Science.gov

Sample records for calcitic hydrated lime

  1. High-surface-area hydrated lime for SO2 control

    SciTech Connect

    Rostam-Abadi, M.; Moran, D.L. . Minerals Engineering Section)

    1993-03-01

    Since 1986, the Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS), has been developing a process to produce high-surface-area hydrated lime (HSAHL) with more activity for adsorbing SO2 than commercially available hydrated lime. HSAHL prepared by the ISGS method as considerably higher surface area and porosity, and smaller mean particle diameter and crystallite size than commercial hydrated lime. The process has been optimized in a batch, bench-scale reactor and has been scaled-up to a 20--100 lb/hr process optimization unit (POU). Experiments have been conducted to optimize the ISGS hydration process and identify key parameters influencing hydrate properties for SO2 capture (surface area, porosity, particle size, and crystallite size). The known how is available to tailor properties of hydrated limes for specific SO2 removal applications. Pilot-scale tests conducted with the HSAHL under conditions typical of burning high-sulfur coals have achieved up to 90% SO2 capture in various DSI systems. The removal results are enough to bring most high-sulfur coals into compliance with acid rain legislation goals for the year 2000. The focus of the POU program is to generate critical engineering data necessary for the private sector to scale-up the process to a commercial level and provide estimates of the optimal cost of construction and operation of a commercial plant. ISGS is currently participating in a clean coal technology program (CCT-1) by providing 50 tons of HSAHL for a demonstration test at Illinois Power's Hennepin station in January 1993.

  2. EFFECT OF ADDITION OF HYDRATED LIME TO LITTER ON RECOVERY OF SELECTED BACTERIA AND POULT PERFORMANCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, we demonstrated that 10 or 20% (wt/v) hydrated lime in used poultry litter significantly reduced Salmonella enteritidis survival in vitro. However, preliminary studies with day-of-hatch poults suggested that lime in excess of 5% (wt/v) in new litter caused mild but apparent ocular and res...

  3. Internal friction of hydrated soda-lime-silicate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinsch, S.; Müller, R.; Deubener, J.; Behrens, H.

    2013-11-01

    The internal friction of hydrated soda-lime-silica glasses with total water content (CW) up to 1.9 wt. % was studied by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) using temperature-frequency sweeps from 723 K to 273 K and from 1 s-1 to 50 s-1. Total water content and concentrations of H2O molecules (C_{H_2 O}) and OH groups (COH) in the DMA specimens were determined by infrared spectroscopy. For low water contents (CW ? COH < 0.25 wt. %) two discrete internal friction peaks below the glass transition (? relaxation) were assigned to the low-temperature motion of alkali ions (? relaxation) and cooperative movements of dissimilar mobile species under participation of OH at higher temperature (?OH relaxation). For large water contents (CW > 1 wt. %), where significant amounts of molecular water are evident (C_{H_2 O} > 0.15 wt. %), however, internal friction spectra change unexpectedly: the ?OH peak heights saturate and a low temperature shoulder appears on the ?-relaxation peak. This emerging relaxation mode (? _{H_2 O} relaxation) was assigned to the motions of H2O molecules. ? _{H_2 O} relaxation was found to be faster than ?OH but slower than ? relaxation. Activation energy of the different relaxation modes increased in the order ? < ? _{H_2 O} < ?OH < ?.

  4. Advanced treatment of swine wastewater using an agent synthesized from amorphous silica and hydrated lime.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yasuo; Hasegawa, Teruaki; Sugimoto, Kiyomi; Miura, Keiichi; Aketo, Tsuyoshi; Minowa, Nobutaka; Toda, Masaya; Kinoshita, Katsumi; Yamashita, Takahiro; Ogino, Akifumi

    2014-01-01

    Advanced treatment using an agent synthesized from amorphous silica and hydrated lime (M-CSH-lime) was developed and applied to swine wastewater treatment. Biologically treated wastewater and M-CSH-lime (approximately 6 w/v% slurry) were fed continuously into a column-shaped reactor from its bottom. Accumulated M-CSH-lime gradually formed a bed layer. The influent permeated this layer and contacted the M-CSH-lime, and the treatment reaction progressed. Treated liquid overflowing from the top of the reactor was neutralized with CO?gas bubbling. The colour removal rate approximately exceeded 50% with M-CSH-lime addition rates of > 0.15 w/v%. The removal rate of PO(3?)(4) exceeded 80% with the addition of>0.03 w/v% of M-CSH-lime. The removal rates of coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli exceeded 99.9% with > 0.1 w/v%. Accumulated M-CSH-lime in the reactor was periodically withdrawn from the upper part of the bed layer. The content of citric-acid-soluble P?O? in the recovered matter was>15% when the weight ratio of influent PO(3?)(4) -P to added M-CSH-lime was > 0.15. This content was comparable with commercial phosphorus fertilizer. The inhibitory effect of recovered M-CSH-lime on germination and growth of leafy vegetable komatsuna (Brassica rapa var. perviridis) was evaluated by an experiment using the Neubauer's pot. The recovered M-CSH-lime had no negative effect on germination and growth. These results suggest that advanced water treatment with M-CSH-lime was effective for simultaneous removal of colour, [Formula: see text] and coliform bacteria at an addition rate of 0.03-0.15 w/v%, and that the recovered M-CSH-lime would be suitable as phosphorus fertilizer. PMID:25189846

  5. Impacts of ocean acidification and mitigative hydrated lime addition on Pacific oyster larvae

    E-print Network

    Impacts of ocean acidification and mitigative hydrated lime addition on Pacific oyster larvae on Pacific oyster larvae: implications for shellfish aquaculture Examining Committee: Chair: Luke Halpin, MRM impacts on larval stages of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas. For 24 days, larvae were exposed

  6. Full quantitative phase analysis of hydrated lime using the Rietveld method

    SciTech Connect

    Lassinantti Gualtieri, Magdalena

    2012-09-15

    Full quantitative phase analysis (FQPA) using X-ray powder diffraction and Rietveld refinements is a well-established method for the characterization of various hydraulic binders such as Portland cement and hydraulic limes. In this paper, the Rietveld method is applied to hydrated lime, a non-hydraulic traditional binder. The potential presence of an amorphous phase in this material is generally ignored. Both synchrotron radiation and a conventional X-ray source were used for data collection. The applicability of the developed control file for the Rietveld refinements was investigated using samples spiked with glass. The results were cross-checked by other independent methods such as thermal and chemical analyses. The sample microstructure was observed by transmission electron microscopy. It was found that the consistency between the different methods was satisfactory, supporting the validity of FQPA for this material. For the samples studied in this work, the amount of amorphous material was in the range 2-15 wt.%.

  7. CONTROL OF SOX EMISSIONS BY IN-FURNACE SORBENT INJECTION: CARBONATES VS HYDRATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper provides high-temperature isothermal data on SO2 capture by calcium-based sorbents, obtained in a dispersed-phase reactor for limestones, dolomites, hydrated calcitic limes, and hydrated dolomitic limes as a function of Ca/S molar ratio, temperature, and SO2 partial pre...

  8. Methanogenic calcite, 13C-depleted bivalve shells, and gas hydrate from a mud volcano offshore southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hein, J.R.; Normark, W.R.; McIntyre, B.R.; Lorenson, T.D.; Powell, C.L., II

    2006-01-01

    Methane and hydrogen sulfide vent from a cold seep above a shallowly buried methane hydrate in a mud volcano located 24 km offshore southern California in?? 800 m of water. Bivalves, authigenic calcite, and methane hydrate were recovered in a 2.1 m piston core. Aragonite shells of two bivalve species are unusually depleted in 13C (to -91??? ??13C), the most 13C-depleted shells of marine macrofauna yet discovered. Carbon isotopes for both living and dead specimens indicate that they used, in part, carbon derived from anaerobically oxidized methane to construct their shells. The ??13C values are highly variable, but most are within the range -12??? to -91???. This variability may be diagnostic for identifying cold-seep-hydrate systems in the geologic record. Authigenic calcite is abundant in the cores down to ???1.5 m subbottom, the top of the methane hydrate. The calcite is depleted in 13C (??13C = -46??? to -58???), indicating that carbon produced by anaerobically oxidized methane is the main source of the calcite. Methane sources include a geologic hydrocarbon reservoir from Miocene source rocks, and biogenic and thermogenic degradation of organic matter in basin sediments. Oxygen isotopes indicate that most calcite formed out of isotopic equilibrium with ambient bottom water, under the influence of gas hydrate dissociation and strong methane flux. High metal content in the mud volcano sediment indicates leaching of basement rocks by fluid circulating along an underlying fault, which also allows for a high flux of fossil methane. ?? 2006 Geological Society of America.

  9. Evaluating slurried-hydrated lime pond-shoreline treatments for reducing populations of rams-horn snails

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trematodes can cause massive infections in fish, and the most promising approach for the control of these infections is the reduction or elimination of snails that vector the trematodes. A recent approach, the application of high concentrations of slurried-hydrated lime (SHL) or copper sulfate pent...

  10. In-place stabilization of pond ash deposits by hydrated lime columns

    SciTech Connect

    Chand, S.K.; Subbarao, C.

    2007-12-15

    Abandoned coal ash ponds cover up vast stretches of precious land and cause environmental problems. Application of suitable in situ stabilization methods may bring about improvement in the geotechnical properties of the ash deposit as a whole, converting it to a usable site. In this study, a technique of in-place stabilization by hydrated lime columns was applied to large-scale laboratory models of ash ponds. Samples collected from different radial distances and different depths of the ash deposit were tested to study the improvements in the water content, dry density, particle size distribution, unconfined compressive strength, pH, hydraulic conductivity, and leachate characteristics over a period of one year. The in-place stabilization by lime column technique has been found effective in increasing the unconfined compressive strength and reducing hydraulic conductivity of pond ash deposits in addition to modifying other geotechnical parameters. The method has also proved to be useful in reducing the contamination potential of the ash leachates, thus mitigating the adverse environmental effects of ash deposits.

  11. Calcium sulfoaluminate (Ye'elimite) hydration in the presence of gypsum, calcite, and vaterite

    SciTech Connect

    Hargis, Craig W.; Telesca, Antonio; Monteiro, Paulo J.M.

    2014-11-15

    Six calcium sulfoaluminate-based cementitious systems composed of calcium sulfoaluminate, calcite, vaterite, and gypsum were cured as pastes and mortars for 1, 7, 28 and 84 days. Pastes were analyzed with X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses. Mortars were tested for compressive strength, dimensional stability and setting time. Furthermore, pastes with a water/cementitious material mass ratio of 0.80 were tested for heat evolution during the first 48 h by means of isothermal conduction calorimetry. It has been found that: (1) both calcite and vaterite reacted with monosulfoaluminate to give monocarboaluminate and ettringite, with vaterite being more reactive; (2) gypsum lowered the reactivity of both carbonates; (3) expansion was reduced by calcite and vaterite, irrespective of the presence of gypsum; and (4) both carbonates increased compressive strength in the absence of gypsum and decreased compressive strength less in the presence of gypsum, with vaterite's action more effective than that of calcite.

  12. Utilization of calcite and waste glass for preparing construction materials with a low environmental load.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Hirotaka; Imaizumi, Haruki; Ishida, Emile Hideki

    2011-11-01

    In this study, porous calcite materials are hydrothermally treated at 200 °C using powder compacts consisting of calcite and glasses composed of silica-rich soda-lime. After treatment, the glasses are converted into calcium aluminosilicate hydrates, such as zeolite phases, which increase their strength. The porosity and morphology of new deposits of hydrothermally solidified materials depend up on the chemical composition of glass. The use of calcite and glass in the hydrothermal treatment plays an important role in the solidification of calcite without thermal decomposition. PMID:21794973

  13. The effect of hydrated lime on Salmonella enteritidis survival in poultry litter and poult performance 

    E-print Network

    Stanush, Deborah Denise

    2000-01-01

    of Salmonella, Campylobacter, coliforms, total aerobic cfu at 21 or 49 d was evaluated in 2 experiments. A third experiment evaluated the effect of pre-placement lime treatment of litter of one of two similar turkey brooder houses, on the same premise and under...

  14. Control of SO/sub x/ emissions by in-furnace sorbent injection: Carbonates vs hydrates

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, G.H.; Harrison, D.J.; Silcox, G.D.; Pershing, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    High temperature, isothermal data on SO/sub 2/ by calcium based sorbents were obtained in a dispersed-phase reactor for limestones, dolomites, hydrated calcitic limes, and hydrated dolomitic limes as a function of Ca/S molar ratio, temperature, and SO/sub 2/ partial pressure. The experimental results indicate that SO/sub 2/ capture is approximately linearly dependent on Ca/S molar ratio and relatively insensitive to SO/sub 2/ partial pressure above 2000 ppm. SO/sub 2/ capture is a strong function of general sorbent class; dolomitic sorbents are better than calcitic materials on a equivalent calcium basis and hydrated materials are more reactive than carbonates. Computer model predictions based on a grain formulation, available fundamental rate data, and measured surface areas accurately predict limestone performance.

  15. Evaluation of Ohio fly ash/hydrated lime slurries and Type 1 cement sorbent slurries in the U.C. Pilot spray dryer facility. Final report, September 1, 1993--August 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Keener, T.C.; Khang, S.J.; Meyers, G.R.

    1995-02-01

    The objectives of this year`s work included an evaluation of the performance of fly ash/hydrated lime as well as hydrated cement sorbents for spray drying adsorption (SDA) of SO{sub 2} from a simulated high-sulfur flue gas. These sorbents were evaluated for several different hydration methods, and under different SDA operating conditions. In addition, the physical properties of surface area and porosity of the sorbents was determined. The most reactive fly ash/hydrated lime sorbent studied was prepared at room temperature with milled fly ash. Milling fly ash prior to hydration with lime did have a beneficial effect on calcium utilization. No benefit in utilization was experienced either by hydrating the slurries at a temperature of 90{degrees}C as compared to hydration at room temperature, or by increasing hydration time. While the surface areas varied greatly from sorbent to sorbent, the pore size distributions indicated ``ink bottle`` pores with surface porosity on the order of 0.5 microns. No correlation could be drawn between the surface area of the sorbents and calcium utilization. These results suggest that the composition of the resulting sorbent might be more important than its surface area. The most effective sorbent studied this year was produced by hydrating cement for 3 days at room temperature. This sorbent provided a removal efficiency and a calcium utilization over 25 percent higher than baseline results at an approach to saturation temperature of 30{degrees}F and a stoichiometric ratio of 0.9. A maximum SO{sub 2} removal efficiency of about 90 percent was experienced with this sorbent at an approach to saturation temperature of 20{degrees}F.

  16. Investigation of the benefits of carbonate cementation due to addition of low percentage of hydrated lime in the base courses of pavements 

    E-print Network

    Bhuiyan, Jasim Uddin

    1994-01-01

    cementation can be enhanced by adding lime to the system. Lime is used in many places and especially in Texas to stabilize base and subgrade materials. Base course aggregates are normally stabilized with very low percentage of lime. While pozzolanic reaction...

  17. Sulfate induced heave in lime stabilized soil 

    E-print Network

    Bredenkamp, Sanet

    1994-01-01

    The addition of hydrated lime to clay soils is one of the most common methods of soil stabilization. However, when sulfates are present in the soil, the calcium in the lime reacts with the sulfates to form ettringite, an expandable mineral...

  18. Nickel and manganese interaction with calcite

    SciTech Connect

    Doner, H; Zavarin, M

    1999-08-09

    Many divalent metal cations sorb to calcite surfaces and incorporate into calcite to varying degrees. Since calcite may sorb trace elements in the environment, the factors controlling metal-calcite interactions are critical to understanding element cycling. The interaction of divalent metal cations with calcite can be critical to toxic metal immobilization, nutrient cycling, interpretation of past redox conditions, tracing fluid flow, for example. Sorption of Ni and Mn on calcite surfaces was studied by Zachara et al.. At any particular pH, the sorption of Mn on calcite was greater than Ni. This was attributed in part to the similarity of divalent Mn and Ca with respect to ion size. Although direct spectroscopic evidence was not available, sorption/desorption results suggested that Mn quickly forms a surface precipitate or solid solution while Ni forms a hydrated surface complex that may incorporate into calcite much more slowly via recrystallization. Because Mn(II) ionic radius is similar to that of Ca(II) (0.80 versus 1.0{angstrom}), and because MnCO{sub 3} has a structure similar to calcite, it is likely that Mn can substitute directly for Ca in the calcite structure. The ionic radius of Ni(II) is significantly smaller (0.69{angstrom}) and Ni(OH){sub 2} precipitation is likely to be favored in most systems. For Ni, direct substitution for Ca is less likely or may require more significant calcite lattice deformation.

  19. Control of SOx emissions by in-furnace sorbent injection: carbonates vs hydrates

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, G.H.; Harrison, D.J.; Silcox, G.D.; Pershing, D.W.

    1985-10-01

    The paper provides high-temperature isothermal data on SO/sub 2/ capture by calcium-based sorbents, obtained in a dispersed-phase reactor for limestones, dolomites, hydrated calcitic limes, and hydrated dolomitic limes as a function of Ca/S molar ratio, temperature, and SO/sub 2/ partial pressure. The experimental results indicate that SO/sub 2/ capture is approximately linearly dependent on Ca/S molar ratio and relatively insensitive to SO/sub 2/ partial pressure above 2000 ppm. SO/sub 2/ capture is a strong function of general sorbent class; dolomitic sorbents are better than calcitic materials on an equivalent calcium basis, and hydrated materials are more reactive than carbonates. Computer-model predictions based on a grain formulation, available fundamental rate data, and measured surface areas accurately predict limestone performance; however, predicted capture for the hydrated sorbents is significantly below that measured experimentally. The measured capture results do, however, generally correlate with the BET surface areas measured when the sorbents were calcined in a muffle furnace at 980 K for 20 minutes with an inert environment.

  20. Microstructure and rheology of lime putty.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Agudo, E; Rodriguez-Navarro, C

    2010-03-16

    The rheology of lime binders, which is critical in the final performance of lime mortars and plasters, is poorly understood, particularly in its relationship with the microstructure and colloidal characteristics of slaked lime (Ca(OH)(2)) suspensions (i.e., lime putties). Here, the contrasting flow behavior of lime putties obtained upon slaking (hydration) of soft and hard burnt quicklimes (CaO) is compared and discussed in terms of the differences found in particle size, morphology, degree of aggregation, and fractal nature of aggregates as well as their evolution with aging time. We show that lime putties behave as non-Newtonian fluids, with thixotropic and rheopectic behavior observed for hard and soft burnt limes, respectively. Aggregation of portlandite nanoparticles in the aqueous suspension controls the time evolution of the rheological properties of lime putty, which is also influenced by the dominant slaking mechanism, that is, liquid versus vapor slaking in hard and soft burnt quicklimes, respectively. These results may be of relevance in the selection of optimal procedures and conditions for the preparation of lime mortars used in the conservation of historical buildings. PMID:19916534

  1. Control of SO/subx/ emissions by in-furnace sorbent injection: Carbonates vs. hydrates

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, G.H.; Harrison, D.J.; Silcox, G.D.; Pershing, D.W.

    1986-05-01

    High temperature, isothermal data on SO/sub 2/ capture by calcium based sorbents were obtained in a dispersed-phase reactor for limestones, dolomites, hydrated calcitic limes, and hydrated dolomitic lines as a function of Ca/S molar ratio, temperature, and SO/sub 2/ partial pressure. The experimental results indicate that SO/sub 2/ capture is approximately linearly dependent on Ca/S molar ratio and relatively insensitive to SO/sub 2/ partial pressure above 2000 ppm. SO/sub 2/ capture is a strong function of general sorbent class; dolomitic sorbents are better than calcitic materials on an equivalent calcium basis and hydrated materials are more reactive than carbonates. Computer model predictions based on a grain formulation, available fundamental rate data, and measured surface areas accurately predict limestone performance; however, predicted capture for the hydrated sorbents is significantly below that measured experimentally. The measured capture results do, however, generally correlate with the BET surface areas measured when the sorbents were calcined in a muffle furnace at 980 K for 20 minutes with an inert environment.

  2. Modeling microbially induced calcite precipitation

    E-print Network

    Cirpka, Olaf Arie

    Modeling microbially induced calcite precipitation Erlangen, November 27th 2014 Johannes Hommel Induced Calcite Precipitation (MICP) is investigated as sealing technology. It is used as an exemplary / detachment · Urea hydrolysis · Precipitation / dissolution of calcite · Clogging calcite precipitate CO2

  3. Immobilization and leaching characteristics of arsenic from cement and/or lime solidified/stabilized spent adsorbent containing arsenic.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Sanghamitra; Gupta, A K

    2008-05-01

    Solidification/stabilization (S/S) of hazardous iron oxide coated cement (IOCC) spent adsorbent containing arsenic (As(III)) was investigated in the present study. Cement and lime-based S/S effectiveness was evaluated by performing semi-dynamic leach tests. The S/S effectiveness was evaluated by measuring effective diffusion coefficients (D(e)) and leachability indices (LX). It was found that though cement or lime alone were efficient in preventing arsenic leaching (D(e) being in range of 10(-10) to 10(-12) for all the matrices) from the solidified matrices, the best combination for arsenic containment in the matrix was obtained when a mixture of cement and lime was used. The LX values for all the matrices were higher than 10, suggesting that the S/S treated arsenic sludge are acceptable for "controlled utilization". Calcite formation along with precipitation and conversion into non-soluble forms (calcium arsenite, calcium hydrogen arsenate hydrates, calcium hydrogen arsenates, etc.) were found to be the responsible mechanism for low leaching of arsenic from the solidified/stabilized samples. A linear relationship between cumulative fraction (CFR) of arsenic leached and square root of leach time (R(2) ranging from 0.90 to 0.94) suggested that the diffusion is the responsible mechanism for arsenic leaching. Thus, cement and lime show effective containment of the As(III) within the matrix thus indicating S/S by cement and lime, which is also a low-cost option, as a suitable management option for the toxic As(III) sludge. PMID:17913352

  4. Kinetics of the reaction of iron blast furnace slag/hydrated lime sorbents with SO{sub 2} at low temperatures: effects of the presence of CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and NOx

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.F.; Shih, S.M.

    2009-09-15

    The effects of the presence of CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and NOx in the flue gas on the kinetics of the sulfation of blast furnace slag/hydrated lime sorbents at low temperatures were studied using a differential fixed-bed reactor. When O{sub 2} and NOx were not present simultaneously, the reaction kinetics was about the same as that under the gas mixtures containing SO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and N{sub 2} only, being affected mainly by the relative humidity. The sulfation of sorbents can be described by the surface coverage model and the model equations derived for the latter case. When both O{sub 2} and NOx, were present, the sulfation of sorbents was greatly enhanced, forming a great amount of sulfate in addition to sulfite. The surface coverage model is still valid in this case, but the model equations obtained show a more marked effect of relative humidity and negligible effects of SO{sub 2} concentration and temperature on the reaction. The effect of sorbent composition on the reaction kinetics was entirely represented by the effects of the initial specific surface area (S{sub g0}) and the Ca molar content (M{sup -1}) of sorbent. The initial conversion rate of sorbent increased linearly with increasing S{sub g0}, and the ultimate conversion increased linearly with increasing S{sub g0}M{sup -1}. The model equations obtained in this work are applicable to describe the kinetics of the sulfation of the sorbents in the low-temperature dry and semidry fine gas desulfurization processes either with an upstream NOx, removal unit or without.111

  5. Water-Induced Reconstruction that Affects Mobile Ions on the Surface of Calcite Treavor A. Kendall and Scot T. Martin*

    E-print Network

    Water-Induced Reconstruction that Affects Mobile Ions on the Surface of Calcite Treavor A. Kendall-sequenced contact-force micrographs show that the (101h4) calcite cleavage surface reconstructs in humid air through loosely bound water and may therefore be a hydrated calcium carbonate phase stabilized by the calcite

  6. High surface area calcite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, L. N.; Andersson, M. P.; Dalby, K. N.; Müter, D.; Okhrimenko, D. V.; Fordsmand, H.; Stipp, S. L. S.

    2013-05-01

    Calcite (CaCO3) is important in many fields—in nature, because it is a component of aquifers, oil reservoirs and prospective CO2 storage sites, and in industry, where it is used in products as diverse as paper, toothpaste, paint, plastic and aspirin. It is difficult to obtain high purity calcite with a high surface area but such material is necessary for industrial applications and for fundamental calcite research. Commercial powder is nearly always contaminated with growth inhibitors such as sugars, citrate or pectin and most laboratory synthesis methods deliver large precipitates, often containing vaterite or aragonite. To address this problem, we (i) adapted the method of carbonating a Ca(OH)2 slurry with CO2 gas to develop the first simple, cheap, safe and reproducible procedure using common laboratory equipment, to obtain calcite that reproducibly had a surface area of 14-17 m2/g and (ii) conducted a thorough characterization of the product. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed nanometer scale, rhombohedral crystals. X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and infrared spectroscopy (IR) confirmed highly crystalline, pure calcite that more closely resembles the dimensions of the biogenic calcite produced by algae in coccoliths than other methods for synthesizing calcite. We suggest that this calcite is useful when purity and high surface area are important.

  7. Hydration studies of Bentonite clay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, Reshma R.; Erwin Desa, J. A.; Aswal, V. K.

    2012-06-01

    Bentonite clay when hydrated increases its volume several fold to form a pliable mass. X-ray diffraction showed that as hydration increases, the crystalline peaks due to kaolinite, calcite and quartz are gradually replaced by an amorphous background while the crystalline reflections of montmorillonite remain. Hydration is known to occur through the inclusion of the hydroxyl radical within the layered structure of the clay. Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) data on the dry and hydrated clay confirm the water uptake as found from the level of incoherent scattering at higher values of Q.

  8. Mineralogcial Biosignature of High-Magnesian Calcite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, F.; Konishi, H.; Xu, H.; Roden, E. E.

    2008-12-01

    Some dolomite formations are associated with sediments where sulfate reduction is active. In general, sulfate has been considered to inhibit dolomite formation. However, it was also suggested that the reaction products of sulfate reduction, such as increased alkalinity, may play a more important role in increasing the formation rate of dolomite than sulfate does in inhibiting it. We have investigated the effect of sulfide on Mg-Ca carbonate precipitation. Our results show that high-magnesian calcite which contains as much as 34 mol% magnesite can precipitate from solutions with the presence of certain amount of dissolved sulfide and pyrite crystals. These high-magnesian calcites form unusual micro-scale spheres with cracks on them. High- resolution SEM and TEM results show that these spheres are actually composed of a great number of nano- crystals (~50 nm) stacking together with low-angle grain boundaries. Both synthesized and natural high-magnesian calcites indicate that dissolved and solid sulfides can catalyze the Mg incorporation into calcite lattice. We hypothesize that S2- (or HS-) ions and >S2 on pyrite surface will decrease the hydration / slovation energy of magnesium ions and thus promote nucleation and crystallization of the high-magnesian calcite. In nature environment, the sulfide could be related to microbe-induced sulfate reduction at low temperature using organic carbon and methane as electron donors. Such kind of high-magnesium calcite that is rich in light carbon also indicates involvement of sulfate reducing bacteria. This work is supported by NASA Astrobiology Institute (N07-5489).

  9. The mechanism of vapor phase hydration of calcium oxide: implications for CO2 capture.

    PubMed

    Kud?acz, Krzysztof; Rodriguez-Navarro, Carlos

    2014-10-21

    Lime-based sorbents are used for fuel- and flue-gas capture, thereby representing an economic and effective way to reduce CO2 emissions. Their use involves cyclic carbonation/calcination which results in a significant conversion reduction with increasing number of cycles. To reactivate spent CaO, vapor phase hydration is typically performed. However, little is known about the ultimate mechanism of such a hydration process. Here, we show that the vapor phase hydration of CaO formed after calcination of calcite (CaCO3) single crystals is a pseudomorphic, topotactic process, which progresses via an intermediate disordered phase prior to the final formation of oriented Ca(OH)2 nanocrystals. The strong structural control during this solid-state phase transition implies that the microstructural features of the CaO parent phase predetermine the final structural and physicochemical (reactivity and attrition) features of the product hydroxide. The higher molar volume of the product can create an impervious shell around unreacted CaO, thereby limiting the efficiency of the reactivation process. However, in the case of compact, sintered CaO structures, volume expansion cannot be accommodated in the reduced pore volume, and stress generation leads to pervasive cracking. This favors complete hydration but also detrimental attrition. Implications of these results in carbon capture and storage (CCS) are discussed. PMID:25233236

  10. Dry FGD with high surface area hydrate

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarzkopf, F.; Morum, B.

    1995-06-01

    Hydrated lime powder is often used in dry FGD processes taking place at low temperatures (Post-Combustion Dry Technology) as well as in processes run at high temperatures (In-Furnace Dry Technology). Extremely high absorption rates for acidic gas compounds with low sorbent consumption were obtained by using High Surface Area Hydrate (HSH) instead of commercial lime hydrate. For example: (1) An industrial flue gas at low temperature - containing 5,200 mg SO{sub 2}/Nm{sup 3} - is treated with HSH at a stoichiometric ratio < 3. The clean gas contains < 500 mg SO{sub 2}/Nm{sup 3}. These results are not achievable with commercial hydrated lime at a stoichiometric ratio > 5. (2) The flue gas of a coal fired power plant (appr. 200 MW{sub th}) containing 1,800 mg SO{sub 2}/Nm{sup 3} is treated at high temperature with HSH and conditioned downstream. With a stoichiometric ratio of appr. 1.3 the observed clean gas values are 400 mg SO{sub 2}/Nm{sup 3}; this is an absorption rate of appr. 75 %. Increasing the amount of HSH leads to higher absorption rates. Using commercial hydrated lime would double sorbent consumption and cause problems in the boiler. The results of comparisons between HSH and commercial hydrated limes from several industrial plants, coal fired power stations (capacity < 300 MW) and waste incinerators are described; typical plant data are presented.

  11. LIMESTONE AND LIME NEUTRALIZATION OF FERROUS IRON ACID MINE DRAINAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency conducted a 2-yr study on hydrated lime and rock-dust limestone neutralization of acid mine drainage containing ferrous iron at the EPA Crown Mine Drainage Control Field Site near Rivesville, West Virginia. The study investigated optimizat...

  12. Uranyl incorporation in natural calcite.

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, S. D.; Newville, M. G.; Cheng, L.; Kemner, K. M.; Sutton, S. R.; Fenter, P.; Sturchio, N. C.; Spotl, C.; Environmental Research; Univ. of Chicago; Univ. of Illiois at Chicago; Univ. of Innsbruck

    2003-01-01

    The occurrence of trace amounts of uranyl in natural calcite has posed a long-standing problem in crystal chemistry because of speculation that the size and shape of the uranyl ion may preclude its incorporation in a stable lattice position in calcite. This also defines an important environmental problem because of its bearing on the transport and sequestration of uranyl released from nuclear facilities and uranium mining operations. Calcite is a nearly ubiquitous mineral in soils and groundwater aquifers. X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence microprobe studies of uranium in relatively U-rich {approx}13700-year-old calcite from a speleothem in northernmost Italy indicate substitution of uranyl for a calcium and two adjacent carbonate ions in calcite. These new data imply that uranyl has a stable lattice position in natural calcite, indicating that it may be reliably sequestered in calcite over long time scales.

  13. Elastic constants of calcite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peselnick, L.; Robie, R.A.

    1962-01-01

    The recent measurements of the elastic constants of calcite by Reddy and Subrahmanyam (1960) disagree with the values obtained independently by Voigt (1910) and Bhimasenachar (1945). The present authors, using an ultrasonic pulse technique at 3 Mc and 25??C, determined the elastic constants of calcite using the exact equations governing the wave velocities in the single crystal. The results are C11=13.7, C33=8.11, C44=3.50, C12=4.82, C13=5.68, and C14=-2.00, in units of 1011 dyncm2. Independent checks of several of the elastic constants were made employing other directions and polarizations of the wave velocities. With the exception of C13, these values substantially agree with the data of Voigt and Bhimasenachar. ?? 1962 The American Institute of Physics.

  14. Hydrate detection

    SciTech Connect

    Dillon, W.P.; Ahlbrandt, T.S.

    1992-01-01

    Project objectives were: (1) to create methods of analyzing gas hydrates in natural sea-floor sediments, using available data, (2) to make estimates of the amount of gas hydrates in marine sediments, (3) to map the distribution of hydrates, (4) to relate concentrations of gas hydrates to natural processes and infer the factors that control hydrate concentration or that result in loss of hydrate from the sea floor. (VC)

  15. Hydrate detection

    SciTech Connect

    Dillon, W.P.; Ahlbrandt, T.S.

    1992-06-01

    Project objectives were: (1) to create methods of analyzing gas hydrates in natural sea-floor sediments, using available data, (2) to make estimates of the amount of gas hydrates in marine sediments, (3) to map the distribution of hydrates, (4) to relate concentrations of gas hydrates to natural processes and infer the factors that control hydrate concentration or that result in loss of hydrate from the sea floor. (VC)

  16. Effects of Lime and Carbonate of Lime on Acid Phosphate. 

    E-print Network

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1917-01-01

    STATION AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS W. B. BIZZELL, President BULLETIN NO. 243 MARCH, 1919 DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY THE NEED OF TEXAS SOILS FOR LIME B. YOUNGBLOOD, DIRECTOR COLLEGE STATION, BRtlZOS COUNTY, TEXAS STATION STAFFt... PAGE ............................................. What lime does 5 ............................................. Acidity of soils 7 ............................................. Sources of lime 8 ............................ Chemical...

  17. LIME 0.5

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2011-01-14

    LIME 0.5 is an initial version of a Lightweight Integrating Multi-physics Environment for coupling codes. LIME by itself is not a code for doing multiphysics simulations. Instead, LIME provides the key high-level software, a flexible but defined approach, and interface requirements for a collection of (potentially disparate) physics codes to be combined with strong coupling (when needed) though non-linear solution methods (e.g. JFNK, fixed point), thus creating a new multi-physics simulation capability customized for amore »particular need. ! ! The approach taken is designed to! ?! preserve and leverage any important specialized algorithms and/or functionality an existing application may provide,! ?! minimize the requirements barrier for an application to participate,! ?! work within advanced solver frameworks (e.g. as extensions to the Trilinos/NOX nonlinear solver libraries, PETSc, . . .),! Of note is that components/physics codes that can be coupled within LIME are NOT limited to:! ?! components written in one particular language,! ?! a particular numerical discretization approach ( e.g. Finite Element), or! ?! physical models expressed as PDE?s.!« less

  18. Water transfer properties and shrinkage in lime-based rendering mortars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arizzi, A.; Cultrone, G.

    2012-04-01

    Rendering is the practice of covering a wall or a building façade with one or more layers of mortar, with the main aim to protect the masonry structure against weathering. The render applied must show high flexibility, good adhesion and compatibility with the support (i.e. stone, brick) and, overall, it should be characterised by low water absorption and high water vapour permeability. Water (in the solid, liquid and vapour state) is one of the main factors that drive construction materials to deterioration. Therefore, to evaluate the quality and durability of a rendering mortar, thus ensuring its protective function in the masonry structure, it is fundamental to assess the behaviour of this mortar towards water. Mortars were elaborated with a calcitic dry hydrated lime, a calcareous aggregate, a pozzolan, a lightweight aggregate, a water-retaining agent and a plasticiser. Four types of lime mortars were prepared, in which the binder-to-aggregate ratios were 1:3, 1:4, 1:6 and 1:9 by weight, whilst the pozzolan was kept at 10% of the lime (by mass) and the total admixtures proportion was less than 2% of the total mass. The influence of the characteristics of mortars pore system on the amount of water absorbed and the kinetics of absorption was investigated by means of: free water absorption and drying; capillary uptake; water permeability; water vapour permeability. Interesting deductions can be made from the values of water and water vapour permeability found for mortars: the former increases exponentially with the sand volume of the mortar, whilst the latter increases almost exponentially with the initial water content added to the mortar mixes during their elaboration. However, the relationship obtained between porosity of mortars and permeability values is not really clear. This finding suggests that the permeability of a material cannot be estimated on the basis of its porosity as it can be made for the capillary uptake and free water absorption. Another aspect to be considered in the evaluation of the decay caused by water is the high shrinkage suffered by renders when they are applied on an extended surface (i.e. a wall), especially when they are aerial lime-based mortars. The shrinkage causes the formation of fissures that become an easy way for water to entry and diffuse through the mortar pore system. This factor is rarely taken into consideration during the hydric assays performed in the laboratory, since mortar samples of 4x4x16 or 4x4x4 cm in size do not undergo to such degree of shrinkage. For this reason, we have also studied the shrinkage of these mortars and considered it in the final assessment of mortars hydric properties. The shrinkage was evaluated according to a non-standardized method, by means of a shrinkage-measuring device that measures the mortar dimensional variations over time. This measurement has shown that the highest the lime content the biggest the mortar shrinkage and, consequently, the strongest the decay due to water.

  19. Lime-induced phytophotodermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Hankinson, Andrew; Lloyd, Benjamin; Alweis, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This case describes a scenario of lime-induced phytophotodermatitis. Phytophotodermatitis is a dermatitis caused after the skin is exposed to photosensitizing compounds in plants and then exposed to sunlight. Many common plants including citrus fruits, celery, and wild parsnip contain these photosensitizing compounds which cause phytophotodermatitis. It is important for a physician to be aware of phytophotodermatitis because it may often be misdiagnosed as other skin conditions including fungal infection, cellulitis, allergic contact dermatitis, and even child abuse. PMID:25317269

  20. Evolution and the Calcite Eye Lens

    E-print Network

    Williams, Vernon L

    2013-01-01

    Calcite is a uniaxial, birefringent crystal, which in its optically transparent form, has been used for animal eye lenses, the trilobite being one such animal. Because of the calcite birefringence there is a difficulty in using calcite as a lens. When the propagation direction of incoming light is not exactly on the c-axis, the mages blur. In this paper, calcite blurring is evaluated, and the non-blurring by a crystallin eye lens is compared to a calcite one.

  1. Evolution and the Calcite Eye Lens

    E-print Network

    Vernon L. Williams

    2013-04-03

    Calcite is a uniaxial, birefringent crystal, which in its optically transparent form, has been used for animal eye lenses, the trilobite being one such animal. Because of the calcite birefringence there is a difficulty in using calcite as a lens. When the propagation direction of incoming light is not exactly on the c-axis, the mages blur. In this paper, calcite blurring is evaluated, and the non-blurring by a crystallin eye lens is compared to a calcite one.

  2. ber den semiklassischen Limes der Berryschen Phase

    E-print Network

    Asch, Joachim

    �ber den semiklassischen Limes der Berryschen Phase vorgelegt von Diplom- Physiker JOACHIM ASCH aus. Semiklassischer Limes ............................................................. p. 19 4. Asymptotische den semi- klassischen Limes einer 2-Form, welche diese Klasse repräsentiert. Das Hauptergebnis ist

  3. Experimental study of the replacement of calcite by calcium sulphates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Agudo, E.; Putnis, C. V.; Hövelmann, J.; Álvarez-Lloret, P.; Ibáñez-Velasco, A.; Putnis, A.

    2015-05-01

    Among the most relevant mineral replacement reactions are those involving sulphates and carbonates, which have important geological and technological implications. Here it is shown experimentally that during the interaction of calcite (CaCO3) cleavage surfaces with sulphate-bearing acidic solutions, calcite is ultimately replaced by gypsum (CaSO4 2H2O) and anhydrite (CaSO4), depending on the reaction temperature. Observations suggest that this occurs most likely via an interface-coupled dissolution-precipitation reaction, in which the substrate is replaced pseudomorphically by the product. At 120 and 200 °C gypsum and/or bassanite (CaSO4·0.5H2O) form as precursor phases for the thermodynamically stable anhydrite. Salinity promotes the formation of less hydrated precursor phases during the replacement of calcite by anhydrite. The reaction stops before equilibrium with respect to calcite is reached and during the course of the reaction most of the bulk solutions are undersaturated with respect to the precipitating phase(s). A mechanism consisting of the dissolution of small amounts of solid in a thin layer of fluid at the mineral-fluid interface and the subsequent precipitation of the product phase from this layer is in agreement with these observations. PHREEQC simulations performed in the framework of this mechanism highlight the relevance of transport and surface reaction kinetics on the volume change associated with the CaCO3-CaSO4 replacement. Under our experimental conditions, this reaction occurs with a positive volume change, which ultimately results in passivation of the unreacted substrate before calcite attains equilibrium with respect to the bulk solution.

  4. COMBINATION LIMESTONE-LIME NEUTRALIZATION OF FERROUS IRON ACID MINE DRAINAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies were conducted on ferrous-iron acid mine drainage (AMD) treatment by a two-step neutralization process in which rock-dust limestone was mixed with the influent AMD and then hydrated lime was added in a polishing reactor. This combination treatment process resulted in reag...

  5. Fullerenol entrapment in calcite microspheres.

    PubMed

    Calvaresi, Matteo; Falini, Giuseppe; Bonacchi, Sara; Genovese, Damiano; Fermani, Simona; Montalti, Marco; Prodi, Luca; Zerbetto, Francesco

    2011-10-14

    Hybrid microspheres of calcium carbonate/fullerenol were synthesized and characterized. Their morphology depends on the concentration of the fullerenol solutions. XRD and FT-IR measurements proved that the mineral phase is consistently calcite, while fluorescence confocal microscopy indicated that fullerenol is homogenously included in the crystalline matrix. PMID:21881667

  6. A thermodynamic approach to the hydration of sulphate-resisting Portland cement.

    PubMed

    Lothenbach, Barbara; Wieland, Erich

    2006-01-01

    A thermodynamic approach is used to model changes in the hydrate assemblage and the composition of the pore solution during the hydration of calcite-free and calcite-containing sulphate-resisting Portland cement CEM I 52.5 N HTS. Modelling is based on thermodynamic data for the hydration products and calculated hydration rates for the individual clinker phases, which are used as time-dependent input parameters. Model predictions compare well with the composition of the hydrate assemblage as observed by TGA and semi-quantitative XRD and with the experimentally determined compositions of the pore solutions. The calculations show that in the presence of small amounts of calcite typically associated with Portland cement, C-S-H, portlandite, ettringite and calcium monocarbonate are the main hydration products. In the absence of calcite in the cement, however, siliceous hydrogarnet instead of calcium monocarbonate is observed to precipitate. The use of a higher water-to-cement ratio for the preparation of a calcite-containing cement paste has a minor effect on the composition of the hydrate assemblage, while it significantly changes the composition of the pore solution. In particular, lower pH value and higher Ca concentrations appear that could potentially influence the solubility and uptake of heavy metals and anions by cementitious materials. PMID:16529919

  7. A thermodynamic approach to the hydration of sulphate-resisting Portland cement

    SciTech Connect

    Lothenbach, Barbara . E-mail: barbara.lothenbach@empa.ch; Wieland, Erich

    2006-07-01

    A thermodynamic approach is used to model changes in the hydrate assemblage and the composition of the pore solution during the hydration of calcite-free and calcite-containing sulphate-resisting Portland cement CEM I 52.5 N HTS. Modelling is based on thermodynamic data for the hydration products and calculated hydration rates for the individual clinker phases, which are used as time-dependent input parameters. Model predictions compare well with the composition of the hydrate assemblage as observed by TGA and semi-quantitative XRD and with the experimentally determined compositions of the pore solutions. The calculations show that in the presence of small amounts of calcite typically associated with Portland cement, C-S-H, portlandite, ettringite and calcium monocarbonate are the main hydration products. In the absence of calcite in the cement, however, siliceous hydrogarnet instead of calcium monocarbonate is observed to precipitate. The use of a higher water-to-cement ratio for the preparation of a calcite-containing cement paste has a minor effect on the composition of the hydrate assemblage, while it significantly changes the composition of the pore solution. In particular, lower pH value and higher Ca concentrations appear that could potentially influence the solubility and uptake of heavy metals and anions by cementitious materials.

  8. Is calcite (1014) a chiral surface? Open Questions Is Calcite (1014) a Chiral Surface?

    E-print Network

    Kühnle, Angelika

    1014-01-01

    Is calcite (1014) a chiral surface? Open Questions Is Calcite (1014) a Chiral Surface? Philipp of the most stable calcite (1014) surface is achiral due to a glide plane symmetry,[14] the existence properties of the calcite (1014) surface, unambigu- ously concluding that the bulk-truncated surface

  9. BACTERIALLY-INDUCED DISSOLUTION OF CALCITE

    E-print Network

    BACTERIALLY-INDUCED DISSOLUTION OF CALCITE: THE ROLE OF BACTERIA IN LIMESTONE WEATHERING Fatimah The interaction between microorganisms and the calcite mineral surface in aqueous solutions, under earth surface and metabolism increase the dissolution rates of calcite crystals and alter their surfaces in solution. A natural

  10. Gas hydrates

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-04-01

    There is a definite need for the US government to provide leadership for research in gas hydrates and to coordinate its activities with academia, industry, private groups, federal agencies, and their foreign counterparts. In response to this need, the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center implemented a gas hydrates R and D program. Understanding the resource will be achieved through: assessment of current technology; characterization of gas hydrate geology and reservoir engineering; and development of diagnostic tools and methods. Research to date has focused on geology. As work progressed, areas where gas hydrates are likely to occur were identified, and specific high potential areas were targeted for future detailed investigation. Initial research activities involved the development of the Geologic Analysis System (GAS); which will provide, through approximately 30 software packages, the capability to manipulate and correlate several types of geologic and petroleum data into maps, graphics, and reports. Preliminary mapping of hydrate prospects for the Alaskan North Slope is underway. Geological research includes physical system characterization which focuses on creating synthetic methane hydrates and developing synthetic hydrate cores using tetrahydrofuran, consolidated rock cores, frost base mixtures, water/ice base mixtures, and water base mixtures. Laboratory work produced measurements of the sonic velocity and electrical resistivity of these synthetic hydrates. During 1983, a sample from a natural hydrate core recovered from the Pacific coast of Guatemala was tested for these properties by METC. More recently, a natural hydrate sample from the Gulf of Mexico was also acquired and testing of this sample is currently underway. In addition to the development of GAS, modeling and systems analysis work focused on the development of conceptual gas hydrate production models. 16 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Structure of the (1014) Surfaces of Calcite, Dolomite, and Magnesite under Wet and Dry Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    WRIGHT,KATE; CYGAN,RANDALL T.; SLATER,BEN

    2000-06-12

    Atomistic computer simulation methods have been employed to model the structure of the (10{bar 1}4) surfaces of calcite, dolomite and magnesite. The authors calculations show that under vacuum conditions, calcite undergoes the greatest degree of surface relaxation with rotation and distortion of the carbonate group accompanied by movement of the calcium ion. The magnesite surface is the least distorted of the three carbonates, with dolomite being intermediate to the two end members. When water molecules are placed on the surface to produce complete monolayer coverage, the calcite surface is stabilized and the amount of relaxation is substantially reduced. In contrast, the dolomite and magnesite surfaces are destabilized by hydration as indicated by a significant increase in the surface energies relative to the dry surface.

  12. A model for trace metal sorption processes at the calcite surface: Adsorption of Cd2+ and subsequent solid solution formation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, J.A.; Fuller, C.C.; Cook, A.D.

    1987-01-01

    The rate of Cd2+ sorption by calcite was determined as a function of pH and Mg2+ in aqueous solutions saturated with respect to calcite but undersaturated with respect to CdCO3. The sorption is characterized by two reaction steps, with the first reaching completion within 24 hours. The second step proceeded at a slow and nearly constant rate for at least 7 days. The rate of calcite recrystallization was also studied, using a Ca2+ isotopic exchange technique. Both the recrystallization rate of calcite and the rate of slow Cd2+ sorption decrease with increasing pH or with increasing Mg2+. The recrystallization rate could be predicted from the number of moles of Ca present in the hydrated surface layer. A model is presented which is consistent with the rates of Cd2+ sorption and Ca2+ isotopic exchange. In the model, the first step in Cd2+ sorption involves a fast adsorption reaction that is followed by diffusion of Cd2+ into a surface layer of hydrated CaCO3 that overlies crystalline calcite. Desorption of Cd2+ from the hydrated layer is slow. The second step is solid solution formation in new crystalline material, which grows from the disordered mixture of Cd and Ca carbonate in the hydrated surface layer. Calculated distribution coefficients for solid solutions formed at the surface are slightly greater than the ratio of equilibrium constants for dissolution of calcite and CdCO3, which is the value that would be expected for an ideal solid solution in equilibrium with the aqueous solution. ?? 1987.

  13. Lime pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Shushien

    Lignocellulose is a valuable alternative energy source. The susceptibility of lignocellulosic biomass to enzymatic hydrolysis is constrained due to its structural features, so pretreatment is essential to enhance enzymatic digestibility. Of the chemicals used as pretreatment agents, it has been reported that alkalis improve biomass digestibility significantly. In comparison with other alkalis such as NaOH and ammonia, lime (calcium hydroxide) has many advantages; it is very inexpensive, is safe, and can be recovered by carbonating wash water. The effects of lime pretreatment were explored on switchgrass and poplar wood, representing herbaceous and woody biomass, respectively. The effects of pretreatment conditions (time, temperature, lime loading, water loading, particle size, and oxygen pressure) have been systematically studies. Lime alone enhances the digestibility of switchgrass significantly; under the recommended conditions, the 3-d total sugar (glucose + xylose) yields of lime-treated switchgrass were 7 times that of untreated sample. When treating poplar wood, lime must be combined with oxygen to achieve high digestibility; oxidative lime pretreatment increased the 3-d total sugar yield of poplar wood to 12 times that of untreated sample. In a fundamental study, to determine why lime pretreatment is effective, the effects of three structural features on enzymatic digestibility were studied: lignin content, acetyl content, and crystallinity index (CrI). Poplar wood was treated with peracetic acid, potassium hydroxide, and ball milling to produce model lignocelluloses with a broad spectrum of lignin contents, acetyl contents, and CrI, respectively. Enzymatic hydrolysis was performed on the model lignocelluloses to determine the digestibility. Correlations between lignin/carbohydrate ratio, acetyl/carbohydrate ratio, CrI and digestibility were developed. The 95% prediction intervals show that the correlations predict the 1-h and 3-d total sugar conversions of a biomass sample within a precision of 5% and 20%, respectively. The digestibility of a variety of lime-treated biomass and ball-milled alpha-cellulose was compared to the correlations determined from the model compounds. The agreement between the measured and predicted values shows that the correlations are satisfactory and the three structural features---lignin content, acetyl content, and CrI---are the major factors that determine enzymatic digestibility.

  14. Shock-induced devolatilization of calcite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boslough, M. B.; Ahrens, T. J.; Vizgirda, J.; Becker, R. H.; Epstein, S.

    1982-01-01

    Experimental measurements of the release adiabats by Vizgirda (1981) indicate that substantial vaporization takes place upon release from shock pressures of 37 GPa for calcite and 14 GPa for aragonite. The present investigation includes the first controlled partial vaporization experiments on calcite. The experiments were conducted to test the predictions of the release adiabat experiments. The quantities of the gaseous species produced from shocked calcite and their carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions were determined, and the shock-induced effect on the Mn(2+) electron spin resonance spectrum in the shock-recovered calcite was observed. On the basis of the obtained results, it is concluded that shock stresses at the 17-18 GPa level give rise to volatilization of 0.03-0.3 (mole) percent of calcite to CO2 and CO. The devolatilization of calcite occurs at low pressure at significantly lower entropy densities than predicted on the basis of thermodynamic continuum models.

  15. Effect of calcite on lead-rich cementitious solid waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Dongjin; Swarbrick, Gareth; Waite, T. David . E-mail: D.waite@unsw.edu.au

    2005-06-01

    The effect of calcite on lead-rich solidified waste forms generated using Portland cement has been investigated. Samples of cementitious wastes in the absence and presence of Pb and in the absence and presence of calcite were examined separately at 2, 7, 14 and 28 days of hydration by X-ray diffraction and SEM/EDS and for compressive strength. The presence of lead was observed to produce lead carbonate sulfate hydroxide (Pb{sub 4}SO{sub 4}(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}(OH){sub 2}), lead carbonate hydroxide hydrate (3PbCO{sub 3}.2Pb(OH){sub 2}.H{sub 2}O) and two other unidentified lead salts in cavity areas, and was observed to significantly retard the hydration of cement. Calcite addition to the Pb wastes was found to induce the rapid crystallization of calcium hydroxide coincident with the onset of C-S-H gel germination. The rapid dissolution of lead precipitates was observed with the subsequent development of very insoluble gel products of the form C-Pb-S-H. These products are formed by chemical incorporation of re-dissolved Pb species into silicate structures.

  16. Stabilities of calcite and aragonite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christ, C.L.; Hostetler, P.B.; Siebert, R.M.

    1974-01-01

    A revaluation of the 25° C activity-product constants of calcite (KC) and aragonite (KA) was made on the basis of the known solubilities of these phases for which the activity of total dissolved calcium was corrected for the presence of the ion pair CaHCO3+ in the aqueous phase. The value of the dissociation constant of CaHCO3+ was taken to be 10-1.225±0.02. This value, combined with values of the analytical concentrations in solutions with partial pressure PCO2 =0.97 atmosphere, leads to KC=l0-8.52±0.04 and KA= 10-8.36±0.04. Based on these K values, standard free energies of formation of calcite and aragonite were calculated to be -270,144±375 and -269,926±375 calories mole-1, (-1,130,282±1,569 and -1,129,370±1,569 joules mole-1), respectively. From the 25°C K values, using appropriate entropy and heat capacity data, values of KC and KA were calculated over the temperature range 0° to 200°C. Possible errors in interpretation of measured pH values and inferred PCO2values and the bearing of these errors on calculations of K values are discussed.

  17. Thermodynamic modelling of the hydration of Portland cement

    SciTech Connect

    Lothenbach, Barbara . E-mail: barbara.lothenbach@empa.ch; Winnefeld, Frank

    2006-02-15

    A thermodynamic model is developed and applied to calculate the composition of the pore solution and the hydrate assemblage during the hydration of an OPC. The calculated hydration rates of the individual clinker phases are used as time dependent input. The modelled data compare well with the measured composition of pore solutions gained from OPC as well as with TGA and semi-quantitative XRD data. The thermodynamic calculations indicate that in the presence of small amounts of calcite typically included in OPC cements, C-S-H, portlandite, ettringite and calcium monocarbonates are the main hydration products. The thermodynamic model presented in this paper helps to understand the interactions between the different components and the environment and to predict the influence of changes in cement composition on the hydrate assemblage.

  18. Chloral hydrate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Chloral hydrate ; CASRN 302 - 17 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  19. Olefin hydration

    SciTech Connect

    Butt, M.H.D.; Waller, F.J.

    1993-08-03

    An improved process for the hydration of olefins to alcohols is described wherein the improvement comprises contacting said olefins with the catalytic composition comprising a perfluorinated ion-exchange polymer containing sulfonic acid groups supported on an inert carrier wherein said carrier comprises calcined shot coke with a mean pore diameter of about 1,000 Angstroms in the presence of water at a temperature of from about 180 C to about 250 C.

  20. Do organic ligands affect calcite dissolution rates?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oelkers, Eric H.; Golubev, Sergey V.; Pokrovsky, Oleg S.; Bénézeth, Pascale

    2011-04-01

    Steady state Iceland-spar calcite dissolution rates were measured at 25 °C in aqueous solutions containing 0.1 M NaCl and up to 0.05 M dissolved bicarbonate at pH from 7.9 to 9.1 in the presence of 13 distinct dissolved organic ligands in mixed-flow reactors. The organic ligands considered in this study include those most likely to be present in either (1) aquifers at the conditions pertinent to CO 2 sequestration or (2) soil/early diagenetic environments: acetate, phthalate, citrate, EDTA 4-, succinate, D-glucosaminate, L-glutamate, D-gluconate, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoate, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate, fumarate, malonate, and gallate. Results show that the presence of <0.05 mol/kg of these organic anions changes calcite dissolution rates by less than a factor of 2.5 with the exception of citrate and EDTA 4-. The presence of 0.05 mol/kg citrate and EDTA 4- increases calcite dissolution rates by as much as a factor of 35 and 500, respectively, compared to rates in organic anion-free solutions. Further calcite dissolution experiments were performed in the presence of organic polymers similar to bacterial exudates, cell exopolysaccharides, and analogs of microbial cell envelopes: alginate, lichen extract, humic acid, pectin, and gum xanthan. In no case did the presence of <100 ppm of these organics change calcite dissolution rates by more than a factor of 2.5. Results obtained in this study suggest that the presence of aqueous organic anions negligibly affects calcite forward dissolution rates in most natural environments. Some effect on calcite reactivity may be observed, however, by the presence of organic anions if they change substantially the chemical affinity of the fluid with respect to calcite.

