Sample records for calcium chloride cacl2

  1. Monodisperse Calcium Carbonate Microtablets Forming at 701C in Prerefrigerated CaCl2GelatinUrea Solutions

    E-print Network

    Tas, A. Cuneyt

    Ceramic Society #12;Using dissolved sodium carbonate (either Na2CO3 or NaHCO3) as the CO3 2� sourceMonodisperse Calcium Carbonate Microtablets Forming at 701C in Prerefrigerated CaCl2­Gelatin Calcium carbonate particles with a unique tablet shape were produced by simply aging the prerefrigerated

  2. The crystal growth kinetics of alpha calcium sulfate hemihydrate in concentrated CaCl2-HCl solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldmann, Thomas; Demopoulos, George P.

    2012-07-01

    The crystal growth kinetics of calcium sulfate ?-hemihydrate (?-HH) in nearly constant supersaturated HCl-CaCl2 solutions were investigated. Two types of solutions were used, the first had a low HCl (1.4 mol/L) and high CaCl2 (2.8 mol/L) concentration and the second had a high HCl (5.6 mol/L) and low CaCl2 (0.7 mol/L) concentration. These conditions were chosen to represent the first and last stage of a newly developed stage-wise HCl regeneration process. The seeded growth experiments were carried out in a stirred, temperature controlled semi-batch reactor in which supersaturation was kept constant by simultaneous addition of CaCl2 and Na2SO4 solutions. The influence of the following parameters on ?-HH crystal growth was studied: temperature (70-95 °C), specific power input of stirring (0.02-1.29 W/kg) and equimolar inflow rate of CaCl2 and Na2SO4 (0-0.6 mol/h). The crystal growth rate was derived from particle size distribution measurements made with the laser light diffraction technique. It was found that the surface area normalized crystal growth rate increased linearly with the molar inflow rate up to 0.3 mol/h, at higher inflow rates no further increase of the growth rate was observed. Temperature and specific power input, within the investigated ranges, did not show a marked effect on the growth rate, attributable to a diffusion/adsorption controlled growth process. An interesting finding of the present research is the establishment of a positive relationship between the narrowing of the width of the particle size distribution with increasing crystal growth rate. The results show that the resulting particle size distribution is positively related to the reagent inflow rate, a finding that can be applied to the industrial design and scale-up of the ?-HH crystallization/HCl regeneration process.

  3. Calculation of self-absorption coefficients of calcium resonance lines in the case of a CaCl 2-water plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannachi, R.; Cressault, Y.; Teulet, Ph.; Gleizes, A.; Lakhdar, Z. Ben

    2008-10-01

    The resonance escape factors for the lines emitted by a neutral calcium atom Ca I at 4226.73 Å and of ionic calcium Ca II at 3933.66 Å and at 3968.47 Å are calculated assuming a Voigt profile and in the case of CaCl 2-water plasma. The dependence of the escape factor on the optical thickness ?0 from the line center which itself depends on the two main spectral line shape broadening mechanisms (pressure and Doppler effects) are considered. The variation of the resonance escape factors with the temperature, the CaCl 2 molar proportion and the size of the plasma are also investigated. This calculation is useful for the application of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy in the quantitative analysis of elemental composition. Its application allows us to reduce the non-linearities in the relation between resonance lines intensities of calcium in our case and its concentration.

  4. CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING IN CENTER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING IN CENTER, CALCIUM CHLORIDE STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT WITH SA (SODA ASH) BUILDING IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Solvay Process Company, Calcium Chloride Plant, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  5. Inhibition of nitrite-induced toxicity in channel catfish by calcium chloride and sodium chloride

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tommasso J.R., Wright, M. I.; Simco, B.A.; Davis, K.B.

    1980-01-01

    Environmental chloride has been shown to inhibit methemoglobin formation in fish, thereby offering a protective effect against nitrite toxicity. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were simultaneously exposed to various environmental nitrite and chloride levels (as either CaCl2 or NaCl) in dechlorinated tap water (40 mg/L total hardness, 47 mg/L alkalinity, 4 mg/L chloride, pH = 6.9-7.1, and temperature 21-24°C). Methemoglobin levels in fish simultaneously exposed to 2.5 mg/L nitrite and up to 30 mg/L chloride as either CaCl2 or NaCl were similar but significantly lower than in unprotected fish. Exposure to 10 mg/L nitrite and 60 mg/L chloride resulted in methemoglobin levels similar to those of the controls; most unprotected fish died. Fish exposed to 10 mg/L nitrite had significantly lower methemoglobin levels when protected with 15.0 mg/L chloride as CaCl2 than with NaCl. Fish exposed to nitrite in the presence of 60 mg/L chloride (as either CaCl2 or NaCl) had similar 24-h LC50 values that were significantly elevated above those obtained in the absence of chloride. Calcium had little effect on tolerance to nitrite toxicity in channel catfish in contrast to its large effect reported in steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri).

  6. Calcium chloride electron injection/extraction layers in organic electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Bo; Gao, Zhi; Yang, Hongsheng; Xiao, Lixin; Chen, Zhijian; Gong, Qihuang

    2014-01-01

    Nontoxic calcium chloride (CaCl2) was introduced into organic electronic devices as cathode buffer layer (CBL). The turn-on voltage and maximum luminance of organic light-emitting diode (OLED) with 1.5 nm CaCl2 was 3.5 V and 21 960 cd/m2, respectively. OLED with 1.5 nm CaCl2 possessed comparable electroluminescent characteristics to that of the commonly used LiF. Moreover, the performance of the organic photovoltaic device with 0.5 nm CaCl2 was comparable to that of the control device with LiF. Therefore, CaCl2 has the potential to be used as the CBL for organic electronic devices.

  7. CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING ON LEFT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING ON LEFT, CALCIUM CHLORIDE STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT OF CENTER WITH TOP OF SA (SODA ASH) BUILDING IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Solvay Process Company, Calcium Chloride Plant, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  8. Restaurant consumer acceptance of beef loin strip steaks tenderized with calcium chloride.

    PubMed

    Hoover, L C; Cook, K D; Miller, M F; Huffman, K L; Wu, C K; Lansdell, J L; Ramsey, C B

    1995-12-01

    Beef strip loins from either the right or left side of 22 carcasses of Bos indicus-type steers were injected with 200 mM calcium chloride (CaCl2) solution at 5% (wt/wt) to determine its effect on tenderness and other selected quality traits of steaks. Loins from opposite sides of the carcasses were untreated and served as the control. The steaks were evaluated for tenderness, juiciness, flavor intensity, tenderness acceptability, and overall acceptability by 62 restaurant consumers over a 6-wk period. The CaCl2 injection improved (P < .05) tenderness and flavor intensity ratings by the restaurant consumers. Tenderness acceptability and overall acceptability were improved 23 and 17%, respectively, by the CaCl2 injection. Flavor was not compromised by the CaCl2 injection. The CaCl2-treated steaks were rated superior(P < .05) for flavor compared to the control steaks. Restaurant consumers preferred the beef loin strip steaks injected with 200 mM CaCl2 at 5% (wt/wt). The results of this study are interpreted to indicate that, from a restaurant consumer perspective, CaCl2 injection is an acceptable means of making beef a more consistently tender product. PMID:8655438

  9. Upgrading Titanium Ore Through Selective Chlorination Using Calcium Chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jungshin; Okabe, Toru H.

    2013-06-01

    To develop a simple and effective process for upgrading low-grade titanium ore (ilmenite, mainly FeTiO3), a new selective chlorination process based on the use of calcium chloride (CaCl2) as the chlorine source was investigated in this study. Titanium ore and a titanium ore/CaCl2 mixture were placed in two separate crucibles inside a gas-tight quartz tube that was then positioned in a horizontal furnace. In the experiments, the titanium ore in the two crucibles reacted with either HCl produced from CaCl2 or CaCl2 itself at 1100 K (827 °C), leading to the selective removal of the iron present in the titanium ore as iron chlorides [FeCl x (l,g) ( x = 2, 3)]. Various kinds of titanium ores produced in different countries were used as feedstock, and the influence of the particle size and atmosphere on the selective chlorination was investigated. Under certain conditions, titanium dioxide (TiO2) with purity of about 97 pct was directly obtained in a single step from titanium ore containing 51 pct TiO2. Thus, selective chlorination is a feasible method for producing high purity titanium dioxide from low-grade titanium ore.

  10. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture...Specifications for Raw Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the requirements...

  11. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture...Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the...

  12. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture...Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the...

  13. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture...Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the...

  14. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture...Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the...

  15. Calcium chloride before i.v. diltiazem in the management of atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Kolkebeck, Tom; Abbrescia, Kelly; Pfaff, James; Glynn, Theodore; Ward, John A

    2004-05-01

    Diltiazem is commonly used to treat atrial fibrillation or flutter (AFF) with rapid ventricular response (RVR). Although it is very effective for rate control, up to an 18% prevalence of reported diltiazem-induced hypotension [defined by systolic blood pressure (SBP) < 90 mm Hg], and a mean of 9.7% hypotension have been reported from several studies totaling over 450 patients. This hypotension may complicate therapy. Our objective was to determine if calcium chloride (CaCl(2)) pre-treatment would blunt a SBP drop after i.v. diltiazem, while allowing diltiazem to maintain its efficacy. A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted. Seventy-eight patients with AFF and a ventricular rate of >/= 120 beats per minute were enrolled. Half received i.v. CaCl(2) pre-treatment; the other half received placebo. All patients then received i.v. diltiazem in a standard, weight-based dose. A second dose of CaCl(2) pre-treatment or placebo and diltiazem was given if clinically indicated for additional rate control. Both CaCl(2) and placebo pre-treatment groups had equal lowering of heart rate (p < 0.001). There were no adverse events in the calcium pre-treatment study arm. One patient in the placebo group became paradoxically more tachycardic and apneic after the diltiazem infusion. Although i.v. CaCl(2) seems to be equally safe compared to placebo as a pre-treatment in the management of AFF with RVR, we were unable to find a statistically significant blunting of SBP drop with CaCl(2) i.v. pre-treatment. Until further research determines a benefit exists, we cannot recommend i.v. CaCl(2) pre-treatment before diltiazem in the treatment of AFF with RVR. PMID:15093843

  16. The role of temperature and CaCl2 in activated sludge dewatering under hydrothermal treatment.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jie; Guo, Minhui; Xu, Xinhua; Guan, Baohong

    2014-03-01

    Dewatering is important for activated sludge disposal. The dewaterability of activated sludge was first deteriorated and then ameliorated when the temperature was raised from 100 to 200 °C with a threshold temperature of 130 °C under hydrothermal treatment. Calcium chloride assisted hydrothermal treatment to improve the dewaterability of activated sludge, and eliminated the threshold temperature at as less as 20 mg/g dry solid (DS). An increase in temperature and dosage of CaCl2 till 60 mg/g DS allowed a continuous improvement of dewaterability. It is found that the charge neutralization resulted from biopolymers solubilization dominated the dewaterability evolution below 160 °C, while the decomposition of water-binding components played a more important role at higher temperatures. The variation of molecular weight of soluble protein and polysaccharides implies that CaCl2 interacted with the component of sludge and altered the constituent during the hydrothermal treatment. The integration of soluble biopolymers into the floc matrix by CaCl2 contributed to the compacted floc structure and thus improved the dewaterability. This work presents an insight into the floc variation in both the composition and structure associated with the dewaterability and offers a new understanding to the role of temperature and CaCl2 in hydrothermal treatment on activated sludge dewatering. PMID:24355330

  17. The Effect of Calcium Chloride on Growth, Photosynthesis, and Antioxidant Responses of Zoysia japonica under Drought Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chengbin; Li, Xuemei; Zhang, Lihong

    2013-01-01

    Few attempts have been made to study the alleviating effects of signal molecules on zoysiagrass (Zoysiajaponica) under drought stress. Calcium chloride has been shown to ameliorate the adverse effects of drought stress on many plants. It is necessary to investigate how to enhance drought tolerance of zoysiagrass using calcium chloride. The study elucidated the effects of calcium chloride on zoysiagrass under drought conditions by investigating the following parameters: biomass, chlorophyll (Chl) content, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), chlorophyll fluorescence, antioxidant enzymes, proline content, and malondialdehyde (MDA) content. Experimental conditions consisted of an aqueous CaCl2 solution at 5, 10, and 20 mM sprayed on zoysiagrass leaves for 3 d, following by an inducement of drought conditions by withholding water for 16 d. Under drought conditions, all CaCl2 pretreatments were found to increase the above-ground fresh biomass, as well as below-ground fresh and dry biomass. The resulting Chl (a, b, a+b) contents of the 5 and 10 mM CaCl2 pretreatment groups were higher than those of the control. In the later stages of drought conditions, the chlorophyll fluorescence parameter Fv/Fm was higher in leaves treated with 10 mM CaCl2 than in the leaves of the other two treatment groups. Zoysiagrass pretreated with 10 mM CaCl2 possessed both the maximum observed Pn and antioxidant enzyme activities. Meanwhile, lower MDA and proline contents were recorded in the plants pretreated with 5 and 10 mM CaCl2 under drought conditions. As a whole, the drought tolerance of zoysiagrass was improved to some extent by the application of a moderate calcium concentration. PMID:23844172

  18. Experimental study of falling-film mode transitions between horizontal tubes in CaCl2/water absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhen; Sun, Wenqian; Lu, Yuan; Xiao, Yunhan; Xie, Yingchun

    2014-08-01

    It is important to accurately predict the flow mode especially intertube falling-film mode of absorbent for its great impact on the heat and mass transfer in a horizontal tube absorber. In this paper, a test facility used to study falling-film outside horizontal tubes was built, and experiments were conducted to explore the intertube mode transitions with water-calcium chloride (CaCl2/water) solution in quiescent surroundings. The correlations which are more suitable for predicting CaCl2/water solution intertube mode transitions were developed. In general, the transitional Re will decrease with the solution concentration increasing, and its effects increase with the transitions from droplet mode to sheet mode. Hysteresis exists in all the mode transitions, and it is more obvious for low concentration solutions. The results may be an important support for modeling, designing and operating of CaCl2/water falling-film absorber.

  19. 21 CFR 172.330 - Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2009-04-01 true Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt. 172.330 Section 172... § 172.330 Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt. The food additive calcium chloride double salt of calcium...

  20. 21 CFR 172.330 - Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt. 172.330 Section 172.330 Food and...Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt. The food additive calcium chloride double salt of calcium pantothenate may be safely...

  1. 21 CFR 172.330 - Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt. 172.330 Section 172.330 Food and...Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt. The food additive calcium chloride double salt of calcium pantothenate may be safely...

  2. 21 CFR 172.330 - Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt. 172.330 Section 172.330 Food and...Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt. The food additive calcium chloride double salt of calcium pantothenate may be safely...

  3. 21 CFR 172.330 - Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt. 172.330 Section 172.330 Food and...Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt. The food additive calcium chloride double salt of calcium pantothenate may be safely...

  4. Metabolomic Assessment Reveals an Elevated Level of Glucosinolate Content in CaCl2 Treated Broccoli Microgreens.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianghao; Kou, Liping; Geng, Ping; Huang, Huilian; Yang, Tianbao; Luo, Yaguang; Chen, Pei

    2015-02-18

    Preharvest calcium application has been shown to increase broccoli microgreen yield and extend shelf life. In this study, we investigated the effect of calcium application on its metabolome using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. The data collected were analyzed using principal component analysis and orthogonal projection to latent structural discriminate analysis. Chemical composition comparison shows that glucosinolates, a very important group of phytochemicals, are the major compounds enhanced by preharvest treatment with 10 mM calcium chloride (CaCl2). Aliphatic glucosinolates (glucoerucin, glucoiberin, glucoiberverin, glucoraphanin, pentyl glucosinolate, and hexyl glucosinolate) and indolic glucosinolates (glucobrassicin, neoglucobrassicin, and 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin) were increased significantly in the CaCl2 treated microgreens using metabolomic approaches. Targeted glucosinolate analysis using the ISO 9167-1 method was further employed to confirm the findings. Results indicate that glucosinolates can be considered as a class of compounds that are responsible for the difference between two groups and a higher glucosinolate level was found in CaCl2 treated groups at each time point after harvest in comparison with the control group. PMID:25594226

  5. Stimulation of cell division in the rat by NaCl, KCl, MgCl2, and CaCl2, and inhibition of the sodium chloride effect on the glandular stomach by ascorbic acid and beta-carotene.

    PubMed

    Lugli, S M; Lutz, W K

    1999-01-01

    Three questions associated with the stimulation of cell division by chloride salts have been investigated: (i) whether cations other than sodium show a similar effect, (ii) whether vitamins can have a preventive activity, and (iii) whether subchronic treatment with sodium chloride in the diet is also effective. Male Fischer 344 rats were given solutions of the chloride salts of sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium by oral gavage. Water was used for control. After 4 h, a 24-h osmotic minipump containing 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine was implanted subcutaneously. The forestomach and glandular stomach, as well as liver and bladder were analyzed immunohistochemically 24 h later for the proportion of cells in S phase as an indicator of the rate of replicative DNA synthesis. For both the forestomach and the glandular stomach, potassium was as potent as sodium, and the divalent cations Mg and Ca were even more potent on a molar basis. Supplementation of the diet with ascorbic acid (2 g/kg food) or beta-carotene (12.5 mg/kg food) for 1 week before gavage of the sodium chloride solution resulted in an inhibition of the stimulation of cell division. A putative tumor-chemopreventive activity of the two vitamins might therefore not only rely on their antioxidative properties but may include effects on the cell cycle. A 4-week treatment with a sodium chloride supplement in the diet (2% and 4% supplement) resulted in a significant stimulation of cell division not only in both parts of the stomach and in the bladder (with the 4% supplement) but also in the liver (even with the 2% supplement). Sodium-chloride-stimulated cell turnover therefore is a sustained effect. PMID:10235475

  6. 21 CFR 184.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...the ammonia-soda (Solvay) process and as a joint product from natural salt brines, or it may be prepared by substitution reactions with other calcium and chloride salts. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...the ammonia-soda (Solvay) process and as a joint product from natural salt brines, or it may be prepared by substitution reactions with other calcium and chloride salts. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...the ammonia-soda (Solvay) process and as a joint product from natural salt brines, or it may be prepared by substitution reactions with other calcium and chloride salts. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...the ammonia-soda (Solvay) process and as a joint product from natural salt brines, or it may be prepared by substitution reactions with other calcium and chloride salts. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...the ammonia-soda (Solvay) process and as a joint product from natural salt brines, or it may be prepared by substitution reactions with other calcium and chloride salts. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food...

  11. Combined inhibitory effect against postharvest storage rots and their effects on postharvest quality parameters in cherry tomatoes by cassia oil and calcium chloride.

    PubMed

    Feng, Wu; Zheng, Xiaodong; Chen, Jiaping

    2013-11-01

    The inhibitory effect of cassia oil alone or in combination with calcium chloride (CaCl2) against Alternaria alternata in vitro and in vivo was assessed on cherry tomatoes. The results demonstrated that concentrations of CaCl2 ranging from 0.25 to 3% enhanced the inhibitory effects of 200 ?l of cassia oil per liter on the growth of A. alternata in vitro. The combination of 0.25% CaCl2 and 500 ?l of cassia oil per liter showed a significant inhibition effect on decay development in both wounded artificially infected and unwounded naturally infected fruit. Importantly, these treatments did not reduce the overall quality of tomatoes. Defense-related enzyme activities were also evaluated. The results indicated that cassia oil alone or in combination with CaCl2 significantly enhanced defense-related enzyme activities, such as peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase. Together, these data suggest that the combination of cassia oil and CaCl2 may be an efficient method to limit cherry tomato decay caused by fungi. PMID:24215690

  12. Novel attempts for the synthesis of calcium sulfate hydrates in calcium chloride solutions under atmospheric conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jen-Chang Yang; Hong-Da Wu; Nai-Chia Teng; Dian-Yu Ji; Sheng-Yang Lee

    The medical grade calcium sulfate is widely used in clinical applications for treating bone defects. A high-purity and predictable calcium sulfate (CS) synthesis process is desirable in the medical industry. The objective of this study was to develop a one-pot method for the direct preparation of calcium sulfate hemihydrates (CSHs; such as the ?- and ?-forms) in a CaCl2 solution.

  13. Calcium chloride and gibberellic acid protect linseed ( Linum usitatissimum L.) from NaCl stress by inducing antioxidative defence system and osmoprotectant accumulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Nasir Khan; Manzer H. Siddiqui; F. Mohammad; M. Naeem; M. Masroor A. Khan

    2010-01-01

    Salinity stress affects many metabolic facets of plants and induces anatomical and morphological changes resulting in reduced\\u000a growth and productivity. To overcome the damaging effects of salinity, different strategies of the application of nutrients\\u000a with plant hormones are being adopted. The present study was carried out with an aim to find out whether application of calcium\\u000a chloride (CaCl2) and gibberellic

  14. Advanced calcium thionyl chloride high power battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peled, Emanuel

    1989-11-01

    In this phase we have demonstrated that an improved c-size Ca/TC A type cell can deliver at RT up to 5.5 Ah at low rates and 4.4 Ah at 0.9A rate. It has 10 to 80 percent more capacity than have commercial Li-TC and Li-SO2 wound C-size cells. The improved Ca-TC cell lost almost no capacity after 4 to 5 weeks of storage at 70 C. It generates less heat at 20 C under OCV conditions than equivalent Li/TC cells, having the same electrode area, i.e., it has a longer shelf life. The improved shelf-life of calcium in BaX2/TC solutions as compared to CaX2/TC solutions results mainly from the difference in the solubility or reactivity of the CaO film in those two solutions. In CaX2/TC solutions the oxide dissolves leaving the calcium with a CaCl2 layer which does not provide the metal with good protection. In BaX2/TC solutions, on the native CaO layer a BaCl2 and AlCl3 or Al2O3 layer is formed. This BaCl3, AlCl3, and Al2O3 layer does not form when the oxide is missing from the surface. Therefore cleaned calcium in BaX2/TC solution corrodes at the same rate as does calcium in CaX2/TC solutions.

  15. 40 CFR 415.40 - Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory. 415...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Chloride Production Subcategory § 415...Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory....

  16. Individual effects of sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium chloride salts on Lactobacillus pentosus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth.

    PubMed

    Bautista-Gallego, J; Arroyo-López, F N; Durán-Quintana, M C; Garrido-Fernandez, A

    2008-07-01

    A quantitative investigation on the individual effects of sodium (NaCl), potassium (KCl), calcium (CaCl2), and magnesium (MgCl2) chloride salts against Lactobacillus pentosus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two representative microorganisms of table olives and other fermented vegetables, was carried out. In order to assess their potential activities, both the kinetic growth parameters and dose-response profiles in synthetic media (deMan Rogosa Sharpe broth medium and yeast-malt-peptone-glucose broth medium, respectively) were obtained and analyzed. Microbial growth was monitored via optical density measurements as a function of contact time in the presence of progressive chloride salt concentrations. Relative maximum specific growth rate and lag-phase period were modeled as a function of the chloride salt concentrations. Moreover, for each salt and microorganism tested, the noninhibitory concentrations and the MICs were estimated and compared. All chloride salts exerted a significant antimicrobial effect on the growth cycle; particularly, CaCl2 showed a similar effect to NaCl, while KCl and MgCl2 were progressively less inhibitory. Microbial susceptibility and resistance were found to be nonlinearly dose related. PMID:18680941

  17. Effects of postexsanguination vascular infusion of cattle with a solution of saccharides, sodium chloride, and phosphates or with calcium chloride on quality and sensory traits of steaks and ground beef.

    PubMed

    Dikeman, M E; Hunt, M C; Addist, P B; Schoenbeck, H J; Pullen, M; Katsanidis, E; Yancey, E J

    2003-01-01

    Grain-finished Hereford x Angus steers (n = 36) were assigned to one of three treatmentgroups. Immediately after jugular exsanguination, 12 steers were infused at 10% of live weight via the left carotid artery with a solution developed by MPSC, Inc. (St. Paul, MN) consisting of 98.52% water, 0.97% saccharides, 0.23% sodium chloride, and 0.28% phosphate blend (MPSC); 12 steers were infused at 10% of live weight with 0.30 M CaCl2 (CaCl2); and 12 steers were exsanguinated conventionally and served as noninfused controls (CON). Declines in pH for three muscles were measured. CaCl2-infused carcasses exhibited extensive muscle contraction at the time of cooler entry. Carcasses were graded at 24 h postmortem and fabricated at 48 h postmortem. Longissimus lumborum (LL), semitendinosus (ST), and quadriceps femoris (QF) muscles were removed, vacuum packaged, and stored at 2 degrees C until 14 d postmortem. Then, 2.54-cm-thick steaks were cut from the LL and ST for shear force and sensory evaluations. Ground beef was formulated from the QF to contain 20% fat. Steers infused with MPSC and CaCl2 had 4.0 and 2.3% higher dressing percentage points, respectively, than CON steers. Calcium concentrations of the LL muscle for CaCl2- and MPSC-infused carcasses, as well as the CON carcasses, were 892.0, 158.9, and 216.6 ppm, respectively. For the TB and longissimus thoracis muscles, pH decline was more rapid for CaCl2- and MPSC-infused carcasses than for CON carcasses, but there were no differences in 24-h pH. Warner-Bratzler shear force values were much higher (P < 0.05), and descriptive attribute sensory panel tenderness scores much lower (P < 0.05), for the LL from CaCl2-infused carcasses than for MPSC-infused and CON carcasses. Flavor intensity of the LL of CaCl2-infused carcasses was reduced (P < 0.05); however, overall tenderness and flavor of the ST were unaffected (P > 0.05) by CaCl2 infusion. Beef flavor identification, brown-roasted flavor, and bloody/serumy flavor were lowest and soapy/chemical flavor was highest (P < 0.05) for both freshly cooked and warmed-over LL from CaCl2-infused carcasses. There were no distinct meat quality advantages for infusing cattle with a solution of saccharides, sodium chloride, and phosphates. Infusion with 0.30 M CaCl2 increased dressing percentage, but caused severe muscle contraction early postmortem, decreased LL tenderness markedly, and reduced flavor of LL steaks and ground beef. PMID:12597386

  18. Accelerating the sludge disintegration potential of a novel bacterial strain Planococcus jake 01 by CaCl2 induced deflocculation.

    PubMed

    Kavitha, S; Saranya, T; Kaliappan, S; Adish Kumar, S; Yeom, Ick Tae; Rajesh Banu, J

    2014-10-31

    The present study investigates the impacts of phase separated disintegration through CaCl2 (calcium chloride) mediated biosurfactant producing bacterial pretreatment. In the initial phase of the study, the flocs were disintegrated (deflocculation) with 0.06g/gSS of CaCl2. In the subsequent phase, the sludge biomass was disintegrated (cell disintegration) through potent biosurfactant producing new novel bacteria, Planococcus jake 01. The pretreatment showed that suspended solids reduction and chemical oxygen demand solubilization for deflocculated - bacterially pretreated sludge was found to be 17.14% and 14.14% which were comparatively higher than flocculated sludge (treated with bacteria alone). The biogas yield potential of deflocculated - bacterially pretreated, flocculated, and control sludges were observed to be 0.322(L/gVS), 0.225(L/gVS) and 0.145(L/gVS) respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first study to present the thorough knowledge of biogas production potential through a novel phase separated biosurfactant bacterial pretreatment. PMID:25459848

  19. Laboratory studies of the low-temperature deliquescence of calcium chloride salts: Relevance to aqueous solutions on Mars and in the Antarctic Dry Valleys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gough, R. V.; Chevrier, V.; Tolbert, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    There is significant interest in the possible existence of liquid water on current Mars. This water would likely exist as a brine in order to be stable on Mars today. It has been proposed that soil salts could form aqueous solutions through either the melting of ice by low-eutectic salts, or by the deliquescence of hygroscopic salts present in the Martian soil. The focus thus far has largely been on perchlorate species, which can melt ice at temperatures as low as 206 K and can deliquesce at relative humidity values as low as 38% RH. A Mars-relevant salt that has been neglected thus far is calcium chloride (CaCl2). Calcium has been reported to be an abundant cation at the Phoenix landing site and Mars Science Laboratory instruments have recently identified calcium as well. Simulations suggest subsurface CaCl2 is an ideal candidate to produce brines with seasonality consistent with observed recurring slope lineae (RSL) (Chevrier et al., 2012). Finally, the only terrestrial site where RSL-like features have been observed (near Don Juan Pond in the Antarctic Dry Valleys) contains abundant CaCl2. These seasonal slope streaks are thought to form when CaCl2 in the soil deliquesces due to contact with atmospheric water vapor (Dickson et al., 2013). It is important to understand how this CaCl2 interacts with water vapor at low temperatures relevant to Mars and the Martian analog sites. Here we use a Raman microscope and environmental cell to monitor the low-temperature (223 - 273 K) deliquescence (solid to aqueous phase transition) and efflorescence (aqueous to solid phase transition) of three hydration states of CaCl2 (dihydrate, tetrahydrate, hexahydrate). We have found that the deliquescence relative humidity (DRH) increases with increasing hydration state, which is an expected result. Average DRH values over the temperature range studied are 20.0 × 2.6% RH for the dihydrate, 31.8 × 6.3% RH for the tetrahydrate and 60.7 × 1.6% RH for the hexahydrate. Once the aqueous solution has formed, efflorescence (recrystallization) of the salt is kinetically hindered and supersaturated solutions can exist at humidities far below the DRH. Regardless of temperature or initial hydration state of the solid salt, we do not observe efflorescence of the aqueous solutions to occur until single digit RH values are reached. We show here that calcium chloride is at least as deliquescent as many perchlorate salts, and that solutions of calcium chloride are even more difficult to recrystallize once a brine solution has formed. These experimental results will assist with interpretation of observations of deliquescence in the Antarctic Dry Valleys and will help us understand potential liquid water formation on Mars. In addition to formation of brines through melting, deliquescence of salts such as CaCl2 is a reasonable mechanism for formation of aqueous solutions on current Mars.

  20. 40 CFR 415.40 - Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...false Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.40 Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory....

  1. 40 CFR 415.40 - Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...true Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.40 Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory....

  2. 40 CFR 415.40 - Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...true Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.40 Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory....

  3. 40 CFR 415.40 - Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...true Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.40 Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory....

  4. POSTHARVEST CALCIUM CHLORIDE DIPS OF WHOLE TOMATO FRUIT REDUCE POSTHARVEST DECAY UNDER COMMERCIAL CONDITIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research showed that mature green tomato fruit dipped 1 to 4 minutes in a 1% CaCl2 solutions before storage had significantly increased peel calcium content and reduced postharvest decay. The present experiments, conducted over 3-day periods (reps), evaluate treatment effectiveness under c...

  5. A Solution NMR Investigation into the Early Events of Amelogenin Nanosphere Self-Assembly Initiated with Sodium Chloride or Calcium Chloride

    PubMed Central

    Buchko, Garry W.; Tarasevich, Barbara J.; Bekhazi, Jacky; Snead, Malcolm L.; Shaw, Wendy J.

    2009-01-01

    Using solution-state NMR spectroscopy, new insights into the early events governing amelogenin supramolecular self-assembly have been identified using sodium chloride and calcium chloride to trigger the association. Two-dimensional 1H–15N HSQC spectra were recorded for 15N- and 13C-labeled murine amelogenin as a function of increasing NaCl and CaCl2 concentration beginning with solution conditions of 2% acetic acid at pH 3.0, where amelogenin was monomeric. Residue specific changes in molecular dynamics, manifested by the reduction in intensity and disappearance of 1H–15N HSQC cross-peaks, were observed with the addition of either salt to the protein. With increasing NaCl concentrations, residues between T21 and R31 near the N-terminus were affected first, suggesting that these residues may initiate amelogenin dimerization, the first step in nanosphere assembly. At higher NaCl concentrations, more residues near the N-terminus (Y12–I51) were affected, and with further additions of NaCl, residues near the C-terminus (L141–T171) began to show a similar change in molecular dynamics. With increasing CaCl2 concentrations, a similar stepwise change in molecular dynamics involving essentially the same set of amelogenin residues was observed. As the concentration of either salt was increased, a concomitant increase in the estimated overall rotational correlation time (?c) was observed, consistent with assembly. Self-assembly into a dimer or trimer was established with dynamic light scattering studies under similar conditions that showed an increase in diameter of the smallest species from 4.1 nm in the absence of salt to ~10 nm in the presence of salt. These results suggest a possible stepwise interaction mechanism, starting with the N-terminus and followed by the C-terminus, leading to amelogenin nanosphere assembly. PMID:19086270

  6. Effect of calcium chloride addition and draining pH on the microstructure and texture of full fat Cheddar cheese during ripening.

    PubMed

    Soodam, Kevany; Ong, Lydia; Powell, Ian B; Kentish, Sandra E; Gras, Sally L

    2015-08-15

    Calcium chloride is commonly added to cheese-milk to improve coagulum formation and to increase cheese yield but high concentrations of calcium ions can have adverse effects. In this study, confocal laser scanning microscopy and cryo-scanning electron microscopy were coupled with textural and chemical analyses to observe microstructural and biochemical changes that occur in cheese during ripening when calcium chloride is added or the draining pH altered. For the cheese prepared with no additional calcium at a draining pH of 6.0, the cheese porosity increased with ripening time and the number of protein vertices in the microscopy images declined, indicative of protein solubilisation. As the amount of CaCl2 added was increased, however, these changes became less significant. Our findings show that calcium chloride addition can be used, together with a lower draining pH, to alter the manufacturing process without significantly impacting on the quality of the mature cheese. PMID:25794728

  7. CHLORIDE, IN CALCIUM, IN pH ARSENIC, IN

    E-print Network

    CHLORIDE, IN CALCIUM, IN pH ARSENIC, IN MILLIGRAMS PER LITER MILLIGRAMS PER LITER MICROGRAMS PER concentrations, calcium concentrations, arsenic concentrations and pH after 100,000 years of simulated groundH ARSENIC, IN MILLIGRAMS PER LITER MILLIGRAMS PER LITER MICROGRAMS PER LITER #12;PHAST--A Program

  8. Sorption of estrone and estrone-3-sulfate from CaCl2 solution and artificial urine in pastoral soils of New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Scherr, Frank F; Sarmah, Ajit K; Di, Hong J; Cameron, Keith C

    2009-12-01

    Estrone (E1) and its sulfate conjugate estrone-3-sulfate (E1-3S) are released to the environment in animal wastes in significant amounts, and direct exposure occurs in grazed pasture systems. Both compounds have been shown to potentially contribute to endocrine disruption in wildlife, and knowledge about the sorption behavior of these compounds is necessary for a sound risk assessment. For labile compounds such as E1 and E1-3S, however, the standard protocols might overestimate sorption by not considering metabolite formation or allowing for equilibration that exceeds the commonly reported half-lives of these compounds. We therefore conducted modified batch sorption experiments with 0.005 M calcium chloride (CaCl2) and artificial urine solution to determine the influence of the mediator solution on the sorption of E1 and E1-3S in three pasture soils from New Zealand. Sorption isotherms of both compounds were nonlinear, and the Freundlich equation was found adequate to describe the isotherms. The sorption potential of E1-3S was about one order of magnitude lower than for the free counterpart, and the Kf values significantly changed between the two mediator solutions. The calculation of concentration-dependent effective distribution coefficients (Kdeff) revealed that for a range of realistic exposure concentrations in a grazed dairy system, the common approach of using CaCl2 would deliver incorrect inferences for a sound risk assessment. PMID:19656001

  9. Renal electrolyte excretion and renin release during calcium and parathormone infusions in conscious rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Peart, W S; Roddis, S A; Unwin, R J

    1986-01-01

    Following a random block experimental design in each case, three repeated measurement studies were carried out in three different groups of conscious rabbits, to investigate the renal effects of increasing doses of intravenous calcium chloride (CaCl2) and bovine parathyroid hormone (PTH). In the first study, each rabbit received either CaCl2 (0.15, 0.3, 0.5 or 1.0 mg kg-1 min-1) or vehicle alone (control) for 160 min. In the second study, rabbits were given either PTH (0.15 microgram kg-1 min-1), CaCl2 (1.0 mg kg-1 min-1), PTH plus CaCl2 (0.15 microgram kg-1 min-1 and 1.0 mg kg-1 min-1, respectively) or vehicle alone; PTH was infused for just over 60 min. In the third study, a much smaller dose (0.05 mg kg-1 min-1) of CaCl2 was infused for 100 min. CaCl2 infusion produced a striking fall in fractional excretion of sodium of at least 50% (P less than 0.01), but this was not dose related, being almost maximal at the smaller doses infused. Although this effect was evident in the absence of any changes in total plasma calcium concentration at the lower doses of CaCl2, renal calcium excretion was increased between 2- and 20-fold (P less than 0.01) at all doses infused. Fractional excretion of chloride doubled at the two higher doses of CaCl2 (P less than 0.01), but potassium excretion was unchanged. There were no consistent alterations in mean arterial blood pressure, effective renal plasma flow, glomerular filtration rate or plasma renin activity (PRA); total plasma calcium concentration was consistently elevated only during infusion of the high dose by just under 1 mmol l-1. PTH infusion had no measured effect on fractional excretion of sodium or renal calcium excretion, but doubled fractional potassium excretion (P less than 0.05). Heart rate and PRA increased (P less than 0.01 and less than 0.05, respectively), the latter by 50%, but systemic pressure and renal haemodynamics were not significantly affected. By contrast, PTH infused with CaCl2 produced a 4-fold rise in fractional sodium excretion and although renal calcium excretion remained increased, it was reduced by ca. 80% when compared with renal calcium excretion during infusion of CaCl2 alone. Infusion of PTH alone increased PRA, but when PTH and CaCl2 were infused together, PRA did not change.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3528454

  10. Preparation and Characterization of a Calcium Phosphate Ceramic for the Immobilization of Chloride-containing Intermediate Level Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Metcalfe, Brian; Donald, Ian W.; Scheele, Randall D.; Strachan, Denis M.

    2003-12-01

    Attention has recently been given to the immobilization of special categories of radioactive wastes, some of which contain high concentrations of actinide chlorides. Although vitrification in phosphate glass has been proposed, this was rejected because of the high losses of chloride. On the basis of non-radioactive and, more recently, radioactive studies, we have shown that calcium phosphate is an effective host for immobilizing the chloride constituents [1]. In this instance, the chlorine is retained as chloride, rather than evolved as a chlorine-bearing gas. The immobilized product is in the form of a free-flowing, non-hygroscopic powder, in which the chlorides are chemically combined within the mineral phases chlorapatite [Ca5(PO4)3Cl] and spodiosite [Ca2(PO4)Cl]. Data from studies on non-radioactive simulated waste consisting of a mixture of CaCl2 and SmCl3, and radioactive simulated waste composed of CaCl2 with PuCl3 or PuCl3 and AmCl3, are presented and compared. The XRD data confirm the presence of chlorapatite and spodiosite in the non-radioactive and radioactive materials. The durability of all specimens was measured with a modified MCC-1 test. Releases of Cl after 28 days were 1.6 x 10-3 g m-2 for the non-radioactive specimens and 7 x 10-3 g m-2 for the Pu-bearing specimens. Releases of Ca after 28 days were 0.3 x 10-3 and 2.0 x 10-3 g m-2 for the non-radioactive composition and the Pu composition, respectively, whilst release of Pu from the radioactive specimens was lower for the mixed Pu/Am specimen at 1.2 x 10-5g m-2. The release of Am from the mixed Pu/Am composition was exceptionally low at 2.4 x 10-7 g m-2. Overall, the release rate data suggest that the ceramics dissolve congruently, followed by precipitation of Sm, Pu and Am as less soluble phases, possibly oxides or phosphates. The differences in behaviour noted between non-radioactive and radioactive specimens are interpreted in terms of the crystal chemistry of the individual systems.

  11. Plasma ionic calcium levels following injection of chloride, gluconate, and gluceptate salts of calcium.

    PubMed

    White, R D; Goldsmith, R S; Rodriguez, R; Moffitt, E A; Pluth, J R

    1976-04-01

    The ionic equivalency of three calcium salts was tested in 15 patients undergoing cardiac surgery with extracorporeal circulation. Of the three salts tested (chloride, gluconate, gluceptate), only calcium chloride showed a reproducible and highly significant relationship between the increase in total calcium and the increase in ionic calcium. It is suggested that extracorporeal circulation may be one clinical situation in which use of a calcium electrode may be of major value. The marked distortion of plasma proteins and pH, the addition of large amounts of citrate, and the differences between various calcium salts indicate that it is probably not possible to predict ionic calcium with assurance and that direct measurement may be necessary for optimal therapy. PMID:1263543

  12. Calcium phosphate stabilization of fly ash with chloride extraction.

    PubMed

    Nzihou, Ange; Sharrock, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    Municipal solid waste incinerator by products include fly ash and air pollution control residues. In order to transform these incinerator wastes into reusable mineral species, soluble alkali chlorides must be separated and toxic trace elements must be stabilized in insoluble form. We show that alkali chlorides can be extracted efficiently in an aqueous extraction step combining a calcium phosphate gel precipitation. In such a process, sodium and potassium chlorides are obtained free from calcium salts, and the trace metal ions are immobilized in the calcium phosphate matrix. Moderate calcination of the chemically treated fly ash leads to the formation of cristalline hydroxylapatite. Fly ash spiked with copper ions and treated by this process shows improved stability of metal ions. Leaching tests with water or EDTA reveal a significant drop in metal ion dissolution. Hydroxylapatite may trap toxic metals and also prevent their evaporation during thermal treatments. Incinerator fly ash together with air pollution control residues, treated by the combined chloride extraction and hydroxylapatite formation process may be considered safe to use as a mineral filler in value added products such as road base or cement blocks. PMID:12003153

  13. Advanced calcium-thionyl chloride high-power battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peled, Emanuel

    1990-08-01

    In this phase it is demonstrated that Ca/SrX2 + 7 or 20 percent SO2-TC cells (A7 and A20 types) can deliver at RT up to 5.5 Ah at low rates and 4.4 Ah at 0.9 A. These cells have 10 to 80 percent more capacity than have commercial Li-TC and Li-SO2 wound c-size cells. The improved A7 and A20 types cells lost almost no capacity after 4 to 5 weeks of storage at 70 C. The A20 type cell generates less heat at 20 C under OCV conditions than equivalent Li/TC cells, having the same electrode area, i.e., it has a longer shelf life. The addition of P40 additive to SrX2 + TC + SO2 solutions decrease further the corrosion rate of calcium. The lowest corrosion rate found for solutions containing 20 percent SO2 + 0.3 percent P40. Formulation of the SrX2-TC electrolyte with 20 percent SO2 and 0.3 percent P40 (A20S type cell) found to have the following advantages: it increases shelf life, it increases load voltage and Faradaic efficiency. A preliminary specification of A20S type Ca-TC cell is enclosed. The improved shelf-life of calcium in BaX2/TC solutions as compared to CaX2/TC solutions results mainly for the difference in the solubility or reactivity of the CaO film in those two solutions. In CaX2/TC solutions the oxide dissolves leaving the calcium with a CaCl2 layer which does not provide the metal with good protection. In BaX2/TC solutions, on the native CaO layer a BaCl2+AlCl3 or Al2O3 layer is formed. This BaCl3+AlCl3+Al2O3 layer does not form when the oxide is missing from the surface.

  14. Effect of pre-harvest calcium chloride applications on fruit calcium level and post-harvest anthracnose disease of papaya

    E-print Network

    Biggs, Alan R.

    Effect of pre-harvest calcium chloride applications on fruit calcium level and post October 2013 Keywords: Papaya Anthracnose Calcium Disease incidence Disease severity a b s t r a c losses. The goal of this research was to use pre-harvest calcium applications to reduce anthracnose

  15. Intracellular calcium activates a chloride current in canine ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Zygmunt, A C

    1994-11-01

    The contribution of chloride and potassium to the 4-aminopyridine (4-AP)-resistant transient outward current was investigated in dog cardiac myocytes. Whole cell currents were recorded at 37 degrees C in single cells dissociated from epicardial and midmyocardial regions of the canine ventricle. Sodium-calcium exchange current and voltage-dependent transient outward potassium current (IA) were blocked in sodium-free solutions containing 2 mM 4-AP; sodium channels were inactivated by the -50-mV holding potential. When patch pipettes contained 0.4-0.8 mM ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid, voltage-clamp steps over the range -20 to +50 mV activated an inward calcium current (ICa) and a Ca(2+)-activated chloride current [ICl(Ca)]. ICl(Ca) was blocked by 200 microM 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid, 1 mM 4-acetamido-4'-isothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (SITS), or reduction of external chloride. Independent of the presence of potassium, the reversal potential of the SITS-sensitive current varied with extracellular chloride, as predicted for a chloride-selective conductance. The bell-shaped current-voltage relation of ICl(Ca) has a threshold of -20 mV and a peak at +40 mV. No evidence could be found for a Ca(2+)-activated potassium current or a Ca(2+)-activated nonspecific cation current under these conditions. ICl(Ca) contributed to oscillatory inward currents at diastolic potentials in cells superfused by isoproterenol and high Ca2+, suggesting a role for this current in triggered arrhythmias associated with delayed afterdepolarizations. In the normal heart, ICl(Ca) is likely to contribute to rate- and rhythm-dependent repolarization of the cardiac action potential. PMID:7977830

  16. Uptake of chloride and carbonate ions by calcium monosulfoaluminate hydrate

    SciTech Connect

    Mesbah, Adel [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, CEA DEN/DTCD/SPDE, F-30207 Bagnols sur Ceze (France); Clermont Universite, ENSCCF, Laboratoire des Materiaux Inorganiques, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); Cau-dit-Coumes, Celine, E-mail: celine.cau-dit-coumes@cea.fr [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, CEA DEN/DTCD/SPDE, F-30207 Bagnols sur Ceze (France); Renaudin, Guillaume [Clermont Universite, ENSCCF, Laboratoire des Materiaux Inorganiques, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); CNRS, UMR 6002, F-63177 Aubiere (France); Frizon, Fabien [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, CEA DEN/DTCD/SPDE, F-30207 Bagnols sur Ceze (France); Leroux, Fabrice [Clermont Universite, Universite Blaise Pascal, Laboratoire des Materiaux Inorganiques, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); CNRS, UMR 6002, F-63177 Aubiere (France)

    2012-08-15

    Decommissioning of old nuclear reactors may produce waste streams containing chlorides and carbonates, including radioactive {sup 36}Cl{sup -} and {sup 14}CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}. Their insolubilization by calcium monosulfoaluminate hydrate was investigated. Carbonates were readily depleted from the solution, giving at thermodynamic equilibrium monocarboaluminate, monocarboaluminate + calcite, or calcite only, depending on the initial ratio between the anion and calcium monosulfoaluminate hydrate. Chloride ions reacted more slowly and were precipitated as Kuzel's salt, Kuzel's and Friedel's salts, or Friedel's salt only. Rietveld refinement of X-Ray powder diffraction patterns was successfully used to quantify the phase distributions, which were compared to thermodynamic calculations. Moreover, analysing the lattice parameters of Kuzel's salt as a function of its chloride content showed the occurrence of a restricted solid solution towards the sulfate side with general formula 3CaO{center_dot}Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}{center_dot}xCaCl{sub 2}{center_dot}(1 - x)CaSO{sub 4}{center_dot}(12 - 2x){center_dot}H{sub 2}O (0.36 {<=} x {<=} 0.50).

  17. Histological effects of calcium chloride in stored apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mature apples, Malus domestica Borkh., cv. 'Golden Delicious' were immersed for 2 min in 0, 0.14, 0.27, or 0.41 mol L-1 (0, 2%, 4%, or 6%, respectively) aqueous solutions (w/v) of CaCl2 at 0 or 68.95 Kpa, and stored at 0°C. Histological samples of peel/cortex were taken at harvest and at four month...

  18. Liquid Calcium Chloride Solar Storage: Concept and Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Quinnell, J. A.; Davidson, J. H.; Burch, J.

    2010-01-01

    Aqueous calcium chloride has a number of potential advantages as a compact and long-term solar storage medium compared to sensibly heated water. The combination of sensible and chemical binding energy of the liquid desiccant provides higher energy densities and lower thermal losses, as well as a temperature lift during discharge via an absorption heat pump. Calcium chloride is an excellent choice among desiccant materials because it is relatively inexpensive, non-toxic, and environmentally safe. This paper provides an overview of its application for solar storage and presents a novel concept for storing the liquid desiccant in a single storage vessel. The storage system uses an internal heat exchanger to add and discharge thermal energy and to help manage the mass, momentum, and energy transfer in the tank. The feasibility of the proposed concept is demonstrated via a computational fluid dynamic study of heat and mass transfer in the system over a range of Rayleigh, Lewis, Prandtl, and buoyancy ratio numbers expected in practice.

  19. The CaCl2 transition in Stishovite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, R. E.

    2001-12-01

    Rutile-structured SiO2, or stishovite, has been the subject of intense theoretical study for the development and testing of theoretical methods.1 The pressure induced phase transition of stishovite to the CaCl2 structure is one of the few cases of phase transitions predicted from first-principles electronic structure theory before being proven experimentally. Such tests are important, because one does not know to what level to trust theoretical predictions unless there are test predictions that are fulfilled. There were some indications of a phase transition from earlier ionic model calculations,3 but confidence in the predicted pressure was low because the model was not sufficiently accurate for the equation of state. Then, Linearized Augmented Plane Wave (LAPW) calculations, which make no assumptions abouyt ionicity, were performed for SiO2, and clearly showed an elastic instability at about 45 GPa.2 Non-hydrostatic experiments showed evidence for a transition, but at about 100 GPa.4 Raman experiments showed softening of the B1g Raman mode frequency, which, if extrapolated, would vanish at about 100 GPa.5 Theory predicted an transition, where the elastic anomaly c11-c12=0, at which point the Raman mode would begin to increase in frequency. A hydrostatic single crystal Raman experiment was done to higher pressures, and the transition was found at about 45-50 GPa, and the Raman spectra were in good agreement with the theoretical predictions.5 Single crystal hydrostatic x-ray studies have verified the transition, and showed that the transition is weakly first-order, with some hysteresis.7 Progress in theoretical studies of stishovite and the transition will be reviewed. 1 Cohen, R. E. In: Silica: Physical Behavior, Geochemistry, and Materials Applications. P. Heaney, C. T. Prewitt and G. V. Gibbs. Washington, D.C., Mineralogical Society of America. 29: 369-402, 1994. 2 Cohen, R. E., In: High Pressure Research in Mineral Physics: Application to Earth and Planetary Science. M. H. Manghnani and Y. Syono. Washington, D.C., AGU: 425-432, 1992. 3 Cohen, R. E. Geophys. Res. Lett. 14: 37-40, 1987. 4 Tsuchida, Y. and T. Yagi, Nature 340: 217-220, 1989. 5 Hemley, R. J., In: High-Pressure Research in Mineral Physics. M. H. Manghnani and Y. Syono. Tokyo, Terra Scientific: 347-359, 1987. 6 Kingma, K. J., R. E. Cohen, R. J. Hemley and H. K. Mao, Nature 374: 243-245, 1995. 7 Hemley, R. J., J. Shu, M. A. Carpenter, J. Hu, H. K. Mao and K. J. Kingma, Solid State Comm. 114: 527-532, 2000.

  20. Mineral Trioxide Aggregate Mixed with Normal Saline, Calcium Chloride or KY Jelly as Apical Plug in Simulated Open Apices: An In vitro Microleakage Study

    PubMed Central

    Mehrvarzfar, Payman; Akhavan, Hengameh; Ghasemi, Sara; Khodaei, Fatemeh; Tour Savadkouhi, Sohrab; Dianat, Omid

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) mixed with normal saline has short working time, delayed setting time, and poor consistency when used as an apical plug. A preliminary study suggested that substituting normal saline with KY Jelly or 5% calcium chloride (CaCl2) as a vehicle expedites the setting time of MTA. The present in vitro study compared the microleakage of ProRoot MTA mixed with normal saline (MS) to that of ProRoot MTA mixed with KY Jelly and/or 5% CaCl2 in simulated canals with open apices. Materials and methods: Thirty six single-rooted extracted human teeth were cleaned and shaped with ProTaper rotary system to make 36 standardized artificially created open apices. Teeth were randomly divided into three experimental groups (n=10) and two control groups (n=3). In group 1, MTA was mixed with normal saline (MS) and placed into the canals to form 4 to 5 mm apical plugs. In group 2, MTA was mixed with 5% CaCl2 (MC) and in group 3, MTA was mixed with KY Jelly (MK). The other two groups served as positive and negative controls. The remaining canal spaces in the experimental groups were backfilled with thermoplasticized gutta-percha without sealer. Dye penetration and clearing was used to evaluate the sealing ability of each group. The samples were then examined under stereomicroscope to measure the microleakage of different MTA mixtures in mm. Data were statistically analyzed using One-Sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for determination of normal distribution and then by one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s tests to detect any significance. Results: Positive and negative controls responded as expected. The MS group showed the least mean dye penetration value. There was a significant difference between MS with other groups (P<0.05) but no difference was found between MC and MK groups. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this in vitro study, we can conclude that among these three vehicles, normal saline mixed with ProRoot MTA has the least amount of microleakage in canals with open apices. PMID:24396375

  1. Functional and molecular properties of calcium precipitated soy glycinin and the effect of glycation with ?-carrageenan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allaoua Achouri; Joyce Irene Boye; Denis Belanger; Tiphaine Chiron; Varoujan A. Yaylayan; Faustinus K. Yeboah

    2010-01-01

    This study describes an extraction process for the preparation of highly purified calcium precipitated glycinin (11S). Initial extraction of soy proteins using isoelectric precipitation at pH 6.8 followed by cryo-precipitation yielded 4.2% product (11S) recovery with 98% protein purity for the control extracted with NaOH. Addition of calcium chloride (CaCl2) doubled the extraction yield (9%) compared to the control and

  2. Electrolytic Reduction of Titania Slag in Molten Calcium Chloride Bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanty, Jayashree

    2012-05-01

    Ferro-titanium is prepared by direct electrolytic reduction of titania-rich slag obtained from plasma smelting of ilmenite in molten CaCl2. The product after electro-reduction is characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and electron probe microanalysis. The electrolysis is carried out at a cell voltage of 3.0 V, taking graphite as the electrolysis cell as well as the anode, and a titania-rich slag piece wrapped by a nichrome wire is used as the cathode.

  3. Calcium Chloride in Neonatal Parenteral Nutrition: Compatibility Studies Using Laser Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Huston, Robert K.; Christensen, J. Mark; Karnpracha, Chanida; Rosa, Jill E.; Clark, Sara M.; Migaki, Evelyn A.; Wu, YingXing

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We have previously reported results of precipitation studies for neonatal parenteral nutrition solutions containing calcium chloride and sodium phosphate using visual methods to determine compatibility. The purpose of this study was to do further testing of compatibility for solutions containing calcium chloride using more sensitive methods. Methods Solutions of Trophamine (Braun Medical Inc, Irvine, CA) and Premasol (Baxter Pharmaceuticals, Deerfield, IL) were compounded with calcium chloride and potassium phosphate. Controls contained no calcium or phosphate. After incubation at 37° for 24 hours solutions without visual precipitation were analyzed to determine mean particle size using dynamic light scattering from a laser light source. Results Particle sizes were similar for control solutions and those without visual precipitation and a mean particle size <1000 nm. Compatible solutions were defined as those with added calcium and phosphate with no visual evidence of precipitation and mean particle size <1000 nm. In solutions containing 2.5–3% amino acids and 10 mmol/L of calcium chloride the maximum amount of potassium phosphate that was compatible was 7.5 mmol/L. Conclusion Maximum amounts of phosphate that could be added to parenteral nutrition solutions containing Trophamine and calcium chloride were about 7.5–10 mmol/L less for a given concentration of calcium based upon laser methodology compared to visual techniques to determine compatibility. There were minor differences in compatibility when adding calcium chloride and potassium phosphate to Premasol versus Trophamine. PMID:25192060

  4. Advanced calcium-thionyl chloride high-power battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peled, Emanuel

    1989-07-01

    Recently, a breakthrough was made in the development of two advanced Ca-TC systems which have much better electric storage properties than the state-of-the-art Ca-SOC cell. This was done by replacing the CaX2 (X=AlCl4) electrolyte by SrX2 (type A), or BaX2 (type B). The project's goals are to gain a better understanding of the electrochemistry of the advanced systems and to establish their safety and performance. In this phase, the cell performance was improved significantly. An improved C-size A7 type cell delivers 4.4 Ah at 0.9 A rate and room temperature which is 50 percent more than similar size commercial lithium cells have. The SAFT LSH14 lithium-thionyl chloride and the Duracell L028SH lithium-SO2 cells have at this rate only 2.9 and 2.7 Ah respectively. During one year of storage at room temperature the heat generation rate of 150 sq cm C-size A7 type cells decreased to a level of 60 to 70 microwatts. A cell lost 0.3 Ah after this storage period. The effect of several parameters on the corrosion rate of calcium in TC solutions was studied. Preliminary results indicate: SO2 decreases corrosion, there is no stress corrosion due to twisting of Ca foils, the native oxide layer helps in preventing corrosion, Ca foils as received contain only about 90 percent metallic calcium. The role native calcium oxide layer plays depends on the type of electrolyte used.

  5. Effects of postexsanguination vascular infusion of carcasses with calcium chloride or a solution of saccharides, sodium chloride, and phosphates on beef display-color stability.

