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1

Alleviation of silver toxicity by calcium chloride (CaCl2) in Lemna gibba L.  

PubMed

The toxicity effects of silver (Ag) and the protective role of calcium chloride (CaCl2) was studied in Lemna gibba L. (L. gibba) plants. Silver speciation showed that silver toxicity in L. gibba culture medium can be attributed to free ionic Ag(+) concentration. Frond abscission, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and intracellular uptake of Ag(+) were investigated when L. gibba plants were exposed to AgNO3 concentrations (0.5, 1, 5, and 10 ?M) supplemented or not by 10 ?M CaCl2. An increase in frond abscission, intracellular ROS and intracellular uptake of Ag(+) were detected in L. gibba plants for all tested concentrations of AgNO3 after 24 h treatment. However, addition of 10 ?M CaCl2 to the L. gibba culture medium reduced the toxic effects of Ag by decreasing silver uptake into the plant and intracellular ROS formation. The results suggest that Ag-induced toxicity was attributed to Ag(+) accumulation and chloride was able to protect L. gibba plants against Ag toxicity by formation of complexes with Ag and then alleviation of the metal induced oxidative stress. PMID:23974355

Oukarroum, Abdallah; Gaudreault, Marie-Hélène; Pirastru, Laura; Popovic, Radovan

2013-10-01

2

Monodisperse Calcium Carbonate Microtablets Forming at 701C in Prerefrigerated CaCl2GelatinUrea Solutions  

E-print Network

Monodisperse Calcium Carbonate Microtablets Forming at 701C in Prerefrigerated CaCl2­Gelatin Calcium carbonate particles with a unique tablet shape were produced by simply aging the prerefrigerated, and powder X-ray diffraction. Introduction Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) is an important ma- terial of marine

Tas, A. Cuneyt

3

CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING IN CENTER, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING IN CENTER, CALCIUM CHLORIDE STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT WITH SA (SODA ASH) BUILDING IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Solvay Process Company, Calcium Chloride Plant, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

4

Calcium chloride electron injection/extraction layers in organic electronic devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nontoxic calcium chloride (CaCl2) was introduced into organic electronic devices as cathode buffer layer (CBL). The turn-on voltage and maximum luminance of organic light-emitting diode (OLED) with 1.5 nm CaCl2 was 3.5 V and 21 960 cd/m2, respectively. OLED with 1.5 nm CaCl2 possessed comparable electroluminescent characteristics to that of the commonly used LiF. Moreover, the performance of the organic photovoltaic device with 0.5 nm CaCl2 was comparable to that of the control device with LiF. Therefore, CaCl2 has the potential to be used as the CBL for organic electronic devices.

Qu, Bo; Gao, Zhi; Yang, Hongsheng; Xiao, Lixin; Chen, Zhijian; Gong, Qihuang

2014-01-01

5

CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING ON LEFT, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING ON LEFT, CALCIUM CHLORIDE STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT OF CENTER WITH TOP OF SA (SODA ASH) BUILDING IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Solvay Process Company, Calcium Chloride Plant, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

6

Electrochemical characteristics of uranium ions in calcium chloride hydrate melts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Redox reactions of tetravalent uranium ion in calcium chloride hexahydrate CaCl2·6H2O melt ([CaCl2] = 6.9 M) were studied electrochemically and spectrophotometrically. Cyclic voltammograms in CaCl2·6H2O melt containing UCl4 were measured with a pyro-graphite carbon working electrode. A cathodic peak corresponding to the reduction of U4+ to U3+ was observed, and it was found to be controlled by the diffusion of U4+ in the melt. Although the concentration of H+ in the melt was negligible, the redox reaction of U4+ was observed without the disturbance of hydrolysis. The formal potential of the U4+|U3+ couple was determined to be -0.483 ± 0.005 V vs. NHE. The diffusion coefficient of U4+ in CaCl2·6H2O melt was determined to be 1.5 × 10-7 cm2 s-1 at 300 K. The anodic peak in the voltammogram was attributable to the oxidation of U4+ to UO22+, which was identified by using a technique based on the combination of electrolysis and spectrophotometry. Influences of the water content on chemical status of uranium ions in CaCl2 hydrate melts were studied.

Uehara, A.; Fujii, T.; Nagai, T.; Shirai, O.; Sato, N.; Yamana, H.

2010-03-01

7

Comparison of calcium chloride and calcium lactate effectiveness in maintaining shelf stability and quality of fresh-cut cantaloupes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fresh-cut cantaloupe cylinders were dipped for 1 min in 2.5% solutions of either calcium chloride (CaCl2) at ?25°C or calcium lactate at ?25 and 60°C. Firmness, microbiological (total plate count, yeast and mold, and microaerophilic bacteria) and sensory characteristics, respiration (CO2) and ethylene (C2H4) production were evaluated during 12 days storage at 5°C and 95% relative humidity air. Both calcium

Irene Luna-Guzmán; Diane M Barrett

2000-01-01

8

Synthesis and water sorption properties of a new composite “CaCl 2 confined into SBA15 pores”  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composite CaCl2@SBA-15 with the mass ratio Ca\\/Si=0.58 has been synthesized via impregnation of nano-structured mesoporous silica SBA-15 with saturated aqueous solution of calcium chloride. The material was studied by methods of X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, infrared spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption and thermal analysis. It was shown that calcium chloride is located basically in the pores of silica. The isotherms

I. V. Ponomarenko; I. S. Glaznev; A. V. Gubar; Yu. I. Aristov; S. D. Kirik

2010-01-01

9

Comparison of calcium chloride and calcium lactate effectiveness in maintaining shelf stability and quality of fresh-cut cantaloupes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fresh-cut cantaloupe cylinders were dipped for 1 min in 2.5% solutions of either calcium chloride (CaCl2 )a t 25°C or calcium lactate at 25 and 60°C. Firmness, microbiological (total plate count, yeast and mold, and microaerophilic bacteria) and sensory characteristics, respiration (CO2) and ethylene (C2H4) production were evaluated during 12 days storage at 5°C and 95% relative humidity air. Both

Irene Luna-Guzman; Diane M. Barrett

2000-01-01

10

Upgrading Titanium Ore Through Selective Chlorination Using Calcium Chloride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To develop a simple and effective process for upgrading low-grade titanium ore (ilmenite, mainly FeTiO3), a new selective chlorination process based on the use of calcium chloride (CaCl2) as the chlorine source was investigated in this study. Titanium ore and a titanium ore/CaCl2 mixture were placed in two separate crucibles inside a gas-tight quartz tube that was then positioned in a horizontal furnace. In the experiments, the titanium ore in the two crucibles reacted with either HCl produced from CaCl2 or CaCl2 itself at 1100 K (827 °C), leading to the selective removal of the iron present in the titanium ore as iron chlorides [FeCl x (l,g) ( x = 2, 3)]. Various kinds of titanium ores produced in different countries were used as feedstock, and the influence of the particle size and atmosphere on the selective chlorination was investigated. Under certain conditions, titanium dioxide (TiO2) with purity of about 97 pct was directly obtained in a single step from titanium ore containing 51 pct TiO2. Thus, selective chlorination is a feasible method for producing high purity titanium dioxide from low-grade titanium ore.

Kang, Jungshin; Okabe, Toru H.

2013-06-01

11

Raman spectroscopic studies of chemical speciation in calcium chloride melts  

SciTech Connect

Raman spectroscopy was applied to CaCl2 melts at 900 degrees C under both non-electrolyzed and electrolyzed conditions. The later used titania cathodes supplied by TIMET, Inc. and graphite anodes. Use of pulse-gating to collect the Raman spectra successfully eliminated any interference from black-body radiation and other stray light. The spectrum of molten CaCl2 exhibited no distinct, resolvable bands that could be correlated with a calcium chloride complex similar to MgCl42- in MgCl2 melts. Rather, the low frequency region of the spectrum was dominated by a broad “tail” arising from collective oscillations of both charge and mass in the molten salt “network.” Additions of both CaO and Ca at concentrations of a percent or two resulted in no new features in the spectra. Addition of CO2, both chemically and via electrolysis at concentrations dictated by stability and solubility at 900 degrees C and 1 bar pressure, also produced no new bands that could be correlated with either dissolved CO2 or the carbonate ion. These results indicated that Raman spectroscopy, at least under the conditions evaluated in the research, was not well suited for following the reactions and coordination chemistry of calcium ions, nor species such as dissolved metallic Ca and CO2 that are suspected to impact current efficiency in titanium electrolysis cells using molten CaCl2. Raman spectra of TIMET titania electrodes were successfully obtained as a function of temperature up to 900 degrees C, both in air and in-situ in CaCl2 melts. However, spectra of these electrodes could only be obtained when the material was in the unreduced state. When reduced, either with hydrogen or within an electrolysis cell, the resulting electrodes exhibited no measurable Raman bands under the conditions used in this work.

Windisch, Charles F.; Lavender, Curt A.

2005-02-01

12

7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture...Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the...

2011-01-01

13

7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture...Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the...

2010-01-01

14

7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture...Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the...

2014-01-01

15

7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture...Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the...

2012-01-01

16

7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture...Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the...

2013-01-01

17

21 CFR 582.6193 - Calcium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.6193 Section 582.6193...GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6193 Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

2010-04-01

18

The Effect of Calcium Chloride on Growth, Photosynthesis, and Antioxidant Responses of Zoysia japonica under Drought Conditions  

PubMed Central

Few attempts have been made to study the alleviating effects of signal molecules on zoysiagrass (Zoysiajaponica) under drought stress. Calcium chloride has been shown to ameliorate the adverse effects of drought stress on many plants. It is necessary to investigate how to enhance drought tolerance of zoysiagrass using calcium chloride. The study elucidated the effects of calcium chloride on zoysiagrass under drought conditions by investigating the following parameters: biomass, chlorophyll (Chl) content, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), chlorophyll fluorescence, antioxidant enzymes, proline content, and malondialdehyde (MDA) content. Experimental conditions consisted of an aqueous CaCl2 solution at 5, 10, and 20 mM sprayed on zoysiagrass leaves for 3 d, following by an inducement of drought conditions by withholding water for 16 d. Under drought conditions, all CaCl2 pretreatments were found to increase the above-ground fresh biomass, as well as below-ground fresh and dry biomass. The resulting Chl (a, b, a+b) contents of the 5 and 10 mM CaCl2 pretreatment groups were higher than those of the control. In the later stages of drought conditions, the chlorophyll fluorescence parameter Fv/Fm was higher in leaves treated with 10 mM CaCl2 than in the leaves of the other two treatment groups. Zoysiagrass pretreated with 10 mM CaCl2 possessed both the maximum observed Pn and antioxidant enzyme activities. Meanwhile, lower MDA and proline contents were recorded in the plants pretreated with 5 and 10 mM CaCl2 under drought conditions. As a whole, the drought tolerance of zoysiagrass was improved to some extent by the application of a moderate calcium concentration. PMID:23844172

Xu, Chengbin; Li, Xuemei; Zhang, Lihong

2013-01-01

19

The role of temperature and CaCl2 in activated sludge dewatering under hydrothermal treatment.  

PubMed

Dewatering is important for activated sludge disposal. The dewaterability of activated sludge was first deteriorated and then ameliorated when the temperature was raised from 100 to 200 °C with a threshold temperature of 130 °C under hydrothermal treatment. Calcium chloride assisted hydrothermal treatment to improve the dewaterability of activated sludge, and eliminated the threshold temperature at as less as 20 mg/g dry solid (DS). An increase in temperature and dosage of CaCl2 till 60 mg/g DS allowed a continuous improvement of dewaterability. It is found that the charge neutralization resulted from biopolymers solubilization dominated the dewaterability evolution below 160 °C, while the decomposition of water-binding components played a more important role at higher temperatures. The variation of molecular weight of soluble protein and polysaccharides implies that CaCl2 interacted with the component of sludge and altered the constituent during the hydrothermal treatment. The integration of soluble biopolymers into the floc matrix by CaCl2 contributed to the compacted floc structure and thus improved the dewaterability. This work presents an insight into the floc variation in both the composition and structure associated with the dewaterability and offers a new understanding to the role of temperature and CaCl2 in hydrothermal treatment on activated sludge dewatering. PMID:24355330

Yu, Jie; Guo, Minhui; Xu, Xinhua; Guan, Baohong

2014-03-01

20

21 CFR 172.330 - Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt. 172.330 Section 172.330 Food and...Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt. The food additive calcium chloride double salt of calcium pantothenate may be safely...

2014-04-01

21

21 CFR 172.330 - Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt. 172.330 Section 172.330 Food and...Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt. The food additive calcium chloride double salt of calcium pantothenate may be safely...

2013-04-01

22

21 CFR 172.330 - Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt. 172.330 Section 172.330 Food and...Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt. The food additive calcium chloride double salt of calcium pantothenate may be safely...

2012-04-01

23

Calcium chloride rhenate(VII) dihydrate.  

PubMed

The crystal structure of calcium chloride rhenate(VII) dihydrate, CaCl(ReO4).2H2O, investigated at 85 K, consists of calcium cations, chloride anions, rhenate(VII) anions and water molecules. In the nearly tetrahedral rhenate(VII) anion, all constituent atoms lie on special positions of m2m (Re) and m (O) site symmetries. The Cl- anion and water O atom lie on special positions of m2m and 2 site symmetries, respectively. The Ca2+ ion, also on a special position (m2m), is eight-coordinated in a distorted square-antiprismatic coordination mode. The crystal has a layered structure stabilized by Ca-O coordination bonds and O-H...Cl hydrogen bonds. PMID:17762100

Jarek, Urszula; Ho?y?ska, Ma?gorzata; Rlepokura, Katarzyna; Lis, Tadeusz

2007-09-01

24

Accelerating the sludge disintegration potential of a novel bacterial strain Planococcus jake 01 by CaCl2 induced deflocculation.  

PubMed

The present study investigates the impacts of phase separated disintegration through CaCl2 (calcium chloride) mediated biosurfactant producing bacterial pretreatment. In the initial phase of the study, the flocs were disintegrated (deflocculation) with 0.06g/gSS of CaCl2. In the subsequent phase, the sludge biomass was disintegrated (cell disintegration) through potent biosurfactant producing new novel bacteria, Planococcus jake 01. The pretreatment showed that suspended solids reduction and chemical oxygen demand solubilization for deflocculated - bacterially pretreated sludge was found to be 17.14% and 14.14% which were comparatively higher than flocculated sludge (treated with bacteria alone). The biogas yield potential of deflocculated - bacterially pretreated, flocculated, and control sludges were observed to be 0.322(L/gVS), 0.225(L/gVS) and 0.145(L/gVS) respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first study to present the thorough knowledge of biogas production potential through a novel phase separated biosurfactant bacterial pretreatment. PMID:25459848

Kavitha, S; Saranya, T; Kaliappan, S; Adish Kumar, S; Yeom, Ick Tae; Rajesh Banu, J

2014-10-31

25

CHLORIDE, IN CALCIUM, IN pH ARSENIC, IN  

E-print Network

CHLORIDE, IN CALCIUM, IN pH ARSENIC, IN MILLIGRAMS PER LITER MILLIGRAMS PER LITER MICROGRAMS PER concentrations, calcium concentrations, arsenic concentrations and pH after 100,000 years of simulated ground-water flow and reaction. View is from the northwest looking to the southeast. CHLORIDE, IN CALCIUM, IN p

26

Laboratory studies of the low-temperature deliquescence of calcium chloride salts: Relevance to aqueous solutions on Mars and in the Antarctic Dry Valleys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is significant interest in the possible existence of liquid water on current Mars. This water would likely exist as a brine in order to be stable on Mars today. It has been proposed that soil salts could form aqueous solutions through either the melting of ice by low-eutectic salts, or by the deliquescence of hygroscopic salts present in the Martian soil. The focus thus far has largely been on perchlorate species, which can melt ice at temperatures as low as 206 K and can deliquesce at relative humidity values as low as 38% RH. A Mars-relevant salt that has been neglected thus far is calcium chloride (CaCl2). Calcium has been reported to be an abundant cation at the Phoenix landing site and Mars Science Laboratory instruments have recently identified calcium as well. Simulations suggest subsurface CaCl2 is an ideal candidate to produce brines with seasonality consistent with observed recurring slope lineae (RSL) (Chevrier et al., 2012). Finally, the only terrestrial site where RSL-like features have been observed (near Don Juan Pond in the Antarctic Dry Valleys) contains abundant CaCl2. These seasonal slope streaks are thought to form when CaCl2 in the soil deliquesces due to contact with atmospheric water vapor (Dickson et al., 2013). It is important to understand how this CaCl2 interacts with water vapor at low temperatures relevant to Mars and the Martian analog sites. Here we use a Raman microscope and environmental cell to monitor the low-temperature (223 - 273 K) deliquescence (solid to aqueous phase transition) and efflorescence (aqueous to solid phase transition) of three hydration states of CaCl2 (dihydrate, tetrahydrate, hexahydrate). We have found that the deliquescence relative humidity (DRH) increases with increasing hydration state, which is an expected result. Average DRH values over the temperature range studied are 20.0 × 2.6% RH for the dihydrate, 31.8 × 6.3% RH for the tetrahydrate and 60.7 × 1.6% RH for the hexahydrate. Once the aqueous solution has formed, efflorescence (recrystallization) of the salt is kinetically hindered and supersaturated solutions can exist at humidities far below the DRH. Regardless of temperature or initial hydration state of the solid salt, we do not observe efflorescence of the aqueous solutions to occur until single digit RH values are reached. We show here that calcium chloride is at least as deliquescent as many perchlorate salts, and that solutions of calcium chloride are even more difficult to recrystallize once a brine solution has formed. These experimental results will assist with interpretation of observations of deliquescence in the Antarctic Dry Valleys and will help us understand potential liquid water formation on Mars. In addition to formation of brines through melting, deliquescence of salts such as CaCl2 is a reasonable mechanism for formation of aqueous solutions on current Mars.

Gough, R. V.; Chevrier, V.; Tolbert, M. A.

2013-12-01

27

40 CFR 415.40 - Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...true Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.40 Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory....

2010-07-01

28

40 CFR 415.40 - Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...true Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.40 Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory....

2011-07-01

29

40 CFR 415.40 - Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...true Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.40 Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory....

2014-07-01

30

40 CFR 415.40 - Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.40 Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory....

2012-07-01

31

40 CFR 415.40 - Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...true Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.40 Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory....

2013-07-01

32

POSTHARVEST CALCIUM CHLORIDE DIPS OF WHOLE TOMATO FRUIT REDUCE POSTHARVEST DECAY UNDER COMMERCIAL CONDITIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Previous research showed that mature green tomato fruit dipped 1 to 4 minutes in a 1% CaCl2 solutions before storage had significantly increased peel calcium content and reduced postharvest decay. The present experiments, conducted over 3-day periods (reps), evaluate treatment effectiveness under c...

33

Calcium chloride penetrates plant cuticles via aqueous pores  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Penetration of calcium chloride across astomatous cuticular membranes (CMs) isolated from leaves of Pyrus communis L. has been studied. Penetration was a first-order process when calcium chloride concentrations ranged from 2?g l?1 to 10?g l?1. Rate constants were increased 10-fold by adding wetting agents but they did not depend on temperature. The accelerators\\u000a tributyl phosphate and diethyl sebacate had

Jörg Schönherr

2000-01-01

34

21 CFR 172.330 - Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.330 Calcium pantothenate...chloride double salt. The food additive calcium chloride double...uses in accordance with good manufacturing practice and under the following...conditions: (a) The food additive is of the d...

2011-04-01

35

21 CFR 172.330 - Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.330 Calcium pantothenate...chloride double salt. The food additive calcium chloride double...uses in accordance with good manufacturing practice and under the following...conditions: (a) The food additive is of the d...

2010-04-01

36

Preparation and Partial Characterization of Eggshell Calcium Chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

To minimize eggshell waste, calcium in eggshells was extracted as calcium chloride using 4% (w\\/v) HCl solution for an extraction period of 3 hs with the ratio of eggshell to HCl being 1:15 (w\\/v). After hydrolysis, the residues were removed by centrifugation at 1774 × g for 10 min, and the solution was heated to 110–115°C until dried, this gave

Wunwiboon Garnjanagoonchorn; Alongkot Changpuak

2007-01-01

37

New uses for calcium chloride solution as a mounting medium.  

PubMed

Fresh cross sections of stems (Psilotum nudum, Coleus blumei, and Pelargonium peltatum) and roots (Setcreasea purpurea) 120 microns thick were fixed in FPA50 (formalin: propionic acid: 50% ethanol, 5:5:90, v/v) for 24 hr and stored in 70% ethanol. The sections were transferred to water and then to 1% phloroglucin in 20% calcium chloride solution plus either hydrochloric, nitric, or lactic acid in the following ratios of phloroglucin-CaCl2 solution:acid: 25:4, 20:2, or 15:5. The sections were mounted on slides either in one of the three mixtures or in fresh 20% calcium chloride solution. A rapid reaction of the acid-phloroglucin with lignin produced a deep red color in tracheary elements and an orange-red color in sclerenchyma. Fixed and stored leaf pieces from Nymphaea odorata were autoclaved in lactic acid, washed in two changes of 95% ethanol, transferred to water, and treated with the three acid-phloroglucin-calcium chloride mixtures. The abundant astrosclereids stained an orange-red color similar to that of sclerenchyma in the sections. In addition, a new method is reported for specifically staining lignified tissues. When sections or leaf pieces are stained in aqueous 0.05% toluidine blue O, then placed in 20% calcium chloride solution, all tissues destain except those with lignified or partially lignified cell walls. Thus, toluidine blue O applied as described becomes a reliable specific test for lignin comparable to the acid-phloroglucin test. PMID:1377501

Herr, J M

1992-01-01

38

Influence of calcium chloride on systemic acid-base status and calcium metabolism in dairy heifers.  

PubMed

Twenty heifers (12 Holsteins and 8 Jerseys) ranging from 15 to 22 mo of age (SD = 2.2 mo) and weighing 271 to 486 kg (SD = 72 kg) were offered diets containing 0, .5, 1, and 1.5% CaCl2 for 3 wk followed by a 1-wk readjustment period to evaluate the effect of CaCl2 on acid-base status, diuresis, and Ca metabolism. These evaluations were conducted under conditions simulating changes in dietary cation-anion balance that potentially can be utilized as prophylaxis for parturient paresis during transition from dry cow period to lactation. Free proton concentration in blood increased and blood bicarbonate decreased with increasing dietary CaCl2. Plasma protein and blood hematocrit were unaffected by dietary CaCl2. Plasma Ca and urinary hydroxyproline excretion also were unaffected, but urinary Ca excretion rose with increasing dietary CaCl2, possibly reflecting either increased bone mobilization or intestinal absorption of Ca. Elevating dietary Cl increased both plasma Cl and urinary Cl excretion. During the readjustment period, all differences caused by CaCl2 disappeared. Based on the responses of acid-base status and Ca metabolism to the different dietary concentrations of CaCl2, we suggest that feeding 1% CaCl2 to dry cows for 3 wk prepartum could be a suitable method to prevent parturient paresis without causing detrimental acid-base disturbances. PMID:1860981

Tucker, W B; Xin, Z; Hemken, R W

1991-04-01

39

Cardioprotective activity of alcoholic extract of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers in calcium chloride-induced cardiac arrhythmia in rats  

PubMed Central

The present study investigated the antiarrhythmic activity of alcoholic extract of Tinospora cordifolia (T. cordifolia) in CaCl2 induced arrhythmia. CaCl2 (25 mg/kg) was administered by intravenous infusion (iv) to produce arrhythmia in rats. The animals were then treated with T. cordifolia extract (150, 250, and 450 mg/kg) and verapamil (5 mg/kg,iv). Lead II electrocardiogram was monitored. Plasma calcium, sodium and potassium levels were measured. In CaCl2 induced arrhythmia, heart rate was decreased by 41.10%, T. cordifolia at 150, 300, and 450 mg/kg decreased the heart rate by 26.30%, 29.16%, and 38.29%, respectively, and verapamil reduced the heart rate by 9.70% compared to the normal group. The PQRST waves were normalized and atrial and ventricular fibrillation was controlled in rats treated with verapamil and T. cordifolia. CaCl2 increased calcium and sodium levels and decreased potassium levels in blood. T. cordifolia dose-dependently decreased calcium and sodium levels and increased potassium levels. Hence, T. cordifolia can be used in antiarrhythmic clinical settings and beneficial in atrial and ventricular fibrillation and flutter and may be indicated in ventricular tachyarrhythmia. PMID:23554702

Sharma, Ashish Kumar; Kishore, Kunal; Sharma, Divya; Srinivasan, B.P; Agarwal, Shyam Sunder; Sharma, Ashok; Singh, Santosh Kumar; Gaur, Samir; Jatav, Vijay Singh

2011-01-01

40

Acoustic attenuation due to transformation twins in CaCl2: Analogue behaviour for stishovite  

E-print Network

Acoustic attenuation due to transformation twins in CaCl2: Analogue behaviour for stishovite: Pseudoproper ferroelastic phase transition Ferroelastic twin walls Stishovite CaCl2 Acoustic attenuation a b of ferroelastic twin walls in the orthorhombic phase, the transition in polycrystalline CaCl2 has been examined

Cambridge, University of

41

Author's personal copy Submicron spheres of amorphous calcium phosphate forming in a stirred  

E-print Network

, Catalog No: C79), magnesium chloride hexahydrate (N99.5%, MgCl2·6- H2O, Fisher, No: AC19753), potassium.1. Materials and solution preparation Calcium chloride dihydrate (N99.5%, CaCl2·2H2O, Fisher Scientific chloride (N99.5%, KCl, Sigma, No: P3911), sodium hydrogen carbonate (N99.9%, NaHCO3, Merck, No: 106329

Tas, A. Cuneyt

42

Cathodic behavior of molten CaCl2-CaO and CaCl2-NaCl-CaO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cathodic behavior of molten CaCl2, CaCl2-CaO and equimolar CaCl2-NaCl-CaO was studied by cyclic voltammograms and constant potential polarization at temperatures of 1123 to 1173 K on molybdenum and titanium electrodes. The diffusion coefficient of Ca2+ (CaO) in molten CaCl2-CaO was calculated from the linear relationship between the square root of scan rate and the peak current density. The deposition potentials and the potential temperature coefficient of CaO in molten CaCl2-0.5mol%CaO and CaCl2-NaCl-0.5mol%CaO were also obtained from their cyclic voltammograms. The result shows that CaO is more easily reduced than CaCl2. The addition of NaCl in molten CaCl2-CaO induces the underpotential electrodeposition of CaO.

Wang, Shu-Lan; Wang, Wei; Li, Shi-Chao; Cao, Shan-Hui

2010-12-01

43

Effect of pre-harvest calcium chloride applications on fruit calcium level and post-harvest anthracnose disease of papaya  

E-print Network

Effect of pre-harvest calcium chloride applications on fruit calcium level and post October 2013 Keywords: Papaya Anthracnose Calcium Disease incidence Disease severity a b s t r a c losses. The goal of this research was to use pre-harvest calcium applications to reduce anthracnose

Biggs, Alan R.

44

Uptake of chloride and carbonate ions by calcium monosulfoaluminate hydrate  

SciTech Connect

Decommissioning of old nuclear reactors may produce waste streams containing chlorides and carbonates, including radioactive {sup 36}Cl{sup -} and {sup 14}CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}. Their insolubilization by calcium monosulfoaluminate hydrate was investigated. Carbonates were readily depleted from the solution, giving at thermodynamic equilibrium monocarboaluminate, monocarboaluminate + calcite, or calcite only, depending on the initial ratio between the anion and calcium monosulfoaluminate hydrate. Chloride ions reacted more slowly and were precipitated as Kuzel's salt, Kuzel's and Friedel's salts, or Friedel's salt only. Rietveld refinement of X-Ray powder diffraction patterns was successfully used to quantify the phase distributions, which were compared to thermodynamic calculations. Moreover, analysing the lattice parameters of Kuzel's salt as a function of its chloride content showed the occurrence of a restricted solid solution towards the sulfate side with general formula 3CaO{center_dot}Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}{center_dot}xCaCl{sub 2}{center_dot}(1 - x)CaSO{sub 4}{center_dot}(12 - 2x){center_dot}H{sub 2}O (0.36 {<=} x {<=} 0.50).

Mesbah, Adel [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, CEA DEN/DTCD/SPDE, F-30207 Bagnols sur Ceze (France); Clermont Universite, ENSCCF, Laboratoire des Materiaux Inorganiques, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); Cau-dit-Coumes, Celine, E-mail: celine.cau-dit-coumes@cea.fr [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, CEA DEN/DTCD/SPDE, F-30207 Bagnols sur Ceze (France); Renaudin, Guillaume [Clermont Universite, ENSCCF, Laboratoire des Materiaux Inorganiques, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); CNRS, UMR 6002, F-63177 Aubiere (France); Frizon, Fabien [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, CEA DEN/DTCD/SPDE, F-30207 Bagnols sur Ceze (France); Leroux, Fabrice [Clermont Universite, Universite Blaise Pascal, Laboratoire des Materiaux Inorganiques, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); CNRS, UMR 6002, F-63177 Aubiere (France)

2012-08-15

45

Calcium Influx Requirement for Human Neutrophil Chemotaxis: Inhibition by Lanthanum Chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium fluxes of human neutrophils measured in the presence of chemotactically active serum showed a marked stimulation of calcium-45 uptake from the media. Chemotactically inactive serum did not cause an influx of calcium. The magnitude of the calcium influx due to activated serum is sufficient to trigger contractile systems previously described in muscle cells. Lanthanum chloride inhibited the chemotactic response

Mark M. Boucek; Ralph Snyderman

1976-01-01

46

Histological effects of calcium chloride in stored apples  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mature apples, Malus domestica Borkh., cv. 'Golden Delicious' were immersed for 2 min in 0, 0.14, 0.27, or 0.41 mol L-1 (0, 2%, 4%, or 6%, respectively) aqueous solutions (w/v) of CaCl2 at 0 or 68.95 Kpa, and stored at 0°C. Histological samples of peel/cortex were taken at harvest and at four month...

47

Acquired perforating calcific collagenosis after topical calcium chloride exposure.  

PubMed

A 24-year-old healthy man presented with a 6-week history of numerous umbilicated coalescing erythematous papules with some scale and crust on his anterior medial thighs. The eruption began 1 to 2 weeks after he spilled calcium chloride rock salts on his pants while salting the sidewalk during a snow storm. The salts dissolved and remained in contact with his skin for at least 4 hours until he was able to change clothes. A skin biopsy shows thick and thin collagen fibers with partial calcification in the papillary and upper reticular dermis associated with a sparse infiltrate of neutrophils, lymphocytes and mononuclear histiocytes. There are foci of transepidermal elimination of calcified fibers with adjacent epidermal hyperplasia and ortho- and parakeratosis. Von Kossa stain highlights calcification of the fibers, and trichrome stain confirms the fibers are collagen. A Verhoeff-van Gieson stain shows no abnormality of elastic fibers. The patient was treated with topical betametasone diproprionate cream twice daily for 3 weeks, as well as a short course of oral levofloxacin and topical gentamicin cream. The lesions resolved over 3 weeks with residual scarring. We report a unique case of acquired perforating calcific collagenosis secondary to topical calcium chloride exposure. PMID:19614988

Patel, Rishi R; Zirvi, Monib; Walters, Ruth F; Kamino, Hideko

2010-05-01

48

Selected Calcium Salt Formulations: Interactions between Spray Deposit Characteristics and Ca Penetration with Consequences for Rain-Induced Wash-Off  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of two ethoxylated rapeseed oils (RSO) as surfactants for foliar-applied calcium chloride CaCl2 and calcium acetate Ca(CH3COO)2 on deposit characteristics, penetration, and calcium (Ca) residues after rainfall was investigated in columnar apple trees (CAT, Malus domestica Borkh.) and apple seedlings. Irrespective of salt and apple variety, both surfactants enhanced droplet spreading and led to a greater area covered

Thorsten Kraemer; Mauricio Hunsche; Georg Noga

2009-01-01

49

Removal of chloride from MSWI fly ash.  

PubMed

The high levels of alkali chloride and soluble metal salts present in MSWI fly ash is worth noting for their impact on the environment. In addition, the recycling or reuse of fly ash has become an issue because of limited landfill space. The chloride content in fly ash limits its application as basis for construction materials. Water-soluble chlorides such as potassium chloride (KCl), sodium chloride (NaCl), and calcium chloride hydrate (CaCl(2) · 2H(2)O) in fly ash are easily washed away. However, calcium chloride hydroxide (Ca(OH)Cl) might not be easy to leach away at room temperature. The roasting and washing-flushing processes were applied to remove chloride content in this study. Additionally, air and CO(2) were introduced into the washing process to neutralize the hazardous nature of chlorides. In comparison with the water flushing process, the roasting process is more efficient in reducing the process of solid-liquid separation and drying for the reuse of Cl-removed fly ash particles. In several roasting experiments, the removal of chloride content from fly ash at 1050°C for 3h showed the best results (83% chloride removal efficiency). At a solid to liquid ratio of 1:10 the water-flushing process can almost totally remove water-soluble chloride (97% chloride removal efficiency). Analyses of mineralogical change also prove the efficiency of the fly ash roasting and washing mechanisms for chloride removal. PMID:22947185

Chen, Wei-Sheng; Chang, Fang-Chih; Shen, Yun-Hwei; Tsai, Min-Shing; Ko, Chun-Han

2012-10-30

50

Effects of postmortem calcium chloride injection on meat palatability traits of strip loin steaks from cattle supplemented with or without zilpaterol hydrochloride.  

PubMed

An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride mM supplementation (ZH; 8.3 mg/kg on a DM basis for 20 d) and calcium chloride injection [CaCl(2), 200 at 5% (wt/wt) at 72 h postmortem] on palatability traits of beef (Bos taurus) strip loin steaks. Select (USDA) strip loins were obtained from control (no ZH = 19) and ZH-supplemented carcasses (n = 20). Right and left sides were selected alternatively to serve as a control (no INJ) or CaCl(2)-injected (INJ) and stored at 4°C. Before injecting the subprimals (72 h postmortem), 2 steaks were cut for proximate, sarcomere length, and myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI) analyses. At 7 d postmortem each strip loin was portioned into steaks, vacuum packaged, and aged for the appropriate period for Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF; 7, 14, 21, and 28 d postmortem), trained sensory analysis (14 and 21 d postmortem), purge loss (7 d), and MFI (3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 d postmortem). Results indicated steaks from both ZH supplementation and INJ had reduced WBSF values as days of postmortem aging increased. The WBSF values of ZH steaks were greater (P < 0.05) than no ZH steaks at each postmortem aging period. The INJ steaks had lower WBSF values (P < 0.05) than non-injected steaks. A greater percentage (91 vs. 71%) of steaks had WBSF values < 4.6 kg from steers with no ZH supplementation at 7 d postmortem, but the percentage did not differ (P > 0.05) due to ZH at 14, 21, or 28 d or due to INJ at any aging period. Trained panelists rated tenderness less in ZH steaks than steaks with no ZH at 14 d and 21 d. However, INJ improved (P < 0.05) the tenderness ratings and flavor intensity of the trained panelists, compared with their non-injected cohorts at 21 d. Zilpaterol hydrochloride supplementation reduced (P < 0.05) MFI values, but INJ resulted in greater (P < 0.05) MFI values compared with no INJ. Subprimals from ZH and INJ showed greater purge loss (P < 0.05). Although no interactions were found with ZH and CaCl(2), injecting USDA Select strip loins from ZH-fed cattle can help reduce the normal WBSF variation as it does in steaks from non-ZH-fed cattle. PMID:22851240

Rodas-González, A; Pflanzer, S B; Garmyn, A J; Martin, J N; Brooks, J C; Knobel, S M; Johnson, B J; Starkey, J D; Rathmann, R J; de Felicio, P E; Streeter, M N; Yates, D A; Hodgen, J M; Hutcheson, J P; Miller, M F

2012-10-01

51

Mineral Trioxide Aggregate Mixed with Normal Saline, Calcium Chloride or KY Jelly as Apical Plug in Simulated Open Apices: An In vitro Microleakage Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) mixed with normal saline has short working time, delayed setting time, and poor consistency when used as an apical plug. A preliminary study suggested that substituting normal saline with KY Jelly or 5% calcium chloride (CaCl2) as a vehicle expedites the setting time of MTA. The present in vitro study compared the microleakage of ProRoot MTA mixed with normal saline (MS) to that of ProRoot MTA mixed with KY Jelly and/or 5% CaCl2 in simulated canals with open apices. Materials and methods: Thirty six single-rooted extracted human teeth were cleaned and shaped with ProTaper rotary system to make 36 standardized artificially created open apices. Teeth were randomly divided into three experimental groups (n=10) and two control groups (n=3). In group 1, MTA was mixed with normal saline (MS) and placed into the canals to form 4 to 5 mm apical plugs. In group 2, MTA was mixed with 5% CaCl2 (MC) and in group 3, MTA was mixed with KY Jelly (MK). The other two groups served as positive and negative controls. The remaining canal spaces in the experimental groups were backfilled with thermoplasticized gutta-percha without sealer. Dye penetration and clearing was used to evaluate the sealing ability of each group. The samples were then examined under stereomicroscope to measure the microleakage of different MTA mixtures in mm. Data were statistically analyzed using One-Sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for determination of normal distribution and then by one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s tests to detect any significance. Results: Positive and negative controls responded as expected. The MS group showed the least mean dye penetration value. There was a significant difference between MS with other groups (P<0.05) but no difference was found between MC and MK groups. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this in vitro study, we can conclude that among these three vehicles, normal saline mixed with ProRoot MTA has the least amount of microleakage in canals with open apices. PMID:24396375

Mehrvarzfar, Payman; Akhavan, Hengameh; Ghasemi, Sara; Khodaei, Fatemeh; Tour Savadkouhi, Sohrab; Dianat, Omid

2014-01-01

52

Composite reactants of calcium chloride combined with functional carbon materials for chemical heat pumps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enhancement of heat transfer in the reactor bed is one of the most important subjects for developing gas–solid chemical heat pumps. This study deals with composite reactants combining calcium chloride with expanded graphite (EG) and activated carbon fiber (ACF) to promote the reaction between calcium chloride and working fluid of methanol. We measured variations of effective thermal conductivity as well

Keiko Fujioka; Kensuke Hatanaka; Yushi Hirata

2008-01-01

53

Comparative proteomic and metabolomic analyses reveal mechanisms of improved cold stress tolerance in bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.) by exogenous calcium.  

PubMed

As an important second messenger, calcium is involved in plant cold stress response, including chilling (<20 °C) and freezing (<0 °C). In this study, exogenous application of calcium chloride (CaCl2 ) improved both chilling and freezing stress tolerances, while ethylene glycol-bis-(?-aminoethyl) ether-N,N,N,N-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) reversed CaCl2 effects in bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.). Physiological analyses showed that CaCl2 treatment alleviated the reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst and cell damage triggered by chilling stress, via activating antioxidant enzymes, non-enzymatic glutathione antioxidant pool, while EGTA treatment had the opposite effects. Additionally, comparative proteomic analysis identified 51 differentially expressed proteins that were enriched in redox, tricarboxylicacid cycle, glycolysis, photosynthesis, oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, and amino acid metabolisms. Consistently, 42 metabolites including amino acids, organic acids, sugars, and sugar alcohols were regulated by CaCl2 treatment under control and cold stress conditions, further confirming the common modulation of CaCl2 treatment in carbon metabolites and amino acid metabolism. Taken together, this study reported first evidence of the essential and protective roles of endogenous and exogenous calcium in bermudagrass response to cold stress, partially via activation of the antioxidants and modulation of several differentially expressed proteins and metabolic homeostasis in the process of cold acclimation. PMID:24428341

Shi, Haitao; Ye, Tiantian; Zhong, Bao; Liu, Xun; Chan, Zhulong

2014-11-01

54

Structures and spectroscopic characterization of calcium chloride-nicotinamide, -isonicotinamide, -picolinamide and praseodymium bromide-nicotinamide complexes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The coordination structures formed by calcium complexes with nicotinamide (na), isonicotinamide (ina) and picolinamide (pa) and praseodymium bromide-na are reported. The structures of CaCl2·(C6H6N2O)2·2H2O (Ca-na), CaCl2·(C6H6N2O)2·4H2O (Ca-ina), CaCl2·(C6H6N2O)2·5H2O (Ca-pa) and PrBr3·(C6H6N2O)2·6H2O (PrBr-na) in the solid state have been characterized by X-ray single crystal diffraction, FTIR, FIR, THz and Raman spectroscopies. Carbonyl oxygen of nicotinamide is coordinated to Ca2+, but it is O-monodentate (carbonyl oxygen) and N,O-bidentate ligand (pyridyl nitrogen and carbonyl oxygen) for Pr3+ to form a chain structure in PrBr-na. For isonicotinamide, only carbonyl oxygen atom is coordinated to Ca2+. Pyridyl nitrogen and carbonyl oxygen of picolinamide are coordinated to Ca2+ to form a five-membered ring structure. The crystal structure and spectroscopic results indicate the differences of the coordination of Ca and Pr ions, the changes of hydrogen bonds and conformation of the ligands induced by complexation. Unlike transition metal ions, Sr2+ or lanthanide ions, Ca2+ is inclined to coordinate to carbonyl oxygen atoms of the ligands.

Xue, Junhui; Jiang, Ye; Li, Weihong; Yang, Limin; Xu, Yizhuang; Zhao, Guozhong; Zhang, Gaohui; Bu, Xiaoxia; Liu, Kexin; Chen, Jia'er; Wu, Jinguang

2015-02-01

55

Structures and spectroscopic characterization of calcium chloride-nicotinamide, -isonicotinamide, -picolinamide and praseodymium bromide-nicotinamide complexes.  

PubMed

The coordination structures formed by calcium complexes with nicotinamide (na), isonicotinamide (ina) and picolinamide (pa) and praseodymium bromide-na are reported. The structures of CaCl2·(C6H6N2O)2·2H2O (Ca-na), CaCl2·(C6H6N2O)2·4H2O (Ca-ina), CaCl2·(C6H6N2O)2·5H2O (Ca-pa) and PrBr3·(C6H6N2O)2·6H2O (PrBr-na) in the solid state have been characterized by X-ray single crystal diffraction, FTIR, FIR, THz and Raman spectroscopies. Carbonyl oxygen of nicotinamide is coordinated to Ca(2+), but it is O-monodentate (carbonyl oxygen) and N,O-bidentate ligand (pyridyl nitrogen and carbonyl oxygen) for Pr(3+) to form a chain structure in PrBr-na. For isonicotinamide, only carbonyl oxygen atom is coordinated to Ca(2+). Pyridyl nitrogen and carbonyl oxygen of picolinamide are coordinated to Ca(2+) to form a five-membered ring structure. The crystal structure and spectroscopic results indicate the differences of the coordination of Ca and Pr ions, the changes of hydrogen bonds and conformation of the ligands induced by complexation. Unlike transition metal ions, Sr(2+) or lanthanide ions, Ca(2+) is inclined to coordinate to carbonyl oxygen atoms of the ligands. PMID:25280333

Xue, Junhui; Jiang, Ye; Li, Weihong; Yang, Limin; Xu, Yizhuang; Zhao, Guozhong; Zhang, Gaohui; Bu, Xiaoxia; Liu, Kexin; Chen, Jia'er; Wu, Jinguang

2015-02-25

56

Calciothermic reduction of titanium oxide and in-situ electrolysis in molten CaCl 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

A concept for calciothermic direct reduction of titanium dioxide in molten CaCl2 is proposed and experimentally tested. This production process consists of a single cell, where both the thermochemical reaction\\u000a of the calciothermic reduction and the electrochemical reaction for recovery of the reducing agent, Ca, coexist in the same\\u000a molten CaCl2 bath. A few molar percentages of Ca dissolve in

Ryosuke O. Suzuki; Katsutoshi Ono; Koh Teranuma

2003-01-01

57

Production of Titanium Powder by Sodiothermic Reduction in CaCl2 Molten Salts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new sodiothermic reduction process of TiO2 in CaCl2 melt was proposed aimed at fine Ti powder preparation. The chemical analysis and direct potentiometric methods were used to investigate the reaction pathway of sodiothermic reduction in CaCl2 melt. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. It was found that when reductant of Na was added into the CaCl2 melt, Ca2+ was reduced to Ca by Na and Ca dissolved in the CaCl2 melt. The whole melt would have the reducing power with dissolved Ca. Using this melt as a reaction medium, fine and uniform Ti powder with a purity of around 99 mass pct was successfully produced at 1173 K (900 °C). In addition, as the CaCl2 melt could dissolve about 20 mol pct CaO, it was found that the molar ratio of TiO2 and CaCl2 should be 1:20 to eliminate the by-product CaO from the reaction interface within the experimental period to continue the reduction.

Du, Chao; Wang, Zheng; Hou, Jungang; Jiao, Shuqiang; Zhu, Hongmin

2014-09-01

58

Effects of Calcium and Salinity Stress on Quality of Lettuce in Soilless Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) var. ‘Lollo rossa’ was grown in a floating hydroponic system. Six saline treatments were used, adding different concentrations of calcium chloride (CaCl2) to the nutrient solution (mol m): 0, 2.5, 5, 10, 15, 20, which, respectively, corresponds to an electrical conductivity of 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4.4, 5.4, 6.3 dS m. In plants subjected to moderate salinity

Eva Borghesi; Giulia Carmassi; Maria C. Uguccioni; Paolo Vernieri; Fernando Malorgio

2012-01-01

59

Limited efficacy of calcium and magnesium in a porcine model of hydrofluoric acid ingestion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  This investigation evaluated the effectiveness of calcium and magnesium in treating oral hydrofluoric acid (HF) poisoning.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The controlled laboratory investigation used anesthetized pigs. Subjects received HF via NG tube, titrated to abolish electrocardiographic\\u000a abnormalities. The untreated group received saline infusion. The treatment group received serial injections of calcium chloride\\u000a (CaCl2) and magnesium chloride (MgCl2). A third group received oral infusions

Jason A. Coffey; Kori L. Brewer; Robert Carroll; John Bradfield; William J. Meggs

2007-01-01

60

43 CFR 3511.11 - If I am mining calcium chloride, may I obtain a noncompetitive mineral lease to produce the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false If I am mining calcium chloride, may I obtain a noncompetitive...Conditions § 3511.11 If I am mining calcium chloride, may I obtain a noncompetitive...chloride? Yes. If you are producing calcium chloride in paying quantities from an...

2011-10-01

61

43 CFR 3511.11 - If I am mining calcium chloride, may I obtain a noncompetitive mineral lease to produce the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false If I am mining calcium chloride, may I obtain a noncompetitive...Conditions § 3511.11 If I am mining calcium chloride, may I obtain a noncompetitive...chloride? Yes. If you are producing calcium chloride in paying quantities from an...

2013-10-01

62

Calcium-activated chloride channels in the apical region of mouse vomeronasal sensory neurons.  

PubMed

The rodent vomeronasal organ plays a crucial role in several social behaviors. Detection of pheromones or other emitted signaling molecules occurs in the dendritic microvilli of vomeronasal sensory neurons, where the binding of molecules to vomeronasal receptors leads to the influx of sodium and calcium ions mainly through the transient receptor potential canonical 2 (TRPC2) channel. To investigate the physiological role played by the increase in intracellular calcium concentration in the apical region of these neurons, we produced localized, rapid, and reproducible increases in calcium concentration with flash photolysis of caged calcium and measured calcium-activated currents with the whole cell voltage-clamp technique. On average, a large inward calcium-activated current of -261 pA was measured at -50 mV, rising with a time constant of 13 ms. Ion substitution experiments showed that this current is anion selective. Moreover, the chloride channel blockers niflumic acid and 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid partially inhibited the calcium-activated current. These results directly demonstrate that a large chloride current can be activated by calcium in the apical region of mouse vomeronasal sensory neurons. Furthermore, we showed by immunohistochemistry that the calcium-activated chloride channels TMEM16A/anoctamin1 and TMEM16B/anoctamin2 are present in the apical layer of the vomeronasal epithelium, where they largely colocalize with the TRPC2 transduction channel. Immunocytochemistry on isolated vomeronasal sensory neurons showed that TMEM16A and TMEM16B coexpress in the neuronal microvilli. Therefore, we conclude that microvilli of mouse vomeronasal sensory neurons have a high density of calcium-activated chloride channels that may play an important role in vomeronasal transduction. PMID:22732308

Dibattista, Michele; Amjad, Asma; Maurya, Devendra Kumar; Sagheddu, Claudia; Montani, Giorgia; Tirindelli, Roberto; Menini, Anna

2012-07-01

63

Chloride chemical form in various types of fly ash.  

PubMed

Chloride content is a critical problem for the reuse of fly ash as a raw material in cement, and the method used by recyclers to reduce the fly ash chloride content depends on the chemical form of the chlorides. However, limited information is available on the quantitative distribution of chlorides and the identity of some chlorides such as Friedel's salt. We examined chloride forms and percentages using X-ray absorption near edge structure and X-ray diffraction analyses, as well as corresponding washing experiments. Approximately 15% of the chlorine in raw fly ash was estimated to be in the form of NaCI, 10% in KCl, 50% in CaCl2, and the remainder in the form of Friedel's salt. Fly ash collected in a bag filter with the injection of calcium hydroxide for acid gas removal (CaFA) contained 35% chlorine as NaCl, 11% as KCI, 37% as CaCl2, 13% as Friedel's salt, and the remaining 4% as CaClOH. In fly ash collected in a bag filter with the injection of sodium bicarbonate for acid gas removal (NaFA), approximately 79% of chlorine was in NaCl, 12% was in KCl, and 9% was in Friedel's salt. PMID:18589947

Zhu, Fenfen; Takaoka, Masaki; Shiota, Kenji; Oshita, Kazuyuki; Kitajima, Yoshinori

2008-06-01

64

Structure of wood extract colloids and effect of CaCl2 on the molecular mobility  

E-print Network

Structure of wood extract colloids and effect of CaCl2 on the molecular mobility Roland Lee, Karen J. Turro KEYWORDS: Wood resin, Pitch, Colloid structure, Electron paramagnetic resonance of model wood extractive colloids composed of a resin acid (abietic acid), a fatty acid (oleic acid

Turro, Nicholas J.

65

Effect of 1-methylcyclopropene and calcium chloride treatments on quality maintenance of 'Lingwu Long' Jujube fruit.  

PubMed

'Lingwu Long' jujube (Zizyphus jujuba cv. Mill) fruits were harvested at mature-green stages and then treated with 1.0 ?L L(-1) 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), 1.0% CaCl2 or their combination. All treatments were stored at room temperature (22?±?1 °C) and 80-90% relative humidity (RH) up for 15 days. Results indicated that 1.0 ?L L(-1) 1-MCP, 1.0% CaCl2 or their combination were effective in terms of senescence inhibition, and the storage life was extended by 6, 4 and 9 days, respectively. 1-MCP and CaCl2 treatment had a synergic effect on the inhibition of ethylene production and microbial population of 'Lingwu Long' jujube fruit. The combination of 1-MCP and CaCl2 significantly reduced polygalacturonase (PG) and polyphenoloxidase (PPO) activities. It also maintained higher concentrations of titratable acid and ascorbic acid. PMID:24741163

Li, Li; Ban, Zhaojun; Li, Xihong; Xue, Ting

2014-04-01

66

Fresh-cut cantaloupe: effects of CaCl 2 dips and heat treatments on firmness and metabolic activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium chloride (1–5%) dips were applied to melon cylinders taken from commercially ripe (3\\/4 to full slip) cantaloupe melons for 1–5 min. A wound response was observed after cutting, and CO2 production was higher in untreated samples than in calcium treated and intact fruit. Dip time did not significantly effect respiration rate. Application of calcium dips at any temperature resulted

Irene Luna-Guzmán; Marita Cantwell; Diane M Barrett

1999-01-01

67

Fresh-cut cantaloupe: effects of CaCl2 dips and heat treatments on firmness and metabolic activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium chloride (1-5%) dips were applied to melon cylinders taken from commercially ripe (3:4 to full slip) cantaloupe melons for 1-5 min. A wound response was observed after cutting, and CO2 production was higher in untreated samples than in calcium treated and intact fruit. Dip time did not significantly effect respiration rate. Application of calcium dips at any temperature resulted

Irene Luna-Guzman; Marita Cantwell; Diane M. Barrett

68

Soil analysis procedures using 0.01 M calcium chloride as extraction reagent  

Microsoft Academic Search

This publication gives details of laboratory procedures for the determinations of bioavailable (e.g., plants) quantities of nutritional and polluting inorganic elements in 0.01 M CaCl2 extracts of air?dry soil samples. Air?day soil samples are extracted for two hours with a 0.01 M CaCl2 solution of 20°C in a 1:10 extraction ratio (W\\/V). After measuring the pH in the settling suspension,

V. J. G. Houba; E. J. M. Temminghoff; G. A. Gaikhorst; W. van Vark

2000-01-01

69

Effects of Dietary Sodium Bicarbonate and Calcium Chloride on Physiological Responses of Lactating Dairy Cows in Hot Weather  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-four lactating cows were as- signed randomly to three treatments to evaluate responses to large differences of dietary sodium and chloride. Treatments were corn-cottonseed meal-corn silage based complete rations with either: 1) .23% sodium chloride (control), 2) control plus 2.28% calcium chloride, or 3) control plus 1.70% sodium bicarbonate.

