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1

Flocculation of kaolin in water using novel calcium chloride-polyacrylamide (CaCl 2PAM) hybrid polymer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flocculation of kaolin suspension in water using a novel calcium chloride-polyacrylamide hybrid polymer has been studied. A redox initiation system – (NH4)2S2O8 and NaHSO3 was used to initiate free radical solution polymerization of one molar acrylamide solution at 50°C. One mole of calcium chloride was blended with polymerized acrylamide solution to synthesis a novel inorganic–organic composite polymer (CaCl2-PAM hybrid

Khai Ern Lee; Tjoon Tow Teng; Norhashimah Morad; Beng Teik Poh; Yong Fu Hong

2010-01-01

2

21 CFR 184.1193 - Calcium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 184.1193 Section 184.1193 ...Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1193 Calcium chloride. (a) Calcium chloride (CaCl2 ·2H2 O, CAS Reg. No....

2013-04-01

3

EFFECT OF CALCIUM CHLORIDE SPRAYS AT DIFFERENT WATER VOLUMES ON “SZAMPION” APPLE CALCIUM CONCENTRATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to examine the effect of calcium chloride sprays at different water volumes on ‘Szampion’ apple calcium (Ca) concentration. Apple trees were sprayed with CaCl2at a rate of 7 kg ha using 250, 500, 1000, and 1500 L of water which represents: 2.8, 1.4, 0.7 and 0.5% CaCl2 solution, respectively. Sprays with CaCl2 were applied

Pawel Wojcik

2001-01-01

4

The crystal growth kinetics of alpha calcium sulfate hemihydrate in concentrated CaCl2-HCl solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The crystal growth kinetics of calcium sulfate ?-hemihydrate (?-HH) in nearly constant supersaturated HCl-CaCl2 solutions were investigated. Two types of solutions were used, the first had a low HCl (1.4 mol/L) and high CaCl2 (2.8 mol/L) concentration and the second had a high HCl (5.6 mol/L) and low CaCl2 (0.7 mol/L) concentration. These conditions were chosen to represent the first and last stage of a newly developed stage-wise HCl regeneration process. The seeded growth experiments were carried out in a stirred, temperature controlled semi-batch reactor in which supersaturation was kept constant by simultaneous addition of CaCl2 and Na2SO4 solutions. The influence of the following parameters on ?-HH crystal growth was studied: temperature (70-95 °C), specific power input of stirring (0.02-1.29 W/kg) and equimolar inflow rate of CaCl2 and Na2SO4 (0-0.6 mol/h). The crystal growth rate was derived from particle size distribution measurements made with the laser light diffraction technique. It was found that the surface area normalized crystal growth rate increased linearly with the molar inflow rate up to 0.3 mol/h, at higher inflow rates no further increase of the growth rate was observed. Temperature and specific power input, within the investigated ranges, did not show a marked effect on the growth rate, attributable to a diffusion/adsorption controlled growth process. An interesting finding of the present research is the establishment of a positive relationship between the narrowing of the width of the particle size distribution with increasing crystal growth rate. The results show that the resulting particle size distribution is positively related to the reagent inflow rate, a finding that can be applied to the industrial design and scale-up of the ?-HH crystallization/HCl regeneration process.

Feldmann, Thomas; Demopoulos, George P.

2012-07-01

5

Electrochemical characteristics of uranium ions in calcium chloride hydrate melts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Redox reactions of tetravalent uranium ion in calcium chloride hexahydrate CaCl2·6H2O melt ([CaCl2] = 6.9 M) were studied electrochemically and spectrophotometrically. Cyclic voltammograms in CaCl2·6H2O melt containing UCl4 were measured with a pyro-graphite carbon working electrode. A cathodic peak corresponding to the reduction of U4+ to U3+ was observed, and it was found to be controlled by the diffusion of

A. Uehara; T. Fujii; T. Nagai; O. Shirai; N. Sato; H. Yamana

2010-01-01

6

Storage of low-temperature heat in salt-hydrate melts: Calcium chloride hexahydrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Topics covered include: storage of low-temperature heat in melts; chloride hexahydrate as a heat storage medium; methods of adapting CaCl2.6H2O for use as a heat storage medium-investigations of the chemical solubility properties of the CaCl2; H2O system; heat transfer characteristics of a heat of fusion storage system based on calcium chloride hexahydrate; and the development and construction of a heat

B. Carlsson; H. Stymne; G. Wettermark

1978-01-01

7

CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING IN CENTER, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING IN CENTER, CALCIUM CHLORIDE STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT WITH SA (SODA ASH) BUILDING IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Solvay Process Company, Calcium Chloride Plant, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

8

Inhibition of nitrite-induced toxicity in channel catfish by calcium chloride and sodium chloride  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Environmental chloride has been shown to inhibit methemoglobin formation in fish, thereby offering a protective effect against nitrite toxicity. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were simultaneously exposed to various environmental nitrite and chloride levels (as either CaCl2 or NaCl) in dechlorinated tap water (40 mg/L total hardness, 47 mg/L alkalinity, 4 mg/L chloride, pH = 6.9-7.1, and temperature 21-24°C). Methemoglobin levels in fish simultaneously exposed to 2.5 mg/L nitrite and up to 30 mg/L chloride as either CaCl2 or NaCl were similar but significantly lower than in unprotected fish. Exposure to 10 mg/L nitrite and 60 mg/L chloride resulted in methemoglobin levels similar to those of the controls; most unprotected fish died. Fish exposed to 10 mg/L nitrite had significantly lower methemoglobin levels when protected with 15.0 mg/L chloride as CaCl2 than with NaCl. Fish exposed to nitrite in the presence of 60 mg/L chloride (as either CaCl2 or NaCl) had similar 24-h LC50 values that were significantly elevated above those obtained in the absence of chloride. Calcium had little effect on tolerance to nitrite toxicity in channel catfish in contrast to its large effect reported in steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri).

Tommasso J.R., Wright, M. I.; Simco, B. A.; Davis, K. B.

1980-01-01

9

The Effects of HCl and CaCl2 Injections on Intracellular Calcium and pH in Voltage-clamped Snail (Helix aspersa) Neurons  

PubMed Central

To investigate the mechanisms by which low intracellular pH influences calcium signaling, I have injected HCl, and in some experiments CaCl2, into snail neurons while recording intracellular pH (pHi) and calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) with ion-sensitive microelectrodes. Unlike fluorescent indicators, these do not increase buffering. Slow injections of HCl (changing pHi by 0.1–0.2 pH units min?1) first decreased [Ca2+]i while pHi was still close to normal, but then increased [Ca2+]i when pHi fell below 6.8–7. As pHi recovered after such an injection, [Ca2+]i started to fall but then increased transiently before returning to its preinjection level. Both the acid-induced decrease and the recovery-induced increase in [Ca2+]i were abolished by cyclopiazonic acid, which empties calcium stores. Caffeine with or without ryanodine lowered [Ca2+]i and converted the acid-induced fall in [Ca2+]i to an increase. Injection of ortho-vanadate increased steady-state [Ca2+]i and its response to acidification, which was again blocked by CPA. The normal initial response to 10 mM caffeine, a transient increase in [Ca2+]i, did not occur with pHi below 7.1. When HCl was injected during a series of short CaCl2 injections, the [Ca2+]i transients (recorded as changes in the potential (VCa) of the Ca2+-sensitive microelectrode), were reduced by only 20% for a 1 pH unit acidification, as was the rate of recovery after each injection. Calcium transients induced by brief depolarizations, however, were reduced by 60% by a similar acidification. These results suggest that low pHi has little effect on the plasma membrane calcium pump (PMCA) but important effects on the calcium stores, including blocking their response to caffeine. Acidosis inhibits spontaneous calcium release via the RYR, and leads to increased store content which is unloaded when pHi returns to normal. Spontaneous release is enhanced by the rise in [Ca2+]i caused by inhibiting the PMCA.

Thomas, Roger C.

2002-01-01

10

An incongruent heat-of-fusion system - CaCl2-6H2O - made congruent through modification of the chemical composition of the system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes a method of ensuring that calcium chloride tetrahydrate is not a stable species in a heat-of-fusion system by chemically modifying it. Thus, an addition of SrCl2-6H2O to a CaCl2-H2O system decreases the solubility of CaCl2-6H2O and increases that of CaCl2-6H2O; if the addition of SrCl2-6H2O is about 2%, the melting point maximum for CaCl2-6H2O coincides with the

B. Carlsson; H. Stymne; G. Wettermark

1979-01-01

11

Relationship between magnesium extracted by 0.01 M calcium chloride extraction procedure and conventional procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multinutrient soil extraction procedure in routine soil testing is attractive. Therefore, it has been suggested to convert conventional soil testing programs into a 0.01 M calcium chloride (CaCl2) multinutrient soil testing program using the relationship between test values of the 0.01 M CaCl2 extractant and those of the various conventional extractants. However, these relationships are often weak and an

Erp van P. J; V. J. G. Houba; J. A. Reijneveld; Beusichem van M. L

2001-01-01

12

Dynamics of hydration water in CaCl 2 complexes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report in this Letter the measurement of unusually well-defined vibrational modes of water. Calcium chloride forms complexes made of different amounts of water, namely 1/3, 2 or 4 water per CaCl 2 molecule. Based on the crystallographic structure, we performed normal mode calculations from first principles, and simulated the neutron scattering spectra. A very good agreement between calculation and experiment, without any parameter refinement, confirms and completes the intuitive assignment of vibrational excitations of water. A closer look at the calculation enables us to investigate the anharmonicity of the system and the dispersion of the excitations along the hydrogen bonds.

Plazanet, M.; Glaznev, I.; Stepanov, A. G.; Aristov, Yu. I.; Jobic, H.

2006-02-01

13

The time courses of intracellular free calcium and related electrical effects after injection of CaCl 2 into neurons of the snail, Helix pomatia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controlled quantities of 100 mM aqueous CaCl2 solutions were pressure injected into voltage-clamped neurons with a resolution of 10-11 1. Ca2+-selective microelectrodes monitored the time course of changes in [Ca2+]i. At a membrane potential of -50 mV CaCl2 quantities in the range of 1% of the cell volume induced an inward current, associated with a conductance increase and having an

G. Hofmeier; H. D. Lux

1981-01-01

14

CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING ON LEFT, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING ON LEFT, CALCIUM CHLORIDE STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT OF CENTER WITH TOP OF SA (SODA ASH) BUILDING IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Solvay Process Company, Calcium Chloride Plant, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

15

Comparison of calcium chloride and calcium lactate effectiveness in maintaining shelf stability and quality of fresh-cut cantaloupes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fresh-cut cantaloupe cylinders were dipped for 1 min in 2.5% solutions of either calcium chloride (CaCl2) at ?25°C or calcium lactate at ?25 and 60°C. Firmness, microbiological (total plate count, yeast and mold, and microaerophilic bacteria) and sensory characteristics, respiration (CO2) and ethylene (C2H4) production were evaluated during 12 days storage at 5°C and 95% relative humidity air. Both calcium

Irene Luna-Guzmán; Diane M Barrett

2000-01-01

16

Spontaneous melting of ice in a CaCl 2 solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with the melting of a vertical ice plate into a calcium chloride aqueous solution inside a square\\u000a cavity. The initial temperatures of the ice and the liquid are ?5°C and 0°C respectively, and the initial solute (i.e. CaCl2) concentration of the liquid is 20wt% at the beginning of melting. The ice melts spontaneously with decreasing temperature

Masahiro Sugawara; Makoto Tago

1999-01-01

17

Sanitary dips with calcium propionate, calcium chloride, or a calcium amino acid chelate maintain quality and shelf stability of fresh-cut honeydew chunks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freshly cut honeydew chunks were dipped for 30 s in a solution containing 1.9 mM hypochlorous acid (ClO) without or with a 40 mM concentration of calcium (Ca) propionate, Ca amino acid chelate formulation (Ca chelate), calcium chloride (CaCl2), or not treated. Respiration and ethylene production rates, firmness, translucency, microbiological and sensory characteristics, surface color, volatile abundance, and tissue calcium

Robert A. Saftner; Jinhe Bai; Judith A. Abbott; Yuen S. Lee

2003-01-01

18

Calciothermic reduction of titanium oxide in molten CaCl 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Titanium oxides were reduced to metallic titanium using the liquid calcium floating on the molten CaCl2. A part of Ca dissolved into CaCl2 and reacted with TiO2 settled below CaCl2. The by-product CaO also dissolved by about 20 mol pct into CaCl2, which was effective in reducing the oxygen concentration in the obtained Ti particles. The compositional region in the

Ryosuke O. Suzuki; Shuichi Inoue

2003-01-01

19

Comparison of calcium chloride and calcium lactate effectiveness in maintaining shelf stability and quality of fresh-cut cantaloupes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fresh-cut cantaloupe cylinders were dipped for 1 min in 2.5% solutions of either calcium chloride (CaCl2 )a t 25°C or calcium lactate at 25 and 60°C. Firmness, microbiological (total plate count, yeast and mold, and microaerophilic bacteria) and sensory characteristics, respiration (CO2) and ethylene (C2H4) production were evaluated during 12 days storage at 5°C and 95% relative humidity air. Both

Irene Luna-Guzman; Diane M. Barrett

2000-01-01

20

Effects of CaCl 2 and CaBr 2 on the fecundity of Planorbarius corneus L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saturated water solutions of calcium chloride (481.3 g CaCl2\\/L) and calcium bromide (1065.9 g CaBr2\\/L) and their mixtures, commercially prepared as “high density brines”, are regularly used during special operations in exploration and production of natural gas and crude oil. After operations, all workover fluids are left in the environment as waste. In the present study, the effects of several

Neda Mažuran; Vladimir Hršak; Mihovil Tomi?; Dražena Papeš

1999-01-01

21

Raman spectroscopic studies of chemical speciation in calcium chloride melts  

SciTech Connect

Raman spectroscopy was applied to CaCl2 melts at 900 degrees C under both non-electrolyzed and electrolyzed conditions. The later used titania cathodes supplied by TIMET, Inc. and graphite anodes. Use of pulse-gating to collect the Raman spectra successfully eliminated any interference from black-body radiation and other stray light. The spectrum of molten CaCl2 exhibited no distinct, resolvable bands that could be correlated with a calcium chloride complex similar to MgCl42- in MgCl2 melts. Rather, the low frequency region of the spectrum was dominated by a broad “tail” arising from collective oscillations of both charge and mass in the molten salt “network.” Additions of both CaO and Ca at concentrations of a percent or two resulted in no new features in the spectra. Addition of CO2, both chemically and via electrolysis at concentrations dictated by stability and solubility at 900 degrees C and 1 bar pressure, also produced no new bands that could be correlated with either dissolved CO2 or the carbonate ion. These results indicated that Raman spectroscopy, at least under the conditions evaluated in the research, was not well suited for following the reactions and coordination chemistry of calcium ions, nor species such as dissolved metallic Ca and CO2 that are suspected to impact current efficiency in titanium electrolysis cells using molten CaCl2. Raman spectra of TIMET titania electrodes were successfully obtained as a function of temperature up to 900 degrees C, both in air and in-situ in CaCl2 melts. However, spectra of these electrodes could only be obtained when the material was in the unreduced state. When reduced, either with hydrogen or within an electrolysis cell, the resulting electrodes exhibited no measurable Raman bands under the conditions used in this work.

Windisch, Charles F.; Lavender, Curt A.

2005-02-01

22

Thermal Energy Storage Behavior of CaCl2.6H2O during Melting and Solidification  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, experiments are conducted to investigate melting and solidification characteristics of calcium chloride hexahydrate (CaCl2.6H2O) as a phase change material (PCM). In the present study, some parameters that affect the melting and the solidification time of PCM used to store low temperature energy have been observed experimentally. These parameters are inlet temperature and mass flow rate of water

K. Bilen; F. Takgil; K. Kaygusuz

2008-01-01

23

7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture...Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the...

2013-01-01

24

The effect of calcium chloride on growth, photosynthesis, and antioxidant responses of Zoysia japonica under drought conditions.  

PubMed

Few attempts have been made to study the alleviating effects of signal molecules on zoysiagrass (Zoysiajaponica) under drought stress. Calcium chloride has been shown to ameliorate the adverse effects of drought stress on many plants. It is necessary to investigate how to enhance drought tolerance of zoysiagrass using calcium chloride. The study elucidated the effects of calcium chloride on zoysiagrass under drought conditions by investigating the following parameters: biomass, chlorophyll (Chl) content, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), chlorophyll fluorescence, antioxidant enzymes, proline content, and malondialdehyde (MDA) content. Experimental conditions consisted of an aqueous CaCl2 solution at 5, 10, and 20 mM sprayed on zoysiagrass leaves for 3 d, following by an inducement of drought conditions by withholding water for 16 d. Under drought conditions, all CaCl2 pretreatments were found to increase the above-ground fresh biomass, as well as below-ground fresh and dry biomass. The resulting Chl (a, b, a+b) contents of the 5 and 10 mM CaCl2 pretreatment groups were higher than those of the control. In the later stages of drought conditions, the chlorophyll fluorescence parameter Fv/Fm was higher in leaves treated with 10 mM CaCl2 than in the leaves of the other two treatment groups. Zoysiagrass pretreated with 10 mM CaCl2 possessed both the maximum observed Pn and antioxidant enzyme activities. Meanwhile, lower MDA and proline contents were recorded in the plants pretreated with 5 and 10 mM CaCl2 under drought conditions. As a whole, the drought tolerance of zoysiagrass was improved to some extent by the application of a moderate calcium concentration. PMID:23844172

Xu, Chengbin; Li, Xuemei; Zhang, Lihong

2013-07-02

25

Low temperature heat capacity of the system “silica gel–calcium chloride–water”  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat capacity was measured for two composite systems based on silica gel KSK and calcium chloride confined to its pores. One\\u000a corresponds to an anhydrous state, while another contains water bound with the salt to give the composition of CaCl2·2.04H2O. The measurements were performed in the temperature range of 6–300 K with a vacuum adiabatic calorimeter. The smoothed experimental\\u000a curves C

Yuri I. AristovYulia; Yulia A. Kovalevskaya; Michael M. Tokarev; Igor E. Paukov

2011-01-01

26

Calcium chloride doped zinc-cobalt metal-cyanide complex: Unexpected highly activity towards ring-opening polymerization of propylene oxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highly active calcium chloride (CaCl2) doped Zn-CoIII double metal-cyanide (Ca-DMC) catalysts were firstly reported. Ca-DMCs presented a very higher polymer yield (>54kg polymer\\/g catalyst) at relative low temperature (80–115°C) toward ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of propylene oxide (PO) than did DMC catalysts without modification.

Yi Jun Huang; Xing Hong Zhang; Zheng Jiang Hua; Guo Rong Qi

2010-01-01

27

Stimulation of cell division in the rat by NaCl, KCl, MgCl2, and CaCl2, and inhibition of the sodium chloride effect on the glandular stomach by ascorbic acid and beta-carotene.  

PubMed

Three questions associated with the stimulation of cell division by chloride salts have been investigated: (i) whether cations other than sodium show a similar effect, (ii) whether vitamins can have a preventive activity, and (iii) whether subchronic treatment with sodium chloride in the diet is also effective. Male Fischer 344 rats were given solutions of the chloride salts of sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium by oral gavage. Water was used for control. After 4 h, a 24-h osmotic minipump containing 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine was implanted subcutaneously. The forestomach and glandular stomach, as well as liver and bladder were analyzed immunohistochemically 24 h later for the proportion of cells in S phase as an indicator of the rate of replicative DNA synthesis. For both the forestomach and the glandular stomach, potassium was as potent as sodium, and the divalent cations Mg and Ca were even more potent on a molar basis. Supplementation of the diet with ascorbic acid (2 g/kg food) or beta-carotene (12.5 mg/kg food) for 1 week before gavage of the sodium chloride solution resulted in an inhibition of the stimulation of cell division. A putative tumor-chemopreventive activity of the two vitamins might therefore not only rely on their antioxidative properties but may include effects on the cell cycle. A 4-week treatment with a sodium chloride supplement in the diet (2% and 4% supplement) resulted in a significant stimulation of cell division not only in both parts of the stomach and in the bladder (with the 4% supplement) but also in the liver (even with the 2% supplement). Sodium-chloride-stimulated cell turnover therefore is a sustained effect. PMID:10235475

Lugli, S M; Lutz, W K

1999-01-01

28

Effect of calcium chloride marination on calpain and quality characteristics of meat from chicken, horse, cattle and rabbit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences in the quality of meat obtained from four animal species (beef, horse, rabbit and chicken) treated with two concentrations of calcium chloride (75 or 150 mM) were evaluated by a sensory panel. Physicochemical variables analysed were water holding capacity, instrumental colour and pH. Sensory analysis was by recognition index (R-index) by untrained and trained panels. CaCl2 led to an

M. Lourdes Pérez; Héctor Escalona; Isabel Guerrero

1998-01-01

29

One hundredth molar calcium chloride extraction procedure. part I: A review of soil chemical, analytical, and plant nutritional aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The economical and operational aspects of multinutrient extractants make them attractive for soil testing programs. However, the value of a multi element extractant is primarily determined by the relationship between the amount of nutrient extracted and crop response. To determine the perspectives of the 0.01M calcium chloride (CaCl2) extraction procedure as a multinutrient extractant, this paper reviews literature on the

P. J. van Erp; Y. J. G. Houba; M. L. Van Beusichem

1998-01-01

30

Sealing Ability of MTA and Radiopaque Portland Cement With or Without Calcium Chloride for Root-End Filling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of calcium chloride (CaCl2) on the sealing ability of three Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) cements, ProRoot MTA, MTA-Angelus, and radiopaque White Portland cement (WPC), for retrograde root filling. Seventy roots of extracted single-rooted teeth were instrumented and obturated. After sectioning the samples at 2 mm from the apex, they received

Eduardo Antunes Bortoluzzi; Norberto Juárez Broon; Clovis Monteiro Bramante; Roberto Brandão Garcia; Ivaldo Gomes de Moraes; Norberti Bernardineli

2006-01-01

31

21 CFR 172.330 - Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt. 172.330 Section 172... § 172.330 Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt. The food additive calcium chloride double salt of calcium...

2009-04-01

32

21 CFR 172.330 - Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 true Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt. 172.330 Section 172... § 172.330 Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt. The food additive calcium chloride double salt of calcium...

2010-01-01

33

Interactive role of nitric oxide and calcium chloride in enhancing tolerance to salt stress.  

PubMed

Nitric oxide (NO), a small diffusible, ubiquitous bioactive molecule, acts as prooxidant as well as antioxidant, and also regulates remarkable spectrum of plant cellular mechanisms. The present work was undertaken to investigate the role of nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and/or calcium chloride (CaCl(2)) in the tolerance of excised mustard leaves to salt stress. After 24h, salt stressed leaves treated with SNP and/or CaCl(2), showed an improvement in the activities of carbonic anhydrase (CA) and nitrate reductase (NR), and leaf chlorophyll (Chl) content, leaf relative water content (LRWC) and leaf ion concentration as compared with the leaves treated with NaCl only. Salinity stress caused a significant increase in H(2)O(2) content and membrane damage which is witnessed by enhanced levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and electrolyte leakage. By contrast, such increases were blocked by the application of 0.2mM SNP and 10mM CaCl(2) to salt stressed leaves. Application of SNP and/or CaCl(2) alleviated NaCl stress by enhancing the activities of antioxidative enzymes viz. superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) and by enhancing proline (Pro) and glycinebetaine (GB) accumulation with a concomitant decrease in H(2)O(2) content, TBARS and electrolyte leakage, which is manifested in the tolerance of plants to salinity stress. Moreover, application of SNP with CaCl(2) was more effective to reduce the detrimental effects of NaCl stress on excised mustard leaves. In addition to this, ameliorating effect of SNP was not effective in presence of NO scavenger cPTIO [2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide]. To put all these in a nut shell, the results advocate that SNP in association with CaCl(2) plays a role in enhancing the tolerance of plants to salt stress by improving antioxidative defence system, osmolyte accumulation and ionic homeostasis. PMID:22884961

Khan, M Nasir; Siddiqui, Manzer H; Mohammad, Firoz; Naeem, M

2012-08-02

34

Physico-chemical and sensory properties of reduced-fat mortadella prepared with blends of calcium, magnesium and potassium chloride as partial substitutes for sodium chloride.  

PubMed

Blends of calcium, magnesium and potassium chloride were used to partially replace sodium chloride (50-75%) in reduced-fat mortadella formulations. The presence of calcium chloride reduced the emulsion stability, cooking yield, elasticity and cohesiveness and increased hardness; however, it yielded the best sensory acceptance when 50% NaCl was replaced by 25% CaCl(2) and 25% KCl. There was no effect of the salt substitutes on mortadella color, appearance and aroma. All salt combinations studied showed stable lipid oxidation during its shelf life. The use of a blend with 1% NaCl, 0.5% KCl and 0.5% MgCl(2) resulted in the best emulsion stability, but the worst scores for flavor. This study suggests that it is possible to reduce the sodium chloride concentration by 50% in reduced-fat mortadella using the studied salt combinations with necessary adjustments to optimize the sensory properties (MgCl(2) 25%; KCl 25%) or emulsion stability (CaCl(2) 25%; KCl 25%). PMID:21645975

Horita, C N; Morgano, M A; Celeghini, R M S; Pollonio, M A R

2011-05-19

35

Effect of Azadirachta indica (neem), sodium thiosulphate and calcium chloride on changes in nitrogen transformations and inhibition of nitrification in soil incubated under laboratory conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory experiment was conducted to examine the effects of nitrification inhibitors (NIs) neem seedcake (Azadirachta indica) (NSC), sodium thiosulphate (Na2S2O3) and calcium chloride (CaCl2) on changes in NH4+–N, inhibition of nitrification and recovery of applied nitrogen (N) in soil. Surface soil samples of 0–15cm were collected from an arable field, amended with urea N (UN) at the rate 200mgNkg?1,

M. Kaleem Abbasi; Munazza Hina; Majid Mahmood Tahir

2011-01-01

36

Anodic Behavior of Alloy 22 in Calcium Chloride and in Calcium Chloride Plus Calcium Nitrate Brines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alloy 22 (UNS N60622) is a nickel-based alloy, which is extensively used in aggressive industrial applications, especially due to its resistance to localized corrosion and stress corrosion cracking in high chloride environments. The purpose of this work was to characterize the anodic behavior of Alloy 22 in concentrated calcium chloride (CaCl) brines and to evaluate the inhibitive effect of nitrate,

K J Evans; S D Day; G O Ilevbare; M T Whalen; K J King; G A Hust; L L Wong; J C Estill; R B Rebak

2003-01-01

37

Calcium nutrition affects cold hardiness, yield, and fruit disorders of apple and pear trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foliar sprays of calcium chloride (CaCl2) and to a lesser extent, soil applications of calcium nitrate [Ca(NO3)2] fertilizer, increased calcium (Ca) concentrations in leaves and fruit of apple, (Malus domestica) and pear (Pyrus communis L.) trees. For most years, CaCl2 sprays or Ca(NO3)2 fertilizer increased cold hardiness of ‘Anjou’ pear trees, and reduced the incidence of fruit disorders (alfalfa greening

J. Thomas Raese

1996-01-01

38

Solubility of Calcium in CaO-CaCl2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The solubility of calcium in CaCl2-CaO melts at 800C was studied. The direct oxide reduction process is used to produce plutonium metal from plutonium dioxide by reaction with calcium. Calcium chloride is added to dissolve the calcium oxide produced, allo...

G. S. Perry S. J. Shaw

1991-01-01

39

21 CFR 172.330 - Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt. 172.330 Section 172...Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.330 Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt....

2013-04-01

40

Individual effects of sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium chloride salts on Lactobacillus pentosus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth.  

PubMed

A quantitative investigation on the individual effects of sodium (NaCl), potassium (KCl), calcium (CaCl2), and magnesium (MgCl2) chloride salts against Lactobacillus pentosus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two representative microorganisms of table olives and other fermented vegetables, was carried out. In order to assess their potential activities, both the kinetic growth parameters and dose-response profiles in synthetic media (deMan Rogosa Sharpe broth medium and yeast-malt-peptone-glucose broth medium, respectively) were obtained and analyzed. Microbial growth was monitored via optical density measurements as a function of contact time in the presence of progressive chloride salt concentrations. Relative maximum specific growth rate and lag-phase period were modeled as a function of the chloride salt concentrations. Moreover, for each salt and microorganism tested, the noninhibitory concentrations and the MICs were estimated and compared. All chloride salts exerted a significant antimicrobial effect on the growth cycle; particularly, CaCl2 showed a similar effect to NaCl, while KCl and MgCl2 were progressively less inhibitory. Microbial susceptibility and resistance were found to be nonlinearly dose related. PMID:18680941

Bautista-Gallego, J; Arroyo-López, F N; Durán-Quintana, M C; Garrido-Fernandez, A

2008-07-01

41

40 CFR 415.40 - Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory. 415...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Chloride Production Subcategory § 415...Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory....

2010-07-01

42

21 CFR 184.1193 - Calcium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...product from natural salt brines, or it may be prepared by substitution reactions with other calcium and chloride salts...170.3(n)(35) of this chapter; 0.32 percent for coffee and tea as defined in § 170.3(n)(7) of this...

2009-04-01

43

21 CFR 184.1193 - Calcium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...product from natural salt brines, or it may be prepared by substitution reactions with other calcium and chloride salts...170.3(n)(35) of this chapter; 0.32 percent for coffee and tea as defined in § 170.3(n)(7) of this...

2010-01-01

44

Adding strontium chloride or calcium hydroxide to calcium chloride hexahydrate heat storage material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carlsson, Stymne and Wettermark (1979) reported that the incongruent melting CaCl2-6H20 can be made congruent by adding 2 per cent or more of SrCl2-6H20 or Ca(OH)2. The present paper shows these conclusions to be incorrect because the experimental technique yielded low values for the CaCl2-4H20 liquidus curve, and the chemical analyses of the liquid phases were not reported, prompting the conclusion that SrCl2-6H20 and Ca(OH)2 lower the melting point of CaCl2-4H20, and have little effect on CaCl2-6H20. In addition, although small amounts of CaCl2-4H20 could be obtained on each freezing cycle, in practical use the hexahydrate would freeze before any tetrahydrate is nucleated.

Lane, G. A.

45

Anodic Behavior of Alloy 22 in Calcium Chloride and in Calcium Chloride Plus Calcium Nitrate Brines  

SciTech Connect

Alloy 22 (UNS N60622) is a nickel-based alloy, which is extensively used in aggressive industrial applications, especially due to its resistance to localized corrosion and stress corrosion cracking in high chloride environments. The purpose of this work was to characterize the anodic behavior of Alloy 22 in concentrated calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}) brines and to evaluate the inhibitive effect of nitrate, especially to localized corrosion. Standard electrochemical tests such as polarization resistance and cyclic polarization were used. Results show that the corrosion potential of Alloy 22 was approximately -360 mV in the silver-silver chloride (SSC) scale and independent of the tested temperature. Cyclic polarization tests showed that Alloy 22 was mainly susceptible to localized attack in 5 M CaCl{sub 2} at 75 C and higher temperatures. The addition of nitrate in a molar ratio of chloride to nitrate equal to 10 increased the onset of localized corrosion to approximately 105 C. The addition of nitrate to the solution also decreased the uniform corrosion rate and the passive current of the alloy.

Evans, K J; Day, S D; Ilevbare, G O; Whalen, M T; King, K J; Hust, G A; Wong, L L; Estill, J C; Rebak, R B

2003-05-13

46

Effect of aluminium on the silica compressibility and transition to the CaCl2-form at high- pressure and high-temperature up to 100 GPa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recycling of oceanic crust into the deep Earth offers a way of enriching the mantle in silica. In such a subduction context, the high-pressure phase of silica, stishovite, present in the basaltic and the sedimentary portions of the slab, has been shown to contain significant amounts of aluminium. The incorporation of this element and its possible coupling with oxygen vacancies (Si4+ = Al3+ + " O) can influence significantly the density, compressibility and phase transitions of mantle phases. We investigated the effect of Al on stishovite properties up to ~100 GPa in a YAG or CO2-laser heated diamond anvil cell using in-situ X-ray diffraction at the ID30-ID27 beamline of ESRF. Using an Al-bearing silica glass as starting material, we performed more than 10 different experimental runs at various P and T conditions. Our first observation is that the transition from rutile to calcium chloride (CaCl2) phase of silica occurs at lower pressure, down to 23 GPa at 300 Kelvin, compared to 50 GPa in the pure SiO2 system. [1]. Also, we confirm that the stishovite room pressure volume is increased with increasing Al-content. Still, the volume difference of ~1% at 1 bar rapidly vanishes at higher pressures and the PV equation of state of Al-bearing stishovite at room pressure appears similar to that of Al-free stishovite at all pressures investigated to 100 GPa, within the experimental error. The CaCl2 distortion increases with pressure and decreases with temperature allowing to measure the clapeyron slope of the transition in-situ at high-pressure and high-temperature: dP/dT of 0.02 GPa/K. According to the phase diagram determined by in-situ X-ray diffraction, silica should be in the CaCl2 form in most of the transition and lower mantle. Also, aluminous silica, whether in the rutile or calcium chloride structure, is softer than pure silica. Our results show that the incorporation of ~2.3 weight % of alumina in silica decreases its bulk modulus of around 7-10% in case of the rutile form and of 3.5% in case of the CaCl2 form. References: [1] Andrault et al. (1998) Science, 23, 720-724.

Bolfan-Casanova, N.; Andrault, D.; Guignot, N.; Amiguet, E.

2008-12-01

47

Production of titanium powder directly from TiO2 in CaCl2 through an electronically mediated reaction (EMR)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Production of titanium powder directly from titanium dioxide (TiO2) through an electronically mediated reaction (EMR) using calcium as a reductant was investigated. Feed material (TiO2 powder or preform) and reductant (Ca Ni alloy) were charged in electronically isolated locations in a molten calcium chloride (CaCl2) salt at 1173 K, and the current flow through an external circuit between the feed and reductant locations was monitored during reduction of TiO2. The voltage between feed electrode and reductant alloy was intermittently measured during the reduction experiment to monitor the reduction process. After the reduction experiment, pure titanium powder with low nickel content was obtained even though liquid Ca Ni alloy was used as a reductant. These results demonstrate that titanium metal powder can be produced without direct physical contact between the feed and reductant. In some experimental conditions, pure titanium powder with 99.5 mass% purity was successfully obtained.

Park, Il; Abiko, Takashi; Okabe, Toru H.

2005-02-01

48

Calcium Deficiency Alters Chorda Tympani Nerve Responses to Oral Calcium Chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inoue, M. and M. G. Tordoff.Calcium deficiency alters chorda tympani nerve responses to oral calcium chloride.PHYSIOL BEHAV 63(2) 297–303, 1998.—As a preliminary examination of the influence of calcium deficiency on gustatory sensitivity to calcium, we recorded electrophysiological responses of the chorda tympani nerve of calcium-replete and calcium-deprived rats. Relative to rats fed calcium-replete diet, rats fed low calcium diet had

Masashi Inoue; Michael G Tordoff

1998-01-01

49

Adding strontium chloride or calcium hydroxide to calcium chloride hexahydrate heat storage material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carlsson, Stymne and Wettermark (1979) reported that the incongruent melting CaCl2-6H20 can be made congruent by adding 2 per cent or more of SrCl2-6H20 or Ca(OH)2. The present paper shows these conclusions to be incorrect because the experimental technique yielded low values for the CaCl2-4H20 liquidus curve, and the chemical analyses of the liquid phases were not reported, prompting the

1981-01-01

50

40 CFR 415.40 - Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.40 Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory....

2009-07-01

51

40 CFR 415.40 - Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.40 Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory....

2012-07-01

52

Antarcticite: A New Mineral, Calcium Chloride Hexahydrate, Discovered in Antarctica  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new mineral, calcium chloride hexahydrate, was discovered in the Don Juan Pond in Victoria Land, Antarctica. The optical properties, chemical analysis, and powder patterns obtained by x-ray diffraction agree with those of artificial calcium chloride hexahydrate. The name Antarcticite is proposed for the new mineral.

Tetsuya Torii; Joyo Ossaka

1965-01-01

53

Solubilities of salts in the ternary systems NaCl + CaCl2 + H2O and KCl + CaCl2 + H2O at 75°C  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solubility in the NaCl-CaCl2-H2O and KCl-CaCl2-H2O systems were determined at 75°C and the phase diagrams and the diagram of physicochemical property vs composition were plotted. One invariant point, two univariant curves, and two crystallization zones, corresponding to potassium chloride, dihydrate (CaCl2 · 2H2O) showed up in the phase diagrams of the ternary systems. The mixing parameters ?M, Ca and ?M, Ca, Cl (M = Na or K) and equilibrium constant K sp were evaluated in NaCl-CaCl2-H2O and KCl-CaCl2-H2O systems by least-squares optimization procedure, in which the single-salt Pitzer parameters of NaCl, KCl, and CaCl2 ?(0), ?(1), ?(2), and C ? were directly calculated from the literature. The results obtained were in good agreement with the experimental data.

Yang, Ji-Min; Liu, Xiao-Lin; Liang, Pei-Pei

2011-07-01

54

Effect of calcium sprays, time of harvest, cold storage, and ripeness on fruit quality of ‘anjou’ pears  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium chloride (CaCl2), increased Ca concentrations in fruit cortex and peel of ‘Anjou’ pears (Pyrus communis L.). Calcium sprays reduced the fruit disorders: brown core, cork spot and superficial scald. Fruit size (weight) increased while fruit Ca concentrations decreased with fruit at the later harvest dates. The earliest harvest date was associated with a lower incidence of fruit disorders. Superficial

J. T. Raese; S. R. Drake

2000-01-01

55

Thermodynamic characterization of the partially denatured states of ribonuclease A in calcium chloride and lithium chloride.  

PubMed

The denaturations of ribonuclease A by calcium chloride and lithium chloride were studied by circular dichroism measurements in the far-ultraviolet region. The temperature dependence of the equilibrium constant for the unfolding of the protein by calcium chloride and lithium chloride gave values of 46 and 52 kcal mol-1 (1 cal = 4.1868 J) for the enthalpy of denaturation at 25 degrees C and pH 7.0, respectively. Thermodynamic parameters for the denaturation by calcium chloride and lithium chloride are compared with those for the heat and guanidine hydrochloride denaturation. It has been observed that the thermodynamic quantity, be it free energy, entropy, or enthalpy, cannot be related quantitatively to the extent of unfolding measured by various conformational properties of the protein. PMID:3000547

Ahmad, F

1985-10-01

56

Calcium chloride penetrates plant cuticles via aqueous pores  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Penetration of calcium chloride across astomatous cuticular membranes (CMs) isolated from leaves of Pyrus communis L. has been studied. Penetration was a first-order process when calcium chloride concentrations ranged from 2?g l?1 to 10?g l?1. Rate constants were increased 10-fold by adding wetting agents but they did not depend on temperature. The accelerators\\u000a tributyl phosphate and diethyl sebacate had

Jörg Schönherr

2000-01-01

57

Preparation and Characterization of a Calcium Phosphate Ceramic for the Immobilization of Chloride-containing Intermediate Level Waste  

SciTech Connect

Attention has recently been given to the immobilization of special categories of radioactive wastes, some of which contain high concentrations of actinide chlorides. Although vitrification in phosphate glass has been proposed, this was rejected because of the high losses of chloride. On the basis of non-radioactive and, more recently, radioactive studies, we have shown that calcium phosphate is an effective host for immobilizing the chloride constituents [1]. In this instance, the chlorine is retained as chloride, rather than evolved as a chlorine-bearing gas. The immobilized product is in the form of a free-flowing, non-hygroscopic powder, in which the chlorides are chemically combined within the mineral phases chlorapatite [Ca5(PO4)3Cl] and spodiosite [Ca2(PO4)Cl]. Data from studies on non-radioactive simulated waste consisting of a mixture of CaCl2 and SmCl3, and radioactive simulated waste composed of CaCl2 with PuCl3 or PuCl3 and AmCl3, are presented and compared. The XRD data confirm the presence of chlorapatite and spodiosite in the non-radioactive and radioactive materials. The durability of all specimens was measured with a modified MCC-1 test. Releases of Cl after 28 days were 1.6 x 10-3 g m-2 for the non-radioactive specimens and 7 x 10-3 g m-2 for the Pu-bearing specimens. Releases of Ca after 28 days were 0.3 x 10-3 and 2.0 x 10-3 g m-2 for the non-radioactive composition and the Pu composition, respectively, whilst release of Pu from the radioactive specimens was lower for the mixed Pu/Am specimen at 1.2 x 10-5g m-2. The release of Am from the mixed Pu/Am composition was exceptionally low at 2.4 x 10-7 g m-2. Overall, the release rate data suggest that the ceramics dissolve congruently, followed by precipitation of Sm, Pu and Am as less soluble phases, possibly oxides or phosphates. The differences in behaviour noted between non-radioactive and radioactive specimens are interpreted in terms of the crystal chemistry of the individual systems.

Metcalfe, Brian; Donald, Ian W.; Scheele, Randall D.; Strachan, Denis M.

2003-12-01

58

Effects of calcium and aluminum chloride additions on foliar and throughfall chemistry in sugar maples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium availability for sugar maple stands at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (New Hampshire, USA) was tested by experimental addition of CaCl2 and AlCl3. Additions of 10gCam?2 represented the estimated loss from the soil exchange complex during the last 30 years due to acidic deposition. Four years of data from 12 throughfall collection sites were used to evaluate the influence

Torsten W Berger; Chris Eagar; Gene E Likens; Gerhard Stingeder

2001-01-01

59

Anodic Behavior of Alloy 22 in Calcium Chloride and in Calcium Chloride plus Calcium Nitrate Brines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Alloy 22 (UNS N60622) is a nickel-based alloy, which is extensively used in aggressive industrial applications, especially due to its resistance to localized corrosion and stress corrosion cracking in high chloride environments. The purpose of this work w...

K. J. Evans S. D. Day G. O. Llevbare M. T. Whalen K. J. King

2003-01-01

60

Possible states of chloride in the hydration of tricalcium silicate in the presence of calcium chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium chloride may be present in the free, adsorbed or interlayer state in hydrating tricalcium silicate. Attempts have\\u000a been made to study these states to correlate some of the physical, chemical and mechanical properties.

V. S. Ramachandran

1971-01-01

61

Fermentation of cucumbers brined with calcium chloride instead of sodium chloride  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Generation of waste water containing sodium chloride from cucumber fermentation tank yards could be eliminated if cucumbers were fermented in brines that did not contain this salt. To determine if this is feasible, cucumbers were fermented in brines that contained only calcium chloride to maintain f...

62

Biochemical and biophysical response to calcium chloride stress in Aspergillus niger and its role in malachite green degradation.  

PubMed

Filamentous fungi show great promise in remediation of environmental contaminants such as industrial dyes. In the current study, Aspergillus niger (Genbank ID: JF437542) decolorized 82 % of the test dye malachite green (MG; 50 mg/l) during cultivation for 24 h. The organism decolorized only 6 % of the MG at higher concentration (250 mg MG/l) during the same time period and growth was inhibited at this higher MG concentration. Exposing A. niger to different types of stress resulted in variable impacts on ability to decolorize MG. CaCl2 had the largest positive impact on decolorization. A. niger cultures treated with CaCl2 (1 M) decolorized 46 % of the MG (250 mg/l) in 1 h compared to 6 % in untreated control cultures. CaCl2 also increased catalase production in A. niger which strongly supported a direct relationship between stress response and decolorizing ability. Spectrophotometric measurement confirmed MG decolorization while Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy suggested that biodegradation of MG occurred. Cultures treated with CaCl2 accumulated fewer toxic MG by-products than untreated cultures. CaCl2-induced stress increased the permeability and conductivity of the fungal cell membrane. An observed increase in medium [H(+)] also suggested a change in Ca(2+)/H(+) exchange capacity in the fungal cell. Calcium ions had a pronounced effect on membrane properties and this may have had an important impact on signal transduction. We conclude that A. niger decolorizes MG and that CaCl2 enhances this process; the CaCl2 effect appears to be associated with stress response. PMID:23076635

Gomaa, Ola M; Selim, Nabila S; Linz, John E

2013-04-01

63

Calcinosis cutis following contact with calcium chloride solution.  

PubMed

Calcinosis cutis is the deposition of insoluble calcium in the cutaneous tissue. Calcinosis cutis can be classified as metastatic, dystrophic, idiopathic or exogenous. We report a 48-year-old white man who was dismantling a portable ice skating rink when calcium chloride solution from the pipes spilt onto his clothing. Several days later, he started to develop mildly pruritic erythematous papules, some studded with white deposits and some with umbilication over the exposed areas corresponding to the spillage of the calcium chloride solution. Histological features revealed interstitial fibrohistiocytic reaction with calcium-encrusted degenerated collagen bundles in the dermis which was further confirmed by von Kossa stain. He was commenced on topical corticosteroid cream twice daily and the lesions cleared completely between 6 to 10?weeks. PMID:23157788

Lim, Penny P L; Kossard, Steven; Stapleton, Karen

2011-03-07

64

Electrical impedance of daminozide and calcium-treated McIntosh apples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Daminozide [butanedioc acid mono-(2-2-dimethylhydrazide)] applied in the field reduced the electrical impedance of McIntosh apple fruit at harvest and after storage. Vacuum infiltration with calcium chloride (CaCl2) increased the impedance whether fruit were treated with daminozide or not.

E. C. Lougheed; S. R. Miller; B. D. Ripley; R. A. Cline

1981-01-01

65

Effects of Calcium Magnesium Acetate on Small Lentic Environments in Interior Alaska.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The necessity for finding an alternative deicer to road salt (NaCl, CaCl2) has arisn because significant detrimental impacts are associated with salt usage. Calcium magnesium acetate (CMA) has been identified as a viable alternative to chloride salt. Ongo...

C. L. Rea J. D. LaPerriere

1986-01-01

66

Development of an Inert Anode for Electrowinning in Calcium Chloride-Calcium Oxide Melts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies were performed investigating the anodic testing of calcium ruthenate for electrowinning in calcium chloride-calcium oxide melts. The results showed that calcium ruthenate may be suitable as an inert anode in calcium chloride containing melts as it exhibited a low rate of corrosion in melts containing a small amount of calcium oxide, capable of producing oxygen on its surface, and did not contaminate the melt. To reduce the amount of ruthenium in the anode, solid solutions of calcium ruthenate in calcium titanate were investigated. At low concentrations, the solid solution is a semiconductor with a relatively low conductivity at room temperature, but at the temperature of operation, 1173 K, the material is an excellent electronic conductor. The other way of reducing the amount of ruthenium is to coat the solid solution onto a substrate. In this way, the substrate would give the mechanical strength while the coating would give the electrical conductivity and corrosion protection. Calcium ruthenate-based anodes can endure long-term use in the laboratory under an applied electrical field with oxygen being liberated on the anode indicating that these materials are candidates for the electrowining in calcium chloride-calcium oxide melts.

Jiao, Shuqiang; Fray, Derek J.

2010-02-01

67

Cardioprotective activity of alcoholic extract of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers in calcium chloride-induced cardiac arrhythmia in rats  

PubMed Central

The present study investigated the antiarrhythmic activity of alcoholic extract of Tinospora cordifolia (T. cordifolia) in CaCl2 induced arrhythmia. CaCl2 (25 mg/kg) was administered by intravenous infusion (iv) to produce arrhythmia in rats. The animals were then treated with T. cordifolia extract (150, 250, and 450 mg/kg) and verapamil (5 mg/kg,iv). Lead II electrocardiogram was monitored. Plasma calcium, sodium and potassium levels were measured. In CaCl2 induced arrhythmia, heart rate was decreased by 41.10%, T. cordifolia at 150, 300, and 450 mg/kg decreased the heart rate by 26.30%, 29.16%, and 38.29%, respectively, and verapamil reduced the heart rate by 9.70% compared to the normal group. The PQRST waves were normalized and atrial and ventricular fibrillation was controlled in rats treated with verapamil and T. cordifolia. CaCl2 increased calcium and sodium levels and decreased potassium levels in blood. T. cordifolia dose-dependently decreased calcium and sodium levels and increased potassium levels. Hence, T. cordifolia can be used in antiarrhythmic clinical settings and beneficial in atrial and ventricular fibrillation and flutter and may be indicated in ventricular tachyarrhythmia.

Sharma, Ashish Kumar; Kishore, Kunal; Sharma, Divya; Srinivasan, B.P; Agarwal, Shyam Sunder; Sharma, Ashok; Singh, Santosh Kumar; Gaur, Samir; Jatav, Vijay Singh

2011-01-01

68

The effect of calcium on microbial quality and consistency of chile pepper ( Capsicum annuum cv. Mesilla Cayenne) mash during fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fermentation of chile peppers (Capsicum annuum cv. Mesilla Cayenne) is dependent on several factors: temperature, acidity, salt concentration, dissolved air, microbial flora, carbohydrate and enzymes. This study measured the effect of two levels (8 or 15g\\/100g) of calcium citrate (CaCit, [Ca3(C6H5O7)2]), calcium chloride (CaCl2) or sodium chloride (NaCl) added to 24h after pepper was mashed. Viscosity, pH, alcohol, soluble

Nancy C. Flores; Dawn VanLeeuwen; Roy D. Pennock

2007-01-01

69

Extractability of labelled microbial biomass N by electro-ultrafiltration and CaCl 2 extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory soil incubation and a pot experiment with ryegrass were carried out in order to examine the extractability of microbial biomass N by using either 10-mM CaCl2 extraction or the electro-ultrafiltration (EUF) method. The aim of the experiment was to test the hypothesis whether the organic N (Norg) extracted by EUF or CaCl2 from dried soil samples represents a

T. Appel; B. Schneider; H. Kosegarten

1996-01-01

70

PREPARATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF ALINITE CEMENT IN VARIOUS TEMPERATURES AND CaCl2 CONTENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

A class of cement based on a new cementitous phase Alinite has been produced by clinkering at 1150°C. An important empirical correlation between free lime of Alinite cement clinker and weight percent of CaCl2 content in raw mix in various temperatures has been established for the purpose of clinker mix design. The optimum CaCl2 addition to the raw mix is

D. MOWLA; A. JAHANMIRi; H. R. FALLAHI

1999-01-01

71

Calciothermic reduction of titanium oxide and in-situ electrolysis in molten CaCl 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

A concept for calciothermic direct reduction of titanium dioxide in molten CaCl2 is proposed and experimentally tested. This production process consists of a single cell, where both the thermochemical reaction\\u000a of the calciothermic reduction and the electrochemical reaction for recovery of the reducing agent, Ca, coexist in the same\\u000a molten CaCl2 bath. A few molar percentages of Ca dissolve in

Ryosuke O. Suzuki; Katsutoshi Ono; Koh Teranuma

2003-01-01

72

Retail Consumer Acceptance of Beef Tenderized with Calcium Chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beef inside round subprimals were injected with a 200 mM calcium chloride (CaC12) solution at 5% (wt\\/wt) to determine its effects on beef steak palatability and quality traits. Alternating subprimals from the right and left sides were selected for injection of CaC12 or not injected to serve as a control. After 7 d of postmortem storage, 2.5-cm-thick steaks were cut

M. F. Miller; K. L. Huffinan; S. Y. Gilbert; L. L. Hamman; C. B. Ramsey

2010-01-01

73

Properties of a new liquid desiccant solution - Lithium chloride and calcium chloride mixture  

SciTech Connect

Desiccants, broadly classified as solid and liquid desiccants, have the property of extracting and retaining moisture from air brought into contact with them. By using either type, moisture in the air is removed and the resulting dry air can be used for air-conditioning or drying purposes. Because of its properties, lithium chloride is the most stable liquid desiccant and has a large dehydration concentration (30% to 45%), but its cost is relatively high ($9.00-13.00 per kg). It is expected that lithium chloride will reduce the relative humidity to as low as 15%. Calcium chloride is the cheapest (45 cents per kg) and most readily available desiccant, but it has the disadvantage of being unstable depending on the air inlet conditions and the concentration of the desiccant in the solution. To stabilize calcium chloride and to decrease the high cost of lithium chloride, the two can be mixed in different weight combinations. The main objective of this research is to measure the physical properties of different combinations of this mixture such as density, viscosity, and vapor pressure which are necessary for analysis of heat and mass transfer in a packed tower desiccant-air contact system. The solubility of this new liquid desiccant under certain temperature-concentrations will also be studied.