  1. Diffusion of Ca and Mg in Calcite

    SciTech Connect

    Cygan, R.T.; Fisler, D.K.

    1999-02-10

    The self-diffusion of Ca and the tracer diffusion of Mg in calcite have been experimentally measured using isotopic tracers of {sup 25}Mg and {sup 44}Ca. Natural single crystals of calcite were coated with a thermally-sputtered oxide thin film and then annealed in a CO{sub 2} gas at one atmosphere total pressure and temperatures from 550 to 800 C. Diffusion coefficient values were derived from the depth profiles obtained by ion microprobe analysis. The resultant activation energies for Mg tracer diffusion and Ca self-diffusion are respectively: E{sub a}(Mg) = 284 {+-} 74 kJ/mol and E{sub a}(Ca) = 271 {+-} 80 kJ/mol. For the temperature ranges in these experiments, the diffusion of Mg is faster than Ca. The results are generally consistent in magnitude with divalent cation diffusion rates obtained in previous studies and provide a means of interpreting the thermal histories of carbonate minerals, the mechanism of dolomitization, and other diffusion-controlled processes. The results indicate that cation diffusion in calcite is relatively slow and cations are the rate-limiting diffusing species for the deformation of calcite and carbonate rocks. Application of the calcite-dolomite geothermometer to metamorphic assemblages will be constrained by cation diffusion and cooling rates. The direct measurement of Mg tracer diffusion in calcite indicates that dolomitization is unlikely to be accomplished by Mg diffusion in the solid state but by a recrystallization process.

  2. Nickel adsorption on chalk and calcite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belova, D. A.; Lakshtanov, L. Z.; Carneiro, J. F.; Stipp, S. L. S.

    2014-12-01

    Nickel uptake from solution by two types of chalk and calcite was investigated in batch sorption studies. The goal was to understand the difference in sorption behavior between synthetic and biogenic calcite. Experiments at atmospheric partial pressure of CO2, in solutions equilibrated with calcite and chalk and pH ranging from 7.7 to 8.8, explored the influence of initial concentration and the amount and type of sorbent on Ni uptake. Adsorption increases with increased surface area and pH. A surface complexation model describes the data well. Stability constants for the Ni surface complex are log KNi = - 1.12 on calcite and log KNi = - 0.43 and - 0.50 on the two chalk samples. The study confirms that synthetic calcite and chalk both take up nickel, but Ni binds more strongly on the biogenic calcite than on inorganically precipitated, synthetic powder, because of the presence of trace amounts of polysaccharides and clay nanoparticles on the chalk surface.

  3. Fly ash chemical classification based on lime

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, J.

    2007-07-01

    Typically, total lime content (CaO) of fly ash is shown in fly ash reports, but its significance is not addressed in US specifications. For certain applications a low lime ash is preferred. When a class C fly ash must be cementitious, lime content above 20% is required. A ternary S-A-C phase diagram pilot is given showing the location of fly ash compositions by coal rank and source in North America. Fly ashes from subbituminous coal from the Powder River Basin usually contain sufficient lime to be cementitious but blending with other coals may result in calcium being present in phases other than tricalcium aluminate. 9 refs., 1 fig.

  4. 46 CFR 148.230 - Calcium oxide (lime, unslaked).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Calcium oxide (lime, unslaked). 148.230...for Certain Materials § 148.230 Calcium oxide (lime, unslaked). (a) When transported by barge, unslaked lime (calcium oxide) must be carried in an...

  5. Calcite dissolution in two deep eutrophic lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Ramisch, F.; Dittrich, M.; Mattenberger, C.; Wehrli, B.; Wueest, A.

    1999-10-01

    The calcium cycle, in particular carbonate dissolution, was analyzed in two deep eutrophic lakes, Lago di Lugano (288 m maximum depth) and Sempachersee (87 m) located in Switzerland. A box model approach was used to calculate calcite dissolution in the water column and at the sediment-water interface based on various lake monitoring data such as sediment traps, sediment cores, water and pore-water interface based on various lake monitoring data such as sediment traps, sediment cores, water and pore-water analysis. A model for stationary conditions allowing the calculation of calcite dissolution in the water column for a given particle size distribution was developed. The relative values of the simulated flux were consistent with sediment trap observations. The best fit of the dissolution rate constant of sinking calcite in Lago di Lugano was on the same order of magnitude (3 {center{underscore}dot} 10{sup {minus}10} kg{sup 1/3} s{sup {minus}1}) as published laboratory values for this surface controlled process. Both lakes show a similar specific calcite precipitation rate of 170 g Ca m{sup {minus}2} a{sup {minus}1}. The diffusive flux across the sediment-water interface amounts to about 15 and 10% of total calcite precipitation in Sempachersee and Lago di Lugano, respectively. However, 61% of the precipitated calcite is dissolved in the water column of Lago di Lugano compared to only 13% in Sempachersee. These results point towards the importance of grain size distributions and settling times in stratified deep waters as the two most important factors determining calcite retention in sediments of hard water lakes.

  6. Controlled calcite nucleation on polarized calcite single crystal substrates in the presence of polyacrylic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Norio; Horiuchi, Naohiro; Nakamura, Miho; Nozaki, Kosuke; Hiyama, Tetsuo; Nagai, Akiko; Yamashita, Kimihiro

    2015-04-01

    We studied theoretically and experimentally the effects of the surface electric field generated by polarization and polyacrylic acid (PAA) additives on the heterogeneous nucleation of calcite on the calcite single crystal substrates with (10.4), (10.0) and (00.1) orientations. A set of "in-situ" experiments with optical microscopy was performed to determine the waiting time of CaCO3 nucleation, defined as the time interval between the onset of the diffusion of CO2 and the appearance of the first visible precipitation. Calcite was nucleated on the oriented calcite substrates through diffusion of NH3 and CO2 gas from a solid ammonium carbonate into calcium chloride solutions. A theoretical analysis showed that the surface electric field of the polarized calcite substrate decrease the activation energy for nucleation and consequently promotes nucleation. Experimentally, the surface electric field and PAA addition were found to decrease both contact angles and waiting times, and as a result, promote the heterogeneous nucleation. Combined effect of PAA and surface electric field further reduced contact angles and waiting times regardless of orientation differences of the calcite substrates. The cooperation acts remarkably on N-surface of the respective calcite substrates. The results were explained by the Cassie's equation, a classical heterogeneous nucleation theory under a surface electric field, and matching of the charged sites on the PAA chain with the ion arrangement on the calcite substrate.

  7. Simple Analysis of Historical Lime Mortars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pires, Joa~o

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory experiment is described in which a simple characterization of a historical lime mortar is made by the determination of its approximate composition by a gravimetric method. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) are also used for the qualitative characterization of the lime mortar components. These…

  8. Kinetic Strontium Isotope Fractionation of Planktic Foraminifera and Inorganic Calcite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehm, F.; Eisenhauer, A.; Horn, C.; Kisakurek, B.; Krabbenhoeft, A.; Tang, J.; Niedermayr, A.; Dietzel, M.

    2010-12-01

    We have studied the strontium isotope fractionation of the planktic foraminifera species Globigerinoides ruber and G. sacculifer from a Caribbean core comprising the last 25 kyr. Isotope ratios were measured using a 87Sr-84Sr double spike and are reported as ?88/86Sr relative to NIST SRM987 (Krabbenhöft et al. 2009, JAAS 24, 1267-1271). We found that strontium isotopes in the two foraminifera species are more strongly fractionated than in most other major marine calcifiers reported by Krabbenhöft et al. (2010, GCA 74, 4097-4109). No significant difference in the Sr isotopic composition between the two species was detected for either Holocene or glacial samples. Water temperatures based on Mg/Ca ratios show downcore variations of about 3°C. G. sacculifer displays a weak negative temperature relationship of about -0.005 permill/°C in ?88/86Sr (R2=0.59, p=0.013). No significant temperature dependence was found for G. ruber. In order to explain the strong Sr isotope fractionation of the foraminifera we investigated inorganic calcite that was precipitated in laboratory experiments with a range of precipitation rates (log(R) of 2.3 to 4.2 µmol/m2/h), at a constant temperature of 25°C. The inorganic calcite was previously used in a Ca isotope study which detected a strong influence of precipitation rate on isotope fractionation (Tang et al. 2008, GCA 72, 3733-3745). We found that Sr isotope fractionation is also strongly dependent on the precipitation rate (?88/86Sr= -0.084*log(R)+0.08, R2=0.87, p=0.003, n=6). Strontium and Ca isotope ratios of the inorganic calcite samples are positively correlated. The slope of 88Sr/86Sr ratios versus 44Ca/40Ca ratios is +0.184 (R2=0.96). This value is compatible with a chemical kinetic fractionation of the respective hydrated cations (e.g. during dehydration). Extrapolating to very slow precipitation rates we estimate the equilibrium isotope fractionation (?44/40Ca and ?88/86Sr) for both elements to be very close to 0. This estimate is confirmed by isotope values of natural inorganic calcites that grew in ocean crust basalts with very slow precipitation rates (Böhm et al. 2009, GCA 73/13 Suppl. 1, A133). It further agrees with the Ca isotope equilibrium fractionation value for calcite of 0 permill determined by Fantle and DePaolo (2007, GCA 71, 2524-2546) and Jacobson and Holmden (2008, EPSL 270, 349-353). Inorganic aragonite, on the other hand, shows no indication of a rate dependence for Sr and Ca isotope fractionation. Applying the results from the inorganic experiments to the planktic foraminifera we find that the strong Sr isotope fractionation can be explained by the formation of the shells in a largely open system at very high precipitation rates, comparable in magnitude to rates known from scleractinian reef corals. This interpretation is in good agreement with the kinetic calcification model for planktic foraminifera by Kisakurek et al. (2008, Eos 89(53) Fall Meet. Suppl. B11C-0382), which was based on Ca isotopes and elemental Sr/Ca ratios.

  9. Marine Diagenesis of Shallow Marine Lime-Mud Sediments: Insights from dgrO18 and dgrC13 Data.

    PubMed

    Choquette, P W

    1968-09-13

    Shallow marine lime-mud sediments of the Ste. Genevieve Formation (Mississippian), in part of the Illinois Basin, underwent at least three diagenetic changes: (i) local dolomitization in seawater or a brine, producing dolostone having average deltaC(13) of +2.5 per mille and deltaO(18) of +1.9 per mille (versus PDB-1); (ii) more usually cementation of unreplaced CaCO(3), in intrasediment seawater, yielding isotopically marine lime mudstone mainly composed of calcite, 4-micron or finer, with deltaO(18) of from -1 to +1 per mille; (iii) later partial alteration of CaCO(3), in permeable dolomitic rocks, by isotopically "lighter" waters, to calcite with an estimated deltaO(18) of -10 per mille or less. Isotope data appraised by petrographic analysis thus suggest "submarine" cementation of these carbonates in shallow marine conditions. PMID:17812283

  10. Lactic Acid Fermentation, Urea and Lime Addition: Promising Faecal Sludge Sanitizing Methods for Emergency Sanitation.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Catherine; Malambo, Dennis Hanjalika; Perez, Maria Eliette Gonzalez; Nobela, Happiness Ngwanamoseka; de Pooter, Lobke; Spit, Jan; Hooijmans, Christine Maria; de Vossenberg, Jack van; Greya, Wilson; Thole, Bernard; van Lier, Jules B; Brdjanovic, Damir

    2015-01-01

    In this research, three faecal sludge sanitizing methods-lactic acid fermentation, urea treatment and lime treatment-were studied for application in emergency situations. These methods were investigated by undertaking small scale field trials with pit latrine sludge in Blantyre, Malawi. Hydrated lime was able to reduce the E. coli count in the sludge to below the detectable limit within 1 h applying a pH > 11 (using a dosage from 7% to 17% w/w, depending faecal sludge alkalinity), urea treatment required about 4 days using 2.5% wet weight urea addition, and lactic acid fermentation needed approximately 1 week after being dosed with 10% wet weight molasses (2 g (glucose/fructose)/kg) and 10% wet weight pre-culture (99.8% pasteurised whole milk and 0.02% fermented milk drink containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota). Based on Malawian prices, the cost of sanitizing 1 m³ of faecal sludge was estimated to be €32 for lactic acid fermentation, €20 for urea treatment and €12 for hydrated lime treatment. PMID:26528995

  11. Lactic Acid Fermentation, Urea and Lime Addition: Promising Faecal Sludge Sanitizing Methods for Emergency Sanitation

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Catherine; Malambo, Dennis Hanjalika; Gonzalez Perez, Maria Eliette; Nobela, Happiness Ngwanamoseka; de Pooter, Lobke; Spit, Jan; Hooijmans, Christine Maria; van de Vossenberg, Jack; Greya, Wilson; Thole, Bernard; van Lier, Jules B.; Brdjanovic, Damir

    2015-01-01

    In this research, three faecal sludge sanitizing methods—lactic acid fermentation, urea treatment and lime treatment—were studied for application in emergency situations. These methods were investigated by undertaking small scale field trials with pit latrine sludge in Blantyre, Malawi. Hydrated lime was able to reduce the E. coli count in the sludge to below the detectable limit within 1 h applying a pH > 11 (using a dosage from 7% to 17% w/w, depending faecal sludge alkalinity), urea treatment required about 4 days using 2.5% wet weight urea addition, and lactic acid fermentation needed approximately 1 week after being dosed with 10% wet weight molasses (2 g (glucose/fructose)/kg) and 10% wet weight pre-culture (99.8% pasteurised whole milk and 0.02% fermented milk drink containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota). Based on Malawian prices, the cost of sanitizing 1 m3 of faecal sludge was estimated to be €32 for lactic acid fermentation, €20 for urea treatment and €12 for hydrated lime treatment. PMID:26528995

  12. Development of dry lime injection scrubbing system for combined removal of SO{sub x}/NO{sub x}

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.K.; Cho, K.M.

    1999-07-01

    In order to remove both the acidic gases and the particulates emitted from power plants, incinerators, or other industrial processes, a novel dry lime injection scrubbing system has been constructed in Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, Seoul, Korea and is still under investigation. The dry lime injection scrubbing system consists of a circulating fluidized bed absorber(CFBA) and a bagfilter. As the flue gas with temperature of 150 {approximately} 200 C entered the CFBA, both SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} in the flue gas are captured by hydrated limes(Ca(OH){sub 2}) and additives which are continuously injected into a CFBA. Parts of the unreacted limes are elutriated from the bed reactor and collected by a cyclone or a bagfilter. The limes captured by a cyclone are re-injected into a CFBA for an increase of their utilization. The lime collected on a bagfilter can also be utilized for further chemical reactions with acid gases, resulting the enhancement of the overall removal efficiency of the dry sorbent scrubbing system. The experimental results showed that the overall removal efficiency of SO{sub 2} was greater than 80% under an optimized water injection condition (4.5 ml/min) and Ca/S molar ratio from 1.5 to 2, and the maximum removal efficiency of NO was about 35% without additives. However, a dramatically increased removal efficiency of SO{sub 2}/NO was observed with additives injection into the system. The overall removal efficiency of SO{sub 2} and NO in the dry lime scrubbing system was 97% and 78%, respectively, under additives and lime injection.

  13. Isotopic fractionation of cadmium into calcite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horner, Tristan J.; Rickaby, Rosalind E. M.; Henderson, Gideon M.

    2011-12-01

    Cadmium mimics the distribution of the macronutrient phosphate in the oceans, and has uses as a palaeoproxy of past ocean circulation and nutrient utilization. Isotopic analyses of dissolved Cd in modern seawater show potential as a new tool for disentangling phytoplankton utilization of Cd from abiotic processes, such as ocean mixing. Extending this information into the past requires the Cd isotope signal to be captured and faithfully preserved in a suitable sedimentary archive. However, the role that environmental factors, such as temperature, may play in controlling Cd isotope fractionation into such archives has not been assessed. To this end, we have performed controlled inorganic CaCO 3 precipitation experiments in artificial seawater solutions. We grew calcite under different precipitation rates, temperatures, salinities, and ambient [Mg 2 + ], before measuring Cd isotopic compositions by double spike MC-ICPMS. We find that the isotopic fractionation factor for Cd into calcite ( ?-C) in seawater is always less than one (i.e. light isotopes of Cd are preferred in calcite). The fractionation factor has a value of 0.99955 ± 0.00012 and shows no response to temperature, [Mg 2 + ], or precipitation rate across the range studied. The constancy of this fractionation in seawater suggests that marine calcites may provide a record of the local seawater composition, without the need to correct for effects due to environmental variables. We also performed CaCO 3 growth in freshwater and, in contrast to calcite precipitated from artificial seawater solutions, no isotopic offset was recorded between the growth solution and calcite ( ?-Cd=1.0000±0.0001). Cadmium isotope fractionation during calcite growth can be explained by a kinetic isotope effect during the largely unidirectional incorporation of Cd at the mineral surface. Further, the rate of Cd uptake and isotopic fractionation can be modulated by increased ion blocking of crystal surface sites at high salinity. The fractionation of Cd isotopes observed during precipitation of calcite has the same direction and similar magnitude to that implicated for Cd removal from the surface ocean by seawater measurements. However, flux calculations show that CaCO 3 precipitation is unlikely to play a significant role in setting the Cd isotope composition in seawater, compared to Cd utilization in phytoplankton soft tissue. Marine carbonates therefore record seawater Cd isotope chemistry - with potential as a palaeoceanographic proxy - rather than drive oceanic Cd isotope compositions.

  14. Molecular Dynamics Study of the Interactions Between Minerals and Gas Hydrate Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvamme, B.; Leirvik, K. N.; Olsen, R.; Kuznetsova, T.

    2014-12-01

    The need for knowledge on gas hydrate "host" and "guest" interactions with reservoir rocks comes from the two folded exploitation of gas hydrates. On one hand natural gas hydrates represent an immense energy source, on the other hand carbon sequestration in the form of CO2 hydrates represents a long-term storage of carbon dioxide. Whether one's goal is to extract methane from natural gas hydrates or store carbon dioxide in the form of hydrates, it requires an understanding of the complex phenomena involving coupled dynamics of hydrates and hydrate stability in porous media. Hydrates can never attach directly to solid mineral surfaces because of the incompatibility of charges between the mineral surfaces and the hydrates. However, adsorption of water and carbon dioxide on mineral surfaces may favor heterogeneous nucleation of hydrate in the immediate vicinity. Different surfaces have their own specific adsorption preferences and corresponding adsorption thermodynamics. We have selected calcite, a common mineral found in porous media. Using molecular dynamics we have initially focused on the water interface in order to evaluate the "host" interactions towards the surface. We also aimed at evaluating the model before including guest molecules.

  15. Arsenic removal in conjunction with lime softening

    DOEpatents

    Khandaker, Nadim R.; Brady, Patrick V.; Teter, David M.; Krumhansl, James L.

    2004-10-12

    A method for removing dissolved arsenic from an aqueous medium comprising adding lime to the aqueous medium, and adding one or more sources of divalent metal ions other than calcium and magnesium to the aqueous medium, whereby dissolved arsenic in the aqueous medium is reduced to a lower level than possible if only the step of adding lime were performed. Also a composition of matter for removing dissolved arsenic from an aqueous medium comprising lime and one or more sources of divalent copper and/or zinc metal ions.

  16. Lime-pozzolana mortars in Roman catacombs: composition, structures and restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez-Moral, Sergio; Soler, Vicente; Garcia-Guinea, Javier

    2005-08-01

    Analyses of microsamples collected from Roman catacombs and samples of lime-pozzolana mortars hardened in the laboratory display higher contents in carbonated binder than other subaerial Roman monuments. The measured environmental data inside the Saint Callistus and Domitilla catacombs show a constant temperature of 15-17 deg C, a high CO{sub 2} content (1700 to 3500 ppm) and a relative humidity close to 100%. These conditions and particularly the high CO{sub 2} concentration speed-up the lime calcitization roughly by 500% and reduce the cationic diffusion to form hydrous calcium aluminosilicates. The structure of Roman catacomb mortars shows (i) coarser aggregates and thicker beds on the inside, (ii) thin, smoothed, light and fine-grained external surfaces with low content of aggregates and (iii) paintings and frescoes on the outside. The observed high porosity of the mortars can be attributed to cracking after drying linked with the high binder content. Hardened lime lumps inside the binder denote low water/mortar ratios for slaking. The aggregate tephra pyroclasts rich in aluminosilicate phases with accessorial amounts of Ba, Sr, Rb, Cu and Pb were analysed through X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) and also by environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) to identify the size and distribution of porosity. Results support procedures using local materials, special mortars and classic techniques for restoration purposes in hypogeal backgrounds.

  17. Kinetic fractionation of carbon and oxygen isotopes during hydration of carbon dioxide

    E-print Network

    Zeebe, Richard E.

    , kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) during the hydration of CO2 and dehydration of HCOÀ 3 provide insight in revised form 3 May 2014; available online 21 May 2014 Abstract Kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) during effects in speleothem calcite, diffusion-reaction coupling in boundary layers, air­sea gas exchange

  18. The LIME Interface Specification Language and Runtime Monitoring Tool

    E-print Network

    Heljanko, Keijo

    The LIME Interface Specification Language and Runtime Monitoring Tool Kari K¨ahk¨onen, Jani de- signed in the LIME project (LIME ISL) and the supporting runtime mon- itoring tool. The interface, and as nondeterministic finite automata. We also describe the supporting LIME interface monitoring tool which is an open

  19. 46 CFR 148.230 - Calcium oxide (lime, unslaked).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Calcium oxide (lime, unslaked). 148.230 Section 148.230... (lime, unslaked). (a) When transported by barge, unslaked lime (calcium oxide) must be carried in an... carry any other cargo while unslaked lime is on board. (b) The shipping paper requirements in §...

  20. 46 CFR 148.230 - Calcium oxide (lime, unslaked).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Calcium oxide (lime, unslaked). 148.230 Section 148.230... (lime, unslaked). (a) When transported by barge, unslaked lime (calcium oxide) must be carried in an... carry any other cargo while unslaked lime is on board. (b) The shipping paper requirements in §...

  1. 46 CFR 148.230 - Calcium oxide (lime, unslaked).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Calcium oxide (lime, unslaked). 148.230 Section 148.230... (lime, unslaked). (a) When transported by barge, unslaked lime (calcium oxide) must be carried in an... carry any other cargo while unslaked lime is on board. (b) The shipping paper requirements in §...

  2. 46 CFR 148.230 - Calcium oxide (lime, unslaked).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Calcium oxide (lime, unslaked). 148.230 Section 148.230... (lime, unslaked). (a) When transported by barge, unslaked lime (calcium oxide) must be carried in an... carry any other cargo while unslaked lime is on board. (b) The shipping paper requirements in §...

  3. Interaction of alcohols with the calcite surface.

    PubMed

    Bovet, N; Yang, M; Javadi, M S; Stipp, S L S

    2015-02-01

    A clearer understanding of calcite interactions with organic molecules would contribute to a range of fields including harnessing the secrets of biomineralisation where organisms produce hard parts, increasing oil production from spent reservoirs, remediating contaminated soils and drinking water aquifers and improving manufacturing methods for industrial products such as pigments, soft abrasives, building materials and optical devices. Biomineralisation by some species of blue green algae produces beautifully elaborate platelets of calcite where the individual crystals are of nanometer scale. Controlling their growth requires complex polysaccharides. Polysaccharide activity depends on the functionality of OH groups, so to simplify the system in order to get closer to a molecular level understanding, we investigated the interaction of OH from a suite of alcohols with clean, freshly cleaved calcite surfaces. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) provided binding energies and revealed the extent of surface coverage. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations supplemented with information about molecule ordering, orientation and packing density. The results show that all alcohols studied bond with the calcite surface through the OH group, with their carbon chains sticking away in a standing-up orientation. Alcohol molecules are closely packed and form a well-ordered monolayer on the surface. PMID:25533590

  4. Calcite Reaction Kinetics in Saline Waters 

    E-print Network

    Finneran, David

    2012-02-14

    The effect of ionic strength (I), pCO2, and temperature on the reaction kinetics of calcite was investigated in magnesium-free, phosphate-free, low calcium (mCa^2 ? 0.01 – 0.02 molal) simple KCl and NaCl solutions from both undersaturated...

  5. Cyclic Cratonic Carbonates and Phanerozoic Calcite Seas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Bruce H.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses causes of cyclicity in cratonic carbonate sequences and evidence for and potential significance of postulated primary calcite sediment components in past Paleozoic seas, outlining problems, focusing on models explaining existing data, and identifying background. Future sedimentary geologists will need to address these and related areas…

  6. Lime: A Middleware for Physical and Logical Mobility Lime is a middleware supporting the development of ap-

    E-print Network

    Picco, Gian Pietro

    Lime: A Middleware for Physical and Logical Mobility Abstract Lime is a middleware supporting. Lime adopts a coordination perspective inspired by work on the Linda model. The context for computation, represented in Linda by a glob- ally accessible, persistent tuple space, is represented in Lime by transient

  7. The Needs of Texas Soils for Lime

    E-print Network

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1919-01-01

    on various crops as found by the Rhode Island Experiment St a t' lon : Benefited bp lime-Alfalfa, asparagus, barley, beets, clover, celery, cauliflower, currants, cabbage, cucumbers, corn, lettuce, mangelwurzel, onions, okra, oats, peas, peanuts, pepper...

  8. FULL SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF LIME STABILIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The project objective was to demonstrate and evaluate the feasibility, economics, and benefits of stabilizing primary, waste activated, septic, and anaerobically digested sludges by lime addition. The project confirmed the findings of previous laboratory and pilot scale tests and...

  9. Synthesis of a Se0 /Calcite Composite Using Hydrothermal

    E-print Network

    Montes-Hernandez, German

    Synthesis of a Se0 /Calcite Composite Using Hydrothermal Carbonation of Ca(OH)2 CoupledVised Manuscript ReceiVed April 4, 2008 ABSTRACT: Elemental selenium (Se0 )/calcite composites were synthesized) deposited on the calcite matrix. Conversely, under O2-rich conditions, the composite consisted rod

  10. & Microarrays Calcite Microneedle Arrays Produced by Inorganic Ion-Assisted

    E-print Network

    Qi, Limin

    & Microarrays Calcite Microneedle Arrays Produced by Inorganic Ion-Assisted Anisotropic Dissolution of Bulk Calcite Crystal Xia Long,[a] Ruijie Meng,[b] Weike Wu,[c] Yurong Ma,*[a] Dong Yang,[b] and Limin and fabricate crystals with complicated morphologies. The formation of ordered arrays of c-axis-oriented calcite

  11. Sequestration of Selenium on Calcite Surfaces Revealed by Nanoscale Imaging

    E-print Network

    Montes-Hernandez, German

    Sequestration of Selenium on Calcite Surfaces Revealed by Nanoscale Imaging Christine V. Putnis, ISTerre, BP 53, F-38041 Grenoble, France *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: Calcite, a widespread natural and for human health. In the form of selenite (Se(IV) ), selenium can be incorporated into calcite during growth

  12. Calcite Mineral Scaling Potentials of High-Temperature Geothermal Wells

    E-print Network

    Karlsson, Brynjar

    #12;i Calcite Mineral Scaling Potentials of High-Temperature Geothermal Wells Alvin I. Remoroza Faculty of Science University of Iceland 2010 #12;#12;iii Calcite Mineral Scaling Potentials of High #12;iv Calcite Mineral Scaling Potentials of High-Temperature Geothermal Wells 60 ECTS thesis

  13. The crystal structure of calcite III Joseph R. Smyth

    E-print Network

    Smyth, Joseph R.

    The crystal structure of calcite III Joseph R. Smyth Department of Geological Sciences, University of Technology, Pasadena, CA. Abstract. The crystal structure of calcite III has been deduced from existing high of the calcite I structure. The structure is monoclinic with space group C2 and a Z of 6. There are two Ca

  14. Temperature limits for preservation of primary calcite clumped isotope paleotemperatures

    E-print Network

    Grossman, Ethan L.

    Temperature limits for preservation of primary calcite clumped isotope paleotemperatures Gregory A in the calcite lattice can alter the clumped isotope composition of paleotemperature archives such as fossil experiments involve heating fossil brachiopod calcite at different temperatures and times to directly observe

  15. Surface-Potential Heterogeneity of Reacted Calcite and Rhodochrosite

    E-print Network

    Surface-Potential Heterogeneity of Reacted Calcite and Rhodochrosite C H O N G Z H E N G N A , T R, nanostructures on the (101h4) surfaces of calcite and rhodochrosite are characterized by their surface potentials using Kelvin probe force microscopy. Water- induced nanostructures on calcite have a topographic height

  16. Brittlestar-inspired microlens arrays made of calcite single crystals.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xiaozhou; Zhang, Fei; Ma, Yurong; Qi, Limin

    2015-04-01

    Unique concave microlens arrays (MLAs) made of calcite single crystals with tunable crystal orientations can be readily fabricated by template-assisted epitaxial growth in solution without additives under ambient conditions. While the non-birefringent calcite (001) MLA showed excellent imaging performance like brittlestar's microlens arrays, the birefringent calcite (104) MLA exhibited remarkable polarization-dependent optical properties. PMID:25366272

  17. Recycled sand in lime-based mortars.

    PubMed

    Stefanidou, M; Anastasiou, E; Georgiadis Filikas, K

    2014-12-01

    The increasing awareness of the society about safe guarding heritage buildings and at the same time protecting the environment promotes strategies of combining principles of restoration with environmentally friendly materials and techniques. Along these lines, an experimental program was carried out in order to investigate the possibility of producing repair, lime-based mortars used in historic buildings incorporating secondary materials. The alternative material tested was recycled fine aggregates originating from mixed construction and demolition waste. Extensive tests on the raw materials have been performed and mortar mixtures were produced using different binding systems with natural, standard and recycled sand in order to compare their mechanical, physical and microstructure properties. The study reveals the improved behavior of lime mortars, even at early ages, due to the reaction of lime with the Al and Si constituents of the fine recycled sand. The role of the recycled sand was more beneficial in lime mortars rather than the lime-pozzolan or lime-pozzolan-cement mortars as a decrease in their performance was recorded in the latter cases due to the mortars' structure. PMID:25266158

  18. in situ Calcite Precipitation for Contaminant Immobilization

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshiko Fujita; Robert W. Smith

    2009-08-01

    in situ Calcite Precipitation for Contaminant Immobilization Yoshiko Fujita (Yoshiko.fujita@inl.gov) (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho, USA) Robert W. Smith (University of Idaho-Idaho Falls, Idaho Falls, Idaho, USA) Subsurface radionuclide and trace metal contaminants throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex pose one of DOE’s greatest challenges for long-term stewardship. One promising stabilization mechanism for divalent trace ions, such as the short-lived radionuclide strontium-90, is co-precipitation in calcite. Calcite, a common mineral in the arid western U.S., can form solid solutions with trace metals. The rate of trace metal incorporation is susceptible to manipulation using either abiotic or biotic means. We have previously demonstrated that increasing the calcite precipitation rate by stimulating the activity of urea hydrolyzing microorganisms can result in significantly enhanced Sr uptake. Urea hydrolysis causes the acceleration of calcium carbonate precipitation (and trace metal co-precipitation) by increasing pH and alkalinity, and also by liberating the reactive cations from the aquifer matrix via exchange reactions involving the ammonium ion derived from urea: H2NCONH2 + 3H2O ? 2NH4+ + HCO3- + OH- urea hydrolysis >X:2Ca + 2NH4+ ? 2>X:NH4 + Ca2+ ion exchange Ca2+ + HCO3- + OH- ? CaCO3(s) + H2O calcite precipitation where >X: is a cation exchange site on the aquifer matrix. This contaminant immobilization approach has several attractive features. Urea hydrolysis is catalyzed by the urease enzyme, which is produced by many indigenous subsurface microorganisms. Addition of foreign microbes is unnecessary. In turn the involvement of the native microbes and the consequent in situ generation of reactive components in the aqueous phase (e.g., carbonate and Ca or Sr) can allow dissemination of the reaction over a larger volume and/or farther away from an amendment injection point, as compared to direct addition of the reactants at a well (which can lead to clogging). A final particularly attractive characteristic of this approach is its long-term sustainability; the remediation scheme is geared toward environments that are already saturated with respect to calcite, and in such systems the bulk of any newly precipitated calcite will remain stable once engineered manipulations cease. This means that the co-precipitated contaminants will be effectively sequestered over the long term. We are currently conducting integrated field, laboratory, and computational research to evaluate a) the relationships between urea hydrolysis rate, calcite precipitation rate, and trace metal partitioning under environmentally relevant conditions; and b) the coupling between flow/flux manipulations and calcite precipitate distribution and metal uptake. We are also assessing the application of geophysical and molecular biological tools to monitor the relevant chemical and physical processes. The primary emphasis is on field-scale processes, with the laboratory and modeling activities designed specifically to support the field studies. Field experiments are being conducted in perched water (vadose zone) at the Vadose Zone Research Park (VZRP) at the Idaho National Laboratory; the VZRP provides an uncontaminated setting that is an analog of the 90Sr-contaminated vadose zone at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. A summary of results to date will be presented.

  19. Effect of whole catchment liming on the episodic acidification of two adirondack streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newton, R.M.; Burns, D.A.; Blette, V.L.; Driscoll, C.T.

    1996-01-01

    During the fall of 1989 7.7Mg/ha of calcium carbonate was applied on two tributary catchments (40 ha and 60 ha) to Woods Lake, a small (25 ha) acidic headwater lake in the western Adirondack region of New York. Stream-water chemistry in both catchment tributaries responded immediately. Acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC) increased by more than 200 ??eq/L in one of the streams and more than 1000 ??eq/L in the other, from pre-liming values which ranged from -25 to +40 ??eq/L. The increase in ANC was primarily due to increases in dissolved Ca2+ concentrations. Most of the initial response of the streams was due to the dissolution of calcite that fell directly into the stream channels and adjacent wetlands. A small beaver impoundment and associated wetlands were probably responsible for the greater response observed in one of the streams. After the liming of subcatchmentIV (60 ha), Ca2+ concentrations increased with increasing stream discharge in the stream during fall rain events, suggesting a contribution from calcite dissolved within the soil and transported to the stream by surface runoff or shallow interflow. Concentrations of other ions not associated with the calcite (e.g. Na+) decreased during fall rain events, presumably due to mixing of solute-rich base flow with more dilute shallow interflow. The strong relation between changes in Ca2+ and changes in NO3- concentrations during spring snowmelt, (r2 = 0.93, slope = 0.96, on an equivalent basis) suggests that both solutes had a common source in the organic horizon of the soil. Increases in NO3- concentrations during snowmelt were balanced by increases in Ca2+ that was released either directly from the calcite or from exchange sites, mitigating episodic acidification of the stream. However, high ambient NO3- concentrations and relatively low ambient Ca2+ concentrations in the stream during the spring caused the stream to become acidic despite the CaCO3 treatment. In stream WO2 (40ha), Ca2+ concentrations were much higher than in stream WO4 because of the dissolution of calcite which fell directly into the upstream beaver pond and its associated wetlands. Calcium concentrations decreased as both NO3- concentrations and stream discharge increased, due to the dilution of Ca-enriched beaver pond water by shallow interflow. Despite this dilution, Ca2+ concentrations were high enough to more than balance strong acid anion (SO42-, NO3-, Cl-) concentrations, resulting in a positive ANC in this stream throughout the year. These data indicate that liming of wetlands and beaver ponds is more effective than whole catchment liming in neutralizing acidic surface waters. ?? 1996 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  20. Ca-Doped Strontianite-Calcite Hybrid Micropillar Arrays Formed via Oriented Dissolution and Heteroepitaxial Growth on Calcite

    E-print Network

    Qi, Limin

    Ca-Doped Strontianite-Calcite Hybrid Micropillar Arrays Formed via Oriented Dissolution and Heteroepitaxial Growth on Calcite Weike Wu,, Yurong Ma,*, Ying Xing,§ Yuzhe Zhang, Heng Yang, Qiang Luo,§ Jian dissolution up to now. In this work, well ordered single crystalline calcium-doped strontianite-calcite hybrid

  1. Calcite growth-rate inhibition by fulvic acid and magnesium ion—Possible influence on biogenic calcite formation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reddy, Michael M.

    2012-01-01

    Increases in ocean surface water dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations retard biocalcification by reducing calcite supersaturation (?c). Reduced calcification rates may influence growth-rate dependent magnesium ion (Mg) incorporation into biogenic calcite modifying the use of calcifying organisms as paleoclimate proxies. Fulvic acid (FA) at biocalcification sites may further reduce calcification rates. Calcite growth-rate inhibition by FA and Mg, two common constituents of seawater and soil water involved in the formation of biogenic calcite, was measured separately and in combination under identical, highly reproducible experimental conditions. Calcite growth rates (pH=8.5 and ?c=4.5) are reduced by FA (0.5 mg/L) to 47% and by Mg (10?4 M) to 38%, compared to control experiments containing no added growth-rate inhibitor. Humic acid (HA) is twice as effective a calcite growth-rate inhibitor as FA. Calcite growth rate in the presence of both FA (0.5 mg/L) and Mg (10?4 M) is reduced to 5% of the control rate. Mg inhibits calcite growth rates by substitution for calcium ion at the growth site. In contrast, FA inhibits calcite growth rates by binding multiple carboxylate groups on the calcite surface. FA and Mg together have an increased affinity for the calcite growth sites reducing calcite growth rates.

  2. Dissolution Kinetics of Biogenic Magnesian Calcites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, R.; Guidry, M.; Mackenzie, F. T.; De Carlo, E. H.

    2014-12-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) is a serious concern for the health of calcifying ecosystems in the near future. During the past century, surface ocean pH has decreased by ~0.1 pH units, and is expected to decrease further by 0.3-0.4 pH units by the end of this century. The process of OA will likely result in both decreased calcification rates and increased rates of carbonate mineral dissolution, particularly involving the magnesian calcite (Mg-calcite) calcifiers found in shallow-water reef and other carbonate environments. Many Mg-calcite compositions are the most soluble of the carbonate phases commonly found in reef environments (often comprising much of the cementation and structure within a reef), and are therefore potentially the most susceptible to dissolution processes associated with OA. However, the dissolution kinetics of these phases is poorly known, limiting our ability to understand their behavior in nature. Laboratory experiments designed to investigate the mechanisms and dissolution rates of biogenic Mg-calcite mineral phases in distilled water and seawater over a range of CO2 and T conditions were conducted employing both batch and fluidized-bed reactor systems and using a variety of cleaned and annealed biogenic Mg-calcite phases. Our initial results have shown that the dissolution rate at 298 K and a pCO2 of ~350 ppm of the crustose coralline alga Amphiroa rigida (~20 mol% MgCO3) in seawater undersaturated with respect to this phase is 3.6 ?mol g-1 hr-1, nearly 50% greater than that under similar conditions for aragonite. This rate and the derived experimental rate law are consistent with the preliminary findings of Walter and Morse (1985). Additional kinetic (and also solubility) data will be presented for the following species: Chiton tuberculatus (~0-4 mol% MgCO3); Echinometra mathei and/or Lytechinus variegatus (~8-12 mol% MgCO3); Homotrema rubrum (12-16 mol% MgCO3); and Lithothamnion sp. (~18-24 mol% MgCO3). Quantification of the rates of dissolution for a broad range of Mg-calcite phases, along with determination of sediment mineralogy, is necessary to allow managers to model and predict quantitatively the impacts of OA on a variety of coral reef and other carbonate-dominated sedimentary environments.

  3. LIME AND CEMENT INDUSTRY PARTICULATE EMISSIONS: SOURCE CATEGORY REPORT. VOLUME 1. LIME INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study to develop particulate emission factors based on cutoff size for inhalable particles for the lime industry. After reviewing available information characterizing particulate emissions from lime plants, the data were summarized and rated in terms...

  4. Magnesian calcite sorbent for carbon dioxide capture.

    PubMed

    Mabry, James C; Mondal, Kanchan

    2011-01-01

    Magnesian calcite with controlled properties was synthesized for the removal of carbon dioxide. The results from characterization, reactivity and CO2 capture capacity for different synthesis conditions are reported. The magnesian calcite samples (CaCO3:MgCO3) were synthesized by the coprecipitation of specific amounts of commercially available CaO and MgO by carbon dioxide. Characterization was done with BET, SEM/EDS, particle size analysis and XRD. The capacity was measured using TGA cycles at 800 degrees C and compared for different preparation conditions. The effects of CaO, MgO and surfactant loading on the physical properties and carbonation activity were studied to determine the optimal synthesis condition. A long-term carbonation-calcination cycling test was conducted on the optimal sample. It was observed that the sample maintained its capacity to 86% of its original uptake even after 50 cycles. PMID:21473269

  5. Improved control of sucrose losses and clarified juice turbidity with lime saccharate in hot lime clarification of sugarcane juice and other comparisons with milk of lime

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A comparative investigation of adding milk of lime (MOL) versus lime saccharate (SACCH) in hot lime clarification of juice at a U.S. sugarcane factory was undertaken to quantify performance across the 2009 processing season after a preliminary factory study in 2008. SACCH was prepared by adding hyd...

  6. Frictional behavior of talc-calcite mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giorgetti, C.; Carpenter, B. M.; Collettini, C.

    2015-09-01

    Faults involving phyllosilicates appear weak when compared to the laboratory-derived strength of most crustal rocks. Among phyllosilicates, talc, with very low friction, is one of the weakest minerals involved in various tectonic settings. As the presence of talc has been recently documented in carbonate faults, we performed laboratory friction experiments to better constrain how various amounts of talc could alter these fault's frictional properties. We used a biaxial apparatus to systematically shear different mixtures of talc and calcite as powdered gouge at room temperature, normal stresses up to 50 MPa and under different pore fluid saturated conditions, i.e., CaCO3-equilibrated water and silicone oil. We performed slide-hold-slide tests, 1-3000 s, to measure the amount of frictional healing and velocity-stepping tests, 0.1-1000 µm/s, to evaluate frictional stability. We then analyzed microstructures developed during our experiments. Our results show that with the addition of 20% talc the calcite gouge undergoes a 70% reduction in steady state frictional strength, a complete reduction of frictional healing and a transition from velocity-weakening to velocity-strengthening behavior. Microstructural analysis shows that with increasing talc content, deformation mechanisms evolve from distributed cataclastic flow of the granular calcite to localized sliding along talc-rich shear planes, resulting in a fully interconnected network of talc lamellae from 20% talc onward. Our observations indicate that in faults where talc and calcite are present, a low concentration of talc is enough to strongly modify the gouge's frictional properties and specifically to weaken the fault, reduce its ability to sustain future stress drops, and stabilize slip.

  7. Hydrate characterization research overview

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, R.D.

    1993-06-01

    Gas hydrate research has been focused primarily on the development of a basic understanding of hydrate formation and dissociation in the laboratory, as well as in the field. Laboratory research on gas hydrates characterized the physical system, which focused on creating methane hydrates samples, tetrahydrofuran (THF) hydrate samples, consolidated rock samples, frost base mixtures, water/ice-base mixtures, and water-base mixtures. Laboratory work produced measurements of sonic velocity and electrical resistivity of hydrates. As work progressed, areas, such as the Gulf of Mexico and the Guatemala Trench, where gas hydrates are likely to occur were identified, and specific high potential areas were targeted for detailed investigation. The testing of samples and recovered cores from such areas provided information for detection of hydrate formations in the natural environment. Natural gas hydrate samples have been tested for thermal properties, dissociation properties, fracture mechanics, and optical properties. Acoustical properties were investigated both in the laboratory and, as possible, in the field. Sonic velocity and electrical resistivity measurements will continue to be obtained. These activities have been undertaken in hydrate deposits on Alaska`s North Slope, the Gulf of Mexico and the US East coast offshore, as well as other gas hydrate target areas.

  8. Effects of calcite and magnesite application to a declining Masson pine forest on strongly acidified soil in Southwestern China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yongmei; Kang, Ronghua; Ma, Xiaoxiao; Qi, Yu; Mulder, Jan; Duan, Lei

    2014-05-15

    Liming of strongly acidified soil under a Masson pine (Pinus massoniana Lamb.) forest was studied through a seven-year field manipulation experiment at Tieshanping, Chongqing in Southwestern China. To distinguish between the individual effects of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) addition, we separately applied calcite (CaCO3) and magnesite (MgCO3), rather than using dolomite [CaMg(CO3)2]. Both calcite and magnesite additions caused a significant increase in pH and a decrease in dissolved inorganic monomeric aluminium (Ali) concentration of soil water. Ecological recovery included increases of herb biomass (both treatments) and Mg content in Masson pine needles (magnesite treatment only). However, the growth rate of Masson pine did not increase under either treatment, possibly because of nutrient imbalance due to phosphorus (P) deficiency or limited observation period. In China, acid deposition in forest ecosystems commonly coincides with large inputs of atmogenic Ca(2+), both enhancing Mg(2+) leaching. Calcite addition may further decrease the Mg(2+) availability in soil water, thereby exacerbating Mg(2+) deficiency in the acidified forest soils of southern and southwestern China. The effect of anthropogenic acidification of naturally acid forest soils on P availability needs further study. PMID:24631610

  9. Dynamic Response of Soda-Lime Glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, C. Scott

    2007-06-01

    Soda-lime glass (SLG) is a highly available low cost glass formulation commonly used in window applications and it may have potential use in transparent ceramic armor. While there has been a great deal of work done to characterize the shock response of fused silica, the primary component of SLG, comparatively little is known about SLG itself. This paper will report the results of characterization experiments conducted at Sandia National Laboratories on a low iron content soda-lime glass commercially available from PPG Industries. Data have been collected over a wide range of stress levels from 4 to 65 GPa. Topics will include the Hugoniot response including non-linear elastic behavior, support for a high stress phase transition, material strength, and evidence for failure of the material under certain conditions. Further, the results will be compared and contrasted with related findings in fused silica as well as work on similar soda-lime glass formulations reported by other researchers.

  10. Combustion of Methane Hydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roshandell, Melika

    A significant methane storehouse is in the form of methane hydrates on the sea floor and in the arctic permafrost. Methane hydrates are ice-like structures composed of water cages housing a guest methane molecule. This caged methane represents a resource of energy and a potential source of strong greenhouse gas. Most research related to methane hydrates has been focused on their formation and dissociation because they can form solid plugs that complicate transport of oil and gas in pipelines. This dissertation explores the direct burning of these methane hydrates where heat from the combustion process dissociates the hydrate into water and methane, and the released methane fuels the methane/air diffusion flame heat source. In contrast to the pipeline applications, very little research has been done on the combustion and burning characteristics of methane hydrates. This is the first dissertation on this subject. In this study, energy release and combustion characteristics of methane hydrates were investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The experimental study involved collaboration with another research group, particularly in the creation of methane hydrate samples. The experiments were difficult because hydrates form at high pressure within a narrow temperature range. The process can be slow and the resulting hydrate can have somewhat variable properties (e.g., extent of clathration, shape, compactness). The experimental study examined broad characteristics of hydrate combustion, including flame appearance, burning time, conditions leading to flame extinguishment, the amount of hydrate water melted versus evaporated, and flame temperature. These properties were observed for samples of different physical size. Hydrate formation is a very slow process with pure water and methane. The addition of small amounts of surfactant increased substantially the hydrate formation rate. The effects of surfactant on burning characteristics were also studied. One finding from the experimental component of the research was that hydrates can burn completely, and that they burn most rapidly just after ignition and then burn steadily when some of the water in the dissociated zone is allowed to drain away. Excessive surfactant in the water creates a foam layer around the hydrate that acts as an insulator. The layer prevents sufficient heat flux from reaching the hydrate surface below the foam to release additional methane and the hydrate flame extinguishes. No self-healing or ice-freezing processes were observed in any of the combustion experiments. There is some variability, but a typical hydrate flame is receiving between one and two moles of water vapor from the liquid dissociated zone of the hydrate for each mole of methane it receives from the dissociating solid region. This limits the flame temperature to approximately 1800 K. In the theoretical portion of the study, a physical model using an energy balance from methane combustion was developed to understand the energy transfer between the three phases of gas, liquid and solid during the hydrate burn. Also this study provides an understanding of the different factors impacting the hydrate's continuous burn, such as the amount of water vapor in the flame. The theoretical study revealed how the water layer thickness on the hydrate surface, and its effect on the temperature gradient through the dissociated zone, plays a significant role in the hydrate dissociation rate and methane release rate. Motivated by the above mentioned observation from the theoretical analysis, a 1-D two-phase numerical simulation based on a moving front model for hydrate dissociation from a thermal source was developed. This model was focused on the dynamic growth of the dissociated zone and its effect on the dissociation rate. The model indicated that the rate of hydrate dissociation with a thermal source is a function of the dissociated zone thickness. It shows that in order for a continuous dissociation and methane release, some of the water from the dissociated zone needs to be drained. The results

  11. A mild alkali treated jute fibre controlling the hydration behaviour of greener cement paste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Byung-Wan; Chakraborty, Sumit

    2015-01-01

    To reduce the antagonistic effect of jute fibre on the setting and hydration of jute reinforced cement, modified jute fibre reinforcement would be a unique approach. The present investigation deals with the effectiveness of mild alkali treated (0.5%) jute fibre on the setting and hydration behaviour of cement. Setting time measurement, hydration test and analytical characterizations of the hardened samples (viz., FTIR, XRD, DSC, TGA, and free lime estimation) were used to evaluate the effect of alkali treated jute fibre. From the hydration test, the time (t) required to reach maximum temperature for the hydration of control cement sample is estimated to be 860 min, whilst the time (t) is measured to be 1040 min for the hydration of a raw jute reinforced cement sample. However, the time (t) is estimated to be 1020 min for the hydration of an alkali treated jute reinforced cement sample. Additionally, from the analytical characterizations, it is determined that fibre-cement compatibility is increased and hydration delaying effect is minimized by using alkali treated jute fibre as fibre reinforcement. Based on the analyses, a model has been proposed to explain the setting and hydration behaviour of alkali treated jute fibre reinforced cement composite.

  12. A mild alkali treated jute fibre controlling the hydration behaviour of greener cement paste

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Byung-Wan; Chakraborty, Sumit

    2015-01-01

    To reduce the antagonistic effect of jute fibre on the setting and hydration of jute reinforced cement, modified jute fibre reinforcement would be a unique approach. The present investigation deals with the effectiveness of mild alkali treated (0.5%) jute fibre on the setting and hydration behaviour of cement. Setting time measurement, hydration test and analytical characterizations of the hardened samples (viz., FTIR, XRD, DSC, TGA, and free lime estimation) were used to evaluate the effect of alkali treated jute fibre. From the hydration test, the time (t) required to reach maximum temperature for the hydration of control cement sample is estimated to be 860?min, whilst the time (t) is measured to be 1040?min for the hydration of a raw jute reinforced cement sample. However, the time (t) is estimated to be 1020?min for the hydration of an alkali treated jute reinforced cement sample. Additionally, from the analytical characterizations, it is determined that fibre-cement compatibility is increased and hydration delaying effect is minimized by using alkali treated jute fibre as fibre reinforcement. Based on the analyses, a model has been proposed to explain the setting and hydration behaviour of alkali treated jute fibre reinforced cement composite. PMID:25592665

  13. A mild alkali treated jute fibre controlling the hydration behaviour of greener cement paste.

    PubMed

    Jo, Byung-Wan; Chakraborty, Sumit

    2015-01-01

    To reduce the antagonistic effect of jute fibre on the setting and hydration of jute reinforced cement, modified jute fibre reinforcement would be a unique approach. The present investigation deals with the effectiveness of mild alkali treated (0.5%) jute fibre on the setting and hydration behaviour of cement. Setting time measurement, hydration test and analytical characterizations of the hardened samples (viz., FTIR, XRD, DSC, TGA, and free lime estimation) were used to evaluate the effect of alkali treated jute fibre. From the hydration test, the time (t) required to reach maximum temperature for the hydration of control cement sample is estimated to be 860 min, whilst the time (t) is measured to be 1040 min for the hydration of a raw jute reinforced cement sample. However, the time (t) is estimated to be 1020 min for the hydration of an alkali treated jute reinforced cement sample. Additionally, from the analytical characterizations, it is determined that fibre-cement compatibility is increased and hydration delaying effect is minimized by using alkali treated jute fibre as fibre reinforcement. Based on the analyses, a model has been proposed to explain the setting and hydration behaviour of alkali treated jute fibre reinforced cement composite. PMID:25592665

  14. 46 CFR 148.04-23 - Unslaked lime in bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES CARRIAGE OF SOLID HAZARDOUS MATERIALS IN BULK Special Additional Requirements for Certain Material § 148.04-23 Unslaked lime in bulk. (a) Unslaked lime in bulk must be transported in...

  15. VIEW OF MLT BUILDING (LIME KILN BUILDING DIRECTLY BEHIND IT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF MLT BUILDING (LIME KILN BUILDING DIRECTLY BEHIND IT WITH GOOD VIEW OF SKIP CAR TRACK) LOOKING EAST. - Solvay Process Company, Lime Kiln Building, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  16. VIEW OF TUNNEL TO MLT BUILDING UNDER LIME KILNS, CONVEYOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF TUNNEL TO MLT BUILDING UNDER LIME KILNS, CONVEYOR MOVES HOT STONE TO MLT'S (CONVEYOR ON RIGHT). - Solvay Process Company, Milk of Lime Towers Building, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  17. VIEW OF LIME KILN BUILDING LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING STONE ELEVATOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF LIME KILN BUILDING LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING STONE ELEVATOR (ON THE LEFT) AND SOUTH CONVEYOR. - Solvay Process Company, Lime Kiln Building, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  18. VIEW OF TUNNEL TO MLT BUILDING UNDER LIME KILNS. CONVEYOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF TUNNEL TO MLT BUILDING UNDER LIME KILNS. CONVEYOR MOVES HOT STONE TO MLT'S. THIS IS THE DRIVE END OF CONVEYOR BELT. - Solvay Process Company, Milk of Lime Towers Building, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  19. 19. LOOKING NORTH ALONG ROAD BISECTING SITE; PEBBLE LIME SILO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. LOOKING NORTH ALONG ROAD BISECTING SITE; PEBBLE LIME SILO ON THE RIGHT, MAIN SUPPLY BUILDING AND MACHINE SHOP ON THE LEFT. - Standard Lime & Stone Quarry, County Route 27, Millville, Jefferson County, WV

  20. LIME KILN BUILDING, KILN BOTTOM SHOWING ROTATOR GEAR. (GEAR IS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LIME KILN BUILDING, KILN BOTTOM SHOWING ROTATOR GEAR. (GEAR IS POINTED DOWN FOR PROPER ORIENTATION). - Solvay Process Company, Lime Kiln Building, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  1. 62. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE LIME KILN BUILDING, LOOKING AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    62. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE LIME KILN BUILDING, LOOKING AT THE LIME KILNS AND MOTOR DRIVES FOR THE KILNS. (DATE UNKNOWN). - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  2. Zinc isotope fractionation during adsorption on calcite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, S.; Wasylenki, L. E.

