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Sample records for calcium chloride melts

  1. Development of an Inert Anode for Electrowinning in Calcium Chloride-Calcium Oxide Melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Shuqiang; Fray, Derek J.

    2010-02-01

    Studies were performed investigating the anodic testing of calcium ruthenate for electrowinning in calcium chloride-calcium oxide melts. The results showed that calcium ruthenate may be suitable as an inert anode in calcium chloride containing melts as it exhibited a low rate of corrosion in melts containing a small amount of calcium oxide, capable of producing oxygen on its surface, and did not contaminate the melt. To reduce the amount of ruthenium in the anode, solid solutions of calcium ruthenate in calcium titanate were investigated. At low concentrations, the solid solution is a semiconductor with a relatively low conductivity at room temperature, but at the temperature of operation, 1173 K, the material is an excellent electronic conductor. The other way of reducing the amount of ruthenium is to coat the solid solution onto a substrate. In this way, the substrate would give the mechanical strength while the coating would give the electrical conductivity and corrosion protection. Calcium ruthenate-based anodes can endure long-term use in the laboratory under an applied electrical field with oxygen being liberated on the anode indicating that these materials are candidates for the electrowining in calcium chloride-calcium oxide melts.

  2. Raman spectroscopic studies of chemical speciation in calcium chloride melts

    SciTech Connect

    Windisch, Charles F.; Lavender, Curt A.

    2005-02-01

    Raman spectroscopy was applied to CaCl2 melts at 900 degrees C under both non-electrolyzed and electrolyzed conditions. The later used titania cathodes supplied by TIMET, Inc. and graphite anodes. Use of pulse-gating to collect the Raman spectra successfully eliminated any interference from black-body radiation and other stray light. The spectrum of molten CaCl2 exhibited no distinct, resolvable bands that could be correlated with a calcium chloride complex similar to MgCl42- in MgCl2 melts. Rather, the low frequency region of the spectrum was dominated by a broad “tail” arising from collective oscillations of both charge and mass in the molten salt “network.” Additions of both CaO and Ca at concentrations of a percent or two resulted in no new features in the spectra. Addition of CO2, both chemically and via electrolysis at concentrations dictated by stability and solubility at 900 degrees C and 1 bar pressure, also produced no new bands that could be correlated with either dissolved CO2 or the carbonate ion. These results indicated that Raman spectroscopy, at least under the conditions evaluated in the research, was not well suited for following the reactions and coordination chemistry of calcium ions, nor species such as dissolved metallic Ca and CO2 that are suspected to impact current efficiency in titanium electrolysis cells using molten CaCl2. Raman spectra of TIMET titania electrodes were successfully obtained as a function of temperature up to 900 degrees C, both in air and in-situ in CaCl2 melts. However, spectra of these electrodes could only be obtained when the material was in the unreduced state. When reduced, either with hydrogen or within an electrolysis cell, the resulting electrodes exhibited no measurable Raman bands under the conditions used in this work.

  3. On the preparation of TiAl alloy by direct reduction of the oxide mixtures in calcium chloride melt

    SciTech Connect

    Prabhat K. Tripathy; Derek J. Fray

    2011-11-01

    electrode in a pool of molten calcium chloride at a temperature of 9000C. The dominant mechanism of the oxygen removal was the ionization of oxygen followed by its subsequent discharge, as CO2/CO, at the anode surface. The removal of oxygen from the oxide mixture helped form the alloy in situ. The presentation shall cover the detailed experimental results pertaining to the preparation, evaluation and characterization of Ti-47Al-2Nb-2Cr (atom%) alloy.

  4. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the requirements of the...

  5. 21 CFR 582.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.1193 Section 582.1193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1193 Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  6. 21 CFR 582.6193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.6193 Section 582.6193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  7. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the requirements of the...

  8. Precipitation of metal nitrides from chloride melts

    SciTech Connect

    Slater, S.A.; Miller, W.E.; Willit, J.L.

    1996-12-31

    Precipitation of actinides, lanthanides, and fission products as nitrides from molten chloride melts is being investigated for use as a final cleanup step in treating radioactive salt wastes generated by electrometallurgical processing of spent nuclear fuel. The radioactive components (eg, fission products) need to be removed to reduce the volume of high-level waste that requires disposal. To extract the fission products from the salt, a nitride precipitation process is being developed. The salt waste is first contacted with a molten metal; after equilibrium is reached, a nitride is added to the metal phase. The insoluble nitrides can be recovered and converted to a borosilicate glass after air oxidation. For a bench-scale experimental setup, a crucible was designed to contact the salt and metal phases. Solubility tests were performed with candidate nitrides and metal nitrides for which there are no solubility data. Experiments were performed to assess feasibility of precipitation of metal nitrides from chloride melts.