Ertas, A.; Anderson, E.E.; Kiris, I. (Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock (United States))

1992-09-01

74

Thermodynamics of mixing of liquids in the system Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 CaCl 2 CaF 2 Ca(OH) 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molten calcium halide and hydroxide salts may be used as flux and reactants in determining apatite exchange equilibria and solid solution behavior. New experimental data and published phase equilibria are used to determine a thermodynamic model of melts and solids along the binary joins of the anhydrous apatite system Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 ---CaCl 2 ---CaF 2 ---Ca(OH)

R. C. Tacker; J. C. Stormer Jr.

1993-01-01

75

Effects of calcium hydroxide and calcium chloride addition to bentonite in iron ore pelletization.  

PubMed

Pyrite ash is created as waste from the roasting of pyrite ores during the production of sulphuric acid. These processes generate great amounts of pyrite ash waste that is generally land filled. This creates serious environmental pollution due to the release of acids and toxic substances. Pyrite ash waste can be utilized in the iron production industry as a blast furnace feed to process this waste and prevent environmental pollution. The essential parameters affecting the pelletization process of pyrite ash were studied using bentonite as a binder. Experiments were then carried out using bentonite and a mixture of bentonite with calcium hydroxide and calcium chloride in order to make the bentonite more effective. The metallurgical properties of pyrite ash, bentonite, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride, a mixture of these and sintered pellets were studied using X-ray analysis. The crushing strength tests were carried out to investigate the strength of pyrite ash waste pellets. The results of these analyses showed that pyrite ash can be agglomerated to pellets and used in the iron production industry as a blast furnace feed. The crushing strength of the pellets containing calcium hydroxide and calcium chloride in addition to bentonite was better than the strength of pellets prepared using only bentonite binder. PMID:17121116

Tugrul, Nurcan; Derun, Emek Moroydor; Pi?kin, Mehmet

2006-10-01

76

Uptake of chloride and carbonate ions by calcium monosulfoaluminate hydrate  

SciTech Connect

Decommissioning of old nuclear reactors may produce waste streams containing chlorides and carbonates, including radioactive {sup 36}Cl{sup -} and {sup 14}CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}. Their insolubilization by calcium monosulfoaluminate hydrate was investigated. Carbonates were readily depleted from the solution, giving at thermodynamic equilibrium monocarboaluminate, monocarboaluminate + calcite, or calcite only, depending on the initial ratio between the anion and calcium monosulfoaluminate hydrate. Chloride ions reacted more slowly and were precipitated as Kuzel's salt, Kuzel's and Friedel's salts, or Friedel's salt only. Rietveld refinement of X-Ray powder diffraction patterns was successfully used to quantify the phase distributions, which were compared to thermodynamic calculations. Moreover, analysing the lattice parameters of Kuzel's salt as a function of its chloride content showed the occurrence of a restricted solid solution towards the sulfate side with general formula 3CaO{center_dot}Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}{center_dot}xCaCl{sub 2}{center_dot}(1 - x)CaSO{sub 4}{center_dot}(12 - 2x){center_dot}H{sub 2}O (0.36 {<=} x {<=} 0.50).

Mesbah, Adel [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, CEA DEN/DTCD/SPDE, F-30207 Bagnols sur Ceze (France); Clermont Universite, ENSCCF, Laboratoire des Materiaux Inorganiques, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); Cau-dit-Coumes, Celine, E-mail: celine.cau-dit-coumes@cea.fr [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, CEA DEN/DTCD/SPDE, F-30207 Bagnols sur Ceze (France); Renaudin, Guillaume [Clermont Universite, ENSCCF, Laboratoire des Materiaux Inorganiques, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); CNRS, UMR 6002, F-63177 Aubiere (France); Frizon, Fabien [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, CEA DEN/DTCD/SPDE, F-30207 Bagnols sur Ceze (France); Leroux, Fabrice [Clermont Universite, Universite Blaise Pascal, Laboratoire des Materiaux Inorganiques, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); CNRS, UMR 6002, F-63177 Aubiere (France)

2012-08-15

77

Amorphous calcium carbonate in form of spherical nanosized particles and its application as fillers for polymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The synthesis of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) via a liquid precursor to give spherical particles with monodisperse distribution of diameters in the range of 0.4–1.2?m has been optimized to the level to obtain multigram yields per batch. The synthesis was achieved by precipitation of ACC from a strongly alkaline solution of calcium chloride (CaCl2) at ambient temperature using the hydrolysis

K. Gorna; M. Hund; M. Vu?ak; F. Gröhn; G. Wegner

2008-01-01

78

Improvement of activated sludge dewaterability by mild thermal treatment in CaCl2 solution.  

PubMed

Activated sludge dewatering is of great importance in sludge treatment and disposal. To enhance the dewaterability, a novel method was performed by treating the sludge under mild temperature (50-90 °C) in CaCl(2) solution (3.7-1110.0 mg/g dry sludge). The capillary suction time, zeta potential, Fourier-transformed infrared spectra, concentration of soluble protein and carbohydrates were employed to characterize the dewaterability and influencing mechanism. The sludge dewaterability was deteriorated with single thermal treatment, but significantly promoted in CaCl(2) solution and advanced further together with thermal treatment. An increasing CaCl(2) dosage reduced the surface charge remarkably, and a higher temperature could strengthen this impact. The spectra indicate that Ca(2+) could interact with the protein, phenols and O-H functional group in the flocs. The thermal treatment could cause the solubilization of protein and carbohydrates, providing more binding sites for Ca(2+) to establish a strong bridging among the flocs. As CaCl(2) dosage elevated, the soluble carbohydrates showed a reduction trend, while the soluble protein lowered firstly and then bounced back except that remained unchanged at room temperature. A bridging equilibrium is presumed to exist between Ca(2+) and the soluble protein. And the bridging between Ca(2+) and the soluble carbohydrates plays a more important role in the dewatering. The sludge dewaterability was successfully and economically improved by thermal treatment in CaCl(2) solution. PMID:22119238

Guan, Baohong; Yu, Jie; Fu, Hailu; Guo, Minhui; Xu, Xinhua

2011-11-13

79

Effects of postmortem calcium chloride injection on meat palatability traits of strip loin steaks from cattle supplemented with or without zilpaterol hydrochloride.  

PubMed

An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride mM supplementation (ZH; 8.3 mg/kg on a DM basis for 20 d) and calcium chloride injection [CaCl(2), 200 at 5% (wt/wt) at 72 h postmortem] on palatability traits of beef (Bos taurus) strip loin steaks. Select (USDA) strip loins were obtained from control (no ZH = 19) and ZH-supplemented carcasses (n = 20). Right and left sides were selected alternatively to serve as a control (no INJ) or CaCl(2)-injected (INJ) and stored at 4°C. Before injecting the subprimals (72 h postmortem), 2 steaks were cut for proximate, sarcomere length, and myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI) analyses. At 7 d postmortem each strip loin was portioned into steaks, vacuum packaged, and aged for the appropriate period for Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF; 7, 14, 21, and 28 d postmortem), trained sensory analysis (14 and 21 d postmortem), purge loss (7 d), and MFI (3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 d postmortem). Results indicated steaks from both ZH supplementation and INJ had reduced WBSF values as days of postmortem aging increased. The WBSF values of ZH steaks were greater (P < 0.05) than no ZH steaks at each postmortem aging period. The INJ steaks had lower WBSF values (P < 0.05) than non-injected steaks. A greater percentage (91 vs. 71%) of steaks had WBSF values < 4.6 kg from steers with no ZH supplementation at 7 d postmortem, but the percentage did not differ (P > 0.05) due to ZH at 14, 21, or 28 d or due to INJ at any aging period. Trained panelists rated tenderness less in ZH steaks than steaks with no ZH at 14 d and 21 d. However, INJ improved (P < 0.05) the tenderness ratings and flavor intensity of the trained panelists, compared with their non-injected cohorts at 21 d. Zilpaterol hydrochloride supplementation reduced (P < 0.05) MFI values, but INJ resulted in greater (P < 0.05) MFI values compared with no INJ. Subprimals from ZH and INJ showed greater purge loss (P < 0.05). Although no interactions were found with ZH and CaCl(2), injecting USDA Select strip loins from ZH-fed cattle can help reduce the normal WBSF variation as it does in steaks from non-ZH-fed cattle. PMID:22851240

Rodas-González, A; Pflanzer, S B; Garmyn, A J; Martin, J N; Brooks, J C; Knobel, S M; Johnson, B J; Starkey, J D; Rathmann, R J; de Felicio, P E; Streeter, M N; Yates, D A; Hodgen, J M; Hutcheson, J P; Miller, M F

2012-07-31

80

Association of Vacancies with Calcium Impurities in Potassium Chloride Crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements are made on the dc conductivity and dielectric loss in quenched KCl crystals doped with small amount of CaCl2. The evidence for formation of higher complexes is obtained from the decay of the conductivity during annealing after quenching. It is also found that there exists a relation between the number of free vacancies, nv, and that of impurity-vacancy associated

Tosiyuki Ninomiya

1960-01-01

81

EXAFS study of aqueous Zr(IV) and Th(IV) complexes in alkaline CaCl(2) solutions: Ca(3)[Zr(OH)(6)](4+) and Ca(4)[Th(OH)(8)](4+).  

PubMed

A hitherto unknown type of aqueous complex, ternary Ca-MIV-OH complexes (M = Zr and Th), causes unexpectedly high solubilities of zirconium(IV) and thorium(IV) hydrous oxides in alkaline CaCl2 solutions (pHc = 10-12, [CaCl2] > 0.05 mol.L(-1), and pHc = 11-12, [CaCl2] > 0.5 mol.L(-1), respectively). The dominant aqueous species are identified as Ca3[Zr(OH)6]4+ and Ca4[Th(OH)8]4+ and characterized by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. The number of OH- ligands in the first coordination sphere detected by EXAFS, NO = 6 (6.6 +/- 1.2) for Zr and NO = 8 (8.6 +/- 1.2) for Th, are consistent with the observed slopes of 2 and 4 in the solubility curves log [M]tot vs pHc. The presence of polynuclear hydrolysis species and the formation of chloride complexes can be excluded. EXAFS spectra clearly show a second coordination shell of calcium ions. The [Zr(OH)6]2- and [Th(OH)8]4- complexes with an unusually large number of OH- ligands are stabilized by the formation of associates or ion pairs with Ca2+ ions. The number of neighboring Ca2+ ions around the [Zr(OH)6]2- and [Th(OH)8]4- units is determined to be NCa = 3 (2.7 +/- 0.6) at a distance of RZr-Ca = 3.38 +/- 0.02 A and NCa = 4 (3.8 +/- 0.5) at a distance of RTh-Ca = 3.98 +/- 0.02 A. The Ca3[Zr(OH)6]4+ and Ca4[Th(OH)8]4+ complexes have first (M-O) and second (M-Ca) coordination spheres with the Ca2+ ions bound to coordination polyhedra edges. PMID:17636893

Brendebach, B; Altmaier, M; Rothe, J; Neck, V; Denecke, M A

2007-07-17

82

Iron availability in peat substrates as assessed by water, calcium chloride, ammonium acetate, DTPA and calcium chloride\\/DTPA  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was conducted to find out which extractant for a peat substrate gave the best prediction of iron (Fe) uptake by the plant. Iron was added in four levels (including zero) to peat in the form of either EDTA or sulphate, at two pH levels. Iron from the peat was extracted by water, 0.01M CaCl2,0.5M NH4OAc, 0.002M DTPA and

C. de Kreij; C. W. van Elderen; H. Bajar

1996-01-01

83

Repassivation Potential of Alloy 22 in Sodium and Calcium Chloride Brines  

SciTech Connect

A comprehensive matrix of 60 tests was designed to explore the effect of calcium chloride vs. sodium chloride and the ratio R of nitrate concentration over chloride concentration on the repassivation potential of Alloy 22. Tests were conducted using the cyclic potentiodynamic polarization (CPP) technique at 75 C and at 90 C. Results show that at a ratio R of 0.18 and higher nitrate was able to inhibit the crevice corrosion in Alloy 22 induced by chloride. Current results fail to show in a consistent way a different effect on the repassivation potential of Alloy 22 for calcium chloride solutions than for sodium chloride solutions.

Rebak, R B; Ilevbare, G O; Carranza, R M

2007-08-11

84

Liquid Calcium Chloride Solar Storage: Concept and Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Aqueous calcium chloride has a number of potential advantages as a compact and long-term solar storage medium compared to sensibly heated water. The combination of sensible and chemical binding energy of the liquid desiccant provides higher energy densities and lower thermal losses, as well as a temperature lift during discharge via an absorption heat pump. Calcium chloride is an excellent choice among desiccant materials because it is relatively inexpensive, non-toxic, and environmentally safe. This paper provides an overview of its application for solar storage and presents a novel concept for storing the liquid desiccant in a single storage vessel. The storage system uses an internal heat exchanger to add and discharge thermal energy and to help manage the mass, momentum, and energy transfer in the tank. The feasibility of the proposed concept is demonstrated via a computational fluid dynamic study of heat and mass transfer in the system over a range of Rayleigh, Lewis, Prandtl, and buoyancy ratio numbers expected in practice.

Quinnell, J. A.; Davidson, J. H.; Burch, J.

2010-01-01

85

XRD studies of ?-chitin from squid pen with calcium solvent  

Microsoft Academic Search

The crystalline structure of ?-chitin from squid pen was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The purified ?-chitin was prepared from bigfin reefsquid pen. ?-Chitin was treated with saturated calcium chloride dihydrate\\/alchohol (CaCl2·2H2O\\/MeOH) solvent system at different conditions for XRD studies. The change of crystallinity of ?-chitin from squid pen was studied by using the fiber photographs on imaging plates. The

H. Nagahama; T. Higuchi; R. Jayakumar; T. Furuike; H. Tamura

2008-01-01

86

Electrochemical Deoxidation of Solid Zirconium Dioxide in Molten Calcium Chloride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reduction of zirconium dioxide pellets by electro-deoxidation in molten calcium chloride-calcium oxide (900 °C) has been studied. In this technique, the solid oxide is cathodically polarized against a graphite counter electrode under a constant applied potential. Unlike other metal oxides that have been reduced by this technique, only a small area around the cathodic current-collector wire was reduced to zirconium metal with zirconia pellets sintered at ~1100 °C; the rest of the sample was largely calcium zirconate. Pellets sintered above 1200 °C showed better reduction near the cathode wire and the reduction extended to the entire surface of the pellet with the passage of time. However, reduction of the inner core was found to be increasingly difficult, because the surface metal layer thickened on continuous electro-deoxidation. An analysis of the experimental results showed that the poor electrical conductivity of the intermediate compound, CaZrO3 and its blocky morphology inhibited the electro-deoxidation process. The increase in the sintering temperature of the pellet made it better conducting. However, the pores formed in the thick zirconium metal layer in such samples were too small for an ideal contact between the inner core and the molten electrolyte and hence the reduction of the inner core remained incomplete. Within the scope of this study, it is concluded that preforms with good grain growth and porosity are necessary for the electro-deoxidation of solid zirconium oxide.

Mohandas, K. S.; Fray, D. J.

2009-10-01

87

Interactive effects of sodium chloride and calcium chloride on the accumulation of proline and glycinebetaine in peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many plants, including peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), when exposed to salinity stress produce the osmoticants: proline and glycinebetaine. Calcium ions also play a role in osmoprotection. During germination of peanut seeds subjected to NaCl salinity stress, proline and glycinebetaine concentrations in the embryonic axis increased continuously. A further increase in glycinebetaine concentration was observed with the addition of calcium chloride

C Girija; B. N Smith; P. M Swamy

2002-01-01

88

43 CFR 3511.11 - If I am mining calcium chloride, may I obtain a noncompetitive mineral lease to produce the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 false If I am mining calcium chloride, may I obtain a noncompetitive...3511.11 If I am mining calcium chloride, may I obtain a noncompetitive... Yes. If you are producing calcium chloride in paying quantities...

2009-10-01

89

43 CFR 3511.11 - If I am mining calcium chloride, may I obtain a noncompetitive mineral lease to produce the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false If I am mining calcium chloride, may I obtain a noncompetitive...3511.11 If I am mining calcium chloride, may I obtain a noncompetitive... Yes. If you are producing calcium chloride in paying quantities...

2010-10-01

90

The Effects of Calcium Chloride and Sucrose Prefreezing Treatments on the Structure of Strawberry Tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structural changes in strawberry tissues during prefreezing treatments, freezing and thawing were studied by means of textural and drip loss measurements as well as by bright-field and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) microscopy. Calcium chloride or sucrose were used as dipping pretreatment agents before freezing. In the calcium chloride test series a full

J. Suutarinen; K. Heiska; P. Moss; K. Autio

2000-01-01

91

Electrolytic Reduction of Titania Slag in Molten Calcium Chloride Bath  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ferro-titanium is prepared by direct electrolytic reduction of titania-rich slag obtained from plasma smelting of ilmenite in molten CaCl2. The product after electro-reduction is characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and electron probe microanalysis. The electrolysis is carried out at a cell voltage of 3.0 V, taking graphite as the electrolysis cell as well as the anode, and a titania-rich slag piece wrapped by a nichrome wire is used as the cathode.

Mohanty, Jayashree

2012-05-01

92

Chloride binding to calcium silicate hydrates (CSH) in cement paste: a molecular dynamics analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A research study was recently conducted using the molecular dynamics approach to investigate the physico-chemical nature of interactions between chloride ions and various hydration products of cement that could lead to chloride accumulation in concrete. This paper presents the findings of one primary focus of the study, i.e. studying the transport behaviour of chloride ions in the calcium silicate hydrate

Tongyan Pan; Kaiming Xia; Linbing Wang

2010-01-01

93

The electrochemical deoxidation of metal oxides by calcium using a solid oxide membrane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reduction of a metal oxide by calcium in a CaCl2 melt produces metal and calcium oxide (CaO) dissolved in the molten chloride. To minimize waste salts, the reacted salts have to be regenerated. This can be done either by converting CaO to CaCl2 by chlorination with Cl2 and adding calcium metal or by electrochemical deoxidation of CaO. In the first method, the addition of calcium metal increases the amount of reacted salts, and consequently the waste salts, while in the second method the quantity of reacted salts remains constant. The electrochemical deoxidation of CaO occurs in one step and the produced oxygen is evacuated. This article describes a study of the electrochemical deoxidation of CaO using a solid oxide membrane.

Martin, A.; Lambertin, D.; Poignet, J.-C.; Allibert, M.; Bourges, G.; Pescayre, L.; Fouletier, J.

2003-10-01

94

Plutonium chemical properties in NaCl KCl and CaCl2 at 1073 K  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electrochemical properties of plutonium have been studied in molten equimolar NaCl/KCl and CaCl2 at 1073 K by cyclic voltammetry. The respective standard potentials of Pu(III)/Pu redox couple, -2.54 V and -2.51 V (versus Cl-/Cl2 reference electrode), led to the calculation of the activity coefficients of Pu(III) in each electrolyte. In CaCl2 the complexation of Pu(III) ions is lower and the voltage gap between Pu(III)/Pu redox system and the solvent limit is higher. Use of these results to construct potential pO2- diagrams for plutonium at 1073 K gives a rational overview of plutonium properties in these media.

Lambertin, David; Ched'Homme, Séverine; Bourgès, Gilles; Sanchez, Sylvie; Picard, Gérard

2005-05-01

95

Solar heating and cooling with the CaCl2-CH3OH chemical heat pump  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A chemical heat pump based on the reaction of calcium chloride and methanol is being designed and optimized for solar heating and air conditioning, primarily for the residential and light commercial market. The performance requirements for this application are quite stringent. For example, to minimize maintenance, a cooling tower should not be used, and the solar collectors should be fixed rooftop flat plates or evacuated tubes. The chiller should be capable of reaching 45 F on a 95 F day in order to provide effective dehumidification. Energy storage for late afternoon and early evening cooling, as well as night time winter heating, must be provided.

Offenhartz, P. O.

1982-03-01

96

Fresh-cut cantaloupe: effects of CaCl 2 dips and heat treatments on firmness and metabolic activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium chloride (1–5%) dips were applied to melon cylinders taken from commercially ripe (3\\/4 to full slip) cantaloupe melons for 1–5 min. A wound response was observed after cutting, and CO2 production was higher in untreated samples than in calcium treated and intact fruit. Dip time did not significantly effect respiration rate. Application of calcium dips at any temperature resulted

Irene Luna-Guzmán; Marita Cantwell; Diane M Barrett

1999-01-01

97

TMEM16A, A Membrane Protein Associated with Calcium-Dependent Chloride Channel Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium-dependent chloride channels are required for normal electrolyte and fluid secretion, olfactory perception, and neuronal and smooth muscle excitability. The molecular identity of these membrane proteins is still unclear. Treatment of bronchial epithelial cells with interleukin-4 (IL-4) causes increased calcium-dependent chloride channel activity, presumably by regulating expression of the corresponding genes. We performed a global gene expression analysis to identify

Antonella Caputo; Emanuela Caci; Loretta Ferrera; Nicoletta Pedemonte; Cristina Barsanti; Elvira Sondo; Ulrich Pfeffer; Roberto Ravazzolo; Olga Zegarra-Moran; Luis J. V. Galietta

2008-01-01

98

Don Juan Pond, Antarctica: Near-surface CaCl2-brine feeding Earth's most saline lake and implications for Mars  

PubMed Central

The discovery on Mars of recurring slope lineae (RSL), thought to represent seasonal brines, has sparked interest in analogous environments on Earth. We report on new studies of Don Juan Pond (DJP), which exists at the upper limit of ephemeral water in the McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV) of Antarctica, and is adjacent to several steep-sloped water tracks, the closest analog for RSL. The source of DJP has been interpreted to be deep groundwater. We present time-lapse data and meteorological measurements that confirm deliquescence within the DJP watershed and show that this, together with small amounts of meltwater, are capable of generating brines that control summertime water levels. Groundwater input was not observed. In addition to providing an analog for RSL formation, CaCl2 brines and chloride deposits in basins may provide clues to the origin of ancient chloride deposits on Mars dating from the transition period from “warm/wet” to “cold/dry” climates.

Dickson, James L.; Head, James W.; Levy, Joseph S.; Marchant, David R.

2013-01-01

99

Methane hydrate phase equilibrium in the presence of salt (NaCl, KCl, or CaCl 2) + ethylene glycol or salt (NaCl, KCl, or CaCl 2) + methanol aqueous solution: Experimental determination of dissociation condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this communication, we report dissociation conditions of methane hydrates in the presence of salt (NaCl, KCl, or CaCl2)+ethylene glycol or salt (NaCl, KCl, or CaCl2)+methanol aqueous solutions at different temperatures. The equilibrium data were generated using an isochoric pressure-search method. These data are compared with some selected experimental data from the literature on dissociation conditions of methane hydrates in

Amir H. Mohammadi; Dominique Richon

2009-01-01

100

Exogenously applied calcium alleviates cadmium toxicity in Matricaria chamomilla L. plants.  

PubMed

Cadmium (Cd) toxicity in plants leads to serious disturbances of physiological processes, such as inhibition of chlorophyll synthesis, oxidative injury to the plant cells and water and nutrient uptake. Response of Matricaria chamomilla L. to calcium chloride (CaCl(2)) enrichment in growth medium for reducing Cd toxicity were studied in this study. Hydroponically cultured seedlings were treated with 0, 0.1, 1, and 5 mM CaCl(2), under 0, 120, and 180 ?M CdCl(2) conditions, respectively. The study included measurements pertaining to physiological attributes such as growth parameters, Cd concentration and translocation, oxidative stress, and accumulation of phenolics. Addition of CaCl(2) to growth media decreased the Cd concentration, activity of antioxidant enzymes, and reactive oxygen species accumulation in the plants treated with different CdCl(2), but increased the growth parameters. Malondialdehyde and total phenolics in shoots and roots were not much affected when plants were treated only with different CaCl(2) levels, but it showed a rapid increase when the plants were exposed to 120 and 180 CdCl(2) levels. CaCl(2) amendment also ameliorated the CdCl(2)-induced stress by reducing oxidative injury. The beneficial effects of CaCl(2) in ameliorating CdCl(2) toxicity can be attributed to the Ca-induced reduction of Cd concentration, by reducing the cell-surface negativity and competing for Cd(2+) ion influx, activity enhancement of antioxidant enzymes, and biomass accumulation. PMID:22968674

Farzadfar, Soudeh; Zarinkamar, Fatemeh; Modarres-Sanavy, Seyed Ali Mohammad; Hojati, Mostafa

2012-09-12

101

Chloride salt mixtures affect Gordal cv. green Spanish-style table olive fermentation.  

PubMed

This work studies the effects of different sodium (in the range of 4-10%), potassium (0-4%) and calcium (0-6%) chloride salt mixtures on the fermentation profile of Gordal olives processed according to the Spanish style. For this purpose, response surface methodology based on a simplex centroid mixture design with constrain (sum of salt percentages = 10%) was used. All treatments reached appropriate titratable acidity levels, but this parameter could not be related to the initial chloride salt concentration. The presence of CaCl(2) led to lower initial and after-fermentation pHs, delayed sugar diffusion into the brine, its maximum concentration and titratable acidity formation. CaCl(2) also delayed Enterobacteriaceae and yeast sprang, decreasing their overall growth. This chloride salt also showed a tendency to reduce overall lactic acid bacteria growth. KCl had a similar behaviour to NaCl but, in general, increased overall microbial growth. Thus, a partial substitution of NaCl in Spanish-style green olives with KCl and CaCl(2) does not substantially modify the fermentation profile but does produce some changes, which, when properly managed, could help to improve product processing. PMID:21839381

Bautista Gallego, J; Arroyo López, F N; Romero Gil, V; Rodríguez Gómez, F; García García, P; Garrido Fernández, A

2011-06-12

102

43 CFR 3511.11 - If I am mining calcium chloride, may I obtain a noncompetitive mineral lease to produce the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false If I am mining calcium chloride, may I obtain a noncompetitive...Conditions § 3511.11 If I am mining calcium chloride, may I obtain a noncompetitive...chloride? Yes. If you are producing calcium chloride in paying quantities from an...

2012-10-01

103

Calcium-activated chloride channels in the apical region of mouse vomeronasal sensory neurons  

PubMed Central

The rodent vomeronasal organ plays a crucial role in several social behaviors. Detection of pheromones or other emitted signaling molecules occurs in the dendritic microvilli of vomeronasal sensory neurons, where the binding of molecules to vomeronasal receptors leads to the influx of sodium and calcium ions mainly through the transient receptor potential canonical 2 (TRPC2) channel. To investigate the physiological role played by the increase in intracellular calcium concentration in the apical region of these neurons, we produced localized, rapid, and reproducible increases in calcium concentration with flash photolysis of caged calcium and measured calcium-activated currents with the whole cell voltage-clamp technique. On average, a large inward calcium-activated current of ?261 pA was measured at ?50 mV, rising with a time constant of 13 ms. Ion substitution experiments showed that this current is anion selective. Moreover, the chloride channel blockers niflumic acid and 4,4?-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2?-disulfonic acid partially inhibited the calcium-activated current. These results directly demonstrate that a large chloride current can be activated by calcium in the apical region of mouse vomeronasal sensory neurons. Furthermore, we showed by immunohistochemistry that the calcium-activated chloride channels TMEM16A/anoctamin1 and TMEM16B/anoctamin2 are present in the apical layer of the vomeronasal epithelium, where they largely colocalize with the TRPC2 transduction channel. Immunocytochemistry on isolated vomeronasal sensory neurons showed that TMEM16A and TMEM16B coexpress in the neuronal microvilli. Therefore, we conclude that microvilli of mouse vomeronasal sensory neurons have a high density of calcium-activated chloride channels that may play an important role in vomeronasal transduction.

Dibattista, Michele; Amjad, Asma; Maurya, Devendra Kumar; Sagheddu, Claudia; Montani, Giorgia; Tirindelli, Roberto

2012-01-01

104

A comparison of the effects of strontium chloride and calcium chloride on alveolar bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions  Both strontium and calcium, in high local concentrations, stimulate bone formation. The newly formed bone is no more subject\\u000a to osteoclastic attack than normal bone. The bone response to response to calcium in that the response is faster but of shorter\\u000a duration. The response to both strontium and calcium is repetitive.

Eugene F. Ferraro; Ronald Carr; Karl Zimmerman

1983-01-01

105

Soil analysis procedures using 0.01 M calcium chloride as extraction reagent  

Microsoft Academic Search

This publication gives details of laboratory procedures for the determinations of bioavailable (e.g., plants) quantities of nutritional and polluting inorganic elements in 0.01 M CaCl2 extracts of air?dry soil samples. Air?day soil samples are extracted for two hours with a 0.01 M CaCl2 solution of 20°C in a 1:10 extraction ratio (W\\/V). After measuring the pH in the settling suspension,

V. J. G. Houba; E. J. M. Temminghoff; G. A. Gaikhorst; W. van Vark

2000-01-01

106

Influence of calcium chloride addition on the properties of emulsions stabilized by whey protein concentrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The properties of emulsions (30% soya oil) formed with 0.5 or 3.0% whey protein concentrate (WPC) and containing various concentrations of CaCl2 were investigated. In emulsions made with 0.5% WPC, addition of >3mM CaCl2 before emulsification resulted in a large increase in average droplet diameter (d43) and a development of bimodal size distributions. The surface protein concentrations increased by ?30%

A. Ye; H. Singh

2000-01-01

107

TMEM16A confers receptor-activated calcium-dependent chloride conductance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium (Ca2+)-activated chloride channels are fundamental mediators in numerous physiological processes including transepithelial secretion, cardiac and neuronal excitation, sensory transduction, smooth muscle contraction and fertilization. Despite their physiological importance, their molecular identity has remained largely unknown. Here we show that transmembrane protein 16A (TMEM16A, which we also call anoctamin 1 (ANO1)) is a bona fide Ca2+-activated chloride channel that is

Young Duk Yang; Hawon Cho; Jae Yeon Koo; Min Ho Tak; Yeongyo Cho; Won-Sik Shim; Seung Pyo Park; Jesun Lee; Byeongjun Lee; Byung-Moon Kim; Ramin Raouf; Young Ki Shin; Uhtaek Oh

2008-01-01

108

Formation condition of monohydrocalcite from CaCl2-MgCl2-Na2CO3 solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monohydrocalcite (MHC: CaCO3·H2O) is a rare mineral in geological settings. Its rare occurrence indicates that MHC forms in unique environmental conditions in nature. Both laboratory studies and natural observations have indicated that the formation of MHC requires magnesium in the solution in spite of the incompatibility of magnesium into the MHC structure. In this study, systematic syntheses from CaCl2-MgCl2-Na2CO3 solutions were conducted to elucidate MHC formation conditions and to clarify the role of magnesium in MHC formation. For this study, MHC was formed from mixing solutions of which the ratio of the total carbonate to calcium was higher than 1 in the presence of a certain amount of magnesium. The pH of the reacted solutions after the MHC formation was 9.8-11.0. The solid-phase magnesium contents in the formed precipitates were widely varied. MHC exhibits low crystallinity and small particle size when the ratio of magnesium to calcium in the solid was higher than 0.4. After MHC formation, ion activity products of the reacted solutions with respect to MgCO3·xH2O stoichiometry took almost constant values. The ion activity products were significantly higher than the solubility product of anhydrous MgCO3, but they were close to the solubility of nesquehonite, which indicates that MHC formation of requires paragenesis of the hydrous magnesium carbonate. To produce the hydrous magnesium carbonate simultaneously with MHC, the initial solution must contain magnesium and more CO32- than Ca2+, which is consistent with the formation conditions of MHC from the initial solution compositions. Magnesium ion possesses a high hydration energy. The hydrous magnesium carbonates surrounding MHC probably play a protective role for MHC in preventing its dehydration to anhydrous calcium carbonate. The solution chemistries of saline lakes of which the MHC formation was observed in nature are also at equilibrium or are oversaturated with respect to hydrous magnesium carbonates and MHC. Rare occurrences of MHC in nature are explainable by the paragenesis requirements of hydrous magnesium carbonates and by the metastability of MHC.

Nishiyama, Risa; Munemoto, Takashi; Fukushi, Keisuke

2013-01-01

109

Effect of calcium chloride on the volatile pattern and sensory acceptance of dry-fermented sausages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of calcium chloride addition used in combination with starter cultures (lactic acid bacteria and staphylococci)\\u000a was studied in the development of dry-fermented sausage aroma and final sensory acceptance. Volatile compounds were extracted\\u000a by solid-phase micro extraction and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A paired comparison test was done to\\u000a determine which sausage was preferred. The addition of calcium

Mónica Flores; Pablo Nieto; José Manuel Ferrer; José Flores

2005-01-01

110

Effect of deicing NaCl and CaCl 2 on spruce ( Picea abies (L.) sp.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

NaCl and CaCl2 are frequently used as deicing agents during the winter season. The present study compares the effect of these deicing salts\\u000a on salt injury on spruce trees (Picea abies sp.). From two field experiments carried out for ten weeks during the winter period of 1986–1987, and a total dose of 1.5\\u000a kg m?2 NaCl, CaCl2 or a 75\\/25

J. Bogemans; L. Neirinckx; J. M. Stassart

1989-01-01

111

Effects of Dietary Sodium Bicarbonate and Calcium Chloride on Physiological Responses of Lactating Dairy Cows in Hot Weather  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-four lactating cows were as- signed randomly to three treatments to evaluate responses to large differences of dietary sodium and chloride. Treatments were corn-cottonseed meal-corn silage based complete rations with either: 1) .23% sodium chloride (control), 2) control plus 2.28% calcium chloride, or 3) control plus 1.70% sodium bicarbonate.

A. Escobosa; C. E. Coppock; L. D. Rowe Jr; W. L. Jenkins; C. E. Gates

1984-01-01

112

Storage of Low-Temperature Heat in Salt-Hydrate Melts: Calcium Chloride Hexahydrate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Calcium chloride hexahydrate melts at 29.8 exp 0 C. Its heat of fusion is 170 J/g or 71.7 kWh/m exp 3 of solution. In the temperature interval 20 to 30 exp 0 C, it has a heat content comparable to a temperature increase from 20 to 90 exp 0 C in the equal ...

B. Carlsson H. Stymne G. Wettermark

1978-01-01

113

Allosteric cotransport of sodium, chloride, and calcium by the intestine of freshwater prawns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The apical membrane of the intestinal epithelium of the freshwater prawn,Macrobrachium rosenbergii, has been found to possess an apparently unique allosteric carrier mechanism for the simultaneous cotransport of sodium, chloride, and calcium from mucosal solution to cytosol. Influxes of the two monovalent ions individually were sigmoidal functions of their respective luminal concentrations, and their kinetics followed the Hill equation

Gregory A. Ahearn

1978-01-01

114

The Drying of Gas by Calcium Chloride, Laboratory of Research, Solvay and Co.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the article will be found the results of experiments tending to utilize calcium chloride on a large scale, and to effect not only complete drying, but a reduction of the quantity of water contained in the gases treated. A series of tables and diagrams ...

1968-01-01

115

Chilling Resistance in Pomegranate Fruits with Spermidine and Calcium Chloride Treatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pomegranate fruits were treated with 2% calcium chloride in combination with 2 mM of spermidine by either normal dip or vacuum infiltration for 4 min and then stored at 2°C for 4 months. After 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 days, 12 fruits were taken from each treatment and stored at 20°C for an additional 3 days. Compared with control

Asghar Ramezanian; Majid Rahemi

2011-01-01

116

Crystalline transition and morphology variation of polyamide 6/CaCl2 composite during the decomplexation process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we developed a new method to prepare porous PA6 with different morphologic feature and crystalline forms via the decomplexation of PA6/CaCl2 composite. The structures and morphology of thus obtained materials were characterized by vibrational spectroscopy (FT-IR and Raman) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) method. When amorphous PA6/CaCl2 composite films were treated in water at room temperature, PA6 re-arranges into ? form. However, decomplexation of the PA6/CaCl2 composite in boiling water produces PA6 in ? crystalline form. If the PA6/CaCl2 composite is soaked in methanol, part of PA6 is dissolved or swollen in methanol/metal salt solutions. As a result, a dissolve/precipitation process occurred during the decomplexation process, which led to the formation of PA6 in ? crystalline form. Further investigation demonstrates that the morphologies of the porous PA6 could be adjusted by using different solvents and/or different decomplexation conditions.

Liu, Shaoxuan; Zhang, Chengfeng; Proniewicz, Edyta; Proniewicz, Leonard M.; Kim, Younkyoo; Liu, Jun; Zhao, Ying; Xu, Yizhuang; Wu, Jinguang

2013-11-01

117

Origin of CaCl2 brines by basalt-seawater interaction: Insights provided by some simple mass balance calculations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern rift zone hydrothermal brines are typically CaCl2-bearing brines, an unusual chemical signature they share with certain oil field brines, fluid inclusions in ore minerals and a few uncommon saline lakes. Many origins have been suggested for such CaCl2 brines but in the Reykjanes, Iceland, geothermal system a strong empirical case can be made for a basalt-seawater interaction origin. To examine this mechanism of CaCl2 brine evolution some simple mass balance calculations were carried out. Average Reykjanes olivine tholeiite was “reacted” with average North Atlantic seawater to make an albite-chlorite-epidotesphene rock using Al2O3 as the conservative rock component and Cl as the conservative fluid component. The excess components released by the basalt to the fluid were “precipitated” at 275° C as quartz, calcite, anhydrite, magnetite and pyrite to complete the conversion to greenstone. The resulting fluid was a CaCl2 brine of seawater chlorinity with a composition remarkably similar to the actual Reykjanes brine at 1750 m depth. Thus, the calculations strongly support the idea that the Reykjanes CaCl2 brines result from “closed system” oceanic basalt-seawater interaction (albitization — chloritization mechanism) at greenschist facies temperatures. The calculation gives a seawater: basalt mass ratio of 3?1 to 4?1 (vol. ratio of 9?1 to 12?1), in keeping with experimental results, submarine vent data and with ocean crust cooling calculations. The brine becomes anoxic because there is insufficient dissolved or combined oxygen to balance all the Fe released from the basalt during alteration. Large excesses of Ca are released to the fluid and precipitate out in the form of anhydrite which essentially sweeps the brine free of sulfate leaving an elevated Ca concentration. The calculated rock-water interaction basically involves Na + Mg + SO4 ? Ca + K, simulating chemical differences observed between oceanic basalts and greenstones from many mid-ocean ridges.

Hardie, Lawrence A.

1983-06-01

118

Crystallization of sodium chloride from a concentrated calcium chloride-potassium chloride-sodium chloride solution in a CMSMPR crystallizer: Observation of crystal size distribution and model validation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compared to overwhelming technical data available in other advanced technologies, knowledge about particle technology, especially in particle synthesis from a solution, is still poor due to the lack of available equipment to study crystallization phenomena in a crystallizer. Recent technical advances in particle size measurement such as Coulter counter and laser light scattering have made in/ex situ study of some of particle synthesis, i.e., growth, attrition, and aggregation, possible with simple systems. Even with these advancements in measurement technology, to grasp fully the crystallization phenomena requires further theoretical and technical advances in understanding such particle synthesis mechanisms. Therefore, it is the motive of this work to establish the general processing parameters and to produce rigorous experimental data with reliable performance and characterization that rigorously account for the crystallization phenomena of nucleation, growth, aggregation, and breakage including their variations with time and space in a controlled continuous mixed-suspension mixed-product removal (CMSMPR) crystallizer. This dissertation reports the results and achievements in the following areas: (1) experimental programs to support the development and validation of the phenomenological models and generation of laboratory data for the purpose of testing, refining, and validating the crystallization process, (2) development of laboratory well-mixed crystallizer system and experimental protocols to generate crystal size distribution (CSD) data, (3) the effects of feed solution concentration, crystallization temperature, feed flow rate, and mixing speed, as well as different types of mixers resulting in the evolution of CSDs with time from a concentrated brine solution, (4) with statistically designed experiments the effects of processing variables on the resultant particle structure and CSD at steady state were quantified and related to each of those operating conditions by studying the detailed crystallization processes, such as nucleation, growth, and breakage, as well as agglomeration. The purification of CaCl2 solution involving the crystallization of NaCl from the solution mixture of CaCl2, KCl, and NaCl as shipped from Dow Chemical, Ludington, in a CMSMPR crystallizer was studied as our model system because of its nucleation and crystal growth tendencies with less agglomeration. This project also generated a significant body of experimental data that are available at URL that is http://www.che.utah.edu/˜ring/CrystallizationWeb.

Choi, Byung Sang

119

Properties of a new liquid desiccant solution - Lithium chloride and calcium chloride mixture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Desiccants, broadly classified as solid and liquid desiccants, have the property of extracting and retaining moisture from air brought into contact with them. By using either type, moisture in the air is removed and the resulting dry air can be used for air-conditioning or drying purposes. Because of its properties, lithium chloride is the most stable liquid desiccant and has

A. Ertas; E. E. Anderson; I. Kiris

1992-01-01

120

Zirconium and hafnium tetrachloride separation by extractive distillation with molten zinc chloride calcium and/or magnesium chloride solvent  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an extractive distillation method for separating hafnim tetrachloride from zirconium tetrachloride of the type wherein a mixture of zirconium and hafnium tetrachlorides is introduced into an extractive distillation column, which distillation column has a reflux reboiler connected at the bottom and a reflux absorber connected at the top and wherein a molten salt solvent is circulated into the reflux absorber and through the column to provide a liquid phase. The molten salt solvent contains zirconium tetrachloride and is taken from the reboiler and run through a stripper to remove zirconium tetrachloride product from the molten salt solvent and the stripped molten salt solvent is returned to the reflux absorber and hafnium tetrachloride enriched vapor is taken as product from the reflux absorber. The improvement comprises: the molten salt solvent having a composition of at least 80 weight percent zinc chloride and at least 5 percent of a viscosity reducer, the viscosity reducer being chosen from the group consisting of magnesium chloride; and calcium chloride, and mixtures thereof.

Stoltz, R.A.; McLaughlin, D.F.

1988-06-07

121

The use of calcium chloride in minimally processed apples: A sensory approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

A treatment to maintain the colour and the instrumental texture of minimally processed ‘Fuji’ apple cubes for 16 days under\\u000a refrigeration was selected from various calcium chloride concentrations with fixed amounts of ascorbic acid and propionic\\u000a acid. The sensory acceptability (colour, texture, taste, overall) of the selected product over the storage period was studied\\u000a by means of a consumer panel.

Paula Varela; Ana Salvador; Susana M. Fiszman

2007-01-01

122

Effect of calcium chloride on the isobaric vapor-liquid equilibrium of 1-propanol + water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of calcium chloride at salt mole fractions from 0.02 to saturation on the vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) of 1-propanol + water has been studied at 101.32 kPa using a modified Othmer equilibrium still. The salt exhibited a salting-out effect of the alcohol over the whole range of liquid composition, the azeotrope being eliminated at salt mole fractions greater than

Maria C. Iliuta; Fernand C. Thyrion; Ortansa M. Landauer

1996-01-01

123

Interrelationships between gill chloride cell morphology and calcium uptake in freshwater teleosts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The involvement of the freshwater fish gill chloride cells (CCs) in trans-branchial calcium uptake (JinCa2+) was investigated. This was accomplished by assessing the interspecific relationships between the apical surface area of CCs exposed to the external environment and JinCa2+. Three species of freshwater teleosts, the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), the American eel (Anguilla rostrata) and the brown bullhead catfish (Ictalurus

S. F. Perry; G. G. Goss; J. C. Fenwick

1992-01-01

124

Using calcium chloride injection to improve tenderness of beef from mature cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT The objective of this investigation was to determine the effect of calcium chloride (CaCI2) injection on Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBS), sensory panel ratings, and collagen .05) were observed in any quantitative collagen traits between CaC12-injected and control cuts. These results indicate that CaClz injection improved ultimate tenderness and sensory ratings of meat from,mature cow,cuts. Key Words: Beef, Mature, Postmortem

J. B. Morgan; R. K. Miller; F. M. Mendez; D. S. Hale; J. W. Savell

2010-01-01

125

Postmortem Injection of Calcium Chloride Effects on Beef Quality Traits112  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-two Bos indicus type steers were commercially slaughtered, and their carcasses were chilled and processed to determine the effects of injecting calcium chloride (CaC12) on beef steak palatability and quality traits. Top loin and inside round subprimals were removed from each carcass using industry fabrication procedures. No injection (control) or injection of 200 mM CaC12 at 5% (wt\\/wt) was applied

J. L. Lansdell; M. F. Miller; T. L. Wheeler; M. Koohmaraie; C. B. Ramsey

126

Determination of the kinetic pathway in the electrochemical reduction of titanium dioxide in molten calcium chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation into the kinetics of the electrochemical reduction of titanium dioxide (TiO2) to titanium metal (Ti) in molten calcium chloride has been performed. Partially reduced samples were prepared by terminating the reduction process after different reaction times and characterised by means of X-ray diffraction analysis. Based on the time-dependent changes of phase composition as well as thermodynamic and kinetic

C. Schwandt; D. J. Fray

2005-01-01

127

Corrosion Effects of Calcium Chloride Injection for Mercury Control on the Pollution Control Equipment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) of 2005, Black Hills Power (BHP) initiated testing of a calcium chloride (CaCl) injection method in their Wygen 1 (Gillette, WY) coal-fired power plant to help lower mercury emissions. In 2006, Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) was contracted to test their CaCl technology in-situ by adding a CaCl solution onto the raw,

Vijay Sethi; M. P. Sharma

2009-01-01

128

Effect of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) on nanostructure and mechanical properties of calcium silicate hydrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studying the performance and behavior of calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H)\\/polymer nanocomposites can be the first step for developing Portland cement-based materials with differentiated properties. Among the polymers available, poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)—PDC is indicated by the literature as one of the most viable for producing C-S-H\\/polymer complexes. However, no consensus exists regarding the kind of interaction. In this work, low Ca\\/Si C-S-H

F. Pelisser; P. J. P. Gleize; A. Mikowski

2010-01-01

129

Sorption interaction of phenanthrene with soil and sediment of different particle sizes and in various CaCl 2 solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this investigation is to evaluate the influences of natural sorbent particle size and system Ca2+ concentration on sorption of low-polarity organic chemicals. The physicochemical properties of the different particle size soil and sediment subsamples and the surface characters of the soil and sediment samples in various CaCl2 concentrations were determined. The sorption behavior of phenanthrene (PHN) on

Yanmei Zhou; Ruixia Liu; Hongxiao Tang

2004-01-01

130

Interaction Between Aluminum Nitride-Based Composite Materials and a CaCl2 – KCl Eutectic Molten Salt Solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction between composite materials based on aluminum nitride and a phosphate binder (PB) and a CaCl2 – KCl molten salt solution is studied as a function of time (10 – 220 h) by a gravimetric method. The test specimens studied were sintered (AlN + PB)-based composite, hot-pressed Y2O3-doped aluminum nitride, graphite, and (AlN + PB)-coated graphite. The concentration of

L. B. Khoroshavin; A. R. Beketov; D. A. Beketov; Yu. P. Zaikov; V. V. Chebykin

2002-01-01

131

Copper extraction from copper ore by electro-reduction in molten CaCl 2–NaCl  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sintered solid porous pellets of copper sulfide (Cu2S) and Cu2S\\/FeS were electrolysed at a cell voltage of 2.2–2.8V to elemental Cu, S and Cu, Fe, S, respectively in molten CaCl2–NaCl at 800°C under the protection of argon gas. The process parameters for optimal electrolysis are presented. The electrolysis products are characterized by microscopic techniques and XRD. The product characteristics are

Xinlei Ge; Xidong Wang; Seshadri Seetharaman

2009-01-01

132

[CaCl2-heat shock preparation of competent cells of three Pseudomonas strains and related transformation conditions].  

PubMed

Pseudomonas, due to its diversity in habitat and metabolic type, makes it have broad prospects applying in bioremediation, bioconversion, and biocontrol, while the introduction of exogenous gene is the key link to genetically modified Pseudomonas. The preparation and transformation of competent cells are the important methodological basis of the introduction of exogenous gene. In this paper, three Pseudomonas strains (P. putida TS11, P. stutzeri DNB, and P. mendocina JJ12) isolated from a petroleum-contaminated soil were taken as the recipient strains, and a three-factor and four-level orthogonal experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of CaCl2 concentration, heat shock duration, and recovery duration on the preparation and transformation efficiency of the strains competent cells. The results showed that CaCl2 concentration was the most important factor affecting the transformation efficiency (P<0.05), and the transformation efficiency was improved markedly when the Pseudomonas cells were repeatedly washed with sterile distilled water before the preparation of competent cells. When the P. putida TS11 cells were treated with 100 mmol L-1 of CaC12, heat-shocked for 3 minutes at 42 degrees, and incubated for 1.5 hours at 30 degrees C, the P. stutzeri DNB cells were treated with 50 mmol . L-1 of CaCl2, heat-shocked for 6 minutes, and incubated for 1.5 hours, and the P. mendocina JJ12 cells were treated with 75 mmol . L-1 of CaCl2, heat-shocked for 4. 5 minutes, and incubated for 0. 5 hours, the transformation efficiency of exogenous plasmids in the three strains all achieved 10(5) cells . microg-1 DNA. PMID:23755496

Zhao, Feng; Zhang, Ying; Li, Hui; Shi, Rong-Jiu; Han, Si-qin

2013-03-01

133

A combined treatment of landfill leachate using calcium oxide, ferric chloride and clinoptilolite.  