A. Escobosa; C. E. Coppock; L. D. Rowe Jr; W. L. Jenkins; C. E. Gates

1984-01-01

70

Reference Raman Spectra of CaCl2.nH2O Solids (n= 0, 2, 4, 6).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reference Raman spectra of CaCl_2.nH_2O crystals (100-3800 cm^-1), identified by XRD, are given with a preliminary band assignment. This will help fluid inclusionists for the interpretation of phase changes in CaCl_2-rich aqueous fluid inclusions.

Martinez-Uriarte, L.; Dubessy, J.; Bihannic, I.; Boulet, P.; Robert, P.

2014-06-01

71

Preserved frontal lobe oxygenation following calcium chloride for treatment of anesthesia-induced hypotension  

PubMed Central

Vasopressor agents may affect cerebral oxygenation (rScO2) as determined by near-infrared spectroscopy on the forehead. This case series evaluated the effect of calcium chloride vs. ? and ?-adrenergic receptor agonists on rScO2 in patients (n = 47) undergoing surgery during i.v. anesthesia. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and cardiac output (CO) were assessed by Model-flow® and ephedrine (55 ± 3 vs. 74 ± 9 mmHg; 10 mg, n = 9), phenylephrine (51 ± 5 vs. 78 ± 9 mmHg, 0.1 mg, n = 11), adrenaline (53 ± 3 vs. 72 ± 11 mmHg; 1–2 ?g, n = 6), noradrenaline (53 ± 5 vs. 72 ± 12 mmHg; 2–4 ?g, n = 11), and calcium chloride (49 ± 7 vs. 57 ± 16 mmHg; 5 mmol, n = 10) increased MAP (all P < 0.05). CO increased with ephedrine (4.3 ± 0.9 vs. 5.3 ± 1.2, P < 0.05) and adrenaline (4.7 ± 1.2 vs. 5.9 ± 1.1 l/min; P = 0.07) but was not significantly affected by phenylephrine (3.9 ± 0.7 vs. 3.6 ± 1.0 l/min), noradrenaline (3.8 ± 1.2 vs. 3.7 ± 0.7 l/min), or calcium chloride (4.0 ± 1.4 vs. 4.1 ± 1.5 l/min). Following administration of ?-adrenergic agents and calcium chloride rScO2 was preserved while after administration of ?-adrenergic drugs rScO2 was reduced by app. 2% (P < 0.05). Following ?-adrenergic drugs to treat anesthesia-induced hypotension tissue oxygenation is reduced while the use of ?-adrenergic agonists and calcium chloride preserve tissue oxygenation. PMID:25374543

Kitchen, Carl-Christian; Nissen, Peter; Secher, Niels H.; Nielsen, Henning B.

2014-01-01

72

A comprehensive search for calcium binding sites critical for TMEM16A calcium-activated chloride channel activity  

PubMed Central

TMEM16A forms calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCCs) that regulate physiological processes such as the secretions of airway epithelia and exocrine glands, the contraction of smooth muscles, and the excitability of neurons. Notwithstanding intense interest in the mechanism behind TMEM16A-CaCC calcium-dependent gating, comprehensive surveys to identify and characterize potential calcium sensors of this channel are still lacking. By aligning distantly related calcium-activated ion channels in the TMEM16 family and conducting systematic mutagenesis of all conserved acidic residues thought to be exposed to the cytoplasm, we identify four acidic amino acids as putative calcium-binding residues. Alterations of the charge, polarity, and size of amino acid side chains at these sites alter the ability of different divalent cations to activate the channel. Furthermore, TMEM16A mutant channels containing double cysteine substitutions at these residues are sensitive to the redox potential of the internal solution, providing evidence for their physical proximity and solvent accessibility. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02772.001 PMID:24980701

Tien, Jason; Peters, Christian J; Wong, Xiu Ming; Cheng, Tong; Jan, Yuh Nung; Jan, Lily Yeh; Yang, Huanghe

2014-01-01

73

Ameliorative Effects of CaCl2 on Growth, Ionic Relations, and Proline Content of Senna Under Salinity Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of NaCl and CaCl2 on growth parameters, ionic relations, and proline level in senna (Cassia angustifolia) plant was investigated in a pot culture experiment using NaCl (80 mM and 160 mM), CaCl2 (5 mM and 10 mM), and the combined salt of NaCl + CaCl2 (80 mM + 10 mM and 160 mM + 10 mM). These treatments

Anjum Arshi; M. Z. Abdin; M. Iqbal

2005-01-01

74

Small-molecule screen identifies inhibitors of a human intestinal calcium-activated chloride channel.  

PubMed

Calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCCs) are widely expressed in mammalian tissues, including intestinal epithelia, where they facilitate fluid secretion. Potent, selective CaCC inhibitors have not been available. We established a high-throughput screen for identification of inhibitors of a human intestinal CaCC based on inhibition of ATP/carbachol-stimulated iodide influx in HT-29 cells after lentiviral infection with the yellow fluorescent halide-sensing protein YFP-H148Q/I152L. Screening of 50,000 diverse, drug-like compounds yielded six classes of putative CaCC inhibitors, two of which, 3-acyl-2-aminothiophenes and 5-aryl-2-aminothiazoles, inhibited by >95% iodide influx in HT-29 cells in response to multiple calcium-elevating agonists, including thapsigargin, without inhibition of calcium elevation, calcium-calmodulin kinase II activation, or cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator chloride channels. These compounds also inhibited calcium-dependent chloride secretion in T84 human intestinal epithelial cells. Patch-clamp analysis indicated inhibition of CaCC gating, which, together with the calcium-calmodulin data, suggests that the inhibitors target the CaCC directly. Structure-activity relationships were established from analysis of more than 1800 analogs, with IC(50) values of the best analogs down to approximately 1 muM. Small-molecule CaCC inhibitors may be useful in pharmacological dissection of CaCC functions and in reducing intestinal fluid losses in CaCC-mediated secretory diarrheas. PMID:18083779

De La Fuente, Ricardo; Namkung, Wan; Mills, Aaron; Verkman, A S

2008-03-01

75

Electrochemical Behavior of Titanium(II) Ion in a Purified Calcium Chloride Melt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cyclic voltammetry, chronopotentiometry, and square wave voltammetry were used to investigate electrochemical behavior of Ti(II) ion in a purified CaCl2 melt at a temperature of 1173 K (900 °C). The result indicated that the cathodic reduction of Ti(II) ion in the melt was a one-step quasi-reversible process controlled by the diffusion. The diffusion coefficient was determined in a CaCl2-TiCl(0.5 mol/dm3) at 1173 K (900 °C). The work also demonstrated the feasibility of producing metallic titanium in the as-prepared CaCl2-TiCl2 melts through galvanostatic electrolysis.

Kang, Min Ho; Song, Jianxun; Zhu, Hongmin; Jiao, Shuqiang

2014-09-01

76

Electrochemical Behavior of Titanium(II) Ion in a Purified Calcium Chloride Melt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cyclic voltammetry, chronopotentiometry, and square wave voltammetry were used to investigate electrochemical behavior of Ti(II) ion in a purified CaCl2 melt at a temperature of 1173 K (900 °C). The result indicated that the cathodic reduction of Ti(II) ion in the melt was a one-step quasi-reversible process controlled by the diffusion. The diffusion coefficient was determined in a CaCl2-TiCl(0.5 mol/dm3) at 1173 K (900 °C). The work also demonstrated the feasibility of producing metallic titanium in the as-prepared CaCl2-TiCl2 melts through galvanostatic electrolysis.

Kang, Min Ho; Song, Jianxun; Zhu, Hongmin; Jiao, Shuqiang

2015-02-01

77

Far-infrared spectroscopy of modulated and ferroelectric betaine calcium chloride dihydrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Far-infrared and near-millimetre transmission and reflectivity measurements of betaine calcium chloride dihydrate were carried out between 300 and 15 K. All modes below 300 cm-1 were classified according to symmetry and their wavevectors q using selection rules for mode activation in the modulated phases. Almost all activated modes with q not=0 can be assigned assuming condensation of the single order

S. Kamba; V. Dvorak; J. Petzelt; Yu G. Goncharov; A. A. Volkov; G. V. Kozlov

1993-01-01

78

Soil stabilization using optimum quantity of calcium chloride with Class F fly ash  

E-print Network

based on ASTM C-618-03............................ 5 2-2 Chemical Analysis of Filter Cake from TETRA, Lake Charles, LA...................................................................................................... 6 2-3 Effect of soils.... In this chapter, typical soil stabilization measurements and additives, calcium chloride and class F fly ash, will be introduced including their material character and source. Also soil properties were determined according to ASTM (American Society for Testing...

Choi, Hyung Jun

2006-10-30

79

Life in the calcium chloride environment of Don Juan Pond, Antarctica  

Microsoft Academic Search

DON JUAN POND, which contains saturated calcium chloride brine, is in the south fork of the dry Wright Valley of Antarctica at latitude 77°33'S and longitude 167°10'E, and has been controversial almost since its discovery in 1961. Meyer et al.1,2 reported a sparse microflora of four species of heterotrophic bacteria and a yeast. Cameron, Horowitz and colleagues3,4, using the Antarctic

B. Z. Siegel

1979-01-01

80

Effect of pentaerythritol and organic tin with calcium\\/zinc stearates on the stabilization of poly(vinyl chloride)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stabilization effect of calcium and zinc stearates (CaSt2\\/ZnSt2) combined with pentaerythritol (PeE) and organic tin on poly(vinyl chloride) was investigated. The results show that the addition of calcium\\/zinc stearates combined with PeE and organic tin can improve thermal and colour stability of poly(vinyl chloride) in both static and dynamic tests. Mechanisms for improving stability of PVC are also discussed.

Ming Wang; Jiayou Xu; Hong Wu; Shaoyun Guo

2006-01-01

81

Optimization of operation conditions for extracting lithium ions from calcium chloride-type oil field brine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Al(OH)3 was prepared to extract lithium ions from calcium chloride-type oil field brine. The influences of four factors, namely temperature, Al3+/Li+ molar ratio, OH-/Al3+ molar ratio, and contact time between Al(OH)3 and the brine, on the yield of lithium ions were investigated. It is found that their optimal values are 35°C, 4.5, 2.6, and 6 h, respectively. In the course of the experiment, the apparent pH value was observed. The results reveal that the apparent pH value has no remarkable influence on the yield of lithium ions. Meanwhile, the effects of the concentrations of calcium ions and magnesium ions in the brine on lithium recovery were studied. The results indicate that calcium ions have minor negative influence on the yield of lithium ions under optimal conditions, and magnesium ions slightly influence the yield of lithium ions.

Yang, Hong-jun; Li, Qing-hai; Li, Bing; Guo, Feng-qin; Meng, Qing-fen; Li, Wu

2012-04-01

82

Comparison of polyethylene glycol and chromium-51 chloride as nonabsorbable stool markers in calcium balance studies.  

PubMed

The day-to-day variations in stool calcium content during calcium balance studies are usually corrected for by adjusting for the recovery of an orally administered nonabsorbable stool marker. We describe here a simple method for making this correction using chromium-51 chloride hexahydrate (51Cr) in balance studies. This approach was developed because of difficulties encountered with the more widely used marker, polyethylene glycol (PEG). With one batch of PEG, the stool recovery was only 81% (whereas with 51Cr it was 95%). The reason for this poor recovery was contamination of the PEG 4000 with a high molecular weight species (10-15%, wt/wt). Because others have also reported low PEG recoveries and because we found that the chemical abnormality in the PEG was very difficult to detect, we believe that 51Cr is more reliable and should be the preferred stool marker for the calcium balance studies. PMID:2752209

Eastell, R; Dewanjee, M K; Riggs, B L

1989-04-01

83

Influx of Calcium and Chloride Ions into Epidermal Keratinocytes Regulates Exocytosis of Epidermal Lamellar Bodies and Skin Permeability Barrier Homeostasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the nervous system, influx of calcium and chloride ions into neurons regulates the signaling system by excitation and inhibition, respectively. In this study, we demonstrated the effects of the ion influx into epidermal keratinocytes in the permeability barrier repair process of the skin after damage. Topical application of the neurotransmitters glutamate and nicotine, which activate the calcium channel in

Mitsuhiro Denda; Shigeyoshi Fuziwara; Kaori Inoue

2003-01-01

84

1H NMR and Rheological Studies of the Calcium Induced Gelation Process in Aqueous Low Methoxyl Pectin Solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 1H NMR relaxometry in combination with water proton spin-spin relaxation time measurements and rheometry have been applied to study the ionic gelation of 1% w/w aqueous low methoxyl pectin solution induced by divalent Ca2+ cations from a calcium chloride solution. The model-free approach to the analysis of 1H NMR relaxometry data has been used to separate the information on the static (?) and dynamic () behaviour of the systems tested. The 1H NMR results confirm that the average mobility of both water and the pectin molecules is largely dependent on the concentration of the cross-linking agent. The character of this dependency (?, and T2 vs. CaCl2 concentration) is consistent with the two-stage gelation process of low methoxyl pectin, in which the formation of strongly linked dimer associations (in the range of 0-2.5 mM CaCl2) is followed by the appearance of weak inter-dimer aggregations (for CaCl2? 3.5 mM). The presence of the weak gel structure for the sample with 3.5 mM CaCl2 has been confirmed by rheological measurements. Apart from that, the T1 and T2 relaxation times have been found to be highly sensitive to the syneresis phenomenon, which can be useful to monitor the low methoxyl pectin gel network stability.

Dobies, M.; Ku?mia, S.; Jurga, S.

2006-07-01

85

The effect of sodium chloride on the dissolution of calcium silicate hydrate gels.  

PubMed

The use of cement based materials will be widespread in the long-term management of radioactive materials in the United Kingdom. One of the applications could be the Nirex reference vault backfill (NRVB) as an engineered barrier within a deep geological repository. NRVB confers alkaline conditions, which would provide a robust chemical barrier through the control of the solubility of some key radionuclides, enhanced sorption and minimised corrosion of steel containers. An understanding of the dissolution of C-S-H gels in cement under the appropriate conditions (e.g., saline groundwaters) is necessary to demonstrate the expected evolution of the chemistry over time and to provide sufficient cement to buffer the porewater conditions for the required time. A programme of experimental work has been undertaken to investigate C-S-H gel dissolution behaviour in sodium chloride solutions and the effect of calcium/silicon ratio (C/S), temperature and cation type on this behaviour. Reductions in calcium concentration and pH values were observed with samples equilibrated at 45 degrees C compared to those prepared at 25 degrees C. The effect of salt cation type on salt-concentration dependence of the dissolution of C-S-H gels was investigated by the addition of lithium or potassium chloride in place of sodium chloride for gels with a C/S of 1.0 and 1.8. With a C/S of 1.0, similar increases in dissolved calcium concentration with increasing ionic strength were recorded for the different salts. However, at a C/S of 1.8, anomalously high calcium concentrations were observed in the presence of lithium. PMID:16531035

Hill, J; Harris, A W; Manning, M; Chambers, A; Swanton, S W

2006-01-01

86

Clinical Evaluation of Non-surgical Sterilization of Male Cats with Single Intra-testicular Injection of Calcium Chloride  

PubMed Central

Background Calcium chloride solution is an established injectable sterilant in dogs and other mammals. With cat populations a continuing problem, we sought to explore its first use in cats. Six cats per group were injected with 5%, 10% or 20% calcium chloride dihydrate in saline solution with lignocaine hydrochloride, a local anaesthetic. Results At the 60th day post-injection, cat testes were collected and showed complete testicular necrosis and replacement by fibrous tissue; very low sperm counts; and reduction of serum testosterone by at least 70% in 20% dose. Androgenic enzyme activities and their expressions were also reduced in all the treated groups along with intra-testicular testosterone concentration was also low. Increased testicular lipid peroxidation, with reduced antioxidants and mitochondrial membrane potential, were evident following calcium chloride treatments. However, there were no apparent changes in serum concentrations of cortisol, fasting blood sugar level, blood urea nitrogen, packed cell volume, or total serum protein following calcium chloride injection, suggesting that this method of sterilization is not associated with any general stress response. Conclusion Calcium chloride solution demonstrates potential for androgenesis-eliminating nonsurgical sterilization of male cats in addition to its proven efficacy in dogs and other mammals. PMID:21774835

2011-01-01

87

Calmodulin-dependent activation and inactivation of anoctamin calcium-gated chloride channels  

PubMed Central

Calcium-dependent chloride channels serve critical functions in diverse biological systems. Driven by cellular calcium signals, the channels codetermine excitatory processes and promote solute transport. The anoctamin (ANO) family of membrane proteins encodes three calcium-activated chloride channels, named ANO 1 (also TMEM16A), ANO 2 (also TMEM16B), and ANO 6 (also TMEM16F). Here we examined how ANO 1 and ANO 2 interact with Ca2+/calmodulin using nonstationary current analysis during channel activation. We identified a putative calmodulin-binding domain in the N-terminal region of the channel proteins that is involved in channel activation. Binding studies with peptides indicated that this domain, a regulatory calmodulin-binding motif (RCBM), provides two distinct modes of interaction with Ca2+/calmodulin, one at submicromolar Ca2+ concentrations and one in the micromolar Ca2+ range. Functional, structural, and pharmacological data support the concept that calmodulin serves as a calcium sensor that is stably associated with the RCBM domain and regulates the activation of ANO 1 and ANO 2 channels. Moreover, the predominant splice variant of ANO 2 in the brain exhibits Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent inactivation, a loss of channel activity within 30 s. This property may curtail ANO 2 activity during persistent Ca2+ signals in neurons. Mutagenesis data indicated that the RCBM domain is also involved in ANO 2 inactivation, and that inactivation is suppressed in the retinal ANO 2 splice variant. These results advance the understanding of Ca2+ regulation in anoctamin Cl? channels and its significance for the physiological function that anoctamin channels subserve in neurons and other cell types. PMID:24081981

Vocke, Kerstin; Dauner, Kristin; Hahn, Anne; Ulbrich, Anne; Broecker, Jana; Keller, Sandro; Frings, Stephan

2013-01-01

88

Annexin A4 induces platinum resistance in a chloride-and calcium-dependent manner  

PubMed Central

Platinum resistance has long been a major issue in the treatment of various cancers. We previously reported that enhanced annexin A4 (ANXA4) expression, a Ca2+-regulated phospholipid-binding protein, induces chemoresistance to platinum-based drugs. In this study, we investigated the role of annexin repeats, a conserved structure of all the annexin family, responsible for platinum-resistance as well as the effect of knockdown of ANXA4. ANXA4 knockdown increased sensitivity to platinum-based drugs both in vitro and in vivo. To identify the domain responsible for chemoresistance, ANXA4 deletion mutants were constructed by deleting annexin repeats one by one from the C terminus. Platinum resistance was induced both in vitro and in vivo in cells expressing either full-length ANXA4 or the deletion mutants, containing at least one intact annexin repeat. However, cells expressing the mutant without any calcium-binding sites in the annexin repeated sequence, which is essential for ANXA4 translocation from the cytosol to plasma membrane, failed to acquire platinum resistance. After cisplatin treatment, the intracellular chloride ion concentration, whose channel is partly regulated by ANXA4, significantly increased in the platinum-resistant cells. These findings indicate that the calcium-binding site in the annexin repeat induces chemoresistance to the platinum-based drug by elevating the intracellular chloride concentration. PMID:25277200

Morimoto, Akiko; Serada, Satoshi; Enomoto, Takayuki; Kim, Ayako; Matsuzaki, Shinya; Takahashi, Tsuyoshi; Ueda, Yutaka; Yoshino, Kiyoshi; Fujita, Masami; Fujimoto, Minoru; Kimura, Tadashi; Naka, Tetsuji

2014-01-01

89

Requirement of calcium-activated chloride channels in the activation of mouse vomeronasal neurons.  

PubMed

In terrestrial vertebrates, the vomeronasal organ (VNO) detects and transduces pheromone signals. VNO activation is thought to be mediated by the transient receptor potential C2 (TRPC2) channel. The aberrant behavioural phenotypes observed in TRPC2-/- mice are generally attributed to the lost VNO function. Recently, calcium-activated chloride channels have been shown to contribute to VNO activation. Here we show that CACCs can be activated in VNO slice preparations from the TRPC2-/- mice and this activation is blocked by pharmacological agents that inhibit intracellular Ca(2+) release. Urine-evoked Cl(-) current is sufficient to drive spiking changes in VNO neurons from both wild-type (WT) and TRPC2-/- mice. Moreover, blocking Cl(-) conductance essentially abolishes VNO activation in WT neurons. These results suggest a TRPC2-independent signalling pathway in the VNO and the requirement of calcium-activated chloride channels currents to mediate pheromone activation. Our data further suggest that TRPC2-/- mice retain partial VNO function. PMID:21694713

Kim, SangSeong; Ma, Limei; Yu, C Ron

2011-01-01

90

NaX zeolite, carbon fibre and CaCl 2 ammonia reactors for heat pumps and refrigerators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The key elements of solid sorption machines are the chemical compressors-adsorbers. Two categories of the solid sorption system are analyzed: adsorbents NaX zeolite, carbon fibre “Busofit” with NH3, and complex combinations that undergo chemical reaction and physical adsorption (CaCl2 + carbon fibre “Busofit” with NH3).

L. L. Vasiliev; L. E. Kanonchik; A. A. Antuh; A. G. Kulakov

1996-01-01

91

Crystalline transition and morphology variation of polyamide 6/CaCl2 composite during the decomplexation process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we developed a new method to prepare porous PA6 with different morphologic feature and crystalline forms via the decomplexation of PA6/CaCl2 composite. The structures and morphology of thus obtained materials were characterized by vibrational spectroscopy (FT-IR and Raman) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) method. When amorphous PA6/CaCl2 composite films were treated in water at room temperature, PA6 re-arranges into ? form. However, decomplexation of the PA6/CaCl2 composite in boiling water produces PA6 in ? crystalline form. If the PA6/CaCl2 composite is soaked in methanol, part of PA6 is dissolved or swollen in methanol/metal salt solutions. As a result, a dissolve/precipitation process occurred during the decomplexation process, which led to the formation of PA6 in ? crystalline form. Further investigation demonstrates that the morphologies of the porous PA6 could be adjusted by using different solvents and/or different decomplexation conditions.

Liu, Shaoxuan; Zhang, Chengfeng; Proniewicz, Edyta; Proniewicz, Leonard M.; Kim, Younkyoo; Liu, Jun; Zhao, Ying; Xu, Yizhuang; Wu, Jinguang

2013-11-01

92

Crystalline transition and morphology variation of polyamide 6/CaCl2 composite during the decomplexation process.  

PubMed

In this work, we developed a new method to prepare porous PA6 with different morphologic feature and crystalline forms via the decomplexation of PA6/CaCl2 composite. The structures and morphology of thus obtained materials were characterized by vibrational spectroscopy (FT-IR and Raman) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) method. When amorphous PA6/CaCl2 composite films were treated in water at room temperature, PA6 re-arranges into ? form. However, decomplexation of the PA6/CaCl2 composite in boiling water produces PA6 in ? crystalline form. If the PA6/CaCl2 composite is soaked in methanol, part of PA6 is dissolved or swollen in methanol/metal salt solutions. As a result, a dissolve/precipitation process occurred during the decomplexation process, which led to the formation of PA6 in ? crystalline form. Further investigation demonstrates that the morphologies of the porous PA6 could be adjusted by using different solvents and/or different decomplexation conditions. PMID:23892342

Liu, Shaoxuan; Zhang, Chengfeng; Proniewicz, Edyta; Proniewicz, Leonard M; Kim, Younkyoo; Liu, Jun; Zhao, Ying; Xu, Yizhuang; Wu, Jinguang

2013-11-01

93

Calcium chloride electron injection/extraction layers in organic electronic devices  

SciTech Connect

Nontoxic calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}) was introduced into organic electronic devices as cathode buffer layer (CBL). The turn-on voltage and maximum luminance of organic light-emitting diode (OLED) with 1.5?nm CaCl{sub 2} was 3.5?V and 21 960?cd/m{sup 2}, respectively. OLED with 1.5?nm CaCl{sub 2} possessed comparable electroluminescent characteristics to that of the commonly used LiF. Moreover, the performance of the organic photovoltaic device with 0.5?nm CaCl{sub 2} was comparable to that of the control device with LiF. Therefore, CaCl{sub 2} has the potential to be used as the CBL for organic electronic devices.

Qu, Bo, E-mail: bqu@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: qhgong@pku.edu.cn; Gao, Zhi; Yang, Hongsheng; Xiao, Lixin; Chen, Zhijian; Gong, Qihuang, E-mail: bqu@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: qhgong@pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Artificial Microstructures and Mesoscopic Physics, Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

2014-01-27

94

Electrochemical deoxidation of ZrSiO4 in molten calcium chloride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electrochemical deoxidation of ZrSiO4 pellets in molten CaCl2 at 850°C in an argon atmosphere was studied. The sintered ZrSiO4 pellet was cathodically polarized against a graphite counter electrode under a constant applied potential. XRD and EDX analyses revealed that ZrSiO4 became ZrSi. Reduction from ZrSiO4 to ZrSi started at the location on the surface around the cathodic current-collector Mo wire and extended to the entire surface. As the electro-deoxidation reaction continued, the oxygen content in the product decreased.

Lee, Min-Jae; Noh, Jae-Soo; Kim, Ki-Young; Lee, Jong-Hyun

2014-12-01

95

Depolarizing chloride gradient in developing cochlear nucleus neurons: underlying mechanism and implication for calcium signaling.  

PubMed

Precise regulation of the chloride homeostasis crucially determines the action of inhibitory transmitters GABA and glycine and thereby endows neurons or even discrete neuronal compartments with distinct physiological responses to the same transmitters. In mammals, the signaling mediated by GABAA/glycine receptors shifts during early postnatal life from depolarization to hyperpolarization, due to delayed maturation of the chloride homeostasis system. While the activity of the secondary active, K(+)-Cl(-)-extruding cotransporter KCC2, renders GABA/glycine hyperpolarizing in auditory brainstem nuclei of altricial rodents, the mechanisms contributing to the initially depolarizing transmembrane gradient for Cl(-) in respective neurons remained unknown. Here we used gramicidin-perforated patch recordings, non-invasive Cl(-) and Ca(2+) imaging, and immunohistochemistry to identify the Cl(-)-loading transporter that renders depolarizing effects of GABA/glycine in early postnatal life of spherical bushy cells in the cochlear nucleus of gerbil. Our data identify the 1Na(+):1K(+):2Cl(-) cotransporter 1 (NKCC1) as the major Cl(-)-loader responsible for depolarizing action of GABA/glycine at postnatal days 3-5 (P3-5). Extracellular GABA/muscimol elicited calcium signaling through R-, L-, and T-type channels, which was dependent on bumetanide- and [Na(+)]e-sensitive Cl(-) accumulation. The "adult like", low intracellular Cl(-) concentration is established during the second postnatal week, through a mechanism engaging the NKCC1-down regulation between P5 and P15 and ongoing KCC2-mediated Cl(-)-extrusion. PMID:24388924

Witte, M; Reinert, T; Dietz, B; Nerlich, J; Rübsamen, R; Milenkovic, I

2014-03-01

96

—Part I. Interaction of Calcium and Copper-Calcium Alloy with Electrolyte  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the interaction between calcium and molten CaCl2 and the solubility of calcium in this melt, depending on the calcium content in the copper-calcium alloy that comes in contact with the molten CaCl2. The negative influence of the dissolved calcium on the current efficiency was verified. The negative effects of moisture and CaO impurities on the calcium current efficiency were demonstrated. The dependence of the current efficiency and the purity of the metal obtained by the electrolysis conditions were studied in a laboratory electrolyzer (20 to 80 A).

Zaikov, Yurii P.; Batukhtin, Victor P.; Shurov, Nikolay I.; Ivanovskii, Leonid E.; Suzdaltsev, Andrey V.

2014-06-01

97

Casein micelle dispersions into water, NaCl and CaCl 2: physicochemical characteristics of micelles and rennet coagulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied the effect of ionic strength from about 0 to 0.12m on physicochemical characteristics of micelles and on gelation by rennet. Native phosphocaseinate powder was used as it exhibits attractive technological properties. The powder was dissolved at 25gl?1 casein concentration with 0.2gl?1 sodium azide into deionised water, NaCl or CaCl2 solutions, at ionic strength from 0 to 0.12m.

M. H. Famelart; Y. Le Graet; K. Raulot

1999-01-01

98

Effect of oral calcium and calcium + fluoride treatments on mouse bone properties during suspension  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The bone effects of oral dosages of calcium chloride with or without supplementary sodium fluoride were assessed in antiorthostatically suspended mice. Two calcium dosages were used to replace half (3.1 mM) or all(6.3 mM) of the dietary calcium lost due to reduced food intake by the suspended mice. Two groups of 6.3 mM CaCl2-treated mice were additionally treated with 0.25 or 2.5 mM NaF. The results indicate that supplementation of the mouse drinking water with calcium salts prevents bone changes induced by short-term suspension, while calcium salts in combination with fluoride are less effective as fluoride dosage increases. However, the calcium supplements change the relationship between the femur mechanical properties and the mineral composition of the bone. Because of this, it appears that oral calcium supplements are effective through a mechanism other than simple dietary supplementation and may indicate a dependence of bone consistency on systemic and local fluid conditions.

Simske, S. J.; Luttges, M. W.; Allen, K. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

1992-01-01

99

Thermodynamics of mixing of liquids in the system Ca 3(PO 4) 2?CaCl 2?CaF 2?Ca(OH) 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molten calcium halide and hydroxide salts may be used as flux and reactants in determining apatite exchange equilibria and solid solution behavior. New experimental data and published phase equilibria are used to determine a thermodynamic model of melts and solids along the binary joins of the anhydrous apatite system Ca 3(PO 4) 2?CaCl 2?CaF 2?Ca(OH) 2. In this model, melt components are expressed as Ca0.5X, where X is hydroxide or a halogen, or as Ca 1.5PO 4. The derived binary interaction parameters ( WG' s) are sufficient to describe deviations from Raoultian behavior for the data. Standard state data are derived for molten Ca(OH) 2 and Ca 3(PO 4) 2, and for the intermediate compounds CaClF, CaClOH, and Ca 2PO 4Cl. Melts in the CaCl 2?CaF 2 system show ideal mixing behavior, while the calcium hydroxide-bearing molten salts form asymmetric regular solutions. The hydroxide-bearing melts show the small positive enthalpies of mixing typical for mixed-anion salts. Similar behavior is measured in simpler molten salt mixtures. The positive deviations from Raoultian behavior are not a mathematical artifact of the model. Data are less extensive for the salt-phosphate systems but cover the essential portions of the systems where salt to phosphate ratios are high. The mixtures of the molten salts and phosphates salts show large negative enthalpy interaction parameters ( WH), as is expected in eutectic systems which mix a high-melting-point crystal with a low-melting-point flux. Adequate reproduction of the data requires that some entropy interaction parameters be negative, although small. This implies the presence of ordering in the melt, which is manifested in more polymerized phosphate liquids and glasses as halogenated and hydroxylated orthophosphate and pyrophosphate species. Results of the model indicate that the quaternary system is a good choice for determination of activity-composition relations for the apatites. Comparison of common sources of standard state thermodynamic data ( ROBIE et al., 1979; JANAF, CHASE et al., 1985; CODATA, GARVIN et al., 1987) shows that the data for the salts are very similar where they are not identical. At temperatures below 900°C in the ternary systems, liquid compositions will be on or near the apatite-crystalline salt cotectics, and dissolve less than 1 mol% Ca 3(PO 4) 2. This makes CaCl 2?CaF 2 mixtures excellent candidates for determination of unambiguous apatite activity-compositional relations. Only the Ca(OH) 2 liquidus is strongly affected by the addition of phosphate, but this effect is closely described by a regular solution model.

Tacker, R. C.; Stormer, J. C., Jr.

1993-10-01

100

Activation and Inhibition of TMEM16A Calcium-Activated Chloride Channels  

PubMed Central

Calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCC) encoded by family members of transmembrane proteins of unknown function 16 (TMEM16) have recently been intensely studied for functional properties as well as their physiological roles as chloride channels in various tissues. One technical hurdle in studying these channels is the well-known channel rundown that frequently impairs the precision of electrophysiological measurements for the channels. Using experimental protocols that employ fast-solution exchange, we circumvented the problem of channel rundown by normalizing the Ca2+-induced current to the maximally-activated current obtained within a time period in which the channel rundown was negligible. We characterized the activation of the TMEM16A-encoded CaCC (also called ANO1) by Ca2+, Sr2+, and Ba2+, and discovered that Mg2+ competes with Ca2+ in binding to the divalent-cation binding site without activating the channel. We also studied the permeability of the ANO1 pore for various anions and found that the anion occupancy in the pore–as revealed by the permeability ratios of these anions–appeared to be inversely correlated with the apparent affinity of the ANO1 inhibition by niflumic acid (NFA). On the other hand, the NFA inhibition was neither affected by the degree of the channel activation nor influenced by the types of divalent cations used for the channel activation. These results suggest that the NFA inhibition of ANO1 is likely mediated by altering the pore function but not through changing the channel gating. Our study provides a precise characterization of ANO1 and documents factors that can affect divalent cation activation and NFA inhibition of ANO1. PMID:24489780

Ni, Yu-Li; Kuan, Ai-Seon; Chen, Tsung-Yu

2014-01-01

101

43 CFR 3511.11 - If I am mining calcium chloride, may I obtain a noncompetitive mineral lease to produce the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING OF SOLID MINERALS OTHER THAN COAL AND OIL SHALE Lease Terms and Conditions § 3511.11 If I am mining calcium chloride, may I obtain a noncompetitive...

2014-10-01

102

43 CFR 3511.11 - If I am mining calcium chloride, may I obtain a noncompetitive mineral lease to produce the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING OF SOLID MINERALS OTHER THAN COAL AND OIL SHALE Lease Terms and Conditions § 3511.11 If I am mining calcium chloride, may I obtain a noncompetitive...

2012-10-01

103

Novel 5-substituted benzyloxy-2-arylbenzofuran-3-carboxylic acids as calcium activated chloride channel inhibitors  

PubMed Central

Transmembrane protein 16A (TMEM16A) channels are recently discovered membrane proteins that functions as a calcium activated chloride channel (CaCC). CaCCs are major regulators of various physiological processes, such as sensory transduction, epithelial secretion, smooth muscle contraction and oocyte fertilization. Thirty novel 5-substituted benzyloxy-2-arylbenzofuran-3-carboxylic acids (B01–B30) were synthesized and evaluated for their TMEM16A inhibitory activity by using short circuit current measurements in Fischer rat thyroid (FRT) cells expressing human TMEM16A. IC50 values were calculated using YFP fluorescence plate reader assay. Final compounds, having free carboxylic group displayed significant inhibition. Eight of the novel compounds B02, B13, B21, B23, B25, B27, B28, B29 exhibit excellent CaCCs inhibition with IC50 value <6 ?M, with compound B25 exhibiting the lowest IC50 value of 2.8 ± 1.3 ?M. None of the tested ester analogs of final benzofuran derivatives displayed TMEM16A/CaCCs inhibition. PMID:22739085

Kumar, Satish; Namkung, Wan; Verkman, A. S.; Sharma, Pawan K.

2013-01-01

104

Expression cloning of TMEM16A as a calcium-activated chloride channel subunit  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCCs) are major regulators of sensory transduction, epithelial secretion and smooth muscle contraction. Other crucial roles of CaCCs include action potential generation in Characean algae and prevention of polyspermia in frog oocyte membrane. None of the known molecular candidates share properties characteristic of most CaCCs in native cells. Using Axolotl oocytes as expression system, we have identified TMEM16A as the Xenopus oocyte CaCC. The TMEM16 family of “transmembrane proteins with unknown function” is conserved among eukaryotes, with family members linked to tracheomalacia (mouse TMEM16A), gnathodiaphyseal dysplasia (human TMEM16E), aberrant X segregation (a Drosophila TMEM16 family member) and increased sodium tolerance (yeast TMEM16). Moreover, mouse TMEM16A and TMEM16B yield CaCCs in Axolotl oocytes and mammalian HEK293 cells, and recapitulate the broad CaCC expression. The identification of this new family of ion channels may help the development of CaCC modulators for treating diseases including hypertension and cystic fibrosis. PMID:18805094

Schroeder, Björn Christian; Cheng, Tong; Jan, Yuh Nung; Jan, Lily Yeh

2008-01-01

105

Time-resolved quasielastic neutron scattering study of the hydration of tricalcium silicate: Effects of CaCl 2 and sucrose  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time-resolved quasielastic neutron scattering coupled with hydration modeling enabled the interpretation of the hydration processes in a triclinic form of tricalcium silicate when calcium chloride and sucrose were added. Calcium chloride increases the rate of product formation and causes a less dense product to form. Sucrose was investigated at two concentrations. With increasing amount of sucrose, the retardation time and the length of the nucleation and growth period increase, and the product density decreases. The rate of nucleation and growth of products is not linearly dependent on the amount of sucrose added, a result attributed to complexation with Ca 2+ at higher concentrations.

Peterson, Vanessa K.; Garci Juenger, Maria C.

2006-11-01

106

Regeneration of high-quality silk fibroin fiber by wet spinning from CaCl2-formic acid solvent.  

PubMed

Silks spun by silkworms and spiders feature outstanding mechanical properties despite being spun under benign conditions. The superior physical properties of silk are closely related to its complicated hierarchical structures constructed from nanoscale building blocks, such as nanocrystals and nanofibrils. Here, we report a novel silk dissolution behavior, which preserved nanofibrils in CaCl2-formic acid solution, that enables spinning of high-quality fibers with a hierarchical structure. This process is characterized by simplicity, high efficiency, low cost, environmental compatibility and large-scale industrialization potential, as well as having utility and potential for the recycling of silk waste and the production of silk-based functional materials. PMID:25281787

Zhang, Feng; Lu, Qiang; Yue, Xiaoxiao; Zuo, Baoqi; Qin, Mingde; Li, Fang; Kaplan, David L; Zhang, Xueguang

2015-01-15

107

Applicability of 0.01 M CaCl2 as a single extraction solution for the assessment of the nutrient status of soils and other diagnostic purposes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The applicability of 0.01 M CaCl2 solution as a single extraction agent for soils as a basis for fertilizer recommendation was tested on a variety of soils both from the Netherlands and from some tropical countries. Air?dry soil samples were subjected to extraction with 0.01 M CaCl2 and to several conventional extraction procedures, and the results were compared. In the

V. J. G. Houba; I. Novozamsky; Th. M. Lexmond; J. J. van der Lee

1990-01-01

108

Long-Term Corrosion Behavior of Alloy 22 in 5M CaCl2 at 120 C  

SciTech Connect

In conditions where tight crevices exist in hot chloride containing solutions Alloy 22 may suffer crevice corrosion. The occurrence (or not) of crevice corrosion in a given environment (e.g, salt concentration and temperature), is governed by the values of the critical potential (E{sub crit}) for crevice corrosion and the corrosion potential (E{sub corr}). This paper discusses the evolution of E{sub corr} and corrosion rate (CR) of creviced Alloy 22 specimens in 5 M calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}) at 120 C. Tested specimens included non-creviced rods and multiple creviced assemblies (MCA) both non-welded (wrought) and welded. Results show that Alloy 22 suffers crevice corrosion under the open circuit conditions in the aerated hot CaCl{sub 2} brine. However, after more than a year of immersion the propagation of crevice corrosion was not significant. The general corrosion rate decreased or remained unchanged as the immersion time increased. For rods and MCA specimens, the corrosion rate was lower than 100 nm/year after more than a year immersion time.

J.C. Estill; G.A. Hust; K.J. Evans; M.L. Stuart; R.B. Rebak

2006-05-08

109

Small-molecule activators of TMEM16A, a calcium-activated chloride channel, stimulate epithelial chloride secretion and intestinal contraction  

PubMed Central

TMEM16A (ANO1) is a calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) expressed in secretory epithelia, smooth muscle, and other tissues. Cell-based functional screening of ?110,000 compounds revealed compounds that activated TMEM16A CaCC conductance without increasing cytoplasmic Ca2+. By patch-clamp, N-aroylaminothiazole “activators” (Eact) strongly increased Cl? current at 0 Ca2+, whereas tetrazolylbenzamide “potentiators” (Fact) were not active at 0 Ca2+ but reduced the EC50 for Ca2+-dependent TMEM16A activation. Of 682 analogs tested, the most potent activator (Eact) and potentiator (Fact) produced large and more sustained CaCC Cl? currents than general agonists of Ca2+ signaling, with EC50 3–6 ?M and Cl? conductance comparable to that induced transiently by Ca2+-elevating purinergic agonists. Analogs of activators were identified that fully inhibited TMEM16A Cl? conductance, providing further evidence for direct TMEM16A binding. The TMEM16A activators increased CaCC conductance in human salivary and airway submucosal gland epithelial cells, and IL-4 treated bronchial cells, and stimulated submucosal gland secretion in human bronchi and smooth muscle contraction in mouse intestine. Small-molecule, TMEM16A-targeted activators may be useful for drug therapy of cystic fibrosis, dry mouth, and gastrointestinal hypomotility disorders, and for pharmacological dissection of TMEM16A function.—Namkung, W., Yao, Z., Finkbeiner, W. E., Verkman, A. S. Small-molecule activators of TMEM16A, a calcium-activated chloride channel, stimulate epithelial chloride secretion and intestinal contraction. PMID:21836025

Namkung, Wan; Yao, Zhen; Finkbeiner, Walter E.; Verkman, A. S.

2011-01-01

110

Removal of uranium and gross radioactivity from coal bottom ash by CaCl2 roasting followed by HNO3 leaching.  

PubMed

A roast-leach method using CaCl2 and HNO3 to remove uranium and gross radioactivity in coal bottom ash was investigated. Heat treatment of the ash with 100% CaCl2 (900°C, 2h) significantly enhanced uranium leachability (>95%) compared with direct acid-leaching (22.6-25.5%). The removal efficiency of uranium and gross radioactivity increased steeply with increasing CaCl2 content, from 10% to 50%, and a HNO3 leaching time from 5 min to 1h, but remained nearly constant or decreased slightly with increasing CaCl2 dosage >50% or acid-leaching time >1h. The majority of the uranium (87.3%), gross ? (92.9%) and gross ? (84.9%) were removed under the optimized roast-leach conditions (50% CaCl2, 1M HNO3 leaching for 1h). The mineralogical characteristics of roasted clinker indicated that molten CaCl2 promoted the incorporation of Ca into silica and silicates and resulted in its progressive susceptibility to acid attack. Uranium and other radionuclides, most likely present in the form of silicates or in association with miscellaneous silicates in the highest density fraction (>2.5g mL(-1)), were probably leached out as the result of the acid decomposition of newly formed "gelatinizing silicates". PMID:24922094

Lei, Xuefei; Qi, Guangxia; Sun, Yinglong; Xu, Hui; Wang, Yi

2014-07-15

111

Corrosion Effects of Calcium Chloride Injection for Mercury Control on the Pollution Control Equipment  

SciTech Connect

In response to the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) of 2005, Black Hills Power (BHP) initiated testing of a calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}) injection method in their Wygen 1 (Gillette, WY) coal-fired power plant to help lower mercury emissions. In 2006, Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) was contracted to test their CaCl{sub 2} technology in-situ by adding a CaCl{sub 2} solution onto the raw, pre-pulverized coal during normal operation of Wygen 1. Follow-up tests were conducted by BHP in 2007. Data were collected from these two time periods and analyzed by a collaborative investigation team from Western Research Institute (WRI) and the University of Wyoming (UW) to see if there were any effects on the current air pollution control systems. During a CaCl{sub 2} injection period in 2007, corrosion was monitored in the flue and recycle ash system by placing corrosion coupons in strategic locations to test if corrosion was enhanced by the CaCl{sub 2} injection. While the CaCl{sub 2} produced a reduction in stack mercury levels, there was some evidence of beneficial impacts on the removal of SO{sub 2} from the flue gas during CaCl{sub 2} injection. Data on NOx remained inconclusive. It was also discovered that corrosion was enhanced significantly in the Spray Drier Absorber (SDA) vessel and corresponding outlet ductwork during CaCl{sub 2} injections. Further studies are being carried out in the field and lab to better understand the corrosive effects of CaCl{sub 2} to help formulate operation controls to manage the increased corrosion rates.

Vijay Sethi; M.P. Sharma

2009-02-28

112

Inhibition by P1075 and pinacidil of a calcium-independent chloride conductance in conditionally-immortal renal glomerular mesangial cells.  

PubMed Central

1. Depolarization of mesangial cells has been shown to occur following an outward movement of chloride ions from the cell. We have shown previously that mesangial cells from the H-2Kb-tsA58 transgenic mouse possess a significant whole-cell chloride conductance and consequently are a suitable preparation for the study of potential chloride channel inhibitors. 2. The effects on the whole-cell chloride conductance of the chloride channel inhibitor, 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoate (NPPB) and the potassium channel openers, (KCOs) P1075 and pinacidil were investigated in mesangial cells from the H-2Kb-tsA58 transgenic mouse cultured in permissive conditions (at 33 degrees C in the presence of 50 u ml-1 murine gamma-interferon). 3. In symmetrical solutions of 140 mM tetramethylammonium chloride (TMAC1) the whole-cell chloride conductance was 1.08 +/- 0.05 nS (n = 63) and this could be reversibly inhibited by 5 x 10(-5) M NPPB. 4. Both P1075 and pinacidil inhibited the whole-cell chloride conductance. This inhibition was not reversible after drug washout and was demonstrated only when drugs were applied to the extracellular surface of the cells. Very low concentrations of the drugs were found to reduce the chloride conductance after 16 h incubation but under no circumstances studied was the conductance totally inhibited, leaving a mean residual current of 0.33 +/- 0.03 nS (n = 12). 5. The effects of different peptide calcium concentrations on the magnitude of the residual current in the presence of the drugs were investigated. The residual current was reduced with 10(-8) M calcium in the pipette and increased with 10(-3) M pipette calcium. Therefore, these data suggest that P1075 and pinacidil selectively inhibit a calcium-independent chloride conductance in mesangial cells from the H-2Kb-tsA58 transgenic mouse. PMID:8904654

Barber, R. D.; Henderson, R. M.

1996-01-01

113

Effect of soluble calcium on the renneting properties of casein micelles as measured by rheology and diffusing wave spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Addition of calcium chloride to milk has positive effects on cheese-making because it decreases coagulation time, creates firmer gels, and increases curd yield. Although addition of calcium chloride is a widely used industrial practice, the effect of soluble calcium on the preliminary stages of gelation is not fully understood. In addition, it is not known whether the manner of addition and equilibration of the soluble calcium would affect the rennetability of the casein micelles. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to study the details of the coagulation behavior of casein micelles in the presence of additional calcium, and to elucidate whether the manner in which this cation is added (directly as calcium chloride or by gradual exchange through dialysis) affects the functionality of the micelles. Calcium was added as CaCl(2) (1 mM final added concentration) directly to skim milk or indirectly using dialysis against 50 volumes of milk. Additional soluble calcium did not affect the primary phase of the renneting reaction, as demonstrated by the analysis of the casein macropeptide (CMP) released in solution; however, it shortened the coagulation time of the micelles and increased the firmness of the gel. The turbidity parameter of samples with or without calcium showed that similar amounts of CMP were needed for particle interactions to commence. However, the amount of CMP released at the point of gelation, as indicated by rheology, was lesser for samples with added calcium, which can be attributed to a greater extent of calcium bridging on the surface or between micelles. The results also showed that the manner in which calcium was presented to the micelles did not influence the mechanism of gelation. PMID:22192185

Sandra, S; Ho, M; Alexander, M; Corredig, M

2012-01-01

114

Calcium dips enhance volatile emission of cold-stored 'Fuji Kiku-8' apples.  

PubMed

Despite the relevance of volatile production for overall quality of apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) fruit, only a few studies have focused on the effects of calcium treatments on this quality attribute. In this work, 'Fuji Kiku-8' apples were harvested at commercial maturity, dipped in calcium chloride (2%, w/v), stored at 1 degrees C and 92% relative humidity for 4 or 7 months under either air or ultralow oxygen (ULO; 1 kPa of O(2)/2 kPa of CO(2)), and placed subsequently at 20 degrees C. Ethylene production, standard quality parameters, emission of volatile compounds, and the activities of some related enzymes were assessed 7 days thereafter. Calcium concentration was higher in CaCl(2)-treated than in untreated fruit, suggesting that the treatment was effective in introducing calcium into the tissues. Higher calcium contents were concomitant with higher flesh firmness and titratable acidity after storage. Furthermore, calcium treatment led to increased production of volatiles in middle-term stored apples, probably arising from enhanced supply of precursors for ester production as a consequence of increased pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activities. After long-term storage, higher volatile emission might have arisen also from the enhancement of alcohol o-acyltransferase (AAT) activity, which was increased as a result of calcium treatment. In addition to storage period, the effects of calcium treatment were also partially dependent on storage atmosphere and more noticeable for fruit stored in air. PMID:19449874

Ortiz, Abel; Echeverría, Gemma; Graell, Jordi; Lara, Isabel

2009-06-10

115

Effect of CaCl 2 on growth performance, photosynthetic efficiency and nitrogen assimilation of Cichorium intybus L. grown under NaCl stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pot culture experiments were conducted to assess the extent of growth, photosynthetic efficiency and nitrogen assimilation\\u000a of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) as affected by NaCl and CaCl2 alone as well as in combination. Six treatments, i.e., 80 mM and 160 mM NaCl, 5 mM and 10 mM CaCl2 and 80 mM + 10 mM and 160 mM + 10 mM

Anjum Arshi; Malik Zainul Abdin; Muhammad Iqbal

2006-01-01

116

Improving NaCl resistance of red-osier dogwood: role of CaCl 2 and CaSO 4  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of Ca2+ salts on the resistance of red-osier dogwood (Cornus sericea) seedlings to salinity was investigated. Red-osier dogwood seedlings were exposed to 5 and 10 mM of CaCl2 or CaSO4 in the presence or absence of 50 mM NaCl for 40 days in a controlled environment. Seedlings exposed to CaCl2 and CaSO4 recovered from NaCl-induced transpiration reduction after 20 days at a

Sylvie Renault; Maha Affifi

2009-01-01

117

Chlorotoxin does not inhibit volume-regulated, calcium-activated and cyclic AMP-activated chloride channels  

PubMed Central

It was the aim of this study to look for a high-affinity and selective polypeptide toxin, which could serve as a probe for the volume-regulated anion channel (VRAC) or the calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC). We have partially purified chlorotoxin, including new and homologous short chain insectotoxins, from the crude venom of Leiurus quinquestriatus quinquestriatus (Lqq) by means of gel filtration chromatography. Material eluting between 280 and 420?min, corresponding to fractions 15–21, was lyophilized and tested on VRAC and CaCC, using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. We have also tested the commercially available chlorotoxin on VRAC, CaCC, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and on the glioma specific chloride channel (GCC). VRAC and the correspondent current, ICl,swell, was activated in Cultured Pulmonary Artery Endothelial (CPAE) cells by a 25% hypotonic solution. Neither of the fractions 16–21 significantly inhibited ICl,swell (n=4–5). Ca2+-activated Cl? currents, ICl,Ca, activated by loading T84 cells via the patch pipette with 1??M free Ca2+, were not inhibited by any of the tested fractions (15–21), (n=2–5). Chlorotoxin (625?nM) did neither effect ICl,swell nor ICl,Ca (n=4–5). The CFTR channel, transiently transfected in COS cells and activated by a cocktail containing IBMX and forskolin, was not affected by 1.2??M chlorotoxin (n=5). In addition, it did not affect currents through GCC. We conclude that submicromolar concentrations of chlorotoxin do not block volume-regulated, Ca2+-activated and CFTR chloride channels and that it can not be classified as a general chloride channel toxin. PMID:10683204

Maertens, Chantal; Wei, Lin; Tytgat, Jan; Droogmans, Guy; Nilius, Bernd

2000-01-01

118

Chlorides behavior in raw fly ash washing experiments.  

PubMed

Chloride in fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) is one of the obstructive substances in recycling fly ash as building materials. As a result, we have to understand the behavior of chlorides in recycling process, such as washing. In this study, we used X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to study the chloride behavior in washed residue of raw fly ash (RFA). We found that a combination of XRD and XANES, which is to use XRD to identify the situation of some compounds first and then process XANES data, was an effective way to explain the chlorides behavior in washing process. Approximately 15% of the chlorine in RFA was in the form of NaCl, 10% was in the form of KCl, 51% was CaCl(2), and the remainder was in the form of Friedel's salt. In washing experiments not only the mole percentage but also the amount of soluble chlorides including NaCl, KCl and CaCl(2) decreases quickly with the increase of liquid to solid (L/S) ratio or washing frequency. However, those of insoluble chlorides decrease slower. Moreover, Friedel's salt and its related compound (11CaO.7Al(2)O(3).CaCl(2)) were reliable standards for the insoluble chlorides in RFA, which are strongly related to CaCl(2). Washing of RFA promoted the release of insoluble chlorides, most of which were in the form of CaCl(2). PMID:20171782

Zhu, Fenfen; Takaoka, Masaki; Oshita, Kazuyuki; Kitajima, Yoshinori; Inada, Yasuhiro; Morisawa, Shinsuke; Tsuno, Hiroshi

2010-06-15

119

Ultrasound influence upon calcium carbonate precipitation on bacterial cellulose membranes.  