  9. 21 CFR 172.330 - Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.330 Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt. The food additive calcium chloride double salt of calcium pantothenate...

  10. 21 CFR 172.330 - Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.330 Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt. The food additive calcium chloride double salt of calcium pantothenate...

  11. 21 CFR 172.330 - Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.330 Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt. The food additive calcium chloride double salt of calcium pantothenate...

  12. 21 CFR 172.330 - Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.330 Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt. The food additive calcium chloride double salt of calcium pantothenate...

  13. 21 CFR 172.330 - Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt... Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.330 Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt. The food additive calcium chloride double salt of calcium pantothenate may be safely used in foods for...

  14. 21 CFR 582.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.1193 Section 582.1193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Purpose...

  15. Anodic Behavior of Alloy 22 in Calcium Chloride and in Calcium Chloride Plus Calcium Nitrate Brines

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, K J; Day, S D; Ilevbare, G O; Whalen, M T; King, K J; Hust, G A; Wong, L L; Estill, J C; Rebak, R B

    2003-05-13

    Alloy 22 (UNS N60622) is a nickel-based alloy, which is extensively used in aggressive industrial applications, especially due to its resistance to localized corrosion and stress corrosion cracking in high chloride environments. The purpose of this work was to characterize the anodic behavior of Alloy 22 in concentrated calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}) brines and to evaluate the inhibitive effect of nitrate, especially to localized corrosion. Standard electrochemical tests such as polarization resistance and cyclic polarization were used. Results show that the corrosion potential of Alloy 22 was approximately -360 mV in the silver-silver chloride (SSC) scale and independent of the tested temperature. Cyclic polarization tests showed that Alloy 22 was mainly susceptible to localized attack in 5 M CaCl{sub 2} at 75 C and higher temperatures. The addition of nitrate in a molar ratio of chloride to nitrate equal to 10 increased the onset of localized corrosion to approximately 105 C. The addition of nitrate to the solution also decreased the uniform corrosion rate and the passive current of the alloy.

  16. On Barium Oxide Solubility in Barium-Containing Chloride Melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaeva, Elena V.; Zakiryanova, Irina D.; Bovet, Andrey L.; Korzun, Iraida V.

    2016-08-01

    Oxide solubility in chloride melts depends on temperature and composition of molten solvent. The solubility of barium oxide in the solvents with barium chloride content is essentially higher than that in molten alkali chlorides. Spectral data demonstrate the existence of oxychloride ionic groupings in such melts. This work presents the results of the BaO solubility in two molten BaCl2-NaCl systems with different barium chloride content. The received data together with earlier published results revealed the main regularities of BaO solubility in molten BaO-BaCl2-MCl systems.

  17. Commercial scale cucumber fermentations brined with calcium chloride instead of sodium chloride

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of low salt cucumber fermentation processes present opportunities to reduce the amount of sodium chloride (NaCl) that reaches fresh water streams from industrial activities. The objective of this research was to translate cucumber fermentation brined with calcium chloride instead of NaCl...

  18. Fermentation of cucumbers brined with calcium chloride instead of sodium chloride

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Generation of waste water containing sodium chloride from cucumber fermentation tank yards could be eliminated if cucumbers were fermented in brines that did not contain this salt. To determine if this is feasible, cucumbers were fermented in brines that contained only calcium chloride to maintain f...

  19. Effect of calcium chloride addition on ice cream structure and quality.

    PubMed

    Costa, F F; Resende, J V; Abreu, L R; Goff, H D

    2008-06-01

    The influence of calcium fortification by the addition of calcium chloride on quality parameters of ice cream based on physical properties was investigated, as was the effect of kappa-carrageenan at modifying the effects of this calcium fortification. Four ice cream mixes of conventional composition, with added kappa-carrageenan (0 or 0.025%) and added calcium chloride (0 or 4.4 g L(-1) = 40 mM of added Ca(2+)), were prepared. Modulated temperature-differential scanning calorimetry was used to investigate the effect of calcium chloride on the nucleation temperature, enthalpy of melting, and freezing point depression. The protein composition of 15.4% (wt/wt) reconstituted skim milk powder solutions with or without 4.4 g L(-1) added CaCl(2) and in the supernatant after ultracentrifugation was determined. Fat particle size distributions in ice cream were characterized by light scattering. Ice crystal sizes before and after temperature cycling were determined by cold-stage light microscopy. The results demonstrated that the addition of calcium chloride led to a substantial increase in ice crystal sizes and in fat partial coalescence, which were exacerbated by the addition of kappa-carrageenan. These results can be explained by the interaction between Ca(2+) ions and casein micelles, rather than any effects on freezing point depression. The calcium ions led to a more compact micelle, less serum beta-casein, and high fat destabilization, all of which would be expected to reduce macromolecular structure and volume occupancy in the unfrozen phase, which led to increased rates of ice recrystallization. PMID:18487638