PubMed

The aim of this research was development of appropriate procedure for treatment of landfill leachate taken from old sanitary landfill Piskornica (Koprivnica, Croatia). Due to complex nature of the effluent a combined treatment approach was applied. Samples were treated with calcium oxide followed by ferric chloride and finally with clinoptilolite. The optimum amount of treating agents and contact time were determined. Application of calcium oxide (25 g/L, 20 min. contact time) resulted in the reduction of color, turbidity, suspended solids and ammonia for 94.50%, 96.55%, 95.66% and 21.60%, respectively, while the removal efficiency of Cr (VI), Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb was 75.00%, 95.34%, 56.52%, 78.72%, 73.02% and 100.00%, respectively. After addition of ferric chloride (570 mg Fe(3+)/L, 20 min. contact time) removal efficiency of color, turbidity, suspended solids and ammonia increased to 96.04%, 99.27%, 98.61%, and 43.20%, respectively. Removal of ammonia (81.60%) increased significantly after final adsorption onto clinoptilolite (25 g/L, 4 h contact time). Removal of COD after successive treatment with calcium oxide, ferric chloride and clinoptilolite was 64.70%, 77.40% and 81.00%, respectively. PMID:21308604

Orescanin, Visnja; Ruk, Damir; Kollar, Robert; Mikelic, Ivanka Lovrencic; Nad, Karlo; Mikulic, Nenad

2011-01-01

134

Influx of Calcium and Chloride Ions into Epidermal Keratinocytes Regulates Exocytosis of Epidermal Lamellar Bodies and Skin Permeability Barrier Homeostasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the nervous system, influx of calcium and chloride ions into neurons regulates the signaling system by excitation and inhibition, respectively. In this study, we demonstrated the effects of the ion influx into epidermal keratinocytes in the permeability barrier repair process of the skin after damage. Topical application of the neurotransmitters glutamate and nicotine, which activate the calcium channel in

Mitsuhiro Denda; Shigeyoshi Fuziwara; Kaori Inoue

2003-01-01

135

Thermodynamics of mixing of liquids in the system Ca 3(PO 4) 2?CaCl 2?CaF 2?Ca(OH) 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molten calcium halide and hydroxide salts may be used as flux and reactants in determining apatite exchange equilibria and solid solution behavior. New experimental data and published phase equilibria are used to determine a thermodynamic model of melts and solids along the binary joins of the anhydrous apatite system Ca 3(PO 4) 2?CaCl 2?CaF 2?Ca(OH) 2. In this model, melt components are expressed as Ca0.5X, where X is hydroxide or a halogen, or as Ca 1.5PO 4. The derived binary interaction parameters ( WG' s) are sufficient to describe deviations from Raoultian behavior for the data. Standard state data are derived for molten Ca(OH) 2 and Ca 3(PO 4) 2, and for the intermediate compounds CaClF, CaClOH, and Ca 2PO 4Cl. Melts in the CaCl 2?CaF 2 system show ideal mixing behavior, while the calcium hydroxide-bearing molten salts form asymmetric regular solutions. The hydroxide-bearing melts show the small positive enthalpies of mixing typical for mixed-anion salts. Similar behavior is measured in simpler molten salt mixtures. The positive deviations from Raoultian behavior are not a mathematical artifact of the model. Data are less extensive for the salt-phosphate systems but cover the essential portions of the systems where salt to phosphate ratios are high. The mixtures of the molten salts and phosphates salts show large negative enthalpy interaction parameters ( WH), as is expected in eutectic systems which mix a high-melting-point crystal with a low-melting-point flux. Adequate reproduction of the data requires that some entropy interaction parameters be negative, although small. This implies the presence of ordering in the melt, which is manifested in more polymerized phosphate liquids and glasses as halogenated and hydroxylated orthophosphate and pyrophosphate species. Results of the model indicate that the quaternary system is a good choice for determination of activity-composition relations for the apatites. Comparison of common sources of standard state thermodynamic data ( ROBIE et al., 1979; JANAF, CHASE et al., 1985; CODATA, GARVIN et al., 1987) shows that the data for the salts are very similar where they are not identical. At temperatures below 900°C in the ternary systems, liquid compositions will be on or near the apatite-crystalline salt cotectics, and dissolve less than 1 mol% Ca 3(PO 4) 2. This makes CaCl 2?CaF 2 mixtures excellent candidates for determination of unambiguous apatite activity-compositional relations. Only the Ca(OH) 2 liquidus is strongly affected by the addition of phosphate, but this effect is closely described by a regular solution model.

Tacker, R. C.; Stormer, J. C., Jr.

1993-10-01

136

Influence of calcium chloride and aprotinin in the in vivo biological performance of a composite combining biphasic calcium phosphate granules and fibrin sealant.  

PubMed

Highly bioactive biomaterials have been developed to replace bone grafts in orthopedic revision and maxillofacial surgery for bone augmentation. A mouldable, self-hardening material can be obtained by combining TricOs Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Granules and Tissucol Fibrin Sealant. Two components, calcium chloride and antifibrinolytic agents (aprotinin), are essential for the stability of the fibrin clot. The ingrowth of cells in composites combining sealants without calcium chloride or with a low concentration of aprotinin was evaluated in vivo in an experiment on rabbits. Bone colonization was compared using TricOs alone or with the composite made from TricOs and the standard fibrin sealant. Without the addition of calcium chloride, the calcium ions released by the ceramic component interacted with the components of the sealant too late to stabilize the clot. With a low concentration of aprotinin, the degradation of the clot occurred more quickly, leading to the absence of a scaffold on which the bone cells could colonize the composite. Our results indicate that a stable fibrin scaffold is crucial for bone colonization. The low calcium chloride and low aprotinin groups have shown lower bone growth. Further studies will be necessary to determine the minimal amount of antifibrinolytic agent (aprotinin) necessary to allow the same level of osteogenic activity as the TricOs-fibrin glue composite. PMID:17387594

Le Guehennec, Laurent; Goyenvalle, Eric; Aguado, Eric; Pilet, Paul; Spaethe, Reiner; Daculsi, Guy

2007-03-27

137

Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristics of Calcium Chloride?Treated Horse Meat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post rigor horse meat was marinated in 150 mM CaCl2 solution at 4°C and compared against untreated samples in order to evaluate characteristics associated with meat quality. Water holding capacity (WHC) and pH were recorded over 15 days period. Protein degradation was studied by sodium dodecyl sulfate SDS–PAGE electrophoresis, and rheological properties related to texture were evaluated by instrumental compression. Sensory

2003-01-01

138

Effects of Postmortem Injection Time, Injection Level, and Concentration of Calcium Chloride on Beef Quality Traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were conducted to determine the optimum protocol for maximizing meat quality with CaC12 injection. Experiment 1 compared the effects of 30 min or 24 h postmortem injection of 175 mM CaCl2 or water at 10% (wt\\/wt) to controls on various measures of meat quality. An injection of CaC12 reduced (P < .05) shear force values in all three

T. L. Wheeler; M. Koohmaraie; J. L. Lansdell; G. R. Siragusa; M. F. Miller

139

Dye adsorption by calcium chloride treated beech sawdust in batch and fixed-bed systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Batch and column kinetics of methylene blue and red basic 22 adsorption on CaCl2 treated beech sawdust was investigated, using untreated beech sawdust as control, in order to explore its potential use as a low-cost adsorbent for wastewater dye removal. The adsorption capacity, estimated according to Freundlich's model, and the adsorption capacity coefficient values, determined using the Bohart and Adams’

F. A. Batzias; D. K. Sidiras

2004-01-01

140

Performance optimization of coagulation/flocculation in the treatment of wastewater from a polyvinyl chloride plant.  

PubMed

This paper presents results of an experimental study of coagulation/flocculation process of wastewater generated from a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plant. The wastewater contains fine chlorine-based solid materials (i.e. latex). Experiments were carried out using a model wastewater which is chemically identical to the actual plant but is more consistent. Inorganic ions (Al2(SO4)3, FeCl3 and CaCl2) and a water soluble commercial polyelectrolyte (PE) were added to the wastewater sample. Coagulation efficiency was determined by measuring both the turbidity of the supernatants and the relative settlement of the flocs in the jar test. It was found that aluminum and ferric ions were more efficient than calcium ions as coagulants. The addition of polyelectrolyte was found to improve substantially the coagulation/flocculation process. It was found that the (Al2(SO4)3) combined with the polyelectrolyte at certain pH and agitation speed gave the best results compared to calcium chloride or ferric chloride when combined with the same concentration of polyelectrolyte. Only 0.0375g of a solution of (0.5% Al2(SO4)3) was required to coagulate the model wastewater. Ferric chloride (2.5% FeCl3) combined with the polyelectrolyte, on the other hand, required 0.1g while the optimum turbidity is almost the same. As for calcium chloride (2.5% CaCl2) it was found to be the least effective. The coagulation/flocculation process was found to be dependent on both pH and the agitation speed. PMID:18471966

Almubaddal, F; Alrumaihi, K; Ajbar, A

2008-04-08

141

Hydrothermal calcium modification of 316L stainless steel and its apatite forming ability in simulated body fluid.  

PubMed

To understand the feasibility of calcium (Ca) modification of type 316L stainless steel (316L SS) surface using hydrothermal treatment, 316L SS plates were treated hydrothermally in calcium chloride (CaCl(2)) solution. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis revealed that the surface of 316L SS plate was modified with Ca after hydrothermal treatment at 200°C. And the immobilized Ca increased with CaCl(2) concentration. However no Ca-modification was occurred for 316L SS plates treated at 100°C. When Ca-modified 316L SS plate was immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF) with ion concentrations nearly equal to those of human blood plasma, low crystalline apatite was precipitated on its surface whereas no precipitate was observed on non Ca-modified 316L SS. The results obtained in the present study indicated that hydrothermal treatment at 200°C in CaCl(2) solution is useful for Ca-modification of 316L SS, and Ca-modification plays important role for apatite precipitation in SBF. PMID:21946497

Valanezahad, Alireza; Ishikawa, Kunio; Tsuru, Kanji; Maruta, Michito; Matsuya, Shigeki

2011-09-23

142

Calmodulin-dependent activation and inactivation of anoctamin calcium-gated chloride channels.  

PubMed

Calcium-dependent chloride channels serve critical functions in diverse biological systems. Driven by cellular calcium signals, the channels codetermine excitatory processes and promote solute transport. The anoctamin (ANO) family of membrane proteins encodes three calcium-activated chloride channels, named ANO 1 (also TMEM16A), ANO 2 (also TMEM16B), and ANO 6 (also TMEM16F). Here we examined how ANO 1 and ANO 2 interact with Ca(2+)/calmodulin using nonstationary current analysis during channel activation. We identified a putative calmodulin-binding domain in the N-terminal region of the channel proteins that is involved in channel activation. Binding studies with peptides indicated that this domain, a regulatory calmodulin-binding motif (RCBM), provides two distinct modes of interaction with Ca(2+)/calmodulin, one at submicromolar Ca(2+) concentrations and one in the micromolar Ca(2+) range. Functional, structural, and pharmacological data support the concept that calmodulin serves as a calcium sensor that is stably associated with the RCBM domain and regulates the activation of ANO 1 and ANO 2 channels. Moreover, the predominant splice variant of ANO 2 in the brain exhibits Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent inactivation, a loss of channel activity within 30 s. This property may curtail ANO 2 activity during persistent Ca(2+) signals in neurons. Mutagenesis data indicated that the RCBM domain is also involved in ANO 2 inactivation, and that inactivation is suppressed in the retinal ANO 2 splice variant. These results advance the understanding of Ca(2+) regulation in anoctamin Cl(-) channels and its significance for the physiological function that anoctamin channels subserve in neurons and other cell types. PMID:24081981

Vocke, Kerstin; Dauner, Kristin; Hahn, Anne; Ulbrich, Anne; Broecker, Jana; Keller, Sandro; Frings, Stephan; Möhrlen, Frank

2013-10-01

143

Influence of calcium chloride and aprotinin in the in vivo biological performance of a composite combining biphasic calcium phosphate granules and fibrin sealant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highly bioactive biomaterials have been developed to replace bone grafts in orthopedic revision and maxillofacial surgery\\u000a for bone augmentation. A mouldable, self-hardening material can be obtained by combining TricOs® Biphasic Calcium Phosphate\\u000a Granules and Tissucol® Fibrin Sealant. Two components, calcium chloride and antifibrinolytic agents (aprotinin), are essential\\u000a for the stability of the fibrin clot. The ingrowth of cells in composites

Laurent Le Guehennec; Eric Goyenvalle; Eric Aguado; Paul Pilet; Reiner Spaethe; Guy Daculsi

2007-01-01

144

Long-Term Corrosion Behavior of Alloy 22 in 5M CaCl2 at 120 C  

SciTech Connect

In conditions where tight crevices exist in hot chloride containing solutions Alloy 22 may suffer crevice corrosion. The occurrence (or not) of crevice corrosion in a given environment (e.g, salt concentration and temperature), is governed by the values of the critical potential (E{sub crit}) for crevice corrosion and the corrosion potential (E{sub corr}). This paper discusses the evolution of E{sub corr} and corrosion rate (CR) of creviced Alloy 22 specimens in 5 M calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}) at 120 C. Tested specimens included non-creviced rods and multiple creviced assemblies (MCA) both non-welded (wrought) and welded. Results show that Alloy 22 suffers crevice corrosion under the open circuit conditions in the aerated hot CaCl{sub 2} brine. However, after more than a year of immersion the propagation of crevice corrosion was not significant. The general corrosion rate decreased or remained unchanged as the immersion time increased. For rods and MCA specimens, the corrosion rate was lower than 100 nm/year after more than a year immersion time.

J.C. Estill; G.A. Hust; K.J. Evans; M.L. Stuart; R.B. Rebak

2006-05-08

145

Long-Term Corrosion Behavior of Alloy 22 in 5 M CaCl2 at 120?C  

SciTech Connect

In conditions where tight crevices exist in hot chloride containing solutions Alloy 22 may suffer crevice corrosion. The occurrence (or not) of crevice corrosion in a given environment (e.g. salt concentration and temperature), is governed by the values of the critical potential (E{sub crit}) for crevice corrosion and the corrosion potential (E{sub corr}). This paper discusses the evolution of E{sub corr} and corrosion rate (CR) of creviced Alloy 22 specimens in 5 M calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}) at 120 C. Tested specimens included non-creviced rods and multiple creviced assemblies (MCA) both non-welded (wrought) and welded. Results show that Alloy 22 suffers crevice corrosion under the open circuit conditions in the aerated hot CaCl{sub 2} brine. However, after more than a year immersion the propagation of crevice corrosion was not significant. The general corrosion rate decreased or remained unchanged as the immersion time increased. For rods and MCA specimens, the corrosion rate was lower than 100 nm/year after more than a year immersion time.

Estill, J C; Hust, G A; Evans, K J; Stuart, M L; Rebak, R B

2006-02-05

146

Water deficit stress mitigation by calcium chloride in Catharanthus roseus: Effects on oxidative stress, proline metabolism and indole alkaloid accumulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present investigation was conducted to determine whether CaCl2 increases Catharanthus roseus drought tolerance and if such tolerance is correlated with changes in oxidative stress, osmoregulation and indole alkaloid accumulation. C. roseus plants were grown under water deficit environments with or without CaCl2. Drought induced oxidative stress was measured in terms of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and H2O2 contents, osmolyte concentration,

C. Abdul Jaleel; P. Manivannan; B. Sankar; A. Kishorekumar; R. Gopi; R. Somasundaram; R. Panneerselvam

2007-01-01

147

Voltage-dependent calcium and chloride currents in S17 bone marrow stromal cell line.  

PubMed

The bone marrow stromal cell line S17 has been used to study hematopoiesis in vitro. In this study, we demonstrate the presence of calcium and chloride currents in cultured S17 cells. Calcium currents were of low amplitude or barely detectable (50-100 pA). Hence to amplify the currents, we have used barium as a charge carrier. Barium currents were identified based on their distinct voltage-dependence, and sensitivity to dihydropyridines. S17 cells also exhibited a slowly activating outward current without inactivation, most commonly seen when the sodium of the extracellular solution was replaced either by TEA (TEA/Cs saline) or NMDG (NMDG saline), or by addition of amiloride to the extracellular solution. This current was abolished either by 500 microM SITS (4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2-2'-disulfonic acid) or 500 microM DPC (diphenylamine-2-carboxylic acid) a cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel blocker, identifying it as a Cl(-) current. RT-PCR identified the presence of ENaC and CFTR transcripts. CFTR blockade reduced cell proliferation, suggesting that this channel plays a physiological role in regulation of S17 cell proliferation. PMID:20049895

Silva, Henrique B; Medei, Emiliano; Rodrigues, Deivid C; Rondinelli, Edson; Almeida, Norma A S; Goldenberg, Regina C S; de Carvalho, Antonio C Campos; Nascimento, José H M

2010-04-01

148

Calcium-activated chloride current expression in axotomized sensory neurons: what for?  

PubMed

Calcium-activated chloride currents (CaCCs) are activated by an increase in intracellular calcium concentration. Peripheral nerve injury induces the expression of CaCCs in a subset of adult sensory neurons in primary culture including mechano- and proprioceptors, though not nociceptors. Functional screenings of potential candidate genes established that Best1 is a molecular determinant for CaCC expression among axotomized sensory neurons, while Tmem16a is acutely activated by inflammatory mediators in nociceptors. In nociceptors, such CaCCs are preferentially activated under receptor-induced calcium mobilization contributing to cell excitability and pain. In axotomized mechano- and proprioceptors, CaCC activation does not promote electrical activity and prevents firing, a finding consistent with electrical silencing for growth competence of adult sensory neurons. In favor of a role in the process of neurite growth, CaCC expression is temporally correlated to neurons displaying a regenerative mode of growth. This perspective focuses on the molecular identity and role of CaCC in axotomized sensory neurons and the future directions to decipher the cellular mechanisms regulating CaCC during neurite (re)growth. PMID:22461766

Boudes, Mathieu; Scamps, Frédérique

2012-03-22

149

Calcium-activated chloride current expression in axotomized sensory neurons: what for?  

PubMed Central

Calcium-activated chloride currents (CaCCs) are activated by an increase in intracellular calcium concentration. Peripheral nerve injury induces the expression of CaCCs in a subset of adult sensory neurons in primary culture including mechano- and proprioceptors, though not nociceptors. Functional screenings of potential candidate genes established that Best1 is a molecular determinant for CaCC expression among axotomized sensory neurons, while Tmem16a is acutely activated by inflammatory mediators in nociceptors. In nociceptors, such CaCCs are preferentially activated under receptor-induced calcium mobilization contributing to cell excitability and pain. In axotomized mechano- and proprioceptors, CaCC activation does not promote electrical activity and prevents firing, a finding consistent with electrical silencing for growth competence of adult sensory neurons. In favor of a role in the process of neurite growth, CaCC expression is temporally correlated to neurons displaying a regenerative mode of growth. This perspective focuses on the molecular identity and role of CaCC in axotomized sensory neurons and the future directions to decipher the cellular mechanisms regulating CaCC during neurite (re)growth.

Boudes, Mathieu; Scamps, Frederique

2012-01-01

150

REMOVAL OF RADIOSTRONTIUM IN MAN BY ORALLY ADMINISTERED AMMONIUM CHLORIDE TWO WEEKS AFTER EXPOSURE: THE EFFECT OF LOW AND HIGH CALCIUM INTAKE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The removal of radiostrontium was studied in man by means of orally ; administered ammonium chloride during low and high calcium intake both at the ; time of the injection of the Sr⁸⁵ tracer and two weeks thereafter. During ; low calcium intake, orally administered ammonium chloride was as effective in ; removing radiostrontium two weeks after administration of the

H. Spencer; J. Samachson

1961-01-01

151

Gypsum crystallization and hydrochloric acid regeneration by reaction of calcium chloride solution with sulfuric acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, the crystallization of gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) in the temperature range of 20–60 °C is investigated along with the simultaneous regeneration of HCl by the reaction of concentrated CaCl2 solution (3–3.5 M) with H2SO4 at a concentration range of 2.6–8.0 M. Fast addition of H2SO4 proved counter productive as it yielded a gel-like fine crystal suspension. Slower addition via titration or in

Amani Al-Othman; George P. Demopoulos

2009-01-01

152

GTP-binding proteins mediate noradrenaline effects on calcium and chloride currents in rat portal vein myocytes.  

PubMed Central

1. Membrane currents were recorded by a patch-clamp pipette technique in cultured cells from rat portal vein using the whole-cell mode. 2. Noradrenaline (NA, 10(-5) M) and phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu, 10(-7) M) produced an increase in voltage-dependent inward current carried by barium (5 mM), but their effects were not additive. Calcium-activated chloride current was evoked by NA but not by PDBu. 3. The NA-induced increase in peak voltage-dependent inward current was inhibited by intracellular application of GDP-beta-S (10(-3) M) while the effect of PDBu was unchanged. GDP-beta-S blocked the NA-induced chloride current but had no effect on the caffeine-induced chloride current. 4. Inclusion of GTP-gamma-S (10(-5)-10(-4) M) in the pipette solution increased the voltage-dependent inward current and inhibited the NA- or PDBu-induced increase in peak current. GTP-gamma-S potentiated the effect of NA on calcium-activated chloride current. At higher concentrations (10(-3) M), GTP-gamma-S activated the chloride current and prevented the effects of NA or caffeine on this current. 5. The combination of 10(-5) M-aluminium chloride and 10(-2) M-sodium fluoride had an effect similar to that of high concentrations of GTP-gamma-S on both inward current and calcium-activated chloride current. In contrast, arachidonic acid (10(-3) M) had no effect on calcium and chloride conductances activated by NA. 6. Cells responded normally to NA after pre-treatment for 4-30 h with 10 micrograms ml-1 pertussis toxin (PTx). 7. It is concluded that the stimulation of calcium and chloride conductances by NA is mediated through activation of a PTx-insensitive GTP-binding protein. This effect may involve activation of phospholipase C enzyme and production of both D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate which depletes calcium stores and diacylglycerol which activates protein kinase C.

Loirand, G; Pacaud, P; Mironneau, C; Mironneau, J

1990-01-01

153

Electro-deoxidation of V2O3 in molten CaCl2-NaCl-CaO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electro-deoxidation of V2O3 precursors was studied. Experiments were carried out with a two-terminal electrochemical cell, which was comprised of a molten electrolyte of CaCl2 and NaCl with additions of CaO, a cathode of compact V2O3, and a graphite anode under the potential of 3.0 V at 1173 K. The phase constitution and composition as well as the morphology of the samples were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). 3 g of V2O3 could be converted to vanadium metal powder within the processing time of 8 h. The kinetic pathway was investigated by analyzing the product phase in samples prepared at different reduction stages. CaO added in the reduction path of V2O3 formed the intermediate product CaV2O4.

Wang, Shu-Lan; Li, Shi-Chao; Wan, Long-Fei; Wang, Chuan-Hua

2012-03-01

154

Voluntary Consumption of NaCl, KCl, CaCl 2 , and NH 4 Cl Solutions by 28 Mouse Strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male mice from 28 inbred strains (129P3\\/J, A\\/J, AKR\\/J, BALB\\/cByJ, BUB\\/BnJ, C3H\\/HeJ, C57BL\\/6J, C57L\\/J, CAST\\/Ei, CBA\\/J, CE\\/J, DBA\\/2J, FVB\\/NJ, I\\/LnJ, KK\\/H1J, LP\\/J, NOD\\/LtJ, NZB\\/B1NJ, P\\/J, PL\\/J, RBF\\/DnJ, RF\\/J, RIIIS\\/J, SEA\\/GnJ, SJL\\/J, SM\\/J, SPRET\\/Ei, and SWR\\/J) were tested with NaCl (75–450 mM), KCl (30–300 mM), CaCl2 (3–100 mM), and NH4Cl (10–300 mM) solutions using two-bottle preference tests with water as the

Alexander A. Bachmanov; Gary K. Beauchamp; Michael G. Tordoff

2002-01-01

155

Bray and Kurtz phosphorus (p1), 1m potassium chloride, and saturated calcium oxide extraction of soil nitrate comparison to 2m potassium chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Labor and laboratory expense could be reduce if soil extractable nitrate (NO3) was extracted simultaneously with other routinely used soil extractants. This study was conducted to compare 1M potassium chloride (KCl), saturated calcium oxide (CaO), and Bray and Kurtz P1?extractable soil NO3, the proposed new method to 2M KCl. Nitrate was extracted from 140 selected soils with 1M KCl, saturated

Byron Vaughan; J. Denning; H. Frank

1995-01-01

156

Location of Release Sites and Calcium-Activated Chloride Channels Relative to Calcium Channels at the Photoreceptor Ribbon Synapse  

PubMed Central

Vesicle release from photoreceptor ribbon synapses is regulated by L-type Ca2+ channels, which are in turn regulated by Cl? moving through calcium-activated chloride [Cl(Ca)] channels. We assessed the proximity of Ca2+ channels to release sites and Cl(Ca) channels in synaptic terminals of salamander photoreceptors by comparing fast (BAPTA) and slow (EGTA) intracellular Ca2+ buffers. BAPTA did not fully block synaptic release, indicating some release sites are <100 nm from Ca2+ channels. Comparing Cl(Ca) currents with predicted Ca2+ diffusion profiles suggested that Cl(Ca) and Ca2+ channels average a few hundred nanometers apart, but the inability of BAPTA to block Cl(Ca) currents completely suggested some channels are much closer together. Diffuse immunolabeling of terminals with an antibody to the putative Cl(Ca) channel TMEM16A supports the idea that Cl(Ca) channels are dispersed throughout the presynaptic terminal, in contrast with clustering of Ca2+ channels near ribbons. Cl(Ca) currents evoked by intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+]i) elevation through flash photolysis of DM-nitrophen exhibited EC50 values of 556 and 377 nM with Hill slopes of 1.8 and 2.4 in rods and cones, respectively. These relationships were used to estimate average submembrane [Ca2+]i in photoreceptor terminals. Consistent with control of exocytosis by [Ca2+] nanodomains near Ca2+ channels, average submembrane [Ca2+]i remained below the vesicle release threshold (?400 nM) over much of the physiological voltage range for cones. Positioning Ca2+ channels near release sites may improve fidelity in converting voltage changes to synaptic release. A diffuse distribution of Cl(Ca) channels may allow Ca2+ influx at one site to influence relatively distant Ca2+ channels.

Mercer, A. J.; Rabl, K.; Riccardi, G. E.; Brecha, N. C.; Stella, S. L.

2011-01-01

157

The effect of calcium chloride treatment on shear force and weight loss in gluteus medius and longissimus muscles from pasture fed bulls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium chloride treatment may improve the quality and consistency of meat quality in hot?boned bull beef. The first study involved injecting 10% (w\\/w) of 0.3 M calcium chloride, water or 0.6 M sodium chloride into longissimus muscle 2 hours post slaughter. The effects of these treatments on the shear force after 24 and 48 hours storage at 15°C were determined.

B. C. Thomson; P. M. Dobbie

1997-01-01

158

Effect of Calcium Chloride Marination on Electrophoretical and Structural Characteristics of Beef, Horse, Rabbit and Chicken Meat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marinating with calcium chloride had been employed to activate the endogenous proteolitic enzymatic system in muscle tissue. The activation of calpains leads to the disruption of major proteins responsible for myofilament structure. Nonetheless, intrinsic differences regarding enzymatic activity between different species need to be established, which concerns protein degradation and ultrastructural changes. In this study, four species—horse, chicken, rabbit and

M. L. Pérez-Chabela; L. I. Guerrero-Legarreta; M. C. Gutiérrez-Ruiz; J. M. Betancourt-Rule; A. Pérez-Torres; M. Ustarroz-Cano

2005-01-01

159

A Possible Role of Aspergillus niger Mitochondrial Cytochrome c in Malachite Green Reduction Under Calcium Chloride Stress.  

PubMed

In previous work, decolorization of malachite green (MG) was studied in Aspergillus niger in the presence and absence of calcium chloride stress. Decolorization took place within 24 h, and a signal transduction process that initiated MG decolorization was suggested to be involved. In the present study, further investigation of the relationship between calcium chloride stress and enhanced MG biodegradation was conducted at the sub-cellular level. MG-NADH reductase activity, a key enzyme in MG decolorization, was produced as decolorization commenced, and enzyme activity increased threefold upon exposure to calcium chloride. Inhibitors of cytochrome p450, Ca(2+) channel activity as well as activity of the signaling protein phosphoinositide 3-kinase were tested. All three activities were inhibited to different extents resulting in reduced MG decolorization. Spectral analysis of the mitochondrial fraction showed a heme signal at 405 nm and A405/A280 ratio that is characteristic of the porphoryin ring of cytochromes. There were no peaks detected for cytochromes a or b, but a shoulder appearing at 550 nm was observed, which suggested that cytochrome c is involved; the absorbance for cytochrome c doubled after calcium chloride stress supporting this idea. MG decolorization took place via a series of demethylation steps, and cytotoxicity analysis revealed a decrease in the toxicity associated with generation of leucomalachite green. PMID:23737340

Gomaa, Ola M; Selim, Nabila S; Linz, John E

2013-06-01

160

Penetratin peptide potentiates endogenous calcium-activated chloride currents in Xenopus oocytes.  

PubMed

Calcium-activated chloride currents (CaCCs) are required for epithelial electrolyte and fluid secretion, fertilization, sensory transduction and excitability of neurons and smooth muscle. Defolliculated Xenopus oocytes express a robust CaCC formed by a heterologous group of proteins including transmembrane protein 16A (TMEM16A) and bestrophins. Penetratin, a 17-amino acid peptide, potentiated endogenous oocyte CaCCs by ~50-fold at 10 ?M, recorded using a two-electrode voltage clamp. CaCC potentiation was rapid and dose-dependent (EC50=3.2 ?M). Penetratin-potentiated currents reversed at -18 mV and were dependent on the extracellular divalent cations present, showing positive regulation by Ca2+ and Mg2+ but effective block by Zn2+ (IC50=5.9 ?M). Extracellular Cd2+, Cu2+ and Ba2+ resulted in bimodal responses: CaCC inhibition at low but potentiation at high concentrations. Intracellular BAPTA injection, which prevents activation of CaCCs, and the Cl- channel blockers niflumic acid and DIDS significantly reduced potentiation. In contrast, the K+ channel blockers Cs+, TEA, tertiapin-Q and halothane had no significant effect. This pharmacological profile is consistent with penetratin potentiation of zinc-sensitive CaCCs that are activated by influx of extracellular Ca2+. These findings may stimulate basic research on CaCCs in native cells and may lead to development of novel therapeutics targeting disorders caused by insufficient chloride secretion. PMID:21442407

Kanjhan, Refik; Bellingham, Mark C

2011-03-27

161

Time course of spontaneous calcium-activated chloride currents in smooth muscle cells from the rabbit portal vein.  

PubMed Central

1. The time course of spontaneous calcium-activated chloride currents was studied with the perforated patch technique in freshly dispersed smooth muscle cells from the rabbit portal vein. 2. In potassium-containing solutions the spontaneous transient outward current (STOC, a calcium-activated potassium current) was more commonly recorded than spontaneous transient inward currents (STICs, a calcium-activated chloride current). In addition the duration of STOCs was much briefer (about 100 ms) than the duration of STICs (about 400 ms). 3. The decay of STICs could be described by a single exponential but the STOC decay appeared to be more complex. The decay time constant of STICs was not determined significantly by amplitude. 4. The time constant of decay of STICs (tau) was 86 ms at -50 mV and was increased by depolarization. Between -90 and +50 mV the relationship between tau and membrane potential was exponential and tau changed e-fold for a change of membrane potential of 120 mV. 5. The I-V relationship of STIC amplitude was linear between -10 and +50 mV but at more negative potentials the chord conductance was reduced and the I-V relationship exhibited negative slope conductance between -50 and -90 mV. 6. There was good agreement between the STIC tau values and the exponential relaxations to voltage steps evoked during caffeine-induced calcium-activated chloride currents. 7. In the presence of the chloride channel blocking agent anthracene-9-carboxylic acid the STIC amplitude was reduced and tau was increased. This effect was voltage dependent with a much greater effect at positive potentials. 8. The evidence suggests that the decay of STICs represents closure of chloride channels and tau approximates to the channel mean open time.

Hogg, R C; Wang, Q; Large, W A

1993-01-01

162

Calcium chloride effects on salinity-induced oxidative stress, proline metabolism and indole alkaloid accumulation in Catharanthus roseus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don. plants were grown with NaCl and CaCl2 in order to study the effect of CaCl2 on NaCl-induced oxidative stress in terms of lipid peroxidation (TBARS content), H2O2 content, osmolyte concentration, proline (PRO)-metabolizing enzymes, antioxidant enzyme activities, and indole alkaloid accumulation. The plants were treated with solutions of 80 mM NaCl, 80 mM NaCl with 5

Cheruth Abdul Jaleel; Paramasivam Manivannan; B. Sankar; Ashok Kishorekumar; Rajaram Panneerselvam

2007-01-01

163

A Density Model for Multicomponent Liquids Based on the Modified Quasichemical Model: Application to the NaCl-KCl-MgCl2-CaCl2 System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A theoretical model based on the modified quasichemical model is presented for the density of multicomponent inorganic liquids such as molten salts. By introducing in the Gibbs energy of the liquid phase temperature-dependent molar volume expressions for the pure components and pressure-dependent excess parameters for the binary (and, if necessary, higher-order) interactions, it is possible to reproduce and eventually predict the molar volume and the density of the multicomponent liquid phase using standard interpolation methods. The model is applied to the NaCl-KCl-MgCl2-CaCl2 liquid solutions. No ternary pressure-dependent model parameters were required; the binary pressure-dependent parameters suffice to reproduce satisfactorily the experimental density data available for the NaCl-KCl-MgCl2, NaCl-KCl-CaCl2, NaCl-MgCl2-CaCl2, KCl-MgCl2-CaCl2, and NaCl-KCl-MgCl2-CaCl2 liquids. This is the first of two articles on the density model. In a subsequent article, the model is applied to the NaF-AlF3-CaF2-Al2O3 base electrolyte used for the electroreduction of alumina in Hall-Héroult cells.

Robelin, Christian; Chartrand, Patrice; Eriksson, Gunnar

2007-12-01

164

Heat-transfer properties of a heat-of-fusion store based on CaCl2.6H2O  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heat-transfer process during crystallization and melting of calcium chloride hexahydrate in a heat-storage unit were studied experimentally. The heat transfer through the solid phase is often a limiting factor for the rate of crystallization. For the melting process, convective heat transfer through the melt dominates. For calculating the performance of heat-of-fusion stores, simplified models are developed based on the

B. Carlsson; G. Wettermark

1980-01-01

165

Effects of CaSO4, CaCl2, and NaCl on leaf nitrogen, nodule weight, and acetylene reduction activity in Phaseolus vulgaris L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two forms of calcium were used to ameliorate the harmful effects of sodium chloride (NaCl) on total leaf nitrogen, nodule weight, and acetylene reduction activity in snapbeans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., cv Contender, Plants were grown in pots under greenhouse conditions and were irrigated with water containing NaCl with a salinity of 0, 44, 88, or 132 mM., In addition, either

W. F. Campbell; J. J. Jurinak; L. M. Dudley

1991-01-01

166

Calcium chloride made E. coli competent for uptake of extraneous DNA through overproduction of OmpC protein.  

PubMed

In the standard method of transformation of Escherichia coli with extraneous DNA, cells are made competent for DNA uptake by incubating in ice-cold 100 mM CaCl(2). Analysis of the whole protein profile of CaCl(2)-treated E. coli cells by the techniques of one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, MALDI-MS and immunoprecipitation revealed overproduction of outer membrane proteins OmpC, OmpA and heat-shock protein GroEL. In parity, transformation efficiency of E. coli ompC mutant by plasmid pUC19 DNA was found to be about 40 % lower than that of the wild type strain. Moreover, in E. coli cells containing groEL-bearing plasmid, induction of GroEL caused simultaneous overproduction of OmpC. On the other hand, less OmpC was synthesized in E. coli groEL mutant compared to its wild type counterpart, by CaCl(2)-shock. From these results it can be suggested that in the process of CaCl(2)-mediated generation of competence, the heat-shock chaperone GroEL has specific role in DNA entry into the cell, possibly through the overproduced OmpC and OmpA porins. PMID:22562126

Aich, Pulakesh; Patra, Monobesh; Chatterjee, Arijit Kumar; Roy, Sourav Singha; Basu, Tarakdas

2012-06-01

167

Expression cloning of TMEM16A as a calcium-activated chloride channel subunit.  

PubMed

Calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCCs) are major regulators of sensory transduction, epithelial secretion, and smooth muscle contraction. Other crucial roles of CaCCs include action potential generation in Characean algae and prevention of polyspermia in frog egg membrane. None of the known molecular candidates share properties characteristic of most CaCCs in native cells. Using Axolotl oocytes as an expression system, we have identified TMEM16A as the Xenopus oocyte CaCC. The TMEM16 family of "transmembrane proteins with unknown function" is conserved among eukaryotes, with family members linked to tracheomalacia (mouse TMEM16A), gnathodiaphyseal dysplasia (human TMEM16E), aberrant X segregation (a Drosophila TMEM16 family member), and increased sodium tolerance (yeast TMEM16). Moreover, mouse TMEM16A and TMEM16B yield CaCCs in Axolotl oocytes and mammalian HEK293 cells and recapitulate the broad CaCC expression. The identification of this new family of ion channels may help the development of CaCC modulators for treating diseases including hypertension and cystic fibrosis. PMID:18805094

Schroeder, Björn Christian; Cheng, Tong; Jan, Yuh Nung; Jan, Lily Yeh

2008-09-19

168

Effect of Calcium Sulphate Nanoparticles on Fusion, Mechanical and Thermal Behaviour Polyvinyl Chloride (pvc)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calcium Sulphate [CaSO4] was synthesized by in-situ deposition technique and its nano size (60 to 100 nm) was confirmed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Composites of the filler CaSO4 (micro and nano) and the matrix poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) were prepared with different filler loading (0-5 wt. %) by melt mixing. The Brabender torque rheometer equipped with an internal mixer was used for preparation and evaluation of fusion behaviour of composites of different formulations. The effect of nano and micro-CaSO4 content on the structure and properties of composites was studied. The nanostructures and dispersion were studied by wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mechanical and thermal properties of PVC/ micro and nano-CaSO4 composites were characterized using Universal Testing Machine (UTM) and Thermo Gravimetric Analyzer (TGA). From the results of WAXD and SEM the flocculation of CaSO4 nanoparticles were observed on the surfaces of PVC matrix. The thermal analysis results showed that the first thermal degradation onset (T onset) of PVC/nano-CaSO4 composites for 1 wt. % of filler were higher as compared with corresponding microcomposites and pristine PVC. However, the tensile strength was decreasing with increasing filler content while, it shows increment in magnitude at 1 and 2 wt. % of nano-CaSO4 as compared with corresponding micro-CaSO4 as well as pristine PVC.

Patil, C. B.; Shisode, P. S.; Kapadi, U. R.; Hundiwale, D. G.; Mahulikar, P. P.

169

ATP-sensitive voltage- and calcium-dependent chloride channels in sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles from rabbit skeletal muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chloride channels in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) are thought to play an essential role in excitation-contraction (E-C)\\u000a coupling by balancing charge movement during calcium release and uptake. In this study the nucleotide-sensitivity of Cl? channels in the SR from rabbit skeletal muscle was investigated using the lipid bilayer technique. Two distinct ATP-sensitive\\u000a Cl? channels that differ in their conductance and

J. I. Kourie

1997-01-01

170

The effects of calcium hydroxide on hydrogen chloride emission characteristics during a simulated densified refuse-derived fuel combustion process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effects of different calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) addition methods on the potential for hydrogen chloride (HCl) formation in a simulated densified refuse-derived fuel (RDF-5) with single metal combustion system. These experiments were conducted at 850°C with the Ca(OH)2 spiked in the RDF-5 production or injection in the flue gas treatment system. The results indicated that the potential

Kung-Yuh Chiang; Jer-Chyuan Jih; Kae-Long Lin

2008-01-01

171

Calcium-activated chloride current in rat vascular smooth muscle cells in short-term primary culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isolated cells from rat portal vein smooth muscle in short-term primary culture were studied using patch-clamp technique (whole-cell\\u000a configuration). In order to study a calcium-activated chloride current, the potassium currents were blocked by intracellular\\u000a cesium diffusion. Without EGTA in the pipette solution, depolarizing voltage pulses from a holding potential of ?70 mV to\\u000a positive potentials activated an early inward and

P. Pacaud; G. Loirand; J. L. Lavie; C. Mironneau; J. Mironneau

1989-01-01

172

Improvement of Beef Tenderness and Quality Traits with Calcium Chloride Injection in Beef Loins 48 Hours Postmortem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boneless strip loin subprimals (n = 24) were fabricated from 12 USDA Standard yield grade 2 carcasses at a commercial beef processing facility and processed 48 h postmortem to determine the effect of injection of 200 or 250 mM calcium chloride (CaC12) solution at 5% (wt\\/wt) on beef quality traits. One-third of the subprimal served as the control; the remaining

C. R. Kerth; M. F. Miller; C. B. Ramsey

173

Long-term uncoupling of chloride secretion from intracellular calcium levels by lns(3,4,5,6)P4  

Microsoft Academic Search

OSMOREGULATION, inhibitory neurotransmission and pH balance depend on chloride ion (Cl-) flux. In intestinal epithelial cells, apical Cl- channels control salt and fluid secretion and are, in turn, regulated by agonists acting through cyclic nucleotides and internal calcium ion concentration ([Ca2 +]i)1-3. Recently, we found that muscarinic pretreatment prevents [Ca2 +]i increases from eliciting Cl- secretion in T84 colonic epithelial

Mana Vajanaphanich; Carsten Schultz; Marco T. Rudolf; Matthew Wasserman; Péter Enyedi; Andrew Craxton; Stephen B. Shears; Roger Y. Tsien; Kim E. Barrett; Alexis Traynor-Kaplan

1994-01-01

174

Calcium chloride and tricalcium phosphate effects on the pink color defect in cooked ground and intact turkey breast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium chloride (250, 500ppm) was examined for its ability to reduce the pink color defect induced by sodium nitrite (10ppm) and nicotinamide (1.0%) in cooked ground turkey in the presence and absence of sodium tripolyphosphate (0.25, 0.5%) and sodium citrate (0.5, 1.0%). The ability of tricalcium phosphate (0.1–0.5%) to reduce pink cooked color also was evaluated in ground turkey and

L. M. Sammel; J. R. Claus

2007-01-01

175

TG studies of synergism between red phosphorus (RP)–calcium chloride used in flame-retardancy for a cotton fabric favorable to green chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combined effect between calcium chloride and red phosphorus (RP) on the flame-retardancy of a cotton fabric (woven construction\\u000a massing 152 g\\/m2) has been studied in this work. The laundered bone-dried massed samples were impregnated with suitable concentrations of\\u000a individual aqueous red phosphorus suspensions and\\/or calcium chloride solutions and some bunches were impregnated with appropriate\\u000a admixed solutions of the both chemicals.

S. M. Mostashari; S. Baie

2010-01-01

176

Imperatorin induces vasodilatation possibly via inhibiting voltage dependent calcium channel and receptor-mediated Ca2+ influx and release.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of imperatorin on vasodilatation and its possible mechanisms. Isometric tension of rat mesenteric arterial rings was recorded by a myograph system in vitro. The results showed that imperatorin at more than 10 muM concentration-dependently relaxed rat mesenteric arteries pre-contracted by potassium chloride (KCl) and endothelin-1, and human omental arteries pre-contracted by noradrenaline and U46619. Removal of the endothelium did not affect imperatorin-induced relaxant responses, suggesting that the vasodilatation effect is independent of the endothelium. Co-incubation with imperatorin resulted in rightward shift of concentration-response curves of KCl, calcium chloride (CaCl(2)) and noradrenaline in a non-parallel manner; 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) concentration-response curves were shifted towards right in a parallel manner by imperatorin 10 and 30 muM, but markedly suppressed by imperatorin 100 muM. These results suggest that the inhibitory effect of imperatorin is mainly via voltage dependent calcium channel and possibly receptor operated calcium channel. beta-adrenoceptor, ATP-sensitive potassium channel and inwardly rectifying potassium channel were not involved in the vasodilatation, whereas blockage of calcium-activated potassium channel with tetraethylammonium had effect. Furthermore, in Ca(2+)-free medium, imperatorin concentration-dependently depressed the vasoconstrictions derived from noradrenaline and CaCl(2), and resulted in a decreased contractile response induced by caffeine, indicating a role of inhibiting extracellular Ca(2+) influx and intracellular Ca(2+) release from Ca(2+) store. Taken together, our results suggest that imperatorin induces vasodilatation by possible mechanisms inhibiting voltage dependent calcium channel and receptor-mediated Ca(2+)influx and Ca(2+)release. Opening calcium-activated potassium channel and competitive antagonism of 5-HT receptors may also contribute to this vasodilatation effect. PMID:17662269

He, Jian-Yu; Zhang, Wei; He, Lang-Chong; Cao, Yong-Xiao

2007-07-05

177

Corrosion Effects of Calcium Chloride Injection for Mercury Control on the Pollution Control Equipment  

SciTech Connect

In response to the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) of 2005, Black Hills Power (BHP) initiated testing of a calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}) injection method in their Wygen 1 (Gillette, WY) coal-fired power plant to help lower mercury emissions. In 2006, Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) was contracted to test their CaCl{sub 2} technology in-situ by adding a CaCl{sub 2} solution onto the raw, pre-pulverized coal during normal operation of Wygen 1. Follow-up tests were conducted by BHP in 2007. Data were collected from these two time periods and analyzed by a collaborative investigation team from Western Research Institute (WRI) and the University of Wyoming (UW) to see if there were any effects on the current air pollution control systems. During a CaCl{sub 2} injection period in 2007, corrosion was monitored in the flue and recycle ash system by placing corrosion coupons in strategic locations to test if corrosion was enhanced by the CaCl{sub 2} injection. While the CaCl{sub 2} produced a reduction in stack mercury levels, there was some evidence of beneficial impacts on the removal of SO{sub 2} from the flue gas during CaCl{sub 2} injection. Data on NOx remained inconclusive. It was also discovered that corrosion was enhanced significantly in the Spray Drier Absorber (SDA) vessel and corresponding outlet ductwork during CaCl{sub 2} injections. Further studies are being carried out in the field and lab to better understand the corrosive effects of CaCl{sub 2} to help formulate operation controls to manage the increased corrosion rates.

Vijay Sethi; M.P. Sharma

2009-02-28

178

Calciothermic reduction of TiO2 and in situ electrolysis of CaO in the molten CaCl2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new cell concept for calciothermic reduction is presented where TiO2 is used as the raw material for reduction. The reduction system consists of a single cell, where both the reduction reaction and the electrolytic reaction for recovery of reducing agent coexist in the same molten CaCl2 bath. TiO2 powder reacts with a few mol%Ca dissolved in the melt. Sufficiently deoxidized titanium metal was obtained at the bottom of the cell. Because the molten CaCl2 has a large solubility for CaO, both mechanisms of the halide flux deoxidation and the electrochemical deoxidation work efficiently once the metallic Ti was precipitated. The reducing agent is in situ recovered by electrolysis of CaO as, Attheanode:C+2O=CO+4e Atthecathode:Ca+2e=Ca. Some experimental results are presented for confirmation of this proposal and mechanism.

Suzuki, Ryosuke O.

2005-02-01

179

Ligustilide induces vasodilatation via inhibiting voltage dependent calcium channel and receptor-mediated Ca2+ influx and release.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of ligustilide on vasodilatation in rat mesenteric artery and the mechanisms responsible for it. Isometric tension of rat mesenteric artery rings was recorded by a sensitive myograph system in vitro. The results showed that ligustilide at concentrations more than 10 microM relaxed potassium chloride (KCl)-preconstricted rat mesenteric artery in a concentration-dependent manner. The vasodilatation effect of ligustilide was not dependent on endothelium. Ligustilide rightwards shifted concentration-response curves induced by KCl, calcium chloride (CaCl(2)), noradrenaline (NA) or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in a non-parallel manner. This suggests that the vasodilatation effects were most likely via voltage-dependent calcium channel (VDCC) and receptor-operated calcium channel (ROCC). Propranolol, glibenclamide, tetraethylammonium and barium chloride did not affect the vasodilation induced by ligustilide, showing that beta-adrenoceptor, ATP sensitive potassium channel, calcium-activated potassium channel and inwardly rectifying potassium channel were not involved in the vasodilatation. Ligustilide concentration-dependently inhibited the vasoconstriction induced by NA or CaCl(2) in Ca(2+)-free medium, indicating that the vasodilatation relates to inhibition of extracellular Ca(2+) influx through VDCC and ROCC, and intracellular Ca(2+) release from Ca(2+) store. Since caffeine-induced contraction was inhibited by ligustilide, inhibition of intracellular Ca(2+) released by ligustilide occurred via the ryanodine receptors. Our results suggest that ligustilide induces vasodilatation in rat mesenteric artery by inhibiting the VDCC and ROCC, and receptor-mediated Ca(2+) influx and release. PMID:16807126

Cao, Yong-Xiao; Zhang, Wei; He, Jian-Yu; He, Lang-Chong; Xu, Cang-Bao

2006-05-19

180

Quality of cactus pear [ Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.] fruit in relation to ripening time, CaCl 2 pre-harvest sprays and storage conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-harvest behaviour of summer and autumn ripening cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. Cactaceae) fruit cv. Gialla was investigated in relation to pre-harvest growing conditions, and CaCl2 applications. Summer ripening cactus pear fruit were stored for 5 weeks at 6°C and 90–95% relative humidity (RH), and 3 days at 20°C, 75% RH to simulate a marketing period (SMP). Autumn ripening

Mario Schirra; Paolo Inglese; Tommaso La Mantia

1999-01-01

181

Inhibiting effects of lanthanum ion on calcite formation from CaCL 2 -NaHCO 3 solutions at 25°C  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of La3+ on calcite formation was studied using CaCl2-NaHCO3 solutions. We adopted a closed system, where the pH change of the solutions was monitored in a closed vessel. The closed system reduces a number of thermodynamic variables of the solution, thus enabling us to calculate the amount of CaCO3 precipitate only from pH with the assumption of equilibria

Tasuku Akagi; Yuhi Kono

1995-01-01

182

CaCl 2 extractable N fractions and K 2 SO 4 extractable N released on fumigation as affected by green manure mineralization and soil texture  

Microsoft Academic Search

A soil incubation experiment was carried out over 70 days (aerobic, 15°C) using a clay and a sandy soil produced by amendment with bentonite and quartz sand respectively. Fresh endive leaves were added as green manure (109 ng N kg-1 soil). Controls without green manure were also included. Samples were taken periodically in order to determine CaCl2 extractable N fractions

Thomas Appel; Istvan Sisak; Marieluise Hermanns-Sellen

1995-01-01

183

Effect of NaCl and CaCl 2 on the lateral diffusion of zwitterionic and anionic lipids in bilayers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of addition of NaCl or CaCl2 (0.3 and 0.1M, respectively) on the lateral diffusion coefficient (DL) of dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) or dioleoylphosphatidylglycerol (DOPG) was measured by the pulsed field gradient NMR technique. DL of DOPC was unaffected, whereas the DOPG diffusion decreased with salt concentration. 23Na NMR quadrupole splittings of DOPG between 20 and 60°C and added NaCl between

Andrey Filippov; Greger Orädd; Göran Lindblom

2009-01-01

184

The development and assessment of an active learning environment: cAcL(2), concept Advancement through chemistry Laboratory-Lecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concept Advancement through Chemistry Laboratory-Lecture, or cAcL 2, was developed to establish an active learning environment in introductory chemistry courses. The program has incorporated elements believed to positively influence student performance and attitudes, namely, cooperative learning, hands-on activities, real-world applications, and engaging technology. A full year of curriculum materials was developed and pilot-tested in the classroom in order to achieve

Deedee Ann Allen

2003-01-01

185

Removal of arsenic from water by Friedel's salt (FS: 3CaO·Al 2O 3·CaCl 2·10H 2O)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low levels of arsenic can be effectively removed from water by adsorption onto various materials and searching for low-cost, high-efficiency new adsorbents has been a hot topic in recent years. In the present study, the performance of Friedel's salt (FS: 3CaO·Al2O3·CaCl2·10H2O), a layered double hydroxide (LDHs), as an adsorbent for arsenic removal from aqueous solution was investigated. Friedel's salt was

Danni Zhang; Yongfeng Jia; Jiayu Ma; Zhibao Li

2011-01-01

186

Three component flow injection analysis with on-line dialysis. Simultaneous determination of free calcium, total calcium and total chloride in milk by flow injection analysis and on-line dialysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fast and reliable fully automated three-component flow injection procedure for the simultaneous determination of free calcium, total calcium and total chloride in milk is described where the three components from a single sample injection (30 µl milk samples) are determined at a sampling rate of 60 samples per hour. The samples are directed to three different channels by using

J. F. van Staden; A. van Rensburg

1990-01-01

187

Intravenous calcium chloride in the conversion of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia to normal sinus rhythm  

Microsoft Academic Search

This brief report describes several cases of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia that converted promptly to normal sinus rhythm within 1 to 2 minutes of receiving intravenous calcium salts as pretreatment in anticipation of verapamil therapy. A review of calcium's hemodynamic and dromotropic effects suggests that this probably was due to electrophysiological effects rather than mere coincidence. Calcium raises blood pressure, which

John F O'Brien; Glenn P Tremml; Jay L Falk

1996-01-01

188

Liquid-absent aqueous fluid inclusions and phase equilibria in the system CaCl 2?NaCl?H 2O  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Raman spectra and microthermometric data are reported for a new class of aqueous fluid inclusions in quartz from the Bushveld Complex. The inclusions, which are approximated by the system CaCl 2?NaCl?H 2O, hold special interest because they display the following properties: (1) The inclusions do not contain a liquid phase at room temperature, but they homogenize to an aqueous liquid at elevated temperatures; (2) Initial melting occurs at a reaction point at +29°C, rather than at the CaCl 2?NaCl?H 2O eutectic point at -52°C, as is generally the case for fluid inclusions approximated by this system; (3) Ice is absent in the subsolidus assemblage despite the high-H 2O contents of the inclusions. An aqueous liquid is generated upon heating through decomposition of incongruently melting hydrate daughter minerals; (4) The most abundant minerals in the subsolidus assemblages are antarcticite (CaCl 2 · 6H 2O) and a second hydrate that may be a new mineral, probably a polymorph of CaCl 2 · 4H 2O; and (5) The fluid compositions fall outside the compositional limits defined by previous studies of natural fluid inclusions. The inclusions are characterized by a high Ca/Na ratio and a very high concentration of total dissolved solids (greater than 52 wt%). Aqueous fluid inclusions that do not contain a liquid phase at ambient temperature may be commonly overlooked or misinterpreted as mineral inclusions. The liquid-absent aqueous inclusions from the Bushveld Complex are spatially associated with a second type of fluid inclusion comprised of antarcticite, halite, vapor, and liquid at 20°C. The two types of inclusions have similar bulk compositions, but they differ radically in melting behavior because their compositions lie on opposite sides of a subsolidus join. Given the topology of the CaCl 2?NaCl?H 2O phase diagram, small variations in bulk composition in the vicinity of a phase boundary or subsolidus join can result in large differences in the initial melting temperature, equilibrium melting sequence, and phase proportions at 20°C. Conversely, significant constraints on fluid composition may be derived from qualitative observations of the equilibrium melting sequence.