PubMed

The effect of ultrasonic irradiation (40 kHz) on the calcium carbonate deposition on bacterial cellulose membranes was investigated using calcium chloride (CaCl(2)) and sodium carbonate (Na(2)CO(3)) as starting reactants. The composite materials containing bacterial cellulose-calcium carbonate were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and color measurements. The polymorphs of calcium carbonate that were deposited on bacterial cellulose membranes in the presence or in the absence of ultrasonic irradiation were calcite and vaterite. The morphology of the obtained crystals was influenced by the concentration of starting solutions and by the presence of ultrasonic irradiation. In the presence of ultrasonic irradiation the obtained crystals were bigger and in a larger variety of shapes than in the absence of ultrasounds: from cubes of calcite to spherical and flower-like vaterite particles. Bacterial cellulose could be a good matrix for obtaining different types of calcium carbonate crystals. PMID:22227555

Stoica-Guzun, Anicuta; Stroescu, Marta; Jinga, Sorin; Jipa, Iuliana; Dobre, Tanase; Dobre, Loredana

2012-07-01

120

The role of calcium in growth induced by indole-3-acetic acid and gravity in the leaf-sheath pulvinus of oat (Avena sativa)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Leaf-sheath pulvini of excised segments from oat (Avena sativa L.) were induced to grow by treatment with 10 micromoles indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), gravistimulation, or both, and the effects of calcium, EGTA, and calcium channel blockers on growth were evaluated. Unilaterally applied calcium (10 mM CaCl2) significantly inhibited IAA-induced growth in upright pulvini but had no effect on growth induced by either gravity or gravity plus IAA. Calcium alone had no effect on upright pulvini. The calcium chelator EGTA alone (10 mM) stimulated growth in upright pulvini. However, EGTA had no effect on either IAA- or gravity-induced growth but slightly diminished growth in IAA-treated gravistimulated pulvini. The calcium channel blockers lanthanum chloride (25 mM), verapamil (2.5 mM), and nifedipine (2.5 mM) greatly inhibited growth as induced by IAA (> or = 50% inhibition) or IAA plus gravity (20% inhibition) but had no effect on gravistimulated pulvini. Combinations of channel blockers were similar in effect on IAA action as individual blockers. Since neither calcium ions nor EGTA significantly affected the graviresponse of pulvini, we conclude that apoplastic calcium is unimportant in leaf-sheath pulvinus gravitropism. The observation that calcium ions and calcium channel blockers inhibit IAA-induced growth, but have no effect on gravistimulated pulvini, further supports previous observations that gravistimulation alters the responsiveness of pulvini to IAA.

Brock, T. G.; Burg, J.; Ghosheh, N. S.; Kaufman, P. B.

1992-01-01

121

Parabrachial lesions in rats disrupt sodium appetite induced by furosemide but not by calcium deprivation.  

PubMed

An appetite for CaCl2 and NaCl occurs in young rats after they are fed a diet lacking Ca or Na, respectively. Bilateral lesions of the parabrachial nuclei (PBN) disrupt normal taste aversion learning and essentially eliminate the expression of sodium appetite. Here we tested whether similar lesions of the PBN would disrupt the calcium-deprivation-induced appetite for CaCl2 or NaCl. Controls and rats with PBN lesions failed to exhibit a calcium-deprivation-induced appetite for CaCl2. Nevertheless, both groups did exhibit a significant calcium-deprivation-induced appetite for 0.5M NaCl. Thus, while damage to the second central gustatory relay in the PBN disrupts the appetite for 0.5M NaCl induced by furosemide, deoxycorticosterone acetate, and polyethylene glycol, the sodium appetite induced by dietary CaCl2 depletion remains intact. PMID:25540931

Grigson, P S; Colechio, E M; Power, M L; Schulkin, J; Norgren, R

2015-03-01

122

Petrographic evidence of calcium oxychloride formation in mortars exposed to magnesium chloride solution  

SciTech Connect

Many researchers have reported chemical interactions between CaCl{sub 2} and MgCl{sub 2} solutions and hardened Portland cement paste. One potentially destructive phase reported in the literature is calcium oxychloride (3CaO.CaCl{sub 2}.15H{sub 2}O). In the past, limited numbers of researchers have reported identification of this phase by X-ray diffraction. In this work, petrographic evidence of oxychloride formation is presented based on optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and microanalysis. This evidence indicates that calcium oxychloride does form in mortars exposed to MgCl{sub 2} solutions.

Sutter, Lawrence [Michigan Tech Transportation Institute, 1400 Townsend Dr. Houghton, MI 49931 (United States)]. E-mail: cee@mtu.edu; Peterson, Karl [Michigan Tech Transportation Institute, 1400 Townsend Dr. Houghton, MI 49931 (United States)]. E-mail: cee@mtu.edu; Touton, Sayward [Michigan Tech Transportation Institute, 1400 Townsend Dr. Houghton, MI 49931 (United States)]. E-mail: cee@mtu.edu; Van Dam, Tom [Michigan Tech Transportation Institute, 1400 Townsend Dr. Houghton, MI 49931 (United States)]. E-mail: cee@mtu.edu; Johnston, Dan [South Dakota Department of Transportation, 700 E. Broadway Ave., Pierre, SD 57501 (United States)]. E-mail: Dan.Johnston@state.sd.us

2006-08-15

123

Calcium  

MedlinePLUS

... of calcium dietary supplements are carbonate and citrate. Calcium carbonate is inexpensive, but is absorbed best when taken ... antacid products, such as Tums® and Rolaids®, contain calcium carbonate. Each pill or chew provides 200–400 mg ...

124

Functional expression of the TMEM16 family of calcium-activated chloride channels in airway smooth muscle  

PubMed Central

Airway smooth muscle hyperresponsiveness is a key component in the pathophysiology of asthma. Although calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) flux has been described in many cell types, including human airway smooth muscle (HASM), the true molecular identity of the channels responsible for this chloride conductance remains controversial. Recently, a new family of proteins thought to represent the true CaCCs was identified as the TMEM16 family. This led us to question whether members of this family are functionally expressed in native and cultured HASM. We further questioned whether expression of these channels contributes to the contractile function of HASM. We identified the mRNA expression of eight members of the TMEM16 family in HASM cells and show immunohistochemical evidence of TMEM16A in both cultured and native HASM. Functionally, we demonstrate that the classic chloride channel inhibitor, 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid (NPPB), inhibited halide flux in cultured HASM cells. Moreover, HASM cells displayed classical electrophysiological properties of CaCCs during whole cell electrophysiological recordings, which were blocked by using an antibody selective for TMEM16A. Furthermore, two distinct TMEM16A antagonists (tannic acid and benzbromarone) impaired a substance P-induced contraction in isolated guinea pig tracheal rings. These findings demonstrate that multiple members of this recently described family of CaCCs are expressed in HASM cells, they display classic electrophysiological properties of CaCCs, and they modulate contractile tone in airway smooth muscle. The TMEM16 family may provide a novel therapeutic target for limiting airway constriction in asthma. PMID:23997176

Remy, Kenneth E.; Danielsson, Jennifer; Funayama, Hiromi; Fu, Xiao Wen; Chang, Herng-Yu Sucie; Yim, Peter; Xu, Dingbang; Emala, Charles W.

2013-01-01

125

Influence of magnesium on chloride-induced calcium release in skinned muscle fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

^ B s T R ^ c x Chloride-induced Ca release in skinned muscle fibers was studied by measuring isometric force transients and 4~Ca loss from fiber to washout solutions. Skinned fibers prepared from muscles soaked in normal Ringer solution made large force transients in 120 mM CI solution with 5 mM ATP and 1 mM Mg, but 3 mM

ELIZABETH W. STEPHENSON; RICHARD J. PODOLSKY

1977-01-01

126

45 CaCl 2 autoradiography in brain from rabbits with encephalopathy from acute liver failure or acute hyperammonemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In experimental hepatic encephalopathy and hyperammonemia, extracellular levels of glutamate are increased in hippocampus and cerebral cortex. It has been suggested that overstimulation of glutamate receptors causes a pathological entry of calcium into neurons via receptor-operated (NMDA- and AMPA-type) or voltage-dependent calcium channels leading to calcium overload and cell death. Neurodegeneration as a result of exposure to excitotoxins, including glutamate,

Robert J. de Knegt; Jan-Bert P. Gramsbergen; Solko W. Schalm

1994-01-01

127

Alkaline earth chloride hydrates: chlorine quadrupolar and chemical shift tensors by solid-state NMR spectroscopy and plane wave pseudopotential calculations.  

PubMed

A series of alkaline earth chloride hydrates has been studied by solid-state (35/37)Cl NMR spectroscopy in order to characterize the chlorine electric field gradient (EFG) and chemical shift (CS) tensors and to relate these observables to the structure around the chloride ions. Chlorine-35/37 NMR spectra of solid powdered samples of pseudopolymorphs (hydrates) of magnesium chloride (MgCl(2).6H(2)O), calcium chloride (CaCl(2).2H(2)O), strontium chloride (SrCl(2), SrCl(2).2H(2)O, and SrCl(2).6H(2)O), and barium chloride (BaCl(2).2H(2)O) have been acquired under stationary and magic-angle spinning conditions in magnetic fields of 11.75 and 21.1 T. Powder X-ray diffraction was used as an additional tool to confirm the purity and identity of the samples. Chlorine-35 quadrupolar coupling constants (C(Q)) range from essentially zero in cubic anhydrous SrCl(2) to 4.26+/-0.03 MHz in calcium chloride dihydrate. CS tensor spans, Omega, are between 40 and 72 ppm, for example, Omega= 45+/-20 ppm for SrCl(2).6H(2)O. Plane wave-pseudopotential density functional theory, as implemented in the CASTEP program, was employed to model the extended solid lattices of these materials for the calculation of their chlorine EFG and nuclear magnetic shielding tensors, and allowed for the assignment of the two-site chlorine NMR spectra of barium chloride dihydrate. This work builds upon our current understanding of the relationship between chlorine NMR interaction tensors and the local molecular and electronic structure, and highlights the particular sensitivity of quadrupolar nucleus solid-state NMR spectroscopy to the differences between various pseudopolymorphic structures in the case of strontium chloride. PMID:17385204

Bryce, David L; Bultz, Elijah B

2007-01-01

128

Comparison of soil extractions by 0.01 M CaCl 2 , by EUF and by some conventional extraction procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The extractive powers of different extraction procedures (Electro-Ultrafiltration, 0.01M CaCl2 and standard Dutch methods) were compared mutually for a limited number of nutrients in soil samples from 21 locations. The\\u000a results showed that for almost all parameters under study (Na, K, Mg, Mn, P, N) the methods are interchangeable. Drawbacks\\u000a of the EUF technique are lower reproducibility of the results,

V. J. G. Houba; I. Novozamsky; A. W. M. Huybregts; J. J. van der Lee

1986-01-01

129

Elastic properties of stishovite and the CaCl2-type silica at the mantle temperature and pressure: An ab initio investigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The elastic constant tensors of stishovite and the CaCl2-type silica at the Earth's mantle temperature and pressure were determined using first-principles calculations with local density approximation. The elastic properties of stishovite show not only strong pressure dependence but also temperature dependence. By increasing temperature, the shear instability of stishovite is shifted to an elevated pressure with a slope of ?5.4±1.4 MPa/K. The softening of the shear modulus and the positive Clapeyron slope result in crossing of the sound velocities at different temperatures, which leads to the unusual positive temperature dependence of the sound velocities around the phase boundary. The transition from stishovite to the CaCl2-type silica at the lower mantle's temperature occurs at a depth far deeper than 1200 km and is accompanied by a velocity jump of ?0.98±0.08 km/s in S wave velocity (VS) and ?0.45±0.15 km/s in P wave velocity (VP). This transition is likely related to the seismic discontinuity at the depth of ?1670 km in the vicinity of Mariana Island. The unusual positive temperature dependence of VS of stishovite and strong anisotropy of stishovite and the CaCl2-type silica around the phase boundary provide potential ways to identify the origin of the seismic discontinuity.

Yang, Rui; Wu, Zhongqing

2014-10-01

130

Calcium  

MedlinePLUS

Calcium is a mineral that is an essential part of bones and teeth. The heart, nerves, and blood-clotting systems also need calcium ... as well as the calcium-enriched citrus juices, mineral water, canned fish with bones, and soy products ...

131

Synergetic effect of poly(vinyl butyral) and calcium carbonate on thermal stability of poly(vinyl chloride) nanocomposites investigated by TG–FTIR–MS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to improve poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) thermal stability, poly(vinyl butyral) (PVB) matrix and calcium carbonate nanoparticles\\u000a were incorporated in plasticized PVC. Thermal properties of these composites were investigated by thermogravimetry analysis\\u000a coupled with mass spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). This approach highlighted the efficiency\\u000a of both PVB and CaCO3 as HCl scavengers by postponing both the onset

Stéphanie Etienne; Claude Becker; David Ruch; Albert Germain; Cédric Calberg

2010-01-01

132

Thermal stability of plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) compounds stabilized with pre-heated mixtures of calcium and\\/or zinc stearates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Processing and post-processing thermal stability of poly(vinyl chloride) compounds, plasticized with di(ethyl hexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and epoxidized soybean oil (ESO), using several ratios of calcium\\/zinc stearates are reported here. Two series of compounds were prepared, varying the DEHP or ESO concentrations. The compounds were prepared as follows: (1) preheating stearates, (2) dry-blending the compound components, (3) pelletizing the dry-blend and

Luis J. González-Ortiz; Martín Arellano; Carlos F. Jasso; Eduardo Mendizábal; M. Judith Sánchez-Peña

2005-01-01

133

The simultaneous removal of calcium, magnesium and chloride ions from industrial wastewater using magnesium-aluminum oxide.  

PubMed

In this article, a method for simultaneous removal of calcium, magnesium and chloride by using Mg0.80Al0.20O1.10 as a Magnesium-Aluminum oxide (Mg?Al oxide) was investigated. Mg?Al oxide obtained by thermal decomposition of the Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (Mg-Al LDH). The synthesized Mg?Al oxide were characterized with respect to nitrogen physicosorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scan electron microscopy (FESEM) morphology. Due to high anion-exchange capacity of Mg?Al oxide, it was employed in simultaneously removal of Cl(-), Mg(+2) and Ca(+2) from distiller waste of a sodium carbonate production factory. For this purpose, experiments were designed to evaluate the effects of quantity of Mg?Al oxide, temperature and time on the removal process. The removal of Cl(-), Mg(+2) and Ca(+2) from wastewater was found 93.9%, 93.74% and 93.25% at 60°C after 0.5 h, respectively. Results showed that the removal of Cl(-), Mg(+2) and Ca(+2) by Mg?Al oxide increased with increasing temperature, time and Mg?Al oxide quantity. PMID:23647113

Hamidi, Roya; Kahforoushan, Davood; Fatehifar, Esmaeil

2013-01-01

134

Calcium-activated chloride channels in bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells.  

PubMed

1. We characterized Ca(2+)-activated Cl- currents in calf pulmonary artery endothelial (CPAE) cells by using a combined patch clamp and fura-2 microfluorescence technique to simultaneously measure ionic currents and the intracellular Ca2+ concentration, [Ca2+]i. 2. Various procedures that increased [Ca2+]i, such as stimulation with ATP or ionomycin, or loading the cells with Ca2+ via the patch pipette, activated a strongly outwardly rectifying current with a reversal potential close to the Cl- equilibrium potential. Changing the extracellular Cl- concentration shifted this reversal potential as predicted for a Cl- current. Buffering Ca2+ rises with BAPTA prevented ATP from activating the current. 3. Ca(2+)-activated Cl- currents could be distinguished from volume-activated Cl- currents, which were sometimes coactivated in the same cell. The latter showed much less outward rectification, their activation was voltage independent, and they could be inhibited by exposing the cells to hypertonic solutions. 4. The permeability ratio for the Ca(2+)-activated conductance of the anions iodide:chloride: gluconate was 1.71 +/- 0.06:1:0.39 +/- 0.03 (n = 12). 5. This Ca(2+)-activated Cl- current, ICl, Ca, inactivated rapidly at negative potentials and activated slowly at positive potentials. Outward tail currents were slowly decaying, while inward tail currents decayed much faster. 6. 4,4'-Diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic-acid (DIDS) and niflumic acid inhibited Icl,Ca in a voltage-dependent manner, i.e. they exerted a more potent block at positive potentials. The block by N-phenylanthracilic acid (NPA), 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoate (NPPB) and tamoxifen was voltage independent. Niflumic acid and tamoxifen were the most potent blockers. 7. The single-channel conductance was 7.9 +/- 0.7 pS (n = 15) at 300 mM extracellular Cl-. The channel open probability was high at positive potentials, but very small at negative potentials. 8. It is concluded that [Ca2+]i activates small-conductance Cl- channels in endothelial cells, which coexist with the volume-activated Cl- channels described previously. PMID:9032686

Nilius, B; Prenen, J; Szücs, G; Wei, L; Tanzi, F; Voets, T; Droogmans, G

1997-01-15

135

Calcium-activated chloride channels in bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells.  

PubMed Central

1. We characterized Ca(2+)-activated Cl- currents in calf pulmonary artery endothelial (CPAE) cells by using a combined patch clamp and fura-2 microfluorescence technique to simultaneously measure ionic currents and the intracellular Ca2+ concentration, [Ca2+]i. 2. Various procedures that increased [Ca2+]i, such as stimulation with ATP or ionomycin, or loading the cells with Ca2+ via the patch pipette, activated a strongly outwardly rectifying current with a reversal potential close to the Cl- equilibrium potential. Changing the extracellular Cl- concentration shifted this reversal potential as predicted for a Cl- current. Buffering Ca2+ rises with BAPTA prevented ATP from activating the current. 3. Ca(2+)-activated Cl- currents could be distinguished from volume-activated Cl- currents, which were sometimes coactivated in the same cell. The latter showed much less outward rectification, their activation was voltage independent, and they could be inhibited by exposing the cells to hypertonic solutions. 4. The permeability ratio for the Ca(2+)-activated conductance of the anions iodide:chloride: gluconate was 1.71 +/- 0.06:1:0.39 +/- 0.03 (n = 12). 5. This Ca(2+)-activated Cl- current, ICl, Ca, inactivated rapidly at negative potentials and activated slowly at positive potentials. Outward tail currents were slowly decaying, while inward tail currents decayed much faster. 6. 4,4'-Diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic-acid (DIDS) and niflumic acid inhibited Icl,Ca in a voltage-dependent manner, i.e. they exerted a more potent block at positive potentials. The block by N-phenylanthracilic acid (NPA), 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoate (NPPB) and tamoxifen was voltage independent. Niflumic acid and tamoxifen were the most potent blockers. 7. The single-channel conductance was 7.9 +/- 0.7 pS (n = 15) at 300 mM extracellular Cl-. The channel open probability was high at positive potentials, but very small at negative potentials. 8. It is concluded that [Ca2+]i activates small-conductance Cl- channels in endothelial cells, which coexist with the volume-activated Cl- channels described previously. Images Figure 5 Figure 7 PMID:9032686

Nilius, B; Prenen, J; Szücs, G; Wei, L; Tanzi, F; Voets, T; Droogmans, G

1997-01-01

136

The involvement of lactic acid in calcium chloride injection of top and bottom rounds further processed into cooked corned beef and cooked beef  

E-print Network

rated higher in "off" flavors. LACCL scored higher for soured, livery, chemical and sour tastes when compared to the COLD, HOT, and CCL treatments. Therefore, the injection of .2M CaCl2 alone, into subprimal cuts further processed into cooked beef...

McCleery, Carrie McReynolds

2012-06-07

137

Hypoxia augments the calcium-activated chloride current carried by anoctamin-1 in cardiac vascular endothelial cells of neonatal mice  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The molecular identity of calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCCs) in vascular endothelial cells remains unknown. This study sought to identify whether anoctamin-1 (Ano1, also known as TMEM16A) functions as a CaCC and whether hypoxia alters the biophysical properties of Ano1 in mouse cardiac vascular endothelial cells (CVECs). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Western blot, quantitative real-time PCR, confocal imaging analysis and patch-clamp analysis combined with pharmacological approaches were used to determine whether Ano1 was expressed and functioned as CaCC in CVECs. KEY RESULTS Ano1 was expressed in CVECs. The biophysical properties of the current generated in the CVECs, including the Ca2+ and voltage dependence, outward rectification, anion selectivity and the pharmacological profile, are similar to those described for CaCCs. The density of ICl(Ca) detected in CVECs was significantly inhibited by T16Ainh-A01, an Ano1 inhibitor, and a pore-targeting, specific anti-Ano1 antibody, and was markedly decreased in Ano1 gene knockdown CVECs. The density of ICl(Ca) was significantly potentiated in CVECs exposed to hypoxia, and this hypoxia-induced increase in the density of ICl(Ca) was inhibited by T16Ainh-A01 or anti-Ano1 antibody. Hypoxia also increased the current density of ICl(Ca) in Ano1 gene knockdown CVECs. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Ano1 formed CaCC in CVECs of neonatal mice. Hypoxia enhances Ano1-mediated ICl(Ca) density via increasing its expression, altering the ratio of its splicing variants, sensitivity to membrane voltage and to Ca2+. Ano1 may play a role in the pathophysiological processes during ischaemia in heart, and therefore, Ano1 might be a potential therapeutic target to prevent ischaemic damage. PMID:24758567

Wu, Ming-Ming; Lou, Jie; Song, Bin-Lin; Gong, Yuan-Feng; Li, Yan-Chao; Yu, Chang-Jiang; Wang, Qiu-Shi; Ma, Tian-Xing; Ma, Ke; Hartzell, H Criss; Duan, Dayue Darrel; Zhao, Dan; Zhang, Zhi-Ren

2014-01-01

138

Bile acids stimulate chloride secretion through CFTR and calcium-activated Cl- channels in Calu-3 airway epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Bile acids resulting from the aspiration of gastroesophageal refluxate are often present in the lower airways of people with cystic fibrosis and other respiratory distress diseases. Surprisingly, there is little or no information on the modulation of airway epithelial ion transport by bile acids. The secretory effect of a variety of conjugated and unconjugated secondary bile acids was investigated in Calu-3 airway epithelial cells grown under an air-liquid interface and mounted in Ussing chambers. Electrogenic transepithelial ion transport was measured as short-circuit current (Isc). The taurine-conjugated secondary bile acid, taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA), was found to be the most potent modulator of basal ion transport. Acute treatment (5 min) of Calu-3 cells with TDCA (25 ?M) on the basolateral side caused a stimulation of Isc, and removal of extracellular Cl(-) abolished this response. TDCA produced an increase in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-dependent current that was abolished by pretreatment with the CFTR inhibitor CFTRinh172. TDCA treatment also increased Cl(-) secretion through calcium-activated chloride (CaCC) channels and increased the Na(+)/K(+) pump current. Acute treatment with TDCA resulted in a rapid cellular influx of Ca(2+) and increased cAMP levels in Calu-3 cells. Bile acid receptor-selective activation with INT-777 revealed TGR5 localized at the basolateral membrane as the receptor involved in TDCA-induced Cl(-) secretion. In summary, we demonstrate for the first time that low concentrations of bile acids can modulate Cl(-) secretion in airway epithelial cells, and this effect is dependent on both the duration and sidedness of exposure to the bile acid. PMID:24993131

Hendrick, Siobhán M; Mroz, Magdalena S; Greene, Catherine M; Keely, Stephen J; Harvey, Brian J

2014-09-01

139

Presynaptic Localization and Possible Function of Calcium-Activated Chloride Channel Anoctamin 1 in the Mammalian Retina  

PubMed Central

Calcium (Ca2+)-activated chloride (Cl?) channels (CaCCs) play a role in the modulation of action potentials and synaptic responses in the somatodendritic regions of central neurons. In the vertebrate retina, large Ca2+-activated Cl? currents (ICl(Ca)) regulate synaptic transmission at photoreceptor terminals; however, the molecular identity of CaCCs that mediate ICl(Ca) remains unclear. The transmembrane protein, TMEM16A, also called anoctamin 1 (ANO1), has been recently validated as a CaCC and is widely expressed in various secretory epithelia and nervous tissues. Despite the fact that tmem16a was first cloned in the retina, there is little information on its cellular localization and function in the mammalian retina. In this study, we found that ANO1 was abundantly expressed as puncta in 2 synaptic layers. More specifically, ANO1 immunoreactivity was observed in the presynaptic terminals of various retinal neurons, including photoreceptors. ICl(Ca) was first detected in dissociated rod bipolar cells expressing ANO1. ICl(Ca) was abolished by treatment with the Ca2+ channel blocker Co2+, the L-type Ca2+ channel blocker nifedipine, and the Cl? channel blockers 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino) benzoic acid (NPPB) and niflumic acid (NFA). More specifically, a recently discovered ANO1-selective inhibitor, T16Ainh-A01, and a neutralizing antibody against ANO1 inhibited ICl(Ca) in rod bipolar cells. Under a current-clamping mode, the suppression of ICl(Ca) by using NPPB and T16Ainh-A01 caused a prolonged Ca2+ spike-like depolarization evoked by current injection in dissociated rod bipolar cells. These results suggest that ANO1 confers ICl(Ca) in retinal neurons and acts as an intrinsic regulator of the presynaptic membrane potential during synaptic transmission. PMID:23840801

Chun, Myung-Hoon; Oh, Uhtaek; Kim, In-Beom

2013-01-01

140

FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Intense violet-blue emitting (CaCl2/SiO2) : Eu2+ phosphor powders for applications in UV-LED based phototherapy illuminators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An intense violet-blue emitting (CaCl2/SiO2) : Eu2+ phosphor with a composition of 25% CaCl2 and 75% SiO2 is prepared by a solid state reaction. The phosphor emits at 427 nm with a narrow bandwidth of 21 nm. The photoluminescence (PL) intensities and fluorescence lifetimes are studied as a function of Eu2+ concentrations. It is observed that the PL intensity of (CaCl2/SiO2) : Eu2+ can be 30% higher than that of commercial Sr2P2O7 : Eu2+ phosphor under 395 nm excitation. (CaCl2/SiO2) : Eu2+ would be a promising new phosphor for converting near-ultraviolet radiation to violet-blue emission for a novel phototherapy illuminator using a near-ultraviolet (~395 nm) light emitting diode as the excitation source.

Hao, Zhendong; Zhang, Jiahua; Zhang, Xia; Ren, Xinguang; Luo, Yongshi; Lu, Shaozhe; Wang, Xiaojun

2008-09-01

141

First-principles calculations of the ferroelastic transition between rutile-type and CaCl2 -type SiO2 at high pressures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tetragonal to orthorhombic ferroelastic phase transition between rutile- and CaCl2 -type SiO2 at high pressures is studied using first-principles calculations and the Landau free-energy expansion. The phase transition is systematically investigated in terms of characteristic phonon modes with B1g and Ag symmetries, shear moduli, transverse-acoustic mode, rotation angle of the SiO6 octahedra, spontaneous symmetry-breaking and volume strains, and enthalpy. The results show that these physical behaviors at the transition are well described using the Landau free-energy expansion parametrized by the first-principles calculations.

Togo, Atsushi; Oba, Fumiyasu; Tanaka, Isao

2008-10-01

142

Modulation of tomato pericarp firmness through pH and calcium: Implications for the texture of fresh-cut fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of pH and calcium on pericarp firmness and pectin solubility was investigated in tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. ‘Tavira’). Pericarp disks were vacuum-infiltrated with 50mM CaCl2 or with distilled water and incubated for 4h in buffer solutions at pH 4.5 and 7.0, and subsequently stored at 2°C for 5 days. CaCl2 treatment had a significant effect on firmness

Susana C. F. Pinheiro; Domingos P. F. Almeida

2008-01-01

143

Effect of NaCl and CaCl 2 on the antioxidant mechanism of leaves and stems of the rootstock CAB6P ( Prunus cerasus L.) under in vitro conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of salinity on the non-enzymic and enzymic antioxidant activity, shoot proliferation and nutrient accumulation\\u000a was studied in in vitro cultures of the rootstock CAB-6P (Prunus cerasus L.). Three concentrations (0, 30 and 60 mM) of NaCl or CaCl2 were added to a modified MS medium. Between the two salt treatments used, only the explants treated with CaCl2 presented significant

C. Chatzissavvidis; G. Veneti; I. Papadakis; I. Therios

2008-01-01

144

Shape-controlled production of biodegradable calcium alginate gel microparticles using a novel microfluidic device.  

PubMed

In this paper we describe a novel method of manufacturing shape-controlled calcium alginate gel microparticles in a microfluidic device. Both manufacturing shape-controlled microparticles and synthesizing hydrogel microparticles could be performed simultaneously in the microfluidic device. The novel microfluidic device comprised of two individual flow-focusing channels and a synthesizing channel was successfully applied as a continuous microfluidic reactor to synthesize gel microparticles with size and shape control. By passive control based on the microchannel geometric confinement and liquid-phase flow rates, we succeeded in producing monodisperse sodium alginate microparticles with diverse shapes (such as plugs, disks, microspheres, rods, and threads) in the flow-focusing channels of the microfluidic device. The shape and size of the sodium alginate microparticles could be tuned by adjusting the flow rates of the various streams. Further stages of the chemical reaction could be initiated by mixing sodium alginate microparticles and calcium chloride (CaCl2) solution in the synthesizing channel. The shapes of the sodium alginate microparticles could be permanently preserved by the synthesis of calcium alginate gel microparticles. The preparation conditions of size- and shape-controlled calcium alginate microparticles and influence factors were studied. PMID:17042568

Liu, Kan; Ding, Hui-Jiang; Liu, Jing; Chen, Yong; Zhao, Xing-Zhong

2006-10-24

145

Multisite Ion Model in Concentrated Solutions of Divalent Cations (MgCl2 and CaCl2): Osmotic Pressure Calculations.  

PubMed

Accurate force field parameters for ions are essential for meaningful simulation studies of proteins and nucleic acids. Currently accepted models of ions, especially for divalent ions, do not necessarily reproduce the right physiological behavior of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) ions. Saxena and Sept (J. Chem. Theor. Comput. 2013, 9, 3538-3542) described a model, called the multisite-ion model, where instead of treating the ions as an isolated sphere, the charge was split into multiple sites with partial charge. This model provided accurate inner shell coordination of the ion with biomolecules and predicted better free energies for proteins and nucleic acids. Here, we expand and refine the multisite model to describe the behavior of divalent ions in concentrated MgCl2 and CaCl2 electrolyte solutions, eliminating the unusual ion-ion pairing and clustering of ions which occurred in the original model. We calibrate and improve the parameters of the multisite model by matching the osmotic pressure of concentrated solutions of MgCl2 to the experimental values and then use these parameters to test the behavior of CaCl2 solutions. We find that the concentrated solutions of both divalent ions exhibit the experimentally observed behavior with correct osmotic pressure, the presence of solvent separated ion pairs instead of direct ion pairs, and no aggregation of ions. The improved multisite model for (Mg(2+) and Ca(2+)) can be used in classical simulations of biomolecules at physiologically relevant salt concentrations. PMID:25482831

Saxena, Akansha; García, Angel E

2015-01-01

146

A glass-encapsulated calcium phosphate wasteform for the immobilization of actinide-, fluoride-, and chloride-containing radioactive wastes from the pyrochemical reprocessing of plutonium metal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chloride-containing radioactive wastes are generated during the pyrochemical reprocessing of Pu metal. Immobilization of these wastes in borosilicate glass or Synroc-type ceramics is not feasible due to the very low solubility of chlorides in these hosts. Alternative candidates have therefore been sought including phosphate-based glasses, crystalline ceramics and hybrid glass/ceramic systems. These studies have shown that high losses of chloride or evolution of chlorine gas from the melt make vitrification an unacceptable solution unless suitable off-gas treatment facilities capable of dealing with these corrosive by-products are available. On the other hand, both sodium aluminosilicate and calcium phosphate ceramics are capable of retaining chloride in stable mineral phases, which include sodalite, Na 8(AlSiO 4) 6Cl 2, chlorapatite, Ca 5(PO 4) 3Cl, and spodiosite, Ca 2(PO 4)Cl. The immobilization process developed in this study involves a solid state process in which waste and precursor powders are mixed and reacted in air at temperatures in the range 700-800 °C. The ceramic products are non-hygroscopic free-flowing powders that only require encapsulation in a relatively low melting temperature phosphate-based glass to produce a monolithic wasteform suitable for storage and ultimate disposal.

Donald, I. W.; Metcalfe, B. L.; Fong, S. K.; Gerrard, L. A.; Strachan, D. M.; Scheele, R. D.

2007-03-01

147

Applicability of the energy dispersive x-ray microanalysis for quantification of irregular calcium deposits on fruit and leaf cuticles.  

PubMed

In our studies, we evaluated the relation between CaCl(2) concentration and the scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive x-ray microanalysis parameters, net intensity, peak/background and standardized percentage of atoms and percentage of weight after application of single microdroplets on enzymatically isolated tomato fruit cuticles and apple seedling leaves. After analysis, the Ca/Cl ratio was calculated and the area ultimately covered with Ca and Cl within the droplet spread area determined. According to our findings, all evaluated parameters were influenced by both droplet volume and calcium chloride concentration, whereas Pearson's analysis revealed a strong correlation between net intensity and area ultimately covered by Ca or Cl, respectively. Simple linear regressions for net intensity, peak/background and Ca/Cl ratio showed variable determination coefficients (R(2)) ranging between 0.49 and 0.79. Multiple regression equations comprising net intensity, Ca/Cl ratio and deposit area were established to estimate the amount of calcium present on the cuticles. Equation slopes depended on droplet volumes, with determination coefficients of 0.89 and 0.81 for 0.5 and 1.0-microL droplets, respectively. The importance of the physicochemical properties of the spray solution was exploited in another study where a hydrophobic or a hydrophilic adjuvant was added to a 10 g L(-1) CaCl(2) solution, which was applied to apple seedling leaves. The addition of adjuvants increased values of net intensity and peak/background, which correlated significantly with the area covered by calcium. The importance of the methodology for studies on the interaction between leaf applied fertilizers (also extended to agrochemicals) and the characteristics of target surfaces is discussed. PMID:19094022

Hunsche, M; Noga, G

2008-12-01

148

Effect of post-harvest calcium chloride dip treatment and gamma irradiation on storage quality and shelf-life extension of Red delicious apple  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freshly harvested Red delicious apples were dipped in calcium chloride solution of varying concentrations (0.5–2.0% w\\/v) for\\u000a 1 h prior to irradiation at dose level of 0.4 kGy. Fruits after radiation treatment were stored at 2?±?1°C, RH 90% and evaluated\\u000a at intervals of 30 days for various quality parameters. Results revealed significant (p???0.05) retention in firmness, juice yield and ascorbic acid content in

P. R. Hussain; R. S. Meena; M. A. Dar; A. M. Wani

149

Angiotensin II modulates mouse skeletal muscle resting conductance to chloride and potassium ions and calcium homeostasis via the AT1 receptor and NADPH oxidase.  

PubMed

Angiotensin II (ANG II) plays a role in muscle wasting and remodeling; however, little evidence shows its direct effects on specific muscle functions. We presently investigated the acute in vitro effects of ANG II on resting ionic conductance and calcium homeostasis of mouse extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle fibers, based on previous findings that in vivo inhibition of ANG II counteracts the impairment of macroscopic ClC-1 chloride channel conductance (gCl) in the mdx mouse model of muscular dystrophy. By means of intracellular microelectrode recordings we found that ANG II reduced gCl in the nanomolar range and in a concentration-dependent manner (EC50 = 0.06 ?M) meanwhile increasing potassium conductance (gK). Both effects were inhibited by the ANG II receptors type 1 (AT1)-receptor antagonist losartan and the protein kinase C inhibitor chelerythrine; no antagonism was observed with the AT2 antagonist PD123,319. The scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS) N-acetyl cysteine and the NADPH-oxidase (NOX) inhibitor apocynin also antagonized ANG II effects on resting ionic conductances; the ANG II-dependent gK increase was blocked by iberiotoxin, an inhibitor of calcium-activated potassium channels. ANG II also lowered the threshold for myofiber and muscle contraction. Both ANG II and the AT1 agonist L162,313 increased the intracellular calcium transients, measured by fura-2, with a two-step pattern. These latter effects were not observed in the presence of losartan and of the phospholipase C inhibitor U73122 and the in absence of extracellular calcium, disclosing a Gq-mediated calcium entry mechanism. The data show for the first time that the AT1-mediated ANG II pathway, also involving NOX and ROS, directly modulates ion channels and calcium homeostasis in adult myofibers. PMID:25080489

Cozzoli, Anna; Liantonio, Antonella; Conte, Elena; Cannone, Maria; Massari, Ada Maria; Giustino, Arcangela; Scaramuzzi, Antonia; Pierno, Sabata; Mantuano, Paola; Capogrosso, Roberta Francesca; Camerino, Giulia Maria; De Luca, Annamaria

2014-10-01

150

Variomics Screen Identifies the Re-entrant Loop of the Calcium-activated Chloride Channel ANO1 That Facilitates Channel Activation.  

PubMed

The calcium-activated chloride channel ANO1 regulates multiple physiological processes. However, little is known about the mechanism of channel gating and regulation of ANO1 activity. Using a high-throughput, random mutagenesis-based variomics screen, we generated and functionally characterized ?6000 ANO1 mutants and identified novel mutations that affected channel activity, intracellular trafficking, or localization of ANO1. Mutations such as S741T increased ANO1 calcium sensitivity and rendered ANO1 calcium gating voltage-independent, demonstrating a critical role of the re-entrant loop in coupling calcium and voltage sensitivity of ANO1 and hence in regulating ANO1 activation. Our data present the first unbiased and comprehensive study of the structure-function relationship of ANO1. The novel ANO1 mutants reported have diverse functional characteristics, providing new tools to study ANO1 function in biological systems, paving the path for a better understanding of the function of ANO1 and its role in health and diseases. PMID:25425649

Bill, Anke; Popa, M Oana; van Diepen, Michiel T; Gutierrez, Abraham; Lilley, Sarah; Velkova, Maria; Acheson, Kathryn; Choudhury, Hedaythul; Renaud, Nicole A; Auld, Douglas S; Gosling, Martin; Groot-Kormelink, Paul J; Gaither, L Alex

2015-01-01

151

Calcium.  

PubMed

This chapter describes the chemical and biological value of the calcium ion. In calcium chemistry, our main interest is in equilibria within static, nonflowing systems. Hence, we examined the way calcium formed precipitates and complex ions in solution. We observed thereafter its uses by humankind in a vast number of materials such as minerals, e.g., marble, concrete, mortars, which parallel the biological use in shells and bones. In complex formation, we noted that many combinations were of anion interaction with calcium for example in the uses of detergents and medicines. The rates of exchange of calcium from bound states were noted but they had little application. Calcium ions do not act as catalysts of organic reactions. In biological systems, interest is in the above chemistry, but extends to the fact that Ca2+ ions can carry information by flowing in one solution or from one solution to another through membranes. Hence, we became interested in the details of rates of calcium exchange. The fast exchange of this divalent ion from most organic binding sites has allowed it to develop as the dominant second messenger. Now the flow can be examined in vitro as calcium binds particular isolated proteins, which it activates as seen in physical mechanical changes or chemical changes and this piece-by-piece study of cells is common. Here, however, we have chosen to stress the whole circuit of Ca2+ action indicating that the cell is organized both at a basal and an activated state kinetic level by the steady state flow of the ion (see Fig. 11). Different time constants of exchange utilizing very similar binding constants lead to: 1) fast responses as in the muscle of an animal; or 2) slower change as in differentiation of an egg or seed. Many other changes of state may relate to Ca2+ steady-state levels of flow in the circuitry and here we point to two: 1) dormancy in reptiles and animals; and 2) sporulation in both bacteria and lower plants. In the other chapters of this volume many components of the overall circuitry will be described. The reader should try to marry these into the overall activity of the cell for on top of molecular biology there is the cooperative system molecular biology of cells. To give an analogy, whereas much can be understood from the analysis of the properties of single-isolated water molecules, even examining their interaction in ice, this study alone cannot lead to an appreciation of the melting or boiling points of bulk water. PMID:11833348

Williams, Robert J P

2002-01-01

152

Change in organic molecule adhesion on ?-alumina (sapphire) with change in NaCl and CaCl2 solution salinity.  

PubMed

We investigated the adhesion of two functional groups to ?-alumina as a model for the adsorption of organic molecules on clay minerals. Interactions between organic compounds and clay minerals play an important role in processes such as drinking water treatment, remediation of contaminated soil, oil recovery, and fabricating complicated nanomaterials, and there have been claims that organic compound-clay mineral interaction created the ordering that is necessary for the genesis of life. In many organisms, interaction between organic molecules and biominerals makes it possible to control the growth of bones, teeth, and shells. Adhesion of carboxylic acid, -COO(H), and pyridine, -C5H5N(H(+)), on the {0001} plane of ?-alumina wafers has been investigated with atomic force microscopy (AFM) in chemical force mapping (CFM) mode. Both functional groups adhered to ?-alumina in deionized water at pH < 5, and adhesion decreased as NaCl or CaCl2 concentration increased. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed that Na(+) and Ca(2+) adsorbed to the ?-alumina surface at pH < 5, decreasing surface interaction with the carboxylic acid and pyridine groups. We interpret the results as evidence that the tips adhere to alumina through hydrogen bonding when only water is present. In solutions containing NaCl and CaCl2, cations are adsorbed but Cl(-) is not. When NaCl solutions are replaced by CaCl2, Ca(2+) replaces Na(+), but rinsing with ultrapure deionized water (pH 5.6) could not restore the original protonated surface. The results demonstrate that the alumina surface at pH 3 has a higher affinity for inorganic cations than for -COO(H) or -C5H5N(H(+)), in spite of the known positive surface charge of ?-alumina {0001} wafers. These results demonstrate that solution salinity plays an important role in surface properties, controlling surface tension (i.e., contact angle) and adsorption affinity on ?-alumina and, by analogy, on clay minerals. PMID:24988276

Juhl, K M S; Bovet, N; Hassenkam, T; Dideriksen, K; Pedersen, C S; Jensen, C M; Okhrimenko, D V; Stipp, S L S

2014-07-29

153

Alleviatory effects of calcium on the toxicity of sodium, potassium and magnesium chlorides to seed germination in three non-halophytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saline soils contain numerous salts with varying impact on seed germination. Seeds of three non-halophytic species found in Chinese sandy deserts (Artemisia ordosica, Aristida adscensionis and Bassia dasyphylla) were incubated in salt solutions (NaCl, KCl or MgCl2, each with or without CaCl2) at 20°C in the dark. The effects of each salt on the percentage of seeds from which visibly

Kazuo Tobe; Liping Zhang; Kenji Omasa

2003-01-01

154

Water sorption by the calcium chloride\\/silica gel composite: The accelerating effect of the salt solution present in the pores  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetics of isothermal water sorption by the CaCl2\\/silica gel composite initiated by a small stepwise pressure rise over the sample has been investigated at a constant underlying\\u000a plate temperature of 35°C. The initial portion of the kinetic curves is consistent with Fick’s diffusion model: the amount\\u000a of sorbed water increases in proportion to the square root of the sorption

D. S. Ovoshchnikov; I. S. Glaznev; Yu. I. Aristov

2011-01-01

155

Identical flow injection spectrophotometric manifold for determination of protein, phosphorus, calcium, chloride, copper, manganese, iron, and zinc in feeds or premixes.  

PubMed

A simple procedure using an identical manifold was developed for determination of nitrogen (protein) phosphorus, calcium, chloride, copper, manganese, iron, and zinc in feeds and feedstuffs. By changing appropriate reagents and detection wavelength, these 8 elements were determined successively with a simple identical double-line flow injection (FI) manifold. Fl spectrophotometric determinations were made by the blue indophenol reaction for ammonium, the molybdenum blue method for phosphate, the cresolphthalein complexone procedure for calcium, and the mercuric thiocyanate procedure for chloride. The chromogenic reagents for copper, iron, manganese, and zinc determination were bis(cyclohexanone)oxalydihydrazone (Cuprizone), 1,10-phenanthroline, formaldoxime, and xylenol orange, respectively. Sample digestion catalyst, Fl manifold, and some chemical parameters were optimized. The proposed procedure had a sampling rate of 90/h for each analyte. The determination ranges (mg/L) were 10-60 for N, 1-15 for P and Ca, 540 for Cl, and 0.5-15 for Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn, respectively. Results of the analyses of animal feed and feedstuff samples by this procedure did not differ significantly from those obtained by proven manual methods. PMID:11501921

Liu, J F; Feng, Y D; Jiang, G B

2001-01-01

156

Three-day-old human unfertilized oocytes after in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection can be activated by calcium ionophore a23187 or strontium chloride and develop to blastocysts.  

PubMed

Our objective was to observe the effectiveness of the calcium ionophore A23187 or strontium chloride on the activation and subsequent embryonic development of 3-day-old human unfertilized oocytes after in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). A total of 279 3-day-old unfertilized oocytes after IVF or ICSI were randomized to be activated by the calcium ionophore A23187 (n=138) or strontium chloride (n=141). The activated oocytes were cultured in vitro for 3-5 days. Activation rate, pronucleus formation, cleavage rate, and developmental potential of parthenotes during culture were evaluated. A total of 170 unfertilized oocytes were activated; 65 developed to cleavage stage, 19 developed to greater than the eight-cell stage, and five blastocysts were obtained. The activation rate of the calcium ionophore A23187 group was higher than that of the strontium chloride group (75.4% and 46.8%, respectively; p<0.05); there was significant difference between two groups (p<0.05). Among the 44 cleaved oocytes in the calcium ionophore A23187 group, eight developed to the two- to four-cell stage, 17 developed to the five- to eight-cell stage, 15 developed to greater than the eight-cell stage, and four blastocysts were obtained. Among the 21 cleaved oocytes in the strontium chloride group, six developed to the two- to four- cell stage, 10 developed to the five- to eight-cell stage, four developed to greater than the eight-cell stage, and one blastocyst was obtained. Three-day-old unfertilized human oocytes after IVF or ICSI could be activated by the calcium ionophore A23187 or strontium chloride, and a small part of parthenogenetic embryos developed into blastocysts. The treatment with the calcium ionophore A23187 was better than that of strontium chloride in respect to the activation rate of 3-day-old unfertilized human oocytes after IVF or ICSI. PMID:24960285

Liu, Ying; Han, Xiao-Jie; Liu, Ming-Hui; Wang, Shu-Yu; Jia, Chan-Wei; Yu, Lan; Ren, Guoqing; Wang, Li; Li, Wei

2014-08-01

157

Ion-pairing in aqueous CaCl2 and RbBr solutions: simultaneous structural refinement of XAFS and XRD data  

SciTech Connect

We present a new methodology involving the simultaneous refinement of both x-ray absorption and x-ray diffraction spectra (X-ray Absorption/Diffraction Structural Refinement,XADSR), to study hydration and ion pair structure of CaCl2 and RbBr salts in concentrated aqueous solutions. The XADSR analysis includes the XAFS spectra analysis of both the cation and anion as a probe of their short-range structure with an XRD spectral analysis as a probe of the global structural. Together they deliver a comprehensive picture of the cation and anion hydration, the contact ion pair (CIP) structure and the solvent-separated ion pair (SSIP) structure. XADSR analysis of 6.0 m aqueous CaCl2 reveals that there are an insignificant number of Ca2+-Cl- CIP’s, but there are approximately 3.4 SSIP’s separated by about 4.99 Å. In contrast XADSR analysis of aqueous RbBr yields about 0.7 pair CIP at a bond length 3.51 Å. The present work demonstrates a new approach for a direct co-refinement of XRD and XAFS spectra in a simple and reliable fashion, opening new opportunities for analysis in various disordered and crystalline systems. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is operated for the U.S. Department of Energy by Battelle.

Pham, Thai V.; Fulton, John L.

2013-01-28

158

Infrared evidence for the grafting of ester groups on polyvinyl chloride stabilised by zinc and calcium stearates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Careful FTIR analysis of PVC samples heated in trichlorobenzene solution at 187°C in the présence of mixture of zinc and calcium stearates for various times were carried out. A special accessory allowing identical flushing of several samples with dry nitrogen was used. The samples were thoroughly purified before examination. The very weak carbonyl absorption, after an initial decrease, increases as

Michel Bartholin; Naima Bensemra; Tran van Hoang; Alain Guyot

1990-01-01

159

Effect of calcium chloride on pH and availability of zinc and phosphorus in three calcareous soils  

E-print Network

an adverse effect on plant growth and dry matter yield of corn plant due to increasing soil salinity which interfered with N, P and S nutrition and water uptake. ACKNCM LED GNENT The author wishes to express her deep appreciation to Dr. Allen R. Swoboda... Effect o8 Plant Uptake of P and Zn. . . . . . . 16 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Laboratory Equilibrium Study Soil pH Solution Ca Linear Regression Equation. Solution P. Solution Zn Greenhouse Experiment. Plant Growth. Calcium Uptake. Phos phorus...

Podisuk, Varangkana

2012-06-07

160

The effects of foliar applied CaCl 2·2H 2O, Ca(OH) 2 and K 2CO 3 combined with the surfactants Glucopon and Plantacare on gas exchange of 1 year old apple ( Malus domestica BORKH.) and broad bean ( Vicia faba L.) leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium chloride, calcium hydroxide, potassium carbonate and the alkylpolyglycoside surfactants Glucopon 215 CSUP and Plantacare 12 UP are salts applied to leaves as foliar nutrients and fungicides. These chemicals were sprayed on apple (Malus domestica BORKH.) and broad bean (Vicia faba L.) leaves. Stomatal conductance and rates of net photosynthesis were measured continuously in the light and in the dark

R. Q. Bai; T. K. Schlegel; J. Schönherr; P. W. Masinde

2008-01-01

161

Regulation of the sodium/potassium/chloride cotransporter by calcium and cyclic AMP in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells  

SciTech Connect

The activity of the Na/K/Cl cotransporter in smooth muscle cells cultured from rat aorta was assayed by measuring the initial rate of furosemide-inhibitable /sup 86/Rb influx or efflux. Five uM furosemide or 0.2 uM bumetanide inhibited influx by 50%. Furosemide-inhibitable /sup 86/Rb influx depended on the presence of all 3 ions in the external medium. The dependence on Na and K was hyperbolic with apparent Km values of 45 and 5 mM, respectively. The dependence on Cl was sigmoidal. Assuming a stoichiometry of 1:1:2 for Na:K:Cl, a Km for Cl of 60 mM was obtained from a Hofstee plot of the data. Rapidly growing cells had 3 fold higher cotransport activity than quiescent cells. Angiotensin II (ANG) stimulated furosemide-inhibitable /sup 86/Rb efflux by 2 fold. An ANG receptor antagonist prevented ANG from increasing cotransport activity. Two calcium ionophores, A23187 and ionomycin, increased cotransport activity by 2 fold. Phorbol myristate acetate had no effect on cotransport activity. Isoproterenol, dibutyryl cyclic AMP, cholera toxin, or methylisobutylxanthine inhibited furosemide-sensitive /sup 86/Rb influx by 35 to 50%. From these findings they conclude that increasing cytoplasmic free calcium stimulates cotransport activity, whereas increasing cellular cyclic AMP inhibits the cotransporter.

Higgins, B.L.; Smith, L.; Smith, J.B.

1987-05-01

162

Activation of potassium currents by inhibitors of calcium-activated chloride conductance in rabbit portal vein smooth muscle cells.  

PubMed Central

1. The conventional whole-cell recording technique was used to study the effects of the chloride channel inhibitors ethacrynic acid, anthracene-9-carboxylic acid (A-9-C) and indanyloxyacetic acid (IAA) on membrane currents in rabbit portal vein smooth muscle cells at a holding potential of 0 mV. 2. Using a pipette solution that contained 1 x 10(-4) M 1,2-bis (2-aminophenoxy)-ethane-N,N,N,N,-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA) and a normal bathing solution the addition of ethacrynic acid (2 x 10(-4) M to 1 x 10(-3) M) inhibited spontaneous transient outward currents (STOCs) and evoked a concentration-dependent current at a holding potential of 0 mV. A similar current was activated by IAA (5 x 10(-4) M to 1 x 10(-3) M) but not by A-9-C (1-5 x 10(-3) M) at a holding potential of 0 mV. 3. The amplitude of the current evoked by ethacrynic acid and IAA was linearly related to potential between -30 and 0 mV and displayed outward rectification at positive potentials. The current induced by A-9-C was evident only at potentials positive to +20 mV. 4. Glibenclamide (1 x 10(-5) M) abolished the current evoked by ethacrynic acid and IAA at potentials negative to +10 mV and partially inhibited the current positive to +10 mV. The glibenclamide-insensitive current at positive potentials was completely inhibited by 1 x 10(-3) M TEA. The A-9-C-evoked current was insensitive to glibenclamide and abolished by 1 x 10(-3) M TEA. 5. The glibenclamide-sensitive current activated by ethacrynic acid was not sustained and declined to control levels in the continued presence of ethacrynic acid. However, the outwardly rectifying current recorded at +50 mV was well maintained over the same period. 6. Outwardly rectifying currents evoked by ethacrynic acid and A-9-C were observed with a pipette solution containing 1 x 10(-2) M BAPTA in cells bathed in Ca-free extracellular solution containing 5 x 10(-4) M BAPTA and 1 x 10(-5) M cyclopiazonic acid. 7. It is concluded that all three chloride-channel blockers activated an outwardly rectifying, TEA-sensitive current. Moreover, ethacrynic acid and IAA evoked an additional glibenclamide-sensitive current which was present at all potentials between -30 and +50 mV. PMID:8762072

Toma, C.; Greenwood, I. A.; Helliwell, R. M.; Large, W. A.

