Sample records for calcitic hydrated lime

  1. Removal of phosphate from greenhouse wastewater using hydrated lime.

    PubMed

    Dunets, C Siobhan; Zheng, Youbin

    2014-01-01

    Phosphate (P) contamination in nutrient-laden wastewater is currently a major topic of discussion in the North American greenhouse industry. Precipitation of P as calcium phosphate minerals using hydrated lime could provide a simple, inexpensive method for retrieval. A combination of batch experiments and chemical equilibrium modelling was used to confirm the viability of this P removal method and determine lime addition rates and pH requirements for greenhouse wastewater of varying nutrient compositions. Lime: P ratio (molar ratio of CaMg(OH)?: PO??P) provided a consistent parameter for estimating lime addition requirements regardless of initial P concentration, with a ratio of 1.5 providing around 99% removal of dissolved P. Optimal P removal occurred when lime addition increased the pH from 8.6 to 9.0, suggesting that pH monitoring during the P removal process could provide a simple method for ensuring consistent adherence to P removal standards. A Visual MINTEQ model, validated using experimental data, provided a means of predicting lime addition and pH requirements as influenced by changes in other parameters of the lime-wastewater system (e.g. calcium concentration, temperature, and initial wastewater pH). Hydrated lime addition did not contribute to the removal of macronutrient elements such as nitrate and ammonium, but did decrease the concentration of some micronutrients. This study provides basic guidance for greenhouse operators to use hydrated lime for phosphate removal from greenhouse wastewater. PMID:25176490

  2. Impacts of ocean acidification and mitigative hydrated lime addition on Pacific oyster larvae

    E-print Network

    Impacts of ocean acidification and mitigative hydrated lime addition on Pacific oyster larvae, and for other species. Keywords: Ocean acidification; Pacific oyster; Larval stages; Hydrated lime; Shellfish No.: 577 Title of Project: Impacts of ocean acidification and mitigative hydrated lime addition

  3. Iron blast furnace slag/hydrated lime sorbents for flue gas desulfurization.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chiung-Fang; Shih, Shin-Min

    2004-08-15

    Sorbents prepared from iron blast furnace slag (BFS) and hydrated lime (HL) through the hydration process have been studied with the aim to evaluate their reactivities toward SO2 under the conditions prevailing in dry or semidry flue gas desulfurization processes. The BFS/HL sorbents, having large surface areas and pore volumes due to the formation of products of hydration, were highly reactive toward SO2, as compared with hydrated lime alone (0.24 in Ca utilization). The sorbent reactivity increased as the slurrying temperature and time increased and as the particle size of BFS decreased; the effects of the liquid/solid ratio and the sorbent drying conditions were negligible. The structural properties and the reactivity of sorbent were markedly affected by the BFS/HL ratio; the sorbent with 30/70 ratio had the highest 1 h utilization of Ca, 0.70, and SO2 capture, 0.45 g SO2/g sorbent. The reactivity of a sorbent was related to its initial specific surface area (Sg0) and molar content of Ca (M(-1)); the 1 h utilization of Ca increased almost linearly with increasing Sg0/M. The results of this study are useful to the preparation of BFS/HL sorbents with high reactivity for use in the dry and semidry processes to remove SO2 from the flue gas. PMID:15382877

  4. CONTROL OF SOX EMISSIONS BY IN-FURNACE SORBENT INJECTION: CARBONATES VS HYDRATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper provides high-temperature isothermal data on SO2 capture by calcium-based sorbents, obtained in a dispersed-phase reactor for limestones, dolomites, hydrated calcitic limes, and hydrated dolomitic limes as a function of Ca/S molar ratio, temperature, and SO2 partial pre...

  5. Methanogenic calcite, 13C-depleted bivalve shells, and gas hydrate from a mud volcano offshore southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hein, J.R.; Normark, W.R.; McIntyre, B.R.; Lorenson, T.D.; Powell, C.L., II

    2006-01-01

    Methane and hydrogen sulfide vent from a cold seep above a shallowly buried methane hydrate in a mud volcano located 24 km offshore southern California in?? 800 m of water. Bivalves, authigenic calcite, and methane hydrate were recovered in a 2.1 m piston core. Aragonite shells of two bivalve species are unusually depleted in 13C (to -91??? ??13C), the most 13C-depleted shells of marine macrofauna yet discovered. Carbon isotopes for both living and dead specimens indicate that they used, in part, carbon derived from anaerobically oxidized methane to construct their shells. The ??13C values are highly variable, but most are within the range -12??? to -91???. This variability may be diagnostic for identifying cold-seep-hydrate systems in the geologic record. Authigenic calcite is abundant in the cores down to ???1.5 m subbottom, the top of the methane hydrate. The calcite is depleted in 13C (??13C = -46??? to -58???), indicating that carbon produced by anaerobically oxidized methane is the main source of the calcite. Methane sources include a geologic hydrocarbon reservoir from Miocene source rocks, and biogenic and thermogenic degradation of organic matter in basin sediments. Oxygen isotopes indicate that most calcite formed out of isotopic equilibrium with ambient bottom water, under the influence of gas hydrate dissociation and strong methane flux. High metal content in the mud volcano sediment indicates leaching of basement rocks by fluid circulating along an underlying fault, which also allows for a high flux of fossil methane. ?? 2006 Geological Society of America.

  6. DISPOSAL, RECYCLE, AND UTILIZATION OF MODIFIED FLY ASH FROM HYDRATED LIME INJECTION INTO COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of an assessment of the disposal, utilization, and recycle os a modified fly ash from the injection of hydrated lime into a coal-fired utility boiler. The process, developed as a low-cost alternative for achieving moderate degrees of SO2 control at coal-fi...

  7. Kinetics of the reaction of iron blast furance slag\\/hydrated lime sorbents with SO 2 at low temperatures: effects of sorbent preparation conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chiung-Fang Liu; Shih-Min Shih

    2004-01-01

    Sorbents highly reactive towards SO2 have been prepared from iron blast furnace slag and hydrated lime under different hydration conditions. The reaction of the dry sorbents with SO2 has been studied under the conditions similar to those in the bag filters in the spray-drying flue gas desulfurization system. The reaction was well described by a modified surface coverage model which

  8. Toward a conceptual model of the calcite surface: hydration, hydrolysis, and surface potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stipp, S. L. S.

    1999-10-01

    Because of a recent increase in interest in the properties of the calcite surface, there has also been an increase in activity toward development of mathematical models to describe calcite’s surface behaviour, particularly with respect to adsorption and precipitation. For a mathematical model to be realistic, it must be based on a sound conceptual model of atomic structure at the interface. New observations from high resolution techniques have been combined with previously published data to resolve the apparent conflict with results from electrokinetic studies and to present a picture of what the calcite surface probably looks like at the atomic scale. In ultra-high vacuum (10-10 mbar), a cleaved surface remains unreacted for at least an hour, but the unreacted surface does not remain as a termination of the bulk structure. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), low energy electron diffraction (LEED), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) show that the outer-most atomic layer relaxes and the surface slightly restructures. In air, dangling bonds are satisfied by hydrolysed water. XPS and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) reveal the presence of adsorbed OH and H. In AFM images, the features so typical of calcite, namely, alternate-row offset, pairing and height difference, as well as the consistent dependence of these features on the force and direction of tip scanning, are best explained by OH filling of the vacant O sites created during cleavage on the Ca octahedra. Thus there is solid evidence to indicate the presence of OH and H chemi-sorbed at the termination of the bulk calcite structure. Wet chemical studies, however, show that calcite’s pHpzc (zero point of charge) varies with sample history and solution composition. Electrophoretic mobility measurements indicate that the potential-determining ions are not H+ and OH-, but rather Ca2+ and CO32- (or HCO3- or H2CO30). This apparent conflict is resolved by a slight modification of the electrical double layer (EDL) model. At the bulk termination, hydrolysis species are chemi-bonded. At the Stern layer, adsorption attaches Ca2+ and CO32- (or other carbonate species), but the hydrolysis layer keeps them in outer-sphere coordination to the surface. With dehydration, loss of the hydrolysis species results in direct contact between adsorbed ions and the bulk termination, therefore, inner-sphere sorption is equivalent to extension of the three dimensional bulk network, which is precipitation. Attachment of ions with size and charge compatible with Ca and CO3 likewise results in coprecipitation and solid-solution formation.

  9. The effect of hydrated lime on Salmonella enteritidis survival in poultry litter and poult performance 

    E-print Network

    Stanush, Deborah Denise

    2000-01-01

    The presence of Salmonella and/or Campylobacter in poultry litter may contribute to contaminated processed carcasses. Initially in our first study, we evaluated the effect of 5, 10, or 20% added lime on in vitro survival of Salmonella enteritidis...

  10. Kinetics of the reaction of iron blast furnace slag\\/hydrated lime sorbents with SO at low temperatures: effects of the presence of CO, O, and NOx

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chiung-Fang Liu; Shin-Min Shih

    2009-01-01

    The effects of the presence of CO, O, and NOx in the flue gas on the kinetics of the sulfation of blast furnace slag\\/hydrated lime sorbents at low temperatures were studied using a differential fixed-bed reactor. When O and NOx were not present simultaneously, the reaction kinetics was about the same as that under the gas mixtures containing SO, HO,

  11. Preparation of a new sorbent with hydrated lime and blast furnace slag for phosphorus removal from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Gong, Guozhuo; Ye, Shufeng; Tian, Yajun; Wang, Qi; Ni, Jiandi; Chen, Yunfa

    2009-07-30

    The removal of dissolvable inorganic phosphate (H(2)PO(4)(-)) by sorbents prepared from hydrated lime (HL) and blast furnace slag (BFS) was fundamentally studied by an orthogonal experiment design. Based on statistic analysis, it is revealed that the weight ratio of BFS/HL is the most significant variable, and an optimized preparation condition is figured out. With the increase of HL content, the adsorption capacity increases, suggesting that the HL plays the important role in the removal process in the gross. However, in the lower HL content, it is interesting that the adsorption capacity of as-prepared sorbents exceed the sum of the capacities of the same ratio of BFS and HL. The further analysis indicate the excess capacities linearly depend on the specific surface area of sorbents, suggesting that the removal of H(2)PO(4)(-) is closely related with the microstructure of sorbents in the lower HL content, according to the characterization with SEM, XRD and pore analysis. Additionally, an adsorption model and kinetic are discussed in this paper. PMID:19124194

  12. Control of SO\\/subx\\/ emissions by in-furnace sorbent injection: Carbonates vs. hydrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. H. Newton; D. J. Harrison; G. D. Silcox; D. W. Pershing

    1986-01-01

    High temperature, isothermal data on SOâ capture by calcium based sorbents were obtained in a dispersed-phase reactor for limestones, dolomites, hydrated calcitic limes, and hydrated dolomitic lines as a function of Ca\\/S molar ratio, temperature, and SOâ partial pressure. The experimental results indicate that SOâ capture is approximately linearly dependent on Ca\\/S molar ratio and relatively insensitive to SOâ partial

  13. Sulfate induced heave in lime stabilized soil 

    E-print Network

    Bredenkamp, Sanet

    1994-01-01

    The addition of hydrated lime to clay soils is one of the most common methods of soil stabilization. However, when sulfates are present in the soil, the calcium in the lime reacts with the sulfates to form ettringite, an expandable mineral...

  14. Geochemical constraints for coexisting CO"2 gas hydrate and calcite: implications for sheet cracks, stromatactis, zebra and tepee-like structures [rapid communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiFilippo, Erica L.; Hammond, Douglas E.; Corsetti, Frank A.

    2003-08-01

    The Ordovician Meiklejohn Peak mud-mound in western Nevada contains sedimentary structures (e.g., stromatactis and "zebra-rock") that resemble features found in modern methane hydrate deposits. However, the ?13C of the mud-mound carbonates (-1 to 1‰ PDB) does not suggest interaction with ?13C-depleted methane. Consequently, Krause (Sedimentary Geology 145 (2001) 189) proposed that the Meiklejohn structures might have been produced by the formation and dissociation of CO 2 gas hydrate rather than methane gas hydrate. Structures in Neoproterozoic cap carbonates, sheet cracks and tepee-like structures have also been suggested to represent gas hydrate interaction with carbonate sediments (Geology 29 (2001) 443), but, similarly, ?13C values do not suggest direct interaction with methane. The objective of this contribution is to see if the presence of CO 2 gas hydrate is plausible for either setting. To test the feasibility of CO 2 gas hydrate involvement in the formation of these structures, necessary concentrations of TCO 2 were calculated based on required phase equilibria using the quadruple points Q1 (-1.73 °C, 10.2 atm) and Q2 (10.2 °C, 44.5 atm) from the phase diagram for CO 2 gas hydrate (Miller, S.L., 1974. The Nature and Occurrence of Clathrate Hydrates. In: Kaplan, I.R. (Ed.), Natural Gases in Marine Sediments. Plenum, New York, NY, pp. 151-178). A limit for Ca +2 was established based on the lack of evidence for gypsum formation in this environment and the assumption that sulfate was up to 100% of its present oceanic value; the calculated TCO 2 concentration, however, is relatively insensitive to the concentration of SO 4-2 used. The lowest permissible value of pCO 2 and TCO 2 were found at Q1, where TCO 2 must be at least 300 times the present value. These conditions are implausible for the formation of the Meiklejohn Peak mud-mound. Although some models for Neoproterozoic "Snowball Earth" require highly elevated atmospheric CO 2, these models predict pCO 2 that is still too low to permit the formation of CO 2 gas hydrates in carbonate sediments. In addition, if the required conditions could be achieved during "Snowball Earth", one would expect to find the associated structures only at the base of the section, while they are commonly observed meters to tens of meters above the base. Therefore, we conclude that it is unlikely these structures were produced by the formation and dissociation of CO 2 gas hydrate.

  15. [Study on Archaeological Lime Powders from Taosi and Yinxu Sites by FTIR].

    PubMed

    Wei, Guo-feng; Zhang, Chen; Chen, Guo-liang; He, Yu-ling; Gao, Jiang-tao; Zhang, Bing-jian

    2015-03-01

    Archaeological lime powders samples from Taosi and Yinxu sites, natural limestone and experimentally prepared lime mortar were investigated by means of Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) to identify the raw material of lime powders from Taosi and Yinxu sites. Results show that ?2/?4 ratio of calcite resulted from carbonation reaction of man-made lime is around 6.31, which is higher than that of calcite in natural limestone and reflects the difference in the disorder of calcite crystal structure among the natural limestone and prepared lime mortar. With additional grinding, the values of v2 and ?4 in natural limestone and prepared lime mortar decrease. Meanwhile, the trend lines of ?2 versus ?4 for calcite in experimentally prepared lime mortar have a steeper slope when compared to calcite in natural limestone. These imply that ?2/?4 ratio and the slope of the trend lines of ?2 versus ?4 can be used to determine the archaeological man-made lime. Based on the experiment results, it is possible that the archaeological lime powder from Taosi and Yinxu sites was prepared using man-made lime and the ancient Chinese have mastered the calcining technology of man-made lime in the late Neolithic period about 4 300 years ago. PMID:26117865

  16. Lightweight bricks made of diatomaceous earth, lime and gypsum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Pimraksa; P. Chindaprasirt

    2009-01-01

    Diatomaceous earth from Lampang Province in the north of Thailand composes of diatom, kaolinite, montmorillonite and illite, and has porous cellular structure. In this work, the diatomite, hydrated lime and gypsum are the main ingredients in making autoclaved lightweight bricks. Water content, pre-curing period, lime content, gypsum content and calcined temperature are the factors investigated. Mechanical and thermal properties are

  17. Lime pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Sierra, Rocio; Granda, Cesar Benigno; Holtzapple, Mark T

    2009-01-01

    Lime pretreatment has proven to be a useful method for selectively reducing the lignin content of lignocellulosic biomass without significant loss in carbohydrates, thus realizing an important increase in biodigestibility. In lime pretreatment, the biomass is pretreated with calcium hydroxide and water under different conditions of temperature and pressure. It can be accomplished in one of three fashions: (1) short-term pretreatment that lasts up to 6 h, requires temperatures of 100-160 degrees C, and can be applied with or without oxygen (pressure approximately 200 psig); (2) long-term pretreatment taking up to 8 weeks, requiring only 55-65 degrees C, and capable of running with or without air (atmospheric pressure); and (3) simple pretreatment requiring 1 h in boiling water, without air or oxygen. Nonoxidative conditions are effective at low lignin contents (below approximately 18% lignin), whereas oxidative conditions are required for high lignin contents (above approximately 18% lignin). PMID:19768620

  18. Intracrystalline deformation of calcite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. P. de Bresser

    1991-01-01

    It is well established from observations on natural calcite tectonites that\\u000aintracrystalline plastic mechanisms are important during the deformation of calcite\\u000arocks in nature. In this thesis, new data are presented on fundamental aspects of\\u000adeformation behaviour of calcite under conditions where 'dislocation creep'\\u000amechanisms dominate. The data provide a better understanding of the rheological\\u000abehaviour of calcite rocks, and

  19. Immobilization and leaching characteristics of arsenic from cement and/or lime solidified/stabilized spent adsorbent containing arsenic.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Sanghamitra; Gupta, A K

    2008-05-01

    Solidification/stabilization (S/S) of hazardous iron oxide coated cement (IOCC) spent adsorbent containing arsenic (As(III)) was investigated in the present study. Cement and lime-based S/S effectiveness was evaluated by performing semi-dynamic leach tests. The S/S effectiveness was evaluated by measuring effective diffusion coefficients (D(e)) and leachability indices (LX). It was found that though cement or lime alone were efficient in preventing arsenic leaching (D(e) being in range of 10(-10) to 10(-12) for all the matrices) from the solidified matrices, the best combination for arsenic containment in the matrix was obtained when a mixture of cement and lime was used. The LX values for all the matrices were higher than 10, suggesting that the S/S treated arsenic sludge are acceptable for "controlled utilization". Calcite formation along with precipitation and conversion into non-soluble forms (calcium arsenite, calcium hydrogen arsenate hydrates, calcium hydrogen arsenates, etc.) were found to be the responsible mechanism for low leaching of arsenic from the solidified/stabilized samples. A linear relationship between cumulative fraction (CFR) of arsenic leached and square root of leach time (R(2) ranging from 0.90 to 0.94) suggested that the diffusion is the responsible mechanism for arsenic leaching. Thus, cement and lime show effective containment of the As(III) within the matrix thus indicating S/S by cement and lime, which is also a low-cost option, as a suitable management option for the toxic As(III) sludge. PMID:17913352

  20. Kinetics of the reaction of iron blast furnace slag/hydrated lime sorbents with SO{sub 2} at low temperatures: effects of the presence of CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and NOx

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.F.; Shih, S.M. [Industrial Technological Research Institute, Hsinchu (Taiwan)

    2009-09-15

    The effects of the presence of CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and NOx in the flue gas on the kinetics of the sulfation of blast furnace slag/hydrated lime sorbents at low temperatures were studied using a differential fixed-bed reactor. When O{sub 2} and NOx were not present simultaneously, the reaction kinetics was about the same as that under the gas mixtures containing SO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and N{sub 2} only, being affected mainly by the relative humidity. The sulfation of sorbents can be described by the surface coverage model and the model equations derived for the latter case. When both O{sub 2} and NOx, were present, the sulfation of sorbents was greatly enhanced, forming a great amount of sulfate in addition to sulfite. The surface coverage model is still valid in this case, but the model equations obtained show a more marked effect of relative humidity and negligible effects of SO{sub 2} concentration and temperature on the reaction. The effect of sorbent composition on the reaction kinetics was entirely represented by the effects of the initial specific surface area (S{sub g0}) and the Ca molar content (M{sup -1}) of sorbent. The initial conversion rate of sorbent increased linearly with increasing S{sub g0}, and the ultimate conversion increased linearly with increasing S{sub g0}M{sup -1}. The model equations obtained in this work are applicable to describe the kinetics of the sulfation of the sorbents in the low-temperature dry and semidry fine gas desulfurization processes either with an upstream NOx, removal unit or without.111

  1. Molecular Structure of Calcite

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-08-14

    Calcite is an essential mineral in limestone and marble which are used in the building, steel, chemical, and glass industries. It is found in abundance on the earth. Calcite was first produced in translucent ("Iceland Spar") form in the seventeenth century for optical uses. In 1928, William Nicol used it for Polaroid Sunglasses in an effort to deflect the sunlight. Today, calcite has a large number of uses: optical and crystallography research; as a component of animal feed, antacids, statues, and dough strengthener; in the production of paper and photography; and to make mortar, cement, concrete and asphalt.

  2. Scale suppression in lime\\/limestone FGD systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. S. Rosenberg; H. M. Grotta

    1979-01-01

    Scale suppression in lime\\/limestone FGD systems may be to prevent the oxidation of sulfite to sulfate. Thus, the effect of NO\\/sub x\\/ on sulfite oxidation was studied in semibatch laboratory-scale experiments with a 5Vertical Bar3< slurry of hydrated lime containing some fly ash and calcium chloride as the scrubbing liquid and a simulated flue gas containing 76.9Vertical Bar3< by vol

  3. PRIMARY CALCITE Cfluid << Csolid ~

    E-print Network

    Fantle, Matthew

    to foraminfer nannofossil ooze nannofossil chalk to foraminfer nannofossil chalk nannofossil chalk to foraminfer nannofossil chalk Determinng the fractionation factor between Ca in calcite and Ca in solu- tion is important

  4. The effects of lime and amines on the aging of asphalts and recycling agents

    E-print Network

    Wisneski, Mary Luvola

    1995-01-01

    amounts of quick lime (CaO) and hydrated lime (Ca(OH),) on SHRP AAA-I and SHRP AAF-1. The second experiment was to determine the effects of three different amines and various amounts of CaO on aged SHRP AAA-I and SHRP AAF-I rejuvenated with ABM-F2, YBF-F2...

  5. REE diffusion in calcite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherniak, D. J.

    1998-08-01

    Chemical diffusion of four rare-earth elements (La, Nd, Dy and Yb) has been measured in natural calcite under anhydrous conditions, using rare-earth carbonate powders as the source of diffusants. Experiments were run in sealed silica capsules along with finely ground calcite to ensure stability of the single-crystal samples during diffusion anneals. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) was used to measure diffusion profiles. The following Arrhenius relations were obtained over the temperature range 600-850°C: DLa =2.6×10 -14 exp(-147±14 kJ mol -1/ RT) m 2 s -1, DNd =2.4×10 -14 exp(-150±13 kJ mol -1/ RT) m 2 s -1, DDy =2.9×10 -14 exp(-145±25 kJ mol -1/ RT) m 2 s -1, DYb =3.9×10 -12 exp(-186±23 kJ mol -1/ RT) m 2 s -1. In contrast to previous findings for refractory silicates (e.g. zircon), differences in transport rates among the REE are not pronounced over the range of temperature conditions investigated in this study. Diffusion of the REE is significantly slower than diffusion of the divalent cations Sr and Pb and slower than transport of Ca and C at temperatures above ˜650°C. Fine-scale zoning and isotopic and REE chemical signatures may be retained in calcites under many conditions if diffusion is the dominant process affecting alteration.

  6. Evolution and the Calcite Eye Lens

    E-print Network

    Vernon L. Williams

    2013-04-03

    Calcite is a uniaxial, birefringent crystal, which in its optically transparent form, has been used for animal eye lenses, the trilobite being one such animal. Because of the calcite birefringence there is a difficulty in using calcite as a lens. When the propagation direction of incoming light is not exactly on the c-axis, the mages blur. In this paper, calcite blurring is evaluated, and the non-blurring by a crystallin eye lens is compared to a calcite one.

  7. A cement kiln flue-dust evaluated as a soil liming material

    E-print Network

    Stacha, Raimund

    1973-01-01

    block with 5 replications of 2 lime sources (calcitic and flue-dust) applied at 4 rates (0, 2. 2, 4. 4, and 8. 9 MT/ha). A "split plot" technique was used where- in each 12 x 26. 9 m plot was split in half (6. 2 x 26. 9). One half hsd flue.../ha) on the Beaumont and Lufkin soils and at 5 treat- ment levels (0, 1. 1, 2. 2, 4. 4 and 8. 9 MT/ha) on the Hockley and Nacogdoches soil. Each treatment was replicated three times. Three liming materials were used in the comparative study (very fine, regular...

  8. Setting process of lime-based conservation mortars with barium hydroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Karatasios, Ioannis [Institute of Materials Science, NCSR Demokritos, Aghia Paraskevi, 153 10 Athens (Greece)]. E-mail: ikarat@ims.demokritos.gr; Kilikoglou, Vassilis [Institute of Materials Science, NCSR Demokritos, Aghia Paraskevi, 153 10 Athens (Greece); Colston, Belinda [Department of Forensic and Biomedical Sciences, University of Lincoln, Lincoln, LN6 7TS (United Kingdom); Theoulakis, Panagiotis [Department of Conservation of Antiquities and Works of Art, TEI of Athens, Athens, 122 10 (Greece); Watt, David [Hutton and Rostron Environmental Investigations Limited/Centre for Sustainable Heritage, University College London (United Kingdom)

    2007-06-15

    This paper presents the effect of barium hydroxide on the setting mechanism of lime-based conservation mortars, when used as an additive material. The study focuses on the monitoring of the setting process and the identification of the mineral phases formed, which are essential for furthering the study of the durability of barium mixtures against chemical degradation. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermal analysis (DTA-TG) were used to monitor the setting processes of these mixtures and identify new phases formed. The results suggest that barium hydroxide is evenly distributed within the lime and produces a homogeneous binding material, consisting of calcite (CaCO{sub 3}), witherite (BaCO{sub 3}) and barium-calcium carbonate [BaCa(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}]. Finally, it was found that barium carbonate can be directly bonded to calcitic aggregates and therefore increases its chemical compatibility with the binding material.

  9. COMBINATION LIMESTONE-LIME NEUTRALIZATION OF FERROUS IRON ACID MINE DRAINAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies were conducted on ferrous-iron acid mine drainage (AMD) treatment by a two-step neutralization process in which rock-dust limestone was mixed with the influent AMD and then hydrated lime was added in a polishing reactor. This combination treatment process resulted in reag...

  10. Depositional environments and original mineralogy of the lower Smackover lime mudstones, Mississippi salt basin

    SciTech Connect

    Heydari, E.; Wade, W.J. (Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Basin Research Inst. and Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01

    Three lithofacies are recognized in the lower member of the Smackover Formation. In ascending order these are: (1) laminated mudstone, consisting of alternating dark and light colored laminae, (2) thin-bedded mudstone, containing alternating beds of dark, laminated mudstone and light, bioturbated mudstone, and (3) burrowed mudstone, consisting of massive, wispy laminated mudstone. Basinward mudstones are composed of small calcite crystals (2-15 [mu]m), with Sr and [delta] O-18 compositions of 300 ppm and [minus]4.0 % PDB, respectively. The more landward mudstones are composed of larger calcite crystals (10-80 [mu]m), with Sr and [delta] O-18 contents of 1300 ppm and [minus]2.0% PDB, respectively. Absence of current-induced structures and nektoplanktonic fossils, perfect preservation of laminae, and abundant early anhydrite indicate that the laminated mudstone lithofacies was deposited below fair weather wave base in anoxic and hypersaline bottom water, possibly as annual varves. The alternating dark, laminated and light, bioturbated beds within the thin-bedded lithofacies may represent redox cycles caused by productivity fluctuations in the basin. Ubiquitous bioturbation in the burrowed mudstone lithofacies indicates that a transition from anoxic to oxic or suboxic conditions had occurred. Landward increase in crystal size and Sr composition resulted from differences in original mineralogy of the lime mud precursor, with originally aragonite lime mud precipitating landward, and originally calcite lime mud basinward. Landward increase in [delta]O-18 composition of the mudstone reflects shoreward increase in seawater salinity. This salinity gradient may have been partially responsible for the change in mineralogy of the lime mud. Lack of fossils, the anoxic nature of bottom water in the basin, and the systematic shift in mineralogy and geochemical signatures suggest that lime mud was precipitated inorganically.

  11. 4, 961991, 2007 foraminiferal calcite

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    available for copper. Since par- tition coefficients are usually a function of multiple factors (seawaterBGD 4, 961­991, 2007 Copper in foraminiferal calcite L. J. de Nooijer et al. Title Page Abstract/961/2007/ © Author(s) 2007. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons License. Biogeosciences Discussions

  12. A study on engineering characteristics of asphalt concrete using filler with recycled waste lime.

    PubMed

    Sung Do, Hwang; Hee Mun, Park; Suk keun, Rhee

    2008-01-01

    This study focuses on determining the engineering characteristics of asphalt concrete using mineral fillers with recycled waste lime, which is a by-product of the production of soda ash (Na(2)CO(3)). The materials tested in this study were made using a 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% mixing ratio based on the conventional mineral filler ratio to analyze the possibility of using recycled waste lime. The asphalt concretes, made of recycled waste lime, hydrated lime, and conventional asphalt concrete, were evaluated through their fundamental engineering properties such as Marshall stability, indirect tensile strength, resilient modulus, permanent deformation characteristics, moisture susceptibility, and fatigue resistance. The results indicate that the application of recycled waste lime as mineral filler improves the permanent deformation characteristics, stiffness and fatigue endurance of asphalt concrete at the wide range of temperatures. It was also determined that the mixtures with recycled waste lime showed higher resistance against stripping than conventional asphalt concrete. It was concluded from various test results that a waste lime can be used as mineral filler and, especially, can greatly improve the resistance of asphalt concrete to permanent deformation at high temperatures. PMID:17408942

  13. Gas hydrates

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-04-01

    There is a definite need for the US government to provide leadership for research in gas hydrates and to coordinate its activities with academia, industry, private groups, federal agencies, and their foreign counterparts. In response to this need, the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center implemented a gas hydrates R and D program. Understanding the resource will be achieved through: assessment of current technology; characterization of gas hydrate geology and reservoir engineering; and development of diagnostic tools and methods. Research to date has focused on geology. As work progressed, areas where gas hydrates are likely to occur were identified, and specific high potential areas were targeted for future detailed investigation. Initial research activities involved the development of the Geologic Analysis System (GAS); which will provide, through approximately 30 software packages, the capability to manipulate and correlate several types of geologic and petroleum data into maps, graphics, and reports. Preliminary mapping of hydrate prospects for the Alaskan North Slope is underway. Geological research includes physical system characterization which focuses on creating synthetic methane hydrates and developing synthetic hydrate cores using tetrahydrofuran, consolidated rock cores, frost base mixtures, water/ice base mixtures, and water base mixtures. Laboratory work produced measurements of the sonic velocity and electrical resistivity of these synthetic hydrates. During 1983, a sample from a natural hydrate core recovered from the Pacific coast of Guatemala was tested for these properties by METC. More recently, a natural hydrate sample from the Gulf of Mexico was also acquired and testing of this sample is currently underway. In addition to the development of GAS, modeling and systems analysis work focused on the development of conceptual gas hydrate production models. 16 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. The energetics of nanophase calcite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tori Z. Forbes; A. V. Radha; Alexandra Navrotsky

    Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) is an important component of the near-surface environment. Understanding the nature of its precipitation is important for a variety of environmental processes, as well as for the geologic sequestration of anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Calcite is the most thermodynamically stable bulk polymorph, but energy crossovers may exist that could favor the precipitation of vaterite or aragonite with decreasing

  15. Structure of the (1014) Surfaces of Calcite, Dolomite, and Magnesite under Wet and Dry Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    WRIGHT,KATE; CYGAN,RANDALL T.; SLATER,BEN

    2000-06-12

    Atomistic computer simulation methods have been employed to model the structure of the (10{bar 1}4) surfaces of calcite, dolomite and magnesite. The authors calculations show that under vacuum conditions, calcite undergoes the greatest degree of surface relaxation with rotation and distortion of the carbonate group accompanied by movement of the calcium ion. The magnesite surface is the least distorted of the three carbonates, with dolomite being intermediate to the two end members. When water molecules are placed on the surface to produce complete monolayer coverage, the calcite surface is stabilized and the amount of relaxation is substantially reduced. In contrast, the dolomite and magnesite surfaces are destabilized by hydration as indicated by a significant increase in the surface energies relative to the dry surface.

  16. Calcium isotope fractionation in calcite and aragonite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nikolaus Gussone; Florian Böhm; Anton Eisenhauer; Martin Dietzel; Alexander Heuser; Barbara M. A. Teichert; Joachim Reitner; Gert Wörheide; Wolf-Christian Dullo

    2005-01-01

    Calcium isotope fractionation was measured on skeletal aragonite and calcite from different marine biota and on inorganic calcite. Precipitation temperatures ranged from 0 to 28°C. Calcium isotope fractionation shows a temperature dependence in accordance with previous observations: 1000·ln(?cc) = ?1.4 + 0.021·T (°C) for calcite and 1000·ln(?ar) = ?1.9 + 0.017·T (°C) for aragonite. Within uncertainty the temperature slopes are

  17. Trace concentration - Huge impact: Nitrate in the calcite/Eu(III) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Sascha; Voïtchovsky, Kislon; Schmidt, Moritz; Stumpf, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    The interactions of trivalent lanthanides and actinides with secondary mineral phases such as calcite is of high importance for the safety assessment of deep geological repositories for high level nuclear waste (HLW). Due to similar ionic radii, calcium-bearing mineral phases are suitable host minerals for Ln(III) and An(III) ions. Especially calcite has been proven to retain these metal ions effectively by both surface complexation and bulk incorporation. Since anionic ligands (e.g., nitrate) are omnipresent in the geological environment and due to their coordinating properties, their influence on retentive processes should not be underestimated. Nitrate is a common contaminant in most HLW forms as a result of using nitric acid in fuel reprocessing. It is also formed by microbial activity under aerobic conditions. In this study, atomic force microscopy investigations revealed a major influence of nitrate upon the surface of calcite crystals. NaNO3 causes serious modifications even in trace amounts (<10-7 M) and forms a soft surface layer of low crystallinity on top of the calcite crystal. Time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy of Eu(III) showed that, within this layer, Eu(III) ions are incorporated, while losing most of their hydration shell. The results show that solid solution modelling for actinides in calcite must take into account the presence of nitrate in pore and ground waters.

  18. Influence of Bacillus subtilis Cell Walls and EDTA on Calcite

    E-print Network

    Long, Bernard

    to and direct attack of the calcite surface. Atomic force microscopy images of the {101h4} surface of calciteInfluence of Bacillus subtilis Cell Walls and EDTA on Calcite Dissolution Rates and Crystal Surface features on the calcite {101h4} surface. The calcite dissolution rates are compared at equivalent

  19. The Needs of Texas Soils for Lime

    E-print Network

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1919-01-01

    , parsnip, pumpkin, sorghum, salsify; seed fruits, stone fr~lits, squash, sugar beets, salt bush, timothy ' and tobacco. Indifferent to lime-Blackberry, millet, potatoes, raspberries, rye, and red top grass. Injurecl by lime--Cranberries, cowpeas, sheep...

  20. Absolut Vodka, lime juice, Motts Clamato Juice, Tabasco, Worcestershire, pepper & a twist of lime.

    E-print Network

    Habib, Ayman

    Vodka, or Southern Comfort & lemonade. $5.75 Tequila Sunrise Olmeca Tequila, orange juice, lime juiceDen Caesar Absolut Vodka, lime juice, Motts Clamato Juice, Tabasco, Worcestershire, pepper Libre Havana Club Rum, Pepsi, lime juice & a twist of lime. $5.75 Jack and Ginger Jack Daniels, Ginger

  1. Reaction of citric acid with calcite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. H. Al-Khaldi; H. A. Nasr-El-Din; S. Mehta; A. D. Al-Aamri

    2007-01-01

    The reaction of citric acid with calcite was investigated using the rotating disk apparatus. The effects of disk rotational speed, system pressure, and presence of magnesium and ferric ions on this reaction were examined. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was also used to characterize the surface of the calcite disks at the end of each experiment.The reaction of citric acid and

  2. HEMATITE AND CALCITE COATINGS ON FOSSIL VERTEBRATES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HUIMING BAO; PAUL L. KOCH; ROBERT P. HEPPLE

    Hematite coatings are common on vertebrate fossils from Paleocene\\/Eocene paleosol deposits in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming. In general, hematite coatings are found only on fossils and are limited to soils exhibiting hydromorphic features and moderate maturity. Pet- rographic and isotopic evidence suggests that hematite and micritic calcite formed at nearly the same time in a pedogenic environment, whereas sparry calcite

  3. Hydrothermal calcite in the Elephant Moraine

    SciTech Connect

    Faure, G.; Taylor, K.S.; Jones, L.M.

    1986-01-01

    In the course of geologic mapping of the Elephant Moraine on the east antarctic ice sheet, Faure and Taylor (1985) collected several specimens of black botryoidal calcite, composed of radiating acicular crystals that resemble stromatolites. Calcite from this and other specimens is significantly enriched in strontium-87 (the strontium-87/strontium-86 ratio equals 0.71417 +/- 0.00002), carbon-12 (delta carbon-13 equals -22.9 parts per thousand, PDB standard) and oxygen-16 (delta oxygen-18 equals -21.1 parts per thousand, standard mean ocean water) compared with calcite of marine origin. The enrichment in carbon-12 is similar to that of calcite associated with coal in the Allan Hills. The enrichment in oxygen-16 indicates that the calcite from the Elephant Moraine could only have precipitated in isotopic equilibrium with glacial melt water. Therefore, the temperature at which the black calcite precipitated from water of that isotope composition was about 85/sup 0/C. A temperature of this magnitude implies that the black calcite formed as a result of volcanic activity under the east antarctic ice sheet. The enrichment of the black calcite in carbon-12 suggests that it formed in part from carbon dioxide derived from the coal seams of the Weller Formation in the Beacon Supergroup. The isotopic composition of strontium in the black calcite is similar to that of carbonate beds and concretions in the Beacon rocks of southern Victoria Land. A volcanic-hydrothermal origin is also consistent with the very low total organic carbon content of 0.15% in the calcite.

  4. Lime pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shushien Chang

    1999-01-01

    Lignocellulose is a valuable alternative energy source. The susceptibility of lignocellulosic biomass to enzymatic hydrolysis is constrained due to its structural features, so pretreatment is essential to enhance enzymatic digestibility. Of the chemicals used as pretreatment agents, it has been reported that alkalis improve biomass digestibility significantly. In comparison with other alkalis such as NaOH and ammonia, lime (calcium hydroxide)

  5. LIMESTONE PARTICLE SIZE AND RESIDUAL LIME CONCENTRATION AFFECT PH BUFFERING IN CONTAINER SUBSTRATES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jinsheng Huang; Paul R. Fisher; W. E. Horner; William R. Argo

    2010-01-01

    The objective was to quantify how the concentration and particle size of unreacted “residual” limestone affected pH buffering capacity for ten commercial and nine research container substrates that varied in residual calcium carbonate equivalents (CCE) from 0.3 to 4.9 g CCE·L. The nine research substrates contained 70% peat:30% perlite (by volume) with dolomitic hydrated lime at 2.1 g·L, followed by

  6. Effect of calcite on Pb-doped solidified waste forms in leaching.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Jin

    2006-06-01

    The alkalinity of cementitious materials rectifies a low pH of leachant to be over 12 in leaching. The rapid change of leachant pH produces the remarked variation of solubility of heavy metals in the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure. The release of lead on cementitious solid waste forms in leaching was observed in the pH range of particularly 12. The release of lead is significant dependant on the changed values of leachant pH. The pH static leaching procedure (PSLP) was implemented for assessing a quantitative measurement of total potential leachability with the continuing addition of acidic leachant up to the point of no change of leachant pH. The release of lead on Pb-doped solidified waste forms (SWF), in the PSLP, was 27.0% of initial concentration at the maximum meq CH3COOH (about 24.0) added to g dry solidified wastes. In this study, the immobilization effect of calcite on SWF was investigated in the acidic condition by the PSLP. Calcite additions to SWF make a good fixation efficiency of about 92%. Calcite addition abundantly provides the acid neutralization capacity to protect SWF from the attack of acid, with the marked development of hydrated minerals (mainly portlandite and C-S-H) in accordance with the accelerating effect of cement hydration. PMID:16376409

  7. Rehabilitating acid soils for increasing crop productivity through low-cost liming material.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Javid Ahmad; Kundu, Manik Chandra; Hazra, Gora Chand; Santra, Gour Hari; Mandal, Biswapati

    2010-09-15

    Productivity of red and lateritic soils is low because of their acidity and deficiencies in few essential nutrients viz., nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, zinc, boron, molybdenum etc. We compared the effectiveness of basic slag, a low-cost liming material, with that of calcite as an ameliorant for these soils using mustard followed by rice as test crops. Experiments were conducted with three levels of each of basic slag and calcite along with a control on farmers' fields at 14 different locations. Influence of farmyard manure (FYM) and poultry manure (PM) on the effectiveness of the slag was also tested. On an average, basic slag performed better than calcite in increasing yields of both mustard and rice and left over higher amounts of available Ca, Si and Zn in residual soils. The slag also improved N, P, K and Ca nutrition of mustard and Si and Zn nutrition of rice with a favorable benefit:cost (B:C) ratio over the calcite (4.82 vs. 1.44). Effectiveness of the basic slag improved when it was applied in combination with FYM or PM (B:C, 5.83 and 6.27). Basic slag can, therefore, be advocated for use in the acidic red and lateritic soils for economically improving their productivity. PMID:20659758

  8. SOIL INFORMATION Last Lime Application

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Industrial Lawns - Bermudagrass Routine (soil pH, P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Mn, Cu, Fe, B, and estimated CEC) $10SOIL INFORMATION Last Lime Application Months Previous Rate Tons/Acre ­ 0 ­ 6 7 ­ 12 13 ­ 18 19+ 0 0.1 ­ 1.0 1.1 ­ 2.0 2.1 ­ 3.0 3.1+ Soil Sample Information Sheet for Golf Courses and Industrial

  9. Nickel adsorption on chalk and calcite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belova, D. A.; Lakshtanov, L. Z.; Carneiro, J. F.; Stipp, S. L. S.

    2014-12-01

    Nickel uptake from solution by two types of chalk and calcite was investigated in batch sorption studies. The goal was to understand the difference in sorption behavior between synthetic and biogenic calcite. Experiments at atmospheric partial pressure of CO2, in solutions equilibrated with calcite and chalk and pH ranging from 7.7 to 8.8, explored the influence of initial concentration and the amount and type of sorbent on Ni uptake. Adsorption increases with increased surface area and pH. A surface complexation model describes the data well. Stability constants for the Ni surface complex are log KNi = - 1.12 on calcite and log KNi = - 0.43 and - 0.50 on the two chalk samples. The study confirms that synthetic calcite and chalk both take up nickel, but Ni binds more strongly on the biogenic calcite than on inorganically precipitated, synthetic powder, because of the presence of trace amounts of polysaccharides and clay nanoparticles on the chalk surface.

  10. Transformation mechanism of amorphous calcium carbonate into calcite in the sea urchin larval spicule

    PubMed Central

    Politi, Yael; Metzler, Rebecca A.; Abrecht, Mike; Gilbert, Benjamin; Wilt, Fred H.; Sagi, Irit; Addadi, Lia; Weiner, Steve; Gilbert, P. U. P. A.

    2008-01-01

    Sea urchin larval spicules transform amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) into calcite single crystals. The mechanism of transformation is enigmatic: the transforming spicule displays both amorphous and crystalline properties, with no defined crystallization front. Here, we use X-ray photoelectron emission spectromicroscopy with probing size of 40–200 nm. We resolve 3 distinct mineral phases: An initial short-lived, presumably hydrated ACC phase, followed by an intermediate transient form of ACC, and finally the biogenic crystalline calcite phase. The amorphous and crystalline phases are juxtaposed, often appearing in adjacent sites at a scale of tens of nanometers. We propose that the amorphous-crystal transformation propagates in a tortuous path through preexisting 40- to 100-nm amorphous units, via a secondary nucleation mechanism. PMID:18987314

  11. Lime for environmental uses. STP 931

    SciTech Connect

    Gutschick, K.A. (Ed.)

    1987-01-01

    This book STP 931 discusses the use of lime and industrial limestone for the control of factors that influence the environment - including the treatment of gaseous, liquid, and solid wastes. Current research shows that lime is one of the key chemicals that can help solve the problem of air, water, and land pollution. Topics covered are: the many environmental uses of lime including water treatment, sewage and industrial waste treatment, and the scrubbing of sulfur dioxide from power plant gases; various lime types and the engineering considerations in the design of lime handling systems; a hazardous waste incident where the waste was solidified with quicklime and lime kiln dust for burial; the growing use of lime and fly-ash for stabilizing scrubber sludges produced in wet scrubbing installations at more than 20 power plants in the United States; use of lime for stabilizing sewage sludge for land fill disposal; neutralization of calcium and magnesium calcium hydroxides through the use of carbon dioxide; and lime stabilization of expansive clays and silty clays for use in earth dams, irrigation canals, and levees.

  12. Calcite dissolution in two deep eutrophic lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Ramisch, F.; Dittrich, M.; Mattenberger, C.; Wehrli, B.; Wueest, A.

    1999-10-01

    The calcium cycle, in particular carbonate dissolution, was analyzed in two deep eutrophic lakes, Lago di Lugano (288 m maximum depth) and Sempachersee (87 m) located in Switzerland. A box model approach was used to calculate calcite dissolution in the water column and at the sediment-water interface based on various lake monitoring data such as sediment traps, sediment cores, water and pore-water interface based on various lake monitoring data such as sediment traps, sediment cores, water and pore-water analysis. A model for stationary conditions allowing the calculation of calcite dissolution in the water column for a given particle size distribution was developed. The relative values of the simulated flux were consistent with sediment trap observations. The best fit of the dissolution rate constant of sinking calcite in Lago di Lugano was on the same order of magnitude (3 {center{underscore}dot} 10{sup {minus}10} kg{sup 1/3} s{sup {minus}1}) as published laboratory values for this surface controlled process. Both lakes show a similar specific calcite precipitation rate of 170 g Ca m{sup {minus}2} a{sup {minus}1}. The diffusive flux across the sediment-water interface amounts to about 15 and 10% of total calcite precipitation in Sempachersee and Lago di Lugano, respectively. However, 61% of the precipitated calcite is dissolved in the water column of Lago di Lugano compared to only 13% in Sempachersee. These results point towards the importance of grain size distributions and settling times in stratified deep waters as the two most important factors determining calcite retention in sediments of hard water lakes.

  13. Examination of the system fly ash lime calcined gypsum water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinkovic, S.; Kostic-Pulek, A.

    2007-05-01

    The feasibility of the utilization of the system fly ash lime calcined gypsum (?-hemihydrate) water (the mass ratio 2:1:2:2.5) for the production of building ceramics was investigated. The system was cured under different conditions, i.e., tap water and ambient air. It was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis that three hydration products (gypsum, portlandite and ettringite) were formed in the water-cured system and two (gypsum and portlandite) in the air-cured system. Due to the formation of these products, a compressive strength of 4.01 MPa in the water-cured and 7.83 MPa in air-cured system developed. When the air-cured system was exposed to three alternate heating cooling or three alternate cooling heating cycles, the compressive strength increased (from 7.83 to 9.47 and 10.55 MPa, respectively). The fly ash lime calcined gypsum water systems prepared in this work can be applied for the manufacture of products for internal walls (bricks and blocks).

  14. Study on lime–fly ash–phosphogypsum binder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weiguo Shen; Mingkai Zhou; Qinglin Zhao

    2007-01-01

    In this study a new type of lime–fly ash–phosphogypsum binder was prepared to improve the performances of lime–fly ash binder which was a typical semi-rigid road base material binder in China. The modified lime powder had much higher activity than ordinary quick lime or slaked lime powder, it was the best alkali activator to prepare lime–fly ash–phosphogypsum binder. The optimum

  15. Effects of carbonation on the pore structure of non-hydraulic lime mortars

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, Robert M. [Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering, University of Bath, BATH, BA2 7AY (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: mike@cc-w.co.uk; Mays, Timothy J. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Bath, BATH, BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Rigby, Sean P. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Bath, BATH, BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Walker, Peter [Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering, University of Bath, BATH, BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); D'Ayala, Dina [Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering, University of Bath, BATH, BA2 7AY (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-15

    The pore structures of carbonated non-hydraulic lime mortars made with a range of different aggregates and concentrations of lime have been determined using mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP). MIP data have been correlated with scanning electron microscopy images and other porosity data. During carbonation there is an increase in pore volume in the {approx} 0.1 {mu}m pore diameter range across all mortar types which is attributed to the transformation of portlandite to calcite. Also there is a monotonic increase in the volumes of pores with diameters below 0.03 {mu}m. A model is proposed for the changes in pore structure caused by carbonation. This attributes the increase in the volume of sub 0.03 {mu}m pores to the attachment of calcite crystals to the surface of aggregate particles, and in some cases to the surface of portlandite crystals. This phenomenon may explain the continuing presence of portlandite in mortars that, apparently, have fully carbonated.

  16. Developing Mobile Applications: A LIME Primer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gian Pietro Picco; Amy L. Murphy; Gruia-Catalin Roman

    2003-01-01

    Mobility poses peculiar challenges that must be addressed by novel programming constructs. LIME (Linda in a Mobile Environment) tackles the problem by adopting a coordination perspective inspired by work on the Linda model. The context for computation, represented in Linda by a single, globally accessible, persistent tuple space, is reinterpreted in LIME as the transient sharing of the tuple spaces

  17. Simple Analysis of Historical Lime Mortars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pires, Joa~o

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory experiment is described in which a simple characterization of a historical lime mortar is made by the determination of its approximate composition by a gravimetric method. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) are also used for the qualitative characterization of the lime mortar components. These…

  18. Clathrate hydrates in nature.

    PubMed

    Hester, Keith C; Brewer, Peter G

    2009-01-01

    Scientific knowledge of natural clathrate hydrates has grown enormously over the past decade, with spectacular new findings of large exposures of complex hydrates on the sea floor, the development of new tools for examining the solid phase in situ, significant progress in modeling natural hydrate systems, and the discovery of exotic hydrates associated with sea floor venting of liquid CO2. Major unresolved questions remain about the role of hydrates in response to climate change today, and correlations between the hydrate reservoir of Earth and the stable isotopic evidence of massive hydrate dissociation in the geologic past. The examination of hydrates as a possible energy resource is proceeding apace for the subpermafrost accumulations in the Arctic, but serious questions remain about the viability of marine hydrates as an economic resource. New and energetic explorations by nations such as India and China are quickly uncovering large hydrate findings on their continental shelves. PMID:21141039

  19. Isotopic fractionation of cadmium into calcite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horner, Tristan J.; Rickaby, Rosalind E. M.; Henderson, Gideon M.

    2011-12-01

    Cadmium mimics the distribution of the macronutrient phosphate in the oceans, and has uses as a palaeoproxy of past ocean circulation and nutrient utilization. Isotopic analyses of dissolved Cd in modern seawater show potential as a new tool for disentangling phytoplankton utilization of Cd from abiotic processes, such as ocean mixing. Extending this information into the past requires the Cd isotope signal to be captured and faithfully preserved in a suitable sedimentary archive. However, the role that environmental factors, such as temperature, may play in controlling Cd isotope fractionation into such archives has not been assessed. To this end, we have performed controlled inorganic CaCO 3 precipitation experiments in artificial seawater solutions. We grew calcite under different precipitation rates, temperatures, salinities, and ambient [Mg 2 + ], before measuring Cd isotopic compositions by double spike MC-ICPMS. We find that the isotopic fractionation factor for Cd into calcite ( ?-C) in seawater is always less than one (i.e. light isotopes of Cd are preferred in calcite). The fractionation factor has a value of 0.99955 ± 0.00012 and shows no response to temperature, [Mg 2 + ], or precipitation rate across the range studied. The constancy of this fractionation in seawater suggests that marine calcites may provide a record of the local seawater composition, without the need to correct for effects due to environmental variables. We also performed CaCO 3 growth in freshwater and, in contrast to calcite precipitated from artificial seawater solutions, no isotopic offset was recorded between the growth solution and calcite ( ?-Cd=1.0000±0.0001). Cadmium isotope fractionation during calcite growth can be explained by a kinetic isotope effect during the largely unidirectional incorporation of Cd at the mineral surface. Further, the rate of Cd uptake and isotopic fractionation can be modulated by increased ion blocking of crystal surface sites at high salinity. The fractionation of Cd isotopes observed during precipitation of calcite has the same direction and similar magnitude to that implicated for Cd removal from the surface ocean by seawater measurements. However, flux calculations show that CaCO 3 precipitation is unlikely to play a significant role in setting the Cd isotope composition in seawater, compared to Cd utilization in phytoplankton soft tissue. Marine carbonates therefore record seawater Cd isotope chemistry - with potential as a palaeoceanographic proxy - rather than drive oceanic Cd isotope compositions.

  20. LIMEDS

    PubMed Central

    Timpka, Toomas

    1986-01-01

    Most Decision Support Systems (DSSs) in medicine have been developed in hospital environments, for use in hospitals. Only a few are designed for use by General Practitioners (GPs) in primary care. The work reported in this paper has a twofold aim: [List: see text

  1. Post-deformational annealing of calcite rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnhoorn, Auke; Bystricky, Misha; Burlini, Luigi; Kunze, Karsten

    2005-07-01

    The evolution of microstructure and crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) during post-deformational annealing was studied on three calcite rock types differing in purity and grain size: Carrara marble (98% calcite, mean grain size of 115 ?m), Solnhofen limestone (96%, 5 ?m) and synthetic calcite aggregates (99%, 7 ?m). Samples were first deformed in torsion at 727 °C at a shear strain rate of 3 × 10 - 4 s - 1 to a shear strain of 5 and subsequently heat-treated at 727 °C for various durations between 0 and 24 h. Microstructures and CPOs were analysed by optical microscopy, image analysis and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). All rock types deformed in the dislocation creep field at the same applied conditions, but their microstructures and CPOs after deformation and after annealing differed depending on starting grain size and material composition. In Carrara marble and in the synthetic calcite aggregate, a strong CPO developed during deformation accompanied by dynamic recrystallisation with significant changes in grain size. During annealing, widespread grain growth and subtle changes of CPO occurred, and equilibrated foam microstructures were approached after long annealing times. The CPO is the only feature in annealed samples indicating an earlier deformation phase, although it is not always identical to the CPO formed during deformation. In the more impure Solnhofen limestone, secondary phases on grain boundaries suppressed grain boundary mobility and prevented both the formation of a recrystallisation CPO during deformation and grain size modification during deformation and annealing.

  2. Cyclic Cratonic Carbonates and Phanerozoic Calcite Seas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Bruce H.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses causes of cyclicity in cratonic carbonate sequences and evidence for and potential significance of postulated primary calcite sediment components in past Paleozoic seas, outlining problems, focusing on models explaining existing data, and identifying background. Future sedimentary geologists will need to address these and related areas…

  3. Interaction of alcohols with the calcite surface.

    PubMed

    Bovet, N; Yang, M; Javadi, M S; Stipp, S L S

    2015-02-01

    A clearer understanding of calcite interactions with organic molecules would contribute to a range of fields including harnessing the secrets of biomineralisation where organisms produce hard parts, increasing oil production from spent reservoirs, remediating contaminated soils and drinking water aquifers and improving manufacturing methods for industrial products such as pigments, soft abrasives, building materials and optical devices. Biomineralisation by some species of blue green algae produces beautifully elaborate platelets of calcite where the individual crystals are of nanometer scale. Controlling their growth requires complex polysaccharides. Polysaccharide activity depends on the functionality of OH groups, so to simplify the system in order to get closer to a molecular level understanding, we investigated the interaction of OH from a suite of alcohols with clean, freshly cleaved calcite surfaces. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) provided binding energies and revealed the extent of surface coverage. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations supplemented with information about molecule ordering, orientation and packing density. The results show that all alcohols studied bond with the calcite surface through the OH group, with their carbon chains sticking away in a standing-up orientation. Alcohol molecules are closely packed and form a well-ordered monolayer on the surface. PMID:25533590

  4. A comparative evaluation of cement and lime modification of laterite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. O. A. Osula

    1996-01-01

    A report on an investigation conducted to compare the performances of lime and cement as modifiers for laterite is presented. The comparison encompassed immediate and time effects of modification. The results show marginally better performance for lime with respect to both immediate and time effects of modification. This is attributable to the apparently higher lime—clay ratios of the soil—lime mixes.

  5. Single-contact pressure solution creep on calcite monocrystals

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    and in a calcite-saturated aqueous solution of NH4Cl. The deformation (depth of the hole below the indenter temperature in a saturated aqueous solution of calcite. The displacement of the indenter was continuously in this solution. In contrast, the experiments conducted in a calcite-saturated aqueous solution show moderate

  6. The role of silicate surfaces on calcite precipitation kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockmann, Gabrielle J.; Wolff-Boenisch, Domenik; Bovet, Nicolas; Gislason, Sigurdur R.; Oelkers, Eric H.

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study is to illuminate how calcite precipitation depends on the identity and structure of the growth substrate. Calcite was precipitated at 25 °C from supersaturated aqueous solutions in the presence of seeds of either calcite or one of six silicate materials: augite, enstatite, labradorite, olivine, basaltic glass and peridotite rock. Calcite saturation was achieved by mixing a CaCl2-rich aqueous solution with a NaHCO3-Na2CO3 aqueous buffer in mixed-flow reactors containing 0.5-2 g of mineral, rock, or glass seeds. This led to an inlet fluid calcite saturation index of 0.6 and a pH equal to 9.1. Although the inlet fluid composition, flow rate, and temperature were identical for all experiments, the onset of calcite precipitation depended on the identity of the seeds present in the reactor. Calcite precipitated instantaneously and at a constant rate in the presence of calcite grains. Calcite precipitated relatively rapidly on labradorite, olivine, enstatite, and peridotite (mainly composed of Mg-olivine) surfaces, but more slowly on augite and basaltic glass. Calcite precipitation rates, however, became independent of substrate identity and mass over time, and all rates approach 10-9.68 ± 0.08 mol/s for ?10 day long experiments and 10-9.21 ± 0.2 mol/s for ?70 day long experiments. Scanning Electron Microscope images showed olivine, enstatite and peridotite surfaces to be covered extensively with calcite coatings at the end of the experiments. Less calcite was found on labradorite and augite, and the least on basaltic glass. In all cases, calcite precipitation occurs on the mineral, rock or glass surfaces. Calcite precipitation on these surfaces, however, negligibly affects the dissolution rates of the silicate grains. These results support ultramafic and basalt carbonation as a long-term carbon storage strategy, as calcite readily precipitates on the surfaces of minerals contained in these rocks without inhibiting their dissolution.

  7. in situ Calcite Precipitation for Contaminant Immobilization

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshiko Fujita; Robert W. Smith

    2009-08-01

    in situ Calcite Precipitation for Contaminant Immobilization Yoshiko Fujita (Yoshiko.fujita@inl.gov) (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho, USA) Robert W. Smith (University of Idaho-Idaho Falls, Idaho Falls, Idaho, USA) Subsurface radionuclide and trace metal contaminants throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex pose one of DOE’s greatest challenges for long-term stewardship. One promising stabilization mechanism for divalent trace ions, such as the short-lived radionuclide strontium-90, is co-precipitation in calcite. Calcite, a common mineral in the arid western U.S., can form solid solutions with trace metals. The rate of trace metal incorporation is susceptible to manipulation using either abiotic or biotic means. We have previously demonstrated that increasing the calcite precipitation rate by stimulating the activity of urea hydrolyzing microorganisms can result in significantly enhanced Sr uptake. Urea hydrolysis causes the acceleration of calcium carbonate precipitation (and trace metal co-precipitation) by increasing pH and alkalinity, and also by liberating the reactive cations from the aquifer matrix via exchange reactions involving the ammonium ion derived from urea: H2NCONH2 + 3H2O ? 2NH4+ + HCO3- + OH- urea hydrolysis >X:2Ca + 2NH4+ ? 2>X:NH4 + Ca2+ ion exchange Ca2+ + HCO3- + OH- ? CaCO3(s) + H2O calcite precipitation where >X: is a cation exchange site on the aquifer matrix. This contaminant immobilization approach has several attractive features. Urea hydrolysis is catalyzed by the urease enzyme, which is produced by many indigenous subsurface microorganisms. Addition of foreign microbes is unnecessary. In turn the involvement of the native microbes and the consequent in situ generation of reactive components in the aqueous phase (e.g., carbonate and Ca or Sr) can allow dissemination of the reaction over a larger volume and/or farther away from an amendment injection point, as compared to direct addition of the reactants at a well (which can lead to clogging). A final particularly attractive characteristic of this approach is its long-term sustainability; the remediation scheme is geared toward environments that are already saturated with respect to calcite, and in such systems the bulk of any newly precipitated calcite will remain stable once engineered manipulations cease. This means that the co-precipitated contaminants will be effectively sequestered over the long term. We are currently conducting integrated field, laboratory, and computational research to evaluate a) the relationships between urea hydrolysis rate, calcite precipitation rate, and trace metal partitioning under environmentally relevant conditions; and b) the coupling between flow/flux manipulations and calcite precipitate distribution and metal uptake. We are also assessing the application of geophysical and molecular biological tools to monitor the relevant chemical and physical processes. The primary emphasis is on field-scale processes, with the laboratory and modeling activities designed specifically to support the field studies. Field experiments are being conducted in perched water (vadose zone) at the Vadose Zone Research Park (VZRP) at the Idaho National Laboratory; the VZRP provides an uncontaminated setting that is an analog of the 90Sr-contaminated vadose zone at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. A summary of results to date will be presented.

  8. FULL SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF LIME STABILIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The project objective was to demonstrate and evaluate the feasibility, economics, and benefits of stabilizing primary, waste activated, septic, and anaerobically digested sludges by lime addition. The project confirmed the findings of previous laboratory and pilot scale tests and...

  9. Hydrate-phobic surfaces

    E-print Network

    Smith, Jonathan David, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01

    Clathrate hydrate formation and subsequent plugging of deep-sea oil and gas pipelines represent a significant bottleneck for ultra deep-sea production. Current methods for hydrate mitigation focus on injecting thermodynamic ...

  10. Dissolution Kinetics of Biogenic Magnesian Calcites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, R.; Guidry, M.; Mackenzie, F. T.; De Carlo, E. H.

    2014-12-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) is a serious concern for the health of calcifying ecosystems in the near future. During the past century, surface ocean pH has decreased by ~0.1 pH units, and is expected to decrease further by 0.3-0.4 pH units by the end of this century. The process of OA will likely result in both decreased calcification rates and increased rates of carbonate mineral dissolution, particularly involving the magnesian calcite (Mg-calcite) calcifiers found in shallow-water reef and other carbonate environments. Many Mg-calcite compositions are the most soluble of the carbonate phases commonly found in reef environments (often comprising much of the cementation and structure within a reef), and are therefore potentially the most susceptible to dissolution processes associated with OA. However, the dissolution kinetics of these phases is poorly known, limiting our ability to understand their behavior in nature. Laboratory experiments designed to investigate the mechanisms and dissolution rates of biogenic Mg-calcite mineral phases in distilled water and seawater over a range of CO2 and T conditions were conducted employing both batch and fluidized-bed reactor systems and using a variety of cleaned and annealed biogenic Mg-calcite phases. Our initial results have shown that the dissolution rate at 298 K and a pCO2 of ~350 ppm of the crustose coralline alga Amphiroa rigida (~20 mol% MgCO3) in seawater undersaturated with respect to this phase is 3.6 ?mol g-1 hr-1, nearly 50% greater than that under similar conditions for aragonite. This rate and the derived experimental rate law are consistent with the preliminary findings of Walter and Morse (1985). Additional kinetic (and also solubility) data will be presented for the following species: Chiton tuberculatus (~0-4 mol% MgCO3); Echinometra mathei and/or Lytechinus variegatus (~8-12 mol% MgCO3); Homotrema rubrum (12-16 mol% MgCO3); and Lithothamnion sp. (~18-24 mol% MgCO3). Quantification of the rates of dissolution for a broad range of Mg-calcite phases, along with determination of sediment mineralogy, is necessary to allow managers to model and predict quantitatively the impacts of OA on a variety of coral reef and other carbonate-dominated sedimentary environments.