    PubMed

    Hunt, M C; Schoenbeck, J J; Yancey, E J; Dikeman, M E; Loughin, T M; Addis, P B

    2003-03-01

    Hereford x Angus crossbred steers (n = 36) were stunned, exsanguinated, and infused via the carotid artery either with an aqueous solution containing 98.52% water, 0.97% saccharides, 0.23% sodium chloride, and 0.28% phosphates (MPSC; n = 12) or with 0.3 M CaCl2 (n = 12). The remaining 12 steers served as noninfused controls. At 48 h postmortem, the quadriceps muscles and subcutaneous fat were removed from the carcasses, frozen, and later made into ground beef (18 to 20% fat). The longissimus lumborum (LL), semimembranosus, and psoas major (PM) also were removed, vacuum packaged, aged until 14 d postmortem, and then one steak was sliced from each muscle for visual and instrumental color evaluations. The inside (ISM) and outside (OSM) portions of the SM were evaluated separately. The LL and OSM steaks from MPSC-infused carcasses had a lighter red (P < 0.05) initial appearance than steaks from the other treatments. The LL steaks from noninfused carcasses had the most (P < 0.05) uniform color; the MPSC treatment was intermediate, and the CaCl2 treatment was the most two-toned. Steaks from both infusion treatments had higher (P < 0.05) L* values for the LL, ISM, and OSM muscles compared with noninfused carcasses. In general, the LL from CaCl2-infused carcasses had lower (P < 0.05) a* values, saturation indices, and 630 nm to 580 nm reflectance values, and had larger (P < 0.05) hue angles. Infusion with MPSC increased (P < 0.05) hue angles in the LL and OSM. Display color stability was lowest (P < 0.05) for LL steaks from CaCl2-infused carcasses, whereas steaks from MPSC-infused carcasses were lighter red in initial color, but otherwise had display color stability similar to those from noninfused carcasses. No differences (P > 0.05) due to infusion were found for any color traits for the PM muscle and ground beef. Carotid artery vascular infusion of carcasses with CaCl2 resulted in undesirable meat colors, whereas the MPSC solution lightened loin and inside round color in a desirable way, but the color stability was slightly less compared to muscle from noninfused carcasses. Infusion effects were not consistent among muscles, and further research will be needed to determine what caused these differences. PMID:12661647

  6. Calciothermic reduction of titanium oxide and in-situ electrolysis in molten CaCl 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryosuke O. Suzuki; Katsutoshi Ono; Koh Teranuma

    2003-01-01

    A concept for calciothermic direct reduction of titanium dioxide in molten CaCl2 is proposed and experimentally tested. This production process consists of a single cell, where both the thermochemical reaction\\u000a of the calciothermic reduction and the electrochemical reaction for recovery of the reducing agent, Ca, coexist in the same\\u000a molten CaCl2 bath. A few molar percentages of Ca dissolve in

  7. Production of Titanium Powder by Sodiothermic Reduction in CaCl2 Molten Salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Chao; Wang, Zheng; Hou, Jungang; Jiao, Shuqiang; Zhu, Hongmin

    2014-09-01

    A new sodiothermic reduction process of TiO2 in CaCl2 melt was proposed aimed at fine Ti powder preparation. The chemical analysis and direct potentiometric methods were used to investigate the reaction pathway of sodiothermic reduction in CaCl2 melt. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. It was found that when reductant of Na was added into the CaCl2 melt, Ca2+ was reduced to Ca by Na and Ca dissolved in the CaCl2 melt. The whole melt would have the reducing power with dissolved Ca. Using this melt as a reaction medium, fine and uniform Ti powder with a purity of around 99 mass pct was successfully produced at 1173 K (900 °C). In addition, as the CaCl2 melt could dissolve about 20 mol pct CaO, it was found that the molar ratio of TiO2 and CaCl2 should be 1:20 to eliminate the by-product CaO from the reaction interface within the experimental period to continue the reduction.

  8. Structures and spectroscopic characterization of calcium chloride-nicotinamide, -isonicotinamide, -picolinamide and praseodymium bromide-nicotinamide complexes.

    PubMed

    Xue, Junhui; Jiang, Ye; Li, Weihong; Yang, Limin; Xu, Yizhuang; Zhao, Guozhong; Zhang, Gaohui; Bu, Xiaoxia; Liu, Kexin; Chen, Jia'er; Wu, Jinguang

    2015-02-25

    The coordination structures formed by calcium complexes with nicotinamide (na), isonicotinamide (ina) and picolinamide (pa) and praseodymium bromide-na are reported. The structures of CaCl2·(C6H6N2O)2·2H2O (Ca-na), CaCl2·(C6H6N2O)2·4H2O (Ca-ina), CaCl2·(C6H6N2O)2·5H2O (Ca-pa) and PrBr3·(C6H6N2O)2·6H2O (PrBr-na) in the solid state have been characterized by X-ray single crystal diffraction, FTIR, FIR, THz and Raman spectroscopies. Carbonyl oxygen of nicotinamide is coordinated to Ca(2+), but it is O-monodentate (carbonyl oxygen) and N,O-bidentate ligand (pyridyl nitrogen and carbonyl oxygen) for Pr(3+) to form a chain structure in PrBr-na. For isonicotinamide, only carbonyl oxygen atom is coordinated to Ca(2+). Pyridyl nitrogen and carbonyl oxygen of picolinamide are coordinated to Ca(2+) to form a five-membered ring structure. The crystal structure and spectroscopic results indicate the differences of the coordination of Ca and Pr ions, the changes of hydrogen bonds and conformation of the ligands induced by complexation. Unlike transition metal ions, Sr(2+) or lanthanide ions, Ca(2+) is inclined to coordinate to carbonyl oxygen atoms of the ligands. PMID:25280333

  9. Structures and spectroscopic characterization of calcium chloride-nicotinamide, -isonicotinamide, -picolinamide and praseodymium bromide-nicotinamide complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Junhui; Jiang, Ye; Li, Weihong; Yang, Limin; Xu, Yizhuang; Zhao, Guozhong; Zhang, Gaohui; Bu, Xiaoxia; Liu, Kexin; Chen, Jia'er; Wu, Jinguang

    2015-02-01

    The coordination structures formed by calcium complexes with nicotinamide (na), isonicotinamide (ina) and picolinamide (pa) and praseodymium bromide-na are reported. The structures of CaCl2·(C6H6N2O)2·2H2O (Ca-na), CaCl2·(C6H6N2O)2·4H2O (Ca-ina), CaCl2·(C6H6N2O)2·5H2O (Ca-pa) and PrBr3·(C6H6N2O)2·6H2O (PrBr-na) in the solid state have been characterized by X-ray single crystal diffraction, FTIR, FIR, THz and Raman spectroscopies. Carbonyl oxygen of nicotinamide is coordinated to Ca2+, but it is O-monodentate (carbonyl oxygen) and N,O-bidentate ligand (pyridyl nitrogen and carbonyl oxygen) for Pr3+ to form a chain structure in PrBr-na. For isonicotinamide, only carbonyl oxygen atom is coordinated to Ca2+. Pyridyl nitrogen and carbonyl oxygen of picolinamide are coordinated to Ca2+ to form a five-membered ring structure. The crystal structure and spectroscopic results indicate the differences of the coordination of Ca and Pr ions, the changes of hydrogen bonds and conformation of the ligands induced by complexation. Unlike transition metal ions, Sr2+ or lanthanide ions, Ca2+ is inclined to coordinate to carbonyl oxygen atoms of the ligands.

  10. Comparative proteomic and metabolomic analyses reveal mechanisms of improved cold stress tolerance in bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.) by exogenous calcium.

    PubMed

    Shi, Haitao; Ye, Tiantian; Zhong, Bao; Liu, Xun; Chan, Zhulong

    2014-11-01

    As an important second messenger, calcium is involved in plant cold stress response, including chilling (<20 °C) and freezing (<0 °C). In this study, exogenous application of calcium chloride (CaCl2 ) improved both chilling and freezing stress tolerances, while ethylene glycol-bis-(?-aminoethyl) ether-N,N,N,N-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) reversed CaCl2 effects in bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.). Physiological analyses showed that CaCl2 treatment alleviated the reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst and cell damage triggered by chilling stress, via activating antioxidant enzymes, non-enzymatic glutathione antioxidant pool, while EGTA treatment had the opposite effects. Additionally, comparative proteomic analysis identified 51 differentially expressed proteins that were enriched in redox, tricarboxylicacid cycle, glycolysis, photosynthesis, oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, and amino acid metabolisms. Consistently, 42 metabolites including amino acids, organic acids, sugars, and sugar alcohols were regulated by CaCl2 treatment under control and cold stress conditions, further confirming the common modulation of CaCl2 treatment in carbon metabolites and amino acid metabolism. Taken together, this study reported first evidence of the essential and protective roles of endogenous and exogenous calcium in bermudagrass response to cold stress, partially via activation of the antioxidants and modulation of several differentially expressed proteins and metabolic homeostasis in the process of cold acclimation. PMID:24428341

  11. Evaluation of calcium chloride and ammonium thiosulfate as ammonia volatilization inhibitors for surface-applied urea

    E-print Network

    Sloan, John J.

    1989-01-01

    EVALUATION OF CALCIUM CHLORIDE AND AMMONIUM THIOSULFATE AS AMMONIA VOLATILIZATION INHIBITORS FOR SURFACE-APPLIED UREA A Thesis by JOHN J. SLOAN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas AgcM University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1989 Ma!or Subject: Soil Science EVALUATION OF CALCIUM CHLORIDE AND AMMONIUM THIOSULFATE AS AMMONIA VOLATILIZATION INHIBITORS FOR SURFACE-APPLIED UREA A Thesis by JOHN J. SLOAN Approved as to style...

  12. Glucose stimulates calcium-activated chloride secretion in small intestinal cells.

    PubMed

    Yin, Liangjie; Vijaygopal, Pooja; MacGregor, Gordon G; Menon, Rejeesh; Ranganathan, Perungavur; Prabhakaran, Sreekala; Zhang, Lurong; Zhang, Mei; Binder, Henry J; Okunieff, Paul; Vidyasagar, Sadasivan

    2014-04-01

    The sodium-coupled glucose transporter-1 (SGLT1)-based oral rehydration solution (ORS) used in the management of acute diarrhea does not substantially reduce stool output, despite the fact that glucose stimulates the absorption of sodium and water. To explain this phenomenon, we investigated the possibility that glucose might also stimulate anion secretion. Transepithelial electrical measurements and isotope flux measurements in Ussing chambers were used to study the effect of glucose on active chloride and fluid secretion in mouse small intestinal cells and human Caco-2 cells. Confocal fluorescence laser microscopy and immunohistochemistry measured intracellular changes in calcium, sodium-glucose linked transporter, and calcium-activated chloride channel (anoctamin 1) expression. In addition to enhancing active sodium absorption, glucose increased intracellular calcium and stimulated electrogenic chloride secretion. Calcium imaging studies showed increased intracellular calcium when intestinal cells were exposed to glucose. Niflumic acid, but not glibenclamide, inhibited glucose-stimulated chloride secretion in mouse small intestines and in Caco-2 cells. Glucose-stimulated chloride secretion was not seen in ileal tissues incubated with the intracellular calcium chelater BAPTA-AM and the sodium-potassium-2 chloride cotransporter 1 (NKCC1) blocker bumetanide. These observations establish that glucose not only stimulates active Na absorption, a well-established phenomenon, but also induces a Ca-activated chloride secretion. This may explain the failure of glucose-based ORS to markedly reduce stool output in acute diarrhea. These results have immediate potential to improve the treatment outcomes for acute and/or chronic diarrheal diseases by replacing glucose with compounds that do not stimulate chloride secretion. PMID:24477233

  13. Calcium-activated chloride channels in the apical region of mouse vomeronasal sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Dibattista, Michele; Amjad, Asma; Maurya, Devendra Kumar; Sagheddu, Claudia; Montani, Giorgia; Tirindelli, Roberto; Menini, Anna

    2012-07-01

    The rodent vomeronasal organ plays a crucial role in several social behaviors. Detection of pheromones or other emitted signaling molecules occurs in the dendritic microvilli of vomeronasal sensory neurons, where the binding of molecules to vomeronasal receptors leads to the influx of sodium and calcium ions mainly through the transient receptor potential canonical 2 (TRPC2) channel. To investigate the physiological role played by the increase in intracellular calcium concentration in the apical region of these neurons, we produced localized, rapid, and reproducible increases in calcium concentration with flash photolysis of caged calcium and measured calcium-activated currents with the whole cell voltage-clamp technique. On average, a large inward calcium-activated current of -261 pA was measured at -50 mV, rising with a time constant of 13 ms. Ion substitution experiments showed that this current is anion selective. Moreover, the chloride channel blockers niflumic acid and 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid partially inhibited the calcium-activated current. These results directly demonstrate that a large chloride current can be activated by calcium in the apical region of mouse vomeronasal sensory neurons. Furthermore, we showed by immunohistochemistry that the calcium-activated chloride channels TMEM16A/anoctamin1 and TMEM16B/anoctamin2 are present in the apical layer of the vomeronasal epithelium, where they largely colocalize with the TRPC2 transduction channel. Immunocytochemistry on isolated vomeronasal sensory neurons showed that TMEM16A and TMEM16B coexpress in the neuronal microvilli. Therefore, we conclude that microvilli of mouse vomeronasal sensory neurons have a high density of calcium-activated chloride channels that may play an important role in vomeronasal transduction. PMID:22732308

  14. ANO2 is the cilial calcium-activated chloride channel that may mediate olfactory amplification

    PubMed Central

    Stephan, Aaron B.; Shum, Eleen Y.; Hirsh, Sarah; Cygnar, Katherine D.; Reisert, Johannes; Zhao, Haiqing

    2009-01-01

    For vertebrate olfactory signal transduction, a calcium-activated chloride conductance serves as a major amplification step. However, the molecular identity of the olfactory calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) is unknown. Here we report a proteomic screen for cilial membrane proteins of mouse olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) that identified all the known olfactory transduction components as well as Anoctamin 2 (ANO2). Ano2 transcripts were expressed specifically in OSNs in the olfactory epithelium, and ANO2::EGFP fusion protein localized to the OSN cilia when expressed in vivo using an adenoviral vector. Patch-clamp analysis revealed that ANO2, when expressed in HEK-293 cells, forms a CaCC and exhibits channel properties closely resembling the native olfactory CaCC. Considering these findings together, we propose that ANO2 constitutes the olfactory calcium-activated chloride channel. PMID:19561302

  15. Chloride chemical form in various types of fly ash.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fenfen; Takaoka, Masaki; Shiota, Kenji; Oshita, Kazuyuki; Kitajima, Yoshinori

    2008-06-01

    Chloride content is a critical problem for the reuse of fly ash as a raw material in cement, and the method used by recyclers to reduce the fly ash chloride content depends on the chemical form of the chlorides. However, limited information is available on the quantitative distribution of chlorides and the identity of some chlorides such as Friedel's salt. We examined chloride forms and percentages using X-ray absorption near edge structure and X-ray diffraction analyses, as well as corresponding washing experiments. Approximately 15% of the chlorine in raw fly ash was estimated to be in the form of NaCI, 10% in KCl, 50% in CaCl2, and the remainder in the form of Friedel's salt. Fly ash collected in a bag filter with the injection of calcium hydroxide for acid gas removal (CaFA) contained 35% chlorine as NaCl, 11% as KCI, 37% as CaCl2, 13% as Friedel's salt, and the remaining 4% as CaClOH. In fly ash collected in a bag filter with the injection of sodium bicarbonate for acid gas removal (NaFA), approximately 79% of chlorine was in NaCl, 12% was in KCl, and 9% was in Friedel's salt. PMID:18589947

  16. Absorption behavior of vinyl chloride\\/calcium carbonate and pressure\\/temperature\\/conversion relationship for vinyl chloride suspension polymerization in the presence of calcium carbonate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bao Yong-zhong; Zhang Li-feng; Huang Zhi-ming; Weng Zhi-xue

    2003-01-01

    The absorption of vinyl chloride (VC) on surface-treated light-grade and nano-scale calcium carbonate (CaCO3), and VC suspension polymerization in the presence of CaCO3 were carried out in a 5 L autoclave. It showed that the absorption of VC on CaCO3 increased with the partial pressure of VC up to a critical point. Nano-scale CaCO3 was more effective in absorbing VC

  17. Comparative effects of potassium chloride and bicarbonate on thiazide-induced reduction in urinary calcium excretion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lynda A Frassetto; Eileen Nash; R Curtis Morris; Anthony Sebastian

    2000-01-01

    Comparative effects of potassium chloride and bicarbonate on thiazide-induced reduction in urinary calcium excretion.BackgroundThe chronic low-grade metabolic acidosis that occurs in various renal disorders and in normal people, and that is related both to dietary net acid load and age-related renal functional decline, may contribute to osteoporosis by increasing urine calcium excretion. Administration of potassium (K) alkali salts neutralizes acid

  18. Effects of Dietary Sodium Bicarbonate and Calcium Chloride on Physiological Responses of Lactating Dairy Cows in Hot Weather

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Escobosa; C. E. Coppock; L. D. Rowe Jr; W. L. Jenkins; C. E. Gates

    1984-01-01

    Twenty-four lactating cows were as- signed randomly to three treatments to evaluate responses to large differences of dietary sodium and chloride. Treatments were corn-cottonseed meal-corn silage based complete rations with either: 1) .23% sodium chloride (control), 2) control plus 2.28% calcium chloride, or 3) control plus 1.70% sodium bicarbonate.

  19. Aggregation Induced by Calcium Chloride and Subsequent Thermal Gelation of Whey Protein Isolate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Y. Ju; A. Kilara

    1998-01-01

    The aggregation of whey proteins that was induced by CaCl2 was investigated by measuring turbidity and aggregate size. The effect of the aggregation on thermal gelation was determined by measuring gel hardness. Standard conditions were set at 10% whey protein solution, 20 mM CaCl2, and 45°C in order to observe the influence of different variable levels on the aggregation. The

  20. Soil analysis procedures using 0.01 M calcium chloride as extraction reagent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. J. G. Houba; E. J. M. Temminghoff; G. A. Gaikhorst; W. van Vark

    2000-01-01

    This publication gives details of laboratory procedures for the determinations of bioavailable (e.g., plants) quantities of nutritional and polluting inorganic elements in 0.01 M CaCl2 extracts of air?dry soil samples. Air?day soil samples are extracted for two hours with a 0.01 M CaCl2 solution of 20°C in a 1:10 extraction ratio (W\\/V). After measuring the pH in the settling suspension,

  1. Chemical and physical compatibility of an intravenous solution of epinephrine with calcium chloride.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Phillip A; Teng, Yang; Wu, Lei; Sun, Mary; Yang, Zhen; Chow, Diana S-L

    2014-01-01

    An infusion of epinephrine combined with calcium chloride has been used historically as an intravenous inotropic solution to support critically ill heart failure patients with severe cardiogenic shock. There is no reliable data on the stability of this solution beyond three hours. This study was conducted to evaluate the chemical and physical compatibility of epinephrine (0.032 mg/mL) combined with calcium chloride (4 mg/mL) in a solution for intravenous administration up to 26 hours at room temperature. The chemical stability of epinephrine was monitored by measuring epinephrine concentrations using high-performance liquid chromatography. The physical compatibility of the mixture was determined by measuring spectrophotometric absorbance between 400 to 700 nm. Absorbance greater than 0.010 AU was considered an indicator of the presence of precipitation. The results showed epinephrine with calcium chloride was stable together in normal saline up to 26 hours at room temperature, irrespective of exposure to light. The absorbance of epinephrine throughout the study was less than 0.010 AU, indicating no significant precipitation. Conclusions indicate that epinephrine (0.032 mg/mL) combined with calcium chloride (4 mg/mL) in normal saline at room temperature is acceptably stable up to 26 hours for intravenous administration. PMID:24881119

  2. Energy dispersive X?ray fluorescence for rapid potassium, calcium, and chloride diagnosis in barley

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Y. Miah; M. K. Wang; M. Chino

    1999-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv Doriru) leaf samples were collected from a field comprising three plots, plot F chemical fertilizer treated, plot S receiving sewage sludge and sawdust mixed compost, and plot H receiving sewage sludge and rice husk mixed compost. Relative concentrations of selected elements, potassium (K), calcium (Ca), and chloride (Cl) of young, mature, and old barley leaves

  3. Thermophysical properties and reaction rate of composite reactant of calcium chloride and expanded graphite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keiko Fujioka; Hiroshi Suzuki

    Experimental studies have been conducted in order to obtain information on thermophysical properties and reaction characteristics of composite reactant of calcium chloride and expanded graphite, which has been developed to improve the performance of a reactor bed used for gas–solid chemical heat pumps. Effective thermal conductivity, permeability and reaction rate of the composite reactant have been measured. From the results

  4. Transformation of E. coli: CaCl2-method PCG Solution

    E-print Network

    Aris, John P.

    . Heat shock cells for 45 seconds in a 42°C water bath. Place tubes on ice for 2 minutes. 4. Add 0.9 mlTransformation of E. coli: CaCl2-method PCG Solution 0.76 g Pipes (dipotassium; 378.5 g/mol; 10 m transformations. Grow at 37°C until OD600 = 0.5. 2. Place flask with cells on ice for 5 minutes. Transfer to two

  5. Properties of a new liquid desiccant solution - Lithium chloride and calcium chloride mixture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Ertas; E. E. Anderson; I. Kiris

    1992-01-01

    Desiccants, broadly classified as solid and liquid desiccants, have the property of extracting and retaining moisture from air brought into contact with them. By using either type, moisture in the air is removed and the resulting dry air can be used for air-conditioning or drying purposes. Because of its properties, lithium chloride is the most stable liquid desiccant and has

  6. A comprehensive search for calcium binding sites critical for TMEM16A calcium-activated chloride channel activity.

    PubMed

    Tien, Jason; Peters, Christian J; Wong, Xiu Ming; Cheng, Tong; Jan, Yuh Nung; Jan, Lily Yeh; Yang, Huanghe

    2014-01-01

    TMEM16A forms calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCCs) that regulate physiological processes such as the secretions of airway epithelia and exocrine glands, the contraction of smooth muscles, and the excitability of neurons. Notwithstanding intense interest in the mechanism behind TMEM16A-CaCC calcium-dependent gating, comprehensive surveys to identify and characterize potential calcium sensors of this channel are still lacking. By aligning distantly related calcium-activated ion channels in the TMEM16 family and conducting systematic mutagenesis of all conserved acidic residues thought to be exposed to the cytoplasm, we identify four acidic amino acids as putative calcium-binding residues. Alterations of the charge, polarity, and size of amino acid side chains at these sites alter the ability of different divalent cations to activate the channel. Furthermore, TMEM16A mutant channels containing double cysteine substitutions at these residues are sensitive to the redox potential of the internal solution, providing evidence for their physical proximity and solvent accessibility. PMID:24980701

  7. A comprehensive search for calcium binding sites critical for TMEM16A calcium-activated chloride channel activity

    PubMed Central

    Tien, Jason; Peters, Christian J; Wong, Xiu Ming; Cheng, Tong; Jan, Yuh Nung; Jan, Lily Yeh; Yang, Huanghe

    2014-01-01

    TMEM16A forms calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCCs) that regulate physiological processes such as the secretions of airway epithelia and exocrine glands, the contraction of smooth muscles, and the excitability of neurons. Notwithstanding intense interest in the mechanism behind TMEM16A-CaCC calcium-dependent gating, comprehensive surveys to identify and characterize potential calcium sensors of this channel are still lacking. By aligning distantly related calcium-activated ion channels in the TMEM16 family and conducting systematic mutagenesis of all conserved acidic residues thought to be exposed to the cytoplasm, we identify four acidic amino acids as putative calcium-binding residues. Alterations of the charge, polarity, and size of amino acid side chains at these sites alter the ability of different divalent cations to activate the channel. Furthermore, TMEM16A mutant channels containing double cysteine substitutions at these residues are sensitive to the redox potential of the internal solution, providing evidence for their physical proximity and solvent accessibility. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02772.001 PMID:24980701

  8. Anoctamin 1 induces calcium-activated chloride secretion and proliferation of renal cyst-forming epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Buchholz, Bjoern; Faria, Diana; Schley, Gunnar; Schreiber, Rainer; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Kunzelmann, Karl

    2014-05-01

    Polycystic kidney diseases are characterized by multiple bilateral renal cysts that gradually enlarge and lead to a decline in renal function. Cyst enlargement is driven by transepithelial chloride secretion, stimulated by enhanced levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate, which activates apical cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator chloride channels. However, chloride secretion by calcium-dependent chloride channels, activated through stimulation of purinergic receptors, also has a major impact. To identify the molecular basis of calcium-dependent chloride secretion in cyst expansion, we determined the role of anoctamin 1 and 6, two recently discovered calcium-activated chloride channels both of which are expressed in epithelial cells. We found that anoctamin 1, which plays a role in epithelial fluid secretion and proliferation, is strongly expressed in principal-like MDCK cells (PLCs) forming cysts within a collagen matrix, in an embryonic kidney cyst model, and in human autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease tissue. Knockdown of anoctamin 1 but not anoctamin 6 strongly diminished the calcium-dependent chloride secretion of PLCs. Moreover, two inhibitors of anoctamin ion channels, tannic acid and a more selective inhibitor of anoctamin 1, significantly inhibited PLC cyst growth and cyst enlargement in an embryonic kidney cyst model. Knockdown of ANO1 by morpholino analogs also attenuated embryonic cyst growth. Thus, calcium-activated chloride secretion by anoctamin 1 appears to be a crucial component of renal cyst growth. PMID:24152967

  9. Acoustic attenuation due to transformation twins in CaCl2: Analogue behaviour for stishovite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhiying; Schranz, Wilfried; Carpenter, Michael A.

    2012-09-01

    CaCl2 undergoes a tetragonal (P42/mnm) to orthorhombic (Pnnm) transition as a function of temperature which is essentially the same as occurs in stishovite at high pressures. It can therefore be used as a convenient analogue material for experimental studies. In order to investigate variations in elastic properties associated with the transition and possible anelastic loss behaviour related to the mobility of ferroelastic twin walls in the orthorhombic phase, the transition in polycrystalline CaCl2 has been examined using resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS) at high frequencies (0.1-1.5 MHz) in the temperature interval 7-626 K, and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) at low frequencies (0.1-50 Hz) in the temperature interval 378-771 K. RUS data show steep softening of the shear modulus as the transition temperature is approached from above and substantial acoustic dissipation in the stability field of the orthorhombic structure. DMA data show softening of the storage modulus, which continues through to a minimum ˜20 K below the transition point and is followed by stiffening with further lowering of temperature. There is no obvious acoustic dissipation associated with the transition, as measured by tan ?, however. The elastic softening and stiffening matches the pattern expected for a pseudoproper ferroelastic transition as predicted elsewhere. Acoustic loss behaviour at high frequencies fits with the pattern of behaviour expected for a twin wall loss mechanism but with relaxation times in the vicinity of ˜10-6 s. With such short relaxation times, the shear modulus of CaCl2 at frequencies corresponding to seismic frequencies would include relaxations of the twin walls and is therefore likely to be significantly lower than the intrinsic shear modulus. If these characteristics apply also to twin wall mobility in stishovite, the seismic signature of the orthorhombic phase should be an unusually soft shear modulus but with no increase in attenuation.

  10. Electrochemical Behavior of Titanium(II) Ion in a Purified Calcium Chloride Melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Min Ho; Song, Jianxun; Zhu, Hongmin; Jiao, Shuqiang

    2015-02-01

    Cyclic voltammetry, chronopotentiometry, and square wave voltammetry were used to investigate electrochemical behavior of Ti(II) ion in a purified CaCl2 melt at a temperature of 1173 K (900 °C). The result indicated that the cathodic reduction of Ti(II) ion in the melt was a one-step quasi-reversible process controlled by the diffusion. The diffusion coefficient was determined in a CaCl2-TiCl(0.5 mol/dm3) at 1173 K (900 °C). The work also demonstrated the feasibility of producing metallic titanium in the as-prepared CaCl2-TiCl2 melts through galvanostatic electrolysis.

  11. Electrochemical Behavior of Titanium(II) Ion in a Purified Calcium Chloride Melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Min Ho; Song, Jianxun; Zhu, Hongmin; Jiao, Shuqiang

    2014-09-01

    Cyclic voltammetry, chronopotentiometry, and square wave voltammetry were used to investigate electrochemical behavior of Ti(II) ion in a purified CaCl2 melt at a temperature of 1173 K (900 °C). The result indicated that the cathodic reduction of Ti(II) ion in the melt was a one-step quasi-reversible process controlled by the diffusion. The diffusion coefficient was determined in a CaCl2-TiCl(0.5 mol/dm3) at 1173 K (900 °C). The work also demonstrated the feasibility of producing metallic titanium in the as-prepared CaCl2-TiCl2 melts through galvanostatic electrolysis.

  12. Growth rate of ?-calcium sulfate hemihydrate in K-Ca-Mg-Cl-H 2O systems at elevated temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Liuchun; Wu, Zhongbiao; Guan, Baohong; Fu, Hailu; Ye, Qingqing

    2009-10-01

    Kinetics of calcium sulfate hemihydrate (HH) crystal growth plays an important role in mineralization of calcium sulfate phases in nature. HH crystal growth and the conversion of calcium sulfate phases form the basis for the production and application of gypsum based building material. ?-HH crystals have been grown in 3.74 M CaCl 2 solutions at a fixed initial ratio of calcium to sulfate under atmospheric pressure. The variations of sulfate ions were determined to obtain the ?-HH crystal growth kinetics information. Effects of Mg 2+ and K + ions on ?-HH growth were investigated to find an optimal composition of solution for ?-HH preparation. The orders of ?-HH growing in the CaCl 2 solution were found, in most cases, to be near 2.0 in presence or in absence of Mg 2+ and K + ions. Mg 2+ ions enhance the growth of ?-HH in CaCl 2 solution mainly due to initial supersaturation enhancing effects. K + ions also improve the growth rate, which has been attributed to the reduction of interfacial energy. In a Ca (3.74 M)-Mg (0.20 M)-K (0.09 M) chlorides solution, the growth rate of ?-HH increases with temperature from 80 to 100 °C, and the activation energy was calculated to be 40 kJ/mol.

  13. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1? Causes Renal Cyst Expansion through Calcium-Activated Chloride Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Schley, Gunnar; Faria, Diana; Kroening, Sven; Willam, Carsten; Schreiber, Rainer; Klanke, Bernd; Burzlaff, Nicolai; Jantsch, Jonathan; Kunzelmann, Karl; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic kidney diseases are characterized by numerous bilateral renal cysts that continuously enlarge and, through compression of intact nephrons, lead to a decline in kidney function over time. We previously showed that cyst enlargement is accompanied by regional hypoxia, which results in the stabilization of hypoxia-inducible transcription factor-1? (HIF-1?) in the cyst epithelium. Here we demonstrate a correlation between cyst size and the expression of the HIF-1?–target gene, glucose transporter 1, and report that HIF-1? promotes renal cyst growth in two in vitro cyst models—principal-like MDCK cells (plMDCKs) within a collagen matrix and cultured embryonic mouse kidneys stimulated with forskolin. In both models, augmenting HIF-1? levels with the prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor 2-(1-chloro-4-hydroxyisoquinoline-3-carboxamido) acetate enhanced cyst growth. In addition, inhibition of HIF-1? degradation through tubule-specific knockdown of the von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor increased cyst size in the embryonic kidney cyst model. In contrast, inhibition of HIF-1? by chetomin and knockdown of HIF-1? both decreased cyst growth in these models. Consistent with previous reports, plMDCK cyst enlargement was driven largely by transepithelial chloride secretion, which consists, in part, of a calcium-activated chloride conductance. plMDCKs deficient for HIF-1? almost completely lacked calcium-activated chloride secretion. We conclude that regional hypoxia in renal cysts contributes to cyst growth, primarily due to HIF-1?–dependent calcium-activated chloride secretion. These findings identify the HIF system as a novel target for inhibition of cyst growth. PMID:24203996

  14. Effect of dietary calcium, phosphorus, chloride, and zeolite on the development of tibial dyschondroplasia.

    PubMed

    Edwards, H M

    1988-10-01

    The effect of synthetic zeolite was investigated on the development of tibial dyschondroplasia in young broilers fed diets in which the dietary levels of calcium, phosphorus, and chloride ranged from adequate to deficient. In the first two experiments the calcium level was maintained at .65% and four combinations were fed of .30% and .15% chloride and .75% and .50% phosphorus with and without 1% zeolite. Feeding the high phosphorus diet caused a high incidence of tibial dyschondroplasia that was lowered by feeding 1% zeolite. In both experiments the feeding of zeolite at a low level of dietary phosphorus caused a significant lowering of 16-day weight and bone ash. In the third experiment, when diets containing all combinations of .65% and .80% calcium and .50% and .60% phosphorus were fed, the addition of 1% zeolite caused a significant lowering of the 16-day weight, bone ash, and incidence, score, and percentage severe tibial dyschondroplasia. Once again as in the previous two experiments, there was a significant interaction between dietary phosphorus level and zeolite and 16-day weight and bone ash. Feeding zeolite significantly decreased phytate phosphorus retention. PMID:2848229

  15. 43 CFR 3511.11 - If I am mining calcium chloride, may I obtain a noncompetitive mineral lease to produce the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...calcium chloride, may I obtain a noncompetitive mineral lease to produce the commingled sodium chloride...MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING OF SOLID MINERALS OTHER THAN COAL AND OIL SHALE Lease...

  16. 43 CFR 3511.11 - If I am mining calcium chloride, may I obtain a noncompetitive mineral lease to produce the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...calcium chloride, may I obtain a noncompetitive mineral lease to produce the commingled sodium chloride...MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING OF SOLID MINERALS OTHER THAN COAL AND OIL SHALE Lease...

  17. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. LXXXV: Calcium-Activated Chloride Channels

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Fen; Wong, Xiuming

    2012-01-01

    Calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCCs) are widely expressed in various tissues and implicated in physiological processes such as sensory transduction, epithelial secretion, and smooth muscle contraction. Transmembrane proteins with unknown function 16 (TMEM16A) has recently been identified as a major component of CaCCs. Detailed molecular analysis of TMEM16A will be needed to understand its structure-function relationships. The role this channel plays in physiological systems remains to be established and is currently a subject of intense investigation. PMID:22090471

  18. Clinical Evaluation of Non-surgical Sterilization of Male Cats with Single Intra-testicular Injection of Calcium Chloride

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Calcium chloride solution is an established injectable sterilant in dogs and other mammals. With cat populations a continuing problem, we sought to explore its first use in cats. Six cats per group were injected with 5%, 10% or 20% calcium chloride dihydrate in saline solution with lignocaine hydrochloride, a local anaesthetic. Results At the 60th day post-injection, cat testes were collected and showed complete testicular necrosis and replacement by fibrous tissue; very low sperm counts; and reduction of serum testosterone by at least 70% in 20% dose. Androgenic enzyme activities and their expressions were also reduced in all the treated groups along with intra-testicular testosterone concentration was also low. Increased testicular lipid peroxidation, with reduced antioxidants and mitochondrial membrane potential, were evident following calcium chloride treatments. However, there were no apparent changes in serum concentrations of cortisol, fasting blood sugar level, blood urea nitrogen, packed cell volume, or total serum protein following calcium chloride injection, suggesting that this method of sterilization is not associated with any general stress response. Conclusion Calcium chloride solution demonstrates potential for androgenesis-eliminating nonsurgical sterilization of male cats in addition to its proven efficacy in dogs and other mammals. PMID:21774835

  19. Calmodulin-dependent activation and inactivation of anoctamin calcium-gated chloride channels

    PubMed Central

    Vocke, Kerstin; Dauner, Kristin; Hahn, Anne; Ulbrich, Anne; Broecker, Jana; Keller, Sandro; Frings, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    Calcium-dependent chloride channels serve critical functions in diverse biological systems. Driven by cellular calcium signals, the channels codetermine excitatory processes and promote solute transport. The anoctamin (ANO) family of membrane proteins encodes three calcium-activated chloride channels, named ANO 1 (also TMEM16A), ANO 2 (also TMEM16B), and ANO 6 (also TMEM16F). Here we examined how ANO 1 and ANO 2 interact with Ca2+/calmodulin using nonstationary current analysis during channel activation. We identified a putative calmodulin-binding domain in the N-terminal region of the channel proteins that is involved in channel activation. Binding studies with peptides indicated that this domain, a regulatory calmodulin-binding motif (RCBM), provides two distinct modes of interaction with Ca2+/calmodulin, one at submicromolar Ca2+ concentrations and one in the micromolar Ca2+ range. Functional, structural, and pharmacological data support the concept that calmodulin serves as a calcium sensor that is stably associated with the RCBM domain and regulates the activation of ANO 1 and ANO 2 channels. Moreover, the predominant splice variant of ANO 2 in the brain exhibits Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent inactivation, a loss of channel activity within 30 s. This property may curtail ANO 2 activity during persistent Ca2+ signals in neurons. Mutagenesis data indicated that the RCBM domain is also involved in ANO 2 inactivation, and that inactivation is suppressed in the retinal ANO 2 splice variant. These results advance the understanding of Ca2+ regulation in anoctamin Cl? channels and its significance for the physiological function that anoctamin channels subserve in neurons and other cell types. PMID:24081981

  20. Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Investigation of Water in Supercritical CO2 and the Effect of CaCl2

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zheming; Felmy, Andrew R.; Thompson, Christopher J.; Loring, John S.; Joly, Alan G.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Dixon, David A.

    2013-01-25

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy was applied to investigate the dissolution and chemical interaction of water dissolved into supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) and the influence of CaCl2 in the co-existing aqueous phase at fo empe e : 40 50 75 nd 100 C at 90 atm. Consistent with the trend of the vapor pressure of water, the solubility of pure water in scCO2 inc e ed f om 40 ?C (0.32 mole%) o 100 ?C (1.61 mole%). The presence of CaCl2 negatively affects the solubility of water in scCO2: at a given temperature and pressure the solubility of water decreased as the concentration of CaCl2 in the aqueous phase increased, following the trend of the activity of water. A 40 ?C, the water concentration in scCO2 in contact with saturated CaCl2 aqueous solution was only 0.16 mole%, a drop of more than 50% as compared to pure water while that a 100 ?C was 1.12 mole%, a drop of over 30% as compared to pure water, under otherwise the same conditions. Analysis of the spectral profiles suggested that water dissolved into scCO2 exists in the monomeric form under the evaluated temperature and pressure conditions, for both neat water and CaCl2 solutions. However, its rotational degrees of freedom decrease at lower temperatures due to higher fluid densities, leading to formation of weak H2O:CO2 Lewis acid-base complexes. Similarly, the nearly invariant spectral profiles of dissolved water in the presence and absence of saturated CaCl2 under the same experimental conditions was taken as evidence that CaCl2 dissolution in scCO2 was limited as the dissolved Ca2+/CaCl2 would likely be highly hydrated and would alter the overall spectra of waters in the scCO2 phase.

  1. Annexin A4 induces platinum resistance in a chloride-and calcium-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Morimoto, Akiko; Serada, Satoshi; Enomoto, Takayuki; Kim, Ayako; Matsuzaki, Shinya; Takahashi, Tsuyoshi; Ueda, Yutaka; Yoshino, Kiyoshi; Fujita, Masami; Fujimoto, Minoru; Kimura, Tadashi; Naka, Tetsuji

    2014-01-01

    Platinum resistance has long been a major issue in the treatment of various cancers. We previously reported that enhanced annexin A4 (ANXA4) expression, a Ca2+-regulated phospholipid-binding protein, induces chemoresistance to platinum-based drugs. In this study, we investigated the role of annexin repeats, a conserved structure of all the annexin family, responsible for platinum-resistance as well as the effect of knockdown of ANXA4. ANXA4 knockdown increased sensitivity to platinum-based drugs both in vitro and in vivo. To identify the domain responsible for chemoresistance, ANXA4 deletion mutants were constructed by deleting annexin repeats one by one from the C terminus. Platinum resistance was induced both in vitro and in vivo in cells expressing either full-length ANXA4 or the deletion mutants, containing at least one intact annexin repeat. However, cells expressing the mutant without any calcium-binding sites in the annexin repeated sequence, which is essential for ANXA4 translocation from the cytosol to plasma membrane, failed to acquire platinum resistance. After cisplatin treatment, the intracellular chloride ion concentration, whose channel is partly regulated by ANXA4, significantly increased in the platinum-resistant cells. These findings indicate that the calcium-binding site in the annexin repeat induces chemoresistance to the platinum-based drug by elevating the intracellular chloride concentration. PMID:25277200

  2. Voltage-dependent calcium and chloride currents in S17 bone marrow stromal cell line.

    PubMed

    Silva, Henrique B; Medei, Emiliano; Rodrigues, Deivid C; Rondinelli, Edson; Almeida, Norma A S; Goldenberg, Regina C S; de Carvalho, Antonio C Campos; Nascimento, José H M

    2010-04-01

    The bone marrow stromal cell line S17 has been used to study hematopoiesis in vitro. In this study, we demonstrate the presence of calcium and chloride currents in cultured S17 cells. Calcium currents were of low amplitude or barely detectable (50-100 pA). Hence to amplify the currents, we have used barium as a charge carrier. Barium currents were identified based on their distinct voltage-dependence, and sensitivity to dihydropyridines. S17 cells also exhibited a slowly activating outward current without inactivation, most commonly seen when the sodium of the extracellular solution was replaced either by TEA (TEA/Cs saline) or NMDG (NMDG saline), or by addition of amiloride to the extracellular solution. This current was abolished either by 500 microM SITS (4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2-2'-disulfonic acid) or 500 microM DPC (diphenylamine-2-carboxylic acid) a cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel blocker, identifying it as a Cl(-) current. RT-PCR identified the presence of ENaC and CFTR transcripts. CFTR blockade reduced cell proliferation, suggesting that this channel plays a physiological role in regulation of S17 cell proliferation. PMID:20049895

  3. Clinical Evaluation of Non-surgical Sterilization of Male Cats with Single Intratesticular Injection of Calcium Chloride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kuladip Jana; Prabhat K Samanta

    2011-01-01

    Background  Calcium chloride solution is an established injectable sterilant in dogs and other mammals. With cat populations a continuing\\u000a problem, we sought to explore its first use in cats. Six cats per group were injected with 5%, 10% or 20% calcium chloride\\u000a dihydrate in saline solution with lignocaine hydrochloride, a local anaesthetic.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  At the 60th day post-injection, cat testes were collected

  4. Crystalline transition and morphology variation of polyamide 6/CaCl2 composite during the decomplexation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shaoxuan; Zhang, Chengfeng; Proniewicz, Edyta; Proniewicz, Leonard M.; Kim, Younkyoo; Liu, Jun; Zhao, Ying; Xu, Yizhuang; Wu, Jinguang

    2013-11-01

    In this work, we developed a new method to prepare porous PA6 with different morphologic feature and crystalline forms via the decomplexation of PA6/CaCl2 composite. The structures and morphology of thus obtained materials were characterized by vibrational spectroscopy (FT-IR and Raman) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) method. When amorphous PA6/CaCl2 composite films were treated in water at room temperature, PA6 re-arranges into ? form. However, decomplexation of the PA6/CaCl2 composite in boiling water produces PA6 in ? crystalline form. If the PA6/CaCl2 composite is soaked in methanol, part of PA6 is dissolved or swollen in methanol/metal salt solutions. As a result, a dissolve/precipitation process occurred during the decomplexation process, which led to the formation of PA6 in ? crystalline form. Further investigation demonstrates that the morphologies of the porous PA6 could be adjusted by using different solvents and/or different decomplexation conditions.

  5. Anoctamins support calcium-dependent chloride secretion by facilitating calcium signaling in adult mouse intestine.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Rainer; Faria, Diana; Skryabin, Boris V; Wanitchakool, Podchanart; Rock, Jason R; Kunzelmann, Karl

    2014-07-01

    Intestinal epithelial electrolyte secretion is activated by increase in intracellular cAMP or Ca(2+) and opening of apical Cl(-) channels. In infants and young animals, but not in adults, Ca(2+)-activated chloride channels may cause secretory diarrhea during rotavirus infection. While detailed knowledge exists concerning the contribution of cAMP-activated cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) channels, analysis of the role of Ca(2+)-dependent Cl(-) channels became possible through identification of the anoctamin (TMEM16) family of proteins. We demonstrate expression of several anoctamin paralogues in mouse small and large intestines. Using intestinal-specific mouse knockout models for anoctamin 1 (Ano1) and anoctamin 10 (Ano10) and a conventional knockout model for anoctamin 6 (Ano6), we demonstrate the role of anoctamins for Ca(2+)-dependent Cl(-) secretion induced by the muscarinic agonist carbachol (CCH). Ano1 is preferentially expressed in the ileum and large intestine, where it supports Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) secretion. In contrast, Ano10 is essential for Ca(2+)-dependent Cl(-) secretion in jejunum, where expression of Ano1 was not detected. Although broadly expressed, Ano6 has no role in intestinal cholinergic Cl(-) secretion. Ano1 is located in a basolateral compartment/membrane rather than in the apical membrane, where it supports CCH-induced Ca(2+) increase, while the essential and possibly only apical Cl(-) channel is CFTR. These results define a new role of Ano1 for intestinal Ca(2+)-dependent Cl(-) secretion and demonstrate for the first time a contribution of Ano10 to intestinal transport. PMID:24974903

  6. The effect of calcium on gill potentials and on sodium and chloride fluxes in the goldfish, Carassius auratus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. B. Eddy

    1975-01-01

    Measurements of electric potential and of sodium and chloride effluxes were carried out on a freshwater fish, the goldfishCarassius auratus. The potential was affected by a number of inorganic ion species but that with the most significant influence on transepithelial potential was calcium. The potential was about 10 mV negative in the absence of calcium and about 10 mV positive

  7. Don Juan Pond, Antarctica: near-surface CaCl(2)-brine feeding Earth's most saline lake and implications for Mars.

    PubMed

    Dickson, James L; Head, James W; Levy, Joseph S; Marchant, David R

    2013-01-01

    The discovery on Mars of recurring slope lineae (RSL), thought to represent seasonal brines, has sparked interest in analogous environments on Earth. We report on new studies of Don Juan Pond (DJP), which exists at the upper limit of ephemeral water in the McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV) of Antarctica, and is adjacent to several steep-sloped water tracks, the closest analog for RSL. The source of DJP has been interpreted to be deep groundwater. We present time-lapse data and meteorological measurements that confirm deliquescence within the DJP watershed and show that this, together with small amounts of meltwater, are capable of generating brines that control summertime water levels. Groundwater input was not observed. In addition to providing an analog for RSL formation, CaCl(2) brines and chloride deposits in basins may provide clues to the origin of ancient chloride deposits on Mars dating from the transition period from "warm/wet" to "cold/dry" climates. PMID:23378901

  8. Don Juan Pond, Antarctica: Near-surface CaCl2-brine feeding Earth's most saline lake and implications for Mars

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, James L.; Head, James W.; Levy, Joseph S.; Marchant, David R.

    2013-01-01

    The discovery on Mars of recurring slope lineae (RSL), thought to represent seasonal brines, has sparked interest in analogous environments on Earth. We report on new studies of Don Juan Pond (DJP), which exists at the upper limit of ephemeral water in the McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV) of Antarctica, and is adjacent to several steep-sloped water tracks, the closest analog for RSL. The source of DJP has been interpreted to be deep groundwater. We present time-lapse data and meteorological measurements that confirm deliquescence within the DJP watershed and show that this, together with small amounts of meltwater, are capable of generating brines that control summertime water levels. Groundwater input was not observed. In addition to providing an analog for RSL formation, CaCl2 brines and chloride deposits in basins may provide clues to the origin of ancient chloride deposits on Mars dating from the transition period from “warm/wet” to “cold/dry” climates. PMID:23378901

  9. Synergistic action of cyclic adenosine monophosphate- and calcium-mediated chloride secretion in a colonic epithelial cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Cartwright, C A; McRoberts, J A; Mandel, K G; Dharmsathaphorn, K

    1985-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and the calcium ionophore A23187 caused dose-dependent changes in the potential difference and the short circuit current (Isc) across confluent T84 cell monolayers mounted in modified Ussing chambers. Both VIP and A23187 stimulated net chloride secretion without altering sodium transport. Net chloride secretion accounted for the increase in Isc. When A23187 was tested in combination with VIP, net chloride secretion was significantly greater than predicted from the calculated sum of their individual responses indicating a synergistic effect. VIP increased cellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) production in a dose-dependent manner, whereas A23187 had no effect on cellular cAMP. We then determined whether VIP and A23187 activated different transport pathways. Earlier studies suggest that VIP activates a basolaterally localized, barium-sensitive potassium channel as well as an apically localized chloride conductance pathway. In this study, stimulation of basolateral membrane potassium efflux by A23187 was documented by preloading the monolayers with 86Rb+. Stimulation of potassium efflux by A23187 was additive to the VIP-stimulated potassium efflux. By itself, 0.3 microM A23187 did not alter transepithelial chloride permeability, and its stimulation of basolateral membrane potassium efflux caused only a relatively small amount of chloride secretion. However, in the presence of an increased transepithelial chloride permeability induced by VIP, the effectiveness of A23187 on chloride secretion was greatly augmented. Our studies suggest that cAMP and calcium each activate basolateral potassium channels, but cAMP also activates an apically localized chloride channel. Synergism results from cooperative interaction of potassium channels and the chloride channel. PMID:2997291

  10. Location of Release Sites and Calcium-Activated Chloride Channels Relative to Calcium Channels at the Photoreceptor Ribbon Synapse

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, A. J.; Rabl, K.; Riccardi, G. E.; Brecha, N. C.; Stella, S. L.

    2011-01-01

    Vesicle release from photoreceptor ribbon synapses is regulated by L-type Ca2+ channels, which are in turn regulated by Cl? moving through calcium-activated chloride [Cl(Ca)] channels. We assessed the proximity of Ca2+ channels to release sites and Cl(Ca) channels in synaptic terminals of salamander photoreceptors by comparing fast (BAPTA) and slow (EGTA) intracellular Ca2+ buffers. BAPTA did not fully block synaptic release, indicating some release sites are <100 nm from Ca2+ channels. Comparing Cl(Ca) currents with predicted Ca2+ diffusion profiles suggested that Cl(Ca) and Ca2+ channels average a few hundred nanometers apart, but the inability of BAPTA to block Cl(Ca) currents completely suggested some channels are much closer together. Diffuse immunolabeling of terminals with an antibody to the putative Cl(Ca) channel TMEM16A supports the idea that Cl(Ca) channels are dispersed throughout the presynaptic terminal, in contrast with clustering of Ca2+ channels near ribbons. Cl(Ca) currents evoked by intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+]i) elevation through flash photolysis of DM-nitrophen exhibited EC50 values of 556 and 377 nM with Hill slopes of 1.8 and 2.4 in rods and cones, respectively. These relationships were used to estimate average submembrane [Ca2+]i in photoreceptor terminals. Consistent with control of exocytosis by [Ca2+] nanodomains near Ca2+ channels, average submembrane [Ca2+]i remained below the vesicle release threshold (?400 nM) over much of the physiological voltage range for cones. Positioning Ca2+ channels near release sites may improve fidelity in converting voltage changes to synaptic release. A diffuse distribution of Cl(Ca) channels may allow Ca2+ influx at one site to influence relatively distant Ca2+ channels. PMID:21084687

  11. Location of release sites and calcium-activated chloride channels relative to calcium channels at the photoreceptor ribbon synapse.

    PubMed

    Mercer, A J; Rabl, K; Riccardi, G E; Brecha, N C; Stella, S L; Thoreson, W B

    2011-01-01

    Vesicle release from photoreceptor ribbon synapses is regulated by L-type Ca(2+) channels, which are in turn regulated by Cl(-) moving through calcium-activated chloride [Cl(Ca)] channels. We assessed the proximity of Ca(2+) channels to release sites and Cl(Ca) channels in synaptic terminals of salamander photoreceptors by comparing fast (BAPTA) and slow (EGTA) intracellular Ca(2+) buffers. BAPTA did not fully block synaptic release, indicating some release sites are <100 nm from Ca(2+) channels. Comparing Cl(Ca) currents with predicted Ca(2+) diffusion profiles suggested that Cl(Ca) and Ca(2+) channels average a few hundred nanometers apart, but the inability of BAPTA to block Cl(Ca) currents completely suggested some channels are much closer together. Diffuse immunolabeling of terminals with an antibody to the putative Cl(Ca) channel TMEM16A supports the idea that Cl(Ca) channels are dispersed throughout the presynaptic terminal, in contrast with clustering of Ca(2+) channels near ribbons. Cl(Ca) currents evoked by intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) elevation through flash photolysis of DM-nitrophen exhibited EC(50) values of 556 and 377 nM with Hill slopes of 1.8 and 2.4 in rods and cones, respectively. These relationships were used to estimate average submembrane [Ca(2+)](i) in photoreceptor terminals. Consistent with control of exocytosis by [Ca(2+)] nanodomains near Ca(2+) channels, average submembrane [Ca(2+)](i) remained below the vesicle release threshold (? 400 nM) over much of the physiological voltage range for cones. Positioning Ca(2+) channels near release sites may improve fidelity in converting voltage changes to synaptic release. A diffuse distribution of Cl(Ca) channels may allow Ca(2+) influx at one site to influence relatively distant Ca(2+) channels. PMID:21084687

  12. Novel ammonia sorbents “porous matrix modified by active salt” for adsorptive heat transformation: 2. Calcium chloride in ACF felt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M. Tokarev; J. V. Veselovskaya; H. Yanagi; Yu. I. Aristov

    2010-01-01

    Novel composite sorbent “31wt.% CaCl2\\/ACF” was synthesised by dry impregnation of an ACF felt with a CaCl2 aqueous solution. Apparent isosters of ammonia sorption were measured at T=20–90°C and P=0.1–9.0bar by an isosteric adsorption method. The method is based on the sorbent heating in a closed volume of an adsorber with registration of the ammonia equilibrium pressure P as a

  13. Aluminum diffusion in Oxisols as influenced by soil water matric potential, ph, lime, gypsum, potassium chloride, and calcium phosphate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. H. T. Oliveira; R. F. Novais; T. J. Smyth; J. C. L. Neves

    2000-01-01

    Plant root exposure to soil aluminum (Al) depends on the soil solution Al concentration and transport to the root by diffusion. Changes in Al diffusive flux for two Oxisols was measured under laboratory conditions as a function of pH, water matric potential, and applications of gypsum, potassium chloride, and calcium phosphate. Double?faced cation exchange resin sheets served as sinks for

  14. Experimental evidence for calcium-chloride ion pairs in the interlayer of montmorillonite. A XRD profile modeling approach

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Experimental evidence for calcium-chloride ion pairs in the interlayer of montmorillonite. A XRD Keywords: montmorillonite, ion pairs, XRD profile modeling. 1 #12;ABSTRACT Montmorillonite was equilibrated properties, were characterized from the modeling of experimental X-ray diffraction (XRD) profiles

  15. Librational lattice modulation in incommensurate phases of betaine calcium chloride dihydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, M.; Kotake, Y.

    1989-12-01

    The librational lattice modulation in incommensurate phases of betaine calcium chloride dihydrate (BCCD) crystals was investigated by the EPR spectra of VO2+ impurities substituted for Ca2+ ions in the lattice. Below 164 K, the spectra exhibited anomalously broadened 51V-hyperfine lines, representing pinned condensates of librational order parameters. The angular variation of the anomalies indicates that the Ca2+-betaine complex librates between two states of twisted deformation. In contrast with the Mn2+ spectra from BCCD, the staircase transitions were not faithfully indicated by the VO2+ spectra, being consistent with the absence of dielectric dispersions in VO2+-doped BCCD. The asymmetry in the VO2+ complex is considered to be responsible for strongly pinned condensates, resulting in no further staircase to be evolved otherwise. Although the whole transition scheme in BCCD except at 164 K suffers a modification, the VO2+ spectrum has provided clear evidence for a collective libration of Ca complexes below 164 K.

  16. Calcium chloride electron injection/extraction layers in organic electronic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Bo, E-mail: bqu@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: qhgong@pku.edu.cn; Gao, Zhi; Yang, Hongsheng; Xiao, Lixin; Chen, Zhijian; Gong, Qihuang, E-mail: bqu@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: qhgong@pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Artificial Microstructures and Mesoscopic Physics, Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2014-01-27

    Nontoxic calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}) was introduced into organic electronic devices as cathode buffer layer (CBL). The turn-on voltage and maximum luminance of organic light-emitting diode (OLED) with 1.5?nm CaCl{sub 2} was 3.5?V and 21 960?cd/m{sup 2}, respectively. OLED with 1.5?nm CaCl{sub 2} possessed comparable electroluminescent characteristics to that of the commonly used LiF. Moreover, the performance of the organic photovoltaic device with 0.5?nm CaCl{sub 2} was comparable to that of the control device with LiF. Therefore, CaCl{sub 2} has the potential to be used as the CBL for organic electronic devices.

  17. Effect of Calcium Chloride on the Permeation of the Cryoprotectant Dimethyl Sulfoxide to Japanese Whiting Sillago japonica Embryos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Sk. Mustafizur; Majhi, Sullip Kumar; Suzuki, Toru; Strussmann, Carlos Augusto; Watanabe, Manabu

    Cryopreservation of fish eggs and embryos is a highly desired tool to promote aquaculture production and fisheries resource management, but it is still not technically feasible. The failure to develop successful cryopreservation protocols for fish embryos is largely attributed to poor cryoprotectant permeability. The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of CaCl2 to enhance cryoprotectant uptake by fish embryos. In this study, embryos (somites and tail elongation stages) of Japanese whiting Sillago japonica were exposed to 10 and 15% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in artificial sea water (ASW) or a solution of 0.125M CaCl2 in distilled water for 20 min at 24°C. The toxicity of all solutions was estimated from the hatching rates of the embryos and High Performance Liquid Chromatography was used to determine the amount of DMSO taken up during impregnation. The results showed that DMSO incorporation into the embryos was greatly (›50%) enhanced in the presence of CaCl2 compared to ASW. CaCl2 itself was not toxic to the embryos but, probably as a result of the enhanced DMSO uptake, caused decreases in survival of about 14-44% relative to ASW. Somites stage embryos were more tolerant than tail elongation ones to DMSO both as ASW and CaCl2 solutions. The use of CaCl2 as a vehicle for DMSO impregnation could be a promising aid for the successful cryopreservation of fish embryos.