Schiffries, Craig M.

1990-03-01

189

Long-Term Corrosion Behavior of Alloy 22 in 5 M CaCl2 at 120 C.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In conditions where tight crevices exist in hot chloride containing solutions Alloy 22 may suffer crevice corrosion. The occurrence (or not) of crevice corrosion in a given environment (e.g. salt concentration and temperature), is governed by the values o...

G. A. Hust J. C. Estill K. J. Evans M. L. Stuart R. B. Rebak

2006-01-01

190

Long-Term Corrosion Behavior of Alloy 22 in 5 M CaCl(2) AT 120(deg)C.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In conditions where tight crevices exist in hot chloride containing solutions Alloy 22 may suffer crevice corrosion. The occurrence (or not) of crevice corrosion in a given environment (e.g, salt concentration and temperature), is governed by the values o...

G. A. Hust J. C. Estill K. J. Evans M. L. Stuart

2006-01-01

191

Thermotolerance and antioxidant systems in Agrostis stolonifera: involvement of salicylic acid, abscisic acid, calcium, hydrogen peroxide, and ethylene.  

PubMed

This study investigated whether pre-treating plants with specific putative signaling components and heat acclimation would induce tolerance of a cool-season grass, creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera var. palustris), to subsequent heat stress and whether thermotolerance induction of those pretreatments was associated with the regulation of antioxidant regenerating enzymes. The treatments included foliar application of salicylic acid (SA), abscisic acid (ABA), calcium chloride (CaCl2), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC, a precursor of ethylene prior to the exposure of plants to heat stress (35 degrees C) in a growth chamber. Physiological measurements including turf quality, leaf photosynthetic rate, and levels of oxidative damage demonstrated that all treatments increased heat tolerance. The better heat tolerance for pre-treated plants as compared to controls was related to the protection of oxidative damage under heat stress. APX activity increased over the first 2 days and 5 days of heating for ACC and CaCl2 respectively, but for only 12 h for H2O2. SA and ABA pre-treatments had no effects on APX activity earlier, but maintained APX activity at a significantly higher level than in controls after 24 h of heating. SA and ABA pre-treatments had no effects on POX activity. ACC treatment significantly increased POX activity. Pre-treatment with CaCl2, H2O2, and HA reduced POX activity, particularly during the later phase of heating. Plants treated with SA, CaCl2, H2O2 and HA had lower CAT activity than their control plants prior to heating and within 48 h of heat stress. ABA and ACC pre-treatments maintained higher CAT activity than the controls after 48 h of heating. ACC, CaCl2, or HA pre-treatments increased SOD activity only before 5 days of heat stress. SA and ABA pre-treatments had less effect on APX activity earlier under heat stress. These results suggest that specific groups of potential signaling molecules may induce tolerance of creeping bentgrass to heat stress by reducing oxidative damage. PMID:15128028

Larkindale, Jane; Huang, Bingru

2004-04-01

192

Excitation of Characeae cell membranes as a result of activation of calcium and chloride channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Ionic channels responsible for excitation of plasmalemma and tonoplast of fresh-waterNitellopsis obtusa were studied using the voltage-clamp technique. Voltage was clamped on each separate membrane. Chloride channels were inhibited with ethacrynic acid. 1. Along with anion (chloride) channels the cation channels have been revealed in the membranes. The corresponding channels are similar in both types of membranes. 2. The

V. Z. Lunevsky; O. M. Zherelova; I. Y. Vostrikov; G. N. Berestovsky

1983-01-01

193

Inactivation of Calcium-Activated Chloride Channels in Smooth Muscle by Calcium\\/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the mechanisms responsible for the termination of Ca2+-activated Cl- currents (ICl(Ca)), simultaneous measurements of whole cell currents and intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) were made in equine tracheal myocytes. In nondialyzed cells, or cells dialyzed with 1 mM ATP, ICl(Ca) decayed before the [Ca2+]i decline, whereas the calcium-activated potassium current decayed at the same rate as [Ca2+]i Substitution of

Yong-Xiao Wang; Michael I. Kotlikoff

1997-01-01

194

Mechanisms of the interference of calcium chloride on zinc in graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry using a dual-cavity platform  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dual-cavity platform allows the analyte and interferent to be volatilized from separate cavities and therefore, in principle, allows gas-phase and condensed-phase interferences to be distinguished. In the presence of calcium chloride, zinc chloride is formed directly in a condensed-phase interaction between analyte and interferent as well as in a gasphase\\/condensed-phase reaction between zinc and HCI(g), generated from the hydrolysis

S. Akman; G. Doner

1996-01-01

195

Influence of CaCl 2 on the water vapor permeability and the surface morphology of mesquite gum based edible films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil-in-water (O\\/W) emulsions with a dispersed phase mass fraction (?m) of 0.175 were prepared by dispersing a blend of candelilla wax\\/mineral oil (2:1 ratio) in 10 g of mesquite gum per 100 g of water containing either CaCl2 (0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 or 0.5 g) alone or combined with 1.5 g of glycerol. The mean volumetric droplet size (d3,0), the rate of droplet

E. Bosquez-Molina; S. A. Tomás; M. E. Rodríguez-Huezo

2010-01-01

196

Effect of NaCl and CaCl 2 on the antioxidant mechanism of leaves and stems of the rootstock CAB6P ( Prunus cerasus L.) under in vitro conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of salinity on the non-enzymic and enzymic antioxidant activity, shoot proliferation and nutrient accumulation\\u000a was studied in in vitro cultures of the rootstock CAB-6P (Prunus cerasus L.). Three concentrations (0, 30 and 60 mM) of NaCl or CaCl2 were added to a modified MS medium. Between the two salt treatments used, only the explants treated with CaCl2 presented significant

C. Chatzissavvidis; G. Veneti; I. Papadakis; I. Therios

2008-01-01

197

Spectroscopic investigation of the ferroelectric phase transition in tris-sarcosine calcium chloride: an order-disorder system with displacive features. I. Experimental results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors report infrared and Raman spectroscopic investigations of single crystals of tris-sarcosine calcium chloride (TSCC), of the isomorphous tris-sarcosine calcium bromide (TSCB) and of mixed crystals with different chlorine-bromine concentration ratios x (for TSCC1-xBx) in the whole wavenumber region below 4000 cm-1 and in a temperature interval 2K

T. Chen; G. Schaack

1984-01-01

198

Ion-pairing in aqueous CaCl2 and RbBr solutions: Simultaneous structural refinement of XAFS and XRD data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new methodology involving the simultaneous refinement of both x-ray absorption and x-ray diffraction spectra (x-ray absorption/diffraction structural refinement, XADSR) to study the hydration and ion pair structure of CaCl2 and RbBr salts in concentrated aqueous solutions. The XADSR method combines the x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectral analysis of both the cation and anion as a probe of their short-range structure with an x-ray diffraction (XRD) spectral analysis as a probe of the global structural. Together they deliver a comprehensive picture of the cation and anion hydration, the contact ion pair (CIP) structure, and the solvent-separated ion pair (SSIP) structure. XADSR analysis of 6.0 m aqueous CaCl2 reveals that there are ~0.26 Ca2+-Cl- CIP's separated by about 2.71 A?, while there are 3.4 SSIP's separated by about 4.98 A?. In contrast XADSR analysis of 6 m aqueous RbBr yields about 0.7 pair CIP at a bond length of 3.51 A?. The present work demonstrates a new approach for a direct co-refinement of XRD and XAFS spectra in a simple and reliable fashion, opening new opportunities for analysis in various disordered and crystalline systems.

Pham, Van-Thai; Fulton, John L.

2013-01-01

199

Sequential application of NaHCO3, CaCl2 and Candida oleophila (isolate 13L) affects significantly Penicillum expansum growth and the infection degree in apples.  

PubMed

The employment of biocontrol agents to restrain postharvest pathogens is an encouraging approach, although, efficacy and consistency are still below those of synthetic pesticides. Up to date, the 'integrated control strategy' seems to be the most promising way to overcome this gap. Here, we report the feasibility to control postharvest decay caused by Penicillium expansum in apples by a 2 min, single or sequential, immersion in water with an antagonistic yeast (Candida oleophila, isolate '13L'), 2% NaHCO3 (SBC) or 1% CaCl2. The treatments were carried out, on appels cv 'Miali' either un-wounded, wounded or wound-pathogen inoculated and then stored at 2 degrees C for 30 d followed by a 6 d simulated marketing period at 20 degrees C or alternatively stored only for 7 d at 20 degrees C. As a general role, the best results were attained when CaCl2 was applied with the yeast or when preceded by the SBC treatment. When the wounding and inoculation took place 24 h before the treatment, the latter application sequence of the two salts was three times more effective compared to the treatment with the sole antagonist, and one time when performed 24 h after the treatment. Interestingly, apples immersed in the sole 2% SBC solution had the highest percentage of decay during storage and when inoculated before moving to the simulated marketing period at 20 degrees C. PMID:22702195

Molinu, M G; Pani, G; Venditti, T; Dore, A; Ladu, G; D'Hallewin, G

2011-01-01

200

The role of environmental sodium chloride relative to calcium in gill morphology of freshwater salmonid fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrastructure, distribution and abundance of cell types were examined in the gills of two freshwater salmonid species, Salmo fario and Salmo gairdneri, in media of selected ion content. In plain hard water (PW) with high concentrations of Ca2+, Na+, and Cl-, gill chloride cells (CC) were confined to trailing edges and interlamellar regions of filaments whereas in mountain soft water

Pierre Laurent; Helve Hõbe; Suzanne Dunel-Erb

1985-01-01

201

Petrographic evidence of calcium oxychloride formation in mortars exposed to magnesium chloride solution  

SciTech Connect

Many researchers have reported chemical interactions between CaCl{sub 2} and MgCl{sub 2} solutions and hardened Portland cement paste. One potentially destructive phase reported in the literature is calcium oxychloride (3CaO.CaCl{sub 2}.15H{sub 2}O). In the past, limited numbers of researchers have reported identification of this phase by X-ray diffraction. In this work, petrographic evidence of oxychloride formation is presented based on optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and microanalysis. This evidence indicates that calcium oxychloride does form in mortars exposed to MgCl{sub 2} solutions.

Sutter, Lawrence [Michigan Tech Transportation Institute, 1400 Townsend Dr. Houghton, MI 49931 (United States)]. E-mail: cee@mtu.edu; Peterson, Karl [Michigan Tech Transportation Institute, 1400 Townsend Dr. Houghton, MI 49931 (United States)]. E-mail: cee@mtu.edu; Touton, Sayward [Michigan Tech Transportation Institute, 1400 Townsend Dr. Houghton, MI 49931 (United States)]. E-mail: cee@mtu.edu; Van Dam, Tom [Michigan Tech Transportation Institute, 1400 Townsend Dr. Houghton, MI 49931 (United States)]. E-mail: cee@mtu.edu; Johnston, Dan [South Dakota Department of Transportation, 700 E. Broadway Ave., Pierre, SD 57501 (United States)]. E-mail: Dan.Johnston@state.sd.us

2006-08-15

202

Influence of magnesium on chloride-induced calcium release in skinned muscle fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

^ B s T R ^ c x Chloride-induced Ca release in skinned muscle fibers was studied by measuring isometric force transients and 4~Ca loss from fiber to washout solutions. Skinned fibers prepared from muscles soaked in normal Ringer solution made large force transients in 120 mM CI solution with 5 mM ATP and 1 mM Mg, but 3 mM

ELIZABETH W. STEPHENSON; RICHARD J. PODOLSKY

1977-01-01

203

Improved fertility in gilts and sows after artificial insemination of frozen-thawed boar semen by supplementation of semen extender with caffeine and CaCl2.  

PubMed

Supplementation of semen extender with caffeine and CaCl(2) for artificial insemination (AI) of fresh spermatozoa has been demonstrated to reduce recruitment of uterine polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and the activity of phagocytosis. Here, we determined if addition of caffeine and CaCl(2) to semen extender improves the fertility of frozen-thawed boar semen. In experiment 1, gilts were cervically inseminated twice with frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa (25 x 10(8) cells per dose) suspended in Modena solution (n=7) or modified Beltsville Thawing Solution supplemented with caffeine and CaCl(2) (BCC, n=7). The gilts were slaughtered 4 h later, and their oviducts and uterine horns plus the body of the uterus were flushed to recover PMNs and non-phagocytosed spermatozoa. There was no difference in the total number of uterine PMNs between gilts inseminated with Modena solution and those inseminated with BCC (3.8 x 10(8) vs. 1.5 x 10(8) cells, respectively); however, the total number of uterine spermatozoa was higher when gilts were inseminated with BCC (40.6 x 10(6) cells) compared with those inseminated with Modena solution (1.4 x 10(6) cells, P<0.05). In experiment 2, gilts and sows were subjected to intrauterine insemination twice with frozen-thawed spermatozoa suspended (25 x 10(8) sperm per dose) in Modena (n=21) or BCC (n=21). The overall pregnancy and farrowing rates were higher in females inseminated with BCC (71.4 and 61.9%, respectively) compared with those inseminated with Modena solution (38.1 and 28.6%, respectively, P<0.05). However, no significant difference in litter size of piglets was observed between treatments (7.2 +/- 1.6 piglets for Modena solution vs. 8.2 +/- 0.9 piglets for BCC solution). In conclusion, we demonstrated that use of BCC solution for frozen-thawed boar semen produced better pregnancy and farrowing rates following AI than Modena solution, probably by reducing the phagocytosis of spermatozoa. PMID:19734696

Yamaguchi, Shoichiro; Funahashi, Hiroaki; Murakami, Tetsuya

2009-09-07

204

Increased strontium uptake in trabecular bone of ovariectomized calcium-deficient rats treated with strontium ranelate or strontium chloride.  

PubMed

Based on clinical trials showing the efficacy to reduce vertebral and non-vertebral fractures, strontium ranelate (SrR) has been approved in several countries for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Hence, it is of special clinical interest to elucidate how the Sr uptake is influenced by dietary Ca deficiency as well as by the formula of Sr administration, SrR versus strontium chloride (SrCl(2)). Three-month-old ovariectomized rats were treated for 90 days with doses of 25?mg kg(-1) d(-1) and 150?mg kg(-1) d(-1) of SrR or SrCl(2) at low (0.1% Ca) or normal (1.19% Ca) Ca diet. Vertebral bone tissue was analysed by confocal synchrotron-radiation-induced micro X-ray fluorescence and by backscattered electron imaging. Principal component analysis and k-means clustering of the acquired elemental maps of Ca and Sr revealed that the newly formed bone exhibited the highest Sr fractions and that low Ca diet increased the Sr uptake by a factor of three to four. Furthermore, Sr uptake in bone of the SrCl(2)-treated animals was generally lower compared with SrR. The study clearly shows that inadequate nutritional calcium intake significantly increases uptake of Sr in serum as well as in trabecular bone matrix. This indicates that nutritional calcium intake as well as serum Ca levels are important regulators of any Sr treatment. PMID:21997907

Pemmer, Bernhard; Hofstaetter, Jochen G; Meirer, Florian; Smolek, Stephan; Wobrauschek, Peter; Simon, Rolf; Fuchs, Robyn K; Allen, Matthew R; Condon, Keith W; Reinwald, Susan; Phipps, Roger J; Burr, David B; Paschalis, Eleftherios P; Klaushofer, Klaus; Streli, Christina; Roschger, Paul

2011-09-15

205

Mechanisms of sulfate removal from subsurface calcium chloride brines: Heletz-Kokhav oilfields, Israel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evolution of the Ca-chloride brines in the Heletz Formation, Lower Cretaceous, in the southern coastal plain of Israel was reconstructed through the study of its sulfate concentration and isotopic composition. Particular emphasis was given to the brine-oil interaction in the oilfields and to the sulfate depletion and lower SO 4 /Cl ratio in brines in contact with hydrocarbons (oil brines) relative to "oil-free" from dry wells in the same oilfields. A method is presented for a calculation of the amount of sulfate removed from the original seawater in the various stages of its evolution to Ca-chloride brine. These stages include evaporation, dolomitization, and sulfate reduction in different stages of its evolution, from early diagenetic processes to the contact with crude oil. In the present study, based on the 34 S SO 4 and SO 4 /Cl ratio, it was found that in the Heletz brines most of the sulfate (80-94%) was removed from the original seawater prior to their interaction with the hydrocarbons and only a negligible fraction of few percent of the sulfate was removed during the crude oil-water contact. The Ca-chloride brines evolved from Messinian (Upper Miocene) seawater that underwent evaporation during the desiccation of the Mediterranean. Sulfate was removed from Messinian lagoon (s) during gypsum precipitation due to evaporation and dolomitization. Bacterial sulfate reduction further depleted the brine in sulfate and changed its isotopic composition, from its original Miocene seawater composition of 34 S SO 4 ~ 20%o, 26%o. Overall, some 50% of the original sulfate, as normalized to chloride, was removed from the original lagoon through the above processes, mostly by gypsum precipitation. Eastward migration of the Messinian Ca-Chloride brine into the Heletz Formation was accompanied by dolomitization of the country rock. Final depletion of sulfate from the brines took place, and possibly still occurs, in the presence of crude oil in the oilfields. The two oil-producing fields, Heletz and Kokhav, occupy different areas on a Rayleigh distillation diagram. Sulfate depletion in both fields is accompanied by an increase in 34 S SO 4 , which reaches a maximum value of 59%o. The above correlation is explained by bacterial sulfate reduction facilitated by the contact with the crude. Samples collected from the same boreholes at time intervals of several months show two opposing trends: sulfate concentration decrease accompanied by increase in 34 S SO 4 , and vice versa. While the first can be explained as in situ bacterial sulfate reduction, the latter attest to subsurface brine migration, as would be expected in oil-producing fields.

Gavrieli, Ittai; Starinsky, Avraham; Spiro, Baruch; Aizenshtat, Zeev; Nielsen, Heimo

1995-09-01

206

Experimental Evidence for High-Pressure Phase Separation in the H2O-CO2-CaCl2 System: Implications for Rock Rheology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of a study to examine the effect of CO2 on deformation mechanisms in quartz, axial compression experiments were carried out at 900°C and 1500 MPa on cores of Black Hills quartzite (BHQ) with a layer of dolomite powder (± 0.05 wt% H2O) in the center of each charge (some runs included buffer assemblages at sample ends). All runs released CO2 via the reaction dol + qtz = diop + CO2 during run-up to experimental conditions. BHQ starting material contains three types of naturally occurring fluid inclusions (FIs): pure H2O, H2O + 6-18 wt% CaCl2, and pure CO2. Deformation experiments on as-is BHQ (no dol powder) result in destruction of most optical FIs. In contrast, experiments with wet dol powder produced visible FIs in nearly all samples, though most were too small to analyze by microthermometry. One hydrostatic experiment with dolomite generated FIs up to 15 microns across near the reaction zone. FIs within this sample fall into two types: (1) superdense CO2 (homogenization to liquid below -50°C), and (2) H2O-CO2-CaCl2 solutions with variable X(CO2) and bulk density and up to 40 wt% CaCl2 (referenced to aqueous phase only). Both inclusion types occur within the same clusters, and likely result from interaction of CO2 released by dol breakdown with H2O and FI fluids released from the starting material. Isochores from the Type 1 CO2 FIs record pressures of 1200- 1400 MPa at 900°C. Estimation of bulk density for Type 2 FIs is hampered by complex microthermometric behavior and incomplete equation of state data for this fluid system, but model isochores overlap with those of Type 1 FIs at 900°C. Entrapment of the two types of FIs and variable phase proportions in Type 2 inclusions are consistent with fluid phase separation at experimental conditions. Deformation experiments run at f(O2)

Selverstone, J.; Chernak, L.; Tullis, J.; Cooper, R.

2007-12-01

207

Calcium  

MedlinePLUS

... Office of Dietary Supplements Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Calcium QuickFacts Datos en español Health Professional Other Resources Create PDF What is calcium and what does it do? Calcium is a ...

208

Calcium- and cyclic AMP-dependent chloride secretion in human colonic epithelia.  

PubMed Central

Three stable epithelial cell lines (HCA-7, HCA-7-Col 1 and HCA-7-Col 3) all derived from the same human adenocarcinoma have been cultured on collagen-coated Millipore filters. These epithelial monolayers have been used to record short circuit current (SCC) in response to of secretagogues. Similar monolayers, but grown on plastic dishes, were used for measurements of tissue cyclic AMP. Lysylbradykinin, applied to either side of the monolayers, increased SCC in HCA-7 cells but had little effect on the other two lines. The responses showed rapid desensitization, which could be prevented by cooling to 4 degrees C. Responses to kinin were not significantly attenuated by piroxicam, an inhibitor of cyclo-oxygenase. Other secretagogues, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and carbachol also increased SCC in monolayers. The responses to VIP were greatest in HCA-7-Col 1 monolayers while responses were virtually absent in HCA-7-Col 3. A similar profile was seen with carbachol except that responses of HCA-7 and HCA-7-Col 1 monolayers were more equal. With one exception the responses to VIP and carbachol showed sidedness, acting only from the basolateral side. The effects of the secretagogues were inhibited by piretanide, a loop diuretic, applied basolaterally. It is presumed that SCC responses represent electrogenic chloride secretion. Treatment with forskolin increased SCC in HCA-7 and HCA-7-Col 1 monolayers with little effect in HCA-7-Col 3. Nevertheless cyclic AMP levels were elevated most in HCA-7-Col 3 and least in HCA-7-Col 1 monolayers, in reciprocal relationship to the functional response. A23187 increased SCC when applied to HCA-7 and HCA-7-Col 3 monolayers with little effect on HCA-7-Col 1. The differential responses of the three human cell lines provide unique opportunities to discover the functional responsibilities of entities involved in the chloride secretory process. HCA-7-Col 3 cells which generate high levels of cyclic AMP in response to forskolin but which fail to show a substantial chloride secretory response may be a useful model of some disease conditions. Images Figure 10

Cuthbert, A. W.; Egleme, C.; Greenwood, H.; Hickman, M. E.; Kirkland, S. C.; MacVinish, L. J.

1987-01-01

209

Modulation of tomato pericarp firmness through pH and calcium: Implications for the texture of fresh-cut fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of pH and calcium on pericarp firmness and pectin solubility was investigated in tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. ‘Tavira’). Pericarp disks were vacuum-infiltrated with 50mM CaCl2 or with distilled water and incubated for 4h in buffer solutions at pH 4.5 and 7.0, and subsequently stored at 2°C for 5 days. CaCl2 treatment had a significant effect on firmness

Susana C. F. Pinheiro; Domingos P. F. Almeida

2008-01-01

210

Exposure to Cigarette Smoke Condensate Reduces Calcium Activated Chloride Channel Transport in Primary Sinonasal Epithelial Cultures  

PubMed Central

Background The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) serves as a predominant Cl? transport conduit in airway epithelium and is inhibited by cigarette smoke in vitro and in vivo. Activation of secondary Cl? transport pathways through calcium-activated Cl? channels (CaCC) has been postulated as a mechanism to bypass defects in CFTR-mediated transport. Because it is not known whether CaCC’s are also inhibited by tobacco exposure, the current study was designed to investigate the effect of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) on CaCC transport. Study Design In vitro study Methods Well-characterized primary murine nasal septal epithelial (MNSE) and human sinonasal epithelial (HSNE) cultures were exposed to CSC in Ussing chambers. We monitored CaCC short-circuit current through stimulation of P2Y purinergic receptors with UTP or ATP and selective inhibition of the CFTR dependent secretory pathway. Characterization of CaCC current was also accomplished in primary airway cells derived from transgenic CFTR?/? (knockout) murine models. Results Change in CaCC-mediated current (?ISC - representing transepithelial Ca-mediated Cl? secretion in µA/cm2) was significantly decreased in CSC-exposed wild type MNSE when compared to controls{(32.8 +/? 4.6 vs. 47.5 +/? 2.3; respectively) p < 0.02}. A similar effect was demonstrated in CFTR?/? MNSE cultures(33.4 +/? 2.8 vs. 38.6 +/? 2.0; p<0.05}. HSNE cultures also had a significant reduction in ISC (16.1 +/? 0.6 vs. 22.7 +/? 0; p=0.008). Conclusions CSC affects multiple pathways fundamental to airway ion transport, including both cAMP and calcium activated Cl? transport. Inhibition of Cl? transport may contribute to common diseases of the airways, such as chronic rhinosinusitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Virgin, Frank W.; Azbell, Christopher; Schuster, Daniel; Sunde, Jumin; Zhang, Shaoyan; Sorscher, Eric J.; Woodworth, Bradford A.

2013-01-01

211

Calcium-activated chloride currents in primary cultures of rabbit distal convoluted tubule.  

PubMed

Chloride (Cl-) conductances were studied in primary cultures of rabbit distal convoluted tubule (very early distal "bright" convoluted tubule, DCTb) by the whole cell patch-clamp technique. We identified a Cl- current activated by 2 microM extracellular ionomycin. The kinetics of the macroscopic current were time dependent for depolarizing potentials with a slow developing component. The steady state current presented outward rectification, and the ion selectivity sequence was I- > Br- > > Cl > glutamate. The current was inhibited by 0.1 mM 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropyl-amino)benzoic acid, 1 mM 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid, and 1 mM diphenylamine-2-carboxylate. To identify the location of the Cl- conductance, 6-methoxy-N-(3-sulfopropyl)quinolinium fluorescence experiments were carried out in confluent cultures developed on collagen-coated permeable filters. Cl- removal from the apical solution induced a Cl- efflux that was stimulated by 10 microM forskolin. Forskolin had no effect on the basolateral Cl- permeability Cl- substitution in the basolateral solution induced an efflux stimulated by 2 microM ionomycin or 50 microM extracellular ATP Ionomycin had no effect on the apical Cl- fluxes. Thus cultured DCTb cells exhibit Ca(2+)-activated Cl- channels located in the basolateral membrane. This Cl- permeability was active at a resting membrane potential and could participate in the Cl- reabsorption across the DCTb in control conditions. PMID:8898026

Bidet, M; Tauc, M; Rubera, I; de Renzis, G; Poujeol, C; Bohn, M T; Poujeol, P

1996-10-01

212

The simultaneous removal of calcium, magnesium and chloride ions from industrial wastewater using magnesium-aluminum oxide.  

PubMed

In this article, a method for simultaneous removal of calcium, magnesium and chloride by using Mg0.80Al0.20O1.10 as a Magnesium-Aluminum oxide (Mg?Al oxide) was investigated. Mg?Al oxide obtained by thermal decomposition of the Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (Mg-Al LDH). The synthesized Mg?Al oxide were characterized with respect to nitrogen physicosorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scan electron microscopy (FESEM) morphology. Due to high anion-exchange capacity of Mg?Al oxide, it was employed in simultaneously removal of Cl(-), Mg(+2) and Ca(+2) from distiller waste of a sodium carbonate production factory. For this purpose, experiments were designed to evaluate the effects of quantity of Mg?Al oxide, temperature and time on the removal process. The removal of Cl(-), Mg(+2) and Ca(+2) from wastewater was found 93.9%, 93.74% and 93.25% at 60°C after 0.5 h, respectively. Results showed that the removal of Cl(-), Mg(+2) and Ca(+2) by Mg?Al oxide increased with increasing temperature, time and Mg?Al oxide quantity. PMID:23647113

Hamidi, Roya; Kahforoushan, Davood; Fatehifar, Esmaeil

2013-01-01

213

Secondary calcium solid electrolyte high temperature battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of polycrystalline Ca(2+) conducting beta-double prime alumina solid electrolytes to a new type of high temperature battery is investigated, experimentally. The negative electrode in the battery consisted of a calcium-silicon alloy whose redox electrochemistry was mediated by the solid electrolyte via molten salt eutectic CaCl2 (51.4 m\\/o), and CaI2 (mp 550 C). The molten salt and the calcium

A. F. Sammells; B. Schumacher

1986-01-01

214

Recessive Mutations in the Putative Calcium-Activated Chloride Channel Anoctamin 5 Cause Proximal LGMD2L and Distal MMD3 Muscular Dystrophies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recently described human anion channel Anoctamin (ANO) protein family comprises at least ten members, many of which have been shown to correspond to calcium-activated chloride channels. To date, the only reported human mutations in this family of genes are dominant mutations in ANO5 (TMEM16E, GDD1) in the rare skeletal disorder gnathodiaphyseal dysplasia. We have identified recessive Mutations in ANO5

Véronique Bolduc; Gareth Marlow; Kym M. Boycott; Khalil Saleki; Hiroshi Inoue; Johan Kroon; Mitsuo Itakura; Yves Robitaille; Lucie Parent; Frank Baas; Kuniko Mizuta; Nobuyuki Kamata; Isabelle Richard; Wim H. J. P. Linssen; Ibrahim Mahjneh; Marianne de Visser; Rumaisa Bashir; Bernard Brais

2010-01-01

215

A calcium-activated chloride channel (HCLCA1) is strongly related to IL9 expression and mucus production in bronchial epithelium of patients with asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: One of the cardinal features of airway remodeling in asthma is mucus gland hyperplasia and mucus overproduction and hypersecretion. Recently, a calcium-activated chloride channel, HCLCA1, was described that is upregulated by IL-9 and thought to regulate the expression of soluble gel-forming mucins, such as MUC5A\\/C, a critical component of mucus in the airways. Objective: We sought to examine the

Masao Toda; Meri K. Tulic; Roy C. Levitt; Qutayba Hamid

2002-01-01

216

Calcium Chloride Concentration, Injection Time, and Aging Period Effects on Tenderness, Sensory, and Retail Color Attributes of Loin Steaks from Mature Cows1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium chloride (CaC12) injection effects on retail color changes and sensory traits of loin steaks from mature cows were studied. Left side strip loins (SL) of 10 carcasses were divided into three portions within .5 h postmortem. One was a control, and the other portions were injected with either 150 mM or 200 mM CaC12. At 24 h postmortem, the

J. J. B. Diles; M. F. Milles; B. L. Owen

2010-01-01

217

Microtopographical and Raman spectral studies on calcium sulphate dihydrate (gypsum) crystals grown in silica gel in the presence and absence of barium chloride as additive  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure for the growth of calcium sulphate dihydrate (gypsum) crystals, CaSO4 · 2H2O, by a gel technique in the presence of barium chloride as an additive as well as without the additive, is described. Optimum conditions for the growth of good quality crystals are worked out. Needle-shaped crystals with well-defined prism faces are obtained. Microtopographical studies of the crystals

P. Kumareson; S. Devanarayanan

1989-01-01

218

Relationship between intracellular calcium and its muffling measured by calcium iontophoresis in snail neurones.  

PubMed Central

1. We have measured intracellular free calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+]i) with fura-2, and intracellular chloride with chloride-sensitive microelectrodes, in voltage-clamped snail neurones. By making iontophoretic injections of CaCl2 we have investigated calcium muffling, the sum of the processes which minimize the calcium transient, at different values of [Ca2+]i. 2. By injection of calcium into cell-sized droplets of buffer we measured the calcium transport index. It was stable over the range pCa 6-7.4 (0.48 +/- 0.06 measured at pCa 6.70 +/- 0.12, n = 5). 3. Measurement of intracellular chloride activity during a series of fura-2-KCl pressure injections revealed a nearly linear relationship between fura-2 Ca(2+)-insensitive fluorescence and the sum of the increments in intracellular chloride. This allowed us to calculate the intracellular fura-2 concentration ([fura-2]i). 4. The rate of recovery of [Ca2+]i following a depolarization-induced load was increased by low [fura-2]i (10-20 microM) but decreased by higher [fura-2]i (40-80 microM). These effects are consistent with the addition of a mobile buffer to the cytoplasm. 5. Iontophoresis of Ca2+ at various membrane potentials allowed us to calculate the intracellular calcium muffling power (the amount of calcium required to cause a transient tenfold increase in [Ca2+]i per unit volume) and calcium muffling ratio (number of Ca2+ ions injected divided by the maximum increase in [Ca2+]i per unit volume) at different values of [Ca2+]i. 6. Calcium muffling power at resting [Ca2+]i was approximately 40 microM Ca2+ (pCa unit)-1, (about 250 times less than for hydrogen ions). It increased linearly about fivefold with [Ca2+]i over the range 20-120 nM (10 cells, 153 measurements) and therefore exponentially with decreasing pCa. 7. The calcium muffling ratio appeared to be constant (361 +/- 14, n = 10 cells, 130 measurements) over the range 20-120 nM Ca2+. 8. In three experiments we modelled the additional calcium buffering power produced by multiple pressure injections of fura-2 into voltage-clamped snail neurones. Back-extrapolation of the increases in calcium buffering power allowed us to calculate the calcium muffling power of the neurones. 9. Small increases in [fura-2]i (approximately 10 microM) significantly increased intracellular calcium muffling power in individual experiments. However, the variability among neurones in intracellular calcium muffling power was large enough to obscure the additional buffering produced by fura-2 in pooled experiments.

Schwiening, C J; Thomas, R C

1996-01-01

219

Human ClCa1 modulates anionic conduction of calcium-dependent chloride currents  

PubMed Central

Proteins of the CLCA gene family including the human ClCa1 (hClCa1) have been suggested to constitute a new family of chloride channels mediating Ca2+-dependent Cl? currents. The present study examines the relationship between the hClCa1 protein and Ca2+-dependent Cl? currents using heterologous expression of hClCa1 in HEK293 and NCIH522 cell lines and whole cell recordings. By contrast to previous reports claiming the absence of Cl? currents in HEK293 cells, we find that HEK293 and NCIH522 cell lines express constitutive Ca2+-dependent Cl? currents and show that hClCa1 increases the amplitude of Ca2+-dependent Cl? currents in those cells. We further show that hClCa1 does not modify the permeability sequence but increases the Cl? conductance while decreasing the GSCN?/GCl? conductance ratio from ?2–3 to ?1. We use an Eyring rate theory (two barriers, one site channel) model and show that the effect of hClCa1 on the anionic channel can be simulated by its action on lowering the first and the second energy barriers. We conclude that hClCa1 does not form Ca2+-dependent Cl? channels per se or enhance the trafficking/insertion of constitutive channels in the HEK293 and NCIH522 expression systems. Rather, hClCa1 elevates the single channel conductance of endogenous Ca2+-dependent Cl? channels by lowering the energy barriers for ion translocation through the pore.

Hamann, Martine; Gibson, Adele; Davies, Noel; Jowett, Amanda; Walhin, Jean Philippe; Partington, Leanne; Affleck, Karen; Trezise, Derek; Main, Martin

2009-01-01

220

Calcium  

MedlinePLUS

... strong bones and teeth. Why Do I Need Calcium? Bones grow rapidly during adolescence, and teens need ... and canned salmon with bones. Back Continue Working Calcium Into Your Diet Looking for ways to up ...

221

Minerals Yearbook, 1988. Calcium and Calcium Compounds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Bureau of Mines publishes reports for a variety of calcium-containing minerals and compounds because of their commercial significance and contribution to the quality of human life. The report includes calcium metal, calcium chloride, and various other...

D. E. Morse

1988-01-01

222

Calcium dependent action potentials produced in leech Retzius cells by tetraethylammonium chloride.  

PubMed Central

1. Retzius cells of leech segmental ganglia were exposed to tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA) presented both extracellularly, dissolved in the perfusing fluid, and intracellulary, by iontophoresis from a microelectrode. 2. Extracellular TEA, 10 and 25 mM, greatly prolonged the cells' action potentials, and the higher concentration increased their amplitude as well. At 10 mM the characteristic changes developed gradually over a period of about half an hour, while at 25 mM they appeared much more rapidly. However, at both concentrations the changes were reversible within minutes, even after long soaks in drug-containing solution. It is therefore probable that the drug acted at the outer surface of the membrane. 3. Intracellular TEA also prolonged the action potentials but there were several differences from the response produced by extracellular application. The changes developed gradually, and for a time, each firing of the cell was a complex event consisting of several early, brief depolarizations followed by a single much larger and more prolonged one. The large, late depolarization eventually obliterated the early ones; its gradual development suggested that it was produced only after TEA diffused to some extrasomatic portion of the cell. Intracellular TEA always caused progressive depolarization; this and the changes in the action potential were both irreversible, suggesting that the site of action was on the inner surface of the membrane. 4. Manipulations of external Na and Ca provided evidence that (a) in the absence of TEA, Retzius cell action potentials were exclusively Na-dependent, (b) that the early depolarizations in the complex action potentials produced by intracellular TEA were Na-dependent, while the later, large depolarization was Ca-dependent and (c) that the prolonged action potentials produced by extracellular TEA contained a large Ca-dependent component. 5. We conclude that TEA, acting from either side of the membrane, caused a voltage-sensitive, slowly activated Ca current to become a major contributor to the inward current of the action potential, probably by blocking the outward K current which ordinarily counteracts it. However, we cannot rule out the possibility that TEA enabled a Ca current by some means independent of its presumed action on K conductance. 6. Data resembling ours in some respects have been obtained from studies of the action of TEA on frog dorsal root ganglion cells, frog neuromuscular junction, and squid stellate ganglion. No clear counterpart of our findings has been reported form experiments on squid and amphibian axons, molluscan neurones, or frog skeletal muscle fibres.

Kleinhaus, A L; Prichard, J W

1975-01-01

223

Dissecting a regulatory calcium-binding site of CLC-K kidney chloride channels  

PubMed Central

The kidney and inner ear CLC-K chloride channels, which are involved in salt absorption and endolymph production, are regulated by extracellular Ca2+ in the millimolar concentration range. Recently, Gradogna et al. (2010. J. Gen. Physiol. http://dx.doi.org/10.1085/jgp.201010455) identified a pair of acidic residues (E261 and D278) located in the loop between helices I and J as forming a putative intersubunit Ca2+-binding site in hClC-Ka. In this study, we sought to explore the properties of the binding site in more detail. First, we verified that the site is conserved in hClC-Kb and rClC-K1. In addition, we could confer Ca2+ sensitivity to the Torpedo marmorata ClC-0 channel by exchanging its I–J loop with that from ClC-Ka, demonstrating a direct role of the loop in Ca2+ binding. Based on a structure of a bacterial CLC and a new sequence alignment, we built homology models of ClC-Ka. The models suggested additional amino acids involved in Ca2+ binding. Testing mutants of these residues, we could restrict the range of plausible models and positively identify two more residues (E259 and E281) involved in Ca2+ coordination. To investigate cation specificity, we applied extracellular Zn2+, Mg2+, Ba2+, Sr2+, and Mn2+. Zn2+ blocks ClC-Ka as well as its Ca2+-insensitive mutant, suggesting that Zn2+ binds to a different site. Mg2+ does not activate CLC-Ks, but the channels are activated by Ba2+, Sr2+, and Mn2+ with a rank order of potency of Ca2+ > Ba2+ > Sr2+ = Mn2+ for the human CLC-Ks. Dose–response analysis indicates that the less potent Ba2+ has a lower affinity rather than a lower efficacy. Interestingly, rClC-K1 shows an altered rank order (Ca2+ > Sr2+ >> Ba2+), but homology models suggest that residues outside the I–J loop are responsible for this difference. Our detailed characterization of the regulatory Ca2+-binding site provides a solid basis for the understanding of the physiological modulation of CLC-K channel function in the kidney and inner ear.

Gradogna, Antonella; Fenollar-Ferrer, Cristina

2012-01-01

224

Shape-controlled production of biodegradable calcium alginate gel microparticles using a novel microfluidic device.  

PubMed

In this paper we describe a novel method of manufacturing shape-controlled calcium alginate gel microparticles in a microfluidic device. Both manufacturing shape-controlled microparticles and synthesizing hydrogel microparticles could be performed simultaneously in the microfluidic device. The novel microfluidic device comprised of two individual flow-focusing channels and a synthesizing channel was successfully applied as a continuous microfluidic reactor to synthesize gel microparticles with size and shape control. By passive control based on the microchannel geometric confinement and liquid-phase flow rates, we succeeded in producing monodisperse sodium alginate microparticles with diverse shapes (such as plugs, disks, microspheres, rods, and threads) in the flow-focusing channels of the microfluidic device. The shape and size of the sodium alginate microparticles could be tuned by adjusting the flow rates of the various streams. Further stages of the chemical reaction could be initiated by mixing sodium alginate microparticles and calcium chloride (CaCl2) solution in the synthesizing channel. The shapes of the sodium alginate microparticles could be permanently preserved by the synthesis of calcium alginate gel microparticles. The preparation conditions of size- and shape-controlled calcium alginate microparticles and influence factors were studied. PMID:17042568

Liu, Kan; Ding, Hui-Jiang; Liu, Jing; Chen, Yong; Zhao, Xing-Zhong

2006-10-24

225

Microstructure analysis of calcium phosphate formed in tendon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surface of soft tendon tissue has been modified using calcium phosphate in order for the tendon to directly connect with hard bone and reconstruct an injured ligament. Calcium phosphate was coated onto the tendon in a soaking process using alternating a CaCl2 (200 mM) and a Na2HPO4 (120 mM) solution. According to SEM\\/EDX observations, calcium phosphate was formed, not

I. Yamaguchi; T. Kogure; M. Sakane; S. Tanaka; A. Osaka; J. Tanaka

2003-01-01

226

Models for relating pH measurements in water and calcium chloride for a wide range of pH, soil types and depths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil pH is commonly measured in water (pHw) or 0.01 M CaCl2 (pHCa). The need to convert between these methods has led to the publication of linear, quadratic and cubic polynomial relationships for limited suites of soils. Concerns over the applicability of such relationships when mapping a wide range of soils and pH led to the establishment of a database

C. R. Ahern; D. E. Baker; R. L. Aitken

1995-01-01

227

Alleviatory effects of calcium on the toxicity of sodium, potassium and magnesium chlorides to seed germination in three non-halophytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saline soils contain numerous salts with varying impact on seed germination. Seeds of three non-halophytic species found in Chinese sandy deserts (Artemisia ordosica, Aristida adscensionis and Bassia dasyphylla) were incubated in salt solutions (NaCl, KCl or MgCl2, each with or without CaCl2) at 20°C in the dark. The effects of each salt on the percentage of seeds from which visibly

Kazuo Tobe; Liping Zhang; Kenji Omasa

2003-01-01

228

A glass-encapsulated calcium phosphate wasteform for the immobilization of actinide-, fluoride-, and chloride-containing radioactive wastes from the pyrochemical reprocessing of plutonium metal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chloride-containing radioactive wastes are generated during the pyrochemical reprocessing of Pu metal. Immobilization of these wastes in borosilicate glass or Synroc-type ceramics is not feasible due to the very low solubility of chlorides in these hosts. Alternative candidates have therefore been sought including phosphate-based glasses, crystalline ceramics and hybrid glass/ceramic systems. These studies have shown that high losses of chloride or evolution of chlorine gas from the melt make vitrification an unacceptable solution unless suitable off-gas treatment facilities capable of dealing with these corrosive by-products are available. On the other hand, both sodium aluminosilicate and calcium phosphate ceramics are capable of retaining chloride in stable mineral phases, which include sodalite, Na8(AlSiO4)6Cl2, chlorapatite, Ca5(PO4)3Cl, and spodiosite, Ca2(PO4)Cl. The immobilization process developed in this study involves a solid state process in which waste and precursor powders are mixed and reacted in air at temperatures in the range 700 800 °C. The ceramic products are non-hygroscopic free-flowing powders that only require encapsulation in a relatively low melting temperature phosphate-based glass to produce a monolithic wasteform suitable for storage and ultimate disposal.

Donald, I. W.; Metcalfe, B. L.; Fong, S. K.; Gerrard, L. A.; Strachan, D. M.; Scheele, R. D.

2007-03-01

229

XPS depth profiling study on the passive oxide film of carbon steel in saturated calcium hydroxide solution and the effect of chloride on the film properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to study the properties of passive oxide film that form on carbon steel in saturated calcium hydroxide solution and the effect of chloride on the film properties. The thickness of the oxide films was determined to be approximately 4 nm and was not affected by the exposure time. Near the film/substrate interface the concentration of the Fe 2+ oxides was higher than the concentration of the Fe 3+ oxides; the layers near the free surface of the film mostly contained Fe 3+ oxides. Chloride exposure decreased the thickness of the oxide films and changed their stoichiometry such that near the film/substrate interface Fe 3+/Fe 2+ ratio increased.

Ghods, P.; Isgor, O. B.; Brown, J. R.; Bensebaa, F.; Kingston, D.

2011-03-01

230

Calcium-activated chloride conductance in a pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line of ductal origin (HPAF) and in freshly isolated human pancreatic duct cells.  

PubMed

Using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique, a calcium-activated chloride conductance (CACC) could be elicited in HPAF cells by addition of 1 microM ionomycin to the bath solution (66 +/- 22 pA/pF;Vm + 60 mV) or by addition of 1 microM calcium to the pipette solution (136 +/- 17 pA/pF; Vm + 60 mV). Both conductances had similar biophysical characteristics, including time-dependent inactivation at hyperpolarising potentials and a linear/slightly outwardly rectifying current/voltage (I/V) curve with a reversal potential (Erev) close to the calculated chloride equilibrium potential. The anion permeability sequence obtained from shifts in Erev was I > Br >/= Cl. 4,4'-Diisothiocyanatostilbene disulphonic acid (DIDS, 500 microM) caused a 13% inhibition of the current (Vm + 60 mV) while 100 microM glibenclamide, 30 nM TS-TM-calix[4]arene and 10 microM tamoxifen, all chloride channel blockers, had no marked effects (8%, -6% and -2% inhibition respectively). Niflumic acid (100 microM) caused a voltage-dependent inhibition of the current of 48% and 17% (Vm +/- 60 mV, respectively). In freshly isolated human pancreatic duct cells (PDCs) a CACC was elicited with 1 microM calcium in the pipette solution (260 +/- 62 pA/pF; Vm + 60 mV). The presence of this CACC in human PDCs could provide a possible therapeutic pathway for treatment of pancreatic insufficiency of the human pancreas in cystic fibrosis. PMID:9518508

Winpenny, J P; Harris, A; Hollingsworth, M A; Argent, B E; Gray, M A

1998-05-01

231

Direct transformation of calcium sulfite to ?-calcium sulfate hemihydrate in a concentrated Ca–Mg–Mn chloride solution under atmospheric pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Massive quantities of sulfite-rich flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber sludge have been generated by coal burning power plants. Utilization of the sulfite-rich sludge for preparing ?-calcium sulfate hemihydrate (?-HH), an important kind of cementitious material, is of particular interest to electric utilities and environmental preservation. In the experiment, calcium sulfite hemihydrate was directly transformed to ?-HH without the occurrence of

Baohong Guan; Hailu Fu; Jie Yu; Guangming Jiang; Bao Kong; Zhongbiao Wu

2011-01-01

232

Effects of chloride, calcium, and dissolved organic carbon on silver toxicity: Comparison between rainbow tout and fathead minnows  

SciTech Connect

The effects of independently altering chloride, calcium, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) on the toxicity of silver were compared between rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). The 96-h median lethal concentration toxicity tests for both species were performed under the same conditions, within the same containers. In addition, the effect of altering [Cl{sup {minus}}] on silver-induced perturbations to body Na{sup +} influx and gill silver load was studied. Toxicity tests were conducted in synthetic soft water (50 {micro}M Na{sup +}, 50 {micro}M Cl{sup {minus}}, 50 {micro}M Ca{sup 2+}, 0.3 mg DOC/L). The [Cl{sup {minus}}], [Ca{sup 2+}], and [DOC] were adjusted by the addition of NaCl, CaNO{sub 3}, or humic acid, respectively. On the basis of total silver, increasing [Cl{sup {minus}}] over a range of 50 {micro}M to 1,500 {micro}M resulted in a 4.3-fold increase in the 96-h LC50 values (decrease in toxicity) for rainbow trout, but did not significantly affect the 96-h LC50 values for fathead minnows. Increasing water [Ca{sup 2+}] (from 50 to 2,000 {micro}M) had only a small influence on the 96-h LC50 values in both species. If the 96-h LC50 values are calculated on the basis of ionic silver, Ag{sup +}, then, in the case of rainbow trout, toxicity correlates to Ag{sup +}. However, this correlation does not exist for fathead minnows. Increasing [Cl{sup {minus}}] did not affect the degree of perturbation of Na{sup +} influx during acute exposure (first 4 h) to 8 {micro}g Ag/L in either species, nor did it affect the whole-body silver uptake rates, but it did reduce the gill silver load. These results demonstrate that differences exist in the way in which water chemistry ameliorates silver toxicity between rainbow trout and fathead minnows.