  11. A field application for lime stabilization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aydin Kavak; Adnan Akyarli

    2007-01-01

    This study presents the improvements achieved as a result of the lime stabilization application conducted by the joint effort\\u000a of the Turkish Association of Lime Industrialists and the General Directorate of Rural Services on the 200 m long section\\u000a of the Ankara Province Yukar? Yurt?u Village road where green and brown clays are dominant. The study also numerically demonstrates\\u000a the impacts

  12. Lime and Phosphoric Acid Requirements for Chicks.

    E-print Network

    Sherwood, R. M. (Ross Madison)

    1932-01-01

    of phosphoric acid than for the higher levels ,studied. The mineral requirements recommended for normal gains in live weight also resulted in satisfactory calcification of the bones. With these amounts of phosphoric acid and lime for chicks up to twelve... ______....____._...-----------.-.-----------.-------------.------------------------- 13 Literature Cited 14 BULLETIN NO. 462 NOVEMBER, 1932 LIME AND PHOSPHORIC ACID REQUIREMENTS FOR CHICKS R. M. SHERWOOD Studies on the calcium and phosphorous requirements for chicks have been conducted by numerous workers. Those working...

  13. Basic Principles of Liming John Peters

    E-print Network

    Balser, Teri C.

    Basic Principles of Liming John Peters UW Soil Science Department #12;#12;#12;Soil pH affects many · Herbicide performance #12;#12;#12;What factors determine the lime needs of a soil · Soil pH ­ determined by soil test · Buffer pH ­ determined by soil test #12;Buffer pH Organic matter Soil pH #12;Figure 3

  14. Thermal behavior of biodegraded lime wood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carmen-Mihaela Popescu; Alexandru Manoliu; Gabriela Lisa; Petronela Gradinariu; Cornelia Vasile

    2010-01-01

    The effects of the soft-rot fungus Trichoderma viride Pers., on the thermal behavior of lime wood (Tillia cordata Mill.) were investigated. The lime wood pieces were inoculated with the fungus over a 12-week period. At pre-established time intervals two samples were withdrawn from the medium and analyzed by thermogravimetry and differential calorimetry, and the results were correlated with mass loss.

  15. Hydration of obsidian

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Laursen; W. A. Lanford

    1978-01-01

    The hydration of obsidian is studied by measuring hydrogen concentration profiles of natural samples hydrated at 90°C, using the 15N resonance nuclear reaction method. The results of this study are well reproduced by the interdiffusion model of Doremus. The importance of the non-amorphous phase of obsidian is discussed. It is pointed out that the precision methods of measuring hydration profiles

  16. Effects of calcite and magnesite application to a declining Masson pine forest on strongly acidified soil in Southwestern China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yongmei; Kang, Ronghua; Ma, Xiaoxiao; Qi, Yu; Mulder, Jan; Duan, Lei

    2014-05-15

    Liming of strongly acidified soil under a Masson pine (Pinus massoniana Lamb.) forest was studied through a seven-year field manipulation experiment at Tieshanping, Chongqing in Southwestern China. To distinguish between the individual effects of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) addition, we separately applied calcite (CaCO3) and magnesite (MgCO3), rather than using dolomite [CaMg(CO3)2]. Both calcite and magnesite additions caused a significant increase in pH and a decrease in dissolved inorganic monomeric aluminium (Ali) concentration of soil water. Ecological recovery included increases of herb biomass (both treatments) and Mg content in Masson pine needles (magnesite treatment only). However, the growth rate of Masson pine did not increase under either treatment, possibly because of nutrient imbalance due to phosphorus (P) deficiency or limited observation period. In China, acid deposition in forest ecosystems commonly coincides with large inputs of atmogenic Ca(2+), both enhancing Mg(2+) leaching. Calcite addition may further decrease the Mg(2+) availability in soil water, thereby exacerbating Mg(2+) deficiency in the acidified forest soils of southern and southwestern China. The effect of anthropogenic acidification of naturally acid forest soils on P availability needs further study. PMID:24631610

  17. Improved control of sucrose losses and clarified juice turbidity with lime saccharate in hot lime clarification of sugarcane juice and other comparisons with milk of lime

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A comparative investigation of adding milk of lime (MOL) versus lime saccharate (SACCH) in hot lime clarification of juice at a U.S. sugarcane factory was undertaken to quantify performance across the 2009 processing season after a preliminary factory study in 2008. SACCH was prepared by adding hyd...

  18. LIME AND CEMENT INDUSTRY PARTICULATE EMISSIONS: SOURCE CATEGORY REPORT. VOLUME 1. LIME INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study to develop particulate emission factors based on cutoff size for inhalable particles for the lime industry. After reviewing available information characterizing particulate emissions from lime plants, the data were summarized and rated in terms...

  19. Hydrate characterization research overview

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, R.D.

    1993-06-01

    Gas hydrate research has been focused primarily on the development of a basic understanding of hydrate formation and dissociation in the laboratory, as well as in the field. Laboratory research on gas hydrates characterized the physical system, which focused on creating methane hydrates samples, tetrahydrofuran (THF) hydrate samples, consolidated rock samples, frost base mixtures, water/ice-base mixtures, and water-base mixtures. Laboratory work produced measurements of sonic velocity and electrical resistivity of hydrates. As work progressed, areas, such as the Gulf of Mexico and the Guatemala Trench, where gas hydrates are likely to occur were identified, and specific high potential areas were targeted for detailed investigation. The testing of samples and recovered cores from such areas provided information for detection of hydrate formations in the natural environment. Natural gas hydrate samples have been tested for thermal properties, dissociation properties, fracture mechanics, and optical properties. Acoustical properties were investigated both in the laboratory and, as possible, in the field. Sonic velocity and electrical resistivity measurements will continue to be obtained. These activities have been undertaken in hydrate deposits on Alaska`s North Slope, the Gulf of Mexico and the US East coast offshore, as well as other gas hydrate target areas.

  20. Controlling local packing and growth in calcium-silicate-hydrate gels.

    PubMed

    Ioannidou, Katerina; Pellenq, Roland J-M; Del Gado, Emanuela

    2014-02-28

    We investigate the development of gels under out-of-equilibrium conditions, such as calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H) gels that form during cement hydration and are the major factor responsible for cement mechanical strength. We propose a new model and numerical approach to follow the gel formation upon precipitation and aggregation of nano-scale colloidal hydrates, whose effective interactions are consistent with forces measured in experiments at fixed lime concentrations. We use Grand Canonical Monte Carlo to mimic precipitation events during Molecular Dynamics simulations, with their rate corresponding to the hydrate production rate set by the chemical environment. Our results display hydrate precipitation curves that indeed reproduce the acceleration and deceleration regime typically observed in experiments and we are able to correctly capture the effect of lime concentration on the hydration kinetics and the gel morphology. Our analysis of the evolution of the gel morphology indicates that the acceleration is related to the formation of an optimal local crystalline packing that allows for large, elongated aggregates to grow and that is controlled by the underlying thermodynamics. The defects produced during precipitation favor branching and gelation that end up controlling the deceleration. The effects on the mechanical properties of C-S-H gels are also discussed. PMID:24652466

  1. Hydration characteristics of tricalcium aluminate phase in mixes containing {beta}-hemihydate and phosphogypsum

    SciTech Connect

    Radwan, M.M. [National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo (Egypt); Heikal, M. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Benha Branch, Benha (Egypt)]. E-mail: ayaheikal@hotmail.com

    2005-08-01

    The tricalcium aluminte phase was prepared from pure chemicals on a laboratory scale. Five mixes were formulated from the prepared C{sub 3}A phase, {beta}-hemihydate, phosphogypsum, calcium hydroxide and quartz. Different mixes were hydrated at various time intervals, namely, 6, 24, 72 and 168 h. The kinetics of hydration was measured from chemically combined water and combined lime contents. The phase compositions and microstructures of the hydrated products were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analysis (DTA)/TG, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques and FT-IR spectroscopy. This work aimed to study the effect of partial to full substitution of phosphogypsum by {beta}-hemihydate on the hydration characteristics and microstructures of tricalcium aluminte phase. The results showed that the combined lime slightly increases with the increase of amounts of phosphogypsum. The XRD patterns showed the increase in the intensities of monosulphate and different forms of calcium aluminate (C{sub 4}AH{sub 13} and C{sub 4}AH{sub 19}) with phosphogypsum content. Ettringite is less stable than monosulphoaluminate, so it transformed into monosulpho-aluminate after 24 h, which persisted up to 168 h. The mechanism of the hydration process of C{sub 3}A phase in the presence of phosphogypsum proceeds in a similar path as with {beta}-hemihydate. Phosphogypsum reacts with C{sub 3}A in the presence of Ca(OH){sub 2} forming sulphoaluminate hydrates, which are responsible for setting regulation in cementitious system.

  2. A mild alkali treated jute fibre controlling the hydration behaviour of greener cement paste

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Byung-Wan; Chakraborty, Sumit

    2015-01-01

    To reduce the antagonistic effect of jute fibre on the setting and hydration of jute reinforced cement, modified jute fibre reinforcement would be a unique approach. The present investigation deals with the effectiveness of mild alkali treated (0.5%) jute fibre on the setting and hydration behaviour of cement. Setting time measurement, hydration test and analytical characterizations of the hardened samples (viz., FTIR, XRD, DSC, TGA, and free lime estimation) were used to evaluate the effect of alkali treated jute fibre. From the hydration test, the time (t) required to reach maximum temperature for the hydration of control cement sample is estimated to be 860?min, whilst the time (t) is measured to be 1040?min for the hydration of a raw jute reinforced cement sample. However, the time (t) is estimated to be 1020?min for the hydration of an alkali treated jute reinforced cement sample. Additionally, from the analytical characterizations, it is determined that fibre-cement compatibility is increased and hydration delaying effect is minimized by using alkali treated jute fibre as fibre reinforcement. Based on the analyses, a model has been proposed to explain the setting and hydration behaviour of alkali treated jute fibre reinforced cement composite. PMID:25592665

  3. A mild alkali treated jute fibre controlling the hydration behaviour of greener cement paste.

    PubMed

    Jo, Byung-Wan; Chakraborty, Sumit

    2015-01-01

    To reduce the antagonistic effect of jute fibre on the setting and hydration of jute reinforced cement, modified jute fibre reinforcement would be a unique approach. The present investigation deals with the effectiveness of mild alkali treated (0.5%) jute fibre on the setting and hydration behaviour of cement. Setting time measurement, hydration test and analytical characterizations of the hardened samples (viz., FTIR, XRD, DSC, TGA, and free lime estimation) were used to evaluate the effect of alkali treated jute fibre. From the hydration test, the time (t) required to reach maximum temperature for the hydration of control cement sample is estimated to be 860 min, whilst the time (t) is measured to be 1040 min for the hydration of a raw jute reinforced cement sample. However, the time (t) is estimated to be 1020 min for the hydration of an alkali treated jute reinforced cement sample. Additionally, from the analytical characterizations, it is determined that fibre-cement compatibility is increased and hydration delaying effect is minimized by using alkali treated jute fibre as fibre reinforcement. Based on the analyses, a model has been proposed to explain the setting and hydration behaviour of alkali treated jute fibre reinforced cement composite. PMID:25592665

  4. Combustion of Methane Hydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roshandell, Melika

    A significant methane storehouse is in the form of methane hydrates on the sea floor and in the arctic permafrost. Methane hydrates are ice-like structures composed of water cages housing a guest methane molecule. This caged methane represents a resource of energy and a potential source of strong greenhouse gas. Most research related to methane hydrates has been focused on their formation and dissociation because they can form solid plugs that complicate transport of oil and gas in pipelines. This dissertation explores the direct burning of these methane hydrates where heat from the combustion process dissociates the hydrate into water and methane, and the released methane fuels the methane/air diffusion flame heat source. In contrast to the pipeline applications, very little research has been done on the combustion and burning characteristics of methane hydrates. This is the first dissertation on this subject. In this study, energy release and combustion characteristics of methane hydrates were investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The experimental study involved collaboration with another research group, particularly in the creation of methane hydrate samples. The experiments were difficult because hydrates form at high pressure within a narrow temperature range. The process can be slow and the resulting hydrate can have somewhat variable properties (e.g., extent of clathration, shape, compactness). The experimental study examined broad characteristics of hydrate combustion, including flame appearance, burning time, conditions leading to flame extinguishment, the amount of hydrate water melted versus evaporated, and flame temperature. These properties were observed for samples of different physical size. Hydrate formation is a very slow process with pure water and methane. The addition of small amounts of surfactant increased substantially the hydrate formation rate. The effects of surfactant on burning characteristics were also studied. One finding from the experimental component of the research was that hydrates can burn completely, and that they burn most rapidly just after ignition and then burn steadily when some of the water in the dissociated zone is allowed to drain away. Excessive surfactant in the water creates a foam layer around the hydrate that acts as an insulator. The layer prevents sufficient heat flux from reaching the hydrate surface below the foam to release additional methane and the hydrate flame extinguishes. No self-healing or ice-freezing processes were observed in any of the combustion experiments. There is some variability, but a typical hydrate flame is receiving between one and two moles of water vapor from the liquid dissociated zone of the hydrate for each mole of methane it receives from the dissociating solid region. This limits the flame temperature to approximately 1800 K. In the theoretical portion of the study, a physical model using an energy balance from methane combustion was developed to understand the energy transfer between the three phases of gas, liquid and solid during the hydrate burn. Also this study provides an understanding of the different factors impacting the hydrate's continuous burn, such as the amount of water vapor in the flame. The theoretical study revealed how the water layer thickness on the hydrate surface, and its effect on the temperature gradient through the dissociated zone, plays a significant role in the hydrate dissociation rate and methane release rate. Motivated by the above mentioned observation from the theoretical analysis, a 1-D two-phase numerical simulation based on a moving front model for hydrate dissociation from a thermal source was developed. This model was focused on the dynamic growth of the dissociated zone and its effect on the dissociation rate. The model indicated that the rate of hydrate dissociation with a thermal source is a function of the dissociated zone thickness. It shows that in order for a continuous dissociation and methane release, some of the water from the dissociated zone needs to be drained. The results

  5. Zinc isotope fractionation during adsorption on calcite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, S.; Wasylenki, L. E.

    2013-12-01

    Zinc is an important element as a nutrient in the marine biosphere. However, our understanding of its biogeochemical cycling in the oceans is relatively limited. The Zn stable isotope system holds the promise of providing novel insights, since published Zn isotopic values for various natural samples reveal significant fractionations in the marine environment. Surface seawater, basalts, shales, deep-sea clay sediments, sediment trap material, bulk plankton and zooplankton samples, and eolian dust fall within a tight range (?66/64Zn from -0.1 to 0.5‰), but modern ferromanganese crusts (?66/64Zn from 0.5 to 1.2‰), as well as carbonates (?66/64Zn from 0.3 to 1.4‰), are notably enriched in heavy Zn isotopes [1-4]. In this study we seek to constrain the mechanism by which carbonates are enriched in heavier isotopes. In particular, we have conducted experiments to quantify isotope fractionation during adsorption of Zn onto the surfaces of calcite crystals that are in equilibrium with solution. The adsorption experiments were carried out in a series of small-volume batch reactions in a clean laboratory environment, using high-purity reagents and calcite seed crystals. The calcite was equilibrated with the solution prior to addition of Zn at atmospheric CO2 pressure (i.e., in air) for 5 days until a stable pH of 8.3 was reached. Later, a small aliquot of dissolved ZnCl2 was added such that the solution remained undersaturated with respect to hydrozincite. Experimental duration varied among the replicates from 6 to 144 hours, and then all solids and solutions were separated by filtration, purified by ion exchange chromatography, and analyzed by MC-ICP-MS. Zn adsorbed on calcite is isotopically heavier than in the co-existing solutions, with ?68/66Zncalcite-solution of approximately 0.3‰. The variation of ?68/66Zncalcite-solution beyond 24 hours is insignificant, so we infer that isotopic equilibrium is reached by this time. Previous work strongly suggests that a difference in coordination number between dissolved Zn and adsorbed Zn is drives the observed fractionation. Elzinga and Reeder[5] determined using EXAFS (Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure) that Zn adsorbed to calcite surfaces is tetrahedrally coordinated, sharing three oxygens with the calcite surface. Meanwhile density functional theory calculations[6] predicted that tetrahedral Zn-O species should be heavier than octahedral Zn-O species. Thus we infer that equilibrium between octahedrally coordinated, dissolved Zn and tetrahedrally coordinated, adsorbed Zn is the mechanism of fractionation in our experiments. Our further studies will determine whether the isotopically heavy pool of adsorbed Zn becomes the Zn incorporated within carbonates; if so, then we are closer to understanding the mechanism by which carbonate rocks in nature are enriched in heavier isotopes of zinc. [1] Bermin et al., 2006, Chem. Geol. 226, 280. [2] Maréchal et al., 2000, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 1, 1999GC-000029. [3] Dong et al., 2013, Talanta 114, 103-109. [4] Pichat et al., 2003, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 210, 167-178. [5] Elzinga and Reeder, 2002, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 66, 3943-3954. [6] Schauble, 2003, EOS, Trans. AGU, Fall Meet. Suppl. 84(46), B12B-0781.

  6. 62. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE LIME KILN BUILDING, LOOKING AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    62. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE LIME KILN BUILDING, LOOKING AT THE LIME KILNS AND MOTOR DRIVES FOR THE KILNS. (DATE UNKNOWN). - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  7. Dynamic Response of Soda-Lime Glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, C. Scott

    2007-06-01

    Soda-lime glass (SLG) is a highly available low cost glass formulation commonly used in window applications and it may have potential use in transparent ceramic armor. While there has been a great deal of work done to characterize the shock response of fused silica, the primary component of SLG, comparatively little is known about SLG itself. This paper will report the results of characterization experiments conducted at Sandia National Laboratories on a low iron content soda-lime glass commercially available from PPG Industries. Data have been collected over a wide range of stress levels from 4 to 65 GPa. Topics will include the Hugoniot response including non-linear elastic behavior, support for a high stress phase transition, material strength, and evidence for failure of the material under certain conditions. Further, the results will be compared and contrasted with related findings in fused silica as well as work on similar soda-lime glass formulations reported by other researchers.

  8. Polycrystalline calcite to aragonite transformation kinetics: experiments in synthetic systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shueh-Jung Lin; Wuu-Liang Huang

    2004-01-01

    The kinetics of the calcite to aragonite transformation have been investigated using synthetic polycrystalline calcite aggregates, with and without additional minerals present. The reaction progresses as a function of time were measured at four temperature\\/pressure conditions: (1) 550 °C\\/1.86 GPa; (2) 600 °C\\/2.11 GPa; (3) 650 °C\\/2.11 GPa, and (4) 700 °C\\/2.29 GPa. Experiments reveal that Mg-calcite and Fe-calcite transforms to aragonite at considerably slower rates than pure

  9. Atomistic Simulations of Corrosion Inhibitors Adsorbed on Calcite Surfaces I. Force field Parameters for Calcite

    E-print Network

    Goddard III, William A.

    ARTICLES Atomistic Simulations of Corrosion Inhibitors Adsorbed on Calcite Surfaces I. Force field energetics for the various surfaces of interest are predicted. 1. Introduction Corrosion inhibitors for oil mechanism for corrosion inhibition of iron by imidazolines.1 Atomistic simulations have also been made

  10. Friction characteristics of Cd-rich carbonate films on calcite surfaces: implications for compositional differentiation at the nanometer scale

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Lateral Force Microscopy (LFM) studies were carried out on cleaved calcite sections in contact with solutions supersaturated with respect to otavite (CdCO3) or calcite-otavite solid solutions (SS) as a means to examine the potential for future application of LFM as a nanometer-scale mineral surface composition mapping technique. Layer-by-layer growth of surface films took place either by step advancement or by a surface nucleation and step advancement mechanisms. Friction vs. applied load data acquired on the films and the calcite substrate were successfully fitted to the Johnson Kendall Roberts (JKR) model for single asperity contacts. Following this model, friction differences between film and substrate at low loads were dictated by differences in adhesion, whereas at higher load they reflect differences in contact shear strength. In most experiments at fixed load, the film showed higher friction than the calcite surface, but the friction-load dependence for the different surfaces revealed that at low loads (0–40 nN), a calcian otavite film has lower friction than calcite; a result that is contrary to earlier LFM reports of the same system. Multilayer films of calcian-otavite displayed increasing friction with film thickness, consistent with the expectation that the film surface composition will become increasingly Cd-rich with increasing thickness. Both load- and thickness-dependence trends support the hypothesis that the contact shear strength correlates with the hydration enthalpy of the surface ions, thereby imparting friction sensitivity in the LFM to mineral-water interface composition. PMID:19549312

  11. LIME STABILIZATION AND ULTIMATE DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER SLUDGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Twenty-eight lime stabilization facilities were visited. None of these plants were originally designed for sludge lime stabilization. Lime stabilization was instituted either as a permanent sludge handling mechanism to replace a more costly process, as an interim sludge handling ...

  12. The Maturation Time Factor in Lime Putty Quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M G MARGALHA; M R VEIGA

    Until the 19th century, lime in construction renderings was used mostly as a paste. After the transformation of rock into lime, the latter was stored in such a way as to maintain its characteristics. For that purpose, tanks or big ditches were used to store lime, always covered by water to avoid its carbonation. Through this procedure, the quality of

  13. Effects of lime rate, lime ECCE, and B rate on rose clover and coastal bermudagrass dry matter yields 

    E-print Network

    Villavicencio Batres, Rodolfo

    1990-01-01

    ~), followed by Lz and Lo, respectively. Lime particle size did not affect rose clover dry matter yields. Boron rate 1 (B~) resulted in higher dry matter yields than Bz and Bo. Lime rate and B rate did not affect Coastal bermudagrass dry matter yields... Soil Infertility . Aluminum Toxicity Manganese Toxicity Liming Acid Soils Boron in Soils Boron Adsorpion in Soils Forage Response to Liming and B Applications . . . Page Vl . . . . . Vll . . x XIV . . 3 . . 3 . . 5 . . 7...

  14. The Coordination of Mg in Foraminiferal Calcite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branson, O.; Redfern, S. A.; Tyliszczak, T.; Sadekov, A.; Langer, G.; Elderfield, H.

    2012-12-01

    The Mg/Ca ratio in calcite shells ('tests') of foraminifera is an empirical ocean temperature proxy widely used to interpret palaeoclimates. We explore the distribution and local environment of Mg in foram tests using STXM and NEXAFS spectroscopy to test the fundamental assumptions behind the proxy, and shed light on the mechanisms underpinning this vital oceanographic tool. Throughout the development of the Mg/Ca proxy, it has been assumed that Mg in foraminifera tests substitutes directly into the calcite lattice (1). This assumption is based on XRD analyses of various high-Mg biogenic carbonates, where Mg concentrations are manifest in the shifted position of diffraction peaks (2, 3). The extrapolation of this trend to foraminiferal calcite links the proxy to inorganic precipitation experiments, and provides a theoretical mechanistic framework to understand the link between Mg/Ca and temperature: the substitution of Mg is endothermic, and favoured at higher temperatures. However, the concentration of Mg in most foraminifera (0-10 mmol/mol Mg/Ca) is below the detection limit of XRD methods, and the analogy to inorganic systems has not been explicitly tested. Electron microprobe (4-6), LA-ICP-MS (7) and high-resolution nanoSIMS mapping (Sadekov, unpub.) of foraminifera tests have revealed the presence of high 'trace element' bands running in plane with the test surface, enriched in Mg, Sr, S, organic molecules and other trace elements. This emphasises a key question highlighted by Dodd (1) when the proxy was still in its infancy: how is Mg incorporated into mineral skeletons? By direct substitution into the calcite lattice, interstitially in a separate distinct mineral phase, or associated with organic compounds? We address this fundamental question using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy at ALS beamline 11.0.2 to examine the distribution and local atomic environment of Mg in two contrasting species of foraminifera. Our data conclusively demonstrate that the Mg in the high- and low-trace element bands in the two different species is incorporated in the same mode. Foraminiferal Mg K-edge spectra are most similar to that of dolomite, where Ca and Mg are interchangeable and both present in octahedral sites. This indicates that Mg directly substitutes for Ca in the calcite test, validating the assumptions underlying the use of the Mg/Ca proxy. The uniformity of Mg environment also sheds light on the drivers of Mg heterogeneity, suggesting that Mg banding is driven by fluctuations in medium chemistry, rather than any change in Mg incorporation mechanism. The ultimate cause of Mg heterogeneity remains an open question, however. 1. J. R. Dodd, J Paleontology, 1313-1329 (1967). 2. K. E. Chave, J Geol 62, 266-283 (1954). 3. J. Titschack, F. Goetz-Neunhoeffer, J. Neubauer, Am Min 96, 1028 (2011). 4. J. Lipps, P. Ribbe, J Paleontology 41, 492-496 (1967). 5. A. Y. Sadekov, S. M. Eggins, P. de Deckker, G3 6, Q12P06 (2005). 6. J. Erez, Rev Min Geochem 54, 115 (2003). 7. A. Y. Sadekov, S. M. Eggins, G. P. Klinkhammer, Y. Rosenthal, Earth Planet Sc Lett 292, 312-324 (2010).

  15. Sorption and desorption of arsenate and arsenite on calcite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sø, Helle U.; Postma, Dieke; Jakobsen, Rasmus; Larsen, Flemming

    2008-12-01

    The adsorption and desorption of arsenate (As(V)) and arsenite (As(III)) on calcite was investigated in a series of batch experiments in calcite-equilibrated solutions. The solutions covered a broad range of pH, alkalinity, calcium concentration and ionic strength. The initial arsenic concentrations were kept low (<33 ?M) to avoid surface precipitation. The results show that little or no arsenite sorbs on calcite within 24 h at an initial As concentration of 0.67 ?M. In contrast, arsenate sorbs readily and quickly on calcite. Likewise, desorption of arsenate from calcite is fast and complete within hours, indicating that arsenate is not readily incorporated into the calcite crystal lattice. The degree of arsenate sorption depends on the solution chemistry. Sorption increases with decreasing alkalinity, indicating a competition for sorption sites between arsenate and (bi)carbonate. pH also affects the sorption behavior, likely in response to changes in arsenate speciation or protonation/deprotonation of the adsorbing arsenate ion. Finally, sorption is influenced by the ionic strength, possibly due to electrostatic effects. The sorption of arsenate on calcite was modeled successfully using a surface complexation model comprising strong and weak sites. In the model, the adsorbing arsenate species were HAsO4- and CaHAsO40. The model was able to correctly predict the adsorption of arsenate in the wide range of calcite-equilibrated solutions used in the batch experiments and to describe the non-linear shape of the sorption isotherms. Extrapolation of the experimental results to calcite bearing aquifers suggests a large variability in the mobility of arsenic. Under reduced conditions, arsenite, which does not sorb on calcite, will dominate and, hence, As will be highly mobile. In contrast, when conditions are oxidizing, arsenate is the predominant species and, because arsenate adsorbs strongly on calcite, As mobility will be significantly retarded. The estimated retardation factors for arsenate in carbonate aquifers range from 25 to 200.

  16. A new lime material for container substrates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary component in greenhouse potting substrates is sphagnum peatmoss. Substrate solution pH of non-amended peatmoss ranges from 4.0 to 4.5. Ideal pH for most greenhouse floriculture crops ranges from 5.8 to 6.2. Dolomitic lime is most often used to elevate substrate pH in peatmoss-based me...

  17. Single-contact pressure solution creep on calcite monocrystals

    E-print Network

    Zubtsov, Sergei; Gratier, Jean-Pierre; Dysthe, Dag; Traskine, Vladimir

    2005-01-01

    Pressure solution creep rates and interface structures have been measured by two methods on calcite single crystals. In the first kind of experiments, calcite monocrystals were indented at 40 degrees C for six weeks using ceramic indenters under stresses in the 50-200 MPa range in a saturated solution of calcite and in a calcite-saturated aqueous solution of NH4Cl. The deformation (depth of the hole below the indenter) is measured ex-situ at the end of the experiment. In the second type of experiment, calcite monocrystals were indented by spherical glass indenters for 200 hours under stresses in the 0-100 MPa range at room temperature in a saturated aqueous solution of calcite. The displacement of the indenter was continuously recorded using a specially constructed differential dilatometer. The experiments conducted in a calcite-saturated aqueous solution of NH4Cl show an enhanced indentation rate owing to the fairly high solubility of calcite in this solution. In contrast, the experiments conducted in a calc...

  18. Oxygen isotope fractionation in quartz, albite, anorthite and calcite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert N. Clayton; Julian R. Goldsmith; Toshiko K. Mayeda

    1989-01-01

    Laboratory measurements of equilibrium oxygen isotope fractionation in quartz, albite, anorthite, and calcite have been carried out by anhydrous exchange between silicates and calcite at temperatures of 600°C and above. Exchange in these systems is as rapid as exchange between silicates and water. In this paper results are compared with published theoretical estimates as well as data derived from hydrothermal

  19. Thermal and Evolved Gas Behavior of Calcite Under Mars Phoenix TEGA Operating Conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Sutter; H. V. Lauer; D. C. Golden; W. V. Boynton; R. V. Morris; P. B. Niles; D. W. Ming

    2009-01-01

    Calcite may have been detected by the Thermal Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA) at the Phoenix lander site. Laboratory thermal analyses of calcite under TEGA operating conditions will be presented to aid the interpretation of calcite detection by TEGA.

  20. Mallik Gas Hydrate Sample

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A sample of gas hydrates collected from Mallik, Canada. Gas hydrates are naturally-occurring “ice-like” combinations of natural gas and water that have the potential to provide an immense resource of natural gas from the world’s oceans and polar regions....

  1. Gas Hydrates Burning

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    An image of gas hydrates burning. Gas hydrates are naturally-occurring “ice-like” combinations of natural gas and water that have the potential to provide an immense resource of natural gas from the world’s oceans and polar regions....

  2. Hydration rate of obsidian.

    PubMed

    Friedman, I; Long, W

    1976-01-30

    The hydration rates of 12 obsidian samples of different chemical compositions were measured at temperatures from 95 degrees to 245 degrees C. An expression relating hydration rate to temperature was derived for each sample. The SiO(2) content and refractive index are related to the hydration rate, as are the CaO, MgO, and original water contents. With this information it is possible to calculate the hydration rate of a sample from its silica content, refractive index, or chemical index and a knowledge of the effective temperature at which the hydration occurred. The effective hydration temperature can be either measured or approximated from weather records. Rates have been calculated by both methods, and the results show that weather records can give a good approximation to the true EHT, particularly in tropical and subtropical climates. If one determines the EHT by any of the methods suggested, and also measures or knows the rate of hydration of the particular obsidian used, it should be possible to carry out absolute dating to +/- 10 percent of the true age over periods as short as several years and as long as millions of years. PMID:17782901

  3. Strontium incorporation into calcite generated by bacterial ureolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Yoshiko; Redden, George D.; Ingram, Jani C.; Cortez, Marnie M.; Ferris, F. Grant; Smith, Robert W.

    2004-08-01

    Strontium incorporation into calcite generated by bacterial ureolysis was investigated as part of an assessment of a proposed remediation approach for 90Sr contamination in groundwater. Urea hydrolysis produces ammonium and carbonate and elevates pH, resulting in the promotion of calcium carbonate precipitation. Urea hydrolysis by the bacterium Bacillus pasteurii in a medium designed to mimic the chemistry of the Snake River Plain Aquifer in Idaho resulted in a pH rise from 7.5 to 9.1. Measured average distribution coefficients (D EX) for Sr in the calcite produced by ureolysis (0.5) were up to an order of magnitude higher than values reported in the literature for natural and synthetic calcites (0.02-0.4). They were also higher than values for calcite produced abiotically by ammonium carbonate addition (0.3). The precipitation of calcite in these experiments was verified by X-ray diffraction. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF SIMS) depth profiling (up to 350 nm) suggested that the Sr was not merely sorbed on the surface, but was present at depth within the particles. X-ray absorption near edge spectra showed that Sr was present in the calcite samples as a solid solution. The extent of Sr incorporation appeared to be driven primarily by the overall rate of calcite precipitation, where faster precipitation was associated with greater Sr uptake into the solid. The presence of bacterial surfaces as potential nucleation sites in the ammonium carbonate precipitation treatment did not enhance overall precipitation or the Sr distribution coefficient. Because bacterial ureolysis can generate high rates of calcite precipitation, the application of this approach is promising for remediation of 90Sr contamination in environments where calcite is stable over the long term.

  4. Economics of Variable Rate Lime in Indiana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Bongiovanni; J. Lowenberg-Deboer

    2000-01-01

    In Indiana, variable rate application (VRA) of lime is often considered a good place to start site-specific management (SSM). This is because soil pH is one of the most variable of manageable soil characteristics in the state, the availability of essential nutrients is closely related to soil pH, and because spreaders can be retrofitted relatively inexpensively to do VRA. The

  5. Transformations in methane hydrates.

    PubMed

    Chou, I M; Sharma, A; Burruss, R C; Shu, J; Mao, H; Hemley, R J; Goncharov, A F; Stern, L A; Kirby, S H

    2000-12-01

    Detailed study of pure methane hydrate in a diamond cell with in situ optical, Raman, and x-ray microprobe techniques reveals two previously unknown structures, structure II and structure H, at high pressures. The structure II methane hydrate at 250 MPa has a cubic unit cell of a = 17.158(2) A and volume V = 5051.3(13) A(3); structure H at 600 MPa has a hexagonal unit cell of a = 11.980(2) A, c = 9.992(3) A, and V = 1241.9(5) A(3). The compositions of these two investigated phases are still not known. With the effects of pressure and the presence of other gases in the structure, the structure II phase is likely to dominate over the known structure I methane hydrate within deep hydrate-bearing sediments underlying continental margins. PMID:11087836

  6. Uptake of chloride and carbonate ions by calcium monosulfoaluminate hydrate

    SciTech Connect

    Mesbah, Adel [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, CEA DEN/DTCD/SPDE, F-30207 Bagnols sur Ceze (France); Clermont Universite, ENSCCF, Laboratoire des Materiaux Inorganiques, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); Cau-dit-Coumes, Celine, E-mail: celine.cau-dit-coumes@cea.fr [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, CEA DEN/DTCD/SPDE, F-30207 Bagnols sur Ceze (France); Renaudin, Guillaume [Clermont Universite, ENSCCF, Laboratoire des Materiaux Inorganiques, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); CNRS, UMR 6002, F-63177 Aubiere (France); Frizon, Fabien [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, CEA DEN/DTCD/SPDE, F-30207 Bagnols sur Ceze (France); Leroux, Fabrice [Clermont Universite, Universite Blaise Pascal, Laboratoire des Materiaux Inorganiques, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); CNRS, UMR 6002, F-63177 Aubiere (France)

    2012-08-15

    Decommissioning of old nuclear reactors may produce waste streams containing chlorides and carbonates, including radioactive {sup 36}Cl{sup -} and {sup 14}CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}. Their insolubilization by calcium monosulfoaluminate hydrate was investigated. Carbonates were readily depleted from the solution, giving at thermodynamic equilibrium monocarboaluminate, monocarboaluminate + calcite, or calcite only, depending on the initial ratio between the anion and calcium monosulfoaluminate hydrate. Chloride ions reacted more slowly and were precipitated as Kuzel's salt, Kuzel's and Friedel's salts, or Friedel's salt only. Rietveld refinement of X-Ray powder diffraction patterns was successfully used to quantify the phase distributions, which were compared to thermodynamic calculations. Moreover, analysing the lattice parameters of Kuzel's salt as a function of its chloride content showed the occurrence of a restricted solid solution towards the sulfate side with general formula 3CaO{center_dot}Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}{center_dot}xCaCl{sub 2}{center_dot}(1 - x)CaSO{sub 4}{center_dot}(12 - 2x){center_dot}H{sub 2}O (0.36 {<=} x {<=} 0.50).

  7. Preparation and evaluation of modified lime and silica-lime sorbents for mercury vapor emissions control

    SciTech Connect

    Ghorishi, S.B.; Singer, C.F.; Sedman, C.B.

    1999-11-01

    The paper discusses current efforts to improve the uptake of mercury species by increasing active sites and adding oxiditive species to the sorbent. (NOTE: Previous work showed that mercury chloride vapor is readily absorbed by calcium-based sorbents as an acid gas in environments typical of coal-fired boiler flue gas, white elemental mercury vapor is absorbed by calcium-based sorbents only when sulfur oxides are also present.) Preparation of modified lime and silica-lime sorbents and their behavior toward mercury species are compared to those of commercially available lime on a fixed-bed bench reactor. The implications of findings toward development of mutipollutant control technologies and planned field toward development of multipollutant control technologies and planned field pilot evaluations of more multipollutant control concepts are discussed.

  8. Preparation and evaluation of modified lime and silica-lime sorbents for mercury vapor emissions control

    SciTech Connect

    Ghorishi, S.B.; Singer, C.F.; Sedman, C.B.

    1999-01-01

    The paper discusses current efforts to improve the uptake of mercury species by increasing active sites and adding oxiditive species to the sorbent. (NOTE: Previous work showed that mercury chloride vapor is readily absorbed by calcium-based sorbents as an acid gas in environments typical of coal-fired boiler flue gas, white elemental mercury vapor is absorbed by calcium-based sorbents only when sulfur oxides are also present.) Preparation of modified lime and silica-lime sorbents and their behavior toward mercury species are compared to those of commercially available lime on a fixed-bed bench reactor. The implications of findings toward development of mutipollutant control technologies and planned field toward development of multipollutant control technologies and planned field pilot evaluations of more multipollutant control concepts are discussed.

  9. Rate limitations of lime dissolution into coal ash slag

    SciTech Connect

    L.K. Elliott; John A. Lucas; Jim Happ; John Patterson; Harry Hurst; Terry F. Wall [University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW (Australia). School of Chemical Engineering

    2008-11-15

    The rate-limiting mechanisms of lime dissolution from a solid pellet into coal ash slag and synthetic slag was investigated using an experiment involving a rotating cylinder of lime in a liquid slag bath at temperatures of 1450-1650{degree}C. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of the slag composition around the lime cylinder was used to determine the nature of the boundary layer surrounding the pellet and the calcium concentration profile. Predictions using shrinking core models of a cylindrical pellet were compared to experimental results, suggesting that diffusion through the slag boundary layer and the change of the phase of lime from solid to liquid in the boundary layer combine to limit the process. These results indicate that a combination of controlling steps: diffusion through the boundary layer and the phase change of lime from solid to liquid, must be considered when predicting lime dissolution rates. 24 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Lime Pretreatment of Sugarcane Bagasse for Bioethanol Production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarita C. Rabelo; Rubens Maciel Filho; Aline Carvalho Costa

    2009-01-01

    The pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse with lime (calcium hydroxide) is evaluated. The effect of lime pretreatment on digestibility\\u000a was studied through analyses using central composite design (response surface), considering pretreatment time, temperature,\\u000a and lime loading as factors. The responses evaluated were the yield of glucose from pretreated bagasse after enzymatic hydrolysis.\\u000a Experiments were performed using the bagasse as it comes

  11. Subaerial meteoric calcitization and lithification of high-magnesian calcite muds, Belize

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzullo, S.J.; Bischoff, W.D. (Wichita State Univ., KS (United States))

    1991-03-01

    Holocene ({lt}1000-1500 yrs old) high-magnesian calcite-dominated muddy sediments (1 m thick) on subaerially exposed cays in northern Belize are in the process of being converted to low-magnesian calcite micrite. Mineralogic stabilization and attendant lithification result from interaction of the sediments with meteoric fluids believed to be derived from seasonal upward discharge through subjacent Pleistocene limestones. The initial marine-derived sediments, composed of {gt}85% HMC (and minor skeletal aragonite), consist of mud and associated soritid and miliolid foraminifera both with MgCO{sub 3} content of 11-15 mol%, and isotopic compositions of -1.0 to -2.5{per thousand} PDB (O), 0 to +1.5{per thousand} PDB (C). With depth, lithified LMC crusts appear in the section, and the Mg concentration of the sediments and associated crusts decreases rapidly to 3 mol% or less, with a corresponding isotopic depletion to values approaching -7.0{per thousand} (O) and -5.8{per thousand} (C). Concomitantly there is progressive dissolution of skeletal aragonite in the sediments, reduction of porosity due to cementation by LMC, and in the muds, a decrease in Sr and increase in Mn contents. The resultant petrofabric of these lithified LMC deposits, derived from the alteration of HMC-dominated muds, is characterized by micrite with patches of pore-filling micritic and microsparitic LMC cements. Such a fabric is similar to and can be confused easily with calcitized aragonite-dominated precursor muds, except for the relative rarity in the samples examined of aragonite relicts in component microspar and/or pseudospar.

  12. Photoinduced synthesis of single-digit micrometer-size spheroidal calcite composites in the presence of partially hydrolyzed poly(vinyl alcohol)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishio, Takashi; Naka, Kensuke

    2015-06-01

    Photoinduced crystallization of calcium carbonate (CaCO3), which was based on the photodecarboxylation of ketoprofen (KP, 2-(3-benzoylphyenyl)propionic acid) under alkaline conditions of pH 8.4 and 10 was studied for preparation of CaCO3 composite particles in single-digit micrometer-sizes. In this method, a homogeneous solution comprising KP, calcium chloride, ammonia, and partially hydrolyzed poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVAPS, degree of saponification: 86.5-89.0 mol%) was used as a precursor solution and was exposed to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation for different time periods. After the UV irradiation for 50 min, calcite spheroids in single-digit micrometer-sizes were obtained as major products at pH 8.4. The obtained calcite spheroids contained organic components of about 10 wt%. The comparison of the characteristics of the CaCO3 obtained at pH 8.4 and 10 suggests that the nucleation and crystallization of both vaterite and calcite continuously took place in a moderated supersaturation owing to the CO2 hydration equilibrium as long as the photodecarboxylation of KP continued. Consequently, the aggregation-based crystal growth in the presence of PVAPS seemed to enable the formation of the spheroidal composites of calcite in single-digit micrometer-sizes.

  13. Thermodynamics of magnesian calcite solid-solutions at 25°C and 1 atm total pressure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eurybiades Busenberg; L. Niel Plummer

    1989-01-01

    The stability of magnesian calcites was reexamined, and new results are presented for 28 natural inorganic, 12 biogenic, and 32 synthetic magnesian calcites. The magnesian calcite solid-solutions were separated into two groups on the basis of differences in stoichiometric solubility and other physical and chemical properties. Group I consists of solids of mainly metamorphic and hydrothermal origin, synthetic calcites prepared

  14. Magnesium content of calcite in carapaces of benthic armine Ostracoda

    E-print Network

    Cadot, H. M.; Kaesler, R. L.

    1977-07-22

    THE UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS PALEONTOLOGICAL CONTRIBUTIONS July 22, 1977 Paper 87 MAGNESIUM CONTENT OF CALCITE IN CARAPACES OF BENTHIC MARINE OSTRACODA 1 H. MEADE CADOT, JR.,2 and ROGER L. KAESLER3 2 Antioch College—New England and The Harris Center... for Conservation Education, Hancock, New Hampshire; 'The University of Kansas, Lawrence ABSTRACT Statistically significant differences in mean magnesium content of calcite in carapaces of benthic marine Ostracoda were found to occur among four superfamily groups...

  15. EXAFS study of rare-earth element coordination in calcite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. J. Elzinga; Richard Reeder; S. H. Withers; Robert E. Peale; R. A. Mason; Kenneth M. Beck; Wayne P. Hess

    2002-01-01

    Extended X-ray absorption fine-structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy is used to characterize the local coordination of selected rare-earth elements (Nd3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Yb3+) coprecipitated with calcite in minor concentrations from room-temperature aqueous solutions. Fitting results confirm substitution in the Ca site, but first-shell Nd-O and Sm-O distances are longer than the Ca-O distance in calcite and longer than what is consistent with

  16. Kinetics and Mechanisms of Calcite Reactions with Saline Waters

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, Piers; *Morse, John W. (*/deceased)

    2010-11-15

    1. Objective The general objective of this research was to determine the kinetics and mechanisms of calcite reactions with saline waters over a wide range of saline water composition, carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2), and modest ranges of T and P. This would be done by studying both reaction rates and solubility from changes in solution chemistry. Also, nanoscale observations of calcite surface morphology and composition would be made to provide an understanding of rate controlling mechanisms.

  17. Rheological behaviour of hydraulic lime-based grouts. Shear-time and temperature dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bras, Ana; Henriques, Fernando M. A.; Cidade, M. T.

    2013-05-01

    This paper deals with the coupled effect of temperature and fly ash (FA) addition on rheological behaviour of natural hydraulic lime (NHL5) based grouts, currently used in masonry consolidation. The use of a grout injection technique for masonry consolidation may lead to an increase of hydrostatic pressure and lead to structural damage. This means that the thixotropic effects become self-evident in grout design. It was shown that there is a relation between the structuration rate of each grout and the pressure that occurs inside masonry during its consolidation. According to the results, it seems also that there is a grout threshold temperature ( T limit) that separates a domain where the grout build-up structure area is almost constant, from another where flocculation area starts to increase significantly. We believe that in the first region the thixotropic effects are almost isolated from the irreversible effects (due to hydration). For the NHL5 based grout T limit=20 °C and for the grout with NHL5+15 % of FA T limit=15 °C. Grouts' characterization based on maximum resisting time, structuration rate and on the analysis of the hydraulic lime grout behaviour tested at different shear rates was performed using a shear thinning model and assuming that the structure is shear- and time-dependent. The goal is to use this methodology during mix proportioning and design for masonry injection purpose. The tested grout compositions were optimized compositions obtained in previous research using the design of experiments method.

  18. Seawater pH control on the boron isotopic composition of calcite: evidence from inorganic calcite precipitation experiments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Sanyal; M. Nugent; R. J. Reeder; J. Bijma

    2000-01-01

    Experiments involving boron co-precipitation with calcite have been carried out inorganically under controlled pH conditions (7.9 ± 0.05, 8.3 ± 0.05 and 8.6 ± 0.05) to determine the dependence of the boron isotopic composition (?11B) of calcite on the pH of seawater. Another purpose of these experiments was to estimate the magnitude of the biogenic influence on the ?11B value

  19. EVALUATION OF HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATION IN A LIME KILN: ROCKWELL LIME COMPANY

    EPA Science Inventory

    During a one-week test burn, hazardous waste was used as supplemental fuel and co-fired with petroleum coke in a lime kiln in eastern Wisconsin. Detailed sampling and analysis was conducted on the stack gas for principal organic hazardous constituents (POHCs), particulates, parti...

  20. Sulfate attack in lime-treated subbases

    SciTech Connect

    Day, D.C.; Salami, M.R. [North Carolina A and T State Univ., Greensboro, NC (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Rollings, R.S. [Army Engineering Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS (United States). Pavement Div.

    1995-06-01

    Sulfate-induced heave or buckling in pavements is the phenomenon that occurs when the calcium in various lime-based stabilizers combines with the alumina and sulfate present in clay to form calcium sulfoaluminate, or ettringite. Ettringite, a crystal, can grow between clay particles, pushing them apart and causing swelling in the soil. When this happens in pavement subbases, the resulting heaving may cause the pavement to rupture and fail, sometimes in a dramatic way. In this paper the authors examine the mechanism of sulfate attack, review some of the work done on this problem, and present some examples of pavement failures.

  1. HYDRATE CORE DRILLING TESTS

    SciTech Connect

    John H. Cohen; Thomas E. Williams; Ali G. Kadaster; Bill V. Liddell

    2002-11-01

    The ''Methane Hydrate Production from Alaskan Permafrost'' project is a three-year endeavor being conducted by Maurer Technology Inc. (MTI), Noble, and Anadarko Petroleum, in partnership with the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The project's goal is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition. The project team plans to design and implement a program to safely and economically drill, core and produce gas from arctic hydrates. The current work scope includes drilling and coring one well on Anadarko leases in FY 2003 during the winter drilling season. A specially built on-site core analysis laboratory will be used to determine some of the physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. Prior to going to the field, the project team designed and conducted a controlled series of coring tests for simulating coring of hydrate formations. A variety of equipment and procedures were tested and modified to develop a practical solution for this special application. This Topical Report summarizes these coring tests. A special facility was designed and installed at MTI's Drilling Research Center (DRC) in Houston and used to conduct coring tests. Equipment and procedures were tested by cutting cores from frozen mixtures of sand and water supported by casing and designed to simulate hydrate formations. Tests were conducted with chilled drilling fluids. Tests showed that frozen core can be washed out and reduced in size by the action of the drilling fluid. Washing of the core by the drilling fluid caused a reduction in core diameter, making core recovery very difficult (if not impossible). One successful solution was to drill the last 6 inches of core dry (without fluid circulation). These tests demonstrated that it will be difficult to capture core when drilling in permafrost or hydrates without implementing certain safeguards. Among the coring tests was a simulated hydrate formation comprised of coarse, large-grain sand in ice. Results with this core showed that the viscosity of the drilling fluid must also be carefully controlled. When coarse sand was being cored, the core barrel became stuck because the drilling fluid was not viscous enough to completely remove the large grains of sand. These tests were very valuable to the project by showing the difficulties in coring permafrost or hydrates in a laboratory environment (as opposed to a field environment where drilling costs are much higher and the potential loss of equipment greater). Among the conclusions reached from these simulated hydrate coring tests are the following: Frozen hydrate core samples can be recovered successfully; A spring-finger core catcher works best for catching hydrate cores; Drilling fluid can erode the core and reduces its diameter, making it more difficult to capture the core; Mud must be designed with proper viscosity to lift larger cuttings; and The bottom 6 inches of core may need to be drilled dry to capture the core successfully.

  2. Preheating and incubation of cane juice prior to liming: a comparison of intermediate and cold lime clarification.

    PubMed

    Eggleston, Gillian; Monge, Adrian; Pepperman, Armand

    2002-01-30

    In the U.S., cold lime clarification remains the clarification process of choice in raw sugar manufacturing. A comparative study of cold vs intermediate lime clarification was undertaken at a factory that operated intermediate liming (approximately 30% mixed juice (MJ) of pH 5.2 +/- 0.3 was preheated to 87-93 degrees C to help maintain clean limed juice heaters, incubated at approximately 54 degrees C, and then limed) but still had the pipes to revert to cold liming (MJ incubated and limed at approximately 40 degrees C) for this study. Hourly samples were collected over a 6 h sampling period across cold and intermediate clarification processes on two consecutive days, respectively, and this was repeated three times across the 1999 grinding season. A total of 1.57% less sucrose was lost to inversion reactions across intermediate rather than cold liming. In intermediate liming, which required approximately 4.6% less lime, preheating of only 30% of the MJ markedly removed color (-29%), dextran (-10%), and starch (-24%) and caused large flocs to form that settled faster in the clarifiers. Faster settling led to an impressive 4.6% (season average) more turbidity removal across the clarifiers in intermediate rather than cold liming. Intermediate clarified juice (CJ) turbidity (season average 2028 ICU +/- 675) was approximately half of cold CJ turbidity (average 3952 ICU +/- 1450) with over 2-fold more CJ turbidity control. Subsequent turbidity values and control were significantly improved in the final evaporator syrup samples too. For both processes, juice incubation caused approximately 10% color removal, but this was offset by color formation on liming, because of the alkaline degradation of invert; however, overall, more color was removed than formed in intermediate liming. Starch was reduced in the incubator tank, for both processes, because added filtrate reduced the acidity enabling natural diastase from the cane to degrade starch. Some dextran occasionally formed in the incubator tank, in both processes. Summed across measured parameters, intermediate liming appears to offer several advantages over cold liming. PMID:11804517

  3. Uranium Isotope Fractionation During Coprecipitation with Aragonite and Calcite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; Romaniello, S. J.; Herrmann, A. D.; Wasylenki, L. E.; Anbar, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Natural variations in the 238U/235U ratio of marine carbonates may provide a useful way of constraining past variations in ocean redox conditions. However, before applying this novel redox proxy, it is essential to explore possible isotopic fractionation during U coprecipitation with aragonite and calcite. We investigated these effects in laboratory experiments. Aragonite and calcite coprecipitation experiments were conducted at pH 8.5±0.1 using a constant addition method [1]. More than 90% of the U was incorporated into the solid phase at the end of each experiment. Samples were purified using UTEVA chemistry and ?238/235U was measured using 233U-236U double-spike MC-ICP-MS with a precision of ±0.10‰ [2]. The aragonite experiment demonstrated a 238U/235U Rayleigh fractionation factor of ?=1.00008±0.00002 with the 238U preferentially incorporated. In contrast, the calcite experiment demonstrated no resolvable U isotope fractionation (?=1.00001±0.00003). To determine if U isotopes are affected during the early diagenetic conversion of aragonite to calcite, natural carbonate samples were collected along an aragonite-calcite transition across a single coral head in the Key Largo limestone, and characterized for U concentration and ?238/235U [3]. We found that the mean ?238/235U in aragonite (-0.33±0.07‰ 2se) was slightly heavier than that in calcite (-0.37±0.02‰ 2se). Further work is needed to address the mechanisms leading to differential isotopic fractionation of U(VI) during incorporation into aragonite and calcite. Possible drivers include differences in coordination in the crystal structure or equilibrium isotopic fractionation between various aqueous U(VI) species prior to incorporation. [1] Reeder et al. (2001) GCA 65, 3491-3503. [2] Weyer et al., (2008) GCA 72, 345-359. [3] Gill et al., (2008) GCA 72, 4699-4722.

  4. Lime slurry use at the Industrial Wastewater Pretreatment Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, L.E. [Allied-Signal Aerospace Co., Kansas City, MO (United States). Kansas City Div.; Hughes, R.W. [Professional Services Group, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States); Baggett, G. [Genex/Praxair, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States)

    1996-04-01

    The use of lime slurry at the IWPF demonstrated many benefits. Hazardous chemical use was reduced, solids handling was improved, water quality was enhanced and there has been a cost savings. The lime slurry also enabled the plant to begin treating the soluble oil waste, which we were not able to do in the past.

  5. Evaluation of lime requirement tests for Northern Idaho soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Mohebbi; R. L. Mahler

    1988-01-01

    Agricultural soils in northern Idaho have become acidified in the last 20 years due to heavy use of ammonium?based N fertilizers. There is, however, a lack of information on the performance of lime requirement tests on these soils. This study was undertaken to evaluate several of the more commonly used lime requirement tests on some northern Idaho soils. Latahco silt

  6. Investigation of Copper Sorption by Sugar Beet Processing Lime Waste

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the western United States, sugar beet processing for sugar recovery generates a lime-based waste product (~250,000 Mg yr-1) that has little liming value in the region?s calcareous soils. This area has recently experienced an increase in dairy production, with dairi...

  7. Wood Residues as Fuel Source for Lime Kilns

    E-print Network

    Azarniouch, M. K.; Philp, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    product discharge end of the lime kiln. Thus far we have carried out two series of tests using two different pilot-scale kilns and dry limestone in the first test series and mill produced lime mud in the second test series. Mill scale trials have just been...

  8. Gas Hydrates: It's A Gas!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this activity, students will investigate the occurrence of gas hydrates on the ocean floor. They will discover the importance of carbon, where carbon is stored on Earth, and that the largest reservoir of carbon is gas hydrates. Students will discover that Earth's climate changes, and how the greenhouse effect works. They will also learn about the potential of hydrates as a major new energy resource and explore the conditions under which hydrates form.

  9. Wetland vegetation responses to liming an Adirondack watershed

    SciTech Connect

    Mackun, I.R.

    1993-01-01

    Watershed liming as a long-term mitigation strategy to neutralize lake acidity, from increasing acid deposition, was initiated in North America at Woods Lake in the west central Adirondack region of New York. In October 1989, a dose of 10 MT lime (83.5% CaCO[sub 3]) ha[sup [minus]1] was aerially applied to 48% of the watershed. The wetlands adjacent to Woods Lake showed two distinct community types: one dominated by Chamaedaphne calyculata, and one dominated by graminoids and other herbaceous species. Within two years, liming did not alter the structure of either community type, and changed the cover or frequency of only 6 of 64 individual taxa. Most of these changes occurred in the herbaceous community type. The only strong positive response to liming was a nearly threefold increase in cover of the rhizomatous sedge Cladium mariscoides. The cover of Carex interior and Sphagnum spp. benefited from lime addition, while cover of Drosera intermedia and Muhlenbergia uniflora, and frequency of Hypericum canadense responded negatively to lime. Liming influenced the competitive release of only three taxa, all forbs with small growth forms. The tissue chemistry of foliage and twigs of Myrica gale, Chamaedaphne calyculata, and Carex stricta in the Chamaedaphne calyculata community type clearly illustrated species-specific patterns of nutrient accumulation and allocation both before and after liming. Concentrations of 17 of 20 elements responded to liming, although the responses varied among species and plant parts. Carex foliage was least responsive to liming, and Chamaedaphne twigs were most responsive. Elemental changes in plant tissues will be reflected in litter and many influence long-term nutrient dynamics in the wetland community.

  10. Nuclear anomalies in the buccal cells of calcite factory workers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The micronucleus (MN) assay on exfoliated buccal cells is a useful and minimally invasive method for monitoring genetic damage in humans. To determine the genotoxic effects of calcite dust that forms during processing, MN assay was carried out in exfoliated buccal cells of 50 (25 smokers and 25 non-smokers) calcite factory workers and 50 (25 smokers and 25 non-smokers) age- and sex-matched control subjects. Frequencies of nuclear abnormalities (NA) other than micronuclei, such as binucleates, karyorrhexis, karyolysis and ‘broken eggs', were also evaluated. Micronuclei and the other aforementioned anomalies were analysed by two way analysis of covariance. The linear correlations between the types of micronucleus and nuclear abnormalities were determined by Spearman's Rho. There was a positive correlation between micronuclei and other types of nuclear abnormalities in accordance with the Spearman's Rho test. Results showed statistically significant difference between calcite fabric workers and control groups. MN and NA frequencies in calcite fabric workers were significantly higher than those in control groups (p < 0.05). The results of this study indicate that calcite fabric workers are under risk of significant cytogenetic damage. PMID:21637497

  11. Mechanical and leaching behaviour of slag-cement and lime-activated slag stabilised/solidified contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Kogbara, Reginald B; Al-Tabbaa, Abir

    2011-05-01

    Stabilisation/solidification (S/S) is an effective technique for reducing the leachability of contaminants in soils. Very few studies have investigated the use of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) for S/S treatment of contaminated soils, although it has been shown to be effective in ground improvement. This study sought to investigate the potential of GGBS activated by cement and lime for S/S treatment of a mixed contaminated soil. A sandy soil spiked with 3000mg/kg each of a cocktail of heavy metals (Cd, Ni, Zn, Cu and Pb) and 10,000mg/kg of diesel was treated with binder blends of one part hydrated lime to four parts GGBS (lime-slag), and one part cement to nine parts GGBS (slag-cement). Three binder dosages, 5, 10 and 20% (m/m) were used and contaminated soil-cement samples were compacted to their optimum water contents. The effectiveness of the treatment was assessed using unconfined compressive strength (UCS), permeability and acid neutralisation capacity (ANC) tests with determination of contaminant leachability at the different acid additions. UCS values of up to 800kPa were recorded at 28days. The lowest coefficient of permeability recorded was 5×10(-9)m/s. With up to 20% binder dosage, the leachability of the contaminants was reduced to meet relevant environmental quality standards and landfill waste acceptance criteria. The pH-dependent leachability of the metals decreased over time. The results show that GGBS activated by cement and lime would be effective in reducing the leachability of contaminants in contaminated soils. PMID:21420148

  12. Effect of microstructure and microchemistry on improvement of hydration and slag attack resistance of ilmenite-doped refractory limestone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltan, Abdel Monem; Serry, Mohamed

    2015-02-01

    This work studies densification, resistance to hydration and slag attack of 0.0-2.0 wt% ilmenite-doped lime refractories in relation to their thermal equilibrium and microfabric after firing at 1,400-1,700 °C. XRF, XRD, SEM-EDAX, transmitted light microscopy and mercury intrusion methods were used to characterize the fired samples. The ternary diagram CaO-C2S-C4AF was applied to the thermal equilibrium data. The rates of hydration and attack by steel-slag were also assessed using cathode-luminescence microscope. Doping limestone with 0.5 wt% ilmenite leads maximizes the rate of densification after firing for 2 h at 1,600 °C. A direct-bonded CaO-CaO network is found in the doped sample with separated islands of Ca-silicate, alumino-ferrite and TiO2-rich Ca, Mg- solid solutions all filling the pores and triple points of the lime grains. Due to the dense microstructure of the doped sample with the direct-bonded lime grains, hydration and slag-attack resistance are enhanced compared with the un-doped sample.

  13. Static Grain Growth in Contact Metamorphic Calcite: A Cathodoluminescence Study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, B.; Heilbronner, R.; Herwegh, M.; Ramseyer, K.

    2009-04-01

    In the Adamello contact aureole, monomineralic mesozoic limestones were investigated in terms of grain size evolution and compared to results on numerical modeling performed by Elle. The sampled area shows no deformation and therefore represents an appropriate natural laboratory for the study of static grain growth (Herwegh & Berger, 2003). For this purpose, samples were collected at different distances to the contact to the pluton, covering a temperature range between 270 to 630°C. In these marbles, the grain sizes increase with temperature from 5 µm to about 1 cm as one approaches the contact (Herwegh & Berger, 2003). In some samples, photomicrographs show domains of variable cathodoluminescence (CL) intensities, which are interpreted to represent growth zonations. Microstructures show grains that contain cores and in some samples even several growth stages. The cores are usually not centered and the zones not concentric. They may be in touch with grain boundaries. These zonation patterns are consistent within a given aggregate but differ among the samples even if they come from the same location. Relative CL intensities depend on the Mn/Fe ratio. We assume that changes in trace amounts of Mn/Fe must have occurred during the grain size evolution, preserving local geochemical trends and their variations with time. Changes in Mn/Fe ratios can either be explained by (a) locally derived fluids (e.g. hydration reactions of sheet silicate rich marbles in the vicinity) or (b) by the infiltration of the calcite aggregates by externally derived (magmatic?) fluids. At the present stage, we prefer a regional change in fluid composition (b) because the growth zonations only occur at distances of 750-1250 m from the pluton contact (350-450°C). Closer to the contact, neither zonations nor cores were found. At larger distances, CL intensities differ from grain to grain, revealing diagenetic CL patterns that were incompletely recrystallized by grain growth. The role of infiltration of magmatic fluids is also manifest in the vicinity of dikes, where intense zonation patterns are prominent in the marbles. The software Elle was developed to simulate microstructural evolution in rocks. The numerical model with the title "Grain boundary sweeping" was performed by M. Jessell and was found on http://www.materialsknowledge.org/elle. It displays the grain size evolution and the development of growth zonations during grain boundary migration of a 2D foam structure. This simulation was chosen because the driving force is the minimization of isotropic surface energies. It will be compared to the natural microstructures. At the last stage of the simulation the average grain and core sizes have increased. All, even the smallest grains, show growth zonations. Grains can be divided into two groups: (a) initially larger grains, increasing their grain size and maintaining their core size and (b) initially smaller grains with decreasing grain and decreasing core size. Group (a) grains show large areas swept by grain boundaries into the direction of small grains. Grain boundaries between large grains move more slowly. Their cores do not touch any grain boundaries. Cores of group (b) grains are in contact with the grain boundary network and are on the way to be consumed. In the numerical model and in the natural example similar features can be observed: The cores are not necessarily centered, the zonations are not necessarily concentric and some of the cores touch the grain boundary network. In the simulation, grain boundary migration velocity between large grains is smaller than between a large and a small grain. From this we would predict that - given enough time - a well sorted grain size distribution of increased grain size could be generated. But since many small grains occur we infer that this equilibrium has not been obtained. Analytical results of some natural samples that could be analyzed up to now indicate a relatively well sorted grain size distribution suggesting a more mature state of static grain growth. In comparison t

  14. Aluminum Sulfate 18 Hydrate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jay A.

    2004-01-01

    A chemical laboratory information profile (CLIP) of the chemical, aluminum sulfate 18 hydrate, is presented. The profile lists physical and harmful properties, exposure limits, reactivity risks, and symptoms of major exposure for the benefit of teachers and students using the chemical in the laboratory.

