcite recrystallization at ODP Site 807A on the Ontong Java Plateau, an 800-meter thick section in an accumulating section. The deduced calcite recrystallization rate is 2% per million years (%/Myr) near the top

Fantle, Matthew

384

Supporting Information Figure S1. Calcite crystals nucleated and grown on Kevlar threads in the absence of any  

E-print Network

1 Supporting Information Figure S1. Calcite crystals nucleated and grown on Kevlar threads in the absence of any peptides or proteins. We define this as the negative control synthetic calcite. Please and SEM imaging techniques. Figure S2. Calcite crystals nucleated and grown on Kevlar threads

Coppersmith, Susan N.

385

Project EARTH-11-RR1: A Sea Change: Resolving the most recent Calcite-Aragonite Sea transition  

E-print Network

Project EARTH-11-RR1: A Sea Change: Resolving the most recent Calcite-Aragonite Sea transition `calcite' and `aragonite' seas (Fig 1, right). In the atmosphere, it is believed that pCO2 oscillated in atmospheric CO2. The aim of this project is therefore to investigate the most recent transition from `calcite

Henderson, Gideon

386

Speleothem calcite farmed in situ: Modern calibration of d18 C paleoclimate proxies in a continuously-monitored  

E-print Network

Speleothem calcite farmed in situ: Modern calibration of d18 O and d13 C paleoclimate proxies precipitated (low temperature) speleothem calcite is systematically heavier than the d18 O of laboratory-grown calcite for a given temperature. To understand this apparent offset, rainwater, cave drip water

Weston, Ken

387

PII S0016-7037(99)00103-9 Reversed calcite morphologies induced by microscopic growth kinetics: Insight into  

E-print Network

PII S0016-7037(99)00103-9 Reversed calcite morphologies induced by microscopic growth kinetics investigation of calcite growth quantifies relationships between solution super- saturation and the rates of calcite mineralization have used indirect approaches that monitor compositional changes of growth media

Dove, Patricia M.

388

Precipitation of ordered dolomite via simultaneous dissolution of1 calcite and magnesite: New experimental insights into an old2  

E-print Network

1 Precipitation of ordered dolomite via simultaneous dissolution of1 calcite and magnesite: New that ordered dolomite can be precipitated via24 simultaneous dissolution of calcite and magnesite under; High-carbonate alkalinity; Magnesite; Calcite; Crystal growth;46 Hydrothermal systems.47 48 insu

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

389

STRONTIUM ISOTOPE EVOLUTION OF PORE WATER AND CALCITE IN THE TOPOPAH SPRING TUFF, YUCCA MOUNTAIN , NEVADA  

SciTech Connect

Yucca Mountain, a ridge of Miocene volcanic rocks in southwest Nevada, is being characterized as a site for a potential high-level radioactive waste repository. One issue of concern for the future performance of the potential repository is the movement of water in and around the potential repository horizon. Past water movement in this unsaturated zone is indicated by fluid inclusions trapped in calcite coatings on fracture footwall surfaces and in some lithophysal cavities. Some of the fluid inclusions have homogenization temperatures above the present-day geotherm (J.F. Whelan, written communication), so determining the ages of the calcite associated with those fluid inclusions is important in understanding the thermal history of the potential repository site. Calcite ages have been constrained by uranium-lead dating of silica polymorphs (opal and chalcedony) that are present in most coatings. The opal and chalcedony ages indicate that deposition of the calcite and opal coatings in the welded part of the Topopah Spring Tuff (TSw hydrogeologic unit) spanned nearly the entire history of the 12.8-million-year-old rock mass at fairly uniform overall long-term rates of deposition (within a factor of five). Constraining the age of a layer of calcite associated with specific fluid inclusions is complicated. Calcite is commonly bladed with complex textural relations, and datable opal or chalcedony may be millions of years older or younger than the calcite layer or may be absent from the coating entirely. Therefore, a more direct method of dating the calcite is presented in this paper by developing a model for strontium evolution in pore water in the TSw as recorded by the strontium coprecipitated with calcium in the calcite. Although the water that precipitated the calcite in fractures and cavities may not have been in local isotopic equilibrium with the pore water, the strontium isotope composition of all water in the TSw is primarily controlled by water-rock interaction in the overlying nonwelded and essentially unfractured Paintbrush Group tuffs (PTn). The method of dating secondary minerals from known strontium evolution rates in rocks cannot be used in this study because it assumes the water that deposited the minerals was in isotopic equilibrium with the rock, which is not the case for the pore water in the TSw. Therefore, the evolution of the strontium isotope composition of the water that deposited the calcite, as recorded by the strontium coprecipitated with calcium in the calcite, was used to develop a model for determining the age of the calcite.

B.D. Marshall; K. Futa

2001-02-07

390

Well log evaluation of gas hydrate saturations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The amount of gas sequestered in gas hydrates is probably enormous, but estimates are highly speculative due to the lack of previous quantitative studies. Gas volumes that may be attributed to a gas hydrate accumulation within a given geologic setting are dependent on a number of reservoir parameters; one of which, gas-hydrate saturation, can be assessed with data obtained from downhole well logging devices. The primary objective of this study was to develop quantitative well-log evaluation techniques which will permit the calculation of gas-hydrate saturations in gas-hydrate-bearing sedimentary units. The `standard' and `quick look' Archie relations (resistivity log data) yielded accurate gas-hydrate and free-gas saturations within all of the gas hydrate accumulations assessed in the field verification phase of the study. Compressional wave acoustic log data have been used along with the Timur, modified Wood, and the Lee weighted average acoustic equations to calculate accurate gas-hydrate saturations in this study. The well log derived gas-hydrate saturations calculated in the field verification phase of this study, which range from as low as 2% to as high as 97%, confirm that gas hydrates represent a potentially important source of natural gas.

Collett, Timothy S.

1998-01-01

391

Controls of carbonate mineralogy and solid-solution of Mg in calcite: evidence from spelean systems  

SciTech Connect

Precipitation of carbonate minerals in spelean systems occurs under a wide range of fluid chemistry, Mg-Ca ratios, alkalinities, pH and temperatures; thus, spelean systems provide ideal settings to determine factors controlling the mineralogy of precipitated carbonates and solid-solution of Mg in calcite. Cave waters and actively-precipitating carbonate speleothems were collected from Carlsbad Caverns National Park, New Mexico and the Mammoth-Flint Cave System, Kentucky. Carbonate mineralogy of precipitated phases was determined by x-ray diffraction, and major and minor element composition of waters and accompanying minerals were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. Results demonstrate that at a constant CO3 concentration the precipitation threshold for calcite to aragonite is controlled dominantly by the Mg/Ca ratio of the ambient fluid. Aragonite precipitation is favored by high Mg/Ca ratios. Conversely, with increasing CO3 concentration at constant fluid Mg/Ca ratios, calcite is preferentially precipitated. Solid-solution of Mg in calcite is positively correlated with both increased Mg/Ca ratios and CO3 concentrations. These data suggest that Mg contents of calcite can not be defined solely in terms of a homogeneous distribution coefficient. Rather, Mg concentrations can be also be affected by the CO3 concentration and degree of calcite saturation, suggesting that the rate of crystal growth also plays and important role in Mg solid-solution in calcites.

Gonzalez, L.A.; Lohmann, K.C.

1985-01-01

392

Direct nanoscale observations of the coupled dissolution of calcite and dolomite and the precipitation of gypsum  

PubMed Central

Summary In-situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments were performed to study the overall process of dissolution of common carbonate minerals (calcite and dolomite) and precipitation of gypsum in Na2SO4 and CaSO4 solutions with pH values ranging from 2 to 6 at room temperature (23 ± 1 °C). The dissolution of the carbonate minerals took place at the (104) cleavage surfaces in sulfate-rich solutions undersaturated with respect to gypsum, by the formation of characteristic rhombohedral-shaped etch pits. Rounding of the etch pit corners was observed as solutions approached close-to-equilibrium conditions with respect to calcite. The calculated dissolution rates of calcite at pH 4.8 and 5.6 agreed with the values reported in the literature. When using solutions previously equilibrated with respect to gypsum, gypsum precipitation coupled with calcite dissolution showed short gypsum nucleation induction times. The gypsum precipitate quickly coated the calcite surface, forming arrow-like forms parallel to the crystallographic orientations of the calcite etch pits. Gypsum precipitation coupled with dolomite dissolution was slower than that of calcite, indicating the dissolution rate to be the rate-controlling step. The resulting gypsum coating partially covered the surface during the experimental duration of a few hours. PMID:25161860

Cama, Jordi; Soler, Josep Maria; Putnis, Christine V

2014-01-01

393

Molecular Structure of Acyclovir hydrate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Acyclovir hydrate is used in the treatment of shingles and herpes simplex virus and as well as other types of herpes viral infections. This may help people co-infected with HIV and herpes simplex live longer. High dose acyclovir is used to treat hairy leukoplakia, a viral infection which usually shows up on both sides of the tongue. Possible side effects of this therapeutic substance are stomach pain, headache, nausea and/or hair-loss.