    2013-12-01

    Zinc is an important element as a nutrient in the marine biosphere. However, our understanding of its biogeochemical cycling in the oceans is relatively limited. The Zn stable isotope system holds the promise of providing novel insights, since published Zn isotopic values for various natural samples reveal significant fractionations in the marine environment. Surface seawater, basalts, shales, deep-sea clay sediments, sediment trap material, bulk plankton and zooplankton samples, and eolian dust fall within a tight range (?66/64Zn from -0.1 to 0.5‰), but modern ferromanganese crusts (?66/64Zn from 0.5 to 1.2‰), as well as carbonates (?66/64Zn from 0.3 to 1.4‰), are notably enriched in heavy Zn isotopes [1-4]. In this study we seek to constrain the mechanism by which carbonates are enriched in heavier isotopes. In particular, we have conducted experiments to quantify isotope fractionation during adsorption of Zn onto the surfaces of calcite crystals that are in equilibrium with solution. The adsorption experiments were carried out in a series of small-volume batch reactions in a clean laboratory environment, using high-purity reagents and calcite seed crystals. The calcite was equilibrated with the solution prior to addition of Zn at atmospheric CO2 pressure (i.e., in air) for 5 days until a stable pH of 8.3 was reached. Later, a small aliquot of dissolved ZnCl2 was added such that the solution remained undersaturated with respect to hydrozincite. Experimental duration varied among the replicates from 6 to 144 hours, and then all solids and solutions were separated by filtration, purified by ion exchange chromatography, and analyzed by MC-ICP-MS. Zn adsorbed on calcite is isotopically heavier than in the co-existing solutions, with ?68/66Zncalcite-solution of approximately 0.3‰. The variation of ?68/66Zncalcite-solution beyond 24 hours is insignificant, so we infer that isotopic equilibrium is reached by this time. Previous work strongly suggests that a difference in coordination number between dissolved Zn and adsorbed Zn is drives the observed fractionation. Elzinga and Reeder[5] determined using EXAFS (Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure) that Zn adsorbed to calcite surfaces is tetrahedrally coordinated, sharing three oxygens with the calcite surface. Meanwhile density functional theory calculations[6] predicted that tetrahedral Zn-O species should be heavier than octahedral Zn-O species. Thus we infer that equilibrium between octahedrally coordinated, dissolved Zn and tetrahedrally coordinated, adsorbed Zn is the mechanism of fractionation in our experiments. Our further studies will determine whether the isotopically heavy pool of adsorbed Zn becomes the Zn incorporated within carbonates; if so, then we are closer to understanding the mechanism by which carbonate rocks in nature are enriched in heavier isotopes of zinc. [1] Bermin et al., 2006, Chem. Geol. 226, 280. [2] Maréchal et al., 2000, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 1, 1999GC-000029. [3] Dong et al., 2013, Talanta 114, 103-109. [4] Pichat et al., 2003, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 210, 167-178. [5] Elzinga and Reeder, 2002, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 66, 3943-3954. [6] Schauble, 2003, EOS, Trans. AGU, Fall Meet. Suppl. 84(46), B12B-0781.

  3. Limes funkcije Neki znacajni limesi funkcije u tocki

    E-print Network

    Matijevic, Domagoj

    Vjezbe 6 Limes funkcije Neki znacajni limesi funkcije u tocki: 1.) lim x0+ 1 x = +, 2.) lim x0- 1 x za svaku funkciju f za koju je lim x0 f(x) = 0. Tvrdnja: Funkcija f : D R R, ima limes L u tocki a D (D je skup svih gomilista skupa D) onda i samo onda ako ona u tocki a ima i limes slijeva i limes

  4. Influence of water vapour and carbon dioxide on free lime during storage at 80 °C, studied by Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Dubina, E; Korat, L; Black, L; Strupi-Šuput, J; Plank, J

    2013-07-01

    Micro-Raman spectroscopy has been used to follow the reaction of free lime (CaO) exposed for 24h to moist air at 80 °C under conditions of different relative humidities (10-80% RH). X-ray diffraction and SEM imaging were applied as complementary techniques. The conversion of lime to calcium hydroxide and its subsequent carbonation to various calcium carbonate polymorphs was found to strongly depend on the relative humidity. At low RH (10-20%), only Raman spectroscopy revealed the formation of early amorphous CaCO3 which in the XRD patterns was detected only at ?40% RH. However, XRD analysis could identify the crystalline polymorphs formed at higher relative humidities. Thus, between 20 and 60% RH, all three CaCO3 polymorphs (calcite, aragonite and vaterite) were observed via XRD whereas at high relative humidity (80%), calcite was the predominant reaction product. The results demonstrate the usefulness of Raman spectroscopy in the study of minor cement constituents and their reaction products on air, especially of amorphous character. PMID:23639205

  5. Removal of organic magnesium in coccolithophore calcite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco-Ameijeiras, S.; Lebrato, M.; Stoll, H. M.; Iglesias-Rodriguez, M. D.; Méndez-Vicente, A.; Sett, S.; Müller, M. N.; Oschlies, A.; Schulz, K. G.

    2012-07-01

    Coccolithophore calcite refers to the plates of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) produced by the calcifying phytoplankton, coccolithophores. The empirical study of the elemental composition has a great potential in the development of paleoproxies. However, the difficulties to separate coccolithophore carbonates from organic phases hamper the investigation of coccoliths magnesium to calcium ratios (Mg/Ca) in biogeochemical studies. Magnesium (Mg) is found in organic molecules in the cells at concentrations up to 400 times higher than in inorganically precipitated calcite in present-day seawater. The aim of this study was to optimize a reliable procedure for organic Mg removal from coccolithophore samples to ensure reproducibility in measurements of inorganic Mg in calcite. Two baseline methods comprising organic matter oxidations with (1) bleach and (2) hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were tested on synthetic pellets, prepared by mixing reagent grade CaCO3 with organic matter from the non-calcifying marine algae Chlorella autotrophica and measured with an ICP-AES (inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer). Our results show that treatments with a reductive solution [using hydroxylamine-hydrochloride (NH2OH·HCl + NH4OH)] followed by three consecutive oxidations (using H2O2) yielded the best cleaning efficiencies, removing >99% of organic Mg in 24 h. P/Ca and Fe/Ca were used as indicators for organic contamination in the treated material. The optimized protocol was tested in dried coccolithophore pellets from batch cultures of Emiliania huxleyi, Calcidiscus leptoporus and Gephyrocapsa oceanica. Mg/Ca of treated coccolithophores were 0.151 ± 0.018, 0.220 ± 0.040, and 0.064 ± 0.023 mmol/mol, respectively. Comparison with Mg/Ca literature coccolith values, suggests a tight dependence on modern seawater Mg/Ca, which changes as a consequence of different seawater origins (<10%). The reliable determination of Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca, and the low levels of organic contamination (Fe/Ca and P/Ca) make this protocol applicable to field and laboratory studies of trace elemental composition in coccolithophore calcite.

  6. Fibrous calcite from the Middle Ordovician Holston Formation (east Tennessee)

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, K.J.; Walker, K.R. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-03-01

    Fibrous calcite from buildups, which occur near the top of the Middle Ordovician Holston Formation, were examined from two localities near Knoxville, TN (Alcoa Highway and Deanne Quarry). Buildups at these localities were deposited under open-marine conditions, slightly down-slope from the platform edge. Fibrous calcite (mainly radiaxial fibrous) occur most commonly as cements in mainly stromatactis structures present in bioherms and intergranular porosity in beds that flank bioherms. Fibrous calcite is interpreted to have been precipitated in a marine setting. Fibrous calcite is uniformly turbid or banded with interlayered turbid and clearer cement. Fibrous calcite most commonly shows patchy or blotchy dull-non-luminescence under cathodoluminescence. Bands of uniformly non-luminescent and relatively bright luminescent calcite are present. [delta][sup 13]C compositions of fibrous calcite vary little (0.6 to 1.0%) but [delta][sup 18]O values are highly variable ([minus]4.8 to [minus]7.1%). Post-marine cement consists of ferroan and non-ferroan, dull luminescent equant calcite ([delta][sup 13]C = 0.3 to 0.8; [delta][sup 18]O = [minus]8.6 to [minus]11.5) and is interpreted as precipitated in a deep meteoric or burial setting. Depleted [delta][sup 18]O compositions of fibrous calcite reflect addition of post-depositional calcite during stabilization. Most enriched [delta][sup 13]C and [delta][sup 18]O fibrous calcite composition are similar to enriched values from other Middle Ordovician southern Appalachian buildups (other localities of Holston (TN) and Effna (VA) formations) ([delta][sup 13]C = 0.3 to 0.8; [delta][sup 18]O = [minus]3.9 to [minus]4.8) and may reflect fibrous calcite precipitated in isotopic equilibrium with Middle Ordovician sea water.

  7. Methane Hydrate Field Program

    SciTech Connect

    2013-12-31

    This final report document summarizes the activities undertaken and the output from three primary deliverables generated during this project. This fifteen month effort comprised numerous key steps including the creation of an international methane hydrate science team, determining and reporting the current state of marine methane hydrate research, convening an international workshop to collect the ideas needed to write a comprehensive Marine Methane Hydrate Field Research Plan and the development and publication of that plan. The following documents represent the primary deliverables of this project and are discussed in summary level detail in this final report. • Historical Methane Hydrate Project Review Report • Methane Hydrate Workshop Report • Topical Report: Marine Methane Hydrate Field Research Plan • Final Scientific/Technical Report

  8. Origins of hydration lubrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Liran; Gaisinskaya-Kipnis, Anastasia; Kampf, Nir; Klein, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Why is friction in healthy hips and knees so low? Hydration lubrication, according to which hydration shells surrounding charges act as lubricating elements in boundary layers (including those coating cartilage in joints), has been invoked to account for the extremely low sliding friction between surfaces in aqueous media, but not well understood. Here we report the direct determination of energy dissipation within such sheared hydration shells. By trapping hydrated ions in a 0.4-1 nm gap between atomically smooth charged surfaces as they slide past each other, we are able to separate the dissipation modes of the friction and, in particular, identify the viscous losses in the subnanometre hydration shells. Our results shed light on the origins of hydration lubrication, with potential implications both for aqueous boundary lubricants and for biolubrication.

  9. Origins of hydration lubrication.

    PubMed

    Ma, Liran; Gaisinskaya-Kipnis, Anastasia; Kampf, Nir; Klein, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Why is friction in healthy hips and knees so low? Hydration lubrication, according to which hydration shells surrounding charges act as lubricating elements in boundary layers (including those coating cartilage in joints), has been invoked to account for the extremely low sliding friction between surfaces in aqueous media, but not well understood. Here we report the direct determination of energy dissipation within such sheared hydration shells. By trapping hydrated ions in a 0.4-1 nm gap between atomically smooth charged surfaces as they slide past each other, we are able to separate the dissipation modes of the friction and, in particular, identify the viscous losses in the subnanometre hydration shells. Our results shed light on the origins of hydration lubrication, with potential implications both for aqueous boundary lubricants and for biolubrication. PMID:25585501

  10. Use of wastes of the sugar industry as pozzolana in lime-pozzolana binders: Study of the reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, J.F.M.; Middendorf, B.; Gehrke, M.; Budelmann, H.

    1998-11-01

    Mineralogical studies of different wastes of the sugar industry, mainly sugar cane bagasse ash and sugar cane straw ash, have shown that such by-products are likely to be pozzolanic. Their use in lime-pozzolana binders could become an interesting alternative for developing countries. This paper presents a study that was aimed at monitoring the reaction between lime and wastes of the sugar industry having pozzolanic properties by evaluating (1) content of calcium hydroxide, dependent on time; (2) development of the pore structure, dependent on time; (3) study on the reaction products at different stages; and (4) mechanical properties of hardened pastes. The presence of calcium hydroxide was confirmed by x-ray diffraction analysis and thermogravimetric analysis of powder from samples of hydrated lime-pozzolana pastes. The reaction products in hydrated pastes were observed in a scanning electron microscope, and the pore structure was assessed using a mercury intrusion porosimeter. The results of the study show that sugar cane bagasse ash does not act like a reactive pozzolana, mainly due to the presence of unburned material and carbon, whereas sugar cane straw ash shows good pozzolanic activity comparable to that of rice husk ash.

  11. 27 CFR 9.27 - Lime Kiln Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lime Kiln Valley. 9.27 Section 9.27 Alcohol...American Viticultural Areas § 9.27 Lime Kiln Valley. (a) Name. The name of the...area described in this section is “Lime Kiln Valley.” (b) Approved Map....

  12. 27 CFR 9.27 - Lime Kiln Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lime Kiln Valley. 9.27 Section 9.27 Alcohol...American Viticultural Areas § 9.27 Lime Kiln Valley. (a) Name. The name of the...area described in this section is “Lime Kiln Valley.” (b) Approved Map....

  13. 27 CFR 9.27 - Lime Kiln Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lime Kiln Valley. 9.27 Section 9.27 Alcohol...American Viticultural Areas § 9.27 Lime Kiln Valley. (a) Name. The name of the...area described in this section is “Lime Kiln Valley.” (b) Approved Map....

  14. 27 CFR 9.27 - Lime Kiln Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lime Kiln Valley. 9.27... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.27 Lime Kiln Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Lime Kiln...

  15. 27 CFR 9.27 - Lime Kiln Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lime Kiln Valley. 9.27... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.27 Lime Kiln Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Lime Kiln...

  16. 27 CFR 9.27 - Lime Kiln Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lime Kiln Valley. 9.27... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.27 Lime Kiln Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Lime Kiln...

  17. 46 CFR 148.04-23 - Unslaked lime in bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unslaked lime in bulk. 148.04-23 Section 148.04-23 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES CARRIAGE OF SOLID HAZARDOUS MATERIALS IN BULK Special Additional Requirements for Certain Material § 148.04-23 Unslaked lime in bulk. (a) Unslaked lime in bulk must...

  18. LIME STABILIZATION AND ULTIMATE DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER SLUDGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Twenty-eight lime stabilization facilities were visited. None of these plants were originally designed for sludge lime stabilization. Lime stabilization was instituted either as a permanent sludge handling mechanism to replace a more costly process, as an interim sludge handling ...

  19. 27 CFR 9.27 - Lime Kiln Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lime Kiln Valley. 9.27 Section 9.27...American Viticultural Areas § 9.27 Lime Kiln Valley. (a) Name. The name...viticultural area described in this section is “Lime Kiln Valley.” (b) Approved...

  20. 27 CFR 9.27 - Lime Kiln Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lime Kiln Valley. 9.27 Section 9.27...American Viticultural Areas § 9.27 Lime Kiln Valley. (a) Name. The name...viticultural area described in this section is “Lime Kiln Valley.” (b) Approved...

  1. Biogenic and synthetic high magnesium calcite - a review.

    PubMed

    Long, Xia; Ma, Yurong; Qi, Limin

    2014-01-01

    Systematic studies on the Mg distributions, the crystal orientations, the formation mechanisms and the mechanical properties of biogenic high-Mg calcites in different marine organisms were summarized in detail in this review. The high-Mg calcites in the hard tissues of marine organisms mentioned generally own a few common features as follows. Firstly, the Mg distribution is not uniform in most of the minerals. Secondly, high-Mg calcite biominerals are usually composed of nanoparticles that own almost the same crystallographic orientations and thus they behave like single crystals or mesocrystals. Thirdly, the formation of thermodynamically unstable high-Mg calcites in marine organisms under mild conditions is affected by three key factors, that is, the formation of amorphous calcium (magnesium) carbonate precursor, the control of polymorph via biomolecules and the high Mg/Ca ratios in modern sea. Lastly, the existence of Mg ions in the Mg-containing calcite may improve the mechanical properties of biogenic minerals. Furthermore, the key progress in the synthesis of high-Mg calcites in the laboratory based on the formation mechanisms of the biogenic high-Mg calcites was reviewed. Many researchers have realized the synthesis of high-Mg calcites in the laboratory under ambient conditions with the help of intermediate amorphous phase, mixed solvents, organic/inorganic surfaces and soluble additives. Studies on the structural analysis and formation mechanisms of thermodynamically unstable biogenic high-Mg calcite minerals may shed light on the preparation of functional materials with enhanced mechanical properties. PMID:24291472

  2. Fertilizer and Lime: Why They Are Used.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaslin, Judith Strand

    This unit teaching guide is designed to help teachers explain the principles of fertilizer and lime use. The first of four major sections is a teaching outline keyed to transparency masters and student handouts. Thirteen major areas are covered in the teaching outline: (1) plant needs; (2) uses of fertilizer; (3) nutrients for plant growth; (4)…

  3. Spectroscopic characterization of natural calcite minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunasekaran, S.; Anbalagan, G.

    2007-11-01

    The FT-IR, FT-Raman, NMR spectral data of ten different limestone samples have been compared. FT-IR and FT-Raman spectral data show that calcium carbonate in limestone, principally in the form of calcite, as identified by its main absorption bands at 1426, 1092, 876 and 712 cm -1. The sharp diffractions at the d-spacings, 3.0348, 1.9166 and 1.8796 confirm the presence of calcite structure and the calculated lattice parameters are: a = 4.9781 Å, c = 17.1188 Å. The range of 13C chemical shifts for different limestone samples is very small, varying from 198.38 to 198.42 ppm. The observed chemical shifts are consistent with the identical C-O bonding in different limestone samples. 27Al MAS NMR spectra of the samples exhibit a central line at 1 ppm and another line at 60 ppm corresponding to octahedral and tetrahedral Al ions, respectively. The five component resonances were observed in 29Si MAS NMR spectrum of limestone and these resonances were assigned to Si (4 Al), Si (3 Al), Si (2 Al), Si (1 Al) and Si (0 Al) from low field to high field.

  4. Phosphogypsum-fly ash cementitious binder -- Its hydration and strength development

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, M.; Garg, M.

    1995-05-01

    The paper deals with the formulation of a cementitious binder based on calcined phosphogypsum, flyash, hydrated lime and portland cement. Strength properties and hydration of the cementitious binder studies at room temperature and at 50 C in over 90% R.H are presented. It was found that the compressive strength of the cementitious binder was remarkably enhanced at 50 C than at 27 C. The hydration of the cementitious binder as studied by differential thermal analysis and scanning electron microscopy showed that the early age strength in the cementitious binder was due to the hardening of calcined gypsum and the hydration of portland cement while later age strength development was ascribed to the formation of ettringite and CSH.

  5. Mallik Gas Hydrate Sample

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A sample of gas hydrates collected from Mallik, Canada. Gas hydrates are naturally-occurring “ice-like” combinations of natural gas and water that have the potential to provide an immense resource of natural gas from the world’s oceans and polar regions....

  6. Gas Hydrates Burning

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    An image of gas hydrates burning. Gas hydrates are naturally-occurring “ice-like” combinations of natural gas and water that have the potential to provide an immense resource of natural gas from the world’s oceans and polar regions....

  7. Single-contact pressure solution creep on calcite monocrystals

    E-print Network

    Zubtsov, Sergei; Gratier, Jean-Pierre; Dysthe, Dag; Traskine, Vladimir

    2005-01-01

    Pressure solution creep rates and interface structures have been measured by two methods on calcite single crystals. In the first kind of experiments, calcite monocrystals were indented at 40 degrees C for six weeks using ceramic indenters under stresses in the 50-200 MPa range in a saturated solution of calcite and in a calcite-saturated aqueous solution of NH4Cl. The deformation (depth of the hole below the indenter) is measured ex-situ at the end of the experiment. In the second type of experiment, calcite monocrystals were indented by spherical glass indenters for 200 hours under stresses in the 0-100 MPa range at room temperature in a saturated aqueous solution of calcite. The displacement of the indenter was continuously recorded using a specially constructed differential dilatometer. The experiments conducted in a calcite-saturated aqueous solution of NH4Cl show an enhanced indentation rate owing to the fairly high solubility of calcite in this solution. In contrast, the experiments conducted in a calc...

  8. Dissolution of coccolithophorid calcite by microzooplankton and copepod grazing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antia, A. N.; Suffrian, K.; Holste, L.; Müller, M. N.; Nejstgaard, J. C.; Simonelli, P.; Carotenuto, Y.; Putzeys, S.

    2008-01-01

    Independent of the ongoing acidification of surface seawater, the majority of the calcium carbonate produced in the pelagial is dissolved by natural processes above the lysocline. We investigate to what extent grazing and passage of coccolithophorids through the guts of copepods and the food vacuoles of microzooplankton contribute to calcite dissolution. In laboratory experiments where the coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi was fed to the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis, the heterotrophic flagellate Oxyrrhis marina and the copepod Acartia tonsa, calcite dissolution rates of 45-55%, 37-53% and 5-22% of ingested calcite were found. We ascribe higher loss rates in microzooplankton food vacuoles as compared to copepod guts to the strongly acidic digestion and the individual packaging of algal cells. In further experiments, specific rates of calcification and calcite dissolution were also measured in natural populations during the PeECE III mesocosm study under differing ambient pCO2 concentrations. Microzooplankton grazing accounted for between 27 and 70% of the dynamic calcite stock being lost per day, with no measurable effect of CO2 treatment. These measured calcite dissolution rates indicate that dissolution of calcite in the guts of microzooplankton and copepods can account for the calcite losses calculated for the global ocean using budget and model estimates.

  9. Numerical investigation of microbially induced calcite precipitation as leakage mitigation technology

    E-print Network

    Cirpka, Olaf Arie

    Numerical investigation of microbially induced calcite precipitation as leakage mitigation calcite precipitation (MICP). Other applications of MICP are discussed in [4]. Caprockfailure- ponent due to chemical reactions. Biofilm and calcite are immobile, hence the mass balance only yields

  10. The coordination of Mg in foraminiferal calcite. Supplementary Material Branson et al, 2013.

    E-print Network

    Cambridge, University of

    The coordination of Mg in foraminiferal calcite. Supplementary Material Branson et. al., 2013 to assess the coordination of Mg in foraminiferal calcite. We calcite, and the efficacy of the fitting algorithm used to assess

  11. Emission polarization study on quartz and calcite.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, R. K.

    1972-01-01

    Calculation of the spectral emission polarization of quartz and calcite polished plates for observation angles of 20 and 70 deg by the substitution of complex index of refraction values for each mineral into Fresnel's equations. The emission polarization is shown to be quite wavelength-dependent, demonstrating that selected narrow or medium-width spectral bands exhibit a significantly higher percentage of polarization than a broad spectral band for these two minerals. Field measurements with a broadband infrared radiometer yield polarizations on the order of 2% for a coarse-grained granite rock and beach sand (both quartz-rich). This implies that a more sensitive detector with a selected medium-width filter may be capable of measuring emission polarization accurately enough to make this parameter useful as a remote sensing tool for discrimination among rocks on the basis of texture.

  12. Effect of repeated steam hydration reactivation on CaO-based sorbents for CO2 capture.

    PubMed

    Materi?, By Vlatko; Sheppard, Carolyn; Smedley, Stuart I

    2010-12-15

    Samples of natural limestone and commercial calcium carbonate were subjected to successive calcination and carbonation reactions in a TGA and to repeated activity restoration by steam hydration. Steam hydration of spent lime, followed by heating in CO(2), was shown to be an effective method for repeatedly restoring high CO(2) capture activity to spent lime during a large number of CO(2) capture cycles. Steam hydration was also shown to reduce the decay rate of the CO(2) capture activity by increasing the rate of carbonation in the diffusion controlled regime. Repeated hydration-carbonation-calcination cycles led to a considerable expansion of the particles through the formation of large vesicles, likely to lead to high attrition levels when applied in fluidized beds. Based on SEM observation of the particles during hydration-carbonation-calcination cycling, a model was proposed for their progressive weakening. It was concluded that strategies to reduce this weakening must limit the growth of the cracks in the crystal as they are cycled repeatedly. PMID:21114320

  13. Lime and Phosphoric Acid Requirements for Chicks. 

    E-print Network

    Sherwood, R. M. (Ross Madison)

    1932-01-01

    analyzed for lime and Table 1. Percentage of Lime and Phosphoric Acid in Feeds Used in Series 2, 3, and 4.* Feeds CaO p2os Yellow corn meal 0.02 0.71 Dried buttermilk 2.20 2.19 Alfalfa leaf meal 2.36 0.63 Steamed bone meal 33.34 25.65 Oyster Shell 63....) I Ration 6 ( Ration 5 1 Ration 4 1 Ration.1 1 Ration 3 1 Ration 2 Oyster I Shell 2% Bone Meal 3% Percent CeO in ration Percent P205 in raton CaO-P205 Ratio Experiment 1 Mean gain per chick -__....--_-_---. Units of feed per unit of gain...

  14. Hydration rate of obsidian.

    PubMed

    Friedman, I; Long, W

    1976-01-30

    The hydration rates of 12 obsidian samples of different chemical compositions were measured at temperatures from 95 degrees to 245 degrees C. An expression relating hydration rate to temperature was derived for each sample. The SiO(2) content and refractive index are related to the hydration rate, as are the CaO, MgO, and original water contents. With this information it is possible to calculate the hydration rate of a sample from its silica content, refractive index, or chemical index and a knowledge of the effective temperature at which the hydration occurred. The effective hydration temperature can be either measured or approximated from weather records. Rates have been calculated by both methods, and the results show that weather records can give a good approximation to the true EHT, particularly in tropical and subtropical climates. If one determines the EHT by any of the methods suggested, and also measures or knows the rate of hydration of the particular obsidian used, it should be possible to carry out absolute dating to +/- 10 percent of the true age over periods as short as several years and as long as millions of years. PMID:17782901

  15. Fly ash as a liming material for corn production

    SciTech Connect

    Tarkalson, D.D.; Hergert, G.W.; Stevens, W.B.; McCallister, D.L.; Kackman, S.D.

    2005-05-01

    Fly ash produced as a by-product of subbituminous coal combustion can potentially serve as an alternative liming material without negatively affecting corn (Zea mays L.) production in areas where use of conventional liming materials can be uneconomical due to transportation costs. A study was conducted to determine if fly ash produced from the Nebraska Public Power District Gerald Gentleman Power Station located in Sutherland, NE could be used as an alternative liming material. Combinations of dry fly ash (DFA), wet fly ash (WFA), beet lime (by-product of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) processing) (BL), and agricultural lime (AGL) were applied at rates ranging from 0.43 to 1.62 times the recommended lime rate to plots on four acidic soils (Anselmo fine sandy loam, Hord fine sandy loam, Holdrege sandy loam, and Valentine fine sand). Soil samples were collected to a depth of 0.2 m from plots and analyzed for pH before lime applications and twice periodically after lime application. The Hord and Valentine soils were analyzed for exchangeable Ca, Mg, K, Na,and Al for determination of percent Al saturation on selected treatments and sampling dates. Corn grain yields were determined annually. It is concluded that the fly ash utilized in this study and applied at rates in this study, increases soil pH comparable to agricultural lime and is an appropriate alternative liming material.

  16. Calcite growth kinetics: Modeling the effect of solution stoichiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolthers, Mariëtte; Nehrke, Gernot; Gustafsson, Jon Petter; Van Cappellen, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Until recently the influence of solution stoichiometry on calcite crystal growth kinetics has attracted little attention, despite the fact that in most aqueous environments calcite precipitates from non-stoichiometric solution. In order to account for the dependence of the calcite crystal growth rate on the cation to anion ratio in solution, we extend the growth model for binary symmetrical electrolyte crystals of Zhang and Nancollas (1998) by combining it with the surface complexation model for the chemical structure of the calcite-aqueous solution interface of Wolthers et al. (2008). To maintain crystal stoichiometry, the rate of attachment of calcium ions to step edges is assumed to equal the rate of attachment of carbonate plus bicarbonate ions. The model parameters are optimized by fitting the model to the step velocities obtained previously by atomic force microscopy (AFM, Teng et al., 2000; Stack and Grantham, 2010). A variable surface roughness factor is introduced in order to reconcile the new process-based growth model with bulk precipitation rates measured in seeded calcite growth experiments. For practical applications, we further present empirical parabolic rate equations fitted to bulk growth rates of calcite in common background electrolytes and in artificial seawater-type solutions. Both the process-based and empirical growth rate equations agree with measured calcite growth rates over broad ranges of ionic strength, pH, solution stoichiometry and degree of supersaturation.

  17. Hydrate morphology: Physical properties of sands with patchy hydrate saturation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dai, S.; Santamarina, J.C.; Waite, William F.; Kneafsey, T.J.

    2012-01-01

    The physical properties of gas hydrate-bearing sediments depend on the volume fraction and spatial distribution of the hydrate phase. The host sediment grain size and the state of effective stress determine the hydrate morphology in sediments; this information can be used to significantly constrain estimates of the physical properties of hydrate-bearing sediments, including the coarse-grained sands subjected to high effective stress that are of interest as potential energy resources. Reported data and physical analyses suggest hydrate-bearing sands contain a heterogeneous, patchy hydrate distribution, whereby zones with 100% pore-space hydrate saturation are embedded in hydrate-free sand. Accounting for patchy rather than homogeneous hydrate distribution yields more tightly constrained estimates of physical properties in hydrate-bearing sands and captures observed physical-property dependencies on hydrate saturation. For example, numerical modeling results of sands with patchy saturation agree with experimental observation, showing a transition in stiffness starting near the series bound at low hydrate saturations but moving toward the parallel bound at high hydrate saturations. The hydrate-patch size itself impacts the physical properties of hydrate-bearing sediments; for example, at constant hydrate saturation, we find that conductivity (electrical, hydraulic and thermal) increases as the number of hydrate-saturated patches increases. This increase reflects the larger number of conductive flow paths that exist in specimens with many small hydrate-saturated patches in comparison to specimens in which a few large hydrate saturated patches can block flow over a significant cross-section of the specimen.

  18. Strontium Incorporation into Calcite Generated by Bacterial Ureolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshiko Fujita; George D. Redden; Jani C. Ingram; Marnie M. Cortez; Robert W. Smith

    2004-08-01

    Strontium incorporation into calcite generated by bacterial ureolysis was investigated as part of an assessment of a proposed remediation approach for 90Sr contamination in groundwater. Urea hydrolysis produces ammonium and carbonate and elevates pH, resulting in the promotion of calcium carbonate precipitation. Urea hydrolysis by the bacterium Bacillus pasteurii in a medium designed to mimic the chemistry of the Snake River Plain Aquifer in Idaho resulted in a pH rise from 7.5 to 9.1. Measured average distribution coefficients (DEX) for Sr in the calcite produced by ureolysis (0.5) were up to an order of magnitude higher than values reported in the literature for natural and synthetic calcites (0.02–0.4). They were also higher than values for calcite produced abiotically by ammonium carbonate addition (0.3). The precipitation of calcite in these experiments was verified by X-ray diffraction. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF SIMS) depth profiling (up to 350 nm) suggested that the Sr was not merely sorbed on the surface, but was present at depth within the particles. X-ray absorption near edge spectra showed that Sr was present in the calcite samples as a solid solution. The extent of Sr incorporation appeared to be driven primarily by the overall rate of calcite precipitation, where faster precipitation was associated with greater Sr uptake into the solid. The presence of bacterial surfaces as potential nucleation sites in the ammonium carbonate precipitation treatment did not enhance overall precipitation or the Sr distribution coefficient. Because bacterial ureolysis can generate high rates of calcite precipitation, the application of this approach is promising for remediation of 90Sr contamination in environments where calcite is stable over the long term.

  19. Experimental investigation of sediment control on the saturation level of gas hydrate in sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, H.; Ukita, T.; Noguchi, S.; Moudrakovski, I.; Shimada, T.; Ripmeester, J.; Ratcliffe, C.

    2010-12-01

    Except for those occurring at the seafloor, most natural gas hydrates form in sediments and are subject to the influence of the sediment. Investigations on natural gas hydrate have found that the saturation level of gas hydrate in sediments is closely related to the sediment type: comparatively enriched in coarse sediments such as sands but poorly saturated in fine sediments such as clay. However, due to the limitation of the current geological and geophysical investigations and the rarity of the recovery of intact hydrate samples, the knowledge about sediment control on hydrate saturation in sediments is still limited, and the mechanism is not yet understood. This research investigated the possible factors involved in sediment control on hydrate saturation using an experimental approach. The experiments were carried out with both natural and artificial sediments. The natural sediments were recovered from gas hydrate reservoirs in the Nankai Trough, offshore Japan, Cascadia, offshore Vancouver Island, K-G basin, offshore India, and offshore Andaman Island. The artificial sediments were prepared with quartz powder, a representative of silicates and aluminosilicates, kaolinite and Na-montmorillonite, representatives of clay minerals, and calcite, representative of carbonate minerals. Methane hydrate was synthesized in the artificial sediments under conditions simulating the reservoir of natural gas hydrate, and its saturation levels were determined from the gas amount released from a known volume of sediment. The results indicate that particle size and mineral composition are the two main factors affecting hydrate saturation in sediments. In the range from 20 to 250 ?m, the degree of conversion of water into hydrate increases dramatically with increase in particle size, from 3% to 82%, corresponding to a pore saturation from 4% to ~ 100%. Studies also found that the sorting effect of sediment particles can also play a certain role in affecting hydrate saturation, although not as significantly as particle size. With increasing clay content, hydrate saturation decreased dramatically. When the clay content is over 40%, the degree of pore water converted to hydrate is only about 2%, corresponding to hydrate saturation lower than 3%. The NMR proton relaxation times of water confined in silica sands, show a logarithmic relationship with particle size, and it was found that the samples with higher hydrate saturation are those with longer proton relaxation times.

  20. Transformations in methane hydrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chou, I.-Ming; Sharma, A.; Burruss, R.C.; Shu, J.; Mao, Ho-kwang; Hemley, R.J.; Goncharov, A.F.; Stern, L.A.; Kirby, S.H.

    2000-01-01

    Detailed study of pure methane hydrate in a diamond cell with in situ optical, Raman, and x-ray microprobe techniques reveals two previously unknown structures, structure II and structure H, at high pressures. The structure II methane hydrate at 250 MPa has a cubic unit cell of a = 17.158(2) A?? and volume V = 5051.3(13) A??3; structure H at 600 MPa has a hexagonal unit cell of a = 11.980(2) A??, c = 9.992(3) A??, and V = 1241.9(5) A??3. The compositions of these two investigated phases are still not known. With the effects of pressure and the presence of other gases in the structure, the structure II phase is likely to dominate over the known structure I methane hydrate within deep hydrate-bearing sediments underlying continental margins.

  1. Withdrawing Nutrition, Hydration

    Cancer.gov

    Module eleven of the EPEC-O Self-Study Original Version discusses the general aspects of withholding or withdrawing of life-sustaining therapies, and presents a specific application to artificial nutrition and hydration.

  2. Sugarcane factory performance of cold, intermediate, and hot lime clarification processes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A comparative factory investigation of hot versus intermediate and cold lime clarification was undertaken to quantify performance. In cold liming, mixed cane juice (MJ) was incubated (8 min) and then limed in a lime tank (4 minutes), both at -IO5F. For intermediate liming, 50% of the MJ was heated (...

  3. Uptake of chloride and carbonate ions by calcium monosulfoaluminate hydrate

    SciTech Connect

    Mesbah, Adel; Cau-dit-Coumes, Celine; Frizon, Fabien

    2012-08-15

    Decommissioning of old nuclear reactors may produce waste streams containing chlorides and carbonates, including radioactive {sup 36}Cl{sup -} and {sup 14}CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}. Their insolubilization by calcium monosulfoaluminate hydrate was investigated. Carbonates were readily depleted from the solution, giving at thermodynamic equilibrium monocarboaluminate, monocarboaluminate + calcite, or calcite only, depending on the initial ratio between the anion and calcium monosulfoaluminate hydrate. Chloride ions reacted more slowly and were precipitated as Kuzel's salt, Kuzel's and Friedel's salts, or Friedel's salt only. Rietveld refinement of X-Ray powder diffraction patterns was successfully used to quantify the phase distributions, which were compared to thermodynamic calculations. Moreover, analysing the lattice parameters of Kuzel's salt as a function of its chloride content showed the occurrence of a restricted solid solution towards the sulfate side with general formula 3CaO{center_dot}Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}{center_dot}xCaCl{sub 2}{center_dot}(1 - x)CaSO{sub 4}{center_dot}(12 - 2x){center_dot}H{sub 2}O (0.36 {<=} x {<=} 0.50).

  4. Magnesium inhibition of calcite dissolution kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Arvidson, Rolf S.; Collier, Martin; Davis, Kevin J.; Vinson, Michael D.; Amonette, James E.; Luttge, Andreas

    2006-02-01

    We present evidence of inhibition of calcite dissolution by dissolved magnesium through direct observations of the (104) surface using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and vertical scanning interferometry (VSI). Far from equilibrium, the pattern of magnesium inhibition is dependent on solution composition and specific to surface step geometry. In CO2-free solutions (pH 8.8), dissolved magnesium brings about little inhibition even at concentrations of 0.8 x 10-3 molal. At the same pH, magnesium concentrations of less than 0.05 x 10-3 molal in carbonate-buffered solutions generate significant inhibition, although no changes in surface and etch pit morphology are observed. As concentrations exceed magnesite saturation, the dissolution rate shows little additional decrease; however, selective pinning of step edges results in unique etch-pit profiles, seen in both AFM and VSI datasets. Despite the decreases in step velocity, magnesium addition in carbonated solutions also appears to activate the surface by increasing the nucleation rate of new defects. These relationships suggest that the modest depression of the bulk rate measured by VSI reflects a balance between competing reaction mechanisms that simultaneously depress the rate through selective inhibition of step movement, but also enhance reactivity on terraces by lowering the energy barrier to new etch-pit formation.

  5. Calcite crystal growth rate inhibition by polycarboxylic acids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reddy, M.M.; Hoch, A.R.

    2001-01-01

    Calcite crystal growth rates measured in the presence of several polycarboxyclic acids show that tetrahydrofurantetracarboxylic acid (THFTCA) and cyclopentanetetracarboxylic acid (CPTCA) are effective growth rate inhibitors at low solution concentrations (0.01 to 1 mg/L). In contrast, linear polycarbocylic acids (citric acid and tricarballylic acid) had no inhibiting effect on calcite growth rates at concentrations up to 10 mg/L. Calcite crystal growth rate inhibition by cyclic polycarboxyclic acids appears to involve blockage of crystal growth sites on the mineral surface by several carboxylate groups. Growth morphology varied for growth in the absence and in the presence of both THFTCA and CPTCA. More effective growth rate reduction by CPTCA relative to THFTCA suggests that inhibitor carboxylate stereochemical orientation controls calcite surface interaction with carboxylate inhibitors. ?? 20O1 Academic Press.

  6. Paleoclimatic and paleohydrologic records from secondary calcite: Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Whelan, J.F.; Stuckless, J.S.; Moscati, R.J.; Vaniman, D.T.

    1994-12-31

    Stable isotope analyses of calcite and opal, fluid inclusion formation conditions and gas compositions, Sr isotope ratios, and REE compositions all support formation of secondary calcite in the unsaturated zone of Yucca Mountain from infiltration of surface-derived (and soil zone buffered) waters of meteoric origin. Detailed sampling of growth-banding preserved by the secondary calcite should provide a record of past variations in the stable isotope chemistry of these infiltrating waters, and, hence, of precipitation at Yucca Mountain, i.e., a proxy of past climate at Yucca Mountain. The precision of this record depends on how well it can be dated. The distribution and texture of secondary calcite occurrences, if mapped in careful detail from existing bore hole samples and underground workings (as exposures become accessible), could provide a time/space map of fracture and fault unsaturated-zone ground water flow-paths during past wetter climates which might prevail in the future with change in climate.

  7. EVALUATION OF HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATION IN A LIME KILN: ROCKWELL LIME COMPANY

    EPA Science Inventory

    During a one-week test burn, hazardous waste was used as supplemental fuel and co-fired with petroleum coke in a lime kiln in eastern Wisconsin. Detailed sampling and analysis was conducted on the stack gas for principal organic hazardous constituents (POHCs), particulates, parti...

  8. Kinetics and Mechanisms of Calcite Reactions with Saline Waters

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, Piers; *Morse, John W.

    2010-11-15

    1. Objective The general objective of this research was to determine the kinetics and mechanisms of calcite reactions with saline waters over a wide range of saline water composition, carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2), and modest ranges of T and P. This would be done by studying both reaction rates and solubility from changes in solution chemistry. Also, nanoscale observations of calcite surface morphology and composition would be made to provide an understanding of rate controlling mechanisms.

  9. Magnesium content of calcite in carapaces of benthic armine Ostracoda

    E-print Network

    Cadot, H. M.; Kaesler, R. L.

    1977-07-22

    PALEONTOLOGICAL CONTRIBUTIONS July 22, 1977 Paper 87 MAGNESIUM CONTENT OF CALCITE IN CARAPACES OF BENTHIC MARINE OSTRACODA 1 H. MEADE CADOT, JR.,2 and ROGER L. KAESLER3 2 Antioch College—New England and The Harris Center for Conservation Education, Hancock, New... Hampshire; 'The University of Kansas, Lawrence ABSTRACT Statistically significant differences in mean magnesium content of calcite in carapaces of benthic marine Ostracoda were found to occur among four superfamily groups and among regions of the carapace...

  10. Biogenic and synthetic high magnesium calcite A review q Xia Long, Yurong Ma

    E-print Network

    Qi, Limin

    Review Biogenic and synthetic high magnesium calcite ­ A review q Xia Long, Yurong Ma , Limin Qi e i n f o Article history: Available online 26 November 2013 Keywords: High-Mg calcite Biominerals-Mg calcites in different marine organisms were summarized in detail in this review. The high-Mg calcites

  11. Oriented Calcite Micropillars and Prisms Formed through Aggregation and Recrystallization of Poly(Acrylic Acid) Stabilized

    E-print Network

    Qi, Limin

    Oriented Calcite Micropillars and Prisms Formed through Aggregation and Recrystallization of Poly crystallization of one-dimensional (1D) calcite microstructures along defined crystallographic axes is poorly) and calcite substrates we can direct the formation of calcite through an intermediate complex of PAA and Ca2

  12. Controlled Growth of Micropatterned, Oriented Calcite Films on a Self-Assembled Multilayer Film

    E-print Network

    Qi, Limin

    Controlled Growth of Micropatterned, Oriented Calcite Films on a Self-Assembled Multilayer Film of calcium carbonate. Micropatterned CaCO3 films consisting of regularly aligned calcite crystals oriented successfully used for the formation of ordered calcite crystal arrays,7a,b pat- terned calcite single crystals

  13. O of cellulose organic fraction combined with 18 O of calcite and 18

    E-print Network

    Edwards, Thomas W.D.

    1 18 O of cellulose organic fraction combined with 18 O of calcite and 18 O of diatoms in lake of authigenic calcite and 18 O of diatoms (if available). The results of 18 O of authigenic calcite, diatom and cellulose are presented in Fig.3. Fig. 3. Oxygen isotopic composition of authigenic calcite, diatom

  14. The calcite !! aragonite transformation in low-Mg marble: Equilibrium relations, transformation mechanisms, and rates

    E-print Network

    Hacker, Bradley R.

    The calcite !! aragonite transformation in low-Mg marble: Equilibrium relations, transformation] Experimental transformation of a rather pure natural calcite marble to aragonite marble did not proceed via calcite grains, producing Mg-rich calcite rods that persisted as relicts. Nucleation of aragonite occurred

  15. Nickel sorption on calcite surface: a macroscopic experimental study Thais R. LAMANA

    E-print Network

    Nickel sorption on calcite surface: a macroscopic experimental study By Thais R. LAMANA Department. calcite, oxides), and of the adsorption behaviour of divalent metal ions on calcite as well carried out to characterize the adsorption behaviour of Ni on calcite under controlled laboratory

  16. Sulfate attack in lime-treated subbases

    SciTech Connect

    Day, D.C.; Salami, M.R.; Rollings, R.S.

    1995-06-01

    Sulfate-induced heave or buckling in pavements is the phenomenon that occurs when the calcium in various lime-based stabilizers combines with the alumina and sulfate present in clay to form calcium sulfoaluminate, or ettringite. Ettringite, a crystal, can grow between clay particles, pushing them apart and causing swelling in the soil. When this happens in pavement subbases, the resulting heaving may cause the pavement to rupture and fail, sometimes in a dramatic way. In this paper the authors examine the mechanism of sulfate attack, review some of the work done on this problem, and present some examples of pavement failures.

  17. Photoinduced synthesis of single-digit micrometer-size spheroidal calcite composites in the presence of partially hydrolyzed poly(vinyl alcohol)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishio, Takashi; Naka, Kensuke

    2015-06-01

    Photoinduced crystallization of calcium carbonate (CaCO3), which was based on the photodecarboxylation of ketoprofen (KP, 2-(3-benzoylphyenyl)propionic acid) under alkaline conditions of pH 8.4 and 10 was studied for preparation of CaCO3 composite particles in single-digit micrometer-sizes. In this method, a homogeneous solution comprising KP, calcium chloride, ammonia, and partially hydrolyzed poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVAPS, degree of saponification: 86.5-89.0 mol%) was used as a precursor solution and was exposed to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation for different time periods. After the UV irradiation for 50 min, calcite spheroids in single-digit micrometer-sizes were obtained as major products at pH 8.4. The obtained calcite spheroids contained organic components of about 10 wt%. The comparison of the characteristics of the CaCO3 obtained at pH 8.4 and 10 suggests that the nucleation and crystallization of both vaterite and calcite continuously took place in a moderated supersaturation owing to the CO2 hydration equilibrium as long as the photodecarboxylation of KP continued. Consequently, the aggregation-based crystal growth in the presence of PVAPS seemed to enable the formation of the spheroidal composites of calcite in single-digit micrometer-sizes.

  18. Kinetics of lime/bentonite pozzolanic reactions at 20 and 50 °C: Batch tests and modeling

    SciTech Connect

    De Windt, Laurent; Deneele, Dimitri; Maubec, Nicolas

    2014-05-01

    The effects of duration (1–100 days) and temperature (20 and 50 °C) were assessed from batch tests for Ca-bentonite mixed with 10 wt.% lime. The pozzolanic processes were monitored over time by {sup 29}Si NMR (Cement Concr. Res. 42, 2012), TGA-DTA, XRD and chemical analysis. Modeling considered kinetics and thermodynamics of mineralogical transformations and cation exchange. Kinetic laws were dependent on pH and temperature (Arrhenius energy). Lime hydration occurs within hours, modifying the bentonite exchangeable population and increasing the pH. These alkaline conditions initiate the pozzolanic reactions in a second stage. The rate-limiting step is the dissolution kinetics of the bentonite minerals, i.e. a relatively fast and total consumption of cristobalite in parallel to a long-term slower dissolution of montmorillonite. First C–S–H and then C–A–S–H are formed consequently. Temperature speeds up the pozzolanic reaction kinetics by a factor 5 from 20 to 50 °C, corresponding to an apparent activation energy of 40–50 kJ/mol.

  19. A novel determination of calcite dissolution kinetics in seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subhas, Adam V.; Rollins, Nick E.; Berelson, William M.; Dong, Sijia; Erez, Jonathan; Adkins, Jess F.

    2015-12-01

    We present a novel determination of the dissolution kinetics of inorganic calcite in seawater. We dissolved 13 C -labeled calcite in unlabeled seawater, and traced the evolving ?13 C composition of the fluid over time to establish dissolution rates. This method provides sensitive determinations of dissolution rate, which we couple with tight constraints on both seawater saturation state and surface area of the dissolving minerals. We have determined dissolution rates for two different abiotic calcite materials and three different grain sizes. Near-equilibrium dissolution rates are highly nonlinear, and are well normalized by geometric surface area, giving an empirical dissolution rate dependence on saturation state (?) of: This result substantiates the non-linear response of calcite dissolution to undersaturation. The bulk dissolution rate constant calculated here is in excellent agreement with those determined in far from equilibrium and dilute solution experiments. Plots of dissolution versus undersaturation indicates the presence of at least two dissolution mechanisms, implying a criticality in the calcite-seawater system. Finally, our new rate determination has implications for modeling of pelagic and seafloor dissolution. Nonlinear dissolution kinetics in a simple 1-D lysocline model indicate a possible transition from kinetic to diffusive control with increasing water depth, and also confirm the importance of respiration-driven dissolution in setting the shape of the calcite lysocline.

  20. The differnces between bond lengths in biogenic and geologocal calcite.

    SciTech Connect

    Zlotoyabko, E.; Caspi, E. N.; Fieramosca, J. S.; Von Dreele, R. B.; Marin, F.; Mor, G.; Politi, Y.; Addadi, L.; Weiner, S.

    2010-01-01

    We used high-resolution neutron powder diffraction to accurately measure the atomic positions and bond lengths in biogenic and geological calcite. A special procedure for data analysis was developed in order to take into account the considerable amounts of magnesium present in all the investigated samples. As a result, in biogenic calcite we found some atomic bonds to have significantly different lengths as compared to those in geological calcite, after the contribution of magnesium is accounted for. The maximum effect (elongation up to 0.7%) was found for the C-O bonds. We also analyzed changes in frequencies and spectral widths of normal vibrations of carbonate groups in biogenic calcite (as compared to geological calcite) measured by Raman and Fourier transform IR techniques. Surprisingly, the frequency shifts after subtracting the magnesium contribution are close to zero. At the same time, substantial spectral broadening (up to 1.2%) in biogenic calcite as compared to geological samples was detected. Possible explanations for the experimental findings are discussed.

  1. COLOR REMOVAL FROM KRAFT PULPING EFFLUENT BY LIME ADDITION. CAPSULE REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A full scale process for lime decolorization of kraft pulping total mill effluent was operated. Slaked lime addition was followed by primary sedimentation for removal of mixed fibrous and lime decolorization sludges. The clarified effluent subsequently underwent biochemical stabi...

  2. Calcite Farming at Hollow Ridge Cave: Calibrating Net Rainfall and Cave Microclimate to Dripwater and Calcite Chemical Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremaine, D. M.; Kilgore, B. P.; Froelich, P. N.

    2012-04-01

    Stable isotope (?18O and ?13C) and trace element records in cave speleothems are often interpreted as climate changes in rainfall amount or source, cave air temperature, overlying vegetation and atmospheric pCO2. However, these records are difficult to verify without in situ calibration of changes in cave microclimate (e.g., net rainfall, interior ventilation changes) to contemporaneous variations in dripwater and speleothem chemistry. In this study at Hollow Ridge Cave (HRC) in Marianna, Florida (USA), cave dripwater, bedrock, and modern calcite (farmed in situ) were collected in conjunction with continuous cave air pCO2, temperature, barometric pressure, relative humidity, radon-222 activity, airflow velocity and direction, rainfall amount, and drip rate data [1]. We analyzed rain and dripwater ?D and ?18O, dripwater Ca2+, pH, ?13C and TCO2, cave air pCO2 and ?13C, and farmed calcite ?18O and ?13C to examine the relationships among rainwater isotopic composition, cave air ventilation, cave air temperature, calcite growth rate and seasonal timing, and calcite isotopic composition. Farmed calcite ?13C decreases linearly with distance from the front entrance to the interior of the cave during all seasons, with a maximum entrance-to-interior gradient of ??13C = -7‰ . A whole-cave "Hendy test" at distributed contemporaneous farming sites reveals that ventilation induces a +1.9 ± 0.96‰ ?13C offset between calcite precipitated in a ventilation flow path and out of flow paths. Farmed calcite ?18O exhibits a +0.82 ± 0.24‰ offset from values predicted by both theoretical calcite-water calculations and by laboratory-grown calcite [2]. Unlike calcite ?13C, oxygen isotopes show no ventilation effects and are a function only of temperature. Combining our data with other speleothem studies, we find a new empirical relationship for cave-specific water-calcite oxygen isotope fractionation across a range of temperatures and cave environments: 1000 ln ? = 16.1(1000/T) - 24.6 We analyzed anions, cations, and trace elements in dripwater, bedrock, and farmed calcite to examine the relationships between net rainfall, drip rates, drip water chemistry, and calcite chemistry. Dripwater Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios fall on coherent mixing lines between three geochemical endmembers: rainwater, dissolved dolomite, and dissolved limestone. Dripwater Sr/Ca vs. Mg/Ca ratios are also influenced by evaporative enrichment within the epikarst as a function of net rainfall amount [3]. Farmed calcite trace Cation/Ca ratios faithfully track short-term seasonal variations in dripwater chemistry for Na, Mg, Sr, Ba and U. However, speleothem calibrations are unique to each drip site regardless of proximity to one another, suggesting that individual speleothems are unlikely to be useful as a whole-cave hydrologic proxy. [1] Kowalczk, A. J., Froelich, P. N., 2010. Cave air ventilation and CO2 outgassing by radon-222 modeling: How fast do caves breathe? Earth & Planet. Sci. Lett. 289, 209-219. [2] Tremaine, D. M., Froelich, P. N., Wang, Y., 2011. Speleothem calcite farmed in situ: Modern calibration of ?18O and ?13C paleoclimate proxies in a continuously-monitored natural cave system. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 75, 4929-4950. [3] Tremaine, D. M., Froelich, P. N., 2012. Speleothem trace element signatures: A modern hydrologic geochemical study of cave drip waters and farmed calcite. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta (submitted)

  3. The relative merits of dolomitic and calcitic limestone in detoxifying and revegetating acidic, nickel- and copper-contaminated soils in the Sudbury mining and smelting region of Canada

    SciTech Connect

    McHale, D.; Winterhalder, K.

    1996-12-31

    Soils in the Sudbury mining and smelting region have been rendered phytotoxic and barren by acidification and Particulate metal contamination, but can be detoxified revegetated by the surface application of an growth is better on soil treated ground limestone. On certain barren sites, plant growth is better on soil treated with dolomitic limestone than with calcitic limestone and greenhouse experiments using mung beans (Vigna radiata) have shown superior root and shoot growth on certain contaminated soils when the limestone is dolomitic rather than calcitic. Results of experiments with species used in revegetation (Agrostis gigantea and Lotus corniculatus) suggest that leguminous species are more sensitive to Ca:Mg ratio than grasses, that the plant response to this ratio is greater at lowering liming levels, and that the response is more marked on more toxic soils. The effects of calcium:magnesium ratio of the limestone used in revegetating acidic, metal-contaminated soils are clearly complex, interactive and difficult to interpret. Further studies are needed, but meanwhile it is recommended that the practice of using dolomitic limestone to detoxify barren Sudbury soils be continued, since there is a risk of induced magnesium deficiency at certain sites when calcitic limestone is used.

  4. Thermal behavior of biodegraded lime wood.

    PubMed

    Popescu, Carmen-Mihaela; Manoliu, Alexandru; Lisa, Gabriela; Gradinariu, Petronela; Vasile, Cornelia

    2010-06-16

    The effects of the soft-rot fungus Trichoderma viride Pers., on the thermal behavior of lime wood (Tillia cordata Mill.) were investigated. The lime wood pieces were inoculated with the fungus over a 12-week period. At pre-established time intervals two samples were withdrawn from the medium and analyzed by thermogravimetry and differential calorimetry, and the results were correlated with mass loss. Fungal activity was indicated by continuous decrease of sample mass. Modification of the wood because of the presence of the fungus was evidenced by structural changes that affected its thermal properties, both in respect to the hydrophilicity of the wood (evidenced mainly in desorption process) and in its decomposition behavior. The shape of DTG curves depends on the exposure time of wood to the action of microorganisms. The peak temperature assigned to the decomposition of wood components increases, while the global kinetic parameters for the main peak decrease with increasing exposure time of the wood to the attack by microorganisms. The increased characteristic temperatures of water desorption and cellulose decomposition processes and lower thermal stability could be explained by newly formed structures, mainly the oxidized ones. PMID:20451899

  5. Lime slurry use at the Industrial Wastewater Pretreatment Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, L.E.; Hughes, R.W.; Baggett, G.

    1996-04-01

    The use of lime slurry at the IWPF demonstrated many benefits. Hazardous chemical use was reduced, solids handling was improved, water quality was enhanced and there has been a cost savings. The lime slurry also enabled the plant to begin treating the soluble oil waste, which we were not able to do in the past.

  6. Bioconversion of lime pretreated wheat straw to fuel ethanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lime pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification methods were evaluated for conversion of wheat straw cellulose and hemicellulose to fermentable sugars. The maximum yield of monomeric sugars from wheat straw (8.6%, w/v) by lime pretreatment (100 mg/g straw, 121 deg C, 1 h) and enzymatic hydrolysis ...

  7. Mitigation of acid deposition: Liming of surface waters. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bartoshesky, J.; Price, R.; DeMuro, J.