Bury, N.R. [INRA, Rennes (France). Lab. de Physiologie des Poissons; Galvez, F.; Wood, C.M. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Biology

1999-01-01

233

The murine calcium-sensitive chloride channel (mCaCC) is widely expressed in secretory epithelia and in other select tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tissue and cellular expression pattern of a recently cloned murine calcium-sensitive chloride channel (mCaCC) was determined.\\u000a In situ hybridization was performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded murine tissues using digoxigenin-labeled, single-stranded\\u000a RNA probes. The data were substantiated with northern blot and reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction analyses. All\\u000a three assays consistently indicated strong expression in tissues with secretory or ion regulatory functions,

Achim D. Gruber; Renu Gandhi; B. U. Pauli

1998-01-01

234

Effect of post-harvest calcium chloride dip treatment and gamma irradiation on storage quality and shelf-life extension of Red delicious apple  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freshly harvested Red delicious apples were dipped in calcium chloride solution of varying concentrations (0.5–2.0% w\\/v) for\\u000a 1 h prior to irradiation at dose level of 0.4 kGy. Fruits after radiation treatment were stored at 2?±?1°C, RH 90% and evaluated\\u000a at intervals of 30 days for various quality parameters. Results revealed significant (p???0.05) retention in firmness, juice yield and ascorbic acid content in

P. R. Hussain; R. S. Meena; M. A. Dar; A. M. Wani

235

Effects of Calcium Chloride on Growth, Membrane Permeability and Root Hydraulic Conductivity in Two Atriplex Species Grown at High (Sodium Chloride) Salinity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium (Ca) has an important role in plant physiology, including involvement in the responses to salt stress, and controls numerous processes. To overcome the negative impact of high salinity, the addition of supplemental Ca to the growth medium as an ameliorative agent could be necessary. Atriplex halimus subsp. schweinfurthii and Atriplex canescens subsp. linearis were grown in hydroponic conditions to

Bouzid Nedjimi; Youcef Daoud

2009-01-01

236

21 CFR 184.1191 - Calcium carbonate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...As a byproduct in the âLime soda processâ; (2) By precipitation of calcium carbonate from calcium hydroxide in the âCarbonation processâ; or (3) By precipitation of calcium carbonate from calcium chloride in the âCalcium...

2013-04-01

237

Gas hydrates of methane, ethane, propane, and carbon dioxide in the presence of single NaCl, KCl, and CaCl 2 aqueous solutions: Experimental measurements and predictions of dissociation conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental dissociation data for methane, ethane, propane, and carbon dioxide simple hydrates in the presence of NaCl, KCl, and CaCl2 aqueous solutions with different concentrations of single salt are reported in this communication. The experimental data were generated using a reliable isochoric technique. Some of the experimental hydrate dissociation data measured in this study are compared with some selected experimental

Amir H. Mohammadi; Waheed Afzal; Dominique Richon

2008-01-01

238

Gravimetric Determination of Calcium as Calcium Carbonate Hydrate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The gravimetric determination of calcium as calcium carbonate is described. This experiment is suitable for undergraduate quantitative analysis laboratories. It is less expensive than determination of chloride as silver chloride. (BB)

Henrickson, Charles H.; Robinson, Paul R.

1979-01-01

239

Gravimetric Determination of Calcium as Calcium Carbonate Hydrate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The gravimetric determination of calcium as calcium carbonate is described. This experiment is suitable for undergraduate quantitative analysis laboratories. It is less expensive than determination of chloride as silver chloride. (BB)|

Henrickson, Charles H.; Robinson, Paul R.

1979-01-01

240

EDTA-insoluble, calcium-binding proteoglycan in bovine bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

A calcium ion precipitable, trypsin-generated proteoglycan fragment has been isolated from the demineralized, EDTA-insoluble matrices of bone. The demineralized matrix was completely digested with trypsin, increasing concentrations of CaCl2 were added to the supernatant, and the resulting precipitates were analyzed. The amount of precipitate gradually increased with higher concentrations of calcium and was reversibly solubilized by EDTA. After molecular sieve

Y. Hashimoto; G. E. Lester; B. Caterson; M. Yamauchi

1995-01-01

241

Calcium translocation and accumulation into potato tubers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Calcium uptake into potato plants was examined using test solutions containing 5% safranin dye (C20H19N4C1 mw 350.85) and the radiotracer45CaCl2. When minitubers were suspended in test solutions for up to 5 days, safranin moved into the outer pith tissues while45Ca2+ was located throughout the pith. Ca2+ is apparently taken up directly from the tubersphere by a slow diffusion process. Plantlets

Ahsan Habib; Danielle J. Donnelly

2002-01-01

242

Growth rate of ?-calcium sulfate hemihydrate in K–Ca–Mg–Cl–H 2O systems at elevated temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kinetics of calcium sulfate hemihydrate (HH) crystal growth plays an important role in mineralization of calcium sulfate phases in nature. HH crystal growth and the conversion of calcium sulfate phases form the basis for the production and application of gypsum based building material. ?-HH crystals have been grown in 3.74M CaCl2 solutions at a fixed initial ratio of calcium to

Liuchun Yang; Zhongbiao Wu; Baohong Guan; Hailu Fu; Qingqing Ye

2009-01-01

243

Action of niflumic acid on evoked and spontaneous calcium-activated chloride and potassium currents in smooth muscle cells from rabbit portal vein.  

PubMed Central

1. The action of niflumic acid was studied on spontaneous and evoked calcium-activated chloride (ICl(Ca)) and potassium (IK(Ca)) currents in rabbit isolated portal vein cells. 2. With the nystatin perforated patch technique in potassium-containing solutions at a holding potential of -77 mV (the potassium equilibrium potential), niflumic acid produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of spontaneous transient inward current (STIC, calcium-activated chloride current) amplitude. The concentration to reduce the STIC amplitude by 50% (IC50) was 3.6 x 10(-6) M. 3. At -77 mV holding potential, niflumic acid converted the STIC decay from a single exponential to 2 exponential components. In niflumic acid the fast component of decay was faster, and the slow component was slower than the control decay time constant. Increasing the concentration of niflumic acid enhanced the decay rate of the fast component and reduced the decay rate of the slow component. 4. The effect of niflumic acid on STIC amplitude was voltage-dependent and at -50 and +50 mV the IC50 values were 2.3 x 10(-6) M and 1.1 x 10(-6) M respectively (cf. 3.6 x 10(-6) M at -77 mV). 5. In K-free solutions at potentials of -50 mV and +50 mV, niflumic acid did not induce a dual exponential STIC decay but just increased the decay time constant at both potentials in a concentration-dependent manner. 6. Niflumic acid, in concentrations up to 5 x 10(-5) M, had no effect on spontaneous calcium-activated potassium currents.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Hogg, R. C.; Wang, Q.; Large, W. A.

1994-01-01

244

XAFS study on the trace amounts of ytterbium ions incorporated in calcium carbonate crystal  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured XAFS spectra of trace amount of ytterbium (Yb) incorporated in calcite, a stable phase of calcium carbonate. Calcium carbonate was precipitated from a mixed solution of CaCl2 aq and NaHCO3 aq with a given amount of YbCl3. Concentrations of Yb were 5?mol kg?1 in the starting solutions and Yb\\/Ca molar ratio in the precipitated calcium carbonate was 1.2?10?3.

H. Tsuno; H. Kagi; Y. Takahashi; T. Akagi; M. Nomura

2005-01-01

245

Zinc Hydroxystannate- or Zinc Stannate-coated Calcium Carbonate as Flame Retardant for Semirigid Poly(vinyl chloride)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flame retardant and smoke suppressant properties of semirigid PVC treated with CaCO3, zinc hydroxystannate, zinc stannate, zinc hydroxystannate-coated calcium carbonate, and zinc stannate-coated calcium carbonate have been studied through the limiting oxygen index, anaerobic char yield, and smoke density rating (SDR) methods. The thermal degradation in air of the treated semirigid PVC is studied by thermogravimetry (TG) and differential

J. Z. Xu; Y. H. Jiao; H. Q. Qu; C. M. Tian; N. Cai

2006-01-01

246

A Solution NMR Investigation into the Early Events of Amelogenin Nanosphere Self-Assembly Initiated with Sodium Chloride or Calcium Chloride  

SciTech Connect

Using solution-state NMR spectroscopy, new insights into the early intermolecular interactions stabilizing amelogenin supramolecular assembly and the potential role of calcium ions have been discovered. Two-dimensional 1H-15N spectra were recorded for 15N-labeled amelogenin as a function of increasing Ca2+ concentration starting from monomeric conditions. Evidence for protein-protein interactions were observed between residues E18 and E40 in the N-terminus. At higher Ca2+ concentrations there was concurrent involvement of residues in both the N- (Y12-Q56) and the C-terminus (Q144-T171). Neither specific residues nor their stepwise interaction have previously been identified in the initial stages of nanosphere assembly.

Buchko, Garry W.; Tarasevich, Barbara J.; Bekhazi, Jacky G.; Snead, Malcolm L.; Shaw, Wendy J.

2008-12-08

247

Kinetics of water sorption on SWS1L (calcium chloride confined to mesoporous silica gel): Influence of grain size and temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kinetics of water sorption on loose grains of composite sorbent CaCl2 confined to mesoporous silica (SWS-1L) was measured at T=33–69?C and P(H2O)=8–70mbar over water uptake range 0–0.47g\\/g for various particle sizes Rp (between 0.355 and 1.4mm). The measurements were performed in a constant pressure unit based on a CAHN microbalance under isothermal external conditions.The results obtained evidence an enhancement of

Yu. I. Aristov; I. S. Glaznev; A. Freni; G. Restuccia

2006-01-01

248

Effect of Lactose on Duodenal Calcium-Binding Protein and Calcium Absorption1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rats were fed a purified diet containing 30% lactose and calcium absorption was measured in duodenal loops in situ following in stillation of 1.25 or 10 mM CaCl2 solutions. Lactose feeding caused ab sorption to be depressed from 88 to 697e (1.25 mM Ca solution) and from 71 to 43%. (10 mM Ca solution). The effect of lactose feeding was

DANIELLE PANSU

2010-01-01

249

Inhibition of the calcium-activated chloride current in cardiac ventricular myocytes by N-(p-amylcinnamoyl)anthranilic acid (ACA).  

PubMed

N-(p-amylcinnamoyl)anthranilic acid (ACA), a phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) inhibitor, is structurally-related to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) of the fenamate group and may also modulate various ion channels. We used the whole-cell, patch-clamp technique at room temperature to investigate the effects of ACA on the Ca(2+)-activated chloride current (I(Cl(Ca))) and other chloride currents in isolated pig cardiac ventricular myocytes. ACA reversibly inhibited I(Cl(Ca)) in a concentration-dependent manner (IC(50)=4.2 ?M, n(Hill)=1.1), without affecting the L-type Ca(2+) current. Unlike ACA, the non-selective PLA(2) inhibitor bromophenacyl bromide (BPB; 50 ?M) had no effect on I(Cl(Ca)). In addition, the analgesic NSAID structurally-related to ACA, diclofenac (50 ?M) also had no effect on I(Cl(Ca)), whereas the current in the same cells could be suppressed by chloride channel blockers flufenamic acid (FFA; 100 ?M) or 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS;100 ?M). Besides I(Cl(Ca)), ACA (50 ?M) also suppressed the cAMP-activated chloride current, but to a lesser extent. It is proposed that the inhibitory effects of ACA on I(Cl(Ca)) are PLA(2)-independent and that the drug may serve as a useful tool in understanding the nature and function of cardiac anion channels. PMID:20971070

Gwanyanya, Asfree; Macianskiene, Regina; Bito, Virginie; Sipido, Karin R; Vereecke, Johan; Mubagwa, Kanigula

2010-10-28

250

Branchial cobalt uptake in the carp, Cyprinus carpio: Effect of calcium channelblockers and calcium injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using tracer-uptake studies we investigated whether the branchial uptakeof cobalt occurs via selective, inhibitable, calcium uptake routes.Modulation of the calcium transport system was performed using generalcalcium channel blockers (Cd2+, La3+,Mg2+), a voltage-dependent calcium channel blocker (diltiazem)and an intraperitoneal CaCl2 injection. Adding Cd2+ orMg2+ to thewater or injecting the fish with theCa2+-solution resulted in decreased Co2+ andCa2+ uptake rates. Addition of

S. Comhaire; R. Blust; L. Van Ginneken; P. M. Verbost; O. L. J. Vanderborght

1998-01-01

251

Hyaluronidase as a Prophylactic Measure for Necrotic Inflammations Due to Extravascular Injections of Calcium Chloride (Primenenie Gyaluronidazy v Komplekse Meropriyatii po Profilaktike Nekroticheskogo Vospaleniya pri Vnevennom Vvedenii Khloristogo Kaltsiya).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Injections of calcium chloride bring about necrosis that may lead to disability or even death. Based on the country's clinical statistics, in the last 11 years, out of 32 improperly injected patiends, 7 died. However, data on emergency treatments for nect...

A. Y. Pashchuk

1974-01-01

252

Recessive mutations in the putative calcium-activated chloride channel Anoctamin 5 cause proximal LGMD2L and distal MMD3 muscular dystrophies.  

PubMed

The recently described human anion channel Anoctamin (ANO) protein family comprises at least ten members, many of which have been shown to correspond to calcium-activated chloride channels. To date, the only reported human mutations in this family of genes are dominant mutations in ANO5 (TMEM16E, GDD1) in the rare skeletal disorder gnathodiaphyseal dysplasia. We have identified recessive mutations in ANO5 that result in a proximal limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD2L) in three French Canadian families and in a distal non-dysferlin Miyoshi myopathy (MMD3) in Dutch and Finnish families. These mutations consist of a splice site, one base pair duplication shared by French Canadian and Dutch cases, and two missense mutations. The splice site and the duplication mutations introduce premature-termination codons and consequently trigger nonsense-mediated mRNA decay, suggesting an underlining loss-of-function mechanism. The LGMD2L phenotype is characterized by proximal weakness, with prominent asymmetrical quadriceps femoris and biceps brachii atrophy. The MMD3 phenotype is associated with distal weakness, of calf muscles in particular. With the use of electron microscopy, multifocal sarcolemmal lesions were observed in both phenotypes. The phenotypic heterogeneity associated with ANO5 mutations is reminiscent of that observed with Dysferlin (DYSF) mutations that can cause both LGMD2B and Miyoshi myopathy (MMD1). In one MMD3-affected individual, defective membrane repair was documented on fibroblasts by membrane-resealing ability assays, as observed in dysferlinopathies. Though the function of the ANO5 protein is still unknown, its putative calcium-activated chloride channel function may lead to important insights into the role of deficient skeletal muscle membrane repair in muscular dystrophies. PMID:20096397

Bolduc, Véronique; Marlow, Gareth; Boycott, Kym M; Saleki, Khalil; Inoue, Hiroshi; Kroon, Johan; Itakura, Mitsuo; Robitaille, Yves; Parent, Lucie; Baas, Frank; Mizuta, Kuniko; Kamata, Nobuyuki; Richard, Isabelle; Linssen, Wim H J P; Mahjneh, Ibrahim; de Visser, Marianne; Bashir, Rumaisa; Brais, Bernard

2010-01-21

253

Preparation of Titanium Powders from TiO2 by Calcium Vapor Reduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preparation of Ti powders from TiO2 by calcium vapor reduction was investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), element analysis instrument, inert gas fusion-infrared absorption spectroscopy, and ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) complex formation titration. The experimental results indicate that the reduction reaction occurs very rapidly when the mass ratio of CaCl2 to TiO2 is 1:2 from 0 min to 30 min, and the titanium suboxides were further reduced from 30 min to 480 min at 1000°C. The content of CaCl2 influences the reduction products and the reduction rate obviously, and the suitable mass ratio of CaCl2 to TiO2 is 1:2 under these experimental conditions. Ti powders with oxygen content of 1000 ppm, nitrogen content of 120 ppm, and chlorine content of 80 ppm were obtained at 1000°C for 360 min.

Jia, Jingang; Xu, Baoqiang; Yang, Bin; Wang, Dongsheng; Liu, Dachun

2013-05-01

254

Quality Attributes of Halva by Utilization of Proteins, Non-hydrogenated Palm Oil, Emulsifiers, Gum Arabic, Sucrose, and Calcium Chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emulsion stability (oil separation) in halva is a major problem that affects quality upon storage. Emulsion instability results in toughness, oil separation, and oil contamination on packaging materials. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of improving halva quality by incorporating non-hydrogenated palm oil, glycerol, soy protein concentrate, gelatin, lecithin, pectin, gum Arabic, sugar powder, and calcium

K. I. Ereifej; T. M. Rababah; M. A. Al-Rababah

2005-01-01

255

Hundredth molar calcium chloride extraction procedure. part II: Calibration with conventional soil testing methods for pH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil pH is probably the most important, single, parameter characterizing its fertility. For theoretical and practical reasons the soil pH is usually measured in salt solutions of different strength. The most common solution used in Europe is 1M potassium chloride (KCl) in a soil\\/solution ratio of 1:2.5 (W\\/V). The ultimate goal of the international project Copernicus of the European Community

Mariusz Fotyma; Tamara Jadczyszyn; Grzegorz Jozefaciuk

1998-01-01

256

Effect of calcium chloride on the physical characteristics of cellulose fibers regenerated from zinc-cellulose complexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

High tensile strength cellulose fibers were made from zinc-cellulose complexes in zinc chloride solution. The formation of zinc-cellulose complex is a path-dependent process. There are many possible types of zinc-cellulose complexes that could be formed in the dissolution process of cellulose. Many metal ions were also shown to interfere with complex formation. Different zinc-cellulose complexes resulted in cellulose fibers with

Qin Xu

1996-01-01

257

Long Term Electrochemical Behavior of Creviced and Non-Creviced Alloy 22 in CaCl2 + Ca(NO3)2 Brines at 155?C  

SciTech Connect

Alloy 22 is a nickel base alloy highly resistant to all forms of corrosion. In very aggressive conditions (e.g. hot concentrated chloride containing brines) Alloy 22 could suffer localized attack, namely pitting and crevice corrosion. Chloride ion is known to be the most detrimental aggressive agent for Alloy 22 and is able to promote crevice corrosion when tight crevices exist in hot chloride containing solutions of different concentrations. Nitrate ion is an effective inhibitor of chloride induced crevice corrosion when present in a high enough [NO{sub 3}{sup -}]/[Cl{sup -}] ratio. The occurrence of localized corrosion in a given environment is governed by the values of the critical potential (E{sub crit}) for crevice corrosion and the corrosion potential (E{sub corr}) that the alloy may establish in the studied environment. If E{sub corr} is equal or higher than E{sub crit}, localized corrosion may be expected. This paper discusses the evolution of E{sub corr} and corrosion rate (CR) of Alloy 22 specimens in 18 m CaCl{sub 2} + 9 m Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} and 18 m CaCl{sub 2} + 0.9 m Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} brines at 155 C. Two types of specimens were used, polished as-welded (ASW) creviced and non-creviced specimens and as-welded plus solution heat-treated (ASW+SHT) creviced specimens. The latter contained the black annealing oxide film on the surface. Results show that, in a few immersion days E{sub corr} reached a stable value higher than the open circuit potential of a platinum electrode in 18 m CaCl{sub 2} + 9 m Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} for all specimens tested. Specimens tested in this solution did not suffer any type of localized attack. On the other hand, E{sub corr} showed oscillations of up to 600 mV in 18 m CaCl{sub 2} + 0.9 m Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} during the entire immersion period. These oscillations were due to pitting corrosion development. Crevice corrosion was not observed in any testing case. Corrosion rates for specimens in the latter solution ([NO{sub 3}{sup -}]/[Cl{sup -}] = 0.05) were one order of magnitude higher than for specimens in the second one ([NO{sub 3}{sup -}]/[Cl{sup -}] = 0.5). Nitrate showed to be able to inhibit localized attack even in hot concentrated chloride brines when present in a ratio of [NO{sub 3}{sup -}]/[Cl{sup -}] = 0.5. Localized corrosion occurred only in condition where E{sub corr} > E{sub crit}.

Rodr?guez, M A; Stuart, M L; Rebak, R B

2006-11-08

258

Local Effects in the X-ray Absorption Spectrum of CaCl2, MgCl2, and NaCl Solutions  

SciTech Connect

Both first principles molecular dynamics and theoretical X-ray absorption spectroscopy have been used to investigate the aqueous solvation of cations in 0.5 M MgCl{sub 2}, CaCl{sub 2}, and NaCl solutions. We focus here on the species-specific effects that Mg{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+}, and Na{sup +}, have on the X-ray absorption spectrum of the respective solutions. For the divalent cations, we find that the hydrogen bonding characteristics of the more rigid magnesium first shell water molecules differ from those in the more flexible solvation shell surrounding calcium. In particular, the first solvation shell water molecules of calcium are accessible to forming acceptor hydrogen bonds, and this results in an enhancement of a post-edge peak near 540 eV. The absence of acceptor hydrogen bonds for magnesium first shell water molecules provides an explanation for the experimental and theoretical observation of a lack of enhancement at the post-main-edge peak. For the sodium monovalent cation we find that the broad tilt angle distribution results in a broadening of post-edge features, despite populations in donor-and-acceptor configurations consistent with calcium. We also present the re-averaged spectra of the MgCl{sub 2}, CaCl{sub 2}, and NaCl solutions and show that trends apparent with increasing concentration (0.5 M, 2.0 M, 4.0 M) are consistent with experiment. Finally, we examine more closely both the effect that cation coordination number has on the hydrogen bonding network and the relative perturbation strength of the cations on lone pair oxygen orbitals.

Kulik, H J; Correa Tedesco, A A; Schwegler, E; Prendergast, D; Galli, G

2010-04-12

259

[Influence of rhizobial (Rhizobium leguminosarum) inoculation and calcium ions on the NADPH oxidase activity in roots of etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L.) seedlings].  

PubMed

Changes in the functional activity of the NADPH oxidase in the microsomal fraction of roots of etiolated pea seedlings, caused by rhizobial inoculation and calcium ions (Ca2+), are shown. The enzyme activity in a medium with an exogenous source of Ca2+ (CaCl2, 100 microM) fluctuated, increasing 5 to 20 min and decreasing 10 and 30 min after addition. A calcium chelator (ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EDTA), 100 microM) potentiated the decrease in the enzyme activity in the presence of exogenous calcium. Rhizobial inoculation caused a 3.9-fold increase in the enzyme activity 5 min after inoculation compared to the control (without inoculation). The Ca(2+)-channel activator (amiodarone, 300 microM) and the Ca(2+)-channel blocker (lanthanum chloride, 400 microM) reduced the NADPH oxidase activity after rhizobial inoculation compared to the control level (without inoculation). It is concluded that Ca2+ and reactive oxygen species are involved in the regulation of the membrane NADPH oxidase activity in roots of pea seedlings. PMID:23882941

Glian'ko, A K; Ishchenko, A A

260

Effect of deicing chloride salts on ion accumulation in spruce ( Picea abies (L.) sp.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the inorganic chloride salts, NaCl, CaCl2 and in a minor proportion KCl and MgCl2 are used as deicing agents. Mixturs of these salts were merely applied with respect to their physico-chemical properties, but their effect on roadside vegetation has never been studied so far. From a screening of different salt mixtures on ion accumulation in needles and twigs of

J. Bogemans; L. Neirinckx; J. M. Stassart

1989-01-01

261

Long-Term Corrosion Potential Behavior of Alloy 22 in Hot 5 m CaCl2 + 5 m Ca(NO3)2 Brines  

SciTech Connect

Alloy 22 is a nickel base alloy highly resistant to all forms of corrosion. In very aggressive conditions (e.g. hot concentrated chloride containing brines) Alloy 22 could suffer localized attack, namely pitting and crevice corrosion. The occurrence of localized corrosion in a given environment is governed by the values of the critical potential (E{sub crit}) for crevice corrosion and the corrosion potential (E{sub corr}) that the alloy may establish in the studied environment. If E{sub corr} is equal or higher than E{sub crit}, localized corrosion may be expected. This paper discusses the evolution of E{sub corr} of Alloy 22 specimens in 5 m CaCl{sub 2} + 5 m Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} brines at 100 C and 120 C. Two types of specimens were used, polished as-welded (ASW) creviced and noncreviced specimens and as-welded plus solution heat-treated (ASW+SHT) creviced specimens. The latter contained the black annealing oxide film on the surface. Results show that, for all types of Alloy 22 specimens the E{sub corr} was higher at 120 C than at 100 C, probably because a more protective film formed at the higher temperature. Specimens with the black oxide film on the surface showed more oscillations in the potential. None of the tested specimens suffered crevice corrosion probably because of the relatively high concentration of nitrate in the electrolyte, R = [NO3]/[Cl] = 1.

Rodriguez, M A; Carranza, R M; Stuart, M L; Rebak, R B

2007-02-20

262

Influence of impurity ions and magnetic field on the properties of freshly precipitated calcium carbonate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Static magnetic field (MF) effects on the properties of freshly precipitated calcium carbonate have been investigated in the presence of impurity ion Mg2+, Fe2+, or SO42?. One or both solutions, CaCl2 and Na2CO3, were exposure to MF (0.5T) for 20min at 20°C. Then calcium carbonate was precipitated and zeta potential, pH and light absorbance (?=543.3nm) were measured. The same parameters

Lucyna Ho?ysz; Emil Chibowski; Aleksandra Szcze?

2003-01-01

263

Growth of calcium carbonate crystal imitating stalagmite growth in nature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcite crystals were prepared by dropping a saturated calcium carbonate aqueous solution on a substrate. The calcite crystals were grown with a growth rate of approximately 0.7?m\\/day under the condition of aqueous temperature of 2°C, aqueous concentration of 0.006mol\\/l, and substrate temperature of 40°C. When the calcite substrate was used, calcite crystals were grown epitaxially. Na2CO3 and CaCl2 aqueous solutions

H. Miyazaki; M. Mizutani; T. Yamashita; H. Aoyama; H. Seue; T. Ota

2006-01-01

264

Experimental determination of REE fractionation between liquid and vapour in the systems NaCl-H2O and CaCl2-H2O up to 450 °C  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fractionation of selected REE between brine and vapour was experimentally determined using a large-volume rocking Ti-autoclave that allowed quasi-isobaric sampling of liquid-vapour pairs. Samples were extracted along the 350, 400 and 450 °C-isotherms of the H2O-NaCl system, and along the 400 °C isotherm of the CaCl2 system. Total salt concentrations were either 6.6 and 10 wt% NaCl or CaCl2, respectively, and total REE concentrations were about 2 ppm of each REE. Starting pH at room temperature was 1.8, added as HCl. In another series of experiments, REEs were added in amounts of 312 ppm. Here, the starting pH at room temperature was 0.5, added as HNO3:HCl=1:2. Liquid-vapour pairs (L-V) were analysed for REE by ICP-MS methods. L-V-partitioning of REE along a particular isotherm follows broadly the partitioning of the main salt components, NaCl or CaCl2. DREE=REEV/REEL decrease rapidly from the critical point with decreasing pressure (equivalent to increasing salinity of the liquid) as the solvus opens. This is independent of the total amount of the added REE. Log DREE values show approximately linear correlations with decreasing pressure from the critical point to salt-saturated conditions where the L-V curve meets the liquid + vapour + solid boundary. At given P and T, we found a systematic variation of DREE along the La-Lu suite. HREE are enriched in the vapour phase relative to LREE. Fractionation coefficients KD=(HREEV/HREEL)/(LREEV/LREEL) increase linearly with ?P=Pcrit-P along a particular isotherm. At the 450 °C isotherm, KD (Lu/La) at the critical point (425 bar and 10 wt% NaCl) is 1; about 2.5 at 350 bar (33 wt% NaCl in the liquid); and about 5 if extrapolated to salt-saturation (250 bar and 52 wt% NaCl in the liquid). The REE fractionation behaviour is similar along the CaCl2-H2O solvus boundaries. Existing equations of state and thermodynamic databases of REE species cannot predict this behaviour at L-V-equilibrium conditions. That HREE are preferentially fractionated over LREE into the vapour phase has important petrogenetic consequences. In boiling hydrothermal systems, brines will be depleted in HREE relative to LREE. Isobaric cooling is ineffective for fractionation because the solvus closes and the system eventually shifts into the one-phase field. Fractionation is most effective in systems undergoing isothermal or adiabatic decompression. In an open system, where vapour may escape through cavities, fractionation is probably controlled by a Rayleigh fractionation process, resulting in larger overall fractionation effects. Similar fractionations probably occur during magma degassing at very shallow intrusion levels.

Shmulovich, Kirill; Heinrich, Wilhelm; Möller, Peter; Dulski, Peter

2002-09-01

265

CALCIUM BINDING TO INTESTINAL MEMBRANES  

PubMed Central

Flame photometry reveals that glutaraldehyde and buffer solutions in routine use for electron microscopy contain varying amounts of calcium. The presence of electron-opaque deposits adjacent to membranes in a variety of tissues can be correlated with the presence of calcium in the fixative. In insect intestine (midgut), deposits occur adjacent to apical and lateral plasma membranes. The deposits are particularly evident in tissues fixed in glutaraldehyde without postosmication. They are also observed in osmicated tissue if calcium is added to wash and osmium solutions. Deposits are absent when calcium-free fixatives are used, but are present when traces of CaCl2 (as low as 5 x 10-5 M) are added. The deposits occur at regular intervals along junctional membranes, providing images strikingly similar to those obtained by other workers who have used pyroantimonate in an effort to localize sodium. Other divalent cations (Mg++, Sr++, Ba++, Mn++, Fe++) appear to substitute for calcium, while sodium, potassium, lanthanum, and mercury do not. After postfixing with osmium with calcium added, the deposits can be resolved as patches along the inner leaflet of apical and lateral plasma membranes. The dense regions may thus localize membrane constituents that bind calcium. The results are discussed in relation to the role of calcium in control of cell-to-cell communication, intestinal calcium uptake, and the pyroantimonate technique for ion localization.

Oschman, James L.; Wall, Betty J.

1972-01-01

266

Combined effects of potassium lactate and calcium ascorbate as sodium chloride substitutes on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of low-sodium frankfurter sausage.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the combined effects of sodium chloride (NaCl) substitutes, including potassium lactate (K-lactate) and calcium ascorbate (Ca-ascorbate), on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of low-sodium frankfurter sausage (1.2% content of NaCl). Sausages produced with 40% substitution of NaCl with combined K-lactate and Ca-ascorbate showed a higher value of lightness (P<0.001) than sausages containing 2.0% content of NaCl (control). However, the sensory panels were unable to distinguish a difference in color intensity between the control and treatment groups. Frankfurter sausages produced with 30% K-lactate and 10% Ca-ascorbate exhibited similar water-holding capacity, textural properties, and organoleptic characteristics (P>0.05) when compared to control sausages. Thus, the use of these salt mixtures is a good way to reduce the NaCl content in meat products while maintaining the quality of meat products. These results may be useful in developing low-sodium meat products. PMID:23896133

Choi, Y M; Jung, K C; Jo, H M; Nam, K W; Choe, J H; Rhee, M S; Kim, B C

2013-06-22

267

Genanvendelse af restprodukter fra affaldsforbraending med kalkbaseret roeggasrensning. Laboratorieundersoegelser af mulighederne for oparbejdning af kalciumklorid fra toerre/semitoerre restprodukter. (Utilization of waste products from waste incineration with a limestone based flue gas cleaning. Bench-scale testing of calcium chloride recovery from dry/semidry residue products).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this study has been to explore the technical and economic feasibility of recovering calcium chloride from the acid flue gas cleaning residues produced at those Danish municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) which are equipped with dry ...

H. Birch O. Hjelmar G. Ploug Lorenzen

1993-01-01

268

Influence of urea-calcium mixtures as rumen slow-release feed on in vitro fermentation using a gas production technique.  

PubMed

In this experiment the effects of different urea products (urea [U] and urea-calcium mixtures [UCM]) on rumen fermentation were investigated in dependence of different energy sources by using in vitro techniques. The 7 x 2 factorial arrangement followed a completely randomised design using seven urea products (U100, U40CaCl2, U50CaCl2, U60CaCl2, U40CaSO4, U50CaSO4 and U60CaSO4) in combination with cassava chips (CC) or corn meal (CM). Compared with other treatments, the cumulative gas production (96 h) was significantly increased for U60CaCl2 + CC and U60CaSO4 + CC (p < 0.01), which was combined with a higher in vitro true digestibility (p < 0.01). In addition, the concentration of volatile fatty acids in the fluid of U60CaCl2 + CC and U60CaSO4 + CC was significantly higher than in other treatments. Urea treatments (U100 + CC and U100 + CM) caused the highest concentration of ruminal ammonia nitrogen (p < 0.01), which was significantly decreased by all UCM products in combination with CC, but not with CM. The highest levels of total bacteria, Fibrobacter succinogenes and anaerobic fungi were found for treatment U60CaCl2 + CC and U60CaSO4 + CC (p < 0.05). The findings revealed that the utilisation of U60CaCl2 and U60CaSO4 in combination with cassava chips improved the ruminal fluid fermentation in terms of NH3-N and volatile fatty acid concentration, digestibility of energy and increased the fibrobacter concentrations. PMID:21776840

Cherdthong, Anusorn; Wanapat, Metha; Wachirapakorn, Chalong

2011-06-01

269

XRD studies of beta-chitin from squid pen with calcium solvent.  

PubMed

The crystalline structure of beta-chitin from squid pen was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The purified beta-chitin was prepared from bigfin reefsquid pen. beta-Chitin was treated with saturated calcium chloride dihydrate/alchohol (CaCl(2).2H(2)O/MeOH) solvent system at different conditions for XRD studies. The change of crystallinity of beta-chitin from squid pen was studied by using the fiber photographs on imaging plates. The results showed that the diffraction peak (010) was shifted. It means that the lattice plane (010) interplanarilly spreaded to 3.4A, when the squid pen was washed with water after treatment of Ca solvent. Furthermore, when the squid pen was dried after treatment of Ca solvent and washing with water, interplanar spacing of (010) inversely shrank to 1.1A. These results suggested that Ca solvent especially influences the plane (010) of beta-chitin structure. PMID:18036656

Nagahama, H; Higuchi, T; Jayakumar, R; Furuike, T; Tamura, H

2007-10-18

270

Effect of electro-chemical properties of chloride salts on their diffusional parameters in symmetrical cellulose acetate membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A relation was obtained between electro-chemical properties of alkali, alkali earth and aluminium chlorides (LiCl, NaCl, KCl, RbCl, CsCl, MgCl2, CaCl2, AlCl3) and the distribution coefficient K and the overall diffusion coefficients D in symmetrical cellulose acetate membranes. Symmetrical cellulose acetate membranes were cast to have a wider range of water content, 15–30%. K and D were measured by the

Haruhiko Ohya; Svetlana I Semenova; Toshinori Fujimoto; Jun Ogihara; Shinichi Fukaya; Kousuke Mori; Masahiko Aihara; Youichi Negishi

2001-01-01

271

Dielectric loss relaxation maxima of undoped and calcium doped NaCl crystals between 20 and 400°C  

Microsoft Academic Search

When studying the dielectric loss dependence of undoped (“pure”) and CaCl2 doped NaCl crystals on temperature and frequency, some further maxima were observed apart from the wellknown relaxation maxima of calcium complexes. The temperature of these maxima shifts with rising calcium content to lower temperatures (from 259 to 142°C), whereas the value of the maxima does not change with concentration

A. Kessler; E. Mariani

1964-01-01

272

Surface charge density on silica in alkali and alkaline earth chloride electrolyte solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surface charge density of colloidal SiO2 (Aerosil 380) was measured in alkali chloride (0.067 and 0.20 M LiCl, NaCl, and KCl) and alkaline earth chloride (0.067 M MgCl2, CaCl2, SrCl2, BaCl2) solutions. Measurements were conducted at 25°C by potentiometric titrations using the constant ionic medium method in a CO2-free system. The experimental design measured surface charge for solutions with

Patricia M. Dove; Colin M. Craven

2005-01-01

273

Effect of the presence of chlorides on the synthesis and decomposition of Ca(BH 4) 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium borohydride is one of the most interesting compounds for solid-state hydrogen storage, in particular because of its high hydrogen capacity. In this paper, the synthesis of Ca(BH4)2 by metathesis reaction via ball milling of a mixture of LiBH4 and CaCl2 is described. The effectiveness of this synthesis technique and the possible substitution of Cl ions in the borohydride phases

C. Rongeat; I. Lindemann; A. Borgschulte; L. Schultz; O. Gutfleisch

2011-01-01

274

Effect of different pre-treatments and dehydration methods on quality characteristics and storage stability of tomato powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dehydration process was carried out for tomato slices of var. Avinash after giving different pre-treatments such as calcium chloride (CaCl2), potassium metabisulphite (KMS), calcium chloride and potassium metabisulphite (CaCl2+KMS), and sodium chloride (NaCl). Untreated samples served as control. Solar drier and continuous conveyor (tunnel) drier were used for dehydration. Quality characteristics of tomato slices viz. moisture content, sugar, titratable acidity,

Mehdi Ghiafeh Davoodi; P. Vijayanand; S. G. Kulkarni; K. V. R. Ramana

2007-01-01

275

Calcium ion concentration detected by structural changes of a Millipore DOPH artificial membrane.  

PubMed

The surface structure of an artificial membrane composed of a Millipore filter and a synthetic lipid analogue, dioleylphosphate (DOPH), immersed in KCl solution changes when the CaCl2 concentration reaches a critical value. Using a photomultiplier mounted on the eyepiece of a stereoscopic microscope the structural change can be measured quantitatively as an intensity variation of reflected light of the membrane surface. Calcium ions decreased the intensity to about 50% of the original hydrophilic state whose solution was only KCl. However, the degree of structure change was dependent on adsorbed DOPH density, solution temperature and pH value. On the other hand, using the light reflectance curves obtained from the structural observations, an unknown CaCl2 concentration in a KCl solution can be determined. Since the reflectance curve shifts widely with various densities of DOPH adsorbed in the Millipore filter, it is possible to measure the CaCl2 concentration over a wide range. The detection range was from 0.1 to 50 mM CaCl2. PMID:2486916

Arisawa, J; Misawa, K

1989-01-01

276

[Paramagnetic calcium melanins].  

PubMed

Treatment of catechol, pyrogallol, DOPA, dopamine, norepinephrine, and natural polyhydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone echinochrome by aqueous solution of potassium superoxide (KO2) in the presence of CaCl2 leads to the formation of water-insoluble dark pigments with stable paramagnetic properties ("calcium melanins"). In control experiments in the same procedure without Ca2+, the pigments were not formed. EPR spectra of the calcium melanins had little difference from each other and from known melanins in shape, line width, and the g factor about 2,004. Addition of EDTA water solution to dried paramagnetic pigments leads to their fast dissolving and disappearing of EPR signal. Formation of similar polymers is also observed during autoxidation of o-diphenols in Ca(2+)-containing alkaline buffer solution, however, this process takes a few days instead of few seconds in the presence of KO2. Thus, calcium (and other divalent cation M2+) can consider as a key structural element in formation of M(2+)-catecholate paramagnetic Polymer. We assume the existence of two types of paramagnetic centers in melanin-like polymer: M(2+)-stabilized o-semiquinone radical or bi-radical complex containing o-semiquinone and superoxide anion radicals, stabilized by M2+. PMID:23650854

Lebedev, A V; Ivanova, M V; Timoshin, A A; Ruuge, E K

277

Potassium Chloride  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... Contains Nonbinding Recommendations Draft Guidance on Potassium Chloride ... Active ingredient: Potassium Chloride ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation

278

Effect of Azadirachta indica (neem), sodium thiosulphate and calcium chloride on changes in nitrogen transformations and inhibition of nitrification in soil incubated under laboratory conditions.  

PubMed

A laboratory experiment was conducted to examine the effects of nitrification inhibitors (NIs) neem seed-cake (Azadirachta indica) (NSC), sodium thiosulphate (Na?S?O?) and calcium chloride (CaCl?) on changes in NH?(+)?N, inhibition of nitrification and recovery of applied nitrogen (N) in soil. Surface soil samples of 0-15 cm were collected from an arable field, amended with urea N (UN) at the rate 200 mg N kg?¹, UN+NSC, UN+Na?S?O? and UN+CaCl? and incubated at 22°C periodically over 50 d. Soil without any amendment was used as check (control). Results indicated that more than 58% of N applied as NH?? disappeared over a period of 50 d from the soil mineral-N pool. Some of this N (21%) was accumulated as NO??-N while the remaining N was unaccounted for. Addition of nitrification inhibitors NSC, Na?S?O?, and CaCl? resulted in a decrease in the extent of NH?(+) disappearance by 35%, 44% and 30%, respectively. In the treatment receiving UN alone, 56 mg NO??-N kg?¹ was accumulated over 50 d (maximum 93 mg kg?¹) indicated an active nitrification. Application of nitrification inhibitors NSC, Na?S?O?, and CaCl? with UN inhibited nitrification by 54%, 64%, and 59%, respectively. Apparent N recovery (ANR) in the treatment receiving UN alone was 63% that substantially increased to 83%, 89% and 76% in the treatments receiving UN+NSC, UN+Na?S?O?, and UN+CaCl?, respectively indicating 32%, 41% and 20% increase in N recovery. Among three NIs tested, Na?S?O? proved superior in inhibiting nitrification and increasing ANR. The study demonstrated that application of NSC, Na?S?O?, and CaCl? which are cheap and easily available NIs inhibited nitrification and improved N recovery efficiency of applied N in an arable soil very effectively. It is suggested that these inhibitors should be tested under field conditions for increasing NUE and improving crop productivity. PMID:21146192

Abbasi, M Kaleem; Hina, Munazza; Tahir, Majid Mahmood

2010-12-13

279

Characteristics of the interaction of calcium with casein submicelles as determined by analytical affinity chromatography  

SciTech Connect

Interaction of calcium with casein submicelles was investigated in CaCl2 and calcium phosphate buffers and with synthetic milk salt solutions using the technique of analytical affinity chromatography. Micelles that had been prepared by size exclusion chromatography with glycerolpropyl controlled-pore glass from fresh raw skim milk that had never been cooled, were dialyzed at room temperature against calcium-free imidazole buffer, pH 6.7. Resulting submicelles were covalently immobilized on succinamidopropyl controlled-pore glass (300-nm pore size). Using 45Ca to monitor the elution retardation, the affinity of free Ca2+ and calcium salt species was determined at temperatures of 20 to 40 degrees C and pH 6.0 to 7.5. Increasing the pH in this range or increasing the temperature strengthened the binding of calcium to submicelles, similar to previous observations with individual caseins. However, the enthalpy change obtained from the temperature dependence was considerably greater than that reported for alpha s1- and beta-caseins. Furthermore, the elution profiles for 45Ca in milk salt solutions were decidedly different from those in CaCl2 or calcium phosphate buffers and the affinities were also greater. For example, at pH 6.7 and 30 degrees C the average dissociation constant for the submicelle-calcium complex is 0.074 mM for CaCl2 and calcium phosphate buffers, vs 0.016 mM for the milk salt solution. The asymmetric frontal boundaries and higher average affinities observed with milk salts may be due to binding of calcium salts with greater affinity in addition to the binding of free Ca2+ in these solutions.

Jang, H.D.; Swaisgood, H.E. (North Carolina State Univ. (USA))

1990-12-01

280

Ionic conductivity and cation selfdiffusion in NaCl crystals doped with calcium or cadmium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of the concentration dependences of dc conductivity and Na+ diffusion in NaCl + CaCl2 and NaCl + CdCl2 monocrystals have shown that the heats of association of both divalent admixtures into complexes with cation vacancies are very close (0·28±0·02 eV.) The Stasiw-Teltow model of association has been found suitable for concentrations of calcium not exceeding 0·1 mole-% within the

V. Trnovcová

1969-01-01

281

Synthesis of calcium carbonate polymorphs in the presence of polyacrylic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium carbonate precipitates are prepared from a solution of CaCl2 and K2CO3 in the presence of polyacrilic acid. The effect of polyacrilic acid incorporation in the [25–80°C] temperature range on crystal morphologies and CaCO3 precipitated polymorph concentrations are investigated using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction quantitative microstructural and phase analysis. Large changes in morphology and phase proportions are observed

S. Ouhenia; D. Chateigner; M. A. Belkhir; E. Guilmeau; C. Krauss

2008-01-01

282

Cadmium influx across isolated Carcinus gill epithelium interaction of lanthanum and calcium with cadmium influxes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of Ca and La on Cd transport across apical and basolateral gill surfaces were examined in isolated perfused Carcinus gills. In the gills exposed to diluted sea water enriched with calcium by addition of CaCl2 to 11.9 and 15.9 mmol·l-1 the Cd influxes decreased by 55% and 85%, respectively, compared to those observed in diluted sea water (6.9

?. Lucu; V. Obersnel

1996-01-01

283

Effect of calcium ions on the Hsp104 synthesis and heat tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of calcium ions on heat tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and on the induction of Hsp104 synthesis by this microorganism was studied. Short-term (30 min) treatment with CaCl2 at 30°C enhanced the heat tolerance to the lethal heat shock (50°C); the synthesis of Hsp104 was induced as well. The effect\\u000a of Ca2+ on the heat tolerance and Hsp104 synthesis was

I. V. Fedoseeva; N. N. Varakina; T. M. Rusaleva; G. B. Borovskii; E. G. Rikhvanov; V. K. Voinikov

2010-01-01

284

Development of enteric-coated calcium pectinate microspheres intended for colonic drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enteric-coated calcium pectinate microspheres (MS) aimed for colon drug delivery have been developed, by using theophylline as a model drug. The influence of pectin type (amidated or non-amidated) and MS preparation conditions (CaCl2 concentration and cross-linking time) was investigated upon the drug entrapment efficiency and its release behaviour. Drug stability and drug–polymer interactions were studied by Differential Scanning Calorimetry, thermogravimetry,

Francesca Maestrelli; Marzia Cirri; Giovanna Corti; Natascia Mennini; Paola Mura

2008-01-01

285

Effect of Calcium and Copper on Zinc Absorption in the Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of cupric and calcium ions on zinc absorption was examined in Sprague-Dawley rats. In in vivo studies test solutions containing 7.5 mM 65ZnCl2 alone or in combination with 500 mM of either CuSO4 or CaCl2 were administered intraduodenally to three groups of rats. 2 h later the animals were sacrificed and their organ 65Zn content was determined. The

N. F. Adham; M. K. Song

1980-01-01

286

Calcium regulation of the secretion of ?-amylase isoenzymes and other proteins from barley aleurone layers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of calcium on the secretion of a-amylase (EC 3.2.1.1) and other hydrolases from aleurone layers of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Himalaya) was studied. Withdrawal of Ca2+ from the incubation medium of aleurone layers preincubated in 5 µM gibberellic acid (GA3) and 5 mM CaCl2 results in a 70–80% reduction in the secretion of a-amylase activity to the

Russell L. Jones; John V. Jacobsen

1983-01-01

287

Adsorption mechanism of chlorides on carbon nanotubes based on first-principles calculations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The direct adsorption mechanism of chlorides (LiCl, NaCl, KCl, CsCl, MgCl2, CaCl2, SrCl2 and BaCl2) on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was investigated with first-principles calculations. The dipole moment, the adsorption energy and the Coulomb interaction energy were calculated. The value of the adsorption energy ranges from 0.2 to 0.6 eV. Considering the structure change of chlorides before and after adsorption, we find that the adsorption energy, just as the Coulomb energy, is proportional to the ratio of chloride's dipole moment to the square of adsorption distance. So, we conclude that the direct adsorption of chlorides on CNTs occurs mainly through long-range electrostatic interactions.

Liu, Weihui; Xu, Shunfu; Zhao, Xinghua; Yuan, Guang; Mimura, Hidenori

2013-08-01

288

Adrenomedullin Increased the Short-Circuit Current in the Pig Oviduct Through Chloride Channels via the CGRP Receptor: Mediation by cAMP and Calcium Ions But Not by Nitric Oxide.  

PubMed

The oviduct serves as a site for the fertilization of the ovum and the transport of the conceptus down to the uterus for implantation. In this study, we investigated the presence of adrenomedullin (ADM) and its receptor component proteins in the pig oviduct. The effect of ADM on oviductal secretion, the specific receptor, and the mechanisms involved were also investigated. The presence of ADM and its receptor component proteins in the pig oviduct were confirmed using immunostaining. Short-circuit current (Isc) technique was employed to study chloride ion secretion in the oviductal epithelium. ADM increased Isc through cAMP- and calcium-activated chloride channels, and this effect could be inhibited by the CGRP receptor antagonist, hCGRP8-37. In contrast, the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, l-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester (l-NAME), could not block the effect of ADM on Isc. In summary, ADM may increase oviductal fluid secretion via chloride secretion independent of the nitric oxide pathway for the transport of sperm and the conceptus. PMID:23966326

Liao, S B; Cheung, K H; Cheung, M P L; To, Y T; O, W S; Tang, F

2013-10-24

289

Experimental evaluation of water mist with metal chloride additives for suppressing CH4/air cup-burner flames  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to investigate the fire suppression effectiveness of water mist with metal chloride additives, ultrafine water mists of these salts with diameters about 10?m were introduced into CH4/air non-premixed flame in the cup burner. Results showed that these droplets hard to make itself to the flame front under the cup burner flow conditions functioned as a carrier of the vaporized solid particles or its decomposed materials. The metal chloride improved fire suppression efficacy of water mist which were affected by the type and concentration of metal chloride. On a mass basis, there is a fire suppression effectiveness relationship of MgCl2chlorides improves as the concentration of metal chlorides increase. However, upper additive limits exist due to the associated limiting vapour pressure of the additive.

Liu, Jianghong; Cong, Beihua

2013-06-01

290

Multi-phase equilibrium microemulsions and synthesis of hierarchically structured calcium carbonate through microemulsion-based routes.  