  18. Activation of A(3) adenosine receptor induces calcium entry and chloride secretion in A(6) cells.

    PubMed

    Reshkin, S J; Guerra, L; Bagorda, A; Debellis, L; Cardone, R; Li, A H; Jacobson, K A; Casavola, V

    2000-11-15

    We have previously demonstrated that in A(6) renal epithelial cells, a commonly used model of the mammalian distal section of the nephron, adenosine A(1) and A(2A) receptor activation modulates sodium and chloride transport and intracellular pH (Casavola et al., 1997). Here we show that apical addition of the A(3) receptor-selective agonist, 2-chloro-N(6)-(3-iodobenzyl)-adenosine-5'-methyluronamide (Cl-IB-MECA) stimulated a chloride secretion that was mediated by calcium- and cAMP-regulated channels. Moreover, in single cell measurements using the fluorescent dye Fura 2-AM, Cl-IB-MECA caused an increase in Ca(2+) influx. The agonist-induced rise in [Ca(2+)](i) was significantly inhibited by the selective adenosine A(3) receptor antagonists, 2,3-diethyl-4, 5-dipropyl-6-phenylpyridine-3-thiocarboxylate-5-carboxylate (MRS 1523) and 3-ethyl 5-benzyl 2-methyl-6-phenyl-4-phenylethynyl-1, 4-(+/-)-dihydropyridine-3,5-dicarboxylate (MRS 1191) but not by antagonists of either A(1) or A(2) receptors supporting the hypothesis that Cl-IB-MECA increases [Ca(2+)](i) by interacting exclusively with A(3) receptors. Cl-IB-MECA-elicited Ca(2+) entry was not significantly inhibited by pertussis toxin pretreatment while being stimulated by cholera toxin preincubation or by raising cellular cAMP levels with forskolin or rolipram. Preincubation with the protein kinase A inhibitor, H89, blunted the Cl-IB-MECA-elicited [Ca(2+)](i) response. Moreover, Cl-IB-MECA elicited an increase in cAMP production that was inhibited only by an A(3) receptor antagonist. Altogether, these data suggest that in A(6) cells a G(s)/protein kinase A pathway is involved in the A(3) receptor-dependent increase in calcium entry. PMID:11083899

  19. Electrochemical deoxidation of ZrSiO4 in molten calcium chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Min-Jae; Noh, Jae-Soo; Kim, Ki-Young; Lee, Jong-Hyun

    2014-12-01

    The electrochemical deoxidation of ZrSiO4 pellets in molten CaCl2 at 850°C in an argon atmosphere was studied. The sintered ZrSiO4 pellet was cathodically polarized against a graphite counter electrode under a constant applied potential. XRD and EDX analyses revealed that ZrSiO4 became ZrSi. Reduction from ZrSiO4 to ZrSi started at the location on the surface around the cathodic current-collector Mo wire and extended to the entire surface. As the electro-deoxidation reaction continued, the oxygen content in the product decreased.

  20. Gypsum crystallization and hydrochloric acid regeneration by reaction of calcium chloride solution with sulfuric acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amani Al-Othman; George P. Demopoulos

    2009-01-01

    In this work, the crystallization of gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) in the temperature range of 20–60 °C is investigated along with the simultaneous regeneration of HCl by the reaction of concentrated CaCl2 solution (3–3.5 M) with H2SO4 at a concentration range of 2.6–8.0 M. Fast addition of H2SO4 proved counter productive as it yielded a gel-like fine crystal suspension. Slower addition via titration or in

  1. Depolarizing chloride gradient in developing cochlear nucleus neurons: underlying mechanism and implication for calcium signaling.

    PubMed

    Witte, M; Reinert, T; Dietz, B; Nerlich, J; Rübsamen, R; Milenkovic, I

    2014-03-01

    Precise regulation of the chloride homeostasis crucially determines the action of inhibitory transmitters GABA and glycine and thereby endows neurons or even discrete neuronal compartments with distinct physiological responses to the same transmitters. In mammals, the signaling mediated by GABAA/glycine receptors shifts during early postnatal life from depolarization to hyperpolarization, due to delayed maturation of the chloride homeostasis system. While the activity of the secondary active, K(+)-Cl(-)-extruding cotransporter KCC2, renders GABA/glycine hyperpolarizing in auditory brainstem nuclei of altricial rodents, the mechanisms contributing to the initially depolarizing transmembrane gradient for Cl(-) in respective neurons remained unknown. Here we used gramicidin-perforated patch recordings, non-invasive Cl(-) and Ca(2+) imaging, and immunohistochemistry to identify the Cl(-)-loading transporter that renders depolarizing effects of GABA/glycine in early postnatal life of spherical bushy cells in the cochlear nucleus of gerbil. Our data identify the 1Na(+):1K(+):2Cl(-) cotransporter 1 (NKCC1) as the major Cl(-)-loader responsible for depolarizing action of GABA/glycine at postnatal days 3-5 (P3-5). Extracellular GABA/muscimol elicited calcium signaling through R-, L-, and T-type channels, which was dependent on bumetanide- and [Na(+)]e-sensitive Cl(-) accumulation. The "adult like", low intracellular Cl(-) concentration is established during the second postnatal week, through a mechanism engaging the NKCC1-down regulation between P5 and P15 and ongoing KCC2-mediated Cl(-)-extrusion. PMID:24388924

  2. The effect of postharvest calcium application in hydro-cooling water on tissue calcium content, biochemical changes, and quality attributes of sweet cherry fruit.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Xie, Xingbin; Long, Lynn E

    2014-10-01

    To improve storage/shipping quality of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.), the effect of calcium chloride (CaCl2) added to hydro-cooling water on physiological and biochemical processes related to fruit and pedicel quality was investigated on two major cultivars. The fruit tissue Ca content increased up to 29-85% logarithmically for 'Sweetheart' and 39-188% linearly for 'Lapins' as CaCl2 rate increased from 0.2% to 2.0% at 0 °C for 5 min. The increase of fruit tissue Ca content was accompanied by reductions in respiration rate, ascorbic acid degradation, and membrane lipid peroxidation, which enhanced total phenolics content and total antioxidant capacity, and resulted in increases in fruit firmness and pitting resistance and decreases in titratable acidity loss and decay of both cultivars. Pedicel browning was inhibited by CaCl2 at 0.2% and 0.5%, but increased by higher rates at 1.0% and 2.0%, possibly via modifying membrane lipid peroxidation. PMID:24799204

  3. Net emission of H2O air MgCl2/CaCl2/NaCl thermal plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannachi, R.; Cressault, Y.; Teulet, Ph; Ben Lakhdar, Z.; Gleizes, A.

    2008-10-01

    This paper is devoted to the calculation of the net radiation emitted by water-air-MgCl2/CaCl2/NaCl mixtures. Assuming a spherical, homogeneous and isothermal plasma, the net emission coefficient (NEC) is calculated for several pressures between 1 and 10 bar in the temperature range 300-30 000 K under the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium. The various contributions to the NEC (atomic continuum, molecular continuum, molecular band and spectral lines) are presented and described. The influence of the pressure and of the proportion of air, MgCl2, CaCl2 or NaCl is analysed. It is also demonstrated that the alkaline salt resonance lines (Ca+, Ca2+, Na+, Mg+, Mg2+, Cl+ and Cl2+) have a significant effect on the NEC value in spite of their strong self-absorption.

  4. Effect of CaCl2 concentration on the rate of foreign gene transfer and expression by in vivo electroporation in the mouse ovary.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takayuki; Tsunekawa, Jun; Murai, Atsushi; Muramatsu, Tatsuo

    2003-09-01

    We tested the effect of electroporation (EP) medium composition on the rate of gene transfer and expression in the mouse ovary in vivo. FITC labeled oligonucleotides were dissolved in a medium with varying levels of CaCl2 concentration from 0 to 250 mM, and transferred by in vivo EP. Gene transfer efficiency was assessed by examining fluorescence signal intensity with a fluorescent microscope at 3 h after in vivo EP. The results indicated that CaCl2 concentration at 50 mM gave the highest transfer efficiency of the oligonucleotides only in the presence of phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Without PBS or CaCl2, the oligonucleotide transfer was negligible. A further increase in CaCl2 from 50 to 250 mM lowered the transfer efficiency. Little fluorescence signal was attained by substituting CaCl2 for MgCl2, NaCl or KCl. Addition of glycerol to the EP medium with 50 mM CaCl2 did not improve the transfer efficiency in the presence of PBS, although a marginal increase was observed in the absence of PBS. The stimulating effect of increased CaCl2 concentration from 0 to 50 mM was further evaluated by examining the intensity of reporter protein expression after transferring the bacterial lacZ gene. The results of X-gal staining demonstrated that CaCl2 with a range of 20 to 100 mM, showed enhanced gene expression in comparison with 0 mM. However, no remarkable difference was observed between the different CaCl2 concentrations, suggesting that the stimulating effect of CaCl2 on gene transfer and expression in the mouse ovary in vivo may not necessarily parallel in terms of the optimal concentration. PMID:12883653

  5. Facile Fabrication of Robust Silk Nanofibril Films via Direct Dissolution of Silk in CaCl2-Formic Acid Solution.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng; You, Xinran; Dou, Hao; Liu, Zhi; Zuo, Baoqi; Zhang, Xueguang

    2015-02-11

    In this study, we report for the first time a novel silk fibroin (SF) nanofibrous films with robust mechanical properties that was fabricated by directly dissolving silk in CaCl2-formic acid solution. CaCl2-FA dissolved silk rapidly at room temperature, and more importantly, it disintegrated silk into nanofibrils instead of separate molecules. The morphology of nanofibrils crucially depended on CaCl2 concentrations, which resulted in different aggregation nanostructure in SF films. The SF film after drawing had maximum elastic modulus, ultimate tensile strength, and strain at break reaching 4 GPa, 106 MPa, and 29%, respectively, in dry state and 206 MPa, 28 MPa, and 188%, respectively, in wet state. Moreover, multiple yielding phenomena and substantially strain-hardening behavior was also observed in the stretched films, indicating the important role played by preparation method in regulating the mechanical properties of SF films. These exceptional and unique mechanical properties were suggested to be caused by preserving silk nanofibril during dissolution and stretching to align these nanofibrils. Furthermore, the SF films exhibit excellent biocompatibility, supporting marrow stromal cells adhesion and proliferation. The film preparation was facile, and the resulting SF films manifested enhanced mechanical properties, unique nanofibrous structures, and good biocompability. PMID:25603225

  6. —Part I. Interaction of Calcium and Copper-Calcium Alloy with Electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaikov, Yurii P.; Batukhtin, Victor P.; Shurov, Nikolay I.; Ivanovskii, Leonid E.; Suzdaltsev, Andrey V.

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the interaction between calcium and molten CaCl2 and the solubility of calcium in this melt, depending on the calcium content in the copper-calcium alloy that comes in contact with the molten CaCl2. The negative influence of the dissolved calcium on the current efficiency was verified. The negative effects of moisture and CaO impurities on the calcium current efficiency were demonstrated. The dependence of the current efficiency and the purity of the metal obtained by the electrolysis conditions were studied in a laboratory electrolyzer (20 to 80 A).

  7. Effect of oral calcium and calcium + fluoride treatments on mouse bone properties during suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simske, S. J.; Luttges, M. W.; Allen, K. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    The bone effects of oral dosages of calcium chloride with or without supplementary sodium fluoride were assessed in antiorthostatically suspended mice. Two calcium dosages were used to replace half (3.1 mM) or all(6.3 mM) of the dietary calcium lost due to reduced food intake by the suspended mice. Two groups of 6.3 mM CaCl2-treated mice were additionally treated with 0.25 or 2.5 mM NaF. The results indicate that supplementation of the mouse drinking water with calcium salts prevents bone changes induced by short-term suspension, while calcium salts in combination with fluoride are less effective as fluoride dosage increases. However, the calcium supplements change the relationship between the femur mechanical properties and the mineral composition of the bone. Because of this, it appears that oral calcium supplements are effective through a mechanism other than simple dietary supplementation and may indicate a dependence of bone consistency on systemic and local fluid conditions.

  8. Activation and Inhibition of TMEM16A Calcium-Activated Chloride Channels

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Yu-Li; Kuan, Ai-Seon; Chen, Tsung-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCC) encoded by family members of transmembrane proteins of unknown function 16 (TMEM16) have recently been intensely studied for functional properties as well as their physiological roles as chloride channels in various tissues. One technical hurdle in studying these channels is the well-known channel rundown that frequently impairs the precision of electrophysiological measurements for the channels. Using experimental protocols that employ fast-solution exchange, we circumvented the problem of channel rundown by normalizing the Ca2+-induced current to the maximally-activated current obtained within a time period in which the channel rundown was negligible. We characterized the activation of the TMEM16A-encoded CaCC (also called ANO1) by Ca2+, Sr2+, and Ba2+, and discovered that Mg2+ competes with Ca2+ in binding to the divalent-cation binding site without activating the channel. We also studied the permeability of the ANO1 pore for various anions and found that the anion occupancy in the pore–as revealed by the permeability ratios of these anions–appeared to be inversely correlated with the apparent affinity of the ANO1 inhibition by niflumic acid (NFA). On the other hand, the NFA inhibition was neither affected by the degree of the channel activation nor influenced by the types of divalent cations used for the channel activation. These results suggest that the NFA inhibition of ANO1 is likely mediated by altering the pore function but not through changing the channel gating. Our study provides a precise characterization of ANO1 and documents factors that can affect divalent cation activation and NFA inhibition of ANO1. PMID:24489780

  9. 43 CFR 3511.11 - If I am mining calcium chloride, may I obtain a noncompetitive mineral lease to produce the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING OF SOLID MINERALS OTHER THAN COAL AND OIL SHALE Lease Terms and Conditions § 3511.11 If I am mining calcium chloride, may I obtain a noncompetitive...

  10. 43 CFR 3511.11 - If I am mining calcium chloride, may I obtain a noncompetitive mineral lease to produce the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING OF SOLID MINERALS OTHER THAN COAL AND OIL SHALE Lease Terms and Conditions § 3511.11 If I am mining calcium chloride, may I obtain a noncompetitive...

  11. Expression cloning of TMEM16A as a calcium-activated chloride channel subunit

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Björn Christian; Cheng, Tong; Jan, Yuh Nung; Jan, Lily Yeh

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCCs) are major regulators of sensory transduction, epithelial secretion and smooth muscle contraction. Other crucial roles of CaCCs include action potential generation in Characean algae and prevention of polyspermia in frog oocyte membrane. None of the known molecular candidates share properties characteristic of most CaCCs in native cells. Using Axolotl oocytes as expression system, we have identified TMEM16A as the Xenopus oocyte CaCC. The TMEM16 family of “transmembrane proteins with unknown function” is conserved among eukaryotes, with family members linked to tracheomalacia (mouse TMEM16A), gnathodiaphyseal dysplasia (human TMEM16E), aberrant X segregation (a Drosophila TMEM16 family member) and increased sodium tolerance (yeast TMEM16). Moreover, mouse TMEM16A and TMEM16B yield CaCCs in Axolotl oocytes and mammalian HEK293 cells, and recapitulate the broad CaCC expression. The identification of this new family of ion channels may help the development of CaCC modulators for treating diseases including hypertension and cystic fibrosis. PMID:18805094

  12. Calcium-activated chloride channel TMEM16A modulates mucin secretion and airway smooth muscle contraction

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Fen; Zhang, Hongkang; Wu, Meng; Yang, Huanghe; Kudo, Makoto; Peters, Christian J.; Woodruff, Prescott G.; Solberg, Owen D.; Donne, Matthew L.; Huang, Xiaozhu; Sheppard, Dean; Fahy, John V.; Wolters, Paul J.; Hogan, Brigid L. M.; Finkbeiner, Walter E.; Li, Min; Jan, Yuh-Nung; Jan, Lily Yeh; Rock, Jason R.

    2012-01-01

    Mucous cell hyperplasia and airway smooth muscle (ASM) hyperresponsiveness are hallmark features of inflammatory airway diseases, including asthma. Here, we show that the recently identified calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) TMEM16A is expressed in the adult airway surface epithelium and ASM. The epithelial expression is increased in asthmatics, particularly in secretory cells. Based on this and the proposed functions of CaCC, we hypothesized that TMEM16A inhibitors would negatively regulate both epithelial mucin secretion and ASM contraction. We used a high-throughput screen to identify small-molecule blockers of TMEM16A-CaCC channels. We show that inhibition of TMEM16A-CaCC significantly impairs mucus secretion in primary human airway surface epithelial cells. Furthermore, inhibition of TMEM16A-CaCC significantly reduces mouse and human ASM contraction in response to cholinergic agonists. TMEM16A-CaCC blockers, including those identified here, may positively impact multiple causes of asthma symptoms. PMID:22988107

  13. Fat and sodium chloride reduction in sausages using kappa-carrageenan and other salts.

    PubMed

    Totosaus, A; Alfaro-Rodriguez, R H; Pérez-Chabela, M L

    2004-08-01

    Fat and sodium chloride were reduced in a sausage formulation including kappa-carrageenan and other salts, as potassium and calcium chloride, in different concentrations, in order to compensate the ionic strength during myofibrillar protein extraction and solubilisation, and to promote the carrageenan stable conformation and gelation. Four different treatments were employed reducing fat from 15 to 10% and sodium chloride from 2.5 to 1.5% and 1%. Potassium chloride was added at 0.5% to all the treatments, and calcium chloride to 0.5% and 0.01% in the last two. The cooking yield was higher for all the treatments but expressible moisture was not significantly different, meaning that the water is not chemically entrapped by carrageenan at the ionic strength conditions employed. However, since no detrimental cooking losses or fat release were detected, myofibrillar proteins maintain a good functionality at these conditions together with kappa-carrageenan. Low-fat sodium-reduced treatment results were slightly darker but redder than the control, probably due to less fat in the formulation. Textural profile analysis demonstrated that, at the fat level employed and the different sodium, potassium and calcium chloride concentrations, similar textures could be created. Sensory analysis indicated that from the formulations employed, 1.5% NaCl with 0.5% KCl and 0.01% CaCl(2) was similar in controlling flavour (juiciness) and texture (hardness). These results established the possibility to reduce significantly the fat and sodium chloride content employing kappa-carrageenan with potassium and calcium chloride, without detrimental effects on texture and sensory characteristics. PMID:15545045

  14. Long-Term Corrosion Behavior of Alloy 22 in 5M CaCl2 at 120 C

    SciTech Connect

    J.C. Estill; G.A. Hust; K.J. Evans; M.L. Stuart; R.B. Rebak

    2006-05-08

    In conditions where tight crevices exist in hot chloride containing solutions Alloy 22 may suffer crevice corrosion. The occurrence (or not) of crevice corrosion in a given environment (e.g, salt concentration and temperature), is governed by the values of the critical potential (E{sub crit}) for crevice corrosion and the corrosion potential (E{sub corr}). This paper discusses the evolution of E{sub corr} and corrosion rate (CR) of creviced Alloy 22 specimens in 5 M calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}) at 120 C. Tested specimens included non-creviced rods and multiple creviced assemblies (MCA) both non-welded (wrought) and welded. Results show that Alloy 22 suffers crevice corrosion under the open circuit conditions in the aerated hot CaCl{sub 2} brine. However, after more than a year of immersion the propagation of crevice corrosion was not significant. The general corrosion rate decreased or remained unchanged as the immersion time increased. For rods and MCA specimens, the corrosion rate was lower than 100 nm/year after more than a year immersion time.

  15. Applicability of 0.01 M CaCl2 as a single extraction solution for the assessment of the nutrient status of soils and other diagnostic purposes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. J. G. Houba; I. Novozamsky; Th. M. Lexmond; J. J. van der Lee

    1990-01-01

    The applicability of 0.01 M CaCl2 solution as a single extraction agent for soils as a basis for fertilizer recommendation was tested on a variety of soils both from the Netherlands and from some tropical countries. Air?dry soil samples were subjected to extraction with 0.01 M CaCl2 and to several conventional extraction procedures, and the results were compared. In the

  16. Effects of pH, temperature, CaCl 2 and enzyme concentrations on the rennet-clotting properties of milk: a multifactorial study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. I. Nájera; M. de Renobales; L. J. R. Barron

    2003-01-01

    The effects of pH, coagulation temperature, CaCl2 and enzyme concentrations on the rennet clotting properties of milk were assessed. Rennet coagulation time, coagulum firmness, curd firmness and gel firming rate were the coagulation parameters measured using a gelograph. A multifactorial design, considering two levels of coagulation temperature (28 and 44 °C), pH (6.0 and 6.8) and concentration of CaCl2 (10 and

  17. Calcium-deoxidation of niobium and titanium in Ca-saturated CaCl 2 molten salt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryosuke O. Suzuki; Masayuki Aizawa; Katsutoshi Ono

    1999-01-01

    Niobium was deoxidized under Ca(liquid)–CaO(solid) equilibrium at 1273 K to a level below the lower limit of quantitative chemical analysis, 50 mass ppm oxygen. Because Ca does not react with Nb, it is easy to remove the excess Ca and the byproduct CaO, and no reaction layer remains such as for Ti external gettering. Due to direct contact with Ca

  18. Corrosion Effects of Calcium Chloride Injection for Mercury Control on the Pollution Control Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Vijay Sethi; M.P. Sharma

    2009-02-28

    In response to the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) of 2005, Black Hills Power (BHP) initiated testing of a calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}) injection method in their Wygen 1 (Gillette, WY) coal-fired power plant to help lower mercury emissions. In 2006, Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) was contracted to test their CaCl{sub 2} technology in-situ by adding a CaCl{sub 2} solution onto the raw, pre-pulverized coal during normal operation of Wygen 1. Follow-up tests were conducted by BHP in 2007. Data were collected from these two time periods and analyzed by a collaborative investigation team from Western Research Institute (WRI) and the University of Wyoming (UW) to see if there were any effects on the current air pollution control systems. During a CaCl{sub 2} injection period in 2007, corrosion was monitored in the flue and recycle ash system by placing corrosion coupons in strategic locations to test if corrosion was enhanced by the CaCl{sub 2} injection. While the CaCl{sub 2} produced a reduction in stack mercury levels, there was some evidence of beneficial impacts on the removal of SO{sub 2} from the flue gas during CaCl{sub 2} injection. Data on NOx remained inconclusive. It was also discovered that corrosion was enhanced significantly in the Spray Drier Absorber (SDA) vessel and corresponding outlet ductwork during CaCl{sub 2} injections. Further studies are being carried out in the field and lab to better understand the corrosive effects of CaCl{sub 2} to help formulate operation controls to manage the increased corrosion rates.

  19. The involvement of lactic acid in calcium chloride injection of top and bottom rounds further processed into cooked corned beef and cooked beef

    E-print Network

    McCleery, Carrie McReynolds

    1995-01-01

    ); .2M CaCl2 injection (CCL) and .2M CaCl2 injection with I% Lactic acid (LACCL). Top and bottom rounds were further processed into cooked beef and cooked corned beef, respectively. Cooked corned beef and cooked beef were randomly assigned to three...

  20. Identification of a dimerization domain in the TMEM16A calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC)

    PubMed Central

    Tien, Jason; Lee, Hye Young; Minor, Daniel L.; Jan, Yuh Nung; Jan, Lily Yeh

    2013-01-01

    Transmembrane proteins with unknown function 16 (TMEM16A) is a calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) important for neuronal, exocrine, and smooth muscle functions. TMEM16A belongs to a family of integral membrane proteins that includes another CaCC, TMEM16B, responsible for controlling action potential waveform and synaptic efficacy, and a small-conductance calcium-activated nonselective cation channel, TMEM16F, linked to Scott syndrome. We find that these channels in the TMEM16 family share a homodimeric architecture facilitated by their cytoplasmic N termini. This dimerization domain is important for channel assembly in eukaryotic cells, and the in vitro association of peptides containing the dimerization domain is consistent with a homotypic protein–protein interaction. Amino acid substitutions in the dimerization domain affect functional TMEM16A-CaCC channel expression, as expected from its critical role in channel subunit assembly. PMID:23576756

  1. TMEM16A/anoctamin 1 protein mediates calcium-activated chloride currents in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Manoury, Boris; Tamuleviciute, Aiste; Tammaro, Paolo

    2010-07-01

    Calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCCs) play important roles in several physiological processes. In vascular smooth muscle, activation of these ion channels by agonist-induced Ca(2+) release results in membrane depolarization and vasoconstriction. The molecular identity of vascular CaCCs is not fully defined. Here we present evidence that TMEM16A (or anoctamin 1), a member of the transmembrane 16 (TMEM16) protein family, forms CaCCs in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). Patch-clamp analysis in freshly isolated PASMCs revealed strongly outward-rectifying, slowly activating Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) currents sharing a high degree of similarity with heterologous TMEM16A currents. TMEM16A mRNA was identified in rat and human pulmonary arteries and various other vascular smooth muscle cell types. Further analyses revealed that several TMEM16A splice variants were detected in rat PASMCs and that TMEM16F and TMEM16K were also expressed in these cells, while TMEM16B, TMEM16D and TMEM16E were all at least 50 times less abundantly expressed and the remaining TMEM16 family members were absent. Downregulation of TMEM16A gene expression in primary cultures of rat PASMCs, with small interfering RNAs, was accompanied by almost total loss of whole-cell CaCC currents. Based on these results, we propose that TMEM16A is the major constituent of the vascular calcium-activated chloride channel in rat pulmonary artery smooth muscle. PMID:20421283

  2. Improving NaCl resistance of red-osier dogwood: role of CaCl 2 and CaSO 4

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylvie Renault; Maha Affifi

    2009-01-01

    The influence of Ca2+ salts on the resistance of red-osier dogwood (Cornus sericea) seedlings to salinity was investigated. Red-osier dogwood seedlings were exposed to 5 and 10 mM of CaCl2 or CaSO4 in the presence or absence of 50 mM NaCl for 40 days in a controlled environment. Seedlings exposed to CaCl2 and CaSO4 recovered from NaCl-induced transpiration reduction after 20 days at a

  3. Calorimetric investigation on zeolites, AlPO 4's and CaCl 2 impregnated attapulgite for thermochemical storage of heat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Jänchen; D. Ackermann; E. Weiler; H. Stach; W. Brösicke

    2005-01-01

    The sorption properties of water in potential thermochemical storage materials such as low silica X zeolites, microporous aluminophosphates, SAPO-34 and CaCl2 accommodated in the pores of attapulgite were investigated by thermogravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry, sorption isotherms and microcalorimetry.Because of decreasing differential molar heats of sorption from LiLSX (100–70kJ\\/mol) to SAPO-34 (90–65kJ\\/mol) and to supported CaCl2 (70–50kJ\\/mol) the isotherms are shifted

  4. Chlorotoxin does not inhibit volume-regulated, calcium-activated and cyclic AMP-activated chloride channels

    PubMed Central

    Maertens, Chantal; Wei, Lin; Tytgat, Jan; Droogmans, Guy; Nilius, Bernd

    2000-01-01

    It was the aim of this study to look for a high-affinity and selective polypeptide toxin, which could serve as a probe for the volume-regulated anion channel (VRAC) or the calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC). We have partially purified chlorotoxin, including new and homologous short chain insectotoxins, from the crude venom of Leiurus quinquestriatus quinquestriatus (Lqq) by means of gel filtration chromatography. Material eluting between 280 and 420?min, corresponding to fractions 15–21, was lyophilized and tested on VRAC and CaCC, using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. We have also tested the commercially available chlorotoxin on VRAC, CaCC, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and on the glioma specific chloride channel (GCC). VRAC and the correspondent current, ICl,swell, was activated in Cultured Pulmonary Artery Endothelial (CPAE) cells by a 25% hypotonic solution. Neither of the fractions 16–21 significantly inhibited ICl,swell (n=4–5). Ca2+-activated Cl? currents, ICl,Ca, activated by loading T84 cells via the patch pipette with 1??M free Ca2+, were not inhibited by any of the tested fractions (15–21), (n=2–5). Chlorotoxin (625?nM) did neither effect ICl,swell nor ICl,Ca (n=4–5). The CFTR channel, transiently transfected in COS cells and activated by a cocktail containing IBMX and forskolin, was not affected by 1.2??M chlorotoxin (n=5). In addition, it did not affect currents through GCC. We conclude that submicromolar concentrations of chlorotoxin do not block volume-regulated, Ca2+-activated and CFTR chloride channels and that it can not be classified as a general chloride channel toxin. PMID:10683204

  5. Poly(?-glutamic acid)/silica hybrids with calcium incorporated in the silica network by use of a calcium alkoxide precursor.

    PubMed

    Poologasundarampillai, Gowsihan; Yu, Bobo; Tsigkou, Olga; Wang, Daming; Romer, Frederik; Bhakhri, Vineet; Giuliani, Finn; Stevens, Molly M; McPhail, David S; Smith, Mark E; Hanna, John V; Jones, Julian R

    2014-06-23

    Current materials used for bone regeneration are usually bioactive ceramics or glasses. Although they bond to bone, they are brittle. There is a need for new materials that can combine bioactivity with toughness and controlled biodegradation. Sol-gel hybrids have the potential to do this through their nanoscale interpenetrating networks (IPN) of inorganic and organic components. Poly(?-glutamic acid) (?-PGA) was introduced into the sol-gel process to produce a hybrid of ?-PGA and bioactive silica. Calcium is an important element for bone regeneration but calcium sources that are used traditionally in the sol-gel process, such as Ca salts, do not allow Ca incorporation into the silicate network during low-temperature processing. The hypothesis for this study was that using calcium methoxyethoxide (CME) as the Ca source would allow Ca incorporation into the silicate component of the hybrid at room temperature. The produced hybrids would have improved mechanical properties and controlled degradation compared with hybrids of calcium chloride (CaCl2 ), in which the Ca is not incorporated into the silicate network. Class II hybrids, with covalent bonds between the inorganic and organic species, were synthesised by using organosilane. Calcium incorporation in both the organic and inorganic IPNs of the hybrid was improved when CME was used. This was clearly observed by using FTIR and solid-state NMR spectroscopy, which showed ionic cross-linking of ?-PGA by Ca and a lower degree of condensation of the Si species compared with the hybrids made with CaCl2 as the Ca source. The ionic cross-linking of ?-PGA by Ca resulted in excellent compressive strength and reduced elastic modulus as measured by compressive testing and nanoindentation, respectively. All hybrids showed bioactivity as hydroxyapatite (HA) was formed after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF). PMID:24838668

  6. A Halophilic Bacterium Inhabiting the Warm, CaCl2-Rich Brine of the Perennially Ice-Covered Lake Vanda, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Tregoning, George S; Kempher, Megan L; Jung, Deborah O; Samarkin, Vladimir A; Joye, Samantha B; Madigan, Michael T

    2015-03-15

    Lake Vanda is a perennially ice-covered and stratified lake in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. The lake develops a distinct chemocline at about a 50-m depth, where the waters transition from cool, oxic, and fresh to warm, sulfidic, and hypersaline. The bottom water brine is unique, as the highly chaotropic salts CaCl2 and MgCl2 predominate, and CaCl2 levels are the highest of those in any known microbial habitat. Enrichment techniques were used to isolate 15 strains of heterotrophic bacteria from the Lake Vanda brine. Despite direct supplementation of the brine samples with different organic substrates in primary enrichments, the same organism, a relative of the halophilic bacterium Halomonas (Gammaproteobacteria), was isolated from all depths sampled. The Lake Vanda (VAN) strains were obligate aerobes and showed broad pH, salinity, and temperature ranges for growth, consistent with the physicochemical properties of the brine. VAN strains were halophilic and quite CaCl2 tolerant but did not require CaCl2 for growth. The fact that only VAN strain-like organisms appeared in our enrichments hints that the highly chaotropic nature of the Lake Vanda brine may place unusual physiological constraints on the bacterial community that inhabits it. PMID:25576606

  7. Vibrational and elastic properties as a pointer to stishovite to CaCl2 ferroelastic phase transition in RuO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Sanjay D.; Jha, Prafulla K.

    2014-09-01

    The high pressure behavior of RuO2 has been investigated using the first principles calculations based on the density functional theory. Here, we report the calculated properties on structure, electronic, elastic, phonon and electron-phonon coupling of rutile and CaCl2 type RuO2. Our calculated lattice constants and bulk modulus agree reasonably well with the available theoretical and experimental data. Results of our calculations of zone center phonon modes at ambient and high pressures are in good agreement with Raman scattering measurements. Elastic (shear) modulus and phonon analysis confirm the ferroelastic phase transition from rutile to CaCl2 phase in RuO2. It is clearly illustrated that the first transition is associated with macroscopic shear instability which arises from the strong coupling between elastic constants and softening of Raman active B1g mode. The observed pressure of phase transition in experimental measurements was reproduced more accurately than in previous calculations and the difference between observed and calculated transition pressure is only of the order of few percentage. We have also analyzed the rotation angle for O-R-O corresponding to B1g mode and found that the rotation of bond about 80 is required for transition from rutile to CaCl2 phase in RuO2. In addition, the mode Grüneisen parameter is discussed. The electron-phonon interaction in both rutile and CaCl2 type RuO2 at high pressure is also discussed.

  8. A Density Model for Multicomponent Liquids Based on the Modified Quasichemical Model: Application to the NaCl-KCl-MgCl2-CaCl2 System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robelin, Christian; Chartrand, Patrice; Eriksson, Gunnar

    2007-12-01

    A theoretical model based on the modified quasichemical model is presented for the density of multicomponent inorganic liquids such as molten salts. By introducing in the Gibbs energy of the liquid phase temperature-dependent molar volume expressions for the pure components and pressure-dependent excess parameters for the binary (and, if necessary, higher-order) interactions, it is possible to reproduce and eventually predict the molar volume and the density of the multicomponent liquid phase using standard interpolation methods. The model is applied to the NaCl-KCl-MgCl2-CaCl2 liquid solutions. No ternary pressure-dependent model parameters were required; the binary pressure-dependent parameters suffice to reproduce satisfactorily the experimental density data available for the NaCl-KCl-MgCl2, NaCl-KCl-CaCl2, NaCl-MgCl2-CaCl2, KCl-MgCl2-CaCl2, and NaCl-KCl-MgCl2-CaCl2 liquids. This is the first of two articles on the density model. In a subsequent article, the model is applied to the NaF-AlF3-CaF2-Al2O3 base electrolyte used for the electroreduction of alumina in Hall-Héroult cells.

  9. The role of calcium in growth induced by indole-3-acetic acid and gravity in the leaf-sheath pulvinus of oat (Avena sativa)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brock, T. G.; Burg, J.; Ghosheh, N. S.; Kaufman, P. B.

    1992-01-01

    Leaf-sheath pulvini of excised segments from oat (Avena sativa L.) were induced to grow by treatment with 10 micromoles indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), gravistimulation, or both, and the effects of calcium, EGTA, and calcium channel blockers on growth were evaluated. Unilaterally applied calcium (10 mM CaCl2) significantly inhibited IAA-induced growth in upright pulvini but had no effect on growth induced by either gravity or gravity plus IAA. Calcium alone had no effect on upright pulvini. The calcium chelator EGTA alone (10 mM) stimulated growth in upright pulvini. However, EGTA had no effect on either IAA- or gravity-induced growth but slightly diminished growth in IAA-treated gravistimulated pulvini. The calcium channel blockers lanthanum chloride (25 mM), verapamil (2.5 mM), and nifedipine (2.5 mM) greatly inhibited growth as induced by IAA (> or = 50% inhibition) or IAA plus gravity (20% inhibition) but had no effect on gravistimulated pulvini. Combinations of channel blockers were similar in effect on IAA action as individual blockers. Since neither calcium ions nor EGTA significantly affected the graviresponse of pulvini, we conclude that apoplastic calcium is unimportant in leaf-sheath pulvinus gravitropism. The observation that calcium ions and calcium channel blockers inhibit IAA-induced growth, but have no effect on gravistimulated pulvini, further supports previous observations that gravistimulation alters the responsiveness of pulvini to IAA.

  10. Host-pathogen-biocontrol agent interaction as affected by sequential application of Na2CO3 and CaCl2.

    PubMed

    Molinu, G M; Arras, G; Dore, A; Venditti, T; Petretto, A; D'Hallewin, G

    2009-01-01

    Among the alternatives to synthetic postharvest fungicides encouraging results have been reported with biocontrol agents, and on Citrus fruits, their efficacy was improved when co-applied with GRAS compounds or with physical means. Still, the reason for this increased efficacy has not been explained and therefore a study was performed using orange fruit (Citrus sinensis Osbec. cv 'Washington navel') as host, P. digitatum as the pathogen, a yeast (Pichia guiliermondii, isolate 5A) as the biocontrol agent, white 2% Na2CO3 (SC) and 1% CaCl2 were employed as GRAS compounds. When treatments were combined salts were applied sequentially, and SC preceded CaCl2 followed by the yeast. As a result of large scale trait with inoculated and un-inoculated fruit a clear beneficial interaction occurred when treatments were combined. SC exerted a direct fungistatic activity and an indirect one by inducing scoparone in host tissue. Also the isolate A5 induced the phytoalexin accumulation and when combined with SC a greater accumulation occurred within the first 7 days post-treatment. The application of CaCl2 alone had no effect on pathogenesis, while when combined with SC or with the yeast, decay was towered. The yeast growth on an amended medium was negatively affected by the addition of SC; while in vivo this effect was missing. The antagonist growth in vivo was enhanced when applied together with 1% CaCl2 also when applied with SC. The results reported improve our knowledge on the complex interactions among host, pathogen and the antagonist as affected by SC and CaCl2. PMID:20222553

  11. Random electron paramagnetic resonance sampling of the modulated structure in incommensurate phases of betaine calcium chloride dihydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, M.; Kotake, Y.

    1989-01-01

    The successive phase transitions in betaine calcium chloride dihydrate crystals were investigated in the range between 300 and 100 K with VO2+ and Mn2+ electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) probes substituted for Ca2+ ions in the lattice. Preceded by B2u soft phonons in the normal phase, these transitions are continuous, and found to consist of stepwise changes of a collective librational fluctuation of the Ca-betaine complexes. Below the normal-to-incommensurate transition at 164 K, the fluctuation became slower than the EPR frequencies so that the spectra exhibited anomalous line shapes resulting from random sampling of the modulated structure. In addition, such anomalies as observed at 9.2 and 36 GHz indicated clear evidence for time-dependent lattice modulation in these phases. Sampling results by VO2+ and Mn2+ probes yielded complementary information about the modulated structure, which were interpreted by the plane-wave approximation of the anharmonic librational mode.

  12. Calcium

    MedlinePLUS

    ... following: Milk, yogurt, and cheese are the main food sources of calcium for the majority of people in ... on Calcium Minerals, MedlinePlus® For more information on food sources of calcium: U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA) National ...

  13. Functional expression of the TMEM16 family of calcium-activated chloride channels in airway smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Remy, Kenneth E.; Danielsson, Jennifer; Funayama, Hiromi; Fu, Xiao Wen; Chang, Herng-Yu Sucie; Yim, Peter; Xu, Dingbang; Emala, Charles W.

    2013-01-01

    Airway smooth muscle hyperresponsiveness is a key component in the pathophysiology of asthma. Although calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) flux has been described in many cell types, including human airway smooth muscle (HASM), the true molecular identity of the channels responsible for this chloride conductance remains controversial. Recently, a new family of proteins thought to represent the true CaCCs was identified as the TMEM16 family. This led us to question whether members of this family are functionally expressed in native and cultured HASM. We further questioned whether expression of these channels contributes to the contractile function of HASM. We identified the mRNA expression of eight members of the TMEM16 family in HASM cells and show immunohistochemical evidence of TMEM16A in both cultured and native HASM. Functionally, we demonstrate that the classic chloride channel inhibitor, 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid (NPPB), inhibited halide flux in cultured HASM cells. Moreover, HASM cells displayed classical electrophysiological properties of CaCCs during whole cell electrophysiological recordings, which were blocked by using an antibody selective for TMEM16A. Furthermore, two distinct TMEM16A antagonists (tannic acid and benzbromarone) impaired a substance P-induced contraction in isolated guinea pig tracheal rings. These findings demonstrate that multiple members of this recently described family of CaCCs are expressed in HASM cells, they display classic electrophysiological properties of CaCCs, and they modulate contractile tone in airway smooth muscle. The TMEM16 family may provide a novel therapeutic target for limiting airway constriction in asthma. PMID:23997176

  14. Functional expression of the TMEM16 family of calcium-activated chloride channels in airway smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Gallos, George; Remy, Kenneth E; Danielsson, Jennifer; Funayama, Hiromi; Fu, Xiao Wen; Chang, Herng-Yu Sucie; Yim, Peter; Xu, Dingbang; Emala, Charles W

    2013-11-01

    Airway smooth muscle hyperresponsiveness is a key component in the pathophysiology of asthma. Although calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) flux has been described in many cell types, including human airway smooth muscle (HASM), the true molecular identity of the channels responsible for this chloride conductance remains controversial. Recently, a new family of proteins thought to represent the true CaCCs was identified as the TMEM16 family. This led us to question whether members of this family are functionally expressed in native and cultured HASM. We further questioned whether expression of these channels contributes to the contractile function of HASM. We identified the mRNA expression of eight members of the TMEM16 family in HASM cells and show immunohistochemical evidence of TMEM16A in both cultured and native HASM. Functionally, we demonstrate that the classic chloride channel inhibitor, 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid (NPPB), inhibited halide flux in cultured HASM cells. Moreover, HASM cells displayed classical electrophysiological properties of CaCCs during whole cell electrophysiological recordings, which were blocked by using an antibody selective for TMEM16A. Furthermore, two distinct TMEM16A antagonists (tannic acid and benzbromarone) impaired a substance P-induced contraction in isolated guinea pig tracheal rings. These findings demonstrate that multiple members of this recently described family of CaCCs are expressed in HASM cells, they display classic electrophysiological properties of CaCCs, and they modulate contractile tone in airway smooth muscle. The TMEM16 family may provide a novel therapeutic target for limiting airway constriction in asthma. PMID:23997176

  15. 45 CaCl 2 autoradiography in brain from rabbits with encephalopathy from acute liver failure or acute hyperammonemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert J. de Knegt; Jan-Bert P. Gramsbergen; Solko W. Schalm

    1994-01-01

    In experimental hepatic encephalopathy and hyperammonemia, extracellular levels of glutamate are increased in hippocampus and cerebral cortex. It has been suggested that overstimulation of glutamate receptors causes a pathological entry of calcium into neurons via receptor-operated (NMDA- and AMPA-type) or voltage-dependent calcium channels leading to calcium overload and cell death. Neurodegeneration as a result of exposure to excitotoxins, including glutamate,

  16. Production of niobium powder by direct electrochemical reduction of solid Nb 2 O 5 in a eutectic CaCl 2 NaCl melt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. Y. Yan; D. J. Fray

    2002-01-01

    The method of electro-deoxidation was used to reduce solid Nb2O5 to niobium metal in a CaCl2-NaCl eutectic melt. The direct electrochemical reduction of Nb2O5 was achieved by electrolysis in the eutectic melt at 1123 and 1173 K, respectively, at a controlled potential of 3.1 V, below\\u000a the decomposition potential of the salts. Analysis of the anodic reaction gases carried by

  17. Evaluation of the effect of CaCl2 and alginate concentrations and hardening time on the characteristics of Lactobacillus acidophilus loaded alginate beads using response surface analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lotfipour, Farzaneh; Mirzaeei, Shahla; Maghsoodi, Maryam

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This article describes preparation and characterization of beads of alginate containing probiotic bacteria of Lactobacillus acidophilus DMSZ20079. Methods: Fourteen formulations using different alginate (ALG) and CaCl2 concentrations as well as hardening times were prepared using extrusion technique. The prepared beads were characterized in terms of size, morphology, encapsulation efficiency and bacterial viabilities in acid (pH 1.8, 2 hours) condition. Results: The results showed that spherical beads with narrow size distribution ranging from 1.32±0.04 to 1.70±0.07 mm were achieved with encapsulation efficiency higher than 98%. Surface response analysis revealed that alginate concentration was the important factor for the size, shape and encapsulation efficiency of prepared beads. Furthermore, survived bacteria after acid exposure in all prepared beads (63-83%) were significantly higher than those of untreated cells (39%) and enhanced by increasing alginate concentration. Surface response analysis revealed that the effect of all three factors of alginate and CaCl2 concentrations as well as hardening times were significant in acid viability, however alginate concentration played the most important role according to its regression coefficient. Conclusion: Among alginate and CaCl2 concentrations as well as hardening times, alginate concentration was the most variable in the characteristics of Alginate beads. PMID:24312773

  18. Elastic properties of stishovite and the CaCl2-type silica at the mantle temperature and pressure: An ab initio investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Rui; Wu, Zhongqing

    2014-10-01

    The elastic constant tensors of stishovite and the CaCl2-type silica at the Earth's mantle temperature and pressure were determined using first-principles calculations with local density approximation. The elastic properties of stishovite show not only strong pressure dependence but also temperature dependence. By increasing temperature, the shear instability of stishovite is shifted to an elevated pressure with a slope of ?5.4±1.4 MPa/K. The softening of the shear modulus and the positive Clapeyron slope result in crossing of the sound velocities at different temperatures, which leads to the unusual positive temperature dependence of the sound velocities around the phase boundary. The transition from stishovite to the CaCl2-type silica at the lower mantle's temperature occurs at a depth far deeper than 1200 km and is accompanied by a velocity jump of ?0.98±0.08 km/s in S wave velocity (VS) and ?0.45±0.15 km/s in P wave velocity (VP). This transition is likely related to the seismic discontinuity at the depth of ?1670 km in the vicinity of Mariana Island. The unusual positive temperature dependence of VS of stishovite and strong anisotropy of stishovite and the CaCl2-type silica around the phase boundary provide potential ways to identify the origin of the seismic discontinuity.

  19. Calcium

    MedlinePLUS

    ... loss. Some clinical research shows that increasing calcium consumption from dairy products such as yogurt seems to ... and vitamin D. For weight loss, increasing calcium consumption from dairy products to total intake of 500- ...

  20. Calcium

    MedlinePLUS

    ... strong bones and teeth. Why Do I Need Calcium? Bones grow rapidly during adolescence, and teens need ... salmon with bones. Almond milk. Back Continue Working Calcium Into Your Diet Looking for ways to up ...

  1. Calcium

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and blood vessels contract and expand, to secrete hormones and enzymes and to send messages through the nervous system. It is important to get plenty of calcium in the foods you eat. Foods rich in calcium include Dairy ...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1191 - Calcium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...calcium hydroxide in the “Carbonation process”; or (3) By precipitation of calcium carbonate from calcium chloride in the “Calcium chloride process”. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals...

  3. Dissecting a regulatory calcium-binding site of CLC-K kidney chloride channels

    PubMed Central

    Gradogna, Antonella; Fenollar-Ferrer, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    The kidney and inner ear CLC-K chloride channels, which are involved in salt absorption and endolymph production, are regulated by extracellular Ca2+ in the millimolar concentration range. Recently, Gradogna et al. (2010. J. Gen. Physiol. http://dx.doi.org/10.1085/jgp.201010455) identified a pair of acidic residues (E261 and D278) located in the loop between helices I and J as forming a putative intersubunit Ca2+-binding site in hClC-Ka. In this study, we sought to explore the properties of the binding site in more detail. First, we verified that the site is conserved in hClC-Kb and rClC-K1. In addition, we could confer Ca2+ sensitivity to the Torpedo marmorata ClC-0 channel by exchanging its I–J loop with that from ClC-Ka, demonstrating a direct role of the loop in Ca2+ binding. Based on a structure of a bacterial CLC and a new sequence alignment, we built homology models of ClC-Ka. The models suggested additional amino acids involved in Ca2+ binding. Testing mutants of these residues, we could restrict the range of plausible models and positively identify two more residues (E259 and E281) involved in Ca2+ coordination. To investigate cation specificity, we applied extracellular Zn2+, Mg2+, Ba2+, Sr2+, and Mn2+. Zn2+ blocks ClC-Ka as well as its Ca2+-insensitive mutant, suggesting that Zn2+ binds to a different site. Mg2+ does not activate CLC-Ks, but the channels are activated by Ba2+, Sr2+, and Mn2+ with a rank order of potency of Ca2+ > Ba2+ > Sr2+ = Mn2+ for the human CLC-Ks. Dose–response analysis indicates that the less potent Ba2+ has a lower affinity rather than a lower efficacy. Interestingly, rClC-K1 shows an altered rank order (Ca2+ > Sr2+ >> Ba2+), but homology models suggest that residues outside the I–J loop are responsible for this difference. Our detailed characterization of the regulatory Ca2+-binding site provides a solid basis for the understanding of the physiological modulation of CLC-K channel function in the kidney and inner ear. PMID:23148261

  4. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Intense violet-blue emitting (CaCl2/SiO2) : Eu2+ phosphor powders for applications in UV-LED based phototherapy illuminators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Zhendong; Zhang, Jiahua; Zhang, Xia; Ren, Xinguang; Luo, Yongshi; Lu, Shaozhe; Wang, Xiaojun

    2008-09-01

    An intense violet-blue emitting (CaCl2/SiO2) : Eu2+ phosphor with a composition of 25% CaCl2 and 75% SiO2 is prepared by a solid state reaction. The phosphor emits at 427 nm with a narrow bandwidth of 21 nm. The photoluminescence (PL) intensities and fluorescence lifetimes are studied as a function of Eu2+ concentrations. It is observed that the PL intensity of (CaCl2/SiO2) : Eu2+ can be 30% higher than that of commercial Sr2P2O7 : Eu2+ phosphor under 395 nm excitation. (CaCl2/SiO2) : Eu2+ would be a promising new phosphor for converting near-ultraviolet radiation to violet-blue emission for a novel phototherapy illuminator using a near-ultraviolet (~395 nm) light emitting diode as the excitation source.

  5. Bile acids stimulate chloride secretion through CFTR and calcium-activated Cl- channels in Calu-3 airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hendrick, Siobhán M; Mroz, Magdalena S; Greene, Catherine M; Keely, Stephen J; Harvey, Brian J

    2014-09-01

    Bile acids resulting from the aspiration of gastroesophageal refluxate are often present in the lower airways of people with cystic fibrosis and other respiratory distress diseases. Surprisingly, there is little or no information on the modulation of airway epithelial ion transport by bile acids. The secretory effect of a variety of conjugated and unconjugated secondary bile acids was investigated in Calu-3 airway epithelial cells grown under an air-liquid interface and mounted in Ussing chambers. Electrogenic transepithelial ion transport was measured as short-circuit current (Isc). The taurine-conjugated secondary bile acid, taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA), was found to be the most potent modulator of basal ion transport. Acute treatment (5 min) of Calu-3 cells with TDCA (25 ?M) on the basolateral side caused a stimulation of Isc, and removal of extracellular Cl(-) abolished this response. TDCA produced an increase in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-dependent current that was abolished by pretreatment with the CFTR inhibitor CFTRinh172. TDCA treatment also increased Cl(-) secretion through calcium-activated chloride (CaCC) channels and increased the Na(+)/K(+) pump current. Acute treatment with TDCA resulted in a rapid cellular influx of Ca(2+) and increased cAMP levels in Calu-3 cells. Bile acid receptor-selective activation with INT-777 revealed TGR5 localized at the basolateral membrane as the receptor involved in TDCA-induced Cl(-) secretion. In summary, we demonstrate for the first time that low concentrations of bile acids can modulate Cl(-) secretion in airway epithelial cells, and this effect is dependent on both the duration and sidedness of exposure to the bile acid. PMID:24993131

  6. Hypoxia augments the calcium-activated chloride current carried by anoctamin-1 in cardiac vascular endothelial cells of neonatal mice

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ming-Ming; Lou, Jie; Song, Bin-Lin; Gong, Yuan-Feng; Li, Yan-Chao; Yu, Chang-Jiang; Wang, Qiu-Shi; Ma, Tian-Xing; Ma, Ke; Hartzell, H Criss; Duan, Dayue Darrel; Zhao, Dan; Zhang, Zhi-Ren

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The molecular identity of calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCCs) in vascular endothelial cells remains unknown. This study sought to identify whether anoctamin-1 (Ano1, also known as TMEM16A) functions as a CaCC and whether hypoxia alters the biophysical properties of Ano1 in mouse cardiac vascular endothelial cells (CVECs). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Western blot, quantitative real-time PCR, confocal imaging analysis and patch-clamp analysis combined with pharmacological approaches were used to determine whether Ano1 was expressed and functioned as CaCC in CVECs. KEY RESULTS Ano1 was expressed in CVECs. The biophysical properties of the current generated in the CVECs, including the Ca2+ and voltage dependence, outward rectification, anion selectivity and the pharmacological profile, are similar to those described for CaCCs. The density of ICl(Ca) detected in CVECs was significantly inhibited by T16Ainh-A01, an Ano1 inhibitor, and a pore-targeting, specific anti-Ano1 antibody, and was markedly decreased in Ano1 gene knockdown CVECs. The density of ICl(Ca) was significantly potentiated in CVECs exposed to hypoxia, and this hypoxia-induced increase in the density of ICl(Ca) was inhibited by T16Ainh-A01 or anti-Ano1 antibody. Hypoxia also increased the current density of ICl(Ca) in Ano1 gene knockdown CVECs. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Ano1 formed CaCC in CVECs of neonatal mice. Hypoxia enhances Ano1-mediated ICl(Ca) density via increasing its expression, altering the ratio of its splicing variants, sensitivity to membrane voltage and to Ca2+. Ano1 may play a role in the pathophysiological processes during ischaemia in heart, and therefore, Ano1 might be a potential therapeutic target to prevent ischaemic damage. PMID:24758567

  7. Effect of NaCl and CaCl 2 on the antioxidant mechanism of leaves and stems of the rootstock CAB6P ( Prunus cerasus L.) under in vitro conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Chatzissavvidis; G. Veneti; I. Papadakis; I. Therios

    2008-01-01

    The effect of salinity on the non-enzymic and enzymic antioxidant activity, shoot proliferation and nutrient accumulation\\u000a was studied in in vitro cultures of the rootstock CAB-6P (Prunus cerasus L.). Three concentrations (0, 30 and 60 mM) of NaCl or CaCl2 were added to a modified MS medium. Between the two salt treatments used, only the explants treated with CaCl2 presented significant

  8. Internal eutrophication in peat soils through competition between chloride and sulphate with phosphate for binding sites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Beltman; T. G. Rouwenhorst; M. B. Van Kerkhoven; T. Van Der Krift; J. T. A. Verhoeven

    2000-01-01

    Inputs of surface waters high in chloride and sulphateincreased the availability of nutrients in fenpeatlands. This `internal eutrophication' wasdemonstrated with test plants (`phytometers') andthrough water and soil analysis. Three experiments arepresented in which the level of chloride and\\/orsulphate was increased to 3 mmolc l-1. Inexperiment 1 chloride levels were increased from 0.5to 3 mmolc l-1 as CaCl2 or NaCl. Inexperiment

  9. 21 CFR 184.1191 - Calcium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...As a byproduct in the “Lime soda process”; (2) By precipitation of calcium carbonate from calcium hydroxide in the “Carbonation process”; or (3) By precipitation of calcium carbonate from calcium chloride in the “Calcium...

  10. Crystal Screen HT -Scoring Sheet A1. 30% MPD, 0.1 M Na Acetate pH 4.6, 0.02 M Calcium Chloride

    E-print Network

    Hill, Chris

    . 0.4 M K, Na Tartrate A3. 0.4 M Ammonium Phosphate A4. 2.0 M Ammonium Sulfate, 0.1 M Tris HCl pH 8.2 M Calcium Chloride B3. 30% PEG 8000, 0.1 M Na Cacodylate pH 6.5, 0.2 M Ammonium Sulfate B4. 1.5 M HCl pH 8.5, 0.2 M Ammonium Acetate B8. 25% PEG 4000, 0.1 M Na Acetate pH 4.6, 0.2 M Ammonium Sulfate B

  11. Crystal Screen Lite -Scoring Sheet 1. 15% MPD, 0.1 M Na Acetate pH 4.6, 0.02 M Calcium Chloride

    E-print Network

    Hill, Chris

    . 0.2 M K, Na Tartrate 3. 0.2 M Ammonium Phosphate 4. 1.0 M Ammonium Sulfate, 0.1 M Tris HCl pH 8.5 5 Calcium Chloride 15. 15% PEG 8000, 0.1 M Na Cacodylate pH 6.5, 0.2 M Ammonium Sulfate 16. 0.75 M Lithium.5, 0.2 M Ammonium Acetate 20. 12.5% PEG 4000, 0.1 M Na Acetate pH 4.6, 0.2 M Ammonium Sulfate 21. 15

  12. On the preparation of TiAl alloy by direct reduction of the oxide mixtures in calcium chloride melt

    SciTech Connect

    Prabhat K. Tripathy; Derek J. Fray

    2011-11-01

    In recent years, TiAl-based intermetallic alloys are being increasingly considered for application in areas such as (i) automobile/transport sector (passenger cars, trucks and ships) (ii) aerospace industry (jet engines and High Speed Civil Transport propulsion system) and (iii) industrial gas turbines. These materials offer excellent (i) high temperature properties (at higher than 6000C) (ii) mechanical strength and (iii) resistance to corrosion and as a result have raised renewed interest. The combination of these properties make them possible replacement materials for traditional nickel-based super-alloys, which are nearly as twice as dense (than TiAl based alloys). Since the microstructures of these intermetallic alloys affect, to a significant extent, their ultimate performance, further improvements (by way of alteration/modification of these microstructures), have been the subject matter of intense research investigations. It has now been established that the presence of alloy additives, such as niobium, tantalum, manganese, boron, chromium, silicon, nickel and yttrium etc, in specific quantities, impart marked improvement to the properties, viz. fatigue strength, fracture toughness, oxidation resistance and room temperature ductility, of these alloys. From a number of possible alloy compositions, {gamma}-TiAl and Ti-Al-Nb-Cr have, of late, emerged as two promising engineering alloys/materials. . The conventional fabrication process of these alloys include steps such as melting, forging and heat treatment/annealing of the alloy compositions. However, an electrochemical process offers an attractive proposition to prepare these alloys, directly from the mixture of the respective oxides, in just one step. The experimental approach, in this new process, was, therefore, to try to electrochemically reduce the (mixed) oxide pellet to an alloy phase. The removal of oxygen, from the (mixed) oxide pellet, was effected by polarizing the oxide pellet against a graphite electrode in a pool of molten calcium chloride at a temperature of 9000C. The dominant mechanism of the oxygen removal was the ionization of oxygen followed by its subsequent discharge, as CO2/CO, at the anode surface. The removal of oxygen from the oxide mixture helped form the alloy in situ. The presentation shall cover the detailed experimental results pertaining to the preparation, evaluation and characterization of Ti-47Al-2Nb-2Cr (atom%) alloy.