    1989-05-01

    In recent years acid deposition has become a serious concern internationally. Scientific literature has documented the acidification of numerous lakes and streams in North America and Scandinavia resulting in the depletion or total loss of fisheries and other aquatic biota. Liming represents the only common corrective practice aimed specifically at remediating an affected acid receptor. This report reviews a range of liming technologies and liming materials, as well as the effect of surface-water liming on water quality and aquatic biota. As background to the liming discussion, the hydrologic cycle and the factors that make surface waters sensitive to acid deposition are also discussed. Finally, a brief review of some of the liming projects that have been conducted, or are currently in operation is presented, giving special emphasis to mitigation efforts in Maryland. Liming has been effectively used to counteract surface-water acidification in parts of Scandinavia, Canada, and the U.S. To date, liming has generally been shown to improve physical and chemical conditions and enhance the biological recovery of aquatic ecosystems affected by acidification.

  8. Investigation of Copper Sorption by Sugar Beet Processing Lime Waste

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the western United States, sugar beet processing for sugar recovery generates a lime-based waste product (~250,000 Mg yr-1) that has little liming value in the region’s calcareous soils. This area has recently experienced an increase in dairy production, with dairi...

  9. Investigation of copper sorption by sugar beet processing lime waste

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the western US, sugar beet processing for sugar recovery generates a lime-based waste product (~250,000 megagrams/yr) that has little liming value in the region’s calcareous soils. This area has recently experienced an increase in dairy production, with dairies utilizing copper-based hoof baths ...

  10. Engineering Properties of Bentonite Stabilized with Lime and Phosphogypsum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sujeet; Dutta, Rakesh Kumar; Mohanty, Bijayananda

    2014-12-01

    Engineering properties such as compaction, unconfined compressive strength, consistency limits, percentage swell, free swell index, the California bearing ratio and the consolidation of bentonite stabilized with lime and phosphogypsum are presented in this paper. The content of the lime and phosphogypsum varied from 0 to 10 %. The results reveal that the dry unit weight and optimum moisture content of bentonite + 8 % lime increased with the addition of 8 % phosphogypsum. The percentage of swell increased and the free swell index decreased with the addition of 8 % phosphogypsum to the bentonite + 8 % lime mix. The unconfined compressive strength of the bentonite + 8 % lime increased with the addition of 8 % phosphogypsum as well as an increase in the curing period up to 14 days. The liquid limit and plastic limit of the bentonite + 8 % lime increased, whereas the plasticity index remained constant with the addition of 8 % phosphogypsum. The California bearing ratio, modulus of subgrade reaction, and secant modulus increased for the bentonite stabilized with lime and phosphogypsum. The coefficient of the consolidation of the bentonite increased with the addition of 8 % lime and no change with the addition of 8 % phosphogypsum.

  11. Fly Ash as a Liming Material for Corn Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fly ash produced as a by-product of sub-bituminous coal combustion can potentially serve as an alternative liming material without negatively affecting corn (Zea mays L.) production in areas where use of conventional liming materials can be uneconomical due to transportation costs. A study was cond...

  12. 76 FR 82295 - Central Power & Lime LLC; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-30

    ...Docket Nos. EL12-18-000; QF82-207-007] Central Power & Lime LLC; Notice of Filing December 23, 2011. Take notice that on December 22, 2011, Central Power & Lime LLC, pursuant to sections 18 CFR 292.205(c) and 385.207...

  13. 76 FR 82295 - Central Power & Lime LLC; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Central Power & Lime LLC; Notice of Filing December 23, 2011. Take notice that on December 22, 2011, Central Power & Lime LLC, pursuant to sections 18 CFR 292.205(c) and...

  14. HYDRATE CORE DRILLING TESTS

    SciTech Connect

    John H. Cohen; Thomas E. Williams; Ali G. Kadaster; Bill V. Liddell

    2002-11-01

    The ''Methane Hydrate Production from Alaskan Permafrost'' project is a three-year endeavor being conducted by Maurer Technology Inc. (MTI), Noble, and Anadarko Petroleum, in partnership with the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The project's goal is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition. The project team plans to design and implement a program to safely and economically drill, core and produce gas from arctic hydrates. The current work scope includes drilling and coring one well on Anadarko leases in FY 2003 during the winter drilling season. A specially built on-site core analysis laboratory will be used to determine some of the physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. Prior to going to the field, the project team designed and conducted a controlled series of coring tests for simulating coring of hydrate formations. A variety of equipment and procedures were tested and modified to develop a practical solution for this special application. This Topical Report summarizes these coring tests. A special facility was designed and installed at MTI's Drilling Research Center (DRC) in Houston and used to conduct coring tests. Equipment and procedures were tested by cutting cores from frozen mixtures of sand and water supported by casing and designed to simulate hydrate formations. Tests were conducted with chilled drilling fluids. Tests showed that frozen core can be washed out and reduced in size by the action of the drilling fluid. Washing of the core by the drilling fluid caused a reduction in core diameter, making core recovery very difficult (if not impossible). One successful solution was to drill the last 6 inches of core dry (without fluid circulation). These tests demonstrated that it will be difficult to capture core when drilling in permafrost or hydrates without implementing certain safeguards. Among the coring tests was a simulated hydrate formation comprised of coarse, large-grain sand in ice. Results with this core showed that the viscosity of the drilling fluid must also be carefully controlled. When coarse sand was being cored, the core barrel became stuck because the drilling fluid was not viscous enough to completely remove the large grains of sand. These tests were very valuable to the project by showing the difficulties in coring permafrost or hydrates in a laboratory environment (as opposed to a field environment where drilling costs are much higher and the potential loss of equipment greater). Among the conclusions reached from these simulated hydrate coring tests are the following: Frozen hydrate core samples can be recovered successfully; A spring-finger core catcher works best for catching hydrate cores; Drilling fluid can erode the core and reduces its diameter, making it more difficult to capture the core; Mud must be designed with proper viscosity to lift larger cuttings; and The bottom 6 inches of core may need to be drilled dry to capture the core successfully.

  15. Dynamics of protein hydration water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, M.; Emmert, S.; Gulich, R.; Lunkenheimer, P.; Loidl, A.

    2015-09-01

    We present the frequency- and temperature-dependent dielectric properties of lysozyme solutions in a broad concentration regime, measured at subzero temperatures, and compare the results with measurements above the freezing point of water and on hydrated lysozyme powder. Our experiments allow examining the dynamics of unfreezable hydration water in a broad temperature range. The obtained results prove the bimodality of the hydration shell dynamics. In addition, we find indications of a fragile-to-strong transition of hydration water.

  16. Dynamics of protein hydration water.

    PubMed

    Wolf, M; Emmert, S; Gulich, R; Lunkenheimer, P; Loidl, A

    2015-09-01

    We present the frequency- and temperature-dependent dielectric properties of lysozyme solutions in a broad concentration regime, measured at subzero temperatures, and compare the results with measurements above the freezing point of water and on hydrated lysozyme powder. Our experiments allow examining the dynamics of unfreezable hydration water in a broad temperature range. The obtained results prove the bimodality of the hydration shell dynamics. In addition, we find indications of a fragile-to-strong transition of hydration water. PMID:26465518

  17. On the complex conductivity signatures of calcite precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Yuxin; Hubbard, Susan; Williams, Kenneth Hurst; Ajo-Franklin, Jonathan

    2009-11-01

    Calcite is a mineral phase that frequently precipitates during subsurface remediation or geotechnical engineering processes. This precipitation can lead to changes in the overall behavior of the system, such as flow alternation and soil strengthening. Because induced calcite precipitation is typically quite variable in space and time, monitoring its distribution in the subsurface is a challenge. In this research, we conducted a laboratory column experiment to investigate the potential of complex conductivity as a mean to remotely monitor calcite precipitation. Calcite precipitation was induced in a glass bead (3 mm) packed column through abiotic mixing of CaCl{sub 2} and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solutions. The experiment continued for 12 days with a constant precipitation rate of {approx}0.6 milimole/d. Visual observations and scanning electron microscopy imaging revealed two distinct phases of precipitation: an earlier phase dominated by well distributed, discrete precipitates and a later phase characterized by localized precipitate aggregation and associated pore clogging. Complex conductivity measurements exhibited polarization signals that were characteristic of both phases of calcite precipitation, with the precipitation volume and crystal size controlling the overall polarization magnitude and relaxation time constant. We attribute the observed responses to polarization at the electrical double layer surrounding calcite crystals. Our experiment illustrates the potential of electrical methods for characterizing the distribution and aggregation state of nonconductive minerals like calcite. Advancing our ability to quantify geochemical transformations using such noninvasive methods is expected to facilitate our understanding of complex processes associated with natural subsurface systems as well as processes induced through engineered treatments (such as environmental remediation and carbon sequestration).

  18. Uranium Isotope Fractionation During Coprecipitation with Aragonite and Calcite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; Romaniello, S. J.; Herrmann, A. D.; Wasylenki, L. E.; Anbar, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Natural variations in the 238U/235U ratio of marine carbonates may provide a useful way of constraining past variations in ocean redox conditions. However, before applying this novel redox proxy, it is essential to explore possible isotopic fractionation during U coprecipitation with aragonite and calcite. We investigated these effects in laboratory experiments. Aragonite and calcite coprecipitation experiments were conducted at pH 8.5±0.1 using a constant addition method [1]. More than 90% of the U was incorporated into the solid phase at the end of each experiment. Samples were purified using UTEVA chemistry and ?238/235U was measured using 233U-236U double-spike MC-ICP-MS with a precision of ±0.10‰ [2]. The aragonite experiment demonstrated a 238U/235U Rayleigh fractionation factor of ?=1.00008±0.00002 with the 238U preferentially incorporated. In contrast, the calcite experiment demonstrated no resolvable U isotope fractionation (?=1.00001±0.00003). To determine if U isotopes are affected during the early diagenetic conversion of aragonite to calcite, natural carbonate samples were collected along an aragonite-calcite transition across a single coral head in the Key Largo limestone, and characterized for U concentration and ?238/235U [3]. We found that the mean ?238/235U in aragonite (-0.33±0.07‰ 2se) was slightly heavier than that in calcite (-0.37±0.02‰ 2se). Further work is needed to address the mechanisms leading to differential isotopic fractionation of U(VI) during incorporation into aragonite and calcite. Possible drivers include differences in coordination in the crystal structure or equilibrium isotopic fractionation between various aqueous U(VI) species prior to incorporation. [1] Reeder et al. (2001) GCA 65, 3491-3503. [2] Weyer et al., (2008) GCA 72, 345-359. [3] Gill et al., (2008) GCA 72, 4699-4722.

  19. Wetland vegetation responses to liming an Adirondack watershed

    SciTech Connect

    Mackun, I.R.

    1993-01-01

    Watershed liming as a long-term mitigation strategy to neutralize lake acidity, from increasing acid deposition, was initiated in North America at Woods Lake in the west central Adirondack region of New York. In October 1989, a dose of 10 MT lime (83.5% CaCO[sub 3]) ha[sup [minus]1] was aerially applied to 48% of the watershed. The wetlands adjacent to Woods Lake showed two distinct community types: one dominated by Chamaedaphne calyculata, and one dominated by graminoids and other herbaceous species. Within two years, liming did not alter the structure of either community type, and changed the cover or frequency of only 6 of 64 individual taxa. Most of these changes occurred in the herbaceous community type. The only strong positive response to liming was a nearly threefold increase in cover of the rhizomatous sedge Cladium mariscoides. The cover of Carex interior and Sphagnum spp. benefited from lime addition, while cover of Drosera intermedia and Muhlenbergia uniflora, and frequency of Hypericum canadense responded negatively to lime. Liming influenced the competitive release of only three taxa, all forbs with small growth forms. The tissue chemistry of foliage and twigs of Myrica gale, Chamaedaphne calyculata, and Carex stricta in the Chamaedaphne calyculata community type clearly illustrated species-specific patterns of nutrient accumulation and allocation both before and after liming. Concentrations of 17 of 20 elements responded to liming, although the responses varied among species and plant parts. Carex foliage was least responsive to liming, and Chamaedaphne twigs were most responsive. Elemental changes in plant tissues will be reflected in litter and many influence long-term nutrient dynamics in the wetland community.

  20. Sequestration of selenium on calcite surfaces revealed by nanoscale imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putnis, Christine V.; Renard, François; King, Helen E.; Montes-Hernandez, German; Ruiz-Agudo, Encarnacion

    2014-05-01

    Selenium is an important element because of its high toxicity in natural systems. In-situ atomic force microscopy observations of calcite surfaces during contact with selenium-bearing solutions demonstrate that selenium trapping can occur under conditions in which calcite both dissolves and precipitates. The contact of solutions containing selenium in two states of oxidation (either Se(IV ) or Se(V I)) onto a growing or dissolving calcite surface either changes the growth pattern or results in precipitates formed during dissolution. In the form of selenite (Se(IV )), but not as selenate (Se(IV )), selenium can be incorporated into calcite during growth. During dissolution, in the presence of selenate (Se(V I)), the precipitates formed remained small during the observation period. When injecting selenite (Se(IV )), the precipitates grew significantly, and were identified as CaSeO3·H2O, based on SEM observations, Raman spectroscopy and thermodynamic calculations. An interpretation is proposed where dissolution of calcite increases the calcium concentration in a thin boundary layer in contact with the surface, allowing the precipitation of a selenium phase. This process of dissolution-precipitation provides a new mechanism for selenium sequestration and extends the range of thermodynamic conditions under which such a process is efficient.

  1. A Raman spectroscopic comparison of calcite and dolomite.

    PubMed

    Sun, Junmin; Wu, Zeguang; Cheng, Hongfei; Zhang, Zhanjun; Frost, Ray L

    2014-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy was used to characterize and differentiate the two minerals calcite and dolomite and the bands related to the mineral structure. The (CO3)(2-) group is characterized by four prominent Raman vibrational modes: (a) the symmetric stretching, (b) the asymmetric deformation, (c) asymmetric stretching and (d) symmetric deformation. These vibrational modes of the calcite and dolomite were observed at 1440, 1088, 715 and 278 cm(-1). The significant differences between the minerals calcite and dolomite are observed by Raman spectroscopy. Calcite shows the typical bands observed at 1361, 1047, 715 and 157 cm(-1), and the special bands at 1393, 1098, 1069, 1019, 299, 258 and 176 cm(-1) for dolomite are observed. The difference is explained on the basis of the structure variation of the two minerals. Calcite has a trigonal structure with two molecules per unit cell, and dolomite has a hexagonal structure. This is more likely to cause the splitting and distorting of the carbonate groups. Another cause for the difference is the cation substituting for Mg in the dolomite mineral. PMID:23988531

  2. A Raman spectroscopic comparison of calcite and dolomite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Junmin; Wu, Zeguang; Cheng, Hongfei; Zhang, Zhanjun; Frost, Ray L.

    2014-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy was used to characterize and differentiate the two minerals calcite and dolomite and the bands related to the mineral structure. The (CO3)2- group is characterized by four prominent Raman vibrational modes: (a) the symmetric stretching, (b) the asymmetric deformation, (c) asymmetric stretching and (d) symmetric deformation. These vibrational modes of the calcite and dolomite were observed at 1440, 1088, 715 and 278 cm-1. The significant differences between the minerals calcite and dolomite are observed by Raman spectroscopy. Calcite shows the typical bands observed at 1361, 1047, 715 and 157 cm-1, and the special bands at 1393, 1098, 1069, 1019, 299, 258 and 176 cm-1 for dolomite are observed. The difference is explained on the basis of the structure variation of the two minerals. Calcite has a trigonal structure with two molecules per unit cell, and dolomite has a hexagonal structure. This is more likely to cause the splitting and distorting of the carbonate groups. Another cause for the difference is the cation substituting for Mg in the dolomite mineral.

  3. Lime kiln source characterization: Lime manufacturing industry Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Toney, M.L.

    1999-07-01

    The purpose of this testing program is to obtain uncontrolled and controlled hydrogen chloride (HCl) and speciated hydrocarbon Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) emissions data from lime production plants to support a national emission standard for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP). This report presents data from the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements. FTIR source testing was conducted for the following purposes: Quantify HCl emission levels; and Gather screening (i.e., qualitative) data on other HAP emissions.

  4. Aluminum Sulfate 18 Hydrate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jay A.

    2004-01-01

    A chemical laboratory information profile (CLIP) of the chemical, aluminum sulfate 18 hydrate, is presented. The profile lists physical and harmful properties, exposure limits, reactivity risks, and symptoms of major exposure for the benefit of teachers and students using the chemical in the laboratory.

  5. Static Grain Growth in Contact Metamorphic Calcite: A Cathodoluminescence Study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, B.; Heilbronner, R.; Herwegh, M.; Ramseyer, K.

    2009-04-01

    In the Adamello contact aureole, monomineralic mesozoic limestones were investigated in terms of grain size evolution and compared to results on numerical modeling performed by Elle. The sampled area shows no deformation and therefore represents an appropriate natural laboratory for the study of static grain growth (Herwegh & Berger, 2003). For this purpose, samples were collected at different distances to the contact to the pluton, covering a temperature range between 270 to 630°C. In these marbles, the grain sizes increase with temperature from 5 µm to about 1 cm as one approaches the contact (Herwegh & Berger, 2003). In some samples, photomicrographs show domains of variable cathodoluminescence (CL) intensities, which are interpreted to represent growth zonations. Microstructures show grains that contain cores and in some samples even several growth stages. The cores are usually not centered and the zones not concentric. They may be in touch with grain boundaries. These zonation patterns are consistent within a given aggregate but differ among the samples even if they come from the same location. Relative CL intensities depend on the Mn/Fe ratio. We assume that changes in trace amounts of Mn/Fe must have occurred during the grain size evolution, preserving local geochemical trends and their variations with time. Changes in Mn/Fe ratios can either be explained by (a) locally derived fluids (e.g. hydration reactions of sheet silicate rich marbles in the vicinity) or (b) by the infiltration of the calcite aggregates by externally derived (magmatic?) fluids. At the present stage, we prefer a regional change in fluid composition (b) because the growth zonations only occur at distances of 750-1250 m from the pluton contact (350-450°C). Closer to the contact, neither zonations nor cores were found. At larger distances, CL intensities differ from grain to grain, revealing diagenetic CL patterns that were incompletely recrystallized by grain growth. The role of infiltration of magmatic fluids is also manifest in the vicinity of dikes, where intense zonation patterns are prominent in the marbles. The software Elle was developed to simulate microstructural evolution in rocks. The numerical model with the title "Grain boundary sweeping" was performed by M. Jessell and was found on http://www.materialsknowledge.org/elle. It displays the grain size evolution and the development of growth zonations during grain boundary migration of a 2D foam structure. This simulation was chosen because the driving force is the minimization of isotropic surface energies. It will be compared to the natural microstructures. At the last stage of the simulation the average grain and core sizes have increased. All, even the smallest grains, show growth zonations. Grains can be divided into two groups: (a) initially larger grains, increasing their grain size and maintaining their core size and (b) initially smaller grains with decreasing grain and decreasing core size. Group (a) grains show large areas swept by grain boundaries into the direction of small grains. Grain boundaries between large grains move more slowly. Their cores do not touch any grain boundaries. Cores of group (b) grains are in contact with the grain boundary network and are on the way to be consumed. In the numerical model and in the natural example similar features can be observed: The cores are not necessarily centered, the zonations are not necessarily concentric and some of the cores touch the grain boundary network. In the simulation, grain boundary migration velocity between large grains is smaller than between a large and a small grain. From this we would predict that - given enough time - a well sorted grain size distribution of increased grain size could be generated. But since many small grains occur we infer that this equilibrium has not been obtained. Analytical results of some natural samples that could be analyzed up to now indicate a relatively well sorted grain size distribution suggesting a more mature state of static grain growth. In comparison t

  6. Effect of lime concentration on gelatinized maize starch dispersions properties.

    PubMed

    Lobato-Calleros, C; Hernandez-Jaimes, C; Chavez-Esquivel, G; Meraz, M; Sosa, E; Lara, V H; Alvarez-Ramirez, J; Vernon-Carter, E J

    2015-04-01

    Maize starch was lime-cooked at 92 °C with 0.0-0.40% w/w Ca(OH)2. Optical micrographs showed that lime disrupted the integrity of insoluble remnants (ghosts) and increased the degree of syneresis of the gelatinized starch dispersions (GSD). The particle size distribution was monomodal, shifting to smaller sizes and narrower distributions with increasing lime concentration. X-ray patterns and FTIR spectra showed that crystallinity decreased to a minimum at lime concentration of 0.20% w/w. Lime-treated GSD exhibited thixotropic and viscoelastic behaviour. In the linear viscoelastic region the storage modulus was higher than the loss modulus, but a crossover between these moduli occurred in the non-linear viscoelastic region. The viscoelastic properties decreased with increased lime concentration. The electrochemical properties suggested that the amylopectin-rich remnants and the released amylose contained in the continuous matrix was firstly attacked by calcium ions at low lime levels (<0.20% w/w), disrupting the starch gel microstructure. PMID:25442564

  7. Time and metamorphic petrology: Calcite to aragonite experiments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hacker, B.R.; Kirby, S.H.; Bohlen, S.R.

    1992-01-01

    Although the equilibrium phase relations of many mineral systems are generally well established, the rates of transformations, particularly in polycrystalline rocks, are not. The results of experiments on the calcite to aragonite transformation in polycrystalline marble are different from those for earlier experiments on powdered and single-crystal calcite. The transformation in the polycrystalline samples occurs by different mechanisms, with a different temperature dependence, and at a markedly slower rate. This work demonstrates the importance of kinetic studies on fully dense polycrystalline aggregates for understanding mineralogic phase changes in nature. Extrapolation of these results to geological time scales suggests that transformation of calcite to aragonite does not occur in the absence of volatiles at temperatures below 200??C. Kinetic hindrance is likely to extend to higher temperatures in more complex transformations.

  8. Geochronological Potential of Isoleucine Epimerization in Calcite Speleothems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauritzen, Stein-Erik; Erik Haugen, John; Løvlie, Reidar; Gilje-Nielsen, Helge

    1994-01-01

    The extent of isoleucine epimerization in a calcite speleothem was determined to evaluate the amino acid racemization method in abiotic calcite. A 5.5-cm-thick flowstone slab from Hamarnesgrotta, northern Norway, was analyzed for amino acid concentration, composition, and isoleucine epimerization at 26 levels through the sequence. U-series dates provide an independent chronologic control. Epimerization increases monotonically with stratigraphic depth and linearily with U-series age, independent of amino acid concentrations. The rate of epimerization is calibrated against the U-series dates, and extrapolation into lower strata beyond the U-series limit yields absolute age estimates that are consistent with paleomagnetic data from the same speleothem. The results suggest that, if adequately calibrated, amino acid dating is applicable to speleothem material reaching time spans beyond the range of conventional dating methods. Amino acids in the speleothem were probably derived from surface soils and are associated with brown humic stains in the calcite.

  9. Leaching behavior of lime-fly ash mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, J.L.; Das, G.P.

    2006-01-15

    As part of a larger investigation that included numerical and field-based components, the use of lime to reduce the leachability of a coal combustion fly ash was evaluated in the laboratory. The focus of this paper is on the experimental assessment of lime-fly ash leachability through sequential leach (SL), freeze-thaw (FT), and wet-dry (WD) leaching as well as multileachant sequential extraction (SE) tests. The results suggest that lime addition reduces the leachability for Cd, Se, and to some extent As. They also suggest that Cr is rendered more leachable with increasing lime content, for the conditions and low levels tested. It appears that there is a threshold lime content ({gt} 1.0%) that must be exceeded prior to reducing the leachability of As and Se. In particular, this threshold likely corresponds to the level at which appreciable cementitious reactions have developed. For example, in the case of As after the first cycle of leaching, the concentration was below the reporting limit (10 {mu} g/L) for 0% lime. However, at 0.5% lime amendment, the leached concentration increased to nearly 50 {mu} g/L. Subsequent lime additions reduced this concentration. No such threshold was observed for Cd leachability as was expected as a direct consequence of hydroxide precipitation, which is well established under the measured pH conditions. As such, Cd mobility is insensitive to the extent to which cementitious reactions are initiated. Overall, the results suggest that while lime stabilization may be effective for reducing leachability, sufficient amounts must be added; otherwise, the leachability of some constituents can actually be exacerbated.

  10. The effect of additives on lime dissolution rates. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Khang, S.J.

    1996-07-31

    Based on the previous years` studies concerning the efficiency of SO{sub 2} removal by spray dryers with high sulfur coal flue gas, the work for year five included investigations of lime dissolution rates at different slaking conditions and with the effect of additives. The prominent additives that have significant effects on lime dissolution rates were tested with the mini pilot spray drying absorber to see their effects on spray drying desulfurization applications. The mechanisms of these additive effects along with the properties of hygroscopic additives have been discussed and incorporated into the spray drying desulfurization model ``SPRAYMOD-M.`` Slaking conditions are very important factors in producing high quality lime slurry in spray drying desulfurization processes. At optimal slaking conditions, the slaked lime particles are very fine (3-5{mu}m) and the slaked lime has high BET surface areas which are beneficial to the desulfurization. The slaked lime dissolution rate experiments in our study are designed to determine how much lime can dissolve in a unit time if the initial lime surface area is kept constant. The purpose of the dissolution rate study for different additives is to find those effective additives that can enhance lime dissolution rates and to investigate the mechanisms of the dissolution rate enhancement properties for these additives. The applications of these additives on spray drying desulfurization are to further verify the theory that dissolution rate is a rate limiting step in the whole spray drying desulfurization process as well as to test the feasibility of these additives on enhancing SO{sub 2} removal in spray dryers.

  11. Microbially Induced Calcite Precipitation for Subsurface Immobilization of Contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, R. W.; Fujita, Y.; Ginn, T. R.; Hubbard, S. S.; Dafflon, B.; Delwiche, M.; Gebrehiwet, T.; Henriksen, J. R.; Peterson, J.; Taylor, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    Subsurface radionuclide and metal contaminants throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex pose one of the greatest challenges for long-term stewardship. One promising stabilization mechanism for divalent trace ions, such as the short-lived radionuclide 90Sr, is co-precipitation in calcite. We have found that calcite precipitation and co-precipitation of Sr can be accelerated by the activity of urea hydrolyzing microorganisms, that higher calcite precipitation rates can result in increased Sr partitioning, and that nutrient additions can stimulate ureolytic activity. To extend our understanding of microbially induced calcite precipitation (MICP) in an aquifer setting a continuous recirculation field experiment evaluating MICP was conducted at the Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site located at Rifle, CO. In this experiment, groundwater extracted from an onsite well was amended with urea (total mass of 42.5 kg) and molasses (a carbon and electron donor) and re-injected into a well approximately 4 meters up-gradient for a period of 12 days followed by 10 months of groundwater sampling and monitoring. Crosshole radar and electrical tomographic data were collected prior, during, and after the MICP treatment. The urea and molasses treatment resulted in an enhanced population of sediment associated urea hydrolyzing organisms as evidenced by increases in the number of ureC gene copies, increases in 14C urea hydrolysis rates, and long-term observations of ammonium (a urea hydrolysis product) in the injection, extraction and down gradient monitoring wells. Permeability changes and increases in the calcite saturation indexes in the well field suggest that mineral precipitation has occurred; ongoing analysis of field samples seeks to confirm this. Changes in dielectric constant and electrical conductivity were used to interpret the spatiotemporal distribution of the injectate and subsequent calcite precipitation. Modeling activities are underway to define field-scale urea hydrolysis rates.

  12. Regeneration of lime from sulfates for fluidized-bed combustion

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Ralph T. (Middle Island, NY); Steinberg, Meyer (Huntington Station, NY)

    1980-01-01

    In a fluidized-bed combustor the evolving sulfur oxides are reacted with CaO to form calcium sulfate which is then decomposed in the presence of carbonaceous material, such as the fly ash recovered from the combustion, at temperatures of about 900.degree. to 1000.degree. C., to regenerate lime. The regenerated lime is then recycled to the fluidized bed combustor to further react with the evolving sulfur oxides. The lime regenerated in this manner is quite effective in removing the sulfur oxides.

  13. Effect of microstructure and microchemistry on improvement of hydration and slag attack resistance of ilmenite-doped refractory limestone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltan, Abdel Monem; Serry, Mohamed

    2015-02-01

    This work studies densification, resistance to hydration and slag attack of 0.0-2.0 wt% ilmenite-doped lime refractories in relation to their thermal equilibrium and microfabric after firing at 1,400-1,700 °C. XRF, XRD, SEM-EDAX, transmitted light microscopy and mercury intrusion methods were used to characterize the fired samples. The ternary diagram CaO-C2S-C4AF was applied to the thermal equilibrium data. The rates of hydration and attack by steel-slag were also assessed using cathode-luminescence microscope. Doping limestone with 0.5 wt% ilmenite leads maximizes the rate of densification after firing for 2 h at 1,600 °C. A direct-bonded CaO-CaO network is found in the doped sample with separated islands of Ca-silicate, alumino-ferrite and TiO2-rich Ca, Mg- solid solutions all filling the pores and triple points of the lime grains. Due to the dense microstructure of the doped sample with the direct-bonded lime grains, hydration and slag-attack resistance are enhanced compared with the un-doped sample.

  14. Discovery of a Cretaceous Scleractinian Coral with a Calcitic Skeleton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolarski, J.; Meibom, A.; Przenioslo, R.; Mazur, M.

    2007-12-01

    It has been generally thought that scleractinian corals form purely aragonitic skeletons. We show that a well- preserved fossil coral, Coelosmilia sp. from the Upper Cretaceous (ca. 70 Ma), has preserved skeletal structural features identical to those observed in present day scleractinians. However, the skeleton of Coelosmilia sp. is entirely calcitic. Its fine-scale structure and chemistry indicate that the calcite is primary and did not from via diagenetic alteration of aragonite. This result implies that corals, like other groups of marine, calcium carbonate- producing organisms, can form skeletons of different carbonate polymorphs. Implications for coral biomineralization and evolution will be discussed.

  15. DEFINITIVE SOX CONTROL PROCESS EVALUATIONS: LIMESTONE, LIME, AND MAGNESIA FGD PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives economic and ground-to-ground energy evaluations of limestone slurry, lime slurry, and magnesia (producing sulfuric acid) flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes. The lime slurry process, using purchased lime and lime calcined onsite, remains lower in capital in...

  16. Petrology of UHP calcite marble from the Kokchetav Massif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, K.; Adachi, T.; Kikuchi, M.; Ogasawara, Y.

    2004-12-01

    In the Kumdy-kol area, Kokchetav Massif, northern Kazakhstan, three types of UHP marbles have been described: diamond-bearing dolomite marble, Ti-clinohumite-bearing dolomitic marble (Ogasawara et al., 2000) and titanite-bearing calcite marble (Ogasawara et al., 2002). UHP calcite marble is distinguished from other types of UHP marbles by pure calcite (after aragonite) as a dominant carbonate phase. This calcite marble has unique evidence of UHP metamorphism; titanite with coesite exsolution and its precursor compositions indicated that the peak P-T conditions was > 6 GPa and 980-1250 C (Ogasawara et al., 2000; 2002). This rock shows typical granoblastic texture consisting of calcite, diopside, K-feldspar, titanite and symplectite (diopside + zoisite) after garnet. The peak assemblage was aragonite + diopside + K-feldspar + garnet + titanite. Based on the phase relations in the system CaO-MgO-TiO2-SiO2-CO2-H2O, aragonite + diopside + rutile tie-triangle is stable under UHP conditions and divides the compositional space into dolomite-bearing or dolomite-free tetrahedrons (Kikuchi et al., 2003). The presence of titanite in calcite marble means that P-T condition was located at the right-hand side of the reaction rutile + aragonite + coesite = titanite + CO2. Previously described titanite-bearing calcite marble is diamond-free (A-type) and is characterized by titanite with coesite exsolution (Ogasawara et al., 2002). Recently, we found a small amount of diamond in calcite marble (B-type) that is characterized by microdiamond in diopside, and by the lack of K-feldspar and low amount of titanite. No diamond occurs in titanite. Rutile, aragonite and calcite inclusions in titanite were found in titanite of B-type calcite marble. These three inclusion phases in titanite that were confirmed by laser Raman spectroscopy are the evidence for titanite formation reaction described above. This titanite forming reaction occurs at extremely low XCO2 conditions as 0.02. In B-type calcite marble, microdiamond occurs locally and its amount is low; only 61 grains were found in two thin sections. Distributions of titanite, K-feldspar and diamond are heterogeneous and seem to form layers. Diamond occurs in the domain where amounts of titanite and K-feldspar are relatively low. Low amount of microdiamond may be related with extremely low-XCO2 condition under UHP metamorphism. References Ishida et al. (2003: Journal of Metamorphic Geology, Vol. 21, p. 515-522. Kikuchi et al. (2003): EOS Transactions AGU, Vol. 84, F1532. Ogasawara et al. (2000): The Island Arc, Vol. 9, p 400-416. Ogasawara et al. (2002): American Mineralogist, Vol. 87, p. 454-461.

  17. Long-Term Effects of a Watershed Liming Experiment on Soils and Surface Waters at Woods Lake, New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, R. M.

    2005-12-01

    In October 1989, approximately 1000 Mg of pelletized limestone was applied to two subcatchments of the Woods Lake Watershed located in the western Adirondacks of New York State. This experiment was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of calcite addition to watershed soils as a strategy to mitigate the effects of surface water acidification from acidic deposition. Woods Lake is 23 ha in size and lies within a 207 ha thin-till dominated watershed. In 1979 the lake was highly acidic (pH 4.8, ANC -8 ?eq/L). The watershed treatment followed two earlier lake liming experiments. These experiments successfully raised the pH and ANC of the lake but only for a short time as the residence time of water in the lake is only 174 days. Because calcite applied to the soil would be continuously exposed to precipitation falling on the land surface, it was hypothesized that watershed liming would have a much longer impact. The limed subcatchments (102 ha) were treated with limestone that had been crushed to the consistency of fine sand and pelletized with a lignosulfonate binder to form pellets 1.41 to 4.00 mm in diameter. The chemical composition of the pellets was approximately 82% CaCO3, 8% MgCO3, 4% organic binder, and 6% inorganic salts and insoluble silicate minerals. Application rates were targeted at 10 Mg CaCO3/ha but limefall collectors measured lower rates with a mean of 7.85 Mg/ha falling in subcatchment II and 3.42 Mg/ha in subcatchment IV. During the first two years after watershed liming lake pH averaged 6.62, ANC 138 ?eq/L and Ca2+ 119 ?eq/L. Samples collected during the summer of 2005 show that, even after 16 years, the lake has maintained its positive ANC (37.7 ?eq/L) and still has high concentrations of Ca2+ (151.7 ?eq/L). A viable fish population has also survived in this previously fishless lake. Even more surprising, soil samples collected in 2005 still have significant quantities of undissolved CaCO3. In the time since treatment, the CaCO3 has been displaced downward through the organic horizon of the soil through seasonal deposition of organic debris from above. It now lies within an Oa horizon having a pH of approximately 4.5. Organic coatings on the CaCO3 are likely inhibiting reactions with soil water. Some reaction must still be occurring as the pH is higher and exchangeable acidity lower in treated catchments as compared to untreated control catchments. The pH of the organic horizons in the control catchments is as low as 3.6 while the exchangeable acidity is as high as 11.2 meq/100 gm. Exchangeable acidity of organic horizons in the treated catchments is generally less than 2 meq/100 gm. Calcite weathering rates are likely lower in this field experiment than expected due to the presence of organic coatings on the mineral grain surfaces that are formed during organic decomposition reactions in the soil. Despite this, the rate of Ca2+ release from the treated catchments is high enough to maintain a positive ANC in the lake.

  18. Anomalous porosity preservation and preferential accumulation of gas hydrate in the Andaman accretionary wedge, NGHP-01 site 17A

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, Kelly K.; Johnson, Joel E.; Torres, Marta E.; Hong, WeiLi; Giosan, Liviu; Solomon, E.; Kastner, Miriam; Cawthern, Thomas; Long, Philip E.; Schaef, Herbert T.

    2014-12-01

    In addition to well established properties that control the presence or absence of the hydrate stability zone, such as pressure, temperature, and salinity, additional parameters appear to influence the concentration of gas hydrate in host sediments. The stratigraphic record at Site 17A in the Andaman Sea, eastern Indian Ocean, illustrates the need to better understand the role pore-scale phenomena play in the distribution and presence of marine gas hydrates in a variety of subsurface settings. In this paper we integrate field-generated datasets with newly acquired sedimentology, physical property, imaging and geochemical data with mineral saturation and ion activity products of key mineral phases such as amorphous silica and calcite, to document the presence and nature of secondary precipitates that contributed to anomalous porosity preservation at Site 17A in the Andaman Sea. This study demonstrates the importance of grain-scale subsurface heterogeneities in controlling the occurrence and distribution of concentrated gas hydrate accumulations in marine sediments, and document the importance that increased permeability and enhanced porosity play in supporting gas concentrations sufficient to support gas hydrate formation. The grain scale relationships between porosity, permeability, and gas hydrate saturation documented at Site 17A likely offer insights into what may control the occurrence and distribution of gas hydrate in other sedimentary settings.

  19. EVALUATION OF LIME PRECIPITATION FOR TREATING BOILER TUBE CLEANING WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of lime precipitation for treating boiler tube cleaning wastes. In this project, wastewater samples were collected from six boiler tubeside chemical cleanings, using complexing and chelating agents. The samples represented: (1) ammoniacal...

  20. 63. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE LIME KILN BUILDING, LOOKING AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE LIME KILN BUILDING, LOOKING AT THE FIRE BOX AND KILN FOR DILLUTANT. APRIL 22, 1919. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  1. Shock, release, and tension response of soda lime glass

    SciTech Connect

    Dandekar, Dattatraya P.

    1998-07-10

    This work describes the result of shock wave experiments on soda lime glass in which the shock wave profiles were recorded simultaneously at or near the impact surface and the free surface of the glass specimen by means of multi-beam VISAR. Since earlier work indicated that the glass under shock compression does not follow the Gladstone-Dale model, these profiles provide accurate and self consistent values of transit times for shock, release, and tensile waves propagating in soda lime glass.

  2. Micromachining soda-lime glass by femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Wei; Yu, Jian; Chai, Lu; Wang, Ching-Yue

    2015-08-01

    The physical process of forming a modified region in soda-lime glass was investigated using 1 kHz intense femtosecond laser pulses from a Ti: sapphire laser at 775 nm. Through the modifications induced by the femtosecond laser radiation using selective chemical etching techniques, we fabricated reproducible and defined microstructures and further studied their morphologies and etching properties. Moreover, a possible physical mechanism for the femtosecond laser modification in soda-lime glass was proposed.

  3. Hydration and disease.

    PubMed

    Manz, Friedrich

    2007-10-01

    Many diseases have multifactorial origins. There is increasing evidence that mild dehydration plays a role in the development of various morbidities. In this review, effects of hydration status on acute and chronic diseases are depicted (excluding the acute effects of mild dehydration on exercise performance, wellness, cognitive function, and mental performance) and categorized according to four categories of evidence (I-IV). Avoidance of a high fluid intake as a precautionary measure may be indicated in patients with cardiovascular disorders, pronounced chronic renal failure (III), hypoalbuminemia, endocrinopathies, or in tumor patients with cisplatin therapy (IIb) and menace of water intoxication. Acute systemic mild hypohydration or dehydration may be a pathogenic factor in oligohydramnios (IIa), prolonged labor (IIa), cystic fibrosis (III), hypertonic dehydration (III), and renal toxicity of xenobiotica (Ib). Maintaining good hydration status has been shown to positively affect urolithiasis (Ib) and may be beneficial in treating urinary tract infection (IIb), constipation (III), hypertension (III), venous thromboembolism (III), fatal coronary heart disease (III), stroke (III), dental disease (IV), hyperosmolar hyperglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis (IIb), gallstone disease (III), mitral valve prolapse (IIb), and glaucoma (III). Local mild hypohydration or dehydration may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of several broncho-pulmonary disorders like exercise asthma (IIb) or cystic fibrosis (Ib). In bladder and colon cancers, the evidence on hydration status' effects is inconsistent. PMID:17921462

  4. Methane Clathrate Hydrate Prospecting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duxbury, N.; Romanovsky, V.

    2003-01-01

    A method of prospecting for methane has been devised. The impetus for this method lies in the abundance of CH4 and the growing shortages of other fuels. The method is intended especially to enable identification of subpermafrost locations where significant amounts of methane are trapped in the form of methane gas hydrate (CH4(raised dot)6H2O). It has been estimated by the U.S. Geological Survey that the total CH4 resource in CH4(raised dot) 6H2O exceeds the energy content of all other fossil fuels (oil, coal, and natural gas from non-hydrate sources). Also, CH4(raised dot)6H2O is among the cleanest-burning fuels, and CH4 is the most efficient fuel because the carbon in CH4 is in its most reduced state. The method involves looking for a proxy for methane gas hydrate, by means of the combination of a thermal-analysis submethod and a field submethod that does not involve drilling. The absence of drilling makes this method easier and less expensive, in comparison with prior methods of prospecting for oil and natural gas. The proposed method would include thermoprospecting in combination with one more of the other non-drilling measurement techniques, which could include magneto-telluric sounding and/or a subsurface-electrical-resistivity technique. The method would exploit the fact that the electrical conductivity in the underlying thawed region is greater than that in the overlying permafrost.

  5. Isolation and identification of Pseudomonas azotoformans for induced calcite precipitation.

    PubMed

    Heidari Nonakaran, Siamak; Pazhouhandeh, Maghsoud; Keyvani, Abdullah; Abdollahipour, Fatemeh Zahra; Shirzad, Akbar

    2015-12-01

    Biomineralization is a process by which living organisms produce minerals. The extracellular production of these biominerals by microbes has potential for various bioengineering applications. For example, crack remediation and improvement of durability of concrete is an important goal for engineers and biomineral-producing microbes could be a useful tool in achieving this goal. Here we report the isolation, biochemical characterization and molecular identification of Pseudomonas azotoformans, a microbe that produces calcite and which potentially be used to repair cracks in concrete structures. Initially, 38 bacterial isolates were isolated from soil and cements. As a first test, the isolates were screened using a urease assay followed by biochemical tests for the rate of urea hydrolysis, calcite production and the insolubility of calcite. Molecular amplification and sequencing of a 16S rRNA fragment of selected isolates permitted us to identify P. azotoformans as a good candidate for preparation of biotechnological concrete. This species was isolated from soil and the results show that among the tested isolates it had the highest rate of urea hydrolysis, produced the highest amount of calcite, which, furthermore was the most adhesive and insoluble. This species is thus of interest as an agent with the potential ability to repair cracks in concrete. PMID:26386580

  6. Utricular otoconia of some amphibians have calcitic morphology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pote, K. G.; Ross, M. D.

    1993-01-01

    This report concerns the morphological features of otoconia removed from the inner ear of four amphibian species. Results from scanning electron microscopic examination are compared based on the site of origin. These results show that utricular otoconia have a mineral structure that mimics calcite, rather than the widely accepted idea that they are mineralized by calcium carbonate of the aragonite polymorph.

  7. The coordination and distribution of B in foraminiferal calcite

    E-print Network

    Branson, Oscar; Kaczmarek, Karina; Redfern, Simon A.T.; Misra, Sambuddha; Langer, Gerald; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Bijma, Jelle; Elderfield, Henry

    2015-02-25

    The isotopic ratio and concentration of B in foraminiferal calcite appear to reflect the pH and bicarbonate concentration of seawater. The use of B as a chemical proxy tracer has the potential to transform our understanding of the global carbon...

  8. Cross-section of Calcite Crystal Covering in Jewel Cave

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Jewel Cave is currently the 3rd most extensive cave network in the world. It is believed to have formed completely underwater, thus leading to the extensive coating of calcite crystals. A cross-sectional view of the crystal coating can be seen in the center of the image, with the surface of the cal...

  9. On the Shock Behavior of Calcite: Recent Results from MEMIN Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamann, C.; Hecht, L.; Deutsch, A.

    2015-09-01

    Hypervelocity impact and laser melting experiments, aiming at a better understanding of the shock behavior of calcite, suggest that both melting and decomposition of calcite can occur at P–T conditions commensurate with impact processes.

  10. Rapid gas hydrate formation process

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Thomas D.; Taylor, Charles E.; Unione, Alfred J.

    2013-01-15

    The disclosure provides a method and apparatus for forming gas hydrates from a two-phase mixture of water and a hydrate forming gas. The two-phase mixture is created in a mixing zone which may be wholly included within the body of a spray nozzle. The two-phase mixture is subsequently sprayed into a reaction zone, where the reaction zone is under pressure and temperature conditions suitable for formation of the gas hydrate. The reaction zone pressure is less than the mixing zone pressure so that expansion of the hydrate-forming gas in the mixture provides a degree of cooling by the Joule-Thompson effect and provides more intimate mixing between the water and the hydrate-forming gas. The result of the process is the formation of gas hydrates continuously and with a greatly reduced induction time. An apparatus for conduct of the method is further provided.

  11. Aragonite, breunnerite, calcite and dolomite in the CM carbonaceous chondrites: High fidelity recorders of progressive parent body aqueous alteration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Martin R.; Lindgren, Paula; Sofe, Mahmood R.

    2014-11-01

    Carbonate minerals in CM carbonaceous chondrite meteorites, along with the silicates and sulphides with which they are intergrown, provide a detailed record of the nature and evolution of parent body porosity and permeability, and the chemical composition, temperature and longevity of aqueous solutions. Fourteen meteorites were studied that range in petrologic subtype from mildly aqueously altered CM2.5 to completely hydrated CM2.0. All of them contain calcite, whereas aragonite occurs only in the CM2.5-CM2.2 meteorites and dolomite in the CM2.2-CM2.0. All of the aragonite crystals, and most of the calcite and dolomite grains, formed during early stages of parent body aqueous alteration by cementation of pores produced by the melting of tens of micrometre size particles of H2O-rich ice. Aragonite was the first carbonate to precipitate in the CM2.5 to CM2.2 meteorites, and grew from magnesium-rich solutions. In the least altered of these meteorites the aragonite crystals formed in clusters owing to physical restriction of aqueous fluids within the low permeability matrix. The strong correlation between the petrologic subtype of a meteorite, the abundance of its aragonite crystals and the proportion of them that have preserved crystal faces, is because aragonite was dissolved in the more altered meteorites on account of their higher permeability, and/or greater longevity of the aqueous solutions. Dolomite and breunnerite formed instead of aragonite in some of the CM2.1 and CM2.2 meteorites owing to higher parent body temperatures. The pore spaces that remained after precipitation of aragonite, dolomite and breunnerite cements were occluded by calcite. Following completion of cementation, the carbonates were partially replaced by phyllosilicates and sulphides. Calcite in the CM2.5-CM2.2 meteorites was replaced by Fe-rich serpentine and tochilinite, followed by Mg-rich serpentine. In the CM2.1 and CM2.0 meteorites dolomite, breunnerite and calcite were replaced by Fe-rich serpentine and Fe-Ni sulphide, again followed by Mg-rich serpentine. The difference between meteorites in the mineralogy of their replacive sulphides may again reflect greater temperatures in the parent body regions from where the more highly altered CMs were derived. This transition from Fe-rich to Mg-rich carbonate replacement products mirrors the chemical evolution of parent body solutions in response to consumption of Fe-rich primary minerals followed by the more resistant Mg-rich anhydrous silicates. Almost all of the CMs examined contain a second generation of calcite that formed after the sulphides and phyllosilicates and by replacement of remaining anhydrous silicates and dolomite (dedolomitization). The Ca and CO2 required for this replacive calcite is likely to have been sourced by dissolution of earlier formed carbonates, and ions may have been transported over metre-plus distances through high permeability conduits that were created by impact fracturing.

  12. Interpretation of the lime column penetration test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liyanapathirana, D. S.; Kelly, R. B.

    2010-06-01

    Dry soil mix (DSM) columns are used to reduce the settlement and to improve the stability of embankments constructed on soft clays. During construction the shear strength of the columns needs to be confirmed for compliance with technical assumptions. A specialized blade shaped penetrometer known as the lime column probe, has been developed for testing DSM columns. This test can be carried out as a pull out resistance test (PORT) or a push in resistance test (PIRT). The test is considered to be more representative of average column shear strength than methods that test only a limited area of the column. Both PORT and PIRT tests require empirical correlations of measured resistance to an absolute measure of shear strength, in a similar manner to the cone penetration test. In this paper, finite element method is used to assess the probe factor, N, for the PORT test. Due to the large soil deformations around the probe, an Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) based finite element formulation has been used. Variation of N with rigidity index and the friction at the probe-soil interface are investigated to establish a range for the probe factor.

  13. Gas hydrate cool storage system

    DOEpatents

    Ternes, M.P.; Kedl, R.J.

    1984-09-12

    The invention presented relates to the development of a process utilizing a gas hydrate as a cool storage medium for alleviating electric load demands during peak usage periods. Several objectives of the invention are mentioned concerning the formation of the gas hydrate as storage material in a thermal energy storage system within a heat pump cycle system. The gas hydrate was formed using a refrigerant in water and an example with R-12 refrigerant is included. (BCS)

  14. Gas hydrates: technology status report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    The DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) implemented a gas hydrates R and D program that emphasized an understanding of the resource through (1) an assessment of current technology, (2) the characterization of gas hydrate geology and reservoir engineering, and (3) the development of diagnostic tools and methods. Recovery of natural gas from gas hydrates will be made possible through (1) improved instrumentation and recovery methods, (2) developing the capability to predict production performance, and (3) field verification of recovery methods. Gas hydrates research has focused primarily on geology. As work progressed, areas where gas hydrates are likely to occur were identified, and specific high potential areas were targeted for detailed investigation. A Geologic Analysis System (GAS) was developed. GAS contains approximately 30 software packages and can manipulate and correlate several types of geologic and petroleum data into maps, graphics, and reports. The system also contains all well information currently available from the Alaskan North Slope area. Laboratory research on gas hydrates includes the characterization of the physical system, which focuses on creating synthetic methane hydrates and developing synthetic hydrate cores using tetrahydrofuran (THF), consolidated rock cores, frost base mixtures, water/ice-base mixtures, and water-base mixtures. Laboratory work produced measurements of the sonic velocity and electrical resistivity of these synthetic hydrates. During 1983, a sample from a natural hydrate core recovered from the Pacific coast of Guatemala was tested for these properties by DOE/METC. More recently, natural hydrate samples acquired from the Gulf of Mexico are being tested. Modeling and systems analysis work has focused on the development of GAS and preliminary gas hydrate production models. 23 refs., 18 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Dissolution enthalpies of synthetic magnesian calcites: Comparison with biogenic phases

    SciTech Connect

    Bischoff, W.D. . Geology Dept.); Wollast, R. )

    1992-01-01

    A series of synthetic magnesian calcites (0--15 mol% MgCO[sub 3]) were dissolved in weak acetic acid solutions to measure enthalpies of the reaction at 25 C. Heat released was 33.5 KJ/mol for calcite, decreasing to 33 KJ/mol for a Mg-Calcite of 2 mol% MgCO[sub 3], and increasing to 35 KJ/mol for a phase of 15 mol%. Excess enthalpies of formation Hf for these phases were calculated using calcite and magnesite as end-members. Values of Hf average about [minus]1 KJ/mol for the synthetic phases with a trend of increasingly negative values of Hf with Mg content. Excess entropies of formation Sf, corrected for excess entropies associated with ideal solid solutions, were calculated form available data on Gibbs free energies of formation and the values of Hf from this study. These values of Sf range from about [minus]2 J/mol-K for the phase with 2 mol% MgCO[sub 3] to [minus]5 J/mol-K at 15 mol%. The values of Sf suggest that some form of ordering (probably cation ordering) is obtained from these phases. In contrast, biogenic phases have positive values of Hf, increasing from about 1 KJ/mol for phases containing 5 mol% MgCO[sub 3] to 3 KJ/mol for those with 20 mol%. Values of Sf for the biogenic phases are positive, approximately 5 J/mol-K for a phase containing 15 mol% MgCO[sub 3]. For the biogenic phases, some form of disordering is suggested from the entropy calculations and may be the result of positional disordering is suggested from the entropy calculations and may be the result of positional disordering of the carbonate ion. The disorder in biogenic phases compared to the ordering in synthetic phases indicates significant structural differences that account for the higher solubilities of biogenic Mg-Calcites.

  16. Hydration of a low-alkali CEM III/B-SiO{sub 2} cement (LAC)

    SciTech Connect

    Lothenbach, Barbara; Le Saout, Gwenn; Ben Haha, Mohsen; Figi, Renato; Wieland, Erich

    2012-02-15

    The hydration of a low-alkali cement based on CEM III/B blended with 10 wt.% of nanosilica has been studied. The nanosilica reacted within the first days and 90% of the slag reacted within 3.5 years. C-S-H (Ca/Si {approx} 1.2, Al/Si {approx} 0.12), calcite, hydrotalcite, ettringite and possibly straetlingite were the main hydrates. The pore water composition revealed ten times lower alkali concentrations than in Portland cements. Reducing conditions (HS{sup -}) and a pH value of 12.2 were observed. Between 1 month and 3.5 years of hydration more hydrates were formed due to the ongoing slag reaction but no significant differences in the composition of the pore solution or solid phase assemblage were observed. On the basis of thermodynamic calculations it is predicted that siliceous hydrogarnet could form in the long-term and, in the presence of siliceous hydrogarnet, also thaumasite. Nevertheless, even after 3.5 year hydration, neither siliceous hydrogarnet nor thaumasite have been observed.

  17. Empirical calibration of the clumped isotope paleothermometer using calcites of1 various origins2

    E-print Network

    Schöne, Bernd R.

    Empirical calibration of the clumped isotope paleothermometer using calcites of1 various origins2 3 calibration of the clumped isotope thermometer for calcites of26 various mineralizing types calcites digested at 25 °C (Ghosh et al., 2006a)36 and from several other studies having confirmed

  18. Oxygen isotopes and MgCO3 in brachiopod calcite and a new paleotemperature equation

    E-print Network

    Zuschin, Martin

    Oxygen isotopes and MgCO3 in brachiopod calcite and a new paleotemperature equation Uwe Brand a Editor: David R. Hilton Keywords: Modern brachiopod calcite 18 O equilibrium Shell SrCO3 and MgCO3-squares regression analysis yields a new oxygen isotope paleotemperature equation for brachiopod calcite, which makes

  19. Tetrahedral calcite crystals facilitate self-assembly at the air-water interface S. M. Hashmi

    E-print Network

    Tetrahedral calcite crystals facilitate self-assembly at the air-water interface S. M. Hashmi; published 26 October 2005 Calcite crystals often nucleate and grow in solutions of calcium carbonate out of aqueous solution is known to form fractal aggregates of micron-sized rhombohedral calcite

  20. The grinding tip of the sea urchin tooth exhibits exquisite control over calcite crystal orientation

    E-print Network

    Gilbert, Pupa Gelsomina De Stasio

    The grinding tip of the sea urchin tooth exhibits exquisite control over calcite crystal though the tooth is composed almost entirely of calcite, it is used to grind holes into a rocky substrate itself often composed of calcite. Here, we use 3 complementary high-resolution tools to probe aspects

  1. Calcite crystal growth orientation: implications for trace metal uptake into coccoliths

    E-print Network

    Benning, Liane G.

    Calcite crystal growth orientation: implications for trace metal uptake into coccoliths V. E. PAYNE, OX1 3PR, UK ABSTRACT Inorganic calcite precipitation experiments were conducted to determine whether inducing specific orientations of calcite crystal growth can cause the enrichment of cations larger than Ca

  2. Magnesium isotope fractionation during precipitation of inorganic calcite under laboratory conditions

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Clark M.

    Magnesium isotope fractionation during precipitation of inorganic calcite under laboratory Available online 25 May 2012 Keywords: Mg isotope Mg-calcite carbonate isotope fractionation free fractionation factors between Mg-bearing calcite and aqueous Mg (Mg/Ca molar ratio between 3:1 and 13:1) from 20

  3. From structural to charge stability: Molecules on the insulating calcite (1014)

    E-print Network

    Ku?el, Petr

    1014-01-01

    From structural to charge stability: Molecules on the insulating calcite (1014) surface Seminá odd and to perform local manipulations. The calcite (1014) surface, a material itself highly relevant in biology molecules in an on-surface synthesis step [4]. Last, I will present results for a metallocene/calcite system

  4. Measurement of c-axis angular orientation in calcite (CaCO3) nanocrystals using

    E-print Network

    Coppersmith, Susan N.