PubMed

Middle-phase microemulsions (MPMs) in two systems of a cationic surfactant, tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide (TTABr)/n-butanol/iso-octane/Na2CO3 or CaCl2 and an anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)/n-butanol/iso-octane/Na2CO3 or CaCl2, were used to synthesize nanostructured calcium carbonates. MPMs provide a simple and versatile reaction media, i.e., upper-phase W/O, BC, and O/W structured equilibrium microemulsions to be used for synthesizing hierarchically structured CaCO3 at the nanometer scale. On the basis of the investigations on the phase behavior of the MPMs, hierarchically structured calcium carbonates with dendrites, ellipsoids, square-schistose cubes, and spheres were synthesized through the MPM-based routes. PMID:17112535

Liu, Liping; Fan, Dawei; Mao, Hongzhi; Fang, Xi; Hao, Jingcheng

2006-10-21

291

Effect of Total and Partial Substitution of Sodium Chloride on the Quality of Cheddar Cheese  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cheddar cheese was manufactured to give 1.6% residual sodium chloride or equivalent amounts (ionic strength basis) of magnesium chloride, calcium chloride, potassium chloride, or 1:1 mixtures of sodium chloride and the chloride salt of magnesium, calcium, or potassium from two split batches of curd. Sensory evalua- tion after 4 mo ripening at 4°C showed that cheese salted solely with magnesium

E. Fitzgerald; J. Buckley

1985-01-01

292

An experimental study of phase equilibria in the systems H2O–CO2–CaCl2 and H2O–CO2–NaCl at high pressures and temperatures (500–800 °C, 0.5–0.9 GPa): geological and geophysical applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phase equilibria in the ternary systems H 2O–CO 2–NaCl and H 2O–CO 2–CaCl 2 have been determined from the study of synthetic fluid inclusions in quartz at 500 and 800 °C, 0.5 and 0.9 GPa. The crystallographic control on rates of quartz overgrowth on synthetic quartz crystals was exploited to prevent trapping of fluid inclusions prior to attainment of run conditions. Two

Kirill I. Shmulovich; Colin M. Graham

2004-01-01

293

Calcium delays senescence-related membrane lipid changes and increases net synthesis of membrane lipid components in shredded carrots  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of Ca2+ on firmness and membrane lipid structural components was evaluated during storage of shredded (wound-stressed) carrot tissues (Daucus carota L. ‘Caropak’). During 10 days of storage at 10 °C and 95% RH, Ca2+ treatment (applied as 1% w\\/v CaCl2 upon shredding) provided 6–16% greater firmness retention than did a water control treatment. Calcium accentuated net increases in

G. A. Picchioni; A. E. Watada; B. D. Whitaker; A. Reyes

1996-01-01

294

Effects of blanching and calcium infiltration on PPO activity, texture, microstructure and kinetics of osmotic dehydration of apple tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

HTST blanching of apple pieces caused PPO inactivation and sample softening. PPO inactivation was minimal during immersion in water at 40°C, but it increased with temperature after 15min exposure at 55 to 65°C. Associated softening decreased when adding 0.6% CaCl2 to the blanching medium. Samples blanched at 40°C were softer than those heated at 55°C in calcium solution, thus suggesting

J. M. del Valle; V. Aránguiz; H. León

1998-01-01

295

Use of biopolymers as oriented supports for the stabilization of different polymorphs of biomineralized calcium carbonate with complex shape  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work concerns the use of different biopolymers such as chitosan, alginate or ?-carrageenan as substrates to contribute to the study of the crystallization of calcium carbonate. The experimental biomimetic approach involves the preparation of mixtures of biopolymer solutions with a solution of CaCl2, which is processed by means of spin-coating and then exposed to CO2 by a slow diffusion

Mario Díaz-Dosque; Pilar Aranda; Margarita Darder; Jaime Retuert; Mehrdad Yazdani-Pedram; José Luis Arias; Eduardo Ruiz-Hitzky

2008-01-01

296

A Protective Effect of Calcium on Seawater Stress-Induced Oxidative Damage to Photosynthesis of Helianthus tuberosus Leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of exogenous calcium ion (Ca 2+ ) on malondialdehyde (MDA), relative conductivity (RC), net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and chlorophyll content were investigated in leaves of salt-stressed Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.). The plants were subjected to the following five treatments: (1) control (half-strength Hoagland solution alone), (2) 10mmol L ?1 CaCl2, (3) 30% seawater, (4) 30% seawater +10mmol

Yanfeng Xue; Zhaopu Liu; Zhiqi Shi

2011-01-01

297

Use of a D-optimal design with constrains to quantify the effects of the mixture of sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium chloride salts on the growth parameters of Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combined effect of NaCl, KCl, CaCl2, and MgCl2 on the water activity (a\\u000a w) and the growth parameters of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was studied by means of a D-optimal mixture design with constrains (total salt concentrations ? 9.0%, w\\/v). The a\\u000a w was linearly related to the concentrations of the diverse salts; its decrease, by similar concentrations of salts, followed\\u000a the order

J. Bautista-Gallego; F. N. Arroyo-López; A. Chiesa; M. C. Durán-Quintana; A. Garrido-Fernández

2008-01-01

298

Secondary calcium solid electrolyte high temperature battery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of polycrystalline Ca(2+) conducting beta-double prime alumina solid electrolytes to a new type of high temperature battery is investigated, experimentally. The negative electrode in the battery consisted of a calcium-silicon alloy whose redox electrochemistry was mediated by the solid electrolyte via molten salt eutectic CaCl2 (51.4 m/o), and CaI2 (mp 550 C). The molten salt and the calcium alloy material were separated from the positive active material via the Ca2 Ca(2+) conducting polycrystalline electrolyte. The positive electrode consisted of a solid-state matrix having related crystallographic structure. The electrochemical reversibility of the cells was measured at 580 C. The charge-discharge characteristics of the cells are plotted vs. time in a graph.

Sammells, A. F.; Schumacher, B.

1986-01-01

299

Influence of impurity ions and magnetic field on the properties of freshly precipitated calcium carbonate.  

PubMed

Static magnetic field (MF) effects on the properties of freshly precipitated calcium carbonate have been investigated in the presence of impurity ion Mg(2+), Fe(2+), or SO4(2-). One or both solutions, CaCl2 and Na2CO3, were exposure to MF (0.5T) for 20min at 20 degrees C. Then calcium carbonate was precipitated and zeta potential, pH and light absorbance (lambda=543.3 nm) were measured. The same parameters were also determined for the reference systems in which the solutions were not MF-treated. It was found that in all the systems tested MF effects as determined by the above mentioned parameters had appeared. They depended on the kind of the impurity ion present, as well as on which solution, CaCl2, Na2CO3 or both, MF interacted. For example, if Mg(2+) ion was present in CaCl2 solution, the largest shift in the zeta potential toward higher positive values was observed if Na2CO3 was MF-treated (e.g. from 2 to 12mV) and the same was true as for the maximum in the light absorbance and the pH increase. Interestingly, if (CaCl2 + Mg(2+)) was MF-treated pH of the slurry had decreased. Moreover, a correlation between above mentioned MF effects and the entropy of hydration of the ions has also been found. This points to the changes in the hydrating water structure caused by magnetic field. PMID:12834728

Ho?ysz, Lucyna; Chibowski, Emil; Szcze?, Aleksandra

2003-08-01

300

All-solid-state calcium-selective electrode prepared of soluble electrically conducting polyaniline and di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate with tetraoctylammonium chloride as cationic additive  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel all-solid-state Ca2+-selective electrode was prepared of soluble electrically conducting polyaniline (PANI), di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate (H+DEHP?) and tetraoctyl ammonium chloride (TOA+Cl?). PANI is made soluble and electrically conducting in tetrahydrofuran (THF) with H+DEHP?. The DEHP? anion is a complexing agent of the charged carrier type for Ca2+. TOA+Cl? is added to this solution and electrode membranes are then prepared by drop

Tom Lindfors; Ari Ivaska

2000-01-01

301

Mass concentration and ion composition of coarse and fine particles in an urban area in Beirut: effect of calcium carbonate on the absorption of nitric and sulfuric acids and the depletion of chloride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Levels of coarse (PM10-2.5) and fine (PM2.5) particles were determined between February 2004 and January 2005 in the city of Beirut, Lebanon. While low PM mass concentrations were measured in the rainy season, elevated levels were detected during sand storms originating from Arabian desert and/or Africa. Using ATR-FTIR and IC, it was shown that nitrate, sulfate, carbonate and chloride were the main anionic constituents of the coarse particles, whereas sulfate was mostly predominant in the fine particles in the form of (NH4)2SO4. Ammonium nitrate was not expected to be important because the medium was defined as ammonium poor. In parallel, the cations Ca2+ and Na+ dominated in the coarse, and NH4+, Ca2+ and Na+ in the fine particles. Coarse nitrate and sulfate ions resulted from the respective reactions of nitric and sulfuric acid with a relatively high amount of calcium carbonate. Both CaCO3 and Ca(NO3)2 crystals identified by ATR-FTIR in the coarse particles were found to be resistant to soaking in water for 24 h but became water soluble when they were formed in the fine particles suggesting, thereby, different growth and adsorption phenomena. The seasonal variational study showed that nitrate and sulfate ion concentrations increased in the summer due to the enhancement of photochemical reactions which facilitated the conversion of NO2 and SO2 gases into NO3- and SO42-, respectively. While nitrate was mainly due to local heavy traffic, sulfates were due to local and long-range transport phenomena. Using the air mass trajectory HYSPLIT model, it was found that the increase in the sulfate concentration correlated with wind vectors coming from Eastern and Central Europe. Chloride levels, on the other hand, were high when wind originated from the sea and low during sand storms. In addition to sea salt, elevated levels of chloride were also attributed to waste mass burning in proximity to the site. In comparison to other neighboring Mediterranean countries, relatively higher concentrations of calcium in Beirut were good indication of calcitic crustal abundance. Considering the importance of the health and climate impacts of aerosols locally and regionally, this study constitutes a point of reference for eastern Mediterranean transport modeling studies and local regulatory and policy makers.

Kouyoumdjian, H.; Saliba, N. A.

2006-05-01

302

Timothy hay with a low dietary cation-anion difference improves calcium homeostasis in periparturient Holstein cows.  

PubMed

The current study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of feeding timothy (Phleum pratense L.) hay differing in dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) on the capability of cows to maintain calcium homeostasis around parturition. We hypothesized that feeding low-DCAD timothy hay during the prepartum period would induce a mild metabolic acidosis prepartum and improve calcium homeostasis postpartum with no effect on dry matter intake. Forty-one dry pregnant Holstein cows entering their second lactation or greater were used in a randomized complete block design. Timothy hay was obtained from an established timothy stand under a pivot irrigation system. Low-DCAD timothy hay was produced by fertilizing the area between the second and third pivot towers at a rate of 224 kg of CaCl(2)/ha, and control timothy hay (high DCAD) was grown on the area between the fourth and fifth pivot towers of the same field. The chloride concentration was 1.07 and 0.15% on a dry matter (DM) basis, and the DCAD was 1.2 and 21.6 mEq/100 g of DM for the low- and high-DCAD timothy hay, respectively. Experimental diets, containing timothy hay at 63% of dietary DM, were fed ad libitum starting 30 d before the expected calving date. The DCAD values were 1.6 vs. 14.5 mEq/100 g of DM for the low- and high-DCAD timothy-based diets, respectively. At the beginning of the study, urine pH and blood bicarbonate concentration averaged 8.22 +/- 0.06 and 28.5 +/- 0.3 mM, respectively. The low-DCAD timothy diet decreased urine pH compared with the high-DCAD timothy diet on d 21 (7.75 vs. 8.31), d 14 (7.69 vs. 8.22), and d 7 (7.50 vs. 8.19) before calving, and it also decreased the prepartum blood bicarbonate concentration by 2 mM. In addition, cows fed the low-DCAD timothy diet had greater blood ionized calcium concentration prepartum (1.22 vs. 1.19 mM), greater blood ionized calcium concentration at 0 and 8 h after calving, and similar prepartum dry matter intake. These results indicate that timothy hay differing in DCAD affects the acid-base balance of periparturient dairy cows, and that low-DCAD timothy hay improves calcium homeostasis postpartum with no negative effect on dry matter intake. PMID:18420627

Penner, G B; Tremblay, G F; Dow, T; Oba, M

2008-05-01

303

Significance of Ca-soap formation for calcium absorption in the rat.  

PubMed Central

The significance of calcium soap formation in the inhibition of calcium absorption has been studied in rats. 47Ca labelled soaps of fatty acids were introduced into the duodenum and the absorption of calcium measured after four hours in a whole body counter. The absorption of calcium was inversely correlated with the chain length of the fatty acid varying from 1% for Ca-stearate to 60% for Ca-hexanoate. Increasing the degree of unsaturation of the fatty acid was accompanied by increased calcium absorption. The availability of calcium for absorption from the soaps was correlated with their solubility in 1% aqueous Na-tauroglycocholate. The percentages of calcium as soap in the small intestine and the faeces after intragastric administration of calcium and fats were similar, which suggests that the faecal content of calcium soaps is an index of intestinal soap formation. Soap formation was negligible when CaCl2 was given with tristearate, triolaeate, or tridecanoate and no depression of calcium absorption was observed. Calcium absorption was markedly impaired by the addition of phosphates at a Ca/P ratio of 1:1 irrespective of the presence of neutral fats. Stearic acid resulted in significant soap formation and reduced calcium absorption. The degree of Ca-soap formation and the inhibition of calcium absorption were well correlated. The results suggest that, although calcium soap formation may markedly depress calcium absorption in the rat, no significant soap formation takes place when fats are given in the form of triglycerides.

Gacs, G; Barltrop, D

1977-01-01

304

Calcium, carbonic anhydrase and gastric acid secretion.  

PubMed

Previous data concerning the action of calcium (Ca) on gastric acid secretion (GAS) indicated that calcium ions increase GAS elicited by gastrin released through a vagal mechanism, and also by a direct effect on parietal cells. Our research showed that the stimulating effect of calcium on gastric acid secretion can be antagonized by verapamil administration, which reduces gastric acid secretion . In the present study we followed the effect induced by administration of calcium and Ca-chelating agents (disodium EDTA) on gastric acid secretion and on carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity. We selected two groups of healthy volunteers: Group I (n=21) received a single i.v. dose of CaCl2 (15 mg/kg b.w.), whereas Group II (n=22) received a single i.v. dose of disodium EDTA (5 mg/kg b.w.). We determined blood calcium before and after treatment, gastric acid secretion at 2 hours. erythrocyte CA II activity, and CA IV activity in membrane parietal cells, which were isolated from gastric mucosa obtained by endoscopic biopsy. Assessment of carbonic anhydrase activity was achieved by the stopped-flow method. In Group I calcium administration increased blood calcium, HCl output, CA II and CA IV activity as compared to initial values. In Group II, disodium EDTA reduced blood calcium, HCl output, CA II and CA IV activity as compared to initial values. The results demonstrated that increased blood calcium and GAS values after calcium administration correlated with the increase of erythrocyte CA II and parietal cell CA IV activity, while disodium EDTA induced a reversed process. Our results also show that cytosolic CA II and membrane CA IV values are sensitive to calcium changes and they directly depend on these levels. Our data suggest that intra- and extracellular pH changes induced by carbonic anhydrase might account for the modulation of the physiological and pathological secretory processes in the organism. PMID:11551141

Puscas, I; Coltau, M; Baican, M; Domuta, G; Hecht, A

2001-01-01

305

Effect of electro-chemical properties of chloride salts on their diffusional parameters in symmetrical cellulose acetate membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A relation was obtained between electro-chemical properties of alkali, alkali-earth and aluminium-chlorides (LiCl, NaCl, KCl, RbCl, CsCl, MgCl2, CaCl2, AlCl3) and the distribution coefficient K and the overall diffusion coefficients D in symmetrical cellulose acetate membranes. Symmetrical cellulose acetate membranes was cast to have a wider range of water content, 15–30%. K and D were measured by the unsteady- and

Haruhiko Ohya; Svetlana I Semenova; Toshinori Fujimoto; Jun Ogihara; Shinichi Fukaya; Kousuke Mori; Masahiko Aihara; Youichi Negishi

2001-01-01

306

Calcium alginate entrapment of the yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides for the kinetic resolution of 1,2-epoxyoctane.  

PubMed

Resting cells of the yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides (UOFS Y-0471) were immobilised in calcium alginate beads for the enantioselective kinetic resolution of racemic-1,2-epoxyoctane. The initial activity exhibited by immobilised cells was almost 50% lower than that of the free counterpart but was extremely stable when compared to the free cells. The concentration of the immobilised biomass had no effect on apparent enzyme activity but did lead to a decrease in single cell activity. An increase in both the alginate and CaCl2 concentrations used for bead preparation led to a decrease in enzyme stability. An increase in the alginate concentration led to an increase in bead diameter. The stoichiometric equation for cross-linking of alginate was only obeyed when CaCl2 concentrations higher than 0.4 M were utilised for bead preparation. PMID:14626425

Maritz, J; Krieg, H M; Yeates, C A; Botes, A L; Breytenbach, J C

2003-10-01

307

Relationship between cyclic AMP-dependent protein tyrosine phosphorylation and extracellular calcium during hyperactivation of boar spermatozoa.  

PubMed

In mammalian spermatozoa, the state of protein tyrosine phosphorylation is modulated by protein tyrosine kinases and protein tyrosine phosphatases that are controlled via cyclic AMP (cAMP)-protein kinase A (PKA) signaling cascades. The aims of this study were to examine the involvement of cAMP-induced protein tyrosine phosphorylation in response to extracellular calcium and to characterize effects of pharmacological modulation of the cAMP-induced protein phosphorylation state and calmodulin activity during hyperactivation in boar spermatozoa. Ejaculated spermatozoa were incubated with cBiMPS (a cell-permeable cAMP analog) and CaCl(2) at 38.5°C to induce hyperactivation, and then used for Western blotting and indirect immunofluorescence of phosphorylated proteins and for the assessment of motility. Both cBiMPS and CaCl(2) were necessary for hyperactivation. The increase in hyperactivated spermatozoa exhibited a dependence on the state of cBiMPS-induced protein tyrosine phosphorylation in the connecting and principal pieces. The addition of calyculin A (an inhibitor for protein phosphatases 1/2A (PP1/PP2A), 50-100 nM) coincidently promoted hyperactivation and cAMP-induced protein tyrosine phosphorylation in the presence of cBiMPS and CaCl(2). Moreover, the addition of W-7 (a calmodulin antagonist, 2-4 µM) enhanced the percentages of hyperactivated spermatozoa after incubation with cBiMPS and CaCl(2), independently of protein tyrosine phosphorylation. These findings indicate that cAMP-induced protein tyrosine phosphorylation in the connecting and principal pieces is involved in hyperactivation in response to extracellular calcium, and that calmodulin may suppress hyperactivation via the signaling cascades that are independent of cAMP-induced protein tyrosine phosphorylation. PMID:22933303

Harayama, Hiroshi; Noda, Taichi; Ishikawa, Shou; Shidara, Osamu

2012-09-14

308

Chloride Test  

MedlinePLUS

... Chloride Related tests: Sodium , Potassium , Bicarbonate (total CO2) , Electrolytes , CMP , BMP , Blood Gases At a Glance Test ... if there is a problem with your body's electrolyte balance or acid-base balance and to monitor ...

309

Electrochemical cell with calcium anode  

DOEpatents

An electrochemical cell comprising a calcium anode and a suitable cathode in an alkaline electrolyte consisting essentially of an aqueous solution of an hydroxide and a chloride. Specifically disclosed is a mechanically rechargeable calcium/air fuel cell with an aqueous NaOH/NaCl electrolyte.

Cooper, John F. (Castro Valley, CA); Hosmer, Pamela K. (Tracy, CA); Kelly, Benjamin E. (Tracy, CA)

1979-01-01

310

Calcium chloride brines: The vital component in the hydrothermal brine-hydrothermal ore deposit-evaporite-basinal brine cycle in continental rift basins  

SciTech Connect

Nonmarine evaporites are forming today in chloride-rich saline lakes in a number of arid continental rift and strike-slip basins that are characterized by upwelling of subsurface CaCl[sub 2]-bearing brines driven by forced convection of cool basinal brines or by free convection of hydrothermal brines which reach the surface as brine springs. The compositions of these upwelling brines are distinctively different from that of seawater or typical continental waters due primarily to their high proportion of Ca and low proportion of SO[sub 4]. The most viable explanation for the CaCl[sub 2] composition of these upwelling brines is the interaction between hot convecting groundwaters and bedrock at or above zeolite facies temperatures, as for example occurs in the modern Salton Sea basin. Such upwelling CaCl[sub 2] brines in extensional fault basins can explain the puzzling chemical composition of MgSO[sub 4]-poor potash evaporites, the least understood of all ancient salt deposits. In this regard it is suggested that the following cyclic succession of processes occurs in active continental rift basins during a magmatically-driven thermal event: (1) hydrothermal convection of the ambient porewaters in the rift sediments, (2) dissolution of buried evaporites and hydrothermal metamorphism of the rift sediments, (3) hydrothermal ore deposition in fault-related fractures and within the rift sediments, (4) upwelling brine springs add CaCl[sub 2] and KCl components to the surface lake waters, which on evaporation produce MgSO[sub 4]-poor potash evaporites, (5) decay of the thermal event leads to cool down of the hot brines, which now migrate gravitationally to the deeper parts of the basin to become static Na-Ca-Cl basinal brines.

Hardie, L. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Earth and Planetary Science)

1992-01-01

311

The efflux of potassium, sodium, chloride, calcium and sulphate ions and of sorbitol and glycerol during the cardiac cycle in frog's ventricle  

PubMed Central

1. The exchanges of potassium and various other substances have been measured in beating frog's ventricles, using both superfused and distended preparations. In both preparations the high fluid flow rates used (1 ml./sec) cleared the ventricular cavity with a half-time (T½) of about 130 msec. 2. Histological sections show that the modal strand radius in the relaxed or contracted distended ventricle is 17·5 ?, and in the relaxed and contracted superfused ventricle is 17·5 and 27·5 ? respectively. 3. In quiescent ventricles the resting potassium influx and efflux are approximately equal at about 16 p-mole/cm2.sec. This figure is computed from Niedergerke's (1963b) estimate of a cell size of 3·5 ? taken from electron-micrographs. If the older figure of 9·2 ? from single isolated cells is used (Skramlik, 1921) then the fluxes are about 44 p-mole/cm2.sec. To allow for some cell damage in these preparations a further increase in flux of about 30% may be necessary. 4. Contraction leads to a diminution of both potassium influx and efflux. Measurements made at 100 msec intervals throughout the cardiac cycle have demonstrated (a) that this decreased K efflux occurs at the same time as the mechanical twitch, and (b) that the size of the decrease is dependent on the external calcium concentration. Other experiments show that a similar decrease can be obtained by inducing a contracture at a constant membrane potential. It is concluded that the decreased K efflux during contraction is due to mechanical distortion of the tissue. This leads to a further slowing of the K diffusion and allows considerable reabsorption of K to occur into the cells. 5. Efflux analysis suggests that normal K diffusion in the extracellular space may be about 1/10 of that in free solution. If this is correct the true membrane fluxes may be × 5 those measured. 6. Phasic efflux measurements of Na, Ca, K, Cl, SO4, sorbitol and erythritol show that a peak of efflux occurs just after the point of maximum rate of contraction of the ventricle. The peak efflux of K is least but all the other substances show similar patterns. In calcium-free solutions these phasic changes are absent. It is concluded that these effects are mechanical. 7. Net K and Na changes were measured in ventricles poisoned by ouabain. The computed net changes for quiescent ventricles were a gain of 2·8 p-mole/cm2.sec of Na and a loss of 5·3 p-mole/cm2.sec of K. On stimulation a further increase in Na uptake of 8 p-mole/cm2 occurred with no further loss of potassium. These results are computed for a cell diameter of 3·5 ?, for the larger diameter of 9·2 ? appropriate values of Na and K are 7·4 and 13·4 p-mole/cm2.sec respectively for quiescent ventricles and an extra Na uptake of 21 p-mole/cm2 per action potential. These results: (a) show that no large degree of single-file interaction occurs on the K movements, (b) are in agreement with the hypothesis that the membrane K fluxes are underestimated and (c) show that sufficient Na enters the cells per action potential to discharge a capacity of about 4 ?F/cm2. 8. A general conclusion reached in these experiments is that ion movements during the long cardiac action potential cannot easily be measured because of mechanical artifacts.

Lamb, J. F.; McGuigan, J. A. S.

1968-01-01

312

Evaluation of PFP Furnace Systems for Thermal Stabilization of Washed High Chloride Plutonium Oxide Items  

SciTech Connect

High chloride content plutonium (HCP) oxides are impure plutonium oxide scrap which contains NaCl, KCl, MgCl2 and/or CaCl2 salts at potentially high concentrations and must be stabilized at 950 C per the DOE Standard, DOE-STD-3013-2000. The chlorides pose challenges to stabilization because volatile chloride salts and decomposition products can corrode furnace heating elements and downstream ventilation components. A high-temperature furnace (same make and model as used at the RMC at Plutonium Finishing Plant) and the associated offgas system were set up at PNNL to identify system vulnerabilities and to investigate alternative materials and operating conditions that would mitigate any corrosion and plugging of furnace and offgas components. The key areas of interest for this testing were the furnace heating elements, the offgas line located inside the furnace, the offgas line between the furnace and the filter/knockout pot, the filter/knockout pot, the sample boat, and corrosion coupons to evaluate alternative materials of construction. The evaluation was conducted by charging the furnace with CeO2 that had been impregnated with a mixture of chloride salts (selected to represent the expected residual chloride salt level in washed high chloride items) and heated in the furnace in accordance with the temperature ramp rates and hold times used at PFP.

Fischer, Christopher M.; Elmore, Monte R.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Gerber, Mark A.; Muzatko, Danielle S.; Gano, Susan R.; Thornton, Brenda M.

2002-12-17

313

Chloride channelopathies.  

PubMed

Channelopathies, defined as diseases that are caused by mutations in genes encoding ion channels, are associated with a wide variety of symptoms. Impaired chloride transport can cause diseases as diverse as cystic fibrosis, myotonia, epilepsy, hyperekplexia, lysosomal storage disease, deafness, renal salt loss, kidney stones and osteopetrosis. These disorders are caused by mutations in genes belonging to non-related gene families, i.e. CLC chloride channels and transporters, ABC transporters, and GABA- and glycine receptors. Diseases due to mutations in TMEM16E and bestrophin 1 might be due to a loss of Ca++-activated Cl- channels, although this remains to be shown. PMID:19708126

Planells-Cases, Rosa; Jentsch, Thomas J

2009-03-01

314

Corrosion Resistances of Iron-Based Amorphous Metals with Yttrium and Tungsten Additions in Hot Calcium Chloride Brine & Natural Seawater: Fe48Mo14CR15Y2C15B6 and Variants  

SciTech Connect

The passive film stability of several Fe-based amorphous metal formulations have been found to be comparable to that of stainless steels and Ni-based Alloy C-22 (UNS No. N06022), based on electrochemical measurements of the passive film breakdown potential and general corrosion rates. Electrochemical studies of the passive film stability of SAM1651 are reported here. Chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo) and tungsten (W) provide corrosion resistance; boron (B) enables glass formation; and rare earths such as yttrium (Y) lower critical cooling rate (CCR). Yttrium-containing SAM1651, also known as SAM7 (Fe{sub 48.0}Cr{sub 15.0}Mo{sub 14.0}B{sub 6.0}C{sub 15.0}Y{sub 2.0}), has a critical cooling rate (CCR) of approximately 80 Kelvin per second, while yttrium-free SAM2X5 (Fe{sub 49.7}Cr{sub 17.7}Mn{sub 1.9}Mo{sub 7.4}W{sub 1.6}B{sub 15.2}C{sub 3.8}Si{sub 2.4}) has a higher critical cooling rate of approximately 600 Kelvin per second. SAM1651's low CCR enables it to be rendered as a completely amorphous material in practical materials processes. While the yttrium enables a low CCR to be achieved, it makes the material relatively difficult to atomize, due to increases in melt viscosity. Consequently, the powders have irregular shape, which makes pneumatic conveyance during thermal spray deposition difficult. The reference material, nickel-based Alloy C-22, is an outstanding corrosion-resistant engineering material. Even so, crevice corrosion has been observed with C-22 in hot sodium chloride environments without buffer or inhibitor. SAM1651 may also experience crevice corrosion under sufficiently harsh conditions. Both Alloy C-22 and Type 316L stainless lose their resistance to corrosion during thermal spraying, due to the formation of deleterious intermetallic phases which depletes the matrix of key alloy elements, whereas SAM1651 can be applied as coatings with the same corrosion resistance as a fully-dense completely amorphous melt-spun ribbon, provided that its amorphous nature is preserved during thermal spraying. Materials synthesis and characterization is discussed. Data showing the corrosion resistance of SAM1651 in hot concentrated calcium chloride, as well as natural seawater are presented, and compared to a number of reference materials.

Farmer, J; Haslam, J; Day, S; Lian, T; Saw, C; Hailey, P; Choi, J; Yang, N; Blue, C; Peter, W; Payer, J; Perepezko, J; Hildal, K; Branagan, D J; Beardsley, M B; Aprigliano, L

2006-10-12

315

Vapor–liquid equilibria of propionic acid–water system in the presence of different types of inorganic salts: effect of temperature and salt concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isothermal vapor–liquid equilibrium data at 40 and 50°C were obtained by using a headspace gas chromatography (GC) (one of the static methods) for the propionic acid–water system in the presence and absence of chloride salts. Propionic acid was salted-out in the presence of any chloride salt, in the following order: aluminum chloride>calcium chloride>sodium chloride>ammonium chloride. The effects of AlCl3, CaCl2,

Fawzi Banat; Sameer Al-Asheh; Jana Simandl

2003-01-01

316

Method for production of calcium compounds  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The present invention relates to a method for production of calcium compounds having very low content of phosphorus and boron from an impure calcium chloride, solution containing phosphorus and boron, which method comprises the following steps: a) addition of a FeCl3-solution to the calcium chloride solution, b) adjusting the pH of the solution by addition of a base to between 3 and 9.5 for precipitation of iron hydroxide, iron phosphate and boron compounds, c) removal of the solid precipitate from the solution in step b) obtaining a purified calcium chloride solution, d) precipitation of a calcium compound from the solution from step c), and e) separation of the calcium compound from the solution in step d).

2012-09-18

317

Effects of calcium preloading on the growth of calcium carbonate crystals in the endolymphatic sac of the tree frog, Hyla arbores japonica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tree frogs, either with or without calcium chloride preloading, were maintained in a 0.8% strontium chloride solution for 1 week, then studied by X-ray microanalysis and scanning electron microscopy to determine the distribution of incorporated strontium in the endolymphatic crystals. In the absence of calcium preloading, strontium was detected on every surface of all the crystals, but after calcium preloading

Seiichi Kawamata

1988-01-01

318

Calcium Calculator  

MedlinePLUS

... Fun Stuff Fun Stuff Best for Bones Food Calcium Calculator How much calcium do you get every day? Remember, you need ... Deal with Vitamin D List of Foods with Calcium & Vitamin D Calcium Calculator Fooling Around with Food ...

319

Preparation and Sustained-Release Property of Triblock Copolymer/Calcium Phosphate Nanocomposite as Nanocarrier for Hydrophobic Drug  

PubMed Central

The P123/ACP nanocomposite with sizes less than 100 nm consisting of triblock copolymer P123 and amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) has been prepared by using an aqueous solution containing CaCl2, (NH4)3PO4, and P123 at room temperature. The P123/ACP nanocomposite is used as the nanocarrier for hydrophobic drug ibuprofen, based on the combined advantages of both amphiphilic block copolymer and calcium phosphate delivery system. The P123/ACP nanocomposite has a much higher ibuprofen loading capacity (148 mg/g) than the single-phase calcium phosphate nanostructures. The drug release percentage of the P123/ACP nanocomposite in simulated body fluid reaches about 100% in a period of 156 h, which is much slower than that of single-phase calcium phosphate nanostructures. It is expected that the P123/ACP nanocomposite is promising for the application in the controlled delivery of hydrophobic drugs.

2010-01-01

320

Preparation and Sustained-Release Property of Triblock Copolymer/Calcium Phosphate Nanocomposite as Nanocarrier for Hydrophobic Drug  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The P123/ACP nanocomposite with sizes less than 100 nm consisting of triblock copolymer P123 and amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) has been prepared by using an aqueous solution containing CaCl2, (NH4)3PO4, and P123 at room temperature. The P123/ACP nanocomposite is used as the nanocarrier for hydrophobic drug ibuprofen, based on the combined advantages of both amphiphilic block copolymer and calcium phosphate delivery system. The P123/ACP nanocomposite has a much higher ibuprofen loading capacity (148 mg/g) than the single-phase calcium phosphate nanostructures. The drug release percentage of the P123/ACP nanocomposite in simulated body fluid reaches about 100% in a period of 156 h, which is much slower than that of single-phase calcium phosphate nanostructures. It is expected that the P123/ACP nanocomposite is promising for the application in the controlled delivery of hydrophobic drugs.

Cao, Shao-Wen; Zhu, Ying-Jie; Wu, Jin; Wang, Ke-Wei; Tang, Qi-Li

2010-04-01

321

Melitracenium chloride.  

PubMed

IN THE TITLE COMPOUND [SYSTEMATIC NAME: 3-(10,10-dimethyl-anthracen-9-yl-idene)-N,N,N-trimethyl-propanaminium chlor-ide], C(21)H(26)N(+)·Cl(-), the cyclo-hexane ring adopts a chair conformation. The dihedral angle between the terminal benzene rings is 40.43?(12)°. In the crystal, ions are linked through inter-molecular N-H?Cl and C-H?Cl hydrogen bonds, forming supra-molecular layers parallel to the bc plane. PMID:21837115

Fun, Hoong-Kun; Hemamalini, Madhukar; Siddegowda, M S; Yathirajan, H S; Narayana, B

2011-06-18

322

The taste of calcium and magnesium salts and anionic modifications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taste properties of divalent salts are complex. The first study examined the taste profiles of calcium chloride, magnesium chloride and magnesium sulfate. These divalent cation salts were characterized primarily by bitter taste, with additional sensations described as salty, metallic, astringent, sour and sweet, generally in decreasing order of intensity. A second study examined the taste properties of calcium salts other

Harry T. Lawless; Frank Rapacki; John Horne; April Hayes

2003-01-01

323

Inhibitory effect of bikunin on calcium oxalate crystallization in vitro and urinary bikunin decrease in renal stone formers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two proteins of 17 and 24?kDa, respectively, which were immunologically related to bikunin, were purified from urine of healthy\\u000a men, using in the last step a trypsin CNBr-sepharose affinity column. These proteins strongly inhibited calcium oxalate (CaOx)\\u000a crystallization in two in vitro models. In the first model, the presence of 8??g\\/ml protein in a medium containing 0.76?mM\\u000a CaCl2 (with 45Ca)

J. Médétognon-Benissan; S. Tardivel; C. Hennequin; M. Daudon; T. Drüeke; B. Lacour

1999-01-01

324

The Influence of Chlorides on the Alkalinity of Concrete.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It is well known that under certain circumstances sodium chloride and calcium chloride can be found dissolved in the liquid phase of concrete. There have been a number of reports stating that these salts can produce reductions in concrete alkalinity. Furt...

P. R. Vassie

1979-01-01

325

Calcium Oscillations  

PubMed Central

Calcium signaling results from a complex interplay between activation and inactivation of intracellular and extracellular calcium permeable channels. This complexity is obvious from the pattern of calcium signals observed with modest, physiological concentrations of calcium-mobilizing agonists, which typically present as sequential regenerative discharges of stored calcium, a process referred to as calcium oscillations. In this review, we discuss recent advances in understanding the underlying mechanism of calcium oscillations through the power of mathematical modeling. We also summarize recent findings on the role of calcium entry through store-operated channels in sustaining calcium oscillations and in the mechanism by which calcium oscillations couple to downstream effectors.

Dupont, Genevieve; Combettes, Laurent; Bird, Gary S.; Putney, James W.

2011-01-01

326

Calcium signaling in Xenopus oocyte.  

PubMed

Knowledge about calcium signaling had increased thanks to the development and manipulation of various cell models. Among all of these prototypes, Xenopus laevis oocyte appears to be one of the most relevant. The understanding of the role of calcium during oocyte oogenesis, maturation and fertilization is facilitated by the big size of the cell but also by using imaging and electrophysiological approaches. So, this chapter presents how recordings of calcium-activated chloride channels and Store-Operated Calcium Channels activities lead to demonstrate the implication of the MPF in the uncoupling between intracellular calcium releasing and capacitative calcium entry. Moreover, it will help us to understand the several reorganizations happening consequently to the pH variations of maturation or just at the moment of fertilization. PMID:22453984

Marin, Matthieu

2012-01-01

327

Influence of water hardness on the ability of water to rinse bacteria from the skin of processed broilers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Experiments were conducted to examine the effect of water hardness on the ability of water to rinse bacteria from the skin of processed broiler chickens. Very hard water (200 ppm total hardness) was prepared by dissolving 0.38 g calcium chloride (CaCl2) and 0.175 g magnesium chloride hexahydrate (Mg...

328

Effects of calcium salts on beef longissimus quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of injection marination with calcium salts on beef longissimus quality traits. Strip loins were injected (11% by weight) with distilled water or a 0.1, 0.2, or 0.3 M solution of calcium ascorbate, calcium chloride, or calcium lactate. Non-injected loins served as controls. Visual and instrumental color evaluations indicated that calcium

T. E Lawrence; M. E Dikeman; M. C Hunt; C. L Kastner; D. E Johnson

2003-01-01

329

Proposed Regulation: Vinyl Chloride.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

OSHA proposes to regulate producers of vinyl chloride, polyvinyl chloride, and articles made from these substances by requiring that their employees not be exposed to vinyl chloride above specified levels. The major impact of the regulation is expected to...

1974-01-01

330

Poly Iron Chloride and Poly Aluminum Chloride.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The structures, basic chemistry, preparation procedures, and applications of poly iron chloride (PIC) and poly aluminum chloride (PAC) are presented. PIC and PAC are unconventional inorganic polymers known to be extremely effective for treatment of water ...

L. K. Wang

1987-01-01

331

Calcium transport in intact human erthrocytes  

PubMed Central

Intact human erythrocytes can be readily loaded with calcium by incubation in hypersomotic media at alkaline pH. Erythrocyte calcium content increases from 15-20 to 120-150 nmol/g hemoglobin after incubation for 2 h at 20 degree C in a 400 mosmol/kg, pH 7.8 solution containing 100 mM sodium chloride, 90 mM tetramethylammonium chloride, 1 mM potassium chloride, and 10 mM calcium chloride. Calcium uptake is a time-dependent process that is associated with an augmented efflux of potassium. The ATP content in these cells remains at more than 60% of normal and is not affected by calcium. Calcium uptake is influenced by the cationic composition of the external media. The response to potassium is diphasic. With increasing potassium concentrations, the net accumulation of calcium initially increases, becoming maximal at 1 mM potassium, then diminishes, falling below basal levels at concentrations above 3 mM potassium. Ouabain inhibits the stimulatory effect of low concentrations of potassium. The inhibitory effects of higher concentrations of potassium are ouabain insensitive and independent of the external calcium concentration. Sodium also inhibits calcium uptake but this inhibition can be modified by altering the external concentration of calcium. The effux of calcium from loaded erythrocytes is not significantly altered by changes in osmolality, medium ion composition, or ouabain. It is concluded that hypertonicity increases the net uptake of calcium by increasing the influx of calcium and that some part of the sodium potassium transport system is involved in this influx process.

1976-01-01

332

Some applications of fusion reactions with zinc chloride in inorganic spot test analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Anhydrous hydrogen chloride, which is far more reactive than concentrated aqueous hydrochloric acid, is formed when solid zinc chloride or evaporation residues of its solutions are heated. Certain reactions, which cannot be accomplished with the concentrated aqueous acid, can be realized by fusion with zinc chloride. Detection of calcium, magnesium, ferrous iron, nickel, and potassium in silicates; differentiation of

Fritz Feigl; Alcides Caldas

1956-01-01

333

Chloride-Initiated Reinforcement Corrosion: Chloride Binding.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present report deals with chloride binding, which is one of the mechanisms which determines the service life of the structure with regard to chloride-initiated reinforcement corrosion. The report has been structured so that a model for chloride bindin...

K. Byfors

1990-01-01

334

The influence of sulphates on chloride binding and pore solution chemistry  

SciTech Connect

Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and OPC/ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) 65% cements containing 2.0 to 9.0% sulphates derived from sodium sulphate and calcium sulphate were investigated in respect to their chloride binding properties and the concentrations of chloride and hydroxyl ions in the pore solutions. Chlorides derived from sodium and calcium chlorides were introduced at the time of mixing. The results indicate that calcium sulphate has a different effect on chloride binding and the pore solution chemistry than sodium sulphate. The slag cement has higher chloride binding capacities as a result of simple replacement for OPC, but at the same sulphate contents, the slag cement does not give the expected higher binding capacities, suggesting that the difference in sulphate content between the two cements may be the main reason for their different chloride binding behavior.

Xu, Y. [University College of London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

1997-12-01

335

Influence of metallic chlorides on the formation of PCDD/Fs during low-temperature oxidation of carbon.  

PubMed

Experimental study was conducted to clarify the formation behavior of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) from carbonaceous materials through a de novo synthesis route. Samples were prepared by changing mixing method and composite state of metallic chloride in graphite powder in order to simulate the texture of "unburned carbonaceous particles", i.e., soot, formed in thermal processes. Reagents of KCl, CaCl2. 2H2O, FeCl3 x 6H2O, and CuCl2 x 2H2O were used as chlorine sources and were added to graphite powder with different methods. The composite state of metallic chloride was varied by preliminary treatments: hand-mixing, mixed-grinding using a high-intensity ball mill, and preheating at different temperatures between 500 and 1100 degrees C. In the de novo experiment, reaction temperature and oxygen concentration of flowed gas were set at 300 degrees C and 2.5 mol %, respectively. During the experiment, formation rates of CO and CO2 and the formed amounts of organic chlorine and PCDD/Fs were measured. The results show a reasonable relation between the amount of formed organic chlorine and oxidation rate of carbon, and the order of the activity of metallic chlorines was obtained as KCl < CaCl2 < FeCl3 < CuCl2. Furthermore, it was found that the effect of the composite state of metallic chloride on the formation of PCDD/Fs significantly depends on the kind of metal. The results will give useful information to examine the formation mechanism of PCDD/Fs from unburned carbon particles in thermal processes. PMID:12831028

Kuzuhara, S; Sato, H; Kasai, E; Nakamura, T

2003-06-01

336

Salt Toleration by Plants: Enhancement with Calcium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bean plants subjected to a sodium chloride concentration about one-tenth that of seawater for 1 week suffered no damage if the calcium concentration of the nutrient solution was 1 millimole per liter or higher, but at lower calcium concentrations damage was severe and apparently due to a massive breakthrough of sodium into the leaves.

P. A. Lahaye; Emanuel Epstein

1969-01-01

337

Hypotonicity activates a native chloride current in Xenopus oocytes  

PubMed Central

Xenopus oocytes are frequently utilized for in vivo expression of cellular proteins, especially ion channel proteins. A thorough understanding of the endogenous conductances and their regulation is paramount for proper characterization of expressed channel proteins. Here we detail a novel chloride current (ICl.swell) responsive to hypotonicity in Xenopus oocytes using the two-electrode voltage clamp technique. Reducing the extracellular osmolarity by 50% elicited a calcium-independent chloride current having an anion conductivity sequence identical with swelling-induced chloride currents observed in epithelial cells. The hypotonicity-activated current was blocked by chloride channel blockers, trivalent lanthanides, and nucleotides. G- protein, cAMP-PKA, and arachidonic acid signaling cascades were not involved in ICl.swell activation. ICl.swell is distinct from both stretch-activated nonselective cation channels and the calcium- activated chloride current in oocytes and may play a critical role in volume regulation in Xenopus oocytes.

1994-01-01

338

Germination of Bacterial Endospores with Calcium and Dipicolinic Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerobic and anaerobic bacterial endospores can be germinated if calcium chloride and dipicolinic acid are added to well-washed suspensions. Maximum germination is obtained when the calcium and acid are present in a molar ratio of one or more. This suggests that the 1:1 chelate of calcium and dipicolinic acid is the agent that induces germination.

Hans Riemann; Z. John Ordal

1961-01-01

339

Purification of aqueous plutonium chloride solutions via precipitation and washing.  

SciTech Connect

Pyrochemical operations at Los Alamos Plutonium Facility (TA-55) use high temperature melt s of calcium chloride for the reduction of plutonium oxide to plutonium metal and hi gh temperature combined melts of sodium chloride and potassium chloride mixtures for the electrorefining purification of plutonium metal . The remaining plutonium and americium are recovered from thes e salts by dissolution in concentrated hydrochloric acid followed by either solvent extraction or io n exchange for isolation and ultimately converted to oxide after precipitation with oxalic acid . Figur e 1 illustrates the current aqueous chloride flow sheet used for plutonium processing at TA-55 .

Stroud, M. A. (Mary Ann); Salazar, R. R. (Richard R.); Abney, Kent David; Bluhm, E. A. (Elizabeth A.); Danis, J. A. (Janet A.)

2003-01-01

340

Modulation of ileal calcium transport by phosphate-exchanging compounds.  

PubMed

Calcium transport in the ileal-ligated loop was studied in the adult rat in the presence of either phosphate alone or phosphate-binding compounds, namely either hydroxylated or aminated substances. Sorbitol or creatine (50 mM) added to a 10-mM CaCl2 solution, which was instilled into ileal loop, markedly enhanced calcium transport, as determined by 45Ca radioactivity appearing in plasma and from 45Ca radioactivity disappearing from the loop. The presence of both compounds maintained Ca soluble in an instilled solution at a constant concentration, whereas with a control solution the Ca concentration progressively decreased towards zero after an incubation period of 60 min. Phosphate, which was either simultaneously added with sorbitol or creatine or which was present as sorbitol or creatine phosphate, led to an equally marked decrease in calcium transport. Calcium transfer was even more reduced when phosphate alone was present with calcium in the ileal loop, in the absence of sorbitol. Similar to the above phosphate-binding compounds, adenosine and its constitutive component, ribose, increased calcium transfer, whereas adenine, the other constitutive component of adenosine, was ineffective. Guanosine was twice more active than adenosine in stimulating ileal calcium transport. Interestingly, the structure of guanosine allows the binding of two phosphates, with one binding site being on the ribose and the other on the guanine base moiety. Thus guanosine is capable of binding a greater amount of phosphate than the two other aminated compounds examined, namely adenosine and alanine, when transphosphorylation from ATP is studied with intestinal microvilli preparations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1328835

Dupuis, Y; Tardivel, S; Lacour, B; Fournier, P

1992-01-01

341

Experimental observations on the competing effect of tetrahydrofuran and an electrolyte and the strength of hydrate inhibition among metal halides in mixed CO 2 hydrate equilibria  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work, experimental data on the equilibrium conditions of mixed CO2 and THF hydrates in aqueous electrolyte solutions are reported. Seven different electrolytes (metal halides) were used in this work namely sodium chloride (NaCl), calcium chloride (CaCl2), magnesium chloride (MgCl2), potassium bromide (KBr), sodium fluoride (NaF), potassium chloride (KCl), and sodium bromide (NaBr). All equilibrium data were measured

Khalik M. Sabil; Vicente R. Román; Geert-Jan Witkamp; Cor J. Peters

2010-01-01

342

Effects of Calcium and Kinetin on Growth and Cell Wall Composition of Pea Epicotyls  

PubMed Central

Kinetin and CaCl2, in the presence of indoleacetic acid, promoted lateral expansion of epicotyls of decapitated and derooted Alaska pea seedlings (Pisum sativum L.) and inhibited their elongation. This growth response was correlated with the development of cell walls unusually rich in pectic uronic acids. Epicotyls in calcium-auxin solutions continued to enlarge and to add new wall material long after tissues in auxin only had stopped. Longitudinal enlargement, associated with the development of walls poor in pectic uronic acids, was favored by KCl, MgCl2, and ethylenediaminetetraacetate. The last of these agents promoted the loss of 45Ca from the epicotyls. Seedings grown in vermiculite moistened with CaCl2, KCl, or MgCl2 solutions did not differ in appearance or in the composition of their walls. They responded similarly to experimental treatment except that the decapitated epicotyls of the MgCl2-grown plants suffered an absolute loss of pectic uronate when incubated in that salt.

Nance, James F.

1973-01-01

343

Investigation of factors influencing chloride extraction efficiency during electrochemical chloride extraction from reinforcing concrete  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrochemical chloride extraction (ECE) is an accelerated bridge restoration method similar to cathodic protection, but operates at higher current densities and utilizes a temporary installation. Both techniques prolong the life of a bridge by reducing the corrosion rate of the reinforcing bar when properly applied. ECE achieves this by moving chlorides away from the reinforcement and out of the concrete while simultaneously increasing the alkalinity of the electrolyte near the reinforcing steel. Despite the proven success, significant use of ECE has not resulted in part due to an incomplete understanding in the following areas: (1) An estimation of the additional service life that can be expected following treatment when the treated member is again subjected to chlorides; (2) The cause of the decrease in current flow and, therefore, chloride removal rate during treatment; (3) Influence of water-to-cement (w/c) ratio and cover depth on the time required for treatment. This dissertation covers the research that is connected to the last two areas listed above. To begin examining these issues, plain carbon steel reinforcing bars (rebar) were embedded in portland cement concrete slabs of varying water-to-cement (w/c) ratios and cover depths, and then exposed to chlorides. A fraction of these slabs had sodium chloride added as an admixture, with all of the slabs subjected to cyclical ponding with a saturated solution of sodium chloride. ECE was then used to remove the chlorides from these slabs while making electrical measurements in the different layers between the rebar (cathode) and the titanium mat (anode) to follow the progress of the ECE process. During this study, it was revealed that the resistance of the outer concrete surface layer increases during ECE, inevitably restricting current flow, while the resistance of the underlying concrete decreases or remains constant. During ECE treatment, a white residue formed on the surface of the concrete. Analyses of the residue revealed that it contains calcium carbonate, calcium chloride, and other yet unidentified minor components when calcium hydroxide was used as the electrolyte. The surface film can be completely removed mechanically or to some extent inhibited chemically, with both of these processes resulting in an increase in the efficiency of the electrochemical chloride extraction process. In addition, an obvious relationship between the cover depth, water-to-cement ratio, and chloride extraction efficiency does not exist, however, cover depth does influence the current density. The final phase of this study will be presented in a VTRC/FHWA final report. This report will include the results that are presented in this dissertation, in addition to the results from the ongoing research. It will also include an estimation of the additional service life that can be expected following treatment.

Sharp, Stephen R.

344

Mercuric chloride poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Mercuric chloride is a very poisonous form of mercury. It is a type of mercury salt. There are different ... poisonings . This article discusses poisoning from swallowing mercuric chloride. This is for information only and not for ...

345

Dehydration of Magnesium Chloride.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application discloses a method for dehydrating magnesium chloride hydrates or brines by complexing with amine hydrochlorides. Magnesium chloride hydrate or brine is reacted to an amine hydrochloride to form a complex which is then heated to fir...