2002-09-12

394

Natural Gas Hydrates Estimation Using Seismic Inversion and Rock Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas hydrate drilling worldwide indicates that the formation of gas hydrates in shallow sediments tends to increase P- and S-wave velocities of the hosting rocks. Rock physics models of gas hydrates provide the links between velocity anomalies and gas hydrate concentration. In this abstract, we evaluate the numerical predictions of some of the major rock physics models of gas hydrates

N. Dutta; J. Dai; R. Kleinberg; H. Xu

2005-01-01

395

Gas hydrates: Technology status report  

SciTech Connect

In 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) assumed the responsibility for expanding the knowledge base and for developing methods to recover gas from hydrates. These are ice-like mixtures of gas and water where gas molecules are trapped within a framework of water molecules. This research is part of the Unconventional Gas Recovery (UGR) program, a multidisciplinary effort that focuses on developing the technology to produce natural gas from resources that have been classified as unconventional because of their unique geologies and production mechanisms. Current work on gas hydrates emphasizes geological studies; characterization of the resource; and generic research, including modeling of reservoir conditions, production concepts, and predictive strategies for stimulated wells. Complementing this work is research on in situ detection of hydrates and field tests to verify extraction methods. Thus, current research will provide a comprehensive technology base from which estimates of reserve potential can be made, and from which industry can develop recovery strategies. 7 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

Not Available

1987-01-01

396

Dielectric response of hydrated proteins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study dipolar susceptibility of hydrated proteins, representing the average dipole moment induced at the hydrated protein by a uniform external field. This parameter shows remarkable variation among proteins. We find a negative value of the dipolar susceptibility for some proteins, which implies a dia-electric dipolar response and negative dielectrophoresis. Such proteins, even though carrying significant permanent dipole moments, repel from the electric field. This outcome is the result of a negative cross-correlation between the protein and water dipoles, compensating for the positive variance of the intrinsic protein dipole in the overall dipolar susceptibility. We therefore suggest that the dipolar response of proteins in solution is strongly affected by the coupling of the protein surface charge to the hydration water. The protein-water dipolar cross-correlations are long-ranged, extending approximately 2 nm from the protein surface into the bulk. A similar correlation length of about 1 nm is found for the electrostatic potential. The model is applied to the analysis of light absorption by protein solutions in the THz window of radiation. Here we also find significant deviations of the absorption coefficient from the predictions of traditional theories.

Matyushov, Dmitry

2013-03-01

397

Activators of photoluminescence in calcite: evidence from high-resolution, laser-excited luminescence spectroscopy  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Laser-excited luminescence spectroscopy of a red-algal, biogenic calcite and a synthetic Mn-calcite can make the distinction between organic and trace-element activators of photoluminescence. Organic-activated photoluminescence in biogenic calcite is characterized by significant peak shifts and increasing intensity with shorter-wavelength excitation and by significant decreases in intensity after heating to ??? 400??C. In contrast, Mn-activated photoluminescence shows no peak shift, greatest intensity under green excitation and limited changes after heating. Examination of samples with a high-sensitivity spectrometer using several wavelengths of exciting light is necessary for identification of photoluminescence activators. ?? 1990.

Pedone, V.A.; Cercone, K.R.; Burruss, R.C.

1990-01-01

398

Development of Alaskan gas hydrate resources  

SciTech Connect

The research undertaken in this project pertains to study of various techniques for production of natural gas from Alaskan gas hydrates such as, depressurization, injection of hot water, steam, brine, methanol and ethylene glycol solutions through experimental investigation of decomposition characteristics of hydrate cores. An experimental study has been conducted to measure the effective gas permeability changes as hydrates form in the sandpack and the results have been used to determine the reduction in the effective gas permeability of the sandpack as a function of hydrate saturation. A user friendly, interactive, menu-driven, numerical difference simulator has been developed to model the dissociation of natural gas hydrates in porous media with variable thermal properties. A numerical, finite element simulator has been developed to model the dissociation of hydrates during hot water injection process.

Kamath, V.A.; Sharma, G.D.; Patil, S.L.

1991-06-01

399

A coupled THMC model of a heating and hydration laboratory experiment in unsaturated compacted FEBEX bentonite  

SciTech Connect

Unsaturated compacted bentonite is foreseen by several countries as a backfill and sealing material in high-level radioactive waste repositories. The strong interplays between thermal (T), hydrodynamic (H), mechanical (M) and chemical (C) processes during the hydration stage of a repository call for fully coupled THMC models. Validation of such THMC models is prevented by the lack of comprehensive THMC experiments and the difficulties of experimental methods to measure accurately the chemical composition of bentonite porewater. We present here a non-isothermal multiphase flow and multicomponent reactive solute transport model for a deformable medium of a heating and hydration experiment performed on a sample of compacted FEBEX bentonite. Besides standard solute transport and geochemical processes, the model accounts for solute cross diffusion and thermal and chemical osmosis. Bentonite swelling is solved with a state-surface approach. The THM model is calibrated with transient temperature, water content and porosity data measured at the end of the experiment. The reactive transport model is calibrated with porewater chemical data derived from aqueous extract data. Model results confirm that thermal osmosis is relevant for the hydration of FEBEX bentonite while chemical osmosis can be safely neglected. Dilution and evaporation are the main processes controlling the concentration of conservative species. Dissolved cations are mostly affected by calcite dissolution-precipitation and cation exchange reactions. Dissolved sulphate is controlled by gypsum/anhydrite dissolution-precipitation. pH is mostly buffered by protonation/deprotonation via surface complexation. Computed concentrations agree well with inferred aqueous extract data at all sections except near the hydration boundary where cation data are affected by a sampling artifact. The fit of Cl{sup -} data is excellent except for the data near the heater. The largest deviations of the model from inferred aqueous extract data occur for dissolved SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} which is underpredicted by the model. There are uncertainties on the amount of gypsum available for dissolution and its dissolution mechanism (kinetics or local equilibrium).

Zheng, L.; Samper, J.; Montenegro, L.; Fernandez, A.M.

2010-05-01

400

Stabilization of Oklahoma expensive soils using lime and class C fly ash  

SciTech Connect

This study uses lime and class C fly ash, an industrial byproduct of electric power production produced from burning lignite and subbituminous coal, to study the plasticity reduction in highly expensive natural clays from Idabel, Oklahoma. This study is important, especially in Oklahoma, because most of the native soils are expansive and cause seasonal damage to roadways and structures. The addition of lime or fly ash helps to arrest the shrinkage and swelling behavior of soil. Four soil samples with the same AASHTO classification were used in this study to show shrinkage variability within a soil group with the addition of lime and class C fly ash. The plasticity reduction in this study was quantified using the linear shrinkage test. It was found that soils classified within the same AASHTO group had varying shrinkage characteristics. It was also found that both lime and fly ash reduced the lienar shrinkage, however, the addition of lime reduced the linear shrinkage to a greater degree than the same percentage of class C fly ash. Even though it takes much less lime than fly ash to reduce the plasticity of a highly expansive soil, it may be less expensive to utilize fly ash, which is a waste product of electric power production. Lime also has a lower unit weight than fly ash so weight percentage results may be misleading.

Buhler, R.L.; Cerato, A.B. (eds.) [University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (USA). Dept. of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science

2007-01-15

401

Well log evaluation of natural gas hydrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas hydrates are crystalline substances composed of water and gas, in which a solid-water-lattice accommodates gas molecules in a cage-like structure. Gas hydrates are globally widespread in permafrost regions and beneath the sea in sediment of outer continental margins. While methane, propane, and other gases can be included in the clathrate structure, methane hydrates appear to be the most common

Collett

1992-01-01

402

Physical Properties of Gas Hydrates: A Review  

SciTech Connect

Methane gas hydrates in sediments have been studied by several investigators as a possible future energy resource. Recent hydrate reserves have been estimated at approximately 1016?m3 of methane gas worldwide at standard temperature and pressure conditions. In situ dissociation of natural gas hydrate is necessary in order to commercially exploit the resource from the natural-gas-hydrate-bearing sediment. The presence of gas hydrates in sediments dramatically alters some of the normal physical properties of the sediment. These changes can be detected by field measurements and by down-hole logs. An understanding of the physical properties of hydrate-bearing sediments is necessary for interpretation of geophysical data collected in field settings, borehole, and slope stability analyses; reservoir simulation; and production models. This work reviews information available in literature related to the physical properties of sediments containing gas hydrates. A brief review of the physical properties of bulk gas hydrates is included. Detection methods, morphology, and relevant physical properties of gas-hydrate-bearing sediments are also discussed.

Gabitto, Jorge [Prairie View A& M University; Tsouris, Costas [ORNL

2010-01-01

403

Desalination utilizing clathrate hydrates (LDRD final report).  

SciTech Connect

Advances are reported in several aspects of clathrate hydrate desalination fundamentals necessary to develop an economical means to produce municipal quantities of potable water from seawater or brackish feedstock. These aspects include the following, (1) advances in defining the most promising systems design based on new types of hydrate guest molecules, (2) selection of optimal multi-phase reactors and separation arrangements, and, (3) applicability of an inert heat exchange fluid to moderate hydrate growth, control the morphology of the solid hydrate material formed, and facilitate separation of hydrate solids from concentrated brine. The rate of R141b hydrate formation was determined and found to depend only on the degree of supercooling. The rate of R141b hydrate formation in the presence of a heat exchange fluid depended on the degree of supercooling according to the same rate equation as pure R141b with secondary dependence on salinity. Experiments demonstrated that a perfluorocarbon heat exchange fluid assisted separation of R141b hydrates from brine. Preliminary experiments using the guest species, difluoromethane, showed that hydrate formation rates were substantial at temperatures up to at least 12 C and demonstrated partial separation of water from brine. We present a detailed molecular picture of the structure and dynamics of R141b guest molecules within water cages, obtained from ab initio calculations, molecular dynamics simulations, and Raman spectroscopy. Density functional theory calculations were used to provide an energetic and molecular orbital description of R141b stability in both large and small cages in a structure II hydrate. Additionally, the hydrate of an isomer, 1,2-dichloro-1-fluoroethane, does not form at ambient conditions because of extensive overlap of electron density between guest and host. Classical molecular dynamics simulations and laboratory trials support the results for the isomer hydrate. Molecular dynamics simulations show that R141b hydrate is stable at temperatures up to 265K, while the isomer hydrate is only stable up to 150K. Despite hydrogen bonding between guest and host, R141b molecules rotated freely within the water cage. The Raman spectrum of R141b in both the pure and hydrate phases was also compared with vibrational analysis from both computational methods. In particular, the frequency of the C-Cl stretch mode (585 cm{sup -1}) undergoes a shift to higher frequency in the hydrate phase. Raman spectra also indicate that this peak undergoes splitting and intensity variation as the temperature is decreased from 4 C to -4 C.