  20. New uses for calcium chloride solution as a mounting medium.

    PubMed

    Herr, J M

    1992-01-01

    Fresh cross sections of stems (Psilotum nudum, Coleus blumei, and Pelargonium peltatum) and roots (Setcreasea purpurea) 120 microns thick were fixed in FPA50 (formalin: propionic acid: 50% ethanol, 5:5:90, v/v) for 24 hr and stored in 70% ethanol. The sections were transferred to water and then to 1% phloroglucin in 20% calcium chloride solution plus either hydrochloric, nitric, or lactic acid in the following ratios of phloroglucin-CaCl2 solution:acid: 25:4, 20:2, or 15:5. The sections were mounted on slides either in one of the three mixtures or in fresh 20% calcium chloride solution. A rapid reaction of the acid-phloroglucin with lignin produced a deep red color in tracheary elements and an orange-red color in sclerenchyma. Fixed and stored leaf pieces from Nymphaea odorata were autoclaved in lactic acid, washed in two changes of 95% ethanol, transferred to water, and treated with the three acid-phloroglucin-calcium chloride mixtures. The abundant astrosclereids stained an orange-red color similar to that of sclerenchyma in the sections. In addition, a new method is reported for specifically staining lignified tissues. When sections or leaf pieces are stained in aqueous 0.05% toluidine blue O, then placed in 20% calcium chloride solution, all tissues destain except those with lignified or partially lignified cell walls. Thus, toluidine blue O applied as described becomes a reliable specific test for lignin comparable to the acid-phloroglucin test. PMID:1377501

  1. 40 CFR 415.40 - Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... calcium chloride production subcategory. 415.40 Section 415.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.40 Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  2. Selective removal of iron contaminations from zinc-chloride melts by cementation with zinc

    SciTech Connect

    Devilee, R.A.; Sandwijk, A. van; Reuter, M.A.

    1999-08-01

    An investigation into the cementation of iron chloride from a zinc-chloride melt at 400 C has been carried out with zinc powder. The variables studies include preparation of the chloride melt and the amount of zinc added. The effect of lead, copper, and cadmium on cementation of iron has also been investigated. According to the results, it is possible to reduce the iron concentration in zinc-chloride melts to 20 ppm with a small excess of zinc. The preparation of the melt proved to be very important. Insufficient purification of the melt with respect to oxides, hydroxides, and water resulted in a low reaction rate and high residual iron concentration.

  3. Corrosion behavior of silicon nitride, magnesium oxide, and several metals in molten calcium chloride with chlorine

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, D. . Research and Development Center); Sesions, C.E.; Marra, J.E. )

    1992-08-01

    In this paper corrosion studies are described in a molten calcium chloride environment sparged with chlorine gas at 850{degrees}C, both in the melt and in the gas phase above the salt, in support of efforts at Westinghouse Savannah River Company to develop more resistant materials of construction for molten salt processing of plutonium. Corrosion rates and electron microscope analyses are reported for Inconel alloys 601 and 617, tantalum, tungsten, magnesium oxide, and silicon nitride. Silicon nitride exhibited the greatest resistance, showing {lt}0.1 mg/cm{sup 2} {center dot} h loss in both melt and vapor None of the metallic coupons withstood the chlorine vapor environment, although Inconel indicated resistance immersed in the melt if protected from chlorine gas.

  4. Inhibition of nitrite-induced toxicity in channel catfish by calcium chloride and sodium chloride

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tommasso J.R., Wright, M. I.; Simco, B.A.; Davis, K.B.

    1980-01-01

    Environmental chloride has been shown to inhibit methemoglobin formation in fish, thereby offering a protective effect against nitrite toxicity. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were simultaneously exposed to various environmental nitrite and chloride levels (as either CaCl2 or NaCl) in dechlorinated tap water (40 mg/L total hardness, 47 mg/L alkalinity, 4 mg/L chloride, pH = 6.9-7.1, and temperature 21-24°C). Methemoglobin levels in fish simultaneously exposed to 2.5 mg/L nitrite and up to 30 mg/L chloride as either CaCl2 or NaCl were similar but significantly lower than in unprotected fish. Exposure to 10 mg/L nitrite and 60 mg/L chloride resulted in methemoglobin levels similar to those of the controls; most unprotected fish died. Fish exposed to 10 mg/L nitrite had significantly lower methemoglobin levels when protected with 15.0 mg/L chloride as CaCl2 than with NaCl. Fish exposed to nitrite in the presence of 60 mg/L chloride (as either CaCl2 or NaCl) had similar 24-h LC50 values that were significantly elevated above those obtained in the absence of chloride. Calcium had little effect on tolerance to nitrite toxicity in channel catfish in contrast to its large effect reported in steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri).