  15. Time and metamorphic petrology: Calcite to aragonite experiments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hacker, B.R.; Kirby, S.H.; Bohlen, S.R.

    1992-01-01

    Although the equilibrium phase relations of many mineral systems are generally well established, the rates of transformations, particularly in polycrystalline rocks, are not. The results of experiments on the calcite to aragonite transformation in polycrystalline marble are different from those for earlier experiments on powdered and single-crystal calcite. The transformation in the polycrystalline samples occurs by different mechanisms, with a different temperature dependence, and at a markedly slower rate. This work demonstrates the importance of kinetic studies on fully dense polycrystalline aggregates for understanding mineralogic phase changes in nature. Extrapolation of these results to geological time scales suggests that transformation of calcite to aragonite does not occur in the absence of volatiles at temperatures below 200??C. Kinetic hindrance is likely to extend to higher temperatures in more complex transformations.

  16. Rapid Migration of CO2 Supercritical Fluids in Calcite Cristals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuddas, P.; Lopez, O.; Salvi, S.; Earth Sciences Umr5123

    2010-12-01

    The transport of supercritical fluids is a determining factor for several geological processes as well fundamental in predicting natural resource accumulation and distribution. Calcite, ubiquitous in geological environments may contain supercritical CO2 trapped under fluid inclusions commonly assumed to remain static under ambient conditions. Here, we report nano-meter scale observations on calcite crystal surface indicating the occurrence of fast movement of supercritical CO2 fluid inclusions hosted in the upper part of calcite crystals. Real time monitoring of calcite samples without observable presence of fluid inclusions, by in-situ Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), shows a flat state of the calcite surface (after freshly cleaving) and the surface state condition did not change during several hours of scanning. However, AFM observations on calcite samples with visible fluid inclusions show rapid formation of nanometre-scale hillocks spontaneously formed on the surface structure of the calcite. They have an averaged height of 1 nm, and varied horizontal dimensions and geometries. The fact that hillocks formed spontaneously on flat terraces in only a few minutes, without evidence of surface dissolution, was unexpected and suggests that the source of hillock material should be derived within the crystal itself. This phenomenon was observed even changing the experimental conditions such a scan frequency of the AFM tip, environmental temperature (between 5° and 50°C) and the surface area of scanning. The observed hillocks can form by the fact that CO2-rich fluid inclusions located just under the mineral surface are at elevated internal pressure and near the rupture limit. Thus, a frail mechanical strain can case them to decrepitated and lose their fluid. Upon reaching the surface, the supercritical CO2 leaked from the fluid inclusions, mixes with the thin water layer in equilibrium with ambient CO2 partial pressure at the calcite surface, causing degassing of CO2 and facilitating calcite precipitation in the form of hillocks. We estimated CO2 supercritical fluid transport assuming a minimum depth of the fluid inclusions involved in the fluid movement and an instantaneous precipitation at the surface. We found that supercritical CO2 fluid transport in calcite is around the value of 10nm/s. The estimated fast fluid transport rate is about 10 orders of magnitude higher than the estimated low-temperature extrapolation of solid-state diffusion vacancy in calcite crystals. Classical description of fluid transport recognises several distinct paths only for polycrystalline materials assuming the presence of inter-grain pathways as micro and nano-pore tubes. Fluid transport is usually observed in poly-phase material grains can also exhibit clear indications of multi-path migration even when visible evidence of such paths is lacking. Our study quantifies this process in the case of natural calcite at external standard conditions and be of potential importance in movement of CO2 rich fluids under supercritical conditions.

  17. Rapid supercritical CO2 fluid migration in calcite crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuddas, Pierpaolo; Lopez, Olivier; Salvi, Stefano

    2010-05-01

    The transport of supercritical fluids is a determining factor for several geological processes as well fundamental in predicting natural resource accumulation and distribution. Calcite, ubiquitous in geological environments may contain supercritical CO2 trapped under fluid inclusions commonly assumed to remain static under ambient conditions. Here, we report nano-meter scale observations on calcite crystal surface indicating the occurrence of fast movement of supercritical CO2 fluid inclusions hosted in the upper part of calcite crystals. Real time monitoring of calcite samples without observable presence of fluid inclusions, by in-situ Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), shows a flat state of the calcite surface (after freshly cleaving) and the surface state condition did not change during several hours of scanning. However, AFM observations on calcite samples with visible fluid inclusions show rapid formation of nanometre-scale hillocks spontaneously formed on the surface structure of the calcite. They have an averaged height of 1 nm, and varied horizontal dimensions and geometries. The fact that hillocks formed spontaneously on flat terraces in only a few minutes, without evidence of surface dissolution, was unexpected and suggests that the source of hillock material should be derived within the crystal itself. This phenomenon was observed even changing the experimental conditions such a scan frequency of the AFM tip, environmental temperature (between 5° and 50°C) and the surface area of scanning. The observed hillocks can form by the fact that CO2-rich fluid inclusions located just under the mineral surface are at elevated internal pressure and near the rupture limit. Thus, a frail mechanical strain can case them to decrepitated and lose their fluid. Upon reaching the surface, the supercritical CO2 leaked from the fluid inclusions, mixes with the thin water layer in equilibrium with ambient CO2 partial pressure at the calcite surface, causing degassing of CO2 and facilitating calcite precipitation in the form of hillocks. We estimated CO2 supercritical fluid transport assuming a minimum depth of the fluid inclusions involved in the fluid movement and an instantaneous precipitation at the surface. We found that supercritical CO2 fluid transport in calcite is around the value of 10 nm/s. The estimated fast fluid transport rate is about 10 orders of magnitude higher than the estimated low-temperature extrapolation of solid-state diffusion vacancy in calcite crystals. Classical description of fluid transport recognises several distinct paths only for polycrystalline materials assuming the presence of inter-grain pathways as micro and nano-pore tubes. Fluid transport is usually observed in poly-phase material grains can also exhibit clear indications of multi-path migration even when visible evidence of such paths is lacking. Our study quantifies this process in the case of natural calcite at external standard conditions and be of potential importance in movement of CO2 rich fluids under supercritical conditions.

  18. Microbially Induced Calcite Precipitation for Subsurface Immobilization of Contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, R. W.; Fujita, Y.; Ginn, T. R.; Hubbard, S. S.; Dafflon, B.; Delwiche, M.; Gebrehiwet, T.; Henriksen, J. R.; Peterson, J.; Taylor, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    Subsurface radionuclide and metal contaminants throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex pose one of the greatest challenges for long-term stewardship. One promising stabilization mechanism for divalent trace ions, such as the short-lived radionuclide 90Sr, is co-precipitation in calcite. We have found that calcite precipitation and co-precipitation of Sr can be accelerated by the activity of urea hydrolyzing microorganisms, that higher calcite precipitation rates can result in increased Sr partitioning, and that nutrient additions can stimulate ureolytic activity. To extend our understanding of microbially induced calcite precipitation (MICP) in an aquifer setting a continuous recirculation field experiment evaluating MICP was conducted at the Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site located at Rifle, CO. In this experiment, groundwater extracted from an onsite well was amended with urea (total mass of 42.5 kg) and molasses (a carbon and electron donor) and re-injected into a well approximately 4 meters up-gradient for a period of 12 days followed by 10 months of groundwater sampling and monitoring. Crosshole radar and electrical tomographic data were collected prior, during, and after the MICP treatment. The urea and molasses treatment resulted in an enhanced population of sediment associated urea hydrolyzing organisms as evidenced by increases in the number of ureC gene copies, increases in 14C urea hydrolysis rates, and long-term observations of ammonium (a urea hydrolysis product) in the injection, extraction and down gradient monitoring wells. Permeability changes and increases in the calcite saturation indexes in the well field suggest that mineral precipitation has occurred; ongoing analysis of field samples seeks to confirm this. Changes in dielectric constant and electrical conductivity were used to interpret the spatiotemporal distribution of the injectate and subsequent calcite precipitation. Modeling activities are underway to define field-scale urea hydrolysis rates.

  19. Lime kiln source characterization: Lime manufacturing industry Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Toney, M.L.

    1999-07-01

    The purpose of this testing program is to obtain uncontrolled and controlled hydrogen chloride (HCl) and speciated hydrocarbon Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) emissions data from lime production plants to support a national emission standard for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP). This report presents data from the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements. FTIR source testing was conducted for the following purposes: Quantify HCl emission levels; and Gather screening (i.e., qualitative) data on other HAP emissions.

  20. Magnesium incorporation in calcite in the presence of organic ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavromatis, Vasileios; Baldermann, Andre; Purgstaller, Bettina; Dietzel, Martin

    2015-04-01

    The formation of authigenic Mg-calcites in marine early diagenetic environments is commonly driven by a bio-induced process, the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM), which provides inorganic carbon required for the precipitation of such authigenic carbonates. In such settings the availability of major and/or trace divalent metal cations (Me2+) incorporated in calcite and their aqueous speciation are controlled by the presence of aqueous organic molecules that are produced either as (by-)products of biological activity (i.e. exopolymeric substances) or during degradation of allochthonous organic matter in the sediments. Despite the fact that the presence of aqueous organic ligands strongly affects the growth rates and the mineralogy of precipitating CaCO3 polymorphs, till now no study addresses the role of Me2+-ligand aqueous complexes on the extent of Mg and/or other trace element content of Mg-calcites. In order to shed light on this process, relevant to authigenic calcite formation in organic-rich marine sediments and continental soils, we precipitated calcite in the presence of aqueous Mg and a variety of low molecular weight carboxylic- and aminoacids. Our experimental data indicate that the presence of organic ligands augments significantly the saturation state of calcite in the parent fluid during its precipitation. Moreover, they suggest that the higher the ligand concentration, the higher the obtained distribution coefficient of Mg in calcite. The latter is directly proportional to the ratio of Mg2+/Ca2+ aqueous ions for all ligands used. Hydrogeochemical modelling of the aqueous fluids indicate that the observed correlation can be explained by the stronger complexation of Ca2+ with organic ligands compared to Mg2+, which results in higher availability of Mg2+ vs. Ca2+ aqueous ions. Overall the obtained results suggest that the higher the organic ligand aqueous concentration the higher the Mg content of calcite forming from this fluid. These findings are of great importance for the understanding of the mechanisms controlling impurities and trace element incorporation in carbonates forming in marine diagenetic and soil environments.

  1. Siderite and calcite in lignite overburden of East Texas 

    E-print Network

    Durham, David Hugh

    1982-01-01

    ) of carbonate v4 mode of absozbance versus cation radius (A) in cal- cite type carbonates 10 Fig. 3--X-ray diffraction dlO4 carbonate spacing (A) versus cation radius (A) in calcite type carbonates Fig. 4--Locations of cores that were selected foz carbonate.... 26 ? Infrared spectoscopy data for the region from 760 cm to 700 cm 1 148 INTRODUCTION The common carbonate minerals, calcite, dolomite, and magnesite, can neutralize acidity of soil and supply a basic cation to the cation exchange complex upon...

  2. Sulfated Macromolecules as Templates for Calcite Nucleation and Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, M.; Passalacqua, K.; Neira, A. C.; Fernandez, M. S.

    2003-12-01

    Mineralization of egg and seashells is controlled by an intimate association of inorganic materials with organic macromolecules. Among them, particular polyanionic sulfated macromolecules referred to as proteoglycans have been described to be involved in the calcification of these biominerals. The sulfated moieties of the proteoglycans are part of polymer chains constituted of building-blocks of disaccharide units, referred to as sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), which are covalently attached to a protein core. By using a sitting drop crystallization assay under controlled conditions of time, pH and reactants concentration, we have tested several sulfated and non-sulfated GAGs (i.e.: dermatan and keratan sulfate, hyaluronic acid and heparin), differing in their sulfonate and carboxylate degree and pattern, in their ability to modify calcium carbonate crystal morphology as observed under scanning electron microscopy. Without the addition of GAGs, regular \\{104\\} rhombohedral calcite crystals were obtained. When hyaluronic acid (HA), a non-sulfated but carboxylated GAG, was added, 20 mm long piles of unmodified calcite crystals were observed. When desulfated dermatan, which is an epimeric form of HA but shorter polymer, having their carboxylate groups in an inverted configuration, was added, isolated rhombohedral \\{104\\} calcite crystals showing rounded corners with planes oriented parallel to the c axis were observed. When dermatan sulfated was added, isolated calcite crystals exhibit a columnar morphology as a \\{hk0\\} cylinder with three \\{104\\} faces forming a cap at both ends. Heparin activity depends on the fraction added. Fast-moving heparin fraction (FM), is an undersulfated, low-molecular-weight heterogeneous polymer, while slow-moving heparin fraction (SM) is an high-molecular-weight homogeneous polymer rich in trisulfated-disaccharide units. When FM was added, isolated calcite crystals displayed rhombohedrical \\{104\\} faces but flat corners of \\{111\\} faces. The addition of the hypersulfated heparin SM induce the formation of large rosette-like aggregated calcite crystals, where the majority of the \\{104\\} faces appeared not to be lost, although aggregation is done by different kind of faces. It is concluded that, the variation of the sulfate and carboxylate content and configuration drastically changed the morphology of the calcite crystals. The production of calcite particles with defined morphologies could be interesting for the design of novel materials with desirable shape- and texture-depending properties. Granted by FONDAP 11980002.

  3. DEFINITIVE SOX CONTROL PROCESS EVALUATIONS: LIMESTONE, LIME, AND MAGNESIA FGD PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives economic and ground-to-ground energy evaluations of limestone slurry, lime slurry, and magnesia (producing sulfuric acid) flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes. The lime slurry process, using purchased lime and lime calcined onsite, remains lower in capital in...

  4. Anomalous porosity preservation and preferential accumulation of gas hydrate in the Andaman accretionary wedge, NGHP-01 site 17A

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, Kelly K.; Johnson, Joel E.; Torres, Marta E.; Hong, WeiLi; Giosan, Liviu; Solomon, E.; Kastner, Miriam; Cawthern, Thomas; Long, Philip E.; Schaef, Herbert T.

    2014-12-01

    In addition to well established properties that control the presence or absence of the hydrate stability zone, such as pressure, temperature, and salinity, additional parameters appear to influence the concentration of gas hydrate in host sediments. The stratigraphic record at Site 17A in the Andaman Sea, eastern Indian Ocean, illustrates the need to better understand the role pore-scale phenomena play in the distribution and presence of marine gas hydrates in a variety of subsurface settings. In this paper we integrate field-generated datasets with newly acquired sedimentology, physical property, imaging and geochemical data with mineral saturation and ion activity products of key mineral phases such as amorphous silica and calcite, to document the presence and nature of secondary precipitates that contributed to anomalous porosity preservation at Site 17A in the Andaman Sea. This study demonstrates the importance of grain-scale subsurface heterogeneities in controlling the occurrence and distribution of concentrated gas hydrate accumulations in marine sediments, and document the importance that increased permeability and enhanced porosity play in supporting gas concentrations sufficient to support gas hydrate formation. The grain scale relationships between porosity, permeability, and gas hydrate saturation documented at Site 17A likely offer insights into what may control the occurrence and distribution of gas hydrate in other sedimentary settings.

  5. Inter-relations entre aiguilles de calcite et hyphes Gabriel CALLOT, Andr GUYON Daniel MOUSAIN

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Inter-relations entre aiguilles de calcite et hyphes mycéliens Gabriel CALLOT, André GUYON Daniel'intérieur des hyphes de Basidiomycètes. Ces concentrations minérales s'identifient aux aiguilles de calcite

  6. Nutrition, Hydration & Health

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    The following resource is a NFL sponsored, National Science Foundation funded program intended to teach students about scientific concepts by using the popular sport of Football. Each lesson is accompanied by an informative and fast paced video. In this lesson, athletic trainers from the Pittsburgh Steelers explain what NFL players must do to stay hydrated and replenish the essential nutrients needed to maintain good health during rigorous practices.

  7. Methane Recovery from Hydrate-bearing Sediments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Carlos Santamarina; Costas Tsouris

    2011-01-01

    Gas hydrates are crystalline compounds made of gas and water molecules. Methane hydrates are found in marine sediments and permafrost regions; extensive amounts of methane are trapped in the form of hydrates. Methane hydrate can be an energy resource, contribute to global warming, or cause seafloor instability. This study placed emphasis on gas recovery from hydrate bearing sediments and related

  8. "EXAFS Study of Rare-Earth Element Coordination in Calcite"

    SciTech Connect

    Elzinga, E. J.; Reeder, Richard; Withers, S. H.; Peale, Robert E.; Mason, R. A.; Beck, Kenneth M.; Hess, Wayne P.

    2002-03-11

    X-ray absorption fine-structure (XAFS) spectroscopy is used to characterize the local coordination of selected rare-earth elements (Nd3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Yb3+) coprecipitated with calcite in minor concentrations from room-temperature aqueous solutions. Fitting results confirm substitution in the Ca site, but first-shell Nd-O and Sm-O distances are longer than the Ca-O distance in calcite, and longer than consistent with ionic radii sums for 6-fold coordination in the octahedral Ca site. In contrast, first-shell Dy-O and Yb-O distances are shorter than the Ca-O distance and consistent with ionic radii sums for 6-fold coordination. Comparison of Nd-O and Sm-O bond lengths with those in lanthanide sesquioxides and with ionic radii trends across the lanthanide series suggested that Nd3+ and Sm3+ impurities have 7-fold coordination in a modified Ca site in calcite. This would require some disruption of the local structure, with an expected decrease in stability and possibly a different charge compensation mechanism. A possible explanation for the increased coordination for the larger rare earth elements involves bidenate ligation from a CO3 group. Because trivalent actinides such as Am3+ and Cm3+ have ionic radii similar to Nd3+, their incorporation in calcite may result in similar defect structure.

  9. Aragonite / Calcite seas and the evolution of biomineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balthasar, Uwe

    2015-04-01

    The vast majority of marine invertebrate skeletons are composed of the CaCO3 polymorphs aragonite and calcite, yet the influence of seawater composition on the evolution of calcareous skeletal composition is poorly understood. The main theoretical framework in which the evolution of CaCO3 shell mineralogy is assessed is the aragonite-calcite sea hypothesis with conventional thinking suggesting that a threshold in the marine Mg:Ca ratio determines CaCO3 polymorph formation. I present data from CaCO3 precipitation experiments to show that the concept of a distinct threshold is misleading because Mg:Ca ratio and temperature combined result in a Phanerozoic continuum of co-existing aragonite-calcite seas with aragonite-facilitating conditions existing throughout the Phanerozoic in shallow warm-water (>20° C) environments. The stable reservoir of aragonite-favouring conditions in shallow warm water environments potentially explains the trend of increasing occurrences of skeletal aragonite throughout the Phanerozoic, particularly in the context of the 'out of the tropics' hypothesis. By contrast, the most prominent fluctuations with respect to aragonite-calcite sea conditions can be expected to have occurred in mid- to high latitudes.

  10. X-ray line broadening in plastically deformed calcite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. Paterson

    1959-01-01

    The broadening of several x-ray powder lines of calcite as a result of plastic deformation under a high confining pressure has been studied in Solenhofen limestone. The dependence of the broadening on the Bragg engle, the apparent influence of elastic anisotropy and the results of Fourier analysis of the lines suggest that the broadening is due mainly ta internal strains.

  11. Structure and mechanical properties of biogenic single calcite crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aizenberg, Joanna; Weiner, Steve; Addadi, Lia

    2000-03-01

    Composite materials, in which the organic host is stiffened by guest crystalline particles, are widely used in nature (bones, teeth, mollusk shells) and are produced synthetically by man (fiber-reinforced composites). Organisms also produce a different type of composite in which the host is a single crystal and the guests are macromolecules occluded in an orderly fashion within the crystal. The best-studied examples, to date, are skeletal elements composed of a single calcite crystal. These skeletons have unique mechanical properties, and fracture with a glassy conchoidal surface, which is quite different from the smooth planar cleavage of pure calcite. The specific positions of macromolecules in calcite crystals were identified by in vitro crystallization experiments and synchrotron X-ray studies. We show that the occluded macromolecules introduced specifically along crystallographic planes that are oblique to the cleavage planes of calcite strengthen the material against failure by both absorbing and deviating the advancing cracks. These novel, "reverse" fiber-reinforced, composites may be just one example of strategies used in nature for producing materials with improved properties.

  12. Experimentelle Bildung von Forsterit und Calcit aus Tremolit und Dolomit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Metz

    1967-01-01

    The equilibrium temperature for the reaction: 1 tremolite + 11 dolomite 8 forsterite + 13 Calcit + 9 CO 2 + 1 H 2 O was experimentally determined as a function of the CO 2 -content of the CO 2 -H 2 O fluid phase for the total pressures of 500 and 1000 bars. The results are plotted as two

  13. Quantitative estimation of calcite in limestones by differential thermal analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Jehan; M. A. Qaiser; A. H. Khan

    1972-01-01

    A quantitative method is presented for the estimation of calcite in limestones by differential thermal analysis, using calcium hydroxide as an internal standard. The effects of variations due to particle size and impurities such as quartz, iron oxide, organic material, dolomite, magnesite, gypsum and phosphates are discussed.

  14. Cross-section of Calcite Crystal Covering in Jewel Cave

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Jewel Cave is currently the 3rd most extensive cave network in the world. It is believed to have formed completely underwater, thus leading to the extensive coating of calcite crystals. A cross-sectional view of the crystal coating can be seen in the center of the image, with the surface of the cal...

  15. Bioremediation of Cd by microbially induced calcite precipitation.

    PubMed

    Kang, Chang-Ho; Han, Sang-Hyun; Shin, Yujin; Oh, Soo Ji; So, Jae-Seong

    2014-03-01

    Contamination by Cd is a significant environmental problem. Therefore, we examined Cd removal from an environmental perspective. Ureolysis-driven calcium carbonate precipitation has been proposed for use in geotechnical engineering for soil remediation applications. In this study, 55 calcite-forming bacterial strains were newly isolated from various environments. Biomineralization of Cd by calcite-forming bacteria was investigated in laboratory-scale experiments. A simple method was developed to determine the effectiveness of microbially induced calcite precipitation (MICP). Using this method, we determined the effectiveness of biomineralization for retarding the flow of crystal violet through a 25-mL column. When the selected bacteria were analyzed using an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer, high removal rates (99.95%) of Cd were observed following incubation for 48 h. Samples of solids that formed in the reaction vessels were examined using a scanning electron microscope. The CdCO3 compounds primarily showed a spherical shape. The results of this study demonstrate that MICP-based sequestration of soluble heavy metals via coprecipitation with calcite may be useful for toxic heavy metal bioremediation. PMID:24458656

  16. Bioremediation of Cd by microbially induced calcite precipitation.

    PubMed

    Kang, Chang-Ho; Han, Sang-Hyun; Shin, Yujin; Oh, Soo Ji; So, Jae-Seong

    2014-02-01

    Contamination by Cd is a significant environmental problem. Therefore, we examined Cd removal from an environmental perspective. Ureolysis-driven calcium carbonate precipitation has been proposed for use in geotechnical engineering for soil remediation applications. In this study, 55 calcite-forming bacterial strains were newly isolated from various environments. Biomineralization of Cd by calcite-forming bacteria was investigated in laboratory-scale experiments. A simple method was developed to determine the effectiveness of microbially induced calcite precipitation (MICP). Using this method, we determined the effectiveness of biomineralization for retarding the flow of crystal violet through a 25-mL column. When the selected bacteria were analyzed using an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer, high removal rates (99.95 %) of Cd were observed following incubation for 48 h. Samples of solids that formed in the reaction vessels were examined using a scanning electron microscope. The CdCO3 compounds primarily showed a spherical shape. The results of this study demonstrate that MICP-based sequestration of soluble heavy metals via coprecipitation with calcite may be useful for toxic heavy metal bioremediation. PMID:24293312

  17. Inhibition by glycosaminoglycans of CaCO3 (calcite) crystallization.

    PubMed Central

    Grant, D; Long, W F; Williamson, F B

    1989-01-01

    Of a range of glycosaminoglycans, heparin and heparan sulphate were the most effective inhibitors in vitro of CaCO3 (calcite) crystallization as assayed by conductimetric measurements. The possible role of such glycosaminoglycans in modulating calcium-salt crystallizations in vivo is discussed. PMID:2719649

  18. Hydration-dependent dynamic crossover phenomenon in protein hydration water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhe; Fratini, Emiliano; Li, Mingda; Le, Peisi; Mamontov, Eugene; Baglioni, Piero; Chen, Sow-Hsin

    2014-10-01

    The characteristic relaxation time ? of protein hydration water exhibits a strong hydration level h dependence. The dynamic crossover is observed when h is higher than the monolayer hydration level hc=0.2-0.25 and becomes more visible as h increases. When h is lower than hc, ? only exhibits Arrhenius behavior in the measured temperature range. The activation energy of the Arrhenius behavior is insensitive to h, indicating a local-like motion. Moreover, the h dependence of the crossover temperature shows that the protein dynamic transition is not directly or solely induced by the dynamic crossover in the hydration water.

  19. Methane Clathrate Hydrate Prospecting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duxbury, N.; Romanovsky, V.

    2003-01-01

    A method of prospecting for methane has been devised. The impetus for this method lies in the abundance of CH4 and the growing shortages of other fuels. The method is intended especially to enable identification of subpermafrost locations where significant amounts of methane are trapped in the form of methane gas hydrate (CH4(raised dot)6H2O). It has been estimated by the U.S. Geological Survey that the total CH4 resource in CH4(raised dot) 6H2O exceeds the energy content of all other fossil fuels (oil, coal, and natural gas from non-hydrate sources). Also, CH4(raised dot)6H2O is among the cleanest-burning fuels, and CH4 is the most efficient fuel because the carbon in CH4 is in its most reduced state. The method involves looking for a proxy for methane gas hydrate, by means of the combination of a thermal-analysis submethod and a field submethod that does not involve drilling. The absence of drilling makes this method easier and less expensive, in comparison with prior methods of prospecting for oil and natural gas. The proposed method would include thermoprospecting in combination with one more of the other non-drilling measurement techniques, which could include magneto-telluric sounding and/or a subsurface-electrical-resistivity technique. The method would exploit the fact that the electrical conductivity in the underlying thawed region is greater than that in the overlying permafrost.

  20. Temperature limits for preservation of primary calcite clumped isotope paleotemperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henkes, Gregory A.; Passey, Benjamin H.; Grossman, Ethan L.; Shenton, Brock J.; Pérez-Huerta, Alberto; Yancey, Thomas E.

    2014-08-01

    Solid-state reordering of C-O bonds in the calcite lattice can alter the clumped isotope composition of paleotemperature archives such as fossil brachiopod shells without inducing significant changes in shell microstructure and trace element concentrations, metrics commonly used to gauge preservation quality. To correctly interpret the paleoenvironmental significance of clumped isotope-derived paleotemperatures, it is necessary to understand the temperature-time domain in which solid-state C-O bond reordering is important. We address this question using a combination of laboratory and natural geological experiments on Paleozoic brachiopod shells. The laboratory experiments involve heating fossil brachiopod calcite at different temperatures and times to directly observe rates of 13C-18O bond reordering. The resulting Arrhenius parameters are indistinguishable from values previously determined for an optical calcite with similar trace element compositions. We develop an alternative kinetic model for reordering that accounts for non-first-order reaction progress observed during the initial several hundred minutes of laboratory heating experiments, and show that the simplified first-order approximation model (Passey and Henkes, 2012) predicts reaction progress equally well for temperatures and timescales relevant to sedimentary basins. We evaluate our laboratory-based rate predictions by studying brachiopod calcite from several sedimentary basins with independently constrained burial temperature histories. Specifically, we use the laboratory-derived Arrhenius parameters to predict the evolution of brachiopod calcite clumped isotope compositions during successive one million-year time steps reflecting the burial and exhumation temperature paths of each basin. While this exercise is limited by the relatively large uncertainties in the temperature histories of these basins, we find general correspondence, within error, between predicted and observed clumped isotope values. We present simplified temperature-time diagrams for calcite showing domains where primary clumped isotope compositions will be preserved, partially reordered, and fully reordered. In conclusion, calcite samples dwelling at ?100 °C or lower for 106-108 year timescales should not be affected by solid-state C-O bond reordering.

  1. 63. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE LIME KILN BUILDING, LOOKING AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE LIME KILN BUILDING, LOOKING AT THE FIRE BOX AND KILN FOR DILLUTANT. APRIL 22, 1919. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  2. Rapid gas hydrate formation process

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Thomas D.; Taylor, Charles E.; Unione, Alfred J.

    2013-01-15

    The disclosure provides a method and apparatus for forming gas hydrates from a two-phase mixture of water and a hydrate forming gas. The two-phase mixture is created in a mixing zone which may be wholly included within the body of a spray nozzle. The two-phase mixture is subsequently sprayed into a reaction zone, where the reaction zone is under pressure and temperature conditions suitable for formation of the gas hydrate. The reaction zone pressure is less than the mixing zone pressure so that expansion of the hydrate-forming gas in the mixture provides a degree of cooling by the Joule-Thompson effect and provides more intimate mixing between the water and the hydrate-forming gas. The result of the process is the formation of gas hydrates continuously and with a greatly reduced induction time. An apparatus for conduct of the method is further provided.

  3. Lime treatment of agricultural residues to improve rumen digestibility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jagruti Gandi; Mark T. Holtzapple; Alexis Ferrer; F. Michael Byers; Nancy D. Turner; Murlidhar Nagwani; Sushien Chang

    1997-01-01

    Bagasse, bajra (african millet, Pennisetum typhoideum), jowar (indian millet, Sorghum vulgare) and tobacco stalks were treated with lime to increase the rate and extent of dry matter digestibility. All four materials were treated with 10 g Ca(OH)2\\/100 g dry biomass at 100°C for 1 to 2 h. The residual calcium in the biomass after lime treatment and washing was 1.5

  4. Micromachining soda-lime glass by femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Wei; Yu, Jian; Chai, Lu; Wang, Ching-Yue

    2015-06-01

    The physical process of forming a modified region in soda-lime glass was investigated using 1 kHz intense femtosecond laser pulses from a Ti: sapphire laser at 775 nm. Through the modifications induced by the femtosecond laser radiation using selective chemical etching techniques, we fabricated reproducible and defined microstructures and further studied their morphologies and etching properties. Moreover, a possible physical mechanism for the femtosecond laser modification in soda-lime glass was proposed.

  5. Wetland vegetation responses to liming an Adirondack watershed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mackun

    1993-01-01

    Watershed liming as a long-term mitigation strategy to neutralize lake acidity, from increasing acid deposition, was initiated in North America at Woods Lake in the west central Adirondack region of New York. In October 1989, a dose of 10 MT lime (83.5% CaCO[sub 3]) ha[sup [minus]1] was aerially applied to 48% of the watershed. The wetlands adjacent to Woods Lake

  6. Gas hydrates: technology status report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    The DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) implemented a gas hydrates R and D program that emphasized an understanding of the resource through (1) an assessment of current technology, (2) the characterization of gas hydrate geology and reservoir engineering, and (3) the development of diagnostic tools and methods. Recovery of natural gas from gas hydrates will be made possible through (1) improved instrumentation and recovery methods, (2) developing the capability to predict production performance, and (3) field verification of recovery methods. Gas hydrates research has focused primarily on geology. As work progressed, areas where gas hydrates are likely to occur were identified, and specific high potential areas were targeted for detailed investigation. A Geologic Analysis System (GAS) was developed. GAS contains approximately 30 software packages and can manipulate and correlate several types of geologic and petroleum data into maps, graphics, and reports. The system also contains all well information currently available from the Alaskan North Slope area. Laboratory research on gas hydrates includes the characterization of the physical system, which focuses on creating synthetic methane hydrates and developing synthetic hydrate cores using tetrahydrofuran (THF), consolidated rock cores, frost base mixtures, water/ice-base mixtures, and water-base mixtures. Laboratory work produced measurements of the sonic velocity and electrical resistivity of these synthetic hydrates. During 1983, a sample from a natural hydrate core recovered from the Pacific coast of Guatemala was tested for these properties by DOE/METC. More recently, natural hydrate samples acquired from the Gulf of Mexico are being tested. Modeling and systems analysis work has focused on the development of GAS and preliminary gas hydrate production models. 23 refs., 18 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Soil pH management without lime, a strategy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from cultivated soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeem, Shahid; Bakken, Lars; Reent Köster, Jan; Tore Mørkved, Pål; Simon, Nina; Dörsch, Peter

    2015-04-01

    For decades, agricultural scientists have searched for methods to reduce the climate forcing of food production by increasing carbon sequestration in the soil and reducing the emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O). The outcome of this research is depressingly meagre and the two targets appear incompatible: efforts to increase carbon sequestration appear to enhance the emissions of N2O. Currently there is a need to find alternative management strategies which may effectively reduce both the CO2 and N2O footprints of food production. Soil pH is a master variable in soil productivity and plays an important role in controlling the chemical and biological activity in soil. Recent investigations of the physiology of denitrification have provided compelling evidence that the emission of N2O declines with increasing pH within the range 5-7. Thus, by managing the soil pH at a near neutral level appears to be a feasible way to reduce N2O emissions. Such pH management has been a target in conventional agriculture for a long time, since a near-neutral pH is optimal for a majority of cultivated plants. The traditional way to counteract acidification of agricultural soils is to apply lime, which inevitably leads to emission of CO2. An alternative way to increase the soil pH is the use of mafic rock powders, which have been shown to counteract soil acidification, albeit with a slower reaction than lime. Here we report a newly established field trail in Norway, in which we compare the effects of lime and different mafic mineral and rock powders (olivine, different types of plagioclase) on CO2 and N2O emissions under natural agricultural conditions. Soil pH is measured on a monthly basis from all treatment plots. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission measurements are carried out on a weekly basis using static chambers and an autonomous robot using fast box technique. Field results from the first winter (fallow) show immediate effect of lime on soil pH, and slower effects of the mafic rocks. The plots with mafic rock powders have lower CO2 and N2O emissions as compared with calcite and dolomite. The experiment will be continued for several years under conventionally managed continuous grass, and is unique in its kind allowing to compare different strategies for pH management on GHG emissions.

  8. Retrofit costs for lime\\/limestone FGD and lime spray drying at coal-fired utility boilers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. E. Emmel; J. W. Jones

    1990-01-01

    The paper gives results of a research program the objective of which was to significantly improve engineering cost estimates currently being used to evaluate the economic effects of applying SO2 controls to existing coal-fired utility boilers. The costs of retrofitting conventional lime\\/limestone wet flue gas desulfurization (L\\/LS FGD) and lime spray drying (LSD) FGD at 100-200 coal-fired power plants are

  9. Fluid mediated transformation of aragonitic cuttlebone to calcite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perdikouri, C.; Kasioptas, A.; Putnis, A.

    2009-04-01

    The aragonite to calcite transition has been studied extensively over the years because of its wide spectra of applications and of its significant geochemical interest. While studies of kinetics (e.g. Topor et al., 1981), thermodynamics (e.g. Wolf et al., 1996) and behavior of ions such as Sr and Mg (e.g. Yoshioka et al., 1986) have been made there are still unanswered questions regarding this reaction especially in the cases where the effects of fluid composition are considered. It is well known that when heated in air, aragonite transforms by a solid state reaction to calcite. The aragonite cuttlebone of the sepia officinalis that was used for our experiments undergoes a phase transition at ~370-390Ë? C, measured by in situ heating experiments in a Philips X'pert X-ray powder diffractometer equipped with a HTK 1200 High temperature oven. Successive X-ray scans were taken at isothermal temperatures at 200C intervals. A similar temperature range was found by Vongsavat et al. 2006, who studied this transition in Acropora corals. It is possible however to promote this transition at considerably lower temperatures by means of a fluid mediated reaction where the replacement takes place by a dissolution-precipitation mechanism (Putnis & Putnis, 2007). We have successfully carried out hydrothermal experiments where cuttlebone has been converted to calcite at 200Ë? C. Using the PhreeqC program we calculated the required composition of a solution that would be undersaturated with respect to aragonite and saturated with respect to calcite leading to dissolution of the aragonite and to a consequent precipitation of the new calcite phase, similar to the experiments described in an earlier study (Perdikouri et al, 2008). This reaction is not pseudomorphic and results in the destruction of the morphology, presumably due to the molar volume increase. A total transformation of the cuttlebone produced a fine calcite powder. The cuttlebone exhibits a unique microstructure, made up of interconnected chambers. The aragonite grown during biomineralization of the cuttlebone is interlaced with a β-chitin organic phase that provides the framework for the morphology that is observed. Experiments carried out with the same constant conditions but for different periods of time have revealed the evolution of the transformation to calcite. At shorter reaction times the product was made up of calcite powder and of well preserved aragonite septa, as was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction. In other words, the vertical pillars appear to react at faster rates than the horizontal septa. It has been reported by Florek et al. 2008 that the septa contain higher quantities of β-chitin. The aim of this study is the investigation of these observations and the determination of the effect of the organic component on the kinetics of the aragonite to calcite transformation. Florek M., Fornal E., Gómez-Romero P., Zieba E., Paszkowicz W., Lekki J.,Nowak J., Kuczumow A. Materials Science and Engineering C, In Press (2008) Perdikouri C., Kasioptas A., Putnis C.V., Putnis A. Mineralogical Magazine 72, 111-114 (2008) Putnis A., Putnis C.V. Solid State Chemistry 180, 1783-1786 (2007) Topor N. D., Tolokonnikova L. I., Kadenatsi B. M. Journal of Thermal Analysis 20, 169-174 (1981) Vongsavat V., Winotai P., Meejoo S. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 243, 167-173 (2006) Wolf G., Lerchner J., Schmidt H., Gamsjäger H., Königsberger E., Schmidt P. Journal of Thermal Analysis 46, 353-359 (1996) Yoshioka S., Ohde S., Kitano Y., Kanamori N. Marine Chemistry 18, 35-48 (1986)

  10. Fracture-aperture alteration induced by calcite precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, T.; Detwiler, R. L.

    2013-12-01

    Mineral precipitation significantly alters the transport properties of fractured rock. Chemical solubility gradients that favor precipitation induce mineral growth, which decreases the local aperture and alters preferential flow paths. Understanding the resulting development of spatial heterogeneities is necessary to predict the evolution of transport properties in the subsurface. We present experimental results that quantify the relationship between mineral precipitation and aperture alteration in a transparent analog fracture, 7.62cm x 7.62cm, with a uniform aperture of ~200 ?m. Prior to flow experiments, a pump circulated a super-saturated calcite solution over the bottom glass, coating the glass surface with calcite. This method of seeding resulted in clusters of calcite crystals with large reactive surface area and provided micro-scale variability in the aperture field. A continuous flow syringe pump injected a reactive fluid into the fracture at 0.5 ml/min. The fluid was a mixture of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, 0.02M) and calcium chloride (CaCl2 0.0004M) with a saturation index, ?, of 8.51 with respect to calcite. A strobed LED panel backlit the fracture and a high-resolution CCD camera monitored changes in transmitted light intensity. Light transmission techniques provided a quantitative measurement of fracture aperture over the flow field. Results from these preliminary experiments showed growth near the inlet of the fracture, with decreasing precipitation rates in the flow direction. Over a period of two weeks, the fracture aperture decreased by 17% within the first 4mm of the inlet. Newly precipitated calcite bridged individual crystal clusters and smoothed the reacting surface. This observation is an interesting contradiction to the expectation of surface roughening induced by mineral growth. Additionally, the aperture decreased uniformly across the width of the fracture due to the initial aperture distribution. Future experiments of precipitation within variable-aperture fields will investigate the dependency of growth patterns on heterogeneous aperture distributions. (a) Aperture strain (?b/bi) after 14 days. Precipitation is concentrated near the inlet and decreases in the flow direction. (b) Width-averaged profiles of the initial and final aperture field show changes in aperture and smoothing that results from calcite precipitation between the initial discrete crystals.

  11. Some thermodynamical aspects of protein hydration water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallamace, Francesco; Corsaro, Carmelo; Mallamace, Domenico; Vasi, Sebastiano; Vasi, Cirino; Stanley, H. Eugene; Chen, Sow-Hsin

    2015-06-01

    We study by means of nuclear magnetic resonance the self-diffusion of protein hydration water at different hydration levels across a large temperature range that includes the deeply supercooled regime. Starting with a single hydration shell (h = 0.3), we consider different hydrations up to h = 0.65. Our experimental evidence indicates that two phenomena play a significant role in the dynamics of protein hydration water: (i) the measured fragile-to-strong dynamic crossover temperature is unaffected by the hydration level and (ii) the first hydration shell remains liquid at all hydrations, even at the lowest temperature.

  12. Some thermodynamical aspects of protein hydration water.

    PubMed

    Mallamace, Francesco; Corsaro, Carmelo; Mallamace, Domenico; Vasi, Sebastiano; Vasi, Cirino; Stanley, H Eugene; Chen, Sow-Hsin

    2015-06-01

    We study by means of nuclear magnetic resonance the self-diffusion of protein hydration water at different hydration levels across a large temperature range that includes the deeply supercooled regime. Starting with a single hydration shell (h = 0.3), we consider different hydrations up to h = 0.65. Our experimental evidence indicates that two phenomena play a significant role in the dynamics of protein hydration water: (i) the measured fragile-to-strong dynamic crossover temperature is unaffected by the hydration level and (ii) the first hydration shell remains liquid at all hydrations, even at the lowest temperature. PMID:26049527

  13. Hydration of small peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyttenbach, Thomas; Liu, Dengfeng; Bowers, Michael T.

    2005-02-01

    The results for the sequential hydration of small peptides (<15 residues) obtained in our group are reviewed and put in perspective with other work published in the literature where appropriate. Our findings are based on hydration equilibrium measurements in a high-pressure drift cell inserted into an electrospray mass spectrometer and on calculations employing molecular mechanics and density functional theory methods. It is found that the ionic functional groups typically present in peptides, the ammonium, guanidinium, and carboxylate groups, are the primary target of water molecules binding to peptides. Whereas the water-guanidinium binding energy is fairly constant at 9 +/- 1 kcal/mol, the water binding energy of an ammonium group ranges from 7 to 15 kcal/mol depending on how exposed the ammonium group is. A five-residue peptide containing an ammonium group is in favorable cases large enough to fully self-solvate the charge, but a pentapeptide containing a guanidinium group is too small to efficiently shield the charge of this much larger ionic group. The water-carboxylate interaction amounts to 13 kcal/mol with smaller values for a shielded carboxylate group. Both water bound to water in a second solvation shell and charge remote water molecules on the surface of the peptide are bound by 7-8 kcal/mol. The presence of several ionic groups in multiply charged peptides increases the number of favorable hydration sites, but does not enhance the water-peptide binding energy significantly. Water binding energies measured for the first four water molecules bound to protonated bradykinin do not show the declining trend typically observed for other peptides but are constant at 10 kcal/mol, a result consistent with a molecule containing a salt bridge with several good hydration sites. Questions regarding peptide structural changes as a function of number of solvating water molecules are discussed. Not much is known at present about the effect of individual water molecules on the conformation of peptides and on the stability of peptide zwitterions.

  14. Humidity-induced restructuring of the calcite surface and the effect of divalent heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Hausner, Douglas B; Reeder, Richard J; Strongin, Daniel R

    2007-01-01

    The composition and topography of calcite 10114 cleavage surfaces, with and without exposure to divalent metals, have been investigated as a function of relative humidity. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to understand topographical changes on the calcite surface due to the presence of divalent metal and exposure to different humid environments. Ion scattering spectroscopy (ISS) was used to determine the composition of the near and outermost surface of the calcite after exposure to Cd and Pb and before exposure to the varying humidity conditions. In general, the extent of topographical changes observed on the calcite surface increased with the humidity level, though the initial step density of the cleaved calcite surface affects the extent of surface restructuring. Pretreatment of the calcite surface with aqueous divalent Pb prior to humidity exposure did not appear to alter the humidity-induced structural changes that occurred on the calcite surface. In contrast, calcite pretreated with divalent Cd showed little topographical change following exposure to high humidity. The results suggest that while Pb forms surface precipitates on the calcite surface, Cd exhibits a stronger interaction with the step edges of the calcite surface, which inhibits the ability of the calcite surface to restructure when exposed to a high relative humidity environment. PMID:17052725

  15. Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius Endospores Function as Nuclei for the Formation of Single Calcite Crystals

    PubMed Central

    Murai, Rie

    2013-01-01

    Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius colonies were placed on an agar hydrogel containing acetate, calcium ions, and magnesium ions, resulting in the formation of single calcite crystals (calcites) within and peripheral to the plating area or parent colony. Microscopic observation of purified calcites placed on the surface of soybean casein digest (SCD) nutrient medium revealed interior crevices from which bacterial colonies originated. Calcites formed on the gel contained [1-13C]- and [2-13C]acetate, demonstrating that G. thermoglucosidasius utilizes carbon derived from acetate for calcite formation. During calcite formation, vegetative cells swam away from the parent colony in the hydrogel. Hard-agar hydrogel inhibited the formation of calcites peripheral to the parent colony. The calcite dissolved completely in 1 M HCl, with production of bubbles, and the remaining endospore-like particles were easily stained with Brilliant green dye. The presence of DNA and protein in calcites was demonstrated by electrophoresis. We propose that endospores initiate the nucleation of calcites. Endospores of G. thermoglucosidasius remain alive and encapsulated in calcites. PMID:23455343

  16. Influence of chemical and physical characteristics of cement kiln dusts (CKDs) on their hydration behavior and potential suitability for soil stabilization

    SciTech Connect

    Peethamparan, Sulapha [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, 550 Stadium Mall Drive, West Lafayette, IN. 47907-2051 (United States)], E-mail: speetham@princeton.edu; Olek, Jan [School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, 550 Stadium Mall Drive, West Lafayette, IN. 47907-2051 (United States)], E-mail: olek@purdue.edu; Lovell, Janet [Charles Pankow Concrete Materials Laboratory, Purdue University, 550 Stadium Mall Drive, West Lafayette, IN. 47907-2051 (United States)], E-mail: lovell@purdue.edu

    2008-06-15

    The interaction of CKDs with a given soil depends on the chemical and physical characteristics of the CKDs. Hence, the characterization of CKDs and their hydration products may lead to better understanding of their suitability as soil stabilizers. In the present article, four different CKD powders are characterized and their hydration products are evaluated. A detailed chemical (X-ray diffraction), thermogravimetric and morphological (scanning electron microscope) analyses of both the CKD powders and the hydrated CKD pastes are presented. In general, high free-lime content ({approx} 14-29%) CKDs, when reacted with water produced significant amounts of calcium hydroxide, ettringite and syngenite. These CKDs also developed higher unconfined compressive strength and higher temperature of hydration compared to CKDs with lower amounts of free-lime. An attempt was made to qualitatively correlate the performance of CKD pastes with the chemical and physical characteristics of the original CKD powders and to determine their potential suitability as soil stabilizers. To that effect a limited unconfined compressive strength testing of CKD-treated kaolinite clays was performed. The results of this study suggest that both the compressive strength and the temperature of hydration of the CKD paste can give early indications of the suitability of particular CKD for soil stabilization.

  17. Mallik Gas Hydrates Test Well

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A test-well for collecting gas hydrates in Mallik, Canada. Gas hydrates are naturally-occurring “ice-like” combinations of natural gas and water that have the potential to provide an immense resource of natural gas from the world’s oceans and polar regions....

  18. Bubble migration during hydrate formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shagapov, V. Sh.; Chiglintseva, A. S.; Rusinov, A. A.

    2015-03-01

    A model of the process of migration of methane bubbles in water under thermobaric conditions of hydrate formation is proposed. The peculiarities of the temperature field evolution, migration rate, and changes in the radius and volume fraction of gas hydrate bubbles are studied. It is shown that, with a constant mass flow of gas from the reservoir bottom, for all parameters of the surfacing gas hydrate disperse system, there is a quasistationary pattern in the form of a "step"-like wave. Depending on the relationship of the initial gas bubble density with the average gas density in the hydrate composition determined by the depth from which bubbles rise to the surface, the final radius of hydrate particles may be larger or smaller than the initial gas bubble radii. It is established that the speed at which gas hydrate inclusions rise to the surface decreases by several times due to an increase in their weight during hydrate formation. The influence of the depth of the water reservoir whose bottom is a gas flow source on the dynamics of hydrate formation is studied.

  19. Imaging surface contacts: Power law contact distributions and contact stresses in quartz, calcite, glass and acrylic plastic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dieterich, J.H.; Kilgore, B.D.

    1996-01-01

    A procedure has been developed to obtain microscope images of regions of contact between roughened surfaces of transparent materials, while the surfaces are subjected to static loads or undergoing frictional slip. Static loading experiments with quartz, calcite, soda-lime glass and acrylic plastic at normal stresses to 30 MPa yield power law distributions of contact areas from the smallest contacts that can be resolved (3.5 ??m2) up to a limiting size that correlates with the grain size of the abrasive grit used to roughen the surfaces. In each material, increasing normal stress results in a roughly linear increase of the real area of contact. Mechanisms of contact area increase are by growth of existing contacts, coalescence of contacts and appearance of new contacts. Mean contacts stresses are consistent with the indentation strength of each material. Contact size distributions are insensitive to normal stress indicating that the increase of contact area is approximately self-similar. The contact images and contact distributions are modeled using simulations of surfaces with random fractal topographies. The contact process for model fractal surfaces is represented by the simple expedient of removing material at regions where surface irregularities overlap. Synthetic contact images created by this approach reproduce observed characteristics of the contacts and demonstrate that the exponent in the power law distributions depends on the scaling exponent used to generate the surface topography.

  20. U(VI) behaviour in hyperalkaline calcite systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Kurt F.; Bryan, Nicholas D.; Swinburne, Adam N.; Bots, Pieter; Shaw, Samuel; Natrajan, Louise S.; Mosselmans, J. Frederick W.; Livens, Francis R.; Morris, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    The behaviour of U(VI) in hyperalkaline fluid/calcite systems was studied over a range of U(VI) concentrations (5.27 × 10-5 ?M to 42.0 ?M) and in two high pH systems, young and old synthetic cement leachate in batch sorption experiments. These systems were selected to be representative of young- (pH 13.3) and old-stage (pH 10.5) leachate evolution within a cementitious geological disposal facility. Batch sorption experiments, modelling, extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, electron microscopy, small angle X-ray scattering and luminescence spectroscopy were used to define the speciation of U(VI) across the systems of study. At the lowest concentrations (5.27 × 10-5 ?M 232U(VI)) significant U removal was observed for both old and young cement leachates, and this was successfully modelled using a first order kinetic adsorption modelling approach. At higher concentrations (>4.20 ?M) in the young cement leachate, U(VI) showed no interaction with the calcite surface over an 18 month period. Small angle X-ray scattering techniques indicated that at high U concentrations (42.0 ?M) and after 18 months, the U(VI) was present in a colloidal form which had little interaction with the calcite surface and consisted of both primary and aggregated particles with a radius of 7.6 ± 1.1 and 217 ± 24 Å, respectively. In the old cement leachate, luminescence spectroscopy identified two surface binding sites for U(VI) on calcite: in the system with 0.21 ?M U(VI), a liebigite-like Ca2UO2(CO3)3 surface complex was identified; at higher U(VI) concentrations (0.42 ?M), a second binding site of undetermined coordination was identified. At elevated U(VI) concentrations (>2.10 ?M) in old cement leachate, both geochemical data and luminescence spectroscopy suggested that surface mediated precipitation was controlling U(VI) behaviour. A focused ion beam mill was used to create a section across the U(VI) precipitate-calcite interface. Transmission electron microscope images of the section revealed that the calcite surface was coated with a nano crystalline, U containing phase. Selected area electron diffraction images of the U precipitate which was formed at a U(VI) concentration of 4.20 ?M were consistent with the formation of calcium uranate. XAS spectroscopy at higher concentrations (?21.0 ?M) suggested the formation of a second U(VI) phase, possibly a uranyl oxyhydroxide phase. These results indicated that in the young cement leachate, U(VI) did not react with the calcite surface unless U(VI) concentrations were very low (5.27 × 10-5 ?M). At higher concentrations, speciation calculations suggested that U(VI) was significantly oversaturated and experimental observations confirmed it existed in a colloidal form that interacted with the mineral surface only weakly. In the old cement leachate systems at low concentrations batch sorption and luminescence data suggested that U(VI) removal was being driven by a surface complexation mechanism. However, at higher concentrations, spectroscopic methods suggest a combination of both surface complexation and surface mediated precipitation was responsible for the observed removal. Overall, U(VI) behaviour in hyperalkaline calcite systems is distinct from that at circumneutral pH conditions: at high pH and anything but low U(VI) concentrations, a surface mediated precipitation mechanism occurs; this is in contrast to circumneutral pH conditions where U(VI) surface complexation reactions tend to dominate.

  1. Oxygen isotope fractionation in quartz, albite, anorthite and calcite

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, R.N.; Goldsmith, J.R.; Mayeda, Toshiko K. (Univ. of Chicago, IL (USA))

    1989-03-01

    Laboratory measurements of equilibrium oxygen isotope fractionation in quartz, albite, anorthite, and calcite have been carried out by anhydrous exchange between silicates and calcite at temperatures of 600{degree}C and above. Exchange in these systems is as rapid as exchange between silicates and water. In this paper results are compared with published theoretical estimates as well as data derived from hydrothermal experiments. Some significant differences are found. In particular, it is difficult to reconcile all of the hydrothermal data either with theoretical calculations or with the present experimental data. The new experiments provide an internally consistent set of fractionation factors suitable for isotopic thermometry and for test of disequilibrium in natural systems.

  2. Gas Hydrate Petroleum System Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collett, T. S.

    2012-12-01

    In a gas hydrate petroleum system, the individual factors that contribute to the formation of gas hydrate accumulations, such as (1) gas hydrate pressure-temperature stability conditions, (2) gas source, (3) gas migration, and (4) the growth of the gas hydrate in suitable host sediment can identified and quantified. The study of know and inferred gas hydrate accumulations reveal the occurrence of concentrated gas hydrate is mostly controlled by the presence of fractures and/or coarser grained sediments. Field studies have concluded that hydrate grows preferentially in coarse-grained sediments because lower capillary pressures in these sediments permit the migration of gas and nucleation of hydrate. Due to the relatively distal nature of the deep marine geologic settings, the overall abundance of sand within the shallow geologic section is usually low. However, drilling projects in the offshore of Japan, Korea, and in the Gulf of Mexico has revealed the occurrence of significant hydrate-bearing sand reservoirs. The 1999/2000 Japan Nankai Trough drilling confirmed occurrence of hydrate-bearing sand-rich intervals (interpreted as turbidite fan deposits). Gas hydrate was determined to fill the pore spaces in these deposits, reaching saturations up to 80% in some layers. A multi-well drilling program titled "METI Toaki-oki to Kumano-nada" also identified sand-rich reservoirs with pore-filling hydrate. The recovered hydrate-bearing sand layers were described as very-fine- to fine-grained turbidite sand layers measuring from several centimeters up to a meter thick. However, the gross thickness of the hydrate-bearing sand layers were up to 50 m. In 2010, the Republic of Korea conducted the Second Ulleung Basin Gas Hydrate (UBGH2) Drilling Expedition. Seismic data clearly showed the development of a thick, potential basin wide, sedimentary sections characterized by mostly debris flows. The downhole LWD logs and core data from Site UBGH2-5 reveal that each debris flows is characterized by basal silt- to sand-rich clay dominated stratigraphic units. The upper most debris flow at Site UBGH2-5 extends into the overlying gas hydrate stability zone and IR core scans indicate that this section contains some amount of gas hydrate. The UBGH2 LWD and coring program also confirmed the occurrence of numerous volcaniclastic and siliciclastic sand reservoirs that were deposited as part of local to basin-wide turbidite events. Gas hydrate saturations within the turbidite sands ranged between 60-80 percent. In 2009, the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) Joint Industry Project (JIP) drilled seven wells at three sites, finding gas hydrate at high concentration in sands in four wells, with suspected gas hydrate at low to moderate saturations in two other wells. In the northern GOM, high sedimentation rates in conjunction with salt tectonism, has promoted the formation of complex seafloor topography. As a result, coarse-grained deposition can occur as gravity-driven sedimentation traversing the slope within intra-slope "ponded" accommodation spaces.

  3. Interaction of copper with the surface of calcite

    SciTech Connect

    Franklin, M.L.; Morse, J.W.

    1981-05-01

    The interaction of Cu ions in solution with the surface of calcite has been studied in a range of solutions from pure water to seawater. Observations of the uptake of Cu from solution onto calcite indicates that the process is rapid and strong in both distilled water and seawater. In distilled water, Cu uptake is directly proportional to the concentration of Cu in solution; Cu/sub s/ = K/sub s/Cu/sub 1/. This Cu/sub s/ dependence on Cu/sub 1/ is linear over the entire Cu concentration range studied (0.1 to 200 ..mu..M). Results do not indicate the formation of a precipitate of either malachite or copper carbonate. In seawater, the uptake of Cu is also directly proportional to the concentration of Cu/sub 1/ up to a limiting value of approximately 13 ..mu..M. The average value for K/sub s/ in seawater, 0.24 +- 0.06 (Cu/sub 1/ less than or equal to 13 ..mu..M), is approximately an order of magnitude less than in distilled water. This is probably the result of smaller Cu/sub 1/ activity coefficients and increased site competition by other ions in seawater. Attempts to increase the Cu/sub 1/ concentration above 13 ..mu..M resulted in the additional Cu being deposited on the surface of the calcite. A possible explanation for this behavior is the formation of a precipitate of malachite on the calcite surface. The value of K/sub s/ decreased slightly with increasing solid to solution ratios in seawater.

  4. Relating Mechanical Behavior and Microstructural Observations in Calcite Fault Gouge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, B. M.; Di Stefano, G.; Viti, C.; Collettini, C.

    2013-12-01

    Many important earthquakes, magnitude 5-7, nucleate and/or propagate through carbonate-dominated lithologies. Additionally, the presence of precipitated calcite in (cement) and near (vein fill) faults indicates that the mechanical behavior of carbonate-dominated material likely plays an important role in shallow- and mid-crustal faulting. We report on laboratory experiments designed to explore the mechanical behavior of calcite and relate that behavior to post experiment microstructural observations. We sheared powdered gouge of Carrara Marble, >98% CaCO3, at constant normal stresses between 1 and 50 MPa under saturated conditions at room temperature. We performed velocity-stepping tests, 0.1-1000 ?m/s, to evaluate frictional stability, and slide-hold-slide tests, 1-10,000 seconds, to measure the amount of frictional healing. Small subsets of experiments were performed under different environmental conditions and shearing velocities to better elucidate physicochemical processes and their role in the mechanical behavior of calcite fault gouge. All experimental samples were collected for SEM analysis. We find that the frictional healing rate is 7X higher under saturated conditions than under nominally dry conditions. We also observe a divergence between the rates of creep relaxation (increasing) and frictional healing (decreasing) as shear velocity is increased from 1 to 3000 ?m/s. Our highest healing rates are observed at our lowest normal stresses. We observe a frictional strength of ? = 0.64, consistent with previous data under similar conditions. Furthermore, although we observe velocity-weakening frictional behavior in both the saturated and dry cases, rate- and-state friction parameters are distinctly different for each case. Our combined observations of rapid healing and of velocity-weakening frictional behavior indicate that faults where calcite-dominated gouge is present are likely to be seismic and have the ability to regain their strength quickly. Furthermore, our mechanical results highlight the important role of fluids in the evolution of frictional strength and thus fault behavior.

  5. Use of coupled passivants and consolidants on calcite mineral surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Nagy, K.L.; Cygan, R.T.; Brinker, C.J.; Ashley, C.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Scotto, C.S. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States). Optical Sciences Div.

    1997-02-01

    Deterioration of monuments, buildings, and works of art constructed of carbonate-based stone potentially can be arrested by applying a combination of chemical passivants and consolidants that prevent hydrolytic attack and mechanical weakening. The authors used molecular modeling and laboratory synthesis to develop an improved passivating agent for the calcite mineral surface based on binding strength and molecular packing density. The effectiveness of the passivating agent with and without a linked outer layer of consolidant against chemical weathering was determined through leaching tests conducted with a pH-stat apparatus at pH 5 and 25 C. For the range of molecules considered, modeling results indicate that the strongest-binding passivant is the trimethoxy dianionic form of silylalkylaminocarboxylate (SAAC). The same form of silylalkylphosphonate (SAP) is the second strongest binder and the trisilanol neutral form of aminoethylaminopropylsilane (AEAPS) is ranked third. Short-term leaching tests on calcite powders coated with the trisilanol derivative of SAAC, the triethoxy neutral form of SAP, and the trimethoxy neutral form of AEAPS show that the passivant alone does not significantly slow the dissolution rate. However, all passivants when linked to the sol consolidant result in decreased rates. Combined AEAPS plus consolidant results in a coating that performs better than the commercial product Conservare{reg_sign} OH and at least as well as Conservare{reg_sign} H. The modeling results indicate that there may be a threshold binding energy for the passivant above which the dissolution rate of calcite is actually enhanced. More strongly-binding passivants may aid in the dissolution mechanism or dissociate in aqueous solution exposing the calcite surface to water.

  6. A re-evaluation of aragonite versus calcite seas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad H. Adabi

    2004-01-01

    Some workers have argued that the mineralogy of ancient carbonates may have been different from that of modern sediments,\\u000a with calcite being considered the dominant mineral during the Ordovician, Devonian-mid Carboniferous, and Jurassic-Cretaceous\\u000a to Early\\/Middle Cenozoic (e.g. Sandberg 1983; Wilkinson and Algeo 1989). Variation in carbonate mineralogy has been related\\u000a to the position of global sea level (emergent or submergent

  7. Gehlenite and anorthite crystallisation from kaolinite and calcite mix

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karfa Traoré; Tibo Siméon Kabré; Philippe Blanchart

    2003-01-01

    Clay products can be reinforced by using clay and calcite mixes, even if sintering is at low temperature (1100 °C). The formation of a micro-composite microstructure favours a significant strength increase as fired materials contain anorthite grains embedded in a silico-aluminate matrix. The clay used, rich in kaolinite mineral, is originated from Burkina-Faso. It is contaminated by a moderate iron level,

  8. Mass transfer of reactive crystallization in synthesizing calcite nanocrystal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rong-yi Lin; Jia-yun Zhang; Yuan-qiang Bai

    2006-01-01

    An experimental study on the mass transfer and reactive crystallization of calcite nanocrystal was carried out in a Na5P3O10–Ca(OH)2–CO2–H2O multiphase system. According to the two-film theory and the two-steps crystal growth model, the kinetic characteristics in the system were investigated by the rate-comparison of the calcium hydroxyl dissolution, carbon dioxide absorption and calcium carbonate precipitation. The result indicated that the

  9. Cosmogenic Chlorine36 Production in Calcite by Muons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. O. H. Stone; J. M. Evans; L. K. Fifield; G. L. Allan; R. G. Cresswell

    1998-01-01

    At depths below a few metres, 36Cl production in calcite is initiated almost entirely by cosmic ray muons. The principal reactions are (1) direct negative muon capture by Ca; 40Ca(??,?)36Cl, and (2) capture by 35Cl of secondary neutrons produced in muon capture and muon-induced photodisintegration reactions. We have determined rates for 36Cl and neutron production due to muon capture in

  10. Rate-controlled calcium isotope fractionation in synthetic calcite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Lemarchand; G. J. Wasserburg; D. A. Papanastassiou

    2004-01-01

    The isotopic composition of Ca (?44Ca\\/40Ca) in calcite crystals has been determined relative to that in the parent solutions by TIMS using a double spike. Solutions were exposed to an atmosphere of NH3 and CO2, provided by the decomposition of (NH4)2CO3, following the procedure developed by previous workers. Alkalinity, pH and concentrations of CO32?, HCO3?, and CO2 in solution were

  11. Rate-controlled calcium isotope fractionation in synthetic calcite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Lemarchand; G. J. Wasserburg; D. A. Papanastassiou

    2004-01-01

    The isotopic composition of Ca (Delta44Ca\\/40Ca) in calcite crystals has been determined relative to that in the parent solutions by TIMS using a double spike. Solutions were exposed to an atmosphere of NH3 and CO2, provided by the decomposition of (NH4)2CO3, following the procedure developed by previous workers. Alkalinity, pH and concentrations of CO32-, HCO3-, and CO2 in solution were

  12. Magnesium stable isotope fractionation in marine biogenic calcite and aragonite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Wombacher; A. Eisenhauer; F. Böhm; N. Gussone; M. Regenberg; W.-Chr. Dullo; A. Rüggeberg

    2011-01-01

    This survey of magnesium stable isotope compositions in marine biogenic aragonite and calcite includes samples from corals, sclerosponges, benthic porcelaneous and planktonic perforate foraminifera, coccolith oozes, red algae, and an echinoid and brachiopod test. The analyses were carried out using MC-ICP-MS with an external repeatability of ±0.22‰ (2SD for ?26Mg; n=37), obtained from a coral reference sample (JCp-1).Magnesium isotope fractionation

  13. Calcite and dolomite discrimination using airborne SWIR imaging spectrometer data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neil Rowlands; Robert A. Neville

    1996-01-01

    The SWIR full spectrum imager (SFSI) is a hyperspectral push-broom imager, acquiring imagery in 120 0.010 micrometers wide bands simultaneously covering the 1.20 micrometers to 2.47 micrometers spectral region. During the first flights of the instrument hyperspectral imagery was acquired over a calcite quarry and a dolomite quarry. Both these minerals show distinctive carbonate absorption features in the 1.7 to

  14. A selective hydration treatment to enhance the utilization of CFBC ash in concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Blondin, J. [Centre d`Etudes et de Recherches du Charbon, Mazingarbe (France). Groupe Charbonnages de France; Anthony, E.J. [CANMET, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Energy Research Labs.