    Measurement of c-axis angular orientation in calcite (CaCO3) nanocrystals using X-ray absorption are demonstrated here on geologic calcite (CaCO3) and used to investigate the prismatic layer of a mollusk shell, Pinctada fucata. These XANES-PEEM data reveal multiply oriented nanocrystals within calcite prisms

  5. Estimation of uncertain parameters to improve modeling of Mirobially Induced Calcite Precipitation

    E-print Network

    Cirpka, Olaf Arie

    Estimation of uncertain parameters to improve modeling of Mirobially Induced Calcite Precipitation in the subsurface or fracking could be reduced with sealing technologies like microbially induced calcite reactions rock grain calcite biofilm CO2 dissolved components suspended biomass water rockbiofilm brine w

  6. The solubility of fish-produced high magnesium calcite in seawater Ryan J. Woosley,1

    E-print Network

    Grosell, Martin

    The solubility of fish-produced high magnesium calcite in seawater Ryan J. Woosley,1 Frank J calcite as part of the physiological mechanisms responsible for maintaining salt and water balance 0.09) is approximately two times higher than aragonite and similar to the high magnesium calcite

  7. Peptide Controls on Calcite Mineralization: Polyaspartate Chain Length Affects Growth Kinetics and Acts as a Stereochemical

    E-print Network

    Dove, Patricia M.

    Peptide Controls on Calcite Mineralization: Polyaspartate Chain Length Affects Growth Kinetics interactions with step edges. Here, we show that the morphology and growth kinetics of calcite are modified suggest a process by which small fluctuations in primary structure in proteins can control calcite shape

  8. Empirical calibration of the clumped isotope paleothermometer using calcites of various origins

    E-print Network

    Schöne, Bernd R.

    Empirical calibration of the clumped isotope paleothermometer using calcites of various origins thermometer for calcites of various mineralizing types. These are an eggshell of an ostrich, a tropical from the first experimental calibration based on synthetic calcites digested at 25 °C (Ghosh et al

  9. Stabilization of Polar Step Edges on Calcite (10.4) by the Adsorption of Congo Red

    E-print Network

    Kühnle, Angelika

    Stabilization of Polar Step Edges on Calcite (10.4) by the Adsorption of Congo Red Rebecca Momper of calcite (10.4) by the presence of a water-soluble organic molecule, namely Congo Red. While characteristic. Especially calcite3,4 has attracted considerable attention in the context of additive

  10. Improvements in Modeling Microbially Induced Calcite Precipitation as a Leakage Mitigation Technology

    E-print Network

    Cirpka, Olaf Arie

    Improvements in Modeling Microbially Induced Calcite Precipitation as a Leakage Mitigation induced calcite precipitation (MICP). Other applications of MICP are discussed in [5]. Caprockfailure S + · x v - · Dpm, x = q reactions rock grain calcite biofilm CO2 dissolved components suspended biomass

  11. Fluids in the Crust Redox effects on calcite-portlandite-fluid equilibria at forearc conditions: Carbon

    E-print Network

    Manning, Craig

    Fluids in the Crust Redox effects on calcite-portlandite-fluid equilibria at forearc conditions: Carbon mobility, methanogenesis, and reduction melting of calcite Codi lazar*,1,2 , Chi zhang1,3 , Craig­10 kbar). Experimental calcite solubility was constant at O2 values from quartz-fayalite-magnetite (QFM

  12. Direct Observation of the Transition from Calcite to Aragonite Growth as Induced by Abalone Shell Proteins

    E-print Network

    Hansma, Paul

    Direct Observation of the Transition from Calcite to Aragonite Growth as Induced by Abalone Shell are known to cause the nucleation and growth of aragonite on calcite seed crystals in supersaturated with calcite crystals did not observe this transition because no information about the crystal polymorph

  13. Synthesis of Calcite Single Crystals with Porous Surface by Templating of Polymer Latex Particles

    E-print Network

    Qi, Limin

    Synthesis of Calcite Single Crystals with Porous Surface by Templating of Polymer Latex Particles in solution. After template removal, well-defined, calcite single crystals exhibiting a rhombohedral morphology and uniform surface pores are obtained. The surface pore size of the calcite single crystals can

  14. Tip-Induced Calcite Single Crystal Nanowear Ramakrishna Gunda, and Alex A. Volinsky

    E-print Network

    Volinsky, Alex A.

    Tip-Induced Calcite Single Crystal Nanowear Ramakrishna Gunda, and Alex A. Volinsky Department Wear behavior of freshly cleaved single crystal calcite (CaCO3) was investigated by continuous scanning of effects. The wear regime is due to abrasive wear. Single crystal calcite hardness of 2.8±0.3 GPa

  15. SUPPORTING INFORMATION Surface-Potential Heterogeneity of Reacted Calcite and Rhodochrosite

    E-print Network

    S1 SUPPORTING INFORMATION Surface-Potential Heterogeneity of Reacted Calcite and Rhodochrosite histograms of steps and terraces for calcite and rhodochrosite surfaces of Figure 1. Figure S4: Topography for data shown in Figure 3 Sample Dependent Variable Probability (> F-Test Value)* h(nano) 2.6×10-4 calcite

  16. In situ AFM study of the dissolution and recrystallization behaviour of polished and stressed calcite surfaces

    E-print Network

    Dysthe, Dag Kristian

    calcite surfaces J. Bisschop a,*, D.K. Dysthe a , C.V. Putnis b , B. Jamtveit a a Physics of Geological in revised form 12 December 2005 Abstract We investigated the dissolution behaviour of polished calcite to study the effects of applied surface stress and crystallographic orientation on calcite dissolution

  17. On the complex conductivity signatures of calcite precipitation Susan Hubbard,1

    E-print Network

    Hubbard, Susan

    Click Here for Full Article On the complex conductivity signatures of calcite precipitation Yuxin; revised 24 November 2009; accepted 22 December 2009; published 5 May 2010. [1] Calcite is a mineral phase strengthening. Because induced calcite precipitation is typically quite variable in space and time, monitoring

  18. Molecular Self-Assembly of Enantiopure Heptahelicene-2-Carboxylic Acid on Calcite (1014)

    E-print Network

    Kühnle, Angelika

    1014-01-01

    Molecular Self-Assembly of Enantiopure Heptahelicene-2-Carboxylic Acid on Calcite (1014)-heptahelicene-2-carboxylic acid ((M)-[7]HCA) on the calcite (1014) cleavage plane under ultrahigh vacuum along the calcite [0110] direction. Here, we investigate the enantiopure (M)- [7]HCA compound, resulting

  19. A revised model for microbially induced calcite precipitation -improvements and insights

    E-print Network

    Cirpka, Olaf Arie

    A revised model for microbially induced calcite precipitation - improvements and insights Johannes technologies like microbially induced calcite precipitation (MICP). Other applications of MICP are discussed phases: t () = q reactions solutes: t x S + · x v - · Dpm, x = q reactions rock grain calcite

  20. Interactions of arsenic with calcite surfaces revealed by in situ nanoscale imaging

    E-print Network

    Montes-Hernandez, German

    Interactions of arsenic with calcite surfaces revealed by in situ nanoscale imaging Franc of contamination. In calcareous environments calcite may play an important role in arsenic solubility and transfer in water. Arsenic­calcite interactions remain controversial, especially for As(III) which was proposed

  1. Research paper Nanostructured calcite precipitated under hydrothermal conditions in the presence

    E-print Network

    Montes-Hernandez, German

    Research paper Nanostructured calcite precipitated under hydrothermal conditions in the presence-L-cystine Crystallographic incorporation into calcite Selenium Selenium is an important trace metalloid, whose global cycle associated with carbonate phases, with Se being gener- ally incorporated as an impurity in calcite crystals

  2. Atomistic simulations of calcite nanoparticles and their interaction David J. Cooke and James A. Elliotta

    E-print Network

    Elliott, James

    Atomistic simulations of calcite nanoparticles and their interaction with water David J. Cooke 12 September 2007 Molecular dynamics MD simulations have been used to study the stability of calcite, an understand- ing of the chemical and physical properties of calcium car- bonate polymorphs, especially calcite

  3. Selenium incorporation into calcite and its effect on crystal growth: An atomic force microscopy study

    E-print Network

    Montes-Hernandez, German

    Selenium incorporation into calcite and its effect on crystal growth: An atomic force microscopy December 2012 Available online 7 January 2013 Editor: J. Fein Keywords: Calcite Atomic force microscopy Crystal growth Selenium The atomic processes leading to calcite growth are still debated. The presence

  4. Cite this: CrystEngComm, 2013, 15, Calcite formation by hydrothermal carbonation of

    E-print Network

    Montes-Hernandez, German

    Cite this: CrystEngComm, 2013, 15, 3392 Calcite formation by hydrothermal carbonation-Hernandezb and C. Noguera*cd The present study complements experimental results of calcite nanoparticle formation calcite particles ­ are considered. The simulation is performed with the help of the NANOKIN code

  5. From Viterbo Hot Springs More Aragonite Pearls (of wisdom), And Some Calcite Too Do Nannos Rule?

    E-print Network

    Catlos, Elizabeth

    From Viterbo Hot Springs ­ More Aragonite Pearls (of wisdom), And Some Calcite Too ­ Do Nannos Rule S-bacteria especially flourish, their slimy mucus slows the precipitation rate and calcite forms. The carbonate is mainly aragonite with some calcite (fig. 6); the aragonite forms as radial needles encrusting

  6. The kinetics and mechanisms of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) crystallization to calcite, via vaterite.

    E-print Network

    Benning, Liane G.

    The kinetics and mechanisms of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) crystallization to calcite, via calcium carbonate (ACC) crystallization to calcite, via vaterite, were studied at a range, the vaterite transforms to calcite via a dissolution and reprecipitation mechanism with the reaction rate

  7. USE OF VATERITE AND CALCITE IN FORMING CALCIUM PHOSPHATE CEMENT A. Cuneyt Tas

    E-print Network

    Tas, A. Cuneyt

    USE OF VATERITE AND CALCITE IN FORMING CALCIUM PHOSPHATE CEMENT SCAFFOLDS A. Cuneyt Tas Department was that they all utilized single-phase CaCO3 (calcite or vaterite) in their powder components. The major phase with some varying amounts of unreacted CaCO3. Calcite powders used were needle-like or acicular in shape

  8. Carbonate "clumped" isotope signatures in aragonitic scleractinian and calcitic gorgonian deep-sea corals

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kimball, J.; Tripati, R. E.; Dunbar, R.

    2015-12-04

    Deep-sea corals are a potentially valuable archive of the temperature and ocean chemistry of intermediate and deep waters. Living in near constant temperature, salinity and pH, and having amongst the slowest calcification rates observed in carbonate-precipitating biological organisms, deep-sea corals can provide valuable constraints on processes driving mineral equilibrium and disequilibrium isotope signatures. Here we report new data to further develop "clumped" isotopes as a paleothermometer in deep-sea corals as well as to investigate mineral-specific, taxon-specific, and growth-rate related effects. Carbonate clumped isotope thermometry is based on measurements of the abundance of the doubly-substituted isotopologue 13C18O16O2 in carbonate minerals, analyzedmore »in CO2 gas liberated on phosphoric acid digestion of carbonates and reported as ?47 values. We analyzed ?47 in live-collected aragonitic scleractinian (Enallopsammia sp.) and calcitic gorgonian (Isididae and Coralliidae) deep-sea corals, and compared results to published data for other aragonitic scleractinian taxa. Measured ?47 values were compared to in situ temperatures and the relationship between ?47 and temperature was determined for each group to investigate taxon-specific effects. We find that aragonitic scleractinian deep-sea corals exhibit higher values than calcitic gorgonian corals and the two groups of coral produce statistically different relationship between ?47-temperature calibrations. These data are significant in the interpretation of all carbonate "clumped" isotope calibration data as they show that distinct ?47-temperature calibrations can be observed in different materials recovered from the same environment and analyzed using the same instrumentation, phosphoric acid composition, digestion temperature and technique, CO2 gas purification apparatus, and data handling. There are three possible explanations for the origin of these different calibrations. The offset between the corals of different mineralogy is in the same direction as published theoretical predictions for the offset between calcite and aragonite, although the magnitude of the offset is different. One possibility is that the deep-sea coral results reflect that crystals may attain nominal mineral equilibrium clumped isotope signatures only under conditions of extremely slow growth. In that case, a possible explanation for the attainment of disequilibrium bulk isotope signatures and equilibrium clumped isotope signatures by deep-sea corals is that extraordinarily slow growth rates can promote the occurrence of isotopic reordering in the interfacial region of growing crystals. We also cannot rule out a component of a biological "vital-effect" influencing clumped isotope signatures in one or both orders of coral. Based on published experimental data and theoretical calculations, these biological "vital" effects could arise from kinetic isotope effects due to the source of carbon used for calcification, temperature- and pH-dependent rates of CO2 hydration and/or hydroxylation, calcifying fluid pH, the activity of carbonic anhydrase, the residence time of dissolved inorganic carbon in the calcifying fluid, and calcification rate. A third possible explanation is the occurrence of variable acid digestion fractionation factors. Although a recent study has suggested that dolomite, calcite, and aragonite may have similar clumped isotope acid digestion fractionation factors, the influence of acid digestion kinetics on ?47 is a subject that warrants further investigation.« less

  9. Soil pH management without lime, a strategy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from cultivated soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeem, Shahid; Bakken, Lars; Reent Köster, Jan; Tore Mørkved, Pål; Simon, Nina; Dörsch, Peter

    2015-04-01

    For decades, agricultural scientists have searched for methods to reduce the climate forcing of food production by increasing carbon sequestration in the soil and reducing the emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O). The outcome of this research is depressingly meagre and the two targets appear incompatible: efforts to increase carbon sequestration appear to enhance the emissions of N2O. Currently there is a need to find alternative management strategies which may effectively reduce both the CO2 and N2O footprints of food production. Soil pH is a master variable in soil productivity and plays an important role in controlling the chemical and biological activity in soil. Recent investigations of the physiology of denitrification have provided compelling evidence that the emission of N2O declines with increasing pH within the range 5-7. Thus, by managing the soil pH at a near neutral level appears to be a feasible way to reduce N2O emissions. Such pH management has been a target in conventional agriculture for a long time, since a near-neutral pH is optimal for a majority of cultivated plants. The traditional way to counteract acidification of agricultural soils is to apply lime, which inevitably leads to emission of CO2. An alternative way to increase the soil pH is the use of mafic rock powders, which have been shown to counteract soil acidification, albeit with a slower reaction than lime. Here we report a newly established field trail in Norway, in which we compare the effects of lime and different mafic mineral and rock powders (olivine, different types of plagioclase) on CO2 and N2O emissions under natural agricultural conditions. Soil pH is measured on a monthly basis from all treatment plots. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission measurements are carried out on a weekly basis using static chambers and an autonomous robot using fast box technique. Field results from the first winter (fallow) show immediate effect of lime on soil pH, and slower effects of the mafic rocks. The plots with mafic rock powders have lower CO2 and N2O emissions as compared with calcite and dolomite. The experiment will be continued for several years under conventionally managed continuous grass, and is unique in its kind allowing to compare different strategies for pH management on GHG emissions.

  10. A complex clathrate hydrate structure showing bimodal guest hydration.

    PubMed

    Udachin, K A; Ripmeester, J A

    1999-02-01

    Interactions between hydrophobic groups in water, as well as biomolecular hydration more generally, are intimately connected to the structure of liquid water around hydrophobic solutes. Such considerations have focused interest on clathrate hydrates: crystals in which a hydrogen-bonded network of water molecules encages hydrophobic guest molecules with which the water interacts only by non-directional van der Waals forces. Three structural families of clathrate hydrates have hitherto been recognized: cubic structure I (2M(S)-6M(L) x 46H2O), cubic structure II (16M(S) x 8M(L)-136H2O) and hexagonal structure H (M(L) x 3M(S) x 2M(S) x 34H2O) hydrates (here M(L) and M(S) are the hydrophobic guest sites associated with large and small cavities, respectively). Here we report a new hydrate structure: 1.67 choline hydroxide-tetra-n-propylammonium fluoride x 30.33H2O. This structure has a number of unusual features; in particular the choline guest exhibits both hydrophobic and hydrophilic modes of hydration. Formally the structure consists of alternating stacks of structure H and structure II hydrates, and might conceivably be found in those settings (such as seafloor deposits over natural-gas fields) in which clathrate hydrates form naturally. PMID:9989406

  11. Fluid mediated transformation of aragonitic cuttlebone to calcite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perdikouri, C.; Kasioptas, A.; Putnis, A.

    2009-04-01

    The aragonite to calcite transition has been studied extensively over the years because of its wide spectra of applications and of its significant geochemical interest. While studies of kinetics (e.g. Topor et al., 1981), thermodynamics (e.g. Wolf et al., 1996) and behavior of ions such as Sr and Mg (e.g. Yoshioka et al., 1986) have been made there are still unanswered questions regarding this reaction especially in the cases where the effects of fluid composition are considered. It is well known that when heated in air, aragonite transforms by a solid state reaction to calcite. The aragonite cuttlebone of the sepia officinalis that was used for our experiments undergoes a phase transition at ~370-390Ë? C, measured by in situ heating experiments in a Philips X'pert X-ray powder diffractometer equipped with a HTK 1200 High temperature oven. Successive X-ray scans were taken at isothermal temperatures at 200C intervals. A similar temperature range was found by Vongsavat et al. 2006, who studied this transition in Acropora corals. It is possible however to promote this transition at considerably lower temperatures by means of a fluid mediated reaction where the replacement takes place by a dissolution-precipitation mechanism (Putnis & Putnis, 2007). We have successfully carried out hydrothermal experiments where cuttlebone has been converted to calcite at 200Ë? C. Using the PhreeqC program we calculated the required composition of a solution that would be undersaturated with respect to aragonite and saturated with respect to calcite leading to dissolution of the aragonite and to a consequent precipitation of the new calcite phase, similar to the experiments described in an earlier study (Perdikouri et al, 2008). This reaction is not pseudomorphic and results in the destruction of the morphology, presumably due to the molar volume increase. A total transformation of the cuttlebone produced a fine calcite powder. The cuttlebone exhibits a unique microstructure, made up of interconnected chambers. The aragonite grown during biomineralization of the cuttlebone is interlaced with a β-chitin organic phase that provides the framework for the morphology that is observed. Experiments carried out with the same constant conditions but for different periods of time have revealed the evolution of the transformation to calcite. At shorter reaction times the product was made up of calcite powder and of well preserved aragonite septa, as was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction. In other words, the vertical pillars appear to react at faster rates than the horizontal septa. It has been reported by Florek et al. 2008 that the septa contain higher quantities of β-chitin. The aim of this study is the investigation of these observations and the determination of the effect of the organic component on the kinetics of the aragonite to calcite transformation. Florek M., Fornal E., Gómez-Romero P., Zieba E., Paszkowicz W., Lekki J.,Nowak J., Kuczumow A. Materials Science and Engineering C, In Press (2008) Perdikouri C., Kasioptas A., Putnis C.V., Putnis A. Mineralogical Magazine 72, 111-114 (2008) Putnis A., Putnis C.V. Solid State Chemistry 180, 1783-1786 (2007) Topor N. D., Tolokonnikova L. I., Kadenatsi B. M. Journal of Thermal Analysis 20, 169-174 (1981) Vongsavat V., Winotai P., Meejoo S. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 243, 167-173 (2006) Wolf G., Lerchner J., Schmidt H., Gamsjäger H., Königsberger E., Schmidt P. Journal of Thermal Analysis 46, 353-359 (1996) Yoshioka S., Ohde S., Kitano Y., Kanamori N. Marine Chemistry 18, 35-48 (1986)

  12. Some thermodynamical aspects of protein hydration water

    SciTech Connect

    Mallamace, Francesco; Corsaro, Carmelo; Mallamace, Domenico; Vasi, Sebastiano; Vasi, Cirino; Stanley, H. Eugene; Chen, Sow-Hsin

    2015-06-07

    We study by means of nuclear magnetic resonance the self-diffusion of protein hydration water at different hydration levels across a large temperature range that includes the deeply supercooled regime. Starting with a single hydration shell (h = 0.3), we consider different hydrations up to h = 0.65. Our experimental evidence indicates that two phenomena play a significant role in the dynamics of protein hydration water: (i) the measured fragile-to-strong dynamic crossover temperature is unaffected by the hydration level and (ii) the first hydration shell remains liquid at all hydrations, even at the lowest temperature.

  13. Fracture-aperture alteration induced by calcite precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, T.; Detwiler, R. L.

    2013-12-01

    Mineral precipitation significantly alters the transport properties of fractured rock. Chemical solubility gradients that favor precipitation induce mineral growth, which decreases the local aperture and alters preferential flow paths. Understanding the resulting development of spatial heterogeneities is necessary to predict the evolution of transport properties in the subsurface. We present experimental results that quantify the relationship between mineral precipitation and aperture alteration in a transparent analog fracture, 7.62cm x 7.62cm, with a uniform aperture of ~200 ?m. Prior to flow experiments, a pump circulated a super-saturated calcite solution over the bottom glass, coating the glass surface with calcite. This method of seeding resulted in clusters of calcite crystals with large reactive surface area and provided micro-scale variability in the aperture field. A continuous flow syringe pump injected a reactive fluid into the fracture at 0.5 ml/min. The fluid was a mixture of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, 0.02M) and calcium chloride (CaCl2 0.0004M) with a saturation index, ?, of 8.51 with respect to calcite. A strobed LED panel backlit the fracture and a high-resolution CCD camera monitored changes in transmitted light intensity. Light transmission techniques provided a quantitative measurement of fracture aperture over the flow field. Results from these preliminary experiments showed growth near the inlet of the fracture, with decreasing precipitation rates in the flow direction. Over a period of two weeks, the fracture aperture decreased by 17% within the first 4mm of the inlet. Newly precipitated calcite bridged individual crystal clusters and smoothed the reacting surface. This observation is an interesting contradiction to the expectation of surface roughening induced by mineral growth. Additionally, the aperture decreased uniformly across the width of the fracture due to the initial aperture distribution. Future experiments of precipitation within variable-aperture fields will investigate the dependency of growth patterns on heterogeneous aperture distributions. (a) Aperture strain (?b/bi) after 14 days. Precipitation is concentrated near the inlet and decreases in the flow direction. (b) Width-averaged profiles of the initial and final aperture field show changes in aperture and smoothing that results from calcite precipitation between the initial discrete crystals.

  14. Mallik Gas Hydrates Test Well

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A test-well for collecting gas hydrates in Mallik, Canada. Gas hydrates are naturally-occurring “ice-like” combinations of natural gas and water that have the potential to provide an immense resource of natural gas from the world’s oceans and polar regions....

  15. Ductile flow of methane hydrate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Durham, W.B.; Stern, L.A.; Kirby, S.H.

    2003-01-01

    Compressional creep tests (i.e., constant applied stress) conducted on pure, polycrystalline methane hydrate over the temperature range 260-287 K and confining pressures of 50-100 MPa show this material to be extraordinarily strong compared to other icy compounds. The contrast with hexagonal water ice, sometimes used as a proxy for gas hydrate properties, is impressive: over the thermal range where both are solid, methane hydrate is as much as 40 times stronger than ice at a given strain rate. The specific mechanical response of naturally occurring methane hydrate in sediments to environmental changes is expected to be dependent on the distribution of the hydrate phase within the formation - whether arranged structurally between and (or) cementing sediments grains versus passively in pore space within a sediment framework. If hydrate is in the former mode, the very high strength of methane hydrate implies a significantly greater strain-energy release upon decomposition and subsequent failure of hydrate-cemented formations than previously expected.

  16. Recovery of aluminum oxide by the Ames lime-soda sinter process: scale-up using a rotary kiln

    SciTech Connect

    Murtha, M.J.; Burnet, G.; Harnby, N.

    1985-01-01

    The Ames Lime-Soda Sinter Process provides a means for recovering aluminum oxide from power plant fly ash while producing a residue that can be used in the manufacture of sulfate resistant (Type V) portland cement. The process has been fully researched and its feasibility is now being demonstrated through pilot plant scale investigation. This paper reports results of the pelletized feed preparation by agglomeration in a rotary pan granulator, continuous feed sintering in an electrically heated rotary kiln, and product recovery from the clinker by aqueous extraction, desilication of the filtrate, and precipitation of a hydrated aluminum oxide. Results from earlier bench-scale research have been found to apply consistently to the pilot plant scale work.

  17. Chemistry and petrography of calcite in the KTB pilot borehole, Bavarian Oberpfalz, Germany

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Komor, S.C.

    1995-01-01

    The KTB pilot borehole in northeast Bavaria, Germany, penetrates 4000 m of gneiss, amphibolite, and subordinate calc-silicate, lamprophyre and metagabbro. There are three types of calcite in the drilled section: 1) metamorphic calcite in calc-silicate and marble; 2) crack-filling calcite in all lithologies; and 3) replacement calcite in altered minerals. Crack-filling and replacement calcite postdate metamorphic calcite. Multiple calcite generations in individual cracks suggest that different generations of water repeatedly flowed through the same cracks. Crack-filling mineral assemblages that include calcite originally formed at temperatures of 150-350??C. Presently, crack-filling calcite is in chemical and isotopic equilibrium with saline to brackish water in the borehole at temperatures of ???120??C. The saline to brackish water contains a significant proportion of meteoric water. Re-equilibration of crack-filling calcite to lower temperatures means that calcite chemistry tells us little about water-rock interactions in the crystal section of temperatures higher than ~120??C. -from Author

  18. Kinetic inhibitor of hydrate crystallization.

    PubMed

    Storr, Mark T; Taylor, Paul C; Monfort, Jean-Pierre; Rodger, P Mark

    2004-02-11

    We present the results of a combined theoretical/experimental study into a new class of kinetic inhibitor of gas hydrate formation. The inhibitors are based on quaternary ammonium zwitterions, and were identified from a computational screen. Molecular dynamics simulations were used to characterize the effect of the inhibitor on the interface between a type II hydrate and natural gas. These simulations show that the inhibitor is bifunctional, with the hydrophobic end being compatible with the water structure present at the hydrate interface, while the negatively charged functional group promotes a long ranged water structure that is inconsistent with the hydrate phase; the sulfonate-induced structure was found to propagate strongly over several solvation shells. The compound was subsequently synthesized and used in an experimental study of both THF and ethane hydrate formation, and was shown to have an activity that was comparable with an existing commercial kinetic inhibitor: PVP. PMID:14759217

  19. Microbially-Mediated Subsurface Calcite Precipitation for Removal of Hazardous Divalent Cations

    SciTech Connect

    Colwell, Frederick S.; Smith, R.W.; Ferris, F. Gratn; Ingram, Jani C.; Reysenbach, A.-L.; Fujita, Yoshiko; Tyler, T.L.; Taylor, J.L.; Banta, A.; Delwiche, M.E.; McLing, T.; Cortez, Marnie, M.; Watwood, M.E.

    2003-03-27

    We are investigating microbially-mediated acceleration of calcite precipitation and co-precipitation of hazardous divalent cations (e.g., 90Sr) in calcite saturated subsurface systems. In theory, the addition of urea to an aquifer or vadose zone and its subsequent hydrolysis by indigenous microbes will cause an increase in alkalinity, pH and calcite precipitation. Lab studies indicated the ability of various bacteria to precipitate calcite through urea hydrolysis and that incorporation of strontium in biogenically-formed calcite is greater than in abiotically formed calcite. Results from a field experiment in a pristine location in the Snake River Plain aquifer involving the phased addition of molasses and then urea showed increases in total cell numbers, rate of urea hydrolysis and calcite formation during the study. The combined diagnostic approaches of microbiology, molecular ecology and analytical chemistry demonstrate the feasibility of this biogeochemical manipulation for subsurface remediation at arid Western DOE sites such as Hanford and INEEL.

  20. Engineering properties of cement/lime-stabilized Egyptian soft clay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansour, M. A.; Samieh, A. M.; Matter, H. E.

    2015-09-01

    Soft clay formations are extensively located in many coastal areas around the world. The significant high compressibility and low shear strength of these formations impose challenging engineering problems. The deep cement/lime-mix-in-place method is one of the ground improvement techniques exhibiting successful use in stabilizing soft clay. Analysis and design of the deep mixing systems necessitate the identification of the additive content, the proportions of the lime to cement and the characteristics of the stabilized clay. This paper investigates experimentally the influence of adding lime and cement or cement alone, as stabilizing additives, on the engineering behavior of an Egyptian soft clay extracted from the north delta region. A series of laboratory tests were carried out considering, different additive contents of 8, 10, 12, and 14% of the dry weight, with different proportions of lime to cement of 50:50, 25:75 and 0:100. A series of unconfined compression strength tests were performed after different periods; one week, four weeks and 8 weeks, to assess the effect of curing period on the stabilized clay response. In addition, one dimensional consolidation tests were carried out to evaluate the compressibility properties of the stabilized clay. This study declared that the use of an additive content in the range of 12% and more is recommended to improve the characteristics of the considered Egyptian clay. It was pointed out that addition of lime and cement to soft clay significantly increases the strength characteristics and significantly reduces the compressibility characteristics of such clay.

  1. U(VI) behaviour in hyperalkaline calcite systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Kurt F.; Bryan, Nicholas D.; Swinburne, Adam N.; Bots, Pieter; Shaw, Samuel; Natrajan, Louise S.; Mosselmans, J. Frederick W.; Livens, Francis R.; Morris, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    The behaviour of U(VI) in hyperalkaline fluid/calcite systems was studied over a range of U(VI) concentrations (5.27 × 10-5 ?M to 42.0 ?M) and in two high pH systems, young and old synthetic cement leachate in batch sorption experiments. These systems were selected to be representative of young- (pH 13.3) and old-stage (pH 10.5) leachate evolution within a cementitious geological disposal facility. Batch sorption experiments, modelling, extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, electron microscopy, small angle X-ray scattering and luminescence spectroscopy were used to define the speciation of U(VI) across the systems of study. At the lowest concentrations (5.27 × 10-5 ?M 232U(VI)) significant U removal was observed for both old and young cement leachates, and this was successfully modelled using a first order kinetic adsorption modelling approach. At higher concentrations (>4.20 ?M) in the young cement leachate, U(VI) showed no interaction with the calcite surface over an 18 month period. Small angle X-ray scattering techniques indicated that at high U concentrations (42.0 ?M) and after 18 months, the U(VI) was present in a colloidal form which had little interaction with the calcite surface and consisted of both primary and aggregated particles with a radius of 7.6 ± 1.1 and 217 ± 24 Å, respectively. In the old cement leachate, luminescence spectroscopy identified two surface binding sites for U(VI) on calcite: in the system with 0.21 ?M U(VI), a liebigite-like Ca2UO2(CO3)3 surface complex was identified; at higher U(VI) concentrations (0.42 ?M), a second binding site of undetermined coordination was identified. At elevated U(VI) concentrations (>2.10 ?M) in old cement leachate, both geochemical data and luminescence spectroscopy suggested that surface mediated precipitation was controlling U(VI) behaviour. A focused ion beam mill was used to create a section across the U(VI) precipitate-calcite interface. Transmission electron microscope images of the section revealed that the calcite surface was coated with a nano crystalline, U containing phase. Selected area electron diffraction images of the U precipitate which was formed at a U(VI) concentration of 4.20 ?M were consistent with the formation of calcium uranate. XAS spectroscopy at higher concentrations (?21.0 ?M) suggested the formation of a second U(VI) phase, possibly a uranyl oxyhydroxide phase. These results indicated that in the young cement leachate, U(VI) did not react with the calcite surface unless U(VI) concentrations were very low (5.27 × 10-5 ?M). At higher concentrations, speciation calculations suggested that U(VI) was significantly oversaturated and experimental observations confirmed it existed in a colloidal form that interacted with the mineral surface only weakly. In the old cement leachate systems at low concentrations batch sorption and luminescence data suggested that U(VI) removal was being driven by a surface complexation mechanism. However, at higher concentrations, spectroscopic methods suggest a combination of both surface complexation and surface mediated precipitation was responsible for the observed removal. Overall, U(VI) behaviour in hyperalkaline calcite systems is distinct from that at circumneutral pH conditions: at high pH and anything but low U(VI) concentrations, a surface mediated precipitation mechanism occurs; this is in contrast to circumneutral pH conditions where U(VI) surface complexation reactions tend to dominate.

  2. Interaction of copper with the surface of calcite

    SciTech Connect

    Franklin, M.L.; Morse, J.W.

    1981-05-01

    The interaction of Cu ions in solution with the surface of calcite has been studied in a range of solutions from pure water to seawater. Observations of the uptake of Cu from solution onto calcite indicates that the process is rapid and strong in both distilled water and seawater. In distilled water, Cu uptake is directly proportional to the concentration of Cu in solution; Cu/sub s/ = K/sub s/Cu/sub 1/. This Cu/sub s/ dependence on Cu/sub 1/ is linear over the entire Cu concentration range studied (0.1 to 200 ..mu..M). Results do not indicate the formation of a precipitate of either malachite or copper carbonate. In seawater, the uptake of Cu is also directly proportional to the concentration of Cu/sub 1/ up to a limiting value of approximately 13 ..mu..M. The average value for K/sub s/ in seawater, 0.24 +- 0.06 (Cu/sub 1/ less than or equal to 13 ..mu..M), is approximately an order of magnitude less than in distilled water. This is probably the result of smaller Cu/sub 1/ activity coefficients and increased site competition by other ions in seawater. Attempts to increase the Cu/sub 1/ concentration above 13 ..mu..M resulted in the additional Cu being deposited on the surface of the calcite. A possible explanation for this behavior is the formation of a precipitate of malachite on the calcite surface. The value of K/sub s/ decreased slightly with increasing solid to solution ratios in seawater.

  3. Use of coupled passivants and consolidants on calcite mineral surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Nagy, K.L.; Cygan, R.T.; Brinker, C.J.; Ashley, C.S.; Scotto, C.S.

    1997-02-01

    Deterioration of monuments, buildings, and works of art constructed of carbonate-based stone potentially can be arrested by applying a combination of chemical passivants and consolidants that prevent hydrolytic attack and mechanical weakening. The authors used molecular modeling and laboratory synthesis to develop an improved passivating agent for the calcite mineral surface based on binding strength and molecular packing density. The effectiveness of the passivating agent with and without a linked outer layer of consolidant against chemical weathering was determined through leaching tests conducted with a pH-stat apparatus at pH 5 and 25 C. For the range of molecules considered, modeling results indicate that the strongest-binding passivant is the trimethoxy dianionic form of silylalkylaminocarboxylate (SAAC). The same form of silylalkylphosphonate (SAP) is the second strongest binder and the trisilanol neutral form of aminoethylaminopropylsilane (AEAPS) is ranked third. Short-term leaching tests on calcite powders coated with the trisilanol derivative of SAAC, the triethoxy neutral form of SAP, and the trimethoxy neutral form of AEAPS show that the passivant alone does not significantly slow the dissolution rate. However, all passivants when linked to the sol consolidant result in decreased rates. Combined AEAPS plus consolidant results in a coating that performs better than the commercial product Conservare{reg_sign} OH and at least as well as Conservare{reg_sign} H. The modeling results indicate that there may be a threshold binding energy for the passivant above which the dissolution rate of calcite is actually enhanced. More strongly-binding passivants may aid in the dissolution mechanism or dissociate in aqueous solution exposing the calcite surface to water.

  4. Influence of chemical and physical characteristics of cement kiln dusts (CKDs) on their hydration behavior and potential suitability for soil stabilization

    SciTech Connect

    Peethamparan, Sulapha Olek, Jan Lovell, Janet

    2008-06-15

    The interaction of CKDs with a given soil depends on the chemical and physical characteristics of the CKDs. Hence, the characterization of CKDs and their hydration products may lead to better understanding of their suitability as soil stabilizers. In the present article, four different CKD powders are characterized and their hydration products are evaluated. A detailed chemical (X-ray diffraction), thermogravimetric and morphological (scanning electron microscope) analyses of both the CKD powders and the hydrated CKD pastes are presented. In general, high free-lime content ({approx} 14-29%) CKDs, when reacted with water produced significant amounts of calcium hydroxide, ettringite and syngenite. These CKDs also developed higher unconfined compressive strength and higher temperature of hydration compared to CKDs with lower amounts of free-lime. An attempt was made to qualitatively correlate the performance of CKD pastes with the chemical and physical characteristics of the original CKD powders and to determine their potential suitability as soil stabilizers. To that effect a limited unconfined compressive strength testing of CKD-treated kaolinite clays was performed. The results of this study suggest that both the compressive strength and the temperature of hydration of the CKD paste can give early indications of the suitability of particular CKD for soil stabilization.

  5. Arsenite sorption and co-precipitation with calcite

    E-print Network

    Roman-Ross, Gabriela; Turrillas, Xavier; Fernandez-Martinez, Alejandro; Charlet, Laurent

    2008-01-01

    Sorption of As(III) by calcite was investigated as a function of As(III) concentration, time and pH. The sorption isotherm, i.e. the log As(III) vs. log [As(OH)3 degrees / Assat] plot is S-shaped and has been modelled on an extended version of the surface precipitation model. At low concentrations, As(OH)3 degrees is adsorbed by complexation to surface Ca surface sites, as previously described by the X-ray standing wave technique. The inflexion point of the isotherm, where As(OH)3 degrees is limited by the amount of surface sites (ST), yields 6 sites nm-2 in good agreement with crystallographic data. Beyond this value, the amount of sorbed arsenic increases linearly with solution concentration, up to the saturation of arsenic with respect to the precipitation of CaHAsO3(s). The solid solutions formed in this concentration range were examined by X-ray and neutron diffraction. The doped calcite lattice parameters increase with arsenic content while c/a ratio remains constant. Our results made on bulk calcite on...

  6. Nucleation, growth and evolution of calcium phosphate films on calcite.

    PubMed

    Naidu, Sonia; Scherer, George W

    2014-12-01

    Marble, a stone composed of the mineral calcite, is subject to chemically induced weathering in nature due to its relatively high dissolution rate in acid rain. To protect monuments and sculpture from corrosion, we are investigating the application of thin layers of hydroxyapatite (HAP) onto marble. The motivation for using HAP is its low dissolution rate and crystal and lattice compatibility with calcite. A mild, wet chemical synthesis route, in which diammonium hydrogen phosphate salt was reacted with marble, alone and with cationic and anionic precursors under different reaction conditions, was used to produce inorganic HAP layers on marble. Nucleation and growth on the calcite substrate was studied, as well as metastable phase evolution, using scanning electron microscopy, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, and atomic force microscopy. Film nucleation was enhanced by surface roughness. The rate of nucleation and the growth rate of the film increased with cationic (calcium) and anionic (carbonate) precursor additions. Calcium additions also influenced phase formation, introducing a metastable phase (octacalcium phosphate) and a different phase evolution sequence. PMID:25233226

  7. Earthworm-produced calcite granules: A new terrestrial palaeothermometer?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Versteegh, Emma A. A.; Black, Stuart; Canti, Matthew G.; Hodson, Mark E.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we show for the first time that calcite granules, produced by the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris, and commonly recorded at sites of archaeological interest, accurately reflect temperature and soil water ?18O values. Earthworms were cultivated in an orthogonal combination of two different (granule-free) soils moistened by three types of mineral water and kept at three temperatures (10, 16 and 20 °C) for an acclimatisation period of three weeks followed by transfer to identical treatments and cultivation for a further four weeks. Earthworm-secreted calcite granules were collected from the second set of soils. ?18O values were determined on individual calcite granules (?18Oc) and the soil solution (?18Ow). The ?18Oc values reflect soil solution ?18Ow values and temperature, but are consistently enriched by 1.51 (± 0.12)‰ in comparison to equilibrium in synthetic carbonates. The data fit the equation 1000 ln ? = [20.21 ± 0.92] (103 T-1) - [38.58 ± 3.18] (R2 = 0.95; n = 96; p < 0.0005). As the granules are abundant in modern soils, buried soils and archaeological contexts, and can be dated using U-Th disequilibria, the developed palaeotemperature relationship has enormous potential for application to Holocene and Pleistocene time intervals.

  8. 40 CFR Table S-1 to Subpart S of... - Basic Parameters for the Calculation of Emission Factors for Lime Production

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...the Calculation of Emission Factors for Lime Production S Table S-1 to Subpart... MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Lime Manufacturing Pt. 98, Subpt. S, Table...the Calculation of Emission Factors for Lime Production Variable...

  9. Imaging surface contacts: Power law contact distributions and contact stresses in quartz, calcite, glass and acrylic plastic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dieterich, J.H.; Kilgore, B.D.

    1996-01-01

    A procedure has been developed to obtain microscope images of regions of contact between roughened surfaces of transparent materials, while the surfaces are subjected to static loads or undergoing frictional slip. Static loading experiments with quartz, calcite, soda-lime glass and acrylic plastic at normal stresses to 30 MPa yield power law distributions of contact areas from the smallest contacts that can be resolved (3.5 ??m2) up to a limiting size that correlates with the grain size of the abrasive grit used to roughen the surfaces. In each material, increasing normal stress results in a roughly linear increase of the real area of contact. Mechanisms of contact area increase are by growth of existing contacts, coalescence of contacts and appearance of new contacts. Mean contacts stresses are consistent with the indentation strength of each material. Contact size distributions are insensitive to normal stress indicating that the increase of contact area is approximately self-similar. The contact images and contact distributions are modeled using simulations of surfaces with random fractal topographies. The contact process for model fractal surfaces is represented by the simple expedient of removing material at regions where surface irregularities overlap. Synthetic contact images created by this approach reproduce observed characteristics of the contacts and demonstrate that the exponent in the power law distributions depends on the scaling exponent used to generate the surface topography.

  10. Interaction of copper with the surface of calcite

    SciTech Connect

    Franklin, M.L.; Morse, J.W.

    1981-12-01

    The interaction of Cu ions in solution with the surface of calcite has been studied in a range of solutions from pure water to seawater. Observations of the uptake of Cu from solution onto calcite indicates that the process is rapid and strong in both distilled water and seawater. In distilled water, Cu uptake is directly proportional to the concentration of Cu in solution; Cu/sub s/ = K/sub s/Cu/sub 1/. The average value for K/sub s/ is 3.5 +- 1.7. The Cu/sub s/ dependence on Cu/sub 1/ is linear over the entire Cu concentration range studied (0.1 to 200 ..mu..M). Results do not indicate the formation of a precipitate of either malachite or copper carbonate. A precipitate of the form Cu/sub x/Ca/sub 1-x/CO/sub 3/ may be deposited onto the calcite surface in distilled water. The value of K/sub s/ in distilled water decreased sharply over the solid to solution ratio range of 0.1 to 2 g CaCO/sub 3/ 1/sup -1/. This was followed by a small change in K/sub s/ for solid to solution ratios in the range of 2 to 10 g CaCO/sub 3/ 1/sup -1/. In seawater, the uptake of Cu is also directly proportional to the concentration of Cu/sub 1/ up to a limiting value of approximately 13 ..mu..M. The average value for K/sub s/ in seawater, 0.24 +- 0.06 (Cu/sub 1/ less than or equal to 13 ..mu..M), is approximately an order of magnitude less than in distilled water. This is probably the result of smaller Cu/sub 1/ activity coefficients and increased site competition by other ions in seawater. Attempts to increase the Cu/sub 1/ concentration above 13 ..mu..M resulted in the additional Cu being deposited on the surface of the calcite. A possible explanation for this behavior is the formation of a precipitate of malachite on the calcite surface. The value of K/sub s/ decreased slightly with increasing solid to solution ratios in seawater.

  11. Strontium isotope fractionation of planktic foraminifera and inorganic calcite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhm, Florian; Eisenhauer, Anton; Tang, Jianwu; Dietzel, Martin; Krabbenhöft, Andre; Kisakürek, Basak; Horn, Christian

    2012-09-01

    We have investigated the strontium isotope fractionation (?88/86Srcarb-aq) between inorganic calcite and aqueous Sr2+ ions by precipitation experiments at a constant temperature of 25 °C and precipitation rates (R) ranging from 102.3 to 104.2 ?mol/m2/h. Strontium isotope ratios were measured using the 87Sr-84Sr double spike technique. It was found that strontium isotope fractionation in these calcites is strongly dependent on the precipitation rate: ?Sr carb-aq =-0.08?log(R[?mol/m/h])+0.08 The measured ?88/86Sr values are significantly correlated with previously measured ?44/40Ca and Sr/Ca values of the same calcite samples: ?Sr=+0.18??Ca-0.01 ?Sr=-1.5?KdSr-0.03 The slope of 88Sr/86Sr versus 44Ca/40Ca fractionation is 0.18 ± 0.04 and compatible with a kinetic fractionation during dehydration of the strontium and calcium ions, but not with isotope fractionation in a diffusive boundary layer. Using published equilibrium ?44/40Cacarb-aq and KdSr values we estimate the equilibrium isotope fractionation of strontium to be very close to zero (?88/86Sreq(carb-aq) = -0.01 ± 0.06‰). This estimate is confirmed by strontium isotope values of natural inorganic calcites that precipitated very slowly in basalts of the ocean crust. The results from the inorganic calcites are used to explain strontium isotope fractionation of planktic foraminifera. Specimens of two warm water species (Globigerinoides ruber and Globigerinoides sacculifer) were picked from the Holocene section of a Caribbean sediment core. We found no significant difference in ?88/86Sr between the two species. In addition, G. ruber specimens from Marine Isotope Stage 2 in the same core show ?88/86Sr values identical to the Holocene specimens. The strontium isotopes of both foraminifera species are strongly fractionated (?88/86Srcarb-aq = -0.248 ± 0.005‰) when compared to published data of other major marine calcifiers. Applying the results from the inorganic precipitation experiments we find that the strong foraminiferal strontium isotope fractionation can be explained by calcification in a largely open system at high precipitation rates, comparable in magnitude to rates known from scleractinian reef corals. This interpretation is in good agreement with the kinetic calcification model for planktic foraminifera by Kisakürek et al. (2011), which was based on calcium isotopes and elemental Sr/Ca ratios.

  12. Liming Poultry Manures to Kill Pathogens and Decrease Soluble Phosphorus

    SciTech Connect

    Maguire,R.; Hesterberg, D.; Gernat, A.; Anderson, K.; Wineland, M.; Grimes, J.

    2006-01-01

    Received for publication September 9, 2005. Stabilizing phosphorus (P) in poultry waste to reduce P losses from manured soils is important to protect surface waters, while pathogens in manures are an emerging issue. This study was conducted to evaluate CaO and Ca(OH){sub 2} for killing manure bacterial populations (pathogens) and stabilizing P in poultry wastes and to investigate the influence on soils following amendment with the treated wastes. Layer manure and broiler litter varying in moisture content were treated with CaO and Ca(OH){sub 2} at rates of 2.5, 5, 10, and 15% by weight. All treated wastes were analyzed for microbial plate counts, pH, and water-soluble phosphorus (WSP), while a few selected layer manures were analyzed by phosphorus X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES). A loamy sand and a silt loam were amended with broiler litter and layer manure treated with CaO at rates of 0, 2.5, 5, 10, and 15% and soil WSP and pH were measured at times 1, 8, and 29 d. Liming reduced bacterial populations, with greater rates of lime leading to greater reductions; for example 10% CaO applied to 20% solids broiler litter reduced the plate counts from 793 000 to 6500 mL{sup -1}. Liming also reduced the WSP in the manures by over 90% in all cases where at least 10% CaO was added. Liming the manures also reduced WSP in soils immediately following application and raised soil pH. The liming process used successfully reduced plate counts and concerns about P losses in runoff following land application of these limed products due to decreased WSP.

  13. Hydrothermal replacement of calcite by Mg-carbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonas, Laura; Mueller, Thomas; Dohmen, Ralf

    2014-05-01

    The transport of heat and mass through the Earth's crust is coupled to mineral reactions and the exchange of isotopes and elements between different phases. Carbonate minerals are a major constituent of the Earth's crust and play an important role in different physical, chemical and even biological processes. In this experimental study, the element exchange reaction between calcite (CaCO3) and a Mg-rich fluid phase is investigated under hydrothermal conditions. Single crystals of calcite (2x2x2 mm) react with 1 ml of a 1 M MgCl2 solution at 200° C in a Teflon-lined steel autoclave for different times between one day and four weeks. The reaction leads to the formation of a porous reaction front and the pseudomorphic replacement of calcite by dolomite [CaMg(CO3)2] and magnesite (MgCO3). Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the reaction rim consists of small Mg-carbonate rhombs closely attached to each other, suggesting that the replacement reaction takes place by a dissolution-precipitation mechanism. Typically, the observed reaction front can be divided into two different domains. The outer part of the reaction rim, i.e. from the mineral surface in contact to the fluid inwards, consists of magnesite, whereas the inner part of the rim surrounding the unreacted calcite core consists of Ca-rich dolomite. The formation of a porous microstructure that varies in different parts of the reaction rim is a direct result of the large molar volume change induced by the replacement of calcite by magnesite and dolomite. The developing porosity therefore creates fluid pathways that promote the progress of the reaction front towards the unreacted core of the single crystal. Compositional profiles measured perpendicular to the mineral surface across the reactions rims using electron microprobe (EMPA) further revealed a compositional gradient within the reaction rim with regard to the structure-forming elements Mg and Ca. Here, the amount of Mg incorporated in both product phases increases with increasing distance from the unreacted calcite core, countered by a decrease of Ca incorporated. Both the coexistence of two different product phases and the distinct compositional gradient within the forming reaction rim are unequivocal signs of a chemical zonation of Ca and Mg in the fluid phase which mediates the element exchange between the reaction interface and the bulk solution. Atomic adsorption spectroscopy revealed that the Ca/Mg ratio in the reacted fluid increases as a function of time, reflecting the progressive exchange of Mg and Ca between the fluid and the solid phase. The time-dependence of the evolving Ca/Mg ratio can be fitted with a square root of time relation that indicates a transport controlled reaction. We interpret the hydrothermal replacement of calcite to operate via a dissolution/re-precipitation mechanism, whereas the reaction progress is controlled by the transport of the structure forming elements through the developing reaction rim.

  14. Wood Residues as Fuel Source for Lime Kilns 

    E-print Network

    Azarniouch, M. K.; Philp, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    stream_source_info ESL-IE-84-04-134.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 6423 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name ESL-IE-84-04-134.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 WOOD RESIDUES... Proceedings, 1982 Engineering Conference. 3. Azarniouch, M.K., "Method of producing lime in a rotary kiln", U.S. Patent 4,391,671, July 1983. 4. Azarniouch, M.K. and Philp, R.J., "Wood residues as fuel source for lime kilns, Phase I pilot kiln trials...

  15. Catalytic iron oxide for lime regeneration in carbonaceous fuel combustion

    DOEpatents

    Shen, Ming-Shing (Rocky Point, NY); Yang, Ralph T. (Middle Island, NY)

    1980-01-01

    Lime utilization for sulfurous oxides absorption in fluidized combustion of carbonaceous fuels is improved by impregnation of porous lime particulates with iron oxide. The impregnation is achieved by spraying an aqueous solution of mixed iron sulfate and sulfite on the limestone before transfer to the fluidized bed combustor, whereby the iron compounds react with the limestone substrate to form iron oxide at the limestone surface. It is found that iron oxide present in the spent limestone acts as a catalyst to regenerate the spent limestone in a reducing environment. With only small quantities of iron oxide the calcium can be recycled at a significantly increased rate.

  16. Alcohol cosurfactants in hydrate antiagglomeration.

    PubMed

    York, J Dalton; Firoozabadi, Abbas

    2008-08-28

    Because of availability, as well as economical and environmental considerations, natural gas is projected to be the premium fuel of the 21st century. Natural gas production involves risk of the shut down of onshore and offshore operations because of blockage from hydrates formed from coproduced water and hydrate-forming species in natural gas. Industry practice has been usage of thermodynamic inhibitors such as alcohols often in significant amounts, which have undesirable environmental and safety impacts. Thermodynamic inhibitors affect bulk-phase properties and inhibit hydrate formation. An alternative is changing surface properties through usage of polymers and surfactants, effective at 0.5 to 3 weight % of coproduced water. One group of low dosage hydrate inhibitors (LDHI) are kinetic inhibitors, which affect nucleation rate and growth. A second group of LDHI are antiagglomerants, which prevent agglomeration of small hydrate crystallites. Despite great potential, work on hydrate antiagglomeration is very limited. This work centers on the effect of small amounts of alcohol cosurfactant in mixtures of two vastly different antiagglomerants. We use a model oil, water, and tetrahydrofuran as a hydrate-forming species. Results show that alcohol cosurfactants may help with antiagglomeration when traditional antiagglomerants alone are ineffective. Specifically, as low as 0.5 wt. % methanol cosurfactant used in this study is shown to be effective in antiagglomeration. Without the cosurfactant there will be agglomeration independent of the AA concentration. To our knowledge, this is the first report of alcohol cosurfactants in hydrate antiagglomerants. It is also shown that a rhamnolipid biosurfactant is effective down to only 0.5 wt. % in such mixtures, yet a quaternary ammonium chloride salt, i. e., quat, results in hydrate slurries down to 0.01 wt. %. However, biochemical surfactants are less toxic and biodegradable, and thus their use may prove beneficial even if at concentrations higher than chemical surfactants. PMID:18671355

  17. EVALUATION OF BIOAEROSOL COMPONENTS, GENERATION FACTORS, AND AIRBORNE TRANSPORT ASSOCIATED WITH LIME TREATMENT OF CONTAMINATED SEDIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lime treatment has been used in contaminated sediment management activities for many purposes such as dewatering, improvement of physical properties, and reducing contaminant mobility. Exothermic volatilization of volatile organic compounds from lime-treated sediment is well kno...

  18. REMOVAL OF BERYLLIUM FROM DRINKING WATER BY CHEMICAL COAGULATION AND LIME SOFTENING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effectiveness of conventional drinking water treatment and lime softening was evaluated for beryllium removal from two drinking water sources. ar test studies were conducted to determine how common coagulants (aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride and lime softening performed ...

  19. Water, Hydration and Health

    PubMed Central

    Popkin, Barry M.; D’Anci, Kristen E.; Rosenberg, Irwin H.

    2010-01-01

    This review attempts to provide some sense of our current knowledge of water including overall patterns of intake and some factors linked with intake, the complex mechanisms behind water homeostasis, the effects of variation in water intake on health and energy intake, weight, and human performance and functioning. Water represents a critical nutrient whose absence will be lethal within days. Water’s importance for prevention of nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases has emerged more recently because of the shift toward large proportions of fluids coming from caloric beverages. Nevertheless, there are major gaps in knowledge related to measurement of total fluid intake, hydration status at the population level, and few longer-term systematic interventions and no published random-controlled longer-term trials. We suggest some ways to examine water requirements as a means to encouraging more dialogue on this important topic. PMID:20646222

  20. Dynamics of Protein Hydration Water

    E-print Network

    M. Wolf; S. Emmert; R. Gulich; P. Lunkenheimer; A. Loidl

    2014-12-08

    We present the frequency- and temperature-dependent dielectric properties of lysozyme solutions in a broad concentration regime, measured at subzero temperatures and compare the results with measurements above the freezing point of water and on hydrated lysozyme powder. Our experiments allow examining the dynamics of unfreezable hydration water in a broad temperature range including the so-called No Man's Land (160 - 235 K). The obtained results prove the bimodality of the hydration shell dynamics and are discussed in the context of the highly-debated fragile-to-strong transition of water.

  1. 40 CFR 180.1231 - Lime; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lime; exemption from the requirement... From Tolerances § 180.1231 Lime; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of lime....