  5. Properties of a new liquid desiccant solution - Lithium chloride and calcium chloride mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Ertas, A.; Anderson, E.E.; Kiris, I. )

    1992-09-01

    Desiccants, broadly classified as solid and liquid desiccants, have the property of extracting and retaining moisture from air brought into contact with them. By using either type, moisture in the air is removed and the resulting dry air can be used for air-conditioning or drying purposes. Because of its properties, lithium chloride is the most stable liquid desiccant and has a large dehydration concentration (30% to 45%), but its cost is relatively high ($9.00-13.00 per kg). It is expected that lithium chloride will reduce the relative humidity to as low as 15%. Calcium chloride is the cheapest (45 cents per kg) and most readily available desiccant, but it has the disadvantage of being unstable depending on the air inlet conditions and the concentration of the desiccant in the solution. To stabilize calcium chloride and to decrease the high cost of lithium chloride, the two can be mixed in different weight combinations. The main objective of this research is to measure the physical properties of different combinations of this mixture such as density, viscosity, and vapor pressure which are necessary for analysis of heat and mass transfer in a packed tower desiccant-air contact system. The solubility of this new liquid desiccant under certain temperature-concentrations will also be studied.

  6. Effects of calcium hydroxide and calcium chloride addition to bentonite in iron ore pelletization.

    PubMed

    Tugrul, Nurcan; Derun, Emek Moroydor; Pişkin, Mehmet

    2006-10-01

    Pyrite ash is created as waste from the roasting of pyrite ores during the production of sulphuric acid. These processes generate great amounts of pyrite ash waste that is generally land filled. This creates serious environmental pollution due to the release of acids and toxic substances. Pyrite ash waste can be utilized in the iron production industry as a blast furnace feed to process this waste and prevent environmental pollution. The essential parameters affecting the pelletization process of pyrite ash were studied using bentonite as a binder. Experiments were then carried out using bentonite and a mixture of bentonite with calcium hydroxide and calcium chloride in order to make the bentonite more effective. The metallurgical properties of pyrite ash, bentonite, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride, a mixture of these and sintered pellets were studied using X-ray analysis. The crushing strength tests were carried out to investigate the strength of pyrite ash waste pellets. The results of these analyses showed that pyrite ash can be agglomerated to pellets and used in the iron production industry as a blast furnace feed. The crushing strength of the pellets containing calcium hydroxide and calcium chloride in addition to bentonite was better than the strength of pellets prepared using only bentonite binder. PMID:17121116

  7. Uptake of chloride and carbonate ions by calcium monosulfoaluminate hydrate

    SciTech Connect

    Mesbah, Adel; Cau-dit-Coumes, Celine; Frizon, Fabien

    2012-08-15

    Decommissioning of old nuclear reactors may produce waste streams containing chlorides and carbonates, including radioactive {sup 36}Cl{sup -} and {sup 14}CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}. Their insolubilization by calcium monosulfoaluminate hydrate was investigated. Carbonates were readily depleted from the solution, giving at thermodynamic equilibrium monocarboaluminate, monocarboaluminate + calcite, or calcite only, depending on the initial ratio between the anion and calcium monosulfoaluminate hydrate. Chloride ions reacted more slowly and were precipitated as Kuzel's salt, Kuzel's and Friedel's salts, or Friedel's salt only. Rietveld refinement of X-Ray powder diffraction patterns was successfully used to quantify the phase distributions, which were compared to thermodynamic calculations. Moreover, analysing the lattice parameters of Kuzel's salt as a function of its chloride content showed the occurrence of a restricted solid solution towards the sulfate side with general formula 3CaO{center_dot}Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}{center_dot}xCaCl{sub 2}{center_dot}(1 - x)CaSO{sub 4}{center_dot}(12 - 2x){center_dot}H{sub 2}O (0.36 {<=} x {<=} 0.50).