1996-01-01

163

Ion uptake in tall fescue as affected by carbonate, chloride, and sulfate salinity.  

PubMed

Turfgrass nutrient uptake may be differentially affected by different salts. The objective of this study was to compare nutrient uptake in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) as affected by carbonate, chloride, and sulfate under iso-osmotic, iso-Na+ strength conditions. 'Tar Heel II' and 'Wolfpack' cultivars were subjected to NaCl, Na2CO3, Na2SO4, CaCl2, NaCl+ CaCl2, Na2CO3+ CaCl2, and Na2SO4+ CaCl2, in the range of 0 to 225 mM. There was no cultivar difference regarding K, Na, Mg, and Mn content in shoots. 'Tar Heel II' had higher shoot Ca content than 'Wolfpack', which were 6.9 and 5.7 g kg(-1), respectively. In general, K+/Na+ ratio decreased with increasing salt concentrations, which reached <1 at about 87.5 mM in Na2CO3 treatment. All salt treatments decreased Mg content in shoot tissues, especially in Na2CO3 and treatments containing CaCl2. Both Ca and Mg content in shoot were higher in the NaCl treatment than the Na2SO4 and Na2CO3 treatments. All salt treatments except Na2CO3 had higher Mn content in shoots compared to the control. In conclusion, nutrient uptake was differently affected by carbonate, chloride, and sulfate which are different in pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and osmotic potential at the same concentration. Adding Ca to the sodium salts increased Ca content and balanced K+/Na+ in shoots, but did not increase Mg content, which was below sufficient level. Maintaining Mg content in shoots under salinity stress was recommended. The physiological impact of elevated Mn content in shoot under salinity stress requires further study. PMID:24626173

Han, Lei; Gao, Yang; Li, Deying

2014-01-01

164

Ion Uptake in Tall Fescue as Affected by Carbonate, Chloride, and Sulfate Salinity  

PubMed Central

Turfgrass nutrient uptake may be differentially affected by different salts. The objective of this study was to compare nutrient uptake in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) as affected by carbonate, chloride, and sulfate under iso-osmotic, iso-Na+ strength conditions. ‘Tar Heel II’ and ‘Wolfpack’ cultivars were subjected to NaCl, Na2CO3, Na2SO4, CaCl2, NaCl+ CaCl2, Na2CO3+ CaCl2, and Na2SO4+ CaCl2, in the range of 0 to 225 mM. There was no cultivar difference regarding K, Na, Mg, and Mn content in shoots. ‘Tar Heel II’ had higher shoot Ca content than ‘Wolfpack’, which were 6.9 and 5.7 g kg?1, respectively. In general, K+/Na+ ratio decreased with increasing salt concentrations, which reached <1 at about 87.5 mM in Na2CO3 treatment. All salt treatments decreased Mg content in shoot tissues, especially in Na2CO3 and treatments containing CaCl2. Both Ca and Mg content in shoot were higher in the NaCl treatment than the Na2SO4 and Na2CO3 treatments. All salt treatments except Na2CO3 had higher Mn content in shoots compared to the control. In conclusion, nutrient uptake was differently affected by carbonate, chloride, and sulfate which are different in pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and osmotic potential at the same concentration. Adding Ca to the sodium salts increased Ca content and balanced K+/Na+ in shoots, but did not increase Mg content, which was below sufficient level. Maintaining Mg content in shoots under salinity stress was recommended. The physiological impact of elevated Mn content in shoot under salinity stress requires further study. PMID:24626173

Han, Lei; Gao, Yang; Li, Deying

2014-01-01

165

The Porcine Chloride Channel Calcium-Activated Family Member pCLCA4a Mirrors Lung Expression of the Human hCLCA4  

PubMed Central

Pig models of cystic fibrosis (CF) have recently been established that are expected to mimic the human disease closer than mouse models do. The human CLCA (originally named chloride channels, calcium-activated) member hCLCA4 is considered a potential modifier of disease severity in CF, but its murine ortholog, mCLCA6, is not expressed in the mouse lung. Here, we have characterized the genomic structure, protein processing, and tissue expression patterns of the porcine ortholog to hCLCA4, pCLCA4a. The genomic structure and cellular protein processing of pCLCA4a were found to closely mirror those of hCLCA4 and mCLCA6. Similar to human lung, pCLCA4a mRNA was strongly expressed in porcine lungs, and the pCLCA4a protein was immunohistochemically detected on the apical membranes of tracheal and bronchial epithelial cells. This stands in sharp contrast to mouse mCLCA6, which has been detected exclusively in intestinal epithelia but not the murine lung. The results may add to the understanding of species-specific differences in the CF phenotype and support the notion that the CF pig model may be more suitable than murine models to study the role of hCLCA4. PMID:22205680

Plog, Stephanie; Grötzsch, Tanja; Klymiuk, Nikolai; Kobalz, Ursula; Gruber, Achim D.

2012-01-01

166

Internal pressures and molecular dimensions in aqueous solutions of some chlorides  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On the basis of measurements of the velocity of ultrasounds in aqueous solutions of some alkaline-earth chlorides (MgCl2, CaCl2, BaCl2) the concentration and temperature dependences of the internal pressure were determined. Using these results, as well as surface tension measurements, the mean diameters of the molecular species as a function of concentration and temperature, were determined.

Auslaender, D.; Lenart, I.; Rus, E.; Ciupe, A.

1974-01-01

167

9-Anthracene carboxylic acid is more suitable than DIDS for characterization of calcium-activated chloride current during canine ventricular action potential.  

PubMed

Understanding the role of ionic currents in shaping the cardiac action potential (AP) has great importance as channel malfunctions can lead to sudden cardiac death by inducing arrhythmias. Therefore, researchers frequently use inhibitors to selectively block a certain ion channel like 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS) and 9-anthracene carboxylic acid (9-AC) for calcium-activated chloride current (ICl(Ca)). This study aims to explore which blocker is preferable to study ICl(Ca). Whole-cell voltage-clamp technique was used to record ICa,L, IKs, IKr and IK1, while action potentials were measured using sharp microelectrodes. DIDS- (0.2 mM) and 9-AC-sensitive (0.5 mM) currents were identical in voltage-clamp conditions, regardless of intracellular Ca(2+) buffering. DIDS-sensitive current amplitude was larger with the increase of stimulation rate and correlated well with the rate-induced increase of calcium transients. Both drugs increased action potential duration (APD) to the same extent, but the elevation of the plateau potential was more pronounced with 9-AC at fast stimulation rates. On the contrary, 9-AC did not influence either the AP amplitude or the maximal rate of depolarization (V max), but DIDS caused marked reduction of V max. Both inhibitors reduced the magnitude of phase-1, but, at slow stimulation rates, this effect of DIDS was larger. All of these actions on APs were reversible upon washout of the drugs. Increasing concentrations of 9-AC between 0.1 and 0.5 mM in a cumulative manner gradually reduced phase-1 and increased APD. 9-AC at 1 mM had no additional actions upon perfusion after 0.5 mM. The half-effective concentration of 9-AC was approximately 160 ?M with a Hill coefficient of 2. The amplitudes of ICa,L, IKs, IKr and IK1 were not changed by 0.5 mM 9-AC. These results suggest that DIDS is equally useful to study ICl(Ca) during voltage-clamp but 9-AC is superior in AP measurements for studying the physiological role of ICl(Ca) due to the lack of sodium channel inhibition. 9-AC has also no action on other ion currents (ICa,L, IKr, IKs, IK1); however, ICa,L tracings can be contaminated with ICl(Ca) when measured in voltage-clamp condition. PMID:25344201

Váczi, Krisztina; Hegyi, Bence; Ruzsnavszky, Ferenc; Kistamás, Kornél; Horváth, Balázs; Bányász, Tamás; Nánási, Péter P; Szentandrássy, Norbert; Magyar, János

2014-10-26

168

Casein maps: effect of ethanol, pH, temperature, and CaCl2 on the particle size of reconstituted casein micelles.  

PubMed

Although conditions favoring casein micelle aggregation are well known, factors promoting the dissociation of the casein micelle are not fully understood. It was our objective to investigate the ethanol-induced dissociation of micellar casein as affected by temperature and a wide range of pH, along with the concentrations of calcium and casein. Two different concentrations of casein micelles were dispersed in imidazole buffer with 0 to 80% ethanol (vol/vol) and 2 and 10mM calcium. Apparent micelle size was determined by dynamic light scattering at 5, 30, and 60°C. In the absence of ethanol, casein precipitation occurred at pH 4.6 in imidazole buffer. Ten to forty percent ethanol promoted casein aggregation (>1,000 nm) and higher temperature (30 and 60°C) enhanced this effect. Higher ethanol concentrations at 50 to 80% induced the dissociation (<40 nm) of the casein micelle upon acidification (pH <5) and alkalization (pH>8) in imidazole buffer. In addition, higher concentrations of casein (0.25mg/mL) and calcium (20mM) caused the formation of larger aggregates (>1,000 nm) in the presence of ethanol when comparing with the initial lower concentrations of casein (0.1mg/mL) and calcium (2mM). Casein micelle dissociation can be achieved near the isoelectric pH by modifying the solvent composition and temperature. PMID:23200467

Ye, Ran; Harte, Federico

2013-02-01

169

Influence of urea-calcium mixtures as rumen slow-release feed on in vitro fermentation using a gas production technique.  

PubMed

In this experiment the effects of different urea products (urea [U] and urea-calcium mixtures [UCM]) on rumen fermentation were investigated in dependence of different energy sources by using in vitro techniques. The 7 x 2 factorial arrangement followed a completely randomised design using seven urea products (U100, U40CaCl2, U50CaCl2, U60CaCl2, U40CaSO4, U50CaSO4 and U60CaSO4) in combination with cassava chips (CC) or corn meal (CM). Compared with other treatments, the cumulative gas production (96 h) was significantly increased for U60CaCl2 + CC and U60CaSO4 + CC (p < 0.01), which was combined with a higher in vitro true digestibility (p < 0.01). In addition, the concentration of volatile fatty acids in the fluid of U60CaCl2 + CC and U60CaSO4 + CC was significantly higher than in other treatments. Urea treatments (U100 + CC and U100 + CM) caused the highest concentration of ruminal ammonia nitrogen (p < 0.01), which was significantly decreased by all UCM products in combination with CC, but not with CM. The highest levels of total bacteria, Fibrobacter succinogenes and anaerobic fungi were found for treatment U60CaCl2 + CC and U60CaSO4 + CC (p < 0.05). The findings revealed that the utilisation of U60CaCl2 and U60CaSO4 in combination with cassava chips improved the ruminal fluid fermentation in terms of NH3-N and volatile fatty acid concentration, digestibility of energy and increased the fibrobacter concentrations. PMID:21776840

Cherdthong, Anusorn; Wanapat, Metha; Wachirapakorn, Chalong

2011-06-01

170

Effect of Azadirachta indica (neem), sodium thiosulphate and calcium chloride on changes in nitrogen transformations and inhibition of nitrification in soil incubated under laboratory conditions.  

PubMed

A laboratory experiment was conducted to examine the effects of nitrification inhibitors (NIs) neem seed-cake (Azadirachta indica) (NSC), sodium thiosulphate (Na?S?O?) and calcium chloride (CaCl?) on changes in NH?(+)?N, inhibition of nitrification and recovery of applied nitrogen (N) in soil. Surface soil samples of 0-15 cm were collected from an arable field, amended with urea N (UN) at the rate 200 mg N kg?¹, UN+NSC, UN+Na?S?O? and UN+CaCl? and incubated at 22°C periodically over 50 d. Soil without any amendment was used as check (control). Results indicated that more than 58% of N applied as NH?? disappeared over a period of 50 d from the soil mineral-N pool. Some of this N (21%) was accumulated as NO??-N while the remaining N was unaccounted for. Addition of nitrification inhibitors NSC, Na?S?O?, and CaCl? resulted in a decrease in the extent of NH?(+) disappearance by 35%, 44% and 30%, respectively. In the treatment receiving UN alone, 56 mg NO??-N kg?¹ was accumulated over 50 d (maximum 93 mg kg?¹) indicated an active nitrification. Application of nitrification inhibitors NSC, Na?S?O?, and CaCl? with UN inhibited nitrification by 54%, 64%, and 59%, respectively. Apparent N recovery (ANR) in the treatment receiving UN alone was 63% that substantially increased to 83%, 89% and 76% in the treatments receiving UN+NSC, UN+Na?S?O?, and UN+CaCl?, respectively indicating 32%, 41% and 20% increase in N recovery. Among three NIs tested, Na?S?O? proved superior in inhibiting nitrification and increasing ANR. The study demonstrated that application of NSC, Na?S?O?, and CaCl? which are cheap and easily available NIs inhibited nitrification and improved N recovery efficiency of applied N in an arable soil very effectively. It is suggested that these inhibitors should be tested under field conditions for increasing NUE and improving crop productivity. PMID:21146192

Abbasi, M Kaleem; Hina, Munazza; Tahir, Majid Mahmood

2011-03-01

171

Local Effects in the X-ray Absorption Spectrum of CaCl2, MgCl2, and NaCl Solutions  

SciTech Connect

Both first principles molecular dynamics and theoretical X-ray absorption spectroscopy have been used to investigate the aqueous solvation of cations in 0.5 M MgCl{sub 2}, CaCl{sub 2}, and NaCl solutions. We focus here on the species-specific effects that Mg{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+}, and Na{sup +}, have on the X-ray absorption spectrum of the respective solutions. For the divalent cations, we find that the hydrogen bonding characteristics of the more rigid magnesium first shell water molecules differ from those in the more flexible solvation shell surrounding calcium. In particular, the first solvation shell water molecules of calcium are accessible to forming acceptor hydrogen bonds, and this results in an enhancement of a post-edge peak near 540 eV. The absence of acceptor hydrogen bonds for magnesium first shell water molecules provides an explanation for the experimental and theoretical observation of a lack of enhancement at the post-main-edge peak. For the sodium monovalent cation we find that the broad tilt angle distribution results in a broadening of post-edge features, despite populations in donor-and-acceptor configurations consistent with calcium. We also present the re-averaged spectra of the MgCl{sub 2}, CaCl{sub 2}, and NaCl solutions and show that trends apparent with increasing concentration (0.5 M, 2.0 M, 4.0 M) are consistent with experiment. Finally, we examine more closely both the effect that cation coordination number has on the hydrogen bonding network and the relative perturbation strength of the cations on lone pair oxygen orbitals.

Kulik, H J; Correa Tedesco, A A; Schwegler, E; Prendergast, D; Galli, G

2010-04-12

172

Effect of the partial replacement of sodium chloride by other salts on the formation of volatile compounds during ripening of dry-cured ham.  

PubMed

The effect of the partial NaCl replacement by other salts (potassium, calcium, and magnesium chloride) on the formation of volatile compounds through the processing of dry-cured ham was studied using solid-phase microextraction (SPME). Three salt formulations were considered, namely, I (100% NaCl), II (50% NaCl and 50% KCl), and III (55% NaCl, 25% KCl, 15% CaCl(2), and 5% MgCl(2)). There was an intense formation of volatile compounds throughout the processing of dry-cured hams, particularly during the "hot-cellar" stage. The differences between treatments were found to be more remarkable at the end of the curing process. Hams from formulations I and II had significantly higher amounts of lipid-derived volatiles such as hexanal than hams from formulation III, whereas the latter had significantly higher amounts of Strecker aldehydes and alcohols. Plausible mechanisms by which salt replacement may affect the generation of volatile compounds include the influence of such replacement on lipid oxidation and proteolysis phenomena. The potential influence of the volatiles profile on the aroma of the products is also addressed in the present paper. PMID:22804717

Armenteros, Mónica; Toldrá, Fidel; Aristoy, M-Concepción; Ventanas, Jesús; Estévez, Mario

2012-08-01

173

Crystal Screen HT -Scoring Sheet A1. 30% MPD, 0.1 M Na Acetate pH 4.6, 0.02 M Calcium Chloride  

E-print Network

.2 M Magnesium Chloride A7. 1.4 M Sodium Acetate, 0.1 M Na Cacodylate pH 6.5 A8. 30% iso-Propanol, 0 Phosphate, 0.1 M Na Citrate pH 5.6 A12. 30% iso-Propanol, 0.1 M Na Hepes pH 7.5, 0.2 M Magnesium Chloride B1H 8.5, 0.2 M Sodium Acetate B11. 30% PEG 400, 0.1 M Na Hepes pH 7.5, 0.2 M Magnesium Chloride B12. 20

Hill, Chris

174

Crystal Screen Lite -Scoring Sheet 1. 15% MPD, 0.1 M Na Acetate pH 4.6, 0.02 M Calcium Chloride  

E-print Network

.2 M Magnesium Chloride 7. 0.7 M Sodium Acetate, 0.1 M Na Cacodylate pH 6.5 8. 15% iso-Propanol, 0.1 M.1 M Na Citrate pH 5.6 12. 15% iso-Propanol, 0.1 M Na Hepes pH 7.5, 0.2 M Magnesium Chloride 13. 15.2 M Sodium Acetate 23. 15% PEG 400, 0.1 M Na Hepes pH 7.5, 0.2 M Magnesium Chloride 24. 10% iso

Hill, Chris

175

[Pretreatment technology for fly ash from MSWI and the corresponding study of chloride behavior].  

PubMed

The introduced pretreatment technology, WCCB (Washing + Calcination), was effective to reduce chlorides in fly ash by consuming relatively low energy for recycling fly ash as the raw material for cement industry. The washing conditions are: twice-washing, liquid/solid = 3, mixing speed = 150 r x min(-1), 1st mixing time = 5 min, and 2nd mixing time = 10 min. The original incinerator was used for the calcination process, 1 000 degrees C, 10% O2 and dwelling time of 1 hour were adopted. By adopting X-ray absorption near edge structure and X-ray diffraction, the behavior of chlorides was explained and NaCl, KCl and CaCl2 are the main form of chlorides existing in fly ash. The reagent used in the air pollution control system to neutralize the acid component in the discharged gas surely acted a very important role in the formation of chlorides. The insoluble chlorides in fly ash had a very similar structure as that of Friedel's salt, which was related with CaCl2. PMID:23947072

Zhu, Fen-Fen; Takaoka, Masaki; Oshita, Kazuyuki; Jiang, Hui-Min; Kitajima, Yoshinori

2013-06-01

176

Characteristics of the interaction of calcium with casein submicelles as determined by analytical affinity chromatography  

SciTech Connect

Interaction of calcium with casein submicelles was investigated in CaCl2 and calcium phosphate buffers and with synthetic milk salt solutions using the technique of analytical affinity chromatography. Micelles that had been prepared by size exclusion chromatography with glycerolpropyl controlled-pore glass from fresh raw skim milk that had never been cooled, were dialyzed at room temperature against calcium-free imidazole buffer, pH 6.7. Resulting submicelles were covalently immobilized on succinamidopropyl controlled-pore glass (300-nm pore size). Using 45Ca to monitor the elution retardation, the affinity of free Ca2+ and calcium salt species was determined at temperatures of 20 to 40 degrees C and pH 6.0 to 7.5. Increasing the pH in this range or increasing the temperature strengthened the binding of calcium to submicelles, similar to previous observations with individual caseins. However, the enthalpy change obtained from the temperature dependence was considerably greater than that reported for alpha s1- and beta-caseins. Furthermore, the elution profiles for 45Ca in milk salt solutions were decidedly different from those in CaCl2 or calcium phosphate buffers and the affinities were also greater. For example, at pH 6.7 and 30 degrees C the average dissociation constant for the submicelle-calcium complex is 0.074 mM for CaCl2 and calcium phosphate buffers, vs 0.016 mM for the milk salt solution. The asymmetric frontal boundaries and higher average affinities observed with milk salts may be due to binding of calcium salts with greater affinity in addition to the binding of free Ca2+ in these solutions.

Jang, H.D.; Swaisgood, H.E. (North Carolina State Univ. (USA))

1990-12-01

177

Effect of Total and Partial Substitution of Sodium Chloride on the Quality of Cheddar Cheese  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cheddar cheese was manufactured to give 1.6% residual sodium chloride or equivalent amounts (ionic strength basis) of magnesium chloride, calcium chloride, potassium chloride, or 1:1 mixtures of sodium chloride and the chloride salt of magnesium, calcium, or potassium from two split batches of curd. Sensory evalua- tion after 4 mo ripening at 4°C showed that cheese salted solely with magnesium

E. Fitzgerald; J. Buckley

1985-01-01

178

Improvement of muscle protein functionality in processed meats by magnesium and other divalent chloride salts.  

PubMed

Concern over dietary fat in processed meats led to the passage of the '40 per cent' rule in the United States. Substitution of NaCl, linked to hypertension, with divalent chloride salts such as MgCl2 and CaCl2 has shown limited success. Early studies showed that these divalent salts had a deleterious effect on the functional properties of meat when used at product levels that resulted in high aqueous phase ionic strengths (0.4-0.6). However, our research focus has been to determine the utility of low levels (0.05 per cent) of MgCl2, CaCl2 and ZnCl2 in improving the functional properties of processed meats. Effects of divalent salts have been evaluated in turkey breast and thigh minces, beef model systems, and frankfurter formulations containing heart muscle. To determine if time postmortem affects muscle's response to divalent cations, salts were added to broiler thigh muscle in the early postmortem period. The important findings were (1) MgCl2 increased myosin solubility, (2) CaCl2 enhanced gel forming ability in cooked batters, and (3) ZnCl2 dramatically decreased myosin solubility in the absence of food-grade phosphate (sodium tripolyphosphate). PMID:10192095

Nayak, R; Kenney, P B

1999-03-01

179

Chloride Test  

MedlinePLUS

... is an electrolyte. It is a negatively charged ion that works with other electrolytes, such as potassium , ... which is made up of sodium and chloride ions. Most of the chloride is absorbed by the ...

180

Adsorption mechanism of chlorides on carbon nanotubes based on first-principles calculations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The direct adsorption mechanism of chlorides (LiCl, NaCl, KCl, CsCl, MgCl2, CaCl2, SrCl2 and BaCl2) on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was investigated with first-principles calculations. The dipole moment, the adsorption energy and the Coulomb interaction energy were calculated. The value of the adsorption energy ranges from 0.2 to 0.6 eV. Considering the structure change of chlorides before and after adsorption, we find that the adsorption energy, just as the Coulomb energy, is proportional to the ratio of chloride's dipole moment to the square of adsorption distance. So, we conclude that the direct adsorption of chlorides on CNTs occurs mainly through long-range electrostatic interactions.

Liu, Weihui; Xu, Shunfu; Zhao, Xinghua; Yuan, Guang; Mimura, Hidenori

2013-08-01

181

Probing the Antibiotic Target MurA from S. aureus and B. subtilis  

E-print Network

of Abbreviations Ala, A Alanine Amp Ampicillin Arg, R Arginine APS Ammonium persulfate BSA Bovine serum albumin B. subtilis Bacillus subtilis CaCl 2 Calcium chloride Cm Chloramphenicol CV Column volume Cys, C Cysteine DMSO Dimethysulfoxide DNA...

Biery, Jennifer J.

2007-12-18

182

Experimental evaluation of water mist with metal chloride additives for suppressing CH4/air cup-burner flames  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to investigate the fire suppression effectiveness of water mist with metal chloride additives, ultrafine water mists of these salts with diameters about 10?m were introduced into CH4/air non-premixed flame in the cup burner. Results showed that these droplets hard to make itself to the flame front under the cup burner flow conditions functioned as a carrier of the vaporized solid particles or its decomposed materials. The metal chloride improved fire suppression efficacy of water mist which were affected by the type and concentration of metal chloride. On a mass basis, there is a fire suppression effectiveness relationship of MgCl2chlorides improves as the concentration of metal chlorides increase. However, upper additive limits exist due to the associated limiting vapour pressure of the additive.

Liu, Jianghong; Cong, Beihua

2013-06-01

183

Preparation of calcium- and magnesium-fortified potato starches with altered pasting properties.  

PubMed

Calcium- and magnesium-fortified potato starches were prepared by immersion in various concentrations of CaCl2 and MgCl2 aqueous solutions, respectively. The pasting properties, i.e., peak viscosity and breakdown, of all the starches obtained above were analyzed using a Rapid Visco Analyzer. Furthermore, the gelatinization properties and in vitro digestibility of the representative calcium- and magnesium-fortified starches were tested. The maximum calcium content of the fortified potato starches was as high as 686 ppm with the addition of a high-concentration CaCl2 solution, while the calcium content of the control potato starch was 99 ppm. The magnesium content increased from 89 to 421 ppm by treatment of the potato starch with an MgCl2 solution. Markedly lower values of peak viscosity and breakdown were observed in calcium- and magnesium-fortified potato starches than in the control potato starch. However, the gelatinization temperature and enthalpy as well as resistant starch content of calcium- and magnesium-fortified potato starches were similar to those of the control potato starch. It is concluded that potato starches with altered pasting properties can be easily manufactured by the use of solutions containing high levels of calcium and magnesium. PMID:25225719

Noda, Takahiro; Takigawa, Shigenobu; Matsuura-Endo, Chie; Ishiguro, Koji; Nagasawa, Koichi; Jinno, Masahiro

2014-01-01

184

Involvement of Cl? in the Increase in Proline Induced by ABA and Stimulated by Potassium Chloride in Barley Leaf Segments  

PubMed Central

Stimulation by sodium or potassium chloride of the ABA-induced increase in proline was synergistically enhanced by CaCl2 or MgCl2 as well as by 1,3-bis[tris(hydroxymethyl)methylamino] propane chloride (BTP-Cl), N-methyl-d-glucamine chloride (NMG-Cl), or 2-amino-2-hydroxymethyl-1,3-propandiol chloride (TRIS-Cl). This enhancing effect did not depend on the osmolarity and occurred when Cl? was higher than K+ in the incubation medium, but not vice versa. When CaCl2 or MgCl2 or NMG-Cl were added, the higher the Cl?:K+ ratio in the external solution the higher was the increase in proline. When the excess of Cl? to K+ was obtained with BTP-Cl the highest enhancing effect resulted with a Cl?:K+ ratio of 3:1 while, at a 5:1 ratio, the KCl stimulation was completely suppressed. The inhibiting effect of proline accumulation by NH4+ and 4,4?-diisothiocyano-2,2?-disulfonic acid stilbene was reversed to varying degrees depending on the magnitude of the excess of Cl? on K+ concentration in the medium. Also, the inhibition of proline accumulation obtained by tetraethylammonium chloride, monensin, and d-mannose was similarly reverted. These data suggest that Cl? elicits an increase in ABA-induced proline which needs the simultaneous presence of K+ (or Na+) to take place. PMID:16666688

Pesci, Pierantonio

1989-01-01

185

Role of sulfur and chloride in the dietary cation-anion balance equation for lactating dairy cattle.  

PubMed

Ten Holstein cows averaging 120 d in lactation were arranged in replicated 5 x 5 Latin squares with 3-wk periods to evaluate the role of sulfur (S) in the dietary cation-anion balance equation. Diets were based on corn silage in Exp. 1 and sorghum silage in Exp. 2. Supplemental S and chloride (Cl) from the double sulfate of potassium and magnesium and CaCl2 were used to manipulate dietary cation-anion balance from 0 to +30 meq when expressed as meq [(Na + K)-(Cl + S)]/100 g diet DM and from +19 to +49 meq when expressed as meq [(Na + K)-Cl]/100 g diet DM. Blood pH was not affected by cation-anion balance, although both S and Cl supplementation tended to lower pH. Blood HCO3- and urine pH decreased and plasma calcium (Ca) and urinary Ca excretion increased as anion was added to the diet. Milk fat production tended to be increased by the low S supplementation. Dietary Cl and S had similar effects on acid-base status. Therefore, we suggest that S be included with Cl in the dietary cation-anion balance equation for lactating dairy cows as follows: meq [(Na + K)-(Cl + S)]/100 g diet DM. Although response of acid-base status to S and Cl was similar, as more data comparing the acidogenicity of S vs Cl become available, it may be necessary to include a modifying coefficient for S in the equation to adjust for differences between S and Cl in acid-generating potential. This coefficient may be further dependent on the dietary source of S. PMID:2061250

Tucker, W B; Hogue, J F; Waterman, D F; Swenson, T S; Xin, Z; Hemken, R W; Jackson, J A; Adams, G D; Spicer, L J

1991-03-01

186

Synthesis and thermal properties of strontium and calcium peroxides  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A practical synthesis and a discussion of some chemical properties of pure strontium peroxide and calcium peroxide are presented. The general synthesis of these peroxides involves precipitation of their octahydrates by addition of H2O2 to aqueous ammoniacal Sr(NO3)2 or CaCl2. The octahydrates are converted to the anhydrous peroxides by various dehydration techniques. A new x-ray diffraction powder pattern for CaO2 x 8H2O is given from which lattice parameters a=6.212830 and c=11.0090 were calculated on the basis of the tetragonal crystal system.

Philipp, Warren H.; Kraft, Patricia A.

1989-01-01

187

[Cryogenic Raman spectroscopic characteristics of NaCl-H2O, CaCl2-H2O and NaCl-CaCl2-H2O: application to analysis of fluid inclusions].  

PubMed

Accurately diagnosing the types of the salt and calculating the salinity quantitatively are the significant content of fluid inclusions. The traditional method of testing fluid inclusions salinity is cooling. To overcome the difficulty for observing freezing phase transition, the authors tested the spectrum of NaCl-H2O, CaCl2-H2O and NaCl-CaCl2-H2O systems at -180 degrees C by laser Raman spectroscopy. The result demonstrates that the ratio of peak values has linear relationship with salinity. Calibration curves were established by typical ratio of hydro-halite at 3 420 cm(-1) to the ice at 3 092 cm(-1), and the ratio of antarcticite at 3 432 cm(-1) to the ice at 3 092 cm(-1). The calibration curves have very high correlation coefficient. This method is verified by synthetic hydrocarbon-bearing aqueous fluid inclusions and quartz aqueous fluid inclusions of well Fengshen 6 in Dongying sag. The results of the authors' experiments show that cryogenic Raman spectroscopy can not only identify the types of the salts but also determine the salinity effectively in fluid inclusions. PMID:21322218

Mao, Cui; Chen, Yong; Zhou, Yao-Qi; Ge, Yun-Jin; Zhou, Zhen-Zhu; Wang, You-Zhi

2010-12-01

188

Additive Screen HTTM -HR2-138 Scoring Sheet 1. (A1) 0.1 M Barium Chloride  

E-print Network

. (A6) 0.1 M Magnesium Chloride 7. (A7) 0.1 M Manganese (II) Chloride 8. (A8) 0.1 M Strontium ChlorideAdditive Screen HTTM - HR2-138 Scoring Sheet 1. (A1) 0.1 M Barium Chloride 2. (A2) 0.1 M Cadmium Chloride 3. (A3) 0.1 M Calcium Chloride 4. (A4) 0.1 M Cobaltous Chloride 5. (A5) 0.1 M Cupric Chloride 6

Hill, Chris

189

Study of the physical properties of calcium alginate hydrogel beads containing vineyard pruning waste for dye removal.  

PubMed

In this work the morphological and surface properties of a biocomposite formulated with vineyard pruning waste entrapped in calcium alginate hydrogel beads were studied. The formulation of the calcium alginate hydrogel beads, containing vineyard pruning waste, was based on the capacity of this green adsorbent to remove dye compounds from wastewater, observing that in the optimum condition (1.25% of cellulosic residue, 2.2% of sodium alginate and 0.475 mol L(-1) CaCl2) the percentage of dyes was reduced up to 74.6%. At lower concentration of CaCl2, high-resolution optical images show that the elongation of the vineyard-alginate biocomposite decreased, whereas the compactness increased. Moreover, higher concentrations of cellulosic residue increased the biocomposite roundness in comparison with biocomposite without the cellulosic residue. Interferometric perfilometry analysis (Ra, Rq, Rz and Rt) revealed that high concentrations of CaCl2 increased the roughness of the of the calcium alginate hydrogel beads observing vesicles in the external surface. PMID:25439877

Vecino, X; Devesa-Rey, R; Cruz, J M; Moldes, A B

2015-01-22

190

Timothy hay with a low dietary cation-anion difference improves calcium homeostasis in periparturient Holstein cows.  

PubMed

The current study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of feeding timothy (Phleum pratense L.) hay differing in dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) on the capability of cows to maintain calcium homeostasis around parturition. We hypothesized that feeding low-DCAD timothy hay during the prepartum period would induce a mild metabolic acidosis prepartum and improve calcium homeostasis postpartum with no effect on dry matter intake. Forty-one dry pregnant Holstein cows entering their second lactation or greater were used in a randomized complete block design. Timothy hay was obtained from an established timothy stand under a pivot irrigation system. Low-DCAD timothy hay was produced by fertilizing the area between the second and third pivot towers at a rate of 224 kg of CaCl(2)/ha, and control timothy hay (high DCAD) was grown on the area between the fourth and fifth pivot towers of the same field. The chloride concentration was 1.07 and 0.15% on a dry matter (DM) basis, and the DCAD was 1.2 and 21.6 mEq/100 g of DM for the low- and high-DCAD timothy hay, respectively. Experimental diets, containing timothy hay at 63% of dietary DM, were fed ad libitum starting 30 d before the expected calving date. The DCAD values were 1.6 vs. 14.5 mEq/100 g of DM for the low- and high-DCAD timothy-based diets, respectively. At the beginning of the study, urine pH and blood bicarbonate concentration averaged 8.22 +/- 0.06 and 28.5 +/- 0.3 mM, respectively. The low-DCAD timothy diet decreased urine pH compared with the high-DCAD timothy diet on d 21 (7.75 vs. 8.31), d 14 (7.69 vs. 8.22), and d 7 (7.50 vs. 8.19) before calving, and it also decreased the prepartum blood bicarbonate concentration by 2 mM. In addition, cows fed the low-DCAD timothy diet had greater blood ionized calcium concentration prepartum (1.22 vs. 1.19 mM), greater blood ionized calcium concentration at 0 and 8 h after calving, and similar prepartum dry matter intake. These results indicate that timothy hay differing in DCAD affects the acid-base balance of periparturient dairy cows, and that low-DCAD timothy hay improves calcium homeostasis postpartum with no negative effect on dry matter intake. PMID:18420627

Penner, G B; Tremblay, G F; Dow, T; Oba, M

2008-05-01

191

Streptomyces viridochromogenes spore germination initiated by calcium ions.  

PubMed Central

Initiation of germination of heat-activated Streptomyces viridochromogenes spore occurs in media containing only calcium ions and organic buffer. The calcium-induced initiation of germination was accompanied by a decrease in absorbance of the spore suspension, an increased rate of endogenous metabolism, the loss of spore carbon, and the loss of heat resistance. Calcium amounts to 0.28% of the dry weight of freshly harvested spores. The amount of calcium remained the same after incubation of spores in water after heat activation. The spore content of calcium doubled after incubation in 0.5 mM CaCl2 for 5 min at 4 degrees C and during calcium-induced germination. Nearly all of the calcim appears to be bound to sites external to the spore membrane, since the chelating agents (ethylenedinitrilo) tetraacetic acid and arsenazo III removed virtually all of the calcium ions. The calcium ions must be present during the entire initiation of germination period. Germination ceases after an (ethylenedinitrilo) tetraacetic acid wash and begins again immediately after addition of calcium ions. PMID:6772631

Eaton, D; Ensign, J C

1980-01-01

192

Increased calcium absorption from synthetic stable amorphous calcium carbonate: double-blind randomized crossover clinical trial in postmenopausal women.  

PubMed

Calcium supplementation is a widely recognized strategy for achieving adequate calcium intake. We designed this blinded, randomized, crossover interventional trial to compare the bioavailability of a new stable synthetic amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) with that of crystalline calcium carbonate (CCC) using the dual stable isotope technique. The study was conducted in the Unit of Clinical Nutrition, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Israel. The study population included 15 early postmenopausal women aged 54.9 ± 2.8 (mean ± SD) years with no history of major medical illness or metabolic bone disorder, excess calcium intake, or vitamin D deficiency. Standardized breakfast was followed by randomly provided CCC or ACC capsules containing 192 mg elemental calcium labeled with 44Ca at intervals of at least 3 weeks. After swallowing the capsules, intravenous CaCl2 labeled with 42Ca on was administered on each occasion. Fractional calcium absorption (FCA) of ACC and CCC was calculated from the 24-hour urine collection following calcium administration. The results indicated that FCA of ACC was doubled (± 0.96 SD) on average compared to that of CCC (p < 0.02). The higher absorption of the synthetic stable ACC may serve as a more efficacious way of calcium supplementation. PMID:24753014

Vaisman, Nachum; Shaltiel, Galit; Daniely, Michal; Meiron, Oren E; Shechter, Assaf; Abrams, Steven A; Niv, Eva; Shapira, Yami; Sagi, Amir

2014-10-01

193

A novel TMEM16A splice variant lacking the dimerization domain contributes to calcium-activated chloride secretion in human sweat gland epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Sweating is an important physiological process to regulate body temperature in humans, and various disorders are associated with dysregulated sweat formation. Primary sweat secretion in human eccrine sweat glands involves Ca(2+) -activated Cl(-) channels (CaCC). Recently, members of the TMEM16 family were identified as CaCCs in various secretory epithelia; however, their molecular identity in sweat glands remained elusive. Here, we investigated the function of TMEM16A in sweat glands. Gene expression analysis revealed that TMEM16A is expressed in human NCL-SG3 sweat gland cells as well as in isolated human eccrine sweat gland biopsy samples. Sweat gland cells express several previously described TMEM16A splice variants, as well as one novel splice variant, TMEM16A(ac?e3) lacking the TMEM16A-dimerization domain. Chloride flux assays using halide-sensitive YFP revealed that TMEM16A is functionally involved in Ca(2+) -dependent Cl(-) secretion in NCL-SG3 cells. Recombinant expression in NCL-SG3 cells showed that TMEM16A(ac?e3) is forming a functional CaCC, with basal and Ca(2+) -activated Cl(-) permeability distinct from canonical TMEM16A(ac). Our results suggest that various TMEM16A isoforms contribute to sweat gland-specific Cl(-) secretion providing opportunities to develop sweat gland-specific therapeutics for treatment of sweating disorders. PMID:25220078

Ertongur-Fauth, Torsten; Hochheimer, Andreas; Buescher, Joerg Martin; Rapprich, Stefan; Krohn, Michael

2014-11-01

194

Mapping of long-range INS promoter interactions reveals a role for calcium-activated chloride channel ANO1 in insulin secretion.  

PubMed

We used circular chromatin conformation capture (4C) to identify a physical contact in human pancreatic islets between the region near the insulin (INS) promoter and the ANO1 gene, lying 68 Mb away on human chromosome 11, which encodes a Ca(2+)-dependent chloride ion channel. In response to glucose, this contact was strengthened and ANO1 expression increased, whereas inhibition of INS gene transcription by INS promoter targeting siRNA decreased ANO1 expression, revealing a regulatory effect of INS promoter on ANO1 expression. Knockdown of ANO1 expression caused decreased insulin secretion in human islets, establishing a physical proximity-dependent feedback loop involving INS transcription, ANO1 expression, and insulin secretion. To explore a possible role of ANO1 in insulin metabolism, we carried out experiments in Ano1(+/-) mice. We observed reduced serum insulin levels and insulin-to-glucose ratios in high-fat diet-fed Ano1(+/-) mice relative to Ano1(+/+) mice fed the same diet. Our results show that determination of long-range contacts within the nucleus can be used to detect novel and physiologically relevant mechanisms. They also show that networks of long-range physical contacts are important to the regulation of insulin metabolism. PMID:25385647

Xu, Zhixiong; Lefevre, Gaelle M; Gavrilova, Oksana; Foster St Claire, Mark B; Riddick, Gregory; Felsenfeld, Gary

2014-11-25

195

Cesium Chloride  

MedlinePLUS

... effect on tumors. A few people have had life-threatening problems with heart rhythm, seizures, loss of consciousness, and electrolyte (blood chemistry) imbalances after taking cesium chloride. How is it ...

196

Calcium chloride brines: The vital component in the hydrothermal brine-hydrothermal ore deposit-evaporite-basinal brine cycle in continental rift basins  

SciTech Connect

Nonmarine evaporites are forming today in chloride-rich saline lakes in a number of arid continental rift and strike-slip basins that are characterized by upwelling of subsurface CaCl[sub 2]-bearing brines driven by forced convection of cool basinal brines or by free convection of hydrothermal brines which reach the surface as brine springs. The compositions of these upwelling brines are distinctively different from that of seawater or typical continental waters due primarily to their high proportion of Ca and low proportion of SO[sub 4]. The most viable explanation for the CaCl[sub 2] composition of these upwelling brines is the interaction between hot convecting groundwaters and bedrock at or above zeolite facies temperatures, as for example occurs in the modern Salton Sea basin. Such upwelling CaCl[sub 2] brines in extensional fault basins can explain the puzzling chemical composition of MgSO[sub 4]-poor potash evaporites, the least understood of all ancient salt deposits. In this regard it is suggested that the following cyclic succession of processes occurs in active continental rift basins during a magmatically-driven thermal event: (1) hydrothermal convection of the ambient porewaters in the rift sediments, (2) dissolution of buried evaporites and hydrothermal metamorphism of the rift sediments, (3) hydrothermal ore deposition in fault-related fractures and within the rift sediments, (4) upwelling brine springs add CaCl[sub 2] and KCl components to the surface lake waters, which on evaporation produce MgSO[sub 4]-poor potash evaporites, (5) decay of the thermal event leads to cool down of the hot brines, which now migrate gravitationally to the deeper parts of the basin to become static Na-Ca-Cl basinal brines.

Hardie, L. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Earth and Planetary Science)

1992-01-01

197

Lipoxin A4 Stimulates Calcium-Activated Chloride Currents and Increases Airway Surface Liquid Height in Normal and Cystic Fibrosis Airway Epithelia  

PubMed Central

Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disease characterised by a deficit in epithelial Cl? secretion which in the lung leads to airway dehydration and a reduced Airway Surface Liquid (ASL) height. The endogenous lipoxin LXA4 is a member of the newly identified eicosanoids playing a key role in ending the inflammatory process. Levels of LXA4 are reported to be decreased in the airways of patients with CF. We have previously shown that in normal human bronchial epithelial cells, LXA4 produced a rapid and transient increase in intracellular Ca2+. We have investigated, the effect of LXA4 on Cl? secretion and the functional consequences on ASL generation in bronchial epithelial cells obtained from CF and non-CF patient biopsies and in bronchial epithelial cell lines. We found that LXA4 stimulated a rapid intracellular Ca2+ increase in all of the different CF bronchial epithelial cells tested. In non-CF and CF bronchial epithelia, LXA4 stimulated whole-cell Cl? currents which were inhibited by NPPB (calcium-activated Cl? channel inhibitor), BAPTA-AM (chelator of intracellular Ca2+) but not by CFTRinh-172 (CFTR inhibitor). We found, using confocal imaging, that LXA4 increased the ASL height in non-CF and in CF airway bronchial epithelia. The LXA4 effect on ASL height was sensitive to bumetanide, an inhibitor of transepithelial Cl? secretion. The LXA4 stimulation of intracellular Ca2+, whole-cell Cl? currents, conductances and ASL height were inhibited by Boc-2, a specific antagonist of the ALX/FPR2 receptor. Our results provide, for the first time, evidence for a novel role of LXA4 in the stimulation of intracellular Ca2+ signalling leading to Ca2+-activated Cl? secretion and enhanced ASL height in non-CF and CF bronchial epithelia. PMID:22662206

Al-Alawi, Mazen; Costello, Richard W.; McNally, Paul; Chiron, Raphaël; Harvey, Brian J.; Urbach, Valérie

2012-01-01

198

Collapse of Langmuir Monolayers Spread on Calcium Solutions: A hydrophobic dimer at the air-water interface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface X-ray scattering experiments of collapsed-Langmuir monolayers of arachidic acid (AA) that are spread on CaCl2 solutions reveal that during the collapse process, calcium is ejected from the subphase together with the amphiphile, forming a object where two head-groups of two amphiphiles are bridged by a calcium ion, i.e., linear dimer is formed at the interface. The X-ray reflectivity measurements indicate that the hydrophobic tail of the Ca-induced dimerized AA is in contact with water. Theoretical arguments as well as the status of some follow up experiments will be presented.

Dahlke, Sam; Travesset, Alex; Vaknin, David

2004-03-01

199

Electrodialysis of calcium and carbonate high concentration solutions and impact on composition in cations of membrane fouling.  

PubMed

Fouling, which is the accumulation of undesired solid materials at the phase interfaces of permselective membranes, is one of the major problems in electrodialysis. The objectives of the present work were to investigate the effect of the composition in calcium and carbonate of a model solution to be treated by conventional electrodialysis on their migration kinetics and the composition in cations of the membrane fouling. In the absence of sodium carbonate in the solution, no fouling was visually observed on anion-exchange membranes (AEM) and fouling was observed only at 1600 mg/L CaCl2 on cation-exchange membrane (CEM), while at only 800 mg/L CaCl2 with sodium carbonate, a deposit was observed on both membranes. This difference could be explained by the fact that carbonate has a high buffer capacity, and the time to reach pH 4.0 was then longer than the one without carbonate. Consequently, the migration of the ionic species was carried out over a longer period of time during ED treatment with sodium carbonate addition and in extent the demineralization rates were higher: 43 vs 86%. For treatment with sodium carbonate and 1600 mg/L CaCl2, the higher migration during ED treatment, increased the concentration of calcium, from 14.24 to 93.38 mg/g dry membrane and from 0.74 to 10.27 mg/g dry membrane for CEM and AEM, respectively. Due to the basic pH on the side of the membrane in contact with the NaCl solution, the calcium would precipitate to form calcium hydroxide on CEM while the calcium migrated through the CEM was blocked by the AEM where it formed another fouling. PMID:15897083

Bazinet, Laurent; Araya-Farias, Monica

2005-06-15

200

Induction of Pleomorphy and Calcium Ion Deficiency in Lactobacillus bifidus  

PubMed Central

The induction of pleomorphism of Lactobacillus bifidus by NaCl was completely inhibited by CaCl2. When the organism was cultivated in calcium-free medium, growth of the bifid form was exclusively observed. Supplementation of calcium ion in the medium caused bacilloid growth. Chemical analyses indicated that calcium content of the bifid form organisms was significantly less than that of the bacilloid form; i.e., in the former type, there was an approximately 30% decrease of calcium in the whole cells, and an 82% decrease in the cell wall, as compared with the respective content of the latter. These results indicate a suppressing role of calcium ion in the induction of pleomorphism of L. bifidus. Besides calcium content, sugar and amino acid compositions were shown to be different between the bifid and bacilloid forms. In the cell wall especially, the content of glucose in the bifid form was larger than that in the bacilloid form. Methionine and phenylalanine were present in the bifid form, but not in the bacilloid form. Cell walls of the bifid form organisms lacked a larger molecular weight peptidoglycan (7.5S) which was clearly detected in the bacilloid form. Evidence has been given for the relationships of calcium ion and cell wall components to the pleomorphism in L. bifidus. Images PMID:5437726

Kojima, Masami; Suda, Shozo; Hotta, Susumu; Hamada, Koyata

1970-01-01

201

Calcium supplements  

MedlinePLUS

... The two main forms of calcium pills are: Calcium carbonate: Over-the-counter antacid products, such as Tums and Rolaids contain calcium carbonate. These sources of calcium carbonate do not cost ...

202

Surface charge density on silica in alkali and alkaline earth chloride electrolyte solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The surface charge density of colloidal SiO 2 (Aerosil 380) was measured in alkali chloride (0.067 and 0.20 M LiCl, NaCl, and KCl) and alkaline earth chloride (0.067 M MgCl 2, CaCl 2, SrCl 2, BaCl 2) solutions. Measurements were conducted at 25°C by potentiometric titrations using the constant ionic medium method in a CO 2-free system. The experimental design measured surface charge for solutions with constant ionic strength as well as constant cation concentration. Alkali chloride solutions promote negative surface charge density in the order LiCl < NaCl < KCl to give the "regular" lyotropic behavior previously reported. In contrast, the alkaline earth chloride solutions exhibit a reversed lyotropic trend with increasing crystallographic radius where increasing negative charge is promoted in the order BaCl 2 < SrCl 2 < CaCl 2 < MgCl 2. The origin of the opposing affinity trends is probed by testing the hypothesis that this reversal is rooted in the differing solvent structuring characteristics of the IA and IIA cations at the silica-water interface. This idea arises from earlier postulations that solvent structuring effects increase entropy through solvent disordering and these gains must be much greater than the small, positive enthalpy associated with electrostatic interactions. By correlating measured charge density with a proxy for the solvent-structuring ability of cations, this study shows that silica surface charge density is maximized by those electrolytes that have the strongest effects on solvent structuring. We suggest that for a given solid material, solvation entropy has a role in determining the ionic specificity of electrostatic interactions and reiterate the idea that the concept of lyotropy is rooted in the solvent-structuring ability of cations at the interface.

Dove, Patricia M.; Craven, Colin M.

2005-11-01

203

Cuticular calcium penetration is directly related to the area covered by calcium within droplet spread area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium penetration from salt solutions of calcium chloride and calcium acetate was measured through isolated tomato fruit (Solanum lycopersicum L., cultivar ‘Panovy’) cuticles after 4, 24, and 48h. Droplet spread area (volume=1?L) and the area ultimately covered with calcium were determined with a scanning electron microscope which has an integrated energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis system. An ethoxylated rapeseed oil surfactant

Thorsten Kraemer; Mauricio Hunsche; Georg Noga

2009-01-01

204

21 CFR 184.1193 - Calcium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...and for processed fruit and fruit juices as defined in § 170.3(n)(35) of this chapter; 0.32 percent for coffee and tea as defined in § 170.3(n)(7) of this chapter; 0.4 percent for condiments and relishes as defined in §...

2011-04-01

205

21 CFR 184.1193 - Calcium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and for processed fruit and fruit juices as defined in § 170.3(n)(35) of this chapter; 0.32 percent for coffee and tea as defined in § 170.3(n)(7) of this chapter; 0.4 percent for condiments and relishes as defined in §...

2010-04-01

206

Abscisic Acid-Induced Actin Reorganization in Guard Cells of Dayflower Is Mediated by Cytosolic Calcium Levels and by Protein Kinase and Protein Phosphatase Activities1  

PubMed Central

In guard cells of open stomata under daylight, long actin filaments are arranged at the cortex, radiating out from the stomatal pore. Abscisic acid (ABA), a signal for stomatal closure, induces rapid depolymerization of cortical actin filaments and the slower formation of a new type of actin that is randomly oriented throughout the cell. This change in actin organization has been suggested to be important in signaling pathways involved in stomatal closing movement, since actin antagonists interfere with normal stomatal closing responses to ABA. Here we present evidence that the actin changes induced by ABA in guard cells of dayflower (Commelina communis) are mediated by cytosolic calcium levels and by protein phosphatase and protein kinase activities. Treatment of guard cells with CaCl2 induced changes in actin organization similar to those induced by ABA. Removal of extracellular calcium with EGTA inhibited ABA-induced actin changes. These results suggest that Ca2+ acts as a signal mediator in actin reorganization during guard cell response to ABA. A protein kinase inhibitor, staurosporine, inhibited actin reorganization in guard cells treated with ABA or CaCl2, and also increased the population of cells with long radial cortical actin filaments in untreated control cells. A protein phosphatase inhibitor, calyculin A, induced fragmentation of actin filaments in ABA- or CaCl2-treated cells and in control cells, and inhibited the formation of randomly oriented long actin filaments induced by ABA or CaCl2. These results suggest that protein kinase(s) and phosphatase(s) participate in actin remodeling in guard cells during ABA-induced stomatal closure. PMID:11299391

Hwang, Jae-Ung; Lee, Youngsook

2001-01-01

207

Reversible loss of gravitropic sensitivity in maize roots after tip application of calcium chelators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of calcium chelating agents (EDTA or EGTA) to the tips of maize roots caused a loss of gravitropic sensitivity. When the chelator was replaced with calcium chloride, gravitropic sensitivity was restored. Asymmetric application of calcium chloride near the tip of a vertical root caused curvature toward the calcium source. When the calcium was applied to the upper surface of the tip of a root oriented horizontally, the root curved upward even though control roots exhibited strong downward curvature. Application of calcium chloride to the tips of decapped roots, which are known to be gravitropically insensitive, did not restore gravitropic sensitivity. However, asymmetric application of calcium chloride near the tips of decapped roots caused curvature toward the calcium source. Calcium may play a key role in linking gravity detection to gravitropic curvature in roots.

Lee, J. S.; Mulkey, T. J.; Evans, M. L.