H. Dolezal

1975-01-01

346

Chloride Removal Implementation Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Equipment and procedures for the electrochemical removal of chloride from reinforced concrete structures are described. The guide provides basic information needed to implement the chloride removal process of field structures. Pretreatment and posttreatme...

J. Bennett T. J. Schue

1993-01-01

347

Mutations in the putative calcium-binding domain of polyomavirus VP1 affect capsid assembly.  

PubMed Central

Calcium ions appear to play a major role in maintaining the structural integrity of the polyomavirus and are likely involved in the processes of viral uncoating and assembly. Previous studies demonstrated that a VP1 fragment extending from Pro-232 to Asp-364 has calcium-binding capabilities. This fragment contains an amino acid stretch from Asp-266 to Glu-277 which is quite similar in sequence to the amino acids that make up the calcium-binding EF hand structures found in many proteins. To assess the contribution of this domain to polyomavirus structural integrity, the effects of mutations in this region were examined by transfecting mutated viral DNA into susceptible cells. Immunofluorescence studies indicated that although viral protein synthesis occurred normally, infective viral progeny were not produced in cells transfected with polyomavirus genomes encoding either a VP1 molecule lacking amino acids Thr-262 through Gly-276 or a VP1 molecule containing a mutation of Asp-266 to Ala. VP1 molecules containing the deletion mutation were unable to bind 45Ca in an in vitro assay. Upon expression in Escherichia coli and purification by immunoaffinity chromatography, wild-type VP1 was isolated as pentameric, capsomere-like structures which could be induced to form capsid-like structures upon addition of CaCl2, consistent with previous studies. However, although VP1 containing the point mutation was isolated as pentamers which were indistinguishable from wild-type VP1 pentamers, addition of CaCl2 did not result in their assembly into capsid-like structures. Immunogold labeling and electron microscopy studies of transfected mammalian cells provided in vivo evidence that a mutation in this region affects the process of viral assembly. Images

Haynes, J I; Chang, D; Consigli, R A

1993-01-01

348

Chloride in smooth muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest in the functions of intracellular chloride expanded about twenty years ago but mostly this referred to tissues other than smooth muscle. On the other hand, accumulation of chloride above equilibrium seems to have been recognised more readily in smooth muscle.Experimental data is used to show by calculation that the Donnan equilibrium cannot account for the chloride distribution in smooth

A. R. Chipperfield; A. A. Harper

2000-01-01

349

Participation of the inositol phospholipid signaling pathway in the increase in cytosolic calcium induced by tributyltin chloride intoxication of chlorophyllous protozoa Euglena gracilis Z and its achlorophyllous mutant SM-ZK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure of tri-n-butyl tin chloride (TBTCl) as a stressor to Euglena gracilis Z causes rapid alteration of cell morphology followed by deflagellation. The present study was undertaken to reveal the mechanism of the cell response at a molecular level. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, in this study E. gracilis Z and its achlorophyllous mutant SM-ZK, gave similar results when subject to the same

Mari Ohta; Tetsuya Suzuki

2007-01-01

350

Thermodynamics of aqueous magnesium chloride, calcium chloride, and strontium chloride at elevated temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat capacities and densities of aqueous MgClâ, CaClâ, and SrClâ from the accompanying paper are combined with literature data up to 473 K to yield temperature-dependent equations by using the ion-interaction model of Pitzer. These heat capacity equations have been integrated to yield the enthalpy and the Gibbs energy. The enthalpy parameters for 298 K are evaluated in separate calculations

Ramesh C. Phutela; Kenneth S. Pitzer; Preet P. S. Saluja

1987-01-01

351

Interactions between chloride and sulfate or silica removals from wastewater using an advanced lime-aluminum softening process: equilibrium modeling.  

PubMed

Interactions among chloride, sulfate, and silica removals from recycled industrial wastewater using an ultra-high lime with aluminum process (UHLA) were studied. An equilibrium model that is able to accurately predict the chemical behavior and interactions between chloride and sulfate or silica with UHLA at various initial conditions and chemical reagents was developed. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was conducted to identify the precipitated solids formed in the UHLA process. Model predictions indicated that simultaneous removal of sulfate and chloride can be best described by the formation of a solid solution containing calcium chloroaluminate, calcium sulfoaluminate (ettringite), calcium monosulfate, tricalcium hydroxyaluminate, and tetracalcium hydroxyaluminate. However, simultaneous removal of silica and chloride can be best described by precipitation of calcium silicate and calcium aluminosilicate in addition to a solid solution containing calcium chloroaluminate, tricalcium hydroxyaluminate, and tetracalcium hydroxyaluminate. The XRD results indicated the presence of the same solids assumed by the equilibrium model. PMID:17571843

Abdel-Wahab, Ahmed; Batchelor, Bill

2007-05-01

352

An engineered disulfide bridge mimics the effect of calcium to protect neutral protease against local unfolding.  

PubMed

The extreme thermal stabilization achieved by the introduction of a disulfide bond (G8C/N60C) into the cysteine-free wild-type-like mutant (pWT) of the neutral protease from Bacillus stearothermophilus[Mansfeld J, Vriend G, Dijkstra BW, Veltman OR, Van den Burg B, Venema G, Ulbrich-Hofmann R & Eijsink VG (1997) J Biol Chem272, 11152-11156] was attributed to the fixation of the loop region 56-69. In this study, the role of calcium ions in the guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl)-induced unfolding and autoproteolysis kinetics of pWT and G8C/N60C was analyzed by fluorescence spectroscopy, far-UV CD spectroscopy and SDS/PAGE. First-order rate constants (kobs) were evaluated by chevron plots (ln kobs vs. GdnHCl concentration). The kobs of unfolding showed a difference of nearly six orders of magnitude (DeltaDeltaG# = 33.5 kJ.mol(-1) at 25 degrees C) between calcium saturation (at 100 mM CaCl2) and complete removal of calcium ions (in the presence of 100 mM EDTA). Analysis of the protease variant W55F indicated that calcium binding-site III, situated in the critical region 56-69, determines the stability at calcium ion concentrations between 5 and 50 mM. In the chevron plots the disulfide bridge in G8C/N60C shows a similar effect compared with pWT as the addition of calcium ions, suggesting that the introduced disulfide bridge fixes the region (near calcium binding-site III) that is responsible for unfolding and subsequent autoproteolysis. Owing to the presence of the disulfide bridge, the DeltaDeltaG# is 13.2 kJ.mol(-1) at 25 degrees C and 5 mM CaCl2. Non-linear chevron plots reveal an intermediate in unfolding probably caused by local unfolding of the loop 56-69. The occurrence of this intermediate is prevented by calcium concentrations of > 5 mM, or the introduction of the disulfide bridge G8C/N60C. PMID:15752367

Dürrschmidt, Peter; Mansfeld, Johanna; Ulbrich-Hofmann, Renate

2005-03-01

353

Mupirocin Calcium  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... Contains Nonbinding Recommendations Draft Guidance on Mupirocin Calcium ... Active ingredient: Mupirocin Calcium Form/Route: Cream/Topical ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation

354

Calcium Calculator  

MedlinePLUS

... form Search - A + A You are here Home - Calcium Calculator Printer friendly Email Share Tweet Like Home ... Regional Audits Reports Facts and Statistics Popular content Calcium-rich foods The Board What is Osteoporosis? Treating ...

355

Characterization and expression analysis of EF hand domain-containing calcium-regulatory gene from disk abalone: calcium homeostasis and its role in immunity.  

PubMed

The complete amino acid sequence of a calcium-regulatory gene (denoted as Ab-CaReg I) was identified from the disk abalone Haliotis discus discus cDNA library. The Ab-CaReg I is composed of 176 amino acids and the calculated molecular mass and isoelectric point were 20 and 4.2, respectively. The sequence homology of Ab-CaReg I was 28-30 and 18-27% of known calmodulin and troponin C, respectively. Four characteristic calcium-binding EF hand motifs with some modifications at conserved positions of known homologous calmodulin genes were observed in the sequence. The tissue-specific transcription analysis and variation of mRNA transcription level of Ab-CaReg I in gills and mantle after animals were immersed in seawater containing 2000 ppm CaCl(2) was quantified by SYBR Green real-time PCR analysis. Transcription variation of Ab-CaReg I in hemocytes and gills followed by bacteria challenge (Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Listeria monocytogenes) was used to investigate Ab-CaReg I in immune responses. Transcripts of Ab-CaReg I mRNA were mainly detected in hemocytes, mantle, muscle, gills, digestive tract and hepatopancreas with highest expression in hemocytes. The CaCl(2) immersion significantly altered the Ab-CaReg I mRNA transcription level by 3 h, compared to animals in normal seawater (control). The mRNA expression of Ab-CaReg I in gills and hemocytes was upregulated significantly to 11-fold and 4-fold in 3 h compared to control (uninfected), respectively, in bacteria-challenged abalones. The results suggest that Ab-CaReg I could be effectively induced to maintain internal Ca(2+) homeostasis of the animal due to influx of Ca(2+) in the cells by external stimuli such as a high dose of Ca(2+) and pathogens like bacteria. PMID:20420919

Nikapitiya, Chamilani; De Zoysa, Mahanama; Whang, Ilson; Kim, Se-Jae; Choi, Cheol Young; Lee, Jae-Seong; Lee, Jehee

2010-04-24

356

CO2-H2O Mixtures in the Geological Sequestration of CO2. II. Partitioning in Chloride Brines at 12-100oC and up to 600 bar  

SciTech Connect

Correlations presented by Spycher et al. (2003) to compute the mutual solubilities of CO2 and H2O are extended to include the effect of chloride salts in the aqueous phase. This is accomplished by including, in the original formulation, activity coefficients for aqueous CO2 derived from several literature sources, primarily for NaCl solutions. Best results are obtained when combining the solubility correlations of Spycher et al. (2003) with the activity coefficient formulation of Rumpf et al. (1994) and Duan and Sun (2003), which can be extended to chloride solutions other than NaCl. This approach allows computing mutual solubilities in a noniterative manner with an accuracy typically within experimental uncertainty for solutions up to 6 molal NaCl and 4 molal CaCl2.

Spycher, Nicolas; Pruess, Karsten

2004-09-13

357

Ameliorative Effect of Hydro Gel Substrate on Growth, Inorganic Ions, Proline, and Nitrate Contents of Bean under Salinity Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of varying hydrogel (0, 0.5, and 1.0% w\\/w) supply on some agro-physiological properties, such as dry matter, nutrient contents, chlorophyll contents, proline content, and ionic balance of bean plants in different salt sources and stress due to doses were investigated. Plants were treated with eight salt sources [sodium chloride (NaCl), sodium sulfate (Na2SO4), calcium chloride (CaCl2), calcium sulfate

Canan Kant; Adil Aydin; Metin Turan

2008-01-01

358

Calcium Channels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ion channels underlie the electrical activity of cells. Calcium channels have a unique functional role, because not only do they participate in this activity, they form the means bywhich electrical signals are converted to responses within the cell. Calcium concentrations in the cytoplasm of cells are maintained at a low level, and calcium channels activate quickly such that the opening of ion channels can rapidly change the cytoplasmic environment. Once inside the cell, calcium acts as a "second messenger" prompting responses by binding to a variety of calcium sensitive proteins. Calcium channels are known to play an important role in stimulating muscle contraction, in neurotransmitter secretion, gene regulation, activating other ion channels, controlling the shape and duration of action potentials and many other processes. Since calcium plays an integral role in cell function, and since excessive quantities can be toxic, its movement is tightly regulated and controlled through a large variety of mechanisms.

Corry, Ben; Hool, Livia

359

Crystallization of calcium sulfate dihydrate and calcium sulfite hemihydrate from synthetic flue gas desulfurization solutions: Final report  

SciTech Connect

The precipitation of calcium sulfate dihydrate (CaSO/sub 4/.2H/sub 2/O) and calcium sulfite hemihydrate (CaSO/sub 3/.1/2H/sub 2/O) from high, up to 240,000 mg/L, total dissolved solids (TDS) solutions was studied at 50/sup 0/C. The solutions were selected to cover a range of solution compositions of magnesium, calcium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate. Precipitation rates along with crystal habit and size changes were measured to determine the effects of these dissolved species as compared to dilute solution conditions. Calcium sulfate dihydrate (gypsum) precipitation rate was accelerated in the high TDS solutions, especially those containing chloride ion. Alternatively, calcium sulfite hemihydrate precipitation rate was found to be faster in high sulfate ion containing solutions. Sodium ion appears to produce gypsum crystals more columnar in habit while solutions containing high amounts of calcium produced very lamellar gypsum crystals. Solutions containing magnesium produced acicular gypsum crystals. Calcium sulfite hemihydrate solids precipitated from solutions containing high sulfate concentrations were rod shaped and globular as compared to the lamellar calcium sulfite hemihydrate crystals precipitated from high chloride and dilute solution liquors. Calcium sulfate-calcium sulfite solid solutions were characterized using infrared spectroscopy. Ion scavenging of Na, Mg, and Cl by gypsum and calcium sulfite solids precipitated from these high TDS solutions was also investigated. 10 refs., 21 figs., 13 tabs.

Trofe, T.W.; Fishman, V.A.; Meserole, F.B.

1986-10-01

360

Determination of Zinc Phytoavailability in Soil by Diffusive Gradients in Thin Films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessment of zinc (Zn) phytoavailability by the newly developed technique of diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) has started gaining more importance because of some advantages over routine soil extractants. A greenhouse study was conducted to determine Zn phytotoxicity thresholds and the phytoavailability of Zn to sorghum sudan (Sorghum vulgare var. sudanese) grass by DGT, compared with calcium chloride (CaCl2)

Osman Sonmez; Cengiz Kaya; Salih Aydemir

2009-01-01

361

A convenient route for the synthesis of hydroxyapatite through a novel microwave-mediated metathesis reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microwave synthesis of ceramics offers the advantage of efficient transformation of energy and heating throughout the volume efficiently in a shorter period. In this communication, we report the first example of a novel metathesis reaction performed in the presence of microwave irradiation. Nanocrystaline particles of hydroxyapatite (HAP) could be readily synthesized by microwave treatment of calcium chloride (CaCl2) and sodium

Purnendu Parhi; A. Ramanan; Alok R. Ray

2004-01-01

362

Removal of terephthalic acid in alkalized wastewater by ferric chloride.  

PubMed

Terephthalic acid, which is a main component in alkali-decrement wastewater, is efficiently removed using ferric chloride in high pH solutions. About 90% removal of terephthalic acid is achieved at pH between 8 and 11. Especially, the removal reached 94.3% at pH 11. However, as the pH increased from pH 12 and 13, the low removal of terephthalic acid were found. The increasing ferric chloride dosage had a dramatic positive impact on the achieved removal of terephthalic acid. Further increase in the ferric chloride dosage did not produce better removal rate. The increase of terephthalic acid concentration also led to the increase of ferric chloride dosage in order to get the same removal of terephthalic acid. There was approximately a negative linear relationship between terephthalic acid concentration and removal of terephthalic acid. Compared with other coagulants, it can be seen that ferric chloride is more effective in a high pH solution and the amount of ferric chloride required is also less as compared with aluminum chloride, magnesium chloride and calcium chloride. Our results clearly showed that terephthalate anions strongly binds to positive Fe(OH)(3) flocs and forms insoluble complexes, probably through a mechanism involving electrostatic attraction. The electrostatic attraction may be particularly useful means of purifying wastewater in high pH solutions. PMID:16839672

Wen, Yue-Zhong; Tong, Shao-Ping; Zheng, Ke-Feng; Wang, Liao-Liao; Lv, Jin-Ze; Lin, Jun

2006-06-03

363

Melting of horizontal ice layer from above by combined effect of temperature and concentration of aqua-solvent  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with the melting of horizontal ice layer from above by aqua-solvent with low solidification point. The solute used in this experiment are Sodium chloride NaCl, Calcium chloride CaCl2, Magnesium chloride MgCl2, and Urea CO(NH2)2- The upper surface of aqua-solvent melt layer is heated by an infrared lamp, whose temperature is in the range of about 8

M. Sugawara; H. Inaba; H. Nishimura; M. Mizuno

1987-01-01

364

Calcium Foliar Sprays for Control of Alfalfa Greening, Cork Spot, and Hard End in ‘Anjou’ Pears  

Microsoft Academic Search

New calcium (Ca) spray materials were made available to test for their possible improvement over the often-used dry form of calcium chloride products. Four orchards of mature ‘Anjou’ pears (Pyrus communis L.) were selected for the experiments. Three Ca materials were used at equal Ca rates, consisting of a dry Ca material derived from calcium chloride (Mora-leaf-Ca) with and without

J. T. Raese; S. R. Drake

2006-01-01

365

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ISOTOPICALLY EXCHANGABLE CALCIUM AND ABSORPTION BY PLANTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

When soils are suspended in solutions of calcium chloride labeled with ; radioactive tracer, isotopic exchange with the labile soil-calcium occurs rapidly. ; This may be followed by a slow secondary exchange reaction, but its magnitude is ; not great and equilibrium is nearly, if not completely, attained with 7 days. ; When, however, plants are grown in soil throughout

P. Newbould

1963-01-01

366

Hydrogen Chloride Sparging Crystallization of Aluminum Chloride Hexahydrate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As part of its effort to produce cell-grade alumina from clay, the Bureau of Mines investigated the hydrogen chloride gas-sparging crystallization of aluminum chloride hexahydrate (ACH) from aluminum chloride liquor, to provide information for optimizing ...

D. E. Shanks D. J. Bauer J. A. Eisle

1982-01-01

367

Plutonium metal and alloy preparation by molten chloride reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Satisfactory reduction of molten plutonium trichloride (pure and in combination with 20 wt % sodium chloride) by calcium, lanthanum, and cerium has been demonstrated on the 10-g scale. The yields were satisfactory for this scale of operation, and it is indicated that these reductions may be useful for large-scale operations. Significant separations of plutonium from rare earth impurities was demonstrated

Reavis

1984-01-01

368

Platinized Silver Chloride Electrode  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hybrid electrode made by platinizing silver-silver chloride has been found to combine the stable potential and low direct-current resistance properties of a silver-silver chloride electrode with the low high-frequency impedance characteristic of a platinized platinum electrode.

Kenneth S. Cole; Uichiro Kishimoto

1962-01-01

369

Electrothermal vaporization on a tungsten filament for the determination of arsenic in chloride solutions by low-pressure helium ICP-MS.  

PubMed

A combined method of electrothermal vaporization and low-pressure helium ICP-MS was developed for the determination of traces of arsenic in chloride solutions, because serious spectral interference occurred in conventional argon ICP-MS. On a tungsten filament was placed 5 microl of a sample and heated electrothermally to remove the solvent. The resulting residue on the filament was covered with a vaporization chamber, and after reducing the pressure to ca. 5 Torr, it was rapidly heated by discharging a high-capacity condenser (0.22 F). The vapor of arsenic was transferred to a helium plasma with a stream of carrier gas for the determination. The background was not observed at m/z of 75, which allowed the determination of arsenic at ng/ml levels in chloride solutions. Sodium chloride significantly enhanced the intensity of the arsenic signal, whereas other chlorides, including KCl, MgCl2, CaCl2 and NH4Cl, suppressed the analytical signals. This enhancement due to sodium ions seems to be a peculiar phenomenon to the helium ICP. The proposed method can be applied to direct determinations of as low as 0.9 ng/ml of arsenic in seawater. PMID:11993658

Hayashi, H; Tanaka, T; Hiraide, M

2001-01-01

370

Calcium dependence of rapid auxin action in maize roots.  

PubMed

We investigated the interaction of Ca2+ and auxin on root elongation in seedlings of Zea mays L. The seedlings were raised either in the presence of Ca2+ (high calcium; HC = imbibed and raised in 10 millimolar CaCl2), in the absence of additional Ca2+ (intermediate calcium; IC = imbibed and raised in distilled H2O, calcium supply from seed only), or without additional Ca2+ and subsequently depleting them of Ca2+ (low calcium; LC = imbibed and raised in distilled H2O and subsequently treated with 1 millimolar ethyleneglycol-bis-[beta-aminoethylether]-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid [EGTA]). Exposure of roots of either HC or IC seedlings to auxin concentrations from 0.1 to 10 micromolar resulted in strong inhibition of elongation. In roots of LC seedlings, on the other hand, auxin concentrations as high as 10 micromolar caused only slight inhibition of elongation. Adding 0.5 millimolar Ca2+ to LC roots in the presence of IAA allowed normal expression of the inhibitory action of the hormone. Inhibition of elongation in IC roots by indoleacetic acid was reversible upon treatment of the roots with 1 millimolar EGTA. The inhibitory action of auxin could then be re-established by supplying 0.5 millimolar Ca2+. The data indicate that Ca2+ may be necessary to the growth-regulating action of auxin. The significance of this finding is discussed with respect to the potential role of Ca2+ as a second messenger of auxin action and the relevance of this model to recent evidence for gravi-induced redistribution of Ca2+ and its role in establishing gravitropic curvature. PMID:11538659

Hasenstein, K H; Evans, M L

1986-01-01

371

Calcium antagonistic activity of Bacopa monniera in guinea-pig trachea  

PubMed Central

Objective: To demonstrate the calcium antagonistic property of ethanol extract of Bacopa monniera in guinea-pig trachea. Materials and Methods: The dose response curves of CaCl2 (1 × 10-5 to 1 × 10-1 M) were constructed in the absence and presence of ethanol extract of Bacopa monniera (100, 500 and 700 ?g/ml) or nifedipine (1 × 10-6 M) in guinea-pig trachea in calcium free high K+-MOPS-PSS (3-(N-morpholino)-propanesulphonic acid physiological salt solution). The data was analyzed by ANOVA followed by least significant difference test or by Student's ‘t’ test for unequal variance when appropriate. A probability of at least P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The plant extract (500 and 700 ?g/ml) significantly (P < 0.05) depressed and shifted the calcium concentration-response curves (1 × 10-3- 1 × 10-1 M) to rightward similar to that of nifedipine. Conclusions: Bacopa monniera extract exhibited calcium channel blocking activity in guinea-pig tracheal smooth muscles that may rationalize its relaxant action on guinea-pig trachea and its traditional use in respiratory disorders.

Channa, Shabana; Dar, Ahsana

2012-01-01

372

5-Hydroxytryptamine-induced calcium-channel gating in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) peripheral blood lymphocytes.  

PubMed Central

The present study was conducted on peripheral blood lympho-cytes of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to assess the role of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; 'serotonin') in calcium signalling. 5-HT-induced increases in intracellular free calcium concentrations, [Ca2+]i, and its action was mediated by 5-HT receptor subtype 3 (5-HT3), but not by 5-HT receptor subtype 1A (5-HT1A) or subtype 2 (5-HT2) in these cells. In Ca2+-containing medium (1 mM CaCl2), 5-HT and 2-methyl-5-HT (5-HT3 receptor agonist) induced increases in [Ca2+]i, whereas in Ca2+-free medium (0 Ca2+, 1 mM EGTA), these two agents failed to evoke increases in [Ca2+]i in these cells, demonstrating that 5-HT mobilizes Ca2+ from the extracellular environment. Furthermore, 5-HT-induced increases in [Ca2+]i are not contributed to by the intracellular endoplasmic reticulum (ER) pool, as thapsigargin, an agent that recruits Ca2+ from ER stores, had additive effects on 5-HT-induced [Ca2+]i responses in fish peripheral lymphocytes. 5-HT-induced increases in [Ca2+]i were mediated by 5-HT3 receptors via gating the calcium through L-type, but not N-type, calcium channels in trout lymphocytes.

Ferriere, F; Khan, N A; Meyniel, J P; Deschaux, P

1997-01-01

373

Calcium Alginate Barrier Films Modified by Montmorillonite Clay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of decreasing the permeation of small molecules through calcium alginate films is addressed by incorporating small amounts of montmorillonite clay into the polymer. Incorporation is achieved by (i) blending up to 3 wt% pre?exfoliated montmorillonite into sodium alginate polymer solutions, (ii) casting thin films, (iii) cross?linking the chains with calcium chloride solution into insoluble calcium alginate, and (iv) drying

James M. Vale; Ryan S. Justice; Dale W. Schaefer; James E. Mark

2005-01-01

374

Cardiac preconditioning with calcium: Clinically accessible myocardial protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiac preconditioning is mediated by protein kinase C. Although endogenous calcium is a potent stimulus of protein kinase C, it remains unknown whether preischemic administration of exogenous calcium can induce protein kinase C–mediated myocardial protection against ischemia-reperfusion injury. To study this, calcium chloride was administered retrogradely through the aorta at a rate 5 nmol\\/min for 2 minutes to isolated perfused

Daniel R. Meldrum; Joseph C. Cleveland; Brett C. Sheridan; Robert T. Rowland; Anirban Banerjee; Alden H. Harken

1996-01-01

375

Thermochemical characteristics of reactions of calcium with perchloric acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The enthalpy of reaction of metallic calcium with perchloric acid was measured for the first time in a sealed swinging calorimeter equipped with an isothermal shell. Standard enthalpies of formation of calcium ion in an infinitely diluted aqueous solution (-542.8 ± 1.0 kJ/mol) and calcium chloride in crystal state (-794.9 ± 1.0 kJ/mol) were calculated according to the results obtained with the use of published data.

Monaenkova, A. S.; Tiflova, L. A.

2012-05-01

376

Crystallization of calcium sulfate dihydrate and calcium sulfite hemihydrate from synthetic flue gas desulfurization solutions: Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The precipitation of calcium sulfate dihydrate (CaSOâ.2HâO) and calcium sulfite hemihydrate (CaSOâ.1\\/2HâO) from high, up to 240,000 mg\\/L, total dissolved solids (TDS) solutions was studied at 50°C. The solutions were selected to cover a range of solution compositions of magnesium, calcium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate. Precipitation rates along with crystal habit and size changes were measured to determine the effects

T. W. Trofe; V. A. Fishman; F. B. Meserole

1986-01-01

377

Effect of glucose stimulation on /sup 45/calcium uptake of rat pancreatic islets and their total calcium content as measured by a fluorometric micro-method  

SciTech Connect

Glucose-stimulated /sup 45/calcium uptake and total calcium content of rat pancreatic islets has been studied, using a new fluorometric micro-method to estimate total calcium. Extracellular calcium was separated from incubated tissue by a rapid micro-filtration procedure. Islets incubated up to 60 min with calcium chloride 2.5 mmol/l and glucose 2.5 mmol/l maintained the same calcium content (670 +- 7.5 pmol/..mu..g DNA). When the glucose concentration was raised to 15 mmol/l no change in the total calcium content could be detected. On incubation with glucose 2.5 mmol/l in the absence of calcium, the calcium content decreased to 488 +- 27 pmol/..mu..g DNA. On incubation with /sup 45/calcium chloride 2.5 mmol/l for 5 or 30 min at 2.5 mmol/l glucose, islets exchanged 21 +- 2 and 28 +- 1% of their total calcium content and, at 15 mmol/l glucose, 30 +- 3 and 45 +- 2%, respectively. Thus, islet calcium has a high turn-over rate. Glucose stimulation results in an increase of the calcium uptake without enhancing the total calcium content and hence must increase the calcium-exchangeable pool.

Wolters, G.H.J.; Wiegman, J.B.; Konijnendijk, W.

1982-02-01

378

Characterization of branchial transepithelial calcium fluxes in freshwater trout, Salmo gairdneri  

SciTech Connect

Experiments were performed to determine whether gill transepithelial calcium fluxes in the freshwater trout (Salmo gairdneri) are passive or require active transport and to characterize the mechanism involved. A comparison of the in vivo unidirectional flux ratios with the flux ratios calculated according to the transepithelial electrochemical gradients revealed that calcium uptake from the water requires active transport of Ca{sup 2+}. The inhibition of calcium uptake by external lanthanum, the specific deposition of lanthanum on the apical surface of chloride cells, and the favorable electrochemical gradient for calcium across the apical membrane suggest that the initial step in branchial calcium uptake is the passive entry of calcium into the cytosol of chloride cells through apical channels that are permeable to calcium. The study of gill basolateral plasma membrane vesicles demonstrated the existence of a high-affinity calmodulin-dependent calcium-transporting system. This system actively transports calcium from the cytosol of chloride cells into the plasma against a sizeable electrochemical gradient, thereby completing the transepithelial uptake of calcium. Calcium efflux occurs passively through paracellular pathways between chloride cells and adjacent pavement cells or between neighboring pavement cells.

Perry, S.F.; Flik, G. (Univ. of Ottawa, Ontario (Canada))

1988-03-01

379

Ca(2+)-dependent block and potentiation of L-type calcium current in guinea-pig ventricular myocytes.  

PubMed Central

1. The caged calcium compound nitr-5 has been used to investigate the response of the L-type calcium current (ICa) of guinea-pig ventricular cells to a rapid increase in the free intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i). 2. When 2 mM nitr-5 or 3 mM DM-nitrophen was loaded into cells via a patch pipette and photolysed during the decay phase of ICa, a partial block of the current developed within 75 ms. The block was reduced by increasing the pre-flash [Ca2+]i and enhanced by adding high concentrations of Ca2+ chelators to the pipette-filling solution. 3. The photolysis-induced block was not suppressed in the presence of isoprenaline, suggesting a direct action of Ca2+ on the channels rather than a mechanism involving channel phosphorylation. 4. The most prominent effect of nitr-5 photolysis was a slow potentiation of ICa. When ICa was activated at frequencies between 0.05 and 0.7 Hz with various levels of pre-flash [Ca2+]i, peak ICa was approximately doubled in amplitude following photolysis. 5. At a stimulation frequency of 0.05 Hz, when nitr-5 was the only chelator present in the pipette, the time course of the potentiation was fitted by a single exponential with a time constant (tau P) of 2.7 min. When 1 mM CaCl2 was added to the pipette-filling solution, the time course of the potentiation was slowed (tau P = 6 min), although its amplitude was unchanged. With 12 mM BAPTA (a calcium chelator) added instead of CaCl2, the response was accelerated (tau P = 1.7 min). 6. Equimolar substitution of extracellular Ca2+ with Ba2+ significantly suppressed the flash-induced potentiation. The time course of the potentiation of the barium current, IBa (tau P = 1.9 min) was similar to that of ICa with BAPTA in the pipette. Potentiation of IBa was largely blocked in Ca(2+)-depleted cells when CaCl2 was omitted from the pipette. 7. When ICa was activated at frequencies of > or = 0.1 Hz, with 1 mM CaCl2 added to the nitr-5 (2 mM) in the pipette, the onset of the flash-induced potentiation was best fitted by two exponentials; one was similar to the single component seen at 0.05 Hz and the other was approximately one order of magnitude faster. The contribution of the faster component was positively correlated to the stimulation frequency. 8. The flash-induced potentiation of ICa was suppressed in the presence of a supramaximal concentration of the beta-adrenergic agonist isoprenaline.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

Bates, S E; Gurney, A M

1993-01-01

380

Immobilization of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) pectinmethylesterase in calcium alginate beads and its application in fruit juice clarification.  

PubMed

Clarity of fruit juices is desirable to maintain an aesthetically pleasing quality and international standards. The most commonly used enzymes in juice industries are pectinases. A partially-purified pectinmethylesterase from tomato was entrapped in calcium alginate beads and used for juice clarification. The activity yield was maximum at 1 % (w/v) CaCl2 and 2.5 % (w/v) alginate. The immobilized enzyme retained ~55 % of its initial activity (5.7 × 10(-2) units) after more than ten successive batch reactions. The Km, pH and temperature optima were increased after immobilization. The most effective clarification of fruit juice (%T620 ~60 %) by the immobilized enzyme was at 4 °C with a holding time of 20 min. The viscosity dropped by 56 % and the filterability increased by 260 %. The juice remains clear after 2 months of storage at 4 °C. PMID:23881317

Bogra, Pushpa; Kumar, Ashwani; Kuhar, Kalika; Panwar, Surbhi; Singh, Randhir

2013-07-24

381

Calcium Phosphate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early childhood dental caries is defined by its complex etiology of intersecting causations. Diet in combination with good\\u000a oral hygiene, is the most prominently alterable component of this etiology.\\u000a \\u000a Providing enough calcium phosphate in the diet of the pregnant and nursing mother and eventually in the weaning infant ensures\\u000a that a prominent component (calcium phosphate deficiency) of the complex diagram

Rainy Dawn Warf; Ronald Ross Watson

382

Activation of tubulo-glomerular feedback by chloride transport.  

PubMed

To define the luminal agent(s) responsible for the reduction of nephron filtration rate following increases of loop of Henle flow rate early proximal flow rate (EPFR) during loop perfusion with 17 different salt solutions were compared to the non-perfused tubules. During orthograde microperfusions a reduction of EPFR as indication of a feedback response was noted with a number of monovalent Cl- and Br- salts (LiCl, KCl, NaCl, RbCl, CsCl, NH4Cl, choline Cl, NaBr, KBr), with Na+ salts except Na acetate (NaHCO3, NaNO3, NaF, NaI, NaSCN), and with CaCl2 and MgCl2. These latter 2 solutions where used in a concentration of 70 mM while all other solutions had a concentration of 140 mM. During retrograde perfusion from the distal to the proximal end of the loop of Henle EPFR fell significantly with Cl- and Br- salts with percentage changes of EPFR ranging from -8.0 to -44.3%. In contrast, Cl- free salts and Cl- salts of divalent cations were associated with percentage changes of EPFR ranging from +7.1 to -6.2%, significance being reached only during perfusion with NaSCN. When furosemide (5 x 10(-4) M) was added to NaBr or KBr a feedback response was not observed. During orthograde perfusion with NaNO3 distal Cl- concentrations were 44.2 +/- 5.08, mM (mean +/- S.E.) at a perfusion rate of 10 nl/min and 59.1 +/- 3.93 mM at a rate of 40 nl/min. CaCl2 perfusion induced a marked elevation of distal Cl- concentrations to levels higher than 140 mM. Loop chloride handling was normal during RbCl perfusion. The magnitude of the feedback response during retrograde perfusion was not changed by lowering NaCl concentration from 140 to 60 mM, but fell when NaCl concentration was further reduced. In contrast to orthograde perfusions it was insensitive to changes in flow rate. Our results are compatible with the thesis that feedback responses depend critically upon the rate of Cl- transport probably across the macula densa cells. Br- ions can replace Cl- because they appear to share a common transport pathway which can be inhibited with furosemide. Unspecificity of feedback responses during orthograde microperfusions is due to presence of Cl- ions in the macula densa region even when solutions are initially Cl- free. Cl- salts of divalent cations do not elicit a feedback response because Cl- transport is severely curtailed. PMID:944430

Schnermann, J; Ploth, D W; Hermle, M

1976-04-01

383

Calcium carbonate overdose  

MedlinePLUS

Tums overdose; Calcium overdose ... Calcium ... Products containing calcium carbonate, including Certain antacids (Tums, Chooz) Certain mineral supplements Certain hand lotions Certain vitamin and mineral supplements Note: ...

384

Improvement of water vapor adsorption ability of natural mesoporous material by impregnating with chloride salts for development of a new desiccant filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is the development of a new adsorbent for the desiccant material which can be regenerated by the domestic\\u000a exhaust heat by using natural mesoporous material, Wakkanai siliceous shale. To improve this shale’s performance to adsorb\\/desorb\\u000a the water vapor, lithium chloride, calcium chloride or sodium chloride was supported into the mesopores by impregnating with\\u000a each chloride

Saya Nakabayashi; Katsunori Nagano; Makoto Nakamura; Junya Togawa; Asami Kurokawa

385

Minerals Yearbook 1991: Calcium and Calcium Compounds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Calcium, is chemically very active and is found in a host of minerals that occur in nearly every geologic environment. Calcium fluoride is sold as fluorspar; calcium sulfate as gypsum or anhydrite; calcium oxide and hydroxide as lime; calcium phosphate as...

M. M. Miller

1992-01-01

386

Polar Calcium Flux in Sunflower Hypocotyl Segments 1  

PubMed Central

The flux of Ca2+ at the apical or basal ends of short sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) hypocotyl segments was monitored using a Ca2+-specific electrode. A higher Ca2+ efflux was observed at the apical end relative to the basal end, indicating a net polar flux of Ca2+. The extreme low mobility of Ca2+ in the isolated segment makes it likely that the observed Ca2+ fluxes are of localized origin, that is, from the parenchyma cells close to the exposed cut ends and may represent acropetal transport of Ca2+ at the cellular level. The rate of Ca2+ efflux depended on the concentration of Ca in the seedling medium. Incubation of hypocotyl segments in 10 mm CaCl2 for 24 h did not eliminate the net acropetal flux of Ca2+ at the apical end. IAA, as well as the synthetic auxin ?-naphthaleneacetic acid, significantly enhanced Ca2+ efflux; the non-auxin analog, ?-naphthaleneacetic acid, was ineffective. The transport of auxin, not merely its presence in the medium, was found to be a requisite for the enhancement of Ca2+ efflux since the presence of the auxin transport inhibitor 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid eliminated the auxin-promoted Ca2+ efflux. A model for how auxin promotion of Ca2+ efflux could play a role in promoting subsequent auxin secretion is proposed. Calcium probably serves as a `second messenger', as it does in the secretion of various substances by animal cells.

de Guzman, C. C.; dela Fuente, R. K.

1984-01-01

387

Preparation of calcium silicate absorbent from iron blast furnace slag.  

PubMed

Calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) solids were prepared from hydrated lime and iron blast furnace slag in an aqueous agitated slurry at 92 degrees C. While it was hoped a minimal lime/slag ratio could be used to create near-amorphous CSH, the surface area of the product improved by increasing the lime/slag weight ratio to 2. The addition of gypsum to the lime/slag system dramatically improved the formation of surface area, creating solids with 139 m2/g after 30 hr of reaction when only a minimal amount of lime was present. The SO2 reactivity of solids prepared with gypsum greatly exceeded that of hydrated lime, achieving greater than 70-80% conversion of the alkalinity after 1 hr of reaction with SO2. The use of CaCl2 as an additive to the lime/slag system, in lieu of gypsum, also produced high-surface-area solids, 115 m2/g after 21 hr of reaction. However, the SO2 reactivity of these sorbents was relatively low given the high surface area. This emphasized that the correlation between surface area and SO2 reactivity was highly dependent on the solid phase, which was subsequently dependent on slurry composition. PMID:11055162

Brodnax, L F; Rochelle, G T

2000-09-01

388

Polar Calcium Flux in Sunflower Hypocotyl Segments 1  

PubMed Central

Calcium flux in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. cv Russian mammoth) hypocotyl was measured with a Ca2+ electrode as the increase or decrease in Ca2+ in an aqueous solution (10 micromolar CaCl2) in contact with either the basal or apical end of 20 millimeter segments. Ca2+ efflux was significantly higher at the apical end compared with the basal end; this apparent polarity was maintained even when the segments were inverted. No significant difference was observed in the cation exchange capacity of apical and basal cell walls that could explain the difference in Ca2+ efflux at opposite ends of the hypocotyl segment. The presence of exogenous indoleacetic acid (IAA) in the segment medium resulted in the promotion of both Ca2+ efflux and segment elongation. However, osmotic inhibition of the IAA-induced elongation did not result in inhibiting the IAA-induced Ca2+ efflux. Ca2+ efflux was inhibited by cyanide. Lowering the temperature from 25°C also caused the gradual reduction of Ca2+ efflux; at 5°C the hypocotyl segments showed a net absorption of Ca2+ from the segment medium. These findings support the suggestion that: (a) the observed Ca2+ efflux in hypocotyl segments is probably the manifestation of the system which maintains the transmembrane Ca2+ gradient at the cellular level. (b) The acropetal polarity of Ca2+ efflux may be the result of the involvement of Ca2+ in the basipetal transport of IAA. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 5 Fig. 6

de Guzman, Constancio C.; dela Fuente, Rollo K.

1986-01-01

389

Determination of cytoplasmic calcium concentration in Dryopteris spores: a developmentally non-disruptive technique for loading of the calcium indicator fura-2.  

PubMed

Germination of Dryopteris spores is mediated by the physiologically active, far-red-absorbing form of phytochrome, Pfr, and external Ca2+ is necessary for the transduction of the light signal. Because knowledge about the cytoplasmic calcium ion concentration, [Ca2+]i, is of great importance for understanding the role of calcium during signal transduction, this value was measured using fura-2 in fern spores undergoing the normal developmental progression into germination. Fura-2 was loaded into the spores by electroporation, which does not disrupt the normal process of germination. The intensity of the fluorescence emission of the loaded fura-2 was analysed by a microspectrophotometric assay of single spores, and successful loading could be obtained by the application of ten electrical pulses (field strength 7.5 kV cm-1, half-life (time constant) 230 microseconds). Fura-2 was alternately excited by light of wavelengths 355 and 385 nm through an inverted fluorescence microscope, and the emitted fura-2 fluorescence was collected by a silicon-intensified video camera. The cytoplasmic calcium ion concentration was calculated from the ratio of the camera output obtained for both wavelengths and displayed by a pseudo-color technique. Spores responded to changes of the extracellular Ca2+ concentration, and this observation is considered as evidence that fura-2 is loaded into the cytoplasm. The substitution of a low external [Ca2+] (1 mM ethyleneglycol-bis(2-aminoethylether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA)) by 1 mM CaCl2 caused a fast increase of [Ca2+]i from approx. 50 nM to above 500 nM. In contrast, the subsequent substitution of CaCl2 by EGTA decreased [Ca2+]i again below 100 nM within 0.5 h. Furthermore, the application of ionomycin could initiate a change in [Ca2+]i according to the Ca2+ gradient established between the extracellular medium and cytoplasm. In spores sown on a Ca(2+) -free medium, [Ca2+]i, analysed in a buffer containing EGTA, was found to be around 50 nM during the first days of cultivation, independent of the irradiation protocol. However, if spores were grown in darkness on a Ca(2+) -containing medium and analysed in EGTA, [Ca2+]i was significantly higher (> or = 500 nM). In red-light-irradiated spores, [Ca2+]i was found to decrease with increasing time after irradiation, and was determined to be less than 100 nM when analysis was done 44 h after germination was initiated by the light treatment. PMID:11538116

Scheuerlein, R; Schmidt, K; Poenie, M; Roux, S J

1991-01-01

390

Comparative evaluation of hydro-, chemo- , and hormonal-priming methods for imparting salt and PEG stress tolerance in Indian mustard ( Brassica juncea L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of different seed priming methods to enhance the sodium chloride (NaCl)\\u000a and polyethylene glycol-8000 (PEG-8000) stress tolerance in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.). Seeds subjected to different priming treatments such as water (hydro-priming), calcium chloride (CaCl2) (chemo-priming), and abscisic acid (ABA) (hormonal-priming) showed increased rate of germination as compared to non-primed

Ashish Kumar Srivastava; Vinayak H. Lokhande; Vikas Y. Patade; Penna Suprasanna; Rinaldi Sjahril; Stanislaus Francis D’Souza

2010-01-01

391

Calcium-containing diatomic dications in the gas phase.  

PubMed

Sputtering (ion surface bombardment) of various calcium-containing powder samples with an energetic (17 keV), high-current (16)O(-) beam has produced the diatomic dications of CaSi(2+), CaP(2+), CaF(2+), CaH(2+), CaCl(2+), CaBr(2+) and CaI(2+). These molecular gas-phase species have been identified in positive ion mass spectra at half-integer m/z values; their ion flight times through a magnetic-sector mass spectrometer were roughly 10(-5) s. Most of them appear to be novel molecular ions; the stability of the latter four (CaH(2+), CaCl(2+), CaBr(2+) and CaI(2+)) had been demonstrated in previous theoretical studies, whereas only CaF(2+) and CaBr(2+) had been observed before. Here we combine the results of our experimental search with a detailed theoretical study of the remaining three systems CaSi(2+), CaP(2+) and CaF(2+). All electronic states correlating with the first dissociation channel are characterized using high level ab initio electronic structure calculations. In their ground states, we find CaSi(2+) to be a long-lived metastable molecule, whereas CaF(2+) and CaP(2+) are thermodynamically stable, with respective equilibrium internuclear distances of 6.253, 4.740, and 5.731 a(0). CaSi(2+) has a well depth of 7116 (0.88) cm(-1) (eV) and a dissociation asymptote 7956 (0.99) cm(-1) (eV) below the ground state minimum. The dissociation energy of CaF(2+) is estimated to be 3404 (0.42) cm(-1) (eV), whereas for CaP(2+) we found 2547 (0.32) cm(-1) (eV), and a barrier height of 8118 (1.01) cm(-1) (eV). Their adiabatic double ionisation energies are 22.87, 16.91, and 17.32 eV, respectively, for the F, Si, and P containing dications. PMID:21603705

Alves, Tiago Vinicius; Hermoso, Willian; Franzreb, Klaus; Ornellas, Fernando R

2011-05-20

392

Calcium causes a conformational change in lamin A tail domain that promotes farnesyl-mediated membrane association.  

PubMed

Lamin proteins contribute to nuclear structure and function, primarily at the inner nuclear membrane. The posttranslational processing pathway of lamin A includes farnesylation of the C-terminus, likely to increase membrane association, and subsequent proteolytic cleavage of the C-terminus. Hutchinson Gilford progeria syndrome is a premature aging disorder wherein a mutant version of lamin A, ?50 lamin A, retains its farnesylation. We report here that membrane association of farnesylated ?50 lamin A tail domains requires calcium. Experimental evidence and molecular dynamics simulations collectively suggest that the farnesyl group is sequestered within a hydrophobic region in the tail domain in the absence of calcium. Calcium binds to the tail domain with an affinity KD ? 250 ?M where it alters the structure of the Ig-fold and increases the solvent accessibility of the C-terminus. In 2 mM CaCl2, the affinity of the farnesylated protein to a synthetic membrane is KD ? 2 ?M, as measured with surface plasmon resonance, but showed a combination of aggregation and binding. Membrane binding in the absence of calcium could not be detected. We suggest that a conformational change induced in ?50 lamin A with divalent cations plays a regulatory role in the posttranslational processing of lamin A, which may be important in disease pathogenesis. PMID:23708364

Kalinowski, Agnieszka; Qin, Zhao; Coffey, Kelli; Kodali, Ravi; Buehler, Markus J; Lösche, Mathias; Dahl, Kris Noel

2013-05-21

393

Pyramidal cells accumulate chloride at seizure onset  

PubMed Central

Seizures are thought to originate from a failure of inhibition to quell hyperactive neural circuits, but the nature of this failure remains unknown. Here we combine high-speed two-photon imaging with electrophysiological recordings to directly evaluate the interaction between populations of interneurons and principal cells during the onset of seizure-like activity in mouse hippocampal slices. Both calcium imaging and dual patch clamp recordings reveal that in vitro seizure-like events (SLEs) are preceded by pre-ictal bursts of activity in which interneurons predominate. Corresponding changes in intracellular chloride concentration were observed in pyramidal cells using the chloride indicator Clomeleon. These changes were measurable at SLE onset and became very large during the SLE. Pharmacological manipulation of GABAergic transmission, either by blocking GABAA receptors or by hyperpolarizing the GABAA reversal potential, converted SLEs to short interictal-like bursts. Together, our results support a model in which pre-ictal GABAA receptor-mediated chloride influx shifts EGABA to produce a positive feedback loop that contributes to the initiation of seizure activity.

Lillis, Kyle P; Kramer, Mark A; Mertz, Jerome; Staley, Kevin J

2012-01-01

394

Reduction of Titanium Oxide in Molten Salt Medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of titanium powder directly from titanium dioxide (TiO2) through an electronically mediated reaction (EMR) using calcium as a reductant was investigated. Feed material (TiO2 powder or preform) and reductant (Ca-Ni alloy) were charged in electronically isolated locations in a molten calcium chloride (CaCl2) salt at 1173 K. The current flow through an external circuit between the feed and reductant

T. Abiko; T. H. Okabe

395

Monitoring Vinyl Chloride Around Polyvinyl Chloride Fabrication Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A program to measure vinyl chloride emissions from polyvinyl chloride fabrication plants was carried out. Four charcoal collectors were stationed around each of five PVC fabrication plants. 24-hour samples were collected daily for 14 days around each plan...

1975-01-01

396

Preparation of Anhydrous Magnesium Chloride from Magnesium Chloride Hexahydrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method was proposed for the preparation of high-purity anhydrous magnesium chloride by using magnesium chloride hexahydrate and ammonium chloride as raw materials, and alumina as covering agent. X-ray diffraction was employed to investigate the process. The mechanism involved in the process was proposed. The factors affecting the purity of anhydrous magnesium chloride were investigated. Dehydrated ammonium carnallite was formed in the process to facilitate the dehydration process. Alumina as covering agent can guarantee that the formation of high-purity anhydrous magnesium chloride was obtained. The content of magnesia in anhydrous magnesium chloride was 0.02 pct under the optimum conditions: molar ratio of ammonium chloride to dehydrated magnesium chloride was 2:1, thickness of alumina 1.3 cm, reaction temperature 723 K (450 °C), reaction time 1 hour, and the number of crystallized water 0.6 to 2.2.

Zhang, Zhimin; Lu, Xuchen; Pan, Feng; Wang, Yun; Yang, Suping

2013-04-01

397

Effect of calcium and calcium antagonists on 45Ca influx and cellular growth of human prostatic tumor cells.  

PubMed

Calcium and calmodulin play significant roles in DNA synthesis and cell proliferation. In this work the effects of verapamil, trifluoperazine, and tamoxifen on 45Ca uptake and cell growth in human prostatic tumor cells (DU 145) and human fibroblast cells (1 BR) were studied. Although the maximum proliferation was achieved at a concentration of around 2 mM CaCl2 in both DU 145 and 1 BR, growth of DU 145 cells was considerably greater than 1 BR at all calcium concentrations (0.1-4 mM). Calcium uptake experiments, using 45Ca, revealed that the unstimulated 45Ca uptake in 1 BR fibroblasts was 4-5 times higher than in DU 145 cancer cells. Depolarization with high extracellular K caused a 2-3-fold increase in 45Ca influx in 1 BR but only 25-55% increase in DU 145 cells. Verapamil caused a significant inhibition of cell growth with an IC50 value of 55 microM. Verapamil paradoxically increased 45Ca uptake in both unstimulated and K-stimulated DU 145 cells. Whereas unstimulated 45Ca uptake could be blocked by very low concentrations of lathanum (10 microM), much higher concentrations (1-10 mM) were required to completely block uptake in K-depolarized cells. Both trifluoperazine and tamoxifen also inhibited cell proliferation with an IC50 concentration of approximately 5 microM. These drugs, had, however, no effect on 45Ca uptake either in unstimulated or depolarized cells. The results suggest that voltage-gated calcium channels exist in both DU 145 cancer cells and fibroblasts. However, verapamil, in contrast to 1 BR, failed to block these channels in DU 145 cells. The mechanism of antiproliferative action of verapamil may be related to the observed, although paradoxical, increase in cellular calcium. The effect of trifluoperazine and tamoxifen does not involve changes in transmembrane calcium movements but could be mediated by their inhibition of calmodulin-mediated reactions within the cell. PMID:1661414

Batra, S; Popper, L D; Hartley-Asp, B

1991-01-01

398

Project Calcium  

SciTech Connect

Fouling problems in utility boilers have been classified into two principal types: high-temperature and low-temperature fouling. A multiclient-sponsored program was initiated at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) to better understand the causes of low-temperature fouling when burning high-calcium western US coals. The goals of Project Calcium were to define the low-temperature deposition problem, identify the calcium-based components that are responsible for the formation of the deposits, develop ways to predict their formation, and identify possible methods to mitigate the formation of these deposits. To achieve the goals of Project Calcium, detailed sampling of utility boilers and laboratory-scale studies coupled with state-of-the-art methods to determine the inorganic components in coals and coal ash-derived materials were conducted. Boiler Sampling was also performed. The work involved sampling coal, entrained ash, deposits and slags from five full-scale utility boilers combined with detailed advanced characterization of the materials. The results of this work aided in identifying the key phenomena to focus the laboratory studies and in model verification. Field testing was conducted at three utilities.