    1995-12-31

    Circulating FBC ash does not normally conform either to North American or European standards as a component or additive to concrete. This is because sulfur capture produces SO{sub 3} contents which are too high, and SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} contents which are too low. Moreover, the available free lime content can cause structural damage in concrete despite CFBC cementitious properties. A new selective treatment has been developed which allows quantitative conversion of free lime content to Portlandite. This hydration treatment is selective and doesn`t affect the hydraulic or pozzolanic potential of CFBC ash. A new method now also exists to determine the residual CaO content in presence of Ca(OH){sub 2}, which provides the possibility of rapid and cheap quality control for the treated ashes. This hydration treatment can significantly enhance CFBC ash utilization in many areas: concrete, road subbase, or use in embankments and also backfill applications or landfill disposal. In addition, the method offers additional benefits in terms of reduced water demand, reduction in heat release from ash on placement in a landfill or use in cementitious applications. It also causes significant reduction in the swelling behavior and hence dimensional instability in hardened pastes, for cementitious applications, which otherwise result from delayed hydration or unreacted CaO in the CFBC residues. Results are presented from standardized tests, applied to CFBC ash use in concrete, which demonstrate the considerable advantages of the new hydration process for utilization of CFBC ash in concrete.

  15. Alternative origins for nannobacteria-like objects in calcite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkland, Brenda L.; Lynch, F. Leo; Rahnis, Michael A.; Folk, Robert L.; Molineux, Ian J.; McLean, Robert J. C.

    1999-04-01

    More than 40 calcite-precipitation experiments were performed under sterile conditions in order to investigate the origins of 25 300 nm spherical-, rod-, and ovoid-shaped objects that have been widely interpreted as evidence of nanometer-scale life (i.e., nannobacteria). Individual experiments included the addition of soluble organic compounds, common species of eubacteria, or phage-induced eubacterial lysates. These experiments indicate that many of the nanometer-scale objects have inorganic or nonnannobacterial origins. In the precipitation experiments, calcite formed euhedral crystals 50 800 nm in diameter and smaller (<50 nm) anhedral or rounded particles or protocrystals. The small anhedral or rounded solids resembled nannobacteria. The relative amount of anhedral or rounded calcite was greatest in experiments with a dissolved organic component. These controlled experiments are in accord with observations that rounded nanometer-scale objects are more common in minerals formed in organic-rich environments. Bacterial fragments occur as rounded to irregularly shaped particles that included cell-wall fragments, expulsed cytoplasm, and relict capsules that also closely resembled nannobacteria. Acid etching of the large euhedral crystals produced in the precipitation experiments also resulted in the formation of nanometer-scale features that resembled nannobacteria in natural carbonates. The shapes of the etching artifacts vary as a function of the strength of the acid and the duration of etching. Much caution is advisable in interpreting the origin of rounded features <50 nm.

  16. The kinetics of microstructural evolution during deformation of calcite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, Nicholas; Evans, Brian

    2009-09-01

    There is a strong coupling between the microstructure and the strength of rocks that is thought to play a key role in the evolution of shear zones and in our ability to interpret the mechanics of natural deformation processes. To investigate the microstructural evolution of calcite-rich rocks, we have performed a series of hydrostatic and deformation experiments on synthetic calcite aggregates at 1023 K and 300 MPa. The mechanical data from our experiments were broadly consistent with a composite flow law for concurrent dislocation and diffusion creep. Recrystallization rates responded to the deformation conditions. When the bulk strain rate was dominated by diffusion creep, calcite grains grew at the same rate as occurs by normal grain growth under isostatic conditions. When the dominant deformation mechanism was dislocation creep, the matrix grain size was reduced at a rate that varied directly with product of stress, strain rate, and the square of grain size. Thus, reduction rate was proportional to mechanical work rate. If the stable grain size achieved during deformation depends on the product of stress and strain rate, rather than stress alone, then that grain size is an indication of the work rate and can be used as a paleowattmeter. Following this line of thought suggests that the gradient of recrystallized grain sizes that is often observed in the highly deformed portions of shear zones would not require a gradient in stress but could also be explained by material softening, resulting in locally elevated strain rates under constant stresses.

  17. Nucleation, growth and evolution of calcium phosphate films on calcite.

    PubMed

    Naidu, Sonia; Scherer, George W

    2014-12-01

    Marble, a stone composed of the mineral calcite, is subject to chemically induced weathering in nature due to its relatively high dissolution rate in acid rain. To protect monuments and sculpture from corrosion, we are investigating the application of thin layers of hydroxyapatite (HAP) onto marble. The motivation for using HAP is its low dissolution rate and crystal and lattice compatibility with calcite. A mild, wet chemical synthesis route, in which diammonium hydrogen phosphate salt was reacted with marble, alone and with cationic and anionic precursors under different reaction conditions, was used to produce inorganic HAP layers on marble. Nucleation and growth on the calcite substrate was studied, as well as metastable phase evolution, using scanning electron microscopy, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, and atomic force microscopy. Film nucleation was enhanced by surface roughness. The rate of nucleation and the growth rate of the film increased with cationic (calcium) and anionic (carbonate) precursor additions. Calcium additions also influenced phase formation, introducing a metastable phase (octacalcium phosphate) and a different phase evolution sequence. PMID:25233226

  18. Addition of Calcite Reduces Iron’S Bioavailability in the Pennsylvania Coals—Potential Use Of Calcite for the Prevention Of Coal Workers’ Lung Diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qi Zhang; Xi Huang

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, a hypothesis was tested that the addition of calcite into the Pennsylvania coals may reduce levels of bioavailable iron (BAI), an important component in the mixed coal dust that may contribute to coal workers’ lung diseases. Predetermined proportions of calcite (0, 1, 2, 5, 10% w\\/w) were added into three PA coals. After suspending the mixtures

  19. Interaction of copper with the surface of calcite

    SciTech Connect

    Franklin, M.L.; Morse, J.W.

    1981-12-01

    The interaction of Cu ions in solution with the surface of calcite has been studied in a range of solutions from pure water to seawater. Observations of the uptake of Cu from solution onto calcite indicates that the process is rapid and strong in both distilled water and seawater. In distilled water, Cu uptake is directly proportional to the concentration of Cu in solution; Cu/sub s/ = K/sub s/Cu/sub 1/. The average value for K/sub s/ is 3.5 +- 1.7. The Cu/sub s/ dependence on Cu/sub 1/ is linear over the entire Cu concentration range studied (0.1 to 200 ..mu..M). Results do not indicate the formation of a precipitate of either malachite or copper carbonate. A precipitate of the form Cu/sub x/Ca/sub 1-x/CO/sub 3/ may be deposited onto the calcite surface in distilled water. The value of K/sub s/ in distilled water decreased sharply over the solid to solution ratio range of 0.1 to 2 g CaCO/sub 3/ 1/sup -1/. This was followed by a small change in K/sub s/ for solid to solution ratios in the range of 2 to 10 g CaCO/sub 3/ 1/sup -1/. In seawater, the uptake of Cu is also directly proportional to the concentration of Cu/sub 1/ up to a limiting value of approximately 13 ..mu..M. The average value for K/sub s/ in seawater, 0.24 +- 0.06 (Cu/sub 1/ less than or equal to 13 ..mu..M), is approximately an order of magnitude less than in distilled water. This is probably the result of smaller Cu/sub 1/ activity coefficients and increased site competition by other ions in seawater. Attempts to increase the Cu/sub 1/ concentration above 13 ..mu..M resulted in the additional Cu being deposited on the surface of the calcite. A possible explanation for this behavior is the formation of a precipitate of malachite on the calcite surface. The value of K/sub s/ decreased slightly with increasing solid to solution ratios in seawater.

  20. In Situ Raman Analyses of Natural Gas and Gas Hydrates at Hydrate Ridge, Oregon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. T. Peltzer; S. N. White; R. M. Dunk; P. G. Brewer; A. D. Sherman; K. Schmidt; K. C. Hester; E. D. Sloan

    2004-01-01

    During a July 2004 cruise to Hydrate Ridge, Oregon, MBARI's sea-going laser Raman spectrometer was used to obtain in situ Raman spectra of natural gas hydrates and natural gas venting from the seafloor. This was the first in situ analysis of gas hydrates on the seafloor. The hydrate spectra were compared to laboratory analyses performed at the Center for Hydrate

  1. EVALUATION OF BIOAEROSOL COMPONENTS, GENERATION FACTORS, AND AIRBORNE TRANSPORT ASSOCIATED WITH LIME TREATMENT OF CONTAMINATED SEDIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lime treatment has been used in contaminated sediment management activities for many purposes such as dewatering, improvement of physical properties, and reducing contaminant mobility. Exothermic volatilization of volatile organic compounds from lime-treated sediment is well kno...

  2. REMOVAL OF BERYLLIUM FROM DRINKING WATER BY CHEMICAL COAGULATION AND LIME SOFTENING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effectiveness of conventional drinking water treatment and lime softening was evaluated for beryllium removal from two drinking water sources. ar test studies were conducted to determine how common coagulants (aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride and lime softening performed ...

  3. Water, Hydration and Health

    PubMed Central

    Popkin, Barry M.; D’Anci, Kristen E.; Rosenberg, Irwin H.

    2010-01-01

    This review attempts to provide some sense of our current knowledge of water including overall patterns of intake and some factors linked with intake, the complex mechanisms behind water homeostasis, the effects of variation in water intake on health and energy intake, weight, and human performance and functioning. Water represents a critical nutrient whose absence will be lethal within days. Water’s importance for prevention of nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases has emerged more recently because of the shift toward large proportions of fluids coming from caloric beverages. Nevertheless, there are major gaps in knowledge related to measurement of total fluid intake, hydration status at the population level, and few longer-term systematic interventions and no published random-controlled longer-term trials. We suggest some ways to examine water requirements as a means to encouraging more dialogue on this important topic. PMID:20646222

  4. Hydrates represent gas source, drilling hazard

    SciTech Connect

    Bagirov, E. [Azerbaijan Academy of Sciences, Baku (Azerbaijan); Lerche, I. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    1997-12-01

    Gas hydrates look like ordinary ice. However, if a piece of such ice is put into warm water its behavior will be different from the ordinary melting of normal ice. In contrast, gas hydrates cause bubbles in the warm water, which indicates the high content of gas in the hydrate crystals. The presence of four components is required: gas itself, water, high pressure, and low temperature. The paper discusses how hydrates form, hydrates stability, South Caspian hydrates, and hydrates hazards for people, ships, pipelines, and drilling platforms.

  5. Dynamics of Protein Hydration Water

    E-print Network

    M. Wolf; S. Emmert; R. Gulich; P. Lunkenheimer; A. Loidl

    2014-12-08

    We present the frequency- and temperature-dependent dielectric properties of lysozyme solutions in a broad concentration regime, measured at subzero temperatures and compare the results with measurements above the freezing point of water and on hydrated lysozyme powder. Our experiments allow examining the dynamics of unfreezable hydration water in a broad temperature range including the so-called No Man's Land (160 - 235 K). The obtained results prove the bimodality of the hydration shell dynamics and are discussed in the context of the highly-debated fragile-to-strong transition of water.

  6. Gas Hydrates: It's a Gas

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this activity, students will discover the importance of carbon, where carbon is stored on Earth, and that the largest reservoir of carbon is in the form of gas hydrates where methane and other hydrocarbon gases are trapped in a lattice of water molecules in deep sea sediments. Students will learn how climate change is related to the greenhouse effect. They will also learn about the potential of hydrates as a major new energy resource, and explore the conditions under which hydrates form. In addition, students will understand the use of acoustics for mapping the sea floor and sub-sea floor.

  7. Liming Poultry Manures to Kill Pathogens and Decrease Soluble Phosphorus

    SciTech Connect

    Maguire,R.; Hesterberg, D.; Gernat, A.; Anderson, K.; Wineland, M.; Grimes, J.

    2006-01-01

    Received for publication September 9, 2005. Stabilizing phosphorus (P) in poultry waste to reduce P losses from manured soils is important to protect surface waters, while pathogens in manures are an emerging issue. This study was conducted to evaluate CaO and Ca(OH){sub 2} for killing manure bacterial populations (pathogens) and stabilizing P in poultry wastes and to investigate the influence on soils following amendment with the treated wastes. Layer manure and broiler litter varying in moisture content were treated with CaO and Ca(OH){sub 2} at rates of 2.5, 5, 10, and 15% by weight. All treated wastes were analyzed for microbial plate counts, pH, and water-soluble phosphorus (WSP), while a few selected layer manures were analyzed by phosphorus X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES). A loamy sand and a silt loam were amended with broiler litter and layer manure treated with CaO at rates of 0, 2.5, 5, 10, and 15% and soil WSP and pH were measured at times 1, 8, and 29 d. Liming reduced bacterial populations, with greater rates of lime leading to greater reductions; for example 10% CaO applied to 20% solids broiler litter reduced the plate counts from 793 000 to 6500 mL{sup -1}. Liming also reduced the WSP in the manures by over 90% in all cases where at least 10% CaO was added. Liming the manures also reduced WSP in soils immediately following application and raised soil pH. The liming process used successfully reduced plate counts and concerns about P losses in runoff following land application of these limed products due to decreased WSP.

  8. Retention of SO2 Emission of Coal Combustion by Using Lime in Briquetting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Emre Altun; Cahit Hicyilmaz; A. Suat Bagci

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the effect of lime on control of SO2 emissions was investigated by briquetting of coal particles with various lime contents. The influence of the added lime was determined not only from the view of its contribution to environmental aspects but also in terms of effects on the thermal features and reaction kinetics of coal. The extent of

  9. Obsidian hydration dates glacial loading?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, I.; Pierce, K.L.; Obradovich, J.D.; Long, W.D.

    1973-01-01

    Three different groups of hydration rinds have been measured on thin sections of obsidian from Obsidian Cliff, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming . The average thickness of the thickest (oldest) group of hydration rinds is 16.3 micrometers and can be related to the original emplacement of the flow 176,000 years ago (potassium-argon age). In addition to these original surfaces, most thin sections show cracks and surfaces which have average hydration rind thicknesses of 14.5 and 7.9 micrometers. These later two hydration rinds compare closely in thickness with those on obsidian pebbles in the Bull Lake and Pinedale terminal moraines in the West Yellowstone Basin, which are 14 to 15 and 7 to 8 micrometers thick, respectively. The later cracks are thought to have been formed by glacial loading during the Bull Lake and Pinedale glaciations, when an estimated 800 meters of ice covered the Obsidian Cliff flow.

  10. Obsidian hydration dates glacial loading?

    PubMed

    Friedman, I; Pierce, K L; Obradovich, J D; Long, W D

    1973-05-18

    Three different groups of hydration rinds have been measured on thin sections of obsidian from Obsidian Cliff, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. The average thickness of the thickest (oldest) group of hydration rinds is 16.3 micrometers and can be related to the original emplacement of the flow 176,000 years ago (potassium-argon age). In addition to these original surfaces, most thin sections show cracks and surfaces which have average hydration rind thicknesses of 14.5 and 7.9 micrometers. These later two hydration rinds compare closely in thickness with those on obsidian pebbles in the Bull Lake and Pinedale terminal moraines in the West Yellowstone Basin, which are 14 to 15 and 7 to 8 micrometers thick, respectively. The later cracks are thought to have been formed by glacial loading during the Bull Lake and Pinedale glaciations, when an estimated 800 meters of ice covered the Obsidian Cliff flow. PMID:17806883

  11. Obsidian Hydration: A New Paleothermometer

    SciTech Connect

    Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M [ORNL; Riciputi, Lee R [ORNL; Cole, David R [ORNL; Fayek, Mostafa [ORNL; Elam, J. Michael [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2006-01-01

    The natural hydration of obsidian was first proposed as a dating technique for young geological and archaeological specimens by Friedman and Smith (1960), who noted that the thickness of the hydrated layer on obsidian artifacts increases with time. This approach is, however, sensitive to temperature and humidity under earth-surface conditions. This has made obsidian hydration dating more difficult, but potentially provides a unique tool for paleoclimatic reconstructions. In this paper we present the first successful application of this approach, based on combining laboratory-based experimental calibrations with archaeological samples from the Chalco site in the Basin of Mexico, dated using stratigraphically correlated 14C results and measuring hydration depths by secondary ion mass spectrometry. The resultant data suggest, first, that this approach is viable, even given the existing uncertainties, and that a cooling trend occurred in the Basin of Mexico over the past 1450 yr, a result corroborated by other paleoclimatic data.

  12. Water release patterns of heated speleothem calcite and hydrogen isotope composition of fluid inclusions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sophie Verheyden; Dominique Genty; Olivier Cattani; Martin R. van Breukelen

    2008-01-01

    Speleothem fluid inclusions are a potential paleo-precipitation proxy to reconstruct past rainwater isotopic composition (?18O, ?D). To get a better insight in the extraction of inclusion water from heated speleothem calcite, we monitored the water released from crushed and uncrushed speleothem calcite, heated to 900 °C at a rate of 300 °C\\/h, with a quadrupole mass spectrometer. Crushed calcite released water in

  13. Dynamic recrystallization processes of calcitic fossils in deformed marble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Ree, J. H.; Jung, H.

    2014-12-01

    Here we report dynamic recrystallization processes of calcitic fossils in weakly to fully recrystallized marbles to discuss the survivability of fossils and possible recognition of former fossils in fully recrystallized marbles. The marble is from the early Paleozoic sequence in the Jeongseon area of South Korea. Each crinoid stem in a weakly or non-recrystallized marble cut perpendicular to its length appears as a donut shape and consists of five calcite grains (300-500µm in size) with the same c-axis but different a-axis orientations. The misorientation angle between adjacent grains in a crinoid stem is 40-50°. The outer and inner diameters of the donut-shaped crinoid stems are about 900 and 500 µm, respectively. The recrystallization processes initiate on grain boundaries as bulging recrystallization while transgranular subgrain walls form within lattice-distorted grains. New grains also nucleate on twin boundaries and subgrain boundaries. Some subgrain walls become grain boundaries as they collect more dislocations with subgrain boundary migration. The newly recrystallized grains grow to reach a steady-state grain size of 20-50µm. In fully recrystallized and deformed marbles, the crinoid stems occur as elongated donut-shaped calcite aggregates. The crinoid stems can be recognized by their size larger than that of recrystallized matrix grains (5-20µm), With a higher degree of dynamic recrystallization, the randomness of the misorientation angle distribution of the recrystallized grains within a crinoid stem increases, indicating weaker lattice preferred orientation. We are trying to test whether lattice orientation maps (or AVA diagrams) can be used to recognize former fossil traces in fully recrystallized marbles.

  14. Hydrate control in deepwater drilling

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    Gas-hydrate formation during deepwater offshore drilling and production is a well-recognized operational hazard. In water depths greater than 1,000 ft, seabed conditions of pressure and temperature become conducive to gas-hydrate formation. In a well-control situation, although the kick fluid leaves the formation at a high temperature, it can cool to seabed temperature with an extended shut-in period. With high enough hydrostatic pressure at the mudline, hydrates could form in the blowout-preventer (BOP) stack and choke and kill lines, as has been observed in field operations. The current practice in deepwater drilling is to suppress the hydrate-formation temperature by use of highly saline drilling fluids formulated from NaCl or other salts. This solution is applicable for the Gulf of Mexico but insufficient for the conditions encountered in Norwegian deep waters. At extreme water depths or extremely low mudline temperatures, this thermodynamic inhibition alone may not be sufficient to prevent hydrate formation. Instead, the use of kinetic inhibitors or crystal modifiers, in conjunction with thermodynamic inhibitors, may allow successful operations in such an environment. The definition of kinetic inhibitors (to distinguish them from the classic thermodynamic inhibitors, such as polar compounds and electrolytes) comes from the effect of the chemicals on the nucleation and growth of natural gas hydrates, both of which are time-dependent, stochastic processes. The paper describes deepwater drilling fluids, polar and surface-active additives, kinetic inhibition and crystal modifiers, laboratory measurements, and test results.

  15. Anisotropic surface coupling while sliding on dolomite and calcite crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pina, Carlos M.; Miranda, Rodolfo; Gnecco, Enrico

    2012-02-01

    High-resolution friction force microscopy has been performed on the (104) surfaces of dolomite and calcite in deionized water. The two rows of oxygen atoms alternating in a zigzag way on top of both surfaces are resolved with similar contrast while scanning along the [421¯] direction. Along the [010] direction, only one row is resolved, provided that the normal loading is large enough. The direction-dependent interaction between the probing tip and surface atoms is explained by numeric calculations based on the Prandtl-Tomlinson model.

  16. Calcite dissolution: an in situ study in the Panama Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Thunell, R.C. (Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia); Keir, R.S.; Honjo, S.

    1981-05-08

    The results of an in situ study of calcite dissolution in the Panama Basin indicate that the rate of dissolution in the water column increases suddenly below a water depth of about 2800 meters. This coincides with the depth at which the calcium carbonate content of surface sediments begins to decrease rapidly or the sedimentary lysocline. Since this level of increased dissolution both in the water column and on the sea floor does not appear to be related to the transition from supersaturation to undersaturation with respect to carbonate, there may be a kinetic origin for the lysocline in this region.

  17. Direct observation of the transition from calcite to aragonite growth as induced by abalone shell proteins.

    PubMed

    Thompson, J B; Paloczi, G T; Kindt, J H; Michenfelder, M; Smith, B L; Stucky, G; Morse, D E; Hansma, P K

    2000-12-01

    The mixture of EDTA-soluble proteins found in abalone nacre are known to cause the nucleation and growth of aragonite on calcite seed crystals in supersaturated solutions of calcium carbonate. Past atomic force microscope studies of the interaction of these proteins with calcite crystals did not observe this transition because no information about the crystal polymorph on the surface was obtained. Here we have used the atomic force microscope to directly observe changes in the atomic lattice on a calcite seed crystal after the introduction of abalone shell proteins. The observed changes are consistent with a transition to (001) aragonite growth on a (1014) calcite surface. PMID:11106633

  18. Selection of Refractory Bricks for Use in Lime Sludge Kilns

    E-print Network

    Das, Suman

    Selection of Refractory Bricks for Use in Lime Sludge Kilns Corrosion in Pulp and Paper Mills SE 283rd St, Auburn, WA, 98092-4026 #12;Outline · Function of the refractory lining · Selection of refractory bricks · Recommended refractory linings 2 Selec9on of Refractory Bricks

  19. Long-term lime pretreatment of poplar wood 

    E-print Network

    Sierra Ramirez, Rocio

    2006-04-12

    xylan in raw biomass respectively. For poplar wood oxidatively pretreated with lime for 4 weeks at 65ºC and enzymatically hydrolyzed with an enzyme loading of 15 FPU/g glucan in raw biomass during a 3-day period, the best overall yields of glucan...

  20. Permeability studies in marine clays stabilized with lime column

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, S.N.; Mathew, P.K. [Indian Inst. of Tech., Madras (India). Ocean Engineering Centre

    1994-12-31

    Soft marine clays are very sensitive to changes in stress system, moisture content and system chemistry of the pore fluid. There is a necessity to improve the behavior of these deposits using any one of the available ground improvement techniques. In the present investigation an attempt is made to improve the permeability using lime column techniques in marine clays. The experimental program was carried out with model lime columns installed in two test setups. In the first setup a central lime column was installed in a circular tank and in the second setup number of columns were installed in a rectangular tank. A marine clay from east coast of India was used as a test bed. Number of samples were taken at different radial distances and time periods. From the tests conducted on these samples, it has been established that lime has seeped into the surrounding soil for large distances and this is indicated by pH values and XRD analysis. There is enormous improvement in permeability and the k values are improved by 10 to 15 times. This shows a good promise for improving the reclaimed coastal soft deposits and offshore deposits.

  1. The LIME Interface Specification Language and Runtime Monitoring Tool

    E-print Network

    Heljanko, Keijo

    , and as nondeterministic finite automata. We also describe the supporting LIME interface monitoring tool which is an open by an open source imple- mentation of a runtime monitoring tool automatically generating AspectJ [1] aspects source implementation of runtime monitoring for the interface specifica- tions implemented using Aspect

  2. Saturn's emitted power Liming Li,1,2

    E-print Network

    Saturn's emitted power Liming Li,1,2 Barney J. Conrath,2 Peter J. Gierasch,2 Richard K. Achterberg Composite Infrared Spectrometer are analyzed to precisely measure Saturn's emitted power and its meridional the interannual variability of emitted power and effective temperature between the epoch of Voyager (1 Saturn year

  3. HAZARDOUS WASTE COMBUSTION IN INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES: CEMENT AND LIME KILNS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes the results of several studies relating to hazardous waste combustion in cement and lime kilns. The tests included in the study are four kilns tested by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, four kilns tested by State agencies or the kiln operator, two C...

  4. Modeling Lime Reaction in Peat-based Substrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul R. Fisher; Jinsheng Huang; William R. Argo

    2006-01-01

    Limestone is incorporated into peat-based substrates to neutralize substrate acidity, increase pH buffering capacity, and provide calcium and magnesium. Lime- stones differ in their rate of pH change, equilibrium pH, and proportion of unreacted \\

  5. Ettringite formation in historic bath brick–lime plasters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hasan Böke; Sedat Akkurt

    2003-01-01

    Two types of historic hydraulic brick–lime plasters from a selected Ottoman bath are examined to characterize their technology and the appropriateness of their use in bath. The first type of plaster is original and structurally sound, while the historic repair plaster is the second type and is found to have deteriorated despite being exposed to the same environment. This difference

  6. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in lime spray dryer ash

    SciTech Connect

    Ping Sun; Panuwat Taerakul; Linda K. Weavers; Harold W. Walker [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States). Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Geodetic Science

    2005-10-01

    Four lime spray dryer (LSD) ash samples were collected from a spreader stoker boiler and measured for their concentrations of 16 U.S. EPA specified polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Results showed that the total measured PAH concentration correlated with the organic carbon content of the LSD ash. Each LSD ash sample was then separated using a 140 mesh sieve into two fractions: a carbon-enriched fraction ({gt}140 mesh) and a lime-enriched fraction ({lt}140 mesh). Unburned carbon was further separated from the carbon-enriched fraction with a lithiumheteropolytungstate (LST) solution. PAH measurements on these different fractions showed that unburned carbon had the highest PAH concentrations followed by the carbon-enriched fraction, indicating that PAHs were primarily associated with the carbonaceous material in LSD ash. However, detectable levels of PAHs were also found in the lime-enriched fraction, suggesting that the fine spray of slaked lime may sorb PAH compounds from the flue gas in the LSD process. 37 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. EFFECTS OF LIME (CAO) ON THE ENDOTOXIN LEVELS OF BIOSOLIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lime addition is a common practice for treating biosolids in order to meet EPA 503 requirements for land application. Since this treatment kills the majority of microorganisms, will it increase the level of endotoxins present in biosolids? And, if endotoxin levels are increased, ...

  8. New waste based clinkers: Belite and lime formulations

    SciTech Connect

    Raupp-Pereira, Fabiano [Ceramics and Glass Engineering Department, CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Ball, Richard James [University of Bristol, Interface Analysis Centre, Oldbury House, 121 St Michael's Hill, Bristol, BS2 8BS (United Kingdom)], E-mail: richard.ball@bristol.ac.uk; Rocha, Joao [Department of Chemistry, CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Labrincha, Joao A. [Ceramics and Glass Engineering Department, CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Allen, Geoffrey C. [University of Bristol, Interface Analysis Centre, Oldbury House, 121 St Michael's Hill, Bristol, BS2 8BS (United Kingdom)

    2008-04-15

    This work describes the formulation of new belite-based (CR2) and lime-based (CR3) cementitious materials derived from industrial wastes, such as sludges (generated in the Al-anodising and surface coating industrial processes, potable water filtration/cleaning operations and in marble sawing processes) and foundry sand. Powder mixtures were prepared and fired at different temperatures. For comparison, similar formulations were prepared with pre-treated and commercially available natural raw materials and processed in similar conditions. The thermal process was followed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and high-temperature powder X-ray diffraction (HT-XRD) studies. The CR2 clinker was found to contain belite as the main cementitious phase, the main polymorph being identified by NMR. The CR3 clinker contained common cementitious phases, such as C{sub 3}A and C{sub 3}S, but free lime and calcium aluminium oxide sulphates were also identified by high temperature XRD and NMR. Then the corresponding cement was prepared and the evolution of the mechanical strength with time was evaluated. The lime-based cement obtained from wastes shows a stronger hardening character than the standard material, which tends to show dusting phenomena due to the presence of a reasonable amount of free lime (as the result of its expansive reaction with ambient moisture). Some fluxing impurities (e.g. alkalis) present in the waste materials improve the overall reactivity of the mixture and induces the combination of the lime in CR3. Raman, XPS and FIB techniques were used to fully characterise the aged cements.

  9. Upscaling Calcite Growth Rates From the Mesoscale to the Macroscale

    SciTech Connect

    Bracco, Jacquelyn N [ORNL; Stack, Andrew G [ORNL; Steefel, Carl I [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative prediction of mineral reaction rates in the subsurface remains a daunting task partly because a key parameter for macroscopic models, the reactive site density, is poorly constrained. Here we report atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements on the calcite surface of monomolecular step densities, treated as equivalent to the reactive site density, as a function of aqueous calcium-to-carbonate ratio and saturation index. Data for the obtuse step orientation are combined with existing step velocity measurements to generate a model that predicts overall macroscopic calcite growth rates. The model is quantitatively consistent with several published macroscopic rates under a range of alkaline solution conditions, particularly for two of the most comprehensive data sets without the need for additional fit parameters. The model reproduces peak growth rates and its functional form is simple enough to be incorporated into reactive transport or other macroscopic models designed for predictions in porous media. However, it currently cannot model equilibrium, pH effects, and may overestimate rates at high aqueous calcium-to-carbonate ratios. The discrepancies in rates at high calcium-to-carbonate ratios may be due to differences in pre-treatment, such as exposing the seed material to SI 1.0 to generate/develop growth hillocks, or other factors.

  10. The coordination and distribution of B in foraminiferal calcite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branson, Oscar; Kaczmarek, Karina; Redfern, Simon A. T.; Misra, Sambuddha; Langer, Gerald; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Bijma, Jelle; Elderfield, Henry

    2015-04-01

    The isotopic ratio and concentration of B in foraminiferal calcite appear to reflect the pH and bicarbonate concentration of seawater. The use of B as a chemical proxy tracer has the potential to transform our understanding of the global carbon cycle, and ocean acidification processes. However, discrepancies between the theory underpinning the B proxies, and mineralogical observations of B coordination in biomineral carbonates call the basis of these proxies into question. Here, we use synchrotron X-ray spectromicroscopy to show that B is hosted solely as trigonal BO3 in the calcite test of Amphistegina lessonii, and that B concentration exhibits banding at the micron length scale. In contrast to previous results, our observation of trigonal B agrees with the predictions of the theoretical mechanism behind B palaeoproxies. These data strengthen the use of B for producing palaeo-pH records. The observation of systematic B heterogeneity, however, highlights the complexity of foraminiferal biomineralisation, implying that B incorporation is modulated by biological or crystal growth processes.

  11. Polymorphism of calcite at high pressure and high temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlini, Marco

    2015-04-01

    Carbonates may play a fundamental role as carbon repository phases in the Earth's interior[1]. Recent crystal structure determinations by single crystal diffraction technique at high pressure [2] have shown that these phases may adopt very complex structures at pressures corresponding to Earth's upper and lower mantle. Calcite, CaCO3, transforms to low symmetry phases. Computational studies have confirmed that some of these polymorphs, CaCO3-VI in particular, are thermodynamically stable compared to calcite and aragonite. We investigated also the high temperature polymorphism, by experiments at controlled atmosphere and we confirmed the recently proposed CaCO3-V structure [3] above 1000°C and ambient pressure. In-situ experiments at simultaneous high pressure and temperature defined more accurately the phase relationship between these polymorphs and the effect of Mg and Fe substitution. 1. R. M. Hazen, A. P. Jones, J. A. Baross ed., Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, 75 (2013). 2. M. Merlini, M. Hanfland, High Pressure Research 33, 511-522 (2013). 3. N. Ishizawa et al., Scientific Reports, 3, 2832 (2013).

  12. Paleotransport of lanthanides and strontium recorded in calcite compositions from tuffs at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaniman, David T.; Chipera, Steve J.

    1996-11-01

    Secondary calcite occurs in both saturated and unsaturated hydrologic zones (SZ and UZ, respectively) in the tuffs at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA. In the upper UZ, the major constituents of the calcite crystal structure (C, O) have surface origins. At greater depth there is a “barren zone,” straddling the water table, where calcite is rare and mixing of surface and subsurface sources may occur. Deep in the SZ, distinctive Mn calcites reflect deep sources, including Ca released as analcime or albite formed and carbonates derived from underlying Paleozoic rocks. In the UZ and in the barren zone, above the deep Mn calcites, variations in calcite lanthanide chemistry can be used to distinguish rhyolitic from quartz-latitic sources. Lanthanide ratios and Sr contents of calcites record the chemical evolution of waters flowing through the UZ and upper SZ. Variations in calcite chemistry in the UZ and in the barren zone show that (1) Sr, which is readily exchanged with clays or zeolites, is essentially removed from some flowpaths that are in contact with these minerals and (2) traces of Mn oxides found in the tuffs have a significant effect on groundwater chemistry in the UZ and in the barren zone by removing almost all Ce from solution (evidenced by characteristic Ce depletions in calcite throughout this zone). Extreme Ce removal may be a result of Ce oxidation (Ce 3+? Ce 4+) at the surfaces of some Mn oxides, particularly rancieite. Higher Sr contents and lack of Ce depletions in the deeper Mn calcites reflect different ages, origins, and transport systems. The calcite record of lanthanide and Sr transport in the UZ shows that minor minerals (clays and zeolites) and even trace minerals (Mn oxides) will affect the compositions of groundwaters that flow over distances greater than a few tens of meters.

  13. Interactions of arsenic with calcite surfaces revealed by in-situ nanoscale imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renard, Francois; Putnis, Christine; Montes-Hernandez, German; Ruiz-Agudo, Encarnacion; Hövelmann, Jörn; Sarret, Géraldine

    2015-04-01

    Arsenic dissolved in water represents a key environmental and health challenge because several million people are under the threat of contamination. In calcareous environments calcite may play an important role in arsenic solubility and transfer in water. Arsenic-calcite interactions remain controversial, especially for As(III) which was proposed to be either incorporated as such, or as As(V) after oxidation. Here, we provide the first time-lapse in-situ study of calcite dissolution and growth in the presence of solutions with various amounts of As(III) or As(V). This was performed at room temperature and pH range 6-9 using a flow through cell connected to an atomic force microscope (AFM), to study the evolution of the (10-14) calcite cleavage surface morphology. Reaction products were then characterized by Raman spectroscopy. In parallel, co-precipitation experiments with either As(III) or As(V) were performed in batch reactors, and the speciation of arsenic in the resulting solids was studied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). For As(V), AFM results showed that it interacts strongly with the calcite surface, and XAS results showed that As(V) was mostly incorporated in the calcite structure. For As(III), AFM results showed much less impact on calcite growth and dissolution and less incorporation was observed. This was confirmed by XAS results that indicate that As(III) was partly oxidized into As(V) before being incorporated into calcite and the resulting calcite contained 36% As(III) and 64% As(V). All these experimental results confirm that As(V) has a much stronger interaction with calcite than As(III) and that calcite may represent an important reservoir for arsenic in various geological environments.

  14. Biotic Control of Skeletal Growth by Scleractinian Corals in Aragonite–Calcite Seas

    PubMed Central

    Higuchi, Tomihiko; Fujimura, Hiroyuki; Yuyama, Ikuko; Harii, Saki; Agostini, Sylvain; Oomori, Tamotsu

    2014-01-01

    Modern scleractinian coral skeletons are commonly composed of aragonite, the orthorhombic form of CaCO3. Under certain conditions, modern corals produce calcite as a secondary precipitate to fill pore space. However, coral construction of primary skeletons from calcite has yet to be demonstrated. We report a calcitic primary skeleton produced by the modern scleractinian coral Acropora tenuis. When uncalcified juveniles were incubated from the larval stage in seawater with low mMg/Ca levels, the juveniles constructed calcitic crystals in parts of the primary skeleton such as the septa; the deposits were observable under Raman microscopy. Using scanning electron microscopy, we observed different crystal morphologies of aragonite and calcite in a single juvenile skeleton. Quantitative analysis using X-ray diffraction showed that the majority of the skeleton was composed of aragonite even though we had exposed the juveniles to manipulated seawater before their initial crystal nucleation and growth processes. Our results indicate that the modern scleractinian coral Acropora mainly produces aragonite skeletons in both aragonite and calcite seas, but also has the ability to use calcite for part of its skeletal growth when incubated in calcite seas. PMID:24609012

  15. Assessing the potential for using biogenic calcites as dosemeters for luminescence dating

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. A. T. Duller; K. E. H. Penkman; A. G. Wintle

    2009-01-01

    Calcium carbonate emits an intense thermoluminescence (TL) signal and previous work has explored the potential of using this signal to date both inorganic carbonates such as limestones and stalagmites and biogenic calcite produced by marine organisms. Luminescence analysis of biogenic calcites directly dates the secretion of the mineral by the organism and is therefore not reliant upon exposure of the

  16. Peptide Controls on Calcite Mineralization: Polyaspartate Chain Length Affects Growth Kinetics and Acts as a Stereochemical

    E-print Network

    Dove, Patricia M.

    Peptide Controls on Calcite Mineralization: Polyaspartate Chain Length Affects Growth Kinetics have stronger effects on acute step edges, a crossover occurs for the longer Asp4,5,6 peptides suggest a process by which small fluctuations in primary structure in proteins can control calcite shape

  17. The calcite ? aragonite transformation in low-Mg marble: Equilibrium relations, transformations mechanisms, and rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hacker, Bradley R.; Rubie, David C.; Kirby, Stephen H.; Bohlen, Steven R.

    2005-01-01

    Experimental transformation of a rather pure natural calcite marble to aragonite marble did not proceed via the expected straightforward polymorphic replacement. Instead, the small amount of Mg in the starting material (0.36 wt %) was excluded from the growing aragonite and diffused preferentially into the remaining calcite grains, producing Mg-rich calcite rods that persisted as relicts. Nucleation of aragonite occurred exclusively on grain boundaries, with aragonite [001] oriented subparallel to calcite [0001]. The aragonite crystals preferentially consumed the calcite crystal on which they nucleated, and the reaction fronts developed preferentially along the {010} and {110} planes of aragonite. Each aragonite neoblast that grew was nearly free of Mg (typically <0.1 wt %). The excess Mg was taken up by the calcite grains in between, stabilizing them and causing a few volume percent rodlike relicts of Mg-enriched calcite (up to 10 wt % MgO) to be left behind by the advancing reaction front. The aragonite growth rates are approximately linear and range from ?3 × 10?11 m s?1 at 600°C to ?9 × 10?9 m s?1 at 850°C, with an apparent activation enthalpy of 166 ± 91 kJ mol?1. This reaction mechanism and the resultant texture are akin to cellular precipitation reactions in metals. Similar transformation textures have been reported from high-Mg marbles in Japan and China that disproportionated to low-Mg calcite and dolomite.

  18. Oil and Gas CDT Calcite-Aragonite Seas and porosity prediction: A New

    E-print Network

    Henderson, Gideon

    Oil and Gas CDT Calcite-Aragonite Seas and porosity prediction: A New Approach The University-risking of shallow-marine carbonate drilling targets. Methodology Research will begin by undertaking a new literature of biominerals to provide new insights into which Figure 1. Rough guide to proposed intervals of calcite

  19. Struvite and calcite crystallization induced by cellular membranes of Myxococcus xanthus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Muñoz, Ma Teresa; Omar, Nabil Ben; Martínez-Cañamero, Magdalena; Rodríguez-Gallego, Manuel; Galindo, Alberto López; Arias, JoséMa

    1996-06-01

    In this work we have proved that struvite and calcite crystals can be obtained in the presence of the cellular membrane fraction of Myxococcus xanthus, when appropriate supersaturated solutions are used. Probably, the negative charged points of the external side of the cellular structures could reduce the metastability field of struvite and calcite, acting as heterogeneous nuclei of crystallization.

  20. Nanoripples formation in calcite and indium phosphide (InP) single crystals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ramakrishna Gunda

    2007-01-01

    In this project we studied the formation of nanoripples in calcite and InP single crystals by continuous scanning using the nanoindenter in the ambient environment and by Argon ion irradiation under ultra high vacuum conditions, respectively. Formation of tip induced nanowear ripples is studied on a freshly cleaved calcite single crystal as a function of scanning frequency and contact load

  1. Uranium in foraminiferal calcite as a recorder of seawater uranium concentrations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. D. Russell; S. Emerson; B. K. Nelson; J. Erez; D. W. Lea

    1994-01-01

    The authors present results of an investigation of uranium\\/calcium ratios in cleaned foraminiferal calcite as a recorder of seawater uranium concentrations. For accurate reconstruction of past seawater uranium content, shell calcite must incorporate uranium in proportion to seawater concentration and must preserve its original uranium composition over time. Laboratory culture experiments with live benthic (Amphistegina lobifera) and live planktonic (Globigerinell

  2. Research paper Uranium loss and aragoniteecalcite age discordance in a calcitized aragonite

    E-print Network

    Asmerom, Yemane

    Research paper Uranium loss and aragoniteecalcite age discordance in a calcitized aragonite Aragonite Recrystallization Uranium series dating Laser ablation MC-ICPMS a b s t r a c t We analyzed uranium-series concentrations and isotopic ratios in a mixed aragonite and calcite stalagmite from

  3. Isotopic composition of a calcite-cemented layer in the Lower Jurassic Bridport Sands, southern England: Implications for formation of laterally extensive calcite-cemented layers

    SciTech Connect

    Bjoerkum, P.A. (Statoil, Stavanger (Norway)); Walderhaug, O. (Rogaland Research, Stavanger (Norway))

    1993-07-01

    [delta][sup 18]O[sub PDB] and [delta][sup 13]C[sub PDB] values have been measured on 107 calcite cement samples from a laterally extensive (> 3 km) and continuous calcite-cemented layer 0.5 m thick in the coastal exposures of the Lower Jurassic shallow-marine Bridport Sands in Dorset, southern England. The samples were taken from a two-dimensional grid with 10-cm horizontal and vertical spacing between samples and along individual vertical lines across the calcite-cemented layer, [delta][sup 18]O[sub PDB] values vary between [minus]4.8% and [minus]9.2% and decrease radially outwards from points with lateral spacings on the order of 0.5-1 m in the middle of the calcite-cemented layer. The [delta][sup 18]O[sub PDB] values therefore indicate that the calcite-cemented layer was formed by merging of concretions. All [delta][sup 13]C[sub PDB] values measured are in the narrow range [minus]2.2% to [minus]0.5%, which suggests that the dominant source of calcite cement in the layer was biogenic carbonate.

  4. Partitioning of Sr2+ into Calcite Precipitates Induced by Bacterial Ureolysis in Artificial Groundwater.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, A. C.; Ferris, F. G.; Mancini, A.; Litwin, Y.

    2003-12-01

    A suite of experiments were performed to investigate the partitioning of Sr2+ (to mimic the radionuclide 90Sr) between calcite and groundwater, in response to the hydrolysis of urea by B. pasteurii under simulated in-situ aquifer conditions. Three duplicate experiments were performed at 25° C over 8 days in microcosms inoculated with B. pasteurii ATCC 11859 and containing an artificial groundwater (AGW). The AGW composition was based upon the aqueous chemistry of the metal and radionuclide contaminated Snake River Plain Aquifer, Idaho,USA. Microcosms also contained 25 mM urea, and 1 mM of Sr as a contaminant treatment. Control experiments were run with non urea hydrolyzing bacteria, B. subtillus. Control experiments exhibited little change in pH, and dissolved ammonium and Ca2+ concentrations. Conversely during experiments inoculated with B. pasteurii, ammonium production increased asymptotically, peaking two days into the experiment when approximately all urea had been hydrolyzed. The production of ammonium and bicarbonate from urea hydrolysis caused an asymptotic increase in pH from 6.5 to 9.1 one day into the experiment. Dissolved Ca2+ and Sr2+ decreased asymptotically from the beginning of the experiment, and was accompanied by the development of solid precipitates identified as calcite by X-Ray diffraction. This caused an asymptotic decrease in the saturation state of calcite (S) after one day of the experiment. Specific rate constants were derived for calcite precipitation and critical saturation state from the time course data following a second-order chemical affinity based law. Calcite precipitation rate is fundamentally controlled by, and exhibits a positive association with S. Mass balance indicates the percentage of total Sr (dissolved and in calcite) incorporated into the calcite precipitate increases rapidly to 59 % after two days of the experiment, and increases less rapidly thereafter to a maximum of 67 %. Corresponding measured distribution coefficients (DMe) exhibit a positive association with S and calcite precipitation rates. Therefore DMe is greatest after one day of the experiment (DMe maximum = 0.39), which corresponds to the highest S and calcite precipitation rate, and decreases thereafter (DMe minimum = 0.16) as S and calcite precipitation rate decreases. Therefore the extent of Sr incorporation into calcite precipitates resulting from the hydrolysis of urea by B. pasteurii appears to be a primary function of precipitation rate, which is controlled by S. The median DMe determined by this study (0.22) is greater than previously published coefficients for Sr in calcite by up to an order of magnitude. This demonstrates the potential of calcite precipitation by bacterial ureolysis as a remediation strategy for 90Sr in calcite saturated aquifers.

  5. Passing gas through the hydrate stability zone at southern Hydrate Ridge, offshore Oregon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoli Liu; Peter B. Flemings

    2006-01-01

    We present an equilibrium model of methane venting through the hydrate stability zone at southern Hydrate Ridge, offshore Oregon. Free gas supplied from below forms hydrate, depletes water, and elevates salinity until pore water is too saline for further hydrate formation. This system self-generates local three-phase equilibrium and allows free gas migration to the seafloor. Log and core data from

  6. Polymorphs and hydrates of acyclovir.

    PubMed

    Lutker, Katie M; Quiñones, Rosalynn; Xu, Jiadi; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy; Matzger, Adam J

    2011-03-01

    Acyclovir (ACV) has been commonly used as an antiviral for decades. Although the crystal structure of the commercial form, a 3:2 ACV/water solvate, has been known since 1980s, investigation into the structure of anhydrous ACV has been limited. Here, we report the characterization of four anhydrous forms of ACV and a new hydrate in addition to the known hydrate. Two of the anhydrous forms appear as small needles and are stable to air exposure, whereas the third form is morphologically similar but quickly absorbs water from the atmosphere and converts back to the commercial form. The high-temperature modification is achieved by heating anhydrous form I above 180 °C. The crystal structures of anhydrous form I and a novel hydrate are reported for the first time. PMID:21280051

  7. Influence of calcite on uranium(VI) reactive transport in the groundwater–river mixing zone

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Rui; Liu, Chongxuan; Greskowiak, Janek; Prommer, Henning; Zachara, John M.; Zheng, Chunmiao

    2014-01-23

    Calcite is an important mineral that can affect uranyl reactive transport in subsurface sediments. This study investigated the distribution of calcite and its influence on uranyl adsorption and reactive transport in the groundwater-river mixing zone at US Hanford 300A, Washington State. Simulations using a 2D reactive transport model under field-relevant hydrogeochemical conditions revealed a complex distribution of calcite concentration as a result of dynamic groundwater-river interactions. The calcite concentration distribution in turn affected the spatial and temporal changes in aqueous carbonate, calcium, and pH, which subsequently influenced U(VI) mobility and discharge rates into the river. The results implied that calcite distribution and its concentration dynamics is an important consideration for field characterization, monitoring, and reactive transport prediction.

  8. Predicting Calcite (CaCO3) Requirements of Sphagnum Peat Moss from pH Titration Curves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Liming materials are required to neutralize acidity in peat moss to make it a suitable substrate for growing container crops. A series of time-consuming incubations of peat:lime mixtures are typically used to determine the liming rate to achieve a desired pH. Our objective was to evaluate the util...

  9. Diel cycles in calcite production and dissolution in a eutrophic basin

    SciTech Connect

    Cicerone, D.S.; Stewart, A.J.; Roh, Y.

    1999-10-01

    Calcite production is understood largely as a longer-term phenomenon (e.g., seasonal whitings) that can occur in hardwater lakes, and is significant ecologically because it can slow the rate of eutrophication by reducing, through adsorption, the availability of nutrients to primary producers. In this study the authors show that rapid changes in concentration of dissolved CO{sub 2} by photosynthesis and respiration within a eutrophic basin generated strong day-to-night cycles in calcite production and dissolution. Diel cycles in calcite production and dissolution were large enough that they could drive secondary diel cycles in the availability of metals that strongly sorb to the surfaces of calcite particles. They explored the possibility of the secondary diel cycling of metals by intensive 7-d in situ monitoring of water-quality conditions in a shallow, eutrophic spill-control basin near an industrial facility in eastern Tennessee; inspecting data from a 7-year record of water-quality parameters for this basin; analyzing physicochemical characteristics and mineralogic composition of sediments in the basin; and conducting laboratory experiments to characterize the interaction of calcite with Cd, under solid-liquid nonequilibrium conditions. The authors found that the basin accumulated and stored calcite. In situ monitoring showed that calcite was produced during daylight, and tended to dissolve again at night; the calcite production and dissolution processes seemed to be modulated by dissolved-phase CO{sub 2} dynamics, in concert with large diel fluctuations in pCa, pH, and Po{sub 2}. Laboratory experiments showed a rapid interaction ({lt}6 h) of Cd with calcite, in response to dissolved CO{sub 2} changes. Thus, concentrations of dissolved Cd can vary over daily cycles, mediated by diel changes in calcite production and dissolution. Thermodynamic considerations suggest that other metals, such as Zn, Sr, Ni, and Ba, may demonstrate this behavior as well.

  10. Interactions of arsenic with calcite surfaces revealed by in situ nanoscale imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renard, François; Putnis, Christine V.; Montes-Hernandez, German; Ruiz-Agudo, Encarnacion; Hovelmann, Jörn; Sarret, Géraldine

    2015-06-01

    Arsenic dissolved in water represents a key environmental and health challenge because several million people are under the threat of contamination. In calcareous environments calcite may play an important role in arsenic solubility and transfer in water. Arsenic-calcite interactions remain controversial, especially for As(III) which was proposed to be either incorporated as such, or as As(V) after oxidation. Here, we provide the first time-lapse in situ study of the evolution of the (10-14) calcite cleavage surface morphology during dissolution and growth in the presence of solutions with various amounts of As(III) or As(V) at room temperature and pH range 6-11 using a flow-through cell connected to an atomic force microscope (AFM). Reaction products were then characterized by Raman spectroscopy. In parallel, co-precipitation experiments with either As(III) or As(V) were performed in batch reactors, and the speciation of arsenic in the resulting solids was studied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). For As(V), AFM results showed that it interacts strongly with the calcite surface, and XAS results showed that As(V) was mostly incorporated in the calcite structure. For As(III), AFM results showed much less impact on calcite growth and dissolution and less incorporation was observed. This was confirmed by XAS results that indicate that As(III) was partly oxidized into As(V) before being incorporated into calcite and the resulting calcite contained 36% As(III) and 64% As(V). All these experimental results confirm that As(V) has a much stronger interaction with calcite than As(III) and that calcite may represent an important reservoir for arsenic in various geological environments.

  11. Scleractinian corals produce calcite, and grow more slowly, in artificial Cretaceous seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ries, Justin B.; Stanley, Steven M.; Hardie, Lawrence A.

    2006-07-01

    The mineralogies of most biotic and abiotic carbonates have alternated in synchroneity between the calcite (hexagonal) and aragonite (orthorhombic) polymorphs of CaCO3 throughout the Phanerozoic Eon. These intervals of calcite and aragonite production, or calcite seas and aragonite seas, are thought to be caused primarily by secular variation in the molar magnesium/calcium ratio of seawater (mMg/Ca > 2 = aragonite + high-Mg calcite; mMg/Ca < 2 = low-Mg calcite), a ratio that has oscillated between 1.0 and 5.2 throughout the Phanerozoic. In laboratory experiments, we show that three species of scleractinian corals, which produce aragonite in modern seawater and which have flourished as important reef builders primarily during aragonite seas of the past, began producing calcite in artificial seawater with an ambient mMg/Ca ratio below that of modern seawater (5.2). The corals produced progressively higher percentages of calcite and calcified at lower rates with further reduction of the ambient mMg/Ca ratio. In artificial seawater of imputed Late Cretaceous composition (mMg/Ca = 1.0), which favors the precipitation of the calcite polymorph, scleractinian corals produced skeletons containing >30% low-Mg calcite (skeletal mMg/Ca < 0.04). These results indicate that the skeletal mineral used by scleractinian corals is partially determined by seawater chemistry. Furthermore, slow calcification rates, resulting from the production of largely aragonitic skeletons in chemically unfavorable seawater (mMg/Ca < 2), probably contributed to the scleractinians' diminished reef-building role in the calcite seas of Late Cretaceous and early Cenozoic time.

  12. Hydration of highly charged ions

    PubMed Central

    Hofer, Thomas S.; Weiss, Alexander K.H.; Randolf, Bernhard R.; Rode, Bernd M.

    2011-01-01

    Based on a series of ab initio quantum mechanical charge field molecular dynamics (QMCF MD) simulations, the broad spectrum of structural and dynamical properties of hydrates of trivalent and tetravalent ions is presented, ranging from extreme inertness to immediate hydrolysis. Main group and transition metal ions representative for different parts of the periodic system are treated, as are 2 threefold negatively charged anions. The results show that simple predictions of the properties of the hydrates appear impossible and that an accurate quantum mechanical simulation in cooperation with sophisticated experimental investigations seems the only way to obtain conclusive results. PMID:22298911

  13. Gas Hydrate and Pore Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinivella, Umberta; Giustiniani, Michela

    2014-05-01

    Many efforts have been devoted to quantify excess pore pressures related to gas hydrate dissociation in marine sediments below the BSR using several approaches. Dissociation of gas hydrates in proximity of the BSR, in response to a change in the physical environment (i.e., temperature and/or pressure regime), can liberate excess gas incrising the local pore fluid pressure in the sediment, so decreasing the effective normal stress. So, gas hydrate dissociation may lead to excess pore pressure resulting in sediment deformation or failure, such as submarine landslides, sediment slumping, pockmarks and mud volcanoes, soft-sediment deformation and giant hummocks. Moreover, excess pore pressure may be the result of gas hydrate dissociation due to continuous sedimentation, tectonic uplift, sea level fall, heating or inhibitor injection. In order to detect the presence of the overpressure below the BSR, we propose two approachs. The fist approach models the BSR depth versus pore pressure; in fact, if the free gas below the BSR is in overpressure condition, the base of the gas hydrate stability is deeper with respect to the hydrostatic case. This effect causes a discrepancy between seismic and theoretical BSR depths. The second approach models the velocities versus gas hydrate and free gas concentrations and pore pressure, considering the approximation of the Biot theory in case of low frequency, i.e. seismic frequency. Knowing the P and S seismic velocity from seismic data analysis, it is possibile to jointly estimate the gas hydrate and free gas concentrations and the pore pressure regime. Alternatively, if the S-wave velocity is not availbale (due to lack of OBS/OBC data), an AVO analysis can be performed in order to extract information about Poisson ratio. Our modeling suggests that the areas characterized by shallow waters (i.e., areas in which human infrastructures, such as pipelines, are present) are significantly affected by the presence of overpressure condition. Moreover, the knoweledge of seismic velocities can be considered an powerful tool to detect the overpressure in case that the pore pressure is equal to the hydrostatic pressure plus the 50% of the difference between the lithostatic and the hydrostatic pressure. In conclusions, an accurate analysis of the BSR nature and the pore pressure are required to improve the reliability of the gas-phase estimation for different target, such as gas hydrate and free gas exploitations and environmental studies.

  14. Dehydration of plutonium trichloride hydrate

    SciTech Connect

    Foropoulos, J. Jr.; Avens, L.R.; Trujillo, E.A.

    1991-12-31

    A process of preparing anhydrous actinide metal trichlorides of plutonium or neptunium by reacting an aqueous solution of an actinide metal trichloride selected from the group consisting of plutonium trichloride or neptunium trichloride with a reducing agent capable of converting the actinide metal from an oxidation state of +4 to +3 in a resultant solution, evaporating essentially all the solvent from the resultant solution to yield an actinide trichloride hydrate material, dehydrating the actinide trichloride hydrate material by heating the material in admixture with excess thionyl chloride, and recovering anhydrous actinide trichloride is provided.

  15. Critical occlusion via biofilm induced calcite precipitation in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tianyu; Klapper, Isaac

    2014-05-01

    A model for biofilm induced calcite precipitation with pressure driven flow is presented at the scale of a single pore within a porous medium. The system, an extension of previous work (Zhang and Klapper 2010 Water Sci. Technol. 61 2957-64, Zhang and Klapper 2011 Int. J. Non-Linear Mech. 46 657-66), is based on a mixture model including biomaterial, mineral, and water with dissolved components. Computational results suggest the possibility of critical occlusion in the sense that there is a distinguished trans-pore pressure head such that for pressure drops below this level, pore clogging occurs relatively quickly while for pressure drops above, clogging occurs after much longer times if at all. Beyond its relevance to engineered biofilm applications, this phenomenon is suggestive of the subtleties of embedding simple biofilm models in larger media.

  16. Structural evolution of calcite at high temperatures: Phase V unveiled

    PubMed Central

    Ishizawa, Nobuo; Setoguchi, Hayato; Yanagisawa, Kazumichi

    2013-01-01

    The calcite form of calcium carbonate CaCO3 undergoes a reversible phase transition between Rc and Rm at ~1240?K under a CO2 atmosphere of ~0.4?MPa. The joint probability density function obtained from the single-crystal X-ray diffraction data revealed that the oxygen triangles of the CO3 group in the high temperature form (Phase V) do not sit still at specified positions in the space group Rm, but migrate along the undulated circular orbital about carbon. The present study also shows how the room temperature form (Phase I) develops into Phase V through an intermediate form (Phase IV) in the temperature range between ~985?K and ~1240?K. PMID:24084871

  17. LOW VELOCITY SHPERE IMPACT OF SODA LIME SILICATE GLASS

    SciTech Connect

    Morrissey, Timothy G [ORNL; Fox, Ethan E [ORNL; Wereszczak, Andrew A [ORNL; Vuono, Daniel J [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    This report summarizes TARDEC-sponsored work at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during the FY11 involving low velocity ( 30 m/s or 65 mph) ball impact testing of Starphire soda lime silicate glass. The intent was to better understand low velocity impact response in the Starphire for sphere densities that bracketed that of rock. Five sphere materials were used: borosilicate glass, soda-lime silicate glass, steel, silicon nitride, and alumina. A gas gun was fabricated to produce controlled velocity delivery of the spheres against Starphire tile targets. Minimum impact velocities to initiate fracture in the Starphire were measured and interpreted in context to the kinetic energy of impact and the elastic property mismatch between the any of the five sphere-Starphire-target combinations.

  18. Flocculation of lime-treated oil sands tailings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. A. Hamza; D. J. Stanonik; Michael A. Kessick

    1996-01-01

    Whole oil sands tailings resulting from water-based bitumen extraction processes can be co-flocculated, after treatment with slaked lime, with low dosages of a high molecular weight anionic polyacrylamide. The resulting composite sand-clay particles settle and dewater rapidly to a stackable product that can be hand-squeezed to 40–83 wt% solids. The final solids content depends on the initial bitumen extraction process

  19. A Gasometric Procedure to Measure Residual Lime in Container Substrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jinsheng Huang; Paul R. Fisher; William R. Argo

    Unreacted residual limestone in the container substrate is key in buffering pH change over time. Our goal was to develop a substrate test protocol to measure residual lime (in units of CaCO3 equivalent (CCE)) by applying a strong mineral acid (HCl) to a substrate sample and measuring the evolved CO2 gas with a gasometric method based on a Chittick apparatus.

  20. Shock temperature in calcite (CaCO3) at 95^160 GPa Satish C. Gupta 1

    E-print Network

    Stewart, Sarah T.