1983-01-01

208

Effect of sodium and calcium ingestion on thermoregulation during exercise in man  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of hypertonic sodium and calcium ingestion on body temperature during exercise in cool and hot environments are investigated. Rectal and mean skin temperatures, sweat rates and arm and leg total blood flows were measured in men during periods of rest, submaximal exercise and recovery at temperatures of 26.5 C and 39.4 C after ingestion of NaCl and CaCl2 solutions. In both environments, higher rectal temperatures are observed after hypertonic sodium ingestion, which is also associated with attenuated blood flow in the extremities, lower sweat rates and slightly higher skin temperature in the heat, indicating significant thermoregulatory responses. Hypertonic calcium and isotonic sodium cause no temperature change, although calcium caused a reduction of blood flow in the extremities.

Greenleaf, J. E.; Brock, P. J.; Morse, J. T.; Van Beaumont, W.; Montgomery, L. D.; Convertino, V. A.; Mangseth, G. R.

1978-01-01

209

Morphological control of calcium carbonate crystallized in reverse micelle system with anionic surfactants SDS and AOT.  

PubMed

The influence of a surfactant over water on the polymorphism and crystal size of calcium carbonate produced by reaction crystallization in microemulsion systems was investigated in a mixing tank reactor. The crystallization was induced by the reaction between two aqueous micelle solutions (Na2CO3-CaCl2) stabilized by anionic surfactants, SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate) or AOT (sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate). With increasing surfactant ratio to water, the water-in-oil microemulsion was stably developed and the morphology of the calcium carbonate crystallized in the micelles sharply transformed from calcite to vaterite. The influence of SDS on the polymorphism and crystal size of calcium carbonate was much clearer than that of AOT. In addition, with AOT, certain step changes in the morphology and crystal size occurred around a surfactant ratio to water (R=[H2O]/[surfactant]) of 15 due to a two-phase separation of the microemulsion. PMID:15927617

Kang, Sung Hoon; Hirasawa, Izumi; Kim, Woo-Sik; Choi, Chang Kyun

2005-08-15

210

Calcium Carbonate  

MedlinePLUS

Calcium carbonate is a dietary supplement used when the amount of calcium taken in the diet is not ... for healthy bones, muscles, nervous system, and heart. Calcium carbonate also is used as an antacid to relieve ...

211

Antibacterial and bioactive calcium titanate layers formed on Ti metal and its alloys.  

PubMed

An antibacterial and bioactive titanium (Ti)-based material was developed for use as a bone substitute under load-bearing conditions. As previously reported, Ti metal was successively subjected to NaOH, CaCl2, heat, and water treatments to form a calcium-deficient calcium titanate layer on its surface. When placed in a simulated body fluid (SBF), this bioactive Ti formed an apatite layer on its surface and tightly bonded to bones in the body. To address concerns regarding deep infection during orthopedic surgery, Ag(+) ions were incorporated on the surface of this bioactive Ti metal to impart antibacterial properties. Ti metal was first soaked in a 5 M NaOH solution to form a 1 ?m-thick sodium hydrogen titanate layer on the surface and then in a 100 mM CaCl2 solution to form a calcium hydrogen titanate layer via replacement of the Na(+) ions with Ca(2+) ions. The Ti material was subsequently heated at 600 °C for 1 h to transform the calcium hydrogen titanate into calcium titanate. This heat-treated titanium metal was then soaked in 0.01-10 mM AgNO3 solutions at 80 °C for 24 h. As a result, 0.1-0.82 at.% Ag(+) ions and a small amount of H3O(+) ions were incorporated into the surface calcium titanate layers. The resultant products formed apatite on their surface in an SBF, released 0.35-3.24 ppm Ag(+) ion into the fetal bovine serum within 24 h, and exhibited a strong antibacterial effect against Staphylococcus aureus. These results suggest that the present Ti metals should exhibit strong antibacterial properties in the living body in addition to tightly bonding to the surrounding bone through the apatite layer that forms on their surfaces in the body. PMID:24682896

Kizuki, Takashi; Matsushita, Tomiharu; Kokubo, Tadashi

2014-07-01

212

Calcium electrotransfer for termination of transgene expression in muscle.  

PubMed

Gene electrotransfer is expanding in clinical use, thus we have searched for an emergency procedure to stop transgene expression in case of serious adverse events. Calcium is cytotoxic at high intracellular levels, so we tested effects of calcium electrotransfer on transgene expression in muscle. A clinical grade calcium solution (20 ?l, 168 mM) was injected into transfected mouse or rat tibialis cranialis muscle. Ca(2+) uptake was quantified using calcium 45 ((45)Ca), and voltage and time between injection and pulsation were varied. Extinction of transgene expression was investigated by using both in vivo imaging of infrared fluorescent "Katushka" and erythropoietin evaluated by ELISA and hemoglobin. Histology was performed. Electrotransfer of Katushka and erythropoietin yielded significant expression. Maximal calcium uptake occurred after injection of Ca(2+) before electropulsing using eight high voltage pulses of 1000 V/cm. Using these parameters, in vivo imaging showed that transgene expression significantly decreased 4 hr after Ca(2+) electrotransfer and was eliminated within 24 hr. Similarly, serum erythropoietin was reduced by 46% at 4 hr and to control levels at 2 days. Histological analyses showed muscle damage and subsequent regeneration. Electrotransfer of isotonic CaCl(2) terminates transgenic protein expression in muscles and may be used for contingency elimination of transgene expression. PMID:21470044

Hojman, Pernille; Spanggaard, Iben; Olsen, Caroline Holkman; Gehl, Julie; Gissel, Hanne

2011-06-01

213

Jejunal calcium permeability in laying hens during egg formation  

E-print Network

Jejunal calcium permeability in laying hens during egg formation Y. NYS, P. MONGIN Station de to water, calcium, potassium, sodium and chloride was measured in the immature pullet and then in the laying hen before and during egg-shell calcification by an in vivo perfusion procedure. Jejunal calcium

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

214

Effect of calcium ion (cross-linker) concentration on porosity, surface morphology and thermal behavior of calcium alginates prepared from algae ( Undaria pinnatifida)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alginic acid and metal (sodium) alginates was prepared from fresh algae using hot extraction method. Calcium alginates are also prepared from sodium alginate by varying calcium ion (calcium chloride) concentrations. FTIR spectra indicate that alginic acid is converted into metal alginate. Surface morphology as well as total intrusion volume, porosity (%) and pore size distribution changes by changing calcium ion

Tara Sankar Pathak; Jung-Ho Yun; Joonbae Lee; Ki-Jung Paeng

2010-01-01

215

Mechanistic characterization of chloride interferences in electrothermal atomization systems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A computer-controlled spectrometer with a photodiode array detector has been used for wavelength and temperature resolved characterization of the vapor produced by an electrothermal atomizer. The system has been used to study the chloride matrix interference on the atomic absorption spectrometric determination of manganese and copper. The suppression of manganese and copper atom populations by matrix chlorides such as those of calcium and magnesium is due to the gas-phase formation of an analyte chloride species followed by the diffusion of significant fractions of these species from the atom cell prior to completion of the atomization process. The analyte chloride species cannot be formed when matrix chlorides with metal-chloride bond dissociation energies above those of the analyte chlorides are the principal entitles present. The results indicate that multiple wavelength spectrometry used to obtain temperature-resolved spectra is a viable tool in the mechanistic characterization of interference effects observed with electrothermal atomization systems. ?? 1988 American Chemical Society.

Shekiro, J.M., Jr.; Skogerboe, R.K.; Taylor, H.E.

1988-01-01

216

[Physiological and structural modifications induced by cadmium-calcium interaction in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)].  

PubMed

Tomato seedlings (Lycopersicon esculentum), initially cultivated in a basic nutrient solution during 12 days, were treated with increasing CdCl(2) concentrations for 10 days. The results showed that cadmium inhibited the weight growth depending on the metal concentration and the plant organ. In the presence of 20 microM CdCl(2), the addition of calcium, 0.1 to 10 mM of CaCl(2) in the culture medium, improved especially the biomass production and the mineral composition of the plants in concomitance with an increase in the contents of photosynthetic pigments. Histological study at the hypocotyle level revealed that cadmium (20 microM) induced a restriction of the tissue territories as well as meristem formations differentiating in a root structure. At this concentration, the addition of CaCl(2) (5 microM) was characterized by an opposite effect with absence of meristem structures. The overall results suggest that the alteration of some plant growth process after exposure to cadmium can be attenuated by an adequate calcium contribution in culture medium. PMID:16945836

Boulila Zoghlami, Latifa; Djebali, Wahbi; Chaïbi, Wided; Ghorbel, Mohamed Habib

2006-09-01

217

Calcium Phosphate Nanoparticles Synthesis Make sure the hood is clean and free of all chemicals other than the ones required.  

E-print Network

Calcium Phosphate Nanoparticles Synthesis Procedure: · Make sure the hood is clean and free of all 10-2 M calcium chloride solution in the above degassed water (make sure to sonicate for 10 min to dissolve calcium chloride completely). · Likewise prepare 6 x 10-3 M disodium phosphate solution from

Burgess, Kevin

218

Calcium tartrate gel.  

PubMed

A method for preparation of a gel for chromatography has been developed. The adsorbent is calcium tartrate treated with potassium phosphate. By changing the temperature of synthesis (10-65 degrees C) and concentration of the salts (calcium chloride and sodium potassium tartrate) from 0.3 to 3.0 M, we have been able to prepare adsorbent crystals of definite sizes in the range 35-200 microns. In all cases, for synthesis of adsorbent, the Ca2+/K+Na+ ratio was greater than 1. After treatment of calcium tartrate crystals with 0.075-1.5 M potassium phosphate at 80-100 degrees C and pH 8.5-9.0, an appropriate chromatographic adsorbent was prepared. The chromatographic properties of calcium tartrate gel have been studied. The adsorbent permits flow rates of 25-150 ml/h, depending on the particle size. The capacity of calcium tartrate gel for binding BSA, RNA, and DNA was similar to that of Tiselius' hydroxyapatite (A. Tiselius, S. Hjerten, O. Levin (1956) Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 65, 132-155). The spheric shape of gel particles permits uniform and compact packing of adsorbent under the conditions of column chromatography. PMID:2757203

Akhrem, A A; Drozhdenyuk, A P

1989-05-15

219

Development and calcium level changes in pre-implantation porcine nuclear transfer embryos activated with 6-DMAP after fusion.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effect of treatment with 6-dimethylaminopurine (6-DMAP) following fusion on in vitro development of porcine nuclear transfer (NT) embryos. Frozen thawed ear skin cells were transferred into the perivitelline space of enucleated oocytes. Reconstructed oocytes were fused and activated with electric pulse in 0.3 M mannitol supplemented with either 0.1 or 1.0 mM CaCl(2). In each calcium concentration, activated oocytes were divided into three groups. Two groups of them were exposed to either ionomycin (I + 6-DMAP or 6-DMAP alone. In experiment 2, fused NT embryos in 0.3 M mannitol containing 1.0 mM CaCl(2) were exposed to 6-DMAP either immediately or 20 min after fusion/activation. For 0.1 mM CaCl(2), oocytes activated with either I + 6-DMAP or 6-DMAP alone showed a higher (P < 0.05) developmental rate to the blastocyst stage than those activated with an electric pulse alone (26.7 and 22.5 vs. 12.5%). For 1.0 mM CaCl(2), oocytes activated with either I + 6-DMAP or 6-DMAP alone showed significantly higher (P < 0.05) developmental rate to the blastocyst stage (35.6 and 28.3 vs. 19.8%). Developmental rate to the blastocyst stage was (P < 0.05) increased in NT embryos activated with 6-DMAP 20 min after fusion. 6-DMAP made a higher and wider Ca(2+) transient compared to that induced by electric pulses (Fig. 3). The fluctuation lasted during the time that oocytes were cultured in 6-DMAP. Regardless of Ca(2+) concentration in fusion medium, activation with 6-DMAP following electric pulses supported more development of porcine NT embryos. Activation of NT embryos with 6-DMAP after fusion in the presence of 1.0 mM CaCl(2) could support better developmental rate to the blastocyst stage. PMID:17366547

Im, Gi-Sun; Samuel, Melissa; Lai, Liangxue; Hao, Yanhong; Prather, Randall S

2007-09-01

220

Influence of water hardness on the ability of water to rinse bacteria from the skin of processed broilers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Experiments were conducted to examine the effect of water hardness on the ability of water to rinse bacteria from the skin of processed broiler chickens. Very hard water (200 ppm total hardness) was prepared by dissolving 0.38 g calcium chloride (CaCl2) and 0.175 g magnesium chloride hexahydrate (Mg...

221

Effect of water hardness on the ability of water to rinse bacteria from the skin of processed broilers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The effect of water hardness on the ability of water to rinse bacteria from the skin of processed broiler chickens was examined. Artificial hard water with a total hardness of 200 ppm (very hard water) was prepared by dissolving calcium chloride (CaCl2) and magnesium chloride hexahydrate (MgCl2 •6H2...

222

Role of water hardness in rinsing bacteria from the skin of processed broiler chickens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The effect of water hardness on the ability of water to rinse bacteria from the skin of processed broiler chickens was examined. Artificial hard water with a total hardness of 200 ppm (very hard water) was prepared by dissolving calcium chloride (CaCl2) and magnesium chloride hexahydrate (MgCl2 •6H2...

223

Analytical models of calcium binding in a calcium channel.  

PubMed

The anomalous mole fraction effect of L-type calcium channels is analyzed using a Fermi like distribution with the experimental data of Almers and McCleskey [J. Physiol. 353, 585 (1984)] and the atomic resolution model of Lipkind and Fozzard [Biochemistry 40, 6786 (2001)] of the selectivity filter of the channel. Much of the analysis is algebraic, independent of differential equations. The Fermi distribution is derived from the configuration entropy of ions and water molecules with different sizes, different valences, and interstitial voids between particles. It allows us to calculate potentials and distances (between the binding ion and the oxygen ions of the glutamate side chains) directly from the experimental data using algebraic formulas. The spatial resolution of these results is comparable with those of molecular models, but of course the accuracy is no better than that implied by the experimental data. The glutamate side chains in our model are flexible enough to accommodate different types of binding ions in different bath conditions. The binding curves of Na(+) and Ca(2+) for [CaCl2] ranging from 10(-8) to 10(-2) M with a fixed 32 mM background [NaCl] are shown to agree with published Monte Carlo simulations. The Poisson-Fermi differential equation-that includes both steric and correlation effects-is then used to obtain the spatial profiles of energy, concentration, and dielectric coefficient from the solvent region to the filter. The energy profiles of ions are shown to depend sensitively on the steric energy that is not taken into account in the classical rate theory. We improve the rate theory by introducing a steric energy that lumps the effects of excluded volumes of all ions and water molecules and empty spaces between particles created by Lennard-Jones type and electrostatic forces. We show that the energy landscape varies significantly with bath concentrations. The energy landscape is not constant. PMID:25149816

Liu, Jinn-Liang; Eisenberg, Bob

2014-08-21

224

Inhibition of calcium oxalate crystallization by glutamic acid: Different effects at low and high concentrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of L-aspartic acid, alanine and L-glutamic acid on the crystallization of calcium oxalate were followed by two methods: measurements of the changes in calcium ion concentrations and determination of crystal size distribution in the calcium oxalate precipitate. The changes in calcium ion concentration were detected by a specific calcium electrode and are expressed as Discriminating Index (DI) values. Median size and number of crystals per milliliter were determined by Particle Data Counter. Glutamic acid in the range of 0-200 ppm was added to solutions of CaCl 2 which were subsequently mixed with solutions of Na 2C 2O 4 to yield CaC 2O 4 precipitation. At relatively high concentrations of glutamic acid, namely 20-200 ppm, the precipitation of calcium oxalate is retarded. However, at low concentrations, 2.5-20 ppm oxalate precipitation is enhanced. The two independent methods yield well-correlated results. Both L-aspartic acid and alanine did not affect the precipitation of calcium oxalate at similar experimental conditions.

Azoury, Reuven; Randolph, Alan D.; Drach, George W.; Perlberg, Saul; Garti, Nissim; Sarig, Sara

1983-11-01

225

Variations in total and ionized calcium during cardiac surgery.  

PubMed

Twenty patients undergoing cardiac surgery were studied to examine variations in total and ionized serum calcium and urine calcium during cardiopulmonary bypass. Serial samples of blood and urine were analyzed during bypass using a highly specific calcium electrode to determine the effects of hemodilution, various pharmacologic agents, and transfusions of citrated blood. Calcium chloride was routinely added to the crystalloid pump prime (400 mgs/L) and also administered when additional blood or crystalloid were infused. An average of 4.8 +/- .50 grams of calcium chloride was given per procedure. After induction of general anesthesia with nitrous oxide and Halothane, total serum calcium decreased from 10.0 +/- 0.3 to 8.5 +/- 0.8 mg% (p less than 0.05). Following heparinization, ionized calcium decreased from 4.2 +/- .08 to 3.9 +/- 12 mg% (p less than 0.05). Ionized calcium was not affected by reversal of heparin with Protamine. Following institution of cardiopulmonary bypass the ratio of ionized to total calcium declined about 13.4% (0.49 vs. 0.43). This ratio did not change during bypass but returned to normal immediately post-perfusion. Urinary calcium excretion averaged 1.9 +/- 0.6 mg/min and could not be implicated as a cause of hypocalcemia during bypass. Post-perfusion, ionized serum calcium rose 1.3 +/- .01 mg% for each gram of exogenously administered calcium chloride (p less than 0.05). From these observations, we conclude: (1) ionized and total serum calcium levels decreased significantly following institution of cardiopulmonary bypass alone, presumably as a result of hemodilution from the crystalloid pump prime and addition of citrated blood products; (2) induction of general anesthesia alone with nitrous oxide and Halothane is associated with a significant decrease in total serum calcium; (3) ionized calcium declined following heparinization but is unchanged by Protamine administration; (4) changes in total and ionized serum calcium are unaffected by urinary excretion during bypass; (5) exogenously administered calcium chloride significantly increases serum ionized calcium and these changes are inversely related to the circulating pool of calcium; (6) current protocols for administration of exogenous calcium chloride during bypass may result in insufficient levels of ionized calcium and we have adopted measures to correct these deficiencies, when indicated. PMID:6654970

Catinella, F P; Cunningham, J N; Strauss, E D; Adams, P X; Laschinger, J C; Spencer, F C

1983-01-01

226

Involvement of chloride in renin secretion from isolated rat glomeruli.  

PubMed

The sensitivity of renin release to changes in anion and calcium concentrations was assessed in superfused rat glomeruli with attached juxtaglomerular cells. Isosmotic substitution of Cl-with gluconate (1/12, 1/6, 1/3, 2/3, or total exchange), isethionate (15 or 101 mM), or sulfate (10 mM) inhibited renin release reversibly. Substitution of Cl- with nitrate (101 mM) stimulated renin secretion. Substitution with iodide (15 or 101 mM) had no consistent effect. The stimulation induced by calcium-free solutions was high in May and low in September. In the absence of chloride, the response to calcium-free solution was inhibited similarly all year. In May reintroduction of calcium and chloride stimulated renin release, suggesting that releasable renin had been stockpiled during the exposure to calcium-free solution. In September reintroduction of calcium and chloride inhibited renin release. It is concluded that the renin secretory process has a demand for permeant anions. The stimulation caused by low external calcium involves at least two mechanisms: one is anion sensitive, powerful, varies with the season, and includes a recruitment phenomenon; another is anion insensitive and weak. PMID:1558158

Skøtt, O; Jensen, B L

1992-03-01

227

Porous microspheres of amorphous calcium phosphate: Block copolymer templated microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis and application in drug delivery.  

PubMed

Amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) microspheres with a porous and hollow structure have been prepared using an aqueous solution containing CaCl2 as a calcium source, adenosine triphosphate disodium salt (Na2ATP) as a phosphorus source in the presence of a block copolymer methoxyl poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(d,l-lactide) (mPEG-PLA) by the microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. The effects of microwave hydrothermal temperature and the concentrations of CaCl2 and Na2ATP on the crystal phase and morphology of the product are investigated. The as-prepared ACP porous hollow microspheres have a relatively high specific surface area of 232.9m(2)g(-1) and an average pore size of 9.9nm. A typical anticancer drug, docetaxel, is used to evaluate the drug loading ability and drug release behavior of ACP porous hollow microspheres in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) with different pH values of 4.5 and 7.4. The experiments reveal that the ACP porous hollow microspheres have a high drug loading capacity and favorable pH-responsive drug release property, and the ACP porous hollow microsphere drug delivery system shows a high ability to damage tumor cells. It is expected that the as-prepared ACP porous hollow microspheres are promising for the applications in various biomedical fields such as drug delivery. PMID:25535849

Ding, Guan-Jun; Zhu, Ying-Jie; Qi, Chao; Lu, Bing-Qiang; Wu, Jin; Chen, Feng

2015-04-01

228

Thermodynamics of aqueous magnesium chloride, calcium chloride, and strontium chloride at elevated temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat capacities and densities of aqueous MgClâ, CaClâ, and SrClâ from the accompanying paper are combined with literature data up to 473 K to yield temperature-dependent equations by using the ion-interaction model of Pitzer. These heat capacity equations have been integrated to yield the enthalpy and the Gibbs energy. The enthalpy parameters for 298 K are evaluated in separate calculations

Ramesh C. Phutela; Kenneth S. Pitzer; Preet P. S. Saluja

1987-01-01

229

Comparison of intrinsic and extrinsic tracer methods for estimating calcium bioavailability to rats from dairy foods  

SciTech Connect

Dairy products doubly labeled with 45Ca and 47Ca were used to evaluate an extrinsic labeling procedure for calcium bioavailability determination. Nonfat milk, yogurt, and fresh cheese curd were prepared from caprine milk that was intrinsically labeled with 45Ca. The products were then labeled extrinsically with 47Ca and administered to rats by gavage. The 47Ca to 45Ca ratio in bone and teeth averaged about 1.00 with either milk, yogurt, or CaCl2, but the ratio was about 1.04 when dosed with cheese curd. Ca absorption, determined by whole-body counting of 47Ca, was lower (P less than 0.05) in cheese curd (59%) than in either milk (69%), yogurt (72%), or CaCl2 (72%). Expressed as percent of dose, the absorption of 47Ca was highly correlated with bone 47Ca (r = 0.973) and with bone 45Ca (r = 0.946). Correlation between tibia 47Ca and tibia 45Ca was r = 0.923. For the dairy products tested, our results indicated that extrinsic 47Ca was absorbed similarly to intrinsic 45Ca. Moreover, the percent of radioactive dose retained in bone appears to be a valid indicator of relative bioavailability of food Ca.

Buchowski, M.S.; Sowizral, K.C.; Lengemann, F.W.; Van Campen, D.; Miller, D.D.

1989-02-01

230

The ultra-high lime with aluminum process for removing chloride from recirculating cooling water  

E-print Network

removal was obtained at reasonable ranges of lime and aluminum doses. However, the stoichiometry of chloride removal with UHLA deviated from the theoretical stoichiometry of calcium chloroaluminate precipitation. Equilibrium modeling of experimental data...

Abdel-wahab, Ahmed Ibraheem Ali

2004-09-30

231

Nutritive value of timothy fertilized with chloride or chloride-containing liquid swine manure.  

PubMed

Chloride fertilization of timothy (Phleum pratense L.) decreases forage dietary cation-anion difference to an acceptable value [(<250 mmol(c)/kg of dry matter (DM)] for dry dairy cows (Bos taurus). However, high Cl concentrations in forages as a result of fertilization might affect nutritive value. Two experiments were used to evaluate the effects of chloride fertilization on timothy spring growth and summer regrowth by determining concentrations of crude protein and neutral detergent fiber (NDF), in vitro true digestibility of DM (IVTD), and in vitro digestibility of NDF (dNDF). In an inorganic fertilization experiment, forages grown at 4 locations were fertilized with CaCl(2) (0, 80, 160, and 240 kg of Cl/ha per yr) or NH(4)Cl (160 kg of Cl/ha per yr) in combination with 2 N application rates (70 and 140 kg of N/ha per yr). The increase in Cl fertilization rate affected forage NDF concentration (+1.4%), IVTD (-0.8%), and dNDF (-1.2%) only at the highest rate of N fertilization, but this effect was not of biological importance. Crude protein concentration was not affected by Cl fertilization. Both Cl fertilizer types had a similar impact on forage nutritive value. In an organic fertilization experiment, forages grown at 2 locations received 1 of 7 experimental treatments [unfertilized control, inorganic fertilizer, raw liquid swine manure (LSM), and liquid fractions of 4 pretreated LSM types (decanted, filtered, anaerobically digested, and flocculated)] that provided, respectively, 0, 60, 41, 44, 44, 36, and 101 kg of Cl/ha per yr. The last 6 fertilizer treatments also provided 140 kg of N/ha per yr. The IVTD, dNDF, and concentration of NDF in timothy forage were not affected by the Cl content of the different LSM types. Nitrogen fertilization increased concentration of forage NDF and decreased IVTD and dNDF, but this effect was not biologically important. In both experiments, soil types and harvests had a negligible effect on forage nutritive value. Organic or inorganic Cl fertilizers applied to decrease timothy dietary cation-anion difference have little or no effect on forage nutritive value. PMID:18218759

Pelletier, S; Tremblay, G F; Bélanger, G; Chantigny, M H; Seguin, P; Drapeau, R; Allard, G

2008-02-01

232

Studies on the in vivo sensitivity of spindle microtubules to calcium ions and evidence for a vesicular calcium-sequestering system  

PubMed Central

I microinjected calcium ions into echinoderm eggs during mitosis to determine the calcium sensitivity of microtubules (Mts) in vivo. Spindle birefringence (BR), a measure of the number of aligned Mts in the spindle, is locally, rapidly, and reversibly abolished by small volumes of microinjected CaCl2 (1 mM). Rapid return of BR is followed by anaphase, and subsequent divisions are normal. Similar doses of MgCl2, BaCl2, KCl, NaCl, pH buffers, distilled water, or vegetable oil have no effect on spindle BR, whereas large doses of such agents sometimes cause slow, uniform loss in BR over the course of a minute or more. Of the ions tested, only Sr++ causes effects comparable to Ca++. Ca-EGTA buffers, containing greater than micromolar free Ca++, abolishes BR in a manner similar to millimolar concentrations of injected CaCl2. Caffeine, a potent uncoupler of the Ca++-pump/ATPase of sarcoplasmic reticulum, causes a local, transient depression in spindle BR in the injected region. Finally, injection of potassium oxalate results in the formation of small, highly BR crystals, presumably CA- oxalate, in Triton-sensitive compartments in the cytoplasm. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that spindle Mts are sensitive to levels of free Ca++ in the physiological range, provide evidence for the existence of a strong cytoplasmic Ca++-sequestering system, and support the notion that Mt assembly and disassembly in local regions of the spindle may be orchestrated by local changes in the cytoplasmic free Ca++ concentration during mitosis. An appendix offers the design of a new chamber for immobilizing echinoderm eggs for injection, a new method for determining the volume of the injected solution, and a description of the microinjection technique, which was designed, but never fully described, by Hiramoto (Y. Hiramoto, Exp. Cell. Res., 1962, 27:416-426.). PMID:7194345

1981-01-01

233

The evolution of the biochemistry of calcium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemistry of the calcium (Ca) ion does not appear of great interest, but it has been an essential element in biological evolution. Initially, procaryotic cells treated it as an intracellular poison rejecting it together with sodium and chloride ions. The resulting functions of Ca apart from being pumped out of cells were on the cell exterior, assisting such activities

Robert J. P. Williams

2007-01-01

234

Modeling acid-gas generation from boiling chloride brines  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: This study investigates the generation of HCl and other acid gases from boiling calcium chloride dominated waters at atmospheric pressure, primarily using numerical modeling. The main focus of this investigation relates to the long-term geologic disposal of nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, where pore waters around waste-emplacement tunnels are expected to undergo boiling and evaporative concentration as a

Guoxiang Zhang; Nicolas Spycher; Eric Sonnenthal; Carl Steefel

2009-01-01

235

Calcium binding to an aquatic fulvic acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The degree of binding of calcium to aquatic fulvic acid from the Göta River was estimated from potentiometric titrations. A pH-glass electrode and a calcium-selective electrode were used to monitor the free concentrations of the competing, central ions. The ionic strength and the temperature were maintained constant at 0.1 M and 25°C. The total concentration of fulvic acid was maintained at approximately 1 g 1-1, while the total calcium concentration was varied within the range 0-10-3 M. Two types of titrations were carried out: (1) back titration with hydrochloric acid from basic solution, roughly within the pH range 10.5-2.5; (2) titration with calcium chloride at a constant total hydrogen ion concentration. The model applied for the calcium binding was an extension of our previous model for the acid-base behaviour.

Paxéus, Nicklas; Wedborg, Margareta

236

Ameliorative Effect of Hydro Gel Substrate on Growth, Inorganic Ions, Proline, and Nitrate Contents of Bean under Salinity Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of varying hydrogel (0, 0.5, and 1.0% w\\/w) supply on some agro-physiological properties, such as dry matter, nutrient contents, chlorophyll contents, proline content, and ionic balance of bean plants in different salt sources and stress due to doses were investigated. Plants were treated with eight salt sources [sodium chloride (NaCl), sodium sulfate (Na2SO4), calcium chloride (CaCl2), calcium sulfate

Canan Kant; Adil Aydin; Metin Turan

2008-01-01

237

A Proposed Mechanism for the Thermal Denaturation of a Recombinant Bacillus Halmapalus Alpha-amylase - the Effect of Calcium Ions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The thermal stability of a recombinant alpha-amylase from Bacillus halmapalus alpha-amylase (BHA) has been investigated using circular dichroism spectroscopy (CD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). This alpha-amylase is homologous to other Bacillus alpha-amylases where previous crystallographic studies have identified the existence of 3 calcium binding sites in the structure. Denaturation of BHA is irreversible with a Tm of approximately 89 C, and DSC thermograms can be described using a one-step irreversible model. A 5 C increase in T(sub m) in the presence of 10 fold excess CaCl2 was observed. However, a concomitant increase in the tendency to aggregate was also observed. The presence of 30-40 fold excess calcium chelator (EDTA or EGTA) results in a large destabilization of BHA corresponding to about 40 C lower T(sub m), as determined by both CD and DSC. Ten fold excess EGTA reveals complex DSC thermograms corresponding to both reversible and irreversible transitions, which possibly originate from different populations of BHA:calcium complexes. The observations in the present study have, in combination with structural information of homologous alpha-amylases, provided the basis for the proposal of a simple denaturation mechanism of BHA. The proposed mechanism describes the irreversible thermal denaturation of different BHA:calcium complexes and the calcium binding equilibrium involved. Furthermore, the model accounts for a temperature induced reversible structural change associated with calcium binding.

Nielsen, Anders D.; Pusey, Marc L.; Fuglsang, Claus C.; Westh, Peter

2003-01-01

238

Calcium - ionized  

MedlinePLUS

... before the test. Many medicines can interfere with blood test results. Your health care provider will tell you if ... decrease total calcium levels. These may include abnormal blood levels of albumin or immunoglobulins.

239

Calcium Hydroxylapatite  

PubMed Central

Background: Calcium hydroxylapatite is one of the most well-studied dermal fillers worldwide and has been extensively used for the correction of moderate-to-severe facial lines and folds and to replenish lost volume. Objectives: To mark the milestone of 10 years of use in the aesthetic field, this review will consider the evolution of calcium hydroxylapatite in aesthetic medicine, provide a detailed injection protocol for a global facial approach, and examine how the unique properties of calcium hydroxylapatite provide it with an important place in today’s market. Methods: This article is an up-to-date review of calcium hydroxylapatite in aesthetic medicine along with procedures for its use, including a detailed injection protocol for a global facial approach by three expert injectors. Conclusion: Calcium hydroxylapatite is a very effective agent for many areas of facial soft tissue augmentation and is associated with a high and well-established safety profile. Calcium hydroxylapatite combines high elasticity and viscosity with an ability to induce long-term collagen formation making it an ideal agent for a global facial approach. PMID:25610523

Yutskovskaya, Yana Alexandrovna; Philip Werschler, WM.

2015-01-01

240

Salt Brine Blending to Optimize Deicing and Anti-icing Performance and Cost  

E-print Network

Salt Brine Blending to Optimize Deicing and Anti-icing Performance and Cost Effectiveness Stephen J in Method? #12;Deicing and Anti-icing Treatments ·Sodium Chloride (NaCl) ·Cargill, NA Salt ·Magnesium Chloride (MgCl2) w/additives ·Envirotech Serv., Scotwood Ind., NA Salt ·Calcium Chloride (CaCl2) ·Tiger

Minnesota, University of

241

Force and stiffness in glycerinated rabbit psoas fibers. Effects of calcium and elevated phosphate  

PubMed Central

Force (F) and stiffness (K) were measured in glycerinated psoas fibers at various calcium levels with 0, 10, 20, and 30 mM orthophosphate (Pi) added to the bathing solutions. The concentrations of bathing solution constituents were as follows: 110 mM potassium, 40 mM sodium, 4 mM MgATP, 10 mM total EGTA, and variable amounts of MOPS (pH buffer). The pH was 7.0, the ionic strength was 200 mM, and the temperature was 10 degrees C. Calcium levels were established by adding various amounts of CaCl2. All solutions contained 4% Dextran T-500. Fiber K was measured by imposing sinusoidal length changes (0.03-0.1%) at 1 kHz and by applying rapid steps in length and measuring the resulting F changes. At all [Pi] tested, K was more sensitive to calcium than F. Elevating bathing solution [Pi] caused a decrease in the calcium sensitivity of both F and K, while the slopes of F-calcium and K-calcium relations increased. In maximally activating calcium, raising [Pi] caused a continuous decrease in F over the range tested, while from very low to 10 mM Pi K remained constant. Above 10 mM Pi K declined, but to a lesser extent than did F. The results suggest that under our experimental conditions strongly attached crossbridges can exist in both force-producing and non-force-producing states, and that the relative population of these states may be calcium dependent. PMID:1607853

1992-01-01

242

Calcium dependence of rapid auxin action in maize roots  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We investigated the interaction of Ca2+ and auxin on root elongation in seedlings of Zea mays L. The seedlings were raised either in the presence of Ca2+ (high calcium; HC = imbibed and raised in 10 millimolar CaCl2), in the absence of additional Ca2+ (intermediate calcium; IC = imbibed and raised in distilled H2O, calcium supply from seed only), or without additional Ca2+ and subsequently depleting them of Ca2+ (low calcium; LC = imbibed and raised in distilled H2O and subsequently treated with 1 millimolar ethyleneglycol-bis-[beta-aminoethylether]-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid [EGTA]). Exposure of roots of either HC or IC seedlings to auxin concentrations from 0.1 to 10 micromolar resulted in strong inhibition of elongation. In roots of LC seedlings, on the other hand, auxin concentrations as high as 10 micromolar caused only slight inhibition of elongation. Adding 0.5 millimolar Ca2+ to LC roots in the presence of IAA allowed normal expression of the inhibitory action of the hormone. Inhibition of elongation in IC roots by indoleacetic acid was reversible upon treatment of the roots with 1 millimolar EGTA. The inhibitory action of auxin could then be re-established by supplying 0.5 millimolar Ca2+. The data indicate that Ca2+ may be necessary to the growth-regulating action of auxin. The significance of this finding is discussed with respect to the potential role of Ca2+ as a second messenger of auxin action and the relevance of this model to recent evidence for gravi-induced redistribution of Ca2+ and its role in establishing gravitropic curvature.

Hasenstein, K. H.; Evans, M. L.

1986-01-01

243

Calcium pyrophosphate arthritis (Pseudogout)  

MedlinePLUS

Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease; CPPD disease; Acute CPPD arthritis; Pseudogout ... Calcium pyrophosphate arthritis is caused by the collection of salt called calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD). The buildup ...

244

cADP-ribose formation by blood platelets is not responsible for intracellular calcium mobilization.  

PubMed

Human platelet CD38 is a multifunctional ectoenzyme catalysing the synthesis and hydrolysis of cADP-ribose (cADPR), a recently identified calcium-mobilizing agent that acts independently of D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and is known to be expressed by human platelets. The present work shows that ADP-ribosyl cyclase activity is exclusively a membrane activity, of which the major part is located in plasma membranes and a small part in internal membranes. In broken cells, cyclase activity was insensitive to the presence of calcium and was not modulated by agonists such as thrombin or ADP, whereas in intact cells thrombin increased cADPR formation by 30%, an effect due to fusion of granules with the plasma membrane. In order to assess the role of cADPR as a calcium-mobilizing agent, vesicles were prepared from internal membranes and loaded with 45CaCl2. These vesicles were efficiently discharged by IP3 in a dose-dependent manner, but were not responsive to cADPR or ryanodine in the presence or absence of calmodulin. Thus cADPR is unlikely to play a role in intracellular calcium release in human blood platelets. PMID:9531481

Ohlmann, P; Leray, C; Ravanat, C; Hallia, A; Cassel, D; Cazenave, J P; Gachet, C

1998-04-15

245

Calcium antagonistic activity of Bacopa monniera in guinea-pig trachea  

PubMed Central

Objective: To demonstrate the calcium antagonistic property of ethanol extract of Bacopa monniera in guinea-pig trachea. Materials and Methods: The dose response curves of CaCl2 (1 × 10-5 to 1 × 10-1 M) were constructed in the absence and presence of ethanol extract of Bacopa monniera (100, 500 and 700 ?g/ml) or nifedipine (1 × 10-6 M) in guinea-pig trachea in calcium free high K+-MOPS-PSS (3-(N-morpholino)-propanesulphonic acid physiological salt solution). The data was analyzed by ANOVA followed by least significant difference test or by Student's ‘t’ test for unequal variance when appropriate. A probability of at least P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The plant extract (500 and 700 ?g/ml) significantly (P < 0.05) depressed and shifted the calcium concentration-response curves (1 × 10-3- 1 × 10-1 M) to rightward similar to that of nifedipine. Conclusions: Bacopa monniera extract exhibited calcium channel blocking activity in guinea-pig tracheal smooth muscles that may rationalize its relaxant action on guinea-pig trachea and its traditional use in respiratory disorders. PMID:23087517

Channa, Shabana; Dar, Ahsana

2012-01-01

246

Purification and characterisation of a glutamic acid-containing peptide with calcium-binding capacity from whey protein hydrolysate.  

PubMed

The bioavailability of dietary ionised calcium is affected by intestinal basic environment. Calcium-binding peptides can form complexes with calcium to improve its absorption and bioavailability. The aim of this study was focused on isolation and characterisation of a calcium-binding peptide from whey protein hydrolysates. Whey protein was hydrolysed using Flavourzyme and Protamex with substrate to enzyme ratio of 25 : 1 (w/w) at 49 °C for 7 h. The calcium-binding peptide was isolated by DEAE anion-exchange chromatography, Sephadex G-25 gel filtration and reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). A purified peptide of molecular mass 204 Da with strong calcium binding ability was identified on chromatography/electrospray ionisation (LC/ESI) tandem mass spectrum to be Glu-Gly (EG) after analysis and alignment in database. The calcium binding capacity of EG reached 67·81 ?g/mg, and the amount increased by 95% compared with whey protein hydrolysate complex. The UV and infrared spectrometer analysis demonstrated that the principal sites of calcium-binding corresponded to the carboxyl groups and carbonyl groups of glutamic acid. In addition, the amino group and peptide amino are also the related groups in the interaction between EG and calcium ion. Meanwhile, the sequestered calcium percentage experiment has proved that EG-Ca is significantly more stable than CaCl2 in human gastrointestinal tract in vitro. The findings suggest that the purified dipeptide has the potential to be used as ion-binding ingredient in dietary supplements. PMID:25592629

Huang, Shun-Li; Zhao, Li-Na; Cai, Xixi; Wang, Shao-Yun; Huang, Yi-Fan; Hong, Jing; Rao, Ping-Fan

2015-02-01

247

Effect of magnesium on calcium-dependent brain function that prolongs ethanol-induced sleeping time in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of magnesium on calcium- and dopamine-dependent brain function was investigated behaviorally and biochemically. The duration of ethanol-induced sleeping time in mice was prolonged following i.c.v. administration of calcium chloride (10?mol\\/kg) or dopamine (30nmol\\/mouse); however, it was not affected by magnesium chloride (10 or 40?mol\\/kg). The ability of calcium to prolong ethanol-induced sleeping time was

Den'etsu Sutoo; Kayo Akiyama

2000-01-01

248

[Congenital chloride diarrhea].  

PubMed

Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD) is a rare hereditary disease, with a prenatal onset, secondary to a deficit in the intestinal chloride transport. In the present study, we describe the clinical characteristics of three patients with congenital watery diarrhea, two of them females, aged between 9 and 14 months at the first visit. All patients presented perinatal antecedents of polyhydramnios and prematurity, watery stools since birth and growth failure. Metabolic alkalosis, hypokalemia and hypochloremia were found. Stool ionogram with elevated doses of chloride, exceeding both sodium and potassium, confirmed the diagnosis of CCD. Substitute treatment with sodium and potassium chloride was started with good results. CCD should be considered as a differential diagnosis to congenital watery diarrhea, since early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are mandatory for the normal development of the child, avoiding severe complications such as neurological sequelae and even death. PMID:16127986

Contreras, Mónica; Rocca, Ana; Benedetti, Laura; Kakisu, Hisae; Delgado, Sabrina; Ruiz, José Antonio

2005-01-01

249

Calcium in diet  

MedlinePLUS

... with calcium and prevent it from being absorbed. DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Calcium is also found in many multivitamin-mineral supplements. The amount varies depending on the. supplement. Dietary supplements may contain only calcium or calcium with other ...

250

Improvement of water vapor adsorption ability of natural mesoporous material by impregnating with chloride salts for development of a new desiccant filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is the development of a new adsorbent for the desiccant material which can be regenerated by the domestic\\u000a exhaust heat by using natural mesoporous material, Wakkanai siliceous shale. To improve this shale’s performance to adsorb\\/desorb\\u000a the water vapor, lithium chloride, calcium chloride or sodium chloride was supported into the mesopores by impregnating with\\u000a each chloride

Saya Nakabayashi; Katsunori Nagano; Makoto Nakamura; Junya Togawa; Asami Kurokawa

251

Project Calcium  

SciTech Connect

Fouling problems in utility boilers have been classified into two principal types: high-temperature and low-temperature fouling. A multiclient-sponsored program was initiated at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) to better understand the causes of low-temperature fouling when burning high-calcium western US coals. The goals of Project Calcium were to define the low-temperature deposition problem, identify the calcium-based components that are responsible for the formation of the deposits, develop ways to predict their formation, and identify possible methods to mitigate the formation of these deposits. To achieve the goals of Project Calcium, detailed sampling of utility boilers and laboratory-scale studies coupled with state-of-the-art methods to determine the inorganic components in coals and coal ash-derived materials were conducted. Boiler Sampling was also performed. The work involved sampling coal, entrained ash, deposits and slags from five full-scale utility boilers combined with detailed advanced characterization of the materials. The results of this work aided in identifying the key phenomena to focus the laboratory studies and in model verification. Field testing was conducted at three utilities.

Hurley, J.P.; Benson, S.A.; Erickson, T.A.; Allan, S.E.; Bieber, J.

1992-09-01

252

Original article Availability of calcium from skim milk, calcium sulfate  

E-print Network

Original article Availability of calcium from skim milk, calcium sulfate and calcium carbonate; accepted 19 November 1999) Abstract --Dairy products provide abundant, accessible calcium for humans, while some calcium sulfate-rich mineral waters could provide appreciable amounts of calcium

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

253

Calcium and bone disease  

PubMed Central

Calcium transport and calcium signaling are of basic importance in bone cells. Bone is the major store of calcium and a key regulatory organ for calcium homeostasis. Bone, in major part, responds to calcium-dependent signals from the parathyroids and via vitamin D metabolites, although bone retains direct response to extracellular calcium if parathyroid regulation is lost. Improved understanding of calcium transporters and calcium-regulated cellular processes has resulted from analysis of genetic defects, including several defects with low or high bone mass. Osteoblasts deposit calcium by mechanisms including phosphate and calcium transport with alkalinization to absorb acid created by mineral deposition; cartilage calcium mineralization occurs by passive diffusion and phosphate production. Calcium mobilization by osteoclasts is mediated by acid secretion. Both bone forming and bone resorbing cells use calcium signals as regulators of differentiation and activity. This has been studied in more detail in osteoclasts, where both osteoclast differentiation and motility are regulated by calcium. PMID:21674636

Blair, Harry C.; Robinson, Lisa J.; Huang, Christopher L.-H.; Sun, Li; Friedman, Peter A.; Schlesinger, Paul H.; Zaidi, Mone

2013-01-01

254

Calcium-sensitive cls4 mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with a defect in bud formation.  

PubMed Central

A calcium-sensitive cls4 mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ceased dividing in the presence of 100 mM CaCl2, producing large, round, unbudded cells. Since its DNA replication and nuclear division still continued after interruption of normal budding, the cls4 mutant had a defect in bud formation in Ca2+-rich medium. Its calcium content and calcium uptake activity were the same as those of the wild-type strain, suggesting that the primary defect of the mutation was not in a Ca2+ transport system. Genetic analysis showed that the cls4 mutation did not complement the cdc24-1 mutation, which is known to be a temperature-sensitive mutation affecting bud formation and localized cell surface growth at a restrictive temperature. Moreover, cls4 was tightly linked to cdc24, and a yeast 3.4-kilobase-pair DNA fragment carrying both the CLS4 and CDC24 genes was obtained. These results suggest that the cls4 mutation is allelic to the cdc24 mutation. Thus, Ca2+ ion seems to control bud formation and bud-localized cell surface growth. Images PMID:3510189

Ohya, Y; Miyamoto, S; Ohsumi, Y; Anraku, Y

1986-01-01

255

Hydrothermal-electrochemical deposition of calcium phosphates on various metals.  

PubMed

Calcium phosphates were formed on five kinds of substrate metals using a hydrothermal-electrochemical method in an autoclave with two electrodes. The electrolyte dissolving NaCl, K2HPO4, CaCl2.2H2O, tris (hydroxymethyl) aminomethane, and hydrochloric acid was maintained at 100 degrees C, 150 degrees C and 200 degrees C. The counter electrode, the anode, was platinum plate, 20 x 20 x 0.5 mm, and the working electrodes as cathode were pure titanium, pure zinc, pure nickel, pure iron, and stainless steel plates. A constant direct current at 12.5 mA/cm2 was loaded for 1 hr. Hydroxyapatite [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2] only deposited at three temperatures on pure titanium plate. On pure zinc plate, both parascholzite [CaZn2(PO4)2.2H2O] and hydroxyapatite were formed at 150 degrees C and both parascholzite and ZnO were formed at 200 degrees C. Both hydroxyapatite and beta-TCP [beta-Ca3(PO4)2] were formed on pure nickel, pure iron, and stainless steel plates at 200 degrees C. It seems that the incorporation of the metal ions released from the electrode decreased the Ca/P ratio of the deposit due to the formation of other compounds except hydroxyapatite. PMID:10786136

Ban, S; Matsuo, K; Mizutani, N; Hasegawa, J

1999-09-01

256

Molecular Structure of Barium Chloride  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Barium Chloride was the byproduct of the discovery of radium by Madame Curie. When refining radium, the final separation resulted in barium chloride and radium chloride. Electrophoresis of barium chloride produces small-scale amounts of barium atom. This can be used for obtaining barium for commercial uses. Applications of barium chloride include stimulating the heart and other muscles for medicinal purposes, and also for softening water. Other uses of barium chloride include the manufacturing of barium salts, as pesticide, pigments, boiler detergent, in purifying sugar, as mordant in dyeing and printing textiles, and in the manufacture of caustic soda, polymers, and stabilizers.

2002-08-15

257

Chloride removal from vitrification offgas  

SciTech Connect

This study identified and investigated techniques of selectively purging chlorides from the low-level waste (LLW) vitrification process with the purge stream acceptable for burial on the Hanford Site. Chlorides will be present in high concentration in several individual feeds to the LLW Vitrification Plant. The chlorides are highly volatile in combustion type melters and are readily absorbed by wet scrubbing of the melter offgas. The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) process flow sheets show that the resulting chloride rich scrub solution is recycled back to the melter. The chlorides must be purged from the recycle loop to prevent the buildup of excessively high chloride concentrations.

Slaathaug, E.J. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-06-01

258

Determination of cytoplasmic calcium concentration in Dryopteris spores: a developmentally non-disruptive technique for loading of the calcium indicator fura-2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Germination of Dryopteris spores is mediated by the physiologically active, far-red-absorbing form of phytochrome, Pfr, and external Ca2+ is necessary for the transduction of the light signal. Because knowledge about the cytoplasmic calcium ion concentration, [Ca2+]i, is of great importance for understanding the role of calcium during signal transduction, this value was measured using fura-2 in fern spores undergoing the normal developmental progression into germination. Fura-2 was loaded into the spores by electroporation, which does not disrupt the normal process of germination. The intensity of the fluorescence emission of the loaded fura-2 was analysed by a microspectrophotometric assay of single spores, and successful loading could be obtained by the application of ten electrical pulses (field strength 7.5 kV cm-1, half-life (time constant) 230 microseconds). Fura-2 was alternately excited by light of wavelengths 355 and 385 nm through an inverted fluorescence microscope, and the emitted fura-2 fluorescence was collected by a silicon-intensified video camera. The cytoplasmic calcium ion concentration was calculated from the ratio of the camera output obtained for both wavelengths and displayed by a pseudo-color technique. Spores responded to changes of the extracellular Ca2+ concentration, and this observation is considered as evidence that fura-2 is loaded into the cytoplasm. The substitution of a low external [Ca2+] (1 mM ethyleneglycol-bis(2-aminoethylether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA)) by 1 mM CaCl2 caused a fast increase of [Ca2+]i from approx. 50 nM to above 500 nM. In contrast, the subsequent substitution of CaCl2 by EGTA decreased [Ca2+]i again below 100 nM within 0.5 h. Furthermore, the application of ionomycin could initiate a change in [Ca2+]i according to the Ca2+ gradient established between the extracellular medium and cytoplasm. In spores sown on a Ca(2+) -free medium, [Ca2+]i, analysed in a buffer containing EGTA, was found to be around 50 nM during the first days of cultivation, independent of the irradiation protocol. However, if spores were grown in darkness on a Ca(2+) -containing medium and analysed in EGTA, [Ca2+]i was significantly higher (> or = 500 nM). In red-light-irradiated spores, [Ca2+]i was found to decrease with increasing time after irradiation, and was determined to be less than 100 nM when analysis was done 44 h after germination was initiated by the light treatment.

Scheuerlein, R.; Schmidt, K.; Poenie, M.; Roux, S. J.

1991-01-01

259

Characterization of condensed phase species produced during the thermal treatment of metal chlorides on a graphite platform using surface analysis techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The identification and distribution of condensed phase species produced on a graphite platform at temperatures between 200 and 2000 °C was studied using data obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive (ED) X-ray spectrometry and Raman microanalysis. The first general conclusion is that there is no unique path in the thermal transformation of the metal chlorides tested, even for a particular metal chloride. Sodium, potassium and calcium chlorides showed similar vaporization characteristics, evolving mainly as monochlorides, while magnesium, beryllium and aluminium mainly vaporized as free atoms, following transformation caused by hydrolysis. The replacement of chlorine atoms by oxygen occurred at lower temperatures for beryllium and aluminium chlorides than for magnesium chloride. There were some particular areas on the platform surface where other mechanisms, such as hydrolysis of calcium chloride and dissociation of sodium chloride in the condensed phase, seemed occasionally to occur to a minor extent.

Castro, M. A.; Faulds, K.; Smith, W. E.; Aller, A. J.; Littlejohn, D.

2004-12-01

260

Chloride chemical form in various types of fly ash  

SciTech Connect

Chloride content is a critical problem for the reuse of fly ash as a raw material in cement, and the method used by recyclers to reduce the fly ash chloride content depends on the chemical form of the chlorides. However, limited information is available on the quantitative distribution of chlorides and the identity of some chlorides such as Friedel's salt. We examined chloride forms and percentages using X-ray absorption near edge structure and X-ray diffraction analyses, as well as corresponding washing experiments. Approximately 15% of the chlorine in raw fly ash was estimated to be in the form of NaCl, 10% in KCl, 50% in CaCl{sub 2}, and the remainder in the form of Friedel's salt. Fly ash collected in a bag filter with the injection of calcium hydroxide for acid gas removal (CaFA) contained 35% chlorine as NaCl, 11% as KCl, 37% as CaCl{sub 2}, 13% as Friedel's salt, and the remaining 4% as CaClOH. In fly ash collected in a bag filter with the injection of sodium bicarbonate for acid gas removal (NaFA), approximately 79% of chlorine was in NaCl, 12% was in KCl, and 9% was in Friedel's salt. 25 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

Fenfen Zhu; Masaki Takaoka; Kenji Shiota; Kazuyuki Oshita; Yoshinori Kitajima [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering

2008-06-01

261

Blockade of swelling-induced chloride channels by phenol derivatives.  