  2. LIME: A Middleware for Physical and Logical Mobility Amy L. Murphy

    E-print Network

    Picco, Gian Pietro

    LIME: A Middleware for Physical and Logical Mobility Amy L. Murphy Dept. of Computer Science Brookings Drive St. Louis, MO 63130, USA roman@cs.wustl.edu Abstract LIME is a middleware supporting. LIME adopts a coordination perspective inspired by work on the Linda model. The con­ text

  3. LIME: Towards a Metadata Module for OntoLex Manuel Fiorelli

    E-print Network

    LIME: Towards a Metadata Module for OntoLex Manuel Fiorelli University of Tor Vergata Via del information demands a dedicated extension. In this paper, we fill this gap by introducing LIME (Linguistic?). In this paper, we try to address the lack of a standardized vocabulary for linguistic metadata by proposing LIME

  4. Using Lime to Support Replication for Availability in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    E-print Network

    Picco, Gian Pietro

    Using Lime to Support Replication for Availability in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Amy L. Murphy1 of a veneer for Lime, a Linda-based middleware for MANETs. This veneer puts into the hands of the application meaningful in mobile ad hoc networks. The entire replication veneer is built on top of the existing Lime

  5. Lime: Linda Meets Mobility Gian Pietro Picco, Amy L. Murphy, and GruiaCatalin Roman

    E-print Network

    Picco, Gian Pietro

    Lime: Linda Meets Mobility Gian Pietro Picco, Amy L. Murphy, and Gruia­Catalin Roman Dept +1­314­935­f7536,7537,6132g fpicco,alm,romang@cs.wustl.edu Abstract Lime is a system designed hosts. In this pa­ per we present the key design concepts behind the Lime system. 1 INTRODUCTION Today

  6. Using Coordination Middleware for Location-Aware Computing: A Lime Case Study

    E-print Network

    Picco, Gian Pietro

    Using Coordination Middleware for Location-Aware Computing: A Lime Case Study Amy L. Murphy1 our considerations in Lime, a coordination model and middle- ware designed for mobile computing mobility of agents include Klaim [10], xmiddle [7], Tucson [12], Mars [2], and Lime [8]. In all

  7. 40 CFR 180.1231 - Lime; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lime; exemption from the requirement... From Tolerances § 180.1231 Lime; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of lime....

  8. 40 CFR 180.1231 - Lime; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lime; exemption from the requirement... From Tolerances § 180.1231 Lime; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of lime....

  9. 40 CFR 180.1231 - Lime; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lime; exemption from the requirement... From Tolerances § 180.1231 Lime; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of lime....

  10. Engineering a genetic transformation system for Colletotrichum acutatum, the causal fungus of lime anthracnose

    E-print Network

    Burns, Jacqueline K.

    Engineering a genetic transformation system for Colletotrichum acutatum, the causal fungus of lime loss on most citrus cultivars. Isolates from Key lime anthracnose (KLA) cause that disease on the Mexican lime, but also cause PFD on sweet orange. Both PFD and KLA isolates exhibited resistance

  11. 40 CFR 180.1231 - Lime; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lime; exemption from the requirement... From Tolerances § 180.1231 Lime; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of lime....

  12. 40 CFR 180.1232 - Lime-sulfur; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lime-sulfur; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1232 Lime-sulfur; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of lime-sulfur....

  13. 40 CFR 180.1232 - Lime-sulfur; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lime-sulfur; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1232 Lime-sulfur; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of lime-sulfur....

  14. 40 CFR 180.1232 - Lime-sulfur; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lime-sulfur; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1232 Lime-sulfur; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of lime-sulfur....

  15. 40 CFR 180.1232 - Lime-sulfur; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lime-sulfur; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1232 Lime-sulfur; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of lime-sulfur....

  16. 40 CFR 180.1232 - Lime-sulfur; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lime-sulfur; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1232 Lime-sulfur; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of lime-sulfur....

  17. Molecular-Level Simulations of Shock Generation and Propagation in Soda-Lime Glass

    E-print Network

    Grujicic, Mica

    Molecular-Level Simulations of Shock Generation and Propagation in Soda-Lime Glass M. Grujicic, W-equilibrium molecular dynamics method is employed to study the mechanical response of soda-lime glass (a material influence the blast/ballistic impact mitigation potential of soda-lime glass. The present work was also

  18. The Chemical Dissolution of Soda-Lime Silicate for Safe Drinking Applications

    E-print Network

    Muzzio, Fernando J.

    The Chemical Dissolution of Soda-Lime Silicate for Safe Drinking Applications Sara Bendaoud Xining safety, the composition of soda-lime silicate glass was modified. The amount of Silicon dioxide loss was mainly Silicon and oxygen. Thus, this composition of soda-lime silicate glass composition

  19. 85A SIMPLE, DIRECT METHOD TO MEASURE DISSOLVED CO2 USING SODA LIME

    E-print Network

    85A SIMPLE, DIRECT METHOD TO MEASURE DISSOLVED CO2 USING SODA LIME Oecol. Bras., 12 (1): 85-91, 2008 A SIMPLE, DIRECT METHOD TO MEASURE DISSOLVED CO2 USING SODA LIME Mark S. Johnson1,2,* , Johannes chemistry of soda lime due to uptake of CO2 . The approach is an adaptation of a standard method used

  20. 40 CFR 180.1232 - Lime-sulfur; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lime-sulfur; exemption from the requirement of a...From Tolerances § 180.1232 Lime-sulfur; exemption from the requirement of a...tolerance is established for residues of lime-sulfur. [70 FR 33363, June 8,...

  1. 40 CFR 180.1232 - Lime-sulfur; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lime-sulfur; exemption from the requirement of a...From Tolerances § 180.1232 Lime-sulfur; exemption from the requirement of a...tolerance is established for residues of lime-sulfur. [70 FR 33363, June 8,...

  2. 40 CFR 180.1232 - Lime-sulfur; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lime-sulfur; exemption from the requirement of a...From Tolerances § 180.1232 Lime-sulfur; exemption from the requirement of a...tolerance is established for residues of lime-sulfur. [70 FR 33363, June 8,...

  3. 40 CFR 180.1232 - Lime-sulfur; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lime-sulfur; exemption from the requirement of a...From Tolerances § 180.1232 Lime-sulfur; exemption from the requirement of a...tolerance is established for residues of lime-sulfur. [70 FR 33363, June 8,...

  4. 40 CFR 180.1231 - Lime; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lime; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1231 Lime; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...tolerance is established for residues of lime. [70 FR 33363, June 8,...

  5. 40 CFR 180.1231 - Lime; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lime; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1231 Lime; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...tolerance is established for residues of lime. [70 FR 33363, June 8,...

  6. Last Updated: 27 March 2013 1 Quick Start Guide for using LimeSurvey

    E-print Network

    Survey NPS Resources: NPS LimeSurvey: https://survey.nps.edu/admin/survey/sa/index NPS LimeSurvey Wiki: https://wiki.nps.edu/display/ITACSEIS/NPS+Enterprise+Survey+-+LimeSurvey Other External by the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) of non-U.S. Government sites or the information

  7. Crystallization of a polymorphic hydrate system.

    PubMed

    Tian, F; Qu, H; Louhi-Kultanen, M; Rantanen, J

    2010-02-01

    Nitrofurantoin can form two monohydrates, which have the same chemical composition and molar ratio of water, but differ in the crystal arrangements. The two monohydrates (hydrates I and II) could be produced independently via evaporative crystallization, where supersaturation and solvent composition were both found to have an effect. Hydrate I showed much slower crystallization than hydrate II. During cooling crystallization, the nucleation and growth of hydrate II was again dominant, consuming all supersaturation and leading to no hydrate I formation. Seeding of hydrate I during cooling crystallization was also applied, but the hydrate I seeds were not able to initiate its nucleation rather than dissolving into crystallizing solution. Although solubility tests revealed that hydrate II is more stable than hydrate I due to its lower solubility (110 +/- 4 and 131 +/- 12 microg/mL for hydrates II and I, respectively), this difference is rather small. Therefore, the small free energy difference between the two hydrates, together with the slow crystallization of hydrate I, both lead to a hindrance of hydrate I formation. Furthermore, the crystal structure of hydrate II demonstrated a higher H-bonding extent than hydrate I, suggesting its more favorable crystallization. This is in good agreement with experimental results. PMID:19569226

  8. Thermodynamics of magnesian calcite solid-solutions at 25°C and 1 atm total pressure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Busenberg, Eurybiades; Plummer, L. Niel

    1989-01-01

    The stability of magnesian calcites was reexamined, and new results are presented for 28 natural inorganic, 12 biogenic, and 32 synthetic magnesian calcites. The magnesian calcite solid-solutions were separated into two groups on the basis of differences in stoichiometric solubility and other physical and chemical properties. Group I consists of solids of mainly metamorphic and hydrothermal origin, synthetic calcites prepared at high temperatures and pressures, and synthetic solids prepared at low temperature and very low calcite supersaturations () from artificial sea water or NaCl?MgCl2?CaCl2solutions. Group I solids are essentially binary s of CaCO2 and MgCO2, and are thought to be relatively free of structural defects. Group II solid-solutions are of either biogenic origin or are synthetic magnesian calcites and protodolomites (0–20 and ? 45 mole percent MgCO3) prepared at high calcite supersaturations () from NaCl?Na2SO4?MgCl2?CaCl2 or NaCl?MgCl2?CaCl2 solutions. Group II solid-solutions are treated as massively defective solids. The defects include substitution foreign ions (Na+ and SO42?) in the magnesian calcite lattice (point defects) and dislocations (~2 · 109 cm?2). Within each group, the excess free energy of mixing, GE, is described by the mixing model , where x is the mole fraction of the end-member Ca0.5Mg0.5CO3 in the solid-solution. The values of A0and A1 for Group I and II solids were evaluated at 25°C. The equilibrium constants of all the solids are closely described by the equation ln , where KC and KD are the equilibrium constants of calcite and Ca0.5Mg0.5CO3. Group I magnesian calcites were modeled as sub-regular solid-solutions between calcite and dolomite, and between calcite and “disordered dolomite”. Both models yield almost identical equilibrium constants for these magnesian calcites. The Group II magnesian calcites were modeled as sub-regular solid-solutions between defective calcite and protodolomite. Group I and II solid-solutions differ significantly in stability. The rate of crystal growth and the chemical composition of the aqueous solutions from which the solids were formed are the main factors controlling stoichiometric solubility of the magnesian calcites and the density of crystal defects. The literature on the occurrence and behavior of magnesian calcites in sea water and other aqueous solutions is also examined.

  9. Obsidian hydration dates glacial loading?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, I.; Pierce, K.L.; Obradovich, J.D.; Long, W.D.

    1973-01-01

    Three different groups of hydration rinds have been measured on thin sections of obsidian from Obsidian Cliff, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming . The average thickness of the thickest (oldest) group of hydration rinds is 16.3 micrometers and can be related to the original emplacement of the flow 176,000 years ago (potassium-argon age). In addition to these original surfaces, most thin sections show cracks and surfaces which have average hydration rind thicknesses of 14.5 and 7.9 micrometers. These later two hydration rinds compare closely in thickness with those on obsidian pebbles in the Bull Lake and Pinedale terminal moraines in the West Yellowstone Basin, which are 14 to 15 and 7 to 8 micrometers thick, respectively. The later cracks are thought to have been formed by glacial loading during the Bull Lake and Pinedale glaciations, when an estimated 800 meters of ice covered the Obsidian Cliff flow.

  10. Obsidian Hydration: A New Paleothermometer

    SciTech Connect

    Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M; Riciputi, Lee R; Cole, David R; Fayek, Mostafa; Elam, J. Michael

    2006-01-01

    The natural hydration of obsidian was first proposed as a dating technique for young geological and archaeological specimens by Friedman and Smith (1960), who noted that the thickness of the hydrated layer on obsidian artifacts increases with time. This approach is, however, sensitive to temperature and humidity under earth-surface conditions. This has made obsidian hydration dating more difficult, but potentially provides a unique tool for paleoclimatic reconstructions. In this paper we present the first successful application of this approach, based on combining laboratory-based experimental calibrations with archaeological samples from the Chalco site in the Basin of Mexico, dated using stratigraphically correlated 14C results and measuring hydration depths by secondary ion mass spectrometry. The resultant data suggest, first, that this approach is viable, even given the existing uncertainties, and that a cooling trend occurred in the Basin of Mexico over the past 1450 yr, a result corroborated by other paleoclimatic data.

  11. Obsidian hydration dates glacial loading?

    PubMed

    Friedman, I; Pierce, K L; Obradovich, J D; Long, W D

    1973-05-18

    Three different groups of hydration rinds have been measured on thin sections of obsidian from Obsidian Cliff, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. The average thickness of the thickest (oldest) group of hydration rinds is 16.3 micrometers and can be related to the original emplacement of the flow 176,000 years ago (potassium-argon age). In addition to these original surfaces, most thin sections show cracks and surfaces which have average hydration rind thicknesses of 14.5 and 7.9 micrometers. These later two hydration rinds compare closely in thickness with those on obsidian pebbles in the Bull Lake and Pinedale terminal moraines in the West Yellowstone Basin, which are 14 to 15 and 7 to 8 micrometers thick, respectively. The later cracks are thought to have been formed by glacial loading during the Bull Lake and Pinedale glaciations, when an estimated 800 meters of ice covered the Obsidian Cliff flow. PMID:17806883

  12. High-pressure gas hydrates 

    E-print Network

    Loveday, J. S.; Nelmes, R. J.

    pressures. Clathrate hydrates have been extensively studied because they occur widely in nature, have important industrial applications, and provide insight into water-guest hydrophobic interactions. Until recently, the expectation-based on calculations...

  13. Variable-Rate Lime Application for Louisiana Sugarcane Production Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precision agriculture may offer sugarcane growers a management system that decreases costs and maximizes profits, while minimizing any potential negative environmental impact. Variable rate (VR) application of lime and fertilizers is one area in which significant advantages may be realized. A seri...

  14. 27 CFR 9.27 - Lime Kiln Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lime Kiln Valley. 9.27 Section 9.27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.27...

  15. 27 CFR 9.27 - Lime Kiln Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lime Kiln Valley. 9.27 Section 9.27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.27...

  16. Long-term lime pretreatment of poplar wood 

    E-print Network

    Sierra Ramirez, Rocio

    2006-04-12

    -oxidative longterm lime pretreatment of poplar wood (up to 4 weeks of pretreatment) at mild temperatures (25ºC to 65ºC), and their effect on the enzymatic yield of glucan and xylan. The most important pretreatment yield of lignin was 54 g lignin remaining/100 g...

  17. Full Security: Fuzzy Identity Based Encryption Liming Fang

    E-print Network

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    the Fuzzy Identity Based Encryption (Fuzzy-IBE) which could be used for biometrics and attribute-based-tolerance property for IBE which could be used for encryption using biometrics and attribute based encryption (ABEFull Security: Fuzzy Identity Based Encryption Liming Fang 1* , Jinyue Xia 1 , (1 College

  18. Variable Rate Lime Application in Louisiana Sugarcane Production Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precision agriculture may offer sugarcane growers a management system that decreases costs and maximizes profits, while minimizing any potential negative environmental impact. The utility of variable-rate (VR) lime application in the initial production year (plant cane) of a 3-yr sugarcane crop cyc...

  19. Saturn's emitted power Liming Li,1,2

    E-print Network

    Saturn's emitted power Liming Li,1,2 Barney J. Conrath,2 Peter J. Gierasch,2 Richard K. Achterberg Composite Infrared Spectrometer are analyzed to precisely measure Saturn's emitted power and its meridional the interannual variability of emitted power and effective temperature between the epoch of Voyager (1 Saturn year

  20. EFFECTS OF LIME (CAO) ON THE ENDOTOXIN LEVELS OF BIOSOLIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lime addition is a common practice for treating biosolids in order to meet EPA 503 requirements for land application. Since this treatment kills the majority of microorganisms, will it increase the level of endotoxins present in biosolids? And, if endotoxin levels are increased, ...

  1. Shock-wave properties of soda-lime glass

    SciTech Connect

    Grady, D.E.; Chhabildas, L.C.

    1996-11-01

    Planar impact experiments and wave profile measurements provided single and double shock equation of state data to 30 GPa. Both compression wave wave profile structure and release wave data were used to infer time-dependent strength and equation of state properties for soda-lime glass.

  2. COMPUTERIZED SHAWNEE LIME/LIMESTONE SCRUBBING MODEL USERS MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The manual gives a general description of a computerized model for estimating design and cost of lime or limestone scrubber systems for flue gas desulfurization (FGD). It supplements PB80-123037 by extending the number of scrubber options which can be evaluated. It includes spray...

  3. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in lime spray dryer ash

    SciTech Connect

    Ping Sun; Panuwat Taerakul; Linda K. Weavers; Harold W. Walker

    2005-10-01

    Four lime spray dryer (LSD) ash samples were collected from a spreader stoker boiler and measured for their concentrations of 16 U.S. EPA specified polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Results showed that the total measured PAH concentration correlated with the organic carbon content of the LSD ash. Each LSD ash sample was then separated using a 140 mesh sieve into two fractions: a carbon-enriched fraction ({gt}140 mesh) and a lime-enriched fraction ({lt}140 mesh). Unburned carbon was further separated from the carbon-enriched fraction with a lithiumheteropolytungstate (LST) solution. PAH measurements on these different fractions showed that unburned carbon had the highest PAH concentrations followed by the carbon-enriched fraction, indicating that PAHs were primarily associated with the carbonaceous material in LSD ash. However, detectable levels of PAHs were also found in the lime-enriched fraction, suggesting that the fine spray of slaked lime may sorb PAH compounds from the flue gas in the LSD process. 37 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. CHARACTERIZATION OF CARBIDE LIME TO IDENTIFY SULFITE OXIDATION INHIBITORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of carbide lime--a by-product of acetylene manufacture, primarily calcium hydroxide--used in a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system at Louisville Gas and Electric (LGE). The study was undertaken to: identify sulfite ion oxidation inhibitors in...

  5. HAZARDOUS WASTE COMBUSTION IN INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES: CEMENT AND LIME KILNS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes the results of several studies relating to hazardous waste combustion in cement and lime kilns. The tests included in the study are four kilns tested by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, four kilns tested by State agencies or the kiln operator, two C...

  6. LIME SPRAY DRYER FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION COMPUTER MODEL USERS MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a lime spray dryer/baghouse (FORTRAN) computer model that simulates SO2 removal and permits study of related impacts on design and economics as functions of design parameters and operating conditions for coal-fired electric generating units. The model allows ...

  7. K'qizaghetnu Ht'ana (Stories from Lime Village).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobby, Pete; And Others

    A cross section of Athabascan life as related by eight inhabitants of Lime Village, Alaska, is given in this document. The short narratives are printed in English and in Dena'ina. Illustrations accompany the text. The stories tell of making eagle feather robes, birchbark or mooseskin boats, a raincoat from black bear intestines, and boots from…

  8. Hydration water and microstructure in calcium silicate and aluminate hydrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fratini, Emiliano; Ridi, Francesca; Chen, Sow-Hsin; Baglioni, Piero

    2006-09-01

    Understanding the state of the hydration water and the microstructure development in a cement paste is likely to be the key for the improvement of its ultimate strength and durability. In order to distinguish and characterize the reacted and unreacted water, the single-particle dynamics of water molecules in hydrated calcium silicates (C3S, C2S) and aluminates (C3A, C4AF) were studied by quasi-elastic neutron scattering, QENS. The time evolution of the immobile fraction represents the hydration kinetics and the mobile fraction follows a non-Debye relaxation. Less sophisticated, but more accessible and cheaper techniques, like differential scanning calorimetry, DSC, and near-infrared spectroscopy, NIR, were validated through QENS results and they allow one to easily and quantitatively follow the cement hydration kinetics and can be widely applied on a laboratory scale to understand the effect of additives (i.e., superplasticizers, cellulosic derivatives, etc) on the thermodynamics of the hydration process. DSC provides information on the free water index and on the activation energy involved in the hydration process while the NIR band at 7000 cm-1 monitors, at a molecular level, the increase of the surface-interacting water. We report as an example the effect of two classes of additives widely used in the cement industry: superplasticizers, SPs, and cellulose derivatives. SPs interact at the solid surface, leading to a consistent increment of the activation energy for the processes of nucleation and growth of the hydrated phases. In contrast, the cellulosic additives do not affect the nucleation and growth activation energy, but cause a significant increment in the water availability: in other words the hydration process is more efficient without any modification of the solid/liquid interaction, as also evidenced by the 1H-NMR. Additional information is obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ultra small angle neutron scattering (USANS) and wide angle x-ray scattering (WAXD) that characterize how additives affect both the hydrated microstructure development and the original grain size. In particular, SPs alter the morphology of the hydrated phases, which no longer grow with the classic fibrillar structure on the grain surface, but nucleate in solution as globular structures. All this information converges in a quantitative, and at molecular level, description of the mechanisms involved in the setting process of one of the materials most widely used by human beings.

  9. The sensitized luminescence of manganese-activated calcite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schulman, J.H.; Evans, L.W.; Ginther, R.J.; Murata, K.J.

    1947-01-01

    Synthetic manganese-activated calcites are shown to be practically inert to ultraviolet excitation in the range 2000-3500A, while they are luminescent under cathode-ray excitation. The incorporation of small amounts of an auxiliary impurity along with the manganese produces the strong response to ultraviolet radiation hitherto ascribed to CaCO3:Mn itself. Three such impurities have been studied: lead, thallium, and cerium. The first two induce excitation in the neighborhood of the mercury resonance line, while the cerium introduces a response principally to longer wave ultraviolet. The strong response to 2537A excitation shown by some natural calcites is likewise found to be due to the presence of lead along with the manganese, rather than to the manganese alone. The data do not warrant ascribing the longer wave-length ultraviolet-excited luminescence of all natural calcites to the action of an auxiliary impurity. The essential identity of the cathode-ray excited luminescence spectra of CaCO 3:Mn, CaCO3: (Pb+Mn), CaCO3:(Tl+Mn), and CaCO3:(Ce+Mn) with the 2537A-excited spectra of the latter three is evidence that the luminescent center in all cases is the manganese ion or the MnO6 group. It is shown that a "cascade" mechanism for the action of the auxiliary impurities, lead, thallium, and cerium, is incorrect; and that the phenomenon must be considered as a case of sensitized luminescence. Owing to the nature of cathode-ray excitation, the manganese activator can be excited by this agent even in the absence of a second impurity. For optical excitation, however, an absorption band for the ultraviolet must be established by building into the CaCO3:Mn a second impurity or "sensitizer.".

  10. Dynamic recrystallization processes of calcitic fossils in deformed marble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Ree, J. H.; Jung, H.

    2014-12-01

    Here we report dynamic recrystallization processes of calcitic fossils in weakly to fully recrystallized marbles to discuss the survivability of fossils and possible recognition of former fossils in fully recrystallized marbles. The marble is from the early Paleozoic sequence in the Jeongseon area of South Korea. Each crinoid stem in a weakly or non-recrystallized marble cut perpendicular to its length appears as a donut shape and consists of five calcite grains (300-500µm in size) with the same c-axis but different a-axis orientations. The misorientation angle between adjacent grains in a crinoid stem is 40-50°. The outer and inner diameters of the donut-shaped crinoid stems are about 900 and 500 µm, respectively. The recrystallization processes initiate on grain boundaries as bulging recrystallization while transgranular subgrain walls form within lattice-distorted grains. New grains also nucleate on twin boundaries and subgrain boundaries. Some subgrain walls become grain boundaries as they collect more dislocations with subgrain boundary migration. The newly recrystallized grains grow to reach a steady-state grain size of 20-50µm. In fully recrystallized and deformed marbles, the crinoid stems occur as elongated donut-shaped calcite aggregates. The crinoid stems can be recognized by their size larger than that of recrystallized matrix grains (5-20µm), With a higher degree of dynamic recrystallization, the randomness of the misorientation angle distribution of the recrystallized grains within a crinoid stem increases, indicating weaker lattice preferred orientation. We are trying to test whether lattice orientation maps (or AVA diagrams) can be used to recognize former fossil traces in fully recrystallized marbles.

  11. The ubiquitous nature of accessory calcite in granitoid rocks: Implications for weathering, solute evolution, and petrogenesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, A.F.; Schulz, M.S.; Lowenstern, J. B.; Vivit, D.V.; Bullen, T.D.

    2005-01-01

    Calcite is frequently cited as a source of excess Ca, Sr and alkalinity in solutes discharging from silicate terrains yet, no previous effort has been made to assess systematically the overall abundance, composition and petrogenesis of accessory calcite in granitoid rocks. This study addresses this issue by analyzing a worldwide distribution of more than 100 granitoid rocks. Calcite is found to be universally present in a concentration range between 0.028 to 18.8 g kg-1 (mean = 2.52 g kg-1). Calcite occurrences include small to large isolated anhedral grains, fracture and cavity infillings, and sericitized cores of plagioclase. No correlation exists between the amount of calcite present and major rock oxide compositions, including CaO. Ion microprobe analyses of in situ calcite grains indicate relatively low Sr (120 to 660 ppm), negligible Rb and 87Sr/86Sr ratios equal to or higher than those of coexisting plagioclase. Solutes, including Ca and alkalinity produced by batch leaching of the granitoid rocks (5% CO2 in DI water for 75 d at 25??C), are dominated by the dissolution of calcite relative to silicate minerals. The correlation of these parameters with higher calcite concentrations decreases as leachates approach thermodynamic saturation. In longer term column experiments (1.5 yr), reactive calcite becomes exhausted, solute Ca and Sr become controlled by feldspar dissolution and 87Sr/ 86Sr by biotite oxidation. Some accessory calcite in granitoid rocks is related to intrusion into carbonate wall rock or produced by later hydrothermal alteration. However, the ubiquitous occurrence of calcite also suggests formation during late stage (subsolidus) magmatic processes. This conclusion is supported by petrographic observations and 87Sr/86Sr analyses. A review of thermodynamic data indicates that at moderate pressures and reasonable CO2 fugacities, calcite is a stable phase at temperatures of 400 to 700??C. Copyright ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Evaluation of a lime-mediated sewage sludge stabilisation process. Product characterisation and technological validation for its use in the cement industry.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, N Husillos; Granados, R J; Blanco-Varela, M T; Cortina, J L; Martínez-Ramírez, S; Marsal, M; Guillem, M; Puig, J; Fos, C; Larrotcha, E; Flores, J

    2012-03-01

    This paper describes an industrial process for stabilising sewage sludge (SS) with lime and evaluates the viability of the stabilised product, denominated Neutral, as a raw material for the cement industry. Lime not only stabilised the sludge, raised the temperature of the mix to 80-100°C, furthering water evaporation, portlandite formation and the partial oxidation of the organic matter present in the sludge. Process mass and energy balances were determined. Neutral, a white powder consisting of portlandite (49.8%), calcite (16.6%), inorganic oxides (13.4%) and organic matter and moisture (20.2%), proved to be technologically apt for inclusion as a component in cement raw mixes. In this study, it was used instead of limestone in raw mixes clinkerised at 1400, 1450 and 1500°C. These raw meals exhibited greater reactivity at high temperatures than the limestone product and their calcination at 1500°C yielded clinker containing over 75% calcium silicates, the key phases in Portland clinker. Finally, the two types of raw meal (Neutral and limestone) were observed to exhibit similar mineralogy and crystal size and distribution. PMID:22119052

  13. New waste based clinkers: Belite and lime formulations

    SciTech Connect

    Raupp-Pereira, Fabiano; Ball, Richard James Rocha, Joao; Labrincha, Joao A.; Allen, Geoffrey C.

    2008-04-15

    This work describes the formulation of new belite-based (CR2) and lime-based (CR3) cementitious materials derived from industrial wastes, such as sludges (generated in the Al-anodising and surface coating industrial processes, potable water filtration/cleaning operations and in marble sawing processes) and foundry sand. Powder mixtures were prepared and fired at different temperatures. For comparison, similar formulations were prepared with pre-treated and commercially available natural raw materials and processed in similar conditions. The thermal process was followed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and high-temperature powder X-ray diffraction (HT-XRD) studies. The CR2 clinker was found to contain belite as the main cementitious phase, the main polymorph being identified by NMR. The CR3 clinker contained common cementitious phases, such as C{sub 3}A and C{sub 3}S, but free lime and calcium aluminium oxide sulphates were also identified by high temperature XRD and NMR. Then the corresponding cement was prepared and the evolution of the mechanical strength with time was evaluated. The lime-based cement obtained from wastes shows a stronger hardening character than the standard material, which tends to show dusting phenomena due to the presence of a reasonable amount of free lime (as the result of its expansive reaction with ambient moisture). Some fluxing impurities (e.g. alkalis) present in the waste materials improve the overall reactivity of the mixture and induces the combination of the lime in CR3. Raman, XPS and FIB techniques were used to fully characterise the aged cements.

  14. Direct observation of the transition from calcite to aragonite growth as induced by abalone shell proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, J B; Paloczi, G T; Kindt, J H; Michenfelder, M; Smith, B L; Stucky, G; Morse, D E; Hansma, P K

    2000-01-01

    The mixture of EDTA-soluble proteins found in abalone nacre are known to cause the nucleation and growth of aragonite on calcite seed crystals in supersaturated solutions of calcium carbonate. Past atomic force microscope studies of the interaction of these proteins with calcite crystals did not observe this transition because no information about the crystal polymorph on the surface was obtained. Here we have used the atomic force microscope to directly observe changes in the atomic lattice on a calcite seed crystal after the introduction of abalone shell proteins. The observed changes are consistent with a transition to (001) aragonite growth on a (1014) calcite surface. PMID:11106633

  15. Energy resource potential of natural gas hydrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, T.S.

    2002-01-01

    The discovery of large gas hydrate accumulations in terrestrial permafrost regions of the Arctic and beneath the sea along the outer continental margins of the world's oceans has heightened interest in gas hydrates as a possible energy resource. However, significant to potentially insurmountable technical issues must be resolved before gas hydrates can be considered a viable option for affordable supplies of natural gas. The combined information from Arctic gas hydrate studies shows that, in permafrost regions, gas hydrates may exist at subsurface depths ranging from about 130 to 2000 m. The presence of gas hydrates in offshore continental margins has been inferred mainly from anomalous seismic reflectors, known as bottom-simulating reflectors, that have been mapped at depths below the sea floor ranging from about 100 to 1100 m. Current estimates of the amount of gas in the world's marine and permafrost gas hydrate accumulations are in rough accord at about 20,000 trillion m3. Disagreements over fundamental issues such as the volume of gas stored within delineated gas hydrate accumulations and the concentration of gas hydrates within hydrate-bearing strata have demonstrated that we know little about gas hydrates. Recently, however, several countries, including Japan, India, and the United States, have launched ambitious national projects to further examine the resource potential of gas hydrates. These projects may help answer key questions dealing with the properties of gas hydrate reservoirs, the design of production systems, and, most important, the costs and economics of gas hydrate production.

  16. Crystal growth of calcite from calcium bicarbonate solutions at constant PCO2 and 25°C: a test of a calcite dissolution model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reddy, Michael M.; Plummer, L. Neil; Busenberg, E.

    1981-01-01

    A highly reproducible seeded growth technique was used to study calcite crystallization from calcium bicarbonate solutions at 25°C and fixed carbon dioxide partial pressures between 0.03 and 0.3 atm. The results are not consistent with empirical crystallization models that have successfully described calcite growth at low PCO2 (< 10?3 atm). Good agreement was found between observed crystallization rates and those calculated from the calcite dissolution rate law and mechanism proposed by Plummer et al. (1978).

  17. Upscaling Calcite Growth Rates From the Mesoscale to the Macroscale

    SciTech Connect

    Bracco, Jacquelyn N; Stack, Andrew G; Steefel, Carl I

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative prediction of mineral reaction rates in the subsurface remains a daunting task partly because a key parameter for macroscopic models, the reactive site density, is poorly constrained. Here we report atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements on the calcite surface of monomolecular step densities, treated as equivalent to the reactive site density, as a function of aqueous calcium-to-carbonate ratio and saturation index. Data for the obtuse step orientation are combined with existing step velocity measurements to generate a model that predicts overall macroscopic calcite growth rates. The model is quantitatively consistent with several published macroscopic rates under a range of alkaline solution conditions, particularly for two of the most comprehensive data sets without the need for additional fit parameters. The model reproduces peak growth rates and its functional form is simple enough to be incorporated into reactive transport or other macroscopic models designed for predictions in porous media. However, it currently cannot model equilibrium, pH effects, and may overestimate rates at high aqueous calcium-to-carbonate ratios. The discrepancies in rates at high calcium-to-carbonate ratios may be due to differences in pre-treatment, such as exposing the seed material to SI 1.0 to generate/develop growth hillocks, or other factors.

  18. Crystallographic orientation inhomogeneity and crystal splitting in biogenic calcite

    PubMed Central

    Checa, Antonio G.; Bonarski, Jan T.; Willinger, Marc G.; Faryna, Marek; Berent, Katarzyna; Kania, Bogusz; González-Segura, Alicia; Pina, Carlos M.; Pospiech, Jan; Morawiec, Adam

    2013-01-01

    The calcitic prismatic units forming the outer shell of the bivalve Pinctada margaritifera have been analysed using scanning electron microscopy–electron back-scatter diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. In the initial stages of growth, the individual prismatic units are single crystals. Their crystalline orientation is not consistent but rather changes gradually during growth. The gradients in crystallographic orientation occur mainly in a direction parallel to the long axis of the prism, i.e. perpendicular to the shell surface and do not show preferential tilting along any of the calcite lattice axes. At a certain growth stage, gradients begin to spread and diverge, implying that the prismatic units split into several crystalline domains. In this way, a branched crystal, in which the ends of the branches are independent crystalline domains, is formed. At the nanometre scale, the material is composed of slightly misoriented domains, which are separated by planes approximately perpendicular to the c-axis. Orientational gradients and splitting processes are described in biocrystals for the first time and are undoubtedly related to the high content of intracrystalline organic molecules, although the way in which these act to induce the observed crystalline patterns is a matter of future research. PMID:23804442

  19. Environmental controls on the Emiliania huxleyi calcite mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horigome, M. T.; Ziveri, P.; Grelaud, M.; Baumann, K.-H.; Marino, G.; Mortyn, P. G.

    2013-06-01

    Although ocean acidification is expected to impact (bio)calcification by decreasing the seawater carbonate ion concentration, [CO32-], there exists evidence of non-uniform response of marine calcifying plankton to low seawater [CO32-]. This raises questions on the role of environmental factors other than acidification and on the complex physiological responses behind calcification. Here we investigate the synergistic effect of multiple environmental parameters, including temperature, nutrient (nitrate and phosphate) availability, and seawater carbonate chemistry on the coccolith calcite mass of the cosmopolitan coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi, the most abundant species in the world ocean. We use a suite of surface (late Holocene) sediment samples from the South Atlantic and southwestern Indian Ocean taken from depths lying well above the modern lysocline. The coccolith calcite mass in our results presents a latitudinal distribution pattern that mimics the main oceanographic features, thereby pointing to the potential importance of phosphorus and temperature in determining coccolith mass by affecting primary calcification and possibly driving the E. huxleyi morphotype distribution. This evidence does not necessarily argue against the potentially important role of the rapidly changing seawater carbonate chemistry in the future, when unabated fossil fuel burning will likely perturb ocean chemistry beyond a critical point. Rather our study highlights the importance of evaluating the combined effect of several environmental stressors on calcifying organisms to project their physiological response(s) in a high CO2 world and improve interpretation of paleorecords.

  20. Environmental controls on the Emiliania huxleyi calcite mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horigome, M. T.; Ziveri, P.; Grelaud, M.; Baumann, K.-H.; Marino, G.; Mortyn, P. G.

    2014-04-01

    Although ocean acidification is expected to impact (bio) calcification by decreasing the seawater carbonate ion concentration, [CO32-], there is evidence of nonuniform response of marine calcifying plankton to low seawater [CO32-]. This raises questions about the role of environmental factors other than acidification and about the complex physiological responses behind calcification. Here we investigate the synergistic effect of multiple environmental parameters, including seawater temperature, nutrient (nitrate and phosphate) availability, and carbonate chemistry on the coccolith calcite mass of the cosmopolitan coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi, the most abundant species in the world ocean. We use a suite of surface (late Holocene) sediment samples from the South Atlantic and southwestern Indian Ocean taken from depths lying above the modern lysocline (with the exception of eight samples that are located at or below the lysocline). The coccolith calcite mass in our results presents a latitudinal distribution pattern that mimics the main oceanographic features, thereby pointing to the potential importance of seawater nutrient availability (phosphate and nitrate) and carbonate chemistry (pH and pCO2) in determining coccolith mass by affecting primary calcification and/or the geographic distribution of E. huxleyi morphotypes. Our study highlights the importance of evaluating the combined effect of several environmental stressors on calcifying organisms to project their physiological response(s) in a high-CO2 world and improve interpretation of paleorecords.

  1. Characterization of an expansive clay treated with lime: Effect of compaction on the swelling pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kechouane, Z.; Nechnech, A.

    2015-03-01

    This work focuses on the study of the compaction effect on the stabilization of a highly expansive clay soil by adding lime. To this end, we used two types of swelling clay soils, the first one is intact and the other derivative (reconstituted, prepared from a natural soil and bentonite mixture with the following proportions: 70 and 30%. The results of the recorded œdometric tests show that the incorporation of the lime reduces the soil swelling pressures at each dosing lime in agreement with many reported previous studies. The contents of lime greatly affect swelling; indeed for a dosage of 6% lime the swelling pressures are reduced by 27% for the sample of disturbed soil. The compaction test performed on the reconstituted incorporated lime soil shows that for a dosage of 2% lime, we have a reduction of the swelling pressure of 96%.

  2. 75 FR 32900 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Sweet Limes From Mexico...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-10

    ... Analysis for the Importation of Sweet Limes From Mexico Into the Continental United States AGENCY: Animal... limes from Mexico into the continental United States. Based on that analysis, we have concluded that the... sweet limes (Citrus limetta) into the continental United States. Currently, sweet limes are...

  3. Interactions of arsenic with calcite surfaces revealed by in-situ nanoscale imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renard, Francois; Putnis, Christine; Montes-Hernandez, German; Ruiz-Agudo, Encarnacion; Hövelmann, Jörn; Sarret, Géraldine

    2015-04-01

    Arsenic dissolved in water represents a key environmental and health challenge because several million people are under the threat of contamination. In calcareous environments calcite may play an important role in arsenic solubility and transfer in water. Arsenic-calcite interactions remain controversial, especially for As(III) which was proposed to be either incorporated as such, or as As(V) after oxidation. Here, we provide the first time-lapse in-situ study of calcite dissolution and growth in the presence of solutions with various amounts of As(III) or As(V). This was performed at room temperature and pH range 6-9 using a flow through cell connected to an atomic force microscope (AFM), to study the evolution of the (10-14) calcite cleavage surface morphology. Reaction products were then characterized by Raman spectroscopy. In parallel, co-precipitation experiments with either As(III) or As(V) were performed in batch reactors, and the speciation of arsenic in the resulting solids was studied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). For As(V), AFM results showed that it interacts strongly with the calcite surface, and XAS results showed that As(V) was mostly incorporated in the calcite structure. For As(III), AFM results showed much less impact on calcite growth and dissolution and less incorporation was observed. This was confirmed by XAS results that indicate that As(III) was partly oxidized into As(V) before being incorporated into calcite and the resulting calcite contained 36% As(III) and 64% As(V). All these experimental results confirm that As(V) has a much stronger interaction with calcite than As(III) and that calcite may represent an important reservoir for arsenic in various geological environments.

  4. Complex gas hydrate from the Cascadia margin.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hailong; Seo, Yu-taek; Lee, Jong-won; Moudrakovski, Igor; Ripmeester, John A; Chapman, N Ross; Coffin, Richard B; Gardner, Graeme; Pohlman, John

    2007-01-18

    Natural gas hydrates are a potential source of energy and may play a role in climate change and geological hazards. Most natural gas hydrate appears to be in the form of 'structure I', with methane as the trapped guest molecule, although 'structure II' hydrate has also been identified, with guest molecules such as isobutane and propane, as well as lighter hydrocarbons. A third hydrate structure, 'structure H', which is capable of trapping larger guest molecules, has been produced in the laboratory, but it has not been confirmed that it occurs in the natural environment. Here we characterize the structure, gas content and composition, and distribution of guest molecules in a complex natural hydrate sample recovered from Barkley canyon, on the northern Cascadia margin. We show that the sample contains structure H hydrate, and thus provides direct evidence for the natural occurrence of this hydrate structure. The structure H hydrate is intimately associated with structure II hydrate, and the two structures contain more than 13 different hydrocarbon guest molecules. We also demonstrate that the stability field of the complex gas hydrate lies between those of structure II and structure H hydrates, indicating that this form of hydrate is more stable than structure I and may thus potentially be found in a wider pressure-temperature regime than can methane hydrate deposits. PMID:17230188

  5. Hydration of "nonfouling" functional groups.

    PubMed

    Hower, Jason C; Bernards, Matthew T; Chen, Shengfu; Tsao, Heng-Kwong; Sheng, Yu-Jane; Jiang, Shaoyi

    2009-01-01

    The prevention of nonspecific protein adsorption to synthetic materials and devices presents a major design challenge in the biomedical community. While some chemical groups can resist nonspecific protein adsorption from simple solutions for limited contact times, there remains a need for new nonfouling functional groups and surface coatings that prevent protein adsorption from complex media like blood or in harsh environments like seawater. Recent studies of the molecular mechanisms of nonfouling surfaces have identified a strong correlation between surface hydration and resistance to nonspecific protein adsorption. In this work, we describe a simple experimental method for evaluating the intrinsic hydration capacity of model surface coating functional groups based on the partial molal volume at infinite dilution. In order to evaluate a range of hydration capacity and nonfouling performance, solutes were selected from three classes: ethylene glycols, sugar alcohols, and glycine analogues. The number of hydrating water molecules bound to a solute was estimated by comparing the molecular volume at infinite dilution to the solute van der Waals molecular volume. The number of water molecules associated with each solute was further validated by constant pressure and temperature molecular dynamics simulations. Finally, a size-normalized molecular volume was correlated to previously observed protein adsorption experiments to relate the intrinsic hydration capacity of functional groups to their known nonfouling abilities. PMID:19072165

  6. Natural Gas Hydrates Update 1998-2000

    EIA Publications

    2001-01-01

    Significant events have transpired on the natural gas hydrate research and development front since "Future Supply Potential of Natural Gas Hydrates" appeared in Natural Gas 1998 Issues and Trends and in the Potential Gas Committee's 1998 biennial report.

  7. Kinetics and Mechanisms of Calcite Reactions with Saline Waters

    SciTech Connect

    Gorman, Brian P

    2015-09-02

    Project Description: The general objective of the proposed research is to determine the kinetics and mechanisms of calcite reactions with saline waters over a wide range of saline water composition, pCO2, and modest ranges in T and P. This will be accomplished by studying both reaction rates and solubility from changes in solution chemistry, and making nanoscale observations of calcite precipitate surface morphology and composition at the micro-to-nano-scale to provide an understanding of controlling reaction mechanisms and pathways. The specific objectives necessary to reach the general objective are: a) determination of how pCO2, Ca2+, ionic strength and “foreign” ions influence reaction rates; and b) investigate the influence of these parameters on apparent kinetic solubility from dissolution and precipitation reactions. This information will clearly be central to the construction of reliable reaction-transport models to predict reservoir and formation response to increased CO2 in saline waters. This program was initially collaborative with John Morse at Texas A&M, however his passing shortly after the beginning of this program resulted in abbreviated research time and effort. Summary of Results: Early studies using electron microscopy and spectroscopy indicated that carbonate precipitation from natural seawater (NSW) conditions onto aragonite substrates was mediated by a surface amorphous calcium carbonate layer. It was hypothesized that this ACC layer (observed after < 5days reaction time) was responsible for the abnormal reaction kinetics and also served as a metastable seed layer for growth of epitaxial aragonite. Further studies of the ACC formation mechanism indicated a strong dependence on the Mg concentration in solution. Subsequent studies at shorter times (10 hrs) on calcite substrates and in a wide range of supersaturation conditions did not indicate any ACC layer. Instead, an epitaxial layer by layer growth mechanism was confirmed by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, µ-Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and electron diffraction. Extended time studies out to 45 days confirmed the epitaxial relationship of the overgrowth layer with the substrate. Under NSW conditions, overgrowths were found to have ~0.4 to 0.8 nm / hr growth rates and accommodating 4 at% Mg, resulting in a highly strained overgrowth layer. Following the initial layer by layer growth mechanism, the growth changes to Stranski-Krastanov type after a critical thickness of approximately 100 nm.

  8. Thermogravimetric analysis of photodegraded acrylic coated lime wood.

    PubMed

    Popescu, Carmen-Mihaela; Tibirna, Carmen Mihaela; Vasile, Cornelia

    2011-01-01

    A series of experiments were carried out to investigate the photodegradation of lime wood (Tilia cordata Mill.) coated with acrylic copolymer during artificial UV/Vis light irradiation for 600 h. Photodegradation of the Paraloid B72 films and Paraloid B72 treated lime wood samples was evaluated by thermogravimetry throughout the irradiation period of 100 h. The results obtained indicate a shifting of the DTG maxima to lower temperatures, which may be related to a decrease in the stability of the copolymer and wood during photodegradation. The decrease of weight loss with increasing time of exposure was observed, while the global kinetic parameters for the main peak increases when increasing exposure time of wood to the UV light. Even when the surface of the wood was covered with a thin layer of acrylic resin, some photodegradation reactions of the wood surface occurred. The modifications in the wood structure may be influenced by the newly formed structures from acrylic resin photodegradation. PMID:21413992

  9. Studies on degradation of lime mortars in atmospheric simulation chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Ramirez, S.; Puertas, F.; Blanco-Varela, M.T.; Thompson, G.E.

    1997-05-01

    It is well known that the presence of pollution increases the degradation of some building materials. In order to understand the influence of individual pollutants as well as the role of oxidants and water in lime mortar degradation, those materials have been exposed in atmospheric simulation chambers. According to the pollutants used in the chambers (NO, NO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2}), NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}} and NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} or SO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} have been analyzed and related with the reaction between the lime mortar and the pollutant. The reactivity order of the different pollutant (NO, NO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2}), in presence and absence of water and/or oxidant has been determined.

  10. LOW VELOCITY SHPERE IMPACT OF SODA LIME SILICATE GLASS

    SciTech Connect

    Morrissey, Timothy G; Fox, Ethan E; Wereszczak, Andrew A; Vuono, Daniel J

    2012-01-01

    This report summarizes TARDEC-sponsored work at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during the FY11 involving low velocity ( 30 m/s or 65 mph) ball impact testing of Starphire soda lime silicate glass. The intent was to better understand low velocity impact response in the Starphire for sphere densities that bracketed that of rock. Five sphere materials were used: borosilicate glass, soda-lime silicate glass, steel, silicon nitride, and alumina. A gas gun was fabricated to produce controlled velocity delivery of the spheres against Starphire tile targets. Minimum impact velocities to initiate fracture in the Starphire were measured and interpreted in context to the kinetic energy of impact and the elastic property mismatch between the any of the five sphere-Starphire-target combinations.

  11. The calcite ? aragonite transformation in low-Mg marble: Equilibrium relations, transformations mechanisms, and rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hacker, Bradley R.; Rubie, David C.; Kirby, Stephen H.; Bohlen, Steven R.

    2005-01-01

    Experimental transformation of a rather pure natural calcite marble to aragonite marble did not proceed via the expected straightforward polymorphic replacement. Instead, the small amount of Mg in the starting material (0.36 wt %) was excluded from the growing aragonite and diffused preferentially into the remaining calcite grains, producing Mg-rich calcite rods that persisted as relicts. Nucleation of aragonite occurred exclusively on grain boundaries, with aragonite [001] oriented subparallel to calcite [0001]. The aragonite crystals preferentially consumed the calcite crystal on which they nucleated, and the reaction fronts developed preferentially along the {010} and {110} planes of aragonite. Each aragonite neoblast that grew was nearly free of Mg (typically <0.1 wt %). The excess Mg was taken up by the calcite grains in between, stabilizing them and causing a few volume percent rodlike relicts of Mg-enriched calcite (up to 10 wt % MgO) to be left behind by the advancing reaction front. The aragonite growth rates are approximately linear and range from ?3 × 10?11 m s?1 at 600°C to ?9 × 10?9 m s?1 at 850°C, with an apparent activation enthalpy of 166 ± 91 kJ mol?1. This reaction mechanism and the resultant texture are akin to cellular precipitation reactions in metals. Similar transformation textures have been reported from high-Mg marbles in Japan and China that disproportionated to low-Mg calcite and dolomite.

  12. Biotic Control of Skeletal Growth by Scleractinian Corals in Aragonite–Calcite Seas

    PubMed Central

    Higuchi, Tomihiko; Fujimura, Hiroyuki; Yuyama, Ikuko; Harii, Saki; Agostini, Sylvain; Oomori, Tamotsu

    2014-01-01

    Modern scleractinian coral skeletons are commonly composed of aragonite, the orthorhombic form of CaCO3. Under certain conditions, modern corals produce calcite as a secondary precipitate to fill pore space. However, coral construction of primary skeletons from calcite has yet to be demonstrated. We report a calcitic primary skeleton produced by the modern scleractinian coral Acropora tenuis. When uncalcified juveniles were incubated from the larval stage in seawater with low mMg/Ca levels, the juveniles constructed calcitic crystals in parts of the primary skeleton such as the septa; the deposits were observable under Raman microscopy. Using scanning electron microscopy, we observed different crystal morphologies of aragonite and calcite in a single juvenile skeleton. Quantitative analysis using X-ray diffraction showed that the majority of the skeleton was composed of aragonite even though we had exposed the juveniles to manipulated seawater before their initial crystal nucleation and growth processes. Our results indicate that the modern scleractinian coral Acropora mainly produces aragonite skeletons in both aragonite and calcite seas, but also has the ability to use calcite for part of its skeletal growth when incubated in calcite seas. PMID:24609012

  13. Struvite and calcite crystallization induced by cellular membranes of Myxococcus xanthus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Muñoz, Ma Teresa; Omar, Nabil Ben; Martínez-Cañamero, Magdalena; Rodríguez-Gallego, Manuel; Galindo, Alberto López; Arias, JoséMa

    1996-06-01

    In this work we have proved that struvite and calcite crystals can be obtained in the presence of the cellular membrane fraction of Myxococcus xanthus, when appropriate supersaturated solutions are used. Probably, the negative charged points of the external side of the cellular structures could reduce the metastability field of struvite and calcite, acting as heterogeneous nuclei of crystallization.

  14. Carbon and oxygen isotopes in apatite CO/sub 2/ and co-existing calcite

    SciTech Connect

    Kolodny, Y.; Kaplan, I. R.

    1981-04-01

    Carbon and oxygen isotopes were analyzed in carbonate apatite CO/sub 2/ and in co-existing calcite. Both C and O in apatite CO/sub 2/ are enriched in the respective light isotopes relative to calcite. These results confirm the proposition that carbonate is part of the apatite structure.

  15. Isotopic composition of a calcite-cemented layer in the Lower Jurassic Bridport Sands, southern England: Implications for formation of laterally extensive calcite-cemented layers

    SciTech Connect

    Bjoerkum, P.A. ); Walderhaug, O. )

    1993-07-01

    [delta][sup 18]O[sub PDB] and [delta][sup 13]C[sub PDB] values have been measured on 107 calcite cement samples from a laterally extensive (> 3 km) and continuous calcite-cemented layer 0.5 m thick in the coastal exposures of the Lower Jurassic shallow-marine Bridport Sands in Dorset, southern England. The samples were taken from a two-dimensional grid with 10-cm horizontal and vertical spacing between samples and along individual vertical lines across the calcite-cemented layer, [delta][sup 18]O[sub PDB] values vary between [minus]4.8% and [minus]9.2% and decrease radially outwards from points with lateral spacings on the order of 0.5-1 m in the middle of the calcite-cemented layer. The [delta][sup 18]O[sub PDB] values therefore indicate that the calcite-cemented layer was formed by merging of concretions. All [delta][sup 13]C[sub PDB] values measured are in the narrow range [minus]2.2% to [minus]0.5%, which suggests that the dominant source of calcite cement in the layer was biogenic carbonate.

  16. Natural gas hydrates; vast resource, uncertain future

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, T.S.

    2001-01-01

    Gas hydrates are naturally occurring icelike solids in which water molecules trap gas molecules in a cagelike structure known as a clathrate. Although many gases form hydrates in nature, methane hydrate is by far the most common; methane is the most abundant natural gas. The volume of carbon contained in methane hydrates worldwide is estimated to be twice the amount contained in all fossil fuels on Earth, including coal.

  17. Characteristics and reactivity of rapidly hydrated sorbent for semidry flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Jie Zhang; Changfu You; Suwei Zhao; Changhe Chen; Haiying Qi

    2008-03-01

    The semidry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process has many advantages over the wet FGD process for moving sulfur dioxide emissions from pulverized coal-fired power plants. Semidry FGD with a rapidly hydrated sorbent was studied in a pilot-scale circulating fluidized bed (CFB) experimental facility. The sorbent was made from lumps of lime and coal fly ash. The desulfurization efficiency was measured for various operating parameters, including the sorbent recirculation rate and the water spray method. The experimental results show that the desulfurization efficiencies of the rapidly hydrated sorbent were 1.5-3.0 times higher than a commonly used industrial sorbent for calcium to sulfur molar ratios from 1.2 to 3.0, mainly due to the higher specific surface area and pore volume. The Ca(OH){sub 2} content in the cyclone separator ash was about 2.9% for the rapidly hydrated sorbent and was about 0.1% for the commonly used industrial sorbent, due to the different adhesion between the fine Ca(OH){sub 2} particles and the fly ash particles, and the low cyclone separation efficiency for the fine Ca(OH){sub 2} particles that fell off the sorbent particles. Therefore the actual recirculation rates of the active sorbent with Ca(OH){sub 2} particles were higher for the rapidly hydrated sorbent, which also contributed to the higher desulfurization efficiency. The high fly ash content in the rapidly hydrated sorbent resulted in good operating stability. The desulfurization efficiency with upstream water spray was 10-15% higher than that with downstream water spray. 20 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Energy reduction in beet sugar processing by cossette liming

    SciTech Connect

    Randall, J.M.; Camirand, W.M.; Neumann, H.J.

    1981-01-01

    Under appropriate conditions of temperature and fresh Ca(OH)/sub 2/ application, demethylation occurs in the pectin in the cell walls of sugar beet cossettes, allowing Ca/sup 2 +/ to precipitate the pectin as calcium pectate. The calcium pectate will not degrade and pass into solution during subsequent hot extraction of sugar from the cossettes. This retention of pectin in the pulp was shown by 10 to 20% increases in solids weight in the pulp for a number of processing conditions. The toughened pulp produced by retention of calcium pectate allowed easier mechanical dewatering of the pulp which could save considerably on the heat normally required to dry the pulp for cattle feed. Beyond data reported in this paper, there are qualitative indications that the sugar juice extracted from limed cossettes is purer than standard juice, for pectin and colloidal materials remain in the pulp. Thus, much less purification of the juice with lime would be necessary than is required in standard beet-sugar processing, and the current 2% CaO used for purification may be cut almost in half. This represents another energy saving, for production of CaO at the factory is a major consumer of energy. These, along with other possible energy savings resulting from cossette liming (such as less water used for extraction, cold extraction, ion exchange of the purer juice), could produce an overall saving up to 20% of the energy currently used in beet-sugar processing. Some of these possibilities will be further investigated.