    Shock temperature in calcite (CaCO3) at 95^160 GPa Satish C. Gupta 1 , Stanley G. Love 2 , Thomas J The temperatures induced in crystalline calcite (CaCO3) upon planar shock compression (95^160 GPa) are reported likely that shock-induced decomposition of calcite occurs behind the shock front. We modeled

  1. Speciation of aluminium, arsenic and molybdenum in excessively limed lakes.

    PubMed

    Sjöstedt, Carin; Wällstedt, Teresia; Gustafsson, Jon Petter; Borg, Hans

    2009-09-01

    The possible existence of the potentially toxic oxyanions of Al (Al(OH)(4)(-)), As (HAsO(4)(2-)), and Mo (MoO(4)(2-)) was examined in excessively limed lakes. In-situ dialysis (MWCO 1 kDa) was performed in the surface and bottom waters of two excessively limed lakes (pH 7.1-7.7) and one acidic lake (pH approximately 5.4). The dialysable metal concentrations were compared to the equilibrium distribution of species as calculated with the geochemical code Visual MINTEQ incorporating the CD-MUSIC and Stockholm Humic models for complexation onto colloidal ferrihydrite and dissolved organic matter. Arsenic and molybdenum in the excessively limed lakes were to a large extent present in the dialysable fraction (>79% and >92% respectively). They were calculated to exist as free or adsorbed oxyanions. Most of the Al was observed to reside in the colloidal fraction (51-82%). In agreement with this, model predictions indicated aluminium to be present mostly as colloids or bound to dissolved organic matter. Only a small fraction was modelled as Al(OH)(4)(-) ions. In most cases, modelled values were in agreement with the dialysis results. The free concentrations of the three oxyanions were mostly low compared to toxic levels. PMID:19540566

  2. Flavor chemistry of lemon-lime carbonated beverages.

    PubMed

    Hausch, Bethany J; Lorjaroenphon, Yaowapa; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2015-01-14

    The most potent aroma-active components of Sprite (SP), Sierra Mist (SM), and 7UP (7UP) were identified. Aroma extracts were prepared by liquid–liquid continuous extraction/solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (LLCE/SAFE). Twenty-eight compounds were detected by gas chromatography–olfactometry (GC-O) with linalool (floral, lavender), octanal (pungent orange), and 2,3-dehydro-1,8-cineole (minty) determined to be predominant aroma compounds based on their high flavor dilution (FD) factors by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). The data indicate that lemon-lime flavor is composed of a small number of compounds (22 at the most in SM), and only a subset of these may be important because many compounds were detected only at low FD factors. Predominant aroma compounds (23) were quantified using static headspace solid phase microextraction (SPME) combined with stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA). In contrast to FD factors, the calculated odor-activity values (OAVs) indicate that octanal and limonene make the greatest contribution to the overall aroma of lemon-lime carbonated beverages, followed by nonanal, decanal, linalool, 1,8-cineole, and geranyl acetate. The results demonstrate that lemon-lime carbonated beverages share many of the same compounds but the relative abundance of these compounds varies by brand. PMID:25494537

  3. Thermal properties of methane gas hydrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waite, William F.

    2007-01-01

    Gas hydrates are crystalline solids in which molecules of a “guest” species occupy and stabilize cages formed by water molecules. Similar to ice in appearance (fig. 1), gas hydrates are stable at high pressures and temperatures above freezing (0°C). Methane is the most common naturally occurring hydrate guest species. Methane hydrates, also called simply “gas hydrates,” are extremely concentrated stores of methane and are found in shallow permafrost and continental margin sediments worldwide. Brought to sea-level conditions, methane hydrate breaks down and releases up to 160 times its own volume in methane gas. The methane stored in gas hydrates is of interest and concern to policy makers as a potential alternative energy resource and as a potent greenhouse gas that could be released from sediments to the atmosphere and ocean during global warming. In continental margin settings, methane release from gas hydrates also is a potential geohazard and could cause submarine landslides that endanger offshore infrastructure. Gas hydrate stability is sensitive to temperature changes. To understand methane release from gas hydrate, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a laboratory investigation of pure methane hydrate thermal properties at conditions relevant to accumulations of naturally occurring methane hydrate. Prior to this work, thermal properties for gas hydrates generally were measured on analog systems such as ice and non-methane hydrates or at temperatures below freezing; these conditions limit direct comparisons to methane hydrates in marine and permafrost sediment. Three thermal properties, defined succinctly by Briaud and Chaouch (1997), are estimated from the experiments described here: - Thermal conductivity, ?: if ? is high, heat travels easily through the material. - Thermal diffusivity, ?: if ? is high, it takes little time for the temperature to rise in the material. - Specific heat, cp: if cp is high, it takes a great deal of heat to raise the temperature of the material.

  4. Hydration rind dates rhyolite flows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, I.

    1968-01-01

    Hydration of obsidian has been used to date rhyolite flows, containing obsidian or porphyritic glass, at Glass Mountain (Medicine Lake Highlands) and Mono Lake, California. The method is simple and rapid and can be used to date flows that erupted between 200 and approximately 200,000 years ago.

  5. Hydration rind dates rhyolite flows.

    PubMed

    Friedman, I

    1968-02-23

    Hydration of obsidian has been used to date rhyolite flows, containing obsidian or porphyritic glass, at Glass Mountain (Medicine Lake Highlands) and Mono Lake, California. The method is simple and rapid and can be used to date flows that erupted between 200 and approximately 200,000 years ago. PMID:17768978

  6. Attraction between hydrated hydrophilic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandu?, Matej; Schneck, Emanuel; Netz, Roland R.

    2014-08-01

    According to common knowledge, hydrophilic surfaces repel via hydration forces while hydrophobic surfaces attract, but mounting experimental evidence suggests that also hydrophilic surfaces can attract. Using all-atom molecular dynamics simulations at prescribed water chemical potential we study the crossover from hydration repulsion to hydrophobic attraction for planar polar surfaces of varying stiffness and hydrogen-bonding capability. Rescaling the partial charges of the polar surface groups, we cover the complete spectrum from very hydrophobic surfaces (characterized by contact angles ? ? 135°) to hydrophilic surfaces exhibiting complete wetting (? = 0°). Indeed, for a finite range ?adh < ? < 90°, we find a regime where hydrophilic surfaces attract at sub-nanometer separation and stably adhere without intervening water. The adhesive contact angle ?adh depends on surface type and lies in the range 65° < ?adh < 80°, in good agreement with experiments. Analysis of the total number of hydrogen bonds (HBs) formed by water and surface groups rationalizes this crossover between hydration repulsion and hydrophilic attraction in terms of a subtle balance: Highly polar surfaces repel because of strongly bound hydration water, less polar hydrophilic surfaces attract because water-water HBs are preferred over surface-water HBs. Such solvent reorganization forces presumably underlie also other important phenomena, such as selective ion adsorption to interfaces as well as ion pair formation.

  7. Retrofit costs for lime/limestone FGD and lime spray drying at coal-fired utility boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Emmel, T.E.; Jones, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    The paper gives results of a research program the objective of which was to significantly improve engineering cost estimates currently being used to evaluate the economic effects of applying SO2 controls to existing coal-fired utility boilers. The costs of retrofitting conventional lime/limestone wet flue gas desulfurization (L/LS FGD) and lime spray drying (LSD) FGD at 100-200 coal-fired power plants are being estimated under this program. The retrofit capital cost estimating procedures used for L/LS FGD and LSD FGD make two cost adjustments to current procedures used to estimate FGD costs: cost adders (for items not normally included in FGD system costs; e.g., demolition and relocation of existing facilities) and cost multipliers (to adjust capital costs for site access, congestion, and underground obstructions).

  8. Controls of carbonate mineralogy and solid-solution of Mg in calcite: evidence from spelean systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, L.A.; Lohmann, K.C.

    1985-01-01

    Precipitation of carbonate minerals in spelean systems occurs under a wide range of fluid chemistry, Mg-Ca ratios, alkalinities, pH and temperatures; thus, spelean systems provide ideal settings to determine factors controlling the mineralogy of precipitated carbonates and solid-solution of Mg in calcite. Cave waters and actively-precipitating carbonate speleothems were collected from Carlsbad Caverns National Park, New Mexico and the Mammoth-Flint Cave System, Kentucky. Carbonate mineralogy of precipitated phases was determined by x-ray diffraction, and major and minor element composition of waters and accompanying minerals were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. Results demonstrate that at a constant CO3 concentration the precipitation threshold for calcite to aragonite is controlled dominantly by the Mg/Ca ratio of the ambient fluid. Aragonite precipitation is favored by high Mg/Ca ratios. Conversely, with increasing CO3 concentration at constant fluid Mg/Ca ratios, calcite is preferentially precipitated. Solid-solution of Mg in calcite is positively correlated with both increased Mg/Ca ratios and CO3 concentrations. These data suggest that Mg contents of calcite can not be defined solely in terms of a homogeneous distribution coefficient. Rather, Mg concentrations can be also be affected by the CO3 concentration and degree of calcite saturation, suggesting that the rate of crystal growth also plays and important role in Mg solid-solution in calcites.

  9. Direct nanoscale observations of the coupled dissolution of calcite and dolomite and the precipitation of gypsum

    PubMed Central

    Cama, Jordi; Soler, Josep Maria; Putnis, Christine V

    2014-01-01

    Summary In-situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments were performed to study the overall process of dissolution of common carbonate minerals (calcite and dolomite) and precipitation of gypsum in Na2SO4 and CaSO4 solutions with pH values ranging from 2 to 6 at room temperature (23 ± 1 °C). The dissolution of the carbonate minerals took place at the (104) cleavage surfaces in sulfate-rich solutions undersaturated with respect to gypsum, by the formation of characteristic rhombohedral-shaped etch pits. Rounding of the etch pit corners was observed as solutions approached close-to-equilibrium conditions with respect to calcite. The calculated dissolution rates of calcite at pH 4.8 and 5.6 agreed with the values reported in the literature. When using solutions previously equilibrated with respect to gypsum, gypsum precipitation coupled with calcite dissolution showed short gypsum nucleation induction times. The gypsum precipitate quickly coated the calcite surface, forming arrow-like forms parallel to the crystallographic orientations of the calcite etch pits. Gypsum precipitation coupled with dolomite dissolution was slower than that of calcite, indicating the dissolution rate to be the rate-controlling step. The resulting gypsum coating partially covered the surface during the experimental duration of a few hours. PMID:25161860

  10. Handbook of gas hydrate properties and occurrence

    SciTech Connect

    Kuustraa, V.A.; Hammershaimb, E.C.

    1983-12-01

    This handbook provides data on the resource potential of naturally occurring hydrates, the properties that are needed to evaluate their recovery, and their production potential. The first two chapters give data on the naturally occurring hydrate potential by reviewing published resource estimates and the known and inferred occurrences. The third and fourth chapters review the physical and thermodynamic properties of hydrates, respectively. The thermodynamic properties of hydrates that are discussed include dissociation energies and a simplified method to calculate them; phase diagrams for simple and multi-component gases; the thermal conductivity; and the kinetics of hydrate dissociation. The final chapter evaluates the net energy balance of recovering hydrates and shows that a substantial positive energy balance can theoretically be achieved. The Appendices of the Handbook summarize physical and thermodynamic properties of gases, liquids and solids that can be used in designing and evaluating recovery processes of hydrates. 158 references, 67 figures, 47 tables.

  11. [Lime workers' perception of work-related health-disease process, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Silva, Cheila Portela; Rodrigues, Angelo Brito; Dias, Maria Socorro de Araújo

    2007-10-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the perception of lime factory workers regarding work-related health-disease process. Data were collected from ten workers through non-structured observation and semi-structured interviews conducted in lime factories in the state of Ceará, Northeastern Brazil, in December 2005. Lime workers did not perceive themselves as being at risk for serious health outcomes, which has led them not to develop health promotion actions. PMID:17923907

  12. Soil properties and maple–beech regeneration a decade after liming in a northern hardwood stand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-David Moore; Louis Duchesne; Rock Ouimet

    2008-01-01

    Soil properties, regeneration, sugar maple (SM, Acer saccharum Marsh.) crown dieback, and light interception were evaluated following dolomitic lime application (CaMg(CO3)2; 0, 2, 5, 10 and 20tha?1) in a base-poor and declining northern hardwood stand of Quebec (Canada). Ten years after liming, soil pH, cation exchange capacity and base saturation increased with the lime rate. Meanwhile, concentrations of exchangeable K,

  13. Littoral microcrustaceans (Cladocera and Copepoda) as indices of recovery of a limed water system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bjørn Walseng; Gunnar Halvorsen; Svein-Erik Sloreid

    2001-01-01

    A 7 year study (1992–1998) of littoral microcrustaceans (Cladocera and Copepoda) in the watercourse of the River Rore, South Norway, illustrates that qualitative data on cladocerans and copepods are well suited to indicate the recovery of lakes following liming. Eight limed, two acid and two circum neutral reference lakes, were sampled twice a year (June\\/July and September\\/October). In the limed

  14. Ecological effects of lime treatment of acidified lakes and rivers in Sweden

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fritz Eriksson; Einar Hörnström; Per Mossberg; Per Nyberg

    1983-01-01

    Effects on the aquatic biota of lime (CaCO3) application in acidified lakes and streams were studied in a number of waters. After treatment, lime-sensitive species of mosses (Sphagnum spp.) decreased, but species such as Potamogeton natans and Myriophyllum alterniflorum seemed to be favoured. A few years after liming species composition and diversity of phytoplankton, zooplankton and benthic insect larvae were

  15. Short-term responses of wetland vegetation after liming of an Adirondack watershed

    SciTech Connect

    Mackun, I.R.; Leopold, D.J.; Raynal, D.J. (State Univ. of New York, Syracuse, NY (United States))

    1994-08-01

    Watershed liming has been suggested as a long-term mitigation strategy for lake acidity, particularly in areas subject to high levels of acidic deposition. However, virtually no information has been available on the impacts of liming on wetland vegetation. In 1989, 1100 Mg of limestone (83.5% CaCO[sub 3]) were aerially applied to 48% (100 ha) of the Woods Lake watershed in the west-central Adirondack region of New York as part of the first comprehensive watershed liming study in North America. We inventoried wetland vegetation in 1.0-m[sup 2] plots before liming and during the subsequent 2 yr. Within this period liming influenced the cover, frequency, or importance values of only 6 of 64 wetland taxa. The cover of Sphagnum spp. and of the cespitose sedge Carex interior decreased in control relative to limed plots, and cover of the rhizomatous sedge Cladium mariscoides increased nearly threefold in limed areas. These two sedges, which are relatively tall, are characteristic of more calcareous habitats. Cover of the grass Muhlenbergia uniflora, cover and importance were adversely affected or inhibited by lime. It is unclear whether liming directly inhibited the growth of these three small-statured species, or whether the adverse effects of lime were mediated through shifts in competitive interactions with other species. The limited responses that we observed to liming, along with changes that occurred in control plots over the study period, may indicate that in the short term watershed liming was no more of a perturbation than the environmental factors responsible for natural annual variation in wetland communities.

  16. Characterization of carbonated tricalcium silicate and its sorption capacity for heavy metals: a micron-scale composite adsorbent of active silicate gel and calcite.

    PubMed

    Chen, Quanyuan; Hills, Colin D; Yuan, Menghong; Liu, Huanhuan; Tyrer, Mark

    2008-05-01

    Adsorption-based processes are widely used in the treatment of dilute metal-bearing wastewaters. The development of versatile, low-cost adsorbents is the subject of continuing interest. This paper examines the preparation, characterization and performance of a micro-scale composite adsorbent composed of silica gel (15.9 w/w%), calcium silicate hydrate gel (8.2 w/w%) and calcite (75.9 w/w%), produced by the accelerated carbonation of tricalcium silicate (C(3)S, Ca(3)SiO(5)). The Ca/Si ratio of calcium silicate hydrate gel (C-S-H) was determined at 0.12 (DTA/TG), 0.17 ((29)Si solid-state MAS/NMR) and 0.18 (SEM/EDS). The metals-retention capacity for selected Cu(II), Pb(II), Zn(II) and Cr(III) was determined by batch and column sorption experiments utilizing nitrate solutions. The effects of metal ion concentration, pH and contact time on binding ability was investigated by kinetic and equilibrium adsorption isotherm studies. The adsorption capacity for Pb(II), Cr(III), Zn(II) and Cu(II) was found to be 94.4 mg/g, 83.0 mg/g, 52.1 mg/g and 31.4 mg/g, respectively. It is concluded that the composite adsorbent has considerable potential for the treatment of industrial wastewater containing heavy metals. PMID:17950999

  17. Santaclaraite, a new calcium-manganese silicate hydrate from California.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erd, Richard C.; Ohashi, Y.

    1984-01-01

    Santaclaraite, ideally CaMn4(Si5O14(OH))(OH).H2O, occurs as pink and tan veins and masses in Franciscan chert in the Diablo Range, Santa Clara and Stanislaus counties, California. It is associated with four unidentified Mn silicates, Mn-howieite, quartz, braunite, calcite, rhodochrosite, kutnahorite, baryte, harmotome, chalcopyrite and native copper. Santaclaraite is triclinic, space group B1, a 15.633(1), b 7.603(1) , c 12.003(1) A, alpha 109.71(1)o, beta 88.61(1)o, gamma 99.95(1) o, V 1322.0(3) A3; Z = 4. The strongest lines of the X-ray pattern are 7.04(100), 3.003(84), 3.152(80), 7.69(63), 3.847(57) A. Crystals are lamellar to prismatic (flattened on (100)), with good cleavage on (100) and (010); H. 61/2 Dcalc. 3.398 g/cm3, Dmeas. 3.31 (+ or -0.01); optically biaxial negative, alpha 1.681, beta 1.696, gamma 1.708 (all + or - 0.002), 2Valpha 83 (+ or -1)o. Although chemically a hydrated rhodonite, santaclaraite dehydrates to Mn-bustamite at approx 550oC (in air) . Santaclaraite is a five-tetrahedral-repeat single-chain silicate and has structural affinities with rhodonite, nambulite, marsturite, babingtonite and inesite.-J.A.Z.

  18. Thermal conductivity of hydrate-bearing sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cortes, D.D.; Martin, A.I.; Yun, T.S.; Francisca, F.M.; Santamarina, J.C.; Ruppel, C.

    2009-01-01

    A thorough understanding of the thermal conductivity of hydrate-bearing sediments is necessary for evaluating phase transformation processes that would accompany energy production from gas hydrate deposits and for estimating regional heat flow based on the observed depth to the base of the gas hydrate stability zone. The coexistence of multiple phases (gas hydrate, liquid and gas pore fill, and solid sediment grains) and their complex spatial arrangement hinder the a priori prediction of the thermal conductivity of hydrate-bearing sediments. Previous studies have been unable to capture the full parameter space covered by variations in grain size, specific surface, degree of saturation, nature of pore filling material, and effective stress for hydrate-bearing samples. Here we report on systematic measurements of the thermal conductivity of air dry, water- and tetrohydrofuran (THF)-saturated, and THF hydrate-saturated sand and clay samples at vertical effective stress of 0.05 to 1 MPa (corresponding to depths as great as 100 m below seafloor). Results reveal that the bulk thermal conductivity of the samples in every case reflects a complex interplay among particle size, effective stress, porosity, and fluid-versus-hydrate filled pore spaces. The thermal conductivity of THF hydrate-bearing soils increases upon hydrate formation although the thermal conductivities of THF solution and THF hydrate are almost the same. Several mechanisms can contribute to this effect including cryogenic suction during hydrate crystal growth and the ensuing porosity reduction in the surrounding sediment, increased mean effective stress due to hydrate formation under zero lateral strain conditions, and decreased interface thermal impedance as grain-liquid interfaces are transformed into grain-hydrate interfaces. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  19. The effect of liming on antibacterial and hormone levels in wastewater biosolids.

    PubMed

    Olszewski, Jennifer M; Lozano, Nuria; Haines, Christine; Rice, Clifford P; Ramirez, Mark; Torrents, Alba

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes the effect of liming on levels of triclocarban (TCC), triclosan (TCS), estrone (E1), and progesterone (P), two antimicrobial agents and two natural hormones, respectively. Factors studied include lime particle size, mixing time, and overall lime contact time. The study results suggest that coarse lime may be more active than fine lime due to less interaction with surrounding air. Both TCS and TCC concentrations were lower in coarse limed samples versus unlimed samples and the decrease was a function of time. A similar, but statistically insignificant trend in TCC and TCS levels was observed in fine lime samples with respect to unlimed samples. Liming was also found to decrease apparent E1 levels, with more notable decreases in samples amended with coarse lime. P-levels significantly increased after 1-day of contact time, stabilizing over the next 14 days of the study period. This increase and stabilization of P-levels was attributed to the pH and moisture-driven conversion of more chemically complex steroids into P. PMID:23485235

  20. Sr / Mg ratios of modern marine calcite: Empirical indicators of ocean chemistry and precipitation rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, Scott J.; Lohmann, Kyger C.

    1992-05-01

    Holocene biotic and abiotic marine calcite have a similar range of Mg contents (0 to 22 and 4 to 21 mol% MgCO 3, respectively), yet biotic calcite has Sr 2+ concentrations that are consistently 1250 ppm higher than those of abiotic calcite. As in laboratory experiments, a positive linear relation is observed between DSr and calcite Mg content. This produces two distinct linear trends on a plot of Sr 2+ vs. Mg 2+ concentrations. Principal axes of variation for both trends have similar slopes, yet distinctly different Sr 2+ concentration intercepts. (Biotic: y = 0.024 x + 1298, r2 = 0.70; Abiotic: y = 0.027 x + 47, r2 = 0.77). The similar slopes of these trends reflect the constancy of Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios of modern seawater. Equations describing the dependence of DSr on calcite Mg content are derived from both trends (Biotic: DSr = 3.16 x 10 t-6 (ppm Mg) + 0.169; Abiotic: DSr = 3.52 x 10 -6 (ppm Mg) + 0.0062). Characterization of Sr-Mg trends for Holocene materials allows comparison with analogous trends from ancient samples to estimate relative changes in seawater Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios. The relatively high Sr contents of biotic calcite result from rapid precipitation rates associated with shell accretion in marine organisms. Calcites precipitated from seawater in laboratory experiments have Dsr values that are similar to those of biotic marine calcite, suggesting that both precipitate at approximately the same rate. Our estimates of surface area-normalized precipitation rates in planktonic and benthonic foraminifera are comparable to those of seeded, pH-stat experiments. We conclude that the DSr values for biotic and experimental marine calcite are kinetically controlled, whereas the lower precipitation rates of abiotic marine calcite yield DSr values that approximate equilibrium conditions. Experimentally derived equations describing the relation between DSr and calcite precipitation rate indicate that the offset in Sr content between biotic and abiotic calcite is the result of abiotic precipitation rates that are two to five orders of magnitude lower than those of biotic precipitates. However, observations of naturally occurring marine cements suggest that the five-order-of-magnitude offset best represents natural system processes.

  1. Measuring Carbon and Oxygen Isotope Uptake into Inorganic Calcite using Crystal Growth Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, E. B.; Watkins, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Carbon and oxygen isotopes measured on natural calcite crystals provide a record of paleo-environment conditions. Despite the importance of measuring stable isotopes in calcite for paleo-environment reconstructions, there is neither a general theory nor an experimental data set that fully separates the effects of pH, temperature, and precipitation rate on isotope discrimination during calcite growth. Many stable isotope studies of calcite have focused on either carbon or oxygen isotope compositions individually, but few have measured both carbon and oxygen isotope uptake in the same set of crystals. We are precipitating inorganic calcite across a range in temperature, pH, and precipitation rate to guide the development of a general theory for combined carbon and oxygen isotope uptake into calcite crystals grown on laboratory timescales. In our experiments, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) is added to an aqueous solution (15 mM CaCl2 + 5 mM NH4Cl) by CO2 bubbling. Once a critical supersaturation is reached, calcite crystals nucleate spontaneously and grow on the beaker walls. A key aspect of this experimental approach is that the ?13C of DIC is relatively constant throughout the crystal growth period, because there is a continuous supply of DIC from the CO2-bearing bubbles. Carbonic anhydrase, an enzyme promoting rapid equilibration of isotopes between DIC and water, was added to ensure that the solution remained isotopically equilibrated during calcite growth. We have conducted experiments at T = 25°C and pH = 8.3 - 9.0. We observe that the fractionation of oxygen isotopes between calcite and water decreases with increasing pH, consistent with available data from experiments in which the enzyme carbonic anhydrase was used. Our results for carbon isotopes extend the available data set, which previously ranged from pH 6.62 to 7.75, to higher pH. At pH 8.3, we observe that calcite is isotopically heavier than DIC with respect to carbon isotopes by about 0.25‰. At pH 9.0, calcite is isotopically indistinguishable from, or perhaps slightly lighter than, DIC. We will present data from additional high-pH experiments and discuss the results in the context of recently developed ion-by-ion growth models for calcite.

  2. A study of the effects of repeated loadings and free water on the stability of a lime stabilized clay

    E-print Network

    Jantos, Carl Thomas

    1959-01-01

    . 0 Percent, Lime Triaxial Teat, 15 psi Lateral Pressure, 100 Repetitions 1/3 Ultimate Load 50 9. 0 Percent Lime Triaxial Test, 15 psi Lateral Pressure, 100 Repetitions 2/3 Ultimate Load 51 10. 2 Percent Lime Triaxial Test, 15 psi Lateral Pressure.... . . 52 11. 2 Peroent Lime~ Triaxial Test& 15 psi Lateral Pressure, 100 Repetitions 1/3 Ultimate Load 53 12. 2 Percent Lime, Triaxial Test, 15 psi Lateral Pressure, 100 Repetitions, 2/3 Ultimate Load 13. 4 Peroent Lime Triaxial Test, 15 psi Lateral...

  3. The Role of Deformation on the Microstructural Evolution of Calcite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, N. J.; Evans, B.

    2005-12-01

    Ductile shear zones are frequently spatially associated with a reduced grain-size, in a progression from undeformed protomylonites to fine grained ultramylonites. The kinetics of the microstructural evolution towards this modified grain-size, and its relationship to the mechanical properties, however, remains unclear. This work presents a series of hydrostatic and constant force, conventional triaxial deformation experiments performed on reagent grade calcite, between 823 and 1023 K, at a confining pressure of 300 MPa, and differential stresses between 0 and 40 MPa. In deformation experiments, stresses were applied such that deformation should be accommodated purely by diffusion creep, or by a combination of diffusion and dislocation creep (± grain boundary sliding), based on pre-existing flow laws. Under static conditions, grain-growth kinetics agree with those observed by Freund et al. (2001) for >99.9% pure calcite, containing trace amounts of Mn. Under conditions of low differential stress, or for fine-grained samples, grain-growth is indistinguishable from that under static conditions. For high stresses, or for coarse-grained samples, grain-size reduction is observed, the kinetics of which are correlated with the strain-rate and grain-size. The onset of grain-size reduction correlates with an increased component of dislocation creep. All samples that exhibit grain-size reduction have other features indicative of dislocation creep, including irregular grain boundaries, and progressive flattening of grains, whereas all samples that exhibit grain-growth during deformation have polygonal grains that are indistinguishable from those produced under static conditions. Further, at the conditions of our experiments, samples that exhibit grain-size reduction plot in the transitional deformation regime of Walker et al. (1990), whereas all of those that exhibit grain-growth plot in the diffusion creep field. The observed grain size reduction kinetics are best explained by summing the calculated reduction rate (drate=?rated?c-1), with the predicted parabolic growth rate from Freund et al. (2001), as formulated by Hall and Parmentier (2003). The transition between grain-growth and grain-size reduction observed in our experiments can be explained by equating growth and reduction kinetics. When these kinetics are extrapolated to temperatures (523-623K) and strain rates (10-10 to 10-11 s-1) consistent with natural shear zones, the predicted grain size is similar to that measured in shear zones in the Swiss Helvetic Alps (Herwegh et al., 2005). These data suggest that it may be possible to obtain a robust relationship between grain-size and strain-rate that, when coupled with knowledge of metamorphic conditions, may allow natural strain rates to be estimated.

  4. Cd sup 2+ uptake by calcite, solid-state diffusion, and the formation of solid-solution: Interface processes observed with near-surface sensitive techniques (XPS, LEED, and AES)

    SciTech Connect

    Stipp, S.L.; Hochella, M.F. Jr.; Parks, G.A.; Leckie, J.O. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States))

    1992-05-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), low-energy electron diffraction (LEED), and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) allowed direct observations of structure and bonding environments at the calcite surface. Pure calcite crystals were cleaved from precleaned Iceland spar and were briefly exposed to aqueous solutions containing various concentrations of Cd{sup 2+}, CO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}}, ClO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}, and/or Cl{sup {minus}}. LEED results demonstrate that the calcite surface is atomically ordered, even after hydration and cadmium uptake. {gamma}-scintillation data from crystals exposed briefly to solutions of {sup 109}Cd{sup 2+} indicate that surface uptake ranged from the equivalent of about 1 to 4 monolayers. XPS analyses in the first 2 hours after exposure detected Cd within the top 30 {angstrom}, but crystals stored in air or in ultra-high vacuum showed a decrease in Cd surface concentration with time such that after two days, C was barely detectable in the near-surface region. No Cd enrichment was observed at sites of surface defects using AES, indicating that solid-state diffusion into the mineral surface was not accomplished simply by migration along microfractures alone. This work suggests that solid-state diffusion may play a role in the rate and extent of uptake of certain trace metals from solution and probably leads to the formation of solid-solution in calcite and other carbonate minerals. It also suggests that the process of diffusion into the solid mineral host should be considered in hydrogeochemical models that intend to simulate and predict trace-metal mobility in carbonate terrains.

  5. Multiple stage multiple filter hydrate store

    DOEpatents

    Bjorkman, Jr., Harry K. (Birmingham, MI)

    1983-05-31

    An improved hydrate store for a metal halogen battery system is disclosed which employs a multiple stage, multiple filter means or separating the halogen hydrate from the liquid used in forming the hydrate. The filter means is constructed in the form of three separate sections which combine to substantially cover the interior surface of the store container. Exit conduit means is provided in association with the filter means for transmitting liquid passing through the filter means to a hydrate former subsystem. The hydrate former subsystem combines the halogen gas generated during the charging of the battery system with the liquid to form the hydrate in association with the store. Relief valve means is interposed in the exit conduit means for controlling the operation of the separate sections of the filter means, such that the liquid flow through the exit conduit means from each of the separate sections is controlled in a predetermined sequence. The three separate sections of the filter means operate in three discrete stages to provide a substantially uniform liquid flow to the hydrate former subsystem during the charging of the battery system. The separation of the liquid from the hydrate causes an increase in the density of the hydrate by concentrating the hydrate along the filter means.

  6. Kinetic and thermodynamic factors controlling the distribution of SO32- and Na+ in calcites and selected aragonites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Busenberg, E.; Niel, Plummer L.

    1985-01-01

    Significant amounts of SO42-, Na+, and OH- are incorporated in marine biogenic calcites. Biogenic high Mg-calcites average about 1 mole percent SO42-. Aragonites and most biogenic low Mg-calcites contain significant amounts of Na+, but very low concentrations of SO42-. The SO42- content of non-biogenic calcites and aragonites investigated was below 100 ppm. The presence of Na+ and SO42- increases the unit cell size of calcites. The solid-solutions show a solubility minimum at about 0.5 mole percent SO42- beyond which the solubility rapidly increases. The solubility product of calcites containing 3 mole percent SO42- is the same as that of aragonite. Na+ appears to have very little effect on the solubility product of calcites. The amounts of Na+ and SO42- incorporated in calcites vary as a function of the rate of crystal growth. The variation of the distribution coefficient (D) of SO42- in calcite at 25.0??C and 0.50 molal NaCl is described by the equation D = k0 + k1R where k0 and k1 are constants equal to 6.16 ?? 10-6 and 3.941 ?? 10-6, respectively, and R is the rate of crystal growth of calcite in mg??min-1??g-1 of seed. The data on Na+ are consistent with the hypothesis that a significant amount of Na+ occupies interstitial positions in the calcite structure. The distribution of Na+ follows a Freundlich isotherm and not the Berthelot-Nernst distribution law. The numerical value of the Na+ distribution coefficient in calcite is probably dependent on the number of defects in the calcite structure. The Na+ contents of calcites are not very accurate indicators of environmental salinities. ?? 1985.

  7. Stress remagnetization in pyrrhotite-calcite synthetic aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robion, Philippe; Borradaile, Graham J.

    2001-01-01

    Stress-induced remagnetization has been applied to multidomain pyrrhotite-calcite synthetic aggregates in a triaxial rig. Experimental deformation used 150MPa confining pressure, a constant strain rate of 10-5 s-1 and applied differential stresses of up to 70MPa. New components of magnetization, parallel to the direction of the pressure vessel field, were added to the pre-deformational magnetization. The intensity of remagnetization (M'-M0) increases with the intensity of the applied differential stress and affects the coercivity fraction below 15mT. Bulk shortening is less than 8 per cent, thus grain rotation cannot explain selective remagnetization of the low-coercivity fraction. Remagnetization is thus attributed to deformational viscous remanent magnetization (DVRM). It is observed that high-coercivity (>15mT) grains do not remagnetize. There is, however, slight progressive rotation of pre-deformational magnetization with increasing strain up to 8 per cent of bulk shortening. The lack of piezoremanent magnetization in the high-coercivity range may be due to defects introduced in pyrrhotite during sample preparation. Experiments using synthetic pyrrhotite, expected to show low dislocation densities, would be necessary to test this effect.

  8. The influence of impurities on the growth rate of calcite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, H. J.

    1984-05-01

    The effects of 34 different additives on the growth rate of calcite were investigated. An initial growth rate of about one crystal monolayer (3 × 10 -8 cm) per minute was adjusted at a constant supersaturation which was maintained by a control circuit. Then the impurity was added step by step and the reduction of the growth rate was measured. The impurity concentration necessary to reduce the initial growth rate by a certain percentage increased in the order Fe 2+, ATP, P 3O 5-10, P 2O 4-7, (PO 3) 6-6, Zn 2+, ADP, Ce 3+, Pb 2+, carbamyl phosphate, Fe 3+, PO 3-4, Co 2+, Mn 2+, Be 2+, ?-glycerophosphate, Ni 2+, Cd 2+, "Tris", phenylphosphate, chondroitine sulphate, Ba 2+, citrate, AMP, Sr 2+, tricarballylate, taurine, SO 2-4, Mg 2+ by 4 orders of magnitude. The most effective additives halved the initial growth rate in concentrations of 2 × 10 -8 mol/1. For Fe 2+ the halving concentration was nearly proportional to the initial rate. The mechanism of inhibition by adsorption of the impurities at growth sites (kinks) is discussed.

  9. Estimation of uncertain parameters to improve modeling of Mirobially Induced Calcite Precipitation

    E-print Network

    Cirpka, Olaf Arie

    in the subsurface or fracking could be reduced with sealing technologies like microbially induced calcite Injectionwellvicinity Fracking CO2 Reservoir Figure 1: Potential application sites of MICP as a sealing technology

  10. High School Forum: "Invitations to Enquiry": The Calcite/Acid Reaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herron, J. Dudley, Ed.; Driscoll, D. R.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a high school chemistry experiment which involves the reaction between calcite and hydrochloric and sulfuric acids. This reaction can be carried out as a projected demonstration and on an individual basis. (HM)

  11. Phase transformation of Mg-calcite to aragonite in active-forming hot spring travertines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greer, Heather F.; Zhou, Wuzong; Guo, Li

    2015-02-01

    A travertine specimen collected from the western part of Yunnan Province of China was subjected to microstructural analysis by powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. A new formation mechanism was proposed whereby polycrystalline rhombohedral particles of magnesium-containing calcite underwent a phase transformation into sheaf-like clusters of aragonite microrods. It is proposed that a high concentration of magnesium ions and embedded biological matter poisoned the growth of calcite and therefore instigated the phase transformation of the core of the rhombohedral calcite particles to an aragonite phase with a higher crystallinity. The single crystalline aragonite microrods with a higher density than the Mg-calcite nanocrystallites grew at the expense of the latter to generate sheaf-like clusters. This newly discovered formation mechanism is expected to enhance previous knowledge on this geologically important phase transformation from a morphology point of view.

  12. Control of carbonate alkalinity on Mg incorporation in calcite: Insights on the occurrence of high Mg calcites in diagenetic environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purgstaller, Bettina; Mavromatis, Vasileios; Dietzel, Martin

    2015-04-01

    High Mg calcites (HMC), with up to 25 mol % of Mg, are common features in early diagenetic environments and are frequently associated with bio-induced anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). Such archives hold valuable information about the biogeochemical processes occurring in sedimentary environments in the geological past. Despite the frequency AOM-induced HMC observed in marine diagenetic settings and their potential role in dolomitization, only a minor number of experimental studies has been devoted on deciphering their formation conditions. Thus, in order to improve our understanding on the formation mechanism of HMC induced by elevated carbonate ion concentrations, we precipitated HMC by computer controlled titration of a (Mg,Ca)Cl2 solution at different Mg/Ca ratios into a NaHCO3 solution under precisely defined physicochemical conditions (T = 25.00 ±0.03°C; pH = 8.3 ±0.1). The formation of carbonates was monitored at a high temporal resolution using in situ Raman spectroscopy as well as by continuous sampling and analyzing of precipitates and reactive solutions. We identified two distinct mechanisms of HMC formation. In solutions with molar Mg/Ca ratios ? 1/8 calcium carbonate was precipitated as crystalline phases directly from homogeneous solution. In contrast, higher Mg/Ca ratios induced the formation of Mg-rich ACC (up to 10 mol % of Mg), which was subsequently transformed to HMC with up 20 mol % of Mg. Our experimental results highlight that the finally formed HMC has a higher Mg content than the ACC precursor phase. Considering experimental data for Mg containing ACC transformation to crystalline calcium carbonate from literature, the continuous enrichment of Mg in the precipitate throughout transformation of amorphous to crystalline CaCO3 most likely occurs due to the high carbonate alkalinity (DIC about 0.1 M) of our reactive solutions. The Mg incorporation into calcite lattice seems to be favored by intensive supply of carbonate ions as observed in AOM originated HMC in early diagenetic sediments.

  13. The Influence of Exotic Calcite on the Mechanical Behavior of Quartz Bearing Fault Gouge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, B. M.; Di Stefano, G.; Collettini, C.

    2014-12-01

    The interseismic recovery of frictional strength is a fundamental part of the seismic cycle. This restrengthening, and related phenomena, plays a key role in determining the stability and mode of tectonic faulting. Recent experimental data has shown that gouge mineralogy has a strong influence on the rate of frictional healing, with calcite-dominated gouges showing the highest rates. Combining these data with widespread observations of calcite as cement or veins in non-carbonate hosted faults, indicates that the presence of calcite within a fault gouge could play an important role in shallow- and mid-crustal earthquakes. We report on laboratory experiments designed to explore the mechanical behavior of quartz/calcite mixtures as a means to better understand the evolution of fault behavior in faults where carbonate materials are present. We sheared mixtures of powdered Carrara marble (>98% CaCO3) and disaggregated Ottawa sand (99.8% SiO2) at constant normal stress of 5 MPa under saturated conditions at room temperature. We performed slide-hold-slide tests, 1-3,000 seconds, and velocity stepping tests, 0.1-1000 ?m/s, to measure the amount of frictional healing and velocity dependence of friction respectively. Small subsets of experiments were conducted at different boundary conditions. Preliminary results show that the presence of calcite in quartz-based fault gouge has a hardening effect, both in overall frictional strength, where the strength of our mixtures increases with increasing calcite content, and in single experiments, where mixtures with low percentages of calcite show a consistent strain-hardening trend. We also observe that the rates of frictional healing and creep relaxation increase with increasing calcite content. Finally, our results show that the addition of as little as 2.5% calcite within a fault gouge results in a 30% increase in the rate of frictional healing, with further increases in calcite content resulting in larger increases in the rate of healing. Combined with our previous work, our results show that the presence of calcite in fault gouge can lead to accelerated frictional healing and velocity-weakening frictional behavior, favoring seismicity at shallow crustal conditions where faults are thought to fail mostly by aseismic creep.

  14. The Influence of Calcite on The Mechanical Behavior of Quartz-Bearing Gouge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, Brett; Di Stefano, Giuseppe; Collettini, Cristiano

    2015-04-01

    Mechanical heterogeneities along faults can result in diverse and complex fault slip. These heterogeneities can vary spatially and temporally and may result from changes in fault structure or frictional properties. The accumulation of calcite in non-carbonate faults, via cementation or entrainment, is likely to alter the frictional properties of that fault gouge. Furthermore, widespread observations of calcite as cement, veins, or cataclasites in non-carbonate hosted faults indicates that calcite is readily available and could play an important role during fault reactivation at shallow- and mid-crustal earthquakes. We report on laboratory experiments designed to explore the mechanical behavior of quartz/calcite mixtures as a means to better understand the evolution in behavior of quartz-bearing gouge in the presence of exotic calcite. We sheared mixtures of powdered Carrara marble (>98% CaCO3) and disaggregated Ottawa sand (99.8% SiO2) at constant normal stresses of 5 and 50 MPa under saturated conditions at room temperature. We performed slide-hold-slide tests, 1-3,000 seconds, and velocity stepping tests, 0.1-1000 µm/s, to measure the amount of frictional healing and velocity dependence of friction respectively. At low normal stress, the addition of calcite to quartz-based synthetic fault gouge results in increases in the steady-state frictional strength, and rates of frictional healing and creep relaxation of the gouge. In particular, with the addition of as little as 2.5 wt% calcite, the frictional healing rate increases by 30%. Microstructural observations indicate that shear is accommodated by distributed deformation throughout the gouge layer and that calcite undergoes significantly more comminution compared to quartz. Large quartz grains frequently show minor rounding of angular edges with fine-grained calcite often penetrating fractures. The in-situ addition of calcite to fault gouge, by either the circulation of fluids or the involvement of carbonate rocks in faulting, could lead to significant and progressive changes in fault behavior, i.e. the fault could be frictionally stronger, heal/seal faster, and be more frictionally unstable. At shallow crustal conditions, increased temperature and the concentration of fine-grained calcite along shear surfaces would result in the amplification of the observed behaviors.

  15. Molecular Structure of Acyclovir hydrate

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-09-12

    Acyclovir hydrate is used in the treatment of shingles and herpes simplex virus and as well as other types of herpes viral infections. This may help people co-infected with HIV and herpes simplex live longer. High dose acyclovir is used to treat hairy leukoplakia, a viral infection which usually shows up on both sides of the tongue. Possible side effects of this therapeutic substance are stomach pain, headache, nausea and/or hair-loss.

  16. Sorption of phosphate onto calcite; results from batch experiments and surface complexation modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ugilt Sø, Helle; Postma, Dieke; Jakobsen, Rasmus; Larsen, Flemming

    2011-05-01

    The adsorption of phosphate onto calcite was studied in a series of batch experiments. To avoid the precipitation of phosphate-containing minerals the experiments were conducted using a short reaction time (3 h) and low concentrations of phosphate (?50 ?M). Sorption of phosphate on calcite was studied in 11 different calcite-equilibrated solutions that varied in pH, P, ionic strength and activity of Ca 2+, CO32- and HCO3-. Our results show strong sorption of phosphate onto calcite. The kinetics of phosphate sorption onto calcite are fast; adsorption is complete within 2-3 h while desorption is complete in less than 0.5 h. The reversibility of the sorption process indicates that phosphate is not incorporated into the calcite crystal lattice under our experimental conditions. Precipitation of phosphate-containing phases does not seem to take place in systems with ?50 ?M total phosphate, in spite of a high degree of super-saturation with respect to hydroxyapatite (SI HAP ? 7.83). The amount of phosphate adsorbed varied with the solution composition, in particular, adsorption increases as the CO32- activity decreases (at constant pH) and as pH increases (at constant CO32- activity). The primary effect of ionic strength on phosphate sorption onto calcite is its influence on the activity of the different aqueous phosphate species. The experimental results were modeled satisfactorily using the constant capacitance model with >CaPO 4Ca 0 and either >CaHPO 4Ca + or > CaHPO4- as the adsorbed surface species. Generally the model captures the variation in phosphate adsorption onto calcite as a function of solution composition, though it was necessary to include two types of sorption sites (strong and weak) in the model to reproduce the convex shape of the sorption isotherms.

  17. Unravelling the enigmatic origin of calcitic nanofibres in soils and caves: purely physicochemical or biogenic processes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bindschedler, S.; Cailleau, G.; Braissant, O.; Millière, L.; Job, D.; Verrecchia, E. P.

    2014-01-01

    Calcitic nanofibres are ubiquitous habits of secondary calcium carbonate (CaCO3) accumulations observed in calcareous vadose environments. Despite their widespread occurrence, the origin of these nanofeatures remains enigmatic. Three possible mechanisms fuel the debate: (i) purely physicochemical processes, (ii) mineralization of rod-shaped bacteria, and (iii) crystal precipitation on organic templates. Nanofibres can be either mineral (calcitic) or organic in nature. They are very often observed in association with Needle Fibre Calcite (NFC), another typical secondary CaCO3 habit in terrestrial environments. This association has contributed to some confusion between both habits, however they are truly two distinct calcitic features and their recurrent association is likely to be an important fact to help understanding the origin of nanofibres. In this manuscript the different hypotheses that currently exist to explain the origin of calcitic nanofibres are critically reviewed. In addition to this, a new hypothesis for the origin of nanofibres is proposed based on the fact that current knowledge attributes a fungal origin to NFC. As this feature and nanofibres are recurrently observed together, a possible fungal origin for nanofibres which are associated with NFC is investigated. Sequential enzymatic digestion of the fungal cell wall of selected fungal species demonstrates that the fungal cell wall can be a source of organic nanofibres. The obtained organic nanofibres show a striking morphological resemblance when compared to their natural counterparts, emphasizing a fungal origin for part of the organic nanofibres observed in association with NFC. It is further hypothesized that these organic nanofibres may act as templates for calcite nucleation in a biologically-influenced mineralization process, generating calcitic nanofibres. This highlights the possible involvement of Fungi in CaCO3 biomineralization processes, a role still poorly documented at present-day. Moreover, on a global scale, the organomineralization of organic nanofibres into calcitic nanofibres might have a great, however overlooked, impact on the biogeochemical cycles of both Ca and C.

  18. Unravelling the enigmatic origin of calcitic nanofibres in soils and caves: purely physicochemical or biogenic processes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bindschedler, S.; Cailleau, G.; Braissant, O.; Millière, L.; Job, D.; Verrecchia, E. P.

    2014-05-01

    Calcitic nanofibres are ubiquitous habits of secondary calcium carbonate (CaCO3) accumulations observed in calcareous vadose environments. Despite their widespread occurrence, the origin of these nanofeatures remains enigmatic. Three possible mechanisms fuel the debate: (i) purely physicochemical processes, (ii) mineralization of rod-shaped bacteria, and (iii) crystal precipitation on organic templates. Nanofibres can be either mineral (calcitic) or organic in nature. They are very often observed in association with needle fibre calcite (NFC), another typical secondary CaCO3 habit in terrestrial environments. This association has contributed to some confusion between both habits, however they are truly two distinct calcitic features and their recurrent association is likely to be an important fact to help understanding the origin of nanofibres. In this paper the different hypotheses that currently exist to explain the origin of calcitic nanofibres are critically reviewed. In addition to this, a new hypothesis for the origin of nanofibres is proposed based on the fact that current knowledge attributes a fungal origin to NFC. As this feature and nanofibres are recurrently observed together, a possible fungal origin for nanofibres which are associated with NFC is investigated. Sequential enzymatic digestion of the fungal cell wall of selected fungal species demonstrates that the fungal cell wall can be a source of organic nanofibres. The obtained organic nanofibres show a striking morphological resemblance when compared to their natural counterparts, emphasizing a fungal origin for part of the organic nanofibres observed in association with NFC. It is further hypothesized that these organic nanofibres may act as templates for calcite nucleation in a biologically influenced mineralization process, generating calcitic nanofibres. This highlights the possible involvement of fungi in CaCO3 biomineralization processes, a role still poorly documented. Moreover, on a global scale, the organomineralization of organic nanofibres into calcitic nanofibres might be an overlooked process deserving more attention to specify its impact on the biogeochemical cycles of both Ca and C.

  19. Synthetic polycrystalline aragonite to calcite transformation kinetics: experiments at pressures close to the equilibrium boundary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W.-L. Huang

    2003-01-01

    Summary ¶This study experimentally investigated the transformation kinetics of synthetic polycrystalline aragonite to calcite at four temperature\\/pressure conditions (330?°C\\/200?MPa, 380?°C\\/325?MPa, 430?°C\\/580?MPa, and 480?°C\\/875?MPa), close to the calcite-aragonite equilibrium phase boundary. The extents of transformation measured as a function of time in a synthetic system, using in-situ annealed, high purity samples, are consistent with the kinetic model for grain-boundary nucleation and

  20. Fractionation of carbon and oxygen isotopes and magnesium between coexisting metamorphic calcite and dolomite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon M. F. Sheppard; Henry P. Schwarcz

    1970-01-01

    Fractionations of carbon and oxygen isotopes and magnesium between coexisting dolomite and calcite have been determined for\\u000a marbles and calcareous schists of a wide variety of metamorphic environments from Vermont and the Grenville Province of Ontario.\\u000a Concordant equilibrium fractionations are given by 83% of the samples. Calibration of the isotopic thermometers using the\\u000a Mg-calcite solvus thermometer gave in the temperature

  1. Preferred orientation of calcite in deep-sea carbonates and its relationship to acoustic anisotropy 

    E-print Network

    Schaftenaar, Carl Howard

    1982-01-01

    PREFERRED ORIENTATION OF CALCITE IN DEEP-SEA CARBONATES AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO ACOUSTIC ANISOTROPY A Thesis by CARL HOWARD SCHAFTENAAR Submitted to the Graduate college of Texas A&M University in partial fulf llment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1982 Major Subject: Geophysics PREFERRED ORIENTATION OF CALCITE IN DEEP-SEA CARBONATES AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO ACOUSTIC ANISOTROPY A Thesis by CARL HONARD SCHAFTENAAR Approved as to style and content by: c...

  2. Laboratory determination of oxygen isotope fractionation of high Mg-calcite between 25 and 80°C

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Mavromatis; M. Schmidt; R. Botz

    2009-01-01

    High magnesium calcite (HMC) was synthesized from oversaturated solutions with respect to calcite at 25, 40, 60 and 80 ° C. A fractionated dissolution technique was applied, in order to remove any amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) from synthesized Ca,Mg-carbonate. The occurrence of pure HMC (6-30% MgCO3) allowed the effect of Mg2+ on the oxygen isotope fractionation to be estimated. The

  3. Gas hydrates: Technology status report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    In 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) assumed the responsibility for expanding the knowledge base and for developing methods to recover gas from hydrates. These are ice-like mixtures of gas and water where gas molecules are trapped within a framework of water molecules. This research is part of the Unconventional Gas Recovery (UGR) program, a multidisciplinary effort that focuses on developing the technology to produce natural gas from resources that have been classified as unconventional because of their unique geologies and production mechanisms. Current work on gas hydrates emphasizes geological studies; characterization of the resource; and generic research, including modeling of reservoir conditions, production concepts, and predictive strategies for stimulated wells. Complementing this work is research on in situ detection of hydrates and field tests to verify extraction methods. Thus, current research will provide a comprehensive technology base from which estimates of reserve potential can be made, and from which industry can develop recovery strategies. 7 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Gas hydrates thermomechanics: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Corlett, R.C.

    1988-04-01

    Solid CH4 hydrate samples can be built up by pulses of water spray onto a solid surface in a CH4 atmosphere at temperature and pressure within the hydrate stability domain. By pulse spraying into a cylindrical well, clean cylindrical samples approximately 4 cm diameter by 2.5 cm long can be obtained. There have been found experimentally simple means to achieve for such a cylindrical sample axial stress in excess above the radial and azimuthal stress imposed by gas pressure on the lateral face or excess radial and azimuthal stress above axial stress imposed by gas pressure on the end face. When uniaxially loaded on the end faces, the samples have very little strength, crushing or fracturing at excess axial stress less than 0.2 MPa, at temperatures above 0 deg C, but can withstand at least 2 MPa at temperatures below 0 deg C. These results suggest that stress anisotropy is not a significant factor in the thermomechanics behavior of gas hydrates at temperatures above 0 deg C. Samples can be temporarily depressurized below the stability envelope at temperatures below 0 deg C and then be repressurized and have temperature raised above 0 deg C without any change of appearance, whereas, at temperatures above 0 deg C, samples decompose and dramatically alter in appearance upon depressurization below the stability envelope. 6 refs., 10 figs.

  5. A coupled THMC model of a heating and hydration laboratory experiment in unsaturated compacted FEBEX bentonite

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, L.; Samper, J.; Montenegro, L.; Fernandez, A.M.

    2010-05-01

    Unsaturated compacted bentonite is foreseen by several countries as a backfill and sealing material in high-level radioactive waste repositories. The strong interplays between thermal (T), hydrodynamic (H), mechanical (M) and chemical (C) processes during the hydration stage of a repository call for fully coupled THMC models. Validation of such THMC models is prevented by the lack of comprehensive THMC experiments and the difficulties of experimental methods to measure accurately the chemical composition of bentonite porewater. We present here a non-isothermal multiphase flow and multicomponent reactive solute transport model for a deformable medium of a heating and hydration experiment performed on a sample of compacted FEBEX bentonite. Besides standard solute transport and geochemical processes, the model accounts for solute cross diffusion and thermal and chemical osmosis. Bentonite swelling is solved with a state-surface approach. The THM model is calibrated with transient temperature, water content and porosity data measured at the end of the experiment. The reactive transport model is calibrated with porewater chemical data derived from aqueous extract data. Model results confirm that thermal osmosis is relevant for the hydration of FEBEX bentonite while chemical osmosis can be safely neglected. Dilution and evaporation are the main processes controlling the concentration of conservative species. Dissolved cations are mostly affected by calcite dissolution-precipitation and cation exchange reactions. Dissolved sulphate is controlled by gypsum/anhydrite dissolution-precipitation. pH is mostly buffered by protonation/deprotonation via surface complexation. Computed concentrations agree well with inferred aqueous extract data at all sections except near the hydration boundary where cation data are affected by a sampling artifact. The fit of Cl{sup -} data is excellent except for the data near the heater. The largest deviations of the model from inferred aqueous extract data occur for dissolved SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} which is underpredicted by the model. There are uncertainties on the amount of gypsum available for dissolution and its dissolution mechanism (kinetics or local equilibrium).

  6. Study of Formation Mechanisms of Gas Hydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jia-Sheng; Wu, Cheng-Yueh; Hsieh, Bieng-Zih

    2015-04-01

    Gas hydrates, which had been found in subsurface geological environments of deep-sea sediments and permafrost regions, are solid crystalline compounds of gas molecules and water. The estimated energy resources of hydrates are at least twice of that of the conventional fossil fuel in the world. Gas hydrates have a great opportunity to become a dominating future energy. In the past years, many laboratory experiments had been conducted to study chemical and thermodynamic characteristics of gas hydrates in order to investigate the formation and dissociation mechanisms of hydrates. However, it is difficult to observe the formation and dissociation of hydrates in a porous media from a physical experiment directly. The purpose of this study was to model the dynamic formation mechanisms of gas hydrate in porous media by reservoir simulation. Two models were designed for this study: 1) a closed-system static model with separated gas and water zones; this model was a hydrate equilibrium model to investigate the behavior of the formation of hydrates near the initial gas-water contact; and 2) an open-system dynamic model with a continuous bottom-up gas flow; this model simulated the behavior of gas migration and studied the formation of hydrates from flowed gas and static formation water in porous media. A phase behavior module was developed in this study for reservoir simulator to model the pressure-volume-temperature (PVT) behavior of hydrates. The thermodynamic equilibriums and chemical reactions were coupled with the phase behavior module to have functions modelling the formation and dissociation of hydrates from/to water and gas. The simulation models used in this study were validated from the code-comparison project proposed by the NETL. According to the modelling results of the closed-system static model, we found that predominated location for the formation of hydrates was below the gas-water contact (or at the top of water zone). The maximum hydrate saturation observed was located just below the gas-water contact. The open-system dynamic model showed that the hydrates were basically uniformly distributed in a homogeneous porous media at a constant gas migration rate. However, if the gas migration rate was extremely low, the hydrates will tend to concentrate at the bottom of water zone (i.e. at the first contact of the water and the flowed gas) and finally blocked the vertical flow of gas. The models we designed can be scaled up to a field scale, and the research findings from this study can be contributed to the dispersion analysis of an in-situ hydrate reservoir.

  7. Soap based detergent formulations. V. Amphoteric lime soap dispersing agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Parris; J. K. Weil; W. M. Linfield

    1973-01-01

    A series of amphoteric surfactants was prepared by the reaction of 1,3-propanesultone with fat derived primary amines, N-methylalkylamines,\\u000a N,N-dimethylalkylamines, and N-acyl-N?,N?-dimethyl-1,3-propanediamines. Both mono- and disulfopropylated derivatives of the\\u000a primary amines were synthesized. All compounds were found to be excellent lime soap dispersing agents. The quaternary sulfobetaines\\u000a were found to possess the best detergency properties both by themselves and when formulated

  8. Hydrate-phobic surfaces: fundamental studies in clathrate hydrate adhesion reduction

    E-print Network

    Smith, J. David

    Clathrate hydrate formation and subsequent plugging of deep-sea oil and gas pipelines represent a significant bottleneck for deep-sea oil and gas operations. Current methods for hydrate mitigation are expensive and energy ...

  9. Microstructural control of calcite via incorporation of intracrystalline organic molecules in shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okumura, Taiga; Suzuki, Michio; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Kogure, Toshihiro

    2013-10-01

    It is widely accepted that organic substances regulate or influence the structure of biominerals, but its direct evidences are not plenty. Here we show that the crystallographic microstructures in biotic calcites arise from incorporated intracrystalline organic molecules (IOMs), through a comparison between biotic calcites in shells and synthetic ones with the IOMs extracted from the shells. Although the prismatic layers of a pearl oyster (Pinctada fucata) and a pen shell (Atrina pectinata) morphologically resemble each other, the crystallographic features of constituent calcites are considerably different; in Pinctada, the IOMs are distributed inhomogeneously to form small-angle grain boundaries and associated crystal defects, whereas in Atrina, the IOMs are distributed almost homogeneously and defects are rare in the calcite crystals. We conducted in vitro calcite syntheses in the presence of the IOMs in EDTA-soluble extracts from the prisms. The IOMs in the extracts from Pinctada and Atrina were incorporated into synthetic calcites in a different manner, exhibiting defect-rich/free features as observed in the natural shells. With regard to amino acid compositions of the IOMs, the extract from Atrina has a higher proportion of acidic amino acids than that from Pinctada, implying that acidic proteins do not correlate directly to their affinity for calcium carbonate crystals.

  10. NMR characterization of hydrocarbon adsorption on calcite surfaces: A first principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevilaqua, Rochele C. A.; Rigo, Vagner A.; Veríssimo-Alves, Marcos; Miranda, Caetano R.

    2014-11-01

    The electronic and coordination environment of minerals surfaces, as calcite, are very difficult to characterize experimentally. This is mainly due to the fact that there are relatively few spectroscopic techniques able to detect Ca2+. Since calcite is a major constituent of sedimentary rocks in oil reservoir, a more detailed characterization of the interaction between hydrocarbon molecules and mineral surfaces is highly desirable. Here we perform a first principles study on the adsorption of hydrocarbon molecules on calcite surface (CaCO3 ( {10bar 14} )). The simulations were based on Density Functional Theory with Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (SS-NMR) calculations. The Gauge-Including Projector Augmented Wave method was used to compute mainly SS-NMR parameters for 43Ca, 13C, and 17O in calcite surface. It was possible to assign the peaks in the theoretical NMR spectra for all structures studied. Besides showing different chemical shifts for atoms located on different environments (bulk and surface) for calcite, the results also display changes on the chemical shift, mainly for Ca sites, when the hydrocarbon molecules are present. Even though the interaction of the benzene molecule with the calcite surface is weak, there is a clearly distinguishable displacement of the signal of the Ca sites over which the hydrocarbon molecule is located. A similar effect is also observed for hexane adsorption. Through NMR spectroscopy, we show that aromatic and alkane hydrocarbon molecules adsorbed on carbonate surfaces can be differentiated.

  11. Estimation of past seepage volumes from calcite distribution in the Topopah Spring Tuff, Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Brian D; Neymark, Leonid A; Peterman, Zell E

    2003-01-01

    Low-temperature calcite and opal record the past seepage of water into open fractures and lithophysal cavities in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, site of a proposed high-level radioactive waste repository. Systematic measurements of calcite and opal coatings in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) tunnel at the proposed repository horizon are used to estimate the volume of calcite at each site of calcite and/or opal deposition. By estimating the volume of water required to precipitate the measured volumes of calcite in the unsaturated zone, seepage rates of 0.005 to 5 liters/year (l/year) are calculated at the median and 95th percentile of the measured volumes, respectively. These seepage rates are at the low end of the range of seepage rates from recent performance assessment (PA) calculations, confirming the conservative nature of the performance assessment. However, the distribution of the calcite and opal coatings indicate that a much larger fraction of the potential waste packages would be contacted by this seepage than is calculated in the performance assessment. PMID:12714293

  12. Development of Alaskan gas hydrate resources

    SciTech Connect

    Kamath, V.A.; Sharma, G.D.; Patil, S.L.

    1991-06-01

    The research undertaken in this project pertains to study of various techniques for production of natural gas from Alaskan gas hydrates such as, depressurization, injection of hot water, steam, brine, methanol and ethylene glycol solutions through experimental investigation of decomposition characteristics of hydrate cores. An experimental study has been conducted to measure the effective gas permeability changes as hydrates form in the sandpack and the results have been used to determine the reduction in the effective gas permeability of the sandpack as a function of hydrate saturation. A user friendly, interactive, menu-driven, numerical difference simulator has been developed to model the dissociation of natural gas hydrates in porous media with variable thermal properties. A numerical, finite element simulator has been developed to model the dissociation of hydrates during hot water injection process.

  13. OPTIMIZING SLURRIED-HYDRATED LIME POND-SHORELINE TREATMENTS FOR AQUATIC SNAILS VECTORING TREMATODES TO CULTURED FISH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trematodes can cause massive infections in fish, and the most promising approach for the control of these infections is the reduction or elimination of snails that vector the trematodes. A recent approach, the application of concentrated chemical treatments along the margins of a pond (pond-shoreli...

  14. Enhancement of gas desulfurization with hydrated lime at low temperature by the presence of NO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Bausach, M.; Pera-Titus, M.; Fite, C.; Cunill, F.; Izquierdo, J.F.; Tejero, J.; Iborra, M. [University of Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2005-11-01

    The effect of NO{sub 2} on the desulfurization reaction of simulated flue gas by Ca(OH){sub 2} was investigated in a fixed-bed reactor at 333-353 K and at relative humidities (RHs) in the range of 30%-70%. NO{sub 2} was determined to be a promoter for SO{sub 2} uptake, because its retention can be increased up to 200%. The effect of NO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} concentration on the kinetics of the desulfurization reaction was surveyed and successfully simulated by means of a deactivation model implemented with an inverse shrinking-core model (DM-ISCM). Solid analyses were also performed to identify the reaction products and provide insight into the chemistry of the process.

  15. HYDRATION OF GELATIN IN SOLUTION.

    PubMed

    Kunitz, M

    1927-05-20

    1. It was shown that the high viscosity of gelatin solutions as well as the character of the osmotic pressure-concentration curves indicates that gelatin is hydrated even at temperatures as high as 50 degrees C. 2. The degree of hydration of gelatin was determined by means of viscosity measurements through the application of the formula See PDF for Equation. 3. When the concentration of gelatin was corrected for the volume of water of hydration as obtained from the viscosity measurements, the relation between the osmotic pressure of various concentrations of gelatin and the corrected concentrations became linear, thus making it possible to determine the apparent molecular weight of gelatin through the application of van't Hoff's law. The molecular weight of gelatin at 35 degrees C. proved to be 61,500. 4. A study was made of the mechanism of hydration of gelatin and it was shown that the experimental data agree with the theory that the hydration of gelatin is a pure osmotic pressure phenomenon brought about by the presence in gelatin of a number of insoluble micellae containing a definite amount of a soluble ingredient of gelatin. As long as there is a difference in the osmotic pressure between the inside of the micellae and the outside gelatin solution the micellae swell until an equilibrium is established at which the osmotic pressure inside of the micellae is balanced by the total osmotic pressure of the gelatin solution and by the elasticity pressure of the micellae. 5. On addition of HCl to isoelectric gelatin the total activity of ions inside of the micellae is greater than in the outside solution due to a greater concentration of protein in the micellae. This brings about a further swelling of the micellae until a Donnan equilibrium is established in the ion distribution accompanied by an equilibrium in the osmotic pressure. Through the application of the theory developed here it was possible actually to calculate the osmotic pressure difference between the inside of the micellae and the outside solution which was brought about by the difference in the ion distribution. 6. According to the same theory the effect of pH on viscosity of gelatin should diminish with increase in concentration of gelatin, since the difference in the concentration of the protein inside and outside of the micellae also decreases. This was confirmed experimentally. At concentrations above 8 gm. per 100 gm. of H(2)O there is very little difference in the viscosity of gelatin of various pH as compared with that of isoelectric gelatin. PMID:19872362

  16. Molecular characterization and pathogenicity assays of Colletotrichum acutatum, causal agent for lime anthracnose in Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several distorted Mexican lime [Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm). Swingle] fruit, leaf, and twig samples with lime anthracnose symptoms were collected from three trees in residential areas of Brownsville, Texas. The causal fungal organism, Colletotrichum acutatum J. H. Simmonds was isolated from leave...