PubMed Central

1. In NIH3T3 fibroblasts, the chloride channel involved in regulatory volume decrease (RVD) was identified as ICln, a protein isolated from a cDNA library derived from Madin Darby canine Kidney (MDCK) cells. ICln expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes gives rise to an outwardly rectifying chloride current, sensitive to the extracellular addition of nucleotides and the known chloride channel blockers, DIDS (4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid) and NPPB (5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoic acid). We set out to study whether substances structurally similar to NPPB are able to interfere with RVD. 2. RVD in NIH3T3 fibroblasts and MDCK cells is temperature-dependent. 3. RVD, the swelling-dependent chloride current and the depolarization seen after reducing extracellular osmolarity can be blocked by gossypol and NDGA (nordihydroguaiaretic acid), both structurally related to NPPB. 4. The cyclic AMP-dependent chloride current elicited in CaCo cells is less sensitive to the two substances tested while the calcium-activated chloride current in fibroblasts is insensitive. 5. The binding site for the two phenol derivatives onto ICln seems to be distinct but closely related to the nucleotide binding site identified as G x G x G, a glycine repeat located at the predicted outer mouth of the ICln channel protein. PMID:8733574

Gschwentner, M.; Jungwirth, A.; Hofer, S.; Wöll, E.; Ritter, M.; Susanna, A.; Schmarda, A.; Reibnegger, G.; Pinggera, G. M.; Leitinger, M.; Frick, J.; Deetjen, P.; Paulmichl, M.

1996-01-01

262

Calcium Causes a Conformational Change in Lamin A Tail Domain that Promotes Farnesyl-Mediated Membrane Association  

PubMed Central

Lamin proteins contribute to nuclear structure and function, primarily at the inner nuclear membrane. The posttranslational processing pathway of lamin A includes farnesylation of the C-terminus, likely to increase membrane association, and subsequent proteolytic cleavage of the C-terminus. Hutchinson Gilford progeria syndrome is a premature aging disorder wherein a mutant version of lamin A, ?50 lamin A, retains its farnesylation. We report here that membrane association of farnesylated ?50 lamin A tail domains requires calcium. Experimental evidence and molecular dynamics simulations collectively suggest that the farnesyl group is sequestered within a hydrophobic region in the tail domain in the absence of calcium. Calcium binds to the tail domain with an affinity KD ? 250 ?M where it alters the structure of the Ig-fold and increases the solvent accessibility of the C-terminus. In 2 mM CaCl2, the affinity of the farnesylated protein to a synthetic membrane is KD ? 2 ?M, as measured with surface plasmon resonance, but showed a combination of aggregation and binding. Membrane binding in the absence of calcium could not be detected. We suggest that a conformational change induced in ?50 lamin A with divalent cations plays a regulatory role in the posttranslational processing of lamin A, which may be important in disease pathogenesis. PMID:23708364

Kalinowski, Agnieszka; Qin, Zhao; Coffey, Kelli; Kodali, Ravi; Buehler, Markus J.; Lösche, Mathias; Dahl, Kris Noel

2013-01-01

263

Calcium and Vitamin D  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Calcium is required for the bone formation phase of bone remodeling. Typically about 5 nmol (200 mg) of calcium is removed from the adult skeleton and replaced each day. To supply this amount, one would need to consume about 600 mg of calcium, since calcium is not very efficiently absorbed. Calcium ...

264

Molecular Structure of Thionyl chloride  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Thionyl chloride is a slightly yellowish liquid with an intense odor and low viscosity. It reacts with lithium to produce lithium chloride and is a good solvent for most organic compounds. Other uses of thionyl chloride include as an intermediate for the production of pharmaceutically active ingredients, as an electrolyte in lithium batteries, and in crop protection.

2002-10-01

265

Chloride Channels of Intracellular Membranes  

PubMed Central

Proteins implicated as intracellular chloride channels include the intracellular ClC proteins, the bestrophins, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, the CLICs, and the recently described Golgi pH regulator. This paper examines current hypotheses regarding roles of intracellular chloride channels and reviews the evidence supporting a role in intracellular chloride transport for each of these proteins. PMID:20100480

Edwards, John C.; Kahl, Christina R.

2010-01-01

266

Sodium Chloride (Catheter Flush) Injection  

MedlinePLUS

... use a sodium chloride flush several times a day. Your health care provider will determine the number of sodium chloride flushes you will need a day. ... health care provider probably will give you several days supply of sodium chloride. You will be told ...

267

Improvement of the chloride ingress resistance of OPC mortars by using spent cracking catalyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of the incorporation of spent cracking catalyst (FC3R) on the chloride ingress resistance has been evaluated. Thermogravimetric analyses have shown that the pozzolanic reaction of FC3R yields higher contents of hydrated calcium aluminates and silicoaluminates, so chloride binding capacity of mortars was highly improved. Mercury intrusion porosimetry analyses demonstrated that FC3R produces a significant reduction of capillary pore

E. Zornoza; P. Garcés; J. Payá; M. A. Climent

2009-01-01

268

Calcium Collage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (on pages 11-14 of PDF), learners cut out pictures from magazines of foods that help make bones strong and glue the pictures to a paper bone. The lesson plan includes information about various activities - including physical exercise as well as diet - that lead to healthy bones. It also includes a list of foods that provide calcium to strengthen bones, including dairy products, spinach, and tofu. The paper bones can be cut out of construction paper prior to the activity.

2012-06-26

269

Calcium source (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Getting enough calcium to keep bones from thinning throughout a person's life may be made more difficult if that person has ... as a tendency toward kidney stones, for avoiding calcium-rich food sources. Calcium deficiency also effects the ...

270

Get Enough Calcium  

MedlinePLUS

... Physical Activity > Nutrition > Get Enough Calcium Get Enough Calcium The Basics Take Action! Ver en español Content ... January 06, 2015 The Basics Your body needs calcium to build strong bones when you are young ...

271

Coronary Calcium Scan  

MedlinePLUS

... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Coronary Calcium Scan? A coronary calcium scan is a test ... you have calcifications in your coronary arteries. Coronary Calcium Scan Figure A shows the position of the ...

272

Electrochemical studies of calcium chloride-based molten salt systems  

SciTech Connect

Conductance and EMF studies of CaCl{sub 2}-based melts were performed in the temperature range 790--990 C. Conductivity data collected using magnesia tubes and capillaries showed deviations from the data recommended by the National Bureau of Standards. These deviations are attributed to the slow dissolution of magnesia by the CaCl{sub 2}-CaO melt. Conductivity data for molten CaCl{sub 2} using a pyrolytic boron nitride capillary were in reasonable agreement with the recommended data; however, undissolved CaO in CaCl{sub 2} may have caused blockage of the pyrolytic boron nitride capillary, resulting in fluctuations in the measured resistance. The utility of the AgCl/Ag reference electrode in CaCl{sub 2}-AgCl and CaCl{sub 2}-CaO-AgCl melts, using asbestos diaphragms and Vycor glass as reference half-cell membranes, was also investigated. Nernstian behavior was observed using both types of reference half-cell membranes in CaCl{sub 2}-AgCl melts. The AgCl/Ag reference electrode also exhibited Nernstian behavior in CaCl{sub 2}-CaO-AgCl melts using a Vycor reference half-cell membrane and a magnesia crucible. The use of CaCl{sub 2} as a solvent is of interest since it is used in plutonium metal purification, as well as various other commercial applications. 97 refs., 33 figs., 13 tabs.

Blanchard, T.P. Jr.

1992-12-01

273

Recovery of soluble chloride salts from the wastewater generated during the washing process of municipal solid wastes incineration fly ash.  

PubMed

Water washing is widely used as the pretreatment method to treat municipal solid waste incineration fly ash, which facilitates the further solidification/stabilization treatment or resource recovery of the fly ash. The wastewater generated during the washing process is a kind of hydrosaline solution, usually containing high concentrations of alkali chlorides and sulphates, which cause serious pollution to environment. However, these salts can be recycled as resources instead of discharge. This paper explored an effective and practical recovery method to separate sodium chloride, potassium chloride, and calcium chloride salts individually from the hydrosaline water. In laboratory experiments, a simulating hydrosaline solution was prepared according to composition of the waste washing water. First, in the three-step evaporation-crystallization process, pure sodium chloride and solid mixture of sodium and potassium chlorides were obtained separately, and the remaining solution contained potassium and calcium chlorides (solution A). And then, the solid mixture was fully dissolved into water (solution B obtained). Finally, ethanol was added into solutions A and B to change the solubility of sodium, potassium, and calcium chlorides within the mixed solvent of water and ethanol. During the ethanol-adding precipitation process, each salt was separated individually, and the purity of the raw production in laboratory experiments reached about 90%. The ethanol can be recycled by distillation and reused as the solvent. Therefore, this technology may bring both environmental and economic benefits. PMID:25176491

Tang, Hailong; Erzat, Aris; Liu, Yangsheng

2014-01-01

274

Calcium carbonate overdose  

MedlinePLUS

Calcium carbonate is an ingredient that is commonly found in antacids (for heartburn) and some dietary supplements. Calcium carbonate overdose occurs when someone accidentally or intentionally takes ...

275

The Involvement of the Mid1/Cch1/Yvc1 Calcium Channels in Aspergillus fumigatus Virulence  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus fumigatus is a major opportunistic pathogen and allergen of mammals. Calcium homeostasis and signaling is essential for numerous biological processes and also influences A. fumigatus pathogenicity. The presented study characterized the function of the A. fumigatus homologues of three Saccharomyces cerevisiae calcium channels, voltage-gated Cch1, stretch-activated Mid1 and vacuolar Yvc1. The A. fumigatus calcium channels cchA, midA and yvcA were regulated at transcriptional level by increased calcium levels. The YvcA::GFP fusion protein localized to the vacuoles. Both ?cchA and ?midA mutant strains showed reduced radial growth rate in nutrient-poor minimal media. Interestingly, this growth defect in the ?cchA strain was rescued by the exogenous addition of CaCl2. The ?cchA, ?midA, and ?cchA ?midA strains were also sensitive to the oxidative stress inducer, paraquat. Restriction of external Ca2+ through the addition of the Ca2+-chelator EGTA impacted upon the growth of the ?cchA and ?midA strains. All the A. fumigatus ?cchA, ?midA, and ?yvcA strains demonstrated attenuated virulence in a neutropenic murine model of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Infection with the parental strain resulted in a 100% mortality rate at 15 days post-infection, while the mortality rate of the ?cchA, ?midA, and ?yvcA strains after 15 days post-infection was only 25%. Collectively, this investigation strongly indicates that CchA, MidA, and YvcA play a role in A. fumigatus calcium homeostasis and virulence. PMID:25083783

de Castro, Patrícia Alves; Chiaratto, Jéssica; Winkelströter, Lizziane K.; Bom, Vinícius Leite Pedro; Ramalho, Leandra Naira Zambelli; Goldman, Maria Helena S.; Brown, Neil Andrew; Goldman, Gustavo H.

2014-01-01

276

Chloride and Salinity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning activity from the Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) will provide a good introduction for students studying chloride and salinity. A list of required materials is included as well as the step by step procedure for conducting the experiment. Student worksheets are also included. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

2011-07-15

277

Effects of Increasing Potassium Chloride and Calcium Chloride Ionic Strength on Pesticide Sorption by Potassium- and Calcium-smectite  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Smectite clays have demonstrated high affinity for many pesticides in aqueous solution, which is influenced by the intrinsic natures of smectite clays (e.g., surface charge density and location), exchangeable cations, and clay interlayer hydration status. The amount and the type of salts present in ...

278

17O NMR and Raman spectra of water with different calcium salts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

17O NMR and Raman spectra of water with different calcium salts have been measured. Different water samples were prepared by adding nano-materials, calcium gluconate, calcium citrate and calcium chloride into distilled water. Both 17O NMR and Raman spectra of different water samples were recorded. The effects of temperature and time on 17O NMR line-width of different water samples were analyzed as well. The experimental results showed that Raman spectra of water with these four calcium salts were almost the same as those for distilled water when the temperature increased to 40 °C. The 17O NMR line-width of distilled water decreased from 76.8 Hz to 46.9 Hz and 65.8 Hz after nano-materials and calcium chloride were added, respectively. Besides, the 17O NMR line-width of distilled water increased from 76.8 Hz to 131.6 Hz after calcium citrate was added, while the 17O NMR line-width of distilled water increased from 76.8 Hz to 77.2 Hz after calcium gluconate was added. The 17O NMR line-width of water with calcium chloride increased while the other three water samples were nearly stable as the temperature increased from 30 °C to 85 °C. The 17O NMR line-width of water with nano-materials kept steady while the 17O NMR line-width of the other three water samples all increased in 42 days.

Yan, Ying; Ou, Xiao-xia; Zhang, Hui-ping

2014-09-01

279

Strength, porosity, and chloride resistance of mortar using the combination of two kinds of pozzolanic materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article presents a study on the resistance to chloride penetration, corrosion, porosity, and strength of mortar containing fine fly ash (FA), ground rice husk-bark ash (RB), and ground bagasse ash (BA). Ordinary Portland cement (CT) was blended with a single pozzolan and two pozzolans. Strength, porosity, rapid chloride penetration, immersion, and corrosion tests were performed to characterize the mortar. Test results showed that the use of ternary blends of CT, FA, and RB or BA decreased the porosity of the mortar, as compared with binary blended mortar containing CT and RB or BA. The resistance to chloride penetration of the mortar improved substantially with partial replacement of CT with FA, RB, and BA. The use of ternary blends of CT, FA and RB or BA produced the mortar with good strength and resistance to chloride penetration. The resistance to chloride penetration was higher with an increase in the replacement level due to the reduced calcium hydroxide.

Rukzon, Sumrerng; Chindaprasirt, Prinya

2013-08-01

280

Poly (vinylsulfonic acid) assisted synthesis of aqueous solution stable vaterite calcium carbonate nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Calcium carbonate nanoparticles of the vaterite polymorph were synthesized by combining CaCl2 and Na2CO3 in the presence of poly (vinylsulfonic acid) (PVSA). By studying the important experimental parameters we found that controlling PVSA concentration, reaction temperature, and order of reagent addition the particle size, monodispersity, and surface charge can be controlled. By increasing PVSA concentration or by decreasing temperature CCNPs with an average size from ?150 to 500 nm could be produced. We believe the incorporation of PVSA into the reaction plays a dual role to (1) slow down the nucleation rate by sequestering calcium and to (2) stabilize the resulting CCNPs as the vaterite polymorph, preventing surface calcification or aggregation into microparticles. The obtained vaterite nanoparticles were found to maintain their crystal structure and surface charge after storage in aqueous buffer for at least 5 months. The aqueous stable vaterite nanoparticles could be a useful platform for the encapsulation of a large variety of biomolecules for drug delivery or as a sacrificial template toward capsule formation for biosensor applications. PMID:24461857

Nagaraja, Ashvin T; Pradhan, Sulolit; McShane, Michael J

2014-03-15

281

Dysbalance of Astrocyte Calcium under Hyperammonemic Conditions  

PubMed Central

Increased brain ammonium (NH4+/NH3) plays a central role in the manifestation of hepatic encephalopathy (HE), a complex syndrome associated with neurological and psychiatric alterations, which is primarily a disorder of astrocytes. Here, we analysed the influence of NH4+/NH3 on the calcium concentration of astrocytes in situ and studied the underlying mechanisms of NH4+/NH3-evoked calcium changes, employing fluorescence imaging with Fura-2 in acute tissue slices derived from different regions of the mouse brain. In the hippocampal stratum radiatum, perfusion with 5 mM NH4+/NH3 for 30 minutes caused a transient calcium increase in about 40% of astrocytes lasting about 10 minutes. Furthermore, the vast majority of astrocytes (?90%) experienced a persistent calcium increase by ?50 nM. This persistent increase was already evoked at concentrations of 1–2 mM NH4+/NH3, developed within 10–20 minutes and was maintained as long as the NH4+/NH3 was present. Qualitatively similar changes were observed in astrocytes of different neocortical regions as well as in cerebellar Bergmann glia. Inhibition of glutamine synthetase resulted in significantly larger calcium increases in response to NH4+/NH3, indicating that glutamine accumulation was not a primary cause. Calcium increases were not mimicked by changes in intracellular pH. Pharmacological inhibition of voltage-gated sodium channels, sodium-potassium-chloride-cotransporters (NKCC), the reverse mode of sodium/calcium exchange (NCX), AMPA- or mGluR5-receptors did not dampen NH4+/NH3-induced calcium increases. They were, however, significantly reduced by inhibition of NMDA receptors and depletion of intracellular calcium stores. Taken together, our measurements show that sustained exposure to NH4+/NH3 causes a sustained increase in intracellular calcium in astrocytes in situ, which is partly dependent on NMDA receptor activation and on release of calcium from intracellular stores. Our study furthermore suggests that dysbalance of astrocyte calcium homeostasis under hyperammonemic conditions is a widespread phenomenon, which might contribute to the disturbance of neurotransmission during HE. PMID:25153709

Haack, Nicole; Dublin, Pavel; Rose, Christine R.

2014-01-01

282

Modeling acid-gas generation from boiling chloride brines  

SciTech Connect

This study investigates the generation of HCl and other acid gases from boiling calcium chloride dominated waters at atmospheric pressure, primarily using numerical modeling. The main focus of this investigation relates to the long-term geologic disposal of nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, where pore waters around waste-emplacement tunnels are expected to undergo boiling and evaporative concentration as a result of the heat released by spent nuclear fuel. Processes that are modeled include boiling of highly concentrated solutions, gas transport, and gas condensation accompanied by the dissociation of acid gases, causing low-pH condensate. Simple calculations are first carried out to evaluate condensate pH as a function of HCl gas fugacity and condensed water fraction for a vapor equilibrated with saturated calcium chloride brine at 50-150 C and 1 bar. The distillation of a calcium-chloride-dominated brine is then simulated with a reactive transport model using a brine composition representative of partially evaporated calcium-rich pore waters at Yucca Mountain. Results show a significant increase in boiling temperature from evaporative concentration, as well as low pH in condensates, particularly for dynamic systems where partial condensation takes place, which result in enrichment of HCl in condensates. These results are in qualitative agreement with experimental data from other studies. The combination of reactive transport with multicomponent brine chemistry to study evaporation, boiling, and the potential for acid gas generation at the proposed Yucca Mountain repository is seen as an improvement relative to previously applied simpler batch evaporation models. This approach allows the evaluation of thermal, hydrological, and chemical (THC) processes in a coupled manner, and modeling of settings much more relevant to actual field conditions than the distillation experiment considered. The actual and modeled distillation experiments do not represent expected conditions in an emplacement drift, but nevertheless illustrate the potential for acid-gas generation at moderate temperatures (<150 C).

Zhang, Guoxiang; Spycher, Nicolas; Sonnenthal, Eric; Steefel, Carl

2009-11-16

283

Update on Calcium Signaling Calcium Signaling through Protein Kinases. The  

E-print Network

Update on Calcium Signaling Calcium Signaling through Protein Kinases. The Arabidopsis Calcium protein kinase activities occur through calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs). These novel calcium provides a valuable opportunity to understand the plant calcium-signaling network. Calcium is a ubiquitous

Sheen, Jen

284

Solubilities of uranium (IV) dioxide in magnesium chloride, calcium chloride, and aluminum chloride melts: A comparative study  

SciTech Connect

High-temperature near IR absorption spectroscopy was used to study the dissolution of UO{sub 2} in molten MgCl{sub 2}, CaCl{sub 2}, and AlCl{sub 3} melts. The study reveals that UO{sub 2} is most soluble in molten AlCl{sub 3}, followed by the melt of MgCl{sub 2}. The solubility of UO{sub 2} in molten CaCl{sub 2} is too small to be measured with optical spectorscopy. This strong dependence of the solubility on the cations of the melts was rationalized by the use of the Flood- Forland-Grjotheim thermodynamic cycle. 18 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Dai, S.; Toth, L.M.; Del Cul, G.D.; Metcalf, D.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1996-01-04

285

Marine macroalga Sargassum horneri as biosorbent for heavy metal removal: roles of calcium in ion exchange mechanism.  

PubMed

Brown seaweed Sargassum horneri, a troublesome biomass scattered along the seashore, was utilized as a biosorbent for Pb(II) removal from aqueous solutions. The Pb(II) adsorption by brown seaweed was enhanced by pretreatment with CaCl(2), and the Langmuir adsorption isotherm equation showed a maximum capacity of a Q(max) of 0.696 mmol/g and a b value of 94.33 L/mmol. Results obtained from the mass-balance equation derived from the simulation model of the Langmuir adsorption isotherm suggested that the adsorption performance of brown seaweed biosorbent was sufficient to reduce the concentration of Pb(II) to meet the range of WHO guideline. The mechanism, as elucidated using pH monitoring, adsorption rate and ion exchange model, involved the rapid pH change of metal solutions that led to high reaction rate and Pb(II) uptake in the first 30 min of the biosorption process. The energy X-ray analysis's result confirmed the sharp reduction of calcium content in the biosorbent after Pb(II) adsorption. The amount of calcium ions released from the biosorbent was about 1.5 times the amount of Pb(II) adsorbed and proved the role of calcium in the ion exchange mechanism. These adsorption equilibrium and mechanistic studies provide useful information for system design and performance prediction of biosorption processes. PMID:18725741

Southichak, B; Nakano, K; Nomura, M; Chiba, N; Nishimura, O

2008-01-01

286

Measurement of shift in K X-ray peak energies of potassium and calcium in different compounds using EDXRF  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy shifts in K X-ray peaks of potassium and calcium in different chemical compounds have been determined from their X-ray spectra recorded in an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) set-up. The set-up comprises low-power X-ray tube photon source and Si(PIN) detector (AMPTEK model XR-100 CR). A statistical procedure has been followed to determine the shifts and t-test was applied to find the statistical significance of the results. The shifts were determined in potassium compounds; KCl, KBr, KI, K2CO3, K2Cr2O7, K2CrO4, K2SO4, K3Fe(CN)6, K4Fe(CN)6, KHSO4, KMnO4 and KSCN with KNO3 as reference and in calcium compounds; Ca(NO3)2 · 4H2O, Ca(OH)2, CaCl2, CaCO3, CaSO3 and CaSO4 · 2H2O with CaO as reference and correlated with differences in electro-negativity, number of ligands, structural changes, type of bonding, axial distances, etc. in the compounds. The shifts in potassium compounds have been evaluated for the first time while the same for calcium compounds almost agree well with the earlier reported measurements in literature.

Kaur, Kamaldip; Mittal, Raj

2014-12-01

287

Cch1 and Mid1 Are Functionally Required for Vegetative Growth under Low-Calcium Conditions in the Phytopathogenic Ascomycete Botrytis cinerea  

PubMed Central

In the filamentous phytopathogen Botrytis cinerea, the Ca2+/calcineurin signaling cascade has been shown to play an important role in fungal growth, differentiation, and virulence. This study deals with the functional characterization of two components of this pathway, the putative calcium channel proteins Cch1 and Mid1. The cch1 and mid1 genes were deleted, and single and double knockout mutants were analyzed during different stages of the fungal life cycle. Our data indicate that Cch1 and Mid1 are functionally required for vegetative growth under conditions of low extracellular calcium, since the growth of both deletion mutants is strongly impaired when they are exposed to the Ca2+-chelating agents EGTA and 1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N?,N?-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA). The impact of external Ca2+ was investigated by supplementing with CaCl2 and the ionophore A23187, both of which resulted in elevated growth for all mutants. However, deletion of either gene had no impact on germination, sporulation, hyphal morphology, or virulence. By use of the aequorin reporter system to measure intracellular calcium levels, no differences between the mutant strains and the wild type were obtained. Localization studies revealed a subcellular distribution of the Mid1–green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein in network-like filaments, probably the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes, indicating that Mid1 is not a plasma membrane-located calcium channel in B. cinerea. PMID:23475703

Harren, Karin

2013-01-01

288

Chloride removal from ferrous substrates  

SciTech Connect

Chlorides will be summarized with respect to occurrence, electrolytic confinement of chlorides on pitted steel, action at the steel/paint interface, and removal. Processes which will be discussed for removal are (1) blast cleaning, (2) blast cleaning enhanced with electrode reversal and nocturnal humidity, (3) water spray and water jetting procedures.

Johnson, B. [KTA-Tator, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1998-12-31

289

Molecular Structure of Picryl chloride  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Picryl chloride is ranked as one of the 100 most commonly found explosive and shock sensitive materials. It is made by reacting 2,4,6 trinitrophenol with thionyl chloride. This highly reactive compound is known to be hazardous and toxic, and to cause liver injury in mice. It is often used as a sensitization agent in mice when their cells undergo hypersensitivity studies.

2002-09-20

290

75 FR 33824 - Barium Chloride From China  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...No. 731-TA-149 (Third Review)] Barium Chloride From China Determination On the...revocation of the antidumping duty order on barium chloride from China would be likely to...Publication 4157 (June 2010), entitled Barium Chloride from China: Investigation...

2010-06-15

291

75 FR 19657 - Barium Chloride From China  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...No. 731-TA-149 (Third Review)] Barium Chloride From China AGENCY: United States...concerning the antidumping duty order on barium chloride from China...revocation of the antidumping duty order on barium chloride from China would be likely...

2010-04-15

292

Effect of Calcium Sprays on Mechanical Strength and Cell Wall Fractions of Herbaceous Peony (Paeonia Lactiflora Pall.) Inflorescence Stems  

PubMed Central

Calcium is an essential element and imparts significant structural rigidity to the plant cell walls, which provide the main mechanical support to the entire plant. In order to increase the mechanical strength of the inflorescence stems of herbaceous peony, the stems are treated with calcium chloride. The results shows that preharvest sprays with 4% (w/v) calcium chloride three times after bud emergence are the best at strengthening “Da Fugui” peonies’ stems. Calcium sprays increased the concentrations of endogenous calcium, total pectin content as well as cell wall fractions in herbaceous peonies stems, and significantly increased the contents of them in the top segment. Correlation analysis showed that the breaking force of the top segment of peonies’ stems was positively correlated with the ratio of water insoluble pectin to water soluble pectin (R = 0.673) as well as lignin contents (R = 0.926) after calcium applications. PMID:22606005

Li, Chengzhong; Tao, Jun; Zhao, Daqiu; You, Chao; Ge, Jintao

2012-01-01

293

Relative bioavailability of calcium from calcium formate, calcium citrate, and calcium carbonate  

E-print Network

Published Abstract: Calcium is an essential nutrient required in substantial amounts, but many diets are deficient in calcium making supplementation necessary or desirable. The objective of this study was to compare the oral bioavailability...

Hanzlik, Robert P.; Fowler, S. C.; Fisher, D. H.

2005-06-01

294

Calcium antagonist and antiperoxidant properties of some hindered phenols.  

PubMed Central

1. The calcium antagonist and antioxidant activities of certain synthetic and natural phenols, related to BHA (2-t-butyl-4-methoxyphenol), were evaluated in rat ileal longitudinal muscle and in lipid peroxidation models respectively. 2. Compounds with a phenol or a phenol derivative moiety, with the exception of 2,2'-dihydroxy-3,-3'-di-t-butyl-5,5'-dimethoxydiphenyl (di-BHA), inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner the BaCl2-induced contraction of muscle incubated in a Ca(2+)-free medium. Calculated pIC50 (M) values ranged between 3.32 (probucol) and 4.96 [3,5-di-t-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole (di-t-BHA)], with intermediate activity shown by khellin < gossypol < quercetin < 3-t-butylanisole < BHA < nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) < 2,6-di-t-butyl-4-methylphenol (BHT) and papaverine. 3. The Ca2+ channel activator Bay K 8644 overcame the inhibition sustained by nifedipine, BHA and BHT, while only partially reversing that of papaverine. 4. BHA, BHT, nifedipine and papaverine also inhibited in a concentration-dependent fashion CaCl2 contractions of muscle depolarized by a K(+)-rich medium. This inhibition appeared to be inversely affected by the Ca(2+)-concentration used. 5. The inhibitory effects of nifedipine, papaverine, BHA and BHT were no longer present when muscle contraction was elicited in skinned fibres by 5 microM Ca2+ or 500 microM Ba2+, suggesting a plasmalemmal involvement of target sites in spasmolysis. 6. Comparative antioxidant capability was assessed in two peroxyl radical scavenging assay systems. These were based either on the oxidation of linoleic acid initiated by a heat labile azo compound or on lipid peroxidation of rat liver microsomes promoted by Fe2+ ions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7693283

Sgaragli, G. P.; Valoti, M.; Gorelli, B.; Fusi, F.; Palmi, M.; Mantovani, P.

1993-01-01

295

RESEARCH ARTICLE CALCIUM CHANNEL STRUCTURE  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE CALCIUM CHANNEL STRUCTURE Structural basis for a pH-sensitive calcium leak across,3 Wayne A. Hendrickson,1,2,4,5 Qun Liu1,4 * Calcium homeostasis balances passive calcium leak and active calcium uptake. Human Bax inhibitor­1 (hBI-1) is an antiapoptotic protein that mediates a calcium leak

Napp, Nils

296

Ketamine-inhibition of calcium-induced contractions in depolarized rat uterus: a comparison with other calcium antagonists.  

PubMed Central

The inhibitory effect of the intravenous anaesthetic ketamine on CaCl2-induced contractions in the isolated K+-depolarized uterus of the rat in Ca2+-free medium was compared with that produced by papaverine, theophylline and the calcium entry blocker verapamil. Pre-incubation for 20 min with either ketamine (0.3 to 3 mM), papaverine (3 to 30 microM), theophylline (0.1 to 1 mM) or verapamil (3 to 30 nM) induced parallel, concentration-dependent rightward displacements of the dose-response curves to Ca2+ (0.04 to 22 mM). The antagonism was competitive, except that due to verapamil, the Schild plot for which yielded a slope which differed significantly from unity. The calculated pA2 values (+/- s.e.mean) were: ketamine 3.90 +/- 0.07; papaverine 5.55 +/- 0.05; theophylline 3.99 +/- 0.1 and verapamil 9.54 +/- 0.24. These drugs differed in their ability to relax the sustained contraction induced by Ca2+ (1 mM) in K+-depolarizing solution. Ketamine and verapamil relaxed the preparation in a concentration-dependent manner whereas theophylline and especially papaverine were less potent and induced only partial maximal relaxation. The t1/2 of the relaxant effect was significantly less for ketamine than for verapamil (5 and 22 min, respectively). Only ketamine produced a relaxation comparable to that obtained by washing the preparation with Ca2+-free solution (t1/2 = approx. 5 min). Prior exposure of the depolarized uterine strip to a low concentration of Ca2+ (0.22 mM) increased the potency of ketamine, but decreased that of papaverine and theophylline, in antagonizing Ca2+ induced contractions. In contrast, this procedure did not affect the potency of verapamil.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:4027464

Calixto, J. B.; Loch, S.

1985-01-01

297

FTIR studies of some vanadyl ion doped calcium oxychloride borate glasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The borate glass system with composition xCaCl2?(30-x)?CaO?70B2O3+2mol% of V2O5(x = 0,0.02,0.05,0.07,0.10,0.12,0.15,0.20,0.25,0.30) has been prepared with the traditional melt-quenching technique. The FTIR study has been carried out using Perkin Elmer Frontier FTIR with ATR accessory in the mid IR range. The density, molar theoretical optical basicity is calculated so as to determine the structure and covalency in the glass network so formed. The spectra reveal absence of boroxol ring and presence of absorption bands corresponding to the combined contributions of tri and tetra borate stretching vibrations. This confirms the network modifier nature of magnesium chloride. The increasing basicity reveals decrease in the covalence nature of oxygen and octahedral enhancement in the vanadyl ion nature as we replace the CaO content with CaCl2. The increase in molar volume may be due to the increase in openness of the network structure.

Khasa, S.; Dahiya, M. S.; Agarwal, A.

2013-06-01

298

Novel technique for phosphorus recovery from aqueous solutions using amorphous calcium silicate hydrates (A-CSHs).  

PubMed

A novel technique for phosphorus (P) recovery from aqueous solutions was developed using amorphous calcium silicate hydrates (A-CSHs). A-CSHs, which have a high Ca/Si molar ratio of 2.0 or greater, could be synthesized using unlimitedly available, inexpensive materials such as siliceous shale and calcium hydroxide. A-CSHs showed high performance for P recovery from an anaerobic sludge digestion liquor (ASDL) and the synthetic model liquor (s-ASDL) containing 89 mg PO4-P/L. After 20 min mixing, 1.5 g/L A-CSHs could remove approximately 69 and 73% PO4-P from ASDL and s-ASDL, respectively. By contrast, autoclaved lightweight concrete particles, which contained crystalline calcium silicate hydrates as a principal component, removed only 10 and 6% PO4-P from ASDL and s-ASDL, respectively, under the same experimental conditions. When A-CSHs were washed with deionized water to remove free Ca(OH)2, P removability was significantly improved (up to 82%) despite the reduction in the amount of Ca(2+) released. Unlike in the case of Ca(OH)2, no significant carbonate inhibition was observed with P removal by A-CSHs. Moreover, P removed by A-CSHs showed better settleability, filterability, and dewaterability than P precipitated with conventional CaCl2 and Ca(OH)2. The present study demonstrated that A-CSHs have great potential as a novel, beneficial material for P recovery and recycling. PMID:23497975

Okano, Kenji; Uemoto, Masahide; Kagami, Jumpei; Miura, Keiichi; Aketo, Tsuyoshi; Toda, Masaya; Honda, Kohsuke; Ohtake, Hisao

2013-05-01

299

An XAFS study of nickel chloride in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride/ aluminum chloride  

SciTech Connect

Nickel chloride was studied with cyclic voltammetry and X-ray absorption spectroscopy in acidic and basic aluminum chloride/1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride (EMIC) ionic liquids. Acidic melts display metal stripping peaks which are not observed in the basic melt. EXAFS analysis shows that the nickel is tetrahedrally coordinated with chloride ions in the basic solution. In the acidic solution the nickel is coordinated by six chloride ions that are also associated with aluminum ions.

D Roeper; G Cheek; K Pandya; W OGrady

2011-12-31

300

Synthesis, structure, and frequency-doubling effect of calcium cyanurate.  

PubMed

Calcium cyanurate is synthesized by reacting calcium chloride with potassium cyanate following a solid-state reaction. The formation of the new compound Ca3 (O3 C3 N3 )2 (CCY), which occurs by the cyclotrimerization of cyanate ions, was examined thermoanalytically and the crystal structure was determined by single-crystal structure analysis. The structure of CCY is closely related to the structure of the well-known oxoborate ?-BaB2 O4 (BBO). Second harmonic generation (SHG) measurements on crystal powders show a higher SHG efficiency for CCY than for BBO by about one order of magnitude. PMID:25345390

Kalmutzki, Markus; Ströbele, Markus; Wackenhut, Frank; Meixner, Alfred J; Meyer, H-Jürgen

2014-12-15

301

Chloride channel blockade relaxes airway smooth muscle and potentiates relaxation by ?-agonists.  

PubMed

Severe bronchospasm refractory to ?-agonists continues to cause significant morbidity and mortality in asthmatic patients. We questioned whether chloride channels/transporters are novel targets for the relaxation of airway smooth muscle (ASM). We have screened a library of compounds, derivatives of anthranilic and indanyloxyacetic acid, that were originally developed to antagonize chloride channels in the kidney. We hypothesized that members of this library would be novel calcium-activated chloride channel blockers for the airway. The initial screen of this compound library identified 4 of 20 compounds that relaxed a tetraethylammonium chloride-induced contraction in guinea pig tracheal rings. The two most effective compounds, compounds 1 and 13, were further studied for their potential to either prevent the initiation of or relax the maintenance phase of an acetylcholine (ACh)-induced contraction or to potentiate ?-agonist-mediated relaxation. Both relaxed an established ACh-induced contraction in human and guinea pig ex vivo ASM. In contrast, the prevention of an ACh-induced contraction required copretreatment with the sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter blocker bumetanide. The combination of compound 13 and bumetanide also potentiated relaxation by the ?-agonist isoproterenol in guinea pig tracheal rings. Compounds 1 and 13 hyperpolarized the plasma cell membrane of human ASM cells and blocked spontaneous transient inward currents, a measure of chloride currents in these cells. These functional and electrophysiological data suggest that modulating ASM chloride flux is a novel therapeutic target in asthma and other bronchoconstrictive diseases. PMID:24879056

Danielsson, Jennifer; Yim, Peter; Rinderspacher, Alison; Fu, Xiao Wen; Zhang, Yi; Landry, Donald W; Emala, Charles W

2014-08-01

302

Biomimetic Calcium-Silicate Cements Support Differentiation Of Human Orofacial Mesenchymal Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Introduction Human orofacial bone mesenchymal stem cells (OFMSCs) from maxilla and mandible have robust osteogenic regenerative properties based on our previous reports that demonstrate phenotypic and functional differences between jaw and axial bone mesenchymal stem cells in same individuals. Furthermore, a combination of OFMSCs with bioactive calcium-releasing cements can potentially improve OFMSC multi-lineage differentiation capacity, but biocompatibility of calcium silicate cements with OFMSCs is still unclear. We tested the hypothesis that material extracts of calcium-releasing calcium-silicate cements support biomimetic microenvironment for survival and differentiation of human OFMSCs. Methods Two experimental calcium-silicate cements 1) calcium-silicate mineral powder (wTC) containing di- and tricalcium-silicate, calcium sulphate, and calcium chloride and 2) wTC doped with alpha-tricalcium phosphate (wTC-?TCP) were designed and prepared. Cement setting times were assessed by Gilmore needles, ability to release calcium and hydroxyl ions was assessed by potentiometric methods and OFMSC attachment to calcium-silicate discs was assessed. Calcium-silicate material extracts were tested for ability to support OFMSCs survival and in vitro/in vivo differentiation. Results Fewer OFMSCs attached to calcium-silicate discs relative to tissue culture plastic (p=0.001). Extracts of calcium-silicate cements sustained OFMSC survival, maintained steady state levels of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, alkaline phosphatase and bone sialoprotein while upregulating their respective gene transcripts. Adipogenic and in vivo bone regenerative capacities of OFMSCs were also unaffected by calcium-silicate extracts. Conclusions Ion-releasing calcium-silicate cements support a biomimetic microenvironment conducive to survival and differentiation of OFMSCs. Combination of OFMSCs and calcium-silicate cement can potentially promote tissue regeneration in periapical bone defects. PMID:21763902

Gandolfi, Maria Giovanna; Shah, Sara N.; Feng, Ruoxue; Prati, Carlo; Akintoye, Sunday O.

2011-01-01

303

Preparation and characterization of in situ ionic cross-linked pectin films: unique biodegradable polymers.  

PubMed

The study aimed to investigate the swelling and degradation of calcium pectinate (CaP) films that were cross-linked by the innovative approach of adding aqueous calcium chloride (CaCl2) to pre-formed pectin films in situ. The films, cast from low methoxy pectin, were dried and cross-linked by immersion in a selected CaCl2 solution for a selected period. It was found that CaCl2 concentration, immersion time, and temperature affected the films' dissolution and swelling behaviors in simulated intestinal fluid. With lower CaCl2 concentration, more time was needed to form a proper film. Heat accelerated the cross-linking reaction, probably by elevating the cross-linked solution flux into the matrix. Depending upon cross-linking conditions, similar calcium contents in the CaP films resulted in different swelling and degradation behaviors. The degree of pectin esterification (DE) affected the films' degradation rate. The role of pectin molecular weight and DE on the films' mechanical properties was determined by stress/strain analysis. PMID:24507280

Penhasi, Adel; Meidan, Victor M

2014-02-15

304

Contribution of calcium oxalate to soil-exchangeable calcium  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Acid deposition and repeated biomass harvest have decreased soil calcium (Ca) availability in many temperate forests worldwide, yet existing methods for assessing available soil Ca do not fully characterize soil Ca forms. To account for discrepancies in ecosystem Ca budgets, it has been hypothesized that the highly insoluble biomineral Ca oxalate might represent an additional soil Ca pool that is not detected in standard measures of soil-exchangeable Ca. We asked whether several standard method extractants for soil-exchangeable Ca could also access Ca held in Ca oxalate crystals using spike recovery tests in both pure solutions and soil extractions. In solutions of the extractants ammonium chloride, ammonium acetate, and barium chloride, we observed 2% to 104% dissolution of Ca oxalate crystals, with dissolution increasing with both solution molarity and ionic potential of cation extractant. In spike recovery tests using a low-Ca soil, we estimate that 1 M ammonium acetate extraction dissolved sufficient Ca oxalate to contribute an additional 52% to standard measurements of soil-exchangeable Ca. However, in a high-Ca soil, the amount of Ca oxalate spike that would dissolve in 1 M ammonium acetate extraction was difficult to detect against the large pool of exchangeable Ca. We conclude that Ca oxalate can contribute substantially to standard estimates of soil-exchangeable Ca in acid forest soils with low soil-exchangeable Ca. Consequently, measures of exchangeable Ca are unlikely to fully resolve discrepancies in ecosystem Ca mass balance unless the contribution of Ca oxalate to exchangeable Ca is also assessed.

Dauer, Jenny M.; Perakis, Steven S.

2013-01-01

305

Effects of components in culture medium on glutamate decarboxylase activity and ?-aminobutyric acid accumulation in foxtail millet ( Setaria italica L.) during germination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of glutamic acid (Glu), pyridoxal-5-phosphate (PLP) and calcium chloride (CaCl2) in culture medium on glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) activity and ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) accumulation in foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.) during germination were investigated in this study. The components in culture medium for GABA accumulation were optimised using response surface methodology (RSM). Results showed that GAD activity and GABA

Qingyun Bai; Meiqing Chai; Zhenxin Gu; Xiaohong Cao; Yan Li; Kunlun Liu

2009-01-01

306

Improving yield, quality, and shelf life of Thompson seedless grapevine by preharvest foliar applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten-year-old Thompson seedless grape vines were sprayed during 2009 and 2010 growing seasons with putrescine (Put), gibberellic acid (GA3), ascorbic acid (AA), ethephon (Eth), salicylic acid (SA), cytofex (CPPU) and calcium chloride (CaCl2) at two stages of berry development; pea stage (4–5mm fruitlet diameter, ?30–35 days after fruit set) and veraison stage (when approximately 20% of the berries on 50%

H. A. Marzouk; H. A. Kassem

2011-01-01

307

Calcium is incorporated into the calcium carbonate matrix of otoliths  

E-print Network

118 Calcium is incorporated into the calcium carbonate matrix of otoliths and into the calcium). In addition to calcium, trace elements, such as strontium, are also incorporated into the calcified components valence) allow strontium ions to act as replace- ments for calcium during the pro- cess of calcification

308

Electro-osmotic techniques for removal of chloride from concrete and for emplacement of concrete sealants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chloride ion from bridge deck concrete can be removed by application of a direct current potential between bridge reinforcing steel (-) and a copper screen (+) conductor on the bridge surface. Soaring prices of all types of energy would make removal of all chloride prohibitatively expensive. The importance of verification of all electrical connections prior to the treatment is emphasized by the demonstration of concrete cracking when the steel was made a positive instead of a negative electrode. Data on effectiveness of calcium nitrite corrosion inhibitor added to the concrete overlay placed on electrotreated concrete is not extensive due to accidental damage to the test slabs.

Jayaprakash, G. P.; Bukovatz, J. E.; Ramamurti, K.; Gilliland, W. J.

1982-08-01

309

Role of calcium in sigma-mediated neuroprotection in rat primary cortical neurons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since unique calcium dynamics have been reported for toxic (40–80 M) and non-toxic (5–10 ?M) concentrations of glutamate, we evaluated the effect of neuroprotective sigma ligands on glutamate and potassium chloride (KCI)-stimulated changes in [Ca2+]; using 12–15 day old primary rat neuronal cortical cultures. In approximately 80% of the neurons tested, 80 ?M glutamate caused a sustained calcium flux previously

Kevin L. Klette; Mark A. DeCoster; J. E. Moreton; Frank C. Tortella

1995-01-01

310

Actin assembly in electropermeabilized neutrophils: role of intracellular calcium  

PubMed Central

Assembly of microfilaments involves the conversion of actin from the monomeric (G) to the filamentous (F) form. The exact sequence of events responsible for this conversion is yet to be defined and, in particular, the role of calcium remains unclear. Intact and electropermeabilized human neutrophils were used to assess more directly the role of cytosolic calcium [( Ca2+]i) in actin assembly. Staining with 7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazole-phallacidin and right angle light scattering were used to monitor the formation of F-actin. Though addition of Ca2+ ionophores can be known to induce actin assembly, the following observations suggest that an increased [Ca2+]i is not directly responsible for receptor-induced actin polymerization: (a) intact cells in Ca2(+)-free medium, depleted of internal Ca2+ by addition of ionophore, responded to the formyl peptide fMLP with actin assembly despite the absence of changes in [Ca2+]i, assessed with Indo- 1; (b) fMLP induced a significant increase in F-actin content in permeabilized cells equilibrated with medium containing 0.1 microM free Ca2+, buffered with up to 10 mM EGTA; (c) increasing [Ca2+]i beyond the resting level by direct addition of CaCl2 to permeabilized cells resulted in actin disassembly. Conversely, lowering [Ca2+]i resulted in spontaneous actin assembly. To reconcile these findings with the actin- polymerizing effects of Ca2+ ionophores, we investigated whether A23187 and ionomycin induced actin assembly by a mechanism independent of, or secondary to the increase in [Ca2+]i. We found that the ionophore- induced actin assembly was completely inhibited by the leukotriene B4 (LTB4) antagonist LY-223982, implying that the ionophore effect was secondary to LTB4 formation, possibly by stimulation of phospholipase A2. We conclude that actin assembly is not mediated by an increase in [Ca2+]i, but rather that elevated [Ca2+]i facilitates actin disassembly, an effect possibly mediated by Ca2(+)-sensitive actin filament-severing proteins such as gelsolin. Sequential actin assembly and disassembly may be necessary for functions such as chemotaxis. PMID:2112547

1990-01-01

311

Luminescence Characteristics of Eu-Doped Calcium Magnesium Chlorosilicate Phosphor Particles Prepared by Spray Pyrolysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Europium (Eu)-doped calcium magnesium chlorosilicate [Ca8Mg(SiO4)4Cl2:Eu2+] phosphor particles were prepared by spray pyrolysis and their luminescence characteristics were optimized by changing the Ca precursor type, the Eu2+ content, and the post-treatment temperature. It was found that the ratio of calcium nitrate to calcium chloride, which were used as the source of Ca and Cl, respectively, significantly affects the luminescence intensity and the particle morphology. Photoluminescence intensity was monotonically increased by increasing calcium chloride content with respect to calcium nitrate content in the spray solution due to increases in the crystallinity and phase purity of Ca8Mg(SiO4)4Cl2:Eu2+. Ca8Mg(SiO4)4Cl2:Eu2+ was gradually turned from a spherical shape to a polyhedral shape of micron size as the calcium chloride content was increased in the spray solution. The concentration quenching of Eu2+ was observed at 0.375 mol % Ca. The optimized Ca8Mg(SiO4)4Cl2:Eu2+, which showed a broad emission spectrum from 460 to 550 nm with a peak position at 502 nm, had a high brightness under the excitation by short- and long-wavelength ultraviolet lights and is expected to be successfully applied as a green phosphor for UV light emitting diodes (LEDs).

Kang, Hee Sang; Hong, Seung Kwon; Koo, Hye Young; Ju, Seo Hee; Kang, Yun Chan; Jung, Kyeong Youl; Park, Seung Bin

2006-03-01

312

[The biological aspects of using metal chlorides for controlling dust in mines of the Arctic (a review of the literature)].  

PubMed

The article contains a review of published data on the biologic action of sodium and calcium chlorides on man and animals, and the parameters of this action. These substances have been proposed by some institutions for dusting in transpolar coal mines. PMID:1810828

Loginov, A A

1991-01-01

313

Influence of water hardness and sulfate on the acute toxicity of chloride to sensitive freshwater invertebrates.  

PubMed

Total dissolved solids (TDS) represent the sum of all common ions (e.g., Na, K, Ca, Mg, chloride, sulfate, and bicarbonate) in freshwater. Currently, no federal water quality criteria exist for the protection of aquatic life for TDS, but because the constituents that constitute TDS are variable, the development of aquatic life criteria for specific ions is more practical than development of aquatic life criteria for TDS. Chloride is one such ion for which aquatic life criteria exist; however, the current aquatic life criteria dataset for chloride is more than 20 years old. Therefore, additional toxicity tests were conducted in the current study to confirm the acute toxicity of chloride to several potentially sensitive invertebrates: water flea (Ceriodaphnia dubia), fingernail clams (Sphaerium simile and Musculium transversum), snail (Gyraulus parvus), and worm (Tubifex tubifex), and determine the extent to which hardness and sulfate modify chloride toxicity. The results indicated a significant ameliorating effect of water hardness (calcium and magnesium) on chloride toxicity for all species tested except the snail; for example, the 48-h chloride median lethal concentration (LC50) for C. dubia at 50?mg/L hardness (977?mg Cl(-) /L) was half that at 800?mg/L hardness (1,836?mg Cl(-) /L). Conversely, sulfate over the range of 25 to 600?mg/L exerted a negligible effect on chloride toxicity to C. dubia. Rank order of LC50 values for chloride at a given water hardness was in the order (lowest to highest): S. simile?

Soucek, David J; Linton, Tyler K; Tarr, Christopher D; Dickinson, Amy; Wickramanayake, Nilesh; Delos, Charles G; Cruz, Luis A

2011-04-01

314

Hydrolytic stability of terephthaloyl chloride and isophthaloyl chloride.  

PubMed

The phthaloyl chloride isomers, terephthaloyl chloride (TCl) and isophthaloyl chloride (ICl), are high production volume chemicals used in polymers to impartflame resistance, chemical resistance, and temperature stability and as water scavengers. In these studies, we determined the hydrolytic stability of TCl and ICl and their hydrolysis products in aqueous solutions. Hydrolysis rates for TCl and ICl were initially determined by gas chromatography/flame ionization detection in water buffered at pH 4.0, 7.0, and 9.0 and 0 degrees C for up to 30 min. Subsequent studies determined the products from TCl and ICl hydrolysis. The parent phthaloyl chlorides (TCl and ICl), their intermediate hydrolysis products (designated as the "half-acids"), and their stable hydrolysis products (terephthalic acid (TPA) and isophthalic acid (IPA)) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The half-lives (t(1/2)) of TCl and ICl ranged from an average of 1.2 to 2.2 min and from 2.2 to 4.9 min, respectively, at pH 4-9 and 0 degrees C. The observed first-order rate constants (k(obs)) ranged from an average of 530 to 1100 (x 10(5) s(-1)) for TCl and 240 to 520 (x 10(5) s(-1)) for ICl. Both phthaloyl chlorides formed their respective short-lived intermediates, in which one of the two carboxylic acid chloride functionalities reacts with water to form the carboxylic acid ("half-acid"). Subsequently, the half-acids underwent further hydrolysis so that greater than 90% of the initial phthaloyl chloride hydrolyzed in less than 60 min at 0 degrees C. The hydrolysis products TPA and IPA were hydrolytically stable, undergoing no further transformations after 20 min at pH 7 and 25 degrees C. This work demonstrated that TCl, ICl, and their respective half-acids will not be persistent in aqueous systems for a time sufficient to have a sustained toxicological effect on aquatic organisms (less than 1 h). Performing additional aquatic toxicity studies, biodegradation studies, and potentially mammalian studies on TCl and ICl are unnecessary since the existing information on TPA and IPA with the hydrolysis data presented here is sufficient to address questions on the fate and effects of these two substances in aqueous environments. PMID:17120561

Berti, William R; Wolstenholme, Barry W; Kozlowski, John J; Sobocinski, Raymond L; Freerksen, Robert W

2006-10-15

315

High Blood Calcium (Hypercalcemia)  

MedlinePLUS

... the levels of several hormones. When blood calcium levels are low, your parathyroid glands (four pea-sized glands in your neck) secrete a hormone called parathyroid hormone (Pth). Pth helps your bones ... also important in keeping calcium levels in the normal range. Vitamin D, which is ...