  19. Flavor chemistry of lemon-lime carbonated beverages.

    PubMed

    Hausch, Bethany J; Lorjaroenphon, Yaowapa; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2015-01-14

    The most potent aroma-active components of Sprite (SP), Sierra Mist (SM), and 7UP (7UP) were identified. Aroma extracts were prepared by liquid–liquid continuous extraction/solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (LLCE/SAFE). Twenty-eight compounds were detected by gas chromatography–olfactometry (GC-O) with linalool (floral, lavender), octanal (pungent orange), and 2,3-dehydro-1,8-cineole (minty) determined to be predominant aroma compounds based on their high flavor dilution (FD) factors by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). The data indicate that lemon-lime flavor is composed of a small number of compounds (22 at the most in SM), and only a subset of these may be important because many compounds were detected only at low FD factors. Predominant aroma compounds (23) were quantified using static headspace solid phase microextraction (SPME) combined with stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA). In contrast to FD factors, the calculated odor-activity values (OAVs) indicate that octanal and limonene make the greatest contribution to the overall aroma of lemon-lime carbonated beverages, followed by nonanal, decanal, linalool, 1,8-cineole, and geranyl acetate. The results demonstrate that lemon-lime carbonated beverages share many of the same compounds but the relative abundance of these compounds varies by brand. PMID:25494537

  20. Gas Hydrate and Pore Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinivella, Umberta; Giustiniani, Michela

    2014-05-01

    Many efforts have been devoted to quantify excess pore pressures related to gas hydrate dissociation in marine sediments below the BSR using several approaches. Dissociation of gas hydrates in proximity of the BSR, in response to a change in the physical environment (i.e., temperature and/or pressure regime), can liberate excess gas incrising the local pore fluid pressure in the sediment, so decreasing the effective normal stress. So, gas hydrate dissociation may lead to excess pore pressure resulting in sediment deformation or failure, such as submarine landslides, sediment slumping, pockmarks and mud volcanoes, soft-sediment deformation and giant hummocks. Moreover, excess pore pressure may be the result of gas hydrate dissociation due to continuous sedimentation, tectonic uplift, sea level fall, heating or inhibitor injection. In order to detect the presence of the overpressure below the BSR, we propose two approachs. The fist approach models the BSR depth versus pore pressure; in fact, if the free gas below the BSR is in overpressure condition, the base of the gas hydrate stability is deeper with respect to the hydrostatic case. This effect causes a discrepancy between seismic and theoretical BSR depths. The second approach models the velocities versus gas hydrate and free gas concentrations and pore pressure, considering the approximation of the Biot theory in case of low frequency, i.e. seismic frequency. Knowing the P and S seismic velocity from seismic data analysis, it is possibile to jointly estimate the gas hydrate and free gas concentrations and the pore pressure regime. Alternatively, if the S-wave velocity is not availbale (due to lack of OBS/OBC data), an AVO analysis can be performed in order to extract information about Poisson ratio. Our modeling suggests that the areas characterized by shallow waters (i.e., areas in which human infrastructures, such as pipelines, are present) are significantly affected by the presence of overpressure condition. Moreover, the knoweledge of seismic velocities can be considered an powerful tool to detect the overpressure in case that the pore pressure is equal to the hydrostatic pressure plus the 50% of the difference between the lithostatic and the hydrostatic pressure. In conclusions, an accurate analysis of the BSR nature and the pore pressure are required to improve the reliability of the gas-phase estimation for different target, such as gas hydrate and free gas exploitations and environmental studies.

  1. Influence of calcite on uranium(VI) reactive transport in the groundwater–river mixing zone

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Rui; Liu, Chongxuan; Greskowiak, Janek; Prommer, Henning; Zachara, John M.; Zheng, Chunmiao

    2014-01-23

    Calcite is an important mineral that can affect uranyl reactive transport in subsurface sediments. This study investigated the distribution of calcite and its influence on uranyl adsorption and reactive transport in the groundwater-river mixing zone at US Hanford 300A, Washington State. Simulations using a 2D reactive transport model under field-relevant hydrogeochemical conditions revealed a complex distribution of calcite concentration as a result of dynamic groundwater-river interactions. The calcite concentration distribution in turn affected the spatial and temporal changes in aqueous carbonate, calcium, and pH, which subsequently influenced U(VI) mobility and discharge rates into the river. The results implied that calcite distribution and its concentration dynamics is an important consideration for field characterization, monitoring, and reactive transport prediction.

  2. The quantitative determination of calcite associated with the carbonate-bearing apatites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Silverman, Sol R.; Fuyat, Ruth K.; Weiser, Jeanne D.

    1951-01-01

    The CO2 combined as calcite in carbonate-bearing apatites as been distinguished from that combined as carbonate-apatite, or present in some form other than calcite, by use of X-ray powder patterns, differential thermal analyses, and differential solubility tests. These methods were applied to several pure apatite minerals, to one fossil bone, and to a group of phosphorites from the Phosphoria formation of Permian age from Trail Canyon and the Conda mine, Idaho, and the Laketown district, Utah. With the exceptions of pure fluorapatite, pure carbonate-flueorapatite, and one phosphorite from Trail Canyon, these substances contain varying amounts of calcite, but in all the samples an appreciable part of the carbonite content is not present as calcite. The results of solubility tests, in which the particle size of sample and the length of solution time were varied, imply that the carbonate content is not due to shielded calcite entrapped along an internal network of surfaces.

  3. Shock-induced effects in calcite from Cactus Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vizgirda, J.; Ahrens, T. J.; Tsay, F.-D.

    1980-01-01

    The paper discusses shock metamorphism of calcite from coralline limestone samples retrieved from a borehole drilled into rocks beneath Cactus Crater, a nuclear explosion crater at Eniwetok Atoll. The metamorphism was detected and quantified using electron spin resonance (ESR); the ESR spectra of Mn(+) present as a trace constituent in the coral samples, show a consistent decrease in hyperfine peak splitting with decreasing depth of sample. It is suggested that the decrease in hyperfine peak splitting reflects a decrease in crystal field splitting, and therefore, small increases on cation-anion distances produced by mechanical energy input during the shock process. Two alternative crater models suggested by the ESR results are a depiction of a steady decay of the shock wave, and a delineation of a breccia lens with a breccia-bedrock interface at 20 plus or minus 5 m.

  4. Age constraints on fluid inclusions in calcite at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Neymark, Leonid A.; Amelin, Yuri V.; Paces, James B.; Peterman, Zell E.; Whelan, Joseph F.

    2001-04-29

    The {sup 207}Pb/{sup 235}U ages for 14 subsamples of opal or chalcedony layers younger than calcite formed at elevated temperature range between 1.88 {+-} 0.05 and 9.7 {+-} 1.5 Ma with most values older than 6-8 Ma. These data indicate that fluids with elevated temperatures have not been present in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain since about 1.9 Ma and most likely since 6-8 Ma. Discordant U-Pb isotope data for chalcedony subsamples representing the massive silica stage in the formation of the coatings are interpreted using a model of the diffusive loss of U decay products. The model gives an age estimate for the time of chalcedony formation around 10-11 Ma, which overlaps ages of clay minerals formed in tuffs below the water table at Yucca Mountain during the Timber Mountain thermal event.

  5. Understanding control of calcitic biomineralization-proteomics to the rescue.

    PubMed

    Hincke, Maxwell T

    2013-12-01

    The avian eggshell is one of the fastest calcifying processes known and represents a unique model for studying biomineralization. Eggshell strength is a crucial economic trait for table egg production, and ensures that a safe egg reaches the consumer kitchen. However, a common toolkit for eggshell mineralization has not yet been defined. In this issue, label-free MS-based protein quantification technology has been used by Sun et al. (Proteomics 2013, 13, 3523-3536) to detect differences in protein abundance between eggshell matrix from strong and weak eggs and between the corresponding uterine fluids bathing strong and weak eggs. Proteins associated with the formation of strong eggshells are identified, which are now candidates for further investigations to define the regulatory relationship between specific eggshell matrix proteins and calcite crystal texture. PMID:24307661

  6. Methods to determine hydration states of minerals and cement hydrates

    SciTech Connect

    Baquerizo, Luis G.; Matschei, Thomas; Scrivener, Karen L.; Saeidpour, Mahsa; Thorell, Alva; Wadsö, Lars

    2014-11-15

    This paper describes a novel approach to the quantitative investigation of the impact of varying relative humidity (RH) and temperature on the structure and thermodynamic properties of salts and crystalline cement hydrates in different hydration states (i.e. varying molar water contents). The multi-method approach developed here is capable of deriving physico-chemical boundary conditions and the thermodynamic properties of hydrated phases, many of which are currently missing from or insufficiently reported in the literature. As an example the approach was applied to monosulfoaluminate, a phase typically found in hydrated cement pastes. New data on the dehydration and rehydration of monosulfoaluminate are presented. Some of the methods used were validated with the system Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}–H{sub 2}O and new data related to the absorption of water by anhydrous sodium sulfate are presented. The methodology and data reported here should permit better modeling of the volume stability of cementitious systems exposed to various different climatic conditions.

  7. Toward Molecular Nanowires Self-Assembled on an Insulating Substrate: Heptahelicene-2-carboxylic acid on Calcite (101j4)

    E-print Network

    Kühnle, Angelika

    acid on Calcite (101j4) Philipp Rahe,,§ Markus Nimmrich,,§ Andreas Greuling, Jens Schu¨tte, Irena G) cleavage plane of calcite. The molecule used is racemic heptahelicene-2-carboxylic acid, which forms

  8. Calcite dissolution and Ca/Na ion-exchange reactions in columns with different flow rates through high ESR soil 

    E-print Network

    Navarre, Audrey

    1999-01-01

    -exchange complex. Following elution with deionized water, the columns were sectioned and analyzed for residual Na. In all cases, the eluate exhibited approximate thermodynamic equilibrium with respect to calcite. Calcite dissolution and Na?/Ca²? ion exchange...

  9. Precipitation of Ordered Dolomite via Simultaneous Dissolution of Calcite and Magnesite: New Experimental Insights into an Old

    E-print Network

    Montes-Hernandez, German

    Alpes, ISTerre, F-38041 Grenoble, France § Physics of Geological Processes, University of Oslo, Box 1048. Calcite dolomitization is carried out by placing high-purity calcite or limestone material in contact

  10. Adsorption of As(V), As(III) and methyl arsenic by calcite and the impact of some groundwater species 

    E-print Network

    Jones, Robert Garret

    2009-05-15

    solubility. This study indicates that arsenic adsorption response by calcite was different than that of phosphate suggesting that arsenic may not be specifically adsorbed to calcium at the calcite surface. Reduction and biomethylation of arsenic decreased...

  11. Diel cycles in calcite production and dissolution in a eutrophic basin

    SciTech Connect

    Cicerone, D.S.; Stewart, A.J.; Roh, Y.

    1999-10-01

    Calcite production is understood largely as a longer-term phenomenon (e.g., seasonal whitings) that can occur in hardwater lakes, and is significant ecologically because it can slow the rate of eutrophication by reducing, through adsorption, the availability of nutrients to primary producers. In this study the authors show that rapid changes in concentration of dissolved CO{sub 2} by photosynthesis and respiration within a eutrophic basin generated strong day-to-night cycles in calcite production and dissolution. Diel cycles in calcite production and dissolution were large enough that they could drive secondary diel cycles in the availability of metals that strongly sorb to the surfaces of calcite particles. They explored the possibility of the secondary diel cycling of metals by intensive 7-d in situ monitoring of water-quality conditions in a shallow, eutrophic spill-control basin near an industrial facility in eastern Tennessee; inspecting data from a 7-year record of water-quality parameters for this basin; analyzing physicochemical characteristics and mineralogic composition of sediments in the basin; and conducting laboratory experiments to characterize the interaction of calcite with Cd, under solid-liquid nonequilibrium conditions. The authors found that the basin accumulated and stored calcite. In situ monitoring showed that calcite was produced during daylight, and tended to dissolve again at night; the calcite production and dissolution processes seemed to be modulated by dissolved-phase CO{sub 2} dynamics, in concert with large diel fluctuations in pCa, pH, and Po{sub 2}. Laboratory experiments showed a rapid interaction ({lt}6 h) of Cd with calcite, in response to dissolved CO{sub 2} changes. Thus, concentrations of dissolved Cd can vary over daily cycles, mediated by diel changes in calcite production and dissolution. Thermodynamic considerations suggest that other metals, such as Zn, Sr, Ni, and Ba, may demonstrate this behavior as well.

  12. Interactions of arsenic with calcite surfaces revealed by in situ nanoscale imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renard, François; Putnis, Christine V.; Montes-Hernandez, German; Ruiz-Agudo, Encarnacion; Hovelmann, Jörn; Sarret, Géraldine

    2015-06-01

    Arsenic dissolved in water represents a key environmental and health challenge because several million people are under the threat of contamination. In calcareous environments calcite may play an important role in arsenic solubility and transfer in water. Arsenic-calcite interactions remain controversial, especially for As(III) which was proposed to be either incorporated as such, or as As(V) after oxidation. Here, we provide the first time-lapse in situ study of the evolution of the (10-14) calcite cleavage surface morphology during dissolution and growth in the presence of solutions with various amounts of As(III) or As(V) at room temperature and pH range 6-11 using a flow-through cell connected to an atomic force microscope (AFM). Reaction products were then characterized by Raman spectroscopy. In parallel, co-precipitation experiments with either As(III) or As(V) were performed in batch reactors, and the speciation of arsenic in the resulting solids was studied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). For As(V), AFM results showed that it interacts strongly with the calcite surface, and XAS results showed that As(V) was mostly incorporated in the calcite structure. For As(III), AFM results showed much less impact on calcite growth and dissolution and less incorporation was observed. This was confirmed by XAS results that indicate that As(III) was partly oxidized into As(V) before being incorporated into calcite and the resulting calcite contained 36% As(III) and 64% As(V). All these experimental results confirm that As(V) has a much stronger interaction with calcite than As(III) and that calcite may represent an important reservoir for arsenic in various geological environments.

  13. Retrofit costs for lime/limestone FGD and lime spray drying at coal-fired utility boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Emmel, T.E.; Jones, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    The paper gives results of a research program the objective of which was to significantly improve engineering cost estimates currently being used to evaluate the economic effects of applying SO2 controls to existing coal-fired utility boilers. The costs of retrofitting conventional lime/limestone wet flue gas desulfurization (L/LS FGD) and lime spray drying (LSD) FGD at 100-200 coal-fired power plants are being estimated under this program. The retrofit capital cost estimating procedures used for L/LS FGD and LSD FGD make two cost adjustments to current procedures used to estimate FGD costs: cost adders (for items not normally included in FGD system costs; e.g., demolition and relocation of existing facilities) and cost multipliers (to adjust capital costs for site access, congestion, and underground obstructions).

  14. Predicting Calcite (CaCO3) Requirements of Sphagnum Peat Moss from pH Titration Curves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Liming materials are required to neutralize acidity in peat moss to make it a suitable substrate for growing container crops. A series of time-consuming incubations of peat:lime mixtures are typically used to determine the liming rate to achieve a desired pH. Our objective was to evaluate the util...

  15. Mechanism of atomic force microscopy imaging of three-dimensional hydration structures at a solid-liquid interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuma, Takeshi; Reischl, Bernhard; Kobayashi, Naritaka; Spijker, Peter; Canova, Fillippo Federici; Miyazawa, Keisuke; Foster, Adam S.

    2015-10-01

    Here we present both subnanometer imaging of three-dimensional (3D) hydration structures using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and molecular dynamics simulations of the calcite-water interface. In AFM, by scanning the 3D interfacial space in pure water and recording the force on the tip, a 3D force image can be produced, which can then be directly compared to the simulated 3D water density and forces on a model tip. Analyzing in depth the resemblance between experiment and simulation as a function of the tip-sample distance allowed us to clarify the contrast mechanism in the force images and the reason for their agreement with water density distributions. This work aims to form the theoretical basis for AFM imaging of hydration structures and enables its application to future studies on important interfacial processes at the molecular scale.

  16. Preparation of macroporous lime from natural lime by swelling method with acetic acid for high-temperature desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaoka, Eiji; Sada, Norimasa; Uddin, M.A.

    1998-10-01

    To develop a highly active calcium oxide high-temperature desulfurization sorbent, a method of preparation of macroporous calcium oxides from lime was studied. This method is composed of two steps: swelling of the lime and calcination of the swelled sample. Swelling occurred when lime was exposed to the vapor of acetic acid. The swelling resulted from calcium acetate formation in the sample. The swelling rate was at a maximum in the presence of acetic acid and depressed by the presence of water vapor. The swelled sample was converted to macroporous calcium oxide by heating to 850 C. The reactivity of the macroporous calcium oxide for the removal of SO{sub 2} or H{sub 2}S in the presence of H{sub 2}O vapor was higher than that of the calcined raw limestone. In particular, its SO{sub 2} removal capacity and the oxidative character of CaS to CaSO{sub 4} and Cao were greatly improved by this swelling method. These characteristics were also compared with those of a sample prepared from limestone by this swelling method.

  17. STRONTIUM ISOTOPE EVOLUTION OF PORE WATER AND CALCITE IN THE TOPOPAH SPRING TUFF, YUCCA MOUNTAIN , NEVADA

    SciTech Connect

    B.D. Marshall; K. Futa

    2001-02-07

    Yucca Mountain, a ridge of Miocene volcanic rocks in southwest Nevada, is being characterized as a site for a potential high-level radioactive waste repository. One issue of concern for the future performance of the potential repository is the movement of water in and around the potential repository horizon. Past water movement in this unsaturated zone is indicated by fluid inclusions trapped in calcite coatings on fracture footwall surfaces and in some lithophysal cavities. Some of the fluid inclusions have homogenization temperatures above the present-day geotherm (J.F. Whelan, written communication), so determining the ages of the calcite associated with those fluid inclusions is important in understanding the thermal history of the potential repository site. Calcite ages have been constrained by uranium-lead dating of silica polymorphs (opal and chalcedony) that are present in most coatings. The opal and chalcedony ages indicate that deposition of the calcite and opal coatings in the welded part of the Topopah Spring Tuff (TSw hydrogeologic unit) spanned nearly the entire history of the 12.8-million-year-old rock mass at fairly uniform overall long-term rates of deposition (within a factor of five). Constraining the age of a layer of calcite associated with specific fluid inclusions is complicated. Calcite is commonly bladed with complex textural relations, and datable opal or chalcedony may be millions of years older or younger than the calcite layer or may be absent from the coating entirely. Therefore, a more direct method of dating the calcite is presented in this paper by developing a model for strontium evolution in pore water in the TSw as recorded by the strontium coprecipitated with calcium in the calcite. Although the water that precipitated the calcite in fractures and cavities may not have been in local isotopic equilibrium with the pore water, the strontium isotope composition of all water in the TSw is primarily controlled by water-rock interaction in the overlying nonwelded and essentially unfractured Paintbrush Group tuffs (PTn). The method of dating secondary minerals from known strontium evolution rates in rocks cannot be used in this study because it assumes the water that deposited the minerals was in isotopic equilibrium with the rock, which is not the case for the pore water in the TSw. Therefore, the evolution of the strontium isotope composition of the water that deposited the calcite, as recorded by the strontium coprecipitated with calcium in the calcite, was used to develop a model for determining the age of the calcite.

  18. Hydration rind dates rhyolite flows.

    PubMed

    Friedman, I

    1968-02-23

    Hydration of obsidian has been used to date rhyolite flows, containing obsidian or porphyritic glass, at Glass Mountain (Medicine Lake Highlands) and Mono Lake, California. The method is simple and rapid and can be used to date flows that erupted between 200 and approximately 200,000 years ago. PMID:17768978

  19. Hydration rind dates rhyolite flows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, I.

    1968-01-01

    Hydration of obsidian has been used to date rhyolite flows, containing obsidian or porphyritic glass, at Glass Mountain (Medicine Lake Highlands) and Mono Lake, California. The method is simple and rapid and can be used to date flows that erupted between 200 and approximately 200,000 years ago.

  20. JET-SUSPENDED, CALCITE-BALLASTED CYANOBACTERIAL.WATERWARTS IN A tment of Arizona State ,Tempe, USA

    E-print Network

    Farmer, Jack D.

    (2002) JET-SUSPENDED, CALCITE-BALLASTED CYANOBACTERIAL.WATERWARTS IN A DESERT Bman D. tment likely selectedfor both traits. The mechanismsbywhich con- trolled nucleation of extracellular calcite is achieved remain to be explored. Key index words: buoyancy; calcite precipitation; col- ony formation

  1. Origin and distribution of calcite concretions in Cretaceous Wall Creek Member, Wyoming: Reservoir-quality implication for shallow-marine

    E-print Network

    Gani, M. Royhan

    Origin and distribution of calcite concretions in Cretaceous Wall Creek Member, Wyoming: Reservoir in revised form 29 December 2013 Available online Keywords: Calcite concretion Diagenesis Wyoming Reservoir quality Shallow-marine Turonian a b s t r a c t Calcite concretions reduce reservoir quality

  2. True Atomic-Resolution Imaging of (10j14) Calcite in Aqueous Solution by Frequency Modulation Atomic Force Microscopy

    E-print Network

    Kühnle, Angelika

    True Atomic-Resolution Imaging of (10j14) Calcite in Aqueous Solution by Frequency ModulationVed October 16, 2008. ReVised Manuscript ReceiVed January 2, 2009 Calcite (CaCO3) is one of the most abundant stable cleavage plane of calcite under liquid conditions using frequency modulation atomic force

  3. Supporting Information Figure S1. Calcite crystals nucleated and grown on Kevlar threads in the absence of any

    E-print Network

    Coppersmith, Susan N.

    1 Supporting Information Figure S1. Calcite crystals nucleated and grown on Kevlar threads in the absence of any peptides or proteins. We define this as the negative control synthetic calcite. Please and SEM imaging techniques. Figure S2. Calcite crystals nucleated and grown on Kevlar threads

  4. Experimental evidence for kinetic effects on B/Ca in synthetic calcite: Implications for potential B(OH)4

    E-print Network

    Zeebe, Richard E.

    Experimental evidence for kinetic effects on B/Ca in synthetic calcite: Implications for potential a clearer understanding of the B incorporation mechanism, we performed inorganic calcite precipitation experiments using a pH-stat system. As pre- viously reported, we confirm that B/Ca in calcite increases

  5. PII S0016-7037(99)00103-9 Reversed calcite morphologies induced by microscopic growth kinetics: Insight into

    E-print Network

    Dove, Patricia M.

    PII S0016-7037(99)00103-9 Reversed calcite morphologies induced by microscopic growth kinetics investigation of calcite growth quantifies relationships between solution super- saturation and the rates of calcite mineralization have used indirect approaches that monitor compositional changes of growth media

  6. Journal of Crystal Growth 310 (2008) 29462953 Textural properties of synthetic nano-calcite produced by hydrothermal

    E-print Network

    Montes-Hernandez, German

    2008-01-01

    Journal of Crystal Growth 310 (2008) 2946­2953 Textural properties of synthetic nano-calcite to high temperature (30 and 90 1C) was used to synthesize fine particles of calcite. This method allows conditions have a strong influence on the crystal size and surface area of the synthesized calcite crystals

  7. Oriented Growth of Calcite Controlled by Self-Assembled Monolayers of Functionalized Alkanethiols Supported on Gold and

    E-print Network

    Aizenberg, Joanna

    Oriented Growth of Calcite Controlled by Self-Assembled Monolayers of Functionalized Alkanethiols 02138 ReceiVed December 9, 1998 Abstract: This paper describes the oriented nucleation of calcite, and SO3 -/Ag induced the face-selective nucleation of calcite from the (015), (012), (104), (103), (1 0

  8. Porous, Biphasic CaCO3-Calcium Phosphate Biomedical Cement Scaffolds from Calcite (CaCO3) Powder

    E-print Network

    Tas, A. Cuneyt

    Porous, Biphasic CaCO3-Calcium Phosphate Biomedical Cement Scaffolds from Calcite (CaCO3) Powder A. Cuneyt Tas* Department of Biomedical Engineering, Yeditepe University, Istanbul 34755, Turkey Calcite (CaH 3.2 by adding NaOH, to form biphasic, micro-, and macroporous calcite-apatitic calcium phosphate (Ap

  9. Experimental Optical-quality geological calcite was cleaved into fragments. In situ atomic force microscope (AFM) imaging was

    E-print Network

    Dickinson, J. Thomas

    Experimental Optical-quality geological calcite was cleaved into fragments. In situ atomic force a is the activity of the ionic species and Ksp=10-8.54 is the equilibrium solubility of calcite at zero ionic and lower terraces are good sources of adsorbed ions. In calcite, the diffusion of ions along both terraces

  10. PII S0016-7037(00)00341-0 Kinetics of calcite growth: Surface processes and relationships to macroscopic rate laws

    E-print Network

    Dove, Patricia M.

    PII S0016-7037(00)00341-0 Kinetics of calcite growth: Surface processes and relationships with observations of microscopic surface processes to quantify the dependence of calcite growth on supersaturation Atomic Force Microscopy was used to quantify calcite growth rates and observe transitions in growth

  11. Speleothem calcite farmed in situ: Modern calibration of d18 C paleoclimate proxies in a continuously-monitored

    E-print Network

    Speleothem calcite farmed in situ: Modern calibration of d18 O and d13 C paleoclimate proxies precipitated (low temperature) speleothem calcite is systematically heavier than the d18 O of laboratory-grown calcite for a given temperature. To understand this apparent offset, rainwater, cave drip water

  12. Gas hydrate reservoir characteristics and economics

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, K.J.; Burruss, R.C.; Lee, M.W.

    1992-05-01

    The primary objective of the DOE-funded USGS Gas Hydrate Program is to assess the production characteristics and economic potential of gas hydrates in northern Alaska. The objectives of this project for FY-1992 will include the following: (1) Utilize industry seismic data to assess the distribution of gas hydrates within the nearshore Alaskan continental shelf between Harrison Bay and Prudhoe Bay; (2) Further characterize and quantify the well-log characteristics of gas hydrates; and (3) Establish gas monitoring stations over the Eileen fault zone in northern Alaska, which will be used to measure gas flux from destabilized hydrates.

  13. Physical activity, hydration and health.

    PubMed

    Marcos, Ascensión; Manonelles, Pedro; Palacios, Nieves; Wärnberg, Julia; Casajús, José A; Pérez, Margarita; Aznar, Susana; Benito, Pedro J; Martínez-Gomez, David; Ortega, Francisco B; Ortega, Eduardo; Urrialde, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Since the beginning of mankind, man has sought ways to promote and preserve health as well as to prevent disease. Hydration, physical activity and exercise are key factors for enhancing human health. However, either a little dose of them or an excess can be harmful for health maintenance at any age. Water is an essential nutrient for human body and a major key to survival has been to prevent dehydration. However, there is still a general controversy regarding the necessary amount to drink water or other beverages to properly get an adequate level of hydration. In addition, up to now the tools used to measure hydration are controversial. To this end, there are several important groups of variables to take into account such as water balance, hydration biomarkers and total body water. A combination of methods will be the most preferred tool to find out any risk or situation of dehydration at any age range. On the other hand, physical activity and exercise are being demonstrated to promote health, avoiding or reducing health problems, vascular and inflammatory disea ses and helping weight management. Therefore, physical activity is also being used as a pill within a therapy to promote health and reduce risk diseases, but as in the case of drugs, dose, intensity, frequency, duration and precautions have to be evaluated and taken into account in order to get the maximum effectiveness and success of a treatment. On the other hand, sedentariness is the opposite concept to physical activity that has been recently recognized as an important factor of lifestyle involved in the obesogenic environment and consequently in the risk of the non-communicable diseases. In view of the literature consulted and taking into account the expertise of the authors, in this review a Decalogue of global recommendations is included to achieve an adequate hydration and physical activity status to avoid overweight/obesity consequences. PMID:24972459

  14. Short-term responses of wetland vegetation after liming of an Adirondack watershed

    SciTech Connect

    Mackun, I.R.; Leopold, D.J.; Raynal, D.J. )

    1994-08-01

    Watershed liming has been suggested as a long-term mitigation strategy for lake acidity, particularly in areas subject to high levels of acidic deposition. However, virtually no information has been available on the impacts of liming on wetland vegetation. In 1989, 1100 Mg of limestone (83.5% CaCO[sub 3]) were aerially applied to 48% (100 ha) of the Woods Lake watershed in the west-central Adirondack region of New York as part of the first comprehensive watershed liming study in North America. We inventoried wetland vegetation in 1.0-m[sup 2] plots before liming and during the subsequent 2 yr. Within this period liming influenced the cover, frequency, or importance values of only 6 of 64 wetland taxa. The cover of Sphagnum spp. and of the cespitose sedge Carex interior decreased in control relative to limed plots, and cover of the rhizomatous sedge Cladium mariscoides increased nearly threefold in limed areas. These two sedges, which are relatively tall, are characteristic of more calcareous habitats. Cover of the grass Muhlenbergia uniflora, cover and importance were adversely affected or inhibited by lime. It is unclear whether liming directly inhibited the growth of these three small-statured species, or whether the adverse effects of lime were mediated through shifts in competitive interactions with other species. The limited responses that we observed to liming, along with changes that occurred in control plots over the study period, may indicate that in the short term watershed liming was no more of a perturbation than the environmental factors responsible for natural annual variation in wetland communities.

  15. Handbook of gas hydrate properties and occurrence

    SciTech Connect

    Kuustraa, V.A.; Hammershaimb, E.C.

    1983-12-01

    This handbook provides data on the resource potential of naturally occurring hydrates, the properties that are needed to evaluate their recovery, and their production potential. The first two chapters give data on the naturally occurring hydrate potential by reviewing published resource estimates and the known and inferred occurrences. The third and fourth chapters review the physical and thermodynamic properties of hydrates, respectively. The thermodynamic properties of hydrates that are discussed include dissociation energies and a simplified method to calculate them; phase diagrams for simple and multi-component gases; the thermal conductivity; and the kinetics of hydrate dissociation. The final chapter evaluates the net energy balance of recovering hydrates and shows that a substantial positive energy balance can theoretically be achieved. The Appendices of the Handbook summarize physical and thermodynamic properties of gases, liquids and solids that can be used in designing and evaluating recovery processes of hydrates. 158 references, 67 figures, 47 tables.

  16. Fabrication of porous calcite using chopped nylon fiber and its evaluation using rats.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Kunio; Tram, Nguyen Xuan Thanh; Tsuru, Kanji; Toita, Riki

    2015-02-01

    Although porous calcite has attracted attention as bone substitutes, limited studies have been made so far. In the present study, porous calcite block was fabricated by introducing chopped nylon fiber as porogen. Ca(OH)2 powder containing 10 wt% chopped nylon fiber was compacted at 150 MPa, and sintered to burn out the fiber and to carbonate the Ca(OH)2 under stream of 1:2 O2-CO2. Sintering of Ca(OH)2 at 750 °C or lower temperature resulted in incomplete burning out of the fiber whereas sintering at 800 °C or higher temperature resulted in the formation of CaO due to the thermal decomposition of Ca(OH)2. However, sintering at 770 °C resulted in complete burning out of the fiber and complete carbonation of Ca(OH)2 to calcite without forming CaO. Macro- and micro-porosities of the porous calcite were approximately 23 and 16%, respectively. Diameter of the macropores was approximately 100 ?m which is suitable for bone tissue penetration. Porous calcite block fabricated by this method exhibited good tissue response when implanted in the bone defect in femur of 12-weeks-old rat. Four weeks after implantation, bone bonded on the surface of calcite. Furthermore, bone tissue penetrated interior to the macropore at 8 weeks. These results demonstrated the good potential value of porous calcite as artificial bone substitutes. PMID:25649514

  17. Direct nanoscale observations of the coupled dissolution of calcite and dolomite and the precipitation of gypsum

    PubMed Central

    Cama, Jordi; Soler, Josep Maria; Putnis, Christine V

    2014-01-01

    Summary In-situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments were performed to study the overall process of dissolution of common carbonate minerals (calcite and dolomite) and precipitation of gypsum in Na2SO4 and CaSO4 solutions with pH values ranging from 2 to 6 at room temperature (23 ± 1 °C). The dissolution of the carbonate minerals took place at the (104) cleavage surfaces in sulfate-rich solutions undersaturated with respect to gypsum, by the formation of characteristic rhombohedral-shaped etch pits. Rounding of the etch pit corners was observed as solutions approached close-to-equilibrium conditions with respect to calcite. The calculated dissolution rates of calcite at pH 4.8 and 5.6 agreed with the values reported in the literature. When using solutions previously equilibrated with respect to gypsum, gypsum precipitation coupled with calcite dissolution showed short gypsum nucleation induction times. The gypsum precipitate quickly coated the calcite surface, forming arrow-like forms parallel to the crystallographic orientations of the calcite etch pits. Gypsum precipitation coupled with dolomite dissolution was slower than that of calcite, indicating the dissolution rate to be the rate-controlling step. The resulting gypsum coating partially covered the surface during the experimental duration of a few hours. PMID:25161860

  18. Pockmark formation and evolution in deep water Nigeria: Rapid hydrate growth versus slow hydrate dissolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sultan, N.; Bohrmann, G.; Ruffine, L.; Pape, T.; Riboulot, V.; Colliat, J.-L.; De Prunelé, A.; Dennielou, B.; Garziglia, S.; Himmler, T.; Marsset, T.; Peters, C. A.; Rabiu, A.; Wei, J.

    2014-04-01

    In previous works, it has been suggested that dissolution of gas hydrate can be responsible for pockmark formation and evolution in deep water Nigeria. It was shown that those pockmarks which are at different stages of maturation are characterized by a common internal architecture associated to gas hydrate dynamics. New results obtained by drilling into gas hydrate-bearing sediments with the MeBo seafloor drill rig in concert with geotechnical in situ measurements and pore water analyses indicate that pockmark formation and evolution in the study area are mainly controlled by rapid hydrate growth opposed to slow hydrate dissolution. On one hand, positive temperature anomalies, free gas trapped in shallow microfractures near the seafloor and coexistence of free gas and gas hydrate indicate rapid hydrate growth. On the other hand, slow hydrate dissolution is evident by low methane concentrations and almost constant sulfate values 2 m above the Gas Hydrate Occurrence Zone.

  19. Thermal conductivity of hydrate-bearing sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cortes, D.D.; Martin, A.I.; Yun, T.S.; Francisca, F.M.; Santamarina, J.C.; Ruppel, C.

    2009-01-01

    A thorough understanding of the thermal conductivity of hydrate-bearing sediments is necessary for evaluating phase transformation processes that would accompany energy production from gas hydrate deposits and for estimating regional heat flow based on the observed depth to the base of the gas hydrate stability zone. The coexistence of multiple phases (gas hydrate, liquid and gas pore fill, and solid sediment grains) and their complex spatial arrangement hinder the a priori prediction of the thermal conductivity of hydrate-bearing sediments. Previous studies have been unable to capture the full parameter space covered by variations in grain size, specific surface, degree of saturation, nature of pore filling material, and effective stress for hydrate-bearing samples. Here we report on systematic measurements of the thermal conductivity of air dry, water- and tetrohydrofuran (THF)-saturated, and THF hydrate-saturated sand and clay samples at vertical effective stress of 0.05 to 1 MPa (corresponding to depths as great as 100 m below seafloor). Results reveal that the bulk thermal conductivity of the samples in every case reflects a complex interplay among particle size, effective stress, porosity, and fluid-versus-hydrate filled pore spaces. The thermal conductivity of THF hydrate-bearing soils increases upon hydrate formation although the thermal conductivities of THF solution and THF hydrate are almost the same. Several mechanisms can contribute to this effect including cryogenic suction during hydrate crystal growth and the ensuing porosity reduction in the surrounding sediment, increased mean effective stress due to hydrate formation under zero lateral strain conditions, and decreased interface thermal impedance as grain-liquid interfaces are transformed into grain-hydrate interfaces. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  20. Well log characterization of natural gas hydrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, Timothy S.; Lee, Myung W.

    2011-01-01

    In the last 25 years we have seen significant advancements in the use of downhole well logging tools to acquire detailed information on the occurrence of gas hydrate in nature: From an early start of using wireline electrical resistivity and acoustic logs to identify gas hydrate occurrences in wells drilled in Arctic permafrost environments to today where wireline and advanced logging-while-drilling tools are routinely used to examine the petrophysical nature of gas hydrate reservoirs and the distribution and concentration of gas hydrates within various complex reservoir systems. The most established and well known use of downhole log data in gas hydrate research is the use of electrical resistivity and acoustic velocity data (both compressional- and shear-wave data) to make estimates of gas hydrate content (i.e., reservoir saturations) in various sediment types and geologic settings. New downhole logging tools designed to make directionally oriented acoustic and propagation resistivity log measurements have provided the data needed to analyze the acoustic and electrical anisotropic properties of both highly inter-bedded and fracture dominated gas hydrate reservoirs. Advancements in nuclear-magnetic-resonance (NMR) logging and wireline formation testing have also allowed for the characterization of gas hydrate at the pore scale. Integrated NMR and formation testing studies from northern Canada and Alaska have yielded valuable insight into how gas hydrates are physically distributed in sediments and the occurrence and nature of pore fluids (i.e., free-water along with clay and capillary bound water) in gas-hydrate-bearing reservoirs. Information on the distribution of gas hydrate at the pore scale has provided invaluable insight on the mechanisms controlling the formation and occurrence of gas hydrate in nature along with data on gas hydrate reservoir properties (i.e., permeabilities) needed to accurately predict gas production rates for various gas hydrate production schemes.

  1. Activators of photoluminescence in calcite: evidence from high-resolution, laser-excited luminescence spectroscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pedone, V.A.; Cercone, K.R.; Burruss, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    Laser-excited luminescence spectroscopy of a red-algal, biogenic calcite and a synthetic Mn-calcite can make the distinction between organic and trace-element activators of photoluminescence. Organic-activated photoluminescence in biogenic calcite is characterized by significant peak shifts and increasing intensity with shorter-wavelength excitation and by significant decreases in intensity after heating to ??? 400??C. In contrast, Mn-activated photoluminescence shows no peak shift, greatest intensity under green excitation and limited changes after heating. Examination of samples with a high-sensitivity spectrometer using several wavelengths of exciting light is necessary for identification of photoluminescence activators. ?? 1990.

  2. Measuring Carbon and Oxygen Isotope Uptake into Inorganic Calcite using Crystal Growth Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, E. B.; Watkins, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Carbon and oxygen isotopes measured on natural calcite crystals provide a record of paleo-environment conditions. Despite the importance of measuring stable isotopes in calcite for paleo-environment reconstructions, there is neither a general theory nor an experimental data set that fully separates the effects of pH, temperature, and precipitation rate on isotope discrimination during calcite growth. Many stable isotope studies of calcite have focused on either carbon or oxygen isotope compositions individually, but few have measured both carbon and oxygen isotope uptake in the same set of crystals. We are precipitating inorganic calcite across a range in temperature, pH, and precipitation rate to guide the development of a general theory for combined carbon and oxygen isotope uptake into calcite crystals grown on laboratory timescales. In our experiments, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) is added to an aqueous solution (15 mM CaCl2 + 5 mM NH4Cl) by CO2 bubbling. Once a critical supersaturation is reached, calcite crystals nucleate spontaneously and grow on the beaker walls. A key aspect of this experimental approach is that the ?13C of DIC is relatively constant throughout the crystal growth period, because there is a continuous supply of DIC from the CO2-bearing bubbles. Carbonic anhydrase, an enzyme promoting rapid equilibration of isotopes between DIC and water, was added to ensure that the solution remained isotopically equilibrated during calcite growth. We have conducted experiments at T = 25°C and pH = 8.3 - 9.0. We observe that the fractionation of oxygen isotopes between calcite and water decreases with increasing pH, consistent with available data from experiments in which the enzyme carbonic anhydrase was used. Our results for carbon isotopes extend the available data set, which previously ranged from pH 6.62 to 7.75, to higher pH. At pH 8.3, we observe that calcite is isotopically heavier than DIC with respect to carbon isotopes by about 0.25‰. At pH 9.0, calcite is isotopically indistinguishable from, or perhaps slightly lighter than, DIC. We will present data from additional high-pH experiments and discuss the results in the context of recently developed ion-by-ion growth models for calcite.

  3. Oxidation aspects of the lime-concentrate-pellet roasting process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadzai, H.; Blairs, S.; Harris, B.; Staffansson, L.-I.

    1983-12-01

    Thermogravimetry has been employed to follow the progress of the oxidation reaction of cylindrical pellets of chalcopyrite concentrate blended with lime. Metallographic examination of pellet sections established the shrinking core pattern under the various experimental conditions. The rate of oxidation was investigated over the temperature range 753 to 873 K. To enable comparison with earlier work, subsequent leaching of calcines from the 773 K runs was also examined. Factors resulting in low copper recoveries have been examined thermodynamically and confirmed by X-ray diffraction analyses.

  4. Improvement in hardness of soda-lime-silica glass

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, Riya; De, Moumita; Roy, Sudakshina; Dey, Arjun; Biswas, Sampad K.; Middya, Tapas Ranjan; Mukhopadhyay, Anoop K.

    2012-06-05

    Hardness is a key design parameter for structural application of brittle solids like glass. Here we report for the first time the significant improvement of about 10% in Vicker's hardness of a soda-lime-silica glass with loading rate in the range of 0.1-10 N.s{sup -1}. Corroborative dark field optical and scanning electron microscopy provided clue to this improvement through evidence of variations in spatial density of shear deformation band formation as a function of loading rate.

  5. Photoacoustic thermal characterization of lime-partially stabilized zirconia

    SciTech Connect

    Contreras, M.E.; Serrato, J.; Zarate, J.; Pacheco, C.; Villasenor, L.

    1997-01-01

    Photoacoustic and photothermal techniques are used to investigate the room-temperature thermophysical properties of 9.4 mol% lime-partially stabilized zirconia (C-PSZ) samples in the density range of 5.12 {times} 10{sup 3}--5.58 {times} 10{sup 3}kg/m{sup 3}. The open-photoacoustic-cell approach is used to measure thermal diffusivity, and the photothermal technique of continuous illumination of the sample in vacuum is used to measure the product of density and specific heat capacity. Thermal conductivity is shown to be the thermophysical parameter most sensitive to changes in porosity.

  6. Multiple stage multiple filter hydrate store

    DOEpatents

    Bjorkman, H.K. Jr.

    1983-05-31

    An improved hydrate store for a metal halogen battery system is disclosed which employs a multiple stage, multiple filter means for separating the halogen hydrate from the liquid used in forming the hydrate. The filter means is constructed in the form of three separate sections which combine to substantially cover the interior surface of the store container. Exit conduit means is provided in association with the filter means for transmitting liquid passing through the filter means to a hydrate former subsystem. The hydrate former subsystem combines the halogen gas generated during the charging of the battery system with the liquid to form the hydrate in association with the store. Relief valve means is interposed in the exit conduit means for controlling the operation of the separate sections of the filter means, such that the liquid flow through the exit conduit means from each of the separate sections is controlled in a predetermined sequence. The three separate sections of the filter means operate in three discrete stages to provide a substantially uniform liquid flow to the hydrate former subsystem during the charging of the battery system. The separation of the liquid from the hydrate causes an increase in the density of the hydrate by concentrating the hydrate along the filter means. 7 figs.

  7. Using neutrons to investigate changes in strain partitioning between the phases during plastic yielding of calcite+halite composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covey-Crump, S. J.; Schofield, P. F.; Daymond, M. R.

    2006-11-01

    We have performed several room pressure and temperature uniaxial compression experiments on synthetic calcite+halite composites on the ENGIN-X beamline at the ISIS facility, UK, with a view to using the penetrating power of neutrons to monitor how strain partitioning between these phases changes as the halite undergoes plastic yielding. The principal dataset comes from samples for which the two phases were randomly intermixed but in which the volume fractions of the phases varied from 10 to 90% calcite. For samples with less than about 50% calcite, the strain partitioning between the phases was unaffected by halite yielding, but at higher calcite contents, load transfer from the halite to the calcite was initiated when the former yielded. The calcite deformed elastically but at high calcite contents (>80%) there was a switch from approximately homogeneous stress to homogeneous strain deformation within that phase.

  8. Ultrasonic Observation of the Calcite-Aragonite Transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahrens, T. J.; Katz, S.

    1963-01-01

    Elastic-wave velocities were measured as a function of pressure by ultrasonic pulse Interferometry in Solenhofen and Manilus limestone specimens to pressures of 27 and 38 kb. Longitudinal velocities decrease sharply from 5.3 km/sec at a mean pressure of 4 kb to a minimum of 4.8 km/sec at 8 kb. Transverse velocities decrease from 3.1 to 2.9 km/sec. At the minimum bulk and rigidity moduli are 25 and 20 per cent below their 4-kb values. A density increase of 1.7 per cent is associated with this minimum. The observed effects are attributed to the calcite-aragonite transition, and they may be due to an inherent property of the material, a component of which undergoes a polymorphic transition, the low- and high-pressure phases coexisting over a considerable pressure range. This may be an additional mechanism to account for low-velocity zones in the earth?s interior.

  9. Alkaline flocculation of Phaeodactylum tricornutum induced by brucite and calcite.

    PubMed

    Vandamme, Dries; Pohl, Philip I; Beuckels, Annelies; Foubert, Imogen; Brady, Patrick V; Hewson, John C; Muylaert, Koenraad

    2015-11-01

    Alkaline flocculation holds great potential as a low-cost harvesting method for marine microalgae biomass production. Alkaline flocculation is induced by an increase in pH and is related to precipitation of calcium and magnesium salts. In this study, we used the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum as model organism to study alkaline flocculation of marine microalgae cultured in seawater medium. Flocculation started when pH was increased to 10 and flocculation efficiency reached 90% when pH was 10.5, which was consistent with precipitation modeling for brucite or Mg(OH)2. Compared to freshwater species, more magnesium is needed to achieve flocculation (>7.5mM). Zeta potential measurements suggest that brucite precipitation caused flocculation by charge neutralization. When calcium concentration was 12.5mM, flocculation was also observed at a pH of 10. Zeta potential remained negative up to pH 11.5, suggesting that precipitated calcite caused flocculation by a sweeping coagulation mechanism. PMID:26310384

  10. Effect of fluid salinity on subcritical crack propagation in calcite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rostom, Fatma; Røyne, Anja; Dysthe, Dag Kristian; Renard, François

    2013-01-01

    The slow propagation of cracks, also called subcritical crack growth, is a mechanism of fracturing responsible for a ductile deformation of rocks under crustal conditions. In the present study, the double-torsion technique was used to measure the effect of fluid chemistry on the slow propagation of cracks in calcite single crystals at room temperature. Time-lapse images and measurements of force and load-point displacement allowed accurate characterization of crack velocities in a range of 10- 8 to 10- 4 m/s. Velocity curves as a function of energy-release rates were obtained for different fluid compositions, varying NH4Cl and NaCl concentrations. Our results show the presence of a threshold in fluid composition, separating two regimes: weakening conditions where the crack propagation is favored, and strengthening conditions where crack propagation slows down. We suggest that electrostatic surface forces that modify the repulsion forces between the two surfaces of the crack may be responsible for this behavior.

  11. Control of carbonate alkalinity on Mg incorporation in calcite: Insights on the occurrence of high Mg calcites in diagenetic environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purgstaller, Bettina; Mavromatis, Vasileios; Dietzel, Martin

    2015-04-01

    High Mg calcites (HMC), with up to 25 mol % of Mg, are common features in early diagenetic environments and are frequently associated with bio-induced anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). Such archives hold valuable information about the biogeochemical processes occurring in sedimentary environments in the geological past. Despite the frequency AOM-induced HMC observed in marine diagenetic settings and their potential role in dolomitization, only a minor number of experimental studies has been devoted on deciphering their formation conditions. Thus, in order to improve our understanding on the formation mechanism of HMC induced by elevated carbonate ion concentrations, we precipitated HMC by computer controlled titration of a (Mg,Ca)Cl2 solution at different Mg/Ca ratios into a NaHCO3 solution under precisely defined physicochemical conditions (T = 25.00 ±0.03°C; pH = 8.3 ±0.1). The formation of carbonates was monitored at a high temporal resolution using in situ Raman spectroscopy as well as by continuous sampling and analyzing of precipitates and reactive solutions. We identified two distinct mechanisms of HMC formation. In solutions with molar Mg/Ca ratios ? 1/8 calcium carbonate was precipitated as crystalline phases directly from homogeneous solution. In contrast, higher Mg/Ca ratios induced the formation of Mg-rich ACC (up to 10 mol % of Mg), which was subsequently transformed to HMC with up 20 mol % of Mg. Our experimental results highlight that the finally formed HMC has a higher Mg content than the ACC precursor phase. Considering experimental data for Mg containing ACC transformation to crystalline calcium carbonate from literature, the continuous enrichment of Mg in the precipitate throughout transformation of amorphous to crystalline CaCO3 most likely occurs due to the high carbonate alkalinity (DIC about 0.1 M) of our reactive solutions. The Mg incorporation into calcite lattice seems to be favored by intensive supply of carbonate ions as observed in AOM originated HMC in early diagenetic sediments.

  12. Gas hydrate cool storage system

    SciTech Connect

    Ternes, Mark P.; Kedl, Robert J.

    1985-01-01

    This invention is a process for formation of a gas hydrate to be used as a cool storage medium using a refrigerant in water. Mixing of the immiscible refrigerant and water is effected by addition of a surfactant and agitation. The difficult problem of subcooling during the process is overcome by using the surfactant and agitation and performance of the process significantly improves and approaches ideal.

  13. Gas hydrate cool storage system

    SciTech Connect

    Ternes, M.P.; Kedl, R.J.

    1985-09-10

    This invention is a process for formation of a gas hydrate to be used as a cool storage medium using a refrigerant in water. Mixing of the immiscible refrigerant and water is effected by addition of a surfactant and agitation. The difficult problem of subcooling during the process is overcome by using the surfactant and agitation and performance of the process significantly improves and approaches ideal.

  14. Kinetic and thermodynamic factors controlling the distribution of SO32- and Na+ in calcites and selected aragonites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Busenberg, E.; Niel, Plummer L.

    1985-01-01

    Significant amounts of SO42-, Na+, and OH- are incorporated in marine biogenic calcites. Biogenic high Mg-calcites average about 1 mole percent SO42-. Aragonites and most biogenic low Mg-calcites contain significant amounts of Na+, but very low concentrations of SO42-. The SO42- content of non-biogenic calcites and aragonites investigated was below 100 ppm. The presence of Na+ and SO42- increases the unit cell size of calcites. The solid-solutions show a solubility minimum at about 0.5 mole percent SO42- beyond which the solubility rapidly increases. The solubility product of calcites containing 3 mole percent SO42- is the same as that of aragonite. Na+ appears to have very little effect on the solubility product of calcites. The amounts of Na+ and SO42- incorporated in calcites vary as a function of the rate of crystal growth. The variation of the distribution coefficient (D) of SO42- in calcite at 25.0??C and 0.50 molal NaCl is described by the equation D = k0 + k1R where k0 and k1 are constants equal to 6.16 ?? 10-6 and 3.941 ?? 10-6, respectively, and R is the rate of crystal growth of calcite in mg??min-1??g-1 of seed. The data on Na+ are consistent with the hypothesis that a significant amount of Na+ occupies interstitial positions in the calcite structure. The distribution of Na+ follows a Freundlich isotherm and not the Berthelot-Nernst distribution law. The numerical value of the Na+ distribution coefficient in calcite is probably dependent on the number of defects in the calcite structure. The Na+ contents of calcites are not very accurate indicators of environmental salinities. ?? 1985.

  15. The promotion effect of coexisting hygroscopic composition on the reaction between oxalic acid and calcite during humidifying process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Q.; He, H.

    2012-12-01

    Internally mixed oxalic acid with mineral dust has been frequently detected in field measurements (Sullivan and Prather, 2007; Wang et al., 2012; Yang et al., 2009). Meanwhile, Furukawa and Takahashi (Furukawa and Takahashi, 2011) found that most of the oxalic acid in mineral mixture is present as metal oxalate complexes in the aerosols, however, the formation mechanism of these complexes is not well known. It was reported that cloud process of H2C2O4/CaCO3 mixture could lead to the formation of calcium oxalate (Gierlus et al., 2012). Recently, we used Raman spectroscopy to investigate the hygroscopic behavior of H2C2O4/CaCO3 mixture below saturation condition as well as the effect of coexisting hygroscopic compositions, e.g. Ca(NO3)2, NaCl, NH4NO3, and (NH4)2SO4. It was found that there was no interaction between H2C2O4 and calcite without third component during humidifying process under ambient condition. In contrast, the presence of coexisting Ca(NO)3, NaCl, or NH4NO3 could promote the reaction between H2C2O4 and calcite by providing an aqueous circumstance after deliquescence, resulting in the formation of calcium oxalate hydrates. Moreover, substitution of strong acid (HNO3) by medium acid (H2C2O4) occurred when water vapor was absorbed in Ca(NO3)2/H2C2O4 mixture (Ma and He, 2012). As for (NH4)2SO4, there existed a competition effect between (NH4)2SO4 and H2C2O4 for the reaction with CaCO3. CaCO3 was preferentially reacted with (NH4)2SO4 to form gypsum in the solution, while the residual NH4+ and C2O42- ions were bonded to (NH4)2C2O4 after efflorescence. These results implies a potential formation pathway of metal oxalate complexes in the atmosphere and also suggests that synergistic effect between different constituents in humidifying process of mixed particles should be considered in future hygroscopic behavior studies.

  16. Enhancing mechanical properties of calcite by Mg substitutions: An ab initio study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elstnerova, Pavlina; Friak, Martin; Hickel, Tilmann; Fabritius, Helge Otto; Lymperakis, Liverios; Petrov, Michal; Raabe, Dierk; Neugebauer, Joerg; Nikolov, Svetoslav; Zigler, Andreas; Hild, Sabine

    2011-03-01

    Arthropoda representing a majority of all known animal species are protected by an exoskeleton formed by their cuticle. The cuticle represents a hierarchically structured multifunctional bio-composite based on chitin and proteins. Some groups like Crustacea reinforce the load-bearing parts of their cuticle with calcite. As the calcite sometimes contains Mg it was speculated that Mg may have a stiffening impact on the mechanical properties of the cuticle. We present a theoretical parameter-free quantum-mechanical study of thermodynamic, structural and elastic properties of Mg-substituted calcite. Our results show that substituting Ca by Mg causes an almost linear decrease in the crystal volume with Mg concentration and of substituted crystals. As a consequence the calcite crystals become stiffer giving rise e.g. to substantially increased bulk moduli.

  17. Simulation of calcite dissolution and porosity changes in saltwater mixing zones in coastal aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanford, W.E.; Konikow, L.F.

    1989-01-01

    Thermodynamic models of aqueous solutions have indicated that the mixing of seawater and calcite-saturated fresh groundwater can produce a water that is undersaturated with respect to calcite. Mixing of such waters in coastal carbonate aquifers could lead to significant amounts of limestone dissolution. The potential for such dissolution in coastal saltwater mixing zones is analyzed by coupling the results from a reaction simulation model (PHREEQE) with a variable density groundwater flow and solute transport model. Idealized cross sections of coastal carbonate aquifers are simulated to estimate the potential for calcite dissolution under a variety of hydrologic and geochemical conditions. Results show that limestone dissolution in mixing zones is strongly dependent on groundwater flux and nearly independent of the dissolution kinetics of calcite. -from Authors

  18. The Influence of Equilibrium Reactions on the Kinetics of Calcite Dissolution in Lactic Acid Solutions 

    E-print Network

    Shedd, Daniel C

    2014-08-07

    acid and calcite will allow for optimized treatment design. The kinetic model was also used to isolate the contributions of the transport of reactants, the surface reaction, and the transport of products to the overall resistance of the reaction...

  19. High School Forum: "Invitations to Enquiry": The Calcite/Acid Reaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herron, J. Dudley, Ed.; Driscoll, D. R.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a high school chemistry experiment which involves the reaction between calcite and hydrochloric and sulfuric acids. This reaction can be carried out as a projected demonstration and on an individual basis. (HM)

  20. Experimental investigation of surface energy and subcritical crack growth in calcite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    RøYne, Anja; Bisschop, Jan; Dysthe, Dag Kristian

    2011-04-01

    Subcritical cracking behavior and surface energies are important factors in geological processes, as they control time-dependent brittle processes and the long-term stability of rocks. In this paper, we present experimental data on subcritical cracking in single calcite crystals exposed to glycol-water mixtures with varying water content. We find upper bounds for the surface energy of calcite that decrease with increasing water concentration and that are systematically lower than values obtained from molecular dynamics simulations. The relation of surface energy to water concentration can explain water weakening in chalks. The rate of subcritical crack growth in calcite is well described by a reaction rate model. The effect of increasing water on crack velocity is to lower the threshold energy release rate required for crack propagation. The slope of the crack velocity curve remains unaffected, something which strongly suggests that the mechanism for subcritical cracking in calcite does not depend on the water concentration.