  13. CFTR and calcium-activated chloride channels in primary cultures of human airway gland cells of serous or mucous phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Horst; Illek, Beate; Sachs, Lorne; Finkbeiner, Walter E.

    2010-01-01

    Using cell culture models, we have investigated the relative importance of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCC) in Cl secretion by mucous and serous cells of human airway glands. In transepithelial recordings in Ussing chambers, the CFTR inhibitor CFTRinh-172 abolished 60% of baseline Cl secretion in serous cells and 70% in mucous. Flufenamic acid (FFA), an inhibitor of CaCC, reduced baseline Cl secretion by ?20% in both cell types. Methacholine and ATP stimulated Cl secretion in both cell types, which was largely blocked by treatment with 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N?,N?-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA) and partially by mucosal FFA or CFTRinh-172 with the exception of methacholine responses in mucous cells, which were not blocked by FFA and partially (?60%) by CFTRinh-172. The effects of ionomycin on short-circuit current (Isc) were less than those of ATP or methacholine. Forskolin stimulated Cl secretion only if Cl in the mucosal medium was replaced by gluconate. In whole cell patch-clamp studies of single isolated cells, cAMP-induced Cl currents were ?3-fold greater in serous than mucous cells. Ionomycin-induced Cl currents were 13 times (serous) or 26 times (mucous) greater than those generated by cAMP and were blocked by FFA. In serous cells, mRNA for transmembrane protein 16A (TMEM16A) was ?10 times more abundant than mRNA for CFTR. In mucous cells it was ?100 times more abundant. We conclude: 1) serous and mucous cells both make significant contributions to gland fluid secretion; 2) baseline Cl secretion in both cell types is mediated predominantly by CFTR, but CaCC becomes increasingly important after mediator-induced elevations of intracellular Ca; and 3) the high CaCC currents seen in patch-clamp studies and the high TMEM16A expression in intact polarized cells sheets are not reflected in transepithelial current recordings. PMID:20675434

  14. Effects of chloride, calcium, and dissolved organic carbon on silver toxicity: Comparison between rainbow tout and fathead minnows

    SciTech Connect

    Bury, N.R. [INRA, Rennes (France). Lab. de Physiologie des Poissons; Galvez, F.; Wood, C.M. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Biology

    1999-01-01

    The effects of independently altering chloride, calcium, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) on the toxicity of silver were compared between rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). The 96-h median lethal concentration toxicity tests for both species were performed under the same conditions, within the same containers. In addition, the effect of altering [Cl{sup {minus}}] on silver-induced perturbations to body Na{sup +} influx and gill silver load was studied. Toxicity tests were conducted in synthetic soft water (50 {micro}M Na{sup +}, 50 {micro}M Cl{sup {minus}}, 50 {micro}M Ca{sup 2+}, 0.3 mg DOC/L). The [Cl{sup {minus}}], [Ca{sup 2+}], and [DOC] were adjusted by the addition of NaCl, CaNO{sub 3}, or humic acid, respectively. On the basis of total silver, increasing [Cl{sup {minus}}] over a range of 50 {micro}M to 1,500 {micro}M resulted in a 4.3-fold increase in the 96-h LC50 values (decrease in toxicity) for rainbow trout, but did not significantly affect the 96-h LC50 values for fathead minnows. Increasing water [Ca{sup 2+}] (from 50 to 2,000 {micro}M) had only a small influence on the 96-h LC50 values in both species. If the 96-h LC50 values are calculated on the basis of ionic silver, Ag{sup +}, then, in the case of rainbow trout, toxicity correlates to Ag{sup +}. However, this correlation does not exist for fathead minnows. Increasing [Cl{sup {minus}}] did not affect the degree of perturbation of Na{sup +} influx during acute exposure (first 4 h) to 8 {micro}g Ag/L in either species, nor did it affect the whole-body silver uptake rates, but it did reduce the gill silver load. These results demonstrate that differences exist in the way in which water chemistry ameliorates silver toxicity between rainbow trout and fathead minnows.

  15. Angiotensin II modulates mouse skeletal muscle resting conductance to chloride and potassium ions and calcium homeostasis via the AT1 receptor and NADPH oxidase.

    PubMed

    Cozzoli, Anna; Liantonio, Antonella; Conte, Elena; Cannone, Maria; Massari, Ada Maria; Giustino, Arcangela; Scaramuzzi, Antonia; Pierno, Sabata; Mantuano, Paola; Capogrosso, Roberta Francesca; Camerino, Giulia Maria; De Luca, Annamaria

    2014-10-01

    Angiotensin II (ANG II) plays a role in muscle wasting and remodeling; however, little evidence shows its direct effects on specific muscle functions. We presently investigated the acute in vitro effects of ANG II on resting ionic conductance and calcium homeostasis of mouse extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle fibers, based on previous findings that in vivo inhibition of ANG II counteracts the impairment of macroscopic ClC-1 chloride channel conductance (gCl) in the mdx mouse model of muscular dystrophy. By means of intracellular microelectrode recordings we found that ANG II reduced gCl in the nanomolar range and in a concentration-dependent manner (EC50 = 0.06 ?M) meanwhile increasing potassium conductance (gK). Both effects were inhibited by the ANG II receptors type 1 (AT1)-receptor antagonist losartan and the protein kinase C inhibitor chelerythrine; no antagonism was observed with the AT2 antagonist PD123,319. The scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS) N-acetyl cysteine and the NADPH-oxidase (NOX) inhibitor apocynin also antagonized ANG II effects on resting ionic conductances; the ANG II-dependent gK increase was blocked by iberiotoxin, an inhibitor of calcium-activated potassium channels. ANG II also lowered the threshold for myofiber and muscle contraction. Both ANG II and the AT1 agonist L162,313 increased the intracellular calcium transients, measured by fura-2, with a two-step pattern. These latter effects were not observed in the presence of losartan and of the phospholipase C inhibitor U73122 and the in absence of extracellular calcium, disclosing a Gq-mediated calcium entry mechanism. The data show for the first time that the AT1-mediated ANG II pathway, also involving NOX and ROS, directly modulates ion channels and calcium homeostasis in adult myofibers. PMID:25080489

  16. Variomics screen identifies the re-entrant loop of the calcium-activated chloride channel ANO1 that facilitates channel activation.

    PubMed

    Bill, Anke; Popa, M Oana; van Diepen, Michiel T; Gutierrez, Abraham; Lilley, Sarah; Velkova, Maria; Acheson, Kathryn; Choudhury, Hedaythul; Renaud, Nicole A; Auld, Douglas S; Gosling, Martin; Groot-Kormelink, Paul J; Gaither, L Alex

    2015-01-01

    The calcium-activated chloride channel ANO1 regulates multiple physiological processes. However, little is known about the mechanism of channel gating and regulation of ANO1 activity. Using a high-throughput, random mutagenesis-based variomics screen, we generated and functionally characterized ?6000 ANO1 mutants and identified novel mutations that affected channel activity, intracellular trafficking, or localization of ANO1. Mutations such as S741T increased ANO1 calcium sensitivity and rendered ANO1 calcium gating voltage-independent, demonstrating a critical role of the re-entrant loop in coupling calcium and voltage sensitivity of ANO1 and hence in regulating ANO1 activation. Our data present the first unbiased and comprehensive study of the structure-function relationship of ANO1. The novel ANO1 mutants reported have diverse functional characteristics, providing new tools to study ANO1 function in biological systems, paving the path for a better understanding of the function of ANO1 and its role in health and diseases. PMID:25425649

  17. Gravimetric Determination of Calcium as Calcium Carbonate Hydrate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henrickson, Charles H.; Robinson, Paul R.

    1979-01-01

    The gravimetric determination of calcium as calcium carbonate is described. This experiment is suitable for undergraduate quantitative analysis laboratories. It is less expensive than determination of chloride as silver chloride. (BB)

  18. The roles of calcium-sensing receptor and calcium channel in osteogenic differentiation of undifferentiated periodontal ligament cells.

    PubMed

    Koori, Katsuaki; Maeda, Hidefumi; Fujii, Shinsuke; Tomokiyo, Atsushi; Kawachi, Giichiro; Hasegawa, Daigaku; Hamano, Sayuri; Sugii, Hideki; Wada, Naohisa; Akamine, Akifumi

    2014-09-01

    Elevated extracellular calcium has been shown to promote the differentiation of osteoblasts. However, the way that calcium affects the osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament stem/progenitor cells (PDLSCs) remains unclear. Our aim has been to investigate the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of a calcium-exposed human PDLSC line (cell line 1-17) that we have recently established and to elucidate the roles of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) and L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel (L-VDCC) in this process. Proliferation activity was investigated by WST-1 assay, and gene and protein expression was examined by quantitative reverse transcriptase plus the polymerase chain reaction and immunostaining, respectively. Calcification assay was performed by von Kossa and Alizarin red staining. Treatment with 5 mM CaCl2 significantly induced proliferation, bone-related gene expression, and calcification in cell line 1-17. During culture with 5 mM CaCl2, this cell line up-regulated the gene expression of CaSR, which was reduced after 7 days. Simultaneous treatment with NPS2143, a CaSR inhibitor, and calcium significantly further increased bone-related gene expression and calcification as compared with CaCl2 exposure alone. The L-VDCC inhibitor, nifedipine, significantly suppressed osteogenic differentiation of cell line 1-17 treated with 5 mM CaCl2 and promoted the expression of CaSR, as compared with calcium treatment alone. Thus, elevated extracellular calcium promotes the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of a PDLSC line. Antagonizing CaSR further enhances the effect of calcium on osteogenic differentiation, with CaSR expression being regulated by L-VDCC under extracellular calcium. Extracellular calcium might therefore modulate the osteogenic differentiation of PDLSCs through reciprocal adjustments of CaSR and L-VDCC. PMID:24842051

  19. Ion-pairing in aqueous CaCl2 and RbBr solutions: simultaneous structural refinement of XAFS and XRD data

    SciTech Connect

    Pham, Thai V.; Fulton, John L.

    2013-01-28

    We present a new methodology involving the simultaneous refinement of both x-ray absorption and x-ray diffraction spectra (X-ray Absorption/Diffraction Structural Refinement,XADSR), to study hydration and ion pair structure of CaCl2 and RbBr salts in concentrated aqueous solutions. The XADSR analysis includes the XAFS spectra analysis of both the cation and anion as a probe of their short-range structure with an XRD spectral analysis as a probe of the global structural. Together they deliver a comprehensive picture of the cation and anion hydration, the contact ion pair (CIP) structure and the solvent-separated ion pair (SSIP) structure. XADSR analysis of 6.0 m aqueous CaCl2 reveals that there are an insignificant number of Ca2+-Cl- CIP’s, but there are approximately 3.4 SSIP’s separated by about 4.99 Å. In contrast XADSR analysis of aqueous RbBr yields about 0.7 pair CIP at a bond length 3.51 Å. The present work demonstrates a new approach for a direct co-refinement of XRD and XAFS spectra in a simple and reliable fashion, opening new opportunities for analysis in various disordered and crystalline systems. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is operated for the U.S. Department of Energy by Battelle.

  20. Original article Calcium-binding capacity of organic

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    sterilization for calcium-ion activity, conductivity, pH, sediment, and turbidity. Both SHMP and SP are strong mmol·L-1 CaCl2 solution. The samples were prepared at pH 8.0 and were analyzed before and after2UMP) (Na2HPO4 ) (SP) (SHMP) 100 mmol·L-1 50 mmol·L-1 CaCl2 pH 8.0 pH SHMP SP 3:1 6:1 Na2

  1. Zinc Hydroxystannate- or Zinc Stannate-coated Calcium Carbonate as Flame Retardant for Semirigid Poly(vinyl chloride)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Z. Xu; Y. H. Jiao; H. Q. Qu; C. M. Tian; N. Cai

    2006-01-01

    The flame retardant and smoke suppressant properties of semirigid PVC treated with CaCO3, zinc hydroxystannate, zinc stannate, zinc hydroxystannate-coated calcium carbonate, and zinc stannate-coated calcium carbonate have been studied through the limiting oxygen index, anaerobic char yield, and smoke density rating (SDR) methods. The thermal degradation in air of the treated semirigid PVC is studied by thermogravimetry (TG) and differential

  2. Calcium-mediated responses and glutamine synthetase expression in greater duckweed (Spirodela polyrhiza L.) under diethyl phthalate-induced stress.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lee-Ju; Hung, Meng-Ju; Cheng, Yen-I; Cheng, Tai-Sheng

    2013-11-15

    This study was carried out to assess the influence of diethyl phthalate (DEP) alone or associated with calcium chloride (CaCl2) on greater duckweed plants, emphasizing the implications of calcium in amelioration of DEP-induced stress on plant growth. Greater duckweed were treated with DEP in variable concentrations, as 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0mM for 7 days, or treated with the same concentration either 2mM DEP or 2mM DEP plus 10mM CaCl2·2H2O in different duration 0-7 days. Treatment with 2mM DEP resulted in increasing proline content, protease activity, and ammonia accumulation in duckweed tissues. NADH-glutamate dehydrogenase (NADH-GDH; EC 1.4.1.2) and ?(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase (P5CR; EC 1.5.1.2), two key enzymes in the glutamate pathway of proline synthesis, showed increase in activity with DEP treatment and positively correlated with proline accumulation. No further increase in proline accumulation was observed with addition of calcium chloride to the DEP-treated cultures. However, supplementation of Ca(2+) can mitigate the adverse effect of DEP, at least in part to decrease the DEP-induced superoxide accumulation and increase in GDH activity for ammonia assimilation in duckweed fronds. In addition, effects of calcium on mitigation of DEP injury were also observed in glutamine synthetase (GS; EC 6.3.1.2) expression. Both GS1 and GS2 polypeptide accumulation and the level of total GS activity were nearly equivalent to the control. Exogenous proline protects GS2 from DEP-modulated redox damage in the chloroplast lysates but there is no remarkable protection effects on D1 (the 32kDa protein in photosystem II reaction center) degradation. In conclusion, the glutamate pathway of proline synthesis might be involved in mitigation of DEP-induced injury, and calcium plays an important role in increasing GDH, P5CR, and GS expression. PMID:24177215

  3. Mean absorption coefficient of H2O-air-MgCl2/CaCl2/NaCl thermal plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannachi, R.; Cressault, Y.; Salem, D.; Teulet, Ph; Béji, L.; Ben Lakhdar, Z.

    2012-12-01

    Under the local thermodynamic equilibrium hypothesis, the mean absorption coefficients (MACs) were calculated for H2O-air-MgCl2/CaCl2/NaCl thermal plasmas in a temperature range from 300 to 30?000 K and at atmospheric pressure. The MACs were computed under the hypothesis of isothermal plasmas which allows a good description of the radiation absorbed in cold regions. In this study, we took into account the absorption radiation resulting from the atomic continuum, molecular continuum, atomic lines and some molecular bands. Free-free transitions (bremsstrahlung) and free-bound (electron-ion recombination and electron attachment) or bound-free transitions in terms of absorption were considered for the calculation of atomic continuum. For bound-bound transitions, natural, resonance, van der Waals, Stark and Doppler effects were taken into account for the line broadenings while the escape factors were used to treat the self-absorption of the resonance lines. Molecular continuum was considered for the main molecules (H2, O2, N2, OH, NO, H2O, N2O, NO2, O3, NO3 and N2O5) whereas we studied only diatomic systems O2, N2, NO and N_2^+ for the absorption of molecular bands. The influence of the proportion of MgCl2, CaCl2 or NaCl in a water-air mixture was analysed as the effect of the strong self-absorbed resonance lines of the alkaline salts (Ca, Ca+, Na, Na+, Mg, Mg+, Cl and Cl+). Our results show that a low concentration of alkaline salts (less than 1% in molar proportions) in the plasma increased the MACs at low temperatures (T < 10?000 K) due to the resonance lines mainly localized in the near-UV and visible spectral regions in opposition to hydrogen, oxygen or nitrogen species for which 90% of them exist in ultraviolet. In addition to the atomic and molecular continuum, the absorption radiation of molecular bands is important at low temperatures.

  4. Cytosolic free calcium concentrations in synaptosomes during histotoxic hypoxia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary Gibson; Lourdes Toral-Barza; Hsueh-Meei Huang

    1991-01-01

    Altered cytosolic free calcium concentrations ([Ca2+]i) accompany impaired brain metabolism and may mediate subsequent effects on brain function and cell death. The current experiments examined whether hypoxia-induced elevations in [Ca2+]i are from external or internal sources. In the absence of external calcium, neither KCl depolarization, histotoxic hypoxia (KCN), nor the combination changed [Ca2+]i. However, with external CaCl2 concentrations as small

  5. ARTICLE Evolution Mechanism of Calcium Carbonate in Solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ya-ping Guo; Hai-xiong Tang; Yu Zhou; De-chang Jia; Cong-qin Ning; Ya-jun Guo

    2010-01-01

    Calcium carbonate was synthesized in a CaCl2\\/NaCO3 mixed solution by using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as an additive. The thermodynamics and kinetics analyses indicate that although the driving force of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) precipitation is always less than that of calcite and vaterite precipitation, the nucleation rate of ACC is greater than that of calcite and vaterite at the initial

  6. Recessive Mutations in the Putative Calcium-Activated Chloride Channel Anoctamin 5 Cause Proximal LGMD2L and Distal MMD3 Muscular Dystrophies

    PubMed Central

    Bolduc, Véronique; Marlow, Gareth; Boycott, Kym M.; Saleki, Khalil; Inoue, Hiroshi; Kroon, Johan; Itakura, Mitsuo; Robitaille, Yves; Parent, Lucie; Baas, Frank; Mizuta, Kuniko; Kamata, Nobuyuki; Richard, Isabelle; Linssen, Wim H.J.P.; Mahjneh, Ibrahim; de Visser, Marianne; Bashir, Rumaisa; Brais, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    The recently described human anion channel Anoctamin (ANO) protein family comprises at least ten members, many of which have been shown to correspond to calcium-activated chloride channels. To date, the only reported human mutations in this family of genes are dominant mutations in ANO5 (TMEM16E, GDD1) in the rare skeletal disorder gnathodiaphyseal dysplasia. We have identified recessive mutations in ANO5 that result in a proximal limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD2L) in three French Canadian families and in a distal non-dysferlin Miyoshi myopathy (MMD3) in Dutch and Finnish families. These mutations consist of a splice site, one base pair duplication shared by French Canadian and Dutch cases, and two missense mutations. The splice site and the duplication mutations introduce premature-termination codons and consequently trigger nonsense-mediated mRNA decay, suggesting an underlining loss-of-function mechanism. The LGMD2L phenotype is characterized by proximal weakness, with prominent asymmetrical quadriceps femoris and biceps brachii atrophy. The MMD3 phenotype is associated with distal weakness, of calf muscles in particular. With the use of electron microscopy, multifocal sarcolemmal lesions were observed in both phenotypes. The phenotypic heterogeneity associated with ANO5 mutations is reminiscent of that observed with Dysferlin (DYSF) mutations that can cause both LGMD2B and Miyoshi myopathy (MMD1). In one MMD3-affected individual, defective membrane repair was documented on fibroblasts by membrane-resealing ability assays, as observed in dysferlinopathies. Though the function of the ANO5 protein is still unknown, its putative calcium-activated chloride channel function may lead to important insights into the role of deficient skeletal muscle membrane repair in muscular dystrophies. PMID:20096397

  7. Contribution of calcium-activated chloride channel to elevated pulmonary artery pressure in pulmonary arterial hypertension induced by high pulmonary blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kai; Chen, Chuansi; Ma, Jianfa; Lao, Jinquan; Pang, Yusheng

    2015-01-01

    The correlation between calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) induced by high pulmonary blood flow remains uncertain. In this study, we investigated the possible role and effects of CaCC in this disease. Sixty rats were randomly assigned to normal, sham, and shunt groups. Rats in the shunt group underwent abdominal aorta and inferior vena cava shunt surgery. The pulmonary artery pressure was measured by catheterization. Pathological changes, right ventricle hypertrophy index (RVHI), arterial wall area/vessel area (W/V), and arterial wall thickness/vessel external diameter (T/D) were analyzed by optical microscopy. Electrophysiological characteristics of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) were investigated using patch clamp technology. After 11 weeks of shunting, PAH and pulmonary vascular structural remodeling (PVSR) developed, accompanied by increased pulmonary pressure and pathological interstitial pulmonary changes. Compared with normal and sham groups, pulmonary artery pressure, RVHI, W/V, and T/D of the shunt group rats increased significantly. Electrophysiological results showed primary CaCC characteristics. Compared with normal and sham groups, membrane capacitance and current density of PASMCs in the shunt group increased significantly, which were subsequently attenuated following chloride channel blocker niflumic acid (NFA) treatment. To conclude, CaCC contributed to PAH induced by high pulmonary blood flow and may represent a potential target for treatment of PAH. PMID:25755701

  8. Effectiveness of Hydrothermal-Calcium Chloride Treatment and Chitosan on Quality Retention and Microbial Growth during Storage of Fresh-Cut Papaya.

    PubMed

    Ayón-Reyna, Lidia E; Tamayo-Limón, Ransés; Cárdenas-Torres, Feliznando; López-López, Martha E; López-Angulo, Gabriela; López-Moreno, Héctor S; López-Cervántes, Jaime; López-Valenzuela, José A; Vega-García, Misael O

    2015-03-01

    Rapid degradation of fresh-cut papaya limits its marketability. Hydrothermal treatments in combination with a calcium dip, applied to whole fruit before slicing, and also the application of chitosan as a coating film, have been found to have very good results in maintaining the quality of fresh-cut fruits. Based on these considerations, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydrothermal treatment (HT; 49 °C, 25 min) containing calcium chloride (Ca; 1%, w/v) followed by dipping in chitosan (Chit; 1%, w/v, 3 min) on the physical, chemical, and microbial qualities of papaya slices stored at 5 °C for 10 d. Pulp color, firmness, ascorbic acid, total phenolics, ?-carotene, and lycopene were evaluated every 2 d while the microbial quality (mesophilics, psychrophilics, molds, and yeasts) was evaluated every 5 d. Fruit treated with HT-Ca and HT-Ca + Chit showed better color and firmness retention than Control and Chit. Papaya slices treated with HT-Ca + Chit had higher nutritional content and lower microbial growth at the end of storage. The application of the HT-Ca + Chit could be used to reduce deterioration processes, maintaining physical, chemical, and microbial qualities and increasing the shelf life of fresh-cut papaya stored at 5 °C. PMID:25627320

  9. Sodium-, chloride-, and mibefradil-sensitive calcium channels in intestinal pacing in wild-type and W/WV mice.

    PubMed

    Boddy, Geoffrey; Willis, A; Galante, G; Daniel, E E

    2006-06-01

    Pacing of intestinal smooth muscle is driven by a network of cells found in the myenteric plexus called the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC-MP), which produce a rhythmic pacemaker current. Using intact segments of circular (CM) and longitudinal (LM) muscle from wild-type and W/WV mice, we found that sodium-, chloride-, and mibefradil-sensitive ion channel currents are required for normal pacing to occur. Application of 30 micromol/L and 300 micromol/L lidocaine, 1 mmol/L 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS), 50 nmol/L and 500 nmol/L mibefradil, or low sodium Krebs significantly reduced pacing frequency in LM and CM. However, simultaneously applying DIDS and lidocaine or low sodium Krebs solution did not completely block pacing nor did it have an additive effect. Lidocaine and low sodium Krebs solution also abolished the gradient of pacing frequencies (higher proximally) found throughout the intestine, resulting in a uniform contraction frequency of 30-40/min. In W/WV mice, which lack ICC-MP, application of DIDS and lidocaine had no effect on the robust pacing in LM segments. In conclusion we found that sodium-, chloride-, and mibefradil-sensitive channel activities were required for normal pacing and to maintain the pacing gradient found throughout the intestines in wild-type but not W/WV mice. PMID:16900243

  10. Effect of calcium chloride on pH and availability of zinc and phosphorus in three calcareous soils

    E-print Network

    Podisuk, Varangkana

    1976-01-01

    Effect o8 Plant Uptake of P and Zn. . . . . . . 16 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Laboratory Equilibrium Study Soil pH Solution Ca Linear Regression Equation. Solution P. Solution Zn Greenhouse Experiment. Plant Growth. Calcium Uptake. Phos phorus... Committee: Dr. Allen R. Swoboda Effect of CaC1 on pH and availability of Zn and P in three calcareous soils, Hiller clay, Houston Black clay and Trinity fine sandy loam was studied in the laboratory and in a greehnouse using corn (Zea m~as L...

  11. Effet de sel sur l'équilibre liquide-liquide des systèmes eau-phénol-sel (KCl, NaCl, LiCl, CaCl2 et MgCl2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belhachemi, B.; Gotouk, A. A.

    1999-07-01

    Phase diagrams of the Water-Phenol-Salt systems (KCl, NaCl, LiCl, CaCl2 and MgCl2) have been studied. The influence of the cation concentration and ionic radius on the binodal curves and the maxima critical point coordinates bas been shown. Les diagrammes de phases de l'équilibre liquide-liquide des systèmes Eau-Phénol-Sel (KCl, NaCl, LiCl, CaCl2 et MgCl2) ont été étudiés. Nous avons mis en évidence l'influence de la concentration et du rayon ionique du cation du sel ajouté sur l'allure des courbes binodales et les coordonnées des points critiques maxima de miscibilité.

  12. Activation of chloride channels in normal and cystic fibrosis airway epithelial cells by multifunctional calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, John A.; Cozens, Alison L.; Schulman, Howard; Gruenert, Dieter C.; Stryer, Lubert; Gardner, Phyllis

    1991-02-01

    CYSTIC fibrosis is associated with defective regulation of apical membrane chloride channels in airway epithelial cells. These channels in normal cells are activated by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase1,2 and protein kinase C3,4. In cystic fibrosis these kinases fail to activate otherwise normal Cl- channels1-4. But Cl- flux in cystic fibrosis cells, as in normal cells, can be activated by raising intracellular Ca2+ (refs 5-10). We report here whole-cell patch clamp studies of normal and cystic fibrosis-derived airway epithelial cells showing that Cl- channel activation by Ca2+ is mediated by multifunctional Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase. We find that intracellular application of activated kinase and ATP activates a Cl- current similar to that activated by a Ca2+ ionophore, that peptide inhibitors of either the kinase or calmodulin block Ca2+-dependent activation of Cl- channels, and that a peptide inhibitor of protein kinase C does not block Ca2+-dependent activation. Ca2+/calmodulin activation of Cl- channels presents a pathway with therapeutic potential for circumventing defective regulation of Cl- channels in cystic fibrosis.

  13. Original article Calcium-cadmium interaction

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    +-free media, where calcium chloride was omitted and replaced isotonically with choline chloride, this amino acid transport was not modified by cadmium but it was inhibited when calcium chloride was replaced isotonically with magnesium chloride. Verapamil (blocking mainly Ca2+ transport) did not modify the inhibitory

  14. The Porcine Chloride Channel Calcium-Activated Family Member pCLCA4a Mirrors Lung Expression of the Human hCLCA4

    PubMed Central

    Plog, Stephanie; Grötzsch, Tanja; Klymiuk, Nikolai; Kobalz, Ursula; Gruber, Achim D.

    2012-01-01

    Pig models of cystic fibrosis (CF) have recently been established that are expected to mimic the human disease closer than mouse models do. The human CLCA (originally named chloride channels, calcium-activated) member hCLCA4 is considered a potential modifier of disease severity in CF, but its murine ortholog, mCLCA6, is not expressed in the mouse lung. Here, we have characterized the genomic structure, protein processing, and tissue expression patterns of the porcine ortholog to hCLCA4, pCLCA4a. The genomic structure and cellular protein processing of pCLCA4a were found to closely mirror those of hCLCA4 and mCLCA6. Similar to human lung, pCLCA4a mRNA was strongly expressed in porcine lungs, and the pCLCA4a protein was immunohistochemically detected on the apical membranes of tracheal and bronchial epithelial cells. This stands in sharp contrast to mouse mCLCA6, which has been detected exclusively in intestinal epithelia but not the murine lung. The results may add to the understanding of species-specific differences in the CF phenotype and support the notion that the CF pig model may be more suitable than murine models to study the role of hCLCA4. PMID:22205680

  15. Ion uptake in tall fescue as affected by carbonate, chloride, and sulfate salinity.

    PubMed

    Han, Lei; Gao, Yang; Li, Deying

    2014-01-01

    Turfgrass nutrient uptake may be differentially affected by different salts. The objective of this study was to compare nutrient uptake in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) as affected by carbonate, chloride, and sulfate under iso-osmotic, iso-Na+ strength conditions. 'Tar Heel II' and 'Wolfpack' cultivars were subjected to NaCl, Na2CO3, Na2SO4, CaCl2, NaCl+ CaCl2, Na2CO3+ CaCl2, and Na2SO4+ CaCl2, in the range of 0 to 225 mM. There was no cultivar difference regarding K, Na, Mg, and Mn content in shoots. 'Tar Heel II' had higher shoot Ca content than 'Wolfpack', which were 6.9 and 5.7 g kg(-1), respectively. In general, K+/Na+ ratio decreased with increasing salt concentrations, which reached <1 at about 87.5 mM in Na2CO3 treatment. All salt treatments decreased Mg content in shoot tissues, especially in Na2CO3 and treatments containing CaCl2. Both Ca and Mg content in shoot were higher in the NaCl treatment than the Na2SO4 and Na2CO3 treatments. All salt treatments except Na2CO3 had higher Mn content in shoots compared to the control. In conclusion, nutrient uptake was differently affected by carbonate, chloride, and sulfate which are different in pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and osmotic potential at the same concentration. Adding Ca to the sodium salts increased Ca content and balanced K+/Na+ in shoots, but did not increase Mg content, which was below sufficient level. Maintaining Mg content in shoots under salinity stress was recommended. The physiological impact of elevated Mn content in shoot under salinity stress requires further study. PMID:24626173

  16. Ion Uptake in Tall Fescue as Affected by Carbonate, Chloride, and Sulfate Salinity

    PubMed Central

    Han, Lei; Gao, Yang; Li, Deying

    2014-01-01

    Turfgrass nutrient uptake may be differentially affected by different salts. The objective of this study was to compare nutrient uptake in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) as affected by carbonate, chloride, and sulfate under iso-osmotic, iso-Na+ strength conditions. ‘Tar Heel II’ and ‘Wolfpack’ cultivars were subjected to NaCl, Na2CO3, Na2SO4, CaCl2, NaCl+ CaCl2, Na2CO3+ CaCl2, and Na2SO4+ CaCl2, in the range of 0 to 225 mM. There was no cultivar difference regarding K, Na, Mg, and Mn content in shoots. ‘Tar Heel II’ had higher shoot Ca content than ‘Wolfpack’, which were 6.9 and 5.7 g kg?1, respectively. In general, K+/Na+ ratio decreased with increasing salt concentrations, which reached <1 at about 87.5 mM in Na2CO3 treatment. All salt treatments decreased Mg content in shoot tissues, especially in Na2CO3 and treatments containing CaCl2. Both Ca and Mg content in shoot were higher in the NaCl treatment than the Na2SO4 and Na2CO3 treatments. All salt treatments except Na2CO3 had higher Mn content in shoots compared to the control. In conclusion, nutrient uptake was differently affected by carbonate, chloride, and sulfate which are different in pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and osmotic potential at the same concentration. Adding Ca to the sodium salts increased Ca content and balanced K+/Na+ in shoots, but did not increase Mg content, which was below sufficient level. Maintaining Mg content in shoots under salinity stress was recommended. The physiological impact of elevated Mn content in shoot under salinity stress requires further study. PMID:24626173

  17. Internal pressures and molecular dimensions in aqueous solutions of some chlorides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auslaender, D.; Lenart, I.; Rus, E.; Ciupe, A.

    1974-01-01

    On the basis of measurements of the velocity of ultrasounds in aqueous solutions of some alkaline-earth chlorides (MgCl2, CaCl2, BaCl2) the concentration and temperature dependences of the internal pressure were determined. Using these results, as well as surface tension measurements, the mean diameters of the molecular species as a function of concentration and temperature, were determined.

  18. Production of niobium powder by electronically mediated reaction (EMR) using calcium as a reductant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toru H. Okabe; Il Park; K. T. Jacob; Yoshio Waseda

    1999-01-01

    Explored in this study is an electronically mediated reaction (EMR) route for the production of niobium powder using calcium as a reductant for niobium oxide (Nb2O5). Feed material, Nb2O5, and reductant calcium alloy containing aluminum and nickel were charged into electronically isolated locations in a molten salt (e.g. CaCl2) at 1173 K. The current flow through an external path between

  19. Highly efficient separation of lithium chloride from seawater.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Shinji; Nakatani, Yoko; Ibrahim, Rizwangul; Ogawa, Shojiro

    2002-05-01

    A complexing reagent composed of two bipyridine moieties enabled the efficient separation of lithium chloride through liquid membrane from seawater, in which 0.005% lithium chloride is contained (more than 99% metal chlorides are NaCl, KCl, MgCl2, and CaCl2). That is, two separations by our liquid membrane changed the molar ratio of LiCl from 0.005% to 80%. The striking characteristic of this compound is that the lithium ion is separated efficiently from alkali and alkaline earth metal ions without the lipophilic anion. Thus this new membrane system contructed by us offers a low-energy, low-cost, and environmentally friendly method to enable the routine use of lithium chloride separation from seawater. PMID:11982339

  20. 9-Anthracene carboxylic acid is more suitable than DIDS for characterization of calcium-activated chloride current during canine ventricular action potential.

    PubMed

    Váczi, Krisztina; Hegyi, Bence; Ruzsnavszky, Ferenc; Kistamás, Kornél; Horváth, Balázs; Bányász, Tamás; Nánási, Péter P; Szentandrássy, Norbert; Magyar, János

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the role of ionic currents in shaping the cardiac action potential (AP) has great importance as channel malfunctions can lead to sudden cardiac death by inducing arrhythmias. Therefore, researchers frequently use inhibitors to selectively block a certain ion channel like 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS) and 9-anthracene carboxylic acid (9-AC) for calcium-activated chloride current (ICl(Ca)). This study aims to explore which blocker is preferable to study ICl(Ca). Whole-cell voltage-clamp technique was used to record ICa,L, IKs, IKr and IK1, while action potentials were measured using sharp microelectrodes. DIDS- (0.2 mM) and 9-AC-sensitive (0.5 mM) currents were identical in voltage-clamp conditions, regardless of intracellular Ca(2+) buffering. DIDS-sensitive current amplitude was larger with the increase of stimulation rate and correlated well with the rate-induced increase of calcium transients. Both drugs increased action potential duration (APD) to the same extent, but the elevation of the plateau potential was more pronounced with 9-AC at fast stimulation rates. On the contrary, 9-AC did not influence either the AP amplitude or the maximal rate of depolarization (V max), but DIDS caused marked reduction of V max. Both inhibitors reduced the magnitude of phase-1, but, at slow stimulation rates, this effect of DIDS was larger. All of these actions on APs were reversible upon washout of the drugs. Increasing concentrations of 9-AC between 0.1 and 0.5 mM in a cumulative manner gradually reduced phase-1 and increased APD. 9-AC at 1 mM had no additional actions upon perfusion after 0.5 mM. The half-effective concentration of 9-AC was approximately 160 ?M with a Hill coefficient of 2. The amplitudes of ICa,L, IKs, IKr and IK1 were not changed by 0.5 mM 9-AC. These results suggest that DIDS is equally useful to study ICl(Ca) during voltage-clamp but 9-AC is superior in AP measurements for studying the physiological role of ICl(Ca) due to the lack of sodium channel inhibition. 9-AC has also no action on other ion currents (ICa,L, IKr, IKs, IK1); however, ICa,L tracings can be contaminated with ICl(Ca) when measured in voltage-clamp condition. PMID:25344201

  1. Vcx1 and ESCRT components regulate intracellular pH homeostasis in the response of yeast cells to calcium stress.

    PubMed

    Papouskova, Klara; Jiang, Linghuo; Sychrova, Hana

    2015-03-01

    Endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRTs) are involved in the formation of multivesicular bodies and sorting of targeted proteins to the yeast vacuole. The deletion of seven genes encoding components of the ESCRT machinery render Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells sensitive to high extracellular CaCl2 concentrations as well as to low pH in media. In this work, we focused on intracellular pH (pHin) homeostasis of these mutants. None of the studied ESCRT mutants exhibited an altered pHin level compared to the wild type under standard growth conditions. Nevertheless, 60 min of CaCl2 treatment resulted in a more significant drop in pHin levels in these mutants than in the wild type, suggesting that pHin homeostasis is affected in ESCRT mutants upon the addition of calcium. Similarly, CaCl2 treatment caused a bigger pHin decrease in cells lacking the vacuolar Ca(2+)/H(+) antiporter Vcx1 which indicates a role for this protein in the maintenance of proper pHin homeostasis when cells need to cope with a high CaCl2 concentration in media. Importantly, ESCRT gene deletions in the vcx1? strain did not result in an increase in the CaCl2-invoked drop in the pHin levels of cells, which demonstrates a genetic interaction between VCX1 and studied ESCRT genes. PMID:25690770

  2. Long Term Electrochemical Behavior of Creviced and Non-Creviced Alloy 22 in CaCl2 + Ca(NO3)2 Brines at 155?C

    SciTech Connect

    Rodr?guez, M A; Stuart, M L; Rebak, R B

    2006-11-08

    Alloy 22 is a nickel base alloy highly resistant to all forms of corrosion. In very aggressive conditions (e.g. hot concentrated chloride containing brines) Alloy 22 could suffer localized attack, namely pitting and crevice corrosion. Chloride ion is known to be the most detrimental aggressive agent for Alloy 22 and is able to promote crevice corrosion when tight crevices exist in hot chloride containing solutions of different concentrations. Nitrate ion is an effective inhibitor of chloride induced crevice corrosion when present in a high enough [NO{sub 3}{sup -}]/[Cl{sup -}] ratio. The occurrence of localized corrosion in a given environment is governed by the values of the critical potential (E{sub crit}) for crevice corrosion and the corrosion potential (E{sub corr}) that the alloy may establish in the studied environment. If E{sub corr} is equal or higher than E{sub crit}, localized corrosion may be expected. This paper discusses the evolution of E{sub corr} and corrosion rate (CR) of Alloy 22 specimens in 18 m CaCl{sub 2} + 9 m Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} and 18 m CaCl{sub 2} + 0.9 m Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} brines at 155 C. Two types of specimens were used, polished as-welded (ASW) creviced and non-creviced specimens and as-welded plus solution heat-treated (ASW+SHT) creviced specimens. The latter contained the black annealing oxide film on the surface. Results show that, in a few immersion days E{sub corr} reached a stable value higher than the open circuit potential of a platinum electrode in 18 m CaCl{sub 2} + 9 m Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} for all specimens tested. Specimens tested in this solution did not suffer any type of localized attack. On the other hand, E{sub corr} showed oscillations of up to 600 mV in 18 m CaCl{sub 2} + 0.9 m Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} during the entire immersion period. These oscillations were due to pitting corrosion development. Crevice corrosion was not observed in any testing case. Corrosion rates for specimens in the latter solution ([NO{sub 3}{sup -}]/[Cl{sup -}] = 0.05) were one order of magnitude higher than for specimens in the second one ([NO{sub 3}{sup -}]/[Cl{sup -}] = 0.5). Nitrate showed to be able to inhibit localized attack even in hot concentrated chloride brines when present in a ratio of [NO{sub 3}{sup -}]/[Cl{sup -}] = 0.5. Localized corrosion occurred only in condition where E{sub corr} > E{sub crit}.

  3. Local Effects in the X-ray Absorption Spectrum of CaCl2, MgCl2, and NaCl Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Kulik, H J; Correa Tedesco, A A; Schwegler, E; Prendergast, D; Galli, G

    2010-04-12

    Both first principles molecular dynamics and theoretical X-ray absorption spectroscopy have been used to investigate the aqueous solvation of cations in 0.5 M MgCl{sub 2}, CaCl{sub 2}, and NaCl solutions. We focus here on the species-specific effects that Mg{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+}, and Na{sup +}, have on the X-ray absorption spectrum of the respective solutions. For the divalent cations, we find that the hydrogen bonding characteristics of the more rigid magnesium first shell water molecules differ from those in the more flexible solvation shell surrounding calcium. In particular, the first solvation shell water molecules of calcium are accessible to forming acceptor hydrogen bonds, and this results in an enhancement of a post-edge peak near 540 eV. The absence of acceptor hydrogen bonds for magnesium first shell water molecules provides an explanation for the experimental and theoretical observation of a lack of enhancement at the post-main-edge peak. For the sodium monovalent cation we find that the broad tilt angle distribution results in a broadening of post-edge features, despite populations in donor-and-acceptor configurations consistent with calcium. We also present the re-averaged spectra of the MgCl{sub 2}, CaCl{sub 2}, and NaCl solutions and show that trends apparent with increasing concentration (0.5 M, 2.0 M, 4.0 M) are consistent with experiment. Finally, we examine more closely both the effect that cation coordination number has on the hydrogen bonding network and the relative perturbation strength of the cations on lone pair oxygen orbitals.

  4. Influence of pH and Chloride-Based Metal Salts on Coagulation\\/Dispersion Behavior of Talc Suspension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bahri Ersoy

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the coagulation behavior of talc suspensions in the presence and absence of chloride-based metal salts (NaCl, CaCl2 and AlCl3) at a constant (pH 4) and different pHs was assessed by sedimentation tests and zeta potential (ZP) measurements. In addition, the pH-dependent dissolution experiments were performed on the talc powder in water. To evaluate the results of the

  5. Long-Term Corrosion Potential Behavior of Alloy 22 in Hot 5 m CaCl2 + 5 m Ca(NO3)2 Brines

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, M A; Carranza, R M; Stuart, M L; Rebak, R B

    2007-02-20

    Alloy 22 is a nickel base alloy highly resistant to all forms of corrosion. In very aggressive conditions (e.g. hot concentrated chloride containing brines) Alloy 22 could suffer localized attack, namely pitting and crevice corrosion. The occurrence of localized corrosion in a given environment is governed by the values of the critical potential (E{sub crit}) for crevice corrosion and the corrosion potential (E{sub corr}) that the alloy may establish in the studied environment. If E{sub corr} is equal or higher than E{sub crit}, localized corrosion may be expected. This paper discusses the evolution of E{sub corr} of Alloy 22 specimens in 5 m CaCl{sub 2} + 5 m Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} brines at 100 C and 120 C. Two types of specimens were used, polished as-welded (ASW) creviced and noncreviced specimens and as-welded plus solution heat-treated (ASW+SHT) creviced specimens. The latter contained the black annealing oxide film on the surface. Results show that, for all types of Alloy 22 specimens the E{sub corr} was higher at 120 C than at 100 C, probably because a more protective film formed at the higher temperature. Specimens with the black oxide film on the surface showed more oscillations in the potential. None of the tested specimens suffered crevice corrosion probably because of the relatively high concentration of nitrate in the electrolyte, R = [NO3]/[Cl] = 1.

  6. Vinyl Chloride

    Cancer.gov

    Vinyl chloride is a colorless gas that burns easily. It does not occur naturally and must be produced industrially for its commercial uses. Vinyl chloride is used primarily to make polyvinyl chloride (PVC); PVC is used to make a variety of plastic products, including pipes, wire and cable coatings, and packaging materials. Vinyl chloride is also produced as a combustion product in tobacco smoke.

  7. Thermodynamic evaluation and optimization of the LiCl-NaCl-KCl-RbCl-CsCl-MgCl2-CaCl2 system using the modified quasi-chemical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelton, Arthur D.; Chartrand, Patrice

    2001-06-01

    A complete critical evaluation of all available phase-diagram and thermodynamic data has been performed for all condensed phases of the LiCl-NaCl-KCl-RbCl-CsCl-MgCl2-CaCl2 system, and optimized model parameters have been found. The model parameters obtained for binary and ternary subsystems can be used to predict thermodynamic properties and phase equilibria for the multicomponent system. The modified quasi-chemical model for short-range ordering was used for the molten salt phase. Particularly in solutions with MgCl2 and KCl, RbCl, or CsCl, the calculations indicate a large dregree of ordering on the cationic sublattice, with Mg-Alkali second-nearest-neighbor pairs being favored.

  8. Influence of SDS on particle size and adhesion of precipitating calcium carbonate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aleksandra Szcze?

    2008-01-01

    The effect of different amounts of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and time of their addition to the system on the properties of calcium carbonate precipitated from aqueous solutions of CaCl2 and Na2CO3 were studied. From statistical evaluation it was found that average number of the particles deposited on glass surface and, average and total surface area they occupy depend on

  9. 21 CFR 184.1229 - Calcium stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...1229 Calcium stearate. (a) Calcium stearate (Ca(C17 H35 COO...Reg. No. 1529-23-0) is the calcium salt of stearic acid derived...as a white precipitate by mixing calcium chloride and sodium stearate in...

  10. Aqueous phase catalytic conversion of agarose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural by metal chlorides

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Lishi; Laskar, Dhrubojyoti D.; Lee, Suh-Jane; Yang, Bin

    2013-12-14

    Abstract: 5-HMF is a key intermediate for producing chemicals and fuels that can substitute for today’s petroleum-derived feedstocks. A series of metal chlorides, including NaCl, CaCl2, MgCl2, ZnCl2, CuCl2, FeCl3, and CrCl3, were comparatively investigated to catalyze agarose degradation for production of 5-HMF at temperature 180 oC, 200 oC, and 220 oC for 30 min, with catalyst concentration of 0.5% (w/w), 1% (w/w) and 5% (w/w), and substrate concentration of 2% (w/w). Our results revealed that alkali metal chlorides and alkali earth metal chlorides such as NaCl, CaCl2 and MgCl2 gave better 5-HMF yield compared with transition metal chlorides including ZnCl2, CrCl3, CuCl2 and FeCl3. 1% (w/w) MgCl2 was the more favorable catalyst for 5-HMF production from agarose, and resulted in 40.7% 5-HMF yield but no levulinic acid or lactic acid at 200 oC, 35 min. The reaction pathways of agarose degradation catalyzed by MgCl2 were also discussed.

  11. Adsorption mechanism of chlorides on carbon nanotubes based on first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Weihui; Xu, Shunfu; Zhao, Xinghua; Yuan, Guang; Mimura, Hidenori

    2013-08-01

    The direct adsorption mechanism of chlorides (LiCl, NaCl, KCl, CsCl, MgCl2, CaCl2, SrCl2 and BaCl2) on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was investigated with first-principles calculations. The dipole moment, the adsorption energy and the Coulomb interaction energy were calculated. The value of the adsorption energy ranges from 0.2 to 0.6 eV. Considering the structure change of chlorides before and after adsorption, we find that the adsorption energy, just as the Coulomb energy, is proportional to the ratio of chloride's dipole moment to the square of adsorption distance. So, we conclude that the direct adsorption of chlorides on CNTs occurs mainly through long-range electrostatic interactions.

  12. Experimental evaluation of water mist with metal chloride additives for suppressing CH4/air cup-burner flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jianghong; Cong, Beihua

    2013-06-01

    In order to investigate the fire suppression effectiveness of water mist with metal chloride additives, ultrafine water mists of these salts with diameters about 10?m were introduced into CH4/air non-premixed flame in the cup burner. Results showed that these droplets hard to make itself to the flame front under the cup burner flow conditions functioned as a carrier of the vaporized solid particles or its decomposed materials. The metal chloride improved fire suppression efficacy of water mist which were affected by the type and concentration of metal chloride. On a mass basis, there is a fire suppression effectiveness relationship of MgCl2chlorides improves as the concentration of metal chlorides increase. However, upper additive limits exist due to the associated limiting vapour pressure of the additive.

  13. [Cryogenic Raman spectroscopic characteristics of NaCl-H2O, CaCl2-H2O and NaCl-CaCl2-H2O: application to analysis of fluid inclusions].

    PubMed

    Mao, Cui; Chen, Yong; Zhou, Yao-Qi; Ge, Yun-Jin; Zhou, Zhen-Zhu; Wang, You-Zhi

    2010-12-01

    Accurately diagnosing the types of the salt and calculating the salinity quantitatively are the significant content of fluid inclusions. The traditional method of testing fluid inclusions salinity is cooling. To overcome the difficulty for observing freezing phase transition, the authors tested the spectrum of NaCl-H2O, CaCl2-H2O and NaCl-CaCl2-H2O systems at -180 degrees C by laser Raman spectroscopy. The result demonstrates that the ratio of peak values has linear relationship with salinity. Calibration curves were established by typical ratio of hydro-halite at 3 420 cm(-1) to the ice at 3 092 cm(-1), and the ratio of antarcticite at 3 432 cm(-1) to the ice at 3 092 cm(-1). The calibration curves have very high correlation coefficient. This method is verified by synthetic hydrocarbon-bearing aqueous fluid inclusions and quartz aqueous fluid inclusions of well Fengshen 6 in Dongying sag. The results of the authors' experiments show that cryogenic Raman spectroscopy can not only identify the types of the salts but also determine the salinity effectively in fluid inclusions. PMID:21322218

  14. Influence of partial replacement of NaCl with KCl, CaCl2 and MgCl2 on lipolysis and lipid oxidation in dry-cured ham.

    PubMed

    Ripollés, Susana; Campagnol, Paulo Cezar Bastianello; Armenteros, Mónica; Aristoy, M Concepción; Toldrá, Fidel

    2011-09-01

    Sodium intake above nutritional recommendations may involve harmful consequences to health such as the increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Dry-cured ham constitutes a product with a relatively large amount of sodium. Thus, to obtain a healthier product for consumers with reduced sodium content, two formulations containing KCl alone (formulation II) or mixed with CaCl2 and MgCl2 (formulation III) have been proposed to partially replace NaCl. Lipolysis and lipid oxidation occurring in hams processed with these formulations have been studied since they have direct influence on the final flavor. No significant differences in acid lipase activity or lipid oxidation were found at the end of the process between the alternative formulations and formulation I (control with 100% NaCl). Differences in some free fatty acids, generated along the processing, were detected among treatments and at the end of dry-curing. Data suggests a slight trend towards a major lipolysis during treatment III. PMID:21531513

  15. Remediation of cadmium- and lead-contaminated agricultural soil by composite washing with chlorides and citric acid.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-Jiao; Hu, Peng-Jie; Zhao, Jie; Dong, Chang-Xun

    2015-04-01

    Composite washing of cadmium (Cd)- and lead (Pb)-contaminated agricultural soil from Hunan province in China using mixtures of chlorides (FeCl3, CaCl2) and citric acid (CA) was investigated. The concentrations of composite washing agents for metal removal were optimized. Sequential extraction was conducted to study the changes in metal fractions after soil washing. The removal of two metals at optimum concentration was reached. Using FeCl3 mixed with CA, 44 % of Cd and 23 % of Pb were removed, and 49 and 32 % by CaCl2 mixed with CA, respectively. The mechanism of composite washing was postulated. A mixture of chlorides and CA enhanced metal extraction from soil through the formation of metal-chloride and metal-citrate complexes. CA in extract solutions promoted the formation of metal-chloride complexes and reduced the solution pH. Composite washing reduced Cd and Pb in Fe-Mn oxide forms significantly. Chlorides and CA exerted a synergistic effect on metal extraction during composite washing. PMID:25342453

  16. Calcium-rich brines and other hydrothermal fluids in fluid inclusions from plutonic rocks, Oceanographer Transform, Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Vanko; Jonathan D. Griffith; Cheryl L. Erickson

    1992-01-01

    Fluid inclusions in metagabbro, plagiogranite, and epidosite from the Oceanographer Transform, Mid-Atlantic Ridge, were investigated using microthermometric measurements and laser Raman spectroscopy. Inclusions in quartz reveal the presence of a high-salinity (average 40 wt% NaCl + CaCl 2 ), high-temperature (>340°C), calcium-rich (Na:Ca about 1, by weight) fluid in metagabbro and plagiogranite. At room temperature these fluids bear a halite

  17. Calcium Phosphate Transfection Works very well for 293 cells (up to 95% transfection efficiencies). Grow cells in

    E-print Network

    Lamond, Angus I.

    (0.14 g if using dihydrate; [phosphate] must be 1.5 mM) 6.5 g HEPES pH to 7.0 and bring up to 500 ml with distilled water. Re-pH at this point because it can change. Aliquot and store at ­20°C. 2M CaCl2 87.6 g CaCalcium Phosphate Transfection Works very well for 293 cells (up to 95% transfection efficiencies

  18. Synthesis and thermal properties of strontium and calcium peroxides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philipp, Warren H.; Kraft, Patricia A.

    1989-01-01

    A practical synthesis and a discussion of some chemical properties of pure strontium peroxide and calcium peroxide are presented. The general synthesis of these peroxides involves precipitation of their octahydrates by addition of H2O2 to aqueous ammoniacal Sr(NO3)2 or CaCl2. The octahydrates are converted to the anhydrous peroxides by various dehydration techniques. A new x-ray diffraction powder pattern for CaO2 x 8H2O is given from which lattice parameters a=6.212830 and c=11.0090 were calculated on the basis of the tetragonal crystal system.