  8. Effects of calcium chloride and calcium sulfate in an oral bolus given as a supplement to postpartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Sampson, J D; Spain, J N; Jones, C; Carstensen, L

    2009-01-01

    An oral calcium bolus (Bovikalc, Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica) supplying calcium to dairy cows in the form of calcium chloride and calcium sulfate was evaluated to determine the effect on calcium homeostasis immediately after calving. Cows in the treatment group received one bolus immediately after calving and a second bolus 12 hours later. Control cows received no calcium supplementation. Blood was analyzed for ionized calcium, and urine was collected for urinary pH determination. Postpartum supplementation with the Bovikalc bolus significantly increased serum ionized calcium levels and decreased urine pH values. PMID:20037967

  9. Chloride- and alkali-containing calcium phosphates as basic materials to prepare calcium phosphate cements.

    PubMed

    Bermúdez, O; Boltong, M G; Driessens, F C; Ginebra, M P; Fernández, E; Planell, J A

    1994-10-01

    Combinations of an alkali-containing calcium phosphate-like rhenanite, sodium whitlockite or calcium potassium phosphate and a chloride-containing calcium phosphate-like spodiosite or chloroapatite with or without additions of other calcium phosphates like monocalcium phosphate monohydrate, dicalcium phosphate or dicalcium phosphate dihydrate were made and mixed with water into pastes. The setting time of these pastes was determined. After soaking for a day in Ringer's solution at 37 degrees C the compressive strength and the diametral tensile strength were determined. Two of the combinations tried in this study resulted in the formation of cements at room temperature. One cement was of the type dicalcium phosphate, whereas the other gave octocalcium phosphate as the solid reaction product. The byproducts formed were an aqueous solution of NaCl and one of K2HPO4, respectively. Applications for bone repair and augmentation are envisaged. PMID:7841290

  10. Repassivation Potential of Alloy 22 in Sodium and Calcium Chloride Brines

    SciTech Connect

    Rebak, R B; Ilevbare, G O; Carranza, R M

    2007-08-11

    A comprehensive matrix of 60 tests was designed to explore the effect of calcium chloride vs. sodium chloride and the ratio R of nitrate concentration over chloride concentration on the repassivation potential of Alloy 22. Tests were conducted using the cyclic potentiodynamic polarization (CPP) technique at 75 C and at 90 C. Results show that at a ratio R of 0.18 and higher nitrate was able to inhibit the crevice corrosion in Alloy 22 induced by chloride. Current results fail to show in a consistent way a different effect on the repassivation potential of Alloy 22 for calcium chloride solutions than for sodium chloride solutions.

  11. Selective removal of iron contaminations from zinc-chloride melts by cementation with zinc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devilee, R. A.; van Sandwijk, A.; Reuter, M. A.

    1999-08-01

    An investigation into the cementation of iron chloride from a zinc-chloride melt at 400 °C has been carried out with zinc powder. The variables studied include preparation of the chloride melt and the amount of zinc added. The effect of lead, copper, and cadmium on cementation of iron has also been investigated. According to the results, it is possible to reduce the iron concentration in zinc-chloride melts to 20 ppm with a small excess of zinc. The preparation of the melt proved to be very important. Insufficient purification of the melt with respect to oxides, hydroxides, and water resulted in a low reaction rate and high residual iron concentration.

  12. Antimicrobial Effect of Calcium Chloride Alone and Combined with Lactic Acid Injected into Chicken Breast Meat

    PubMed Central

    Alahakoon, Amali U.; Jayasena, Dinesh D.; Jung, Samooel; Kim, Sun Hyo

    2014-01-01

    Chicken breast meat was injected with calcium chloride alone and in combination with lactic acid (0.01% and 0.002%, respectively). The inhibitory effects of the treatments on microbial growth were determined in the injected chicken breast meat stored at 4°C under aerobic packaging condition for 0, 3, and 7 d. Calcium chloride combined with 0.002% and 0.01% lactic acid reduced microbial counts by 0.14 and 1.08 Log CFU/g, respectively, however, calcium chloride alone was unable to inhibit microbial growth. Calcium chloride combined with 0.01% lactic acid was the most effective antimicrobial treatment and resulted in the highest initial redness value. Calcium chloride alone and combined with lactic acid suppressed changes in pH and the Hunter color values during storage. However, injection of calcium chloride and lactic acid had adverse effects on lipid oxidation and sensory characteristics. The higher TBARS values were observed in samples treated with calcium chloride and lactic acid when compared to control over the storage period. Addition of calcium chloride and lactic acid resulted in lower sensory scores for parameters tested, except odor and color, compared to control samples. Therefore, the formulation should be improved in order to overcome such defects prior to industrial application. PMID:26760942

  13. Modulating the hydration behaviour of calcium chloride by lactam complexation.

    PubMed

    Perrin, Andrea; Musa, Osama M; Steed, Jonathan W

    2016-07-26

    Complexation of calcium chloride with bis(lactam) ligand L1 allows the formation of both an unstable anhydrous complex, an aqua complex {[Ca2(μ-L1)2(H2O)9]Cl4]}n (1) and a related hydrate incorporating additional lattice water of crystallization {[Ca(μ-L1)(H2O)5]Cl2·H2O}n (2). Related mono(lactam) L2 does not form aqua complexes but the anhydrous complex {[CaCl2(μ-L2)2]}n (3), is highly deliquescent. An unusual ethanol solvate is also reported {[CaCl2(L2)(EtOH)]}n (4). PMID:27411017