  17. DELIMING OF UN-BOUNDED AND BOUNDED LIME FROM WHITE HIDE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a typical white hide deliming operation, unbound lime as well as bound lime are removed using both water and chemicals; optimization of this operation is highly desirable. The objective of this study is to determine when it is suitable to interrupt washing with pure water (non-chemical deliming)...

  18. Phosphorus and liming effects on early growth of selected plant species grown on an ultisol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. T. Kang; D. O. Ladipo; O. Ofeimu

    1995-01-01

    A series of pot experiments were conducted to test the effect of phosphorus (P) application and liming on early growth performance of Zea mays, Mucuna pruriens and nine woody species (Albizia ferruginea, Cajanus cajan, Dactyladenia barteri, Dalbergia sissoo, Enterolobium cyclocarpum, Flemingia macrophylla, Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala, and Pentacletra macrophylla) on an Ultisol. Low reponse to liming and high response to

  19. Mechanism of mechanical strength increase of soda-lime glass by aging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Won-Taek Han; Minoru Tomozawa

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on two models proposed to explain the mechanical strength increase of abraded or indented soda-lime glasses upon aging, namely, crack tip blunting and the release of residual tensile stress near the crack tip. To clarify the mechanism, the time dependence of the strengthening of an abraded soda-lime glass was investigated. Effects of aging media, such as moist

  20. Impact of lime, nitrogen and plant species on bacterial community structure in grassland microcosms.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Nabla; Brodie, Eoin; Connolly, John; Clipson, Nicholas

    2004-10-01

    A microcosm-based approach was used to study impacts of plant and chemical factors on the bacterial community structure of an upland acidic grassland soil. Seven perennial plant species typical of both natural, unimproved (Nardus stricta, Agrostis capillaris, Festuca ovina and F. rubra) and fertilized, improved (Holcus lanatus, Lolium perenne and Trifolium repens) grasslands were either left unamended or treated with lime, nitrogen, or lime plus nitrogen in a 75-day glasshouse experiment. Lime and nitrogen amendment were shown to have a greater effect on microbial activity, biomass and bacterial ribotype number than plant species. Liming increased soil pH, microbial activity and biomass, while decreasing ribotype number. Nitrogen addition decreased soil pH, microbial activity and ribotype number. Addition of lime plus nitrogen had intermediate effects, which appeared to be driven more by lime than nitrogen. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) analysis revealed that lime and nitrogen addition altered soil bacterial community structure, while plant species had little effect. These results were further confirmed by multivariate redundancy analysis, and suggest that soil lime and nitrogen status are more important controllers of bacterial community structure than plant rhizosphere effects. PMID:15344932

  1. Archaeomagnetic studies in central Mexico—dating of Mesoamerican lime-plasters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Hueda-Tanabe; A. M. Soler-Arechalde; J. Urrutia-Fucugauchi; L. Barba; L. Manzanilla; M. Rebolledo-Vieyra; A. Goguitchaichvili

    2004-01-01

    For the first time results of an archaeomagnetic study of unburned lime-plasters from Teotihuacan and Tenochtitlan in central Mesoamerica are presented. Plasters made of lime, lithic clasts and water, appear during the Formative Period and were used for a variety of purposes in floors, sculptures, ceramics and supporting media for mural paintings in the Oaxaca and Maya area. In Central

  2. Effect of liming on the behaviour of (90)Sr and (137)Cs in a lake ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Outola, Iisa; Rask, Martti

    2011-08-01

    Liming of lakes is considered one possible remedial action to reduce the accumulation of radionuclides into fish in the case of a radiological accident. These responses were tested in field conditions in a small acidified lake that was divided into two parts: one limed with CaCO(3) and the other half left as an unlimed control. The transfer of (90)Sr from water into fish decreased on average by 50% during the first year after liming. However, at the same time the (90)Sr concentration in water increased, reaching a maximum within 6 months after liming. Approximately 50% more (90)Sr was detected in water in the limed part of the lake than on control side during the first year. (90)Sr was most probably released from the sediment as the Ca concentration and pH of the water increased. As a result of these two processes, which counterbalanced each other (increased release of (90)Sr into water from sediment and decreased transfer of (90)Sr from water into fish), the (90)Sr concentration in fish did not notably differ between the limed and control sides of the lake. Liming may only be suitable as a remedial action if carried out immediately after a radiological accident, before significant amounts of radionuclides have been deposited in lake sediments. In the case of (137)Cs, the effect of liming was less pronounced. (137)Cs activity concentration in water increased in the first year by 20% and uptake by fish decreased by 20%. PMID:21571407

  3. Improvement of clay soils in situ using lime piles in the UK

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. D. F Rogers; S Glendinning

    1997-01-01

    Lime piles, which essentially consist of holes in the ground filled with lime, have been used for two distinct purposes for the treatment of clay soils in situ. The first concerns the treatment of soft soils to improve their bearing capacity and in this case uses relatively large diameter quicklime piles at close spacings. The result is a significant reduction

  4. Long-term manuring effect on weed flora in acid and limed soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steponas Ciuberkis; Stasys Bernotas; Steponas Raudonius

    2006-01-01

    The dominant soils of eastern and western Lithuania are acid. Liming and application of organic fertilizers are therefore the most effective ways to improve properties. Accordingly, two permanent liming and organic manuring trials were initiated in 1949 on an acid soil in the Vezaiciai Branch of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture. This study reports the effects of long term manuring

  5. Response of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) to Lime and Phosphorus Fertilization in an Acid Soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. I. Oluwatoyinbo; M. O. Akande; J. A. Adediran

    A pot experiment was conducted to determine the effect of lime (CaCO ) and phosphorus (P) 3 application on the growth and yield of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) on an acid soil. This was followed by a field trial to validate the findings from the pot study. Three rates of lime equivalent to 0, 500 and 1000 kg CaCO ha? and

  6. Control of Lime Kiln Heat Balance is Key to Reduced Fuel Consumption 

    E-print Network

    Kramm, D. J.

    1982-01-01

    This article discusses the various heat loads in a pulp mill lime sludge kiln, pointing out which heat loads cannot be reduced and which heat loads can, and how a reduction in energy use can be achieved. In almost any existing rotary lime sludge...

  7. EVALUATION OF SOLIDS DEWATERING FOR A PILOT-SCALE THIOSORBIC LIME SO2 SCRUBBER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of an evaluation of solids dewatering for a pilot-scale thiosorbic lime SO2 scrubber. Pilot plant data showed that the dissolved magnesium in thiosorbic lime caused deterioration of solids dewatering properties. The slurry settling rate increased when the ...

  8. Enhanced growth of the macrophyte Juncus bulbosus in S Norwegian limed lakes. A regional survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. E. Brandrud; J. G. M. Roelofs

    1995-01-01

    The effects of liming on the aquatic macrophyte vegetation have been investigated in S and SW Norway. In the western part of the study area, Juncus bulbosus was considerably more frequent in the limed than in the unlimed lakes, whilst in the eastern part there were no such differences, and the J. bulbosus populations were generally not so vital. In

  9. Effects of Liming on Forage Availability and Nutrient Content in a Forest Impacted by Acid Rain

    PubMed Central

    Pabian, Sarah E.; Ermer, Nathan M.; Tzilkowski, Walter M.; Brittingham, Margaret C.

    2012-01-01

    Acidic deposition and subsequent forest soil acidification and nutrient depletion can affect negatively the growth, health and nutrient content of vegetation, potentially limiting the availability and nutrient content of forage for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and other forest herbivores. Liming is a mitigation technique that can be used to restore forest health in acidified areas, but little is known about how it affects the growth or nutrient content of deer forage. We examined the effects of dolomitic limestone application on the growth and chemical composition of understory plants in an acidified forest in central Pennsylvania, with a focus on vegetative groups included as white-tailed deer forage. We used a Before-After-Control-Impact study design with observations 1 year before liming and up to 5 years post-liming on 2 treated and 2 untreated 100-ha sites. Before liming, forage availability and several nutrients were below levels considered optimal for white-tailed deer, and many vegetative characteristics were related to soil chemistry. We observed a positive effect of liming on forb biomass, with a 2.7 fold increase on limed sites, but no biomass response in other vegetation groups. We observed positive effects of liming on calcium and magnesium content and negative effects on aluminum and manganese content of several plant groups. Responses to liming by forbs and plant nutrients show promise for improving vegetation health and forage quality and quantity for deer. PMID:22761890

  10. Barley seedling growth in soils amended with fly ash or agricultural lime followed by acidification

    SciTech Connect

    Renken, R.R.; McCallister, D.L.; Tarkalson, D.D.; Hergert, G.W.; Marx, D.B. [University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States)

    2006-05-15

    Calcium-rich coal combustion fly ash can be used as an amendment to neutralize soil acidity because of its oxides and carbonate content, but its aluminum content could inhibit plant growth if soil pH values fall below optimal agronomic levels. This study measured root and shoot growth of an acid-sensitive barley (Hordeum vulgare L. 'Kearney') grown in the greenhouse on three naturally acid soils. The soils were either untreated or amended with various liming materials (dry fly ash, wet fly ash, and agricultural lime) at application rates of 0, .5, 1, and 1.5 times the recommended lime requirement, then treated with dilute acid solutions to simulate management-induced acidification. Plant growth indexes were measured at 30 days after planting. Root mass per plant and root length per plant were greater for the limed treatments than in the acidified check. Root growth in the limed treatments did not differ from root growth in the original nonacidified soils. Top mass per plant in all limed soils was either larger than or not different from that in the original nonacidified soils. Based on top mass per plant, no liming material or application rate was clearly superior. Both fly ash and agricultural lime reduced the impact of subsequent acidification on young barley plants. Detrimental effects of aluminum release on plant growth were not observed. Calcium-rich fly ash at agronomic rates is an acceptable acid-neutralizing material with no apparent negative effects.

  11. Sulphate attack and ettringite formation in the lime and cement stabilized marine clays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Rajasekaran

    2005-01-01

    Swelling and shrinkage behaviour of marine clays impose foundation problems that may sometimes results in excessive settlements. Improving the behaviour of soft clays using lime or cement is not new. Recent studies reported the occurrence of high swelling and pavement failures in lime and cement stabilized clays containing sulphates. The above phenomena resulted in the formation of swelling minerals such

  12. Stability evaluation of hydrate-bearing sediments during thermally-driven hydrate dissociation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Kwon; G. Cho; J. Santamarina; H. Kim; J. Lee

    2009-01-01

    Hydrate-bearing sediments may destabilize spontaneously as part of geological processes, unavoidably during petroleum drilling\\/production operations, or intentionally as part of gas extraction from the hydrate itself. In all cases, high pore fluid pressure generation is anticipated during hydrate dissociation. This study examined how thermal changes destabilize gas hydrate-bearing sediments. First, an analytical formulation was derived for predicting fluid pressure evolution

  13. Gas hydrates in the Gulf of Mexico 

    E-print Network

    Cox, Henry Benjamin

    1986-01-01

    matter. High organic carbon (& 2%) and total sulfur (& 0. 8%) were also associated with thermogenic gas hydrate containing cores. Biogenic gas hydrates were mostly white flat sheets containing 99% methane that was isotopically light. The associated... sediment had no iv visible oil stains with bitumen levels of ( 0. 05% and total sulfur and organic carbon averaging 0. 8 and 1. 0%, respectively. Sediments of both gas hydrate types contained authigenic carbonate in the upper 1. 0 meter of the core...

  14. (U-Th)/He dating and He diffusion in calcite from veins and breccia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautheron, C.; Cros, A.; Pagel, M.; Berthet, P.; Tassan-Got, L.; Douville, E.; Pinna-Jamme, R.; Sarda, P.

    2013-12-01

    Knowledge of He retention in crystalline calcite is mandatory to estimate the possibility of (U-Th)/He dating of calcite. To this aim, fault-filling calcite crystals from the Eocene/Oligocene Gondrecourt graben, Paris Basin, Eastern France, have been sampled, based on their relatively old, Eocene-Oligocene, precipitation age and cold thermal history (<40°C since precipitation). The samples were sorted into three main tectonic and morphological groups, including successively (1) micro-fracture calcites, (2) breccia and associated geodic calcites, and (3) vein and associated geodic calcites. (U-Th)/He dating of 63 calcite fragments yields ages dispersed from 0.2×0.02 to 35.8×2.7 Ma, as well as two older dates of 117×10 and 205×28 Ma (1s). These He ages correlate to grain chemistry, such as to Sr and ?REE concentrations or (La/Yb)N ratios, and these correlations probably reflect the evolution of parent fluid. Only the oldest He ages are in agreement with the He-retentive character of calcite as determined by Copeland et al. (2007), and these ages were obtained for the most recently precipitated crystals. To better understand the large He-age scatter and why calcites precipitated earlier show younger ages, He diffusion experiments have been conducted on 10 Gondrecourt calcite fragments from 3 samples with He ages of 0.2 to 6 Ma. In addition, a crystallographic investigation by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) performed on similar samples reveals that the crystal structure evolves with increasing temperature, showing with micro-cracks and cleavage opening. These XRD results indicate that, in fault-filling calcite, He retention is controlled by multiple diffusion domains (MDD, Lovera et al., 1991) with various sizes, and therefore, evolves through time with strong consequences on (U-Th)/He age. We thus interpret the Gondrecourt calcite (U-Th)/He age scatter of older samples as a consequence of cleavage opening due to a succession of calcite crystallization phases related to the deformation history. Finally, we propose that the crystallization age of a calcite crystal with a known thermal history can nevertheless be retrieved by the (U-Th)/He method provided the He diffusion pattern can be measured by careful step-heating degassing analysis. Copeland, P., Watson, E.B., Urizar, S.C., Patterson, D., Lapen, T.J., 2007. Alpha thermochronology of carbonates. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 71: 4488-4511. Cros, A. Gautheron, C., Pagel, M., Berthet, P., Tassan-Got, L., Douville, E., Pinna-Jamme, R., Sarda, P., submitted GCA, He behavior in calcite filling viewed by (U-Th)/He dating, He diffusion and crystallographic studies. Lovera, O.M., Richter, F.M., Harrison, T.M., 1991. Diffusion domains determined by 39Ar released during step heating. Journal of Geophysical Research, 96: 2057-2069.

  15. Depositional facies and porosity development at Coon Creek Field (Newman [open quotes]Big Lime[close quotes]), Leslie County, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Moshier, S.O. (Wheaton College, IL (United States)); Stamper, M.E. (Equitable Resources Exploration, Kingsport, TN (United States))

    1994-08-01

    Coon Creek field is a significant petroleum reservoir in the [open quotes]Big Lime[close quotes], Middle to Upper Mississippian Newman equivalent, in southeastern Kentucky. Initial production from select wells has exceeded 600 bbl of oil/day at drilling depths averaging 915 m (3300 ft). Facies patterns, dolomitization, porosity, and structure in this carbonate reservoir have been delineated by geophysical logs, subsurface mapping, and examination of cores and cuttings. The reservoir is set within a localized paleotopographic low on the unconformable surface of the underlying siliciclastic Borden Group; the Borden surface can express rapid relief of over a 10% grade within less than 300 m. Transgression across the exposed Borden surface resulted in the deposition of a complex system of carbonates lithofacies. Crinoidal dolostones, representing shallow subtidal skeletal bars and banks, form the basal Big Lime (1.5-6 m thick). They are overlain by a typical facies (30 m thick) of bryozoan grainstones/packstones, crinoid grainstones, and mixed skeletal wakestones/mudstones. The rybryozoanacies are characterized by unfragmented fenestrates cemented by radiaxial-fibrous calcite. Stratigraphic distributions indicate the bryozoan facies were broad buildups with crinoidal flank and cap deposits and muddy skeletal off-mount facies, similar to deeper water Waulsortian mounds in other basins. Pellet and ooid grainstones represent moderate- to high-energy subtidal shoal deposits that covered the mound complex. Hydrocarbon production is restricted in the field to the crinoid-bryozoan facies complex within the basal 30 m. Reservoir porosity and permeability have been enhanced by selective dolomitization of grainstones and fracturing related to postdepositional reactivation of basement faults.

  16. The use of a sequential leaching procedure for assessing the heavy metal leachability in lime waste from the lime kiln at a caustizicing process of a pulp mill.

    PubMed

    Pöykiö, Risto; Nurmesniemi, Hannu; Kuokkanen, Toivo; Perämäki, Paavo

    2006-12-01

    A five-stage sequential leaching procedure was used to fractionate 13 heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, Cr, Zn, Fe, Mn, Al, Ni, Co, As, V, Ba) and sulphur (S) in lime waste from the lime kiln at the causticizing plant of Stora Enso Oyj Veitsiluoto Pulp Mills at Kemi, Northern Finland, into the following fractions: (1) water-soluble fraction (H(2)O), (2) exchangeable fraction (CH(3)COOH), (3) easily reduced fraction (HONH(3)Cl), (4) oxidizable fraction (H(2)O(2)+CH(3)COONH(4)), and (5) residual fraction (HF+HNO(3)+HCl). Although metals were leachable in all fractions, the highest concentrations for most of the metals were observed in the residual fraction (stage 5). It was also notable that the total heavy metal concentrations in lime waste did not exceed the maximal allowable heavy metal concentrations for soil conditioner agents set by the ministry of the Agricultural and Forestry in Finland. The heavy metals concentrations in lime waste were also lower than the maximal allowable heavy metals concentrations of the European Union Directive 86/278/EEC on the protection of environment, and in particular of the soil, when sewage sludge is used in agriculture. The Ca concentration (420 g kg(-1); d.w.) was about 262 times higher than the typical value of 1.6 g kg(-1) (d.w.) in arable land in Central Finland. However, the concentration Mg (0.2 g kg(-1); d.w.) in lime waste was equal to the Mg concentration in arable land in the Central Finland. The lime waste has strongly alkaline pH ( approximately 12.8) and a neutralizing value (i.e. liming effect) of 47.9% expressed as Ca equivalents (d.w.). This indicates lime waste to be a potential soil conditioner and improvement as well as a pH buffer. PMID:16887167

  17. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Communities in the Roots of Maize Lines Contrasting for Al Tolerance Grown in Limed and Non-Limed Brazilian Oxisoil.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Eliane A; Oliveira, Christiane A; Lana, Ubiraci G P; Noda, Roberto W; Marriel, Ivanildo E; de Souza, Francisco A

    2015-07-28

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity is one of the greatest limitations to agriculture in acid soils, particularly in tropical regions. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can supply plants with nutrients and give protection against Al toxicity. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of soil liming (i.e., reducing Al saturation) on the AMF community composition and structure in the roots of maize lines contrasting for Al tolerance. To this end, we constructed four 18S rDNA cloning libraries from L3 (Al tolerant) and L22 (Al sensitive) maize lines grown in limed and non-limed soils. A total of 790 clones were sequenced, 69% belonging to the Glomeromycota phylum. The remaining sequences were from Ascomycota, which were more prominent in the limed soil, mainly in the L3 line. The most abundant AM fungal clones were related to the family Glomeraceae represented by the genera uncultured Glomus followed by Rhizophagus and Funneliformis. However, the most abundant operational taxonomic units with 27% of the Glomeromycota clones was affiliated to genus Racocetra. This genus was present in all the four libraries, but it was predominant in the non-limed soils, suggesting that Racocetra is tolerant to Al toxicity. Similarly, Acaulospora and Rhizophagus were also present mostly in both lines in non-limed soils. The community richness of AMF in the non-limed soils was higher than the limed soil for both lines. The results suggest that the soil Al saturation was the parameter that mostly influences the AMF species composition in the soils in this study. PMID:25674805

  18. Physical Properties of Gas Hydrates: A Review

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gabitto, Jorge F.; Tsouris, Costas

    2010-01-01

    Methane gas hydrates in sediments have been studied by several investigators as a possible future energy resource. Recent hydrate reserves have been estimated at approximately1016?m3of methane gas worldwide at standard temperature and pressure conditions. In situ dissociation of natural gas hydrate is necessary in order to commercially exploit the resource from the natural-gas-hydrate-bearing sediment. The presence of gas hydrates in sediments dramatically alters some of the normal physical properties of the sediment. These changes can be detected by field measurements and by down-hole logs. An understanding of the physical properties of hydrate-bearing sediments is necessary for interpretation of geophysical datamore »collected in field settings, borehole, and slope stability analyses; reservoir simulation; and production models. This work reviews information available in literature related to the physical properties of sediments containing gas hydrates. A brief review of the physical properties of bulk gas hydrates is included. Detection methods, morphology, and relevant physical properties of gas-hydrate-bearing sediments are also discussed.« less

  19. Desalination utilizing clathrate hydrates (LDRD final report).

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, Blake Alexander; Bradshaw, Robert W.; Dedrick, Daniel E.; Cygan, Randall Timothy (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Greathouse, Jeffery A. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Majzoub, Eric H. (University of Missouri, Columbia, MO)

    2008-01-01

    Advances are reported in several aspects of clathrate hydrate desalination fundamentals necessary to develop an economical means to produce municipal quantities of potable water from seawater or brackish feedstock. These aspects include the following, (1) advances in defining the most promising systems design based on new types of hydrate guest molecules, (2) selection of optimal multi-phase reactors and separation arrangements, and, (3) applicability of an inert heat exchange fluid to moderate hydrate growth, control the morphology of the solid hydrate material formed, and facilitate separation of hydrate solids from concentrated brine. The rate of R141b hydrate formation was determined and found to depend only on the degree of supercooling. The rate of R141b hydrate formation in the presence of a heat exchange fluid depended on the degree of supercooling according to the same rate equation as pure R141b with secondary dependence on salinity. Experiments demonstrated that a perfluorocarbon heat exchange fluid assisted separation of R141b hydrates from brine. Preliminary experiments using the guest species, difluoromethane, showed that hydrate formation rates were substantial at temperatures up to at least 12 C and demonstrated partial separation of water from brine. We present a detailed molecular picture of the structure and dynamics of R141b guest molecules within water cages, obtained from ab initio calculations, molecular dynamics simulations, and Raman spectroscopy. Density functional theory calculations were used to provide an energetic and molecular orbital description of R141b stability in both large and small cages in a structure II hydrate. Additionally, the hydrate of an isomer, 1,2-dichloro-1-fluoroethane, does not form at ambient conditions because of extensive overlap of electron density between guest and host. Classical molecular dynamics simulations and laboratory trials support the results for the isomer hydrate. Molecular dynamics simulations show that R141b hydrate is stable at temperatures up to 265K, while the isomer hydrate is only stable up to 150K. Despite hydrogen bonding between guest and host, R141b molecules rotated freely within the water cage. The Raman spectrum of R141b in both the pure and hydrate phases was also compared with vibrational analysis from both computational methods. In particular, the frequency of the C-Cl stretch mode (585 cm{sup -1}) undergoes a shift to higher frequency in the hydrate phase. Raman spectra also indicate that this peak undergoes splitting and intensity variation as the temperature is decreased from 4 C to -4 C.

  20. Effective hydration temperature of obsidian: a diffusion theory analysis of time-dependent hydration rates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander K. Rogers

    2007-01-01

    An estimate of effective hydration temperature (EHT) is needed for chronological use of obsidian hydration data. This paper describes a method for calculating EHT by the practicing archaeologist, replacing three techniques that are in general use today: estimates based on mean temperature, numerical integration of models of diurnal and annual temperature variations, and use of temperature cells. The hydration (or

  1. The conversion process of hydrocarbon hydrates into CO2 hydrates and vice versa: thermodynamic considerations.

    PubMed

    Schicks, J M; Luzi, M; Beeskow-Strauch, B

    2011-11-24

    Microscopy, confocal Raman spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) were used for in situ investigations of the CO(2)-hydrocarbon exchange process in gas hydrates and its driving forces. The study comprises the exposure of simple structure I CH(4) hydrate and mixed structure II CH(4)-C(2)H(6) and CH(4)-C(3)H(8) hydrates to gaseous CO(2) as well as the reverse reaction, i.e., the conversion of CO(2)-rich structure I hydrate into structure II mixed hydrate. In the case of CH(4)-C(3)H(8) hydrates, a conversion in the presence of gaseous CO(2) from a supposedly more stable structure II hydrate to a less stable structure I CO(2)-rich hydrate was observed. PXRD data show that the reverse process requires longer initiation times, and structural changes seem to be less complete. Generally, the exchange process can be described as a decomposition and reformation process, in terms of a rearrangement of molecules, and is primarily induced by the chemical potential gradient between hydrate phase and the provided gas phase. The results show furthermore the dependency of the conversion rate on the surface area of the hydrate phase, the thermodynamic stability of the original and resulting hydrate phase, as well as the mobility of guest molecules and formation kinetics of the resulting hydrate phase. PMID:21928801

  2. Microbial Community Structure and Diversity in Hydrate Ridge Gas Hydrates (Cascadia Margin)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Lösekann; K. Knittel; A. Boetius; R. Amann

    2003-01-01

    Here, we present the first quantitative study investigating microorganisms physically associated with Hydrate Ridge gas hydrates. Previous studies have shown that the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) in methane enriched surface sediments of Hydrate Ridge is apparently mediated by highly structured microbial consortia (Boetius et al., 2000). These AOM consortia consist of an inner core of methane-oxidizing archaea (ANME2-group) and

  3. Waters of Hydration of Cupric Hydrates: A Comparison between Heating and Absorbance Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlag, Rebecca; Nyasulu, Frazier

    2011-01-01

    The empirical formulas of four cupric hydrates are determined by measuring the absorbance in aqueous solution. The Beer-Lambert Law is verified by constructing a calibration curve of absorbance versus known Cu[superscript 2+](aq) concentration. A solution of the unknown hydrate is prepared by using 0.2-0.3 g of hydrate, and water is added such…

  4. Observations related to tetrahydrofuran and methane hydrates for laboratory studies of hydrate-bearing sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, J.Y.; Yun, T.S.; Santamarina, J.C.; Ruppel, C.

    2007-01-01

    The interaction among water molecules, guest gas molecules, salts, and mineral particles determines the nucleation and growth behavior of gas hydrates in natural sediments. Hydrate of tetrahydrofuran (THF) has long been used for laboratory studies of gas hydrate-bearing sediments to provide close control on hydrate concentrations and to overcome the long formation history of methane hydrate from aqueous phase methane in sediments. Yet differences in the polarizability of THF (polar molecule) compared to methane (nonpolar molecule) raise questions about the suitability of THF as a proxy for methane in the study of hydrate-bearing sediments. From existing data and simple macroscale experiments, we show that despite its polar nature, THF's large molecular size results in low permittivity, prevents it from dissolving precipitated salts, and hinders the solvation of ions on dry mineral surfaces. In addition, the interfacial tension between water and THF hydrate is similar to that between water and methane hydrate. The processes that researchers choose for forming hydrate in sediments in laboratory settings (e.g., from gas, liquid, or ice) and the pore-scale distribution of the hydrate that is produced by each of these processes likely have a more pronounced effect on the measured macroscale properties of hydrate-bearing sediments than do differences between THF and methane hydrates themselves.

  5. Observations related to tetrahydrofuran and methane hydrates for laboratory studies of hydrate-bearing sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. Y.; Yun, T. S.; Santamarina, J. C.; Ruppel, C.

    2007-06-01

    The interaction among water molecules, guest gas molecules, salts, and mineral particles determines the nucleation and growth behavior of gas hydrates in natural sediments. Hydrate of tetrahydrofuran (THF) has long been used for laboratory studies of gas hydrate-bearing sediments to provide close control on hydrate concentrations and to overcome the long formation history of methane hydrate from aqueous phase methane in sediments. Yet differences in the polarizability of THF (polar molecule) compared to methane (nonpolar molecule) raise questions about the suitability of THF as a proxy for methane in the study of hydrate-bearing sediments. From existing data and simple macroscale experiments, we show that despite its polar nature, THF's large molecular size results in low permittivity, prevents it from dissolving precipitated salts, and hinders the solvation of ions on dry mineral surfaces. In addition, the interfacial tension between water and THF hydrate is similar to that between water and methane hydrate. The processes that researchers choose for forming hydrate in sediments in laboratory settings (e.g., from gas, liquid, or ice) and the pore-scale distribution of the hydrate that is produced by each of these processes likely have a more pronounced effect on the measured macroscale properties of hydrate-bearing sediments than do differences between THF and methane hydrates themselves.

  6. Measuring changes in stress and vitality indicators in limed sugar maple on the Allegheny Plateau in north-central Pennsylvania

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip M. Wargo; Rakesh Minocha; Betty L. Wong; Robert P. Long; Stephen B. Horsley; Thomas J. Hall

    2002-01-01

    A study established in 1985 in north-central Pennsylvania to determine effects of lime fertilization on declin - ing sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) was evaluated in 1993 and showed that liming positively affected growth and crown vitality in sugar maple. This effect of lime on sugar maple offered an opportunity to assess other indicators of tree vitality and their response

  7. ESTIMATION OF THE AGE OF LIME-TREES (TILIA SPP.) IN PARKLANDS FROM STEM DIAMETER AND RING COUNTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. D. Pigott

    1989-01-01

    Common lime (Tilia × vulgaris) and more rarely large-leaved lime (T. platyphyllos) have been widely planted in England since the sixteenth century. Measurements of the diameter of the trunks of limes in avenues, which have been dated either from documentary sources or from counts of annual rings, have been used to establish the relation between diameter in cm (D) and

  8. Comparison of lime and iron oxide for high temperature sulfur removal. Final technical report, September 1, 1989December 31, 1991

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. J. Reid; M. T. Hepworth; W. Reindl

    1994-01-01

    Slagging combustors with injected lime or limestone are being considered as replacements for conventional coal burners. They have advantages in that they can be staged to reduce NO{sub X} and SO{sub X} emissions. Lime and limestone are the currently preferred sorbent materials but iron oxide, as an alternative to lime or limestone may be effective not only as a desulfurization

  9. Precipitation of heavy metals from wastewater using simulated flue gas: Sequent additions of fly ash, lime and carbon dioxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Quanyuan Chen; Zhou Luo; Colin Hills; Gang Xue; Mark Tyrer

    2009-01-01

    Lime is a preferred precipitant for the removal of heavy metals from industrial wastewater due to its relatively low cost. To reduce heavy metal concentration to an acceptable level for discharge, in this work, fly ash was added as a seed material to enhance lime precipitation and the suspension was exposed to CO2 gas. The fly ash–lime-carbonation treatment increased the

  10. 21 CFR 582.2729 - Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. 582.2729 Section...Agents § 582.2729 Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

  11. 21 CFR 182.2729 - Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. 182...Anticaking Agents § 182.2729 Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

  12. 21 CFR 182.2729 - Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. 182...Anticaking Agents § 182.2729 Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

  13. 21 CFR 182.2729 - Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. 182...Anticaking Agents § 182.2729 Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

  14. 21 CFR 182.2729 - Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. 182...Anticaking Agents § 182.2729 Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

  15. 21 CFR 582.2729 - Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. 582.2729 Section...Agents § 582.2729 Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

  16. 21 CFR 582.2729 - Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. 582.2729 Section...Agents § 582.2729 Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

  17. 21 CFR 582.2729 - Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. 582.2729 Section...Agents § 582.2729 Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

  18. 21 CFR 582.2729 - Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. 582.2729 Section...Agents § 582.2729 Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

  19. 21 CFR 182.2729 - Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. 182...Anticaking Agents § 182.2729 Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

  20. Natural gas hydrates - issues for gas production and geomechanical stability 

    E-print Network

    Grover, Tarun

    2008-10-10

    Natural gas hydrates are solid crystalline substances found in the subsurface. Since gas hydrates are stable at low temperatures and moderate pressures, gas hydrates are found either near the surface in arctic regions or in deep water marine...

  1. Strain localization and the onset of dynamic weakening in calcite fault gouge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, S. A. F.; Nielsen, S.; Di Toro, G.

    2015-03-01

    To determine the role of strain localization during dynamic weakening of calcite gouge at seismic slip rates, single-slide and slide-hold-slide experiments were conducted on 2-3-mm thick layers of calcite gouge at normal stresses up to 26 MPa and slip rates up to 1 m s-1. Microstructures were analyzed from short displacement (< 35 cm) experiments stopped prior to and during the transition to dynamic weakening. In fresh calcite gouge layers, dynamic weakening occurs after a prolonged strengthening phase that becomes shorter with increasing normal stress and decreasing layer thickness. Strain is initially distributed across the full thickness of the gouge layer, but within a few millimeters displacement the strain becomes localized to a boundary-parallel, high-strain shear band c. 20 ?m wide. During the strengthening phase, which lasts between 3 and 30 cm under the investigated conditions, the shear band broadens to become c. 100 ?m wide at peak stress. The transition to dynamic weakening in calcite gouges is associated with the nucleation of micro-slip surfaces dispersed throughout the c. 100 ?m wide shear band. Each slip surface is surrounded by aggregates of extremely fine grained and tightly packed calcite, interpreted to result from grain welding driven by local frictional heating in the shear band. By the end of dynamic weakening strain is localized to a single 2- 3-?m wide principal slip surface, flanked by layers of recrystallized gouge. Calcite gouge layers re-sheared following a hold period weaken nearly instantaneously, much like solid cylinders of calcite marble deformed under the same experimental conditions. This is due to reactivation of the recrystallized and cohesive principal slip surface that formed during the first slide, reducing the effective gouge layer thickness to a few microns. Our results suggest that formation of a high-strain shear band is a critical precursor to dynamic weakening in calcite gouges. Microstructures are most compatible with dynamic weakening resulting from a thermally triggered mechanism such as flash heating that requires both a high degree of strain localization and a minimum slip velocity to activate. The delayed onset of dynamic weakening in fresh calcite gouge layers, particularly at low normal stresses, may inhibit large coseismic slip at shallow crustal levels in calcite-bearing fault zones.

  2. The role of disseminated calcite in the chemical weathering of granitoid rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Art F.; Bullen, Thomas D.; Vivit, Davison V.; Schulz, Marjorie S.; Clow, David W.

    1999-07-01

    Accessory calcite, present at concentrations between 300 and 3000 mg kg -1, occurs in fresh granitoid rocks sampled from the Merced watershed in Yosemite National Park, CA, USA; Loch Vale in Rocky Mountain National Park CO USA; the Panola watershed, GA USA; and the Rio Icacos, Puerto Rico. Calcite occurs as fillings in microfractures, as disseminated grains within the silicate matrix, and as replacement of calcic cores in plagioclase. Flow-through column experiments, using de-ionized water saturated with 0.05 atm. CO 2, produced effluents from the fresh granitoid rocks that were dominated by Ca and bicarbonate and thermodynamically saturated with calcite. During reactions up to 1.7 yr, calcite dissolution progressively decreased and was superceded by steady state dissolution of silicates, principally biotite. Mass balance calculations indicate that most calcite had been removed during this time and accounted for 57-98% of the total Ca released from these rocks. Experimental effluents from surfically weathered granitoids from the same watersheds were consistently dominated by silicate dissolution. The lack of excess Ca and alkalinity indicated that calcite had been previously removed by natural weathering. The extent of Ca enrichment in watershed discharge fluxes corresponds to the amounts of calcite exposed in granitoid rocks. High Ca/Na ratios relative to plagioclase stoichiometries indicate excess Ca in the Yosemite, Loch Vale, and other alpine watersheds in the Sierra Nevada and Rocky Mountains of the western United States. This Ca enrichment correlates with strong preferential weathering of calcite relative to plagioclase in exfoliated granitoids in glaciated terrains. In contrast, Ca/Na flux ratios are comparable to or less than the Ca/Na ratios for plagioclase in the subtropical Panola and tropical Rio Icacos watersheds, in which deeply weathered regoliths exhibit concurrent losses of calcite and much larger masses of plagioclase during transport-limited weathering. These results indicate that the weathering of accessory calcite may strongly influence Ca and alkalinity fluxes from silicate rocks during and following periods of glaciation and tectonism but is much less important for older stable geomorphic surfaces.

  3. Experimental observations of hydrate formation in a convection tank

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. F. Chen; Cho Lik Chan

    2003-01-01

    Clathrate hydrates (generally abbreviated to hydrates) are crystalline compounds formed by cage-like structure of hydrogen-bonded water molecules enclosing a guest molecule of a hydrate-forming substance. Many substances such as gases and fluorocarbon refrigerants are hydrate formers. Priestly first made hydrates in water saturated with SO2 gas at 7°C in 1778. Hydrates became industrially important in 1930's when their formation caused

  4. Thermal and Evolved Gas Behavior of Calcite Under Mars Phoenix TEGA Operating Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, D.W.; Niles, P.B.; Morris, R.V.; Boynton, W.V.; Golden, D.C.; Lauer, H.V.; Sutter, B.

    2009-01-01

    The Mars Phoenix Scout Mission with its diverse instrument suite successfully examined several soils on the Northern plains of Mars. The Thermal and Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA) was employed to detect organic and inorganic materials by coupling a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) with a magnetic-sector mass spectrometer (MS). Martian soil was heated up to 1000 C in the DSC ovens and evolved gases from mineral decomposition products were examined with the MS. TEGA s DSC has the capability to detect endothermic and exothermic reactions during heating that are characteristic of minerals present in the Martian soil. Initial TEGA results indicated the presence of endothermic peaks with onset temperatures that ranged from 675 C to 750 C with corresponding CO2 release. This result suggests the presence of calcite (CaCO3. CaO + CO2). Organic combustion to CO2 is not likely since this mostly occurs at temperatures below 550 C. Fe-carbonate and Mg-carbonate are not likely because their decomposition temperatures are less than 600 C. TEGA enthalpy determinations suggest that calcite, may occur in the Martian soil in concentrations of approx.1 to 5 wt. %. The detection of calcite could be questioned based on previous results that suggest Mars soils are mostly acidic. However, the Phoenix landing site soil pH was measured at pH 8.3 0.5, which is typical of terrestrial soils where pH is controlled by calcite solubility. The range of onset temperatures and calcite concentration as calculated by TEGA is poorly con-strained in part because of limited thermal data of cal-cite at reduced pressures. TEGA operates at <30 mbar while most calcite literature thermal data was obtained at 1000 mbar or higher pressures.

  5. Seasonal variations in modern speleothem calcite growth in Central Texas, U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banner, J.L.; Guilfoyle, A.; James, E.W.; Stern, L.A.; Musgrove, M.

    2007-01-01

    Variations in growth rates of speleothem calcite have been hypothesized to reflect changes in a range of paleoenvironmental variables, including atmospheric temperature and precipitation, drip-water composition, and the rate of soil CO2 delivery to the subsurface. To test these hypotheses, we quantified growth rates of modern speleothem calcite on artificial substrates and monitored concurrent environmental conditions in three caves across the Edwards Plateau in central Texas. Within each of two caves, different drip sites exhibit similar annual cycles in calcite growth rates, even though there are large differences between the mean growth rates at the sites. The growth-rate cycles inversely correlate to seasonal changes in regional air temperature outside the caves, with near-zero growth rates during the warmest summer months, and peak growth rates in fall through spring. Drip sites from caves 130 km apart exhibit similar temporal patterns in calcite growth rate, indicating a controlling mechanism on at least this distance. The seasonal variations in calcite growth rate can be accounted for by a primary control by regional temperature effects on ventilation of cave-air CO2 concentrations and/or drip-water CO2 contents. In contrast, site-to-site differences in the magnitude of calcite growth rates within an individual cave appear to be controlled principally by differences in drip rate. A secondary control by drip rate on the growth rate temporal variations is suggested by interannual variations. No calcite growth was observed in the third cave, which has relatively high values of and small seasonal changes in cave-air CO2. These results indicate that growth-rate variations in ancient speleothems may serve as a paleoenvironmental proxy with seasonal resolution. By applying this approach of monitoring the modern system, speleothem growth rate and geochemical proxies for paleoenviromnental change may be evaluated and calibrated. Copyright ?? 2007, SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology).

  6. Thermochemistry of hydrated calcium borates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Li; Shiyang Gao; Shuping Xia; Bing Li; Rongzu Hu

    1997-01-01

    The enthalpies of solution of five hydrated calcium borates in approximately 1 mol·dm?3aqueous hydrochloric acid were determined. From a combination of these results with measured enthalpies of solution of H3BO3in HCl(aq) and of CaO in (hydrochloric acid+boric acid) (aq), together with the standard molar enthalpies of formation of CaO(s), H3BO3(S), and H2O(l), the standard molar enthalpies of formation of the

  7. Extended hydrates interaction model: Hydrate formation and the energetics of binary homogeneous nucleation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulmala, Markku; Lazaridis, Mihalis; Laaksonen, Ari; Vesala, Timo

    1991-06-01

    The classical hydrates interaction model presented by Jaecker-Voirol et al. is extended into systems where the gas-phase number concentrations of acid and water molecules are of the same order of magnitude. Besides the sulfuric acid-water system, the hydrogen iodide-water and the nitric acid-water systems are considered. The distribution Nh,k of hydrates containing h water and k acid molecules has been calculated as a function of relative humidity and relative acidity. An extended formula for the Gibbs free energy of droplet formation is derived. The fraction of free molecules to the total number of molecules (free molecules+hydrates) is solved numerically and therefore the equilibrium constants of hydrate formation are not needed. Hydrate formation often has a significant effect on energetics of nucleation in the acid-water systems and the extended hydrates interaction model represents a definite improvement over the older hydrates interaction model.

  8. Halting the calcium aluminate cement hydration process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. P. Luz; V. C. Pandolfelli

    2011-01-01

    Calcium aluminate cement reactions with water result in anhydrous phases dissolution, followed by nucleation and crystal growth of hydrate compounds. Due to the dynamic characteristics of this process and in order to evaluate the phase transformation kinetics of such materials, suitable methods to halt hydration are required. In this work, the use of acetone and microwave drying, aiming to withdraw

  9. MICROCALORIMETRIC STUDY ON CALCIUM ALUMINATE CEMENT HYDRATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neven Ukrainczyk; Pero Dabi?

    Calcium aluminate cement (CAC) is very versatile special cement used for specific applications. During the hydration of CAC a large quantity of heat is liberated within one day that causes a considerable increase of temperature in material. This paper examines the hydration of three samples (A, B and aged B) of commercial CAC ISTRA 40 (producer: Istra Cement, Pula, Croatia).

  10. Gas Hydrates Research Project in Japan

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Scientists from AIST, JOGMEC, Georgia Tech, and the USGS prepare to analyze pressure cores as part of a multi-year gas hydrates research project in Japan. This photo shows the pressure core storage chambers, which contain hydrate-bearing sediment samples obtained from the Nankai Trough offshore Japa...

  11. Dissociation Rate of THF-methane Hydrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Giavarini; F. Maccioni; M. L. Santarelli

    2008-01-01

    A number of papers and research projects suggest that stranded natural gas can be transported in a solid hydrate state at higher temperatures or lower pressures compared to conventional transportation systems (LNG and CNG). The self-preservation effect of methane hydrate can probably be improved by the use of a third component besides CH4 and water. Tetrahydrofuran (THF) is a promoter

  12. Nutrition and hydration in the terminal patient.

    PubMed

    Ahronheim, J C

    1996-05-01

    Artificial nutrition and hydration (ANH) may be provided parenterally or enterally. Hydration alone can be provided intravenously (vein) or subcutaneously (hypodermocylsis). This article explores the medical myths surrounding ANH, especially the enteral route ("tube feeding"), and discusses alternative approaches. PMID:8799355

  13. Effect of massive gas hydrate formation on the water isotopic fractionation of the gas hydrate system at Hydrate Ridge, Cascadia margin, offshore Oregon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hitoshi Tomaru; Marta E. Torres; Ryo Matsumoto; Walter S. Borowski

    2006-01-01

    Because gas hydrate is preferentially enriched in the heavy water isotopes, the ?18O and ?D values of pore waters collected from gas hydrate–bearing sediment can provide information on the abundance and mechanisms of gas hydrate formation. Pore waters sampled from deep-seated (40 to 125 mbsf) gas hydrate deposits in Hydrate Ridge during ODP Leg 204 show depletion in dissolved Cl?

  14. Probing the record of seawater carbonate chemistry in coccolithophore calcite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candelier, Yael; Minoletti, Fabrice; Hermoso, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Previous works on the biogeochemistry of the ubiquist coccolithophore Calcidiscus leptoporus quantified an oxygen isotope fractionation of about -2.2 ‰ with respect to equilibrium. New cultures experiments and core top study of this taxon enable the calibration of the temperature dependance recorded in ?18O of this coccolith providing a new tool to decipher surfaces water temperatures through the Cenozoic. These findings, concordant in the two approaches show a reduced range of vital effect (-1.1 ‰ ). Other cultured and isolated species (Gephyrocapsa oceanica, Emiliania huxleyi and C.pelagicus) show similar patterns that raise the question of a possible overestimation of isotopic disequilibria in coccolith calcite. A promising research topic in palaeoceanography consists of exploiting interspecific isotopic fractionation because species respond differently to ambient changes in carbonate system chemistry. While E.huxleyi or G.oceanica are isotopically sensitive to changes in dissolved inorganic carbon speciation or concentration, others such as C.leptoporus remains almost unaffected. This may indicate that in addition to traditional ?18O temperature proxy, coccolith interspecific isotopic offsets can provide an innovative means to constrain the carbonate chemistry of the mixed-layer. We investigated this hypothesis with a study case of the last Pleistocene deglaciation that appears to be a good candidate by his abrupt changes in temperatures, oxygen isotope composition of seawater and atmospheric pCO2. While numerous studies have investigated climate changes at high latitudes, we present here the first coccoliths-based isotopic record of mixed-layer temperature at the border of North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre (southwards of the polar front). From Site DSDP 607 we successfully isolated fractions of coccolithophore species C.leptoporus, G.oceanica, E. huxleyi and C.pelagicus over the last 17 kyr. Oxygen isotope variations from these fractions exhibit a shift of about -1.9 ‰ between the Younger Dryas and the Early Holocene SSTs that can be translated into a warming of about 7-8 °C. This result closely matches with previously reported temperatures derived from foraminiferal and alkenone records and confirms that coccoliths can be used as a complementary or alternative substrate to foraminiferal shells for isotopic analyses and paleoclimate reconstructions. Differential oxygen and carbon isotopic offsets between Calcidiscus spp. and small Noelaerhabdacea coccoliths are almost constant and present an overall agreement with culture predictions. Although further results are needed this may imply that an increase of about 80 ppm pCO2 as recorded in Antarctica ice sheet over this time period is not sufficient to effect variations in calcification and intensity of fractionation in these two common species.

  15. METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST

    SciTech Connect

    Donn McGuire; Steve Runyon; Richard Sigal; Bill Liddell; Thomas Williams; George Moridis

    2005-02-01

    Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrate potential agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. This gas-hydrate project is in the final stages of a cost-shared partnership between Maurer Technology, Noble Corporation, Anadarko Petroleum, and the U.S. Department of Energy's Methane Hydrate R&D program. The purpose of the project is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition to identify, quantify and predict production potential for hydrates located on the North Slope of Alaska. Hot Ice No. 1 was planned to test the Ugnu and West Sak sequences for gas hydrates and a concomitant free gas accumulation on Anadarko's 100% working interest acreage in section 30 of Township 9N, Range 8E of the Harrison Bay quadrangle of the North Slope of Alaska. The Ugnu and West Sak intervals are favorably positioned in the hydrate-stability zone over an area extending from Anadarko's acreage westward to the vicinity of the aforementioned gas-hydrate occurrences. This suggests that a large, north-to-south trending gas-hydrate accumulation may exist in that area. The presence of gas shows in the Ugnu and West Sak reservoirs in wells situated eastward and down dip of the Hot Ice location indicate that a free-gas accumulation may be trapped by gas hydrates. The Hot Ice No. 1 well was designed to core from the surface to the base of the West Sak interval using the revolutionary and new Arctic Drilling Platform in search of gas hydrate and free gas accumulations at depths of approximately 1200 to 2500 ft MD. A secondary objective was the gas-charged sands of the uppermost Campanian interval at approximately 3000 ft. Summary results of geophysical analysis of the well are presented in this report.

  16. EXAFS Characterization of Uranyl Interaction at the Calcite-Water Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeder, R. J.; Elzinga, E. J.; Tait, C. D.

    2002-12-01

    Recent studies using X-ray absorption and luminescence spectroscopies have demonstrated uptake and incorporation of uranyl by calcite. X-ray microprobe studies on uranyl-reacted calcite single crystals reveal that uranyl exhibits preferences for specific surface sites. These preferences are likely expressed upon adsorption of uranyl species at the calcite-water interface. We have used X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), combined with luminescence spectroscopy, to characterize the interactions of uranyl carbonate species with the calcite surface in the pH range 7.4-8.3. To minimize the potential for dissolution or precipitation, solutions were pre-equilibrated with reagent calcite powder for 3 weeks, with pH stabilizing at 8.3. For other experiments, the pH was adjusted initially to achieve a final pH of 7.4 after aging for 3 weeks. Uranyl carbonate solution was added to the pre-equilibrated suspensions to achieve initial U(VI) concentrations ranging from 5 uM to 5 mM. Suspensions were filtered to recover the calcite, but were kept moist to retain the sorbed complexes at the calcite-water interface. Multiple EXAFS spectra were collected using a multi-element Ge detector at beamline 12-BM at the APS and analyzed using standard methods. Fourier transforms (FT) of the spectra contain features corresponding to two axial oxygens and a shell of equatorial oxygens, as well as weaker features at higher R. For suspensions having initial U(VI) concentrations from 5-100 uM, a shoulder is observed in the FT on the high-R side of the equatorial oxygen, and fitting suggests minor splitting of this shell. For higher initial U(VI) concentrations, including the highest U(VI) concentration, 5 mM, the splitting becomes more pronounced. Weak features in the FT at higher-R can be fitted with backscattering from carbon, oxygen, and calcium shells, although fits without calcium provide nearly the same agreement. Luminescence spectroscopy reveals the presence of multiple uranyl species sorbed on the calcite from suspensions with 100 uM U(VI) and lower concentrations. The presence of multiple species may account for the splitting of the equatorial coordination indicated by EXAFS. For higher U(VI) concentrations, the luminescence results are consistent with formation of a schoepite-like precipitate. Understanding the complex interactions of uranyl at the calcite-water interface requires complementary data from multiple techniques.

  17. Microbial dissolution of calcite at T = 28 °C and ambient pCO 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, Andrew D.; Wu, Lingling

    2009-04-01

    This study used batch reactors to quantify the mechanisms and rates of calcite dissolution in the presence and absence of a single heterotrophic bacterial species ( Burkholderia fungorum). Experiments were conducted at T = 28°C and ambient pCO 2 over time periods spanning either 21 or 35 days. Bacteria were supplied with minimal growth media containing either glucose or lactate as a C source, NH 4+ as an N source, and H 2PO 4- as a P source. Combining stoichiometric equations for microbial growth with an equilibrium mass-balance model of the H 2O-CO 2-CaCO 3 system demonstrates that B. fungorum affected calcite dissolution by modifying pH and alkalinity during utilization of ionic N and C species. Uptake of NH 4+ decreased pH and alkalinity, whereas utilization of lactate, a negatively charged organic anion, increased pH and alkalinity. Calcite in biotic glucose-bearing reactors dissolved by simultaneous reaction with H 2CO 3 generated by dissolution of atmospheric CO 2 (H 2CO 3 + CaCO 3 ? Ca 2+ + 2HCO 3-) and H + released during NH 4+ uptake (H + + CaCO 3 ? Ca 2+ + HCO 3-). Reaction with H 2CO 3 and H + supplied ˜45% and 55% of the total Ca 2+ and ˜60% and 40% of the total HCO 3-, respectively. The net rate of microbial calcite dissolution in the presence of glucose and NH 4+ was ˜2-fold higher than that observed for abiotic control experiments where calcite dissolved only by reaction with H 2CO 3. In lactate bearing reactors, most H + generated by NH 4+ uptake reacted with HCO 3- produced by lactate oxidation to yield CO 2 and H 2O. Hence, calcite in biotic lactate-bearing reactors dissolved by reaction with H 2CO 3 at a net rate equivalent to that calculated for abiotic control experiments. This study suggests that conventional carbonate equilibria models can satisfactorily predict the bulk fluid chemistry resulting from microbe-calcite interactions, provided that the ionic forms and extent of utilization of N and C sources can be constrained. Because the solubility and dissolution rate of calcite inversely correlate with pH, heterotrophic microbial growth in the presence of nonionic organic matter and NH 4+ appears to have the greatest potential for enhancing calcite weathering relative to abiotic conditions.

  18. Ca-Mg inter-diffusion in synthetic polycrystalline dolomite-calcite aggregate at elevated temperatures and pressure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wuu-Liang Huang; Teh-Ching Liu; Pouyan Shen; Allen Hsu

    2009-01-01

    This study measures the reaction rate of dolomite and aragonite (calcite) into Mg-calcite at 800, 850, and 900°C and 1.6 GPa.\\u000a The dry synthetic dolomite-aragonite aggregate transformed very rapidly into dolomite-calcite polycrystalline aggregate while\\u000a Mg-calcites formed at a relatively slow rate, becoming progressively richer in Mg with run time. We modeled the reaction progress\\u000a semi-empirically by the first-order rate law. The

  19. Variation of corneal refractive index with hydration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young L.; Walsh, Joseph T., Jr.; Goldstick, Thomas K.; Glucksberg, Matthew R.

    2004-03-01

    We report the effect of changes in the corneal hydration on the refractive index of the cornea. Using optical coherence tomography (OCT), the geometrical thickness and the group refractive index of the bovine cornea were derived simultaneously as the corneal hydration was varied. The corneal hydration was then calculated from the corneal thickness. The group refractive index of the cornea increased non-linearly as the cornea dehydrated. In addition, a simple mathematical model was developed, based on the assumption that changes in corneal hydration occur only in the interfibrilar space with constant water content within the collagen fibrils. Good agreement between the experimental results and the mathematical model supports the assumption. The results also demonstrate that the measurement of refractive index is a quantitative indicator of corneal hydration.

  20. Self-Assembly of Protein Nanofibrils Orchestrates Calcite Step Movement through Selective Nonchiral Interactions.

    PubMed

    So, Christopher R; Liu, Jinny; Fears, Kenan P; Leary, Dagmar H; Golden, Joel P; Wahl, Kathryn J

    2015-06-23

    The recognition of atomically distinct surface features by adsorbed biomolecules is central to the formation of surface-templated peptide or protein nanostructures. On mineral surfaces such as calcite, biomolecular recognition of, and self-assembly on, distinct atomic kinks and steps could additionally orchestrate changes to the overall shape and symmetry of a bulk crystal. In this work, we show through in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments that an acidic 20 kDa cement protein from the barnacle Megabalanus rosa (MRCP20) binds specifically to step edge atoms on {101?4} calcite surfaces, remains bound and further assembles over time to form one-dimensional nanofibrils. Protein nanofibrils are continuous and organized at the nanoscale, exhibiting striations with a period of ca. 45 nm. These fibrils, templated by surface steps of a preferred geometry, in turn selectively dissolve underlying calcite features displaying the same atomic arrangement. To demonstrate this, we expose the protein solution to bare and fibril-associated rhombohedral etch pits to reveal that nanofibrils accelerate only the movement of fibril-forming steps when compared to undecorated steps exposed to the same solution conditions. Calcite mineralized in the presence of MRCP20 results in asymmetric crystals defined by frustrated faces with shared mirror symmetry, suggesting a similar step-selective behavior by MRCP20 in crystal growth. As shown here, selective surface interactions with step edge atoms lead to a cooperative regime of calcite modification, where templated long-range protein nanostructures shape crystals. PMID:25970003

  1. Growth and Dissolution of Calcite in the Presence of Adsorbed Stearic Acid.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Maria; Segura, Juan José; Erickson, Blake W; Fantner, Georg; Stellacci, Francesco; Voïtchovsky, Kislon

    2015-07-14

    The interaction of organic molecules with the surface of calcite plays a central role in many geochemical, petrochemical, and industrial processes and in biomineralization. Adsorbed organics, typically fatty acids, can interfere with the evolution of calcite when immersed in aqueous solutions. Here we use atomic force microscopy in liquid to explore in real-time the evolution of the (1014) surface of calcite covered with various densities of stearic acid and exposed to different saline solutions. Our results show that the stearic acid molecules tend to act as "pinning points" on the calcite's surface and slow down the crystal's restructuring kinetics. Depending on the amount of material adsorbed, the organic molecules can form monolayers or bilayer islands that become embedded into the growing crystal. The growth process can also displaces the organic molecules and actively concentrate them into stacked multilayers. Our results provide molecular-level insights into the interplay between the adsorbed fatty acid molecules and the evolving calcite crystal, highlighting mechanisms that could have important implications for several biochemical and geochemical processes and for the oil industry. PMID:26087312

  2. Preliminary Results of Bacteria Distribution in Chinese Loess and Their Control on the Calcite Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.; Lian, B.; Hu, Q.; Teng, H. H.; Wu, T.; Ji, J.; Chen, J.

    2005-12-01

    Continuous loess-paleosol sequences on the Chinese Loess Plateau are viewed as one of best continental archives of paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental changes of the Late Cenozoic era. Carbonate, mainly calcite, commonly occurs throughout the entire sequence; though some are detrital, most are in-situ pedogenic. TEM studies have shown various morphologies of calcites in Chinese loess, especially nano-rod calcite widely occurring in loess and paleosols which are biogenic. In this study, we collected fresh and undisturbed loess and paleosol samples and successfully separated dominant microbial communities. These microbes are mainly bacteria, especially Bacillus anthracis, and a few fungi. The amount of bacteria decreases sharply with the depth. Then we added the bacteria into the near saturated solution of CaCl2 and Na2CO3. It is interesting that the original calcite crystals formed under abiotic conditions changed from quadrilateral face to pentagonal or hexagonal and the crystal size enlarged almost twice. SEM and AFM observations display bacteria control on the growth of calcite, which cause the lighter carbon isotopic ratios.

  3. Mechanism of calcite co-orientation in the sea urchin tooth.

    PubMed

    Killian, Christopher E; Metzler, Rebecca A; Gong, Y U T; Olson, Ian C; Aizenberg, Joanna; Politi, Yael; Wilt, Fred H; Scholl, Andreas; Young, Anthony; Doran, Andrew; Kunz, Martin; Tamura, Nobumichi; Coppersmith, Susan N; Gilbert, P U P A

    2009-12-30

    Sea urchin teeth are remarkable and complex calcite structures, continuously growing at the forming end and self-sharpening at the mature grinding tip. The calcite (CaCO(3)) crystals of tooth components, plates, fibers, and a high-Mg polycrystalline matrix, have highly co-oriented crystallographic axes. This ability to co-orient calcite in a mineralized structure is shared by all echinoderms. However, the physico-chemical mechanism by which calcite crystals become co-oriented in echinoderms remains enigmatic. Here, we show differences in calcite c-axis orientations in the tooth of the purple sea urchin ( Strongylocentrotus purpuratus ), using high-resolution X-ray photoelectron emission spectromicroscopy (X-PEEM) and microbeam X-ray diffraction (muXRD). All plates share one crystal orientation, propagated through pillar bridges, while fibers and polycrystalline matrix share another orientation. Furthermore, in the forming end of the tooth, we observe that CaCO(3) is present as amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC). We demonstrate that co-orientation of the nanoparticles in the polycrystalline matrix occurs via solid-state secondary nucleation, propagating out from the previously formed fibers and plates, into the amorphous precursor nanoparticles. Because amorphous precursors were observed in diverse biominerals, solid-state secondary nucleation is likely to be a general mechanism for the co-orientation of biomineral components in organisms from different phyla. PMID:19954232

  4. Formation of gas Hydrate and Carbonate Nodules Around Active Seeps of Thermogenic Methane at Eastern Margin of Japan Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiruta, A.; Matsumoto, R.; Ishida, Y.; Tomaru, H.; Snyder, G.; Aoyama, C.; Hiromatsu, M.

    2005-12-01

    A number of pockmarks, mounds, magnificent flares of gas plumes have been observed on a spur (Umitaka Spur) off Naoetsu in the eastern margin of Japan Sea during the cruises of UT04 (R and T/V Umitaka-maru, 2004) and NT05-09 (Natsushima, 2005). Fifteen piston cores, 5.5 m long, were deployed either on the mounds, into the pockmarks, or on a flat basin floor far from the plumes. Sediment cores are grey to olive black, silty clay. Thirteen cores among 15 are made up of an alternation of bioturbated and laminated units. Piston core PC15 successfully recovered white massive gas hydrate, ca. 2 m long, and carbonate nodules, ca.5 cm in diameter. PC05 and a grab sampler near PC15 also recovered carbonate nodules. Carbonate nodules are composed of calcite and/or aragonite. Microscopic observations have clearly demonstrated aragonite needles. ?13C are from -32.8 to -33.6 ‰ vs. PDB for calcite, from -8.2 to -23.5 ‰ for aragonite and from -11.4 to -16.6 ‰ for the mixture of both. d13C values are a bit heavier than methane of gas hydrate (-38.9 to -39.4 ‰). d18O value are from 3.0 to 3.1 permil for calcite, from 2.9 to 4.9 permil for aragonite and from 3.6 to 5.2 permil for the mixture of both. Ion concentration of the interstitial waters showed that sulfate-methane interface (SMI) range between 1.5 to 3 m. These are remarkably shallow when compared with the SMI on the Blake Ridge (5.0m to 20m, Borowski et al., 1999) and Nankai Trough (4.0m to 63m; Matsumoto and Chen, 2003). Methane flux on and around the spur are thought to be very strong. The shallowest SMI (ca.1.5m) were observed at PC03 and 04, both were located close to gas plumes. Interstitial water chemistry of PC01 decreases with depth, as 550 mM at 0 mbsf and 482 mM at 4 mbsf, whereas at PC03 illustrates an increase of chlorine concentration from 550 mM at 0 mbsf to 750 mM at 4 mbsf. Freshening of I. W at PC01 indicates existence of gas hydrate, Sh=0~12%, in sediments pore space. To the contrary, hyper-salinity is explained as the result of gas hydrate formation in semi-closed system. Gas hydrate excludes salts from the structure, causing salinity increase of ambient waters. The anomaly is usually erased by diffusive mixing of the interstitial water system. Anomalously high concentration of cations and chloride in the PC03 sediments are likely to indicate that the formation of gas hydrate and consumption of waters are not balanced by supply of waters. In other words, rapid supply of methane caused water-deficient environments in shallow sediments. We would conclude that gas hydrate is now being formed in free-gas charged sediments of the Umitaka spur.

  5. The hydration products of Portland cement in the presence of tin(II) chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, J.; Sharp, J.H

    2003-01-01

    The hydration products of Portland cement pastes cured using water containing tin(II) chloride have been compared with those using distilled water. In the latter case, the expected products - portlandite, ettringite and calcite - were observed. The X-ray diffraction patterns of the cement pastes cured in the presence of tin(II) chloride showed several additional peaks that have been attributed to the formation of calcium hydroxo-stannate, CaSn(OH){sub 6}, and Friedel's salt (tetracalcium aluminate dichloride-10-hydrate), Ca{sub 3}Al{sub 2}O{sub 6}{center_dot}CaCl{sub 2}{center_dot}10H{sub 2}O. The amount of portlandite formed was reduced in the presence of tin(II) chloride. Calcium hydroxo-stannate contains tin in the +IV oxidation state and equations are presented to account for the oxidation of Sn(II) to Sn(IV) preceding the formation of CaSn(OH){sub 6} and Friedel's salt.

  6. Landfill methane oxidation response to vegetation, fertilization, and liming

    SciTech Connect

    Hilger, H.A.; Wollum, A.G.; Barlaz, M.A.