Simmons, Blake Alexander; Bradshaw, Robert W.; Dedrick, Daniel E.; Cygan, Randall Timothy (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Greathouse, Jeffery A. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Majzoub, Eric H. (University of Missouri, Columbia, MO)

2008-01-01

404

Global hydration kinetics of tricalcium silicate cement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We reconsider a number of measurements for the overall hydration kinetics of tricalcium silicate pastes having an initial water to cement weight ratio close to 0.5. We find that the time dependent ratio of hydrated and unhydrated silica mole numbers can be well characterized by two power laws in time, x/(1-x)~(t/t×)?. For early times thydration (?=5/2) and for later times t>t× a parabolic behavior (?=1/2). The crossover time is estimated as t×~16 h. We interpret these results in terms of a global second-order rate equation indicating that (a) hydrates catalyze the hydration process for thydration for t>t×, and (c) the value of the associated rate constant is of magnitude 6×10-7-7×10-6 l mol-1 s-1. We argue, by considering that the hydration process actually occurs via diffusion limited precipitation, that the exponents ?=5/2 and ?=1/2 directly indicate a preferentially platelike hydrate microstructure. This is essentially in agreement with experimental observations of cellular hydrate microstructures for this class of materials.

Tzschichholz, F.; Zanni, H.

2001-07-01

405

Low Velocity Sphere Impact of a Soda Lime Silicate Glass  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes TARDEC-sponsored work at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during the FY11 involving low velocity (< 30 m/s or < 65 mph) ball impact testing of Starphire soda lime silicate glass. The intent was to better understand low velocity impact response in the Starphire for sphere densities that bracketed that of rock. Five sphere materials were used: borosilicate glass, soda-lime silicate glass, steel, silicon nitride, and alumina. A gas gun was fabricated to produce controlled velocity delivery of the spheres against Starphire tile targets. Minimum impact velocities to initiate fracture in the Starphire were measured and interpreted in context to the kinetic energy of impact and the elastic property mismatch between the any of the five sphere-Starphire-target combinations. The primary observations from this low velocity (< 30 m/s or < 65 mph) testing were: (1) Frictional effects contribute to fracture initiation. (2) Spheres with a lower elastic modulus require less force to initiate fracture in the Starphire than spheres with a higher elastic modulus. (3) Contact-induced fracture did not initiate in the Starphire SLS for impact kinetic energies < 150 mJ. Fracture sometimes initiated or kinetic energies between {approx} 150-1100 mJ; however, it tended to occur when lower elastic modulus spheres were impacting it. Contact-induced fracture would always occur for impact energies > 1100 mJ. (4) The force necessary to initiate contact-induced fracture is higher under dynamic or impact conditions than it is under quasi-static indentation conditions. (5) Among the five used sphere materials, silicon nitride was the closest match to 'rock' in terms of both density and (probably) elastic modulus.

Wereszczak, Andrew A [ORNL; Fox, Ethan E [ORNL; Morrissey, Timothy G [ORNL; Vuono, Daniel J [ORNL

2011-10-01

406

Catastrophic growth of gas hydrates in the presence of kinetic hydrate inhibitors.  

PubMed

The effect of the concentration of kinetic hydrate inhibitors, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), and polyvinylcaprolactam (PVCap) on the onset and growth of synthetic natural gas hydrates is investigated by measuring the hydrate onset time and gas consumption rate. Although the hydrate onset time is extended by increasing the concentration from 0.5 to 3.0 wt % for both PVP and PVCap, the growth rate of hydrates shows that the different tendency depends on the type of kinetic hydrate inhibitor and its concentration. For PVCap solution, the hydrate growth was slow for more than 1000 min after the onset at the concentration of 0.5 and 1.5 wt %. However, the growth rate becames almost 8 times faster at the concentration of 3.0 wt %, representing the catastrophic growth of hydrate just after the hydrate onset. (13)C NMR spectra of hydrates formed at 3.0 wt % of PVP and PVCap indicate the existence of both structures I and II. Cage occupancy of methane in large cages of structure II decreases significantly when compared to that for pure water. These results suggest that increasing the concentration of KHI up to 3.0 wt % may induce the earlier appearance of catastrophic hydrate growth and the existence of metastable structure I; thus, there needs to be an upper limit for using KHI to manage the formation of gas hydrates. PMID:24295438

Cha, Minjun; Shin, Kyuchul; Seo, Yutaek; Shin, Ju-Young; Kang, Seong-Pil

2013-12-27

407

Three-dimensional distribution of gas hydrate beneath southern Hydrate Ridge: constraints from ODP Leg 204  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large uncertainties about the energy resource potential and role in global climate change of gas hydrates result from uncertainty about how much hydrate is contained in marine sediments. During Leg 204 of the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) to the accretionary complex of the Cascadia subduction zone, we sampled the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ) from the seafloor to its base

A. M. Tréhu; Philip E. Long; M. E. Torres; G. Bohrmann; F. R. Rack; T. S. Collett; D. S. Goldberg; A. V. Milkov; M. Riedel; P. Schultheiss; N. L. Bangs; S. R. Barr; W. S. Borowski; G. E. Claypool; Mark E. Delwiche; G. R. Dickens; E. Gracia; G. Guerin; M. Holland; Jerry E. Johnson; Y.-J. Lee; C.-S. Liu; X. Su; B. Teichert; H. Tomaru; M. Vanneste; M. Watanabe; Jill L. Weinberger

2004-01-01

408

Analysis of Sonic Velocity in an Active Gas Hydrate System, Hydrate Ridge, Offshore Oregon  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the best recognized and most intuitive influence of gas hydrate on its host sediment is the change in its mechanical and elastic properties. This is identified through an increase in acoustic velocity, which is partially responsible for one of the most distinct signatures of gas hydrate presence, the Bottom Simulating Reflector (BSR). The unstable nature of gas hydrate

G. Guerin; D. Goldberg; T. S. Collett

2004-01-01

409

Assessment of gas hydrate concentrations (saturations) with downhole electrical resistivity logs on Hydrate Ridge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The downhole logging program on Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 204 was designed to obtain the data needed to assess the occurrence and concentration of gas hydrates beneath Hydrate Ridge off the northwest coast of the United States. During Leg 204, logging-while-drilling (LWD) tools were deployed at eight of the nine sites cored on Hydrate Ridge. The LWD tools used

T. Collett; D. Goldberg; G. Guerin; S. Barr

2003-01-01

410

Effective hydration temperature of obsidian: a diffusion theory analysis of time-dependent hydration rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

An estimate of effective hydration temperature (EHT) is needed for chronological use of obsidian hydration data. This paper describes a method for calculating EHT by the practicing archaeologist, replacing three techniques that are in general use today: estimates based on mean temperature, numerical integration of models of diurnal and annual temperature variations, and use of temperature cells. The hydration (or

Alexander K. Rogers

2007-01-01

411

Dynamical interrogation of the hydration cage of bromine in single crystal clathrate hydrates versus water  

E-print Network

Dynamical interrogation of the hydration cage of bromine in single crystal clathrate hydrates of bromine clathrate hydrates and on bromine dissolved in water. In all cases, excitation into the B of 290 fs, is significantly reduced due to the larger cages and the looser fit around bromine

Apkarian, V. Ara

412

Influence of cement kiln dust on the physical properties of calcium lime mortars  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work investigates the influence of cement kiln dust (CKD) on the properties of mortars made with a non-hydraulic binder\\u000a of high available-lime content (calcium lime—CL), in order to further recycle industrial waste. Physical properties of CKD-CL90\\u000a mortars with increasing CKD content were compared to those of feebly-hydraulic lime (NHL2) and CL90 mortars. This paper concludes\\u000a that, despite the CKD

S. Pavía; D. Regan

2010-01-01

413

Evaluation of methods of mixing lime in bituminous paving mixtures in batch and drum plants  

E-print Network

. Batch and drum mix plants were used to prepare the paving mixtures. Lime was added dry and in slurry. Individual aggregates and the total aggregate were treated with lime slurry and allowed to age from zero to 30 days prior to mixing with asphalt... Maria Road 14 3 Laboratory Test Program for All Mixtures 17 Process by which Lime Slurry was Added to the Individual Aggregates on the Cold Feed Belt Overall Average Air Void Content of Laboratory Mixed and Compacted Samples 19 27 Resilient...