316

Kidney and Calcium Homeostasis  

PubMed Central

Plasma calcium concentration is maintained within a narrow range (8.5-10.5 mg/dL) by the coordinated action of parathyroid hormone (PTH), 1,25(OH)2D3, calcitonin, and ionized calcium (iCa2+) itself. The kidney plays a key role in this process by the fine regulation of calcium excretion. More than 95% of filtered calcium is reabsorbed along the renal tubules. In the proximal tubules, 60% of filtered calcium is reabsorbed by passive mechanisms. In the thick ascending limb, 15% of calcium is reabsorbed by paracellular diffusion through paracellin-1 (claudin-16). The calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) in the basolateral membrane of the thick ascending limb senses the change in iCa2+ and inhibits calcium reabsorption independent to PTH and 1,25(OH)2D3. The fine regulation of calcium excretion occurs in the distal convoluted tubules and connecting tubules despite the fact that only 10-15% of filtered calcium is reabsorbed there. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 5 (TRPV5) and 6 (TRPV6) in the apical membrane act as the main portal of entry, calbindin-D28K delivers Ca2+ in the cytoplasm, and then Na2+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX1) and plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase in the basolateral membrane serve as an exit. In the cortical collecting duct, TRPV6 is expressed, but the role might be negligible. In addition to PTH and 1,25(OH)2D3, acid-base disturbance, diuretics, and estrogen affect on these calcium channels. Recently, klotho and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) are suggested as new players in the calcium metabolism. Klotho is exclusively expressed in the kidney and co-localized with TRPV5, NCX1, and calbindin-D28K. Klotho increases calcium reabsorption through trafficking of TRPV5 to the plasma membrane, and also converts FGF receptor to the specific FGF23 receptor. FGF23:klotho complex bound to FGF receptor inhibits 1?-hydroxylase of vitamin D, and contributes to calcium reabsorption and phosphate excretion in the kidney. PMID:24459525

2008-01-01

317

Calcium ion binding to a soil fulvic acid using a donnan potential model  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Calcium ion binding to a soil fulvic acid (Armadale Bh Horizon) was evaluated over a range of calcium ion concentrations, from pH 3.8 to 7.3, using potentiometric titrations and calcium ion electrode measurements. Fulvic acid concentration was constant (100 milligrams per liter) and calcium ion concentration varied up to 8 X 10-4 moles per liter. Experiments discussed here included: (1) titrations of fulvic acid-calcium ion containing solutions with sodium hydroxide; and (2) titrations of fully neutralized fulvic acid with calcium chloride solutions. Apparent binding constants (expressed as the logarithm of the value, log ??app) vary with solution pH, calcium ion concentration, degree of acid dissociation, and ionic strength (from log ??app = 2.5 to 3.9) and are similar to those reported by others. Fulvic acid charge, and the associated Donnan Potential, influences calcium ion-fulvic acid ion pair formation. A Donnan Potential corrrection term allowed calculation of intrinsic calcium ion-fulvic acid binding constants. Intrinsic binding constants vary from 1.2 to 2.5 (the average value is about log??= 1.6) and are similar to, but somewhat higher than, stability constants for calcium ion-carboxylic acid monodentate complexes. ?? by Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag, Mu??nchen.

Marinsky, J.A.; Mathuthu, A.; Ephraim, J.H.; Reddy, M.M.

1999-01-01

318

Biomimetic remineralization of demineralized enamel with nano-complexes of phosphorylated chitosan and amorphous calcium phosphate.  

PubMed

Remineralization of enamel plays a crucial role in the progression of carious process and the management of early caries lesion. Based on the influence of phosphorylated proteins in biomineralization, the objective of this study was to synthesize nano-complexes of phosphorylated chitosan and amorphous calcium phosphate (Pchi-ACP), and evaluate their ability to remineralize enamel subsurface lesions in vitro. Pchi was synthesized using a previously established chemical method. The biomimetic remineralizing solution containing nano-complexes of Pchi-ACP was prepared by adding CaCl2 and K2HPO4 into Pchi-ACP solution (0.5 % w/v) in sequence. The final concentrations of calcium and phosphate ions were 10 and 6 mM, respectively. The nano-complexes of Pchi-ACP were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED). During testing the enamel lesions were treated with Pchi-ACP and fluoridated remineralizing solutions, respectively. The remineralizing of enamel lesions was examined with field emission electron microscope (FE-SEM) and Micro-CT. ACP was stabilized by Pchi to form nano-complexes that were soluble in water. The size of Pchi-ACP nano-complexes particles was determined to be less than 50 nm. XRD and SAED results confirmed their amorphous phases. FE-SEM and Micro-CT results showed that the remineralizing effect of Pchi-ACP on enamel lesions was similar to that of fluoride. However, the remineralizing rate of Pchi-ACP treatment was significantly higher than that of fluoride treatment (P < 0.05). This study highlighted the potential of nanoparticles functionalized with a natural analogue involved in biomineralization, to remineralize early enamel caries. PMID:25074834

Zhang, Xu; Li, Yanqiu; Sun, Xiaoxi; Kishen, Anil; Deng, Xuliang; Yang, Xiaoping; Wang, Huajun; Cong, Changhong; Wang, Yinghui; Wu, Mingyao

2014-12-01

319

Alternative technique for calcium phosphate coating on titanium alloy implants.  

PubMed

As an alternative technique for calcium phosphate coating on titanium alloys, we propose to functionalize the metal surface with anionic bath containing chlorides of palladium or silver as activators. This new deposition route has several advantages such as controlled conditions, applicability to complex shapes, no adverse effect of heating, and cost effectiveness. A mixture of hydroxyapatite and calcium phosphate hydrate is deposited on the surface of Ti-6Al-4V. Calcium phosphate coating is built faster compared with the one by Simulated Body Fluid. Cell morphology and density are comparable to the control one; and the results prove no toxic compound is released into the medium during the previous seven days of immersion. Moreover, the cell viability is comparable with cells cultivated with the virgin medium. These experimental treatments allowed producing cytocompatible materials potentially applicable to manufacture implantable devices for orthopedic and oral surgeries. PMID:24646569

Le, Van Quang; Pourroy, Geneviève; Cochis, Andrea; Rimondini, Lia; Abdel-Fattah, Wafa I; Mohammed, Hadeer I; Carradò, Adele

2014-01-01

320

Urinary calcium excretion in familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia. Persistence of relative hypocalciuria after induction of hypoparathyroidism  

PubMed Central

Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH) is an autosomal dominant trait comprising hypercalcemia, hypophosphatemia, parathyroid hyperplasia, and unusually low renal clearance of calcium. We evaluated the role of parathyroid hormone in the relative hypocalciuria of FHH and characterized the renal transport of calcium in this disorder using three previously hypercalcemic FHH patients with surgical hypoparathyroidism and three controls with surgical hypoparathyroidism. Intravenous infusion of calcium chloride in two patients with FHH and in three controls increased serum calcium from a mean basal of 5.0 to a mean peak of 6.8 meq/liter in two FHH patients and from 4.2 to 5.7 in three control subjects. Urinary calcium in a third FHH patient was studied without calcium infusion during recovery from hypercalcemia of vitamin D intoxication. At all serum concentrations of calcium, calcium clearance was lower in FHH than in controls; at base-line serum calcium, the ratio of calcium clearance to inulin clearance (CCa/CIN) in FHH subjects was 32% of that in controls and decreased to 19% during hypercalcemia. Calcium infusion increased the ratio of sodium clearance to inulin clearance in controls from a base line of 0.020 to 0.053 at peak concentrations of calcium in serum, but did not affect this parameter in FHH (0.017 at base-line serum calcium vs. 0.019 at peak). When calcium infusion studies were performed (in two patients with FHH and one control) during administration of acetazolamide, a drug whose principal renal action causes inhibition of proximal transport of solute, CCa/CIN in the patients with FHH was 29 and 7% of that of the control at base-line and peak serum calcium, respectively. In contrast, ethacrynic acid, a diuretic that acts in the ascending limb of the loop of Henle, increased CCa/CIN more in the FHH patients than in the control subject; CCa/CIN was 65% at base-line and 47% at peak serum calcium, compared with that of the control subject. The greater calciuric response to ethacrynic acid than to acetazolamide or calcium infusion alone in FHH indicates that a major renal locus of abnormal calcium transport in this disorder may be the ascending limb of the loop of Henle. Decreased clearance of calcium in patients with FHH and hypoparathyroidism when compared with hypoparathyroid controls indicates that relative hypocalciuria in FHH is not dependent on hyperparathyroidism. Since the parathyroid glands in FHH are not appropriately suppressed by calcium, this implies that FHH represents a disorder of abnormal transport of, and/or response to, extracellular calcium in at least two organs, parathyroid gland and kidney. PMID:6874959

Attie, M. F.; Gill, J. R.; Stock, J. L.; Spiegel, A. M.; Downs, R. W.; Levine, M. A.; Marx, S. J.

1983-01-01

321

Solubility of some alkali and alkaline earth chlorides in water at moderate temperatures  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Solubilities for the binary systems, salt-H2O, of the chlorides of lithium, rubidium, cesium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, and barium from near 0??C to the saturated boiling point are reported. The experimental data and coefficients of an equation for a smoothed curve describing each system are listed in the tables. The data are improvements on those previously reported in the literature, having a precision on the average of ??0.09%.

Clynne, M.A.; Potter, R.W., II

1979-01-01

322

CHEMILUMINESCENT MONITOR FOR VINYL CHLORIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

A monitor for vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) in ambient air was constructed using commercially available components of a gas chromatograph (GC) coupled with a chemiluminescence ozone analyzer slightly modified to make it suitable for use as a GC detector. The specificity for VCM is...

323

MACROMINERALS - SODIUM, POTASSIUM AND CHLORIDE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of minerals in the diet of horses is well recognized by horse owners and equine nutritionists alike. The type and quantity of minerals required are very diverse and essential minerals include the major or macrominerals and the trace or microminerals. This discussion will be restricted to three macrominerals, sodium, potassium, and chloride (Na+, K+, Cl-), that are essen-

L. J. McCutcheon

324

21 CFR 173.255 - Methylene chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...chloride. Methylene chloride may be present in food under the following conditions: (a) In spice oleoresins as a residue from the extraction of spice, at a level not to exceed 30 parts per million; Provided, That, if residues of...

2010-04-01

325

21 CFR 173.255 - Methylene chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...chloride. Methylene chloride may be present in food under the following conditions: (a) In spice oleoresins as a residue from the extraction of spice, at a level not to exceed 30 parts per million; Provided, That, if residues of...

2014-04-01

326

21 CFR 173.255 - Methylene chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...chloride. Methylene chloride may be present in food under the following conditions: (a) In spice oleoresins as a residue from the extraction of spice, at a level not to exceed 30 parts per million; Provided, That, if residues of...

2012-04-01

327

21 CFR 173.255 - Methylene chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...chloride. Methylene chloride may be present in food under the following conditions: (a) In spice oleoresins as a residue from the extraction of spice, at a level not to exceed 30 parts per million; Provided, That, if residues of...

2011-04-01

328

21 CFR 173.255 - Methylene chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...chloride. Methylene chloride may be present in food under the following conditions: (a) In spice oleoresins as a residue from the extraction of spice, at a level not to exceed 30 parts per million; Provided, That, if residues of...

2013-04-01

329

21 CFR 173.400 - Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2-ethyl-hexyl)-hexa-decyl-ammonium chloride. (b...Free Amine Value of Fatty Quaternary Ammonium Chlorides,” 2d...entitled “Colorimetric Determination of Residual Quaternary Ammonium Compounds (Arquad...

2011-04-01

330

21 CFR 173.400 - Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2-ethyl-hexyl)-hexa-decyl-ammonium chloride. (b...Free Amine Value of Fatty Quaternary Ammonium Chlorides,” 2d...entitled “Colorimetric Determination of Residual Quaternary Ammonium Compounds (Arquad...

2010-04-01

331

21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

2012-04-01

332

21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

2011-04-01

333

21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

2011-04-01

334

21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

2010-04-01

335

21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

2010-04-01

336

21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

2012-04-01

337

21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

2013-04-01

338

21 CFR 582.5252 - Choline chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

2011-04-01

339

21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

2014-04-01

340

21 CFR 582.5252 - Choline chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

2012-04-01

341

Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride  

DOEpatents

Compositions and methods are provided that relate to the bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, particularly the bioremediation of vinyl chloride by Dehalococcoides-like organisms. An isolated strain of bacteria, Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS, that metabolizes vinyl chloride is provided; the genetic sequence of the enzyme responsible for vinyl chloride dehalogenation; methods of assessing the capability of endogenous organisms at an environmental site to metabolize vinyl chloride; and a method of using the strains of the invention for bioremediation.

Spormann, Alfred M [Stanford, CA; Muller, Jochen A [Baltimore, MD; Rosner, Bettina M [Berlin, DE; Von Abendroth, Gregory [Mannheim, DE; Meshulam-Simon, Galit [Los Angeles, CA; McCarty, Perry L [Stanford, CA

2014-02-11

342

Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride  

DOEpatents

Compositions and methods are provided that relate to the bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, particularly the bioremediation of vinyl chloride by Dehalococcoides-like organisms. An isolated strain of bacteria, Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS, that metabolizes vinyl chloride is provided; the genetic sequence of the enzyme responsible for vinyl chloride dehalogenation; methods of assessing the capability of endogenous organisms at an environmental site to metabolize vinyl chloride; and a method of using the strains of the invention for bioremediation.

Spormann, Alfred M. (Stanford, CA); Muller, Jochen A. (Baltimore, MD); Rosner, Bettina M. (Berlin, DE); Von Abendroth, Gregory (Nannhein, DE); Meshulam-Simon, Galit (Los Altos, CA); McCarty, Perry L (Stanford, CA)

2011-11-22

343

Interactions of Calcium, pH, Temperature, and Chymosin During Milk Coagulation[1] and [2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Holstein milk samples with good and poor chymosin-coagulation characteristics were coagulated in the Formagraph using different combinations of five levels of chymosin, three pH, and three tempera- tures in the presence and absence of .02% added calcium chloride. AII the main factors significantly altered both coagulation time and curd firmness. Multiple comparisons of mean coagulation times showed that lower concentrations

L. M. Okigbo; G. H. Richardson; R. J. Brown; C. A. Ernstrom

1985-01-01

344

A9C sensitive Cl? - accumulation in A. thaliana root cells during salt stress is controlled by internal and external calcium  

PubMed Central

The involvement of chloride in salt stress symptoms and salt tolerance mechanisms in plants has been less investigated in the past. Therefore, we studied the salt-induced chloride influx in Arabidopsis expressing the GFP-based anion indicator Clomeleon. High salt concentrations induce two phases of chloride influx. The fast kinetic phase is likely caused by membrane depolarization, and is assumed to be mediated by channels. This is followed by a slower "saturation" phase, where chloride is accumulated in the cytoplasm. Both phases of chloride uptake are dependent on the presence of external calcium. In general: with high [Ca2+] less chloride is accumulated in the cytoplasm. Surprisingly, also the internal calcium availability has an impact on chloride transport. A complete block of the second phase of chloride influx is achieved by the anion channel blocker A9C and trivalent cations (La3+, Gd3+, and Al3+). Other channel blockers and diuretics were found to inhibit the process partially. The results suggest that several transporter species are involved here, including electroneutral cation-chloride-cotransporters, and a part of chloride possibly enters the cells through cation channels after salt application. PMID:23603974

Saleh, Livia; Plieth, Christoph

2013-01-01

345

21 CFR 178.3290 - Chromic chloride complexes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-04-01 true Chromic chloride complexes. 178.3290 Section 178.3290 Food...Production Aids § 178.3290 Chromic chloride complexes. Myristo chromic chloride complex and stearato chromic chloride...

2010-04-01

346

Dengue and Calcium  

PubMed Central

Dengue is potentially fatal unless managed appropriately. No specific treatment is available and the mainstay of treatment is fluid management with careful monitoring, organ support, and correction of metabolic derangement. Evidence with regards to the role of calcium homeostasis in dengue is limited. Low blood calcium levels have been demonstrated in dengue infection and hypocalcemia maybe more pronounced in more severe forms. The cause of hypocalcemia is likely to be multifactorial. Calcium has been also implicated in the immuopathogenesis of dengue; however, the precise clinical implications of these interactions are yet not clearly defined. Derangements of calcium homeostasis are likely to be associated with myocardial dysfunction and cardiac arrhythmias observed in dengue as suggested by in vitro studies. Calcium also plays a role in platelet aggregation. Studies evaluating the therapeutic use of calcium in dengue have been underpowered and poorly designed to make any firm recommendations. Further studies are needed to explore the role and usefulness of maintenance of calcium homeostasis in modulating cardiac dysfunction, immunopathogenesis, and platelet abnormalities related to dengue. PMID:25625064

Shivanthan, Mitrakrishnan C; Rajapakse, Senaka

2014-01-01

347

Calcium Signaling and Neurodegeneration  

PubMed Central

Neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Huntington’s disease (HD), and spinocerebellar ataxias (SCA) are very important both for fundamental science and for practical medicine. Despite extensive research into the causes of these diseases, clinical researchers have had very limited progress and, as of now, there is still no cure for any of these diseases. One of the main obstacles in the way of creating treatments for these disorders is the fact that their etiology and pathophysiology still remain unclear. This paper reviews results that support the so–called “calcium hypothesis of neurodegenerative diseases.” The calcium hypothesis states that the atrophic and degenerative processes in the neurons of AD, PD, ALS, HD, and SCA patients are accompanied by alterations in calcium homeostasis. Moreover, the calcium hypothesis states that this deregulation of calcium signaling is one of the early–stage and key processes in the pathogenesis of these diseases. Based on the results we reviewed, we conclude that the calcium channels and other proteins involved in the neuronal calcium signaling system are potential drug targets for AD, PD, ALS, HD, and SCA therapy. PMID:22649630

2010-01-01

348

Chloride flux out of Yellowstone National Park  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Monitoring of the chloride concentration, electrical conductivity, and discharge was carried out for the four major rivers of Yellowstone National Park from September 1982 to January 1984. Chloride flux out of the Park was determined from the measured values of chloride concentration and discharge. The annual chloride flux from the Park was 5.86 ?? 1010 g. Of this amount 45% was from the Madison River drainage basin, 32% from the Yellowstone River basin, 12% from the Snake River basin, and 11% from the Falls River basin. Of the annual chloride flux from the Yellowstone River drainage basin 36% was attributed to the Yellowstone Lake drainage basin. The geothermal contribution to the chloride flux was determined by subtracting the chloride contribution from rock weathering and atmospheric precipitation and is 94% of the total chloride flux. Calculations of the geothermal chloride flux for each river are given and the implications of an additional chloride flux out of the western Park boundary discussed. An anomalous increase in chloride flux out of the Park was observed for several weeks prior to the Mt. Borah earthquake in Central Idaho on October 28, 1983, reaching a peak value shortly thereafter. It is suggested that the rise in flux was a precursor of the earthquake. The information in this paper provides baseline data against which future changes in the hydrothermal systems can be measured. It also provides measurements related to the thermal contributions from the different drainage basins of the Park. ?? 1985.

Norton, D.R.; Friedman, I.

1985-01-01

349

Mitigation of chloride and sulfate based corrosion in reinforced concrete via electrokinetic nanoparticle treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concrete is a porous material which is susceptible to the migration of highly deleterious species such as chlorides and sulfates. Various external sources, including sea salt spray, direct seawater wetting, deicing salts and chlorides can contaminate reinforced concrete. Chlorides diffuse into the capillary pores of concrete and come into contact with the reinforcement. When chloride concentration at the reinforcement exceeds a threshold level it breaks down the passive oxide layer, leading to chloride induced corrosion. The application of electrokinetics using positively charged nanoparticles for corrosion protection in reinforced concrete structures is an emerging technology. This technique involves the principle of electrophoretic migration of nanoparticles to hinder chloride diffusion in the concrete. The return of chlorides is inhibited by the electrodeposited assembly of the nanoparticles at the reinforcement interface. This work examined the nanoparticle treatment impact on chloride and sulfate induced corrosion in concrete. Electrokinetic Nanoparticle (EN) treatments were conducted on reinforced cylindrical concrete, rectangular ASTM G109 specimens that simulate a bridge deck and full scale beam specimens. EN treatment to mitigate external sulfate attack in concrete was performed on cylindrical concrete specimens. Corrosion results indicated lower corrosion potentials and rates as compared to the untreated specimens. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed a dense microstructure within the EN treated specimens. Chemical analysis (Raman spectroscopy, X ray-diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy FTIR) showed the presence of strength enhancing phases such as calcium aluminate hydrate (C-A-H) and increased amounts of calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) within the EN treated specimens. Strength and porosity results showed an increase in strength and a reduction in porosity among the EN treated specimens. EN treatment acted as a protective barrier that formed primarily at the reinforcement surface where it inhibited the ingress of chlorides. When applied to sulfate attack, EN treatment was found to extract sulfate ions. This treatment also reduced porosity and increased concrete strength. The strength increases were limited by the accumulation of spallation damage that was accrued during the sulfate exposure period of the work. This demonstrated that treatment for sulfate attack was best suited to early stages of degradation or as a preventive measure.

Kupwade-Patil, Kunal

350

Stoichiometry of Calcium Medicines  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The topic of calcium supplement and its effects on human lives is presented in the way of questions to the students. It enables the students to realize the relevance of chemistry outside the classroom surrounding.

Pinto, Gabriel

2005-01-01

351

Calcium and Your Child  

MedlinePLUS

... teen years, they can start out their adult lives with the strongest bones possible. For optimal bone health, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommends: 1 to 3 years old — 700 milligrams of calcium daily 4 to 8 ...

352

Accidental benzalkonium chloride (zephiran) injection.  

PubMed

We report a case of an accidental injection of benzalkonium chloride (zephiran) instead of a local anesthetic agent during a tooth extraction. The sudden development of chin and neck swelling led to dyspnea and the patient lost consciousness. She was sent to an emergency clinic by her dentist immediately. After medical treatment for 20 days, the necrotic tissue was debrided and a gingival sulcoplasty was performed. Healing was uneventful. PMID:22014998

Kilic, Erdem; Er, Nilay; Alkan, Alper; Ferahbas, Ayten

2011-12-01

353

Antimicrobial activity of calcium hydroxide and chlorhexidine on intratubular Candida albicans  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the efficacy of calcium hydroxide and chlorhexidine gel for the elimination of intratubular Candida albicans (C. albicans). Human single-rooted teeth contaminated with C. albicans were treated with calcium hydroxide, 2% chlorhexidine gel, calcium hydroxide plus 2% chlorhexidine gel, or saline (0.9% sodium chloride) as a positive control. The samples obtained at depths of 0–100 and 100–200 µm from the root canal system were analyzed for C. albicans load by counting the number of colony forming units and for the percentage of viable C. albicans using fluorescence microscopy. First, the antimicrobial activity of calcium hydroxide and the 2% chlorhexidine gel was evaluated by counting the number of colony forming units. After 14 days of intracanal medication, there was a significant decrease in the number of C. albicans colony forming units at a depth of 0–100 µm with chlorhexidine treatment either with or without calcium hydroxide compared with the calcium hydroxide only treatment. However, there were no differences in the number of colony forming units at the 100–200 µm depth for any of the medications investigated. C. albicans viability was also evaluated by vital staining techniques and fluorescence microscopy analysis. Antifungal activity against C. albicans significantly increased at both depths in the chlorhexidine groups with and without calcium hydroxide compared with the groups treated with calcium hydroxide only. Treatments with only chlorhexidine or chlorhexidine in combination with calcium hydroxide were effective for elimination of C. albicans. PMID:23538639

Jacques Rezende Delgado, Ronan; Helena Gasparoto, Thaís; Renata Sipert, Carla; Ramos Pinheiro, Claudia; Gomes de Moraes, Ivaldo; Brandão Garcia, Roberto; Antônio Hungaro Duarte, Marco; Monteiro Bramante, Clóvis; Aparecido Torres, Sérgio; Pompermaier Garlet, Gustavo; Paula Campanelli, Ana; Bernardineli, Norberti

2013-01-01

354

Rapid Low Temperature-Induced Stomatal Closure Occurs in Cold-Tolerant Commelina communis Leaves But Not in Cold-Sensitive Tobacco Leaves, via a Mechanism That Involves Apoplastic Calcium But Not Abscisic Acid1  

PubMed Central

Commelina communis stomata closed within 1 h of transferring intact plants from 27°C to 7°C, whereas tobacco (Nicotiana rustica) stomata did not until the leaves wilted. Abscisic acid (ABA) did not mediate cold-induced C. communis stomatal closure: At low temperatures, bulk leaf ABA did not increase; ABA did not preferentially accumulate in the epidermis; its flux into detached leaves was lower; its release from isolated epidermis was not greater; and stomata in epidermal strips were less sensitive to exogenous ABA. Stomata of both species in epidermal strips on large volumes of cold KCl failed to close unless calcium was supplied. Therefore, the following cannot be triggers for cold-induced stomatal closure in C. communis: direct effects of temperature on guard or epidermal cells, long-distance signals, and effects of temperature on photosynthesis. Low temperature increased stomatal sensitivity to external CaCl2 by 50% in C. communis but only by 20% in tobacco. C. communis stomata were 300- to 1,000-fold more sensitive to calcium at low temperature than tobacco stomata, but tobacco epidermis only released 13.6-fold more calcium into bathing solutions than C. communis. Stomata in C. communis epidermis incubated on ever-decreasing volumes of cold calcium-free KCl closed on the lowest volume (0.2 cm3) because the epidermal apoplast contained enough calcium to mediate closure if this was not over diluted. We propose that the basis of cold-induced stomatal closure exhibited by intact C. communis leaves is increased apoplastic calcium uptake by guard cells. Such responses do not occur in chill-sensitive tobacco leaves. PMID:11500555

Wilkinson, Sally; Clephan, Alison Lee; Davies, William John

2001-01-01

355

The sealing ability of MTA apical plugs exposed to a phosphate-buffered saline  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of exposure of the mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) - with and without calcium chloride (CaCl2) - to phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) on the apical microleakage using a glucose leakage system. Material and Methods Sixty root segments were randomly divided into 4 experimental groups (n=15). After resecting the apical segments and enlarging the canals with Gates-Glidden drills, the apical cavities were filled with MTA with or without CaCl2 and the root canals were dressed with a moistened cotton pellet or PBS, as follows: 1) MTA/cotton pellet; 2) MTA/PBS; 3) MTA+10%CaCl2/cotton pellet; 4) MTA+10%CaCl2/PBS. All root segments were introduced in floral foams moistened with PBS. After 2 months, all root segments were prepared to evaluate the glucose leakage along the apical plugs. The amount of glucose leakage was measured following an enzymatic reaction and quantified by a spectrophotometer. Four roots were used as controls. The data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests (p<0.05). Results There were no differences between groups 1 and 2 (p>0.05), and 3 and 4 (p>0.05). The addition of CaCl2 to the MTA significantly decreased its sealing ability (p<0.05). Conclusion The interaction with PBS did not improve the MTA sealing ability. The addition of CaCl2 to the MTA negatively influenced the apical seal. PMID:24037073

de ALMEIDA, Josiane; ALVES, Ana Maria Hecke; de MELO, Roberto Ferreira; FELIPPE, Mara Cristina Santos; BORTOLUZZI, Eduardo Antunes; TEIXEIRA, Cleonice da Silveira; FELIPPE, Wilson Tadeu

2013-01-01

356

Measurement of total calcium by flash chronopotentiometry at polymer membrane ion-selective electrodes.  

PubMed

Ionophore-based ion-selective electrodes are widely used for potentiometric electrolyte measurements, in which case they are known to detect the free ion activity. Total ion concentrations cannot be directly assessed by this methodology if the ion is predominantly present in a complexed form. We present here the direct measurement of total calcium using a calcium ion-selective electrode interrogated in a flash chronopotentiometric transduction mode. A high magnitude of cathodic current pulse is applied across a calcium ion-selective membrane containing the ionophore ETH 5234 but void of ion-exchanger to prevent spontaneous extraction. This induces a defined flux of calcium ions from the sample side to the membrane and results in the release of labile bound calcium and a concomitant depletion at the membrane surface at a critical current or time. This is observed as an inflection point on the potential-time curve and the square root of the transition time is linearly related to the total concentration in the sample. It is shown that the responses to solutions of labile calcium complexes of nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) are in a good agreement with that of the same concentration of calcium chloride in saline solution with this protocol. Initial applications are aimed towards assaying extracellular calcium. Calcium binding to albumin is shown to be inconsequential with sample dilutions typical for clinical assays. Calcium calibration curves in real and artificial dilute serum are finally shown to correspond to that of calcium chloride, suggesting that the methodology is indeed capable of detecting total calcium under these conditions. The present membrane materials allow detection of up to over 0.5mM total calcium in serum, currently requiring such samples to be diluted about 5-fold. The slopes of the square root of time-concentration dependence for the calibrations of free calcium in a background of NaCl and total serum calcium were found to be 3.857 and 3.717 s(1/2)mM(-1), respectively, deviating by just 3.6%. The lower detection limit (3x SD) was calculated as 12 microM. PMID:19646590

Gemene, Kebede L; Bakker, Eric

2009-08-26

357

Behaviour of polymer (poly(vinyl chloride)) membrane systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiotracer studies are discussed for alkaline earth metal ion-permeation through poly(vinyl chloride) matrix membranes containing sensors based on organophosphates and on the tetraphenylborates of the complex of barium with a polyethoxylate. There is selective permeation of calcium ions, from among alkaline earth cations, through the phosphate-based membranes, but the polyethoxylate membranes do not permeate ions to any significant extent. The phosphate-based membranes maintain stable current flows over prolonged periods under conditions of applied potential and are not affected by polarity reversals. For example, current flows of 5 - 6 ?A are maintained for 2 V applied potential. Current flows fall rapidly for the polyethoxylate membranes and do not recover on repeated polarity reversal of the applied potential. The possibility of the permeation of metal ions of the first transition series through the phosphate-based membranes is discussed briefly.

Moody, G. J.; Thomas, J. D. R.

358

Regulation of an inwardly rectifying K channel in the T 84 epithelial cell line by calcium, nucleotides and kinases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agonists that elevate calcium in T84 cells stimulate chloride secretion by activating KBIC, an inwardly rectifying K channel in the basolateral membrane. We have studied the regulation of this channel by calcium, nucleotides and phosphorylation using patch clamp and short-circuit current (I\\u000aSC) techniques. Open probability (P\\u000a0) was independent of voltage but declined spontaneously with time after excision. Rundown

J. A. Tabcharani; A. Boucher; J. W. L. Eng; J. W. Hanrahan

1994-01-01

359

Cyclic AMP-stimulated chloride fluxes in dialyzed barnacle muscle fibers  

PubMed Central

Unidirectional chloride efflux and influx were studied in giant barnacle muscle fibers that were internally dialyzed. When cyclic 3'5'- adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) was included in the dialysis fluid, both unidirectional fluxes were stimulated by about the same amount. This stimulation was not associated with measurable changes either in membrane electrical conductance or with net movements of chloride. The stimulation required the trans-side presence of chloride. The stimulated flux was inhibited by the sulfonic acid stilbene derivatives 4-acetamido-4'-isothiocyanostilbene-2',2'-disulfonate (SITS) and 4,4'- diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonate (DIDS) or by furosemide. When cAMP was presented in high concentrations (10-5 M), the effect on chloride fluxes was characterized by a desensitization phenomenon. This desensitization was not the result of an increased amount of phosphodiesterase activity, but may be related to ATP and/or intracellular calcium levels. These results further support the hypothesis that the barnacle sarcolemma possesses a specialized chloride transport mechanism that largely engages in Cl-Cl exchange under conditions of normal intracellular pH. PMID:6273494

1981-01-01

360

Calcium metal to synthesize amorphous or cryptocrystalline calcium phosphates A. Cuneyt Tas  

E-print Network

Calcium metal to synthesize amorphous or cryptocrystalline calcium phosphates A. Cuneyt Tas Accepted 30 January 2012 Available online 10 February 2012 Keywords: Amorphous Cryptocrystalline Calcium Metal Phosphate Synthesis Metallic calcium was never used before as the calcium source in synthesizing

Tas, A. Cuneyt

361

Production of anhydrous aluminum chloride composition  

DOEpatents

A process is described for producing an anhydrous aluminum chloride composition from a water-based aluminous material such as a slurry of aluminum hydroxide in a multistage extraction process in which the aluminum ion is first extracted into an organic liquid containing an acidic extractant and then extracted from the organic phase into an alkali metal chloride or chlorides to form a melt containing a mixture of chlorides of alkali metal and aluminum. In the process, the organic liquid may be recycled. In addition, the process advantageously includes an electrolysis cell for producing metallic aluminum and the alkali metal chloride or chlorides may be recycled for extraction of the aluminum from the organic phase.

Vandergrift, G.F. III; Krumpelt, M.; Horwitz, E.P.

1981-10-08

362

Molecular Structure of Sodium chloride  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sodium chloride, or simply (table) salt, is found in the mineral Halite (rock salt) but also in seawater, sweat, etc. It is used in industry and in our everyday life, for seasoning and perserving food or for winter road maintenance. Seawater contains a lot of salt, on average of 2.6% NaCl, or 26 million metric tons per cubic kilometer. In rock salt the NaCl content typically ranges between 95% and 99% NaCl, and mechanically evaporated salt and solar salt normally exceed 99% NaCl.

2002-08-15

363

Mepivacaine-induced intracellular calcium increase appears to be mediated primarily by calcium influx in rat aorta without endothelium  

PubMed Central

Background Mepivacaine induces contraction or decreased blood flow both in vivo and in vitro. Vasoconstriction is associated with an increase in the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i). However, the mechanism responsible for the mepivacaine-evoked [Ca2+]i increase remains to be determined. Therefore, the objective of this in vitro study was to examine the mechanism responsible for the mepivacaine-evoked [Ca2+]i increment in isolated rat aorta. Methods Isometric tension was measured in isolated rat aorta without endothelium. In addition, fura-2 loaded aortic muscle strips were illuminated alternately (48 Hz) at two excitation wavelengths (340 and 380 nm). The ratio of F340 to F380 (F340/F380) was regarded as an amount of [Ca2+]i. We investigated the effects of nifedipine, 2-aminoethoxydiphenylborate (2-APB), gadolinium chloride hexahydrate (Gd3+), low calcium level and Krebs solution without calcium on the mepivacaine-evoked contraction in isolated rat aorta and on the mepivacaine-evoked [Ca2+]i increment in fura-2 loaded aortic strips. We assessed the effect of verapamil on the mepivacaine-evoked [Ca2+]i increment. Results Mepivacaine produced vasoconstriction and increased [Ca2+]i. Nifedipine, 2-APB and low calcium attenuated vasoconstriction and the [Ca2+]i increase evoked by mepivacaine. Verapamil attenuated the mepivacaine-induced [Ca2+]i increment. Calcium-free solution almost abolished mepivacaine-induced contraction and strongly attenuated the mepivacaineinduced [Ca2+]i increase. Gd3+ had no effect on either vasoconstriction or the [Ca2+]i increment evoked by mepivacaine. Conclusions The mepivacaine-evoked [Ca2+]i increment, which contributes to mepivacaine-evoked contraction, appears to be mediated mainly by calcium influx and partially by calcium released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. PMID:25558341

Ok, Seong-Ho; Kwon, Seong-Chun; Kang, Sebin; Choi, Mun-Jeoung

2014-01-01

364

Metal chloride cathode for a battery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of fabricating a rechargeable battery is disclosed which includes a positive electrode which contains a chloride of a selected metal when the electrode is in its active state. The improvement comprises fabricating the positive electrode by: providing a porous matrix composed of a metal; providing a solution of the chloride of the selected metal; and impregnating the matrix with the chloride from the solution.

Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (inventor); Distefano, Salvador (inventor); Bankston, C. Perry (inventor)

1991-01-01

365

Transformation of E. coli: CaCl2-method PCG Solution  

E-print Network

to pellet cells.) 4. Gently resuspend pellet in 12.5 ml of ice-cold PGC solution. Hold on ice 30 minutes. 5 and 0.2% glucose can be used instead of SOC medium. Preparation of competent cells: 1. Dilute a fresh overnight culture 1/100 into 25 ml SOC medium in 250 ml flask. This will yield enough competent cells for 25

Aris, John P.

366

75 FR 20625 - Barium Chloride From China  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-149 (Third Review)] Barium Chloride From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the subject...

2010-04-20

367

Experimental Pathology Laboratories, Inc. Vinyl Chloride  

E-print Network

Experimental Pathology Laboratories, Inc. Vinyl Chloride AMENDED PATHOLOGY Triangle Park, NC 27709 Submitted by: Experimental Pathology Laboratories, Inc. Street Address: Mailing, 2011 #12; Experimental Pathology Laboratories

Baker, Chris I.

368

Production of chlorine from chloride salts  

DOEpatents

A process for converting chloride salts and sulfuric acid to sulfate salts and elemental chlorine is disclosed. A chloride salt and sulfuric acid are combined in a furnace where they react to produce a sulfate salt and hydrogen chloride. Hydrogen chloride from the furnace contacts a molten salt mixture containing an oxygen compound of vanadium, an alkali metal sulfate and an alkali metal pyrosulfate to recover elemental chlorine. In the absence of an oxygen-bearing gas during the contacting, the vanadium is reduced, but is regenerated to its active higher valence state by separately contacting the molten salt mixture with an oxygen-bearing gas.

Rohrmann, Charles A. (Kennewick, WA)

1981-01-01

369

A new principle applied to the determination of calcium in biological materials by flame photometry.  

PubMed

The effect of magnesium sulphate in releasing calcium emission from interference by phosphate and sulphate has been investigated. Samples were diluted in 10 mM MgSO(4), 2 mM NaCl, giving final calcium concentrations of about 0.05 to 0.10 mM. In this diluent, galvanometer readings were proportional to calcium concentrations up to 0.4 mM. The magnesium sulphate released calcium emission from depression by phosphate and sulphate. The excess sodium chloride eliminated enhancement of calcium emission by added sodium and potassium in the sample. Subtraction of background readings excluded direct interference.A 3% correction was made for the effect of the viscosity of 1: 50 plasma dilutions. Satisfactory recoveries of added calcium were obtained from plasma, urine, and faeces using the diluent described above. Results on urine and faeces correlated closely with those obtained by an EDTA titration method. Results on plasma were consistently 2% higher by flame photometry than by EDTA titration. Other methods of calcium determination, depending on the use of radiation buffers or standard addition, were found to be unsatisfactory because of variable interference by phosphate at different calcium levels. PMID:13891877

FAWCETT, J K; WYNN, V

1961-09-01

370

21 CFR 172.410 - Calcium silicate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 172.410 Section 172.410 Food...HUMAN CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.410 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium...

2011-04-01

371

21 CFR 172.410 - Calcium silicate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 172.410 Section 172.410 Food...HUMAN CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.410 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium...

2013-04-01

372

21 CFR 172.410 - Calcium silicate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 172.410 Section 172.410 Food...HUMAN CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.410 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium...

2014-04-01

373

21 CFR 172.410 - Calcium silicate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 172.410 Section 172.410 Food...HUMAN CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.410 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium...

2012-04-01

374

Nuclear calcium signaling.  

PubMed

Calcium is the major intracellular messenger linking synaptic activity in neurons to gene expression to control diverse functions including adaptive responses to synaptic activity as well as survival and death (Bading et al. 1993; Hardingham et al. 1997; Chawla and Bading 2001; West et al. 2001; Zhang et al. 2007; Flavell and Greenberg 2008; Mellstrom et al. 2008; Redmond 2008; Wayman et al. 2008; Bootman et al. 2009; Zhang et al. 2009; Hardingham and Bading 2010). Calcium entry at the synapse acts locally to activate signaling cascades which regulate posttranslational modifications essential for synaptic plasticity, such as the insertion of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs) into the postsynaptic membrane (Soderling 2000; Malinow and Malenka 2002; Ehrlich and Malinow 2004). Synaptic activity can also evoke calcium signals in the nucleus which regulate gene pools largely through the phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and its coactivator, CREB-binding protein (CBP) (Bading et al. 1993; Hardingham et al. 1997; Hardingham et al. 1999; Hu et al. 1999; Hardingham et al. 2001b; Impey et al. 2002; Zhang et al. 2009). Distinct mechanisms have been proposed to mediate synaptically generated calcium signals in subcompartments of pyramidal neurons; N-methyl-D -aspartate receptors (NMDARs) and ryanodine receptors have been implicated in the spine, inositol 3,4,5 triphosphate (IP3) receptors in the dendrites, and L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) at the soma and nucleus, although both NMDARs and IP3 receptors can also contribute to somatic and nuclear calcium signals under certain stimulation conditions (Nakamura et al. 1999; Bardo et al. 2006; Raymond and Redman 2006; Watanabe et al. 2006; Hong and Ross 2007; Hagenston et al. 2008; Bengtson et al. 2010). We review here the calcium signaling pathways underlying synaptically activated gene transcription leading to long-lasting changes in synaptic efficacy and memory as well as the physiological mechanisms by which synaptic activity evokes nuclear calcium signals. PMID:22351065

Bengtson, C Peter; Bading, Hilmar

2012-01-01

375

Enrofloxacin hydro­chloride dihydrate  

PubMed Central

The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C19H23FN3O3 +·Cl?·2H2O [systematic name: 4-(3-carb­oxy-1-cyclo­propyl-6-fluoro-4-oxo-1,4-di­hydro­quin­o­lin-7-yl)-1-ethyl­piperazin-1-ium chloride dihydrate], consists of two independent monocations of the protonated enrofloxacin, two chloride anions and four water mol­ecules. In the cations, the piperazinium rings adopt chair conformations and the dihedral angles between the cyclo­propyl ring and the 10-membered quinoline ring system are 56.55?(2) and 51.11?(2)°. An intra­molecular O—H?O hydrogen bond is observed in each cation. In the crystal, the components are connected via O—H?Cl, N—H?Cl and O—H?O hydrogen bonds, and a ?–? inter­action between the benzene rings [centroid–centroid distance = 3.6726?(13)?Å], resulting in a three-dimensional array. PMID:24826167

Miranda-Calderón, Jorge E.; Gutiérrez, Lilia; Flores-Alamo, Marcos; García-Gutiérrez, Ponciano; Sumano, Héctor

2014-01-01

376

Calcium carbonate with magnesium overdose  

MedlinePLUS

The combination of calcium carbonate and magnesium is commonly found in antacids, which are medicines that provide heartburn relief. Calcium carbonate with magnesium overdose occurs when someone accidentally or ...

377

Calcium is required for the expression of anthrax lethal toxin activity in the macrophagelike cell line J774A.1.  

PubMed Central

Anthrax lethal toxin, which consists of two separate proteins, protective antigen (Mr, 82,700) and lethal factor (Mr, approximately 83,000), is cytotoxic to the macrophagelike cell line J774A.1. Removal of calcium from the culture medium protected cells against the action of lethal toxin. Calcium depletion during the binding phase of intoxication afforded only partial protection. Further analysis showed that calcium removal caused some inhibition of protective antigen binding but that it had minimal effect on proteolytic conversion of protective antigen to the active 63-kilodalton fragment and that it had no effect on lethal factor binding. Cells to which lethal toxin had bound in the presence of calcium were protected when transferred to calcium-depleted culture medium, indicating a role for calcium at a postbinding stage. When ammonium chloride is present with lethal toxin, toxin accumulates in intracellular vesicles. Calcium-free medium protected these cells upon removal of the amine block, suggesting that calcium is also required at a step after internalization of lethal toxin. Calcium channel blockers inhibited 45Ca2+ uptake and protected cells against cytotoxicity. Calmodulin inhibitors also protected against the action of lethal toxin, suggesting involvement of calmodulin at a step during intoxication. We conclude that calcium is required at several steps in the intoxication of cells by anthrax lethal toxin. PMID:2499545

Bhatnagar, R; Singh, Y; Leppla, S H; Friedlander, A M

1989-01-01

378

Morphological evolution of precipitates during transformation of amorphous calcium phosphate into octacalcium phosphate in relation to role of intermediate phase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nucleation of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) and its phase transformation with a decrease in solution pH were investigated at a constant temperature of 32 °C. A solution containing a mixture of CaCl 2 and KH 2PO 4 was prepared (initial pH=7.7), and a drop was sampled at a constant interval to observe the morphological evolution of the precipitates that formed in the solution. A gel-like solution structure formed immediately after mixing and contained a small amount of sea-urchin-like ACP spherulites (3-20 ?m in size). These spherulites consisted of 1.5-10-?m-long flexible needles that formed simultaneously with numerous ACP spherical particles. They first transformed into ?-tri calcium phosphate-like material (called "pseudo ?-TCP") and then into single crystals of octacalcium phosphate (OCP) without dissolution. The flexible needles in the spherulites changed into blade springs, then into flexible plates, and finally into rigid plates during the transformation. The OCP structure appeared in the pseudo ?-TCP plates and gradually substituted for the ?-TCP structure over time. The macroscopic spherulite morphology of the initial ACP remained unchanged during the phase transformation, suggesting that OCP is a pseudomorph of ACP. This feature was observed only when the ACP spherulites formed in the initial solution. Fiber-like aggregates consisting of ?-TCP single crystals nucleated around the ACP spherical particles and grew over time. They survived until the final stage of the reaction, and OCP polycrystals formed in the mixture of ?-TCP and ACP spheres. The OCP polycrystals gradually substituted for the ACP spheres without phase transformation of ?-TCP into OCP.

Sugiura, Yuki; Onuma, Kazuo; Kimura, Yuki; Miura, Hitoshi; Tsukamoto, Katsuo

2011-10-01

379

Synthesis of sodium caseinate-calcium carbonate microspheres and their mineralization to bone-like apatite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosphoproteins can induce and stabilize calcium carbonate (CaCO3) vaterite, which has desirable features for high reactivity. The purpose of this study was to synthesize bioactive CaCO3 microspheres for bone regeneration. Sodium caseinate (NaCas)-containing CaCO3 microspheres, with the crystal phase of vaterite, were synthesized by fast precipitation in an aqueous solution of CaCl2, Na2CO3, and 2 mg/mL of NaCas. The uniform microspheres exhibited rougher surfaces and lower negative charges than CaCO3 particles without NaCas addition. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) of the microspheres showed characteristic peaks or bands corresponding to phosphate and hydroxyl groups. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) curves exhibited approximately 5% weight loss below 600 °C due to the decomposition of NaCas. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images showed lath-like hydroxyapatite (HAp) on the surface after soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 °C for 5 and 10 days. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) revealed that the agglomerates were composed of Ca, C, O, P, Na, and Mg elements, and the Ca/P ratios ranged from 1.53 to 1.56. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns exhibited peaks characteristic of hydroxyapatite. The results of this study demonstrated that the addition of NaCas induced the formation of vaterite microspheres which possesses an enhanced apatite formation after soaking in SBF at 37 °C for 5 and 10 days. These NaCas-CaCO3 microspheres may be a potential biomaterial for bone regeneration.

Xu, Zhewu; Liang, Guobin; Jin, Lin; Wang, Zhenling; Xing, Chao; Jiange, Qing; Zhang, Zhiguang

2014-06-01

380

Calcium Increases Xylella fastidiosa Surface Attachment, Biofilm Formation, and Twitching Motility  

PubMed Central

Xylella fastidiosa is a plant-pathogenic bacterium that forms biofilms inside xylem vessels, a process thought to be influenced by the chemical composition of xylem sap. In this work, the effect of calcium on the production of X. fastidiosa biofilm and movement was analyzed under in vitro conditions. After a dose-response study with 96-well plates using eight metals, the strongest increase of biofilm formation was observed when medium was supplemented with at least 1.0 mM CaCl2. The removal of Ca by extracellular (EGTA, 1.5 mM) and intracellular [1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N?,N?-tetraacetic acid acetoxymethyl ester (BAPTA/AM), 75 ?M] chelators reduced biofilm formation without compromising planktonic growth. The concentration of Ca influenced the force of adhesion to the substrate, biofilm thickness, cell-to-cell aggregation, and twitching motility, as shown by assays with microfluidic chambers and other assays. The effect of Ca on attachment was lost when cells were treated with tetracycline, suggesting that Ca has a metabolic or regulatory role in cell adhesion. A double mutant (fimA pilO) lacking type I and type IV pili did not improve biofilm formation or attachment when Ca was added to the medium, while single mutants of type I (fimA) or type IV (pilB) pili formed more biofilm under conditions of higher Ca concentrations. The concentration of Ca in the medium did not significantly influence the levels of exopolysaccharide produced. Our findings indicate that the role of Ca in biofilm formation may be related to the initial surface and cell-to-cell attachment and colonization stages of biofilm establishment, which rely on critical functions by fimbrial structures. PMID:22194297

Cruz, Luisa F.; Cobine, Paul A.

2012-01-01

381

XAFS Studies of Ni Ta and Nb Chlorides in the Ionic Liquid 1-Ethyl-3-Methyl Imidazolium Chloride / Aluminum Chloride  

SciTech Connect

The structures of anhydrous nickel, niobium, and tantalum chlorides have been investigated in situ in acidic and basic ionic liquids (ILs) of 1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride (EMIC)/AlCl{sub 3} with X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The coordination of NiCl{sub 2} changes from tetrahedral in basic solution to octahedral in acidic solution. The NiCl{sub 2} is a strong Lewis acid in that it can induce the AlCl{sub 3} to share its chlorides in the highly acidic IL, forming a structure with six near Cl{sup -} ions and eight further distant Al ions which share the chloride ions surrounding the Ni{sup 2+}. When Nb{sub 2}Cl{sub 10}, a dimer, is added to the acidic or basic solution, the dimer breaks apart and forms two species. In the acid solution, two trigonal bipyramids are formed with five equal chloride distances, while in the basic solution, a square pyramid with four chlorides forming a square base and one shorter axial chloride bond. Ta{sub 2}Cl{sub 10} is also a dimer and divides into half in the acidic solution and forms two trigonal bipyramids. In the basic solution, the dimer breaks apart but the species formed is sufficiently acidic that it attracts two additional chloride ions and forms a seven coordinated tantalum species.

W OGrady; D Roeper; K Pandya; G Cheek

2011-12-31

382

Study on adsorption mechanism of proteins onto synthetic calcium hydroxyapatites through ionic concentration measurements.  

PubMed

To clarify the adsorption mechanism of proteins onto calcium hydroxyapatite (Hap), the kinetic studies of dissolution and ion-exchange properties of synthetic Hap particles in the absence and presence of proteins were examined at 15 degrees C. In the absence of proteins, Hap particles slightly dissolved to give low amounts of calcium ([Ca(2+)] = 0.09-0.14 micromol m(-2)) and phosphate [PO(4) (3-)] = 0.01-0.08 micromol m(-2)) ions in KCl, CaCl(2), BaCl(2) and AlCl(3) solutions. The [Ca(2+)] increased with increase in the Ca/P ratio of Hap, while the [PO(4) (3-)] decreased. The[ Ca(2+)] and [ PO(4) (3-)] were independent of the ionic strength. Ba(2+) and AI(3+) ions were completely ion-exchanged with calcium ions in Hap lattice within 2 hr. The solution pH was increased by 1.1-1.8 after the dissolution of OH(-) ions on the Hap surface. In the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA), the Hap particles dissolved slightly faster than the systems without protein. This fact was explained by a complexation of dissolved ions to functional groups of BSA. The adsorption of BSA induced a reduction of [Ca(2+)] and [ PO(4) (3-)] in the aqueous medium and minima appeared on [Ca(2+)] and [PO(4) (3-)] profiles before the BSA adsorption reached a saturation. This result suggests that the adsorption of BSA onto Hap is governed by [Ca(2+)] ions complexing to BSA molecules (binding effect) together with the operation of [Ca(2+)] ions exposing on the Hap surfaces by dissolution of OH(-) ions, so-called "C-sites". The addition of BaCl(2) and AlCl(3 )steeply increased the amounts of adsorbed BSA (n(BSA)) at the initial adsorption step by the strong binding effect of these di- and tri-valent cations between BSA and Hap. However, after eliminating these cations from the Hap surface by the ion-exchange reaction, the binding effects disappeared and n(BSA) decreased. Since the number of functional groups is small, the binding effect of the counter ions was only slightly detected for the systems with di- and trivalent ions on the adsorption systems of lysozyme (LSZ). PMID:15711892

Kandori, K; Masunari, A; Ishikawa, T

2005-03-01

383

Effect of Application of Ammonium Chloride and Calcium Chloride on Alfalfa Cation-Anion Content and Yield1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major factor predisposing the cow to periparturient hypocalcemia, or milk fever, is being fed a prepartum ration with a high dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD). The DCAD can be favorably altered to prevent milk fever by decreasing K and Na or increasing Cl and S in forages for cows in late gestation. The objective of this study was to test

J. P. Goff; E. C. Brummer; S. J. Henning; R. K. Doorenbos; R. L. Horst

2007-01-01

384

Visible light activated ion sensing using a photoacid polymer for calcium detection.  

PubMed

Presented here is a sensing membrane consisting of a modified merocyanine photoacid polymer and a calcium ionophore in plasticized poly(vinyl chloride). This membrane is shown to actively exchange protons with calcium ions when switched ON after illumination at 470 nm, and the exchange can be followed by UV-vis spectroscopy. The sensing membrane shows no response in the ON state when calcium ions are absent. The limit of detection of the sensor is 5.0 × 10(-4) M with an upper detection limit of 1.0 M. Thus, we demonstrate for the first time the use of a visible light activated, lipophilic photoacid polymer in an ion-sensing membrane for calcium ions, which highly discriminates potassium, sodium, and magnesium ions. PMID:24893213

Johns, Valentine K; Patel, Parth K; Hassett, Shelly; Calvo-Marzal, Percy; Qin, Yu; Chumbimuni-Torres, Karin Y

2014-07-01

385

Impregnating Coal With Calcium Carbonate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Relatively inexpensive process proposed for impregnating coal with calcium carbonate to increase rates of gasification and combustion of coal and to reduce emission of sulfur by trapping sulfur in calcium sulfide. Process involves aqueous-phase reactions between carbon dioxide (contained within pore network of coal) and calcium acetate. Coal impregnated with CO2 by exposing it to CO2 at high pressure.

Sharma, Pramod K.; Voecks, Gerald E.; Gavalas, George R.

1991-01-01

386

The Plasma Membrane Calcium Pump  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three aspect of cellular calcium metabolism in animal cells was discussed including the importance of the plasma membrane in calcium homeostasis, experiments dealing with the actual mechanism of the calcium pump, and the function of the pump in relationship to the mitochondria and to the function of calmodulin in the intact cell.

Rasmussen, H.

1983-01-01

387

Calcium hydroxide pulpotomy for primary teeth: a clinical study.  