  19. Fabrication and characterization of the nano-composite of whey protein hydrolysate chelated with calcium.

    PubMed

    Xixi, Cai; Lina, Zhao; Shaoyun, Wang; Pingfan, Rao

    2015-03-11

    The nano-composites of whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) chelated with calcium were fabricated in aqueous solution at 30 °C for 20 min, with the ratio of hydrolysate to calcium 15?:?1 (w/w). UV scanning spectroscopy, fluorescent spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering and atomic force microscopy were applied to characterize the structure of the WPH-calcium chelate. The nano-composites showed the successful incorporation of calcium into the WPH, indicating the interaction between calcium and WPH. The chelation of calcium ions to WPH caused molecular folding and aggregation which led to the formation of a WPH-calcium chelate of nanoparticle size, and the principal sites of calcium-binding corresponded to the carboxyl groups and carbonyl groups of WPH. The WPH-calcium chelate demonstrated excellent stability and absorbability under both acidic and basic conditions, which was beneficial for calcium absorption in the gastrointestinal tract of the human body. Moreover, the calcium absorption of the WPH-calcium chelate on Caco-2 cells was significantly higher than those of calcium gluconate and CaCl2in vitro, suggesting the possible increase in calcium bioavailability. The findings suggest that the WPH-calcium chelate has the potential in making dietary supplements for improving bone health of the human body. PMID:25588126

  20. GTP requirement for isoproterenol activation of calcium channels in vascular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Shi, Q Y; Cox, R H

    1995-07-01

    The effects of activating the beta-adrenoceptor pathway on calcium current (ICa) in rabbit portal vein (PV) were studied in myocytes freshly isolated by collagenase and elastase treatment. ICa was measured at room temperature (20 degrees C) using whole cell, voltage-clamp methods from a holding potential of -60 mV in cells dialyzed with a pipette solution containing (mM) 100 CsCl, 20 tetraethylammonium chloride, 5 NaCl, 5 MgATP, 20 N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid (HEPES), and 10 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA). The cells were superfused with a solution containing (mM) 140 NaCl, 5 KCl, 1 MgCl2, 5 CaCl2, 10 HEPES, and 10 glucose. Only L-type ICa was present in these myocytes, averaging 3.5 +/- 0.3 pA/pF at +10 mV under control conditions. With 0.1 mM guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP) added to the pipette solution, 1 microM isoproterenol (Iso) or forskolin (Fsk) uniformly increased ICa: Iso by 45 +/- 5% and Fsk by 88 +/- 11%. This augmentation of ICa was not associated with significant changes in the voltage dependence of activation or inactivation but was associated with a small increase in the rate of inactivation of ICa. Fsk was also associated with an increased rate of ICa activation. The Iso effect was blocked by pretreatment with 1 microM propranolol and reversed by propranolol after Iso exposure. The ICa response to 10 microM Iso or Fsk was smaller than the response to 1 microM, with some cells showing a steady-state reduction in ICa. When the latter occurred, the voltage dependence of availability was shifted to the left by 5 +/- 0.4 mV.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7631849

  1. Influence of calcium(II) and chloride on the oxidative reactivity of a manganese(II) complex of a cross-bridged cyclen ligand.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhan; Coats, Katherine L; Chen, Zhuqi; Hubin, Timothy J; Yin, Guochuan

    2014-11-17

    Available data from different laboratories have confirmed that both Ca(2+) and Cl(-) are crucial for water oxidation in Photosystem II. However, their roles are still elusive. Using a manganese(II) complex having a cross-bridged cyclen ligand as a model, the influence of Ca(2+) on the oxidative reactivity of the manganese(II) complex and its corresponding manganese(IV) analogue were investigated. It has been found that adding Ca(2+) can significantly improve the oxygenation efficiency of the manganese(II) complex in sulfide oxidation and further accelerate the oxidation of sulfoxide to sulfone. Similar improvements have also been observed for Mg(2+), Sr(2+), and Ba(2+). A new monomeric manganese(IV) complex having two cis-hydroxide ligands has also been isolated through oxidation of the corresponding manganese(II) complex with H2O2 in the presence of NH4PF6. This rare cis-dihydroxomanganese(IV) species has been well characterized by X-ray crystallography, electrochemistry, electron paramagnetic resonance, and UV-vis spectroscopy. Notably, using the manganese(IV) complex as a catalyst demonstrates higher activity than the corresponding manganese(II) complex, and adding Ca(2+) further improves its catalytic efficiency. However, adding Cl(-) decreases its catalytic activity. In electrochemical studies of manganese(IV) complexes with no chloride ligand present, adding Ca(2+) positively shifted the redox potential of the Mn(IV)/Mn(III) couple but negatively shifted its Mn(V)/Mn(IV) couple. In the manganese(II) complex having a chloride ligand, adding Ca(2+) shifted both the Mn(IV)/Mn(III) and Mn(V)/Mn(IV) couples in the negative direction. The revealed oxidative reactivity and redox properties of the manganese species affected by Ca(2+) and Cl(-) may provide new clues to understanding their roles in the water oxidation process of Photosystem II. PMID:25375413

  2. Influence of impurity ions and magnetic field on the properties of freshly precipitated calcium carbonate.

    PubMed

    Ho?ysz, Lucyna; Chibowski, Emil; Szcze?, Aleksandra

    2003-08-01

    Static magnetic field (MF) effects on the properties of freshly precipitated calcium carbonate have been investigated in the presence of impurity ion Mg(2+), Fe(2+), or SO4(2-). One or both solutions, CaCl2 and Na2CO3, were exposure to MF (0.5T) for 20min at 20 degrees C. Then calcium carbonate was precipitated and zeta potential, pH and light absorbance (lambda=543.3 nm) were measured. The same parameters were also determined for the reference systems in which the solutions were not MF-treated. It was found that in all the systems tested MF effects as determined by the above mentioned parameters had appeared. They depended on the kind of the impurity ion present, as well as on which solution, CaCl2, Na2CO3 or both, MF interacted. For example, if Mg(2+) ion was present in CaCl2 solution, the largest shift in the zeta potential toward higher positive values was observed if Na2CO3 was MF-treated (e.g. from 2 to 12mV) and the same was true as for the maximum in the light absorbance and the pH increase. Interestingly, if (CaCl2 + Mg(2+)) was MF-treated pH of the slurry had decreased. Moreover, a correlation between above mentioned MF effects and the entropy of hydration of the ions has also been found. This points to the changes in the hydrating water structure caused by magnetic field. PMID:12834728

  3. Oxidative calcium release from catechol.

    PubMed

    Riley, Patrick A; Stratford, Michael R L

    2015-04-01

    Oxidation of 4-methylcatechol previously exposed to aqueous calcium chloride was shown by ion chromatography to be associated with release of calcium ions. The catechol was oxidised to the corresponding orthoquinone by the use of tyrosinase from Agaricus bisporus. The oxidative release of calcium from the catechol is ascribed to the diminution of the available hydroxyl functions able to act as chelating groups. Our results suggest that the redox status of melanin may regulate calcium binding and influence calcium levels in pigmented cells. PMID:25740160

  4. Calcium-induced modification of protein conformation demonstrated by immunohistochemistry: What is the signal?

    PubMed

    Shi, S R; Cote, R J; Hawes, D; Thu, S; Shi, Y; Young, L L; Taylor, C R

    1999-04-01

    A recent study by Morgan et al. on the mechanism of the heating antigen retrieval (AR) has raised an interesting issue concerning calcium-induced modification of protein conformation demonstrated by immunohistochemistry (IHC). The current study is based on calcium-induced modification of thrombospondin (TSP) and Ki-67, as demonstrated by IHC using seven monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to TSP and an MAb MIB1. Experiments were carried out on frozen tissue sections of bladder carcinoma and lymph node. Frozen sections were incubated with solutions of 50 mM CaCl2 and/or 10 mM EDTA at 4C overnight before formalin or acetone fixation for TSP and Ki-67, respectively. Sections were then fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin or acetone before immunostaining. Seven MAbs to TSP, named Ab1 to 7 representing clone numbers of A4.1, D4.6, C6.7, A6.1, B5.2, A2.5, and HB8432, respectively, and MIB1 were utilized as primary antibodies. ABC was used as the detection system and AEC as the chromogen for immunohistochemical staining. An extracellular immunostaining pattern represented a positive result for TSP, and nuclear staining for MIB1. Frozen sections preincubated in 50 mM CaCl2 overnight at 4C showed significant loss of staining and/or altered staining pattern for six of the seven antibodies to TSP and MIB1 compared to positive controls not exposed to CaCl2. Lack of immunostaining of TSP and MIB1 attributable to exposure to CaCl2 could be partially recovered by incubating the frozen sections in EDTA. Calcium-induced modification of protein structure was demonstrated more than 10 years ago on the basis of immunochemical techniques. In this study, similar calcium-induced modification of protein was detectable by IHC in frozen tissue sections, suggesting that calcium-induced modification of protein structure may occur independently of fixation-induced modification. The fact that calcium binding may affect IHC staining is not surprising in view of the fact that antibody/antigen interactions are protein structure-dependent. However, in this experiment the change occurred before and independent of formalin fixation and does not necessarily imply a role for calcium in AR. There may be a valuable role for the use of chemical modification in visualization of protein structure changes in tissue sections by IHC. (J Histochem Cytochem 47:463-469, 1999) PMID:10082747

  5. Mas-related G protein-coupled receptor D is coupled to endogenous calcium-activated chloride channel in Xenopus oocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Ren-Gong; Ma, Xiao-Yun; Zhou, Pei-Lan; Liu, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Kang; Wei, Xiao-Li; Yan, Hai-Tao; Xu, Jiang-Ping; Zheng, Jian-Quan

    2014-03-01

    Mas-related G protein-coupled receptor D (MrgD) is expressed almost exclusively in nociceptive primary sensory neurons and the neurons located in stratum granulosum of skin. More and more evidence suggest that MrgD plays an important role in pain sensation and/or transduction. Recent studies have demonstrated that the receptor is also involved in itch sensation in both mouse and human. In the present study, we identified a robust inward current in MrgD-expressing Xenopus oocytes by using ?-alanine, a putative ligand of MrgD. The currents were sensitive to inhibitor of Ca(2+)-activated chloride channels (CaCCs) and intracellular Ca(2+) chelator, suggesting they were produced by endogenous CaCCs. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that upon the application of phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor, or antisense oligonucleotides of inositol trisphosphate receptor (IP3R), the ?-alanine-induced currents were dramatically depressed. However, protein kinase C inhibitor did not display any visible effect on CaCC currents. In summary, our data suggest that the activation of MrgD promotes the open of endogenous CaCCs via G(q)-PLC-IP3-Ca(2+) pathway. The current findings reveal the functional coupling between MrgD and CaCCs in Xenopus oocytes and also provide a facile model to assay the activity of MrgD. PMID:24078284

  6. Increased calcium absorption from synthetic stable amorphous calcium carbonate: double-blind randomized crossover clinical trial in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Vaisman, Nachum; Shaltiel, Galit; Daniely, Michal; Meiron, Oren E; Shechter, Assaf; Abrams, Steven A; Niv, Eva; Shapira, Yami; Sagi, Amir

    2014-10-01

    Calcium supplementation is a widely recognized strategy for achieving adequate calcium intake. We designed this blinded, randomized, crossover interventional trial to compare the bioavailability of a new stable synthetic amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) with that of crystalline calcium carbonate (CCC) using the dual stable isotope technique. The study was conducted in the Unit of Clinical Nutrition, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Israel. The study population included 15 early postmenopausal women aged 54.9 ± 2.8 (mean ± SD) years with no history of major medical illness or metabolic bone disorder, excess calcium intake, or vitamin D deficiency. Standardized breakfast was followed by randomly provided CCC or ACC capsules containing 192 mg elemental calcium labeled with 44Ca at intervals of at least 3 weeks. After swallowing the capsules, intravenous CaCl2 labeled with 42Ca on was administered on each occasion. Fractional calcium absorption (FCA) of ACC and CCC was calculated from the 24-hour urine collection following calcium administration. The results indicated that FCA of ACC was doubled (± 0.96 SD) on average compared to that of CCC (p < 0.02). The higher absorption of the synthetic stable ACC may serve as a more efficacious way of calcium supplementation. PMID:24753014

  7. Additive Screen HTTM -HR2-138 Scoring Sheet 1. (A1) 0.1 M Barium Chloride

    E-print Network

    Hill, Chris

    Chloride 3. (A3) 0.1 M Calcium Chloride 4. (A4) 0.1 M Cobaltous Chloride 5. (A5) 0.1 M Cupric Chloride 6 Praseodymium (III) Acetate 15. (B3) 1.0 M Ammonium Sulfate 16. (B4) 1.0 M Potassium Chloride 17. (B5) 1.0 M

  8. Chloride Test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... problem with your body's electrolyte balance or acid-base balance and to monitor treatment When to Get ... fluid in the body and maintain the acid-base balance . Chloride is present in all body fluids ...

  9. A carbonate controlled-addition method for size-controlled calcium carbonate spheres by carboxylic acid-terminated poly(amidoamine) dendrimers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuka Tanaka; Kensuke Naka; K Naka

    2010-01-01

    Size-controlled calcium carbonate particles were obtained using a ‘carbonate controlled-addition method’ with G0.5 poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer with carboxylate groups at the external surface. An aqueous ammonium carbonate solution was added to an aqueous solution of the dendrimer and CaCl2 at different time periods (3 min, 1 h or 24 h) and was stirred for 1 day. Both crystal phases obtained

  10. Lipoxin A4 Stimulates Calcium-Activated Chloride Currents and Increases Airway Surface Liquid Height in Normal and Cystic Fibrosis Airway Epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Alawi, Mazen; Costello, Richard W.; McNally, Paul; Chiron, Raphaël; Harvey, Brian J.; Urbach, Valérie

    2012-01-01

    Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disease characterised by a deficit in epithelial Cl? secretion which in the lung leads to airway dehydration and a reduced Airway Surface Liquid (ASL) height. The endogenous lipoxin LXA4 is a member of the newly identified eicosanoids playing a key role in ending the inflammatory process. Levels of LXA4 are reported to be decreased in the airways of patients with CF. We have previously shown that in normal human bronchial epithelial cells, LXA4 produced a rapid and transient increase in intracellular Ca2+. We have investigated, the effect of LXA4 on Cl? secretion and the functional consequences on ASL generation in bronchial epithelial cells obtained from CF and non-CF patient biopsies and in bronchial epithelial cell lines. We found that LXA4 stimulated a rapid intracellular Ca2+ increase in all of the different CF bronchial epithelial cells tested. In non-CF and CF bronchial epithelia, LXA4 stimulated whole-cell Cl? currents which were inhibited by NPPB (calcium-activated Cl? channel inhibitor), BAPTA-AM (chelator of intracellular Ca2+) but not by CFTRinh-172 (CFTR inhibitor). We found, using confocal imaging, that LXA4 increased the ASL height in non-CF and in CF airway bronchial epithelia. The LXA4 effect on ASL height was sensitive to bumetanide, an inhibitor of transepithelial Cl? secretion. The LXA4 stimulation of intracellular Ca2+, whole-cell Cl? currents, conductances and ASL height were inhibited by Boc-2, a specific antagonist of the ALX/FPR2 receptor. Our results provide, for the first time, evidence for a novel role of LXA4 in the stimulation of intracellular Ca2+ signalling leading to Ca2+-activated Cl? secretion and enhanced ASL height in non-CF and CF bronchial epithelia. PMID:22662206

  11. EDTA-insoluble, calcium-binding proteoglycan in bovine bone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hashimoto, Y.; Lester, G. E.; Caterson, B.; Yamauchi, M.

    1995-01-01

    A calcium ion precipitable, trypsin-generated proteoglycan fragment has been isolated from the demineralized, EDTA-insoluble matrices of bone. The demineralized matrix was completely digested with trypsin, increasing concentrations of CaCl2 were added to the supernatant, and the resulting precipitates were analyzed. The amount of precipitate gradually increased with higher concentrations of calcium and was reversibly solubilized by EDTA. After molecular sieve and anion exchange chromatography, a proteoglycan-containing peak was obtained. Immunochemical analysis showed that this peak contained chondroitin 4-sulfate and possibly keratan sulfate. Amino acid analysis showed that this proteoglycan contained high amounts of aspartic acid/asparagine (Asx), serine (Ser), glutamic acid/glutamine (Glx), proline (Pro), and glycine (Gly); however, it contained little leucine (Leu) which suggests that it is not a member of the leucine-rich small proteoglycan family. In addition, significant amounts of phosphoserine (P-Ser) and hydroxyproline (Hyp) were identified in hydrolysates of this fraction. A single band (M(r) 59 kDa) was obtained on SDS-PAGE that stained with Stains-all but not with Coomassie Brilliant Blue R-250. If bone powder was trypsinized prior to demineralization, this proteoglycan-containing fraction was not liberated. Collectively, these results indicate that a proteoglycan occurs in the demineralized matrix that is precipitated with CaCl2 and is closely associated with both mineral and collagen matrices. Such a molecule might facilitate the structural network for the induction of mineralization in bone.

  12. Le rôle du calcium dans la radiolyse du béton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouniol, P.; Baldacchino, G.; Hickel, B.

    1999-01-01

    Calcium is a major component of concrete. Under irradiation, the formation of H2O2 in this material leads to the CaO2.8H2O precipitation, responsible for a part of the oxygen depletion in the system. The precipitation features are studied by pulse radiolysis of Ca(OH)2 or CaCl2 aqueous solutions. A formation threshold beyond a dose of 100 Gy and a fast decomposition (k = 0.23 s-1) are observed. Le calcium est un élément majeur du béton. Sous irradiation, la formation de H2O2 dans ce matériau conduit à la précipitation de CaO2.8H2O en partie responsable de la déplétion d'oxygène dans le système. Les caractéristiques de la précipitation sont étudiées en radiolyse pulsée à partir de solutions de Ca(OH)2 ou de CaCl2. Un seuil de formation au delà de 100 Gy ainsi qu'une décomposition rapide (k = 0,23 s-1) sont observés.

  13. Removal of Chloride from Wastewater by Advanced Softening Process Using Electrochemically Generated Aluminum Hydroxide

    E-print Network

    Mustafa, Syed Faisal

    2014-07-23

    solubility. Chloride can be removed from water and wastewater by precipitation as calcium chloroaluminate using advanced softening process. This research was conducted to evaluate chloride removal using electrochemically generated aluminum hydroxide and lime...

  14. Inhibition of heart calcium and chloride currents by sodium iodide. Specific attenuation in cAMP-dependent protein kinase-mediated regulation

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    The enzymes cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC) regulate the activity of cardiac ion channel proteins. In this study the whole-cell arrangement of the patch clamp technique was used to examine the effect of NaI on PKA-stimulated Cl- and Ca2+ channels in isolated guinea pig ventricular myocytes. Cl- currents (ICl) activated either by the beta-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol or the membrane- soluble cAMP analogue, 8-chlorphenylthio (8-CPT) cAMP, were greatly reduced in amplitude after substitution of an external solution containing 140 mM NaCl with a solution containing 140 mM NaI. This reduction was accompanied by a shift of -7 mV in the reversal potential (Erev) for ICl and could be reversed upon return to the NaCl external solution. Inhibition of ICl by NaI occurred in a concentration- dependent manner and was more pronounced for inward ICl (IC50 = 19 mM at -60 mV) than for outward ICl (IC50 = 60 mM at +60 mV). In contrast to ICl activated by PKA, ICl activated by PKC was slightly augmented in the presence of NaI and the Erev was found to shift by -15 mV. Based on these data, the relative permeability of I- to Cl- (PI/PCl) for this channel was calculated to be 1.79. NaI produced no change in the amplitude of inward calcium currents (ICa) recorded under basal conditions, but strongly inhibited ICa augmented by isoproterenol and 8- CPT cAMP, and during dialysis of cells with the catalytic subunit of PKA (CS). The in vitro incorporation of [gamma-32P]ATP into histone IIA and Kemptide, measured in the presence of PKA and cAMP, was not significantly different in assay mixtures containing salts of Cl- and I- . However, the ability of isoproterenol to augment basal ICa in whole- cell experiments was attenuated when experiments were carried out entirely in NaI external solution. Thus, the reduction in ICl and ICa observed in this study may result from a direct effect of I- on the phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of cardiac ion channel proteins or associated regulatory proteins. PMID:1282146

  15. Effect of some inorganic admixtures on the formation and properties of calcium silicate hydrates produced in hydrothermal conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wies?awa Nocu?-Wczelik

    1997-01-01

    Hydrated calcium silicates have been synthesized at 200 °C under saturated steam pressure, giving materials consisting of ill crystallized calcium silicate hydrates, formed as an initial product and\\/or more crystalline forms. Three series of samples having different CaOSiO2 ratios and doped with inorganic compounds such as CaCl2, AlCl3, CrCl3, Na2CrO4, NaOH and Al(OH)3 were produced. The phase composition of the

  16. Chloride channelopathies.

    PubMed

    Planells-Cases, Rosa; Jentsch, Thomas J

    2009-03-01

    Channelopathies, defined as diseases that are caused by mutations in genes encoding ion channels, are associated with a wide variety of symptoms. Impaired chloride transport can cause diseases as diverse as cystic fibrosis, myotonia, epilepsy, hyperekplexia, lysosomal storage disease, deafness, renal salt loss, kidney stones and osteopetrosis. These disorders are caused by mutations in genes belonging to non-related gene families, i.e. CLC chloride channels and transporters, ABC transporters, and GABA- and glycine receptors. Diseases due to mutations in TMEM16E and bestrophin 1 might be due to a loss of Ca++-activated Cl- channels, although this remains to be shown. PMID:19708126

  17. Involvement of calcium ion in the stimulated shoot elongation of arrowhead tubers under anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Tamura, S; Kuramochi, H; Ishizawa, K

    2001-07-01

    Shoot elongation of arrowhead (Sagittaria pygmaea Miq.) tubers was stimulated in anaerobic conditions. The anaerobic elongation was attributed to stimulation of cell elongation in the middle of the shoots. The anaerobic elongation of the shoots was severely inhibited by ethylene glycol bis(beta-aminoethylether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA). The EGTA inhibition was completely nullified by exogenous CaCl2, which acts as an enhancer of anaerobic elongation. Moreover, calcium channel blockers, verapamil, diltiazem and LaCl3, inhibited the anaerobic elongation enhanced by CaCl2. These results showed that calcium plays an important role in stimulating the elongation in anaerobic conditions. Incorporation of 45Ca into the shoot tissues was measured to determine the involvement of calcium uptake in anaerobic elongation. Incorporation of 45Ca into the cell sap, which was collected from frozen and thawed shoots after thorough washing with LaCl3, was significantly stimulated in anaerobic conditions. Verapamil and diltiazem prevented the stimulation of 45Ca incorporation in anaerobic conditions. These results suggest that calcium uptake from the medium serves to enhance shoot elongation of arrowhead tubers under anaerobic conditions. PMID:11479378

  18. Influence of calcium sources on microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation by Bacillus sp. CR2.

    PubMed

    Achal, Varenyam; Pan, Xiangliang

    2014-05-01

    Stimulation of microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation (MICCP) is likely to be influenced by calcium sources. In order to study such influences, we performed MICCP using Bacillus sp. CR2 in nutrient broth containing urea, supplemented with different calcium sources (calcium chloride, calcium oxide, calcium acetate and calcium nitrate). The experiment lasted 7 days, during which bacterial growth, urease activity, calcite production and pH were measured. Our results showed that calcium chloride is the better calcium source for MICCP process, since it provides higher urease activity and more calcite production. The influences of calcium sources on MICCP were further studied using Fourier transform-infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. These analyses confirmed that the precipitate formed was CaCO3 and composed of predominantly calcite crystals with a little amount of aragonite and vaterite crystals. The maximum yield of calcite precipitation was achievable with calcium chloride followed by calcium nitrate as a calcium source. The results of present study may be applicable to media preparation during efficient MICCP process. PMID:24643454

  19. RLE DES IONS SODIUM DANS L'ABSORPTION GASTRIQUE DU CALCIUM CHEZ LES RUMINANTS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of a calcium salt (chloride, carbonate or phosphate) and sodium chloride. The concentration of calciumR�LE DES IONS SODIUM DANS L'ABSORPTION GASTRIQUE DU CALCIUM CHEZ LES RUMINANTS D. TIMET D. EMANOVI, Université de Zagreb, B. P. 190, YU-41001 Zagreb, Yougoslavie Summary ROLE OF SODIUM IONS IN GASTRIC

  20. The vasorelaxant effect of Viscum album leaf extract is mediated by calcium-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Mojiminiyi, F B O; Owolabi, M E; Igbokwe, U V; Ajagbonna, O P

    2008-01-01

    Viscum album leaf extract has a folk reputation as an antihypertensive agent in Nigeria. Evidence suggests that it has a relaxant effect on smooth muscle. The present study was designed to investigate the role of calcium in the vasorelaxant effect of this extract. Concentration response studies to noradrenaline, KCl and CaCl2 were carried out in rat aortic rings with and without the extract in physiological salt solution (n=6 each). Also the role of intracellular calcium mobilisation was studied by measuring the phasic response to noradrenaline in Ca(2+)-free EGTA physiological salt solution (n=6). The contractile responses to noradrenaline or KCl were attenuated (P < 0.05) and shifted to the right in the presence of the extract. Also the contractile response to CaCl(2) in the presence of noradrenaline or KCl was attenuated (P < 0.05) and shifted to the right, while the phasic response to noradrenaline was significantly (P < 0.05) diminished These results suggest that the vasorelaxant effect of Viscum album extract may be mediated by a non-specific non-competitive inhibition of Ca(2+) influx as well as inhibition of Ca(2+) mobilization from intracellular stores. This implies that it may contain vasorelaxant agents that may have calcium antagonistic potential. PMID:19434226

  1. Reversible loss of gravitropic sensitivity in maize roots after tip application of calcium chelators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. S.; Mulkey, T. J.; Evans, M. L.

    1983-01-01

    The application of calcium chelating agents (EDTA or EGTA) to the tips of maize roots caused a loss of gravitropic sensitivity. When the chelator was replaced with calcium chloride, gravitropic sensitivity was restored. Asymmetric application of calcium chloride near the tip of a vertical root caused curvature toward the calcium source. When the calcium was applied to the upper surface of the tip of a root oriented horizontally, the root curved upward even though control roots exhibited strong downward curvature. Application of calcium chloride to the tips of decapped roots, which are known to be gravitropically insensitive, did not restore gravitropic sensitivity. However, asymmetric application of calcium chloride near the tips of decapped roots caused curvature toward the calcium source. Calcium may play a key role in linking gravity detection to gravitropic curvature in roots.

  2. Calcium - urine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... best treatment for the most common type of kidney stone , which is made of calcium. This type of ... the kidneys into the urine, which causes calcium kidney stones Sarcoidosis Taking too much calcium Too much production ...

  3. Calcium Carbonate

    MedlinePLUS

    Calcium carbonate is a dietary supplement used when the amount of calcium taken in the diet is not ... for healthy bones, muscles, nervous system, and heart. Calcium carbonate also is used as an antacid to relieve ...

  4. Calcium supplements

    MedlinePLUS

    ... enough calcium over your lifetime can help prevent osteoporosis . Most people get enough calcium in their normal diet. Calcium is found in dairy foods and leafy green vegetables. Older women and men ...

  5. Effect of chloride salts, curing compounds and heating and freezing on Trichinella spiralis in pork products

    E-print Network

    Kayfus, Timothy Jon

    1981-01-01

    shoulders were used to make linked pork sausage. Phase one of this study used chloride salt replacements calculated to an ionic strength equivalent to that of sodium chloride (2, 5/). Phase two of this study consisted of sodium chloride replace- ments.... The use of 1. 35X magnesium chloride or 1. 58/ calcium chloride de- creased (P&0. 05) pH in comparison to that for sausages made with either sodium chloride or potassium chloride. The addition of 75 or 150 porn N02 did not lower plate counts (P&0. 05...

  6. Preparation and Sustained-Release Property of Triblock Copolymer/Calcium Phosphate Nanocomposite as Nanocarrier for Hydrophobic Drug

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Shao-Wen; Zhu, Ying-Jie; Wu, Jin; Wang, Ke-Wei; Tang, Qi-Li

    2010-04-01

    The P123/ACP nanocomposite with sizes less than 100 nm consisting of triblock copolymer P123 and amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) has been prepared by using an aqueous solution containing CaCl2, (NH4)3PO4, and P123 at room temperature. The P123/ACP nanocomposite is used as the nanocarrier for hydrophobic drug ibuprofen, based on the combined advantages of both amphiphilic block copolymer and calcium phosphate delivery system. The P123/ACP nanocomposite has a much higher ibuprofen loading capacity (148 mg/g) than the single-phase calcium phosphate nanostructures. The drug release percentage of the P123/ACP nanocomposite in simulated body fluid reaches about 100% in a period of 156 h, which is much slower than that of single-phase calcium phosphate nanostructures. It is expected that the P123/ACP nanocomposite is promising for the application in the controlled delivery of hydrophobic drugs.

  7. Preparation and Sustained-Release Property of Triblock Copolymer/Calcium Phosphate Nanocomposite as Nanocarrier for Hydrophobic Drug

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The P123/ACP nanocomposite with sizes less than 100 nm consisting of triblock copolymer P123 and amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) has been prepared by using an aqueous solution containing CaCl2, (NH4)3PO4, and P123 at room temperature. The P123/ACP nanocomposite is used as the nanocarrier for hydrophobic drug ibuprofen, based on the combined advantages of both amphiphilic block copolymer and calcium phosphate delivery system. The P123/ACP nanocomposite has a much higher ibuprofen loading capacity (148 mg/g) than the single-phase calcium phosphate nanostructures. The drug release percentage of the P123/ACP nanocomposite in simulated body fluid reaches about 100% in a period of 156 h, which is much slower than that of single-phase calcium phosphate nanostructures. It is expected that the P123/ACP nanocomposite is promising for the application in the controlled delivery of hydrophobic drugs. PMID:20671783

  8. Hypotonicity activates a native chloride current in Xenopus oocytes

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Xenopus oocytes are frequently utilized for in vivo expression of cellular proteins, especially ion channel proteins. A thorough understanding of the endogenous conductances and their regulation is paramount for proper characterization of expressed channel proteins. Here we detail a novel chloride current (ICl.swell) responsive to hypotonicity in Xenopus oocytes using the two-electrode voltage clamp technique. Reducing the extracellular osmolarity by 50% elicited a calcium-independent chloride current having an anion conductivity sequence identical with swelling-induced chloride currents observed in epithelial cells. The hypotonicity-activated current was blocked by chloride channel blockers, trivalent lanthanides, and nucleotides. G- protein, cAMP-PKA, and arachidonic acid signaling cascades were not involved in ICl.swell activation. ICl.swell is distinct from both stretch-activated nonselective cation channels and the calcium- activated chloride current in oocytes and may play a critical role in volume regulation in Xenopus oocytes. PMID:8189203

  9. Calcium ion-dependent increase in thermostability of dextran glucosidase from Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Momoko; Hondoh, Hironori; Mori, Haruhide; Saburi, Wataru; Okuyama, Masayuki; Kimura, Atsuo

    2011-01-01

    Dextran glucosidase from Streptococcus mutans (SmDG), which belongs to glycoside hydrolase family 13 (GH13), hydrolyzes the non-reducing terminal glucosidic linkage of isomaltooligosaccharides and dextran. Thermal deactivation of SmDG did not follow the single exponential decay but rather the two-step irreversible deactivation model, which involves an active intermediate having 39% specific activity. The presence of a low concentration of CaCl2 increased the thermostability of SmDG, mainly due to a marked reduction in the rate constant of deactivation of the intermediate. The addition of MgCl2 also enhanced thermostability, while KCl and NaCl were not effective. Therefore, divalent cations, particularly Ca2+, were considered to stabilize SmDG. On the other hand, CaCl2 had no significant effect on catalytic reaction. The enhanced stability by Ca2+ was probably related to calcium binding in the ??? loop 1 of the (?/?)(8) barrel of SmDG. Because similar structures and sequences are widespread in GH13, these GH13 enzymes might have been stabilized by calcium ions. PMID:21821929

  10. Calcium Phosphate Nanoparticles Synthesis Make sure the hood is clean and free of all chemicals other than the ones required.

    E-print Network

    Burgess, Kevin

    Calcium Phosphate Nanoparticles Synthesis Procedure: · Make sure the hood is clean and free of all 10-2 M calcium chloride solution in the above degassed water (make sure to sonicate for 10 min to dissolve calcium chloride completely). · Likewise prepare 6 x 10-3 M disodium phosphate solution from

  11. Effects of Calcium Salts on Apple Bitter Rot Caused by Two Colletotrichum spp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan R. Biggs

    1999-01-01

    Biggs, A. R. 1999. Effects of calcium salts on apple b itter rot caused by two Colletotrichum spp. Plant Dis. 83:1001-1005. The effects of three calcium salts on conidial germination, germ tube elongation, growth in vitro, and infectivity in the laboratory and field were studied for the apple bitter rot pat hogens, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. acutatum. Calcium chloride, calcium

  12. On the growth of calcium tartrate tetrahydrate single crystals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. Sahaya Shajan; C. Mahadevan

    2004-01-01

    Calcium tartrate single crystals were grown using silica gel as the growth medium. Calcium formate mixed with formic acid\\u000a was taken as the supernatant solution. It was observed that the nucleation density was reduced and the size of the crystals\\u000a was improved to a large extent compared to the conventional way of growing calcium tartrate crystals with calcium chloride.\\u000a The

  13. Role of water hardness in rinsing bacteria from the skin of processed broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of water hardness on the ability of water to rinse bacteria from the skin of processed broiler chickens was examined. Artificial hard water with a total hardness of 200 ppm (very hard water) was prepared by dissolving calcium chloride (CaCl2) and magnesium chloride hexahydrate (MgCl2 •6H2...

  14. Effect of water hardness on the ability of water to rinse bacteria from the skin of processed broilers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of water hardness on the ability of water to rinse bacteria from the skin of processed broiler chickens was examined. Artificial hard water with a total hardness of 200 ppm (very hard water) was prepared by dissolving calcium chloride (CaCl2) and magnesium chloride hexahydrate (MgCl2 •6H2...

  15. Analytical models of calcium binding in a calcium channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jinn-Liang; Eisenberg, Bob

    2014-08-01

    The anomalous mole fraction effect of L-type calcium channels is analyzed using a Fermi like distribution with the experimental data of Almers and McCleskey [J. Physiol. 353, 585 (1984)] and the atomic resolution model of Lipkind and Fozzard [Biochemistry 40, 6786 (2001)] of the selectivity filter of the channel. Much of the analysis is algebraic, independent of differential equations. The Fermi distribution is derived from the configuration entropy of ions and water molecules with different sizes, different valences, and interstitial voids between particles. It allows us to calculate potentials and distances (between the binding ion and the oxygen ions of the glutamate side chains) directly from the experimental data using algebraic formulas. The spatial resolution of these results is comparable with those of molecular models, but of course the accuracy is no better than that implied by the experimental data. The glutamate side chains in our model are flexible enough to accommodate different types of binding ions in different bath conditions. The binding curves of Na+ and Ca2+ for [CaCl2] ranging from 10-8 to 10-2 M with a fixed 32 mM background [NaCl] are shown to agree with published Monte Carlo simulations. The Poisson-Fermi differential equation—that includes both steric and correlation effects—is then used to obtain the spatial profiles of energy, concentration, and dielectric coefficient from the solvent region to the filter. The energy profiles of ions are shown to depend sensitively on the steric energy that is not taken into account in the classical rate theory. We improve the rate theory by introducing a steric energy that lumps the effects of excluded volumes of all ions and water molecules and empty spaces between particles created by Lennard-Jones type and electrostatic forces. We show that the energy landscape varies significantly with bath concentrations. The energy landscape is not constant.

  16. Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci Controlling High Calcium Response in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenlong; Duan, Huikun; Chen, Fengying; Wang, Zhi; Huang, Xueqing; Deng, Xin; Liu, Yongxiu

    2014-01-01

    Natural variation for primary root growth response to high Ca stress in Arabidopsis thaliana was studied by screening a series of accessions (ecotypes) under high Calcium (40 mM CaCl2 ) conditions. The genetic basis of this variation was further investigated by QTL analysis using recombinant inbred lines from Landsberg erecta (Ler)×Cape Verde Islands (Cvi) cross. Four QTLs were identified in chromosome 1, 2 and 5,and named response to high Calcium (RHCA) 1–4. The three QTLs (RHCA1, RHCA2 and RHCA4) were further confirmed by analysis of near isogenic lines harboring Cvi introgression fragments in Ler background. Real-time PCR analysis showed that several genes associated with high Ca response including SMT1 and XHT25 have changed expression pattern between Ler and near isogenic lines. These results were useful for detecting molecular mechanisms of plants for high Ca adaption. PMID:25401959

  17. The calcium uniporter regulates the permeability transition pore in isolated cortical mitochondria?

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ning; Wang, Shilei; Wang, Peng; Li, Yu; Li, Shuhong; Wang, Li; Chen, Hongbing; Wang, Yanting

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the influence of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter on the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, the present study observed mitochondrial morphology in cortical neurons isolated from adult rats using transmission electron microscopy, and confirmed the morphology and activity of isolated mitochondria by detecting succinic dehydrogenase and monoamine oxidase, two mitochondrial enzymes. Isolated mitochondria were treated with either ruthenium red, an inhibitor of the uniporter, spermine, an activator of the uniporter, or in combination with cyclosporin A, an inhibitor of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. Results showed that ruthenium red inhibited CaCl2-induced mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening, spermine enhanced opening, and cyclosporin A attenuated the effects of spermine. Results demonstrated that the mitochondrial calcium uniporter plays a role in regulating the mitochondrial permeability transition pore in mitochondria isolated from the rat brain cortex.

  18. Recurring Slope Lineae (RSL) and Chloride Hydrates within Mars Subsurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Y.; Wang, A.

    2012-12-01

    RSL is an important phenomenon revealed by HiRISE-MRO observations on Mars (McEwen et al., 2011). The RSL form and grow on some equator-facing slopes during warm seasons on Mars when temperature (T in afternoon) is in the range of ~250-300K. We hypothesize that chloride hydrates may exist in some areas within the subsurface of southern hemisphere on Mars, and the deliquescence of these chloride hydrates at elevated temperature may have produced large quantity of brine that caused the RSL observed by HiRISE team. This hypothesis is based on three lines of reasoning: (1) chlorine (Cl) is found to be broadly distributed on Mars (GRS-ODY) and has been detected in the chemistry of every surface samples during all Mars surface exploration missions (Vikings, Pathfinder, Spirit, Opportunity, and Phoenix). In addition, the existence of chlorides in martian southern hemisphere was suggested by a set of THEMIS-ODY data analyses (Osterloo et al., 2008, 2010). In terrestrial saline playas, large amounts of chlorides invariably appears in the precipitates from salty brines (Zheng et al., 2009, Wang et al., 2009), although the precipitation sequence of chlorides on Mars might be different from that on Earth (Tosca et al., 2008, McLennan et al., 2012). (2) A subsurface layer when enriched with ice, or hydrous sulfates or chloride hydrates (all have high thermal inertia) and covered by a dry layer of surface soils (very low thermal inertia) will be able to maintain a lower Tmax and a much smaller delta-T that are not affected by the large temperature variations at Mars surface during diurnal and seasonal cycles (Mellon, 2004). (3) Chloride hydrates (such as MgCl2.12H2O, FeCl2.6H2O, CaCL2.6H2O, etc) would form from Cl-bearing brine at low T; they would be stable in a large T range (beyond room T in lab) and their deliquescence would occur abruptly at elevated temperatures (Baumgartner & Bakker 2009, and many others). We have started a systematic laboratory investigation on the thermodynamics and kinetics properties of chloride hydrates. The goals are to determine (1) the stability fields of Mg-, Fe2+-, Fe3+-, Ca-, Al-, Na-chloride hydrates in RH-T space, especially the phase boundaries of hydrates-deliquescence; (2) the rate of their dehydration, and especially the rate of their deliquescence as function of T, P, and PH2O; (3) the RH level that each chloride hydrate can maintain in an enclosure at T relevant to those within Mars subsurface. We will report the experimental results from (3), and will compare them with a similar set of data from hydrous sulfates (Mg, Fe, Ca, Al). The criticality of learning the property (3) is that the deliquescence of a hydrous salt at a T only occurs when RH is higher than a threshold. For example, deliquescence of ferricopiapite would happen when RH > 75% at 0°C. If the environmental RH is lower, the dehydration of hydrous salt will go through solid-solid phase transition, instead of deliquescence, such that water would be released to the atmosphere and brine would not form. It is possible that deliquescence of both hydrous sulfates and chlorides (as well as the melting of Cl-enriched brines) contributed the RSL. Our working hypothesis favors chloride hydrates because dry chloride (after releasing water) in RSL would not be visible by Vis-NIR spectroscopy, which is consistent with the mission observations.

  19. Investigation of factors influencing chloride extraction efficiency during electrochemical chloride extraction from reinforcing concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, Stephen R.

    2005-11-01

    Electrochemical chloride extraction (ECE) is an accelerated bridge restoration method similar to cathodic protection, but operates at higher current densities and utilizes a temporary installation. Both techniques prolong the life of a bridge by reducing the corrosion rate of the reinforcing bar when properly applied. ECE achieves this by moving chlorides away from the reinforcement and out of the concrete while simultaneously increasing the alkalinity of the electrolyte near the reinforcing steel. Despite the proven success, significant use of ECE has not resulted in part due to an incomplete understanding in the following areas: (1) An estimation of the additional service life that can be expected following treatment when the treated member is again subjected to chlorides; (2) The cause of the decrease in current flow and, therefore, chloride removal rate during treatment; (3) Influence of water-to-cement (w/c) ratio and cover depth on the time required for treatment. This dissertation covers the research that is connected to the last two areas listed above. To begin examining these issues, plain carbon steel reinforcing bars (rebar) were embedded in portland cement concrete slabs of varying water-to-cement (w/c) ratios and cover depths, and then exposed to chlorides. A fraction of these slabs had sodium chloride added as an admixture, with all of the slabs subjected to cyclical ponding with a saturated solution of sodium chloride. ECE was then used to remove the chlorides from these slabs while making electrical measurements in the different layers between the rebar (cathode) and the titanium mat (anode) to follow the progress of the ECE process. During this study, it was revealed that the resistance of the outer concrete surface layer increases during ECE, inevitably restricting current flow, while the resistance of the underlying concrete decreases or remains constant. During ECE treatment, a white residue formed on the surface of the concrete. Analyses of the residue revealed that it contains calcium carbonate, calcium chloride, and other yet unidentified minor components when calcium hydroxide was used as the electrolyte. The surface film can be completely removed mechanically or to some extent inhibited chemically, with both of these processes resulting in an increase in the efficiency of the electrochemical chloride extraction process. In addition, an obvious relationship between the cover depth, water-to-cement ratio, and chloride extraction efficiency does not exist, however, cover depth does influence the current density. The final phase of this study will be presented in a VTRC/FHWA final report. This report will include the results that are presented in this dissertation, in addition to the results from the ongoing research. It will also include an estimation of the additional service life that can be expected following treatment.

  20. Mass concentration and ion composition of coarse and fine particles in an urban area in Beirut: effect of calcium carbonate on the absorption of nitric and sulfuric acids and the depletion of chloride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Kouyoumdjian; N. A. Saliba

    2006-01-01

    Levels of coarse (PM10-2.5) and fine (PM2.5) particles were determined between February 2004 and January 2005 in the city of Beirut, Lebanon. While low PM mass concentrations were measured in the rainy season, elevated levels were detected during sand storms originating from Arabian desert and\\/or Africa. Using ATR-FTIR and IC, it was shown that nitrate, sulfate, carbonate and chloride were

  1. Interactions between chloride and sulfate or silica removals from wastewater using an advanced lime-aluminum softening process: equilibrium modeling.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Wahab, Ahmed; Batchelor, Bill

    2007-05-01

    Interactions among chloride, sulfate, and silica removals from recycled industrial wastewater using an ultra-high lime with aluminum process (UHLA) were studied. An equilibrium model that is able to accurately predict the chemical behavior and interactions between chloride and sulfate or silica with UHLA at various initial conditions and chemical reagents was developed. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was conducted to identify the precipitated solids formed in the UHLA process. Model predictions indicated that simultaneous removal of sulfate and chloride can be best described by the formation of a solid solution containing calcium chloroaluminate, calcium sulfoaluminate (ettringite), calcium monosulfate, tricalcium hydroxyaluminate, and tetracalcium hydroxyaluminate. However, simultaneous removal of silica and chloride can be best described by precipitation of calcium silicate and calcium aluminosilicate in addition to a solid solution containing calcium chloroaluminate, tricalcium hydroxyaluminate, and tetracalcium hydroxyaluminate. The XRD results indicated the presence of the same solids assumed by the equilibrium model. PMID:17571843

  2. [Influence of calcium and rhizobial infections (Rhizobium leguminosarum) on the dynamics of nitric oxide (NO) content in roots of etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L.) seedlings].

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    The effect of exogenous calcium (Ca2+) and rhizobial infections (Rhizobium leguminosarum bv viceae) on the dynamics of the level of nitric oxide (NO) was studied in cross cuts of roots of two-day-old etiolated pea seedlings (Pisum sativum L.) using a DAF-2DA fluorescent probe. Fluctuations of the NO level, indicating the presence of a rhythm in the generation of NO in roots, were observed during the incubation of seedlings in water, a CaCl2 solution, and with rhizobial infections. Exogenous factors (Ca2+ and two rhizobial stamms) change the time dynamics of the NO level in comparison with the control (water). PMID:25726667

  3. Porous microspheres of amorphous calcium phosphate: block copolymer templated microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis and application in drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Ding, Guan-Jun; Zhu, Ying-Jie; Qi, Chao; Lu, Bing-Qiang; Wu, Jin; Chen, Feng

    2015-04-01

    Amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) microspheres with a porous and hollow structure have been prepared using an aqueous solution containing CaCl2 as a calcium source, adenosine triphosphate disodium salt (Na2ATP) as a phosphorus source in the presence of a block copolymer methoxyl poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(D,L-lactide) (mPEG-PLA) by the microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. The effects of microwave hydrothermal temperature and the concentrations of CaCl2 and Na2ATP on the crystal phase and morphology of the product are investigated. The as-prepared ACP porous hollow microspheres have a relatively high specific surface area of 232.9 m(2) g(-1) and an average pore size of 9.9 nm. A typical anticancer drug, docetaxel, is used to evaluate the drug loading ability and drug release behavior of ACP porous hollow microspheres in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) with different pH values of 4.5 and 7.4. The experiments reveal that the ACP porous hollow microspheres have a high drug loading capacity and favorable pH-responsive drug release property, and the ACP porous hollow microsphere drug delivery system shows a high ability to damage tumor cells. It is expected that the as-prepared ACP porous hollow microspheres are promising for the applications in various biomedical fields such as drug delivery. PMID:25535849

  4. Cathode for use in high energy primary thionyl chloride cell systems and high energy primary thionyl chloride cell systems including the cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, C. W., Jr.; Wade, W. L., Jr.; Binder, M.; Gilman, S.

    1985-08-01

    A cathode is provided for use in high energy primary lithium-thionyl chloride cell systems or calcium-thionyl chloride cell systems. The cathode comprises an expanded metallic current collector screen into which has been pasted a mixture of a low surface area conductive carbon black and a high surface area conductive carbon black previously mixed with a binder.

  5. Study on Immobilization Activated Sludge by Polyvinyl Alcohol-sodium Alginate - Calcium Nitrate in Domestic Sewage Treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nie Qian; Jian Peichao; Liu Zhibin; Gu Fang

    2010-01-01

    Preparation conditions of immobilization activated sludge were studied with polyvinyl alcohol-sodium alginate as carrier and calcium nitrate as cross linking agent. Physical properties and removal effect of immobilization activated sludge were also investigated, where cross linking agent was boric acid, calcium chloride, calcium nitrate, respectively. The effect of sewage treatment was compared with activated sludge cross optimum linker calcium nitrate

  6. Surface modification of calcium carbonate: radical graft polymerization of vinyl monomers onto calcium carbonate surface initiated by azo groups introduced onto the surface

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yukio Shirai; Kazuyo Seno; Takamitsu Da; Norio Tsubokawa

    1996-01-01

    —The preparation of calcium carbonate modified by 12-hydroxystearate groups and the grafting of polymers onto the surface by the polymerization of vinyl monomers initiated by azo groups introduced onto the surface were investigated. The preparation of calcium carbonate modified by 12-hydroxystearate was achieved by the reaction of calcium chloride with sodium carbonate containing a small amount of sodium 12-hydroxystearate. The

  7. Comparison of intrinsic and extrinsic tracer methods for estimating calcium bioavailability to rats from dairy foods

    SciTech Connect

    Buchowski, M.S.; Sowizral, K.C.; Lengemann, F.W.; Van Campen, D.; Miller, D.D.

    1989-02-01

    Dairy products doubly labeled with 45Ca and 47Ca were used to evaluate an extrinsic labeling procedure for calcium bioavailability determination. Nonfat milk, yogurt, and fresh cheese curd were prepared from caprine milk that was intrinsically labeled with 45Ca. The products were then labeled extrinsically with 47Ca and administered to rats by gavage. The 47Ca to 45Ca ratio in bone and teeth averaged about 1.00 with either milk, yogurt, or CaCl2, but the ratio was about 1.04 when dosed with cheese curd. Ca absorption, determined by whole-body counting of 47Ca, was lower (P less than 0.05) in cheese curd (59%) than in either milk (69%), yogurt (72%), or CaCl2 (72%). Expressed as percent of dose, the absorption of 47Ca was highly correlated with bone 47Ca (r = 0.973) and with bone 45Ca (r = 0.946). Correlation between tibia 47Ca and tibia 45Ca was r = 0.923. For the dairy products tested, our results indicated that extrinsic 47Ca was absorbed similarly to intrinsic 45Ca. Moreover, the percent of radioactive dose retained in bone appears to be a valid indicator of relative bioavailability of food Ca.

  8. Mutations in the putative calcium-binding domain of polyomavirus VP1 affect capsid assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haynes, J. I. 2nd; Chang, D.; Consigli, R. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    Calcium ions appear to play a major role in maintaining the structural integrity of the polyomavirus and are likely involved in the processes of viral uncoating and assembly. Previous studies demonstrated that a VP1 fragment extending from Pro-232 to Asp-364 has calcium-binding capabilities. This fragment contains an amino acid stretch from Asp-266 to Glu-277 which is quite similar in sequence to the amino acids that make up the calcium-binding EF hand structures found in many proteins. To assess the contribution of this domain to polyomavirus structural integrity, the effects of mutations in this region were examined by transfecting mutated viral DNA into susceptible cells. Immunofluorescence studies indicated that although viral protein synthesis occurred normally, infective viral progeny were not produced in cells transfected with polyomavirus genomes encoding either a VP1 molecule lacking amino acids Thr-262 through Gly-276 or a VP1 molecule containing a mutation of Asp-266 to Ala. VP1 molecules containing the deletion mutation were unable to bind 45Ca in an in vitro assay. Upon expression in Escherichia coli and purification by immunoaffinity chromatography, wild-type VP1 was isolated as pentameric, capsomere-like structures which could be induced to form capsid-like structures upon addition of CaCl2, consistent with previous studies. However, although VP1 containing the point mutation was isolated as pentamers which were indistinguishable from wild-type VP1 pentamers, addition of CaCl2 did not result in their assembly into capsid-like structures. Immunogold labeling and electron microscopy studies of transfected mammalian cells provided in vivo evidence that a mutation in this region affects the process of viral assembly.

  9. An engineered disulfide bridge mimics the effect of calcium to protect neutral protease against local unfolding.

    PubMed

    Dürrschmidt, Peter; Mansfeld, Johanna; Ulbrich-Hofmann, Renate

    2005-03-01

    The extreme thermal stabilization achieved by the introduction of a disulfide bond (G8C/N60C) into the cysteine-free wild-type-like mutant (pWT) of the neutral protease from Bacillus stearothermophilus[Mansfeld J, Vriend G, Dijkstra BW, Veltman OR, Van den Burg B, Venema G, Ulbrich-Hofmann R & Eijsink VG (1997) J Biol Chem272, 11152-11156] was attributed to the fixation of the loop region 56-69. In this study, the role of calcium ions in the guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl)-induced unfolding and autoproteolysis kinetics of pWT and G8C/N60C was analyzed by fluorescence spectroscopy, far-UV CD spectroscopy and SDS/PAGE. First-order rate constants (kobs) were evaluated by chevron plots (ln kobs vs. GdnHCl concentration). The kobs of unfolding showed a difference of nearly six orders of magnitude (DeltaDeltaG# = 33.5 kJ.mol(-1) at 25 degrees C) between calcium saturation (at 100 mM CaCl2) and complete removal of calcium ions (in the presence of 100 mM EDTA). Analysis of the protease variant W55F indicated that calcium binding-site III, situated in the critical region 56-69, determines the stability at calcium ion concentrations between 5 and 50 mM. In the chevron plots the disulfide bridge in G8C/N60C shows a similar effect compared with pWT as the addition of calcium ions, suggesting that the introduced disulfide bridge fixes the region (near calcium binding-site III) that is responsible for unfolding and subsequent autoproteolysis. Owing to the presence of the disulfide bridge, the DeltaDeltaG# is 13.2 kJ.mol(-1) at 25 degrees C and 5 mM CaCl2. Non-linear chevron plots reveal an intermediate in unfolding probably caused by local unfolding of the loop 56-69. The occurrence of this intermediate is prevented by calcium concentrations of > 5 mM, or the introduction of the disulfide bridge G8C/N60C. PMID:15752367

  10. Calcium-induced proline accumulation contributes to amelioration of NaCl injury and expression of glutamine synthetase in greater duckweed (Spirodela polyrhiza L.).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Tai-Sheng; Hung, Meng-Ju; Cheng, Yen-I; Cheng, Lee-Ju

    2013-11-15

    The calcium-mediated proline accumulation is a critical response under NaCl stress and the function of the induced proline as a glutamine synthetase (GS) protectant in greater duckweed was investigated. The plants were treated with solutions containing 100mM NaCl, 200 mM NaCl, 200 mM NaCl plus 10mM CaCl2, or 10mM CaCl2 alone for 4 days. At the end of the experiment, the fronds of inoculum treated with 200 mM NaCl showed the chlorotic effect, higher glutamate dehydrogenase (NADH-GDH) activity and lower GS activity. At the lower salinity, the activities of GS and NADH-GDH were not altered markedly. A significant accumulation of proline was not found under either low or high salinity. The activity of ?(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase (P5CR) was enhanced only at 200 mM NaCl but remained unchanged at 100mM NaCl. The activity of ?(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS) did not change under salinity-stressed. Addition of CaCl2 to the salt stressed plants not only lowered NaCl injury but also showed an elevated level of proline contents in response to the salinity treatment. In addition, both GS activity and corresponding polypeptides were expressed close to the level of control. Exogenous proline protects GS2 and the 32 kDa protein in photosystem II reaction center (D1) from H2O2-induced redox degradation in the chloroplast lysates of duckweed. The results suggest that calcium-induced proline accumulation may play an important role as a GS protectant under NaCl exposure in S. polyrhiza. PMID:24200992

  11. Calcium and sodium bentonite for hydraulic containment applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark H. Gleason; David E. Daniel; Gerald R. Eykholt

    1997-01-01

    The hydraulic conductivity of calcium and sodium bentonites was investigated for sand-bentonite mixtures, a thin bentonite layer simulating a geosynthetic clay liner (GCL), and bentonite-cement mixtures simulating backfill for a vertical cutoff wall. The permeant liquids were tap water and distilled water containing 0.25 M calcium chloride. In general, the hydraulic performance of calcium bentonite was not significantly better than

  12. Experimentally induced calcium oxalate keratopathy in rabbits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. Weber; H. U. Sons; W. Lenz; H. Bernsmeier

    1986-01-01

    In a period of 21 days, six subcutaneous injections of calcium chloride and dibutyloxalate solution produced a flecklike, polymorphous corneal opacity and a slight stromal clouding in chinchilla rabbits, as seen with the slit lamp. In front of the endothelium, opaque structures could be seen with the specular microscope. New Zealand white rabbits showed only a diffuse corneal clouding. Light

  13. [Characteristics of rubidium forward degenerate four-wave mixing (FDFWM) influenced by the matrix effect of chloride brine in graphite furnace].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Ren, Zhao-Yu; Cheng, Xue-Mei; Miao, Yi-Zhu; Chen, Hao-Wei; Yin, Xun-Li; Wang, Li-Qin; Bai, Jin-Tao

    2012-06-01

    Rb is mainly extracted from brine. The authors studied the matrix effect of chloride brine (NaCl, CaCl2, KCl and MgCl2) on FDFWM (Forward phase-matching degenerate four-wave mixing) of Rb in the graphite furnace. The Rb and other chloride brine concentrations dependences of FDFWM were investigated respectively. The results indicate that with the increase in Rb concentration, FDFWM increases and reaches the highest at 80 ng x mL(-1). With the concentration of Rb sample further increasing, the FDFWM intensity drops. It was also found that when the Rb concentration is low, FDFWM signal is suppressed by the chloride brine, and the suppressing effect gets stronger with the increase in the chloride brine concentration. However, when the Rb concentration is high, FDFWM signal is first enhanced and then suppressed with the increase in the chloride brine concentration. The Cl- interference and Rb ionization in the graphite furnace were employed to explain the experimental results. This work is of important meaning in extracting and analyzing Rb in brine. PMID:22870620

  14. Calcium orthophosphates

    PubMed Central

    Dorozhkin, Sergey V.

    2011-01-01

    The present overview is intended to point the readers’ attention to the important subject of calcium orthophosphates. This type of materials is of special significance for human beings, because they represent the inorganic part of major normal (bones, teeth and antlers) and pathological (i.e., those appearing due to various diseases) calcified tissues of mammals. For example, atherosclerosis results in blood vessel blockage caused by a solid composite of cholesterol with calcium orthophosphates, while dental caries and osteoporosis mean a partial decalcification of teeth and bones, respectively, that results in replacement of a less soluble and harder biological apatite by more soluble and softer calcium hydrogenphosphates. Therefore, the processes of both normal and pathological calcifications are just an in vivo crystallization of calcium orthophosphates. Similarly, dental caries and osteoporosis might be considered an in vivo dissolution of calcium orthophosphates. Thus, calcium orthophosphates hold a great significance for humankind, and in this paper, an overview on the current knowledge on this subject is provided. PMID:23507744

  15. Calcium Hydroxylapatite

    PubMed Central

    Yutskovskaya, Yana Alexandrovna; Philip Werschler, WM.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Calcium hydroxylapatite is one of the most well-studied dermal fillers worldwide and has been extensively used for the correction of moderate-to-severe facial lines and folds and to replenish lost volume. Objectives: To mark the milestone of 10 years of use in the aesthetic field, this review will consider the evolution of calcium hydroxylapatite in aesthetic medicine, provide a detailed injection protocol for a global facial approach, and examine how the unique properties of calcium hydroxylapatite provide it with an important place in today’s market. Methods: This article is an up-to-date review of calcium hydroxylapatite in aesthetic medicine along with procedures for its use, including a detailed injection protocol for a global facial approach by three expert injectors. Conclusion: Calcium hydroxylapatite is a very effective agent for many areas of facial soft tissue augmentation and is associated with a high and well-established safety profile. Calcium hydroxylapatite combines high elasticity and viscosity with an ability to induce long-term collagen formation making it an ideal agent for a global facial approach. PMID:25610523

  16. A Proposed Mechanism for the Thermal Denaturation of a Recombinant Bacillus Halmapalus Alpha-amylase - the Effect of Calcium Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nielsen, Anders D.; Pusey, Marc L.; Fuglsang, Claus C.; Westh, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The thermal stability of a recombinant alpha-amylase from Bacillus halmapalus alpha-amylase (BHA) has been investigated using circular dichroism spectroscopy (CD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). This alpha-amylase is homologous to other Bacillus alpha-amylases where previous crystallographic studies have identified the existence of 3 calcium binding sites in the structure. Denaturation of BHA is irreversible with a Tm of approximately 89 C, and DSC thermograms can be described using a one-step irreversible model. A 5 C increase in T(sub m) in the presence of 10 fold excess CaCl2 was observed. However, a concomitant increase in the tendency to aggregate was also observed. The presence of 30-40 fold excess calcium chelator (EDTA or EGTA) results in a large destabilization of BHA corresponding to about 40 C lower T(sub m), as determined by both CD and DSC. Ten fold excess EGTA reveals complex DSC thermograms corresponding to both reversible and irreversible transitions, which possibly originate from different populations of BHA:calcium complexes. The observations in the present study have, in combination with structural information of homologous alpha-amylases, provided the basis for the proposal of a simple denaturation mechanism of BHA. The proposed mechanism describes the irreversible thermal denaturation of different BHA:calcium complexes and the calcium binding equilibrium involved. Furthermore, the model accounts for a temperature induced reversible structural change associated with calcium binding.

  17. Interaction of a dietary fiber (pectin) with gastrointestinal components (bile salts, calcium, and lipase): a calorimetry, electrophoresis, and turbidity study.

    PubMed

    Espinal-Ruiz, Mauricio; Parada-Alfonso, Fabián; Restrepo-Sánchez, Luz-Patricia; Narváez-Cuenca, Carlos-Eduardo; McClements, David Julian

    2014-12-31

    An in vitro gastrointestinal model consisting of oral, gastric, and intestinal phases was used to elucidate the impact of pectin on the digestion of emulsified lipids. Pectin reduced the extent of lipid digestion, which was attributed to its binding interactions with specific gastrointestinal components. The interaction of pectin with bile salts, lipase, CaCl2, and NaCl was therefore investigated by turbidity, microstructure, electrophoresis, and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) at pH 7.0 and 37 °C. ITC showed that the interaction of pectin was endothermic with bile salts, but exothermic with CaCl2, NaCl, and lipase. Electrophoresis, microstructure, and turbidity measurements showed that anionic pectin formed electrostatic complexes with calcium ions, which may have decreased lipid digestion due to increased lipid flocculation or microgel formation because this would reduce the surface area of lipid exposed to the lipase. This research provides valuable insights into the physicochemical and molecular mechanisms of the interaction of pectin with gastrointestinal components that may affect the rate and extent of lipid digestion. PMID:25479310

  18. Calcium dependence of rapid auxin action in maize roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasenstein, K. H.; Evans, M. L.