Button, Joseph Wade

1984-01-01

414

Kinetic and thermodynamic factors controlling the distribution of SO32- and Na+ in calcites and selected aragonites  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Significant amounts of SO42-, Na+, and OH- are incorporated in marine biogenic calcites. Biogenic high Mg-calcites average about 1 mole percent SO42-. Aragonites and most biogenic low Mg-calcites contain significant amounts of Na+, but very low concentrations of SO42-. The SO42- content of non-biogenic calcites and aragonites investigated was below 100 ppm. The presence of Na+ and SO42- increases the unit cell size of calcites. The solid-solutions show a solubility minimum at about 0.5 mole percent SO42- beyond which the solubility rapidly increases. The solubility product of calcites containing 3 mole percent SO42- is the same as that of aragonite. Na+ appears to have very little effect on the solubility product of calcites. The amounts of Na+ and SO42- incorporated in calcites vary as a function of the rate of crystal growth. The variation of the distribution coefficient (D) of SO42- in calcite at 25.0??C and 0.50 molal NaCl is described by the equation D = k0 + k1R where k0 and k1 are constants equal to 6.16 ?? 10-6 and 3.941 ?? 10-6, respectively, and R is the rate of crystal growth of calcite in mg??min-1??g-1 of seed. The data on Na+ are consistent with the hypothesis that a significant amount of Na+ occupies interstitial positions in the calcite structure. The distribution of Na+ follows a Freundlich isotherm and not the Berthelot-Nernst distribution law. The numerical value of the Na+ distribution coefficient in calcite is probably dependent on the number of defects in the calcite structure. The Na+ contents of calcites are not very accurate indicators of environmental salinities. ?? 1985.

Busenberg, E.; Niel, Plummer L.

1985-01-01

415

The promotion effect of coexisting hygroscopic composition on the reaction between oxalic acid and calcite during humidifying process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Internally mixed oxalic acid with mineral dust has been frequently detected in field measurements (Sullivan and Prather, 2007; Wang et al., 2012; Yang et al., 2009). Meanwhile, Furukawa and Takahashi (Furukawa and Takahashi, 2011) found that most of the oxalic acid in mineral mixture is present as metal oxalate complexes in the aerosols, however, the formation mechanism of these complexes is not well known. It was reported that cloud process of H2C2O4/CaCO3 mixture could lead to the formation of calcium oxalate (Gierlus et al., 2012). Recently, we used Raman spectroscopy to investigate the hygroscopic behavior of H2C2O4/CaCO3 mixture below saturation condition as well as the effect of coexisting hygroscopic compositions, e.g. Ca(NO3)2, NaCl, NH4NO3, and (NH4)2SO4. It was found that there was no interaction between H2C2O4 and calcite without third component during humidifying process under ambient condition. In contrast, the presence of coexisting Ca(NO)3, NaCl, or NH4NO3 could promote the reaction between H2C2O4 and calcite by providing an aqueous circumstance after deliquescence, resulting in the formation of calcium oxalate hydrates. Moreover, substitution of strong acid (HNO3) by medium acid (H2C2O4) occurred when water vapor was absorbed in Ca(NO3)2/H2C2O4 mixture (Ma and He, 2012). As for (NH4)2SO4, there existed a competition effect between (NH4)2SO4 and H2C2O4 for the reaction with CaCO3. CaCO3 was preferentially reacted with (NH4)2SO4 to form gypsum in the solution, while the residual NH4+ and C2O42- ions were bonded to (NH4)2C2O4 after efflorescence. These results implies a potential formation pathway of metal oxalate complexes in the atmosphere and also suggests that synergistic effect between different constituents in humidifying process of mixed particles should be considered in future hygroscopic behavior studies.

Ma, Q.; He, H.

2012-12-01

416

21 CFR 182.2729 - Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. 182...Anticaking Agents § 182.2729 Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

2011-04-01

417

21 CFR 582.2729 - Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. 582.2729 Section...Agents § 582.2729 Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

2010-04-01

418

21 CFR 182.2729 - Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. 182...Anticaking Agents § 182.2729 Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

2010-04-01

419

21 CFR 582.2729 - Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. 582.2729 Section...Agents § 582.2729 Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

2011-04-01

420

21 CFR 582.2729 - Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. 582.2729 Section...Agents § 582.2729 Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

2012-04-01

421

21 CFR 582.2729 - Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. 582.2729 Section...Agents § 582.2729 Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

2014-04-01

422

21 CFR 582.2729 - Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. 582.2729 Section...Agents § 582.2729 Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

2013-04-01

423

21 CFR 182.2729 - Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. 182...Anticaking Agents § 182.2729 Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

2013-04-01

424

21 CFR 182.2729 - Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. 182...Anticaking Agents § 182.2729 Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

2014-04-01

425

21 CFR 182.2729 - Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. 182...Anticaking Agents § 182.2729 Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

2012-04-01

426

The influence of impurities on the growth rate of calcite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of 34 different additives on the growth rate of calcite were investigated. An initial growth rate of about one crystal monolayer (3 × 10 -8 cm) per minute was adjusted at a constant supersaturation which was maintained by a control circuit. Then the impurity was added step by step and the reduction of the growth rate was measured. The impurity concentration necessary to reduce the initial growth rate by a certain percentage increased in the order Fe 2+, ATP, P 3O 5-10, P 2O 4-7, (PO 3) 6-6, Zn 2+, ADP, Ce 3+, Pb 2+, carbamyl phosphate, Fe 3+, PO 3-4, Co 2+, Mn 2+, Be 2+, ?-glycerophosphate, Ni 2+, Cd 2+, "Tris", phenylphosphate, chondroitine sulphate, Ba 2+, citrate, AMP, Sr 2+, tricarballylate, taurine, SO 2-4, Mg 2+ by 4 orders of magnitude. The most effective additives halved the initial growth rate in concentrations of 2 × 10 -8 mol/1. For Fe 2+ the halving concentration was nearly proportional to the initial rate. The mechanism of inhibition by adsorption of the impurities at growth sites (kinks) is discussed.

Meyer, H. J.

1984-05-01

427

Ultrasonic Observation of the Calcite-Aragonite Transition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Elastic-wave velocities were measured as a function of pressure by ultrasonic pulse Interferometry in Solenhofen and Manilus limestone specimens to pressures of 27 and 38 kb. Longitudinal velocities decrease sharply from 5.3 km/sec at a mean pressure of 4 kb to a minimum of 4.8 km/sec at 8 kb. Transverse velocities decrease from 3.1 to 2.9 km/sec. At the minimum bulk and rigidity moduli are 25 and 20 per cent below their 4-kb values. A density increase of 1.7 per cent is associated with this minimum. The observed effects are attributed to the calcite-aragonite transition, and they may be due to an inherent property of the material, a component of which undergoes a polymorphic transition, the low- and high-pressure phases coexisting over a considerable pressure range. This may be an additional mechanism to account for low-velocity zones in the earth?s interior.

Ahrens, T. J.; Katz, S.

1963-01-01

428

Effect of fluid salinity on subcritical crack propagation in calcite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The slow propagation of cracks, also called subcritical crack growth, is a mechanism of fracturing responsible for a ductile deformation of rocks under crustal conditions. In the present study, the double-torsion technique was used to measure the effect of fluid chemistry on the slow propagation of cracks in calcite single crystals at room temperature. Time-lapse images and measurements of force and load-point displacement allowed accurate characterization of crack velocities in a range of 10- 8 to 10- 4 m/s. Velocity curves as a function of energy-release rates were obtained for different fluid compositions, varying NH4Cl and NaCl concentrations. Our results show the presence of a threshold in fluid composition, separating two regimes: weakening conditions where the crack propagation is favored, and strengthening conditions where crack propagation slows down. We suggest that electrostatic surface forces that modify the repulsion forces between the two surfaces of the crack may be responsible for this behavior.

Rostom, Fatma; Røyne, Anja; Dysthe, Dag Kristian; Renard, François

2013-01-01

429

Ultrasonic reactivation of phosphonate poisoned calcite during crystal growth.  

PubMed

The effect of ultrasonic irradiation (42,150 Hz, 17 W dm(-3)/7.1 W cm(-2)) on the growth of calcite in the presence of the inhibitor nitrilotris(methylene phosphonic acid) (NTMP) was investigated at constant composition conditions. In seeded growth experiments, it was found that the inhibiting effect of NTMP on crystal growth could be seriously mitigated under influence of ultrasonic irradiation. An approximately twofold increase in volumetric growth rate was achieved during ultrasonic irradiation, and recovery of the growth rate following inhibition was strongly enhanced compared to growth experiments without ultrasonic irradiation. The results could be explained in part by the physical effect of ultrasound that causes breakage and attrition of poisoned crystals, which resulted in an increase in fresh surface area. Mass spectroscopy analysis of sonicated NTMP solutions revealed that there is also a chemical effect of ultrasound that plays an important role. Several breakdown products were identified, which showed that ultrasound caused the progressive loss of phosphonate groups from NTMP, probably by means of physicochemically generated free radicals and/or pyrolysis in the hot bubble-bulk interface. PMID:21463963

Boels, L; Wagterveld, R M; Witkamp, G J

2011-09-01

430

Stress remagnetization in pyrrhotite-calcite synthetic aggregates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stress-induced remagnetization has been applied to multidomain pyrrhotite-calcite synthetic aggregates in a triaxial rig. Experimental deformation used 150MPa confining pressure, a constant strain rate of 10-5 s-1 and applied differential stresses of up to 70MPa. New components of magnetization, parallel to the direction of the pressure vessel field, were added to the pre-deformational magnetization. The intensity of remagnetization (M'-M0) increases with the intensity of the applied differential stress and affects the coercivity fraction below 15mT. Bulk shortening is less than 8 per cent, thus grain rotation cannot explain selective remagnetization of the low-coercivity fraction. Remagnetization is thus attributed to deformational viscous remanent magnetization (DVRM). It is observed that high-coercivity (>15mT) grains do not remagnetize. There is, however, slight progressive rotation of pre-deformational magnetization with increasing strain up to 8 per cent of bulk shortening. The lack of piezoremanent magnetization in the high-coercivity range may be due to defects introduced in pyrrhotite during sample preparation. Experiments using synthetic pyrrhotite, expected to show low dislocation densities, would be necessary to test this effect.

Robion, Philippe; Borradaile, Graham J.