PubMed

Calcium hydroxide pulpotomies were performed in 17 carious primary mandibular molars. Variables in the pulpotomy procedure were recognized and controlled in an attempt to obtain a more favorable result or end product. The effects of two methods of hemorrhage control were also evaluated. The duration of treatment for the study ranged from three to nine months. Treatment was clinically successful for all 17 teeth. The radiographic evaluations were more favorable for the experimental group than for the control group. Treatment was radiographically successful for 15 teeth, questionable for one tooth, and unsuccessful for one other tooth. The results of this study suggest that the aluminum chloride-calcium hydroxide pulpotomy may be a viable alternative to formocresol pulpotomies in the primary dentition. Although these findings encourage continued research, including a long-term follow-up, a histologic study is indicated. PMID:6588119

Heilig, J; Yates, J; Siskin, M; McKnight, J; Turner, J

1984-05-01

388

Calcium silicate insulation structure  

DOEpatents

An insulative structure including a powder-filled evacuated casing utilizes a quantity of finely divided synthetic calcium silicate having a relatively high surface area. The resultant structure-provides superior thermal insulating characteristics over a broad temperature range and is particularly well-suited as a panel for a refrigerator or freezer or the insulative barrier for a cooler or a insulated bottle.

Kollie, Thomas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1995-01-01

389

LOW CONCENTRATION MERCURY SORPTION MECHANISMS AND CONTROL BY CALCIUM-BASED SORBENTS; APPLICATION IN COAL-FIRED PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

The capture of elemental mercury (Hgo) and mercuric chloride (HgCl2) by three types of calcium (Ca)-based sorbents was examined in this bench-scale study under conditions prevalent in coal fired utilities. Ca-based sorbent performances were compared to that of an activated carbon...

390

Chloride/bicarbonate exchange in human erythrocytes.  

PubMed

1. The exchange of chloride and bicarbonate across the human erythrocyte membrane has been followed by measuring the changes in extracellular pH which occur when chloride-rich erythrocytes are added to chloride-free media containing varying concentrations of bicarbonate and carbonic anhydrase. 2. The dependence of the rate of chloride/bicarbonate exchange on the extracellular concentration of bicarbonate was consistent with the existence of a saturable membrane anion transporter exhibiting Michaelis--Menten kinetics. In a medium containing sodium gluconate buffered to pH 7.0 with imidazole--malate the Km for bicarbonate activation of transport was 0.39 (+/- 0.03) mM and the Vmax was 2033 (+/- 80 m-mole anions exchanged/3 X 10(13) cells. min, at 10 degrees C. 3. Chloride/bicarbonate exchange was temperature-dependent with an Arrhenius activation energy of 19.4 kcal/mole in the temperature range 2--10 degrees C. 4. Exchange of intracellular chloride for extracellular bicarbonate was inhibited by the presence of extracellular halides. Inhibition by chloride, bromide and fluoride was competitive and the affinity of the transport system decreased in the order HCO-3 greater than Cl- greater than Br- greater than F-. The kinetics of inhibition by iodide were complex, but inhibitory effects of low concentrations of iodide were less than those of chloride and bromide. PMID:633149

Lambert, A; Lowe, A G

1978-02-01

391

interdisciplinary Effects of cadmium chloride on mouse  

E-print Network

interdisciplinary Effects of cadmium chloride on mouse inner medullary collecting duct cells Eun August 2013 · Accepted: 17 August 2013 ABSTRACT Cadmium is a known renal toxin. The cytotoxic effect of cadmium chloride (CdCl2) was evaluated on renal inner medullary collecting duct cells (mIMCD3). The 24 hr

Hammock, Bruce D.

392

Process for synthesis of beryllium chloride dietherate  

DOEpatents

A low temperature method of producing beryllium chloride dietherate through the addition of hydrogen chloride gas to a mixture of beryllium metal in ether in a reaction vessel is described. A reflux condenser provides an exit for hydrogen produced form the reaction. A distillation condenser later replaces the reflux condenser for purifying the resultant product.

Bergeron, Charles (Baton Rouge, LA); Bullard, John E. (Kendall Park, NJ); Morgan, Evan (Lynchburg, VA)

1991-01-01

393

Hydrocracking with molten zinc chloride catalyst containing 2-12% ferrous chloride  

DOEpatents

In a process for hydrocracking heavy aromatic polynuclear carbonaceous feedstocks to produce hydrocarbon fuels boiling below about 475.degree. C. by contacting the feedstocks with hydrogen in the presence of a molten zinc chloride catalyst and thereafter separating at least a major portion of the hydrocarbon fuels from the spent molten zinc chloride catalyst, an improvement comprising: adjusting the FeCl.sub.2 content of the molten zinc chloride to from about 2 to about 12 mol percent based on the mixture of ferrous chloride and molten zinc chloride.

Zielke, Clyde W. (McMurray, PA); Bagshaw, Gary H. (Library, PA)

1981-01-01

394

Calcium carbonate polymorph control using droplet-based microfluidics.  

PubMed

Calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)) is one of the most abundant minerals and of high importance in many areas of science including global CO(2) exchange, industrial water treatment energy storage, and the formation of shells and skeletons. Industrially, calcium carbonate is also used in the production of cement, glasses, paints, plastics, rubbers, ceramics, and steel, as well as being a key material in oil refining and iron ore purification. CaCO(3) displays a complex polymorphic behaviour which, despite numerous experiments, remains poorly characterised. In this paper, we report the use of a segmented-flow microfluidic reactor for the controlled precipitation of calcium carbonate and compare the resulting crystal properties with those obtained using both continuous flow microfluidic reactors and conventional bulk methods. Through combination of equal volumes of equimolar aqueous solutions of calcium chloride and sodium carbonate on the picoliter scale, it was possible to achieve excellent definition of both crystal size and size distribution. Furthermore, highly reproducible control over crystal polymorph could be realised, such that pure calcite, pure vaterite, or a mixture of calcite and vaterite could be precipitated depending on the reaction conditions and droplet-volumes employed. In contrast, the crystals precipitated in the continuous flow and bulk systems comprised of a mixture of calcite and vaterite and exhibited a broad distribution of sizes for all reaction conditions investigated. PMID:22655005

Yashina, Alexandra; Meldrum, Fiona; Demello, Andrew

2012-06-01

395

Calcium carbonate polymorph control using droplet-based microfluidics  

PubMed Central

Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) is one of the most abundant minerals and of high importance in many areas of science including global CO2 exchange, industrial water treatment energy storage, and the formation of shells and skeletons. Industrially, calcium carbonate is also used in the production of cement, glasses, paints, plastics, rubbers, ceramics, and steel, as well as being a key material in oil refining and iron ore purification. CaCO3 displays a complex polymorphic behaviour which, despite numerous experiments, remains poorly characterised. In this paper, we report the use of a segmented-flow microfluidic reactor for the controlled precipitation of calcium carbonate and compare the resulting crystal properties with those obtained using both continuous flow microfluidic reactors and conventional bulk methods. Through combination of equal volumes of equimolar aqueous solutions of calcium chloride and sodium carbonate on the picoliter scale, it was possible to achieve excellent definition of both crystal size and size distribution. Furthermore, highly reproducible control over crystal polymorph could be realised, such that pure calcite, pure vaterite, or a mixture of calcite and vaterite could be precipitated depending on the reaction conditions and droplet-volumes employed. In contrast, the crystals precipitated in the continuous flow and bulk systems comprised of a mixture of calcite and vaterite and exhibited a broad distribution of sizes for all reaction conditions investigated. PMID:22655005

Yashina, Alexandra; Meldrum, Fiona; deMello, Andrew

2012-01-01

396

49 CFR 179.102-17 - Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid...114 and 120) § 179.102-17 Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid. Each tank car used to transport hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid...

2014-10-01

397

21 CFR 172.165 - Quaternary ammonium chloride combination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-04-01 true Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. 172.165 ...Preservatives § 172.165 Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. The food additive, quaternary ammonium chloride combination, may be...

2010-04-01

398

Fiber optic chloride sensing: if corrosion's the problem, chloride sensing is the key  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of chloride-based deicing agents to help clear US highways of roadway hazards leads to associated chemical related problems. Fouling of local rivers and streams due to runoff of the water borne chlorides is significant and has contributed to local ordances are attempting to force state agencies to reduce, if not eliminate, the use of these chlorides. With respect to the corrosion aspects of chloride application, cracks that occur in the roadway/bridge pavement allow water to seep into the pavement carrying the chloride to the rebar with the resultant increase in corrosion. The costs of this corrosion are considerable and have led to the widespread use of chloride/water impermeable membranes on roadways and especially within bridges. Fiber optic sensor have repeatedly been shown to provide measurement capabilities of parameters within such reinforced concrete structures. Development of a fiber optic chloride sensors capable of being embedded within a roadway or bridge deck is reported.

Fuhr, Peter L.; MacCraith, Brian D.; Huston, Dryver R.; Guerrina, Mario; Nelson, Matthew

1997-09-01

399

Chloride penetration into concrete structures in the marine atmosphere zone – Relationship between deposition of chlorides on the wet candle and chlorides accumulated into concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between chlorides from marine aerosol and chlorides accumulated into concrete is discussed in this paper. The experimental programme comprised an environmental characterisation, with climatic and chloride deposition data, and a study of chloride penetration into concrete based on natural exposure of specimens in a marine atmosphere zone. Results show that salt concentration in marine aerosol strongly decreases in

G. R. Meira; C. Andrade; I. J. Padaratz; C. Alonso; J BORBAJR

2007-01-01

400

Calcium signaling in taste cells.  

PubMed

The sense of taste is a common ability shared by all organisms and is used to detect nutrients as well as potentially harmful compounds. Thus taste is critical to survival. Despite its importance, surprisingly little is known about the mechanisms generating and regulating responses to taste stimuli. All taste responses depend on calcium signals to generate appropriate responses which are relayed to the brain. Some taste cells have conventional synapses and rely on calcium influx through voltage-gated calcium channels. Other taste cells lack these synapses and depend on calcium release to formulate an output signal through a hemichannel. Beyond establishing these characteristics, few studies have focused on understanding how these calcium signals are formed. We identified multiple calcium clearance mechanisms that regulate calcium levels in taste cells as well as a calcium influx that contributes to maintaining appropriate calcium homeostasis in these cells. Multiple factors regulate the evoked taste signals with varying roles in different cell populations. Clearly, calcium signaling is a dynamic process in taste cells and is more complex than has previously been appreciated. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 13th European Symposium on Calcium. PMID:25450977

Medler, Kathryn F

2014-11-16

401

Lithium prevents early cytosolic calcium increase and secondary injurious calcium overload in glycolytically inhibited endothelial cells  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •We investigate free calcium as a central signalling element in endothelial cells. •Inhibition of glycolysis with 2-deoxy-D-glucose reduces cellular ATP. •This manoeuvre leads to a biphasic increase and overload of free calcium. •Pre-treatment with lithium for 24 h abolishes both phases of the calcium increase. •This provides a new strategy to protect endothelial calcium homeostasis and barrier function. -- Abstract: Cytosolic free calcium concentration ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}) is a central signalling element for the maintenance of endothelial barrier function. Under physiological conditions, it is controlled within narrow limits. Metabolic inhibition during ischemia/reperfusion, however, induces [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} overload, which results in barrier failure. In a model of cultured porcine aortic endothelial monolayers (EC), we addressed the question of whether [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} overload can be prevented by lithium treatment. [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} and ATP were analysed using Fura-2 and HPLC, respectively. The combined inhibition of glycolytic and mitochondrial ATP synthesis by 2-desoxy-D-glucose (5 mM; 2-DG) plus sodium cyanide (5 mM; NaCN) caused a significant decrease in cellular ATP content (14 ± 1 nmol/mg protein vs. 18 ± 1 nmol/mg protein in the control, n = 6 culture dishes, P < 0.05), an increase in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} (278 ± 24 nM vs. 71 ± 2 nM in the control, n = 60 cells, P < 0.05), and the formation of gaps between adjacent EC. These observations indicate that there is impaired barrier function at an early state of metabolic inhibition. Glycolytic inhibition alone by 10 mM 2-DG led to a similar decrease in ATP content (14 ± 2 nmol/mg vs. 18 ± 1 nmol/mg in the control, P < 0.05) with a delay of 5 min. The [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} response of EC was biphasic with a peak after 1 min (183 ± 6 nM vs. 71 ± 1 nM, n = 60 cells, P < 0.05) followed by a sustained increase in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}. A 24-h pre-treatment with 10 mM of lithium chloride before the inhibition of ATP synthesis abolished both phases of the 2-DG-induced [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} increase. This effect was not observed when lithium chloride was added simultaneously with 2-DG. We conclude that lithium chloride abolishes the injurious [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} overload in EC and that this most likely occurs by preventing inositol 3-phosphate-sensitive Ca{sup 2+}-release from the endoplasmic reticulum. Though further research is needed, these findings provide a novel option for therapeutic strategies to protect the endothelium against imminent barrier failure.

Bosche, Bert, E-mail: bert.bosche@uk-essen.de [Department of Neurology, University of Duisburg-Essen (Germany) [Department of Neurology, University of Duisburg-Essen (Germany); Max Planck Institute for Neurological Research with Klaus-Joachim-Zülch Laboratories of the Max Planck Society and the Medical Faculty of the University of Cologne (Germany); Schäfer, Matthias, E-mail: matthias.schaefer@sanofi.com [Institute of Physiology, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen (Germany)] [Institute of Physiology, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen (Germany); Graf, Rudolf, E-mail: rudolf.graf@nf.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Neurological Research with Klaus-Joachim-Zülch Laboratories of the Max Planck Society and the Medical Faculty of the University of Cologne (Germany)] [Max Planck Institute for Neurological Research with Klaus-Joachim-Zülch Laboratories of the Max Planck Society and the Medical Faculty of the University of Cologne (Germany); Härtel, Frauke V., E-mail: frauke.haertel@tu-dresden.de [Institute of Physiology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Technical University Dresden (Germany); Schäfer, Ute, E-mail: ute.schaefer@medunigraz.at [Research Unit for Experimental Neurotraumatology, Medical University of Graz (Austria)] [Research Unit for Experimental Neurotraumatology, Medical University of Graz (Austria); Noll, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.noll@tu-dresden.de [Institute of Physiology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Technical University Dresden (Germany)] [Institute of Physiology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Technical University Dresden (Germany)

2013-05-03

402

Voltage-sensitive chloride ion channels in Anopheles gambiae Sua-1B cells.  

PubMed

In this study, we performed electrophysiological analysis of Anopheles gambiae Sua-1B cells having "neuron-like" morphologies using the patch clamp method. The recorded cells (n = 79) had processes resembling axons/dendrites, with 63 % unipolar, 22 % bipolar, and 15 % multipolar. While no inward currents were observed following step depolarizations (holding potential = -80 mV), a slowly activating outward current was observed in 96 % of the cells, especially at depolarized potentials. The amplitude of the current was attenuated nearly 70 % by reducing extracellular Cl? ion concentration, or by incubating with 100 ?M DIDS, a known voltage-sensitive chloride channel blocker, suggesting that the current was mediated by chloride ions. No qualitative difference was found between recordings made with Cs? ions in the intracellular pipette solution (inhibits K? currents) and those made with normal physiological solution, indicating a deficiency of potassium channels. Additionally, recordings made with Ca²?-free extracellular bath solution eliminated the slowly activating outward current. A subset of cells (n = 3) lacked this current, but had outward currents with voltage-dependent properties similar to those of volume-regulated chloride channels. Taken together, our results suggest that the voltage-sensitive currents observed in the majority of Sua-1B cells are mediated primarily by chloride channels of the calcium-dependent subtype. PMID:23160708

Diykov, Dmitry; Jenson, Lacey J; Bloomquist, Jeffrey R

2013-06-01

403

APPLICATION OF VACUUM SALT DISTILLATION TECHNOLOGY FOR THE REMOVAL OF FLUORIDE AND CHLORIDE FROM LEGACY FISSILE MATERIALS  

SciTech Connect

Between September 2009 and January 2011, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the Savannah River Site (SRS) HB-Line Facility designed, developed, tested, and successfully deployed a production-scale system for the distillation of sodium chloride (NaCl) and potassium chloride (KCl) from plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}). Subsequent efforts adapted the vacuum salt distillation (VSD) technology for the removal of chloride and fluoride from less-volatile halide salts at the same process temperature and vacuum. Calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}), calcium fluoride (CaF{sub 2}), and plutonium fluoride (PuF{sub 3}) were of particular concern. To enable the use of the same operating conditions for the distillation process, SRNL employed in situ exchange reactions to convert the less-volatile halide salts to compounds that facilitated the distillation of halide without removal of plutonium. SRNL demonstrated the removal of halide from CaCl{sub 2}, CaF{sub 2} and PuF{sub 3} below 1000 C using VSD technology.

Pierce, R.; Peters, T.

2011-11-01

404

Synthesis of calcium superoxide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Efforts to prepare Ca(O2) sub 2 from reactions of calcium compounds with 100% O3 and with O(D-1) atoms generated by photolysis of O3 at 2537 A are described. Samples of Ca(OH) sub 2, CaO, CaO2, Ca metal, and mixtures containing suspected impurities to promote reaction have been treated with excess O3 under static and flow conditions in the presence and absence of UV irradiation. Studies with KO2 suggest that the superoxide anion is stable to radiation at 2537 A but reacts with oxygen atoms generated by the photolysis of O3 to form KO3. Calcium superoxide is expected to behave in an analogous.

Rewick, R. T.; Blucher, W. G.; Estacio, P. L.

1972-01-01

405

Complexometric Determination of Calcium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) complexes with numerous mineral ions, including calcium and magnesium. This reaction can be used to determine the amount of these minerals in a sample by a complexometric titration. Endpoints in the titration are detected using indicators that change color when they complex with mineral ions. Calmagite and eriochrome black T (EBT) are such indicators that change from blue to pink when they complex with calcium and magnesium. In the titration of a mineral-containing solution with EDTA, the solution turns from pink to blue at the endpoint with either indicator. The pH affects a complexometric EDTA titration in several ways, and must be carefully controlled. A major application of EDTA titration is testing the hardness of water, for which the method described is an official one (Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, Method 2340C; AOAC Method 920.196).

Nielsen, S. Suzanne

406

Embedded chloride detectors for roadways and bridges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problems associated with the application of chloride-based deicing agents to roadways and specifically bridges include chemical pollution and accelerated corrosion of strength members (especially rebar) within the structure. In many instances, local ordinances are attempting to force state agencies to reduce, if not eliminate, the use of these chlorides (typically at the cost of increased driving hazards). With respect to the corrosion aspects of chloride application, cracks that occur in the roadway/bridge pavement allow water to seep into the pavement carrying the chloride to the rebar with the resultant increase in corrosion. In response to this problem, particularly in high roadsalt usage areas, a chloride/water impermeable membrane is placed above the rebar matrix so if/when roadway cracking occurs, the roadsalts won't be able to damage the rebar. Such a membrane is costly -- and the question of its in-service performance is questionable. In a joint effort between the University of Vermont and the Vermont Agency of Transportation, we are developing fiber optic chloride detectors which are capable of being embedded into the rebar-concrete roadway under this membrane. The sensing mechanism relies on spectroscopic analysis of a chemical reaction of chloride and reagents (which have been coated onto the ends of fibers). Laboratory results of these detectors and a usable system configuration are presented.

Fuhr, Peter L.; Huston, Dryver R.; McPadden, Adam P.; Cauley, Robert F.

1996-04-01

407

Calcium signaling in plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Changes in the cytosolic concentration of calcium ions ([Ca2+]i) play a key second messenger role in signal transduction. These changes are visualized by making use of either Ca2+-sensitive fluorescent dyes or the Ca2+-sensitive photoprotein, aequorin. Here we describe the advances made over the last 10 years or so, which have conclusively\\u000a demonstrated a second messenger role for [Ca2+]i in

J. J. Rudd; V. E. Franklin-Tong

1999-01-01

408

Indirect determination of chloride and carbonate by reversed flow-injection analysis coupled with atomic-absorption spectrometry and in-line preconcentration by precipitation.  

PubMed

Chloride and carbonate are determined indirectly by reversed flow-injection analysis with preconcentration by precipitation. The anions are precipitated in a Tygon tube containing glass beads and connected to an atomic-absorption spectrophotometer, and are then dissolved by suitable reagents. Chloride is precipitated as silver chloride, which is then dissolved with ammonia, sodium thiosulphate or potassium cyanide solution. Carbonate is precipitated as calcium carbonate, which is dissolved with hydrochloric acid. The response of the system has been optimized with respect to concentration, precipitation time, solution flow-rate and other AAS variables. Detection limits are 3 x 10(-7) and 5 x 10(-7)M for chloride and carbonate, respectively, with thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid as the dissolution agents. PMID:18965082

Esmadi, F T; Kharoaf, M A; Attiyat, A S

1990-12-01

409

l-Tryptophan l-tryptophanium chloride.  

PubMed

l-Tryptophan l-tryptophanium chloride is a new salt with (A?A(+)) type dimeric cation. It crystallizes in the monoclinic system (space group P21, Z=2). The asymmetric unit contains one zwitterionic l-tryptophan molecule, one l-tryptophanium cation and one chloride anion. The dimeric cation is formed by a OH?O hydrogen bond with the O?O distance equal to 2.5556(18)Å. The infrared and Raman spectra of the crystal are studied and compared with the spectra of l-tryptophanium chloride. PMID:25448973

Ghazaryan, V V; Fleck, M; Petrosyan, A M

2015-02-01

410

L-Tryptophan L-tryptophanium chloride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

L-Tryptophan L-tryptophanium chloride is a new salt with (A⋯A+) type dimeric cation. It crystallizes in the monoclinic system (space group P21, Z = 2). The asymmetric unit contains one zwitterionic L-tryptophan molecule, one L-tryptophanium cation and one chloride anion. The dimeric cation is formed by a Osbnd H⋯O hydrogen bond with the O⋯O distance equal to 2.5556(18) Å. The infrared and Raman spectra of the crystal are studied and compared with the spectra of L-tryptophanium chloride.

Ghazaryan, V. V.; Fleck, M.; Petrosyan, A. M.

2015-02-01

411

A Thermodynamic Model for Predicting Mineral Reactivity in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide: I. Phase Behavior of Carbon Dioxide - Water - Chloride Salt Systems Across the H2O-Rich to the CO2-Rich Regions  

SciTech Connect

Phase equilibria in mixtures containing carbon dioxide, water, and chloride salts have been investigated using a combination of solubility measurements and thermodynamic modeling. The solubility of water in the CO2-rich phase of ternary mixtures of CO2, H2O and NaCl or CaCl2 was determined, using near infrared spectroscopy, at 90 atm and 40 to 100 °C. These measurements fill a gap in the experimental database for CO2 water salt systems, for which phase composition data have been available only for the H2O-rich phases. A thermodynamic model for CO2 water salt systems has been constructed on the basis of the previously developed Mixed-Solvent Electrolyte (MSE) framework, which is capable of modeling aqueous solutions over broad ranges of temperature and pressure, is valid to high electrolyte concentrations, treats mixed-phase systems (with both scCO2 and water present) and can predict the thermodynamic properties of dry and partially water-saturated supercritical CO2 over broad ranges of temperature and pressure. Within the MSE framework the standard-state properties are calculated from the Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers equation of state whereas the excess Gibbs energy includes a long-range electrostatic interaction term expressed by a Pitzer-Debye-Hückel equation, a virial coefficient-type term for interactions between ions and a short-range term for interactions involving neutral molecules. The parameters of the MSE model have been evaluated using literature data for both the H2O-rich and CO2-rich phases in the CO2 - H2O binary and for the H2O-rich phase in the CO2 - H2O - NaCl / KCl / CaCl2 / MgCl2 ternary and multicompontent systems. The model accurately represents the properties of these systems at temperatures from 0°C to 300 °C and pressures up to ~4000 atm. Further, the solubilities of H2O in CO2-rich phases that are predicted by the model are in agreement with the new measurements for the CO2 - H2O - NaCl and CO2 - H2O - CaCl2 systems. Thus, the model can be used to predict the effect of various salts on the water content and water activity in CO2-rich phases on the basis of parameters determined from the properties of aqueous systems. Given the importance of water activity in CO2-rich phases for mineral reactivity, the model can be used as a foundation for predicting mineral transformations across the entire CO2/H2O composition range from aqueous solution to anhydrous scCO2. An example application using the model is presented which involves the transformation of forsterite to nesquehonite as a function of temperature and water content in the CO2-rich phase.

Springer, Ronald D.; Wang, Zheming; Anderko, Andre; Wang, Peiming; Felmy, Andrew R.

2012-09-05

412

Calcium intake, calcium bioavailability and bone health.  

PubMed

Calcium accounts for 1-2 % of adult human body weight. Over 99 % of total body Ca is found in the teeth and bones. Therefore, in addition to the obvious structural role of the skeleton, it also serves as a reservoir for Ca. Dietary Ca intake has an important impact on bone metabolism and bone health. Chronic Ca deficiency resulting from inadequate intake or poor intestinal absorption is one of several important causes of reduced bone mass and osteoporosis. It is vital, therefore, that adequate dietary Ca is consumed at all stages of life - in early life so that the genetically programmed peak bone mass can be reached and in later adulthood so that the skeletal mass can be maintained and age-related bone loss minimised. Unfortunately, there is wide variation in the estimates of daily Ca requirements made by different expert authorities. Furthermore, there is evidence that many individuals are not consuming these recommended levels. The consequence of this for bone health will be discussed in the present review. Besides the amount of Ca in the diet, the absorption of dietary Ca in foods is also a critical factor in determining the availability of Ca for bone development and maintenance. Thus, there is a need to identify food components and/or functional food ingredients that may positively influence Ca absorption in order to ensure that Ca bioavailability from foods can be optimised. This approach may be of particular value in individuals who fail to achieve the dietary recommended level of Ca. PMID:12088515

Cashman, K D

2002-05-01

413

Phenomics of Cardiac Chloride Channels  

PubMed Central

Forward genetic studies have identified several chloride (Cl?) channel genes, including CFTR, ClC-2, ClC-3, CLCA, Bestrophin, and Ano1, in the heart. Recent reverse genetic studies using gene targeting and transgenic techniques to delineate the functional role of cardiac Cl? channels have shown that Cl? channels may contribute to cardiac arrhythmogenesis, myocardial hypertrophy and heart failure, and cardioprotection against ischemia reperfusion. The study of physiological or pathophysiological phenotypes of cardiac Cl? channels, however, is complicated by the compensatory changes in the animals in response to the targeted genetic manipulation. Alternatively, tissue-specific conditional or inducible knockout or knockin animal models may be more valuable in the phenotypic studies of specific Cl? channels by limiting the effect of compensation on the phenotype. The integrated function of Cl? channels may involve multiprotein complexes of the Cl? channel subproteome. Similar phenotypes can be attained from alternative protein pathways within cellular networks, which are influenced by genetic and environmental factors. The phenomics approach, which characterizes phenotypes as a whole phenome and systematically studies the molecular changes that give rise to particular phenotypes achieved by modifying the genotype under the scope of genome/proteome/phenome, may provide more complete understanding of the integrated function of each cardiac Cl? channel in the context of health and disease. PMID:23720326

Duan, Dayue Darrel

2014-01-01

414

Calcium-calmodulin does not alter the anion permeability of the mouse TMEM16A calcium-activated chloride channel  

PubMed Central

The transmembrane protein TMEM16A forms a Ca2+-activated Cl? channel that is permeable to many anions, including SCN?, I?, Br?, Cl?, and HCO3?, and has been implicated in various physiological functions. Indeed, controlling anion permeation through the TMEM16A channel pore may be critical in regulating the pH of exocrine fluids such as the pancreatic juice. The anion permeability of the TMEM16A channel pore has recently been reported to be modulated by Ca2+-calmodulin (CaCaM), such that the pore of the CaCaM-bound channel shows a reduced ability to discriminate between anions as measured by a shift of the reversal potential under bi-ionic conditions. Here, using a mouse TMEM16A clone that contains the two previously identified putative CaM-binding motifs, we were unable to demonstrate such CaCaM-dependent changes in the bi-ionic potential. We confirmed the activity of CaCaM used in our study by showing CaCaM modulation of the olfactory cyclic nucleotide–gated channel. We suspect that the different bi-ionic potentials that were obtained previously from whole-cell recordings in low and high intracellular [Ca2+] may result from different degrees of bi-ionic potential shift secondary to a series resistance problem, an ion accumulation effect, or both. PMID:24981232

Yu, Yawei; Kuan, Ai-Seon

2014-01-01

415

Intricate Interaction Between Store-Operated Calcium Entry and Calcium-Activated Chloride Channels in Pulmonary Artery Smooth Muscle Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Ca2+-activated Cl- channels (ClCa) represent an important excitatory mechanism in vascular smooth muscle cells. Active accumulation of Cl- by several classes of anion transporters results in an equilibrium potential for this ion about 30 mV more positive than\\u000a the resting potential. Stimulation of ClCa channels leads to membrane depolarization, which enhances Ca2+ entry through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels and leads to

Abigail S. Forrest; Jeff E. Angermann; Rajesh Raghunathan; Catherine Lachendro; Iain A. Greenwood; Normand Leblanc

416

Calcium spikes: Chance or necessity?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calcium oscillations present one of the most important signaling mechanisms in cell biology. The standard paradigm for the origin of calcium oscillations is dynamic, i.e. fast release of calcium from intracellular stores is followed by slow inhibition. Yet, this very dynamic theory for these oscillations came recently into scrutiny since the building blocks of cellular calcium signals are spatially and temporally limited calcium release events through small, distinct cluster of ion channels. According to this new paradigm, a coherent wave of calcium release, triggered by stochastic release events from a group of clusters, sweeps the cell. Oscillations are believed to emerge through a spatial coherence resonance mechanism. In this paper we investigate the difference in stochastic spiking generated by a small periodic system and a small excitable system and compare with published experimental data.

Jung, Peter; Swaminathan, Divya; Ullah, Aman

2010-10-01

417

Growth characteristics of selected fungi on polyvinyl chloride film.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine if plasticized polyvinyl chloride film would support the growth of any of nine species of fungi. The film was suspended in distilled water with no nutrients or with glucose or ammonium sulfate. Spores of each of the test species were inoculated into the suspension medium, and the mixture was incubated at 30 degrees C for up to 18 weeks. Most species were found to be capable of utilizing the film for carbon or nitrogen when the other nutrient was supplied. Only two species, Aspergillus fischeri and Paecilomyces sp., were found to be capable of utilizing components of the film without added nutrients. Components of the polyvinyl chloride film were then incorporated into mineral salts medium to determine if these components could serve as carbon sources in the presence of ammonium nitrate. The only component found to be utilized by all the fungi as a carbon source was epoxidized oil, a plasticizer-stabilizer. Calcium-zinc stearate was an available carbon source for all except the Penicillium and Verticillium strains. The only other component utilized was a stearamide, which was metabolized solely by the Aspergillus sp. Only the stearamide contained enough nitrogen to serve as a primary source in the film. The compound, however, did not support growth of fungi in the presence of glucose. It was theorized that either the nitrogen of the stearamide was more readily available to the fungi in the whole film due to the presence of trace nutrients or the nitrogen was supplied by exogenous sources. PMID:3707118

Roberts, W T; Davidson, P M

1986-04-01

418

Growth characteristics of selected fungi on polyvinyl chloride film.  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to determine if plasticized polyvinyl chloride film would support the growth of any of nine species of fungi. The film was suspended in distilled water with no nutrients or with glucose or ammonium sulfate. Spores of each of the test species were inoculated into the suspension medium, and the mixture was incubated at 30 degrees C for up to 18 weeks. Most species were found to be capable of utilizing the film for carbon or nitrogen when the other nutrient was supplied. Only two species, Aspergillus fischeri and Paecilomyces sp., were found to be capable of utilizing components of the film without added nutrients. Components of the polyvinyl chloride film were then incorporated into mineral salts medium to determine if these components could serve as carbon sources in the presence of ammonium nitrate. The only component found to be utilized by all the fungi as a carbon source was epoxidized oil, a plasticizer-stabilizer. Calcium-zinc stearate was an available carbon source for all except the Penicillium and Verticillium strains. The only other component utilized was a stearamide, which was metabolized solely by the Aspergillus sp. Only the stearamide contained enough nitrogen to serve as a primary source in the film. The compound, however, did not support growth of fungi in the presence of glucose. It was theorized that either the nitrogen of the stearamide was more readily available to the fungi in the whole film due to the presence of trace nutrients or the nitrogen was supplied by exogenous sources. PMID:3707118

Roberts, W T; Davidson, P M

1986-01-01

419

High Blood Pressure and Calcium Antagonism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium ions are intimately involved in many aspects of cardiovascular function. Modification of calcium homeostasis therefore represents a key target for pharmacological intervention to achieve therapeutic control of hypertension. The calcium channel blockers (CCBs) act by blocking calcium influx through voltage-dependent L (long-acting) channels without affecting calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. The effect of blocking these channels is a

José L. Palma-Gámiz

1997-01-01

420

Sulfate and chloride concentrations in Texas aquifers.  

PubMed

Median sulfate and chloride concentrations in groundwater were calculated for 244 Texas counties from measurements at 8236 water wells. The data were mapped and analyzed with a geographic information system (GIS). Concentration clusters for both solutes were highest in north-central, west, and south Texas. Thirty-four counties had median sulfate levels above the secondary standard of 250 mg/L, and 31 counties registered median chloride concentrations above 250 mg/L. County median concentrations ranged from < 1.5 to 1,953 mg/L for sulfate, and from 6 to 1,275 mg/L for chloride. Various factors contribute to high sulfate and chloride levels in Texas aquifers, including mineral constitutents of aquifers, seepage of saline water from nearby formations, coastal saltwater intrusion, irrigation return flow, and oil/gas production. Ten counties in central and northeast Texas lack data and warrant additional monitoring. PMID:11345739

Hudak, P F

2000-08-01

421

Qualitative Determination of Nitrate with Triphenylbenzylphosphonium Chloride.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses two procedures for the identification of nitrate, the standard test ("Brown Ring" test) and a new procedure using triphenylbenzylphosphonium chloride (TPBPC). Effectiveness of both procedures is compared, with the TPBPC test proving to be more sensitive and accurate. (JM)

Berry, Donna A.; Cole, Jerry J.

1984-01-01

422

The hidden hand of chloride in hypertension.  

PubMed

Among the environmental factors that affect blood pressure, dietary sodium chloride has been studied the most, and there is general consensus that increased sodium chloride intake increases blood pressure. There is accruing evidence that chloride may have a role in blood pressure regulation which may perhaps be even more important than that of Na(+). Though more than 85 % of Na(+) is consumed as sodium chloride, there is evidence that Na(+) and Cl(-) concentrations do not go necessarily hand in hand since they may originate from different sources. Hence, elucidating the role of Cl(-) as an independent player in blood pressure regulation will have clinical and public health implications in addition to advancing our understanding of electrolyte-mediated blood pressure regulation. In this review, we describe the evidence that support an independent role for Cl(-) on hypertension and cardiovascular health. PMID:25619794

McCallum, Linsay; Lip, Stefanie; Padmanabhan, Sandosh

2015-03-01

423

Calcium Kinetics During Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bone loss is one of the most detrimental effects of space flight, threatening to limit the duration of human space missions. The ability to understand and counteract this loss will be critical for crew health and safety during and after extended-duration missions. The hypotheses to be tested in this project are that space flight alters calcium homeostasis and bone mineral metabolism, and that calcium homeostasis and bone mineral metabolism will return to baseline within days to weeks of return to Earth. These hypotheses will be evidenced by elevated rates of bone mineral resorption and decreased bone mineral deposition, decreased absorption of dietary calcium, altered calcitropic endocrine profiles, elevated excretion of calcium in urine and feces, and elevated excretion of markers of bone resorption. The second hypothesis will be evidenced by return of indices of calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism to preflight levels within days to weeks of return to Earth. Studies will be conducted on International Space Station astronauts before, during, and after extended-duration flights. Measurements of calcium kinetics, bone mass, and endocrine/biochemical markers of bone and calcium homeostasis will be conducted. Kinetic studies utilizing dual isotope tracer kinetic studies and mathematical modeling techniques will allow for determination of bone calcium deposition, bone calcium resorption, dietary calcium absorption and calcium excretion (both urinary and endogenous fecal excretion). These studies will build upon preliminary work conducted on the Russian Mir space station. The results from this project will be critical for clarifying how microgravity affects bone and calcium homeostasis, and will provide an important control point for assessment of countermeasure efficacy. These results are expected to aid in developing countermeasures for bone loss, both for space crews and for individuals on Earth who have metabolic bone diseases.

Smith, Scott M.; Wastney, Meryl E.; OBrien, Kimberly O.; Lane, Helen W.

1999-01-01

424

The Influence of pH on the Oxygen Isotope Composition of Calcium Carbonate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oxygen isotope fractionation between calcium carbonate and water is temperature-dependent and can therefore be used as a paleothermometer. Although oxygen isotope fractionation is expected from principles of equilibrium isotopic partitioning, the temperature-dependence remains uncertain because other factors, such as slow exchange between dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) species and water, can obscure the temperature signal. Oxygen isotopic equilibrium between aqueous solution and calcium carbonate includes two distinct equilibria: equilibrium of the DIC species in solution (i.e., CO2(aq), H2CO3, HCO3-, and CO32-) with water, and equilibrium between the dissolved inorganic carbon with the precipitated carbonate. To isolate kinetic isotope effects that arise at the mineral-solution interface, isotopic equilibrium among DIC species must be maintained. This can be accomplished by dissolving the enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA) into the solution, thereby reducing the time required for isotopic equilibration between DIC species by approximately two orders of magnitude between pH 7.7 and 9.3. We conduct calcite growth experiments aimed specifically at measuring the pH-dependence of kinetic oxygen isotope effects during precipitation of calcite. We precipitated calcite from aqueous solution at a constant pH and controlled supersaturation over the pH range 7.7-9.3. For each experiment, a gas mixture of N2 and CO2 is constantly bubbled through a beaker containing ~1300 mL of solution (30 mM CaCl2 + 5 mM NH4Cl + 0.1 mM SrCl2). As CO2 from the gas dissolves into solution, calcite crystals grow on the beaker walls. The pH of the solution is maintained by use of an autotitrator with NaOH as the titrant. We control the temperature, pH, the pCO2 of the gas inflow, and the gas inflow rate, and monitor the total alkalinity, the pCO2 of the gas outflow, and the amount of NaOH added. A constant crystal growth rate of ~1.6 mmol/m2/hr is maintained over all experiments. We will present results from this set of experiments and discuss kinetic oxygen isotope effects in the context of a recently-developed ion-by-ion growth model of calcite.

Hunt, J. D.; Watkins, J. M.; Ryerson, F. J.; DePaolo, D. J.

2013-12-01

425

An Introduction to Chemistry: Dissolving Sodium Chloride  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What happens at the molecular level when a compound dissolves in water? This interactive animation explores how negative and positive ions in sodium chloride (table salt) collide with water molecules and become separated from each other to become a solution. The model does an effective job of depicting how the water molecules disrupt the attraction between the positive sodium ions and the negative chloride ions, and then become stabilized by attractions to the atoms in the water molecule.

Bishop, Mark

2011-05-02

426

Copper chloride cathode for a secondary battery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Higher energy and power densities are achieved in a secondary battery based on molten sodium and a solid, ceramic separator such as a beta alumina and a molten catholyte such as sodium tetrachloroaluminate and a copper chloride cathode. The higher cell voltage of copper chloride provides higher energy densities and the higher power density results from increased conductivity resulting from formation of copper as discharge proceeds.

Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (inventor); Distefano, Salvador (inventor); Nagasubramanian, Ganesan (inventor); Bankston, Clyde P. (inventor)

1990-01-01

427

Methyl chloride via oxhydrochlorination of methane  

SciTech Connect

Dow Corning is developing a route from methane to methyl chloride via oxyhydrochlorination (OHC) chemistry with joint support from the Gas Research Institute and the Department of Energy Federal Energy Technology Center. Dow Corning is the world`s largest producer of methyl chloride and uses it as an intermediate in the production of silicone materials. Other uses include production of higher hydrocarbons, methyl cellulose, quaternary ammonium salts and herbicides. The objective of this project is to demonstrate and develop a route to methyl chloride with reduced variable cost by using methane instead of methanol raw materials. Methyl chloride is currently produced from methanol, but U.S. demand is typically higher than available domestic supply, resulting in fluctuating prices. OHC technology utilizes domestic natural gas as a feedstock, which allows a lower-cost source of methyl chloride which is independent of methanol. In addition to other uses of methyl chloride, OHC could be a key step in a gas-to-liquid fuels process. These uses could divert significant methanol demand to methane. A stable and selective catalyst has been developed in the laboratory and evaluated in a purpose-built demonstration unit. Materials of construction issues have been resolved and the unit has been run under a range of conditions to evaluate catalyst performance and stability. Many technological advances have been made, especially in the areas of catalyst development, online FTIR analysis of the product stream, and recovery of methyl chloride product via an absorber/stripper system. Significant technological hurdles still remain including heat transfer, catalysts scaleup, orthogonality in modeling, and scaleable absorption data. Economics of the oxyhydrochlorination process have been evaluated an found to be unfavorable due to high capital and utility costs. Future efforts will focus on improved methane conversion at high methyl chloride selectivity.

Jarvis, R.F. Jr.

1997-12-31

428

Structure of complexes between aluminum chloride and other chlorides, 2: Alkali-(chloroaluminates). Gaseous complexes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The structural chemistry of complexes between aluminum chloride and other metal chlorides is important both for practice and theory. Condensed-phase as well as vapor-phase complexes are of interest. Structural information on such complexes is reviewed. The first emphasis is given to the molten state because of its practical importance. Aluminum chloride forms volatile complexes with other metal chlorides and these vapor-phase complexes are dealt with in the second part. Finally, the variations in molecular shape and geometrical parameters are summarized.

Hargittai, M.

1980-01-01

429

[The efficacy of dequalinium chloride/benzalkonium chloride as well as medicinal plants on the gingiva].  

PubMed

A comparative study involving 50 patients of both genders was conducted in order to determine the effect of dequalinium chloride/benzalconium chloride mouthrinse (Dequonal), and of a preparation of herbal essences (Parodontax) on gingival health. Each of the mouthrinses was used during four weeks by a group of 25 patients who were instructed to abstain from any other oral hygiene measure during this period. Approximal plaque index, sulcus bleeding index and saliva pH were significantly enhanced by both preparations. A slightly better effect shown by dequalinium chloride/benzalconium chloride was not significant. PMID:9272987

Gruber, I; Bork, T

1991-01-01

430

Hypertension and renal calcium transport.  

PubMed

Calcium homeostasis is altered in hypertensive patients. Indeed several investigators have reported that sodium-sensitive hypertension is associated with hypercalciuria. On the other hand, an independent clinical association exists between the occurrence of urolithiasis and hypertension, but the molecular mechanism(s) involved in stone formation by high blood pressure have not been so far clarified. To understand this association, it is obvious that we should analyze the effect of hypertension on the transport proteins involved in the renal calcium handling. In the kidney, the tubular reabsorption of calcium may proceed through transcellular and paracellular routes. At variance with the proximal tubule, along the distal segment, calcium transport is entirely sodium independent and occurs via the transcellular pathway. In particular, transcellular calcium reabsorption proceeds through a well-controlled sequence of events consisting of luminal calcium entry via the epithelial calcium channel (TRPV5), cytosolic diffusion of calcium bound to calbindin-D28K, and basolateral extrusion of calcium through the Na/Ca exchanger (NCX1) and plasma membrane Ca-ATPase (PMCA). It is highly likely that these proteins may be altered in hypertensive disease thus justifying and explaining the reported hypercalciuria. Experiments in hypertensive strains of animals exhibiting hypercalciuria may help to solve this puzzle. PMID:21170867

Petrazzuolo, Oriana; Trepiccione, Francesco; Zacchia, Miriam; Capasso, Giovambattista

2010-01-01

431

RESEARCH ARTICLE Increasing chloride concentrations in Lake Constance  

E-print Network

for the year 2006, we estimated total chloride imports to the catchment at 101 kt year-1 . Road deicing salts Chloride Á Budget Á Road deicing salt Introduction Sodium chloride (NaCl) is used widely and in large streams, Trowbridge et al. (2010) showed that [90% of the chloride originated from road salt. Imported

Wehrli, Bernhard

432

Cell Calcium 37 (2005) 411416 Regulation of dendritic development by calcium signaling  

E-print Network

Cell Calcium 37 (2005) 411­416 Regulation of dendritic development by calcium signaling Lori are mediated by calcium signaling. While many effects of calcium on dendrite structure occur locally at the site of calcium entry into the cytoplasmic milieu, elevation of cytoplasmic calcium is also translated

Ghosh, Anirvan

433

Refilling Intracellular Calcium Stores  

PubMed Central

Within the cardiac cell, the movements of calcium ions are tightly regulated by a number of regulatory proteins including pumps, and channels. The sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) is in large part responsible for orchestrating these movements for the normal functioning of the cardiomyocyte. Alterations of SR regulatory proteins in failing hearts leads to abnormal Ca2+ homeostasis and consequently to a deficient contractile state. This review focuses on the roles of SR Ca2+ regulators in disease states and novel strategies for therapeutic targeting of these pathways. PMID:21170146

Kho, Changwon; Lee, Ahyoung; Jeong, Dongtak; Hajjar, Roger J.

2010-01-01

434

The oxidation of calcium sulphite by calcium nitrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crushed powder mixtures of calcium sulphite and calcium nitrate exhibit an exothermic reaction between 650 and 700K. This rate process has been investigated by dynamic and isothermal DSC experiments, complemented with isothermal rate studies based on gas evolution in a vacuum apparatus, together with some product analyses. It is concluded that the overall reaction is complicated, including several concurrent contributing

Andrew K Galwey; Clodagh Ettarh

1998-01-01

435

Determination of the extent of reduction of dense UO2 cathodes from direct electrochemical reduction studies in molten chloride medium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electro-reduction of solid UO2 to U has been studied with molten CaCl2 or LiCl as the electrolyte medium. Electro-reduction of thick (>3 mm), powder compacted and sintered pellets of UO2 showed incomplete reduction resulting in a mixture of uranium metal and UO2. The extent of reduction of UO2 to U was determined by employing a novel method called 'metal estimation by hydrogen sensor (MEHS)', in which the hydrogen evolved during the reaction of U metal in the reduced product with con. HBr was measured using an in-house developed polymer electrolyte based amperometric hydrogen sensor. The results of our investigations on incompletely reduced UO2 pellets in both CaCl2 and LiCl melts showed that the extent of reduction of different regions of the oxide pellet was different. It varied from 88.3% on the surface of the pellet as against 3.7% towards the centre bulk during electro-reduction in CaCl2 (at 1173 K). The metallisation was found restricted to the surface of the pellets reduced in LiCl melt (at 923 K). Electro-reduction of small chunks of UO2 pellet in CaCl2 melt resulted in products with lower extent of reduction. Based on the measurements, a probable mechanism on the propagation of reduction through the solid UO2 matrix during the electrochemical reduction process has been proposed.

Sri Maha Vishnu, D.; Sanil, N.; Murugesan, N.; Shakila, L.; Ramesh, C.; Mohandas, K. S.; Nagarajan, K.

2012-08-01

436

The relative importance of water hardness and chloride levels in modifying the acute toxicity of silver to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)  

SciTech Connect

Static-renewal 7-d toxicity tests for silver nitrate (AgNO{sub 3}) were performed with juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum). The relative influences of calcium and chloride concentrations on median lethal time (LT50) were assessed. For both calcium salts, a 100-fold elevation in concentration increased the LT50 approximately 10-fold. However, a 100-fold elevation in KCl ameliorated silver (Ag) toxicity at least 100-fold, while NaCl protected against Ag toxicity even more substantially, demonstrating the much greater protective effect of chloride relative to calcium. In a separate series of bioassays, fish were exposed to 0.92 {micro}M Ag with varying amounts of NaCl titrated into each tank to alter the free [Ag{sup +}]. The 7-d LC50 occurred at a [NaCl] of 2,500 {micro}M. Using MINEQL{sup +}, the predicted free [Ag{sup +}] at this LC50 value is 0.0285 {micro}M. Further bioassays were performed in which [chloride] was maintained at either 50 or 225 {micro}M, while total [Ag] was independently varied from 0.0092 to 0.0694 {micro}M (1.0--7.5 {micro}g/L). The 7-d LC50 value was calculated at 0.0294 {micro}M Ag (3.18 {micro}g/L) at a chloride concentration of 50 {micro}M, very similar to the free [Ag{sup +}] value of 0.031 {micro}M calculated from an earlier LC50 test at a fixed [chloride] of 730 {micro}M. Elevating chloride concentrations from 50 to 225 {micro}M did not alter the accumulation of Ag in the liver. In addition, there were no significant differences in hepatic Ag accumulation between any of the Ag-exposed fish, irrespective of the total Ag concentration used during the exposure.

Galvez, F.; Wood, C.M. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Biology

1997-11-01

437

21 CFR 184.1195 - Calcium citrate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...acid. It is prepared by neutralizing citric acid with calcium hydroxide or calcium carbonate. It occurs as a fine white, odorless powder and usually contains four moles of water per mole of calcium citrate. (b) The ingredient...

2010-04-01

438

21 CFR 73.1070 - Calcium carbonate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...1070 Calcium carbonate. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive calcium carbonate is a fine, white, synthetically prepared powder consisting essentially of precipitated calcium carbonate (CaCO3 ). (2) Color additive...

2010-04-01

439

Calcium transporters: From fields to the table  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Calcium transporters regulate calcium fluxes within cells. Plants, like all organisms, contain channels, pumps, and exchangers to carefully modulate intracellular calcium levels. This review presents a summary of the recent advances in cloning and characterizing of these transporters and highlight...

440

21 CFR 582.6197 - Calcium diacetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium diacetate. 582.6197 Section 582.6197...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6197 Calcium diacetate. (a) Product. Calcium diacetate. (b) Conditions of use....

2011-04-01

441

21 CFR 182.6197 - Calcium diacetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium diacetate. 182.6197 Section 182.6197...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6197 Calcium diacetate. (a) Product. Calcium diacetate. (b) Conditions of use....

2010-04-01

442

21 CFR 182.6197 - Calcium diacetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium diacetate. 182.6197 Section 182.6197...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6197 Calcium diacetate. (a) Product. Calcium diacetate. (b) Conditions of use....

2011-04-01

443

21 CFR 172.715 - Calcium lignosulfonate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium lignosulfonate. 172.715 Section 172.715... Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.715 Calcium lignosulfonate. Calcium lignosulfonate may be safely used in or on...

2011-04-01

444

21 CFR 172.720 - Calcium lactobionate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium lactobionate. 172.720 Section 172...Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.720 Calcium lactobionate. The food additive calcium lactobionate may be safely used in food...

2011-04-01

445

21 CFR 582.6199 - Calcium gluconate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium gluconate. 582.6199 Section 582.6199...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6199 Calcium gluconate. (a) Product. Calcium gluconate. (b) Conditions of use....

2010-04-01

446

21 CFR 172.715 - Calcium lignosulfonate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium lignosulfonate. 172.715 Section 172.715... Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.715 Calcium lignosulfonate. Calcium lignosulfonate may be safely used in or on...

2010-04-01

447

21 CFR 582.6199 - Calcium gluconate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium gluconate. 582.6199 Section 582.6199...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6199 Calcium gluconate. (a) Product. Calcium gluconate. (b) Conditions of use....

2011-04-01

448

21 CFR 582.6197 - Calcium diacetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium diacetate. 582.6197 Section 582.6197...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6197 Calcium diacetate. (a) Product. Calcium diacetate. (b) Conditions of use....

2010-04-01

449

21 CFR 172.720 - Calcium lactobionate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium lactobionate. 172.720 Section 172...Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.720 Calcium lactobionate. The food additive calcium lactobionate may be safely used in food...

2010-04-01

450

21 CFR 172.720 - Calcium lactobionate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium lactobionate. 172.720 Section 172...Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.720 Calcium lactobionate. The food additive calcium lactobionate may be safely used in food...

2013-04-01

451

21 CFR 582.6199 - Calcium gluconate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium gluconate. 582.6199 Section 582.6199...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6199 Calcium gluconate. (a) Product. Calcium gluconate. (b) Conditions of use....

2012-04-01

452

21 CFR 582.6199 - Calcium gluconate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium gluconate. 582.6199 Section 582.6199...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6199 Calcium gluconate. (a) Product. Calcium gluconate. (b) Conditions of use....

2014-04-01

453

21 CFR 582.6197 - Calcium diacetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium diacetate. 582.6197 Section 582.6197...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6197 Calcium diacetate. (a) Product. Calcium diacetate. (b) Conditions of use....

2012-04-01

454

21 CFR 182.6197 - Calcium diacetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium diacetate. 182.6197 Section 182.6197...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6197 Calcium diacetate. (a) Product. Calcium diacetate. (b) Conditions of use....

2014-04-01

455

21 CFR 172.715 - Calcium lignosulfonate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium lignosulfonate. 172.715 Section 172.715... Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.715 Calcium lignosulfonate. Calcium lignosulfonate may be safely used in or on...

2012-04-01

456

21 CFR 182.6197 - Calcium diacetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium diacetate. 182.6197 Section 1