  14. Effect of application of ammonium chloride and calcium chloride on alfalfa cation-anion content and yield.

    PubMed

    Goff, J P; Brummer, E C; Henning, S J; Doorenbos, R K; Horst, R L

    2007-11-01

    A major factor predisposing the cow to periparturient hypocalcemia, or milk fever, is being fed a prepartum ration with a high dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD). The DCAD can be favorably altered to prevent milk fever by decreasing K and Na or increasing Cl and S in forages for cows in late gestation. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that application of Cl to alfalfa could increase Cl in forage, thereby lowering DCAD. We conducted a field experiment at 2 Iowa locations in which established plots of alfalfa were treated in April 2001 with 0, 56, 112, or 168 kg of Cl/ha using ammonium chloride, calcium chloride, or a mix of the 2 sources with equal amounts of chloride coming from each source. Plots were harvested 4 times in 2001 and once in 2002 and plant tissue analyzed for mineral composition. Applying chloride from either source once in the spring resulted in increased plant chloride content over all 4 cuttings for that year. Averaged across both locations, chloride levels were elevated from 0.52% in control plots to 0.77, 0.87, and 0.89% Cl in plots treated with 56, 112, and 168 kg of Cl/ha, respectively. Chloride application had no effect on plant potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, or phosphorus. These results suggest chloride application can elevate chloride content and lower DCAD values of alfalfa, and also maintain crop yield. PMID:17954756

  15. Retail consumer acceptance of beef tenderized with calcium chloride.

    PubMed

    Miller, M F; Huffman, K L; Gilbert, S Y; Hamman, L L; Ramsey, C B

    1995-08-01

    Beef inside round subprimals were injected with a 200 mM calcium chloride (CaCl2) solution at 5% (wt/wt) to determine its effects on beef steak palatability and quality traits. Alternating subprimals from the right and left sides were selected for injection of CaCl2 or not injected to serve as a control. After 7 d of postmortem storage, 2.5-cm-thick steaks were cut from each subprimal for consumer evaluation (n = 478) in a retail setting. Three supermarkets with customers varying widely in income were selected as test sites for measuring consumer perceptions of the treated and control steaks and package labeling acceptance. Supermarket, income level, education, and sex were evaluated for their impact on acceptance of calcium-injected beef. Steak flavor and tenderness both were important in determining beef eating quality; 50% of consumers said tenderness was the most important and 40% said flavor was the most important. Consumers visually preferred CaCl2-treated steaks 71% of the time over the control steaks based on package labeling. The CaCl2 injection improved tenderness, juiciness, flavor desirability, and overall palatability ratings by the consumers for inside round steaks and did not cause any off-flavor problems compared with the controls. Therefore, injecting beef with a solution of 200 mM CaCl2 at 5% (wt/wt) can improve retail consumer evaluations of beef steak tenderness and reduce tenderness variation without detrimental effects on other palatability or quality traits. PMID:8567467

  16. Interaction between Barium Oxide and Barium Containing Chloride Melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaeva, Elena V.; Zakiryanova, Irina D.; Korzun, Iraida V.; Bovet, Andrey L.; Antonov, Boris D.

    2015-05-01

    Thermal analysis was applied to determine the liquidus temperatures in the NaCl-KCl-BaCl2-BaO system, with BaO concentration varied from 0 to 6 mole%. The temperature dependence of the BaO solubility in the NaCl-KCl-BaCl2 eutectic melt was investigated; the thermodynamic parameters of BaO dissolution were calculated. The caloric effects of melting of the NaCl-KCl-BaCl2 eutectic with barium oxide and barium oxychloride additions were studied. The type, morphology, and composition of oxychloride ionic groupings in the melt were determined in situ using Raman spectroscopy.