Hurley, J.P.; Benson, S.A.; Erickson, T.A.; Allan, S.E.; Bieber, J.

1992-09-01

399

Preparation of anhydrous magnesium chloride from ammonium magnesium chloride hexahydrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnesium chloride hydrate can be dehydrated to some extent by heating. However, it is not possible to fully dehydrate magnesium chloride by heating in air because of hydrolytic decomposition. Accordingly, the dehydration should be carried out in hydrogen chloride gas atmosphere. However, this process causes many problems, including HCl gas storage and corrosive nature, consuming a large amount of HCl

Hyoung-Choon Eom; Ho-Sung Yoon

2010-01-01

400

PHOTOOXIDATION OF ALLYL CHLORIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The photooxidation of allyl chloride was studied by irradiation either in 100-L Teflon bags or in a 22.7-cu m Teflon smog chamber in the presence of added NOx. In the absence of added hydrocarbons, the reaction involves a Cl atom chain, which leads to a highly reactive system. A ...

401

Lithium thionyl chloride battery  

SciTech Connect

The discharge rate and internal conductivity of electrochemical cell including a lithium anode, and a cathode and an electrolyte including LiAlCl4 and SOC2 is improved by the addition of an amount of a mixture containing AlCl3 and butyl pyridinium chloride.

Saathoff, D.J.; Venkatasetty, H.V.

1982-10-19

402

SOURCE ASSESSMENT: POLYVINYL CHLORIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes data on air emissions from the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) industry. PVC is manufactured by 20 companies at 35 plants. Each plant uses one or more of four possible polymerization processes: (1) suspension polymerization, (2) emulsion polymerization, (3) bulk p...

403

Chloride chemical form in various types of fly ash  

SciTech Connect

Chloride content is a critical problem for the reuse of fly ash as a raw material in cement, and the method used by recyclers to reduce the fly ash chloride content depends on the chemical form of the chlorides. However, limited information is available on the quantitative distribution of chlorides and the identity of some chlorides such as Friedel's salt. We examined chloride forms and percentages using X-ray absorption near edge structure and X-ray diffraction analyses, as well as corresponding washing experiments. Approximately 15% of the chlorine in raw fly ash was estimated to be in the form of NaCl, 10% in KCl, 50% in CaCl{sub 2}, and the remainder in the form of Friedel's salt. Fly ash collected in a bag filter with the injection of calcium hydroxide for acid gas removal (CaFA) contained 35% chlorine as NaCl, 11% as KCl, 37% as CaCl{sub 2}, 13% as Friedel's salt, and the remaining 4% as CaClOH. In fly ash collected in a bag filter with the injection of sodium bicarbonate for acid gas removal (NaFA), approximately 79% of chlorine was in NaCl, 12% was in KCl, and 9% was in Friedel's salt. 25 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

Fenfen Zhu; Masaki Takaoka; Kenji Shiota; Kazuyuki Oshita; Yoshinori Kitajima [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering

2008-06-01

404

Colorimetric calcium-response of ?-lactosylated ?-oxo-bis-[5,15- meso-diphenylporphyrinatoiron(III)  

Microsoft Academic Search

?-Lactosylated 5,15-meso-diphenylporphyrinatoiron(III) chloride was prepared by ironization of the corresponding free base porphyrin having acetylated lactoside-units followed by deacetylation with ammonia in a water–methanol mixture. The resultant 5,15-meso-bis(?-lactosylphenyl)porphyrinatoiron(III) chloride showed unique colorimetric response to calcium cation. This colorimetric response is calcium-specific and no other cations, such as sodium, potassium, or magnesium ions induced such colorimetric response. Lines of evidence including

Teruaki Hasegawa; Munenori Numata; Masayoshi Asai; Masayuki Takeuchi; Seiji Shinkai

2005-01-01

405

Restoration of Membrane Excitability of Calcium-deficient Muscles by Anodal Polarization  

Microsoft Academic Search

IT is well known that marked electrophysiological and biochemical disturbances occur in nerve and muscle immersed in calcium-free Ringer's solution1. In the present experiment, isolated frog (Rana pipiens) sartorius muscles were used. When they were soaked in calcium-free Ringer solution (112 mM sodium chloride ; 2 mM potassium chloride ; 2.4 mM sodium bicarbonate), initial hyper-excitability was followed by a

K. Koketsu; K. Noda

1960-01-01

406

Removal of hydrogen chloride from high temperature coal gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chlorine content of U.S. coals ranges from 0.01 to 0.5%, and some coals in U.K. contain as high as 1.0% chlorine. This element is present in the coal mainly as alkali chlorides, but it also occurs as oxychlorides of calcium and magnesium. The presence of HCl in the coal gas can lead to corrosion of metallic and ceramic components

G. N. Krishnan; B. J. Wood; G. T. Tong; V. P. Kothari

1988-01-01

407

Topotactic exchange and intercalation of calcium phosphate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The precursor (NH4)2Ca(H2PO4)2?H2O (CaAP) compound was obtained by combining a calcium chloride solution with dibasic ammonium phosphate. After submitting it to a thermal treatment, crystalline calcium phosphate, Ca(H2PO4)2?H2O (CaP) was isolated. X-ray diffraction patterns for this compound indicated good crystallinity, with a peak at 2?=12.8°, to give an interlamellar distance of 697 pm, which changed to 1550 pm, when the

Cicero B. A. Lima; Claudio Airoldi

2004-01-01

408

Upregulation of parathyroid VDR expression by extracellular calcium is mediated by ERK1/2-MAPK signaling pathway.  

PubMed

We have previously demonstrated that the activation of rat parathyroid calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) upregulates VDR expression in vivo (Garfia B, Cañadillas S, Luque F, Siendones E, Quesada M, Almadén Y, Aguilera-Tejero E, Rodríguez M. J Am Soc Nephrol 13: 2945-2952, 2002; Rodriguez ME, Almaden Y, Cañadillas S, Canalejo A, Siendones E, Lopez I, Aguilera-Tejero E, Martin D, Rodriguez M. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 292: F1390-F1395, 2007). The present study was designed to characterize the signaling system that mediates the stimulation of parathyroid VDR gene expression by extracellular calcium. Experiments were performed in vitro by the incubation of rat parathyroid glands and in vivo with normal and uremic (Nx) rats receiving injections of CaCl(2) or EDTA to obtain hypercalcemic or hypocalcemic clamps. A high calcium concentration increased VDR expression. The addition of arachidonic acid (AA) to the low-calcium medium produced an increase in VDR mRNA of the same magnitude as that observed with high calcium. The addition of ionophore to the low-calcium medium also increased VDR mRNA expression. High calcium or the addition of AA to the low-calcium medium induced the activation (phosphorylation) of ERK1/2-MAPK. The specific inhibition of the ERK1/2-MAPK activity prevented the stimulation of VDR expression by high calcium or AA. These results suggest that AA regulates parathyroid VDR gene expression through the activation of the ERK1/2-MAPK. CaSR activation induced the activation of transcription factor Sp1, but not of NF-?B p50 or p65 or activator protein-1. The addition of AA to the low-calcium medium increased specific DNA-binding activity of Sp1 to almost the same level as high calcium, which was prevented by the inhibition of ERK1/2. Furthermore, mithramycin A (a Sp1 inhibitor) prevented the upregulation of VDR mRNA by high calcium. Finally, both sham and Nx hypercalcemic rats showed similar increased levels of VDR mRNA compared with sham and Nx hypocalcemic rats. Our results demonstrate that extracellular calcium stimulates VDR expression in parathyroid glands through the elevation of the cytosolic calcium level and the stimulation of the PLA(2)-AA-dependent ERK1/2-pathway. Furthermore, the transcription factor Sp1 mediates this effect. PMID:20181667

Cañadillas, Sagrario; Canalejo, Rocio; Rodriguez-Ortiz, Maria Encarnacion; Martinez-Moreno, Julio Manuel; Estepa, Jose Carlos; Zafra, Rafael; Perez, Jose; Muñoz-Castañeda, Juan Rafael; Canalejo, Antonio; Rodriguez, Mariano; Almaden, Yolanda

2010-02-24

409

Chloride removal from plutonium alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

SRP is evaluating a program to recover plutonium from a metallic alloy that will contain chloride salt impurities. Removal of chloride to sufficiently low levels to prevent damaging corrosion to canyon equipment is feasible as a head-end step following dissolution. Silver nitrate and mercurous nitrate were each successfully used in laboratory tests to remove chloride from simulated alloy dissolver solution

1983-01-01

410

Sodium Chloride (Catheter Flush) Injection  

MedlinePLUS

... use a sodium chloride flush several times a day. Your health care provider will determine the number of sodium chloride flushes you will need a day. ... health care provider probably will give you several days supply of sodium chloride. You will be told ...

411

Calcium and bone disease  

PubMed Central

Calcium transport and calcium signaling are of basic importance in bone cells. Bone is the major store of calcium and a key regulatory organ for calcium homeostasis. Bone, in major part, responds to calcium-dependent signals from the parathyroids and via vitamin D metabolites, although bone retains direct response to extracellular calcium if parathyroid regulation is lost. Improved understanding of calcium transporters and calcium-regulated cellular processes has resulted from analysis of genetic defects, including several defects with low or high bone mass. Osteoblasts deposit calcium by mechanisms including phosphate and calcium transport with alkalinization to absorb acid created by mineral deposition; cartilage calcium mineralization occurs by passive diffusion and phosphate production. Calcium mobilization by osteoclasts is mediated by acid secretion. Both bone forming and bone resorbing cells use calcium signals as regulators of differentiation and activity. This has been studied in more detail in osteoclasts, where both osteoclast differentiation and motility are regulated by calcium.

Blair, Harry C.; Robinson, Lisa J.; Huang, Christopher L.-H.; Sun, Li; Friedman, Peter A.; Schlesinger, Paul H.; Zaidi, Mone

2013-01-01

412

The effect of the electrochemical chloride extraction treatment on steel-reinforced mortar. Part II: Microstructural characterization  

SciTech Connect

A study has been made of the changes in cement composition and microstructures resulting from electrochemical chloride extraction applied to mortar samples in which the chlorides were added with the mixing water, ingressed by ponding with an NaCl solution, or both. After exposure for 1 year, specimens with and without chlorides were subjected to an electrochemical chloride extraction treatment. Microstructural analyses of fracture surfaces through the steel/mortar interface revealed a significant alteration of the cementitious phases. In untreated samples, calcium-silicon-rich phases consistent with Types I and II calcium silicate hydrate were observed. After the extraction treatment, these phases were not detectable and instead, sodium-rich, iron-rich, and calcium-aluminum-rich phases were observed.

Marcotte, T.D.; Hansson, C.M.; Hope, B.B.

1999-10-01

413

Chloride-Induced Stress Corrosion Cracking of Powder Metallurgy Duplex Stainless Steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chloride-induced stress corrosion cracking (SCC) resistance of nitrogen-alloyed, powder metallurgically (P\\/M) produced and hot isostatically pressed (HIP) duplex stainless steels (DSS) was investigated and compared to the SCC resistance of two commercial wrought (forged) DSS. Constant-strain (deflection) SCC tests with four-point, loaded-bend specimens were performed in aerated 50 wt% calcium chloride solution at 100 C with pH = 6.5

A. Laitinen; H. Haenninen

1996-01-01

414

Acute and chronic effects of lithium chloride on physiological and psychological measures in normals  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the acute experiment six healthy volunteers were given orally two doses of lithium chloride, 16 and 32 mmol, and placebo sodium chloride 32 mmol in a double-blind standardized procedure, with a 1-week interval between treatments. Compared to sodium, lithium produced a decrease in subjective well-being, decrease of skin conductance fluctuations, and increase in plasma calcium concentrations. Dose-related effects were

I. G. Karniol; J. Dalton; M. H. Lader

1978-01-01

415

Calcium Nephrolithiasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nephrolithiasis is a major cause of morbidity involving the urinary tract. The prevalence of this disease in the United States\\u000a increased from 3.8% in the 1970s to 5.2% in the 1990s. There were nearly 2 million physician office visits for nephrolithiasis\\u000a in 2000, and estimated annual costs totaled $2 billion. About 80% of stones are composed of calcium oxalate with

Zachary Z. BrenerJames; James F. Winchester; Michael Bergman

416

The effect of high sodium intake on bone mineral content in rats fed a normal calcium or a low calcium diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of high sodium intake on bone mineral content of rats fed a normal (0.6% Ca) or a low (0.02% Ca) calcium diet was studied. Rats on a normal calcium diet given 1.8% sodium chloride to drink showed persistent and significant hypercalciuria and subnormal bone mineral content. Total calcium content of femur was significantly lower after 4 months (pp<0.001).

A. Y. S. Chan; P. Poon; E. L. P. Chan; S. L. M. Fung; R. Swaminathan

1993-01-01

417

Studies on endogenous circulating calcium entry blocker and stimulator  

SciTech Connect

Several synthetic compounds have been studied extensively for their calcium entry blockade and stimulation in smooth muscles. It is hypothesized that there should be endogenous substances which control calcium entry into cells. We recently investigated the effect of some vasoactive hormones on calcium entry. Our studies on rat tail artery helical strip showed that the in vitro vasoconstriction produced by arginine vasopressin (AVP) decreased stepwise with decreasing concentration of both calcium. After exposure of the tail artery to calcium-free Ringer's solution for 1 minute or longer, the tissue lost its ability to respond to AVP. Subsequent addition of calcium to the medium produced immediate contraction. Measurements of low affinity lanthanum resistant pool of calcium with /sup 45/Ca showed that AVP increased calcium uptake by tail artery in a dose-dependent manner. In another study rat tail artery helical strip indicated that the vasorelaxing action of parathyroid hormone (PTH) was related to an inhibition of calcium uptake. AVP or 60 mM potassium chloride increased the low affinity lanthanum resistant pool of calcium in rate tail artery and PTH inhibited the increase. In conclusion, AVP and PTH may behave like endogenous calcium entry stimulator and inhibitor respectively in vascular tissues.

Pang, P.K.T.; Yang, M.C.M.

1986-03-01

418

Highly conductive carbon nanotube matrix accelerates developmental chloride extrusion in central nervous system neurons by increased expression of chloride transporter KCC2.  

PubMed

Exceptional mechanical and electrical properties of carbon nanotubes (CNT) have attracted neuroscientists and neural tissue engineers aiming to develop novel devices that interface with nervous tissues. In the central nervous system (CNS), the perinatal chloride shift represents a dynamic change that forms the basis for physiological actions of ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) as an inhibitory neurotransmitter, a process of fundamental relevance for normal functioning of the CNS. Low intra-neuronal chloride concentrations are maintained by a chloride-extruding transporter, potassium chloride cotransporter 2 (KCC2). KCC2's increasing developmental expression underlies the chloride shift. In neural injury, repressed KCC2 expression plays a co-contributory role by corrupting inhibitory neurotransmission. Mechanisms of Kcc2 up-regulation are thus pertinent because of their medical relevance, yet they remain elusive. Here, it is shown that primary CNS neurons originating from the cerebral cortex, cultured on highly-conductive few-walled-CNT (fwCNT) have a strikingly accelerated chloride shift caused by increased KCC2 expression. KCC2 upregulation is dependent on neuronal voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC) and, furthermore, on calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II, which is linked to VGCC-mediated calcium-influx. It is also demonstrated that accelerated Kcc2 transcription in brain-slices prepared from genetically-engineered reporter mice, in which Kcc2 promoter drives luciferase, when the cerebral cortex of these mice is exposed to fwCNT-coated devices. Based on these findings, whether fwCNT can enhance neural engineering devices for the benefit of neural injury conditions associated with elevated neuronal intracellular chloride concentration-such as pain, epilepsy, traumatic neural injury and ischemia-can now be addressed. Taken together, our novel insights illustrate how fwCNTs can promote low neuronal chloride in individual neurons and thus inhibitory transmission in neural circuits. PMID:23229576

Liedtke, Wolfgang; Yeo, Michele; Zhang, Hongbo; Wang, Yiding; Gignac, Michelle; Miller, Sara; Berglund, Ken; Liu, Jie

2012-12-10

419

Chloride and Salinity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning activity from the Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) will provide a good introduction for students studying chloride and salinity. A list of required materials is included as well as the step by step procedure for conducting the experiment. Student worksheets are also included. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

2011-07-15

420

Oxomemazine hydro-chloride  

PubMed Central

In the title compound [systematic name: 3-(5,5-dioxo­phen­othia­zin-10-yl)-N,N,2-trimethyl­propanaminium chloride], C18H23N2O2S+·Cl?, the dihedral angle between the two outer aromatic rings of the phenothia­zine unit is 30.5?(2)°. In the crystal, the components are linked by N—H?Cl and C—H?Cl hydrogen bonds and C—H?? inter­actions.

Siddegowda, M. S.; Butcher, Ray J.; Akkurt, Mehmet; Yathirajan, H. S.; Ramesh, A. R.

2011-01-01

421

Immobilization of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens MBL27 cells for enhanced antimicrobial protein production using calcium alginate beads.  

PubMed

Cell immobilization is one of the common techniques for increasing the overall cell concentration and productivity. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens MBL27 cells were immobilized in calcium alginate beads and it is a promising method for repeated AMP (antimicrobial protein) production. The present study aimed at determining the optimal conditions for immobilization of B. amyloliquefaciens MBL27 cells in calcium alginate beads and the operational stability for enhanced production of the AMP. AMP production with free and immobilized cells was also done. In batch fermentation, maximum AMP production (7300 AU (arbitrary units)/ml against Staphylococcus aureus) was obtained with immobilized cells in shake flasks under optimized parameters such as 3% (w/v) sodium alginate, 136 mM CaCl2 with 350 alginate beads/flask of 2.7-3.0 mm diameter. In repeated cultivation, the highest activity was obtained after the second cycle of use and approx. 94% production was noted up to the fifth cycle. The immobilized cells of B. amyloliquefaciens MBL27 in alginate beads are more efficient for the production of AMP and had good stability. The potential application of AMP as a wound healant and the need for development of economical methods for improved production make whole cell immobilization an excellent alternative method for enhanced AMP production. PMID:21044046

Kumaravel, Vijayalakshmi; Gopal, Suseela Rajakumar

2010-12-01

422

Effects of calcium-chelating agents and pasteurisation on certain properties of calcium-fortified soy milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Addition of 25mM calcium chloride to soy milk reduced pH, increased ionic calcium and caused it to coagulate. The effects of different chelating agents were investigated on selected physicochemical properties of soy milk and on preventing coagulation. The soy milks were then pasteurised to examine how heat treatment changed some of these properties as well as to evaluate their effects

Pattavara Pathomrungsiyounggul; Michael J. Lewis; Alistair S. Grandison

2010-01-01

423

Properties of the calcium-activated chloride current in heart  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used the whole cell patch clamp technique to study transient outward currents of single rabbit atrial cells. A large transient current, I A, was blocked by 4-aminopyridine (4AP) and\\/or by depolarized holding potentials. After block of I A, a smaller transient current remained. It was completely blocked by nisoldipine, cadmium, ryanodine, or caffeine, which indicates that all of the

ANDREW C. ZYGMUNT; W. R. GIBBONS

1992-01-01

424

Calcium-activated Chloride Conductance in Frog Olfactory Cilia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have measured the effects of cytoplasmic Ca*+ on the conductance of single cilia excised from frog olfactory re- ceptor neurons. When free cytoplasmic Ca*+ is buffered at 0.1 PM, ciliary conductance is low. As Ca*+ is increased, ciliary conductance increases. Maximal conductance aver- ages sevenfold higher than that measured in the absence of Ca*+. We estimate that the KY1

Steven J. Kleene; Robert C. Gesteland

1991-01-01

425

Advanced Calcium-Thionyl Chloride High-Power Battery.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recently we have made a breakthrough in the development of two advanced Ca-TC systems which have much better electric storage properties than the state-of-the-art Ca-SOC cell. This has been done by replacing the CaX2 (X=A1C14) electrolyte by SrX2 (type A)...

E. Peled

1989-01-01

426

Calcium chloride: A new solution for frozen coal  

SciTech Connect

Few situations can strike more terror into the hearts of utility and industrial powerplant managers than the arrival of hopper cars loaded with solidly frozen coal. If the cars aren't emptied and returned to the railroad, usually within about 48 hours, demurrage (the equipment-detention charge) begins and can quickly rise to $50 or more per day per car. All to frequently, the hasty solution is to assign $16/hr workers the task of manually breaking up the frozen coal, using techniques that the mining industry considered obsolete 50 years ago. A CaCl/sub 2/ system represents a small investment. Either in dry or liquid form, the chemical is inexpensive and is consumed only when it is needed. The essential equipment, which is easy to operate and maintain, consists primarily of a storage tank, a pump, the necessary piping or hose, and either a fixed or portable spray applicator. A flowmeter will monitor the application rate, and the tank may be optionally heated. Application cost, including labor, for CaCl/sub 2/ is usually between $2.65 and $3.25 per treated ton. This is approximately half the cost of energy, per ton of coal, consumed by a thaw shed. In an emergency, when railcar demurrage costs are building at $50 or more per day per car, CaCl/sub 2/ is not only an inexpensive solution; it is possibly the only practical answer to the frozen-coal problem (see box, below). When used by itself, CaCl/sub 2/ minimizes the cost and frustration of unloading frozen coal because labor, equipment, chemical, energy, and maintenance costs are all held in tight control. When used to complement mechanical and/or thermal techniques, it increases unloading capacity, thereby improving productivity and helping to control all costs of cold-weather coal handling.

Boley, D.G.

1984-01-01

427

Extracellular calcium is involved in egg yolk-induced head-to-head agglutination of bull sperm.  

PubMed

Head-to-head agglutination of bull sperm occurs when semen is highly diluted in an egg yolk-citrate diluent without streptomycin. The objectives were to investigate causes of sperm agglutination and the underlying mechanism. Aliquots of bull semen were diluted in a base diluent (BD) supplemented with various test components and the percentage of agglutinated sperm (% AggSp) was quantified at 1, 5, 24, 48, and 72 h of incubation. When sperm were incubated at 22 °C, no agglutination was observed in BD for up to 72 h, whereas the % AggSp was 5.0, 41.7, 72.2, 91.1, and 92.8% in BD + 5% egg yolk (BD + EY) at 1, 5, 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. However, no sperm agglutination was observed in BD + EY if incubation temperature was 37 °C. Addition of 5 or 10 mM ethylenebis (oxyethyleneni-trilo) tetra-acetic acid to BD + EY reduced the % AggSp from 95% to <5% at 72 h (P < 0.001), but addition of 5 mM CaCl(2) to BD failed to induce sperm agglutination in the absence of egg yolk, implicating calcium and other factors in egg yolk. Addition of the citrate-soluble fraction (CSF) of egg yolk to BD induced sperm agglutination similar to whole egg yolk, whereas water- and saline-soluble fractions of egg yolk were ineffective. The sperm-agglutinating efficacy of CSF (the % AggSp = 95% at 72 h) was reduced by dialysis (20%; P < 0.05), partially restored by addition of 5 mM CaCl2 (70%; P < 0.05), but the calcium effect was neutralized by addition of 5 mM ethylenebis (oxyethyleneni-trilo) tetra-acetic acid (1.7%; P < 0.05), again implicating calcium. Addition of 30 ?M of a protein kinase A inhibitor (H-89) to an agglutinating diluent failed to inhibit sperm agglutination, whereas addition of 2 mM of a cAMP analogue, dbcAMP, to a nonagglutinating diluent failed to induce sperm agglutination. Agglutination status had no effect on sperm plasma membrane/acrosome status and mitochondrial membrane potential. In conclusion, calcium and other component(s) in the CSF of egg yolk induced head-to-head agglutination of bull sperm in a time- and temperature-dependent manner. Although the mechanism of agglutination was not determined, the cAMP- protein kinase A signaling pathway was not involved. PMID:22925643

Yang, D H; McMillan, A G; Standley, N T; Shannon, P; Xu, Z Z

2012-08-24

428

The influence of chloride binding on the chloride induced corrosion risk in reinforced concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chloride binding by the cement in concrete may affect the rate of chloride ingress and chloride threshold level which in turn determine the time to chloride induced corrosion initiation. In this work, a theoretical assessment of the influence of binding when chloride ingress results from diffusion, is presented. While chloride binding reduces the free chloride content within the concrete, it

G. K. Glass; N. R. Buenfeld

2000-01-01

429

Liquid-liquid-solid equilibria for the ternary systems butanols + water + sodium chloride or + potassium chloride  

SciTech Connect

Liquid-liquid-solid equilibria for the ternary systems water + sodium chloride + 2-butanol, water + sodium chloride + 2-methyl-1-propanol, water + sodium chloride + 2-methyl-2-propanol, water + potassium chloride + 1-butanol, water + potassium chloride + 2-butanol, water + potassium chloride + 2-methyl-1-propanol, and water + potassium chloride + 2-methyl-2-propanol have been measured at 25 C.

Gomis, V.; Ruiz, F.; Asensi, J.C.; Saquete, M.D. [Univ. de Alicante (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica

1996-03-01

430

Comparison of patients with idiopathic calcium phosphate and calcium oxalate stones.  

PubMed

Our primary objective was to test the hypothesis that a defect in acidification is more common in patients who have idiopathic calcium phosphate kidney stones than in those whose stones are formed mainly of calcium oxalate. Additionally, other risk factors might differ for these 2 stone types. Urine pH was measured serially over 24 hours, and along with ammonium and titratable acid, it was measured before and serially after ingestion of ammonium chloride in 3 groups of subjects: 24 patients with predominantly calcium phosphate stones, 30 patients with calcium oxalate stones, and 15 health non-stone-formers. Twenty-six parameters potentially related to stone formation and acidification were assayed on urines collected over 24 hours, and 15 parameters on blood. The data base was a computerized list of 5900 analyses of stones from patients living in Newfoundland. Patients not known by their physician to have had urinary tract infection, anatomical abnormality, hyperparathyroidism, or renal tubular acidosis were asked to participate in the study. Differences between means were considered significant if p values were less than 0.05 for F by analysis of variance and also less than 0.01 by t-test. In all patients with calcium oxalate stones and all non-stone-formers, urine acidified to pH less than 5.25, but in 8 of the 23 phosphate stone formers who completed the ammonium chloride study urine failed to acidify to pH less than 5.25. As all 8 had normal values for venous pH, total CO2, and chloride, they were considered to have incomplete renal tubular acidosis (IRTA). The 8 phosphate stone formers with IRTA had greater mean values for urine pH on all 9 specimens collected serially over 24 hours (all means greater than 6.2), and after administration of ammonium chloride (p less than 0.01), as well as lower mean values for urine titratable acid excretion (p less than 0.01), both after administration of ammonium chloride and in 24-hour urine samples, compared with the remaining phosphate stone formers whose urine acidified and the oxalate and non-stone-forming control groups. Nearly all the phosphate stone formers had 1 or more risk factors for stone formation, but with frequencies not significantly higher than those found in the oxalate group. Hypercalciuria and hypocitruria were the commonest, but increased oxalate or urate also occurred. Thus, idiopathic calcium phosphate stone formation can be associated with 1 or more of several risk factors, and, with the possible exception of those with IRTA, treatment should be similar to that given to patients with calcium oxalate stones. PMID:1956278

Gault, M H; Chafe, L L; Morgan, J M; Parfrey, P S; Harnett, J D; Walsh, E A; Prabhakaran, V M; Dow, D; Colpitts, A

1991-11-01

431

Coronary Calcium Scan  

MedlinePLUS

... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Coronary Calcium Scan? A coronary calcium scan is a test ... you have calcifications in your coronary arteries. Coronary Calcium Scan Figure A shows the position of the ...

432

Get Enough Calcium  

MedlinePLUS

... Physical Activity > Nutrition > Get Enough Calcium Get Enough Calcium The Basics Take Action! Ver en español Content ... August 28, 2013 The Basics Your body needs calcium to build strong bones when you are young ...

433

Calcium and bones (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Calcium is one of the most important minerals for the growth, maintenance, and reproduction of the human ... body, are continually being re-formed and incorporate calcium into their structure. Calcium is essential for the ...

434

Calcium and Bone Health  

MedlinePLUS

... to... Añadir en... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks Calcium and Bone Health Bones play many roles in ... with osteoporosis, please visit the National Osteoporosis Foundation .* Calcium Calcium is a mineral needed by the body ...

435

Calcium source (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Getting enough calcium to keep bones from thinning throughout a person's life may be made more difficult if that person has ... as a tendency toward kidney stones, for avoiding calcium-rich food sources. Calcium deficiency also effects the ...

436

Chloride inhibition of nitrite uptake for non-teleost Actinopterygiian fishes.  

PubMed

Fish that transport environmental chloride with a gill uptake mechanism (gill epithelial Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-)cotransport exchange system), also transport nitrite into plasma through the same mechanism. Because of the relationship between nitrite uptake and the gill chloride uptake mechanism, nitrite uptake can provide insight regarding the method of chloride uptake for fish. This study was designed to determine if non-teleost fishes concentrate nitrite in their plasma, and to determine if chloride inhibits nitrite uptake in non-teleost fish. To determine if bowfin Amia calva, spotted gar Lepisosteus oculatus, alligator gar Atractosteus spatula, and paddlefish Polyodon spathula concentrate environmental nitrite in their plasma, individuals were exposed to concentrations of 0, 1, 10, or 100 mg/L nitrite-N. After exposure, all species had plasma nitrite-N concentrations greater than environmental levels. To determine if chloride inhibits nitrite uptake for spotted gar, alligator gar, and paddlefish, fish were exposed to 1 mg/L nitrite-N and 20 mg/L chloride as calcium chloride, or to 1 mg/L nitrite-N only. Chloride effectively prevented nitrite from being concentrated in the plasma of all species. It appears that non-teleost fish concentrate nitrite in their plasma via their chloride uptake mechanism and that this is an ancestral characteristic for teleost. PMID:17344081

Boudreaux, Perry J; Ferrara, Allyse M; Fontenot, Quenton C

2007-01-27

437

Biochemical and functional interactions of a selective kappa opioid agonist with calcium  

SciTech Connect

The discovery of the selective kappa opioid receptor agonist, U-50488H, has provided a tool for the study of the mechanisms and function of the kappa receptor-effector. We have investigated the interactions of this compound with calcium in several biochemical and functional studies to assess the involvement of calcium mechanisms in the kappa receptor-linked effector. In rat brain synaptosomes, U-50488H attenuated the uptake of /sup 45/Ca++ induced by K+ (40 mM) depolarization. This effect was concentration-related (U-50488H 10(-5) to 10(-7) M), was apparent in short (8-second) but not longer (1-minute) term incubations, and did not occur in the presence of a non-polarizing concentration (5.6 mM) of K+. Naloxone (10(-7) M) did not block this effect of U-50488H (10(-6) M), and higher concentrations (10(-5) M) alone blocked calcium uptake. We have found that the binding of the depolarizing amino acid analog, kainic acid, is enhanced by CaCl2. U-50488H (10(-4) to 10(-6) M) blocks this enhancement of /sup 3/H-kainic acid binding in vitro and also blocks the in vivo effects of kainic acid. In mice, intravenous injection of kainic acid causes scratching, convulsions, and death, depending on the dose administered. U-50488H blocks all of these effects (ED50 = 4.5 mg/kg for antagonism of convulsions induced by 27.5 mg/kg kainic acid). The convulsions induced by intracerebroventricularly administered kainic acid are also blocked by U-50488H as are those induced by similarly administered Bay K 8644, a calcium channel activator. All of these anticonvulsant effects of U-50488H were antagonized by naltrexone. Together these data indicate that the kappa agonist U-50488H has functionally relevant interactions with depolarization-related Ca++ mechanisms in the central nervous system.

VonVoigtlander, P.F.; Ochoa, M.C.; Lewis, R.A.

1987-01-01

438

Calcium-labile mitotic spindles isolated from sea urchin eggs (Lytechinus variegatus)  

PubMed Central

We isolated calcium-labile mitotic spindles from eggs of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus, using a low ionic strength, EGTA lysis buffer that contined 5.0 mM EGTA, 0.5 mM MgCl2, 10-50 mM PIPES, pH 6.8, with 1% Nonidet P-40 (detergent) and 20-25% glycerol. Isolated spindles were stored in EGTA buffer with 50% glycerol for 5-6 wk without deterioration. The isolated spindles were composed primarily of microtubules with the chromosomes attached. No membranes were seen. Isolated spindles, perfused with EGTA buffer to remove the detergent and glycerol, had essentially the same birefringent retardation (BR) as spindles in vivo at the same mitotic stage. Even in the absence of glycerol and exogenous tubulin, the isolated spindles were relatively stable in the EGTA buffer: BR decayed slowly to about half the initial value within 30-45 min. However, both the rate and extent of BR decay increased with concentrations of Ca2+ above 0.2-0.5 muM as assayed using Ca-EGTA buffers (0.2 mM EGTA, 0.5 mM MgCl2, 50 mM PIPES, pH 6.8, plus various amounts of CaCl2). Microtubules depolymerized almost completely in < 6 min at Ca2+ concentrations of 2 muM and within several seconds at 10 muM Ca2+. Of several divalent cations tested, only Sr2+ caused comparable changes in BR. The absence of membranes in the isolated spindles appeared to be associated with a lack of calcium- sequestering ability. Our results suggest that calcium ions play an important role in the depolymerization of spindle microtubules and that membrane components may function within the mitotic apparatus of living cells to sequester and release calcium ions during mitosis.

1980-01-01

439

Cch1 and Mid1 Are Functionally Required for Vegetative Growth under Low-Calcium Conditions in the Phytopathogenic Ascomycete Botrytis cinerea  

PubMed Central

In the filamentous phytopathogen Botrytis cinerea, the Ca2+/calcineurin signaling cascade has been shown to play an important role in fungal growth, differentiation, and virulence. This study deals with the functional characterization of two components of this pathway, the putative calcium channel proteins Cch1 and Mid1. The cch1 and mid1 genes were deleted, and single and double knockout mutants were analyzed during different stages of the fungal life cycle. Our data indicate that Cch1 and Mid1 are functionally required for vegetative growth under conditions of low extracellular calcium, since the growth of both deletion mutants is strongly impaired when they are exposed to the Ca2+-chelating agents EGTA and 1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N?,N?-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA). The impact of external Ca2+ was investigated by supplementing with CaCl2 and the ionophore A23187, both of which resulted in elevated growth for all mutants. However, deletion of either gene had no impact on germination, sporulation, hyphal morphology, or virulence. By use of the aequorin reporter system to measure intracellular calcium levels, no differences between the mutant strains and the wild type were obtained. Localization studies revealed a subcellular distribution of the Mid1–green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein in network-like filaments, probably the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes, indicating that Mid1 is not a plasma membrane-located calcium channel in B. cinerea.

Harren, Karin

2013-01-01

440

COMPARISON OF DIFFERENCES BETWEEN PWD/PhJ AND C57BL/6J MICE IN CALCIUM SOLUTION PREFERENCES AND CHORDA TYMPANI NERVE RESPONSES  

PubMed Central

We used the C57BL/6J (B6) and PWD/PhJ (PWD) mouse strains to investigate the controls of calcium intake. Relative to the B6 strain, the PWD strain had higher preferences in two-bottle choice tests for CaCl2, calcium lactate (CaLa), MgCl2, citric acid and quinine hydrochloride, but not for sucrose, KCl or NaCl. We also measured taste-evoked chorda tympani (CT) nerve activity in response to oral application of these compounds. Electrophysiological results paralleled the preference test results, with larger responses in PWD than in B6 mice for those compounds that were more highly preferred for the former strain. The strain differences were especially large for tonic, rather than phasic, chorda tympani activity. These data establish the PWD strain as a “calcium-preferring” strain and suggest that differences between B6 and PWD mice in taste transduction or a related peripheral event contributes to the differences between the strains in preferences for calcium solutions.

Cherukuri, Chandra M.; McCaughey, Stuart A.; Tordoff, Michael G.

2011-01-01

441

Cch1 and Mid1 are functionally required for vegetative growth under low-calcium conditions in the phytopathogenic ascomycete Botrytis cinerea.  

PubMed

In the filamentous phytopathogen Botrytis cinerea, the Ca(2+)/calcineurin signaling cascade has been shown to play an important role in fungal growth, differentiation, and virulence. This study deals with the functional characterization of two components of this pathway, the putative calcium channel proteins Cch1 and Mid1. The cch1 and mid1 genes were deleted, and single and double knockout mutants were analyzed during different stages of the fungal life cycle. Our data indicate that Cch1 and Mid1 are functionally required for vegetative growth under conditions of low extracellular calcium, since the growth of both deletion mutants is strongly impaired when they are exposed to the Ca(2+)-chelating agents EGTA and 1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA). The impact of external Ca(2+) was investigated by supplementing with CaCl(2) and the ionophore A23187, both of which resulted in elevated growth for all mutants. However, deletion of either gene had no impact on germination, sporulation, hyphal morphology, or virulence. By use of the aequorin reporter system to measure intracellular calcium levels, no differences between the mutant strains and the wild type were obtained. Localization studies revealed a subcellular distribution of the Mid1-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein in network-like filaments, probably the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes, indicating that Mid1 is not a plasma membrane-located calcium channel in B. cinerea. PMID:23475703

Harren, Karin; Tudzynski, Bettina

2013-03-08

442

Toxicity of calcium salts to aqueous microorganisms  

SciTech Connect

This article investigates the toxicity of calcium to aqueous microogranisms by means of a procedure developed by VNII VODGEO (All-Union Scientific-Research Institute of Water Supply, Sewer Systems, Hydrotechnical Facilities, and Engineering Hydrogeology), with certain changes in the preparation of the culture water. Proposes that with this method, calcium toxicity can be determined for groups of microorganisms that are among the most important in biochemical wastewater treatment and self-purification of water bodies (saprophytes, phase I and II nitrifiers). Finds that calcium in the form of the hydroxide and chloride is nontoxic under the following conditions: for protozoa in concentrations up to 2 g/liter, for saprophytic bacteria up to 3 g/liter, for phase I nitrifiers up to 1 g/liter, and for phase II nitrifiers up to 0.1 g/liter.

Lakhina, K.G.; Dolganova, A.V.; Yakobi, L.K.

1983-03-01

443

Lurasidone hydro-chloride  

PubMed Central

In the crystal structure of the title compound, C28H37N4O2S+·Cl? [systematic name: 4-(1,2-benzothia­zol-3-yl)-1-({2-[(3,5-dioxo-4-aza­tricyclo­[5.2.1.02,6]decan-4-yl)meth­yl]cyclo­hex­yl}meth­yl)piperazin-1-ium chloride], the anions and cations are linked by N—H?Cl hydrogen bonds. The crystal structure is further stabilized by C—H?? and C—H?O inter­actions.

Zhang, Hua; Wang, Hubo; Zhu, Xueyan; Yuan, Zhedong; Jiang, Huijuan

2012-01-01

444

Neurotoxicity of methyl chloride.  

PubMed

Methyl chloride is encountered in the chemical industry as a methylating agent in the production of butyl rubber, tetramethyl lead, and other products as well as a blowing agent for some polystyrene foams. It is a potent CNS depressant whose principal route of absorption is by inhalation, although it can be absorbed through the skin. Symptoms of the neurotoxicity include headache, drowsiness, giddiness, ataxia, convulsion, and coma. This review focuses on the human case reports of acute and chronic exposures as well as some of the more important inhalation studies conducted with animals. The chemical and physical properties and the more important industrial uses are also discussed. PMID:7038527

Repko, J D

1981-01-01

445

Chloride channels as drug targets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chloride channels represent a relatively under-explored target class for drug discovery as elucidation of their identity and physiological roles has lagged behind that of many other drug targets. Chloride channels are involved in a wide range of biological functions, including epithelial fluid secretion, cell-volume regulation, neuroexcitation, smooth-muscle contraction and acidification of intracellular organelles. Mutations in several chloride channels cause human

Luis J. V. Galietta; Alan S. Verkman

2008-01-01

446

Molecular Structure of Ferric chloride  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ferric chloride is a corrosive chemical, thus, it is used to deodorize sewage and industrial waste by partially reducing to ferrous chloride. It is also employed as an engraving reagent on metal surfaces. Other applications include its use as a flocculating agent in water treatment. Ferric chloride is a hazardous chemical that irritates the skin and eyes and is toxic if ingested, however it can be used as a reagent in pharmaceutical preparations.

2002-08-27

447

Fractional Absorption of Active Absorbable Algal Calcium (AAACa) and Calcium Carbonate Measured by a Dual Stable-Isotope Method  

PubMed Central

With the use of stable isotopes, this study aimed to compare the bioavailability of active absorbable algal calcium (AAACa), obtained from oyster shell powder heated to a high temperature, with an additional heated seaweed component (Heated Algal Ingredient, HAI), with that of calcium carbonate. In 10 postmenopausal women volunteers aged 59 to 77 years (mean ± S.D., 67 ± 5.3), the fractional calcium absorption of AAACa and CaCO3 was measured by a dual stable isotope method. 44Ca-enriched CaCO3 and AAACa were administered in all subjects one month apart. After a fixed-menu breakfast and pre-test urine collection (Urine 0), 42Ca-enriched CaCl2 was intravenously injected, followed by oral administration of 44Ca-enriched CaCO3 without carrier 15 minutes later, and complete urine collection for the next 24 hours (Urine 24). The fractional calcium absorption was calculated as the ratio of Augmentation of 44Ca from Urine 0 to Urine 24/ augmentation of 42Ca from Urine 0 to Urine 24. Differences and changes of 44Ca and 42Ca were corrected by comparing each with 43Ca. Fractional absorption of AAACa (mean ± S.D., 23.1 ± 6.4), was distinctly and significantly higher than that of CaCO3 (14.7 ± 6.4; p = 0.0060 by paired t-test). The mean fractional absorption was approximately 1.57-times higher for AAACa than for CaCO3. The serum 25(OH) vitamin D level was low (mean ± S.D., 14.2 ± 4.95 ng/ml), as is common in this age group in Japan. Among the parameters of the bone and mineral metabolism measured, none displayed a significant correlation with the fractional absorption of CaCO3 and AAACa. Higher fractional absorption of AAACa compared with CaCO3 supports previous reports on the more beneficial effect of AAACa than CaCO3 for osteoporosis.

Uenishi, Kazuhiro; Fujita, Takuo; Ishida, Hiromi; Fujii, Yoshio; Ohue, Mutsumi; Kaji, Hiroshi; Hirai, Midori; Kakumoto, Mikio; Abrams, Steven A.

2010-01-01

448

Fractional absorption of active absorbable algal calcium (AAACa) and calcium carbonate measured by a dual stable-isotope method.  

PubMed

With the use of stable isotopes, this study aimed to compare the bioavailability of active absorbable algal calcium (AAACa), obtained from oyster shell powder heated to a high temperature, with an additional heated seaweed component (Heated Algal Ingredient, HAI), with that of calcium carbonate. In 10 postmenopausal women volunteers aged 59 to 77 years (mean ± S.D., 67 ± 5.3), the fractional calcium absorption of AAACa and CaCO(3) was measured by a dual stable isotope method. (44)Ca-enriched CaCO(3) and AAACa were administered in all subjects one month apart. After a fixed-menu breakfast and pre-test urine collection (Urine 0), (42)Ca-enriched CaCl(2) was intravenously injected, followed by oral administration of (44)Ca-enriched CaCO(3) without carrier 15 minutes later, and complete urine collection for the next 24 hours (Urine 24). The fractional calcium absorption was calculated as the ratio of Augmentation of (44)Ca from Urine 0 to Urine 24/ augmentation of (42)Ca from Urine 0 to Urine 24. Differences and changes of (44)Ca and (42)Ca were corrected by comparing each with (43)Ca. Fractional absorption of AAACa (mean ± S.D., 23.1 ± 6.4), was distinctly and significantly higher than that of CaCO(3 )(14.7 ± 6.4; p = 0.0060 by paired t-test). The mean fractional absorption was approximately 1.57-times higher for AAACa than for CaCO(3). The serum 25(OH) vitamin D level was low (mean ± S.D., 14.2 ± 4.95 ng/ml), as is common in this age group in Japan. Among the parameters of the bone and mineral metabolism measured, none displayed a significant correlation with the fractional absorption of CaCO(3) and AAACa. Higher fractional absorption of AAACa compared with CaCO(3) supports previous reports on the more beneficial effect of AAACa than CaCO(3) for osteoporosis. PMID:22254052

Uenishi, Kazuhiro; Fujita, Takuo; Ishida, Hiromi; Fujii, Yoshio; Ohue, Mutsumi; Kaji, Hiroshi; Hirai, Midori; Kakumoto, Mikio; Abrams, Steven A

2010-07-12

449

The functional role of calcium in photosystem II  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oxygen we breathe, like the fuel we burn with it, is produced by photosynthesis. A series of electron transfer processes, powered by sunlight, ultimately leads to oxidation of water and reduction of carbon dioxide. How plants oxidize water to oxygen is not clear. The active site contains 4 manganese, 1 calcium, and 1 chloride ion as essential cofactors. The

Mohamed Miqyass

2008-01-01

450

Minerals Yearbook, 1989. Calcium and Calcium Compounds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Bureau of Mines publishes reports for a variety of calcium-containing minerals and compounds because of their commercial significance and contribution to the quality of human life. Calcium fluoride is sold as fluorspar; calcium sulfate as gypsum or an...

M. M. Miller

1990-01-01

451

Minerals Yearbook, 1990. Calcium and Calcium Compounds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Bureau of Mines publishes reports for a variety of calcium-containing minerals and compounds because of their commercial significance and contribution to the quality of human life. The 'Calcium and Calcium Compounds Annual Report' includes calciu...

M. M. Miller

1991-01-01

452

Structure of Aluminum Chloride-Sodium Chloride Melts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Equilibrium constants were calculated for reactions governing the species present at 175C in molten mixtures of aluminum chloride and sodium chloride. The equilibria postulated pertain to formation of the complex ions AlCl4(-), Al2Cl7(-), and Al3Cl1o(-) f...

A. A. Fannin D. W. Seegmiller L. A. King

1971-01-01

453

Laboratory study on the high-temperature capture of HCl gas by dry-injection of calcium-based sorbents.  

PubMed

This is a laboratory study on the reduction of combustion-generated hydrochloric acid (HCl) emissions by in-furnace dry-injection of calcium-based sorbents. HCl is a hazardous gaseous pollutant emitted in significant quantities by municipal and hazardous waste incinerators, coal-fired power plants, and other industrial furnaces. Experiments were conducted in a laboratory furnace at gas temperatures of 600-1000 degrees C. HCl gas diluted with N2, and sorbent powders fluidized in a stream of air were introduced into the furnace concurrently. Chlorination of the sorbents occurred in the hot zone of the furnace at gas residence times approximately 1 s. The sorbents chosen for these experiments were calcium formate (CF), calcium magnesium acetate (CMA), calcium propionate (CP), calcium oxide (CX), and calcium carbonate (CC). Upon release of organic volatiles, sorbents calcine to CaO at approximately 700 degrees C, and react with the HCl according to the reaction CaO + 2HCl <=> CaCl2 + H2O. At the lowest temperature case examined herein, 600 degrees C, direct reaction of HCl with CaCO3 may also be expected. The effectiveness of the sorbents to capture HCl was interpreted using the "pore tree" mathematical model for heterogeneous diffusion reactions. Results show that the thin-walled, highly porous cenospheres formed from the pyrolysis and calcination of CF, CMA, and CP exhibited high relative calcium utilization at the upper temperatures of this study. Relative utilizations under these conditions reached 80%. The less costly low-porosity sorbents, calcium carbonate and calcium oxide also performed well. Calcium carbonate reached a relative utilization of 54% in the mid-temperature range, while the calcium oxide reached an 80% relative utilization at the lowest temperature examined. The data matched theoretical predictions of sorbent utilization using the mathematical model, with activation energy and pre-exponential factors for the calcination reaction of 17,000 K and 300,000 (g gas/cm2/s/atm gas), respectively. Thus, the kinetics of the calcination reaction were found to be much faster (approximately 500 times) than those of the sulfation reaction examined previously in this laboratory. PMID:11219704

Shemwell, B; Levendis, Y A; Simons, G A

454

Chloride dependence of growth in bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chloride is an abundant anion on earth but studies analyzing a possible function of chloride in prokaryotes are scarce. To address the question, we have tested 44 different Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria for a chloride dependence or chloride stimulation of growth. None required chloride for growth at their optimal growth (salt) conditions. However, in hyperosmotic media containing high concentrations of

Markus Roeßler; Xaver Sewald; Volker Müller

2003-01-01

455

FTIR investigation of the specific migration of additives from rigid poly(vinyl chloride)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial sunflower oil was epoxidized and used as organic costabiliser for rigid poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) containing zinc and calcium stearates as primary stabilisers and stearic acid as lubricant. For applications in the packaging of foodstuffs, migration testing must be realised. For that purpose, two food simulants were used (sunflower oil and 15% (v\\/v) aqueous ethanol). The test conditions were

D. Atek; N. Belhaneche-Bensemra

2005-01-01

456

Vinyl Chloride -- An Information Resource.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A discussion of the link between exposure to vinyl chloride and the occurrence of toxic, nonmalignant illnesses involving skin, bones, liver, lungs, and blood is provided. The regulatory history of vinyl chloride is outlined. It is pointed out that the po...

T. H. Milby

1978-01-01

457

Molecular Structure of Picryl chloride  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Picryl chloride is ranked as one of the 100 most commonly found explosive and shock sensitive materials. It is made by reacting 2,4,6 trinitrophenol with thionyl chloride. This highly reactive compound is known to be hazardous and toxic, and to cause liver injury in mice. It is often used as a sensitization agent in mice when their cells undergo hypersensitivity studies.

2002-09-20

458

CALCIUM AND VITAMIN D  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Calcium is required for the bone formation phase of bone remodeling. An inadequate intake of calcium results in reduced calcium absorption. This stimulates hormone changes that induce bone remodeling. When the remodeling rate is high, bone loss occurs. With aging, calcium absorption efficiency d...

459

Thermochemistry of Charge-Unsymmetrical Binary Fused Halide Systems. Ii. Mixtures of Magnesium Chloride with the Alkali Chlorides and with Silver Chloride.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The integral enthalpies of mixing of the liquid mixtures of magnesium chloride with the alkali chlorides and with silver chloride were determined calorimetrically. The magnesium chloride-silver chloride system is slightly endothermic, while the alkali chl...

O. J. Kleppa F. G. McCarty

1965-01-01

460

21 CFR 182.8252 - Choline chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Choline chloride. 182.8252 Section 182.8252 Food...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

2009-04-01