2001-01-01

431

High School Forum: "Invitations to Enquiry": The Calcite/Acid Reaction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a high school chemistry experiment which involves the reaction between calcite and hydrochloric and sulfuric acids. This reaction can be carried out as a projected demonstration and on an individual basis. (HM)

Herron, J. Dudley, Ed.; Driscoll, D. R.

1979-01-01

432

Simulation of calcite dissolution and porosity changes in saltwater mixing zones in coastal aquifers  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Thermodynamic models of aqueous solutions have indicated that the mixing of seawater and calcite-saturated fresh groundwater can produce a water that is undersaturated with respect to calcite. Mixing of such waters in coastal carbonate aquifers could lead to significant amounts of limestone dissolution. The potential for such dissolution in coastal saltwater mixing zones is analyzed by coupling the results from a reaction simulation model (PHREEQE) with a variable density groundwater flow and solute transport model. Idealized cross sections of coastal carbonate aquifers are simulated to estimate the potential for calcite dissolution under a variety of hydrologic and geochemical conditions. Results show that limestone dissolution in mixing zones is strongly dependent on groundwater flux and nearly independent of the dissolution kinetics of calcite. -from Authors

Sanford, W.E.; Konikow, L.F.

1989-01-01

433

New Shocked Calcite and Fe Grains from Noerdlingen Ries Impact Crater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shocked minerals with simple chemical composition of silica, carbon or iron material reveal high-pressure phase during compression process [1]. As calcite mineral shows high-pressure phase of aragonite it should have the \\

Y. Miura

1995-01-01

434

Enhancing mechanical properties of calcite by Mg substitutions: An ab initio study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arthropoda representing a majority of all known animal species are protected by an exoskeleton formed by their cuticle. The cuticle represents a hierarchically structured multifunctional bio-composite based on chitin and proteins. Some groups like Crustacea reinforce the load-bearing parts of their cuticle with calcite. As the calcite sometimes contains Mg it was speculated that Mg may have a stiffening impact on the mechanical properties of the cuticle. We present a theoretical parameter-free quantum-mechanical study of thermodynamic, structural and elastic properties of Mg-substituted calcite. Our results show that substituting Ca by Mg causes an almost linear decrease in the crystal volume with Mg concentration and of substituted crystals. As a consequence the calcite crystals become stiffer giving rise e.g. to substantially increased bulk moduli.

Elstnerova, Pavlina; Friak, Martin; Hickel, Tilmann; Fabritius, Helge Otto; Lymperakis, Liverios; Petrov, Michal; Raabe, Dierk; Neugebauer, Joerg; Nikolov, Svetoslav; Zigler, Andreas; Hild, Sabine

2011-03-01

435

Hydroxyapatite synthesis from biogenic calcite single crystals into phosphate solutions at ambient conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydroxyapatite is one of the most important bone substitute biomaterials. Here, it has been successfully overgrown on biogenic seed crystals at ambient conditions. Single crystals of calcite from Atrina rigida, Paracentrotus lividus and Heterocentrotus mammillatus have been soaked in phosphate solution with different concentrations and pHs for 2 months. X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy have been used to characterize soaking precipitates. The results show that the conversion of calcite to hydroxyapatite occurs to an extent which depends on composition and morphology of seed crystals, and starting concentration and pH of phosphate solutions. In the same experimental conditions, synthetic calcite single crystals did not convert to hydroxyapatite. The morphological observations suggest for hydroxyapatite formation, a mechanism that involves a superficial dissolution of calcite and a subsequently overgrowth of hydroxyapatite. Moreover, the final architectural assembly of the hydroxyapatite crystals resembles the shape of the starting biogenic seed crystals.

Marchegiani, Francesca; Cibej, Eleonora; Vergni, Patrizia; Tosi, Giovanna; Fermani, Simona; Falini, Giuseppe

2009-08-01

436

Comparative Study of Nanoscale Surface Structures of Calcite Microcrystals Using FE-SEM, AFM, and TEM  

E-print Network

and millimeter-size cleavage fragments were imaged by three different microscopic techniques: field individual cleavage or flat surface at a time. Key words: atomic force microscopy, calcite crystal growth, Pt

Long, Bernard

437

Strain improvement of Sporosarcina pasteurii for enhanced urease and calcite production.  

PubMed

Phenotypic mutants of Sporosarcina pasteurii (previously known as Bacillus pasteurii) (MTCC 1761) were developed by UV irradiation to test their ability to enhance urease activity and calcite production. Among the mutants, Bp M-3 was found to be more efficient compared to other mutants and wild-type strain. It produced the highest urease activity and calcite production compared to other isolates. The production of extracellular polymeric substances and biofilm was also higher in this mutant than other isolates. Microbial sand plugging results showed the highest calcite precipitation by Bp M-3 mutant. Scanning electron micrography, energy-dispersive X-ray and X-ray diffraction analyses evidenced the direct involvement of bacteria in CaCO3 precipitation. This study suggests that calcite production by the mutant through biomineralization processes is highly effective and may provide a useful strategy as a sealing agent for filling the gaps or cracks and fissures in any construction structures. PMID:19408027

Achal, V; Mukherjee, A; Basu, P C; Reddy, M Sudhakara

2009-07-01

438

Methane hydrate research at NETL: Research to make methane production from hydrates a reality  

SciTech Connect

Research is underway at NETL to understand the physical properties of methane hydrates. Five key areas of research that need further investigation have been identified. These five areas, i.e. thermal properties of hydrates in sediments, kinetics of natural hydrate dissociation, hysteresis effects, permeability of sediments to gas flow and capillary pressures within sediments, and hydrate distribution at porous scale, are important to the production models that will be used for producing methane from hydrate deposits. NETL is using both laboratory experiments and computational modeling to address these five key areas. The laboratory and computational research reinforce each other by providing feedback. The laboratory results are used in the computational models and the results from the computational modeling is used to help direct future laboratory research. The data generated at NETL will be used to help fulfill The National Methane Hydrate R&D Program of a “long-term supply of natural gas by developing the knowledge and technology base to allow commercial production of methane from domestic hydrate deposits by the year 2015” as outlined on the NETL Website [NETL Website, 2005. http://www.netl.doe.gov/scngo/Natural%20Gas/hydrates/index.html]. Laboratory research is accomplished in one of the numerous high-pressure hydrate cells available ranging in size from 0.15 mL to 15 L in volume. A dedicated high-pressure view cell within the Raman spectrometer allows for monitoring the formation and dissociation of hydrates. Thermal conductivity of hydrates (synthetic and natural) at a certain temperature and pressure is performed in a NETL-designed cell. Computational modeling studies are investigating the kinetics of hydrate formation and dissociation, modeling methane hydrate reservoirs, molecular dynamics simulations of hydrate formation, dissociation, and thermal properties, and Monte Carlo simulations of hydrate formation and dissociation.

Taylor, C.E.; Link, D.D.; English, N.

2007-03-01

439

Natural gas hydrates - issues for gas production and geomechanical stability  

E-print Network

. 2.4 (data from Milkov and Sassen, 2003) shows the pressure and temperature conditions that can lead to a typical offshore hydrate deposit in Gulf of Mexico. 12 Fig. 2.4. Hydrate stability zone in offshore environments. The “methane-water-hydrate... stability in hydrate bearing sediments during different perturbations. I analyzed extensive data collected from the literature on the types of sediments where hydrates have been found during various offshore expeditions. To better understand the hydrate...

Grover, Tarun

2008-10-10

440

Effects of Chitosan on the Morphology and Alignment of Calcite Crystals Nucleating Under Langmuir Monolayers  

SciTech Connect

The growth of calcium carbonate crystals under Langmuir monolayers was investigated in the presence of chitosan, a soluble derivative of chitin added to the subphase to better simulate the polyelectrolyte-containing in vivo environment. Chitosan causes distinct concentration-dependent changes in the orientation, shape and morphology of the calcite crystals nucleating under acid and sulfate monolayers. Our results suggest that polyelectrolytes may play essential roles in controlling the growth of biogenic calcite crystals.

Kim, K.; Uysal, A; Kewalramani, S; Stripe, B; Dutta, P

2009-01-01

441

Effects of chitosan on the alignment, morphology and shape of calcite crystals nucleating under Langmuir monolayers  

SciTech Connect

The growth of calcium carbonate crystals under Langmuir monolayers was investigated in the presence of chitosan, a soluble derivative of chitin added to the subphase to better simulate the polyelectrolyte-containing in vivo environment. Chitosan causes distinct concentration-dependent changes in the orientation, shape and morphology of the calcite crystals nucleating under acid and sulfate monolayers. Our results suggest that polyelectrolytes may play essential roles in controlling the growth of biogenic calcite crystals.