    1986-01-01

    We investigated the interaction of Ca2+ and auxin on root elongation in seedlings of Zea mays L. The seedlings were raised either in the presence of Ca2+ (high calcium; HC = imbibed and raised in 10 millimolar CaCl2), in the absence of additional Ca2+ (intermediate calcium; IC = imbibed and raised in distilled H2O, calcium supply from seed only), or without additional Ca2+ and subsequently depleting them of Ca2+ (low calcium; LC = imbibed and raised in distilled H2O and subsequently treated with 1 millimolar ethyleneglycol-bis-[beta-aminoethylether]-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid [EGTA]). Exposure of roots of either HC or IC seedlings to auxin concentrations from 0.1 to 10 micromolar resulted in strong inhibition of elongation. In roots of LC seedlings, on the other hand, auxin concentrations as high as 10 micromolar caused only slight inhibition of elongation. Adding 0.5 millimolar Ca2+ to LC roots in the presence of IAA allowed normal expression of the inhibitory action of the hormone. Inhibition of elongation in IC roots by indoleacetic acid was reversible upon treatment of the roots with 1 millimolar EGTA. The inhibitory action of auxin could then be re-established by supplying 0.5 millimolar Ca2+. The data indicate that Ca2+ may be necessary to the growth-regulating action of auxin. The significance of this finding is discussed with respect to the potential role of Ca2+ as a second messenger of auxin action and the relevance of this model to recent evidence for gravi-induced redistribution of Ca2+ and its role in establishing gravitropic curvature.

  19. Calcium pyrophosphate arthritis (Pseudogout)

    MedlinePLUS

    Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease; CPPD disease; Acute CPPD arthritis; Pseudogout ... Calcium pyrophosphate arthritis is caused by the collection of salt called calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD). The buildup ...

  20. Calcium carbonate overdose

    MedlinePLUS

    Tums overdose; Calcium overdose ... Calcium ... Products containing calcium carbonate, including Certain antacids (Tums, Chooz) Certain mineral supplements Certain hand lotions Certain vitamin and mineral supplements Note: ...

  1. Salt Brine Blending to Optimize Deicing and Anti-icing Performance and Cost

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    Salt Brine Blending to Optimize Deicing and Anti-icing Performance and Cost Effectiveness Stephen J in Method? #12;Deicing and Anti-icing Treatments ·Sodium Chloride (NaCl) ·Cargill, NA Salt ·Magnesium Chloride (MgCl2) w/additives ·Envirotech Serv., Scotwood Ind., NA Salt ·Calcium Chloride (CaCl2) ·Tiger

  2. Purification and characterisation of a glutamic acid-containing peptide with calcium-binding capacity from whey protein hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shun-Li; Zhao, Li-Na; Cai, Xixi; Wang, Shao-Yun; Huang, Yi-Fan; Hong, Jing; Rao, Ping-Fan

    2015-02-01

    The bioavailability of dietary ionised calcium is affected by intestinal basic environment. Calcium-binding peptides can form complexes with calcium to improve its absorption and bioavailability. The aim of this study was focused on isolation and characterisation of a calcium-binding peptide from whey protein hydrolysates. Whey protein was hydrolysed using Flavourzyme and Protamex with substrate to enzyme ratio of 25:1 (w/w) at 49 °C for 7 h. The calcium-binding peptide was isolated by DEAE anion-exchange chromatography, Sephadex G-25 gel filtration and reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). A purified peptide of molecular mass 204 Da with strong calcium binding ability was identified on chromatography/electrospray ionisation (LC/ESI) tandem mass spectrum to be Glu-Gly (EG) after analysis and alignment in database. The calcium binding capacity of EG reached 67·81 ?g/mg, and the amount increased by 95% compared with whey protein hydrolysate complex. The UV and infrared spectrometer analysis demonstrated that the principal sites of calcium-binding corresponded to the carboxyl groups and carbonyl groups of glutamic acid. In addition, the amino group and peptide amino are also the related groups in the interaction between EG and calcium ion. Meanwhile, the sequestered calcium percentage experiment has proved that EG-Ca is significantly more stable than CaCl2 in human gastrointestinal tract in vitro. The findings suggest that the purified dipeptide has the potential to be used as ion-binding ingredient in dietary supplements. PMID:25592629

  3. Project Calcium

    SciTech Connect

    Hurley, J.P.; Benson, S.A.; Erickson, T.A.; Allan, S.E.; Bieber, J.

    1992-09-01

    Fouling problems in utility boilers have been classified into two principal types: high-temperature and low-temperature fouling. A multiclient-sponsored program was initiated at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) to better understand the causes of low-temperature fouling when burning high-calcium western US coals. The goals of Project Calcium were to define the low-temperature deposition problem, identify the calcium-based components that are responsible for the formation of the deposits, develop ways to predict their formation, and identify possible methods to mitigate the formation of these deposits. To achieve the goals of Project Calcium, detailed sampling of utility boilers and laboratory-scale studies coupled with state-of-the-art methods to determine the inorganic components in coals and coal ash-derived materials were conducted. Boiler Sampling was also performed. The work involved sampling coal, entrained ash, deposits and slags from five full-scale utility boilers combined with detailed advanced characterization of the materials. The results of this work aided in identifying the key phenomena to focus the laboratory studies and in model verification. Field testing was conducted at three utilities.

  4. Original article Availability of calcium from skim milk, calcium sulfate

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Availability of calcium from skim milk, calcium sulfate and calcium carbonate; accepted 19 November 1999) Abstract --Dairy products provide abundant, accessible calcium for humans, while some calcium sulfate-rich mineral waters could provide appreciable amounts of calcium

  5. Calcium and bone disease

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Harry C.; Robinson, Lisa J.; Huang, Christopher L.-H.; Sun, Li; Friedman, Peter A.; Schlesinger, Paul H.; Zaidi, Mone

    2013-01-01

    Calcium transport and calcium signaling are of basic importance in bone cells. Bone is the major store of calcium and a key regulatory organ for calcium homeostasis. Bone, in major part, responds to calcium-dependent signals from the parathyroids and via vitamin D metabolites, although bone retains direct response to extracellular calcium if parathyroid regulation is lost. Improved understanding of calcium transporters and calcium-regulated cellular processes has resulted from analysis of genetic defects, including several defects with low or high bone mass. Osteoblasts deposit calcium by mechanisms including phosphate and calcium transport with alkalinization to absorb acid created by mineral deposition; cartilage calcium mineralization occurs by passive diffusion and phosphate production. Calcium mobilization by osteoclasts is mediated by acid secretion. Both bone forming and bone resorbing cells use calcium signals as regulators of differentiation and activity. This has been studied in more detail in osteoclasts, where both osteoclast differentiation and motility are regulated by calcium. PMID:21674636

  6. Pyramidal cells accumulate chloride at seizure onset

    PubMed Central

    Lillis, Kyle P; Kramer, Mark A; Mertz, Jerome; Staley, Kevin J

    2012-01-01

    Seizures are thought to originate from a failure of inhibition to quell hyperactive neural circuits, but the nature of this failure remains unknown. Here we combine high-speed two-photon imaging with electrophysiological recordings to directly evaluate the interaction between populations of interneurons and principal cells during the onset of seizure-like activity in mouse hippocampal slices. Both calcium imaging and dual patch clamp recordings reveal that in vitro seizure-like events (SLEs) are preceded by pre-ictal bursts of activity in which interneurons predominate. Corresponding changes in intracellular chloride concentration were observed in pyramidal cells using the chloride indicator Clomeleon. These changes were measurable at SLE onset and became very large during the SLE. Pharmacological manipulation of GABAergic transmission, either by blocking GABAA receptors or by hyperpolarizing the GABAA reversal potential, converted SLEs to short interictal-like bursts. Together, our results support a model in which pre-ictal GABAA receptor-mediated chloride influx shifts EGABA to produce a positive feedback loop that contributes to the initiation of seizure activity. PMID:22677032

  7. Effects of calcium ions and substances affecting Ca2+ -related mechanisms on histamine-evoked stimulation of cyclic AMP formation in chick pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Zawilska, J B; Woldan-Tambor, A; Nowak, J Z

    1998-01-01

    In avian central nervous system (CNS), and particularly in the pineal gland, histamine (HA) potently stimulates synthesis of cyclic AMP in intact tissue, and only weakly affects adenylyl cyclase activity in membrane preparation. In this work, we focussed on calcium (Ca2+) as a possible link in the mechanism through which HA affects cyclic AMP generation in the chick pineal. The problem was studied in two sets of experiments where the action of HA on the pineal cyclic AMP was tested: (1) in the incubation medium containing various compounds influencing Ca2+ influx and/or Ca2+ intracellular concentration/action (Ca2+ -ionophore calcimycin, Ca2+ -channel agonist Bay-K 8644, Ca2+ -channels blockers: diltiazem, verapamil, nifedipine and omega-conotoxin-GVIA, CaCl2, EGTA in the absence of CaCl2 in the incubation medium, as well as calmodulin inhibitors: calmidazolium and W-7), and (2) in a CaCl2-free incubation medium yet containing different concentrations of BaCl2, CdCl2, CoCl2, MgCl2, and NiSO4. The results of the first series were mostly negative; an exception was the inhibiton of the HA-evoked cyclic AMP formation observed in the presence of 5.2 and 10.4 mM CaCl2 In the second series of experiments, divalent cations (however with the exception of Mg2+, which was inactive at concentrations up to 15.6 mM) inhibited the HA-evoked cyclic AMP production, with the following rank order of potency: Cd2+ > Co2+ > Ni2+ > Ba2+. The inhibitory effect of CdCl2 was prevented by nifedipine. Taken together, the present data suggest that intracellular Ca2+ -related mechanisms are not of major importance in the HA action on cyclic AMP synthesis in the chick pineal. It could be suspected that the inhibition of the HA-driven cyclic AMP formation by high concentrations of Ca2+, and other divalent cations, probably resulted from their direct inhibitory interaction with the catalytic site of the pineal adenylyl cyclase. PMID:10091715

  8. Molecular Structure of Barium Chloride

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-08-15

    Barium Chloride was the byproduct of the discovery of radium by Madame Curie. When refining radium, the final separation resulted in barium chloride and radium chloride. Electrophoresis of barium chloride produces small-scale amounts of barium atom. This can be used for obtaining barium for commercial uses. Applications of barium chloride include stimulating the heart and other muscles for medicinal purposes, and also for softening water. Other uses of barium chloride include the manufacturing of barium salts, as pesticide, pigments, boiler detergent, in purifying sugar, as mordant in dyeing and printing textiles, and in the manufacture of caustic soda, polymers, and stabilizers.

  9. Preparation of monodispersed cubic calcium carbonate particles via precipitation reaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bei Cheng; Ming Lei; Jiaguo Yu; Xiujian Zhao

    2004-01-01

    Monodispersed cubic calcium carbonate composite particles were prepared by the precipitation reaction of sodium carbonate with calcium chloride in water in the presence of polyacrylic acid (PAA) at 60–80 °C, and then characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry-Thermogravimetry (DSC-TG). It was found from the above results that variations in the concentration of PAA

  10. DNA-mediated morphosynthesis of calcium carbonate particles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bei Cheng; Weiquan Cai; Jiaguo Yu

    2010-01-01

    Calcium carbonate microspheres with different surface structures were successfully prepared by the reaction of sodium carbonate with calcium chloride in the presence of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) at room temperature. The as-prepared products were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry (TGA–DSC) and fourier-transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR). The effects

  11. Electrochemical and spectrophotometric study on trivalent neodymium ion in molten binary mixtures of LiCl and alkali earth chlorides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukasawa, Kazuhito; Uehara, Akihiro; Nagai, Takayuki; Fujii, Toshiyuki; Yamana, Hajimu

    2011-07-01

    The thermodynamic stability of Nd(III) complexes was studied by electrochemical techniques for molten binary mixtures composed of LiCl and an alkali earth chloride, CaCl 2, SrCl 2, or BaCl 2 at 923 K. The Gibbs free energy change of formation of Nd(III) in the melts was determined. The obtained values showed a good correlation with the polarizing power of solvent cations. The Nd(III) complex was more stable in the melts with low polarizing power. The electronic absorption spectrum of the hypersensitive f- f transition of Nd 3+ was investigated to obtain information about the structural change of the NdCl63- complex. The estimated oscillator strength of the 4G5/2, 2G7/2 ? 4I9/2 transition and the degree of the energy splitting in electronic energy levels showed different trends upon the polarizing power for each of added alkali earth chloride. This indicates that the coordination environments further from second neighbors could have significant impact on the electronic energy levels of Nd(III) in the mixtures including alkali earth cations.

  12. Chloride chemical form in various types of fly ash

    SciTech Connect

    Fenfen Zhu; Masaki Takaoka; Kenji Shiota; Kazuyuki Oshita; Yoshinori Kitajima [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering

    2008-06-01

    Chloride content is a critical problem for the reuse of fly ash as a raw material in cement, and the method used by recyclers to reduce the fly ash chloride content depends on the chemical form of the chlorides. However, limited information is available on the quantitative distribution of chlorides and the identity of some chlorides such as Friedel's salt. We examined chloride forms and percentages using X-ray absorption near edge structure and X-ray diffraction analyses, as well as corresponding washing experiments. Approximately 15% of the chlorine in raw fly ash was estimated to be in the form of NaCl, 10% in KCl, 50% in CaCl{sub 2}, and the remainder in the form of Friedel's salt. Fly ash collected in a bag filter with the injection of calcium hydroxide for acid gas removal (CaFA) contained 35% chlorine as NaCl, 11% as KCl, 37% as CaCl{sub 2}, 13% as Friedel's salt, and the remaining 4% as CaClOH. In fly ash collected in a bag filter with the injection of sodium bicarbonate for acid gas removal (NaFA), approximately 79% of chlorine was in NaCl, 12% was in KCl, and 9% was in Friedel's salt. 25 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Blockade of swelling-induced chloride channels by phenol derivatives.

    PubMed Central

    Gschwentner, M.; Jungwirth, A.; Hofer, S.; Wöll, E.; Ritter, M.; Susanna, A.; Schmarda, A.; Reibnegger, G.; Pinggera, G. M.; Leitinger, M.; Frick, J.; Deetjen, P.; Paulmichl, M.

    1996-01-01

    1. In NIH3T3 fibroblasts, the chloride channel involved in regulatory volume decrease (RVD) was identified as ICln, a protein isolated from a cDNA library derived from Madin Darby canine Kidney (MDCK) cells. ICln expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes gives rise to an outwardly rectifying chloride current, sensitive to the extracellular addition of nucleotides and the known chloride channel blockers, DIDS (4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid) and NPPB (5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoic acid). We set out to study whether substances structurally similar to NPPB are able to interfere with RVD. 2. RVD in NIH3T3 fibroblasts and MDCK cells is temperature-dependent. 3. RVD, the swelling-dependent chloride current and the depolarization seen after reducing extracellular osmolarity can be blocked by gossypol and NDGA (nordihydroguaiaretic acid), both structurally related to NPPB. 4. The cyclic AMP-dependent chloride current elicited in CaCo cells is less sensitive to the two substances tested while the calcium-activated chloride current in fibroblasts is insensitive. 5. The binding site for the two phenol derivatives onto ICln seems to be distinct but closely related to the nucleotide binding site identified as G x G x G, a glycine repeat located at the predicted outer mouth of the ICln channel protein. PMID:8733574

  14. Impacts of calcium addition and different oil types and levels on in vitro rumen fermentation and digestibility.

    PubMed

    Gül?en, Nurettin; Umucalilar, Huzur Derya; Inal, Fatma; Hayirli, Armagan

    2006-12-01

    This in vitro study was designed to investigate the effects of calcium addition to substrates differing in source and level of oil on fermentation, gas production, and digestibility parameters. Substrates were made from basal mixtures containing three levels of calcium salt (0, 1, and 2% CaCl2) to contain three levels (3, 6, and 9%) of two types (sunflower and soy) of oil. After collecting from two Holstein bulls and mixing with buffer, rumen fluid was used to incubate the resulting 18 mixtures in duplicate. Ionizable calcium, pH and NH3-N concentration were measured during incubation. Gas production was measured at 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after incubation. Kinetics parameters of gas production and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) were calculated from regression coefficients of an exponential equation and a linear equation, respectively. Data were analysed using 3-way ANOVA with repeated measure option in which the parameter time was a subplot. Oil type did not affect pH and ionizable calcium concentration. There were linear increases and decreases in pH and ionizable calcium concentration in response to increasing oil and calcium levels, respectively. However, with increasing oil levels there were no interactions between calcium addition and oil level on pH and ionizable calcium concentration. None of the treatments affected NH3-N concentration. The amount of gas produced from substrates containing sunflower oil was greater than soy oil (41.7 vs. 40.5 ml). Cumulative gas production and amount of gas production from insoluble but slowly fermentable portion of the supplemental mixtures linearly decreased and linearly increased as oil and calcium levels increased in the substrates, respectively. However, interactions of calcium addition and oil level on gas production and kinetics of gas production were lacking. Oil type did not affect IVDMD. Despite lacking main effects, interaction of calcium addition and oil level indicated that increasing calcium level alleviated depression in IVDMD resulting from increasing oil level. In conclusion, increasing oil level depressed, whereas calcium addition stimulated ruminal fermentation. Improvement in IVDMD may partially support that calcium addition alleviates the adverse effects of oil and that more calcium is needed when diets are supplemented with increasing amounts of oil. PMID:17236704

  15. Determination of cytoplasmic calcium concentration in Dryopteris spores: a developmentally non-disruptive technique for loading of the calcium indicator fura-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuerlein, R.; Schmidt, K.; Poenie, M.; Roux, S. J.

    1991-01-01

    Germination of Dryopteris spores is mediated by the physiologically active, far-red-absorbing form of phytochrome, Pfr, and external Ca2+ is necessary for the transduction of the light signal. Because knowledge about the cytoplasmic calcium ion concentration, [Ca2+]i, is of great importance for understanding the role of calcium during signal transduction, this value was measured using fura-2 in fern spores undergoing the normal developmental progression into germination. Fura-2 was loaded into the spores by electroporation, which does not disrupt the normal process of germination. The intensity of the fluorescence emission of the loaded fura-2 was analysed by a microspectrophotometric assay of single spores, and successful loading could be obtained by the application of ten electrical pulses (field strength 7.5 kV cm-1, half-life (time constant) 230 microseconds). Fura-2 was alternately excited by light of wavelengths 355 and 385 nm through an inverted fluorescence microscope, and the emitted fura-2 fluorescence was collected by a silicon-intensified video camera. The cytoplasmic calcium ion concentration was calculated from the ratio of the camera output obtained for both wavelengths and displayed by a pseudo-color technique. Spores responded to changes of the extracellular Ca2+ concentration, and this observation is considered as evidence that fura-2 is loaded into the cytoplasm. The substitution of a low external [Ca2+] (1 mM ethyleneglycol-bis(2-aminoethylether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA)) by 1 mM CaCl2 caused a fast increase of [Ca2+]i from approx. 50 nM to above 500 nM. In contrast, the subsequent substitution of CaCl2 by EGTA decreased [Ca2+]i again below 100 nM within 0.5 h. Furthermore, the application of ionomycin could initiate a change in [Ca2+]i according to the Ca2+ gradient established between the extracellular medium and cytoplasm. In spores sown on a Ca(2+) -free medium, [Ca2+]i, analysed in a buffer containing EGTA, was found to be around 50 nM during the first days of cultivation, independent of the irradiation protocol. However, if spores were grown in darkness on a Ca(2+) -containing medium and analysed in EGTA, [Ca2+]i was significantly higher (> or = 500 nM). In red-light-irradiated spores, [Ca2+]i was found to decrease with increasing time after irradiation, and was determined to be less than 100 nM when analysis was done 44 h after germination was initiated by the light treatment.

  16. Calcium and Vitamin D

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calcium is required for the bone formation phase of bone remodeling. Typically about 5 nmol (200 mg) of calcium is removed from the adult skeleton and replaced each day. To supply this amount, one would need to consume about 600 mg of calcium, since calcium is not very efficiently absorbed. Calcium ...

  17. Calcium and osteoporosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. E. Christopher Nordin

    1997-01-01

    Calcium is an essential nutrient that is involved in most metabolic processes and the phosphate salts of which provide mechanical rigidity to the bones and teeth, where 99% of the body's calcium resides. The calcium in the skeleton has the additional role of acting as a reserve supply of calcium to meet the body's metabolic needs in states of calcium

  18. SOURCE ASSESSMENT: POLYVINYL CHLORIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes data on air emissions from the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) industry. PVC is manufactured by 20 companies at 35 plants. Each plant uses one or more of four possible polymerization processes: (1) suspension polymerization, (2) emulsion polymerization, (3) bulk p...

  19. Alpha-1-microglobulin: inhibitory effect on calcium oxalate crystallization in vitro and decreased urinary concentration in calcium oxalate stone formers.

    PubMed

    Tardivel, S; Médétognon, J; Randoux, C; Kébédé, M; Drüeke, T; Daudon, M; Hennequin, C; Lacour, B

    1999-08-01

    In the past few years, alpha-1-microglobulin (alpha1m) has been copurified from human urine with bikunin, a potent inhibitor of calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystallization in vitro. In this study, we have purified alpha1m without bikunin contamination and investigated its possible role in CaOx crystallization by in vitro and in vivo studies. Alpha-1m was purified with an anti-alpha1m antibodies CNBr-activated sepharose column. Two molecular species of alpha1m of respectively 30 and 60 kDa were purified. For each protein, two blots of 30 and 60 kDa cross-reacted with anti-alpha1m antibodies, suggesting that these two forms were derived one from the other. Both protein species inhibited CaOx crystallization in a dose-dependent manner in two in vitro tests. In the first test, the presence of alpha1m of 30 kDa (8 microg/ml) in a medium containing 0. 76 mM CaCl(2) (with (45)Ca) and 0.76 mM Ox(NH(4))(2) inhibited CaOx crystallization by 38% as estimated by supernatant radioactivity after 1 h of agitation. In the second test, CaOx kinetics were examined for 3 to 10 min in a turbidimetric model at 620 nm. The presence of alpha1m of 30 kDa in a medium containing 4 mM CaCl(2) and 0.5 mM Na(2)Ox inhibited CaOx crystallization by 41.5%, as estimated by the slope modification of turbidimetric curve. Alpha-1m can be considered as another inhibitor of urinary CaOx crystal formation, as shown by the present in vitro studies. Using an ELISA assay, we found that urinary alpha1m concentration was significantly lower in 31 CaOx stone formers than in 18 healthy subjects (2.95 +/- 0.29 vs 5.34 +/- 1.08 mg/l respectively, P = 0.01). The decreased concentration of alpha1m in CaOx stone formers could be responsible in these patients, at least in part, for an increased risk of CaOx crystalluria. PMID:10460893

  20. Calcium Collage

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    OMSI

    2004-01-01

    In this activity (on pages 11-14 of PDF), learners cut out pictures from magazines of foods that help make bones strong and glue the pictures to a paper bone. The lesson plan includes information about various activities - including physical exercise as well as diet - that lead to healthy bones. It also includes a list of foods that provide calcium to strengthen bones, including dairy products, spinach, and tofu. The paper bones can be cut out of construction paper prior to the activity.

  1. Development and Validation of a New Soil Universal Extractant: 0.02 Molar Strontium Chloride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liping Li; Jiabao Zhang; Weiqin Xing; Wei Chen; Xiaoli Wu; Kai Zhu

    2006-01-01

    In this experiment, when the strontium chloride–citrate acid extractant (0.02 M SrCl2–0.05 M citrate) was used for extraction of calcareous soils with calcium carbonate greater than 70 g kg, the filtrate was turbid. Furthermore, white precipitation appeared when this extract was used for phosphorus determination with the Murphy and Riley method. As the concentration of citrate in strontium chloride–citrate acid extractant decreased to 0.025

  2. Chloride Channels of Intracellular Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, John C.; Kahl, Christina R.

    2010-01-01

    Proteins implicated as intracellular chloride channels include the intracellular ClC proteins, the bestrophins, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, the CLICs, and the recently described Golgi pH regulator. This paper examines current hypotheses regarding roles of intracellular chloride channels and reviews the evidence supporting a role in intracellular chloride transport for each of these proteins. PMID:20100480

  3. Sodium Chloride (Catheter Flush) Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... use a sodium chloride flush several times a day. Your health care provider will determine the number of sodium chloride flushes you will need a day. ... health care provider probably will give you several days supply of sodium chloride. You will be told ...

  4. Molecular Structure of Thionyl chloride

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-10-01

    Thionyl chloride is a slightly yellowish liquid with an intense odor and low viscosity. It reacts with lithium to produce lithium chloride and is a good solvent for most organic compounds. Other uses of thionyl chloride include as an intermediate for the production of pharmaceutically active ingredients, as an electrolyte in lithium batteries, and in crop protection.

  5. Calcium hydroxide poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    Calcium hydroxide is a white powder produced by mixing calcium oxide ("lime") with water. Calcium hydroxide poisoning ... Blood in the stool Burns in the esophagus (food pipe) Severe abdominal pain Vomiting Vomiting blood Heart ...

  6. Calcium source (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Getting enough calcium to keep bones from thinning throughout a person's life may be made more difficult if that person has ... as a tendency toward kidney stones, for avoiding calcium-rich food sources. Calcium deficiency also effects the ...

  7. Coronary Calcium Scan

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Coronary Calcium Scan? A coronary calcium scan is a test ... you have calcifications in your coronary arteries. Coronary Calcium Scan Figure A shows the position of the ...

  8. Calcium and bones (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Calcium is one of the most important minerals for the growth, maintenance, and reproduction of the human ... body, are continually being re-formed and incorporate calcium into their structure. Calcium is essential for the ...

  9. Get Enough Calcium

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Physical Activity > Nutrition > Get Enough Calcium Get Enough Calcium The Basics Take Action! Ver en español Content ... February 24, 2015 The Basics Your body needs calcium to build strong bones when you are young ...

  10. Calcium-Rich Foods

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Disorders - Osteoporosis - Prevention - Calcium - Calcium content of common foods Printer friendly Email Share Tweet Like Below is ... Green/French beans 90 g cooked 50 Starchy foods Food Serving Size Calcium (mg) Pasta (cooked) 180 ...

  11. Study on dehydrochlorination of waste poly (vinyl chloride) resins by microwave irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriwaki, Saburo; Qian, Qingrong; Sunohara, Satoshi; Machida, Motoi; Tatsumoto, Hideki

    Waste poly (vinyl chloride: PVC) resins are experimentally dehydrochlorinated by microwave irradiation. The following unique results are obtained: (1) plasticizer in PVC resin absorbs microwave power more effectively than PVC polymer. The higher the plasticizer content in PVC resin, the higher is the dehydrochlorination reaction (2) low PVC polymer content materials such as cushion floor require high microwave irradiation power to secure a high dehydrochlorination yield, (3) calcium carbonate in PVC resin reacts with released hydrochloric acid gas and results calcium chloride during microwave irradiation, (4) additives in PVC resin strongly influence dehydrochlorination yield, (5) it is evidenced that the PVC copolymer is also dehydrochlorinated by microwave irradiation.

  12. Highly conductive carbon nanotube matrix accelerates developmental chloride extrusion in central nervous system neurons by increased expression of chloride transporter KCC2.

    PubMed

    Liedtke, Wolfgang; Yeo, Michele; Zhang, Hongbo; Wang, Yiding; Gignac, Michelle; Miller, Sara; Berglund, Ken; Liu, Jie

    2013-04-01

    Exceptional mechanical and electrical properties of carbon nanotubes (CNT) have attracted neuroscientists and neural tissue engineers aiming to develop novel devices that interface with nervous tissues. In the central nervous system (CNS), the perinatal chloride shift represents a dynamic change that forms the basis for physiological actions of ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) as an inhibitory neurotransmitter, a process of fundamental relevance for normal functioning of the CNS. Low intra-neuronal chloride concentrations are maintained by a chloride-extruding transporter, potassium chloride cotransporter 2 (KCC2). KCC2's increasing developmental expression underlies the chloride shift. In neural injury, repressed KCC2 expression plays a co-contributory role by corrupting inhibitory neurotransmission. Mechanisms of Kcc2 up-regulation are thus pertinent because of their medical relevance, yet they remain elusive. Here, it is shown that primary CNS neurons originating from the cerebral cortex, cultured on highly-conductive few-walled-CNT (fwCNT) have a strikingly accelerated chloride shift caused by increased KCC2 expression. KCC2 upregulation is dependent on neuronal voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC) and, furthermore, on calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II, which is linked to VGCC-mediated calcium-influx. It is also demonstrated that accelerated Kcc2 transcription in brain-slices prepared from genetically-engineered reporter mice, in which Kcc2 promoter drives luciferase, when the cerebral cortex of these mice is exposed to fwCNT-coated devices. Based on these findings, whether fwCNT can enhance neural engineering devices for the benefit of neural injury conditions associated with elevated neuronal intracellular chloride concentration-such as pain, epilepsy, traumatic neural injury and ischemia-can now be addressed. Taken together, our novel insights illustrate how fwCNTs can promote low neuronal chloride in individual neurons and thus inhibitory transmission in neural circuits. PMID:23229576

  13. Preparation and characterization of polyacrylonitrile ultrafiltration membranes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sen Yang; Zhongzhou Liu

    2003-01-01

    Asymmetric polyacrylonitrile (PAN) ultrafiltration (UF) membranes are prepared from three kinds of coagulant: water, aqueous solution of sodium chloride (NaCl) and aqueous solution of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3), using dimethylacetamide (DMAC) as solvent and calcium chloride (CaCl2) as additive by phase inversion method. The membranes are characterized in terms of the pure water flux, molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) profile and direct

  14. Estimation of Plant?Available Nitrogen in Soils using Rapid Chemical and Biological Methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerard L. Velthof; Oene Oenema

    2010-01-01

    The relationships between potential laboratory indices for plant?available nitrogen (N) and the plant N uptake in a pot experiment with ryegrass were assessed for 13 mineral soils and 2 peat soils. The methods included aerobic soil incubation, soil incubation in a bioreactor, hot potassium chloride (KCl)–extractable mineral N, 0.01 M calcium chloride (CaCl2)–extractable N, and N loss at heating. The indices

  15. Electrochemical studies of calcium chloride-based molten salt systems

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, T.P. Jr.

    1992-12-01

    Conductance and EMF studies of CaCl{sub 2}-based melts were performed in the temperature range 790--990 C. Conductivity data collected using magnesia tubes and capillaries showed deviations from the data recommended by the National Bureau of Standards. These deviations are attributed to the slow dissolution of magnesia by the CaCl{sub 2}-CaO melt. Conductivity data for molten CaCl{sub 2} using a pyrolytic boron nitride capillary were in reasonable agreement with the recommended data; however, undissolved CaO in CaCl{sub 2} may have caused blockage of the pyrolytic boron nitride capillary, resulting in fluctuations in the measured resistance. The utility of the AgCl/Ag reference electrode in CaCl{sub 2}-AgCl and CaCl{sub 2}-CaO-AgCl melts, using asbestos diaphragms and Vycor glass as reference half-cell membranes, was also investigated. Nernstian behavior was observed using both types of reference half-cell membranes in CaCl{sub 2}-AgCl melts. The AgCl/Ag reference electrode also exhibited Nernstian behavior in CaCl{sub 2}-CaO-AgCl melts using a Vycor reference half-cell membrane and a magnesia crucible. The use of CaCl{sub 2} as a solvent is of interest since it is used in plutonium metal purification, as well as various other commercial applications. 97 refs., 33 figs., 13 tabs.

  16. Recovery of soluble chloride salts from the wastewater generated during the washing process of municipal solid wastes incineration fly ash.

    PubMed

    Tang, Hailong; Erzat, Aris; Liu, Yangsheng

    2014-01-01

    Water washing is widely used as the pretreatment method to treat municipal solid waste incineration fly ash, which facilitates the further solidification/stabilization treatment or resource recovery of the fly ash. The wastewater generated during the washing process is a kind of hydrosaline solution, usually containing high concentrations of alkali chlorides and sulphates, which cause serious pollution to environment. However, these salts can be recycled as resources instead of discharge. This paper explored an effective and practical recovery method to separate sodium chloride, potassium chloride, and calcium chloride salts individually from the hydrosaline water. In laboratory experiments, a simulating hydrosaline solution was prepared according to composition of the waste washing water. First, in the three-step evaporation-crystallization process, pure sodium chloride and solid mixture of sodium and potassium chlorides were obtained separately, and the remaining solution contained potassium and calcium chlorides (solution A). And then, the solid mixture was fully dissolved into water (solution B obtained). Finally, ethanol was added into solutions A and B to change the solubility of sodium, potassium, and calcium chlorides within the mixed solvent of water and ethanol. During the ethanol-adding precipitation process, each salt was separated individually, and the purity of the raw production in laboratory experiments reached about 90%. The ethanol can be recycled by distillation and reused as the solvent. Therefore, this technology may bring both environmental and economic benefits. PMID:25176491

  17. Calcium and nitrogen balance, experiment M007

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whedon, G. D.; Lutwak, L.; Neuman, W. F.; Lachance, P. A.

    1971-01-01

    The collection of data on the response of the skeletal and muscular systems to 14-day space flights was evaluated for loss of calcium, nitrogen, and other metabolically related elements. Considerable interindividual variability was demonstrated in all experimental factors that were measured. Calcium balance became less positive and urinary phosphate excretion increased substantially in flight despite a reduction in phosphate intake. Patterns of excretion of magnesium, sodium, potassium, and chloride were different for each subject, and, in part, could be correlated with changes in adrenocortical steroid production. The principal hormonal change was a striking decrease during flight in the urinary excretion of 17-hydroxycortocosteroids. Dermal losses of calcium, magnesium, sulfate, and phosphate were insignificant during all three phases.

  18. Toxicity of calcium salts to aqueous microorganisms

    SciTech Connect

    Lakhina, K.G.; Dolganova, A.V.; Yakobi, L.K.

    1983-03-01

    This article investigates the toxicity of calcium to aqueous microogranisms by means of a procedure developed by VNII VODGEO (All-Union Scientific-Research Institute of Water Supply, Sewer Systems, Hydrotechnical Facilities, and Engineering Hydrogeology), with certain changes in the preparation of the culture water. Proposes that with this method, calcium toxicity can be determined for groups of microorganisms that are among the most important in biochemical wastewater treatment and self-purification of water bodies (saprophytes, phase I and II nitrifiers). Finds that calcium in the form of the hydroxide and chloride is nontoxic under the following conditions: for protozoa in concentrations up to 2 g/liter, for saprophytic bacteria up to 3 g/liter, for phase I nitrifiers up to 1 g/liter, and for phase II nitrifiers up to 0.1 g/liter.

  19. The Involvement of the Mid1/Cch1/Yvc1 Calcium Channels in Aspergillus fumigatus Virulence

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, Patrícia Alves; Chiaratto, Jéssica; Winkelströter, Lizziane K.; Bom, Vinícius Leite Pedro; Ramalho, Leandra Naira Zambelli; Goldman, Maria Helena S.; Brown, Neil Andrew; Goldman, Gustavo H.

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is a major opportunistic pathogen and allergen of mammals. Calcium homeostasis and signaling is essential for numerous biological processes and also influences A. fumigatus pathogenicity. The presented study characterized the function of the A. fumigatus homologues of three Saccharomyces cerevisiae calcium channels, voltage-gated Cch1, stretch-activated Mid1 and vacuolar Yvc1. The A. fumigatus calcium channels cchA, midA and yvcA were regulated at transcriptional level by increased calcium levels. The YvcA::GFP fusion protein localized to the vacuoles. Both ?cchA and ?midA mutant strains showed reduced radial growth rate in nutrient-poor minimal media. Interestingly, this growth defect in the ?cchA strain was rescued by the exogenous addition of CaCl2. The ?cchA, ?midA, and ?cchA ?midA strains were also sensitive to the oxidative stress inducer, paraquat. Restriction of external Ca2+ through the addition of the Ca2+-chelator EGTA impacted upon the growth of the ?cchA and ?midA strains. All the A. fumigatus ?cchA, ?midA, and ?yvcA strains demonstrated attenuated virulence in a neutropenic murine model of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Infection with the parental strain resulted in a 100% mortality rate at 15 days post-infection, while the mortality rate of the ?cchA, ?midA, and ?yvcA strains after 15 days post-infection was only 25%. Collectively, this investigation strongly indicates that CchA, MidA, and YvcA play a role in A. fumigatus calcium homeostasis and virulence. PMID:25083783

  20. The effect of calcium removal on the suppression by adenosine of epileptiform activity in the hippocampus: demonstration of desensitization.

    PubMed Central

    Hosseinzadeh, H.; Stone, T. W.

    1994-01-01

    1. Previous work has suggested that presynaptic effects of adenosine may be dependent on divalent cations. The present study was undertaken to determine whether a similar requirement existed at postsynaptic sites. 2. Extracellular recordings were made in the CA1 pyramidal cell layer of rat hippocampal slices following orthodromic stimulation of Schaffer collateral fibres in stratum radiatum or antidromic stimulation of the alveus. In antidromic stimulation experiments, CaCl2 was omitted (calcium-free medium) or reduced to 0.24 mM (low calcium medium) and in some experiments MgSO4 was increased to 2 mM. Kynurenic acid at concentrations of 1 and 5 mM in calcium-free medium and 1 mM in low calcium medium had no effect on secondary spike size. 3. Adenosine and baclofen induced a concentration-dependent reduction in the amplitude of orthodromic potentials with maximum effects at 20 and 5 microM respectively. 4. In nominally calcium-free medium, bursts of multiple population spikes were obtained in response to antidromic stimulation. Adenosine had little effect in reducing the secondary spike amplitude. At high concentration (2 mM) an initial depression was seen which declined within 3-5 min. 5. Sensitivity to adenosine was restored in low calcium medium or by raising magnesium. Although raising the divalent cation concentration increased the inhibitory effect of adenosine, desensitization was still seen. 6. 2-Chloroadenosine (100-500 microM) and R-PIA (50 microM), which are not substrates for either the nucleoside transporters or adenosine deaminase, were inactive in the absence of calcium.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8032657

  1. Injectable hydrogels derived from phosphorylated alginic acid calcium complexes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Han-Sem; Song, Minsoo; Lee, Eun-Jung; Shin, Ueon Sang

    2015-06-01

    Phosphorylation of sodium alginate salt (NaAlg) was carried out using H3PO4/P2O5/Et3PO4 followed by acid-base reaction with Ca(OAc)2 to give phosphorylated alginic acid calcium complexes (CaPAlg), as a water dispersible alginic acid derivative. The modified alginate derivatives including phosphorylated alginic acid (PAlg) and CaPAlg were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for (1)H, and (31)P nuclei, high resolution inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. CaPAlg hydrogels were prepared simply by mixing CaPAlg solution (2w/v%) with NaAlg solution (2w/v%) in various ratios (2:8, 4:6, 6:4, 8:2) of volume. No additional calcium salts such as CaSO4 or CaCl2 were added externally. The gelation was completed within about 3-40min indicating a high potential of hydrogel delivery by injection in vivo. Their mechanical properties were tested to be ?6.7kPa for compressive strength at break and about 8.4kPa/mm for elastic modulus. SEM analysis of the CaPAlg hydrogels showed highly porous morphology with interconnected pores of width in the range of 100-800?m. Cell culture results showed that the injectable hydrogels exhibited comparable properties to the pure alginate hydrogel in terms of cytotoxicity and 3D encapsulation of cells for a short time period. The developed injectable hydrogels showed suitable physicochemical and mechanical properties for injection in vivo, and could therefore be beneficial for the field of soft tissue engineering. PMID:25842118

  2. Chloride channels as drug targets

    PubMed Central

    Verkman, Alan S.; Galietta, Luis J. V.

    2013-01-01

    Chloride channels represent a relatively under-explored target class for drug discovery as elucidation of their identity and physiological roles has lagged behind that of many other drug targets. Chloride channels are involved in a wide range of biological functions, including epithelial fluid secretion, cell-volume regulation, neuroexcitation, smooth-muscle contraction and acidification of intracellular organelles. Mutations in several chloride channels cause human diseases, including cystic fibrosis, macular degeneration, myotonia, kidney stones, renal salt wasting and hyperekplexia. Chloride-channel modulators have potential applications in the treatment of some of these disorders, as well as in secretory diarrhoeas, polycystic kidney disease, osteoporosis and hypertension. Modulators of GABAA (?-aminobutyric acid A) receptor chloride channels are in clinical use and several small-molecule chloride-channel modulators are in preclinical development and clinical trials. Here, we discuss the broad opportunities that remain in chloride-channel-based drug discovery. PMID:19153558

  3. Chloride and Salinity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-07-15

    This learning activity from the Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) will provide a good introduction for students studying chloride and salinity. A list of required materials is included as well as the step by step procedure for conducting the experiment. Student worksheets are also included. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

  4. Dioxanates of Cadmium Chloride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin G. Chasanov; Cecil C. Lynch

    1957-01-01

    DIOXANATES of cadmium chloride were precipitated from a solution of the anhydrous salts (certified purity) in acetal-free dioxane, prepared from Eastman Kodak technical 1,4-dioxane by the method of Eigenberger1. The crude dioxanate (that is, wet with dioxane) was placed in the bulb of the isotenoscope of Smith and Menzies2, and oil of paraffin, U.S.P., was employed as the levelling liquid.

  5. Relationship between iron, calcium and phosphate during experimental cutaneous calcinosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Gabbiani; M. C. Badonnel; C. A. Baud

    1969-01-01

    Calcification of the skin (calciphylaxis) induced by the subcutaneous administration of iron chloride to dihydrotachysterol (DHT)-sensitized rats is preceded by the selective deposition of iron (visible with electron microscopic techniques) on the surface of collagen fibrils. Electron probe X-ray microanalysis indicates that the injectionof iron alone suffices to increase local concentrations of calcium and phosphorus; however, apatite formation occurs only

  6. Flame and Arc Spectra of some Calcium and Strontium Salts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. K. Asundi; B. K. Vaidya

    1940-01-01

    A STUDY of the flame and arc spectra of chlorides, nitrates and oxides of calcium and strontium, in the first order of 10 ft., and 21 ft., gratings, indicates that the spectra of the halides are mixed up with those of the oxides, particularly in the strontium salts; the mixed spec ra appear to be present even in spectrograms taken

  7. Effects of Increasing Potassium Chloride and Calcium Chloride Ionic Strength on Pesticide Sorption by Potassium- and Calcium-smectite

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Smectite clays have demonstrated high affinity for many pesticides in aqueous solution, which is influenced by the intrinsic natures of smectite clays (e.g., surface charge density and location), exchangeable cations, and clay interlayer hydration status. The amount and the type of salts present in ...

  8. 17O NMR and Raman spectra of water with different calcium salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Ying; Ou, Xiao-xia; Zhang, Hui-ping

    2014-09-01

    17O NMR and Raman spectra of water with different calcium salts have been measured. Different water samples were prepared by adding nano-materials, calcium gluconate, calcium citrate and calcium chloride into distilled water. Both 17O NMR and Raman spectra of different water samples were recorded. The effects of temperature and time on 17O NMR line-width of different water samples were analyzed as well. The experimental results showed that Raman spectra of water with these four calcium salts were almost the same as those for distilled water when the temperature increased to 40 °C. The 17O NMR line-width of distilled water decreased from 76.8 Hz to 46.9 Hz and 65.8 Hz after nano-materials and calcium chloride were added, respectively. Besides, the 17O NMR line-width of distilled water increased from 76.8 Hz to 131.6 Hz after calcium citrate was added, while the 17O NMR line-width of distilled water increased from 76.8 Hz to 77.2 Hz after calcium gluconate was added. The 17O NMR line-width of water with calcium chloride increased while the other three water samples were nearly stable as the temperature increased from 30 °C to 85 °C. The 17O NMR line-width of water with nano-materials kept steady while the 17O NMR line-width of the other three water samples all increased in 42 days.

  9. Strength, porosity, and chloride resistance of mortar using the combination of two kinds of pozzolanic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rukzon, Sumrerng; Chindaprasirt, Prinya

    2013-08-01

    This article presents a study on the resistance to chloride penetration, corrosion, porosity, and strength of mortar containing fine fly ash (FA), ground rice husk-bark ash (RB), and ground bagasse ash (BA). Ordinary Portland cement (CT) was blended with a single pozzolan and two pozzolans. Strength, porosity, rapid chloride penetration, immersion, and corrosion tests were performed to characterize the mortar. Test results showed that the use of ternary blends of CT, FA, and RB or BA decreased the porosity of the mortar, as compared with binary blended mortar containing CT and RB or BA. The resistance to chloride penetration of the mortar improved substantially with partial replacement of CT with FA, RB, and BA. The use of ternary blends of CT, FA and RB or BA produced the mortar with good strength and resistance to chloride penetration. The resistance to chloride penetration was higher with an increase in the replacement level due to the reduced calcium hydroxide.

  10. Update on Calcium Signaling Calcium Signaling through Protein Kinases. The

    E-print Network

    Sheen, Jen

    Update on Calcium Signaling Calcium Signaling through Protein Kinases. The Arabidopsis Calcium protein kinase activities occur through calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs). These novel calcium provides a valuable opportunity to understand the plant calcium-signaling network. Calcium is a ubiquitous

  11. Poly (vinylsulfonic acid) assisted synthesis of aqueous solution stable vaterite calcium carbonate nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Nagaraja, Ashvin T; Pradhan, Sulolit; McShane, Michael J

    2014-03-15

    Calcium carbonate nanoparticles of the vaterite polymorph were synthesized by combining CaCl2 and Na2CO3 in the presence of poly (vinylsulfonic acid) (PVSA). By studying the important experimental parameters we found that controlling PVSA concentration, reaction temperature, and order of reagent addition the particle size, monodispersity, and surface charge can be controlled. By increasing PVSA concentration or by decreasing temperature CCNPs with an average size from ?150 to 500 nm could be produced. We believe the incorporation of PVSA into the reaction plays a dual role to (1) slow down the nucleation rate by sequestering calcium and to (2) stabilize the resulting CCNPs as the vaterite polymorph, preventing surface calcification or aggregation into microparticles. The obtained vaterite nanoparticles were found to maintain their crystal structure and surface charge after storage in aqueous buffer for at least 5 months. The aqueous stable vaterite nanoparticles could be a useful platform for the encapsulation of a large variety of biomolecules for drug delivery or as a sacrificial template toward capsule formation for biosensor applications. PMID:24461857

  12. Modeling acid-gas generation from boiling chloride brines

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background This study investigates the generation of HCl and other acid gases from boiling calcium chloride dominated waters at atmospheric pressure, primarily using numerical modeling. The main focus of this investigation relates to the long-term geologic disposal of nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, where pore waters around waste-emplacement tunnels are expected to undergo boiling and evaporative concentration as a result of the heat released by spent nuclear fuel. Processes that are modeled include boiling of highly concentrated solutions, gas transport, and gas condensation accompanied by the dissociation of acid gases, causing low-pH condensate. Results Simple calculations are first carried out to evaluate condensate pH as a function of HCl gas fugacity and condensed water fraction for a vapor equilibrated with saturated calcium chloride brine at 50-150°C and 1 bar. The distillation of a calcium-chloride-dominated brine is then simulated with a reactive transport model using a brine composition representative of partially evaporated calcium-rich pore waters at Yucca Mountain. Results show a significant increase in boiling temperature from evaporative concentration, as well as low pH in condensates, particularly for dynamic systems where partial condensation takes place, which result in enrichment of HCl in condensates. These results are in qualitative agreement with experimental data from other studies. Conclusion The combination of reactive transport with multicomponent brine chemistry to study evaporation, boiling, and the potential for acid gas generation at the proposed Yucca Mountain repository is seen as an improvement relative to previously applied simpler batch evaporation models. This approach allows the evaluation of thermal, hydrological, and chemical (THC) processes in a coupled manner, and modeling of settings much more relevant to actual field conditions than the distillation experiment considered. The actual and modeled distillation experiments do not represent expected conditions in an emplacement drift, but nevertheless illustrate the potential for acid-gas generation at moderate temperatures (<150°C). PMID:19917082

  13. Modeling acid-gas generation from boiling chloride brines

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Guoxiang; Spycher, Nicolas; Sonnenthal, Eric; Steefel, Carl

    2009-11-16

    This study investigates the generation of HCl and other acid gases from boiling calcium chloride dominated waters at atmospheric pressure, primarily using numerical modeling. The main focus of this investigation relates to the long-term geologic disposal of nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, where pore waters around waste-emplacement tunnels are expected to undergo boiling and evaporative concentration as a result of the heat released by spent nuclear fuel. Processes that are modeled include boiling of highly concentrated solutions, gas transport, and gas condensation accompanied by the dissociation of acid gases, causing low-pH condensate. Simple calculations are first carried out to evaluate condensate pH as a function of HCl gas fugacity and condensed water fraction for a vapor equilibrated with saturated calcium chloride brine at 50-150 C and 1 bar. The distillation of a calcium-chloride-dominated brine is then simulated with a reactive transport model using a brine composition representative of partially evaporated calcium-rich pore waters at Yucca Mountain. Results show a significant increase in boiling temperature from evaporative concentration, as well as low pH in condensates, particularly for dynamic systems where partial condensation takes place, which result in enrichment of HCl in condensates. These results are in qualitative agreement with experimental data from other studies. The combination of reactive transport with multicomponent brine chemistry to study evaporation, boiling, and the potential for acid gas generation at the proposed Yucca Mountain repository is seen as an improvement relative to previously applied simpler batch evaporation models. This approach allows the evaluation of thermal, hydrological, and chemical (THC) processes in a coupled manner, and modeling of settings much more relevant to actual field conditions than the distillation experiment considered. The actual and modeled distillation experiments do not represent expected conditions in an emplacement drift, but nevertheless illustrate the potential for acid-gas generation at moderate temperatures (<150 C).

  14. Fermentation profile of green Spanish-style Manzanilla olives according to NaCl content in brine.

    PubMed

    Bautista-Gallego, J; Arroyo-López, F N; Romero-Gil, V; Rodríguez-Gómez, F; García-García, P; Garrido-Fernández, A

    2015-08-01

    This work studies the effects of the partial substitution of NaCl with potassium and calcium chloride salts on the fermentation profile of Spanish-style green Manzanilla olives. For this purpose, response surface methodology based in an enlarged simplex centroid mixture design with constrain (?salts = 100 g/L) was used. Regarding to physicochemical characteristics, pH decreased when CaCl2 increased, titratable acidity was lower in presence of KCl while combined acidity increased as the contents of KCl and CaCl2 were close to the barycentre of the experiment (?33.33% each salt). Regarding to microbiological profile, Enterobacteriaceae growth was slight stimulated in presence of high CaCl2 contents, yeast patterns were not linked to the initial brine compositions, while the maximum lactic acid bacteria population decreased slightly as KCl and CaCl2 increased in the proportion 1:1, although a moderate (equilibrated) content of both may be stimulating. Results obtained in this work show that Spanish-style green Manzanilla cv. can be fermented in diverse mixtures of chloride salts, albeit the initial CaCl2 should be limited to 20-30 g/L to prevent excessive Enterobacteriaceae growth; combining it with a similar proportion of KCl may also improve LAB predominance. PMID:25846915

  15. Measurement of shift in K X-ray peak energies of potassium and calcium in different compounds using EDXRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Kamaldip; Mittal, Raj

    2014-12-01

    Energy shifts in K X-ray peaks of potassium and calcium in different chemical compounds have been determined from their X-ray spectra recorded in an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) set-up. The set-up comprises low-power X-ray tube photon source and Si(PIN) detector (AMPTEK model XR-100 CR). A statistical procedure has been followed to determine the shifts and t-test was applied to find the statistical significance of the results. The shifts were determined in potassium compounds; KCl, KBr, KI, K2CO3, K2Cr2O7, K2CrO4, K2SO4, K3Fe(CN)6, K4Fe(CN)6, KHSO4, KMnO4 and KSCN with KNO3 as reference and in calcium compounds; Ca(NO3)2 · 4H2O, Ca(OH)2, CaCl2, CaCO3, CaSO3 and CaSO4 · 2H2O with CaO as reference and correlated with differences in electro-negativity, number of ligands, structural changes, type of bonding, axial distances, etc. in the compounds. The shifts in potassium compounds have been evaluated for the first time while the same for calcium compounds almost agree well with the earlier reported measurements in literature.

  16. Numerical investigation of heat-mass transfer of calcium phosphates at crystal growth for normal and microgravity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedyushkin, A. I.; Suvorova, E. I.

    Numerical modeling of heat and mass transfer at growth of crystals octacalcium phosphate Ca8H2(PO4)6 and hydroxyapatite Ca10(OH)2(PO4)6 from mixture CaCl2 and KH2PO4+ K2HPO4 in a solution KCl for terrestrial conditions and microgravity environment is devoted. Mathematical modeling is performed on the basis of a solution of nonstationary Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible fluid flows and heat/mass transfer equations. The results of mathematical modeling, showing possible convective mechanisms of transfer the components are submitted. The influence thermal convection and two mechanisms of concentration convection (separately and jointly) on carry a component and formation of calcium phosphates is considered. The results of parametric calculations for various values of thermal and solutes Grashof numbers are presented. The influences of gravitation on character of transfer the component of reaction and formation calcium phosphates are investigated. The influence of gravitational conditions on dynamics and character of formation of calcium phosphates for conditions of experiments before spent on the Earth and in space under the program EURECA (crystallization of octacalcium phosphate from solution is shown. Also the possible reasons of formation of different sizes of ground and space crystals are discussed.

  17. Molecular Structure of Ferric chloride

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-08-27

    Ferric chloride is a corrosive chemical, thus, it is used to deodorize sewage and industrial waste by partially reducing to ferrous chloride. It is also employed as an engraving reagent on metal surfaces. Other applications include its use as a flocculating agent in water treatment. Ferric chloride is a hazardous chemical that irritates the skin and eyes and is toxic if ingested, however it can be used as a reagent in pharmaceutical preparations.

  18. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring and surface plasmon resonance studies of carboxymethyl cellulose adsorption onto regenerated cellulose surfaces.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zelin; Choi, Heejun; Gatenholm, Paul; Esker, Alan R

    2011-07-19

    Adsorption of anionic polyelectrolytes, sodium salts of carboxymethyl celluloses (CMCs) with different degrees of substitution (DS = 0.9 and 1.2), from aqueous electrolyte solutions onto regenerated cellulose surfaces was studied using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) experiments. The influence of both calcium chloride (CaCl(2)) and sodium chloride (NaCl) on CMC adsorption was examined. The QCM-D results demonstrated that CaCl(2) (divalent cation) caused significantly greater CMC adsorption onto regenerated cellulose surfaces than NaCl (monovalent cation) at the same ionic strength. The CMC layers adsorbed onto regenerated cellulose surfaces from CaCl(2) solutions exhibited greater stability upon exposure to flowing water than layers adsorbed from NaCl solutions. Both QCM-D and SPR results showed that CMC adsorption onto regenerated cellulose surfaces from CaCl(2) solutions increased with increasing CaCl(2) concentration up to the solubility limit (10 mM). Voigt-based viscoelastic modeling of the QCM-D data indicated that the CMC layers adsorbed onto regenerated cellulose surfaces had shear viscosities of ?(f) ? 10(-3) N·s·m(-2) and elastic shear moduli of ?(f) ? 10(5) N·m(-2). Furthermore, the combination of SPR spectroscopy and QCM-D showed that the CMC layers contained 90-95% water. Adsorption isotherms for CMCs in CaCl(2) solutions were also obtained from QCM-D and were fit by Freundlich isotherms. This study demonstrated that CMC adsorption from CaCl(2) solutions is useful for the modification of cellulose surfaces. PMID:21699205

  19. Preparation and Characterization of Calcium Carbonate Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassim, Aqilah; Rachmawati, Heni

    2010-10-01

    Taking calcium supplements can reduce the risk of developing osteoporosis, but they are not readily absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract. Nanotechnology is expected to resolve this problem. In this study, we prepared and characterized calcium carbonate nanoparticle to improve the solubility by using bottom-up method. The experiment was done by titrating calcium chloride with sodium carbonate with the addition of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as stabilizer, using ultra-turrax. Various concentrations of calcium chloride and sodium carbonate as well as various speed of stirring were used to prepare the calcium carbonate nanoparticles. Evaluations studied were including particle size, polydispersity index (PI) and zeta potential with particle analyzer, surface morphology with scanning electron microscope, and saturated solubility. In addition, to test the ability of PVP to prevent particles growth, short stability study was performed by storing nano CaCO3 suspension at room temperature for 2 weeks. Results show that using 8000 rpm speed of stirring, the particle size tends to be bigger with the range of 500-600 nm (PI between 0.2-0.4) whereas with stirring speed of 4000 rpm, the particle size tends to be smaller with 300-400 nm (PI between 0.2-0.4). Stirring speed of 6000 rpm produced particle size within the range of 400-500 nm (PI between 0.2-0.4). SEM photograph shows that particles are monodisperse confirming that particles were physically stable without any agglomeration within 2 weeks storage. Taken together, nano CaCO3 is successfully prepared by bottom-up method and PVP is a good stabilizer to prevent the particle growth.

  20. Biochemical and functional interactions of a selective kappa opioid agonist with calcium

    SciTech Connect

    VonVoigtlander, P.F.; Ochoa, M.C.; Lewis, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    The discovery of the selective kappa opioid receptor agonist, U-50488H, has provided a tool for the study of the mechanisms and function of the kappa receptor-effector. We have investigated the interactions of this compound with calcium in several biochemical and functional studies to assess the involvement of calcium mechanisms in the kappa receptor-linked effector. In rat brain synaptosomes, U-50488H attenuated the uptake of /sup 45/Ca++ induced by K+ (40 mM) depolarization. This effect was concentration-related (U-50488H 10(-5) to 10(-7) M), was apparent in short (8-second) but not longer (1-minute) term incubations, and did not occur in the presence of a non-polarizing concentration (5.6 mM) of K+. Naloxone (10(-7) M) did not block this effect of U-50488H (10(-6) M), and higher concentrations (10(-5) M) alone blocked calcium uptake. We have found that the binding of the depolarizing amino acid analog, kainic acid, is enhanced by CaCl2. U-50488H (10(-4) to 10(-6) M) blocks this enhancement of /sup 3/H-kainic acid binding in vitro and also blocks the in vivo effects of kainic acid. In mice, intravenous injection of kainic acid causes scratching, convulsions, and death, depending on the dose administered. U-50488H blocks all of these effects (ED50 = 4.5 mg/kg for antagonism of convulsions induced by 27.5 mg/kg kainic acid). The convulsions induced by intracerebroventricularly administered kainic acid are also blocked by U-50488H as are those induced by similarly administered Bay K 8644, a calcium channel activator. All of these anticonvulsant effects of U-50488H were antagonized by naltrexone. Together these data indicate that the kappa agonist U-50488H has functionally relevant interactions with depolarization-related Ca++ mechanisms in the central nervous system.