  17. Commercial Scale Cucumber Fermentations Brined with Calcium Chloride Instead of Sodium Chloride.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Díaz, I M; McFeeters, R F; Moeller, L; Johanningsmeier, S D; Hayes, J; Fornea, D S; Rosenberg, L; Gilbert, C; Custis, N; Beene, K; Bass, D

    2015-12-01

    Development of low salt cucumber fermentation processes present opportunities to reduce the amount of sodium chloride (NaCl) that reaches fresh water streams from industrial activities. The objective of this research was to translate cucumber fermentation brined with calcium chloride (CaCl2 ) instead of NaCl to commercial scale production. Although CaCl2 brined cucumber fermentations were stable in laboratory experiments, commercial scale trials using 6440 L open-top tanks rapidly underwent secondary cucumber fermentation. It was understood that a limited air purging routine, use of a starter culture and addition of preservatives to the cover brine aids in achieving the desired complete cucumber fermentation. The modified process was used for subsequent commercial trials using 12490 and 28400 L open-top tanks packed with variable size cucumbers and from multiple lots, and cover brines containing CaCl2 and potassium sorbate to equilibrated concentrations of 100 and 6 mM, respectively. Lactobacillus plantarum LA0045 was inoculated to 10(6) CFU/mL, and air purging was applied for two 2-3 h periods per day for the first 10 d of fermentation and one 2-3 h period per day between days 11 and 14. All fermentations were completed, as evidenced by the full conversion of sugars to lactic acid, decrease in pH to 3.0, and presented microbiological stability for a minimum of 21 d. This CaCl2 process may be used to produce fermented cucumbers intended to be stored short term in a manner that reduces pollution and waste removal costs. PMID:26512798

  18. SANITARY DIPS WITH CALCIUM PROPIONATE, CALCIUM CHLORIDE, OR A CALCIUM AMINO ACID CHELATE MAINTAIN QUALITY AND SHELF STABILITY OF HONEYDEW CHUNKS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Freshly cut honeydew chunks were dipped for 30 seconds in a solution containing 100 uL/L sodium hypochlorite (ClO) without and with a 40 mM concentration of calcium (Ca) propionate, a Ca amino acid chelate formulation (Ca chelate), calcium chloride (CaCl2) or not treated. Respiration and ethylene p...

  19. Spectroelectrochemistry and Electrochemistry of Europium Ions in Alkali Chloride Melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uehara, Akihiro; Shirai, Osamu; Nagai, Takayuki; Fujii, Toshiyuki; Yamana, Hajimu

    2007-04-01

    In order to investigate the redox equilibrium of europium ions in molten NaCl-2CsCl, UV-Vis absorption spectrophotometry measurements were performed for Eu2+ and Eu3+ in molten NaCl- 2CsCl at 923 K under simultaneous electrolytic control of their ratio. Molar absorptivities of EuCl3 and EuCl2 in NaCl-2CsCl at 923 K were determined to be (420±21) M -1cm-1 at 31200 cm-1 and (1130±56) M-1cm-1 at 30300 cm-1, respectively. The formal redox potential of the Eu2+/Eu3+ couple in NaCl-2CsCl melt at 923 K was determined to be (-0.941 ±0.004) V vs. Cl2/Cl- by electromotive force measurements on varying concentration ratios of Eu2+ and Eu3+, which were performed using a technique based on the combination of electrolysis and spectrophotometry. Cyclic voltammetry was also carried out in order to examine the characteristics of the voltammograms for the Eu2+/Eu3+ couple in NaCl-2CsCl melt. The formal redox potential of the Eu2+/Eu3+ couple determined by a spectroelectrochemical method agreed with that determined by cyclic voltammetry [(-0.946±0.008) V vs. Cl2/Cl-]. The effects of temperature on the redox potential of the Eu2+/Eu3+ couple in NaCl-2CsCl, NaCl-KCl, LiCl-KCl, and CsCl melts were studied by cyclic voltammetry in the range from 923 to 1123 K.

  20. The electrowinning of lithium from chloride-carbonate melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruesi, William H.; Fray, Derek J.

    1993-08-01

    It is shown that lithium can be electrowon from a lithium chloride-carbonate electrolyte with current efficiencies as high as 90 pct from cells where the catholyte and anolyte are separated by a porous diaphragm and lithium carbonate is fed to the anolyte. The reduction of carbonate ions at the cathode was kept to a minimum by the porous diaphragm. The primary product of the reaction of carbonate ions with the carbon anode was carbon dioxide. Various cell designs were investigated, and a packed-bed anode consisting of a graphite tube containing a bed of graphite particles showed the greatest promise in providing a dimensionally stable current collector with preferential consumption of the bed material.