Kim, Kyungil; Uysal, Ahmet; Kewalramani, Sumit; Stripe, Benjamin; Dutta, Pulak; (NWU); (BNL)

2009-04-22

442

Multifrequency Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Studies of MANGANESE(2+) Impurity Ions in Calcite and Coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis reports the first comprehensive 9.2 and 33.3 GHz CW-EPR study of Mn^{2+ } impurity ions in calcite and various coal samples. The EPR central, non-central and central forbidden transitions observed for Mn^{2+} in polycrystalline calcite and various coal samples have been analyzed. These EPR spectra have been measured at temperatures from 290 K to 673 K in polycrystalline

Youping Zhang

1993-01-01

443

Integrated Approach for Understanding Impurity Adsorption on Calcite: Mechanisms for Microscale Surface Phenomena  

Microsoft Academic Search

A longstanding goal within the field of environmental geochemistry has been the development of a fundamental understanding of the kinetics that governs the interactions of solution-borne impurities with the calcite mineral surface. Recent dissolution experiments using Mg2+, Mn2+, and Sr2+ have shown distinct differences in the interaction of these three impurity ions with the calcite crystal surface. Because the dissolution

M. D. Vinson; R. S. Arvidson; A. Luttge

2004-01-01

444

Origin of sulfate in barite and calcite cements in the Jebel Madar salt dome (Oman)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Jebel Madar is a 500-m high mountain rising in the desert at the Oman Foothills. The Jebel consists of Triassic to Cretaceous carbonate host rocks forming the carapace of a salt dome. Halokinesis caused major fracturing and faulting at Jebel Madar, and the resulting structures acted as the main pathways for fluids that generated diagenetic cements composed of both barite and calcite. The spatial distribution of calcite and barite occurrences shows that calcite is formed in large abundance along the three main faults, whereas barite is more concentrated along faults further away from the three main ones. The stable carbon and oxygen isotope composition of calcite and fluid inclusion data from both calcite and barite show a distinct evolution of the fluid with a highly saline component towards more mixing with meteoric water. This is in agreement with clumped isotopes data on calcite cements indicating an evolution towards lower temperatures, consistent with doming of the Jebel and greater input of lower-temperature descending meteoric fluids. Here, we present sulphur and oxygen isotopic data on barite that suggest a link between the barite formation and the Precambrian salt underlying Jebel Madar. The average ?34S measured in barite is 33‰ CDT (1? = 5‰; n = 33), which falls at the lower end of the ?34S range reported for the Ara Group anhydrite. The average ?18O in the same barite samples is 23‰ VSMOW (1? = 2‰; n = 33). Data from the barite will be compared with sulphur isotopes from the carbonate-associate sulfate in the calcite cements. The overall goal of our research is to gain a better insight in the formation process of barite and calcite in Jebel Madar and its link with salt tectonics. We would like to acknowledge the financial support of QCCSRC (funded jointly by Qatar Petroleum, Shell and the Qatar Science & Technology Park) and the GSA Laubach fund for this study.

Vandeginste, V.; John, C. M.; Gilhooly, W. P.

2012-12-01

445

Interactions of sea-urchin skeleton macromolecules with growing calcite crystals- a study of intracrystalline proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exoskeletons of sea urchins are composed of magnesiumbearing calcite. Individual test plates and spines behave as single crystals in polarized light or when examined by X-ray diffraction1-3. They do not, however, cleave like inorganic calcite crystals along the {104} hexagonal cleavage planes, but have conchoidal fracture surfaces reminiscent of amorphous glass. Discussion of this paradox revolves around whether the

A. Herman; L. Addadi; S. Weiner

1988-01-01

446

Unravelling the enigmatic origin of calcitic nanofibres in soils and caves: purely physicochemical or biogenic processes?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calcitic nanofibres are ubiquitous habits of secondary calcium carbonate (CaCO3) accumulations observed in calcareous vadose environments. Despite their widespread occurrence, the origin of these nanofeatures remains enigmatic. Three possible mechanisms fuel the debate: (i) purely physicochemical processes, (ii) mineralization of rod-shaped bacteria, and (iii) crystal precipitation on organic templates. Nanofibres can be either mineral (calcitic) or organic in nature. They are very often observed in association with Needle Fibre Calcite (NFC), another typical secondary CaCO3 habit in terrestrial environments. This association has contributed to some confusion between both habits, however they are truly two distinct calcitic features and their recurrent association is likely to be an important fact to help understanding the origin of nanofibres. In this manuscript the different hypotheses that currently exist to explain the origin of calcitic nanofibres are critically reviewed. In addition to this, a new hypothesis for the origin of nanofibres is proposed based on the fact that current knowledge attributes a fungal origin to NFC. As this feature and nanofibres are recurrently observed together, a possible fungal origin for nanofibres which are associated with NFC is investigated. Sequential enzymatic digestion of the fungal cell wall of selected fungal species demonstrates that the fungal cell wall can be a source of organic nanofibres. The obtained organic nanofibres show a striking morphological resemblance when compared to their natural counterparts, emphasizing a fungal origin for part of the organic nanofibres observed in association with NFC. It is further hypothesized that these organic nanofibres may act as templates for calcite nucleation in a biologically-influenced mineralization process, generating calcitic nanofibres. This highlights the possible involvement of Fungi in CaCO3 biomineralization processes, a role still poorly documented at present-day. Moreover, on a global scale, the organomineralization of organic nanofibres into calcitic nanofibres might have a great, however overlooked, impact on the biogeochemical cycles of both Ca and C.

Bindschedler, S.; Cailleau, G.; Braissant, O.; Millière, L.; Job, D.; Verrecchia, E. P.

2014-01-01

447

Strain improvement of Sporosarcina pasteurii for enhanced urease and calcite production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenotypic mutants of Sporosarcina pasteurii (previously known as Bacillus pasteurii) (MTCC 1761) were developed by UV irradiation to test their ability to enhance urease activity and calcite production. Among\\u000a the mutants, Bp M-3 was found to be more efficient compared to other mutants and wild-type strain. It produced the highest\\u000a urease activity and calcite production compared to other isolates. The

V. Achal; A. Mukherjee; P. C. Basu; M. Sudhakara Reddy

2009-01-01

448

Fractionation of carbon and oxygen isotopes and magnesium between coexisting metamorphic calcite and dolomite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fractionations of carbon and oxygen isotopes and magnesium between coexisting dolomite and calcite have been determined for\\u000a marbles and calcareous schists of a wide variety of metamorphic environments from Vermont and the Grenville Province of Ontario.\\u000a Concordant equilibrium fractionations are given by 83% of the samples. Calibration of the isotopic thermometers using the\\u000a Mg-calcite solvus thermometer gave in the temperature

Simon M. F. Sheppard; Henry P. Schwarcz

1970-01-01

449

Sea urchin tooth mineralization: Calcite present early in the aboral plumula  

PubMed Central

In both vertebrate bone, containing carbonated hydroxyapatite as the mineral phase, and in invertebrate hard tissue comprised of calcium carbonate, a popular view is that the mineral phase develops from a long-lived amorphous precursor which later transforms into crystal form. Important questions linked to this popular view are: When and where is the crystallized material formed, and is amorphous solid added subsequently to the crystalline substrate? Sea urchin teeth, in which the earliest mineral forms within isolated compartments, in a time and position dependent manner, allow direct investigation of the timing of crystallization of the calcite primary plates. Living teeth of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus, in their native coelomic fluid, were examined by high-energy synchrotron x-ray diffraction. The diffraction data show that calcite is present in the most aboral portions of the plumula, representing the very earliest stages of mineralization, and that this calcite has the same crystal orientation as in the more mature adoral portions of the same tooth. Raman spectroscopy of the aboral plumula confirms the initial primary plate mineral material is calcite and does not detect amorphous calcium carbonate; in the more mature adoral incisal flange, it does detect a broader calcite peak, consistent with two or more magnesium compositions. We hypothesize that some portion of each syncytial membrane in the plumula provides the information for nucleation of identically oriented calcite crystals that subsequently develop to form the complex geometry of the single crystal sea urchin tooth. PMID:22940703

Stock, Stuart R.; Veis, Arthur; Xiao, Xianghui; Almer, Jonathan D.; Dorvee, Jason R.

2012-01-01

450

NMR characterization of hydrocarbon adsorption on calcite surfaces: A first principles study.  

PubMed

The electronic and coordination environment of minerals surfaces, as calcite, are very difficult to characterize experimentally. This is mainly due to the fact that there are relatively few spectroscopic techniques able to detect Ca(2+). Since calcite is a major constituent of sedimentary rocks in oil reservoir, a more detailed characterization of the interaction between hydrocarbon molecules and mineral surfaces is highly desirable. Here we perform a first principles study on the adsorption of hydrocarbon molecules on calcite surface (CaCO3 (101¯4)). The simulations were based on Density Functional Theory with Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (SS-NMR) calculations. The Gauge-Including Projector Augmented Wave method was used to compute mainly SS-NMR parameters for (43)Ca, (13)C, and (17)O in calcite surface. It was possible to assign the peaks in the theoretical NMR spectra for all structures studied. Besides showing different chemical shifts for atoms located on different environments (bulk and surface) for calcite, the results also display changes on the chemical shift, mainly for Ca sites, when the hydrocarbon molecules are present. Even though the interaction of the benzene molecule with the calcite surface is weak, there is a clearly distinguishable displacement of the signal of the Ca sites over which the hydrocarbon molecule is located. A similar effect is also observed for hexane adsorption. Through NMR spectroscopy, we show that aromatic and alkane hydrocarbon molecules adsorbed on carbonate surfaces can be differentiated. PMID:25429955

Bevilaqua, Rochele C A; Rigo, Vagner A; Veríssimo-Alves, Marcos; Miranda, Caetano R

2014-11-28

451

Mixing-induced calcite precipitation and dissolution kinetics in micromodel experiments.  

SciTech Connect

Dissolved CO2 from geological CO2 sequestration may react with dissolved minerals in fractured rocks or confined aquifers and cause mineral precipitation. The overall rate of reaction can be limited by diffusive or dispersive mixing, and mineral precipitation can block pores and further hinder these processes. Mixing-induced calcite precipitation experiments were performed by injecting solutions containing CaCl2 and Na2CO3 through two separate inlets of a micromodel (1-cm x 2-cm x 40-microns); transverse dispersion caused the two solutions to mix along the center of the micromodel, resulting in calcite precipitation. The amount of calcite precipitation initially increased to a maximum and then decreased to a steady state value. Fluorescent microscopy and imaging techniques were used to visualize calcite precipitation, and the corresponding effects on the flow field. Experimental micromodel results were evaluated with pore-scale simulations using a 2-D Lattice-Boltzmann code for water flow and a finite volume code for reactive transport. The reactive transport model included the impact of pH upon carbonate speciation and calcite dissolution. We found that proper estimation of the effective diffusion coefficient and the reaction surface area is necessary to adequately simulate precipitation and dissolution rates. The effective diffusion coefficient was decreased in grid cells where calcite precipitated, and keeping track of reactive surface over time played a significant role in predicting reaction patterns. Our results may improve understanding of the fundamental physicochemical processes during CO2 sequestration in geologic formations.