  1. Fibroblast and epidermal growth factor receptor expression in Xenopus oocytes displays distinct calcium oscillatory patterns.

    PubMed

    Browaeys-Poly, E; Cailliau, K; Vilain, J P

    1998-09-16

    Electrophysiological study performed with the voltage clamp technique was used to examine the intracellular calcium pathway activated by tyrosine kinase receptor members. Three FGF receptors from Pleurodeles PR1, PR3, PR4, homologs to human receptors, and the human EGF receptor were expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Under FGF1, FGF2 and FGF4 stimulation, PR1 and PR3 display a one phase inward chloride calcium dependent current superimposed by sustained oscillations, whereas PR4 did not show any oscillations. These currents were dependent on intracellular calcium mobilisation, as the responses were reduced by caffeine (10 mM). Solely PR4 responses were affected by an extracellular calcium depleted solution suggesting the involvement of concomitant extracellular and intracellular calcium intervention in the calcium chloride current, whereas PR1 and PR3 did not. Under EGF stimulation, the EGF receptor elicits a two component inward current composed of an undelayed rapid transient dependent on intracellular calcium store recruitment followed by a second slower current dependent on calcium influx. The specific pattern and amplitude of the calcium oscillations induced by the combinatorial action of growth factors on their receptors could be relevant in numerous calcium dependent cell functions. PMID:9739176

  2. Cch1 and Mid1 are functionally required for vegetative growth under low-calcium conditions in the phytopathogenic ascomycete Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Harren, Karin; Tudzynski, Bettina

    2013-05-01

    In the filamentous phytopathogen Botrytis cinerea, the Ca(2+)/calcineurin signaling cascade has been shown to play an important role in fungal growth, differentiation, and virulence. This study deals with the functional characterization of two components of this pathway, the putative calcium channel proteins Cch1 and Mid1. The cch1 and mid1 genes were deleted, and single and double knockout mutants were analyzed during different stages of the fungal life cycle. Our data indicate that Cch1 and Mid1 are functionally required for vegetative growth under conditions of low extracellular calcium, since the growth of both deletion mutants is strongly impaired when they are exposed to the Ca(2+)-chelating agents EGTA and 1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA). The impact of external Ca(2+) was investigated by supplementing with CaCl(2) and the ionophore A23187, both of which resulted in elevated growth for all mutants. However, deletion of either gene had no impact on germination, sporulation, hyphal morphology, or virulence. By use of the aequorin reporter system to measure intracellular calcium levels, no differences between the mutant strains and the wild type were obtained. Localization studies revealed a subcellular distribution of the Mid1-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein in network-like filaments, probably the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes, indicating that Mid1 is not a plasma membrane-located calcium channel in B. cinerea. PMID:23475703

  3. Laboratory study on the high-temperature capture of HCl gas by dry-injection of calcium-based sorbents.

    PubMed

    Shemwell, B; Levendis, Y A; Simons, G A

    2001-01-01

    This is a laboratory study on the reduction of combustion-generated hydrochloric acid (HCl) emissions by in-furnace dry-injection of calcium-based sorbents. HCl is a hazardous gaseous pollutant emitted in significant quantities by municipal and hazardous waste incinerators, coal-fired power plants, and other industrial furnaces. Experiments were conducted in a laboratory furnace at gas temperatures of 600-1000 degrees C. HCl gas diluted with N2, and sorbent powders fluidized in a stream of air were introduced into the furnace concurrently. Chlorination of the sorbents occurred in the hot zone of the furnace at gas residence times approximately 1 s. The sorbents chosen for these experiments were calcium formate (CF), calcium magnesium acetate (CMA), calcium propionate (CP), calcium oxide (CX), and calcium carbonate (CC). Upon release of organic volatiles, sorbents calcine to CaO at approximately 700 degrees C, and react with the HCl according to the reaction CaO + 2HCl <=> CaCl2 + H2O. At the lowest temperature case examined herein, 600 degrees C, direct reaction of HCl with CaCO3 may also be expected. The effectiveness of the sorbents to capture HCl was interpreted using the "pore tree" mathematical model for heterogeneous diffusion reactions. Results show that the thin-walled, highly porous cenospheres formed from the pyrolysis and calcination of CF, CMA, and CP exhibited high relative calcium utilization at the upper temperatures of this study. Relative utilizations under these conditions reached 80%. The less costly low-porosity sorbents, calcium carbonate and calcium oxide also performed well. Calcium carbonate reached a relative utilization of 54% in the mid-temperature range, while the calcium oxide reached an 80% relative utilization at the lowest temperature examined. The data matched theoretical predictions of sorbent utilization using the mathematical model, with activation energy and pre-exponential factors for the calcination reaction of 17,000 K and 300,000 (g gas/cm2/s/atm gas), respectively. Thus, the kinetics of the calcination reaction were found to be much faster (approximately 500 times) than those of the sulfation reaction examined previously in this laboratory. PMID:11219704

  4. Molecular Structure of Picryl chloride

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-09-20

    Picryl chloride is ranked as one of the 100 most commonly found explosive and shock sensitive materials. It is made by reacting 2,4,6 trinitrophenol with thionyl chloride. This highly reactive compound is known to be hazardous and toxic, and to cause liver injury in mice. It is often used as a sensitization agent in mice when their cells undergo hypersensitivity studies.

  5. Extracellular sodium and chloride depletion enhances nonexocytotic noradrenaline release induced by energy deficiency in rat heart.

    PubMed

    Kurz, T; Schömig, A

    1989-09-01

    The effect of either extracellular sodium or extracellular chloride reduction on the release of endogenous noradrenaline and its deaminated metabolite dihydroxyphenylglycol (DOPEG) has been studied in the isolated perfused rat heart under conditions of ischaemia and cyanide intoxication. The overflow of noradrenaline and DOPEG was determined by high pressure liquid chromatography. The efflux of DOPEG, the predominant neuronal noradrenaline adrenaline metabolite, served as indicator of the free axoplasmic plasmic amine concentration. A calcium-free perfusion buffer was used to avoid exocytotic noradrenaline release. Sodium and chloride in the perfusion buffer were replaced by lithium and isethionate, respectively. (1) Reduction of extracellular sodium or chloride increased noradrenaline overflow in ischaemia. The release was suppressed by the uptake1 blocker cocaine indicating carrier-mediated outward transport of noradrenaline. (2) In cyanide intoxication sodium or chloride reduction accelerated the onset of DOPEG efflux reflecting increased axoplasmic noradrenaline concentrations. This was accompanied by increased noradrenaline release. The ratio of noradrenaline/DOPEG overflow was increased by reduced sodium or chloride, indicating facilitation of carrier-mediated noradrenaline net outward transport. (3) In the presence of unaltered energy metabolism overflow of both, noradrenaline and DOPEG, was not enhanced by sodium or chloride reduction. The results demonstrate that reduction of extracellular sodium or chloride has two effects on noradrenaline release from the sympathetic neuron with reduced energy supply. First, reduced sodium or chloride induces increased axoplasmic noradrenaline concentrations by interference with vesicular storage function. Second, both interventions enhance carrier-mediated noradrenaline release. PMID:2812038

  6. Benzalkonium Chloride and Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Paul L.; Kiland, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Glaucoma patients routinely take multiple medications, with multiple daily doses, for years or even decades. Benzalkonium chloride (BAK) is the most common preservative in glaucoma medications. BAK has been detected in the trabecular meshwork (TM), corneal endothelium, lens, and retina after topical drop installation and may accumulate in those tissues. There is evidence that BAK causes corneal and conjunctival toxicity, including cell loss, disruption of tight junctions, apoptosis and preapoptosis, cytoskeleton changes, and immunoinflammatory reactions. These same effects have been reported in cultured human TM cells exposed to concentrations of BAK found in common glaucoma drugs and in the TM of primary open-angle glaucoma donor eyes. It is possible that a relationship exists between chronic exposure to BAK and glaucoma. The hypothesis that BAK causes/worsens glaucoma is being tested experimentally in an animal model that closely reflects human physiology. PMID:24205938

  7. 21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...chloride. The pure material occurs as hydroscopic, hexagonal, dark crystals. Ferric chloride hexahydrate (iron (III) chloride...o)(12) of this chapter, with no limitation other than current good manufacturing practice. (d) Prior sanctions for...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...chloride. The pure material occurs as hydroscopic, hexagonal, dark crystals. Ferric chloride hexahydrate (iron (III) chloride...o)(12) of this chapter, with no limitation other than current good manufacturing practice. (d) Prior sanctions for...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...chloride. The pure material occurs as hydroscopic, hexagonal, dark crystals. Ferric chloride hexahydrate (iron (III) chloride...o)(12) of this chapter, with no limitation other than current good manufacturing practice. (d) Prior sanctions for...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...chloride. The pure material occurs as hydroscopic, hexagonal, dark crystals. Ferric chloride hexahydrate (iron (III) chloride...o)(12) of this chapter, with no limitation other than current good manufacturing practice. (d) Prior sanctions for...

  11. 21 CFR 182.8252 - Choline chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Choline chloride. 182.8252 Section 182.8252 Food...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  12. 21 CFR 182.8252 - Choline chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Choline chloride. 182.8252 Section 182.8252 Food...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  13. 21 CFR 182.8252 - Choline chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Choline chloride. 182.8252 Section 182.8252 Food...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  14. 21 CFR 182.8252 - Choline chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Choline chloride. 182.8252 Section 182.8252 Food...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  15. 21 CFR 182.8252 - Choline chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Choline chloride. 182.8252 Section 182.8252 Food...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Ammonium chloride (NH4 Cl, CAS Reg. No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures, and ammonium chloride is...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Ammonium chloride (NH4 Cl, CAS Reg. No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures, and ammonium chloride is...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Ammonium chloride (NH4 Cl, CAS Reg. No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures, and ammonium chloride is...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Ammonium chloride (NH4 Cl, CAS Reg. No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures, and ammonium chloride is...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Ammonium chloride (NH4 Cl, CAS Reg. No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures, and ammonium chloride is...

  1. 75 FR 33824 - Barium Chloride From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ...No. 731-TA-149 (Third Review)] Barium Chloride From China Determination On the...revocation of the antidumping duty order on barium chloride from China would be likely to...Publication 4157 (June 2010), entitled Barium Chloride from China: Investigation...

  2. 75 FR 19657 - Barium Chloride From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ...No. 731-TA-149 (Third Review)] Barium Chloride From China AGENCY: United States...concerning the antidumping duty order on barium chloride from China...revocation of the antidumping duty order on barium chloride from China would be likely...

  3. Relative bioavailability of calcium from calcium formate, calcium citrate, and calcium carbonate

    E-print Network

    Hanzlik, Robert P.; Fowler, S. C.; Fisher, D. H.

    2005-06-01

    Published Abstract: Calcium is an essential nutrient required in substantial amounts, but many diets are deficient in calcium making supplementation necessary or desirable. The objective of this study was to compare the oral bioavailability...

  4. Calcium and Your Child

    MedlinePLUS

    ... t overlook other healthy calcium-fortified foods, including orange juice, soy products, and bread. Here are some ... 300 milligrams 8 ounces (237 milliliters) calcium-fortified orange juice 300 milligrams 2 ounces (57 grams) American ...

  5. Calcium in diet

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Salmon and sardines canned with their soft bones Almonds, Brazil nuts, sunflower seeds, tahini, and dried beans ... greens = 220 mg of calcium 3 ounces of almonds = 210 mg of calcium Vitamin D is needed ...

  6. Calcium and Mitosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepler, P.

    1983-01-01

    Although the mechanism of calcium regulation is not understood, there is evidence that calcium plays a role in mitosis. Experiments conducted show that: (1) the spindle apparatus contains a highly developed membrane system that has many characteristics of sarcoplasmic reticulum of muscle; (2) this membrane system contains calcium; and (3) there are ionic fluxes occurring during mitosis which can be seen by a variety of fluorescence probes. Whether the process of mitosis can be modulated by experimentally modulating calcium is discussed.

  7. Calcium absorption and achlorhydria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert R. Recker

    1985-01-01

    Defective absorption of calcium has been thought to exist in patients with achlorhydria. The author compared absorption of calcium in its carbonate form with that in a pH-adjusted citrate form in a group of 11 fasting patients with achlorhydria and in 9 fasting normal subjects. Fractional calcium absorption was measured by a modified double-isotope procedure with 0.25 g of calcium

  8. Calcium and magnesium disorders.

    PubMed

    Goff, Jesse P

    2014-07-01

    Hypocalcemia is a clinical disorder that can be life threatening to the cow (milk fever) and predisposes the animal to various other metabolic and infectious disorders. Calcium homeostasis is mediated primarily by parathyroid hormone, which stimulates bone calcium resorption and renal calcium reabsorption. Parathyroid hormone stimulates the production of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D to enhance diet calcium absorption. High dietary cation-anion difference interferes with tissue sensitivity to parathyroid hormone. Hypomagnesemia reduces tissue response to parathyroid hormone. PMID:24980727

  9. Calcium and Vitamin D

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter describes the roles of calcium and vitamin D in bone health. Calcium is required for the bone formation phase of bone remodeling and it also affects bone mass through its impact on the remodeling rate. Typically, about 5 nmol (200 mg) of calcium is removed from the adult skeleton and ...

  10. RESEARCH ARTICLE CALCIUM CHANNEL STRUCTURE

    E-print Network

    Napp, Nils

    RESEARCH ARTICLE CALCIUM CHANNEL STRUCTURE Structural basis for a pH-sensitive calcium leak across,3 Wayne A. Hendrickson,1,2,4,5 Qun Liu1,4 * Calcium homeostasis balances passive calcium leak and active calcium uptake. Human Bax inhibitor­1 (hBI-1) is an antiapoptotic protein that mediates a calcium leak

  11. Exogenous Calcium Alleviates Low Night Temperature Stress on the Photosynthetic Apparatus of Tomato Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Yang; Meng, Zhaojuan; Lu, Tao; Li, Tianlai

    2014-01-01

    The effect of exogenous CaCl2 on photosystem I and II (PSI and PSII) activities, cyclic electron flow (CEF), and proton motive force of tomato leaves under low night temperature (LNT) was investigated. LNT stress decreased the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), effective quantum yield of PSII [Y(II)], and photochemical quenching (qP), whereas CaCl2 pretreatment improved Pn, Y(II), and qP under LNT stress. LNT stress significantly increased the non-regulatory quantum yield of energy dissipation [Y(NO)], whereas CaCl2 alleviated this increase. Exogenous Ca2+ enhanced stimulation of CEF by LNT stress. Inhibition of oxidized PQ pools caused by LNT stress was alleviated by CaCl2 pretreatment. LNT stress reduced zeaxanthin formation and ATPase activity, but CaCl2 pretreatment reversed both of these effects. LNT stress caused excess formation of a proton gradient across the thylakoid membrane, whereas CaCl2 pretreatment decreased the said factor under LNT. Thus, our results showed that photoinhibition of LNT-stressed plants could be alleviated by CaCl2 pretreatment. Our findings further revealed that this alleviation was mediated in part by improvements in carbon fixation capacity, PQ pools, linear and cyclic electron transports, xanthophyll cycles, and ATPase activity. PMID:24828275

  12. Influence of sodium dodecyl sulfate and static magnetic field on the properties of freshly precipitated calcium carbonate.

    PubMed

    Chibowski, Emil; Szczes, Aleksandra; Holysz, Lucyna

    2005-08-30

    Properties of calcium carbonate precipitated from aqueous solutions of CaCl(2) and Na(2)CO(3) in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and S-S 0.1 T magnetic field (MF) were studied. The nucleation and precipitation processes of CaCO(3) were investigated by pH and zeta potential measurements at 20 +/- 1 degrees C up to 2 h after mixing the solutions. Also the amounts of calcium carbonate deposited on the glass surfaces and its structure were examined. It was found that SDS influences the kinetics of precipitation, crystallographic forms, and crystal size of CaCO(3). The SDS effects are more pronounced in MF presence. A small amount of SDS accelerates transformation of vaterite into calcite, whereas increasing surfactant concentration moderates such a transformation. On the other hand, in all the systems, MF in the presence of SDS causes a slower transformation of vaterite into calcite. These effects are reflected in pH and zeta potential changes, although there is no clear dependence between the SDS amount present during the precipitation and changes of the parameters investigated. It seems that MF effect is most significant at a defined optimal SDS concentration. The results, however, do not allow suggestion of any detailed mechanism of the field interaction. PMID:16114911

  13. Chloride channel blockade relaxes airway smooth muscle and potentiates relaxation by ?-agonists.

    PubMed

    Danielsson, Jennifer; Yim, Peter; Rinderspacher, Alison; Fu, Xiao Wen; Zhang, Yi; Landry, Donald W; Emala, Charles W

    2014-08-01

    Severe bronchospasm refractory to ?-agonists continues to cause significant morbidity and mortality in asthmatic patients. We questioned whether chloride channels/transporters are novel targets for the relaxation of airway smooth muscle (ASM). We have screened a library of compounds, derivatives of anthranilic and indanyloxyacetic acid, that were originally developed to antagonize chloride channels in the kidney. We hypothesized that members of this library would be novel calcium-activated chloride channel blockers for the airway. The initial screen of this compound library identified 4 of 20 compounds that relaxed a tetraethylammonium chloride-induced contraction in guinea pig tracheal rings. The two most effective compounds, compounds 1 and 13, were further studied for their potential to either prevent the initiation of or relax the maintenance phase of an acetylcholine (ACh)-induced contraction or to potentiate ?-agonist-mediated relaxation. Both relaxed an established ACh-induced contraction in human and guinea pig ex vivo ASM. In contrast, the prevention of an ACh-induced contraction required copretreatment with the sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter blocker bumetanide. The combination of compound 13 and bumetanide also potentiated relaxation by the ?-agonist isoproterenol in guinea pig tracheal rings. Compounds 1 and 13 hyperpolarized the plasma cell membrane of human ASM cells and blocked spontaneous transient inward currents, a measure of chloride currents in these cells. These functional and electrophysiological data suggest that modulating ASM chloride flux is a novel therapeutic target in asthma and other bronchoconstrictive diseases. PMID:24879056

  14. Volatilization of cesium-137 from soil with chloride amendments during heating and vitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Spalding, B.P. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1994-06-01

    During vitrification of soil and soil:limestone mixtures, significant volatilization (> 10%) of the radioisotope [sup 137]Cs occurred particularly in the presence of small amounts (<5%) of chloride-containing species including sodium chloride, calcium chloride, hydrochloric acid, and poly-(vinyl chloride). Sodium chloride was found to be the most effective, resulting in volatilization of >99% of the [sup 137]Cs by repeated amendment and treatment at 1000[degree]C. Amendment with sodium borate and subsequent heating to 1200[degree]C also stimulated significant volatilization of [sup 137]Cs. However, amendments up to 10% of other chemicals including carbonates, nitrates, phosphates, sulfates, fluorides, polystyrene, graphite, stainless steels, iron, zinc oxide, and antimony oxide did not increase [sup 137]Cs volatilization compared to unamended samples. The majority of the chloride-induced volatilization occurred between 800 and 1000[degree]C for sodium chloride-amended samples of both soil and soil:limestone mixtures. Thus, an effective and potentially efficient soil decontamination technique for [sup 137]Cs has been identified. 17 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Modeling Chloride Penetration in Saturated Concrete

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yunping Xi; Zdene?k P. Baz?ant

    1999-01-01

    A mathematical model is established for chloride penetration in saturated concrete. The model takes into account various influential parameters such as water-to-cement ratio, curing time, types of cement, and aggregate content. Two material models are developed for binding capacity and chloride diffusivity, which have a dominant effect on the chloride diffusion process. The chloride binding capacity is modeled by means

  16. Contribution of calcium oxalate to soil-exchangeable calcium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dauer, Jenny M.; Perakis, Steven S.

    2013-01-01

    Acid deposition and repeated biomass harvest have decreased soil calcium (Ca) availability in many temperate forests worldwide, yet existing methods for assessing available soil Ca do not fully characterize soil Ca forms. To account for discrepancies in ecosystem Ca budgets, it has been hypothesized that the highly insoluble biomineral Ca oxalate might represent an additional soil Ca pool that is not detected in standard measures of soil-exchangeable Ca. We asked whether several standard method extractants for soil-exchangeable Ca could also access Ca held in Ca oxalate crystals using spike recovery tests in both pure solutions and soil extractions. In solutions of the extractants ammonium chloride, ammonium acetate, and barium chloride, we observed 2% to 104% dissolution of Ca oxalate crystals, with dissolution increasing with both solution molarity and ionic potential of cation extractant. In spike recovery tests using a low-Ca soil, we estimate that 1 M ammonium acetate extraction dissolved sufficient Ca oxalate to contribute an additional 52% to standard measurements of soil-exchangeable Ca. However, in a high-Ca soil, the amount of Ca oxalate spike that would dissolve in 1 M ammonium acetate extraction was difficult to detect against the large pool of exchangeable Ca. We conclude that Ca oxalate can contribute substantially to standard estimates of soil-exchangeable Ca in acid forest soils with low soil-exchangeable Ca. Consequently, measures of exchangeable Ca are unlikely to fully resolve discrepancies in ecosystem Ca mass balance unless the contribution of Ca oxalate to exchangeable Ca is also assessed.

  17. Calcium is incorporated into the calcium carbonate matrix of otoliths

    E-print Network

    118 Calcium is incorporated into the calcium carbonate matrix of otoliths and into the calcium). In addition to calcium, trace elements, such as strontium, are also incorporated into the calcified components valence) allow strontium ions to act as replace- ments for calcium during the pro- cess of calcification

  18. Porous matrix of calcium alginate/gelatin with enhanced properties as scaffold for cell culture.

    PubMed

    Cuadros, Teresa R; Erices, Alejandro A; Aguilera, José M

    2015-06-01

    Hydrophilic polysaccharides can be used to prepare porous matrices with a range of possible applications. One such application involves acting as scaffolds for cell culture. A new homogeneous and highly porous biopolymeric porous matrix (BPM) of calcium alginate/gelatin was produced by following a simple process. The key to this process was the selection of the porogen (aerated gelatin). The preparation technique comprises the following steps: incorporating the porogen into the solution of alginate (3%), molding, cross-linking the alginate in 1.41% CaCl2 (maximum gel strength; Cuadros et al., 2012. Carbohydr. Polym. 89, 1198-1206), molding, leaching and lyophilization. Cylinders of BPM were shown to have a relative density of 0.0274±0.002, porosity of 97.26±0.18%, an average internal pore size of 204±58µm and enhanced mechanical properties, while imbibing more than 11 times their dry weight in water. In vitro cell culture testing within BPM using mesenchymal stem cells was demonstrated by MTT assays and expression of alkaline phosphatase. The BPM provided a suitable microenvironment for seeding, adhesion, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of cells. The preparation technique and resulting porous matrix represent potential tools for future study and further applications. PMID:25661688

  19. Facile one-pot preparation of chitosan/calcium pyrophosphate hybrid microflowers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoli; Shi, Jiafu; Li, Zheng; Zhang, Shaohua; Wu, Hong; Jiang, Zhongyi; Yang, Chen; Tian, Chunyong

    2014-08-27

    Flower-like chitosan/calcium pyrophosphate hybrid microparticles (microflowers) are prepared using a facile one-pot approach by combining ionotropic gelation with biomimetic mineralization. Chitosan-tripolyphosphate (CS-TPP) nanocomplexes are first synthesized through ionotropic gelation; meanwhile, excess TPP is partly hydrolyzed into pyrophosphate ions (P2O7(4-)). Upon addition of CaCl2, CS-TPP nanocomplexes serve as a versatile template, inducing in situ mineralization of Ca2P2O7 and directing its growth and assembly into microflowers. The whole preparation process can be completed within half an hour. The as-prepared microflowers are composed of 23.0% CS-TPP nanocomplexes and 77.0% Ca2P2O7 crystals. Mesopores (3.7 and 11.2 nm) and macropores coexist in the microflowers, indicating porous and hierarchical structures. The microflowers exhibit high efficiency in dye adsorption and enzymatic catalysis. Specifically, a high adsorption capacity of 520 mg g(-1) for Congo red is achieved. And the immobilized enzyme retains about 85% catalytic activity compared with that of the free enzyme. The facile one-pot preparation process ensures the broad applications of the porous hybrid microflowers. PMID:25065382

  20. Short-term preservation of fowl sperm in buffered potassium chloride.

    PubMed

    Froman, D P

    2013-05-01

    Previous research demonstrated that sperm motility is dependent upon mitochondrial calcium cycling. Thus, sperm are inactivated when extracellular calcium ions are chelated. Mitochondrial calcium cycling, however, is driven by extracellular sodium ions. The hypothesis that sperm inactivation is subject to 2 variables was tested in the present work. Sperm motility was evaluated with computer-assisted sperm motion analysis in the first experiment. Sperm became immotile within minutes when suspended in buffered isotonic potassium chloride containing calcium ions. This outcome set the stage for the second experiment in which sperm were inactivated by centrifugation through 12% (wt/vol) Accudenz prepared with potassium chloride and tetrasodium 1,2-bis-(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA). Sperm mobility was the end point in the second and subsequent experiments. Potassium chloride was a suitable medium in regard to sperm inactivation with BAPTA followed by storage for 2 h at 10°C. Consequently, sperm so inactivated were reactivated after 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 h of storage in the third experiment. Whereas pre- and postwash sperm mobility were equivalent, sperm mobility declined with time (P < 0.001) without exogenous energy in the storage medium. Therefore, the effect of 5 mM glucose was tested in the fourth experiment. In this case, recovery of sperm mobility was independent of time when sperm were stored at 10°C for 5 h (P > 0.05). Potassium chloride was replaced with potassium glutamate in the last experiment. Whereas reactivation was once again independent of time when sperm were stored with glucose (P > 0.05), greater variability was observed among observations in comparison with the potassium chloride-based medium. In summary, sperm motility was inactivated when calcium was chelated and extracellular sodium was replaced with potassium. Sperm reactivation was most consistent when chloride was the predominant extracellular anion. Collectively, these experiments demonstrate that short-term sperm storage can be achieved with simple media that promote sperm glycolysis and minimize energy demands imposed by the active transport of calcium and sodium ions. PMID:23571344

  1. Biomimetic synthesis of calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite in a natural hydrogel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stacy A. Hutchens; Roberto S. Benson; Barbara R. Evans; Hugh M. O’Neill; Claudia J. Rawn

    2006-01-01

    A novel composite material consisting of calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (CdHAP) biomimetically deposited in a bacterial cellulose hydrogel was synthesized and characterized. Cellulose produced by Gluconacetobacter hansenii was purified and sequentially incubated in solutions of calcium chloride followed by sodium phosphate dibasic. A substantial amount of apatite (50–90% of total dry weight) was homogeneously incorporated throughout the hydrogel after this treatment. X-ray

  2. Effects of PAA additive and temperature on morphology of calcium carbonate particles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiaguo Yu; Ming Lei; Bei Cheng; Xiujian Zhao

    2004-01-01

    Calcium carbonate particles with various shapes were prepared by the reaction of sodium carbonate with calcium chloride in the absence and presence of a polyacrylic acid (PAA) at 25°C and 80°C, respectively. The as-prepared products were characterized with scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The effects of pH, temperatures, aging time and concentration of PAA and CaCO3 on the crystal

  3. Facile preparation of calcium carbonate particles with unusual morphologies by precipitation reaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiaguo Yu; Ming Lei; Bei Cheng; Xiujian Zhao

    2004-01-01

    Calcium carbonate particles with different morphologies were prepared by the reaction of sodium carbonate with calcium chloride in the presence of different organic additives at 25°C and 80°C. The as-prepared products were characterized with scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The results showed that both organic additives and temperature turned out to be important parameters for the control of morphologies

  4. Facile preparation of monodispersed calcium carbonate spherical particles via a simple precipitation reaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiaguo Yu; Ming Lei; Bei Cheng

    2004-01-01

    Monodispersed calcium carbonate spherical particles with a size of about 1–2?m could be prepared by a precipitation reaction of sodium carbonate with calcium chloride in the presence of polymaleicanhydride (PMA) or poly (sodium 4-styene-sulfonate) (PSSS) at room temperature. The as-prepared products were characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry–thermogravimetry (DSC–TG). It was found that

  5. Extraction of radiostrontium coprecipitated with calcium carbonate in soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Spalding

    1985-01-01

    The fraction of soil ZSr coprecipitated with calcium carbonate (CaCO3) was determined by extraction into 0.1M hydrochloric acid (HCl)-0.5M potassium chloride (KCl) after an initial extraction with either 1M ammonium acetate (NH4OAc) or 1M KCl to remove soluble salts and exchangeable cations. This procedure was tested on soil samples supplemented with 85 g CaCO3\\/kg containing coprecipitated YVSr. A significant amount

  6. Preparation and characterization of in situ ionic cross-linked pectin films: unique biodegradable polymers.

    PubMed

    Penhasi, Adel; Meidan, Victor M

    2014-02-15

    The study aimed to investigate the swelling and degradation of calcium pectinate (CaP) films that were cross-linked by the innovative approach of adding aqueous calcium chloride (CaCl2) to pre-formed pectin films in situ. The films, cast from low methoxy pectin, were dried and cross-linked by immersion in a selected CaCl2 solution for a selected period. It was found that CaCl2 concentration, immersion time, and temperature affected the films' dissolution and swelling behaviors in simulated intestinal fluid. With lower CaCl2 concentration, more time was needed to form a proper film. Heat accelerated the cross-linking reaction, probably by elevating the cross-linked solution flux into the matrix. Depending upon cross-linking conditions, similar calcium contents in the CaP films resulted in different swelling and degradation behaviors. The degree of pectin esterification (DE) affected the films' degradation rate. The role of pectin molecular weight and DE on the films' mechanical properties was determined by stress/strain analysis. PMID:24507280

  7. Effects of components in culture medium on glutamate decarboxylase activity and ?-aminobutyric acid accumulation in foxtail millet ( Setaria italica L.) during germination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qingyun Bai; Meiqing Chai; Zhenxin Gu; Xiaohong Cao; Yan Li; Kunlun Liu

    2009-01-01

    The effects of glutamic acid (Glu), pyridoxal-5-phosphate (PLP) and calcium chloride (CaCl2) in culture medium on glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) activity and ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) accumulation in foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.) during germination were investigated in this study. The components in culture medium for GABA accumulation were optimised using response surface methodology (RSM). Results showed that GAD activity and GABA

  8. Suppression of iron interference in the deter?mination of boron using the azomethine?H procedure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernhard A. Zarcinas

    1995-01-01

    A method is proposed for the determination of boron (B) in soil extracts, plant material digests, and concentrated hydrochloric acid (HCl) digests using the spectrophotometric azomethine?H procedure modified by the addition of thioglycolic acid and the addition of the reagents in a specific order. The soil B was extracted using a 30 min boiling 0.01M calcium chloride (CaCl2) + activated

  9. AHR-16303B, a novel antagonist of 5-HT2 receptors and voltage-sensitive calcium channels

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, R.J.; Appell, K.C.; Kilpatrick, B.F.; Proakis, A.G.; Nolan, J.C.; Walsh, D.A. (A. H. Robins Research Labs., Richmond, VA (USA))

    1991-01-01

    In vivo and in vitro methods were used to characterize AHR-16303B, a novel compound with antagonistic action at 5-HT2 receptors and voltage-sensitive calcium channels. The 5-HT2 receptor-antagonistic properties of AHR-16303B were demonstrated by inhibition of (a) (3H)ketanserin binding to rat cerebral cortical membranes (IC50 = 165 nM); (b) 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-induced foot edema in rats (minimum effective dose, (MED) = 0.32 mg/kg orally, p.o.); (c) 5-HT-induced vasopressor responses in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) (ID50 = 0.18 mg/kg intravenously (i.v.), 1.8 mg/kg p.o.), (d) 5-HT-induced antidiuresis in rats (MED = 1 mg/kg p.o.), and (e) platelet aggregation induced by 5-HT + ADP (IC50 = 1.5 mM). The calcium antagonist properties of AHR-16303B were demonstrated by inhibition of (a) (3H)nimodipine binding to voltage-sensitive calcium channels on rabbit skeletal muscle membranes (IC50 = 15 nM), (b) KCl-stimulated calcium flux into cultured PC12 cells (IC50 = 81 nM), and (c) CaCl2-induced contractions of rabbit thoracic aortic strips (pA2 = 8.84). AHR-16303B had little or no effect on binding of radioligands to dopamine2 (DA2) alpha 1, alpha 2, H1, 5-HT1 alpha, beta 2, muscarinic M1, or sigma opioid receptors; had no effect on 5-HT3 receptor-mediated vagal bradycardia; and had only minor negative inotropic, chronotropic, and dromotropic effects on isolated guinea pig atria. In conscious SHR, 30 mg/kg p.o. AHR-16303B completely prevented the vasopressor responses to i.v. 5-HT, and decreased blood pressure (BP) by 24% 3 h after dosing.

  10. CHLORIDE WASHER PERFORMACE TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    Coughlin, J; David Best, D; Robert Pierce, R

    2007-11-30

    Testing was performed to determine the chloride (Cl-) removal capabilities of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) designed and built Cl- washing equipment intended for HB-Line installation. The equipment to be deployed was tested using a cerium oxide (CeO2) based simulant in place of the 3013 plutonium oxide (PuO2) material. Two different simulant mixtures were included in this testing -- one having higher Cl- content than the other. The higher Cl- simulant was based on K-Area Interim Surveillance Inspection Program (KIS) material with Cl- content approximately equal to 70,000 ppm. The lower Cl- level simulant was comparable to KIS material containing approximately 8,000-ppm Cl- content. The performance testing results indicate that the washer is capable of reducing the Cl- content of both surrogates to below 200 ppm with three 1/2-liter washes of 0.1M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution. Larger wash volumes were used with similar results - all of the prescribed test parameters consistently reduced the Cl- content of the surrogate to a value below 200 ppm Cl- in the final washed surrogate material. The washer uses a 20-micron filter to retain the surrogate solids. Tests showed that 0.16-0.41% of the insoluble fraction of the starting mass passed through the 20-micron filter. The solids retention performance indicates that the fissile masses passing through the 20-micron filter should not exceed the waste acceptance criteria for discard in grout to TRU waste. It is recommended that additional testing be pursued for further verification and optimization purposes. It is likely that wash volumes smaller than those tested could still reduce the Cl- values to acceptable levels. Along with reduced wash volumes, reuse of the third wash volume (in the next run processed) should be tested as a wash solution minimization plan. A 67% reduction in the number of grouted paint pails could be realized if wash solution minimization testing returned acceptable results.

  11. Electrophysiological properties of resting secretory membranes of lamellibranch mantles. Interaction between calcium and potassium

    PubMed Central

    1980-01-01

    This study concerns the effects of ions on the shell-secreting membrane of clam mantles. The average resting potentials were --47 mV for freshwater mantles and --60 mV for marine mantles. Elevation of potassium in the absence of chloride gave a maximal slope of depolarization equivalent to 59 mV for a 10-fold change in the marine form but much less in the freshwater form. In normal potassium, a 10- fold reduction in calcium produced a hyperpolarization of 6 mV for the freshwater mantle. Neither reduction nor elevation of calcium affected the potential of marine mantles in the presence of normal potassium, but a hyperpolarization of 8 mV occurred when calcium was deleted in a low-potassium medium. Elevated calcium reduced the depolarization induced by raised potassium in both species and resulted in an increased effective membrane resistance in marine mantles. Lowered calcium enhanced the hyperpolarization caused by reduction in potassium in freshwater mantles but not in the marine species. Replacement of chloride by large anions produced transient depolarization in both freshwater and marine mantles and resulted in a maintained increased effective membrane resistance in marine mantles. The effects of sodium and magnesium on the membrane potential were not significant in normal potassium. We conclude that the secretory membrane of freshwater and marine clam mantles is permeable mainly to potassium and chloride, and that responses of the membrane potential to calcium are mediated through its effect on the permeability to potassium. PMID:7359117

  12. Characterization of invertase entrapped into calcium alginate beads

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. M. O. Arruda; M. Vitolo

    1999-01-01

    A solution of 10 g\\/L of sodium alginate (Satialgine types used [Sanofi trademark]: SG800 and S1100 with manuronic\\/guluronic\\u000a ratio of 0.5 and 1.2, respectively) containing invertase (0.08 g of protein\\/L) was dropped into 0.1 M CaCl2 solution buffered at pH 4.0, 7.0, or 8.0. The beads were left to harden in CaCl2 solution for 24 h. The high immobilization yield

  13. Secreted CLCA1 modulates TMEM16A to activate Ca2+-dependent chloride currents in human cells

    PubMed Central

    Sala-Rabanal, Monica; Yurtsever, Zeynep; Nichols, Colin G; Brett, Tom J

    2015-01-01

    Calcium-activated chloride channel regulator 1 (CLCA1) activates calcium-dependent chloride currents; neither the target, nor mechanism, is known. We demonstrate that secreted CLCA1 activates calcium-dependent chloride currents in HEK293T cells in a paracrine fashion, and endogenous TMEM16A/Anoctamin1 conducts the currents. Exposure to exogenous CLCA1 increases cell surface levels of TMEM16A and cellular binding experiments indicate CLCA1 engages TMEM16A on the surface of these cells. Altogether, our data suggest that CLCA1 stabilizes TMEM16A on the cell surface, thus increasing surface expression, which results in increased calcium-dependent chloride currents. Our results identify the first Cl? channel target of the CLCA family of proteins and establish CLCA1 as the first secreted direct modifier of TMEM16A activity, delineating a unique mechanism to increase currents. These results suggest cooperative roles for CLCA and TMEM16 proteins in influencing the physiology of multiple tissues, and the pathology of multiple diseases, including asthma, COPD, cystic fibrosis, and certain cancers. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05875.001 PMID:25781344

  14. Effect of sodium chloride on growth, ion content, and hydrogen ion extrusion activity of sunflower and jojoba roots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A. Burgos; M. Roldan; I. Agui; J. P. Donaire

    1993-01-01

    The effect of sodium chloride (NaCl) on growth, internal ion content, and proton release of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. cv. Enano) and jojoba [Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneid.] roots was studied in order to understand the relationship between the above parameters and salt tolerance. The increase in sodium (Na) ions concentration and the decrease in calcium (Ca) ion concentration in sunflower

  15. Influence of water hardness and sulfate on the acute toxicity of chloride to sensitive freshwater invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Soucek, David J; Linton, Tyler K; Tarr, Christopher D; Dickinson, Amy; Wickramanayake, Nilesh; Delos, Charles G; Cruz, Luis A

    2011-04-01

    Total dissolved solids (TDS) represent the sum of all common ions (e.g., Na, K, Ca, Mg, chloride, sulfate, and bicarbonate) in freshwater. Currently, no federal water quality criteria exist for the protection of aquatic life for TDS, but because the constituents that constitute TDS are variable, the development of aquatic life criteria for specific ions is more practical than development of aquatic life criteria for TDS. Chloride is one such ion for which aquatic life criteria exist; however, the current aquatic life criteria dataset for chloride is more than 20 years old. Therefore, additional toxicity tests were conducted in the current study to confirm the acute toxicity of chloride to several potentially sensitive invertebrates: water flea (Ceriodaphnia dubia), fingernail clams (Sphaerium simile and Musculium transversum), snail (Gyraulus parvus), and worm (Tubifex tubifex), and determine the extent to which hardness and sulfate modify chloride toxicity. The results indicated a significant ameliorating effect of water hardness (calcium and magnesium) on chloride toxicity for all species tested except the snail; for example, the 48-h chloride median lethal concentration (LC50) for C. dubia at 50?mg/L hardness (977?mg Cl(-) /L) was half that at 800?mg/L hardness (1,836?mg Cl(-) /L). Conversely, sulfate over the range of 25 to 600?mg/L exerted a negligible effect on chloride toxicity to C. dubia. Rank order of LC50 values for chloride at a given water hardness was in the order (lowest to highest): S. simile?

  16. Calcium Flux During Hemodialysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralph S. Goldsmith; Jacob Furszyfer; William J. Johnson; William F. Taylor

    1978-01-01

    A system of equations has been derived, and examined, to describe membrane permeability and calcium fluxes within a commonly used hemodialyzer, the Mini-Kiil. By a statistical technique of sequential multiple regression analysis, factors which might influence these variables were tested on data derived from 74 hemodialysis periods in 5 patients. Calcium flux from plasma to dialysate was influenced positively by

  17. Disorders of Calcium Metabolism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John F. O’Toole

    2011-01-01

    The genetic contribution to calcium metabolism is well recognized. Many of the proteins that contribute to calcium homeostasis through intestinal absorption, bone deposition and resorption, renal reabsorption and the molecules regulating these processes have been identified. Mutations in many of the genes coding for these proteins have been identified and often have clear clinical phenotypes. These mutations are generally rare

  18. Calcium Nutrition in Adolescence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marta Mesías; Isabel Seiquer; M. Pilar Navarro

    2011-01-01

    Adolescence is an important period of nutritional vulnerability due to increased dietary requirements for growth and development and special dietary habits. Calcium needs are elevated as a result of the intensive bone and muscular development and thus adequate calcium intake during growth is extremely important to reach the optimum peak bone mass and to protect against osteoporosis in the adult

  19. Calcium ion binding to a soil fulvic acid using a donnan potential model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marinsky, J.A.; Mathuthu, A.; Ephraim, J.H.; Reddy, M.M.

    1999-01-01

    Calcium ion binding to a soil fulvic acid (Armadale Bh Horizon) was evaluated over a range of calcium ion concentrations, from pH 3.8 to 7.3, using potentiometric titrations and calcium ion electrode measurements. Fulvic acid concentration was constant (100 milligrams per liter) and calcium ion concentration varied up to 8 X 10-4 moles per liter. Experiments discussed here included: (1) titrations of fulvic acid-calcium ion containing solutions with sodium hydroxide; and (2) titrations of fully neutralized fulvic acid with calcium chloride solutions. Apparent binding constants (expressed as the logarithm of the value, log ??app) vary with solution pH, calcium ion concentration, degree of acid dissociation, and ionic strength (from log ??app = 2.5 to 3.9) and are similar to those reported by others. Fulvic acid charge, and the associated Donnan Potential, influences calcium ion-fulvic acid ion pair formation. A Donnan Potential corrrection term allowed calculation of intrinsic calcium ion-fulvic acid binding constants. Intrinsic binding constants vary from 1.2 to 2.5 (the average value is about log??= 1.6) and are similar to, but somewhat higher than, stability constants for calcium ion-carboxylic acid monodentate complexes. ?? by Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag, Mu??nchen.

  20. Fundamental Characteristics of Bioprint on Calcium Alginate Gel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umezu, Shinjiro; Hatta, Tatsuru; Ohmori, Hitoshi

    2013-05-01

    The goal of this study is to fabricate precision three-dimensional (3D) biodevices those are micro fluidics and artificial organs utilizing digital fabrication. Digital fabrication is fabrication method utilizing inkjet technologies. Electrostatic inkjet is one of the inkjet technologies. The electrostatic inkjet method has following two merits; those are high resolution to print and ability to eject highly viscous liquid. These characteristics are suitable to print biomaterials precisely. We are now applying for bioprint. In this paper, the electrostatic inkjet method is applied for fabrication of 3D biodevices that has cave like blood vessel. When aqueous solution of sodium alginate is printed to aqueous solution of calcium chloride, calcium alginate is produced. 3D biodevices are fabricated in case that calcium alginate is piled.

  1. Alternative technique for calcium phosphate coating on titanium alloy implants.

    PubMed

    Le, Van Quang; Pourroy, Geneviève; Cochis, Andrea; Rimondini, Lia; Abdel-Fattah, Wafa I; Mohammed, Hadeer I; Carradò, Adele

    2014-01-01

    As an alternative technique for calcium phosphate coating on titanium alloys, we propose to functionalize the metal surface with anionic bath containing chlorides of palladium or silver as activators. This new deposition route has several advantages such as controlled conditions, applicability to complex shapes, no adverse effect of heating, and cost effectiveness. A mixture of hydroxyapatite and calcium phosphate hydrate is deposited on the surface of Ti-6Al-4V. Calcium phosphate coating is built faster compared with the one by Simulated Body Fluid. Cell morphology and density are comparable to the control one; and the results prove no toxic compound is released into the medium during the previous seven days of immersion. Moreover, the cell viability is comparable with cells cultivated with the virgin medium. These experimental treatments allowed producing cytocompatible materials potentially applicable to manufacture implantable devices for orthopedic and oral surgeries. PMID:24646569

  2. Alternative technique for calcium phosphate coating on titanium alloy implants

    PubMed Central

    Le, Van Quang; Pourroy, Geneviève; Cochis, Andrea; Rimondini, Lia; Abdel-Fattah, Wafa I; Mohammed, Hadeer I; Carradò, Adele

    2014-01-01

    As an alternative technique for calcium phosphate coating on titanium alloys, we propose to functionalize the metal surface with anionic bath containing chlorides of palladium or silver as activators. This new deposition route has several advantages such as controlled conditions, applicability to complex shapes, no adverse effect of heating, and cost effectiveness. A mixture of hydroxyapatite and calcium phosphate hydrate is deposited on the surface of Ti–6Al–4V. Calcium phosphate coating is built faster compared with the one by Simulated Body Fluid. Cell morphology and density are comparable to the control one; and the results prove no toxic compound is released into the medium during the previous seven days of immersion. Moreover, the cell viability is comparable with cells cultivated with the virgin medium. These experimental treatments allowed producing cytocompatible materials potentially applicable to manufacture implantable devices for orthopedic and oral surgeries. PMID:24646569

  3. Ion chromatography detection of fluoride in calcium carbonate.

    PubMed

    Lefler, Jamie E; Ivey, Michelle M

    2011-09-01

    Fluoride in aquatic systems is increasing due to anthropogenic pollution, but little is known about how this fluoride affects organisms that live in and around aquatic habitats. Fluoride can bioaccumulate in structures comprised of calcium carbonate, such as shells and skeletons of both freshwater and saltwater species as diverse as snails, corals, and coccolithophorid algae. In this article, ion chromatography (IC) techniques are developed to detect and quantify fluoride in a matrix of calcium carbonate. Solid samples are dissolved in hydrochloric acid, pretreated to remove the majority of the chloride ions, and then analyzed using IC. With these methods, the 3? limit of detection is 0.2 mg of fluoride/kg of calcium carbonate. PMID:21859530

  4. The influence of calcium on sodium efflux in squid axons

    PubMed Central

    Baker, P. F.; Blaustein, M. P.; Hodgkin, A. L.; Steinhardt, R. A.

    1969-01-01

    1. Previous work has shown that the sodium efflux from the axons of Loligo forbesi increases when external sodium is replaced by lithium. 2. The increase in efflux in lithium was unaffected by ouabain but was abolished by removal of external calcium; in these respects it differed from the potassium-dependent sodium efflux which was abolished by ouabain but not reduced by removal of external calcium. 3. Strontium but not magnesium could replace calcium in activating the ouabain-insensitive sodium efflux; lanthanum had an inhibitory effect. 4. Replacing all the external NaCl by choline chloride or dextrose gave a rise in Na efflux which was abolished by ouabain but not by removal of external calcium. 5. The rise in Na efflux resulting from partial replacement of NaCl by dextrose or choline chloride consisted of two components one of which was ouabain-insensitive and calcium-dependent and the other was inhibited by ouabain but calcium-insensitive. 6. The ouabain-insensitive component of the Na efflux was activated by low concentrations of Na, Li or K but inhibited by high concentrations of Na and to a lesser extent Li. The inhibiting effect of high Na was of the kind expected if these ions displace calcium from an external site. 7. The ouabain-insensitive component of the Na efflux was abolished by cyanide, had a Q10 of 2·7; and was roughly proportional to [Na]i2. It was much more variable in magnitude than the ouabain-sensitive, potassium-dependent component of the sodium efflux. 8. The calcium influx increased five to fortyfold when external NaCl was replaced by LiCl or dextrose, the increase for Li being larger than the increase for dextrose. 9. The calcium influx from Na, Li or dextrose sea water was increased three to tenfold by increasing the internal Na about fourfold. 10. The experiments provide evidence for a coupling between an inward movement of calcium and an outward movement of sodium. PMID:5764407

  5. An XAFS Study of Tantalum Chloride in the Ionic Liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl Imidazolium Chloride\\/ aluminum Chloride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D Roeper; K Pandya; G Cheek; W OGrady

    2011-01-01

    Tantalum chloride was studied with extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (XAFS) in acidic and basic aluminum chloride\\/1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride ionic liquids (ILs). Anhydrous Ta2Cl10 is more soluble in the basic solution than in the acidic solution and the X-ray absorption data shows that the coordination shell of chlorides around the tantalum is larger in the basic solution. In the

  6. Solubility of some alkali and alkaline earth chlorides in water at moderate temperatures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clynne, M.A.; Potter, R.W., II

    1979-01-01

    Solubilities for the binary systems, salt-H2O, of the chlorides of lithium, rubidium, cesium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, and barium from near 0??C to the saturated boiling point are reported. The experimental data and coefficients of an equation for a smoothed curve describing each system are listed in the tables. The data are improvements on those previously reported in the literature, having a precision on the average of ??0.09%.

  7. Effect of calcium on strawberry fruit flavonoid pathway gene expression and anthocyanin accumulation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenping; Peng, Hui; Yang, Tianbao; Whitaker, Bruce; Huang, Luhong; Sun, Jianghao; Chen, Pei

    2014-09-01

    Two diploid woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) inbred lines, Ruegen F7-4 (red fruit-bearing) and YW5AF7 (yellow fruit-bearing) were used to study the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in fruit. Ruegen F7-4 fruit had similar total phenolics and anthocyanin contents to commercial octoploid (F. × ananassa) cultivar Seascape, while YW5AF7 exhibited relatively low total phenolics content and no anthocyanin accumulation. Foliar spray of CaCl2 boosted fruit total phenolics content, especially anthocyanins, by more than 20% in both Seascape and RF7-4. Expression levels of almost all the flavonoid pathway genes were comparable in Ruegen F7-4 and YW5AF7 green-stage fruit. However, at the turning and ripe stages, key anthocyanin structural genes, including flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H1), dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR2), anthocyanidin synthase (ANS1), and UDP-glucosyltransferase (UGT1), were highly expressed in Ruegen F7-4 compared with YW5AF7 fruit. Calcium treatment further stimulated the expression of those genes in Ruegen F7-4 fruit. Anthocyanins isolated from petioles of YW5AF7 and Ruegen F-7 had the same HPLC-DAD profile, which differed from that of Ruegen F-7 fruit anthocyanins. All the anthocyanin structural genes except FvUGT1 were detected in petioles of YW5AF7 and Ruegen F-7. Taken together, these results indicate that the "yellow" gene in YW5AF7 is a fruit specific regulatory gene(s) for anthocyanin biosynthesis. Calcium can enhance accumulation of anthocyanins and total phenolics in fruit possibly via upregulation of anthocyanin structural genes. Our results also suggest that the anthocyanin biosynthesis machinery in petioles is different from that in fruit. PMID:25036468

  8. CHEMILUMINESCENT MONITOR FOR VINYL CHLORIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A monitor for vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) in ambient air was constructed using commercially available components of a gas chromatograph (GC) coupled with a chemiluminescence ozone analyzer slightly modified to make it suitable for use as a GC detector. The specificity for VCM is...

  9. History of Vinyl Chloride Polymers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Waldo L. Semon; G. Allan Stahl

    1981-01-01

    In 1926 Semon tried to dehydrohalogenate high molecular weight poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) in a high boiling solvent to get an unsaturated polymer which might bond rubber to metal. Unexpectedly, he obtained plasticized PVC, a flexible product inert both electrically and chemically. This discovery opened the door to the commercialization of PVC, a plastic with an annual United States production now

  10. Cystic Fibrosis (CF): Chloride Sweat Test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the Flu Pregnancy Precautions Checkups: What to Expect Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Chloride Sweat Test KidsHealth > Parents > General Health > Sick Kids > Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Chloride Sweat Test Print A A A ...

  11. Study on the Functionality of Nano-Precipitated Calcium Carbonate as Filler in Thermoplastics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Blessie A. Basilia; Marian Elaine G. Panganiban; Archilles Allen V. C. Collado; Michael Oliver D. Pesigan; Persia Ada de Yro

    2007-01-01

    This research aims to investigate the functionality of nano-precipitated calcium carbonate (NPCC) as filler in thermoplastic resins based on property enhancement. Three types of thermoplastics were used: polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The resins were evaluated by determining the effect of different NPCC loading on the chemical structure, thermal and mechanical properties of thermoplastics. Results showed that

  12. Effects of metabolic acidosis and alkalosis on sodium and calcium transport in the dog kidney.

    PubMed

    Sutton, R A; Wong, N L; Dirks, J H

    1979-05-01

    Clearance and micropuncture studies have been performed in dogs to examine the effects of acute and chronic metabolic acidosis and acute alkalosis on tubular sodium and calcium transport. Acute metabolic acidosis, induced by the infusion of hydrochloric acid, decreased proximal fluid reabsorption and increased the fractional delivery of sodium and calcium to the distal tubule, but not to the final urine. In comparison with normal dogs, dogs with chronic metabolic acidosis (induced by feeding ammonium chloride) showed an increase in proximal fluid reabsorption and a dissociation of calcium from sodium reabsorption more distally, leading to an increased delivery of calcium relative to sodium at the distal tubule and in the final urine. The infusion of sodium bicarbonate to correct chronic metabolic acidosis, both in intact and thyroparathyroidectomized (TPTX) dogs, reduced proximal fluid reabsorption and caused a selective enhancement of calcium reabsorption relative to sodium in the more distal nephron, resulting in a reversal of the dissociation observed in acidosis, both at the distal tubule and in the final urine. By contrastin fusion of sodium chloride in parathyroid-intact acidotic dogs did not reduce proximal fluid reabsorption or enhance tubular calcium reabsorption. In nonacidotic dogs, both intact and TPTX, infusion of sodium bicarconate to induce acute alkalosis resulted in selhese data demonstrate the presence of a component of tubular calcium reabsorption situated beyond the proximal tubule, which is inhibited by chronic (but not acute) metabolic acidosis and enhanced by metabolic alkalosis (or bicarbonate infusion) independently of parathyroid hormone. PMID:480784

  13. Geotechnical Properties of Low Calcium and High Calcium Fly Ash

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarat Kumar Das; Yudhbir

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a comparative study has been made for physical and engineering properties of low calcium and high calcium Indian\\u000a fly ash. The grain size distribution of fly ash is independent of lime content. Fly ash particles of size >75 ?m are mostly irregular in shape whereas finer fractions are spherical for low calcium fly ash. For high calcium

  14. Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride

    DOEpatents

    Spormann, Alfred M [Stanford, CA; Muller, Jochen A [Baltimore, MD; Rosner, Bettina M [Berlin, DE; Von Abendroth, Gregory [Mannheim, DE; Meshulam-Simon, Galit [Los Angeles, CA; McCarty, Perry L [Stanford, CA

    2014-02-11

    Compositions and methods are provided that relate to the bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, particularly the bioremediation of vinyl chloride by Dehalococcoides-like organisms. An isolated strain of bacteria, Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS, that metabolizes vinyl chloride is provided; the genetic sequence of the enzyme responsible for vinyl chloride dehalogenation; methods of assessing the capability of endogenous organisms at an environmental site to metabolize vinyl chloride; and a method of using the strains of the invention for bioremediation.

  15. Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride

    DOEpatents

    Spormann, Alfred M. (Stanford, CA); Muller, Jochen A. (Baltimore, MD); Rosner, Bettina M. (Berlin, DE); Von Abendroth, Gregory (Nannhein, DE); Meshulam-Simon, Galit (Los Altos, CA); McCarty, Perry L (Stanford, CA)

    2011-11-22

    Compositions and methods are provided that relate to the bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, particularly the bioremediation of vinyl chloride by Dehalococcoides-like organisms. An isolated strain of bacteria, Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS, that metabolizes vinyl chloride is provided; the genetic sequence of the enzyme responsible for vinyl chloride dehalogenation; methods of assessing the capability of endogenous organisms at an environmental site to metabolize vinyl chloride; and a method of using the strains of the invention for bioremediation.

  16. A9C sensitive Cl? - accumulation in A. thaliana root cells during salt stress is controlled by internal and external calcium

    PubMed Central

    Saleh, Livia; Plieth, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    The involvement of chloride in salt stress symptoms and salt tolerance mechanisms in plants has been less investigated in the past. Therefore, we studied the salt-induced chloride influx in Arabidopsis expressing the GFP-based anion indicator Clomeleon. High salt concentrations induce two phases of chloride influx. The fast kinetic phase is likely caused by membrane depolarization, and is assumed to be mediated by channels. This is followed by a slower "saturation" phase, where chloride is accumulated in the cytoplasm. Both phases of chloride uptake are dependent on the presence of external calcium. In general: with high [Ca2+] less chloride is accumulated in the cytoplasm. Surprisingly, also the internal calcium availability has an impact on chloride transport. A complete block of the second phase of chloride influx is achieved by the anion channel blocker A9C and trivalent cations (La3+, Gd3+, and Al3+). Other channel blockers and diuretics were found to inhibit the process partially. The results suggest that several transporter species are involved here, including electroneutral cation-chloride-cotransporters, and a part of chloride possibly enters the cells through cation channels after salt application. PMID:23603974

  17. 21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...from iron and chlorine or from ferric oxide and hydrogen chloride. The pure material occurs as hydroscopic, hexagonal, dark crystals. Ferric chloride hexahydrate (iron (III) chloride hexahydrate, FeC13 . 6H2 0, CAS Reg. No. 10025-77-1)...