    2000-02-01

    Landfills are the fourth largest global source and the largest US source (USDOE, 1997) of anthropogenic CH{sub 4} emissions. Since gram-for-gram, CH{sub 4} has 21 times the 100-yr global-warming potential of CO{sub 2} (USEPA, 1990). CH{sub 4} release into the atmosphere has important implications for global climate change. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of vegetation, N fertilizers, and lime addition on landfill CH{sub 4} oxidation. Columns filled with compacted sandy loam and sparged with synthetic landfill gas were used to simulate a landfill cover. Grass-topped and bare-soil columns reduced inlet CH{sub 4} by 47 and 37%, respectively, at peak uptake; but the rate for both treatments was about 18% at steady state. Nitrate and NH{sub 4} amendments induced a more rapid onset of CH{sub 4} oxidation relative to KCl controls. However, at steady state, NH{sub 4} inhibited CH{sub 4} oxidation in bare columns but not in grassed columns. Nitrate addition produced no inhibitory effects. Lime addition to the soil consistently enhanced CH{sub 4} oxidation. In all treatments, CH{sub 4} consumption increased to a peak value, then declined to a lower steady-state value; and all gassed columns developed a pH gradient. Neither nutrient depletion nor protozoan grazing could explain the decline from peak oxidation levels. Ammonium applied to grassed cover soil can cause transient reductions in CH{sub 4} uptake, but there is no evidence that the inhibition persists. The ability of vegetation to mitigate NH{sub 4} inhibition indicates that results from bare-soil tests may not always generalize to vegetated landfill caps.

  7. Low Velocity Sphere Impact of a Soda Lime Silicate Glass

    SciTech Connect

    Wereszczak, Andrew A [ORNL; Fox, Ethan E [ORNL; Morrissey, Timothy G [ORNL; Vuono, Daniel J [ORNL

    2011-10-01

    This report summarizes TARDEC-sponsored work at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during the FY11 involving low velocity (< 30 m/s or < 65 mph) ball impact testing of Starphire soda lime silicate glass. The intent was to better understand low velocity impact response in the Starphire for sphere densities that bracketed that of rock. Five sphere materials were used: borosilicate glass, soda-lime silicate glass, steel, silicon nitride, and alumina. A gas gun was fabricated to produce controlled velocity delivery of the spheres against Starphire tile targets. Minimum impact velocities to initiate fracture in the Starphire were measured and interpreted in context to the kinetic energy of impact and the elastic property mismatch between the any of the five sphere-Starphire-target combinations. The primary observations from this low velocity (< 30 m/s or < 65 mph) testing were: (1) Frictional effects contribute to fracture initiation. (2) Spheres with a lower elastic modulus require less force to initiate fracture in the Starphire than spheres with a higher elastic modulus. (3) Contact-induced fracture did not initiate in the Starphire SLS for impact kinetic energies < 150 mJ. Fracture sometimes initiated or kinetic energies between {approx} 150-1100 mJ; however, it tended to occur when lower elastic modulus spheres were impacting it. Contact-induced fracture would always occur for impact energies > 1100 mJ. (4) The force necessary to initiate contact-induced fracture is higher under dynamic or impact conditions than it is under quasi-static indentation conditions. (5) Among the five used sphere materials, silicon nitride was the closest match to 'rock' in terms of both density and (probably) elastic modulus.

  8. Comparison of lime and iron oxide for high temperature sulfur removal

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, K.J.

    1991-01-01

    Slagging combustors with injected lime or limestone are being considered as replacements for conventional coal burners. They have advantage in that they can be staged to reduce NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions. Lime or limestone are the currently preferred sorbent materials but iron oxide, as an alternative to lime or limestone, may be effective not only as a desulfurizing agent, but, under the right conditions of oxygen potential, it can act as a flux to produce a glassy slag. This glassy slag should be dense and environmentally inert.

  9. Gas Hydrate Storage of Natural Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Rudy Rogers; John Etheridge

    2006-03-31

    Environmental and economic benefits could accrue from a safe, above-ground, natural-gas storage process allowing electric power plants to utilize natural gas for peak load demands; numerous other applications of a gas storage process exist. A laboratory study conducted in 1999 to determine the feasibility of a gas-hydrates storage process looked promising. The subsequent scale-up of the process was designed to preserve important features of the laboratory apparatus: (1) symmetry of hydrate accumulation, (2) favorable surface area to volume ratio, (3) heat exchanger surfaces serving as hydrate adsorption surfaces, (4) refrigeration system to remove heat liberated from bulk hydrate formation, (5) rapid hydrate formation in a non-stirred system, (6) hydrate self-packing, and (7) heat-exchanger/adsorption plates serving dual purposes to add or extract energy for hydrate formation or decomposition. The hydrate formation/storage/decomposition Proof-of-Concept (POC) pressure vessel and supporting equipment were designed, constructed, and tested. This final report details the design of the scaled POC gas-hydrate storage process, some comments on its fabrication and installation, checkout of the equipment, procedures for conducting the experimental tests, and the test results. The design, construction, and installation of the equipment were on budget target, as was the tests that were subsequently conducted. The budget proposed was met. The primary goal of storing 5000-scf of natural gas in the gas hydrates was exceeded in the final test, as 5289-scf of gas storage was achieved in 54.33 hours. After this 54.33-hour period, as pressure in the formation vessel declined, additional gas went into the hydrates until equilibrium pressure/temperature was reached, so that ultimately more than the 5289-scf storage was achieved. The time required to store the 5000-scf (48.1 hours of operating time) was longer than designed. The lower gas hydrate formation rate is attributed to a lower heat transfer rate in the internal heat exchanger than was designed. It is believed that the fins on the heat-exchanger tubes did not make proper contact with the tubes transporting the chilled glycol, and pairs of fins were too close for interior areas of fins to serve as hydrate collection sites. A correction of the fabrication fault in the heat exchanger fin attachments could be easily made to provide faster formation rates. The storage success with the POC process provides valuable information for making the process an economically viable process for safe, aboveground natural-gas storage.

  10. Clathrate hydrate tuning for technological purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Profio, Pietro; Germani, Raimondo; Savelli, Gianfranco

    2010-05-01

    Gas hydrates are being increasingly considered as convenient media for gas storage and transportation as the knowledge of their properties increases, in particular as relates to methane and hydrogen. Clathrate hydrates may also represent a feasible sequestration technology for carbon dioxide, due to a well defined P/T range of stability, and several research programs are addressing this possibility. Though the understanding of the molecular structure and supramolecular interactions which are responsible of most properties of hydrates have been elucitated in recent years, the underlying theoretical physico-chemical framework is still poor, especially as relates to the role of "conditioners" (inhibitors and promoters) from the molecular/supramolecular point of view. In the present communication we show some results from our research approach which is mainly focused on the supramolecular properties of clathrate hydrate systems - and their conditioners - as a way to get access to a controlled modulation of the formation, dissociation and stabilization of gas hydrates. In particular, this communication will deal with: (a) a novel, compact apparatus for studying the main parameters of formation and dissociation of gas hydrates in a one-pot experiment, which can be easily and rapidly carried out on board of a drilling ship;[1] (b) the effects of amphiphile molecules (surfactants) as inhibitors or promoters of gas hydrate formation;[2] (c) a novel nanotechnology for a reliable and quick production of hydrogen hydrates, and its application to fuel cells;[3,4] and (d) the development of a clathrate hydrate tecnology for the sequestration and geological storage of man-made CO2, possibly with concomitant recovery of natural gas from NG hydrate fields. Furthermore, the feasibility of catalyzing the reduction of carbon dioxide to energy-rich species by hydrates is being investigated. [1] Di Profio, P., Germani, R., Savelli, G., International Patent Application PCT/IT2006/000274 [2] Di Profio P., Arca S., Germani R., Savelli G., 2005, "Surfactant promoting effects on clathrate hydrate formation: are micelles really involved?", Chem. Eng. Sci., 60, pp. 4141-4145 [3] Di Profio P., Arca S., Germani R., Savelli G., 2006, "Novel Nanostructured Media for Gas Storage and Transport: Clathrate Hydrates of Methane and Hydrogen", J. Fuel Cell Sci. & Tech., February 2007, vol. 4. [4] Di Profio, P., Germani, R., Savelli, G., EP07010346.

  11. Mass fractionation of noble gases in synthetic methane hydrate: Implications for naturally occurring gas hydrate dissociation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunt, Andrew G.; Stern, Laura; Pohlman, John W.; Ruppel, Carolyn; Moscati, Richard J.; Landis, Gary P.

    2013-01-01

    As a consequence of contemporary or longer term (since 15 ka) climate warming, gas hydrates in some settings may presently be dissociating and releasing methane and other gases to the ocean-atmosphere system. A key challenge in assessing the impact of dissociating gas hydrates on global atmospheric methane is the lack of a technique able to distinguish between methane recently released from gas hydrates and methane emitted from leaky thermogenic reservoirs, shallow sediments (some newly thawed), coal beds, and other sources. Carbon and deuterium stable isotopic fractionation during methane formation provides a first-order constraint on the processes (microbial or thermogenic) of methane generation. However, because gas hydrate formation and dissociation do not cause significant isotopic fractionation, a stable isotope-based hydrate-source determination is not possible. Here, we investigate patterns of mass-dependent noble gas fractionation within the gas hydrate lattice to fingerprint methane released from gas hydrates. Starting with synthetic gas hydrate formed under laboratory conditions, we document complex noble gas fractionation patterns in the gases liberated during dissociation and explore the effects of aging and storage (e.g., in liquid nitrogen), as well as sampling and preservation procedures. The laboratory results confirm a unique noble gas fractionation pattern for gas hydrates, one that shows promise in evaluating modern natural gas seeps for a signature associated with gas hydrate dissociation.

  12. Arsenic incorporation in natural calcite lattice: Evidence from electron spin echo spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Benedetto, Francesco; Costagliola, Pilario; Benvenuti, Marco; Lattanzi, Pierfranco; Romanelli, Maurizio; Tanelli, Giuseppe

    2006-06-01

    Quaternary travertines of the Middle Pecora Valley (Tuscany, Italy) contain up to 257 ppm arsenic. Such a content is environmentally relevant, but low enough to make the exact chemical speciation of arsenic difficult by applying conventional investigation techniques. The task was addressed by use of the Electron Spin Echo (ESE) spectroscopy, taking advantage from the modulation by the arsenic nucleus of the decay spectrum of the paramagnetic ion Mn(II), occurring as replacement of Ca in the calcite lattice. Interpretation of the spectra suggests that arsenic occurs in the calcite lattice in the position of C, through the substitution CO 2-3 ? AsO 3-3. This mechanism of arsenic incorporation by calcite may be an effective limit of arsenic mobility under conditions where immobilization through sorption by iron and/or manganese oxyhydroxides is not operating.

  13. Rapid supercritical CO2 fluid migration in calcite crystals at ambient conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuddas, P.; Lopez, O.; Salvi, S.

    2009-12-01

    The transport of supercritical fluids is a determining factor for several geological processes as well fundamental in predicting natural resource accumulation and distribution. Calcite, ubiquitous in geological environments may contain supercritical CO2 trapped under fluid inclusions commonly assumed to remain static under ambient conditions. Here, we report nano-meter scale observations on calcite crystal surface indicating the occurrence of fast movement of supercritical CO2 fluid inclusions hosted in the upper part of calcite crystals. Real time monitoring of calcite samples without observable presence of fluid inclusions, by in-situ Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), shows a flat state of the calcite surface (after freshly cleaving) and the surface state condition did not change during several hours of scanning. However, AFM observations on calcite samples with visible fluid inclusions show rapid formation of nanometre-scale hillocks spontaneously formed on the surface structure of the calcite. They have an averaged height of 1 nm, and varied horizontal dimensions and geometries. The fact that hillocks formed spontaneously on flat terraces in only a few minutes, without evidence of surface dissolution, was unexpected and suggests that the source of hillock material should be derived within the crystal itself. This phenomenon was observed even changing the experimental conditions such a scan frequency of the AFM tip, environmental temperature (between 5° and 50°C) and the surface area of scanning. The observed hillocks can form by the fact that CO2-rich fluid inclusions located just under the mineral surface are at elevated internal pressure and near the rupture limit. Thus, a frail mechanical strain can case them to decrepitated and lose their fluid. Upon reaching the surface, the supercritical CO2 leaked from the fluid inclusions, mixes with the thin water layer in equilibrium with ambient CO2 partial pressure at the calcite surface, causing degassing of CO2 and facilitating calcite precipitation in the form of hillocks. We estimated CO2 supercritical fluid transport assuming a minimum depth of the fluid inclusions involved in the fluid movement and an instantaneous precipitation at the surface. We found that supercritical CO2 fluid transport in calcite is around the value of 10 nm/s. The estimated fast fluid transport rate is about 10 orders of magnitude higher than the estimated low-temperature extrapolation of solid-state diffusion vacancy in calcite crystals. Classical description of fluid transport recognises several distinct paths only for polycrystalline materials assuming the presence of inter-grain pathways as micro and nano-pore tubes. Fluid transport is usually observed in poly-phase material grains can also exhibit clear indications of multi-path migration even when visible evidence of such paths is lacking. Our study quantifies this process in the case of natural calcite at external standard conditions and be of potential importance in the artificial sequestration of CO2 under supercritical conditions.

  14. [Determination of hydration number of methane hydrates using micro-laser Raman spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang-Ling; Ye, Yu-Guang; Meng, Qing-Guo

    2010-04-01

    Methane hydrates are clathrate compounds that are formed by methane molecules and water molecules under low temperature and high pressure conditions. It was found that methane hydrates exist widely in sea-shelf floor and permafrost, and are considered as a potential energy resource. In the crystal lattice of clathrate hydrate, the water molecules form both large cages (5(12)6(2)) and small cages (5(12)) under the interaction of the hydrogen-hydrogen bond. In this paper, the authors designed a set of experimental apparatus for methane hydrates formation. Based on this equipment, the authors synthesized a series of methane hydrates in various systems in laboratory, including SDS solution (3% Wt) and methane, powdered ice and methane, and powdered ice and methane and natural sand with various sizes (i. e. 250-350, 180-250, 125-180 and 63-90 microm), under different temperature and pressure. The authors also designed a small device which was proved to be convenient for Raman determination of the methane hydrates. Raman spectroscopy was used to analyze the methane hydrates and to measure the structural parameters such as hydration numbers and cage occupancies. The results show that the methane hydrate samples are all in structure I type, and hydration numbers and cage occupancies are almost independent of the sediment sizes. In the three systems, the large cages of methane hydrate samples are nearly full occupied, with the occupancy ratios larger than 97%, whereas the small cages between 80% and 86%. The hydration numbers of these methane hydrate samples are between 6.05 and 6.15. PMID:20545140

  15. Burial Diagenesis Effects on Clumped Isotope Signatures of Coexisting Dolomites and Calcites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkelstern, I. Z.; Lohmann, K. C.

    2014-12-01

    Carbonate clumped isotope paleothermometry is a promising method for diagenetic and deep time paleoclimate studies, but original clumped isotope (?47) compositions can be altered by fluid and thermal diagenetic processes. Previous work shows ?47 resetting of calcite occurs at temperatures exceeding 100°C over time periods of millions of years, but such thermally-driven effects have not been considered for dolomite. Differences between calcite and dolomite temperature calibrations are also largely unquantified, and the effect of burial diagenesis on dolomite ?47 has not been measured. Coexisting calcites and dolomites in a ~4500 meter core from Andros Island, Bahamas, offer a unique opportunity to address these questions. These dolomites and calcites formed over a time span from the Cretaceous to Pleistocene under near-surface temperature conditions. Clumped isotope analysis of this material reveals that where these carbonate phases are buried to depths greater than ~3000 meters, realistic surface temperatures (~25 °C) are not preserved. Moreover, these phases do not record reasonable geothermal conditions (> 80 °C), but rather record temperatures between 40 and 60°C. Here we evaluate whether this ?47 "error" is due to solid-state resetting of clumped isotopes, emplacement of minor burial cements, fabric retentive recrystallization, or some combination thereof. Our results show that clumped isotope compositions of both calcite and dolomite respond similarly to diagenetic resetting of primary values under conditions of burial. These data further emphasize the need to constrain the diagenetic history of samples used for clumped isotope work. The similar ?47 temperatures recorded by each carbonate type suggest that dolomites and calcites are equally viable temperature proxy sources under shallow burial conditions, yet both seem equally susceptible to "resetting" of their primary clumped isotope abundances.

  16. Origin of platy calcite crystals in hot-spring deposits in the Kenya Rift Valley

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, B. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada). Dept. of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences; Renault, R.W. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada). Dept. of Geological Sciences

    1998-09-01

    Platy calcite crystals, which have their c axis parallel to their shortest length axis, are common components of travertine deposits found around some hot springs in the Kenya Rift Valley. They are composite crystals formed of numerous paper-thin subcrystals. Individual plates allowed to grow without obstruction develop a hexagonal motif. The Kenyan crystals typically form in hot (>75 C) waters that have a low Ca content (<10 mg/l), a high CO{sub 2} content, and a high rate of CO{sub 2} degassing. At Chemurkeu, aggregates of numerous small platy crystals collectively form lattice crystals that superficially resemble ray crystals. The walls of the lattice crystals are formed of large platy crystals that have their long and intermediate length axes aligned parallel to the plane of the long axis of the lattice crystal. Internally, the lattice crystals are formed of small platy calcite crystals arranged in a boxlike pattern that creates the appearance of a lattice when viewed in thin section. Lattice crystals are highly porous, with each pore being enclosed by platy crystals. At Lorusio, travertines are mainly formed of pseudodentrites that are constructed by numerous small platy crystals attached to a main stem which is a large platy crystal that commonly curves along its long axis. The pseudodentrites are the main construction blocks in ledges and lilypads that form in the vent pool and spring outflow channels, where the water is too hot for microbes other than hyperthermophiles. The platy calcite crystals in the Kenyan travertines are morphologically similar to platy calcite crystals that form as scale in pipes in the geothermal fields of New Zealand and hydrothermal angel wing calcite from the La Fe mine in Mexico. Comparison of the Kenyan and New Zealand crystals indicates that platy calcite crystals form from waters with a low Ca{sup 2+} content and a high CO{sub 3}/Ca ratio due to rapid rates of CO{sub 2} degassing.

  17. Fatty acids in sparry calcite fracture fills and microsparite cement of septarian diagenetic concretions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, M. J.; Hendry, J. P.; Taylor, C. W.; Russell, M. A.

    2005-04-01

    Sparry calcite fracture fills and concretion body cements in concretions from the Flodigarry Shale Member of the Staffin Shale Formation, Isle of Skye, Scotland, entrap and preserve mineral and organic materials of sedimentary and diagenetic origin. Fatty acids are a major component of the lipids recovered by decarbonation and comprise mainly n-alkanoic and ?-? dicarboxylic acids. Two generations of fracture-fill calcite (early brown and later yellow) and the concretion body microspar yield significantly different fatty acid profiles. Early brown calcites yield mainly medium-chain n-alkanoic acids with strong even predominance; later yellow calcites are dominated by ?-? dicarboxylic acids with no even predominance. Both fracture fills lack the long-chain n-alkanoic and ?-? dicarboxylic acids additionally recovered from the concretion bodies. The absence of longer chain acids in the calcite spar fracture fills is inferred to result from the transport of fatty acids by septarian mineralising fluids whereby low-aqueous solubility of longer chain acids or their salts accounts for their relative immobility. Comparative experiments have been carried out using conventional solvent extraction on the concretion body and associated shales, both decarbonated and untreated. Extracted lipid yields are higher, but the fatty acids probably derive from mixed locations in the rock including both kerogen- and carbonate-associated lipid pools. Only experiments involving decarbonation yielded ?-? dicarboxylic acids in molecular distributions probably controlled mainly by fluid transport. Alkane biomarker ratios indicate very low thermal maturity has been experienced by the concretions and their host sediments. Septarian cracks lined by brown calcite formed during early burial. Microbial CO 2 from sulphate-reducing bacteria was probably the main source of mineralising carbonate. Emplacement of the later septarian fills probably involved at least one episode of fluid invasion.

  18. Mechanisms for thermal conduction in hydrogen hydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    English, Niall J.; Gorman, Paul D.; MacElroy, J. M. D.

    2012-01-01

    Extensive equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations have been performed to investigate thermal conduction mechanisms via the Green-Kubo approach for (type II) hydrogen hydrate, at 0.05 kbar and between 30 and 250 K, for both lightly filled H2 hydrates (1s4l) and for more densely filled H2 systems (2s4l), in which four H2 molecules are present in the large cavities, with respective single- and double-occupation of the small cages. The TIP4P water model was used in conjunction with a fully atomistic hydrogen potential along with long-range Ewald electrostatics. It was found that substantially less damping in guest-host energy transfer is present in hydrogen hydrate as is observed in common type I clathrates (e.g., methane hydrate), but more akin in to previous results for type II and H methane hydrate polymorphs. This gives rise to larger thermal conductivities relative to common type I hydrates, and also larger than type II and H methane hydrate polymorphs, and a more crystal-like temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity.

  19. Gas Hydrates Research Programs: An International Review

    SciTech Connect

    Jorge Gabitto; Maria Barrufet

    2009-12-09

    Gas hydrates sediments have the potential of providing a huge amount of natural gas for human use. Hydrate sediments have been found in many different regions where the required temperature and pressure conditions have been satisfied. Resource exploitation is related to the safe dissociation of the gas hydrate sediments. Basic depressurization techniques and thermal stimulation processes have been tried in pilot efforts to exploit the resource. There is a growing interest in gas hydrates all over the world due to the inevitable decline of oil and gas reserves. Many different countries are interested in this valuable resource. Unsurprisingly, developed countries with limited energy resources have taken the lead in worldwide gas hydrates research and exploration. The goal of this research project is to collect information in order to record and evaluate the relative strengths and goals of the different gas hydrates programs throughout the world. A thorough literature search about gas hydrates research activities has been conducted. The main participants in the research effort have been identified and summaries of their past and present activities reported. An evaluation section discussing present and future research activities has also been included.

  20. Bioremediation of Pb-contaminated soil based on microbially induced calcite precipitation.

    PubMed

    Achal, Varenyam; Pan, Xiangliang; Zhang, Daoyong; Fu, Qinglong

    2012-02-01

    To remediate lead (Pb)-contaminated soils, it is proposed that microbially induced calcite precipitation (MICP) would provide the best alternative to other remediation technologies. In this study, Pb bioremediation in soils was investigated using the calcite-precipitating bacterium Kocuria flava. Results indicate that the Pb is primarily associated with the carbonate fraction in bioremediated soil samples. The bioavailability of Pb in contaminated soil was reduced so that the potential stress of Pb was alleviated. This research provides insight into the geochemistry occurring in the MICP-based Pb-remediated soils, which will help in remediation decisions. PMID:22370357

  1. Acidic mine drainage in carbonate terrains: geochemical processes and rates of calcite dissolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wicks, Carol M.; Groves, Christopher G.

    1993-06-01

    In situ rates of calcite dissolution were measured by weight loss of single crystals placed in an East Tennessee stream that is affected by acidic mine drainage. The dissolution rates ranged from 2.6 × 10 -8 to 7.9 × 10 -8 mmol cm -2 s -1 over the entire pH range of 3.6-7.7. Calcite dissolution rates were several orders of magnitude slower than observed in laboratory solutions of CO 2-HCl-H 2O-CaCO 3 and appeared to be inhibited by dissolved iron and possibly other solutes in the stream.

  2. Clathrate hydrates in cometary nuclei and porosity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smoluchowski, R.

    1988-01-01

    Possible mechanisms of formation and decomposition of CO2-clathrate hydrate in cometary nuclei are discussed. As far as it is known, this is the only clathrate hydrate which is unstable at low temperatures. Calculation shows that, in accord with other evidence, neither volume nor grain boundary diffusion in the clathrate lattice can be responsible for the rate of these reactions and that a surface mechanism with the attendant sensitivity to pressure must play a crucial role. Density changes accompanying CO2-clathrate decomposition and formation can lead to microporosity and enhanced brittleness or even to fracture of cometary nuclei at low temperatures. Other clathrate hydrates and mixed clathrates are also discussed.

  3. Seismic imaging of gas hydrate reservoir heterogeneities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jun-Wei

    Natural gas hydrate, a type of inclusion compound or clathrate, are composed of gas molecules trapped within a cage of water molecules. The presence of gas hydrate has been confirmed by core samples recovered from boreholes. Interests in the distribution of natural gas hydrate stem from its potential as a future energy source, geohazard to drilling activities and their possible impact on climate change. However the current geophysical investigations of gas hydrate reservoirs are still too limited to fully resolve the location and the total amount of gas hydrate due to its complex nature of distribution. The goal of this thesis is twofold, i.e., to model (1) the heterogeneous gas hydrate reservoirs and (2) seismic wave propagation in the presence of heterogeneities in order to address the fundamental questions: where are the location and occurrence of gas hydrate and how much is stored in the sediments. Seismic scattering studies predict that certain heterogeneity scales and velocity contrasts will generate strong scattering and wave mode conversion. Vertical Seismic Profile (VSP) techniques can be used to calibrate seismic characterization of gas hydrate expressions on surface seismograms. To further explore the potential of VSP in detecting the heterogeneities, a wave equation based approach for P- and S-wave separation is developed. Tests on synthetic data as well as applications to field data suggest alternative acquisition geometries for VSP to enable wave mode separation. A new reservoir modeling technique based on random medium theory is developed to construct heterogeneous multi-variable models that mimic heterogeneities of hydrate-bearing sediments at the level of detail provided by borehole logging data. Using this new technique, I modeled the density, and P- and S-wave velocities in combination with a modified Biot-Gassmann theory and provided a first order estimate of the in situ volume of gas hydrate near the Mallik 5L-38 borehole. Our results suggest a range of 528 to 768x10 6 m3/km2 of natural gas trapped within hydrate, nearly an order of magnitude lower than earlier estimates which excluded effects of small-scale heterogeneities. Further, the petrophysical models are combined with a 3-D Finite Difference method to study seismic attenuation. Thus a framework is built to further tune the models of gas hydrate reservoirs with constraints from well logs other disciplinary data.

  4. Tapping methane hydrates for unconventional natural gas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruppel, Carolyn

    2007-01-01

    Methane hydrate is an icelike form of concentrated methane and water found in the sediments of permafrost regions and marine continental margins at depths far shallower than conventional oil and gas. Despite their relative accessibility and widespread occurrence, methane hydrates have never been tapped to meet increasing global energy demands. With rising natural gas prices, production from these unconventional gas deposits is becoming economically viable, particularly in permafrost areas already being exploited for conventional oil and gas. This article provides an overview of gas hydrate occurrence, resource assessment, exploration, production technologies, renewability, and future challenges.

  5. Methane hydrate formation in partially water-saturated Ottawa sand

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waite, W.F.; Winters, W.J.; Mason, D.H.

    2004-01-01

    Bulk properties of gas hydrate-bearing sediment strongly depend on whether hydrate forms primarily in the pore fluid, becomes a load-bearing member of the sediment matrix, or cements sediment grains. Our compressional wave speed measurements through partially water-saturated, methane hydrate-bearing Ottawa sands suggest hydrate surrounds and cements sediment grains. The three Ottawa sand packs tested in the Gas Hydrate And Sediment Test Laboratory Instrument (GHASTLI) contain 38(1)% porosity, initially with distilled water saturating 58, 31, and 16% of that pore space, respectively. From the volume of methane gas produced during hydrate dissociation, we calculated the hydrate concentration in the pore space to be 70, 37, and 20% respectively. Based on these hydrate concentrations and our measured compressional wave speeds, we used a rock physics model to differentiate between potential pore-space hydrate distributions. Model results suggest methane hydrate cements unconsolidated sediment when forming in systems containing an abundant gas phase.

  6. The ultra-high lime with aluminum process for removing chloride from recirculating cooling water 

    E-print Network

    Abdel-wahab, Ahmed Ibraheem Ali

    2004-09-30

    Chloride is a deleterious ionic species in cooling water systems because it is important in promoting corrosion. Chloride can be removed from cooling water by precipitation as calcium chloroaluminate using ultra-high lime ...

  7. Legume establishment, nodulation, and forage production as influenced by N, P, K fertilizers and lime 

    E-print Network

    Martillo Chalen, Eduardo Enrique

    1983-01-01

    of the requirement for tne degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1983 Major Subject: Agronomy LEGUME ESTABLISHMENT, NODULATION, AND FORAGE PRODUCTION AS INFLUENCED BY N, P, K FERTILIZERS AND LIME A thesis EDUARDO ENRIQUE MARTILLO CHALEN Approved as to style...

  8. The ultra-high lime with aluminum process for removing chloride from recirculating cooling water

    E-print Network

    Abdel-wahab, Ahmed Ibraheem Ali

    2004-09-30

    Chloride is a deleterious ionic species in cooling water systems because it is important in promoting corrosion. Chloride can be removed from cooling water by precipitation as calcium chloroaluminate using ultra-high lime with aluminum process (UHLA...

  9. Validation of the new mixture design and testing protocol for lime stabilization

    E-print Network

    Yusuf, Fateh Ul Anam Muhammad Shafee

    2001-01-01

    describes some pertinent findings of the study. In situ properties of lime stabilized subgrades are identified based on Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) deflection measurements, Ground Penetration Radar (GPR) profiles, and Dynamic Cone Penetrometer (DCP...

  10. Wear of the periclase-lime lining of steel teeming ladles in ladle desulfurization of steel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. P. Nagornyi; V. A. Sakhno; S. A. Nagornyi; E. N. Gadzhi; E. A. Ivanov

    1993-01-01

    Conclusions Wear of a periclase-lime steel teeming ladle refractory lining is a complex physicochemical process in which it is practically impossible to distinguish a predominant elementary direction of action of the molten slag and metal.

  11. Evaluation of bioaerosol components, generation factors, and airborne transport associated with lime treatment of contaminated sediment.

    PubMed

    Barth, Edwin F; Reponen, Tiina; Succop, Paul

    2009-05-01

    Lime treatment has been used in contaminated sediment management activities for many purposes such as dewatering, improvement of physical properties, and reducing contaminant mobility. Exothermic volatilization of volatile organic compounds from lime-treated sediment is well known, but potential aerosolization of bioaerosol components has not been evaluated. A physical model of a contaminated sediment treatment and airborne transport process and an experimental protocol were developed to identify specific bioaerosol components (bacteria, fungi, cell structural components, and particles) that may be aerosolized and transported. Key reaction variables (amount of lime addition, rate of lime addition, mixing energy supplied) that may affect the aerosolization of bioaerosol components were evaluated. Lime treatment of a sediment contaminated with heavy metals, petroleum-based organics, and microorganisms increased the sediment pH and solids content. Lime treatment reduced the number of water-extractable bacteria and fungi in the sediment from approximately 10(6) colony-forming units (CFU) x mL(-1) to less than the detection limit of 10(3) CFU x mL(-1). This reduction was seen immediately for bacteria and within 21 days for fungi. Lime treatment immediately reduced the amount of endotoxin in the sediment, but the effects of lime treatment on beta-D-glucan could not be determined. The temperature of the treated sediment was linearly related to the amount of lime added within the range of 0-25%. Bacteria were aerosolized during the treatment trials, but there was no culturable evidence of aerosolization of fungi, most likely because of either their particular growth stage or relatively larger particle size that reduced their aerosolization potential and their collection into the impingers. Nonbiological particles, endotoxin, and beta-D-glucan were not detected in air samples during the treatment trials. The amount of lime added to the reaction beaker and the relative amount of mixing energy supplied to the reaction significantly affected the aerosolization ratio of bacteria (amount of aerosolized bacteria divided by the amount of bacteria in untreated sediment) from the reaction beaker. The rate of lime addition did not significantly affect the aerosolization ratio of bacteria. The aerosolization results suggest that exposure to bacteria is possible with sediment treatment activities, but the hazard level could not be determined because speciation of the aerosolized bacteria for pathogen identification was not performed, and health and safety standards and criteria for bioaerosol components have not been developed. Quantitative scaling analysis and whether the system represents actual environmental conditions were not studied. PMID:19583154

  12. Porous, Biphasic CaCO3-Calcium Phosphate Biomedical Cement Scaffolds from Calcite (CaCO3) Powder

    E-print Network

    Tas, A. Cuneyt

    Porous, Biphasic CaCO3-Calcium Phosphate Biomedical Cement Scaffolds from Calcite (CaCO3) Powder AH 3.2 by adding NaOH, to form biphasic, micro-, and macroporous calcite-apatitic calcium phosphate (Ap-stoichiometric, apatitic calcium phosphate (Ap-CaP) with a large and reactive surface area of 100­ 200 m2 /g.23 Bone

  13. Supporting Information Figure S1. Calcite crystals nucleated and grown on Kevlar threads in the absence of any

    E-print Network

    Coppersmith, Susan N.

    1 Supporting Information Figure S1. Calcite crystals nucleated and grown on Kevlar threads and SEM imaging techniques. Figure S2. Calcite crystals nucleated and grown on Kevlar threads on Kevlar threads in the presence of 100 µM AP7N in solution. Again surface morphology is altered compared

  14. The interaction of magnesium with calcite during crystal growth at 25-90°C and one atmosphere

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amitai Katz

    1973-01-01

    Calcite crystals were grown in a closed system by recrystallization of synthetic and natural aragonite crystals, in the presence of various CaCl 2 -MgCl 2 solutions with and without NaCl. The distribution of Mg 2+ between calcite and solution at the entire temperature range is heterogeneous, closely following the ( and , 1925) distribution law. Mg 2+ C is strongly

  15. Petrography and geochemistry of vein-filling calcites, balcones fault zone, upper cretaceous strata, north-central Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, W.C.; Szymczyk, H.M. [Texaco, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Reaser, D.F. [Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The Austin Chalk and the underlying Eagle Ford Shale are transected by en echelon faults and fractures, associated with the Balcones Fault Zone, along an outcrop trend that extends from Dallas to Austin, Texas. These faults and fractures strike generally northeastward, and many are cemented by sparry calcite. Slickensides, preserved on outer surfaces of calcite cements, record fault movement. Early calcite cements are nonferroan, and later cements are ferroan calcite. Petrographic analyses indicate the occurrence of fir-tree zoning and fluorescent inclusions within calcite cements. Vein-filling cements have stable isotopic signatures {delta}{sup 18}O -5.7 to -9.8% PDB; {delta}{sup 13}C +1.6 to +2.7% PDB that are markedly depleted in {delta}{sup 18}O relative to the chalk matrix, inoceramid shells, and the estimated value for Cretaceous seawater. The depleted {delta}{sup 18}O signatures of the vein-filling calcites are suggestive of precipitation from warm basinal fluids. {delta}{sup 13}C analyses reveal that the Austin Chalk buffered the carbon incorporated into the calcite cements. These veins probably formed by a {open_quotes}crack-seal mechanism{close_quotes}, whereby episodic increases in hydropressure caused fracturing. Precipitation of calcite cements within fractures is induced by subsequent decreases in pore pressure. Tectonic and diagenetic features in these outcrops provide analogs for fractured Austin Chalk reservoirs.

  16. The solubility of calcite and aragonite in seawater of 35%. salinity at 25°C and atmospheric pressure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John W. Morse; Alfonso Mucci; Frank J. Millero

    1980-01-01

    The solubilities of synthetic, natural and biogenic aragonite and calcite, in natural seawater of 35%. salinity at 25°C and 1 atm pressure, were measured using a closed system technique. Equilibration times ranged up to several months. The apparent solubility constant determined for calcite of 4.39(±0.20) × 10 -7 mol 2 kg -2 is in good agreement with other recent solubility

  17. Types of Gas Hydrates in Marine Environments and Their Thermodynamic Characteristics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Duo-Fu Chen; Zheng Su; Lawrence M. Cathles

    2006-01-01

    The hydrates in marine environment can be grouped into two categories, diffusion gas hydrates and vent gas hydrates. The diffusion gas hydrates occur widely in an area where bottom simulation reflector (BSR) was re- corded in seismic profiles, and is a thermodynamic equilibrium system of hydrates and water with dissolved methane within gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ). The hydrates are

  18. Distribution of near-surface gas hydrates and associated features on Hydrate Ridge, offshore Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaucke, I.; Weinrebe, W.; Bohrmann, G.

    2003-04-01

    Detailed measurements of backscatter intensity of the seafloor on Hydrate Ridge (offshore Oregon) using 75 kHz sidescan sonar allowed the determination of the distribution of near-surface gas hydrates and associated features such as carbonate crusts and clam fields. The sidescan sonar data consist of seven parallel, N-S trending profiles of 1500 m swath width. They are processed with a pixel size of 0.75 m. The sidescan data are complemented by multibeam bathymetry data and echosounder profiles. Ground-truthing is possible through numerous video observations and short sediment cores. Carbonate crusts are easily recognised by high backscatter intensity while pure clam fields show lower backscatter than the surrounding seafloor. Near-surface gas hydrates are believed to be represented by irregular, patchy areas of high and low backscatter intensity. All these features are concentrated on local summits that appear to concentrate upward fluid flow. Hydrate Ridge also appears to be highly faulted and small, isolated manifestations of fluid venting are aligned along these faults. Carbonate crusts are the most prominent features of fluid venting with diameters of individual high backscatter patches on the order of several hundreds of metres. They seem to be more randomly distributed and are absent on the southern summit of Hydrate Ridge. This could reflect that prominent carbonate crusts are features of relict fluid venting sites. All these features related to gas hydrates and fluid venting are widespread on Hydrate Ridge. As a first rough estimate more than half of the surface of Hydrate Ridge shows features related to gas hydrates. This figure drops to around 10% away from the two summits of Hydrate Ridge. Knowing the extent of gas hydrate related facies it is possible to combine these data with measurements of gas hydrate content and fluid flux in order to derive regional reservoir estimates and flux rates.

  19. A fast prototyping process for fabrication of microfluidic systems on soda-lime glass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Che-Hsin Lin; Gwo-Bin Lee; Yen-Heng Lin; Guan-Liang Chang

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a fast, low-cost but reliable process for the fabrication of microfluidic systems on soda-lime glass substrates. Instead of using an expensive metal or polisilicon\\/nitride layer as an etch mask, a thin layer of AZ 4620 positive photoresist (PR) is used for buffered oxide etching (BOE) of soda-lime glass. A novel two-step baking process prolongs the survival time

  20. Formation of color centers in a soda-lime silicate glass by excimer laser irradiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kohei Kadono; Nobuyuki Itakura; Tomoko Akai; Masaru Yamashita; Tetsuo Yazawa

    2010-01-01

    We have investigated defect generation in soda-lime silicate and iron-doped soda-lime silicate glasses by excimer laser irradiation in order to apply coloration due to radiation-induced defects as a coloring technique for practical glass products. The laser irradiation generated various kinds of defects, i.e., non-bridging oxygen hole centers (NBOHCs), E' centers, and trapped electron centers, as does x-ray and gamma-ray irradiation.

  1. Fertilizer and lime recommendations based on soil tests: Good, but could they be better?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. O. McLean

    1977-01-01

    Most fertilizer (and lime) recommendations are based on: i) a level of available nutrient (or pH) sufficient for at least near?maximum crop yields and ii) an average rate of buildup of the available nutrient (or pH) per unit of fertilizer (or lime) added.Soils differ widely in the rate of buildup of available nutrient per unit of added fertilizer. Soil type

  2. Evaluation of lime-fly ash stabilized bases and subgrades using static and dynamic deflection systems

    E-print Network

    Raba, Gary W.

    1982-01-01

    EVALUATION OF LIME-FLY ASH STABILIZED BASFS AND SUBGRADES USING STATIC AND DYNAMIC DEFLECTION SYSTEMS A Thesis GARY W. RABA Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AIIM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1982 Major Subject: Civil Engineering EVALUATION OF LIME-FLY ASH STABILIZED BASES AND SUBGRADES USING STATIC AND DYNAMIC DEFLECTION SYSTEMS A Thesis by Gary Nl. Raba Approved as to style and content by: !Chairman...

  3. Volatile fatty acid fermentation of lime-treated biomass by rumen microorganisms

    E-print Network

    Rapier, Charles Robert

    1995-01-01

    VOLATILE FATTY ACID FERMENTATION OF LIME-TREATED BIOMASS BY RUMEN MICROORGANISMS A Thesis by CHARLES ROBERT RAPIER Submitted to the Office of Cnaduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1995 Major Subject: Chemical Engineeriug VOLATILE FATTY ACID FERMENTATION OF LIME-TREATED BIOMASS BY RUMEN MICROORGANISMS A Thesis by CHARLES ROBERT RAPIER Submitted to Texas AkM University in partial fultillment...

  4. Short-term responses of wetland vegetation after liming of an Adirondack watershed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. R. Mackun; D. J. Leopold; D. J. Raynal

    1994-01-01

    Watershed liming has been suggested as a long-term mitigation strategy for lake acidity, particularly in areas subject to high levels of acidic deposition. However, virtually no information has been available on the impacts of liming on wetland vegetation. In 1989, 1100 Mg of limestone (83.5% CaCO[sub 3]) were aerially applied to 48% (100 ha) of the Woods Lake watershed in

  5. Hydration kinetics of phosphorus slag-cement paste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xia Chen; Kunhe Fang; Huaquan Yang; Hua Peng

    2011-01-01

    Hydration characteristics of Portland cement paste with phosphorus slag powder incorporated and hydration kinetics was investigated\\u000a with SEM, X-ray diffraction, DTA-TG and calorimeter II 80. Results showed that phosphorus slag powder could reduce total amount\\u000a of hydration products yet had little influence on the type of hydration products. The total amount of heat of hydration was\\u000a decreased by 49.11% and

  6. Physical properties of sediment containing methane gas hydrate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winters, W.J.; Waite, W.F.; Mason, D.H.; Gilbert, L.Y.

    2005-01-01

    A study conducted by the US Geological Survey (USGS) on the formation, behavior, and properties of mixtures of gas hydrate and sediment is presented. The results show that the properties of host material influence the type and quantity of hydrates formed. The presence of hydrate during mechanical shear tests affects the measured sediment pore pressure. Sediment shear strength may be increased more than 500 percent by intact hydrate, but greatly weakened if the hydrate dissociates.

  7. Phase equilibrium of gas hydrate: Implications for the formation of hydrate in the deep sea floor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zatsepina, Olga Ye.; Buffett, Bruce A.

    We calculate the solubility of methane gas over a range of pressure and temperature. The gas is dissolved in liquid water, which coexists with free gas at high temperature or solid hydrate at low temperature and high pressure. We show that solubility is significantly altered by the presence or absence of the hydrate phase. When hydrate is absent at high temperatures, our calculations reproduce experimentally observed increases in solubility with decreasing temperature. When hydrate is present, however, we find that the gas solubility decreases sharply with decreasing temperature. Such an abrupt decrease in solubility permits hydrate to crystallize directly from the aqueous solution, without the need of any free gas. This result has important implications for the formation of gas hydrate in marine environments, where the gas supply may not be sufficient to provide free gas. We apply our calculations at typical pressure and temperature conditions in marine sediments to establish the gas concentration needed to stabilize hydrate. Estimates of the vertical distribution of hydrate in marine sediments and the rate of accumulation are obtained using simple models of hydrate formation.

  8. Nanomechanical properties of hydrated organic thin films

    E-print Network

    Choi, Jae Hyeok

    2007-01-01

    Hydrated organic thin films are biological or synthetic molecularly thin coatings which impart a particular functionality to an underlying substrate and which have discrete water molecules associated with them. Such films ...

  9. ConocoPhillips Gas Hydrate Production Test

    SciTech Connect

    Schoderbek, David; Farrell, Helen; Howard, James; Raterman, Kevin; Silpngarmlert, Suntichai; Martin, Kenneth; Smith, Bruce; Klein, Perry

    2013-06-30

    Work began on the ConocoPhillips Gas Hydrates Production Test (DOE award number DE-NT0006553) on October 1, 2008. This final report summarizes the entire project from January 1, 2011 to June 30, 2013.

  10. A realistic molecular model of cement hydrates

    E-print Network

    Ulm, Franz-Josef

    Despite decades of studies of calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H), the structurally complex binder phase of concrete, the interplay between chemical composition and density remains essentially unexplored. Together these ...

  11. Raman Spectroscopic Investigation of Ferrous Sulfate Hydrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, S. K.; Chio, C. H.; Muenow, D. W.

    2006-03-01

    Our objective is to unambiguously distinguish between the mono-, tetra-, and heptahydrates of FeSO4 that may be present on Martian surface. We have investigated these FeSO4 hydrates with micro-Raman spectroscopy.

  12. Gas Hydrates Research Project in Japan

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Scientists from AIST, JOGMEC, Georgia Tech, and the USGS prepare to analyze pressure cores as part of a multi-year gas hydrates research project in Japan. Front, left to right: Efthymios Papadopoulos (Georgia Tech) and Jun Yoneda (AIST)....

  13. Gas Hydrate Recovered from Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Gas hydrate recovered in shallow layers just below the seafloor during piston coring in the Mississippi Canyon in the northern Gulf of Mexico. For more information, contact USGS civil engineer Bill Winters at: bwinters@usgs.gov...

  14. Weakening of ice by magnesium perchlorate hydrate

    E-print Network

    Lenferink, Hendrik J., 1985-

    2012-01-01

    I show that perchlorate hydrates, which have been indirectly detected at high Martian circumpolar latitudes by the Phoenix Mars Lander, have a dramatic effect upon the rheological behavior of polycrystalline water ice under ...

  15. Spectroscopic methods in gas hydrate research.

    PubMed

    Rauh, Florian; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2012-01-01

    Gas hydrates are crystalline structures comprising a guest molecule surrounded by a water cage, and are particularly relevant due to their natural occurrence in the deep sea and in permafrost areas. Low molecular weight molecules such as methane and carbon dioxide can be sequestered into that cage at suitable temperatures and pressures, facilitating the transition to the solid phase. While the composition and structure of gas hydrates appear to be well understood, their formation and dissociation mechanisms, along with the dynamics and kinetics associated with those processes, remain ambiguous. In order to take advantage of gas hydrates as an energy resource (e.g., methane hydrate), as a sequestration matrix in (for example) CO(2) storage, or for chemical energy conservation/storage, a more detailed molecular level understanding of their formation and dissociation processes, as well as the chemical, physical, and biological parameters that affect these processes, is required. Spectroscopic techniques appear to be most suitable for analyzing the structures of gas hydrates (sometimes in situ), thus providing access to such information across the electromagnetic spectrum. A variety of spectroscopic methods are currently used in gas hydrate research to determine the composition, structure, cage occupancy, guest molecule position, and binding/formation/dissociation mechanisms of the hydrate. To date, the most commonly applied techniques are Raman spectroscopy and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Diffraction methods such as neutron and X-ray diffraction are used to determine gas hydrate structures, and to study lattice expansions. Furthermore, UV-vis spectroscopic techniques and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have assisted in structural studies of gas hydrates. Most recently, waveguide-coupled mid-infrared spectroscopy in the 3-20 ?m spectral range has demonstrated its value for in situ studies on the formation and dissociation of gas hydrates. This comprehensive review summarizes the importance of spectroscopic analytical techniques to our understanding of the structure and dynamics of gas hydrate systems, and highlights selected examples that illustrate the utility of these individual methods. PMID:22094590

  16. METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST

    SciTech Connect

    Ali Kadaster; Bill Liddell; Tommy Thompson; Thomas Williams; Michael Niedermayr

    2005-02-01

    Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrate potential agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. This gas-hydrate project was a cost-shared partnership between Maurer Technology, Noble Corporation, Anadarko Petroleum, and the U.S. Department of Energy's Methane Hydrate R&D program. The purpose of the project is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition to identify, quantify and predict production potential for hydrates located on the North Slope of Alaska. The work scope included drilling and coring a well (Hot Ice No. 1) on Anadarko leases beginning in FY 2003 and completed in 2004. During the first drilling season, operations were conducted at the site between January 28, 2003 to April 30, 2003. The well was spudded and drilled to a depth of 1403 ft. Due to the onset of warmer weather, work was then suspended for the season. Operations at the site were continued after the tundra was re-opened the following season. Between January 12, 2004 and March 19, 2004, the well was drilled and cored to a final depth of 2300 ft. An on-site core analysis laboratory was built and implemented for determining physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. The well was drilled from a new Anadarko Arctic Platform that has a minimal footprint and environmental impact. Final efforts of the project are to correlate geology, geophysics, logs, and drilling and production data and provide this information to scientists developing reservoir models and to research teams for developing future gas-hydrate projects. No gas hydrates were encountered in this well; however, a wealth of information was generated and has been documented by the project team. This Topical Report documents drilling and coring operations and other daily activities.

  17. Eu3+ uptake by calcite: preliminary results from coprecipitation experiments and observations with surface-sensitive techniques.

    PubMed

    Stipp, S L S; Lakshtanov, L Z; Jensen, J T; Baker, J A

    2003-03-01

    A lack of information in databases for contamination risk assessment about the transport behaviour of the trivalent f-orbital elements in groundwater systems where calcite is at equilibrium motivated this study of Eu(3+) uptake. The free drift technique was used to examine the effects of Eu(3+) concentration, presence of Na(+) or K(+) and temperature, as well as calcite nucleation and precipitation kinetics, on the partitioning of calcite. Changes in surface composition and morphology resulting from exposure of single crystals of Iceland spar to Eu(3+)-bearing solutions were observed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). First results confirm that calcite has high affinity for Eu(3+). Rates of nucleation and precipitation strongly affect the extent of uptake but the presence of Na(+) and K(+) has no effect, suggesting formation of solid solution as CaCO(3)-EuOHCO(3). Surface-sensitive techniques prove that Eu(3+) is adsorbed to calcite even when the surface is dissolving and adsorption is not accompanied by precipitation of a separate Eu(3+)-solid phase. Adsorbed Eu modifies calcite's dissolution behaviour, roughening terraces and rounding step edges, and producing surface morphology where some surface sites appear blocked. Results imply that Eu(3+) concentrations in natural calcites are limited by Eu(3+) availability rather than by a lack of ability to fit into calcite's atomic structure. This behaviour can probably be expected for other trivalent rare Earth elements (REE), actinides and fission products whose behaviour is similar to that of Eu(3+). These elements are likely to be incorporated within the calcite bulk in systems where it is precipitating and the demonstrated strong partitioning ensures some uptake even where calcite is at or under saturation. PMID:12598092

  18. Vein-filling calcites (petrography and geochemistry): Balcones fault zone, Upper Cretaceous outcrops, north-central Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, W.C.; Szymczyk, H.M. [Texaco, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Reaser, D.F. [Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The Austin Chalk and the underlying Eagle Ford Shale are transacted by en echelon faults and fractures, associated with the Balcones fault zone, along an outcrop trend that extends from Dallas to Austin, Texas. These faults and fractures strike northeastward (N35{degrees} to 40{degrees}E) and are cemented by multiple generations of sparry calcite. Vein widths range from 0.1 to 45 cm. Slickensides, preserved on outer surfaces of calcite cements, record fault movement. Inclusions of country rock are present within calcite-filled veins, and rarely, open fracture porosity is observed in outcrop. Early calcite cements are nonferroan and later cements are ferroan calcite. Petrographic analyses indicate the occurrence of {open_quotes}fir-tree{close_quotes} zoning and fluorescent inclusions within calcite cements. Vein-filling cements have stable isotopic signatures ({delta}{sup 18}O-6.3 to -9.8{per_thousand} PDB; {delta}{sup 13}C +1.6 to +2.5{per_thousand} PDB) that are markedly depleted in {delta}{sup 13}O relative to the chalk matrix, inoceramid shells, and the estimated value for Cretaceous seawater. Trace element analyses indicate the presence of strontium (980-1600 ppm), manganese (750-1975 ppm), zinc (10-20 ppm), and copper (5-10 ppm) in the calcite cements. The negative {delta}{sup 18}O signatures of the vein-filling calcites are suggestive of precipitation from warm fluids. {delta}{sup 13}C analyses reveal that the Austin Chalk buffered the carbon incorporated into the calcite cements. These veins probably formed by a {open_quotes}crack-seat mechanism{close_quotes} whereby episodic increases in hydropressure caused fracturing. Precipitation of calcite cements within fractures is induced by subsequent decreases in pore pressure. Tectonic and diagenetic features in these outcrops provide analogs for fractured Austin Chalk reservoirs.

  19. Aqueous precursors for electrochromic tungsten oxide hydrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Livage; G. Guzman

    1996-01-01

    Tungsten oxide hydrates WO3 · nH2O are formed upon the acidification of tungstate aqueous solutions. Different amorphous or crystalline phases can be obtained depending on the experimental conditions (pH, concentration, temperature). The chemical mechanisms for the formation of these hydrates are discussed and the electrochromic properties of thin films deposited from these solutions are described. Hydrogen peroxide H2O2 reacts with

  20. Preservation of methane hydrate at 1 atm

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stern, L.A.; Circone, S.; Kirby, S.H.; Durham, W.B.

    2001-01-01

    A "pressure-release" method that enables reproducible bulk preservation of pure, porous, methane hydrate at conditions 50 to 75 K above its equilibrium T (193 K) at 1 atm is refined. The amount of hydrate preserved by this method appears to be greatly in excess of that reported in the previous citations, and is likely the result of a mechanism different from ice shielding.

  1. Kinetics and Mechanisms of Cadmium Carbonate Heteroepitaxial Growth at the Calcite (101¯4) Surface

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Man; Kovarik, Libor; Arey, Bruce W.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Kerisit, Sebastien N.

    2014-06-01

    Elucidating the kinetics and mechanisms of heteroepitaxial nucleation and growth at mineral-water interfaces is essential to understanding surface reactivity in geochemical systems. In the present work, the formation of heteroepitaxial cadmium carbonate coatings at calcite-water interfaces was investigated by exposing calcite (10-14) surfaces to Cd-bearing aqueous solutions. In situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) was employed as the primary technique. The AFM results indicate that the heteroepitaxial growth of cadmium carbonate proceeds via three different mechanisms depending on the initial supersaturation of the aqueous solution: advancement of existing steps, nucleation and growth of three-dimensional (3D) islands, and nucleation and spread of two-dimensional (2D) nuclei. The 3D islands and 2D nuclei exhibit different morphologies and growth kinetics. The effects of supersaturation on heteroepitaxial growth mechanisms can be interpreted in terms of the free energy barrier for nucleation. At low initial supersaturation, where 3D nucleation dominates, it is hypothesized, from the growth rate and morphology of the 3D islands observed with AFM, that the crystallization of the overgrowth follows a non-classical pathway involving the formation of a surface precursor that is not fully crystalline, whereas high supersaturation favors the formation of crystalline 2D nuclei whose morphology is based on the atomic structure of the calcite substrate. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images reveal that the atomic structure of the interface between the cadmium carbonate coating and calcite shows perfect, dislocation-free epitaxy.

  2. Zonation and geochemical patterns of burial calcite cements: Upper Smackover Formation, Clarke County, Mississippi

    SciTech Connect

    Heydari, E.; Moore, C.H. (Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Cathodoluminescence (CL), trace element concentrations, and isotope compositions of luminescently zoned poikilitic and mosaic calcite cements of the upper Smackover Formation are studied in the Harmony, Pachuta Creek, East Nancy, Goodwater, and Garland Creek fields in Clarke County, Mississippi. These calcites precipitated during burial in a depth range of 100 m to 3 km, a temperature range of 30-100 C, and a time span of 60 my. The calcium carbonate for calcite cementation was primarily derived locally by pressure dissolution of the Smackover Formation. Magnesium content of all calcites ranges from about 500-1,000 ppm in the oldest zones and increases to about 3,000-4,000 ppm toward the younger zones. The low Mg[sup 2+] content of the older zones is the result of precipitation from waters with low Mg[sup 2+]/Ca[sup 2+] ratio, typical of subsurface waters. The increase in Mg[sup 2+] toward the younger zones may have resulted from precipitation over time at progressively higher temperatures and the increase in D[sub Mg[sup 2

  3. Inferences of paleoenvironment from petrographic, chemical and stable-isotope studies of calcretes and fracture calcites

    SciTech Connect

    Vaniman, D.T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Whelan, J.F. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)

    1994-03-01

    Past research has indicated a genetic connection between calcite formed in calcretes at the surface of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and calcites deposited in underlying fractures of the unsaturated zone. This common genesis suggests that paleoenvironmental information, as well as the timing and pathways of past recharge episodes, might be obtained from studies of the deposits in both the calcretes and the unsaturated fractures. Chemical and isotopic modification of calcite-precipitating fluids appears to begin at the surface, largely under the influence of plant roots and their decay products. Chemical characteristics of the deeper calcites are either initiated or largely defined within the first few meters of fluid migration into the unsaturated tuffs beneath the calcretes. However, petrographic and isotopic data indicate a very unique low-{delta}{sup 13}C microenvironment that is localized at the upper surfaces of the calcretes. These surfaces form an interface in the soil horizon where infiltration may pond above the underlying carbonate ``plug.`` In order to decipher the chemistry and petrology of past recharge events, it is important to first understand microenvironments such as this that contribute to mineral precipitation/dissolution events in the pedogenic environment.

  4. Calcite and aragonite seas and the de novo acquisition of carbonate skeletons.

    PubMed

    Porter, S M

    2010-09-01

    A longstanding question in paleontology has been the influence of calcite and aragonite seas on the evolution of carbonate skeletons. An earlier study based on 21 taxa that evolved skeletons during the Ediacaran through Ordovician suggested that carbonate skeletal mineralogy is determined by seawater chemistry at the time skeletons first evolve in a clade. Here I test this hypothesis using an expanded dataset comprising 40 well-defined animal taxa that evolved skeletons de novo in the last 600 Myr. Of the 37 taxa whose mineralogy is known with some confidence, 25 acquired mineralogies that matched seawater chemistry of the time, whereas only two taxa acquired non-matching mineralogies. (Ten appeared during times when seawater chemistry is not well constrained.) The results suggest that calcite and aragonite seas do have a strong influence on carbonate skeletal mineralogy, however, this appears to be true only at the time mineralized skeletons first evolve. Few taxa switch mineralogies (from calcite to aragonite or vice versa) despite subsequent changes in seawater chemistry, and those that do switch do not appear to do so in response to changing aragonite-calcite seas. This suggests that there may be evolutionary constraints on skeletal mineralogy, and that although there may be increased costs associated with producing a mineralogy not favored by seawater, the costs of switching mineralogies are even greater. PMID:20550583

  5. STIMULATION OF MICROBIAL UREA HYDROLYSIS IN GROUNDWATER TO ENHANCE CALCITE PRECIPITATION

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshiko Fujita; Joanna L. Taylor; Tina L. Gresham; Mark E. Delwiche; Frederick S. Colwell; Travis McLing; Lynn Petzke; Robert W. Smith

    2008-04-01

    Sequential addition of molasses and urea was tested as a means of stimulating microbial urea hydrolysis in the Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer in Idaho. Ureolysis is an integral component of a novel remediation approach for divalent trace metal and radionuclide contaminants in groundwater and associated geomedia, where the contaminants are immobilized by coprecipitation in calcite. The generation of carbonate alkalinity from ureolysis promotes calcite precipitation. In calcite-saturated aquifers, this represents a potential long-term contaminant sequestration mechanism. In a single well experiment, dilute molasses was injected three times over two weeks to promote overall microbial growth, followed by one urea injection. With molasses addition, total cell numbers in the groundwater increased one to two orders of magnitude. Estimated ureolysis rates in recovered groundwater samples increased from <0.1 nmol L-1 hr-1 to >25 nmol L-1 hr-1. A quantitative PCR assay for the bacterial ureC gene indicated that urease gene numbers increased up to 170 times above pre-injection levels. Following urea injection, calcite precipitates were recovered. Estimated values for an in situ first order ureolysis rate constant ranged from 0.016 to 0.057 day-1. The results are promising with respect to the potential to manipulate in situ biogeochemical processes to promote contaminant sequestration.

  6. Particle characteristics and their influence on dewatering of kaolin, calcite and quartz suspensions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Besra; D. K. Sengupta; S. K. Roy

    2000-01-01

    The effect of particle properties and dispersion on the filtration and dewatering behaviour of three different minerals namely kaolin, calcite and quartz in aqueous media have been examined. The primary particle properties such as particle size, size distribution, specific surface area, density, surface structure, dry bed porosities and sphericities of particles as well as their dispersion properties like solid concentration,

  7. The grinding tip of the sea urchin tooth exhibits exquisite control over calcite crystal orientation

    E-print Network

    Gilbert, Pupa Gelsomina De Stasio

    The grinding tip of the sea urchin tooth exhibits exquisite control over calcite crystal, 2009 (received for review October 13, 2008) The sea urchin tooth is a remarkable grinding tool. Even in the field of biomin- eralization is the ability of the sea urchin tooth to grind down limestone, because

  8. Assessing the reliability of magnesium in foraminiferal calcite as a proxy for water mass temperatures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dirk Nürnberg; Jelle Bijma; Christoph Hemleben

    1996-01-01

    Though many studies on the Mg contents in the calcitic tests of foraminifers exist, the processes controlling its uptake are still a matter of debate. Laboratory cultures offer an excellent opportunity to reveal these mechanisms. The Mg concentrations within single chambers of the planktic foraminifer Globigerinoides sacculifer (BRADY) maintained under controlled laboratory conditions were measured (1) at variable temperatures (19.5–29.5

  9. The calcite !! aragonite transformation in low-Mg marble: Equilibrium relations, transformation mechanisms, and rates

    E-print Network

    Hacker, Bradley R.

    mechanisms, and rates Bradley R. Hacker,1 David C. Rubie,2 Stephen H. Kirby,3 and Steven R. Bohlen4 Received in Japan and China that disproportionated to low-Mg calcite and dolomite. Citation: Hacker, B. R., D. C starting material is a single block of Carrara marble obtained from a monument company [Hacker and Kirby

  10. Temperature Dependence of1 Oxygen Isotope Fractionation in Coccolith Calcite:2

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Temperature Dependence of1 Oxygen Isotope Fractionation in Coccolith Calcite:2 A Culture and Core isotopic effect or vital effect . The direction of fractionation towards light39 isotopic values was significantly closer to equilibrium compared to previously reported offset values. No41 significant isotopic

  11. Calcite precipitation in Lake Constance: Chemical equilibrium, sedimentation,and nucleation by algae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H.-H. STABEL

    1986-01-01

    Seasonal shifts in calcium carbonate solution equilibria in the limnetic zone of Lake Constance were documented between 1981 and 1983. Except during mixing times, lake water was supersat- urated with respect to calcite; epilimnetic supersaturation maxima were closely related to changes in pH. Sedimentation of calcium from the lower boundary of the euphotic zone to the lake bottom was also

  12. Inferences of paleoenvironment from petrographic, chemical and stable-isotope studies of calcretes and fracture calcites

    SciTech Connect

    Vaniman, D.T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Whelan, J.F. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Past research has indicated a genetic connection between calcite formed in calcretes at the surface of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and calcites deposited in underlying fractures of the unsaturated zone. This common genesis suggests that paleoenvironmental information, as well as the timing and pathways of past recharge episodes, might be obtained from studies of the deposits in both the calcretes and the unsaturated fractures. Chemical and isotopic modification of calcite-precipitating fluids appears to begin at the surface, largely under the influence of plant roots and their decay products. Chemical characteristics of the deeper calcites are either initiated or largely defined within the first few meters of fluid migration into the unsaturated tuffs beneath the calcretes. However, petrographic and isotopic data indicate a very unique low-{delta}{sup 13}C microenvironment that is localized at the upper surfaces of the calcretes. These surfaces form an interface in the soil horizon where infiltration may pond above the underlying carbonate {open_quotes}plug{close_quotes}. In order to decipher the chemistry and petrology of past recharge events, it is important to first understand microenvironments such as this that contribute to mineral precipitation/dissolution events in the pedogenic environment.