  1. Release equation of state of dry and water-saturated porous calcite

    SciTech Connect

    Grady, D.E.; Moody, R.L.; Drumheller, D.S.

    1986-11-01

    Equation of state data on calcite obtained from shock compression and release wave experiments are reported. Powder gun and two-stage gun impact technology along with time-resolved velocity interferometry, are used to produce and measure planar shock and release wave states. Experiments are performed on crystalline calcite and on dry- and water-saturated porous calcite at shock pressures ranging from 10 to 66 GPa. Developmental work required to perform high-pressure shock -wave experiments on porous samples with the two-stage gas gun is described. Lagrangian analysis methods are used to determine pressure-density release paths from measured wave profiles. A high-pressure phase change in calcite has been identified from the release-wave data. Calculational results obtained using a model based on a theory of immiscible mixture are compared with the experimental data.

  2. Phase transformation of Mg-calcite to aragonite in active-forming hot spring travertines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greer, Heather F.; Zhou, Wuzong; Guo, Li

    2015-08-01

    A travertine specimen collected from the western part of Yunnan Province of China was subjected to microstructural analysis by powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. A new formation mechanism was proposed whereby polycrystalline rhombohedral particles of magnesium-containing calcite underwent a phase transformation into sheaf-like clusters of aragonite microrods. It is proposed that a high concentration of magnesium ions and embedded biological matter poisoned the growth of calcite and therefore instigated the phase transformation of the core of the rhombohedral calcite particles to an aragonite phase with a higher crystallinity. The single crystalline aragonite microrods with a higher density than the Mg-calcite nanocrystallites grew at the expense of the latter to generate sheaf-like clusters. This newly discovered formation mechanism is expected to enhance previous knowledge on this geologically important phase transformation from a morphology point of view.

  3. Gas hydrates: Technology status report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    In 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) assumed the responsibility for expanding the knowledge base and for developing methods to recover gas from hydrates. These are ice-like mixtures of gas and water where gas molecules are trapped within a framework of water molecules. This research is part of the Unconventional Gas Recovery (UGR) program, a multidisciplinary effort that focuses on developing the technology to produce natural gas from resources that have been classified as unconventional because of their unique geologies and production mechanisms. Current work on gas hydrates emphasizes geological studies; characterization of the resource; and generic research, including modeling of reservoir conditions, production concepts, and predictive strategies for stimulated wells. Complementing this work is research on in situ detection of hydrates and field tests to verify extraction methods. Thus, current research will provide a comprehensive technology base from which estimates of reserve potential can be made, and from which industry can develop recovery strategies. 7 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Study of Formation Mechanisms of Gas Hydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jia-Sheng; Wu, Cheng-Yueh; Hsieh, Bieng-Zih

    2015-04-01

    Gas hydrates, which had been found in subsurface geological environments of deep-sea sediments and permafrost regions, are solid crystalline compounds of gas molecules and water. The estimated energy resources of hydrates are at least twice of that of the conventional fossil fuel in the world. Gas hydrates have a great opportunity to become a dominating future energy. In the past years, many laboratory experiments had been conducted to study chemical and thermodynamic characteristics of gas hydrates in order to investigate the formation and dissociation mechanisms of hydrates. However, it is difficult to observe the formation and dissociation of hydrates in a porous media from a physical experiment directly. The purpose of this study was to model the dynamic formation mechanisms of gas hydrate in porous media by reservoir simulation. Two models were designed for this study: 1) a closed-system static model with separated gas and water zones; this model was a hydrate equilibrium model to investigate the behavior of the formation of hydrates near the initial gas-water contact; and 2) an open-system dynamic model with a continuous bottom-up gas flow; this model simulated the behavior of gas migration and studied the formation of hydrates from flowed gas and static formation water in porous media. A phase behavior module was developed in this study for reservoir simulator to model the pressure-volume-temperature (PVT) behavior of hydrates. The thermodynamic equilibriums and chemical reactions were coupled with the phase behavior module to have functions modelling the formation and dissociation of hydrates from/to water and gas. The simulation models used in this study were validated from the code-comparison project proposed by the NETL. According to the modelling results of the closed-system static model, we found that predominated location for the formation of hydrates was below the gas-water contact (or at the top of water zone). The maximum hydrate saturation observed was located just below the gas-water contact. The open-system dynamic model showed that the hydrates were basically uniformly distributed in a homogeneous porous media at a constant gas migration rate. However, if the gas migration rate was extremely low, the hydrates will tend to concentrate at the bottom of water zone (i.e. at the first contact of the water and the flowed gas) and finally blocked the vertical flow of gas. The models we designed can be scaled up to a field scale, and the research findings from this study can be contributed to the dispersion analysis of an in-situ hydrate reservoir.

  5. The Influence of Exotic Calcite on the Mechanical Behavior of Quartz Bearing Fault Gouge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, B. M.; Di Stefano, G.; Collettini, C.

    2014-12-01

    The interseismic recovery of frictional strength is a fundamental part of the seismic cycle. This restrengthening, and related phenomena, plays a key role in determining the stability and mode of tectonic faulting. Recent experimental data has shown that gouge mineralogy has a strong influence on the rate of frictional healing, with calcite-dominated gouges showing the highest rates. Combining these data with widespread observations of calcite as cement or veins in non-carbonate hosted faults, indicates that the presence of calcite within a fault gouge could play an important role in shallow- and mid-crustal earthquakes. We report on laboratory experiments designed to explore the mechanical behavior of quartz/calcite mixtures as a means to better understand the evolution of fault behavior in faults where carbonate materials are present. We sheared mixtures of powdered Carrara marble (>98% CaCO3) and disaggregated Ottawa sand (99.8% SiO2) at constant normal stress of 5 MPa under saturated conditions at room temperature. We performed slide-hold-slide tests, 1-3,000 seconds, and velocity stepping tests, 0.1-1000 ?m/s, to measure the amount of frictional healing and velocity dependence of friction respectively. Small subsets of experiments were conducted at different boundary conditions. Preliminary results show that the presence of calcite in quartz-based fault gouge has a hardening effect, both in overall frictional strength, where the strength of our mixtures increases with increasing calcite content, and in single experiments, where mixtures with low percentages of calcite show a consistent strain-hardening trend. We also observe that the rates of frictional healing and creep relaxation increase with increasing calcite content. Finally, our results show that the addition of as little as 2.5% calcite within a fault gouge results in a 30% increase in the rate of frictional healing, with further increases in calcite content resulting in larger increases in the rate of healing. Combined with our previous work, our results show that the presence of calcite in fault gouge can lead to accelerated frictional healing and velocity-weakening frictional behavior, favoring seismicity at shallow crustal conditions where faults are thought to fail mostly by aseismic creep.

  6. The Influence of Calcite on The Mechanical Behavior of Quartz-Bearing Gouge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, Brett; Di Stefano, Giuseppe; Collettini, Cristiano

    2015-04-01

    Mechanical heterogeneities along faults can result in diverse and complex fault slip. These heterogeneities can vary spatially and temporally and may result from changes in fault structure or frictional properties. The accumulation of calcite in non-carbonate faults, via cementation or entrainment, is likely to alter the frictional properties of that fault gouge. Furthermore, widespread observations of calcite as cement, veins, or cataclasites in non-carbonate hosted faults indicates that calcite is readily available and could play an important role during fault reactivation at shallow- and mid-crustal earthquakes. We report on laboratory experiments designed to explore the mechanical behavior of quartz/calcite mixtures as a means to better understand the evolution in behavior of quartz-bearing gouge in the presence of exotic calcite. We sheared mixtures of powdered Carrara marble (>98% CaCO3) and disaggregated Ottawa sand (99.8% SiO2) at constant normal stresses of 5 and 50 MPa under saturated conditions at room temperature. We performed slide-hold-slide tests, 1-3,000 seconds, and velocity stepping tests, 0.1-1000 µm/s, to measure the amount of frictional healing and velocity dependence of friction respectively. At low normal stress, the addition of calcite to quartz-based synthetic fault gouge results in increases in the steady-state frictional strength, and rates of frictional healing and creep relaxation of the gouge. In particular, with the addition of as little as 2.5 wt% calcite, the frictional healing rate increases by 30%. Microstructural observations indicate that shear is accommodated by distributed deformation throughout the gouge layer and that calcite undergoes significantly more comminution compared to quartz. Large quartz grains frequently show minor rounding of angular edges with fine-grained calcite often penetrating fractures. The in-situ addition of calcite to fault gouge, by either the circulation of fluids or the involvement of carbonate rocks in faulting, could lead to significant and progressive changes in fault behavior, i.e. the fault could be frictionally stronger, heal/seal faster, and be more frictionally unstable. At shallow crustal conditions, increased temperature and the concentration of fine-grained calcite along shear surfaces would result in the amplification of the observed behaviors.

  7. Hydrate-phobic surfaces: fundamental studies in clathrate hydrate adhesion reduction

    E-print Network

    Smith, J. David

    Clathrate hydrate formation and subsequent plugging of deep-sea oil and gas pipelines represent a significant bottleneck for deep-sea oil and gas operations. Current methods for hydrate mitigation are expensive and energy ...

  8. Late Mississippian lime mud mounds, Pitkin Formation, northern Arkansas

    SciTech Connect

    Manger, W.L.; Ar, V.P.; Webb, G.E.

    1984-04-01

    Carbonates deposited under shallow, open shelf conditions during the Late Mississippian in northern Arkansas exhibit numerous discrete to coalescing lime mud mounds up to 20 m (65 ft) high and tens of meters in diameter. The mounds are composed of a carbonate mud core, typically with fenestrate texture, entrapped by a loosely organized framework dominated by cystoporate bryozoans and rugose corals in the lower part, and by blue-green algae and cryptostomous bryozoans in the upper part. Disarticulated crinozoan detritus is common throughout the core, suggesting that these organisms also contributed to entrapment of lime mud. During deposition, the mud core was indurated enough to support and preserve vertical burrows. Also, rubble of core mudstone is found on the flanks of some mounds, suggesting some erosion. Intermound lithology is a shoaling-upward sequence dominated by oolitic and bioclastic grainstones and packstones. Shale is also present in minor amounts. The Pitkin mounds, interbedded with these intermound sequences, developed contemporaneously with them. Depositional relief was probably less than 3 m (10 ft). The mounds expanded laterally during periods of quieter water; their growth was impeded during times of higher energy. Contacts of the mound and intermound lithologic characteristics are sharp, truncating surfaces. Mound deposition ended with the onset of high energy conditions throughout the region.

  9. Effects of chitosan on the alignment, morphology and shape of calcite crystals nucleating under Langmuir monolayers

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kyungil; Uysal, Ahmet; Kewalramani, Sumit; Stripe, Benjamin; Dutta, Pulak

    2009-04-22

    The growth of calcium carbonate crystals under Langmuir monolayers was investigated in the presence of chitosan, a soluble derivative of chitin added to the subphase to better simulate the polyelectrolyte-containing in vivo environment. Chitosan causes distinct concentration-dependent changes in the orientation, shape and morphology of the calcite crystals nucleating under acid and sulfate monolayers. Our results suggest that polyelectrolytes may play essential roles in controlling the growth of biogenic calcite crystals.

  10. Effects of Chitosan on the Morphology and Alignment of Calcite Crystals Nucleating Under Langmuir Monolayers

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.; Uysal, A; Kewalramani, S; Stripe, B; Dutta, P

    2009-01-01

    The growth of calcium carbonate crystals under Langmuir monolayers was investigated in the presence of chitosan, a soluble derivative of chitin added to the subphase to better simulate the polyelectrolyte-containing in vivo environment. Chitosan causes distinct concentration-dependent changes in the orientation, shape and morphology of the calcite crystals nucleating under acid and sulfate monolayers. Our results suggest that polyelectrolytes may play essential roles in controlling the growth of biogenic calcite crystals.

  11. Rheological Properties and Reaction Kinetics of Amidoamine Oxide Surfactants-based Acids with Calcite 

    E-print Network

    Li, Lingling

    2012-07-16

    PROPERTIES AND REACTION KINETICS OF AMIDOAMINE OXIDE SURFACTANT-BASED ACIDS WITH CALCITE A Dissertation by LINGLING LI Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY May 2011 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering Rheological Properties and Reaction Kinetics of Amidoamine Oxide Surfactant-based Acids with Calcite Copyright 2011...

  12. Nonhydrostatic effects in stress-wave induced phase transformation of calcite

    SciTech Connect

    Grady, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    Displacive phase transformation occurs readily under stress-wave loading and is dependent on the nonhydrostatic stress state. Both static and stress-wave data for phase transformation in calcite rock are compared for shear stress dependence. A nonhydrostatic thrmodynamic theory has been developed. Through the theory, nonhydrostatic relations of phase equilibria are obtained which constrain the volume and shape change through the transformation. The theory is applied to the stress-induced displacive calcite I-II phase change in Oakhall limestone.

  13. Origin of sulfate in barite and calcite cements in the Jebel Madar salt dome (Oman)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandeginste, V.; John, C. M.; Gilhooly, W. P.

    2012-12-01

    Jebel Madar is a 500-m high mountain rising in the desert at the Oman Foothills. The Jebel consists of Triassic to Cretaceous carbonate host rocks forming the carapace of a salt dome. Halokinesis caused major fracturing and faulting at Jebel Madar, and the resulting structures acted as the main pathways for fluids that generated diagenetic cements composed of both barite and calcite. The spatial distribution of calcite and barite occurrences shows that calcite is formed in large abundance along the three main faults, whereas barite is more concentrated along faults further away from the three main ones. The stable carbon and oxygen isotope composition of calcite and fluid inclusion data from both calcite and barite show a distinct evolution of the fluid with a highly saline component towards more mixing with meteoric water. This is in agreement with clumped isotopes data on calcite cements indicating an evolution towards lower temperatures, consistent with doming of the Jebel and greater input of lower-temperature descending meteoric fluids. Here, we present sulphur and oxygen isotopic data on barite that suggest a link between the barite formation and the Precambrian salt underlying Jebel Madar. The average ?34S measured in barite is 33‰ CDT (1? = 5‰; n = 33), which falls at the lower end of the ?34S range reported for the Ara Group anhydrite. The average ?18O in the same barite samples is 23‰ VSMOW (1? = 2‰; n = 33). Data from the barite will be compared with sulphur isotopes from the carbonate-associate sulfate in the calcite cements. The overall goal of our research is to gain a better insight in the formation process of barite and calcite in Jebel Madar and its link with salt tectonics. We would like to acknowledge the financial support of QCCSRC (funded jointly by Qatar Petroleum, Shell and the Qatar Science & Technology Park) and the GSA Laubach fund for this study.

  14. Development of Alaskan gas hydrate resources

    SciTech Connect

    Kamath, V.A.; Sharma, G.D.; Patil, S.L.

    1991-06-01

    The research undertaken in this project pertains to study of various techniques for production of natural gas from Alaskan gas hydrates such as, depressurization, injection of hot water, steam, brine, methanol and ethylene glycol solutions through experimental investigation of decomposition characteristics of hydrate cores. An experimental study has been conducted to measure the effective gas permeability changes as hydrates form in the sandpack and the results have been used to determine the reduction in the effective gas permeability of the sandpack as a function of hydrate saturation. A user friendly, interactive, menu-driven, numerical difference simulator has been developed to model the dissociation of natural gas hydrates in porous media with variable thermal properties. A numerical, finite element simulator has been developed to model the dissociation of hydrates during hot water injection process.

  15. Fundamentals and applications of gas hydrates.

    PubMed

    Koh, Carolyn A; Sloan, E Dendy; Sum, Amadeu K; Wu, David T

    2011-01-01

    Fundamental understanding of gas hydrate formation and decomposition processes is critical in many energy and environmental areas and has special importance in flow assurance for the oil and gas industry. These areas represent the core of gas hydrate applications, which, albeit widely studied, are still developing as growing fields of research. Discovering the molecular pathways and chemical and physical concepts underlying gas hydrate formation potentially can lead us beyond flowline blockage prevention strategies toward advancing new technological solutions for fuel storage and transportation, safely producing a new energy resource from natural deposits of gas hydrates in oceanic and arctic sediments, and potentially facilitating effective desalination of seawater. The state of the art in gas hydrate research is leading us to new understanding of formation and dissociation phenomena that focuses on measurement and modeling of time-dependent properties of gas hydrates on the basis of their well-established thermodynamic properties. PMID:22432618

  16. A coupled THMC model of a heating and hydration laboratory experiment in unsaturated compacted FEBEX bentonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Liange; Samper, Javier; Montenegro, Luis; Fernández, Ana María

    2010-05-01

    SummaryUnsaturated compacted bentonite is foreseen by several countries as a backfill and sealing material in high-level radioactive waste repositories. The strong interplays between thermal (T), hydrodynamic (H), mechanical (M) and chemical (C) processes during the hydration stage of a repository call for fully coupled THMC models. Validation of such THMC models is prevented by the lack of comprehensive THMC experiments and the difficulties of experimental methods to measure accurately the chemical composition of bentonite porewater. We present here a non-isothermal multiphase flow and multicomponent reactive solute transport model for a deformable medium of a heating and hydration experiment performed on a sample of compacted FEBEX bentonite. Besides standard solute transport and geochemical processes, the model accounts for solute cross diffusion and thermal and chemical osmosis. Bentonite swelling is solved with a state-surface approach. The THM model is calibrated with transient temperature, water content and porosity data measured at the end of the experiment. The reactive transport model is calibrated with porewater chemical data derived from aqueous extract data. Model results confirm that thermal osmosis is relevant for the hydration of FEBEX bentonite while chemical osmosis can be safely neglected. Dilution and evaporation are the main processes controlling the concentration of conservative species. Dissolved cations are mostly affected by calcite dissolution-precipitation and cation exchange reactions. Dissolved sulphate is controlled by gypsum/anhydrite dissolution-precipitation. pH is mostly buffered by protonation/deprotonation via surface complexation. Computed concentrations agree well with inferred aqueous extract data at all sections except near the hydration boundary where cation data are affected by a sampling artifact. The fit of Cl - data is excellent except for the data near the heater. The largest deviations of the model from inferred aqueous extract data occur for dissolved SO42- which is underpredicted by the model. There are uncertainties on the amount of gypsum available for dissolution and its dissolution mechanism (kinetics or local equilibrium).

  17. A coupled THMC model of a heating and hydration laboratory experiment in unsaturated compacted FEBEX bentonite

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, L.; Samper, J.; Montenegro, L.; Fernandez, A.M.

    2010-05-01

    Unsaturated compacted bentonite is foreseen by several countries as a backfill and sealing material in high-level radioactive waste repositories. The strong interplays between thermal (T), hydrodynamic (H), mechanical (M) and chemical (C) processes during the hydration stage of a repository call for fully coupled THMC models. Validation of such THMC models is prevented by the lack of comprehensive THMC experiments and the difficulties of experimental methods to measure accurately the chemical composition of bentonite porewater. We present here a non-isothermal multiphase flow and multicomponent reactive solute transport model for a deformable medium of a heating and hydration experiment performed on a sample of compacted FEBEX bentonite. Besides standard solute transport and geochemical processes, the model accounts for solute cross diffusion and thermal and chemical osmosis. Bentonite swelling is solved with a state-surface approach. The THM model is calibrated with transient temperature, water content and porosity data measured at the end of the experiment. The reactive transport model is calibrated with porewater chemical data derived from aqueous extract data. Model results confirm that thermal osmosis is relevant for the hydration of FEBEX bentonite while chemical osmosis can be safely neglected. Dilution and evaporation are the main processes controlling the concentration of conservative species. Dissolved cations are mostly affected by calcite dissolution-precipitation and cation exchange reactions. Dissolved sulphate is controlled by gypsum/anhydrite dissolution-precipitation. pH is mostly buffered by protonation/deprotonation via surface complexation. Computed concentrations agree well with inferred aqueous extract data at all sections except near the hydration boundary where cation data are affected by a sampling artifact. The fit of Cl{sup -} data is excellent except for the data near the heater. The largest deviations of the model from inferred aqueous extract data occur for dissolved SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} which is underpredicted by the model. There are uncertainties on the amount of gypsum available for dissolution and its dissolution mechanism (kinetics or local equilibrium).

  18. 77 FR 45715 - Application of Key Lime Air Corporation for Commuter Authority

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Application of Key Lime Air Corporation for Commuter Authority AGENCY: Department... not issue an order finding Key Lime Air Corporation fit, willing, and able, and awarding it a...

  19. Control of Lime Kiln Heat Balance is Key to Reduced Fuel Consumption 

    E-print Network

    Kramm, D. J.

    1982-01-01

    This article discusses the various heat loads in a pulp mill lime sludge kiln, pointing out which heat loads cannot be reduced and which heat loads can, and how a reduction in energy use can be achieved. In almost any existing rotary lime sludge...

  20. 77 FR 45715 - Application of Key Lime Air Corporation for Commuter Authority

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ...the Secretary [Docket DOT-OST-2009-0116] Application of Key Lime Air Corporation for Commuter Authority AGENCY: Department...persons to show cause why it should not issue an order finding Key Lime Air Corporation fit, willing, and able, and...

  1. DELIMING OF BOUND AND UN-BOUND LIME FROM WHITE HIDE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White hide deliming requires the removal of un-bound lime as well as bound lime. This can be accomplished sequentially by washing the hides in pure water followed by an appropriate deliming solution. The objective of this paper is to determine the optimal wash parameters for each using a mathemati...

  2. Mobile Data Collection in Sensor Networks: The TinyLIME Middleware

    E-print Network

    Picco, Gian Pietro

    multiple mobile monitoring stations to access the sensors in their proximity and share the collected dataMobile Data Collection in Sensor Networks: The TinyLIME Middleware Carlo Curino a Matteo Giani In this paper we describe TinyLIME, a novel middleware for wireless sensor networks that departs from

  3. Barley seedling growth in soils amended with fly ash or agricultural lime followed by acidification

    SciTech Connect

    Renken, R.R.; McCallister, D.L.; Tarkalson, D.D.; Hergert, G.W.; Marx, D.B.

    2006-05-15

    Calcium-rich coal combustion fly ash can be used as an amendment to neutralize soil acidity because of its oxides and carbonate content, but its aluminum content could inhibit plant growth if soil pH values fall below optimal agronomic levels. This study measured root and shoot growth of an acid-sensitive barley (Hordeum vulgare L. 'Kearney') grown in the greenhouse on three naturally acid soils. The soils were either untreated or amended with various liming materials (dry fly ash, wet fly ash, and agricultural lime) at application rates of 0, .5, 1, and 1.5 times the recommended lime requirement, then treated with dilute acid solutions to simulate management-induced acidification. Plant growth indexes were measured at 30 days after planting. Root mass per plant and root length per plant were greater for the limed treatments than in the acidified check. Root growth in the limed treatments did not differ from root growth in the original nonacidified soils. Top mass per plant in all limed soils was either larger than or not different from that in the original nonacidified soils. Based on top mass per plant, no liming material or application rate was clearly superior. Both fly ash and agricultural lime reduced the impact of subsequent acidification on young barley plants. Detrimental effects of aluminum release on plant growth were not observed. Calcium-rich fly ash at agronomic rates is an acceptable acid-neutralizing material with no apparent negative effects.

  4. EVALUATION OF SOLIDS DEWATERING FOR A PILOT-SCALE THIOSORBIC LIME SO2 SCRUBBER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of an evaluation of solids dewatering for a pilot-scale thiosorbic lime SO2 scrubber. Pilot plant data showed that the dissolved magnesium in thiosorbic lime caused deterioration of solids dewatering properties. The slurry settling rate increased when the ...

  5. Effects of Liming on Forage Availability and Nutrient Content in a Forest Impacted by Acid Rain

    PubMed Central

    Pabian, Sarah E.; Ermer, Nathan M.; Tzilkowski, Walter M.; Brittingham, Margaret C.

    2012-01-01

    Acidic deposition and subsequent forest soil acidification and nutrient depletion can affect negatively the growth, health and nutrient content of vegetation, potentially limiting the availability and nutrient content of forage for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and other forest herbivores. Liming is a mitigation technique that can be used to restore forest health in acidified areas, but little is known about how it affects the growth or nutrient content of deer forage. We examined the effects of dolomitic limestone application on the growth and chemical composition of understory plants in an acidified forest in central Pennsylvania, with a focus on vegetative groups included as white-tailed deer forage. We used a Before-After-Control-Impact study design with observations 1 year before liming and up to 5 years post-liming on 2 treated and 2 untreated 100-ha sites. Before liming, forage availability and several nutrients were below levels considered optimal for white-tailed deer, and many vegetative characteristics were related to soil chemistry. We observed a positive effect of liming on forb biomass, with a 2.7 fold increase on limed sites, but no biomass response in other vegetation groups. We observed positive effects of liming on calcium and magnesium content and negative effects on aluminum and manganese content of several plant groups. Responses to liming by forbs and plant nutrients show promise for improving vegetation health and forage quality and quantity for deer. PMID:22761890

  6. Substrate pH and butterfly bush response to dolomitic lime or steel slag amendment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Steel slag is a fertilizer amendment with a high concentration of calcium oxide, and thus capable of raising substrate pH similar to dolomitic lime. Steel slag, however, contains higher concentrations of some nutrients, such as iron, manganese, and silicon, compared to dolomitic lime. The objectiv...

  7. Neuron, Vol. 25, 1518, January, 2000, Copyright 2000 by Cell Press Moving Colors in the Lime Light Minireview

    E-print Network

    Dobkins, Karen R.

    Neuron, Vol. 25, 15­18, January, 2000, Copyright ©2000 by Cell Press Moving Colors in the Lime to by the general the eye--colors that appear roughly violet/lime but are appearance of the stimuli that selectively

  8. The effect of high-pressure densification on ballistic-penetration resistance of a soda-lime glass

    E-print Network

    Grujicic, Mica

    The effect of high-pressure densification on ballistic-penetration resistance of a soda-lime glass of a prototypical soda-lime glass are first employed. The molecular- simulation results obtained were next used

  9. On the security of a certificateless aggregate signature scheme , Qiaoyan Wen, Zhengping Jin, Hua Zhang, Liming Zhou

    E-print Network

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Jin, Hua Zhang, Liming Zhou State Key Laboratory of Networking and Switch Technology, Beijing@yahoo.cn (Zhengping Jin ), zhanghua-288@bupt.edu.cn (Hua Zhang ), zhouliming1985@gmail.com (Liming Zhou ) Preprint

  10. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Communities in the Roots of Maize Lines Contrasting for Al Tolerance Grown in Limed and Non-Limed Brazilian Oxisoil.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Eliane A; Oliveira, Christiane A; Lana, Ubiraci G P; Noda, Roberto W; Marriel, Ivanildo E; de Souza, Francisco A

    2015-07-01

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity is one of the greatest limitations to agriculture in acid soils, particularly in tropical regions. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can supply plants with nutrients and give protection against Al toxicity. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of soil liming (i.e., reducing Al saturation) on the AMF community composition and structure in the roots of maize lines contrasting for Al tolerance. To this end, we constructed four 18S rDNA cloning libraries from L3 (Al tolerant) and L22 (Al sensitive) maize lines grown in limed and non-limed soils. A total of 790 clones were sequenced, 69% belonging to the Glomeromycota phylum. The remaining sequences were from Ascomycota, which were more prominent in the limed soil, mainly in the L3 line. The most abundant AM fungal clones were related to the family Glomeraceae represented by the genera uncultured Glomus followed by Rhizophagus and Funneliformis. However, the most abundant operational taxonomic units with 27% of the Glomeromycota clones was affiliated to genus Racocetra. This genus was present in all the four libraries, but it was predominant in the non-limed soils, suggesting that Racocetra is tolerant to Al toxicity. Similarly, Acaulospora and Rhizophagus were also present mostly in both lines in non-limed soils. The community richness of AMF in the non-limed soils was higher than the limed soil for both lines. The results suggest that the soil Al saturation was the parameter that mostly influences the AMF species composition in the soils in this study. PMID:25674805

  11. Estimation of past seepage volumes from calcite distribution in the Topopah Spring Tuff, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marshall, B.D.; Neymark, L.A.; Peterman, Z.E.

    2003-01-01

    Low-temperature calcite and opal record the past seepage of water into open fractures and lithophysal cavities in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, site of a proposed high-level radioactive waste repository. Systematic measurements of calcite and opal coatings in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) tunnel at the proposed repository horizon are used to estimate the volume of calcite at each site of calcite and/or opal deposition. By estimating the volume of water required to precipitate the measured volumes of calcite in the unsaturated zone, seepage rates of 0.005 to 5 liters/year (l/year) are calculated at the median and 95th percentile of the measured volumes, respectively. These seepage rates are at the low end of the range of seepage rates from recent performance assessment (PA) calculations, confirming the conservative nature of the performance assessment. However, the distribution of the calcite and opal coatings indicate that a much larger fraction of the potential waste packages would be contacted by this seepage than is calculated in the performance assessment.

  12. Mixing-induced calcite precipitation and dissolution kinetics in micromodel experiments.

    SciTech Connect

    Valocchi, Albert J.; Dewers, Thomas A.; Dehoff, Karl; Yoon, Hongkyu; Werth, Charles J.

    2010-12-01

    Dissolved CO2 from geological CO2 sequestration may react with dissolved minerals in fractured rocks or confined aquifers and cause mineral precipitation. The overall rate of reaction can be limited by diffusive or dispersive mixing, and mineral precipitation can block pores and further hinder these processes. Mixing-induced calcite precipitation experiments were performed by injecting solutions containing CaCl2 and Na2CO3 through two separate inlets of a micromodel (1-cm x 2-cm x 40-microns); transverse dispersion caused the two solutions to mix along the center of the micromodel, resulting in calcite precipitation. The amount of calcite precipitation initially increased to a maximum and then decreased to a steady state value. Fluorescent microscopy and imaging techniques were used to visualize calcite precipitation, and the corresponding effects on the flow field. Experimental micromodel results were evaluated with pore-scale simulations using a 2-D Lattice-Boltzmann code for water flow and a finite volume code for reactive transport. The reactive transport model included the impact of pH upon carbonate speciation and calcite dissolution. We found that proper estimation of the effective diffusion coefficient and the reaction surface area is necessary to adequately simulate precipitation and dissolution rates. The effective diffusion coefficient was decreased in grid cells where calcite precipitated, and keeping track of reactive surface over time played a significant role in predicting reaction patterns. Our results may improve understanding of the fundamental physicochemical processes during CO2 sequestration in geologic formations.

  13. NMR characterization of hydrocarbon adsorption on calcite surfaces: A first principles study

    SciTech Connect

    Bevilaqua, Rochele C. A.; Miranda, Caetano R.; Rigo, Vagner A.; Veríssimo-Alves, Marcos

    2014-11-28

    The electronic and coordination environment of minerals surfaces, as calcite, are very difficult to characterize experimentally. This is mainly due to the fact that there are relatively few spectroscopic techniques able to detect Ca{sup 2+}. Since calcite is a major constituent of sedimentary rocks in oil reservoir, a more detailed characterization of the interaction between hydrocarbon molecules and mineral surfaces is highly desirable. Here we perform a first principles study on the adsorption of hydrocarbon molecules on calcite surface (CaCO{sub 3} (101{sup ¯}4)). The simulations were based on Density Functional Theory with Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (SS-NMR) calculations. The Gauge-Including Projector Augmented Wave method was used to compute mainly SS-NMR parameters for {sup 43}Ca, {sup 13}C, and {sup 17}O in calcite surface. It was possible to assign the peaks in the theoretical NMR spectra for all structures studied. Besides showing different chemical shifts for atoms located on different environments (bulk and surface) for calcite, the results also display changes on the chemical shift, mainly for Ca sites, when the hydrocarbon molecules are present. Even though the interaction of the benzene molecule with the calcite surface is weak, there is a clearly distinguishable displacement of the signal of the Ca sites over which the hydrocarbon molecule is located. A similar effect is also observed for hexane adsorption. Through NMR spectroscopy, we show that aromatic and alkane hydrocarbon molecules adsorbed on carbonate surfaces can be differentiated.

  14. Multiple origins for zoned cathodoluminescent and noncathodoluminescent calcite cements in Pennsylvanian limestones

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, R.H.; Anderson, J.E.; Phares, R.A. )

    1991-03-01

    Noncathodoluminescent calcite containing brightly to moderately luminescent zones is a common early cement in limestones. Three such cements in Upper Pennsylvanian limestones from different areas were studied. All three units are overlain up-section by Permian evaporites and consist of carbonate-siliciclastic 'cyclothems' in which individual cycles were subject to subaerial exposure. With such similar settings, one might predict that petrographically similar calcite cements would have similar origins. In the Holder Formation (New Mexico), the zoned calcite predates compaction, and cross-cutting relationships with cycle-capping paleosols show that zoned cements precipitated during 15 events of subaerial exposure. Therefore, cements precipitated from freshwater during early and repeated subaerial exposure. For the Lansing-Kansas City groups in northwestern Kansas, the zoned calcite cements commonly are among the first precipitated but may postdate some compaction. All-liquid fluid inclusions indicated precipitation below about 50C, from brines of approximately 23 weight %. NaCl equivalent. The brines may have refluxed downward during deposition of Permian evaporites. A limestone of the Lansing-Kansas City groups of west-central Kansas contains early zoned calcite cement that predates compaction. The cement contains all-liquid fluid inclusions indicating precipitation below about 50C. The presence of nonluminescent calcite containing bright subzones is not indicative of a single diagenetic environment. Petrographically similar cements from similar settings may originate in markedly different diagenetic environments.

  15. NMR characterization of hydrocarbon adsorption on calcite surfaces: a first principles study.

    PubMed

    Bevilaqua, Rochele C A; Rigo, Vagner A; Veríssimo-Alves, Marcos; Miranda, Caetano R

    2014-11-28

    The electronic and coordination environment of minerals surfaces, as calcite, are very difficult to characterize experimentally. This is mainly due to the fact that there are relatively few spectroscopic techniques able to detect Ca(2+). Since calcite is a major constituent of sedimentary rocks in oil reservoir, a more detailed characterization of the interaction between hydrocarbon molecules and mineral surfaces is highly desirable. Here we perform a first principles study on the adsorption of hydrocarbon molecules on calcite surface (CaCO3 (101¯4)). The simulations were based on Density Functional Theory with Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (SS-NMR) calculations. The Gauge-Including Projector Augmented Wave method was used to compute mainly SS-NMR parameters for (43)Ca, (13)C, and (17)O in calcite surface. It was possible to assign the peaks in the theoretical NMR spectra for all structures studied. Besides showing different chemical shifts for atoms located on different environments (bulk and surface) for calcite, the results also display changes on the chemical shift, mainly for Ca sites, when the hydrocarbon molecules are present. Even though the interaction of the benzene molecule with the calcite surface is weak, there is a clearly distinguishable displacement of the signal of the Ca sites over which the hydrocarbon molecule is located. A similar effect is also observed for hexane adsorption. Through NMR spectroscopy, we show that aromatic and alkane hydrocarbon molecules adsorbed on carbonate surfaces can be differentiated. PMID:25429955

  16. Microstructural control of calcite via incorporation of intracrystalline organic molecules in shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okumura, Taiga; Suzuki, Michio; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Kogure, Toshihiro

    2013-10-01

    It is widely accepted that organic substances regulate or influence the structure of biominerals, but its direct evidences are not plenty. Here we show that the crystallographic microstructures in biotic calcites arise from incorporated intracrystalline organic molecules (IOMs), through a comparison between biotic calcites in shells and synthetic ones with the IOMs extracted from the shells. Although the prismatic layers of a pearl oyster (Pinctada fucata) and a pen shell (Atrina pectinata) morphologically resemble each other, the crystallographic features of constituent calcites are considerably different; in Pinctada, the IOMs are distributed inhomogeneously to form small-angle grain boundaries and associated crystal defects, whereas in Atrina, the IOMs are distributed almost homogeneously and defects are rare in the calcite crystals. We conducted in vitro calcite syntheses in the presence of the IOMs in EDTA-soluble extracts from the prisms. The IOMs in the extracts from Pinctada and Atrina were incorporated into synthetic calcites in a different manner, exhibiting defect-rich/free features as observed in the natural shells. With regard to amino acid compositions of the IOMs, the extract from Atrina has a higher proportion of acidic amino acids than that from Pinctada, implying that acidic proteins do not correlate directly to their affinity for calcium carbonate crystals.

  17. Gas hydrates of outer continental margins

    SciTech Connect

    Kvenvolden, K.A. )

    1990-05-01

    Gas hydrates are crystalline substances in which a rigid framework of water molecules traps molecules of gas, mainly methane. Gas-hydrate deposits are common in continental margin sediment in all major oceans at water depths greater than about 300 m. Thirty-three localities with evidence for gas-hydrate occurrence have been described worldwide. The presence of these gas hydrates has been inferred mainly from anomalous lacoustic reflectors seen on marine seismic records. Naturally occurring marine gas hydrates have been sampled and analyzed at about tensites in several regions including continental slope and rise sediment of the eastern Pacific Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico. Except for some Gulf of Mexico gas hydrate occurrences, the analyzed gas hydrates are composed almost exclusively of microbial methane. Evidence for the microbial origin of methane in gas hydrates includes (1) the inverse relation between methane occurence and sulfate concentration in the sediment, (2) the subparallel depth trends in carbon isotopic compositions of methane and bicarbonate in the interstitial water, and (3) the general range of {sup 13}C depletion ({delta}{sub PDB}{sup 13}C = {minus}90 to {minus}60 {per thousand}) in the methane. Analyses of gas hydrates from the Peruvian outer continental margin in particular illustrate this evidence for microbially generated methane. The total amount of methane in gas hydrates of continental margins is not known, but estimates of about 10{sup 16} m{sup 3} seem reasonable. Although this amount of methane is large, it is not yet clear whether methane hydrates of outer continental margins will ever be a significant energy resource; however, these gas hydrates will probably constitute a drilling hazard when outer continental margins are explored in the future.

  18. Natural gas hydrate occurrence and issues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kvenvolden, K.A.

    1994-01-01

    Naturally occurring gas hydrate is found in sediment of two regions: (1) continental, including continental shelves, at high latitudes where surface temperatures are very cold, and (2) submarine outer continental margins where pressures are very high and bottom-water temperatures are near 0??C. Continental gas hydrate is found in association with onshore and offshore permafrost. Submarine gas hydrate is found in sediment of continental slopes and rises. The amount of methane present in gas hydrate is thought to be very large, but the estimates that have been made are more speculative than real. Nevertheless, at the present time there has been a convergence of ideas regarding the amount of methane in gas hydrate deposits worldwide at about 2 x 1016 m3 or 7 x 1017 ft3 = 7 x 105 Tcf [Tcf = trillion (1012) ft3]. The potentially large amount of methane in gas hydrate and the shallow depth of gas hydrate deposits are two of the principal factors driving research concerning this substance. Such a large amount of methane, if it could be commercially produced, provides a potential energy resource for the future. Because gas hydrate is metastable, changes of surface pressure and temperature affect its stability. Destabilized gas hydrate beneath the sea floor leads to geologic hazards such as submarine mass movements. Examples of submarine slope failures attributed to gas hydrate are found worldwide. The metastability of gas hydrate may also have an effect on climate. The release of methane, a 'greenhouse' gas, from destabilized gas hydrate may contribute to global warming and be a factor in global climate change.

  19. Physical Properties of Gas Hydrates: A Review

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gabitto, Jorge F.; Tsouris, Costas

    2010-01-01

    Methane gas hydrates in sediments have been studied by several investigators as a possible future energy resource. Recent hydrate reserves have been estimated at approximately 10 16 ? m 3 of methane gas worldwide at standard temperature and pressure conditions. In situ dissociation of natural gas hydrate is necessary in order to commercially exploit the resource from the natural-gas-hydrate-bearing sediment. The presence of gas hydrates in sediments dramatically alters some of the normal physical properties of the sediment. These changes can be detectedmore »by field measurements and by down-hole logs. An understanding of the physical properties of hydrate-bearing sediments is necessary for interpretation of geophysical data collected in field settings, borehole, and slope stability analyses; reservoir simulation; and production models. This work reviews information available in literature related to the physical properties of sediments containing gas hydrates. A brief review of the physical properties of bulk gas hydrates is included. Detection methods, morphology, and relevant physical properties of gas-hydrate-bearing sediments are also discussed. « less

  20. Electrical properties of methane hydrate + sediment mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du Frane, Wyatt L.; Stern, Laura A.; Constable, Steven; Weitemeyer, Karen A.; Smith, Megan M.; Roberts, Jeffery J.

    2015-07-01

    Knowledge of the electrical properties of multicomponent systems with gas hydrate, sediments, and pore water is needed to help relate electromagnetic (EM) measurements to specific gas hydrate concentration and distribution patterns in nature. Toward this goal, we built a pressure cell capable of measuring in situ electrical properties of multicomponent systems such that the effects of individual components and mixing relations can be assessed. We first established the temperature-dependent electrical conductivity (?) of pure, single-phase methane hydrate to be ~5 orders of magnitude lower than seawater, a substantial contrast that can help differentiate hydrate deposits from significantly more conductive water-saturated sediments in EM field surveys. Here we report ? measurements of two-component systems in which methane hydrate is mixed with variable amounts of quartz sand or glass beads. Sand by itself has low ? but is found to increase the overall ? of mixtures with well-connected methane hydrate. Alternatively, the overall ? decreases when sand concentrations are high enough to cause gas hydrate to be poorly connected, indicating that hydrate grains provide the primary conduction path. Our measurements suggest that impurities from sand induce chemical interactions and/or doping effects that result in higher electrical conductivity with lower temperature dependence. These results can be used in the modeling of massive or two-phase gas-hydrate-bearing systems devoid of conductive pore water. Further experiments that include a free water phase are the necessary next steps toward developing complex models relevant to most natural systems.

  1. Desalination utilizing clathrate hydrates (LDRD final report).

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, Blake Alexander; Bradshaw, Robert W.; Dedrick, Daniel E.; Cygan, Randall Timothy; Greathouse, Jeffery A.; Majzoub, Eric H.

    2008-01-01

    Advances are reported in several aspects of clathrate hydrate desalination fundamentals necessary to develop an economical means to produce municipal quantities of potable water from seawater or brackish feedstock. These aspects include the following, (1) advances in defining the most promising systems design based on new types of hydrate guest molecules, (2) selection of optimal multi-phase reactors and separation arrangements, and, (3) applicability of an inert heat exchange fluid to moderate hydrate growth, control the morphology of the solid hydrate material formed, and facilitate separation of hydrate solids from concentrated brine. The rate of R141b hydrate formation was determined and found to depend only on the degree of supercooling. The rate of R141b hydrate formation in the presence of a heat exchange fluid depended on the degree of supercooling according to the same rate equation as pure R141b with secondary dependence on salinity. Experiments demonstrated that a perfluorocarbon heat exchange fluid assisted separation of R141b hydrates from brine. Preliminary experiments using the guest species, difluoromethane, showed that hydrate formation rates were substantial at temperatures up to at least 12 C and demonstrated partial separation of water from brine. We present a detailed molecular picture of the structure and dynamics of R141b guest molecules within water cages, obtained from ab initio calculations, molecular dynamics simulations, and Raman spectroscopy. Density functional theory calculations were used to provide an energetic and molecular orbital description of R141b stability in both large and small cages in a structure II hydrate. Additionally, the hydrate of an isomer, 1,2-dichloro-1-fluoroethane, does not form at ambient conditions because of extensive overlap of electron density between guest and host. Classical molecular dynamics simulations and laboratory trials support the results for the isomer hydrate. Molecular dynamics simulations show that R141b hydrate is stable at temperatures up to 265K, while the isomer hydrate is only stable up to 150K. Despite hydrogen bonding between guest and host, R141b molecules rotated freely within the water cage. The Raman spectrum of R141b in both the pure and hydrate phases was also compared with vibrational analysis from both computational methods. In particular, the frequency of the C-Cl stretch mode (585 cm{sup -1}) undergoes a shift to higher frequency in the hydrate phase. Raman spectra also indicate that this peak undergoes splitting and intensity variation as the temperature is decreased from 4 C to -4 C.

  2. Observations related to tetrahydrofuran and methane hydrates for laboratory studies of hydrate-bearing sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, J.Y.; Yun, T.S.; Santamarina, J.C.; Ruppel, C.

    2007-01-01

    The interaction among water molecules, guest gas molecules, salts, and mineral particles determines the nucleation and growth behavior of gas hydrates in natural sediments. Hydrate of tetrahydrofuran (THF) has long been used for laboratory studies of gas hydrate-bearing sediments to provide close control on hydrate concentrations and to overcome the long formation history of methane hydrate from aqueous phase methane in sediments. Yet differences in the polarizability of THF (polar molecule) compared to methane (nonpolar molecule) raise questions about the suitability of THF as a proxy for methane in the study of hydrate-bearing sediments. From existing data and simple macroscale experiments, we show that despite its polar nature, THF's large molecular size results in low permittivity, prevents it from dissolving precipitated salts, and hinders the solvation of ions on dry mineral surfaces. In addition, the interfacial tension between water and THF hydrate is similar to that between water and methane hydrate. The processes that researchers choose for forming hydrate in sediments in laboratory settings (e.g., from gas, liquid, or ice) and the pore-scale distribution of the hydrate that is produced by each of these processes likely have a more pronounced effect on the measured macroscale properties of hydrate-bearing sediments than do differences between THF and methane hydrates themselves.

  3. Waters of Hydration of Cupric Hydrates: A Comparison between Heating and Absorbance Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlag, Rebecca; Nyasulu, Frazier

    2011-01-01

    The empirical formulas of four cupric hydrates are determined by measuring the absorbance in aqueous solution. The Beer-Lambert Law is verified by constructing a calibration curve of absorbance versus known Cu[superscript 2+](aq) concentration. A solution of the unknown hydrate is prepared by using 0.2-0.3 g of hydrate, and water is added such…

  4. Dynamical interrogation of the hydration cage of bromine in single crystal clathrate hydrates versus water

    E-print Network

    Apkarian, V. Ara

    Dynamical interrogation of the hydration cage of bromine in single crystal clathrate hydrates of bromine clathrate hydrates and on bromine dissolved in water. In all cases, excitation into the B of 290 fs, is significantly reduced due to the larger cages and the looser fit around bromine

  5. Catastrophic growth of gas hydrates in the presence of kinetic hydrate inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Cha, Minjun; Shin, Kyuchul; Seo, Yutaek; Shin, Ju-Young; Kang, Seong-Pil

    2013-12-27

    The effect of the concentration of kinetic hydrate inhibitors, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), and polyvinylcaprolactam (PVCap) on the onset and growth of synthetic natural gas hydrates is investigated by measuring the hydrate onset time and gas consumption rate. Although the hydrate onset time is extended by increasing the concentration from 0.5 to 3.0 wt % for both PVP and PVCap, the growth rate of hydrates shows that the different tendency depends on the type of kinetic hydrate inhibitor and its concentration. For PVCap solution, the hydrate growth was slow for more than 1000 min after the onset at the concentration of 0.5 and 1.5 wt %. However, the growth rate becames almost 8 times faster at the concentration of 3.0 wt %, representing the catastrophic growth of hydrate just after the hydrate onset. (13)C NMR spectra of hydrates formed at 3.0 wt % of PVP and PVCap indicate the existence of both structures I and II. Cage occupancy of methane in large cages of structure II decreases significantly when compared to that for pure water. These results suggest that increasing the concentration of KHI up to 3.0 wt % may induce the earlier appearance of catastrophic hydrate growth and the existence of metastable structure I; thus, there needs to be an upper limit for using KHI to manage the formation of gas hydrates. PMID:24295438

  6. Solution composition-dependence of the Ca isotope composition of inorganic calcite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzales, M. S.; Watkins, J. M.; Depaolo, D. J.

    2010-12-01

    Laboratory experiments have shown that the Ca isotope composition of calcite precipitated from aqueous solution may be sensitive to solution chemistry, temperature, and solution pH. Generally, inorganic calcite precipitation experiments yield calcite crystals that are enriched in the light isotope of Ca relative to the parent solution. Previous studies by Lemarchand et al. (2004) and Tang et al. (2008) showed that the Ca isotope composition (?44Ca) of calcite varies systematically with precipitation rate (R). The studies, however, obtained the opposite relationship between ?44Ca and R despite precipitating calcite at comparable pH, temperature, and Ca2+ as well as CO32- ion concentrations. There is evidence that Ca isotope variability in calcite reflects a mass dependence on reaction rate coefficients, but it is unknown if the mass dependence varies with solution chemistry. A potentially important difference between the studies is that Lemarchand et al. (2004) used parent solutions with higher ionic strength (0.85 versus 0.035). The purpose of this study is to determine the solution composition dependence, if any, on Ca isotope incorporation during calcite growth from aqueous solutions. For our experiments, a beaker containing 300 mL of CaCl2+NH4Cl solution was placed in a container filled with 1 atm of an N2+CO2 gas mixture. The degree of supersaturation with respect to calcite was controlled by the pCO2 of the gas, which was constantly replenished. As CO2 dissolved into solution, calcite crystals grew on the beaker walls. The pH of the solution was maintained by an autotitrator with NaOH as the titrant. Calcite precipitation rates are typically expressed in mmol/m2/hr, but this is difficult to quantify as the reactive surface area of the crystals is not controlled. Relative growth rates are determined by weighing the amount of calcite precipitated over the course of an entire experiment on a fixed surface area. This provides a first estimate of R and we are investigating methods for improving this aspect of the results. Experiments have yielded calcite crystals enriched in the light isotope of Ca relative to the parent solution by 0.4‰ to 1.6‰. Growth rates are estimated to range from 0.01 to 131 mmol/m2/hr, overlapping with the rates from Lemarchand et al. (2004) and Tang et al. (2008). In experiments where we use a solution with high ionic strength (0.7), we find that ?44Ca in calcite increases with increasing precipitation rate. This is in agreement with the findings of Lemarchand et al. (2004), although Ca isotopes are more fractionated in our experiments. We are exploring if a solution with lower ionic strength reproduces the results of Tang et al. (2008), in which ?44Ca in calcite decreased with increasing precipitation rate. Our hypothesis is that solution chemistry may play an important role in calcium isotope incorporation in calcite and we will present results using different parent solution compositions that explore this relationship. The ultimate goal is to understand the molecular scale controls on isotope separation at the mineral surface during crystal growth.

  7. Depositional facies and porosity development at Coon Creek Field (Newman [open quotes]Big Lime[close quotes]), Leslie County, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Moshier, S.O. ); Stamper, M.E. )

    1994-08-01

    Coon Creek field is a significant petroleum reservoir in the [open quotes]Big Lime[close quotes], Middle to Upper Mississippian Newman equivalent, in southeastern Kentucky. Initial production from select wells has exceeded 600 bbl of oil/day at drilling depths averaging 915 m (3300 ft). Facies patterns, dolomitization, porosity, and structure in this carbonate reservoir have been delineated by geophysical logs, subsurface mapping, and examination of cores and cuttings. The reservoir is set within a localized paleotopographic low on the unconformable surface of the underlying siliciclastic Borden Group; the Borden surface can express rapid relief of over a 10% grade within less than 300 m. Transgression across the exposed Borden surface resulted in the deposition of a complex system of carbonates lithofacies. Crinoidal dolostones, representing shallow subtidal skeletal bars and banks, form the basal Big Lime (1.5-6 m thick). They are overlain by a typical facies (30 m thick) of bryozoan grainstones/packstones, crinoid grainstones, and mixed skeletal wakestones/mudstones. The rybryozoanacies are characterized by unfragmented fenestrates cemented by radiaxial-fibrous calcite. Stratigraphic distributions indicate the bryozoan facies were broad buildups with crinoidal flank and cap deposits and muddy skeletal off-mount facies, similar to deeper water Waulsortian mounds in other basins. Pellet and ooid grainstones represent moderate- to high-energy subtidal shoal deposits that covered the mound complex. Hydrocarbon production is restricted in the field to the crinoid-bryozoan facies complex within the basal 30 m. Reservoir porosity and permeability have been enhanced by selective dolomitization of grainstones and fracturing related to postdepositional reactivation of basement faults.

  8. 21 CFR 182.2729 - Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated... Anticaking Agents § 182.2729 Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium...

  9. 21 CFR 182.2729 - Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated... Anticaking Agents § 182.2729 Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium...

  10. 21 CFR 582.2729 - Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. 582.2729...Anticaking Agents § 582.2729 Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium...

  11. 21 CFR 582.2729 - Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. 582.2729...Anticaking Agents § 582.2729 Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium...

  12. 21 CFR 582.2729 - Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. 582.2729...Anticaking Agents § 582.2729 Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium...

  13. 21 CFR 582.2729 - Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. 582.2729...Anticaking Agents § 582.2729 Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium...

  14. 21 CFR 182.2729 - Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated... Anticaking Agents § 182.2729 Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium...

  15. 21 CFR 582.2729 - Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. 582.2729...Anticaking Agents § 582.2729 Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium...

  16. 21 CFR 182.2729 - Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated... Anticaking Agents § 182.2729 Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium...

  17. 21 CFR 182.2729 - Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated... Anticaking Agents § 182.2729 Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium...

  18. Calcite Fluid Inclusion, Paragenetic, and Oxygen Isotopic Records of Thermal Event(s) at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    B. Peterman; R. Moscati

    2000-08-10

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is under consideration as a potential high-level radioactive waste repository situated above the water table in 12.7 Ma tuffs. A wealth of textural and geochemical evidence from low-temperature deposits of calcite and silica, indicates that their genesis is related to unsaturated zone (UZ) percolation and that the level of the potential repository has never been saturated. Nonetheless, some scientists contend that thermal waters have periodically risen to the surface depositing calcite and opal in the tuffs and at the surface. This hypothesis received some support in 1996 when two-phase fluid inclusions (FIs) with homogenization temperatures (Th) between 35 and 75 C were reported from UZ calcite. Calcite deposition likely followed closely on the cooling of the tuffs and continues into the present. The paragenetic sequence of calcite and silica in the UZ is early stage calcite followed by chalcedony and quartz, then calcite with local opal during middle and late stages. Four types of FIs are found in calcite assemblages: (1) all-liquid (L); (2) all-vapor (V); (3) 2-phase with large and variable V:L ratios; and (4) a few 2-phase with small and consistent V:L ratios. Late calcite contains no FI assemblages indicating elevated depositional temperatures. In early calcite, the Th of type 4 FIs ranges from {approx} 40 to {approx} 85 C. Such temperatures (sub-boiling) and the assemblage of FIs are consistent with deposition in the UZ. Some delta 18O values < 10 permil in early calcite support such temperatures. Type 4 FIs, however, seem to be restricted to the early calcite stage, during which either cooling of the tuffs or regional volcanism were possible heat sources. Nonetheless, at present there is no compelling evidence of upwelling water as a source for the calcite/opal deposits.

  19. Monitoring Performance of Geosynthetic-Reinforced and Lime-Treated Low-Volume Roads under Traffic Loading and Environmental Conditions

    E-print Network

    Zornberg, Jorge G.

    Monitoring Performance of Geosynthetic-Reinforced and Lime-Treated Low-Volume Roads under Traffic against environmental loading. This study evaluates the performance of geosynthetic-reinforced and lime cross sections, including control (unreinforced) sections, subbase lime-treated sections, base

  20. EFFECTS OF COMPOST AND LIME APPLICATION ON SOIL CHEMICAL PROPERTIES, SOIL MICROBIAL COMMUNITY, AND FUSARIUM WILT IN

    E-print Network

    Ma, Lena

    1 EFFECTS OF COMPOST AND LIME APPLICATION ON SOIL CHEMICAL PROPERTIES, SOIL MICROBIAL COMMUNITY the effect of compost and lime on soil chemical properties, the soil microbial community (including Fusarium yard waste and lime) were applied to plots in a randomized complete block design with three