  18. Worker exposure to vinyl chloride and poly(vinyl chloride).

    PubMed Central

    Jones, J H

    1981-01-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in early 1974 began industrial hygiene studies of vinyl chloride exposed workers. Three VC monomer plants, three VC polymerization plants, and seven PVC fabrication plants were surveyed. V polymerization plant workers and workers in one job category in VC monomer plants were exposed to average levels above 1 ppm. The highest average exposure was 22 ppm. NIOSH health hazard evaluation studies since these initial surveys have primarily shown nondetectable levels of vinyl chloride. A NIOSH control technology study in 1977 showed that exposure levels in VC polymerization plants had been drastically reduced but exposure levels above 1 ppm were still found in several cases. PMID:7333231

  19. An XAFS Study of Tantalum Chloride in the Ionic Liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl Imidazolium Chloride/ aluminum Chloride

    SciTech Connect

    D Roeper; K Pandya; G Cheek; W OGrady

    2011-12-31

    Tantalum chloride was studied with extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (XAFS) in acidic and basic aluminum chloride/1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride ionic liquids (ILs). Anhydrous Ta2Cl10 is more soluble in the basic solution than in the acidic solution and the X-ray absorption data shows that the coordination shell of chlorides around the tantalum is larger in the basic solution. In the acidic solution, tantalum has five chlorides in its coordination shell while in the basic solution; the tantalum is coordinated by seven chlorides. This indicates that the Lewis acidity of the tantalum chloride causes the Ta to coordinate differently in the acidic and the basic solutions.

  20. Effects of Two Salts Compounds on Mycelial Growth, Sporulation, and Spore Germination of Six Isolates of Botrytis cinerea in the Western North of Algeria

    PubMed Central

    Boumaaza, Boualem; Benkhelifa, Mohamed; Belkhoudja, Moulay

    2015-01-01

    Six isolates of Botrytis cinerea were isolated from leaves and stems of different tomato varieties taken from four areas in the northwest of Algeria where tomato is mostly grown in greenhouses and high tunnels. The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of two salts, NaCl and CaCl2, on three stages of Botrytis cinerea's life cycle. All isolates tested were stimulated in 50 to 150?ppm; NaCl was the most effective treatment to increase mycelial growth at two tested concentrations. However, at 300?ppm concentration, CaCl2 completely inhibited the growth of mycelium; they reach 34.78% for the isolate TR46 and 26.72% for isolate F27. The sodium and calcium salts stimulated conidia production in liquid culture. We noticed that the effect of calcium chloride on sporulation was average while sodium chloride. In the medium containing 50?ppm, calcium chloride and sodium chloride increased the germination capacity of most isolates compared with the control. Other calcium salts, at 100 or 300?ppm, decreased the germination percentage of the conidia. With the exception of sodium salts, the inhibitions of germination reduce at 150 or 300 compared with the control. Conidial germination was slightly inhibited by sodium chloride only when the concentration was over 300?ppm.

  1. Effects of Two Salts Compounds on Mycelial Growth, Sporulation, and Spore Germination of Six Isolates of Botrytis cinerea in the Western North of Algeria.

    PubMed

    Boumaaza, Boualem; Benkhelifa, Mohamed; Belkhoudja, Moulay

    2015-01-01

    Six isolates of Botrytis cinerea were isolated from leaves and stems of different tomato varieties taken from four areas in the northwest of Algeria where tomato is mostly grown in greenhouses and high tunnels. The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of two salts, NaCl and CaCl2, on three stages of Botrytis cinerea's life cycle. All isolates tested were stimulated in 50 to 150?ppm; NaCl was the most effective treatment to increase mycelial growth at two tested concentrations. However, at 300?ppm concentration, CaCl2 completely inhibited the growth of mycelium; they reach 34.78% for the isolate TR46 and 26.72% for isolate F27. The sodium and calcium salts stimulated conidia production in liquid culture. We noticed that the effect of calcium chloride on sporulation was average while sodium chloride. In the medium containing 50?ppm, calcium chloride and sodium chloride increased the germination capacity of most isolates compared with the control. Other calcium salts, at 100 or 300?ppm, decreased the germination percentage of the conidia. With the exception of sodium salts, the inhibitions of germination reduce at 150 or 300 compared with the control. Conidial germination was slightly inhibited by sodium chloride only when the concentration was over 300?ppm. PMID:25883657

  2. Stoichiometry of Calcium Medicines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Gabriel

    2005-01-01

    The topic of calcium supplement and its effects on human lives is presented in the way of questions to the students. It enables the students to realize the relevance of chemistry outside the classroom surrounding.

  3. Calcium and Bone Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) . Weight-Bearing Physical Activity Regular physical activity has been associated ... strong bones. Like proper calcium consumption, adequate weight-bearing physical activity early in life is important in ...

  4. Calcium channel blocker overdose

    MedlinePLUS

    Salhanick SD. Calcium channel antagonists. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; ...

  5. The effect of adenosine triphosphate, magnesium chloride and phospholipids on crystal formation in the demineralized shell-repair membrane of the snail, Helix pomatia L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Abolinš-Krogis

    1979-01-01

    The effect of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), magnesium chloride (MgCl2) and phospholipids on the calcium-binding activity and crystal formation within the decalcified shell-repair membrane of the snail, Helix pomatia, was studied in vitro. The application of ATP produced a characteristic dual effect on calcification: (1) It strongly inhibited the formation of inorganic calcium carbonate (CaCO3) crystals. (2) It stimulated the development

  6. Lanthanum chloride bidirectionally influences calcification in bovine vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wen-Hua; Gou, Bao-Di; Zhang, Tian-Lan; Wang, Kui

    2012-05-01

    Vascular calcification (VC) is frequent prevalence in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and atherosclerosis. Lanthanum carbonate is used as an orally administered phosphate-binding agent to reduce the gastrointestinal absorption of phosphate and ameliorate VC in advanced CKD. In this study, we used bovine vascular smooth muscle cells as a model VC in vitro and studied the effects of lanthanum chloride on calcium deposition. Exposure of cells to LaCl(3) at the concentration of 0.1 µM suppressed the ?-glycerophosphate-induced alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium deposition. Furthermore, LaCl(3) upregulated the ?-glycerophosphate-suppressed expression of calcium-sensing receptor. In contrast to the inhibitory effect of LaCl(3) on calcium deposition, higher level lanthanum (50 µM) was found to promote immediately precipitation of calcium phosphate in cell culture medium. At this concentration, LaCl(3) was found to induce cell apoptosis which involves caspases-9 and -3. These data indicate that the promotory effect of LaCl(3) on calcium deposition is likely mediated by induction of apoptosis. Our in vitro findings do suggest that, in the context of raised lanthanum, greater attention should be paid to potential toxic effects associated to the use of lanthanide-based drugs. PMID:22213182

  7. The calcium silicate hydrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. G. Richardson

    2008-01-01

    This article is concerned with the calcium silicate hydrates, including crystalline minerals and the extremely variable and poorly ordered phase (C-S-H) that is the main binding phase in most concrete. Up-to-date composition and crystal-structure information is tabulated for the most important crystalline calcium (alumino) silicate hydrates and related phases. A number of models for the nanostructure of C-S-H are summarized

  8. Chloride flux out of Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norton, D.R.; Friedman, I.

    1985-01-01

    Monitoring of the chloride concentration, electrical conductivity, and discharge was carried out for the four major rivers of Yellowstone National Park from September 1982 to January 1984. Chloride flux out of the Park was determined from the measured values of chloride concentration and discharge. The annual chloride flux from the Park was 5.86 ?? 1010 g. Of this amount 45% was from the Madison River drainage basin, 32% from the Yellowstone River basin, 12% from the Snake River basin, and 11% from the Falls River basin. Of the annual chloride flux from the Yellowstone River drainage basin 36% was attributed to the Yellowstone Lake drainage basin. The geothermal contribution to the chloride flux was determined by subtracting the chloride contribution from rock weathering and atmospheric precipitation and is 94% of the total chloride flux. Calculations of the geothermal chloride flux for each river are given and the implications of an additional chloride flux out of the western Park boundary discussed. An anomalous increase in chloride flux out of the Park was observed for several weeks prior to the Mt. Borah earthquake in Central Idaho on October 28, 1983, reaching a peak value shortly thereafter. It is suggested that the rise in flux was a precursor of the earthquake. The information in this paper provides baseline data against which future changes in the hydrothermal systems can be measured. It also provides measurements related to the thermal contributions from the different drainage basins of the Park. ?? 1985.

  9. Rapid Low Temperature-Induced Stomatal Closure Occurs in Cold-Tolerant Commelina communis Leaves But Not in Cold-Sensitive Tobacco Leaves, via a Mechanism That Involves Apoplastic Calcium But Not Abscisic Acid1

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Sally; Clephan, Alison Lee; Davies, William John

    2001-01-01

    Commelina communis stomata closed within 1 h of transferring intact plants from 27°C to 7°C, whereas tobacco (Nicotiana rustica) stomata did not until the leaves wilted. Abscisic acid (ABA) did not mediate cold-induced C. communis stomatal closure: At low temperatures, bulk leaf ABA did not increase; ABA did not preferentially accumulate in the epidermis; its flux into detached leaves was lower; its release from isolated epidermis was not greater; and stomata in epidermal strips were less sensitive to exogenous ABA. Stomata of both species in epidermal strips on large volumes of cold KCl failed to close unless calcium was supplied. Therefore, the following cannot be triggers for cold-induced stomatal closure in C. communis: direct effects of temperature on guard or epidermal cells, long-distance signals, and effects of temperature on photosynthesis. Low temperature increased stomatal sensitivity to external CaCl2 by 50% in C. communis but only by 20% in tobacco. C. communis stomata were 300- to 1,000-fold more sensitive to calcium at low temperature than tobacco stomata, but tobacco epidermis only released 13.6-fold more calcium into bathing solutions than C. communis. Stomata in C. communis epidermis incubated on ever-decreasing volumes of cold calcium-free KCl closed on the lowest volume (0.2 cm3) because the epidermal apoplast contained enough calcium to mediate closure if this was not over diluted. We propose that the basis of cold-induced stomatal closure exhibited by intact C. communis leaves is increased apoplastic calcium uptake by guard cells. Such responses do not occur in chill-sensitive tobacco leaves. PMID:11500555

  10. Effect of a new functional double-hydrophilic block copolymer PAAL on the morphology of calcium carbonate particles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M.. Lei; W. H. Tang; J. G. Yu

    2005-01-01

    Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) particles with various shapes were prepared by the reaction of sodium carbonate with calcium chloride in the presence of a new functional double-hydrophilic block copolymer poly (acrylic acid)-block-(acrylic hydroxy lactide) (PAAL) at room temperature. The as-prepared products were characterized with scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The effects of pH, concentration of PAAL and CaCO3 on the

  11. Calcium supplementation during sepsis exacerbates organ failure and mortality via calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase (CaMKK) signaling

    PubMed Central

    Collage, Richard D.; Howell, Gina M.; Zhang, Xianghong; Stripay, Jennifer L.; Lee, Janet S.; Angus, Derek C.; Rosengart, Matthew R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Calcium plays an essential role in nearly all cellular processes. As such, cellular and systemic calcium concentrations are tightly regulated. During sepsis derangements in such tight regulation frequently occur, and treating hypocalcemia with parenteral calcium administration remains the current practice guideline. Objective We investigated whether calcium administration worsens mortality and organ dysfunction using an experimental murine model of sepsis and explored the mechanistic role of the family of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases in mediating these physiologic effects. To highlight the biological relevance of these observations, we conducted a translational study of the association between calcium administration, organ dysfunction and mortality among a cohort of critically ill septic ICU patients Design Prospective, randomized controlled experimental murine study. Observational clinical cohort analysis. Setting University research laboratory. Eight ICUs at a tertiary care center. Patients 870 septic ICU patients. Subjects C57BL/6 and CaMKK?/? mice. Interventions Mice underwent cecal ligation and puncture polymicrobial sepsis and were administered calcium chloride (0.25 or 0.25 mg/kg) or normal saline. Measurements and Main Results Administering calcium chloride to septic C57BL/6 mice heightened systemic inflammation and vascular leak, exacerbated hepatic and renal dysfunction, and increased mortality. These events were significantly attenuated in CaMKK?/? mice. In a risk–adjusted analysis of septic patients, calcium administration was associated with an increased risk of death, OR 1.92 (95% CI 1.00–3.68, p=0.049), a significant increase in the risk of renal dysfunction, OR 4.74 (95% CI 2.48–9.08, p<0.001), and a significant reduction in ventilator free days, mean decrease 3.29 days (0.50–6.08 days, p=0.02). Conclusions Derangements in calcium homeostasis occur during sepsis that are sensitive to calcium administration. This altered calcium signaling, transduced by the CaMKK cascade, mediates heightened inflammation and vascular leak that culminates in elevated organ dysfunction and mortality. In the clinical management of septic patients calcium supplementation provides no benefit and may impose harm. PMID:23887235

  12. Trichloroethylene decomposition and in-situ dry sorption of Cl-products by calcium oxides prepared from hydrated limes.

    PubMed

    Gotoh, Yoshimi; Iwata, Goichi; Choh, Kyaw; Kubota, Mitsuhiro; Matsuda, Hitoki

    2011-10-01

    A comparison of CaOs produced by calcining two types of hydrated lime and calcium carbonate was made for decomposition of trichloroethylene and in-situ dry sorption of the decomposed Cl-products using a lab-scale gas flow type tubular packed bed reactor. About 20 mg of CaO sample was mixed with about 2 g of Al2O3 particles and packed in the reactor and allowed to react with a flowing standard gas containing 500 ppm of C2HCl3 (N2 balance) at 673 and 873 K, under the condition that the reaction of CaO with C2HCl3 might be completed within a few hours. It was found that no thermal decomposition of C2HCl3 at or below 673 K was observed in a reactor packed only with Al2O3 particles. However, a considerable amount of decomposition of C2HCl3 was obtained in a reactor packed with CaO and Al2O3, even at 673 K. For 1 mol of CaO prepared by calcining highly reactive Ca(OH)2 at 673 K, decomposition of 0.42 mol of C2HCl3 and in-situ absorption product of 0.53 mol of CaCl2 were obtained. At 873 K, about 46% of C2HCl3 was thermally decomposed. The total amount of C2HCl3 decomposed in CaO-Al2O3 particle bed at 873 K became nearly twice larger than that at 673 K. For 1 mol of CaO prepared by calcining highly reactive Ca(OH)2 at 873 K, decomposition of 0.59 mol of C2HCl3 and in-situ absorption product of 0.67 mol of CaCl2 were obtained. Small amounts of C2Cl2, C2Cl4, CCl4, etc. were detected during decomposition of C2HCl3 at 673 and 873 K. It was recognized that the data on decomposition of C2HCl3 as well as in-situ dry sorption of Cl-products in CaO particle bed were correlated with specific surface area of the CaO employed. PMID:21821273

  13. Structure of wood extract colloids and effect of CaCl2 on the molecular mobility

    E-print Network

    Turro, Nicholas J.

    , University of Tasmania, Private Bag 75, Hobart, 7001,Tasmania, Australia 2) Australian Pulp and Paper Chemistry, Norske Skog Paper Mills (Australia) Ltd, Boyer 7540, Tasmania, Australia 4) Department of Earth

  14. Effects of Inclusions in HSLA Carbon Steel on Pitting Corrosion in CaCl2

    SciTech Connect

    M. Ziomek-Moroz; S. Bullard; K. Rozman; J.J. Kruzic

    2011-12-05

    Susceptibility of high strength low alloy steel to localized corrosion was studied in 6.7 M CaCl{sub 2} for oil and natural gas drilling applications. Results of the immersion and electrochemical experiments showed that the steel is susceptible to pitting corrosion. Optical microscopy investigations of the polished samples revealed that 10% of the surface area was occupied by defects in the form of pits. The energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and wavelength dispersive X-ray (WDX) chemical analyses revealed higher concentrations of Mn and S compared to the metal matrix in defected areas. These areas served as the sites for development of corrosion pits during both immersion and electrochemical experiments. The fatigue results of the corroded samples indicate that if the pit was the most significant defect, the fatigue crack initiated and propagated at this site.

  15. Crystallization of calcium phosphate in microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, H. E. Lundager; Christensson, F.; Chernov, A. A.; Polyak, L. E.; Suvorova, E. I.

    1995-08-01

    Dilute solutions of CaCl_2 and KH_2PO_4 + K_2HPO_4 were diffusing from either side into a mixing chamber with KCl solution. The microgravity experiment yielded aggregates of large crystals of OCP (Ca_8H_2(PO_4)_3,5H_2O) and spherolites of smaller, but still visible crystals of HAP (Ca_5OH(PO_4)_3), the stable final phase. Ground-based experiments yielded submicroscopic HAP crystals. Results of calculations of diffusion and crystal growth on the basis of previous knowledge agree well with observations.

  16. Hydrostatic Pressure–Induced Release of Stored Calcium in Cultured Rat Optic Nerve Head Astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Amritlal; Delamere, Nicholas A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. Elevated intraocular pressure is associated with glaucomatous optic nerve damage. Other investigators have shown functional changes in optic nerve head astrocytes subjected to elevated hydrostatic pressure (HP) for 1 to 5 days. Recently, the authors reported ERK1/2, p90RSK and NHE1 phosphorylation after 2 hours. Here they examine calcium responses at the onset of HP to determine what precedes ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Methods. Cytoplasmic calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) was measured in cultured rat optic nerve astrocytes loaded with fura-2. The cells were placed in a closed imaging chamber and subjected to an HP increase of 15 mm Hg. Protein phosphorylation was detected by Western blot analysis. Results. The increase of HP caused an immediate slow increase in [Ca2+]i. The response persisted in calcium-free solution and when nickel chloride (4 mM) was added to suppress channel-mediated calcium entry. Previous depletion of the ER calcium stores by cyclopiazonic acid abolished the HP-induced calcium level increase. The HP-induced increase persisted in cells exposed to xestospongin C, an inhibitor of IP3R-mediated calcium release. In contrast, ryanodine receptor (RyR) antagonist ruthenium red (10 ?M) or dantrolene (25 ?M) inhibited the HP-induced calcium increase. The HP-induced calcium increase was abolished when ryanodine-sensitive calcium stores were pre-depleted with caffeine (3 mM). HP caused ERK1/2 phosphorylation. The magnitude of the ERK1/2 phosphorylation response was reduced by ruthenium red and dantrolene. Conclusions. Increasing HP causes calcium release from a ryanodine-sensitive cytoplasmic store and subsequent ERK1/2 activation. Calcium store release appears to be a required early step in the initial astrocyte response to an HP increase. PMID:20071675

  17. An XAFS Study of Niobium chloride in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride\\/ aluminum chloride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D Roeper; K Pandya; G Cheek; W OGrady

    2011-01-01

    Niobium chloride was studied with extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) in acidic and basic aluminum chloride\\/1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride (EMIC) ionic liquids. Although anhydrous Nb2Cl10 is more soluble in the basic melt than in the acidic melt, the EXAFS data shows that the coordination shell around the niobium does not change in the different ionic liquids. Both the acidic

  18. Differing calcium sensitivities of human cerebral and digital arteries, human metatarsal veins, and rat aorta.

    PubMed Central

    Iwanov, V; Moulds, R F

    1991-01-01

    1. The effects of the voltage dependent calcium channel blocking agent nifedipine, and of a calcium free bathing medium, on the responses of human blood vessels obtained postmortem to various agonists have been compared with those of the rat aorta. The human vessels studied were digital arteries, basilar arteries and metatarsal veins. 2. Responses to potassium chloride (5-80 mM), noradrenaline (10(-9)-10(-4) M), 5-hydroxytryptamine (10(-8)-10(-4) M) and U46619 (10(-11)-10(-6) M), in the presence and absence of nifedipine (1, 10, and 100 nM) or in a calcium-free bathing medium, were assessed using an area-under-curve analysis. 3. In general, the order of sensitivity of the vessels to inhibition of agonist induced contractures by nifedipine was basilar arteries greater than metatarsal veins = digital arteries = rat aorta. 4. For all the vessels, the order of sensitivity for antagonism of responses to the agonists by nifedipine was potassium chloride greater than 5-hydroxytryptamine = noradrenaline greater than U46619. 5. A calcium free bath inhibited responses of digital arteries to potassium chloride more than noradrenaline, 5-hydroxytryptamine or U46619, and responses of rat aorta to a greater extent than responses of the digital arteries. 6. In the rat aorta, a calcium-free bath inhibited responses to all agonists (except KCl) to a greater degree than did nifedipine. 7. We conclude that inhibition of extracellular calcium entry through voltage dependent calcium channels affects contractile responses of different blood vessels to different extents, and, within the same blood vessel, responses to different contractile agonists to different extents. PMID:2015170

  19. Inositol trisphosphate and calcium signalling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berridge, Michael J.

    1993-01-01

    Inositol trisphosphate is a second messenger that controls many cellular processes by generating internal calcium signals. It operates through receptors whose molecular and physiological properties closely resemble the calcium-mobilizing ryanodine receptors of muscle. This family of intracellular calcium channels displays the regenerative process of calcium-induced calcium release responsible for the complex spatiotemporal patterns of calcium waves and oscillations. Such a dynamic signalling pathway controls many cellular processes, including fertilization, cell growth, transformation, secretion, smooth muscle contraction, sensory perception and neuronal signalling.

  20. Calcium orthophosphates in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Dorozhkin, Sergey V

    2013-06-01

    Dental caries, also known as tooth decay or a cavity, remains a major public health problem in the most communities even though the prevalence of disease has decreased since the introduction of fluorides for dental care. Therefore, biomaterials to fill dental defects appear to be necessary to fulfill customers' needs regarding the properties and the processing of the products. Bioceramics and glass-ceramics are widely used for these purposes, as dental inlays, onlays, veneers, crowns or bridges. Calcium orthophosphates belong to bioceramics but they have some specific advantages over other types of bioceramics due to a chemical similarity to the inorganic part of both human and mammalian bones and teeth. Therefore, calcium orthophosphates (both alone and as components of various formulations) are used in dentistry as both dental fillers and implantable scaffolds. This review provides brief information on calcium orthophosphates and describes in details current state-of-the-art on their applications in dentistry and dentistry-related fields. Among the recognized dental specialties, calcium orthophosphates are most frequently used in periodontics; however, the majority of the publications on calcium orthophosphates in dentistry are devoted to unspecified "dental" fields. PMID:23468163

  1. Calcium metal to synthesize amorphous or cryptocrystalline calcium phosphates A. Cuneyt Tas

    E-print Network

    Tas, A. Cuneyt

    Calcium metal to synthesize amorphous or cryptocrystalline calcium phosphates A. Cuneyt Tas Accepted 30 January 2012 Available online 10 February 2012 Keywords: Amorphous Cryptocrystalline Calcium Metal Phosphate Synthesis Metallic calcium was never used before as the calcium source in synthesizing

  2. An XAFS Study of Niobium chloride in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride/ aluminum chloride

    SciTech Connect

    D Roeper; K Pandya; G Cheek; W OGrady

    2011-12-31

    Niobium chloride was studied with extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) in acidic and basic aluminum chloride/1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride (EMIC) ionic liquids. Although anhydrous Nb2Cl10 is more soluble in the basic melt than in the acidic melt, the EXAFS data shows that the coordination shell around the niobium does not change in the different ionic liquids. Both the acidic and basic melts show a coordination of five chlorides in the first shell. This indicates that in this series of ionic liquids, the Nb2Cl10 breaks up into two NbCl5 entities in both the acidic and the basic melts.

  3. Calcium metabolism and correcting calcium deficiencies.

    PubMed

    Emkey, Ronald D; Emkey, Gregory R

    2012-09-01

    Calcium is the most abundant cation in the human body, of which approximately 99% occurs in bone, contributing to its rigidity and strength. Bone also functions as a reservoir of Ca for its role in multiple physiologic and biochemical processes. This article aims to provide a thorough understanding of the absorptive mechanisms and factors affecting these processes to enable one to better appreciate an individual's Ca needs, and to provide a rationale for correcting Ca deficiencies. An overview of Ca requirements and suggested dosing regimens is presented, with discussion of various Ca preparations and potential toxicities of Ca treatment. PMID:22877428

  4. Mepivacaine-induced intracellular calcium increase appears to be mediated primarily by calcium influx in rat aorta without endothelium

    PubMed Central

    Ok, Seong-Ho; Kwon, Seong-Chun; Kang, Sebin; Choi, Mun-Jeoung

    2014-01-01

    Background Mepivacaine induces contraction or decreased blood flow both in vivo and in vitro. Vasoconstriction is associated with an increase in the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i). However, the mechanism responsible for the mepivacaine-evoked [Ca2+]i increase remains to be determined. Therefore, the objective of this in vitro study was to examine the mechanism responsible for the mepivacaine-evoked [Ca2+]i increment in isolated rat aorta. Methods Isometric tension was measured in isolated rat aorta without endothelium. In addition, fura-2 loaded aortic muscle strips were illuminated alternately (48 Hz) at two excitation wavelengths (340 and 380 nm). The ratio of F340 to F380 (F340/F380) was regarded as an amount of [Ca2+]i. We investigated the effects of nifedipine, 2-aminoethoxydiphenylborate (2-APB), gadolinium chloride hexahydrate (Gd3+), low calcium level and Krebs solution without calcium on the mepivacaine-evoked contraction in isolated rat aorta and on the mepivacaine-evoked [Ca2+]i increment in fura-2 loaded aortic strips. We assessed the effect of verapamil on the mepivacaine-evoked [Ca2+]i increment. Results Mepivacaine produced vasoconstriction and increased [Ca2+]i. Nifedipine, 2-APB and low calcium attenuated vasoconstriction and the [Ca2+]i increase evoked by mepivacaine. Verapamil attenuated the mepivacaine-induced [Ca2+]i increment. Calcium-free solution almost abolished mepivacaine-induced contraction and strongly attenuated the mepivacaineinduced [Ca2+]i increase. Gd3+ had no effect on either vasoconstriction or the [Ca2+]i increment evoked by mepivacaine. Conclusions The mepivacaine-evoked [Ca2+]i increment, which contributes to mepivacaine-evoked contraction, appears to be mediated mainly by calcium influx and partially by calcium released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. PMID:25558341

  5. Production of anhydrous aluminum chloride composition

    DOEpatents

    Vandergrift, G.F. III; Krumpelt, M.; Horwitz, E.P.

    1981-10-08

    A process is described for producing an anhydrous aluminum chloride composition from a water-based aluminous material such as a slurry of aluminum hydroxide in a multistage extraction process in which the aluminum ion is first extracted into an organic liquid containing an acidic extractant and then extracted from the organic phase into an alkali metal chloride or chlorides to form a melt containing a mixture of chlorides of alkali metal and aluminum. In the process, the organic liquid may be recycled. In addition, the process advantageously includes an electrolysis cell for producing metallic aluminum and the alkali metal chloride or chlorides may be recycled for extraction of the aluminum from the organic phase.

  6. Calcium absorption from a new calcium delivery system (CCM)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth T. Smith; Robert P. Heaney; Lawrence Flora; Sharilyn M. Hinders

    1987-01-01

    Absorption of calcium from a highly soluble form of calcium, a mixed calcium citrate-malate* salt (CCM), was tested against calcium carbonate and milk in both rats and humans. The rat method estimated absorption from\\u000a the 6-day retention of an oral tracer, and the human method employed the standard double-isotope procedure. CCM was given\\u000a both as a dry powder and in

  7. Molecular Structure of Sodium chloride

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-08-15

    Sodium chloride, or simply (table) salt, is found in the mineral Halite (rock salt) but also in seawater, sweat, etc. It is used in industry and in our everyday life, for seasoning and perserving food or for winter road maintenance. Seawater contains a lot of salt, on average of 2.6% NaCl, or 26 million metric tons per cubic kilometer. In rock salt the NaCl content typically ranges between 95% and 99% NaCl, and mechanically evaporated salt and solar salt normally exceed 99% NaCl.

  8. Chloride Transporting CLC Proteins1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pusch, Michael

    In the early 1980s, Chris Miller and colleagues described a curious "double-barreled" chloride channel from the electric organ of Torpedo fish reconstituted in planar lipid bilayers (Miller and White, 1980). Single-channel openings occurred in "bursts" separated by long closures. A single burst was characterized by the presence of two open conductance levels of equal size and the gating (i.e., openings and closings) during a burst could be almost perfectly described as a superposition of two identical and independent conductances that switched between open and closed states with voltage-dependent rates ? and ? (Hanke and Miller, 1983) (Fig. 8.1).

  9. Metal chloride cathode for a battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Distefano, Salvador; Bankston, C. Perry

    1991-05-01

    A method of fabricating a rechargeable battery is disclosed which includes a positive electrode which contains a chloride of a selected metal when the electrode is in its active state. The improvement comprises fabricating the positive electrode by: providing a porous matrix composed of a metal; providing a solution of the chloride of the selected metal; and impregnating the matrix with the chloride from the solution.

  10. Metal chloride cathode for a battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (inventor); Distefano, Salvador (inventor); Bankston, C. Perry (inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A method of fabricating a rechargeable battery is disclosed which includes a positive electrode which contains a chloride of a selected metal when the electrode is in its active state. The improvement comprises fabricating the positive electrode by: providing a porous matrix composed of a metal; providing a solution of the chloride of the selected metal; and impregnating the matrix with the chloride from the solution.

  11. CALCIUM-INDUCED SUPRAMOLECULAR STRUCTURES IN THE CALCIUM CASEINATE SYSTEM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The molecular details deciphering the spontaneous calcium-induced protein aggregation process in the calcium caseinate system remain obscure. Understanding this complex process could lead to potential new applications of this important food ingredient. In this work, we studied calcium-induced supra...

  12. 21 CFR 573.260 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 573.260 Section 573.260 Food and...ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.260 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium silicate,...

  13. 21 CFR 573.260 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 573.260 Section 573.260 Food and...ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.260 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium silicate,...

  14. 21 CFR 573.260 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 573.260 Section 573.260 Food and...ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.260 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium silicate,...

  15. 21 CFR 172.410 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium silicate. 172.410 Section 172.410 Food and...CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.410 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium silicate,...

  16. 21 CFR 172.410 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 172.410 Section 172.410 Food and...CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.410 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium silicate,...

  17. 21 CFR 573.260 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 573.260 Section 573.260 Food and...ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.260 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium silicate,...

  18. 21 CFR 172.410 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 172.410 Section 172.410 Food and...CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.410 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium silicate,...

  19. 21 CFR 172.410 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 172.410 Section 172.410 Food and...CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.410 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium silicate,...

  20. 21 CFR 573.260 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 573.260 Section 573.260 Food and...ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.260 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium silicate,...

  1. 21 CFR 172.410 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 172.410 Section 172.410 Food and...CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.410 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium silicate,...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1199 - Calcium gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...1199 Calcium gluconate. (a) Calcium gluconate ([CH2 OH(CHOH...Reg. No. 299-28-5) is the calcium salt of gluconic acid which may...neutralization of gluconic acid with lime or calcium carbonate. (b) The...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1199 - Calcium gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...1199 Calcium gluconate. (a) Calcium gluconate ([CH2 OH(CHOH...Reg. No. 299-28-5) is the calcium salt of gluconic acid which may...neutralization of gluconic acid with lime or calcium carbonate. (b) The...

  4. Production of chlorine from chloride salts

    DOEpatents

    Rohrmann, Charles A. (Kennewick, WA)

    1981-01-01

    A process for converting chloride salts and sulfuric acid to sulfate salts and elemental chlorine is disclosed. A chloride salt and sulfuric acid are combined in a furnace where they react to produce a sulfate salt and hydrogen chloride. Hydrogen chloride from the furnace contacts a molten salt mixture containing an oxygen compound of vanadium, an alkali metal sulfate and an alkali metal pyrosulfate to recover elemental chlorine. In the absence of an oxygen-bearing gas during the contacting, the vanadium is reduced, but is regenerated to its active higher valence state by separately contacting the molten salt mixture with an oxygen-bearing gas.

  5. 75 FR 20625 - Barium Chloride From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ...INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-149 (Third Review)] Barium Chloride From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the subject...

  6. Calcium carbonate with magnesium overdose

    MedlinePLUS

    The combination of calcium carbonate and magnesium is commonly found in antacids, which are medicines that provide heartburn relief. Calcium carbonate with magnesium overdose occurs when someone accidentally or ...

  7. Measurement of platelet ionized calcium.

    PubMed

    Salzman, E W; Johnson, P; Ware, J A

    1985-01-01

    We measured ionized cytoplasmic calcium in human blood platelets by two techniques: one based on the fluorescence of intracellular Quin 2 and the other based on the luminescence of the calcium sensitive photoprotein, aequorin. Platelet activation (shape change, aggregation, secretion) induced by thrombin, ADP, epinephrine, collagen, A23187, or phorbol ester was invariably preceded or accompanied by a rise in platelet free calcium indicated by aequorin, but in some cases Quin 2 failed to detect the elevation of calcium concentration. Aequorin appears to be sensitive to localized changes in cytoplasmic calcium levels, while Quin 2 reflects average or diffuse calcium values. Failure of Quin 2 to indicate a rise in free calcium levels in association with a platelet activity does not establish the process as "calcium independent". PMID:2997700

  8. AN INTEGRATIVE VIEW OF SODIUM CHLORIDE STRESS AND PHAEOMONIELLA SP. INOCULATION ON GROWTH AND NUTRIENT ACCUMULATION AND PATTERNING IN IN VITRO GRAPEVINE PLANTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helena Oliveira; Conceição Santos

    2011-01-01

    Combined effects of salt stress and esca disease in grapevines were studied. Grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) were exposed to 0, 20, and 100 mM sodium chloride (NaCl) and inoculated with Phaeomoniella chlamydospora conidia. Salt stress and inoculation reduced plant RGR and LAR and this effect was higher when both stressors were present. Salt stress decreased potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium

  9. Potentiometric titration of chloride in plant tissue extracts using the chloride ion electrode

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. LaCroix; D. R. Keeney; L. M. Walsh

    1970-01-01

    Use of the chloride specific ion electrode to determine chloride in plants was evaluted. Direct potentiometric determination of chloride by the electrode resulted in unreproducible and extremely high chloride values. However, use of this electrode to indicate the end point in titration of the tissue?extract mixture with AgNO3 gave results nearly identical to those obtained by the Mohr procedure. The

  10. Inhibitory effects of calmodulin antagonists on urinary enzyme excretion in rats after nephrotoxic doses of mercuric chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, S.D. Jr.; Cox, J.L.; Giles, R.C. Jr.

    1985-03-01

    Prochlorperazine, a phenothiazine antiemetic, has been reported to protect rats against mercuric chloride (HgCl/sub 2/)-induced nephrotoxicity. Mercuric ion and 12 other divalent metal ions of toxicologic importance inhibit the activity of calmodulin, a ubiquitous intracellular calcium receptor and regulatory protein, at physiologically relevant concentrations. Phenothiazines, including prochlorperazine, are reversible calmodulin antagonists, and as such they interact with divalent calcium at the level of calmodulin. It was of interest therefore to evaluate the comparative effects of several phenothiazines on HgCl/sub 2/-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

  11. Enrofloxacin hydro­chloride dihydrate

    PubMed Central

    Miranda-Calderón, Jorge E.; Gutiérrez, Lilia; Flores-Alamo, Marcos; García-Gutiérrez, Ponciano; Sumano, Héctor

    2014-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C19H23FN3O3 +·Cl?·2H2O [systematic name: 4-(3-carb­oxy-1-cyclo­propyl-6-fluoro-4-oxo-1,4-di­hydro­quin­o­lin-7-yl)-1-ethyl­piperazin-1-ium chloride dihydrate], consists of two independent monocations of the protonated enrofloxacin, two chloride anions and four water mol­ecules. In the cations, the piperazinium rings adopt chair conformations and the dihedral angles between the cyclo­propyl ring and the 10-membered quinoline ring system are 56.55?(2) and 51.11?(2)°. An intra­molecular O—H?O hydrogen bond is observed in each cation. In the crystal, the components are connected via O—H?Cl, N—H?Cl and O—H?O hydrogen bonds, and a ?–? inter­action between the benzene rings [centroid–centroid distance = 3.6726?(13)?Å], resulting in a three-dimensional array. PMID:24826167

  12. Chloride Analysis of RFSA Second Campaign Dissolver Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, H.P.

    2001-05-17

    The dissolver solution from the second RFSA campaign was analyzed for chloride using the recently-developed turbidimetric method. Prior to chloride removal in head end, the solution contained 1625 ppm chloride. After chloride removal with Hg(I) and prior to feeding to solvent extraction, the solution contained only 75 ppm chloride. This report discusses those analysis results.

  13. Impregnating Coal With Calcium Carbonate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, Pramod K.; Voecks, Gerald E.; Gavalas, George R.

    1991-01-01

    Relatively inexpensive process proposed for impregnating coal with calcium carbonate to increase rates of gasification and combustion of coal and to reduce emission of sulfur by trapping sulfur in calcium sulfide. Process involves aqueous-phase reactions between carbon dioxide (contained within pore network of coal) and calcium acetate. Coal impregnated with CO2 by exposing it to CO2 at high pressure.

  14. The Plasma Membrane Calcium Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasmussen, H.

    1983-01-01

    Three aspect of cellular calcium metabolism in animal cells was discussed including the importance of the plasma membrane in calcium homeostasis, experiments dealing with the actual mechanism of the calcium pump, and the function of the pump in relationship to the mitochondria and to the function of calmodulin in the intact cell.

  15. Osteoinduction by calcium phosphate biomaterials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huipin Yuan; Zongjian Yang; Yubao Li; Xingdong Zhang; J. D. De Bruijn; K. De Groot

    1998-01-01

    Different materials were implanted in muscles of dogs to study the osteoinduction of calcium phosphate biomaterials. Bone formation was only seen in calcium phosphate biomaterials with micropores, and could be found in hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramic, tricalcium phosphate\\/hydroxyapatite ceramic (BCP), ß-TCP ceramic and calcium phosphate cement. The osteoinductive potential was different in different materials. The results indicate that osteoinduction can be

  16. XAFS Studies of Ni Ta and Nb Chlorides in the Ionic Liquid 1-Ethyl-3-Methyl Imidazolium Chloride / Aluminum Chloride

    SciTech Connect

    W OGrady; D Roeper; K Pandya; G Cheek

    2011-12-31

    The structures of anhydrous nickel, niobium, and tantalum chlorides have been investigated in situ in acidic and basic ionic liquids (ILs) of 1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride (EMIC)/AlCl{sub 3} with X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The coordination of NiCl{sub 2} changes from tetrahedral in basic solution to octahedral in acidic solution. The NiCl{sub 2} is a strong Lewis acid in that it can induce the AlCl{sub 3} to share its chlorides in the highly acidic IL, forming a structure with six near Cl{sup -} ions and eight further distant Al ions which share the chloride ions surrounding the Ni{sup 2+}. When Nb{sub 2}Cl{sub 10}, a dimer, is added to the acidic or basic solution, the dimer breaks apart and forms two species. In the acid solution, two trigonal bipyramids are formed with five equal chloride distances, while in the basic solution, a square pyramid with four chlorides forming a square base and one shorter axial chloride bond. Ta{sub 2}Cl{sub 10} is also a dimer and divides into half in the acidic solution and forms two trigonal bipyramids. In the basic solution, the dimer breaks apart but the species formed is sufficiently acidic that it attracts two additional chloride ions and forms a seven coordinated tantalum species.

  17. The initial phases of calcium and magnesium phosphates precipitated from solutions of high to medium concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbona, F.; Madsen, H. E. Lundager; Boistelle, R.

    1986-04-01

    The precipitation of calcium and magnesium phosphates is performed at 25°C by mixing solutions of ammonium phosphate and solutions of calcium and magnesium chlorides under the condition [ P] = [ Ca] + [ Mg] in large pH intervals. Before any nucleation the phosphate concentration ranges from 0.50M to 0.01M. The phases first precipitated are CaHPO 4·2H 2O (brushite), CaHPO 4 (monetite), Ca 3(PO 4) 2· xH 2O (amorphous calcium phosphate), MgNH 4PO 4·6H 2O (struvite), and MgHPO 4·3H 2O (newberyite). The precipitation fields of each phase are determined and discussed as a function of pH, composition and supersaturation. The solutions are even supersaturated with respect to several other calcium phosphates but they never occur first even if their supersaturation is the highest.

  18. Effect of Application of Ammonium Chloride and Calcium Chloride on Alfalfa Cation-Anion Content and Yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Periparturient hypocalcemia, or milk fever, occurs in dairy cattle when their dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) is too high. DCAD can be favorably altered to prevent milk fever by either decreasing K and Na or increasing Cl and S in forages for cows in late gestation. The objective of this st...

  19. Synthesis of sodium caseinate-calcium carbonate microspheres and their mineralization to bone-like apatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhewu; Liang, Guobin; Jin, Lin; Wang, Zhenling; Xing, Chao; Jiange, Qing; Zhang, Zhiguang

    2014-06-01

    Phosphoproteins can induce and stabilize calcium carbonate (CaCO3) vaterite, which has desirable features for high reactivity. The purpose of this study was to synthesize bioactive CaCO3 microspheres for bone regeneration. Sodium caseinate (NaCas)-containing CaCO3 microspheres, with the crystal phase of vaterite, were synthesized by fast precipitation in an aqueous solution of CaCl2, Na2CO3, and 2 mg/mL of NaCas. The uniform microspheres exhibited rougher surfaces and lower negative charges than CaCO3 particles without NaCas addition. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) of the microspheres showed characteristic peaks or bands corresponding to phosphate and hydroxyl groups. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) curves exhibited approximately 5% weight loss below 600 °C due to the decomposition of NaCas. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images showed lath-like hydroxyapatite (HAp) on the surface after soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 °C for 5 and 10 days. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) revealed that the agglomerates were composed of Ca, C, O, P, Na, and Mg elements, and the Ca/P ratios ranged from 1.53 to 1.56. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns exhibited peaks characteristic of hydroxyapatite. The results of this study demonstrated that the addition of NaCas induced the formation of vaterite microspheres which possesses an enhanced apatite formation after soaking in SBF at 37 °C for 5 and 10 days. These NaCas-CaCO3 microspheres may be a potential biomaterial for bone regeneration.

  20. Calcium Increases Xylella fastidiosa Surface Attachment, Biofilm Formation, and Twitching Motility

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Luisa F.; Cobine, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a plant-pathogenic bacterium that forms biofilms inside xylem vessels, a process thought to be influenced by the chemical composition of xylem sap. In this work, the effect of calcium on the production of X. fastidiosa biofilm and movement was analyzed under in vitro conditions. After a dose-response study with 96-well plates using eight metals, the strongest increase of biofilm formation was observed when medium was supplemented with at least 1.0 mM CaCl2. The removal of Ca by extracellular (EGTA, 1.5 mM) and intracellular [1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N?,N?-tetraacetic acid acetoxymethyl ester (BAPTA/AM), 75 ?M] chelators reduced biofilm formation without compromising planktonic growth. The concentration of Ca influenced the force of adhesion to the substrate, biofilm thickness, cell-to-cell aggregation, and twitching motility, as shown by assays with microfluidic chambers and other assays. The effect of Ca on attachment was lost when cells were treated with tetracycline, suggesting that Ca has a metabolic or regulatory role in cell adhesion. A double mutant (fimA pilO) lacking type I and type IV pili did not improve biofilm formation or attachment when Ca was added to the medium, while single mutants of type I (fimA) or type IV (pilB) pili formed more biofilm under conditions of higher Ca concentrations. The concentration of Ca in the medium did not significantly influence the levels of exopolysaccharide produced. Our findings indicate that the role of Ca in biofilm formation may be related to the initial surface and cell-to-cell attachment and colonization stages of biofilm establishment, which rely on critical functions by fimbrial structures. PMID:22194297

  1. Utilization by sheep of whole shelled corn impregnated with urea, calcium, potassium and sulfur.

    PubMed

    Koeln, L L; Webb, K E; Fontenot, J P

    1985-08-01

    Twenty-eight growing wether lambs (33.9 kg), adapted to urea for 40 d, were used in a metabolism study to determine if urea impregnation of corn could improve urea utilization. The following diets were compared: 1) whole shelled corn alone, 2) whole shelled corn impregnated with urea, calcium (Ca) as CaCl2, potassium (K) as KC2H3O2, and sulfur (S) as Na2S2O3 X 5H2O, 3) whole shelled corn fed with a dry supplement containing urea, Ca, K and S and 4) whole shelled corn fed with a dry supplement containing soybean meal, Ca and K. Additions were made to provide diets containing 12% crude protein, .37% Ca and .50% K. A 10:1 N (from urea) to S ratio, dry basis was used in urea-containing diets. Corn (90% dry matter) in diet 2 was impregnated by spraying 1.1 liters of an aqueous solution containing the above salts per 10 kg of corn dry matter. After mixing for 10 min in a horizontal mixer, the corn was dried in a laboratory grain drying bin with ambient laboratory air for 48 h. Lambs were fed 350 g of the respective diets plus 35 g orchardgrass hay twice daily during a 20-d metabolism trial. On the last day of the trial, ruminal fluid samples were collected at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 h postfeeding and jugular blood was obtained at 0 and 6 h postfeeding. Nitrogen-supplemented diets resulted in increased (P less than .01) absorption and retention of N. Digestibility of dry matter, organic matter and NFE tended to be greater in lambs fed impregnated corn than in lambs fed the other diets.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:4044447

  2. Calcium increases Xylella fastidiosa surface attachment, biofilm formation, and twitching motility.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Luisa F; Cobine, Paul A; De La Fuente, Leonardo

    2012-03-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a plant-pathogenic bacterium that forms biofilms inside xylem vessels, a process thought to be influenced by the chemical composition of xylem sap. In this work, the effect of calcium on the production of X. fastidiosa biofilm and movement was analyzed under in vitro conditions. After a dose-response study with 96-well plates using eight metals, the strongest increase of biofilm formation was observed when medium was supplemented with at least 1.0 mM CaCl(2). The removal of Ca by extracellular (EGTA, 1.5 mM) and intracellular [1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid acetoxymethyl ester (BAPTA/AM), 75 ?M] chelators reduced biofilm formation without compromising planktonic growth. The concentration of Ca influenced the force of adhesion to the substrate, biofilm thickness, cell-to-cell aggregation, and twitching motility, as shown by assays with microfluidic chambers and other assays. The effect of Ca on attachment was lost when cells were treated with tetracycline, suggesting that Ca has a metabolic or regulatory role in cell adhesion. A double mutant (fimA pilO) lacking type I and type IV pili did not improve biofilm formation or attachment when Ca was added to the medium, while single mutants of type I (fimA) or type IV (pilB) pili formed more biofilm under conditions of higher Ca concentrations. The concentration of Ca in the medium did not significantly influence the levels of exopolysaccharide produced. Our findings indicate that the role of Ca in biofilm formation may be related to the initial surface and cell-to-cell attachment and colonization stages of biofilm establishment, which rely on critical functions by fimbrial structures. PMID:22194297

  3. Calcium silicate insulation structure

    DOEpatents

    Kollie, Thomas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1995-01-01

    An insulative structure including a powder-filled evacuated casing utilizes a quantity of finely divided synthetic calcium silicate having a relatively high surface area. The resultant structure-provides superior thermal insulating characteristics over a broad temperature range and is particularly well-suited as a panel for a refrigerator or freezer or the insulative barrier for a cooler or a insulated bottle.

  4. Calcium and Vitamin D

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adequate intakes of vitamin D and calcium are essential preventative measures and essential components of any therapeutic regimen for osteoporosis. Vitamin D is also important for the prevention of falls. Current evidence suggests that a 25-hydroxyvitamin D level of 75 nmol/L (30 ng/ml) or higher ...

  5. Calcium biofortification of crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More than half of the world's population is deficient in calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), iodine (I), magnesium (Mg), selenium (Se), or zinc (Zn). The consumption of plants, directly or via livestock, containing inadequate concentrations of particular minerals causes these deficiencies. Agronomic and geneti...

  6. Calcium Phosphate Nanoparticle Adjuvant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    QING HE; ALAINA R. MITCHELL; STACY L. JOHNSON; CLAUS WAGNER-BARTAK; TULIN MORCOL; STEVE J. D. BELL

    2000-01-01

    Vaccination to protect against human infectious diseases may be enhanced by using adjuvants that can selec- tively stimulate immunoregulatory responses. In a murine model, a novel nanoparticulate adjuvant composed of calcium phosphate (CAP) was compared with the commonly used aluminum (alum) adjuvants for its ability to induce immunity to herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections.

  7. High Blood Calcium (Hypercalcemia)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... tests to further assess your condition, such as checking your blood levels of phosphorus (a mineral). Imaging studies also may be helpful, such as bone mineral density, ultrasound, or other types of scans. How is HigH blood calcium treated? ...

  8. Dehalogenation of aromatic halides using metallic calcium in ethanol.

    PubMed

    Mitoma, Y; Nagashima, S; Simion, C; Simion, A M; Yamada, T; Mimura, K; Ishimoto, K; Tashiro, M

    2001-10-15

    The scope and limitations of the dehalogenation of aromatic halides 1 and 4a-p using metallic calcium in ethanol at room temperature were revealed. The cleavage of the carbon-chlorine bond on the aromatic ring bearing electron-donating group was difficult compared to the one bearing electron-withdrawing group. Moreover, we applied this method to the dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in transformer oil. It was also found that the dechlorination took place easily under mild conditions. The existence of PCBs residue in the reaction at room temperature was less than 0.04% according to the GC-MS analysis. The chlorine was identified as calcium chloride. PMID:11686379

  9. LOW CONCENTRATION MERCURY SORPTION MECHANISMS AND CONTROL BY CALCIUM-BASED SORBENTS; APPLICATION IN COAL-FIRED PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The capture of elemental mercury (Hgo) and mercuric chloride (HgCl2) by three types of calcium (Ca)-based sorbents was examined in this bench-scale study under conditions prevalent in coal fired utilities. Ca-based sorbent performances were compared to that of an activated carbon...

  10. Biochimica etBiophysicaActa, 769 (1984) 429-439 429 CALCIUM RELEASE FROM TWO FRACTIONS OF SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM FROM

    E-print Network

    Terasaki, Mark

    1984-01-01

    -l), suggestive of heterogeneity within each fraction. Replacement of 120 mM KCI with either 120 mM choline chloride, 240 mM sucrose, or H20 reduced maximal calcium sequestration by LSR, but had less effect on LSR

  11. Air pollution and plants: hydrogen chloride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1972-01-01

    The sensitivity of plants is discussed in relation to both hydrogen chloride and chlorine. At the present time, the burning of chloride containing plastics is a major source of HCl. It has been assumed that the origin of the gaseous form of natural atmospheric Clâ results from volcanic activity. However, the high concentrations of Clâ necessary to injure vegetation are

  12. Process for synthesis of beryllium chloride dietherate

    DOEpatents

    Bergeron, Charles (Baton Rouge, LA); Bullard, John E. (Kendall Park, NJ); Morgan, Evan (Lynchburg, VA)

    1991-01-01

    A low temperature method of producing beryllium chloride dietherate through the addition of hydrogen chloride gas to a mixture of beryllium metal in ether in a reaction vessel is described. A reflux condenser provides an exit for hydrogen produced form the reaction. A distillation condenser later replaces the reflux condenser for purifying the resultant product.

  13. Metabolism of chloride in halophilic prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Müller, Volker; Oren, Aharon

    2003-08-01

    While much understanding has been achieved on the intracellular sodium and potassium concentrations of halophilic and halotolerant microorganisms and on their regulation, we know little on the metabolism of anions. Archaea of the family Halobacteriaceae contain molar concentrations of chloride, which is pumped into the cells by cotransport with sodium ions and/or using the light-driven primary chloride pump halorhodopsin. Most halophilic and halotolerant representatives of the bacterial domain contain low intracellular ion concentrations, with organic osmotic solutes providing osmotic balance. However, some species show a specific requirement for chloride. In Halobacillus halophilus certain functions, such as growth, endospore germination, motility and flagellar synthesis, and glycine betaine transport are chloride dependent. In this organism the expression of a large number of proteins is chloride regulated. Other moderately halophilic Bacteria such as Halomonas elongata do not show a specific demand for chloride. A very high requirement for chloride was demonstrated in two groups of Bacteria that accumulate inorganic salts intracellularly rather than using organic osmotic solutes: the anaerobic Halanaerobiales and the aerobic extremely halophilic Salinibacter ruber. It is thus becoming increasingly clear that chloride has specific functions in haloadaptation in different groups of halophilic microorganisms. PMID:12728360

  14. Calcium channels and prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Shapovalov, George; Skryma, Roman; Prevarskaya, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    Calcium channels significantly contribute to many cellular processes, including such critical ones as proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. In prostate cancer, the influence of calcium channels has been known for over 30 years, with the first observations that calcium channel blockers affect the progression of cancer towards more aggressive phase. Later research identified additional classes of channel proteins having an important regulatory role and affecting malignant transformation. This review discusses the accumulated scientific knowledge focused on calcium channel involvement in regulation of cell fate in prostate tissues as well as recent developments in patents targeted at prostate cancer treatments and involving calcium channel modulators. PMID:22694290

  15. Calcium Phosphates and Human Beings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorozhkin, Sergey V.

    2006-05-01

    This article describes the general importance of calcium phosphates for human beings. The basic information on the structure and chemical properties of the biologically relevant calcium phosphates is summarized. Basic facts on the natural occurrence and the industrial use of natural calcium phosphates are discussed. Fundamental details on the presence of calcium phosphates in major calcified tissues (bones and teeth) of humans and mammals, as well as on biomaterials made of calcium phosphates are discussed. The article will be of value for chemistry teachers for expansion of their general background and point the students' attention to the rapidly growing topic of bone-substituting biomaterials.

  16. Mercury Control with Calcium-Based Sorbents and Oxidizing Agents

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas K. Gale

    2005-07-01

    This Final Report contains the test descriptions, results, analysis, correlations, theoretical descriptions, and model derivations produced from many different investigations performed on a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, to investigate calcium-based sorbents and injection of oxidizing agents for the removal of mercury. Among the technologies were (a) calcium-based sorbents in general, (b) oxidant-additive sorbents developed originally at the EPA, and (c) optimized calcium/carbon synergism for mercury-removal enhancement. In addition, (d) sodium-tetrasulfide injection was found to effectively capture both forms of mercury across baghouses and ESPs, and has since been demonstrated at a slipstream treating PRB coal. It has been shown that sodium-tetrasulfide had little impact on the foam index of PRB flyash, which may indicate that sodium-tetrasulfide injection could be used at power plants without affecting flyash sales. Another technology, (e) coal blending, was shown to be an effective means of increasing mercury removal, by optimizing the concentration of calcium and carbon in the flyash. In addition to the investigation and validation of multiple mercury-control technologies (a through e above), important fundamental mechanism governing mercury kinetics in flue gas were elucidated. For example, it was shown, for the range of chlorine and unburned-carbon (UBC) concentrations in coal-fired utilities, that chlorine has much less effect on mercury oxidation and removal than UBC in the flyash. Unburned carbon enhances mercury oxidation in the flue gas by reacting with HCl to form chlorinated-carbon sites, which then react with elemental mercury to form mercuric chloride, which subsequently desorbs back into the flue gas. Calcium was found to enhance mercury removal by stabilizing the oxidized mercury formed on carbon surfaces. Finally, a model was developed to describe these mercury adsorption, desorption, oxidation, and removal mechanisms, including the synergistic enhancement of mercury removal by calcium.

  17. Inward calcium current in twitch muscle fibres of the frog.

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, J A; Stefani, E

    1978-01-01

    1. Voltage clamp experiments using the three micro-electrode voltage clamp technique were performed on sartorius muscles of the frog. 2. By blocking potassium currents with tetraethylammonium and replacing chloride ions with sulphate a slow inward current was detected. 3. The slow inward current is mainly carried by calcium, since it is abolished by cobalt and D-600, it depends on external calcium, and is not affected by removing external sodium or by tetrodotoxin (TTX). 4. The slow inward current has a mean threshold of -40 mV, reaches a mean maximum value at ca. 0 mV of 81 microamperemetercm-2 and has a mean reversal potential of +38 mV. 5. The calcium current is inactivated by the application of 2 sec conditioning prepulses according to a sigmoid curve with V(h) = -42 mV and k = 6.2 mV. 6. The slow time course of this calcium current makes it rather unlikely that it participates in contraction during a twitch, but it might be activated during long depolarizations as potassium contractures. PMID:309941

  18. Evaluation of a routine method for determination of calcium oxalate crystal growth inhibition in diluted urine samples.

    PubMed

    Tiselius, H G; Fornander, A M

    1981-04-01

    We have evaluated a routine method for determination of the inhibition of calcium oxalate crystal growth in diluted urine samples. A crystallization inhibition index is calculated from the decrease in [14C]oxalate concentration in a metastable solution of calcium chloride and sodium oxalate after addition of seed crystals of calcium oxalate. The coefficient of variation between different determinations on the same sample is less than 1.5%, and there is good correspondence between indices obtained by this method and by a more laborious older method. We also studied the influence of different urinary constituents on the crystal growth rate in the system; whereas there was significant inhibition with citrate, chondritin sulfate, and pyrophosphate, no effects were observed with ordinary urinary concentrations of calcium, magnesium, and oxalate. The mean inhibition index was lower in a group of male patients with calcium oxalate stone disease than in a control group of normal men. PMID:7471423

  19. Sodium-metal chloride batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.

    1992-02-01

    It was concluded that rapid development in the technology of sodium metal chloride batteries has been achieved in the last decade mainly due to the: expertise available with sodium sulfur system; safety; and flexibility in design and fabrication. Long cycle lives of over 1000 and high energy densities of approx. 100 Wh/kg have been demonstrated in both Na/FeCl2 and Na/NiCl2 cells. Optimization of porous cathode and solid electrolyte geometries are essential for further enhancing the battery performance. Fundamental studies confirm the capabilities of these systems. Nickel dichloride emerges as the candidate cathode material for high power density applications such as electric vehicle and space.

  20. Sodium-metal chloride batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.

    1992-01-01

    It was concluded that rapid development in the technology of sodium metal chloride batteries has been achieved in the last decade mainly due to the: expertise available with sodium sulfur system; safety; and flexibility in design and fabrication. Long cycle lives of over 1000 and high energy densities of approx. 100 Wh/kg have been demonstrated in both Na/FeCl2 and Na/NiCl2 cells. Optimization of porous cathode and solid electrolyte geometries are essential for further enhancing the battery performance. Fundamental studies confirm the capabilities of these systems. Nickel dichloride emerges as the candidate cathode material for high power density applications such as electric vehicle and space.