Valocchi, Albert J.; Dewers, Thomas A.; Dehoff, Karl; Yoon, Hongkyu; Werth, Charles J.

2010-12-01

452

Initial formation of calcite crystals in the thin prismatic layer with the periostracum of Pinctada fucata.  

PubMed

Although the formation mechanism of calcite crystals in the prismatic layer has been studied well in many previous works, the initial state of calcite formation has not been observed in detail using electron microscopes. In this study, we report that the soft prismatic layer with transparent color (the thin prismatic layer) in the tip of the fresh shell of Pinctada fucata was picked up to observe the early calcification phase. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) image showed that the growth tip of the thin prismatic layer was covered by the periostracum, which was also where the initial formation of calcite crystals began. A cross-section containing the thin calcite crystals in the thin prismatic layer with the periostracum was made using a focused ion beam (FIB) system. In a transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation, the thin calcite crystal (thickness is about 1?m) on the periostracum was found to be a single crystal with the c-axis oriented perpendicular to the shell surface. On the other hand, many aggregated small particles consisting of bassanite crystals were observed in the periostracum suggesting the possibility that not only organic sulfate but also inorganic sulfates exist in the prismatic layer. These discoveries in the early calcification phase of the thin prismatic layer may help to clarify the mechanism of regulating the nucleation and orientation of the calcite crystal in the shell. PMID:23176816

Suzuki, Michio; Nakayama, Seiji; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Kogure, Toshihiro

2013-02-01

453

NMR characterization of hydrocarbon adsorption on calcite surfaces: A first principles study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electronic and coordination environment of minerals surfaces, as calcite, are very difficult to characterize experimentally. This is mainly due to the fact that there are relatively few spectroscopic techniques able to detect Ca2+. Since calcite is a major constituent of sedimentary rocks in oil reservoir, a more detailed characterization of the interaction between hydrocarbon molecules and mineral surfaces is highly desirable. Here we perform a first principles study on the adsorption of hydrocarbon molecules on calcite surface (CaCO3 ( {10bar 14} )). The simulations were based on Density Functional Theory with Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (SS-NMR) calculations. The Gauge-Including Projector Augmented Wave method was used to compute mainly SS-NMR parameters for 43Ca, 13C, and 17O in calcite surface. It was possible to assign the peaks in the theoretical NMR spectra for all structures studied. Besides showing different chemical shifts for atoms located on different environments (bulk and surface) for calcite, the results also display changes on the chemical shift, mainly for Ca sites, when the hydrocarbon molecules are present. Even though the interaction of the benzene molecule with the calcite surface is weak, there is a clearly distinguishable displacement of the signal of the Ca sites over which the hydrocarbon molecule is located. A similar effect is also observed for hexane adsorption. Through NMR spectroscopy, we show that aromatic and alkane hydrocarbon molecules adsorbed on carbonate surfaces can be differentiated.

Bevilaqua, Rochele C. A.; Rigo, Vagner A.; Veríssimo-Alves, Marcos; Miranda, Caetano R.

2014-11-01

454

Multiple origins for zoned cathodoluminescent and noncathodoluminescent calcite cements in Pennsylvanian limestones  

SciTech Connect

Noncathodoluminescent calcite containing brightly to moderately luminescent zones is a common early cement in limestones. Three such cements in Upper Pennsylvanian limestones from different areas were studied. All three units are overlain up-section by Permian evaporites and consist of carbonate-siliciclastic 'cyclothems' in which individual cycles were subject to subaerial exposure. With such similar settings, one might predict that petrographically similar calcite cements would have similar origins. In the Holder Formation (New Mexico), the zoned calcite predates compaction, and cross-cutting relationships with cycle-capping paleosols show that zoned cements precipitated during 15 events of subaerial exposure. Therefore, cements precipitated from freshwater during early and repeated subaerial exposure. For the Lansing-Kansas City groups in northwestern Kansas, the zoned calcite cements commonly are among the first precipitated but may postdate some compaction. All-liquid fluid inclusions indicated precipitation below about 50C, from brines of approximately 23 weight %. NaCl equivalent. The brines may have refluxed downward during deposition of Permian evaporites. A limestone of the Lansing-Kansas City groups of west-central Kansas contains early zoned calcite cement that predates compaction. The cement contains all-liquid fluid inclusions indicating precipitation below about 50C. The presence of nonluminescent calcite containing bright subzones is not indicative of a single diagenetic environment. Petrographically similar cements from similar settings may originate in markedly different diagenetic environments.

Goldstein, R.H.; Anderson, J.E.; Phares, R.A. (Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence (United States))

1991-03-01

455

PROCEEDINGS: INDUSTRY BRIEFING ON EPA LIME/LIMESTONE WET SCRUBBING TEST PROGRAMS AUGUST 1978  

EPA Science Inventory

The proceedings document presentations made during the August 29, 1978 industry briefing conference which dealt with the status of EPA/IERL-RTP's flue gas desulfurization (FGD) research, development, and application programs. Subjects considered included: lime/limestone scrubbing...

456

BUFFER ADDITIVES FOR LIME/LIMESTONE SLURRY SCRUBBING SYNTHESIS, MASS TRANSFER, AND DEGRADATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of experimental studies, performed with buffer additives, useful for flue gas desulfurization by lime/limestone slurry scrubbing. The most attractive acids for further testing are adipic, mixtures of waste dibasic organic, sulfosuccinic, hydroxypropionic,...

457

The ultra-high lime with aluminum process for removing chloride from recirculating cooling water  

E-print Network

removal was obtained at reasonable ranges of lime and aluminum doses. However, the stoichiometry of chloride removal with UHLA deviated from the theoretical stoichiometry of calcium chloroaluminate precipitation. Equilibrium modeling of experimental data...

Abdel-wahab, Ahmed Ibraheem Ali

2004-09-30

458

ANALYSIS AND SIMULATION OF RECYCLE SO2-LIME SLURRY IN TCA (TURBULENT CONTACT ABSORBER) SCRUBBER SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an analysis of flue gas desulfurization by a turbulent contact absorber (TCA) employing lime slurry, including the development of performance equations for the scrubber-hold tank recycle system. Performance characteristics investigated include pressure...

459

Solution composition-dependence of the Ca isotope composition of inorganic calcite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laboratory experiments have shown that the Ca isotope composition of calcite precipitated from aqueous solution may be sensitive to solution chemistry, temperature, and solution pH. Generally, inorganic calcite precipitation experiments yield calcite crystals that are enriched in the light isotope of Ca relative to the parent solution. Previous studies by Lemarchand et al. (2004) and Tang et al. (2008) showed that the Ca isotope composition (?44Ca) of calcite varies systematically with precipitation rate (R). The studies, however, obtained the opposite relationship between ?44Ca and R despite precipitating calcite at comparable pH, temperature, and Ca2+ as well as CO32- ion concentrations. There is evidence that Ca isotope variability in calcite reflects a mass dependence on reaction rate coefficients, but it is unknown if the mass dependence varies with solution chemistry. A potentially important difference between the studies is that Lemarchand et al. (2004) used parent solutions with higher ionic strength (0.85 versus 0.035). The purpose of this study is to determine the solution composition dependence, if any, on Ca isotope incorporation during calcite growth from aqueous solutions. For our experiments, a beaker containing 300 mL of CaCl2+NH4Cl solution was placed in a container filled with 1 atm of an N2+CO2 gas mixture. The degree of supersaturation with respect to calcite was controlled by the pCO2 of the gas, which was constantly replenished. As CO2 dissolved into solution, calcite crystals grew on the beaker walls. The pH of the solution was maintained by an autotitrator with NaOH as the titrant. Calcite precipitation rates are typically expressed in mmol/m2/hr, but this is difficult to quantify as the reactive surface area of the crystals is not controlled. Relative growth rates are determined by weighing the amount of calcite precipitated over the course of an entire experiment on a fixed surface area. This provides a first estimate of R and we are investigating methods for improving this aspect of the results. Experiments have yielded calcite crystals enriched in the light isotope of Ca relative to the parent solution by 0.4‰ to 1.6‰. Growth rates are estimated to range from 0.01 to 131 mmol/m2/hr, overlapping with the rates from Lemarchand et al. (2004) and Tang et al. (2008). In experiments where we use a solution with high ionic strength (0.7), we find that ?44Ca in calcite increases with increasing precipitation rate. This is in agreement with the findings of Lemarchand et al. (2004), although Ca isotopes are more fractionated in our experiments. We are exploring if a solution with lower ionic strength reproduces the results of Tang et al. (2008), in which ?44Ca in calcite decreased with increasing precipitation rate. Our hypothesis is that solution chemistry may play an important role in calcium isotope incorporation in calcite and we will present results using different parent solution compositions that explore this relationship. The ultimate goal is to understand the molecular scale controls on isotope separation at the mineral surface during crystal growth.

Gonzales, M. S.; Watkins, J. M.; Depaolo, D. J.