  13. Atomistic simulations of calcite nanoparticles and their interaction David J. Cooke and James A. Elliotta

    E-print Network

    Elliott, James

    , an understand- ing of the chemical and physical properties of calcium car- bonate polymorphs, especially calcite greenhouse effect and climate change where it is used as an isotope counter4 , and as a catalyst in solvent these problems and has been used extensively to study calcium carbonate in a wide variety of situations

  14. NMR surface relaxivity of calcite with adsorbed Mn{sup 2+}

    SciTech Connect

    Kenyon, W.E.; Kolleeny, J.A. [Schlumberger-Doll Research, Ridgefield, CT (United States)] [Schlumberger-Doll Research, Ridgefield, CT (United States)

    1995-03-15

    Calcite particles were exposed to Mn{sup 2+} in aqueous solution to allow adsorption. The calcite particles were then packed, and the NMR longitudinal relaxation time T{sub 1} of water saturating the interparticle pores was measured. NMR surface relaxivity was then computed as 1/(T{sub 1}{times}S{sub p}/V{sub p}), where S{sub p}/V{sub p} is the ratio of surface area to pore volume. Adsorbed manganese increases the NMR surface relaxivity to approximately 2.4 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} cm/s, roughly 50 times the surface relaxivity of very pure calcite. Flowing water with 4 {mu}M Mn{sup 2+} through a porous limestone plug decreased its T{sub 1} by a factor of 6. Iron as adsorbate produced relatively small increases in surface relaxivity. These results suggest that manganese dominates the surface relaxivity, of limestone rocks in situ, which is important in the interpretation of NMR borehole logs. Observations suggest that some adsorbed manganese eventually becomes buried by freshly precipitated calcite. In particular, the surface relaxivity increased with initial adsorption, but gradually decreased at long reaction times, even as the aqueous manganese concentration continued to decrease. NMR evidently senses only the manganese in the outermost atomic layer, and thus might prove useful in more detailed studies of adsorption.

  15. Noncrystallographic calcite dendrites from hot-spring deposits at Lake Bogoria, Kenya

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, B. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada). Dept. of Geology; Renaut, R.W. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada). Dept. of Geological Sciences

    1995-01-02

    Complex calcite crystals are an integral component of precipitates that form around the orifices of the Loburu and Mawe Moto hot springs on the shores of Lake bogoria, Kenya. Two types of large (up to 4 cm long) noncrystallographic dendrites are important components of these deposits. Feather dendrites are characterized by multiple levels of branching with individual branches developed through crystal splitting and spherulitic growth. Scandulitic (from Latin meaning shingle) dendrites are formed of stacked calcite crystals and are generally more compact than feather dendrites. These developed through the incremental stacking of rectangular-shaped calcite crystals that initially grew as skeletal crystals. Feather and scandulitic dendrites precipitated from the same waters in the same springs. The difference in morphology is therefore related to microenvironments in which they grew. Feather dendrites grew in any direction in pools of free-standing water provided that they were in constant contact with the solute. Conversely, scandulitic dendrites grew on rims of dams where water flowed over the surface in concert with the pulses of spring water. Thus, each calcite crystal in these dendrites represents one episode of crystal growth. The orientation of the component crystals in scandulitic dendrites is controlled by the topography of the dam or surface, not crystallographic criteria. The noncrystallographic dendrites formed from spring waters with initial temperatures of 90--99 C. Surficial water cooling, loss of CO{sub 2}, and presence of other elements that can interfere with crystal growth contributed to the formation of these unusual crystals.

  16. Anomalous Transmission of Thermally Scattered X-Rays in Calcite Crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashiwase, Yasuji; Kainuma, Yoshiro

    1982-08-01

    An excess line was observed across the 200 diffuse spot on Laue photograph of calcite crystal by using unfiltered radiation from copper target operated at accelerating voltage 30 kV. The line is explained to be caused by anomalous transmission of the thermally scattered characteristic X-rays.

  17. In situ AFM study of the dissolution and recrystallization behaviour of polished and stressed calcite surfaces

    E-print Network

    Dysthe, Dag Kristian

    -and-valley structure in a (near-)saturated solution so as to lower its total surface free energy in spite of a larger of crys- tals and hence their solubility in aqueous solutions (Pater- son, 1973). A significant increase, and at depth, dissolution and precipitation of calcite underlie processes such as pres- sure solution

  18. The kinetics of clumped-isotope reactions in calcite and apatite from natural and experimental samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolper, D. A.; Eiler, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Measurements of clumped isotopes of carbonate-bearing minerals are a powerful tool for reconstructing past surface temperatures and thermal histories of shallow crustal rocks. Because the clumped-isotope thermometer is based on homogenous-phase equilibrium, a sample's clumped-isotope temperature is susceptible to resetting through, for example, intracrystalline diffusion and redistribution of C and O isotopes during (re)heating or slow cooling. Quantitative knowledge of the kinetics of this resetting have received increasing attention (1-3) and is critical for understanding the meaning of clumped-isotope temperatures of samples with complex burial histories. To better constrain these kinetics and complement previous work (1-3) we performed heating experiments (400-700°C) on optical calcites and carbonate-bearing apatites. As previously observed (2-3), calcites exhibit non-first-order kinetics. The data were fit using a model that incorporates both diffusion and isotope-exchange reactions (4). The kinetics derived with this model using the optical-calcite heating experiments of (2) and those measured here are indistinguishable. The model predicts that subtle changes (>10°C) in measured calcite clumped-isotope temperatures can occur at burial temperatures between 60-100°C on million-year timescales. Though small, such changes may have an impact on clumped-isotope-based reconstructions of past surface temperatures and thermal histories. The derived kinetics were compared to clumped-isotope measurements of cogenetic calcites and apatites from slowly cooled carbonatite intrusions. Apparent temperatures are 70-140°C for apatites and 120-190°C for calcites. Measured temperatures for calcites match modeled temperatures using reasonable geological cooling rates. Natural apatite samples yield lower apparent temperatures than predicted based on the model. We propose that this difference is the result of annealment of structural damage in apatites (e.g., generated by radiation damage) during experiments. (1) Dennis and Schrag, 2010; (2) Passey and Henkes, 2012; (3) Henkes et al., 2014. (4) Zhang et al., 1995.

  19. Permeability of calcite-cemented fractures in mudrocks: Flow highway or hindrance?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landry, C. J.; Eichhubl, P.; Prodanovic, M.; Tokan-Lawal, A.

    2014-12-01

    Among natural fractures observed in core of Eagle Ford Shale, Texas, tall sub-vertical calcite-cemented fractures are the most spatially extensive. Similar sub-vertical opening-mode fractures are found in many mudrocks, and far more often than not they are completely cemented. Currently there is very little evidence that these calcite cements are anything but impermeable, and thus would hinder flow across the fractures while having an insignificant effect on flow parallel to the fractures. This suggests that natural fractures in mudrocks are barriers to flow, which goes against the general consensus that natural fractures in mudrocks enhance flow. We used scanning-electron microscopy (SEM) on broad-beam argon-ion milled samples of a calcite-cemented fracture with a kinematic aperture (width) of 200 ?m to study the pore space of the calcite for any indication that completely cemented fractures are permeable. In the fracture calcite cement, we observed primary porosity between calcite grains that is generally well-connected with an average aperture between 25 and 100 nm. The permeability of these flow-paths was determined by lattice Boltzmann methods to be between 50 to 200 ?D. These flow-paths have a spacing between 50 and 300 ?m, therefore a square centimeter (length*height) of fracture cement will contain on average more than 100 flow-paths. Thus for flow across the fracture cement (orthogonal to the fracture) the overall cross-fracture permeability of the cement can be approximated using simple effective medium upscaling. The fracture cement studied here is found to have a cross-fracture permeability in the range of 25 to 100 nD. Although this is a very low permeability, it is within the range of the permeability of the host rock, and thus these calcite cements would have almost no effect on flow orthogonal to the plane of the fracture. These flow-paths are also connected within the cement creating the equivalent of a single tortuous flow-path along the plane of the fracture with a possible permeability upwards of 10 to 50 ?D. This is far lower than the permeability of the fracture without the cement (~1500 D), but in comparison to the host rock permeability (< 200 nD) would still act as a highway for fluid flow.

  20. Clathrate hydrates in the solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, S. L.

    1985-01-01

    Clathrate hydrates are crystalline compounds in which an expanded ice lattice forms cages that contain gas molecules. There are two principal hydrate structures. Structure I, with a 12 A cubic unit cell, contains 46 water molecules and 8 cages of two types, giving an ideal formula (for CH4) of CH4.5.75H2O. The actual formula contains somewhat more water as the cages are not completely filled. Other examples that form Structure I hydrates are C2H6, C2H4, C2H2, CO2, SO2, OCS, Xe, H2S. Structure II, with a 17 A cubic unit cell, contains 136 water molecules, and 8 large and 16 small cages. The ideal formula for CHCl3 is CHCL3.17H2O. Other examples of Structure II hydrates include C3H8, C2H5Cl, acetone, and tetrahydrofuran. Small molecules such as Ar, Kr and probably N2 and O2 also form a Structure II hydrate. The small molecules occupy both the large and small cages, giving an ideal formula of Ar.5.67H2O. The conditions of pressure and temperature for hydrate formation are discussed.

  1. Ground movements associated with gas hydrate production

    SciTech Connect

    Siriwardane, H.J.

    1992-10-01

    The mechanics of ground movements during hydrate production can be more closely simulated by considering similarities with ground movements associated with subsidence in permafrost regions than with gob compaction in a longwall mine. The purpose of this research work is to investigate the potential strata movements associated with hydrate production by considering similarities with ground movements in permafrost regions. The work primarily involves numerical modeling of subsidence caused by hydrate dissociation. The investigation is based on the theories of continuum mechanics , thermomechanical behavior of frozen geo-materials, and principles of rock mechanics and geomechanics. It is expected that some phases of the investigation will involve the use of finite element method, which is a powerful computer-based method which has been widely used in many areas of science and engineering. Parametric studies will be performed to predict expected strata movements and surface subsidence for different reservoir conditions and properties of geological materials. The results from this investigation will be useful in predicting the magnitude of the subsidence problem associated with gas hydrate production. The analogy of subsidence in permafrost regions may provide lower bounds for subsidence expected in hydrate reservoirs. Furthermore, it is anticipated that the results will provide insight into planning of hydrate recovery operations.

  2. Measurement of clathrate hydrates via Raman spectroscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sum, A.K.; Burruss, R.C.; Sloan, E.D., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Raman spectra of clathrate hydrate guest molecules are presented for three known structures (I (sI), II (sII), and H (sH)) in the following systems: CH4 (sI), CO2 (sI), C3H8 (sII), CH4 + CO2 (sI), CD4 + C3H8 (sII), CH4 + N2 (sI), CH4 + THF-d8 (sII), and CH4 + C7D14 (sH). Relative occupancy of CH4 in the large and small cavities of sI were determined by deconvoluting the ??1 symmetric bands, resulting in hydration numbers of 6.04 ?? 0.03. The frequency of the ??1 bands for CH4 in structures I, II, and H differ statistically, so that Raman spectroscopy is a potential tool to identify hydrate crystal structure. Hydrate guest compositions were also measured for two vapor compositions of the CH4 + CO2 system, and they compared favorably with predictions. The large cavities were measured to be almost fully occupied by CH4 and CO2, whereas only a small fraction of the small cavities are occupied by CH4. No CO2 was found in the small cavities. Hydration numbers from 7.27 to 7.45 were calculated for the mixed hydrate.

  3. Calcite saturation state effects on cultured benthic foraminiferal trace-element distribution coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hintz, C. J.; Shaw, T. J.; Chandler, G. T.; McCorkle, D. C.; Bernhard, J. M.; Blanks, J. K.

    2006-12-01

    Field studies have suggested that calcite saturation states (Ømega) near and below saturation alter trace element distribution coefficients in benthic foraminifera. Recent benthic foraminiferal culture experiments at the University of South Carolina investigated the response of trace element signatures to three different calcite saturation seawater environments by manipulating total alkalinity (TA). Starting with near-surface Gulf Stream water (Ømega = 3, TA=2380 ?eq kg-1), two seawater reservoirs were titrated with HCl to lower their calcite saturation states (Ømega = 2, TA = 1910 ?eq kg-1; Ømega = 1.1, TA = 1320 ?eq kg-1). Mixed-species foraminiferal assemblages, with the calcite-specific fluorescent label calcein, were inoculated into 13 total culture chambers evenly distributed among the control and 2 treatment seawater reservoirs. These cultures were maintained at 7.2 ± 0.1 °C temperature and 36.6 ± 0.4 ‰ salinity for 8 months. Total alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon, measured biweekly, characterized the carbonate system and verified that the calcite saturation state remained stable over the culture duration. Trace element concentrations were also measured biweekly. Foraminiferal reproduction ( Bulimina marginata) was observed in each seawater chemistry. These individuals were utilized for trace element and stable isotope (data not presented here) analysis. Additionally, terminal chambers precipitated in alkalinity-adjusted cultures were identified by the absence of the pre-culture calcein label used on all inoculated foraminifera. These cultured chambers were separated by laser microdissection and analyzed for trace element content by isotope dilution inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. We present the initial results of these trace element distribution coefficients measured in cultured benthic foraminifera from three different Ømega. This research was funded by National Science Foundation grants OCE-0351029 and OCE-0437366.

  4. High resolution record of Holocene climate change in speleothem calcite from Cold Water Cave, northeast Iowa

    SciTech Connect

    Dorale, J.A.; Gonzalez, L.A.; Reagan, M.K. (Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States). Dept. of Geology); Pickett, D.A.; Murrell, M.T. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Baker, R.G. (Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States))

    1992-01-01

    High-precision Uranium-Thorium mass spectrometric chronology and O-18--C-13 isotopic analysis of speleothem calcite from Cold Water Cave in northeast iowa have been used to chart mid-Holocene climate change in the North American Midcontinent. Significant shifts in stalagmite [delta]O-18 and [delta]C-13 at 5,900 and 3,600 years BP coincide with well documented Holocene vegetation changes. Estimates of mean annual temperature have been made using stalagmite calcite [delta]O-18 to constrain an iterative solution for temperature in an equation combining, Dansgaard's (1964) precipitation-temperature relationship and Friedman and O'Neils (1977) fractionation relationship. Temperature estimates suggest a rapid warming of approximately 3 C at 5,900 years BP, followed by a rapid 4 C cooling at 3,600 years BP. The initiation of a gradual increase in calcite [delta]C-13 at 5,900 years BP suggests that replacement of forest (C[sub 3] rich) dominated soil biomass by prairie detritus (C[sub 4] rich) is slow. Biomass turnover is not complete by 3,600 years BP when rapid cooling and a return to forest dominated vegetation takes place. The preserved record in stalagmite calcite provides a more precise and accurate timing of climatic change for the North American Midcontinent than those obtained from C-14 dated records such as pollen and plant macrofossil. Continuous deposition of stalagmite calcite could potentially allow the extraction of better than decadal and possibly annual climate record during the Holocene.

  5. Rheology of calcite-quartz aggregates deformed to large strain in torsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybacki, Erik; Paterson, Mervyn S.; Wirth, Richard; Dresen, Georg

    2003-02-01

    High-temperature, high-pressure torsion experiments have been conducted on Solnhofen limestone and synthetic calcite-quartz aggregates to investigate the evolution of mechanical strength and microstructure to large strains. Hot isostatic pressing of powders containing 1-30 wt% quartz particles produced synthetic two-phase aggregates containing trace amounts of wollastonite. The experiments were performed at constant twist rate, 300 MPa confining pressure, and temperatures ranging from 900 to 1300 K in the stability fields of calcite plus quartz and wollastonite plus carbon dioxide. The mechanical data from torsion tests of most samples show a pronounced peak stress at shear strains <1 and subsequent weakening. For most samples, a steady state stress is reached only at shear strains >5. A distinct shape and lattice preferred orientation developed in Solnhofen limestone and in the calcite matrix of the synthetic aggregates. However, at large shear strains, flattened porphyroclasts were almost entirely consumed by recrystallization. Elongation parallel to the specimen axis at temperature below 1100 K is possibly due to rotation of minerals into a preferred crystallographic orientation. Stress exponent and activation energy for creep of the calcite-quartz aggregates increase substantially with increasing quartz content. The strength of the two-phase aggregates increases with quartz fraction up to 20 wt% by a factor of 2-5 depending on temperature and finite strain. Continuum models underestimate particle strengthening of the calcite-quartz aggregates. An alternative microphysical mechanism for the observed strengthening may be related to the reduced mobility of dislocations through diffusion of silicon into dislocation cores.

  6. Influence of Calcite and Dissolved Calcium on Uranium(VI) Sorption to a Hanford Subsurface Sediment

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Wenming; Ball, William P.; Liu, Chongxuan; Wang, Zheming; Stone, Alan T.; Bai, Jing; Zachara, John M.

    2005-10-15

    The influence of calcite and dissolved calcium on U(VI) adsorption was investigated using a calcite-containing sandy silt/clay sediment from the U. S. Department of Energy Hanford site. U(VI) adsorption to sediment, treated sediment, and sediment size fractions was studied in solutions that both had and had not been preequilibrated with calcite, at initial [U(VI)] - 10-7-10-5 mol/L and final pH - 6.0-10.0. Kinetic and reversibility studies (pH 8.4) showed rapid sorption (30 min), with reasonable reversibility in the 3-day reaction time. Sorption from solutions equilibrated with calcite showed maximum U(VI) adsorption at pH 8.4-0.1. In contrast, calcium-free systems showed the greatest adsorption at pH 6.0-7.2. At pH > 8.4, U(VI) adsorption was identical from calcium-free and calcium-containing solutions. For calcite-presaturated systems, both speciation calculations and laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopic analyses indicated that aqueous U(VI) was increasingly dominated by Ca2UO2(CO3)3 0(aq) at pH<8.4 and that formation of Ca2UO2(CO3)3 0(aq) is what suppresses U(VI) adsorption. Above pH 8.4, aqueous U(VI) speciation was dominated by UO2(CO3)3 4- in all solutions. Finally, results also showed that U(VI) adsorption was additive in regard to size fraction but not in regard to mineral mass: Carbonate minerals may have blocked U(VI) access to surfaces of higher sorption affinity.

  7. The Lime Tree School endeavour: healthy body, brain and heart

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Imagine what fun pupils would have at a school where the head dresses up as Dennis the Menace for World Book Day? And equally beneficial to the school, where parents can achieve a sustainable win–win by donating unwanted clothing, which is then sold to recyclers to boost school funds? These are the values that sustain Lime Tree Primary, Kingston's newest school which opened its doors in September 2012. Central to the school's ethos is the unique partnership between health and education that has transformed this fledgling primary school into a real community asset. The problem was a real one facing many local authorities today: a rising birth rate and too few classroom places; a new build seemed the obvious solution – and a real opportunity. Local children, their families, residents and professionals were interviewed and their ideas translated into proposals for the new school. A magical learning environment for local youngsters was created, embodied by the school motto, which recognises that a healthy body sustains better learning, and better learning leads to enhanced health benefits. The school lives and breathes ‘Healthy Body, Brain and Heart’ and transfers this into all its daily activities. And what of the future? There is no doubt that this type of initiative could be adopted in other parts of the new NHS. Wouldn't it be marvellous if other examples of like collaboration could help us jointly tackle the challenges of modern-day living? PMID:25949681

  8. Sediment toxicity testing of Lake Orta after liming

    SciTech Connect

    Baudo, R.; Beltrami, M.; Rossi, D. [CNR, Verbania-Pallanza (Italy). Ist. Italiano Idrobiologia; Gronda, A. [Ecotox LSD, Prenana Milanese (Italy); Abdel-Monem, A.M. [National Institutes of Oceanography and Fisheries, Cairo (Egypt); Burton, G.A. [Wright State Univ., Dayton, OH (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Lake Orta has been severely polluted by industrial effluents containing Cu, NH{sub 3}, Cr., Ni, and Zn. Ammonia oxidation caused a pH drop below 4. More than 60 papers have described the adverse chemical and biological changes which occurred in Lake Orta in the past several decades. In 1989, CaCO{sub 3} (10,900 tons) was added to the lake as a remedial action. The treatment was effective, improving water quality and allowing some original plankton, benthic, and fish populations to return. However, Cu and Cr are still present in the top 10 cm of sediment. The toxicity of the sediment was evaluated using multiple assays: Microtox (solid phase and pore water), Brachionus calyciflorus and Thamnocephalus platyurus Toxkits (pore water), seed germination and root elongation (solid phase and pore water). In addition, in situ and laboratory tests were conducted with Hyalella azteca and an indigenous species of Daphnia. Assays responses varied yet showed surficial sediments to be toxic. Toxicity increased with sediment in pre-liming deposition zones. Recovery of the ecosystem is evident, however the contaminated sediments may impede further improvement.

  9. Using magnetic resonance imaging to monitor CH4 hydrate formation and spontaneous conversion of CH4 hydrate to CO2 hydrate in porous media.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Bernard A; Stevens, Jim; Howard, James J; Graue, Arne; Kvamme, Bjorn; Aspenes, Erick; Ersland, Geir; Husebø, Jarle; Zornes, David R

    2009-06-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging was used to monitor and quantify methane hydrate formation and exchange in porous media. Conversion of methane hydrate to carbon dioxide hydrate, when exposed to liquid carbon dioxide at 8.27 MPa and approximately 4 degrees C, was experimentally demonstrated with MRI data and verified by mass balance calculations of consumed volumes of gases and liquids. No detectable dissociation of the hydrate was measured during the exchange process. PMID:19168304

  10. Hydrate pingoes at Nyegga: some characteristic features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovland, M.

    2009-04-01

    Hydrate pingoes were observed on the seafloor during two different remotely operated vehicle (ROV)-dives, conducted by Statoil at complex-pockmark G11, at Nyegga, off Mid-Norway. Confirmation that these structures actually represent hydrate ice-cored sediment mounds (pingoes), was done by other investigators (Ivanov et al., 2006). Because it is expected that hydrate pingoes represent relatively dynamic seafloor topographic structures and that their shape and size most probably will change over relatively short time, it is important to know how to recognise them visually. Hovland and Svensen (2006) highlighted five different characteristic aspects that define hydrate pingoes on the sea floor: 1) They are dome- or disc-shaped features, which may attain any size from ~0.5 m in height and upwards. Inside pockmark G11, they were up to 1 m high. 2) They are circular or oval in plan view and may attain lateral sizes on the seafloor ranging upwards from ~0.5 m. Inside G11 they had lengths of several metres and widths of up to 4 m. 3) They have dense communities of organisms growing on their surfaces. At G11, they were overgrown with small pogonophoran tube-worms. 4) They have patches of white or grey bacterial mats growing on their surface, indicating advection (seepage) of reduced pore-waters. 5) They have small pits and patches of fluidized sediments on their surface, indicating pit corrosion of the sub-surface gas hydrate. Because gas hydrates often form in high-porosity, near-surface sediments, where water is readily available, it is thought that they will build up at locations where gases are actively migrating upwards from depth. However, gas hydrates are not stable in the presence of ambient seawater, as seawater is deficient in guest molecule gases (normally methane). Therefore, they tend to build up below surface above conduits for gas flow from depth. But, the near-surface hydrate ice-lenses will continually be corroded by seawater circulating into the sediments from above. It is, therefore, expected that hydrate pingoes continually accrete from below and ablate from above, processes which cause a continuous change of size and shape over time, as long as fluid migration is active. These active (mainly inorganic) processes also stimulate organic life, by the continuous release of: a) dissolved methane and other reduced chemical species, and b) low-salinity and/or high-salinity water, released by active hydrate formation and dissociation.

  11. Arguments for a Comprehensive Laboratory Research Subprogram on Hydrocarbon Gas Hydrates and Hydrate-Sediment Aggregates in the 2005-2010 DOE Methane Hydrate R & D Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. H. Kirby

    2005-01-01

    Field observations of natural hydrocarbon clathrate hydrates, including responses to drilling perturbations of hydrates, well logging and analysis of drill core, and field geophysics are, combined with theoretical modeling, justifiably key activities of the authorized 2005-2010 DOE Methane Hydrate Program. It is argued in this presentation that sustained fundamental laboratory research amplifies, extends and verifies results obtained from field and

  12. Hydration during intense exercise training.

    PubMed

    Maughan, R J; Meyer, N L

    2013-01-01

    Hydration status has profound effects on both physical and mental performance, and sports performance is thus critically affected. Both overhydration and underhydration - if sufficiently severe - will impair performance and pose a risk to health. Athletes may begin exercise in a hypohydrated state as a result of incomplete recovery from water loss induced in order to achieve a specific body mass target or due to incomplete recovery from a previous competition or training session. Dehydration will also develop in endurance exercise where fluid intake does not match water loss. The focus has generally been on training rather than on competition, but sweat loss and fluid replacement in training may have important implications. Hypohydration may impair training quality and may also increase stress levels. It is unclear whether this will have negative effects (reduced training quality, impaired immunity) or whether it will promote a greater adaptive response. Hypohydration and the consequent hyperthermia, however, can enhance the effectiveness of a heat acclimation program, resulting in improved endurance performance in warm and temperate environments. Drinking in training may be important in enhancing tolerance of the gut when athletes plan to drink in competition. The distribution of water between body water compartments may also be important in the initiation and promotion of cellular adaptations to the training stimulus. PMID:23899752

  13. Suppression of swelling associated with ettringite formation in lime stabilized sulphate bearing clay soils by partial substitution of lime with ground granulated blastfurnace slag (GGBS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Wild; J. M. Kinuthia; G. I. Jones; D. D. Higgins

    1999-01-01

    Ettringite related swelling in lime-stabilized sulphate bearing clay soil systems has only been reported within the last decade although similar expansive behaviour has been reported in concrete over many years. The use of ground granulated blastfurnace slag (GGBS), an industrial by-product, is well established as a binder in many cement applications where it provides enhanced durability and high resistance to

  14. A Conduction Calorimeter for Measuring the Heat of Cement Hydration in the Initial Hydration Period

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Zielenkiewicz; M. Kami?ski

    2001-01-01

    A new-design conduction microcalorimeter is described, which has been used to measure the heat of cement hydration evolved\\u000a in the initial period of hydration. The calorimeter is 30 cm3 in volume; the heat loss coefficient is 27.2700.015 W V–1, the time constant is 300 s.

  15. The healthy newborn hydration model: a new model for understanding newborn hydration immediately after birth.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Pamela J; Gardner, Sue E

    2015-01-01

    The normal small volume of breast milk produced in the first 2 days following birth may raise concerns about adequate hydration in breast-fed newborns. These concerns are further magnified when breast-fed infants lose ?7% of their birth weight within 2 days postnatally. Weight loss following birth is presumably mostly water loss that could result in hypohydration and subsequent hypernatremic dehydration. However, excess fluid loss immediately following birth is a normal and necessary process. Furthermore, newborns exposed to excess fluid intake during labor may need to lose ?7% of birth weight in the first 2 days following birth in order to achieve euhydration. Normal newborn fluid loss following birth confounds the use of weight loss as the sole measure of newborn hydration. We thus propose the healthy newborn hydration model that highlights the normalcy of newborn weight loss immediately following birth and the healthy newborn's compensatory mechanisms for preserving adequate hydration. We also recommend the use of serum sodium to measure intravascular osmolarity in addition to monitoring weight loss to obtain a more comprehensive newborn hydration assessment. Research is necessary in healthy newborns to identify relationships among fluids received in utero, newborn weight loss, and hydration, as evaluated with laboratory measures, in the first 2 days following birth. This information will guide clinicians in correctly identifying newborns with inadequate hydration who are in need of supplementary fluids versus newborns with adequate hydration for whom exclusive breast-feeding can be supported and encouraged. PMID:25504955

  16. Lime and Soil Moisture Effects on Nitrogen gas Loss Following Fertilizer Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, C.; Maggi, F.; Riley, W.; Oldenburg, C.

    2007-12-01

    The loss of nitrogen from fertilizer application through ammonia volatilization and nitrous oxide emissions are of major environmental concern. Liming has been regarded as a mitigation option for lowering soil nitrogen gas emissions following the addition of fertilizers. A mechanistic nitrogen-cycle model (TOUGHREACT-N) has been developed to simulate the interaction of water saturation variation with biogeochemical processes, and the balance between liming and soil buffering capacity. The model was tested with data from a laboratory soil incubation following the addition of synthetic urine (500 kg N ha-1). Simulation results agreed well with measured N2O emissions and soil inorganic-N concentrations. The study indicated that liming significantly increase NH3 volatilization, while the reduction in cumulative N2O emissions depended strongly on water regime. The cumulative N2O emissions under relatively dry conditions were reduced by up to 243% with liming. However, the cumulative N2O and N2 emissions were predicted to increase by up to 346% following liming because the resulting NO3--N pools (from enhanced nitrification) were susceptible to enhanced N2O and N2 losses during subsequent water application. Consequently, short-term (i.e., days ¡§C weeks) gains made in reducing soil N2O emissions by liming can be offset, and potentially reversed, by emissions later in the growing season. We describe an approach using the modeling framework to optimize N gas reductions using liming under various edaphic, crop type, fertilizer and irrigation application rates, and climate conditions.

  17. Complex admixtures of clathrate hydrates in a water desalination method

    DOEpatents

    Simmons, Blake A. (San Francisco, CA); Bradshaw, Robert W. (Livermore, CA); Dedrick, Daniel E. (Berkeley, CA); Anderson, David W. (Riverbank, CA)

    2009-07-14

    Disclosed is a method that achieves water desalination by utilizing and optimizing clathrate hydrate phenomena. Clathrate hydrates are crystalline compounds of gas and water that desalinate water by excluding salt molecules during crystallization. Contacting a hydrate forming gaseous species with water will spontaneously form hydrates at specific temperatures and pressures through the extraction of water molecules from the bulk phase followed by crystallite nucleation. Subsequent dissociation of pure hydrates yields fresh water and, if operated correctly, allows the hydrate-forming gas to be efficiently recycled into the process stream.

  18. Gas hydrates: Unlocking the energy from icy cages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koh, Carolyn A.; Sum, Amadeu K.; Sloan, E. Dendy

    2009-09-01

    Technological advancements to control gas hydrates in energy transportation, recovery, and storage require detailed knowledge of the structural properties of these materials, and the thermodynamic and kinetic mechanisms of gas hydrate formation and decomposition. Paradigm shifts are moving the energy industry from thermodynamic to kinetic control strategies of gas hydrates in gas and oil deepwater pipelines, and from exploration to production from hydrated arctic deposits. This review examines the recent research progress in molecular structural kinetic studies of gas hydrates, and the development of new strategies for detecting and producing energy from arctic and oceanic hydrated deposits, and producing new materials for hydrogen storage.

  19. Calibration of the calcite-water oxygen-isotope geothermometer at Devils Hole, Nevada, a natural laboratory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coplen, T.B.

    2007-01-01

    The ??18O of ground water (-13.54 ?? 0.05 ???) and inorganically precipitated Holocene vein calcite (+14.56 ?? 0.03 ???) from Devils Hole cave #2 in southcentral Nevada yield an oxygen isotopic fractionation factor between calcite and water at 33.7 ??C of 1.02849 ?? 0.00013 (1000 ln ??calcite-water = 28.09 ?? 0.13). Using the commonly accepted value of ???(??calcite-water)/???T of -0.00020 K-1, this corresponds to a 1000 ln ??calcite-water value at 25 ??C of 29.80, which differs substantially from the current accepted value of 28.3. Use of previously published oxygen isotopic fractionation factors would yield a calcite precipitation temperature in Devils Hole that is 8 ??C lower than the measured ground water temperature. Alternatively, previously published fractionation factors would yield a ??18O of water, from which the calcite precipitated, that is too negative by 1.5 ??? using a temperature of 33.7 ??C. Several lines of evidence indicate that the geochemical environment of Devils Hole has been remarkably constant for at least 10 ka. Accordingly, a re-evaluation of calcite-water oxygen isotopic fractionation factor may be in order. Assuming the Devils Hole oxygen isotopic value of ??calcite-water represents thermodynamic equilibrium, many marine carbonates are precipitated with a ??18O value that is too low, apparently due to a kinetic isotopic fractionation that preferentially enriches 16O in the solid carbonate over 18O, feigning oxygen isotopic equilibrium.

  20. A reaction-transport model for calcite precipitation and evaluation of infiltration fluxes in unsaturated fractured rock.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tianfu; Sonnenthal, Eric; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur

    2003-06-01

    The percolation flux in the unsaturated zone (UZ) is an important parameter addressed in site characterization and flow and transport modeling of the potential nuclear-waste repository at Yucca Mountain, NV, USA. The US Geological Survey (USGS) has documented hydrogenic calcite abundances in fractures and lithophysal cavities at Yucca Mountain to provide constraints on percolation fluxes in the UZ. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between percolation flux and measured calcite abundances using reactive transport modeling. Our model considers the following essential factors affecting calcite precipitation: (1) infiltration, (2) the ambient geothermal gradient, (3) gaseous CO(2) diffusive transport and partitioning in liquid and gas phases, (4) fracture-matrix interaction for water flow and chemical constituents, and (5) water-rock interaction. Over a bounding range of 2-20 mm/year infiltration rate, the simulated calcite distributions capture the trend in calcite abundances measured in a deep borehole (WT-24) by the USGS. The calcite is found predominantly in fractures in the welded tuffs, which is also captured by the model simulations. Simulations showed that from about 2 to 6 mm/year, the amount of calcite precipitated in the welded Topopah Spring tuff is sensitive to the infiltration rate. This dependence decreases at higher infiltration rates owing to a modification of the geothermal gradient from the increased percolation flux. The model also confirms the conceptual model for higher percolation fluxes in the fractures compared to the matrix in the welded units, and the significant contribution of Ca from water-rock interaction. This study indicates that reactive transport modeling of calcite deposition can yield important constraints on the unsaturated zone infiltration-percolation flux and provide useful insight into processes such as fracture-matrix interaction as well as conditions and parameters controlling calcite deposition. PMID:12744832

  1. Oxygen isotope relationships between rainfall, dripwater and speleothem calcite from Westcave, central Texas, USA: Possible implications for paleoclimate study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinze Fry, A. L.; FENG, W.; Banner, J. L.; Casteel, R. C.

    2011-12-01

    Paleoclimate conditions such as temperature and rainfall amount can be inferred from oxygen isotope (?18O) records of speleothems. Understanding the environmental controls on oxygen isotope variations in speleothem calcite will improve such inferences. Westcave preserve, located in central Texas, contains a small, shallow, and well-ventilated cave where year-round speleothem growth is primarily influenced by temperature, which ranges up to 20 °C seasonally. This provides an opportunity to examine the relationships between temperature and rainfall, dripwater and speleothem calcite ?18O as a means to assess speleothem ?18O as a paleoclimate proxy. Over the study period from April 2009 to June 2011, rainfall ?18O values ranged from -10.5 to 1.0 % (VSMOW), whereas dripwater ?18O values ranged from -4.8 to -3.9 % (VSMOW). The small range of 1.1 % in dripwater ?18O, compared to a rainfall ?18O range of 11.5 %, indicates a well-homogenized water reservoir feeding the Westcave speleothems. Calcite grown on a sequence of artificial substrates placed under three active drip sites in the cave has ?18O values ranging from 6.6 to -3.1 % (PDB). When compared to expected ?18O of calcite in equilibrium with its associated dripwater (calculated using measured cave temperatures and published calcite-water oxygen isotope fractionation factors), measured calcite ?18O are either in isotope equilibrium, or deviate from it up to 2.0 %, indicating possible influence of kinetic fractionation. Nevertheless, the 3.5 % seasonal variation in ?18O values of substrate calcite displays a strong negative correlation with temperature, including water temperature, cave air temperature and outside air temperature from a nearby weather station. These correlations, along with relatively narrow seasonal range in dripwater ?18O values, indicate that temperature is the most important factor controlling speleothem calcite ?18O in this setting, allowing for the potential preservation of seasonal temperature variations in speleothem calcite from this cave.

  2. The hydration dependence of CaCO3 absorption lines in the Far IR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, Johnny; Emery, Logan P

    2014-06-01

    The far infrared (FIR) absorption lines of CaCO3 have been measured at a range of relative humidities (RH) between 33 and 92% RH using a Bruker 66v/S spectrometer. Hydration measurements on CaCO3 have been made in the mid-infrared (MIR) by [Al-Hosney, H.A. and Grassian, V.H., 2005, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 7, 1266], and astrophysically-motivated temperature-dependent FIR measurements of CaCO3 in vacuum have also been reported [Posch, T., et al., 2007, Ap. J., 668, 993]. The custom sample cell constructed for these hydrated-FIR spectra is required because the 66v/S bench is under vacuum (3 mbar) during typical measurements. Briefly, the sample cell consists of two Thalium Bromoiodide (KRS-5) windows, four O-rings, a plastic ring for separating the windows and providing a volume for the saturated atmosphere. CaCO3 was deposited on KRS-5 windows using doubly-distilled water as an intermediary. The KRS-5 window with sample and assembled sample cell were placed in a desiccator with the appropriated saturated salt solution [Washburn, E.W. (Ed.), International Critical Tables of Numerical Data, Physics Chemistry and Technology, Vol. 1, (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1926), p. 67-68] and allowed to hydrate for 23 hours. For spectroscopy the desiccator was quickly opened and the second KRS-5 window placed in the cell to seal the chamber. A spectrum was then taken of the sample at the appropriate RH. The spectra taken characterize the adsorption of water vapor and CaCO3 that might occur in circumstellar environments [Melnick, G.J., et al. 2001, Nature, 412, 160].The MIR and FIR reflectance spectra of calcite (CaCO3) have been thoroughly studied by [Hellwege, K.H., et al., 1970, Z. Physik, 232, 61]. Five Lorentzian curves were fit to our data in the range from 378-222 cm-1/SUP and each was able to be assigned to a known mode of CaCO3. The data does not support the conclusion of a hydration effect on these modes of CaCO3, but it does suggest a possible broadening of three modes peaked at 281 cm-1. The goal of this work is to bridge the body of work on CaCO3 in physical chemistry and previous laboratory astrophysical observations to aid interpretation of FIR spectra obtained by observatories such as the Spitzer Space Telescope.

  3. METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Sigal; Kent Newsham; Thomas Williams; Barry Freifeld; Timothy Kneafsey; Carl Sondergeld; Shandra Rai; Jonathan Kwan; Stephen Kirby; Robert Kleinberg; Doug Griffin

    2005-02-01

    Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrate potential agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. The work scope drilled and cored a well The Hot Ice No. 1 on Anadarko leases beginning in FY 2003 and completed in 2004. An on-site core analysis laboratory was built and utilized for determining the physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. The well was drilled from a new Anadarko Arctic Platform that has a minimal footprint and environmental impact. The final efforts of the project are to correlate geology, geophysics, logs, and drilling and production data and provide this information to scientists developing reservoir models. No gas hydrates were encountered in this well; however, a wealth of information was generated and is contained in this report. The Hot Ice No. 1 well was drilled from the surface to a measured depth of 2300 ft. There was almost 100% core recovery from the bottom of surface casing at 107 ft to total depth. Based on the best estimate of the bottom of the methane hydrate stability zone (which used new data obtained from Hot Ice No. 1 and new analysis of data from adjacent wells), core was recovered over its complete range. Approximately 580 ft of porous, mostly frozen, sandstone and 155 of conglomerate were recovered in the Ugnu Formation and approximately 215 ft of porous sandstone were recovered in the West Sak Formation. There were gas shows in the bottom part of the Ugnu and throughout the West Sak. No hydrate-bearing zones were identified either in recovered core or on well logs. The base of the permafrost was found at about 1260 ft. With the exception of the deepest sands in the West Sak and some anomalous thin, tight zones, all sands recovered (after thawing) are unconsolidated with high porosity and high permeability. At 800 psi, Ugnu sands have an average porosity of 39.3% and geometrical mean permeability of 3.7 Darcys. Average grain density is 2.64 g/cc. West Sak sands have an average porosity of 35.5%, geometrical mean permeability of 0.3 Darcys, and average grain density of 2.70 g/cc. There were several 1-2 ft intervals of carbonate-cemented sandstone recovered from the West Sak. These intervals have porosities of only a few percent and very low permeability. On a well log they appear as resistive with a high sonic velocity. In shallow sections of other wells these usually are the only logs available. Given the presence of gas in Hot Ice No. 1, if only resistivity and sonic logs and a mud log had been available, tight sand zones may have been interpreted as containing hydrates. Although this finding does not imply that all previously mapped hydrate zones are merely tight sands, it does add a note of caution to the practice of interpreting the presence of hydrates from old well information. The methane hydrate stability zone below the Hot Ice No. 1 location includes thick sections of sandstone and conglomerate which would make excellent reservoir rocks for hydrates and below the permafrost zone shallow gas. The Ugnu formation comprises a more sand-rich section than does the West Sak formation, and the Ugnu sands when cleaned and dried are slightly more porous and significantly more permeable than the West Sak.

  4. Lithographic fabrication of soda-lime glass based microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas, L.; Norarat, R.; Napari, M.; Kivistö, H.; Chienthavorn, O.; Whitlow, H. J.

    2013-07-01

    Glass is an important material for chemical processing and analysis because of its relatively low cost, mechanical strength, chemical inertness, optical transparency, and electrical insulation and temperature resistance far beyond that of most polymeric materials. We have investigated techniques for direct writing with MeV ions on soda-lime glass as well as capping procedures to form closed buried channels suitable for high-pressure driven flow. Exposure and development of open-channel structures was studied using a combination of programmable proximity aperture lithography and different developers. Unlike our previous work on MeV ion beam lithography of natural silica where an 8% w/v HF in aqueous solution was used as a developer, it was found that 6% w/v HF + 0.5% w/v HCl was an effective developer. Addition of HCl to the developer was necessary, presumably to dissolve oxide residues that were insoluble in HF solution. Different capping and bonding procedures to create closed channels that are strong enough to withstand high hydrostatic pressure have also been tested. It was found that capping to create a closed channel could be achieved after thorough cleaning. This was followed by activation in ?32% w/v NH4OH or ?30% w/v H2O2 solution, drying on a hot plate and bonded under uniaxial pressure in a furnace ramped up and down at 1 °C/min to 575 °C. Activation in H2O2 was found to give better bonding. Other methods using HF lead to poor bonding due to oxide precipitation.

  5. Distribution of arsenic and mercury in lime spray dryer ash

    SciTech Connect

    Panuwat Taerakul; Ping Sun; Danold W. Golightly; Harold W. Walker; Linda K. Weavers [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States). Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Geodetic Science

    2006-08-15

    The partitioning of As and Hg in various components of lime spray dryer (LSD) ash samples from a coal-fired boiler was characterized to better understand the form and fate of these elements in flue gas desulfurization byproducts. LSD ash samples, collected from the McCracken Power Plant on the Ohio State University campus, were separated by a 140-mesh (106 {mu}m) sieve into two fractions: a fly-ash-/unburned-carbon-enriched fraction (> 106 {mu}m) and a calcium-enriched fraction (< 106 {mu}m). Unburned carbon and fly ash in the material > 106 {mu}m were subsequently separated by density using a lithium heteropolytungstate solution. The concentrations of As and Hg were significant in all fractions. The level of As was consistently greater in the calcium-enriched fraction, while Hg was evenly distributed in all components of LSD ash. Specific surface area was an important factor controlling the distribution of Hg in the different components of LSD ash, but not for As. Comparing the LSD ash data to samples collected from the economizer suggests that As was effectively captured by fly ash at 600{sup o}C, while Hg was not. Leaching tests demonstrated that As and Hg were more stable in the calcium-enriched fraction than in the fly-ash- or carbon-enriched fractions, potentially because of the greater pH of the leachate and subsequently greater stability of small amounts of calcium solids containing trace elements in these fractions. 37 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. High-Altitude Hydration System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parazynski, Scott E.; Orndoff, Evelyne; Bue, Grant C.; Schaefbauer, Mark E.; Urban, Kase

    2010-01-01

    Three methods are being developed for keeping water from freezing during high-altitude climbs so that mountaineers can remain hydrated. Three strategies have been developed. At the time of this reporting two needed to be tested in the field and one was conceptual. The first method is Passive Thermal Control Using Aerogels. This involves mounting the fluid reservoir of the climber s canteen to an inner layer of clothing for better heat retention. For the field test, bottles were mounted to the inner fleece layer of clothing, and then aerogel insulation was placed on the outside of the bottle, and circumferentially around the drink straw. When climbers need to drink, they can pull up the insulated straw from underneath the down suit, take a sip, and then put it back into the relative warmth of the suit. For the field test, a data logger assessed the temperatures of the water reservoir, as well as near the tip of the drink straw. The second method is Passive Thermal Control with Copper-Shielded Drink Straw and Aerogels, also mounted to inner layers of clothing for better heat retention. Braided wire emanates from the inside of the fleece jacket layer, and continues up and around the drink straw in order to use body heat to keep the system-critical drink straw warm enough to keep water in the liquid state. For the field test, a data logger will be used to compare this with the above concept. The third, and still conceptual, method is Active Thermal Control with Microcontroller. If the above methods do not work, microcontrollers and tape heaters have been identified that could keep the drink straw warm even under extremely cold conditions. Power requirements are not yet determined because the thermal environment inside the down suit relative to the external environment has not been established. A data logger will be used to track both the external and internal temperatures of the suit on a summit day.

  7. Gas Hydrates and Perturbed Permafrost: Can Thermokarst Lakes Leak Hydrate-Derived Methane?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruppel, C.; Walter, K.; Pohlman, J.; Wooller, M.

    2008-12-01

    Thermokarst lakes are common features in the continuous permafrost of Siberia, the Alaskan North Slope, and the Canadian Arctic and have been intensely studied as the loci of rapid and substantial methane flux to the atmosphere. Previous numerical modeling has constrained the conditions under which deep thermokarst lakes can develop organic-rich thaw bulbs (talik) tens of meters thick, and seismic surveys have imaged thaw bulbs more than 75 m thick beneath some thermokarst lakes. Microbial processes active in talik organic material are likely the predominant source for thermokarst methane emissions, although coalbed methane and methane associated with conventional hydrocarbons may contribute in some geologic settings. Here we evaluate the possibility that another source--methane released from dissociating gas hydrate--could contribute to methane emissions from these lakes. Temperatures within and beneath thermokarst lakes are significantly warmer than those in surrounding permafrost, and these relatively warm conditions can persist to depths several times greater than the thickness of the thaw bulb. For a 95-m-thick thaw bulb and a geothermal gradient consistent with the regional top of gas hydrate stability at ~200 m depth, the warmer temperatures beneath a thermokarst lake could lead to destabilization of up to 75 m of gas hydrate. Arguably, the presence of gas hydrate near the top of the stability zone in permafrost regions has not yet been observed. Nonetheless, the potential dissociation of such relatively shallow gas hydrate and the widespread availability in terrestrial settings of high permeability conduits (e.g., faults, sandy strata) that could facilitate the migration of hydrate-derived methane to the surface render this an important topic for future investigation. The susceptibility of permafrost gas hydrate zones to thermal perturbations is in sharp contrast to the situation in conventional marine hydrate provinces. There, gas hydrate first dissociates at the base of the stability zone, and upward migration of released methane may result in refreezing of the methane as gas hydrate. The shallow Arctic Ocean offers the opportunity to examine the interplay between both permafrost and marine gas hydrate stability processes in an area where thermokarst thaw bulbs flooded by Holocene sea level rise pierce relict permafrost. Large-scale climate change processes have already affected methane emissions from these now-offshore thermokarst systems. Onshore, the challenges will be determining the contribution (if any) of hydrate-derived methane in contemporary methane emissions using sophisticated analytical techniques and documenting past gas hydrate dissociation events, which are most likely to have coincided with past warming trends in the Arctic.

  8. Novel Hydrogen Hydrate Structures under Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Guang-Rui; Lyakhov, Andriy O.; Zhu, Qiang; Oganov, Artem R.; Dong, Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Gas hydrates are systems of prime importance. In particular, hydrogen hydrates are potential materials of icy satellites and comets, and may be used for hydrogen storage. We explore the H2O–H2 system at pressures in the range 0–100?GPa with ab initio variable-composition evolutionary simulations. According to our calculation and previous experiments, the H2O–H2 system undergoes a series of transformations with pressure, and adopts the known open-network clathrate structures (sII, C0), dense “filled ice” structures (C1, C2) and two novel hydrate phases. One of these is based on the hexagonal ice framework and has the same H2O:H2 ratio (2:1) as the C0 phase at low pressures and similar enthalpy (we name this phase Ih-C0). The other newly predicted hydrate phase has a 1:2 H2O:H2 ratio and structure based on cubic ice. This phase (which we name C3) is predicted to be thermodynamically stable above 38?GPa when including van der Waals interactions and zero-point vibrational energy, and explains previously mysterious experimental X-ray diffraction and Raman measurements. This is the hydrogen-richest hydrate and this phase has a remarkable gravimetric density (18?wt.%) of easily extractable hydrogen. PMID:25001502

  9. Hydration of lysozyme studied by Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kocherbitov, Vitaly; Latynis, Jekaterina; Misiunas, Audrius; Barauskas, Justas; Niaura, Gediminas

    2013-05-01

    Hydration plays a fundamental role in maintaining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins. In this study, Raman spectroscopy was used to probe the hydration induced structural changes at various sites of lysozyme under isothermal conditions in the range of water contents from 0 to 44 wt %. Raman hydration curves were constructed from detailed analysis of marker bands. Transition inflection points (w(m)) and onsets determined from the hydration curves have shown that structural changes start at 7-10 and end at about 35 wt % water. The onset of structural changes coincides with the onset of the broad glass transition earlier observed in this system. The increase of ?-helix content starts at very low concentrations of water with w(m) = 12 wt %. Monitoring the development of importance for enzymatic action hydrophobic clusters has revealed wm = 15 wt % and completion of the process at 25 wt %. The parameters of 621 cm(-1) (Phe) and 1448 cm(-1) (CH2 bending) modes were found to be sensitive to hydration, suggesting changes in organization of water molecules near the protein surface. The native structure of lysozyme was achieved at 35 wt % water where its content is high enough for filling the space between lysozyme molecules. PMID:23557185

  10. Hydration shells exchange charge with their protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abitan, H.; Lindgård, P.-A.; Nielsen, B. G.; Larsen, M. S.; Bohr, H. G.

    2010-09-01

    Investigation of the interaction between a protein and its hydration shells is an experimental and theoretical challenge. Here, we used ultrasonic pressure waves in aqueous solutions of a protein to explore the conformational states of the protein and its interaction with its hydration shells. In our experiments, the amplitude of an ultrasonic pressure wave is gradually increased (0-20 atm) while we simultaneously measure the Raman spectra from the hydrated protein (?-lactoglobulin and lysozyme). We detected two types of spectral changes: first, up to 70% increase in the intensity of the fluorescence background of the Raman spectrum with a typical relaxation time of 30-45 min. Second, we detect changes in the vibrational Raman spectra. To clarify these results we conducted similar experiments with aqueous solutions of amino acids and ethanol. These experiments led us to conclude that, without the presence of an ultrasonic pressure, a protein and its hydration shells are in thermodynamic and charge equilibrium, i.e. a protein and its hydration shells exchange charges. The ultrasonic wave disrupts these equilibria which are regained within 30-45 min after the ultrasonic pressure is shut off.

  11. Characterization of hydrated sodium molybdenum bronzes

    SciTech Connect

    Sotani, Noriyuki; Eda, Kazuo; Kunitomo, Masakazu (Kobe Univ. (Japan))

    1990-11-01

    Two kinds of hydrated sodium molybdenum bronzes, an air-dried bronze (AD) and a vacuum dried one (VD), are characterized using x-ray diffraction, TG-DTA, IR spectroscopy, and NMR. According to NMR results, the paired protons and a small amount of isolated protons fixed in position are included both in AD and VD. It is found that the hydrate-water (HW) in VD exists basically in the form of hydrated sodium ion, Na{sup +}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}, where Na{sup +} coordinates with four terminal oxygens of an (MoO{sub 6}) octahedron of MoO{sub 3} and two oxygens of hydrate-water (HW-2). The composition of VD has been determined as (Na(H{sub 2}O){sub 1.95}){sub 0.22}H{sub 0.03}MoO{sub 3.11}. In addition to HW-2, AD includes another hydrate-water (HW-1), which is easily removed by drying in vacuo and/or by standing in air. The composition of AD has been determined as (Na(H{sub 2}O){sub 2+2.26}){sub 0.23}H{sub 0.02}MoO{sub 3.10}.

  12. Novel Hydrogen Hydrate Structures under Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Guang-Rui; Lyakhov, Andriy O.; Zhu, Qiang; Oganov, Artem R.; Dong, Xiao

    2014-07-01

    Gas hydrates are systems of prime importance. In particular, hydrogen hydrates are potential materials of icy satellites and comets, and may be used for hydrogen storage. We explore the H2O-H2 system at pressures in the range 0-100 GPa with ab initio variable-composition evolutionary simulations. According to our calculation and previous experiments, the H2O-H2 system undergoes a series of transformations with pressure, and adopts the known open-network clathrate structures (sII, C0), dense ``filled ice'' structures (C1, C2) and two novel hydrate phases. One of these is based on the hexagonal ice framework and has the same H2O:H2 ratio (2:1) as the C0 phase at low pressures and similar enthalpy (we name this phase Ih-C0). The other newly predicted hydrate phase has a 1:2 H2O:H2 ratio and structure based on cubic ice. This phase (which we name C3) is predicted to be thermodynamically stable above 38 GPa when including van der Waals interactions and zero-point vibrational energy, and explains previously mysterious experimental X-ray diffraction and Raman measurements. This is the hydrogen-richest hydrate and this phase has a remarkable gravimetric density (18 wt.%) of easily extractable hydrogen.

  13. Lime treatment of fly ash: Characterization of leachate composition and solid/water reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Duchesne, J. [Univ. Laval, Quebec (Canada). Dept. de Geologie et de Genie Geologique] [Univ. Laval, Quebec (Canada). Dept. de Geologie et de Genie Geologique; Reardon, E.J. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Earth Sciences] [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Earth Sciences

    1999-06-01

    Standard leach tests of fly ashes often yield solution concentrations of B, Cr, Mo and SO{sub 4} above drinking water standards. In this study, the separate addition of lime, Portland cement and cement kiln dust to a Class F and a Class C fly ash has been investigated as a possible remediation treatment to remove undesirable elements from the leachates. Leach tests without additives at several water/solid ratios revealed levels of B, Cr, Mo and SO{sub 4} above drinking water standards. A marked reduction in all these elements occurred at 3:1, 6:1 and 20:1 water/solid ratios with a 20 mass% addition of lime or cement. Reductions were more pronounced for the Class F than for the Class C fly ash. The mineralogical and chemical composition of fly ash influences its behavior with respect to the additive treatment. In this study, an anionic clay (hydrocalumite) is formed in considerable quantity in the Class F fly ash treated with lime; and can accommodate anions like borate, chromate and molybdate into its interlayer region. With Class C fly ash, the lime-treatment generates hydrogarnet, which has less sites for anion substitution; and ettringite, which has less preference for chromate and molybdate than hydrocalumite. The overall order of improvement in fly ash leachate water quality with additive treatment was lime > OPC > CKD.

  14. Advanced mineral calciner for regeneration of lime. Final report, March 1995--May 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Namazian, M.; Nickeson, R.; Lovas, B.; Miller, G.; Kelly, J.

    1997-12-31

    There are approximately 800 pulp, paper and paperboard mills in the United States. Pulp and paper is the ninth largest industry in US, uses 2.8 quads of energy per year and ranks third among all domestic US industries in the cost of energy consumed. A significant fraction of the energy consumed in pulp and paper plants is needed to recover chemicals that are used in breaking down the wood chips into pulp. In particular, 0.1 quads of energy per year are used to regenerate lime. Furthermore, pulp and paper plant operations generate 9,870 tons of NOx per year. Additionally over two million tons of spent lime are sent to landfills each year. In addition, growth in paper demand and changes in plant processes (e.g., bleaching), as a result of environmental pressures, will continue to drive the need for more lime regeneration capacity. Unless the increased capacity can be delivered productively and inexpensively, the growth in pulp and paper may occur in overseas markets. Furthermore, if new environmental constraints cannot be met at low cost, existing US pulp and paper production capacity may also move off-shore. The advanced mineral calciner (AMC) technology was developed to address this lime regeneration need. Prior to describing the technology, and the program of work that was used to test the concept, conventional lime regeneration systems and their limitations are described.

  15. Mechanisms by which ground granulated blastfurnace slag prevents sulphate attack of lime-stabilized kaolinite

    SciTech Connect

    Tasong, W.A.; Wild, S. [Univ. of Glamorgan, Pontypridd (United Kingdom). Centre for Research in the Built Environment] [Univ. of Glamorgan, Pontypridd (United Kingdom). Centre for Research in the Built Environment; Tilley, R.J.D. [Univ. of Cardiff (United Kingdom). School of Engineering] [Univ. of Cardiff (United Kingdom). School of Engineering

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes the mechanisms by which ground granulated blastfurnace slag (ggbs) prevents sulphate attack of lime-stabilized kaolinite. Microstructural and mineral phase analyses of compacted cylinders of lime-stabilized kaolinite with different percentages of lime replacement by ggbs have been carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray diffractometry (XRD). The cylinders were immersed in 4.2% Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution and also in deionized water for various time periods. The exposure data showed that the effect of ggbs in preventing the formation of expansive ettringite in lime-stabilized kaolinite, which had been exposed to 4.2% Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution was dramatic. The results also revealed three different growth mechanisms of ettringite in the lime-ggbs-kaolinite systems that were exposed to 4.2% Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution. These are: well-formed randomly orientated rods of high aspect ratio growing in pores and cracks, short needles covering surfaces of existing particles, and flower-like needles radiating from isolated points and scattered randomly through the sample.

  16. A thermodynamic adsorption/entrapment model for selenium(IV) coprecipitation with calcite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heberling, Frank; Vinograd, Victor L.; Polly, Robert; Gale, Julian D.; Heck, Stephanie; Rothe, Jörg; Bosbach, Dirk; Geckeis, Horst; Winkler, Björn

    2014-06-01

    Selenium is an environmentally relevant trace element, while the radioisotope 79Se is of particular concern in the context of nuclear waste disposal safety. Oxidized selenium species are relatively soluble and show only weak adsorption at common mineral surfaces. However, a possible sorption mechanism for selenium in the geosphere is the structural incorporation of selenium(IV) (selenite, SeO32-) into calcite (CaCO3). In this study we investigate the interactions between selenite and calcite by a series of experimental and computational methods with the aim to quantify selenite incorporation into calcite at standard conditions. We further seek to describe the thermodynamics of selenite-doped calcite, and selenite coprecipitation with calcite. The structure of the incorporated species is investigated using Se K-edge EXAFS (isotropic and polarization dependent) and results are compared to density functional theory (DFT) calculations. These investigations confirm structural incorporation of selenite into calcite by the substitution of carbonate for selenite, leading to the formation of a Ca(SeO3)X(CO3)(1-X) solid solution. Coprecipitation experiments at low supersaturation indicate a linear increase of the selenite to carbonate ratio in the solid with the increase of the selenite to carbonate ratio in the contact solution. This relationship can be described under the assumption of an ideal mixing between calcite and a virtual CaSeO3 endmember, whose standard Gibbs free energy (G0(CaSeO3_exp) = -953 ± 6 kJ/mol, log10(KSP(CaSeO3_exp)) = -6.7 ± 1.0) is defined by linear extrapolation of the excess free energy from the dilute Henry’s law domain to X(CaSeO3) = 1. In contrast to this experimental result, DFT and force field calculations predict the virtual bulk CaSeO3 endmember to be significantly less stable and more soluble: G0(CaSeO3 bulk) = -912 ± 10 kJ/mol and log10(KSP(CaSeO3_bulk)) = 0.5 ± 1.7. To explain this discrepancy we introduce a thermodynamic adsorption/entrapment concept. This concept is based on the idea that the experimental value of -953 ± 6 kJ/mol reflects the Gibbs free energy of CaSeO3 within the surface layer, while the value obtained from atomistic calculations reflects bulk thermodynamic properties. In coprecipitation experiments performed at steady-state conditions the difference between these values is compensated by the supersaturation. Thus, if the Gibbs free energies of the bulk CaCO3 and CaSeO3 endmembers are substituted with the Gibbs free energies of the surface endmembers, the coprecipitation experiment can still be treated within the formalism of equilibrium thermodynamics. This concept leads to a number of important consequences, which can be tested both experimentally and theoretically. We show that selenite adsorption at the calcite surface and selenite coprecipitation with calcite under supersaturated conditions can be described with the same partition coefficient. This implies that the coprecipitation can be viewed as a sequence of adsorption and entrapment events. On the other hand, our aragonite recrystallization experiments show that at near equilibrium conditions the calcite growth is inhibited in the presence of selenite. Consistent with these observations, our DFT calculations show that the substitution of carbonate for selenite is energetically more favorable at the surface than inside the bulk. The whole set of the experimental and atomistic simulation results leads to the conclusion that the calcite-CaSeO3 solid solution can only grow continuously if the aqueous solution is supersaturated with respect to the bulk solid solution. Under these conditions selenite coprecipitates with calcite at a partition coefficient of D = 0.02 ± 0.01. If the solution is undersaturated with respect to the bulk solid solution, only surface ion-exchange occurs. Elevated selenite concentrations in bulk calcite therefore reflect non-equilibrium conditions.

  17. Cage occupancy and structural changes during hydrate formation from initial stages to resulting hydrate phase.

    PubMed

    Schicks, Judith M; Luzi-Helbing, Manja

    2013-11-01

    Hydrate formation processes and kinetics are still not sufficiently understood on a molecular level based on experimental data. In particular, the cavity formation and occupancy during the initial formation and growth processes of mixed gas hydrates are rarely investigated. In this study, we present the results of our time-depending Raman spectroscopic measurements during the formation of hydrates from ice and gases or gas mixtures such as CH4, CH4-CO2, CH4-H2S, CH4-C3H8, CH4-iso-C4H10, and CH4-neo-C5H12 at constant pressure and temperature conditions and constant composition of the feed gas phase. All investigated systems in this study show the incorporation of CH4 into the 5(12) cavities as first step in the initial stages of hydrate formation. Furthermore, the results imply that the initial hydrate phases differ from the resulting hydrate phase having reached a steady state regarding the occupancy and ratio of the small and large cavities of the hydrate. PMID:23871981

  18. Contribution of water molecules to methane hydrate dissociation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kida, Masato; Watanabe, Mizuho; Jin, Yusuke; Nagao, Jiro

    2015-06-01

    In this report, we describe the effects of ice on the restriction of methane diffusion during the dissociation of pressurized methane hydrate grains using two deuterium-labelling approaches with D2O. Direct measurements of the dissociation behaviors of the methane hydrate samples labelled by a temperature ramping method at temperatures of 253.0–293.0 K were carried out. The deuterium-labelling approaches demonstrated that water molecules in the host framework of methane hydrate predominantly contribute to ice formation, which restricts methane release from the decomposing hydrate framework more than ice coexisting with methane hydrate. The shielding effect of ice in intimate contact with methane hydrate particles on methane diffusion during the decomposition of the hydrate framework depends on the ratio of preexisting ice in the methane hydrate sample.

  19. Detection of gas hydrates by the measurement of instantaneous temperature

    E-print Network

    Dinakaran, Srikanth

    1994-01-01

    Natural gas hydrates are icelike crystalline substances formed by gas molecules trapped in a water lattice. Suitable thermodynamic conditions and the presence of gas are required for the formation of natural gas hydrates in ocean sediments. Several...

  20. Hydration studies of human finger nails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Benjamin; Chan, Danny; Ruebhausen, Michael; Wepf, Roger; Wessel, Sonja; Williams, Stefanie

    2002-03-01

    We investigate the complex refractive index hatn = n+ik of human fingernails by means of spectral-resolved ellipsometry (325 nm - 790 nm), using a beam focussed to a spot diameter of 200 ?m. Using an effective medium approximation, we can derive the water content of the nail from the measured hatn. In particular, we study the hydration/dehydration behaviour of the nails by observing the changes in the complex refractive index. Upon hydration by soaking the nail in water, we find that the time dependence of n is well described by K_0+K1 exp (-t / ?), with ? ? 5 min, while k is increasing. Furthermore, we find that the external hydration process seems to be only partially reversible.