2010-12-01

460

Article original Hydratation des micelles de casine  

E-print Network

15 septembre 1999) Abstract -- Casein micelle solvation and fractal structure of milk aggregatesArticle original Hydratation des micelles de caséine et structure fractale des agrégats et des gels the fractal theory. A relationship is observed between the hydration of casein particles, the structure

Boyer, Edmond

461

Gas hydrates in the ocean environment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A GAS HYDRATE, also known as a gas clathrate, is a gas-bearing, icelike material. It occurs in abundance in marine sediments and stores immense amounts of methane, with major implications for future energy resources and global climate change. Furthermore, gas hydrate controls some of the physical properties of sedimentary deposits and thereby influences seafloor stability.

Dillon, William P.

2002-01-01

462

Gas Hydrates Research Project in Japan  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Scientists from AIST, JOGMEC, Georgia Tech, and the USGS prepare to analyze pressure cores as part of a multi-year gas hydrates research project in Japan. This photo shows the pressure core storage chambers, which contain hydrate-bearing sediment samples obtained from the Nankai Trough offshore Japa...

463

Effect of pH on boron coprecipitation by calcite: Further evidence for nonequilibrium partitioning of trace elements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of pH and concentration on boron coprecipitation by calcite were evaluated under near-equilibrium conditions at 25°C. Calcite was precipitated by adding a metastable polymorph (vaterite or aragonite) to a solution of known boron concentration. This method maintains a nearly constant solution composition during the slow conversion of the metastable polymorph to calcite. Boron uptake in calcite was found to be strongly pH-dependent, increasing two orders of magnitude from pH 8.5 to pH 10.5. Boron incorporation into calcites precipitated from vaterite-saturated solutions was five times greater than in calcites precipitated from aragonite-saturated solutions. Ostensibly, these results suggest that the calcite precipitation rates were not low enough to attain equilibrium partitioning of boron into calcite. However, scanning electron micrograph analyses showed that the prevalent crystal forms of calcite generated from aragonite and those generated from vaterite were distinctly different. The different quantities of boron incorporated into these calcites may reflect different crystal growth mechanisms, consistent with face-dependent, nonequilibrium partitioning of trace elements in calcite. At a constant pH of 9.0, boron uptake increased from less than 15 to over 290 mg/kg CaCO 3 as the solution boron concentration was increased from 5 to 100 mg/kg. Our results agree with those of other investigators, despite differences in solution composition, and calcite precipitation techniques used. The agreement between the studies may be because the crystal growth morphology of the calcite was rhombohedral in both cases.

Hobbs, M. Y.; Reardon, E. J.

1999-04-01

464

Calcite Fluid Inclusion, Paragenetic, and Oxygen Isotopic Records of Thermal Event(s) at Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is under consideration as a potential high-level radioactive waste repository situated above the water table in 12.7 Ma tuffs. A wealth of textural and geochemical evidence from low-temperature deposits of calcite and silica, indicates that their genesis is related to unsaturated zone (UZ) percolation and that the level of the potential repository has never been saturated. Nonetheless, some scientists contend that thermal waters have periodically risen to the surface depositing calcite and opal in the tuffs and at the surface. This hypothesis received some support in 1996 when two-phase fluid inclusions (FIs) with homogenization temperatures (Th) between 35 and 75 C were reported from UZ calcite. Calcite deposition likely followed closely on the cooling of the tuffs and continues into the present. The paragenetic sequence of calcite and silica in the UZ is early stage calcite followed by chalcedony and quartz, then calcite with local opal during middle and late stages. Four types of FIs are found in calcite assemblages: (1) all-liquid (L); (2) all-vapor (V); (3) 2-phase with large and variable V:L ratios; and (4) a few 2-phase with small and consistent V:L ratios. Late calcite contains no FI assemblages indicating elevated depositional temperatures. In early calcite, the Th of type 4 FIs ranges from {approx} 40 to {approx} 85 C. Such temperatures (sub-boiling) and the assemblage of FIs are consistent with deposition in the UZ. Some delta 18O values < 10 permil in early calcite support such temperatures. Type 4 FIs, however, seem to be restricted to the early calcite stage, during which either cooling of the tuffs or regional volcanism were possible heat sources. Nonetheless, at present there is no compelling evidence of upwelling water as a source for the calcite/opal deposits.

B. Peterman; R. Moscati

2000-08-10

465

Formation of silver colloids in silver ion-exchanged soda-lime glasses during annealing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structural and compositional changes of the soda-lime glasses during the formation of the silver colloids were analyzed by the X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) in order to examine the silver colloid formation mechanism. The in situ behavior of silver and SiO2 networks on the surfaces of silver ion-exchanged soda-lime glasses during heating and cooling processes in ultra-high vaccum was monitored.

Paul W. Wang

1997-01-01

466

A fast prototyping process for fabrication of microfluidic systems on soda-lime glass  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a fast, low-cost but reliable process for the fabrication of microfluidic systems on soda-lime glass substrates. Instead of using an expensive metal or polisilicon\\/nitride layer as an etch mask, a thin layer of AZ 4620 positive photoresist (PR) is used for buffered oxide etching (BOE) of soda-lime glass. A novel two-step baking process prolongs the survival time

Che-Hsin Lin; Gwo-Bin Lee; Yen-Heng Lin; Guan-Liang Chang

2001-01-01

467

Liming and deep ripping responses for a range of field crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grain yields were measured over 2 seasons from a range of field crops following liming and deep ripping an acid and compacted soil in north-eastern Victoria. Lime (2.5 t ha?1) substantially reduced the level of exchangeable Al and exchangeable Mn whilst raising soil pH by about 1.0 unit. The crops grown were 7 cultivars of wheat and one cultivar each

H. D. Brooke; D. R. Coventry; T. G. Reeves; D. K. Jarvis

1989-01-01

468

Fine Root Dynamics in Thinned and Limed Pitch Pine and Japanese Larch Plantations  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate fine root dynamics after thinning (50% of standing tree) and liming calcium magnesium carbonate[CaMg(CO3)2] 2 Mg ha, a 2-year study was performed in 40-year-old pitch pine (Pinus rigida Mill.) and 44-year-old Japanese larch (Larix leptolepis Gord.) plantations in central Korea. Mean total fine root mass (kg ha± SE) in the control, thinned, and limed plots were 1234 ±

Jaehong Hwang; Yowhan Son; Choonsig Kim; Myong-Jong Yi; Zin-Suh Kim; Woo-Kyun Lee; Sun-Kee Hong

2007-01-01

469

Flue Gas Desulfurization By-products as Lime and Sulfur Sources for Alfalfa and Soybean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products are created when coal is burned and SO2 is removed from the flue gases. These FGD by-products are often alkaline and contain many nutrients including S. Agricultural application of FGD by-products is encouraged but little information is available related to plant responses and environmental impacts concerning such use. Agricultural lime (ag-lime) and several types of

Liming Chen; Warren A. Dick; Sid Nelson Jr

470

METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST  

SciTech Connect

Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrate potential agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. This gas-hydrate project is in the final stages of a cost-shared partnership between Maurer Technology, Noble Corporation, Anadarko Petroleum, and the U.S. Department of Energy's Methane Hydrate R&D program. The purpose of the project is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition to identify, quantify and predict production potential for hydrates located on the North Slope of Alaska. Hot Ice No. 1 was planned to test the Ugnu and West Sak sequences for gas hydrates and a concomitant free gas accumulation on Anadarko's 100% working interest acreage in section 30 of Township 9N, Range 8E of the Harrison Bay quadrangle of the North Slope of Alaska. The Ugnu and West Sak intervals are favorably positioned in the hydrate-stability zone over an area extending from Anadarko's acreage westward to the vicinity of the aforementioned gas-hydrate occurrences. This suggests that a large, north-to-south trending gas-hydrate accumulation may exist in that area. The presence of gas shows in the Ugnu and West Sak reservoirs in wells situated eastward and down dip of the Hot Ice location indicate that a free-gas accumulation may be trapped by gas hydrates. The Hot Ice No. 1 well was designed to core from the surface to the base of the West Sak interval using the revolutionary and new Arctic Drilling Platform in search of gas hydrate and free gas accumulations at depths of approximately 1200 to 2500 ft MD. A secondary objective was the gas-charged sands of the uppermost Campanian interval at approximately 3000 ft. Summary results of geophysical analysis of the well are presented in this report.

Donn McGuire; Steve Runyon; Richard Sigal; Bill Liddell; Thomas Williams; George Moridis

2005-02-01

471

In-situ characterization of gas hydrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas hydrates are a dynamic reservoir in the marine carbon cycle and a periodically large and focussed source of methane probably constituting the largest carbon reservoir on earth. Therefore an important issue in gas hydrate research is the need for better tools to remotely estimate the volume and stability conditions of marine gas hydrate in the near sub-surface. It is also crucial to precisely determine the hydrate stability conditions in the near sub-surface, where gas hydrates are most susceptible to dissolution under changing P/T conditions. Our knowledge about the occurrence, spatial distribution, and life-cycle of gas hydrates in marine sediments is mainly derived from indirect geophysical and geochemical evidence. In a few instances gas hydrates have also been directly observed and sampled at the sea floor. For regional or global estimates of hydrate volumes and stability conditions however, new techniques for ground-truthing and calibration of geophysical, biological and geochemical methods are needed. During the OTEGA cruise with RV SONNE to Hydrate Ridge off Oregon a new device for in-situ characterization of gas hydrates was deployed and tested for the first time. The tool, HDSD (Hydrate Detection and Stability Determination) is being developed as part of Cooperative Research Center (SFB) 574 "Volatiles and Fluids in Subduction Zones". It is designed to identify and quantify small volumes of near-surface gas hydrate through continuous in-situ thermal and resistivity monitoring in a defined volume of sediment while it is slowly heated to