  1. Coagulation of β-conglycinin, glycinin and isoflavones induced by calcium chloride in soymilk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiao, Yu-Hsuan; Yu, Chia-Jung; Li, Wen-Tai; Hsieh, Jung-Feng

    2015-08-01

    The coagulation of β-conglycinin (7S), glycinin (11S) and isoflavones induced by calcium chloride was investigated. Approximately 92.6% of the soymilk proteins were coagulated into the soymilk pellet fraction (SPF) after the addition of 5 mM calcium chloride. SDS-PAGE and two-dimensional electrophoresis analysis indicated that most of the 7S (α’, α and β), 11S acidic (A1a, A1b, A2, A3 and A4) and 11S basic (B1a) proteins in the SSF were coagulated into the SPF after treatment with 5 mM calcium chloride. Isoflavones, including daidzein and genistein, were also coagulated into the SPF after the addition of 5 mM calcium chloride. The amounts of daidzein and genistein in the SSF decreased to 39.4 ± 1.6 and 11.8 ± 7.0%, respectively. HPLC analysis suggested that daidzein and genistein were bound with 7S and 11S proteins and then were coprecipitated into the SPF by 5 mM calcium chloride.

  2. Coagulation of β-conglycinin, glycinin and isoflavones induced by calcium chloride in soymilk

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Yu-Hsuan; Yu, Chia-Jung; Li, Wen-Tai; Hsieh, Jung-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The coagulation of β-conglycinin (7S), glycinin (11S) and isoflavones induced by calcium chloride was investigated. Approximately 92.6% of the soymilk proteins were coagulated into the soymilk pellet fraction (SPF) after the addition of 5 mM calcium chloride. SDS-PAGE and two-dimensional electrophoresis analysis indicated that most of the 7S (α’, α and β), 11S acidic (A1a, A1b, A2, A3 and A4) and 11S basic (B1a) proteins in the SSF were coagulated into the SPF after treatment with 5 mM calcium chloride. Isoflavones, including daidzein and genistein, were also coagulated into the SPF after the addition of 5 mM calcium chloride. The amounts of daidzein and genistein in the SSF decreased to 39.4 ± 1.6 and 11.8 ± 7.0%, respectively. HPLC analysis suggested that daidzein and genistein were bound with 7S and 11S proteins and then were coprecipitated into the SPF by 5 mM calcium chloride. PMID:26260443

  3. Calcium-activated chloride channels in the apical region of mouse vomeronasal sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Dibattista, Michele; Amjad, Asma; Maurya, Devendra Kumar; Sagheddu, Claudia; Montani, Giorgia; Tirindelli, Roberto; Menini, Anna

    2012-07-01

    The rodent vomeronasal organ plays a crucial role in several social behaviors. Detection of pheromones or other emitted signaling molecules occurs in the dendritic microvilli of vomeronasal sensory neurons, where the binding of molecules to vomeronasal receptors leads to the influx of sodium and calcium ions mainly through the transient receptor potential canonical 2 (TRPC2) channel. To investigate the physiological role played by the increase in intracellular calcium concentration in the apical region of these neurons, we produced localized, rapid, and reproducible increases in calcium concentration with flash photolysis of caged calcium and measured calcium-activated currents with the whole cell voltage-clamp technique. On average, a large inward calcium-activated current of -261 pA was measured at -50 mV, rising with a time constant of 13 ms. Ion substitution experiments showed that this current is anion selective. Moreover, the chloride channel blockers niflumic acid and 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid partially inhibited the calcium-activated current. These results directly demonstrate that a large chloride current can be activated by calcium in the apical region of mouse vomeronasal sensory neurons. Furthermore, we showed by immunohistochemistry that the calcium-activated chloride channels TMEM16A/anoctamin1 and TMEM16B/anoctamin2 are present in the apical layer of the vomeronasal epithelium, where they largely colocalize with the TRPC2 transduction channel. Immunocytochemistry on isolated vomeronasal sensory neurons showed that TMEM16A and TMEM16B coexpress in the neuronal microvilli. Therefore, we conclude that microvilli of mouse vomeronasal sensory neurons have a high density of calcium-activated chloride channels that may play an important role in vomeronasal transduction. PMID:22732308

  4. Equilibrium distribution of lanthanum, neodymium, and thorium between lithium chloride melt and liquid bismuth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagnit'ko, A. V.; Ignat'ev, V. V.

    2013-04-01

    The distribution of lanthanum, neodymium, and thorium between a lithium chloride melt and liquid bismuth with additions of lithium as a reducing agent are investigated at 650°C. Equilibrium values of their distribution constants are measured. It is shown that in contrast to neodymium and lanthanum, thorium cannot be extracted from bismuth into lithium chloride. This allows us to propose an efficient scheme for separating lanthanides and thorium in a system for the extraction of fuel salts in molten-salt nuclear reactors.

  5. Anoctamin Calcium-Activated Chloride Channels May Modulate Inhibitory Transmission in the Cerebellar Cortex.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weiping; Schmelzeisen, Steffen; Parthier, Daniel; Frings, Stephan; Möhrlen, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Calcium-activated chloride channels of the anoctamin (alias TMEM16) protein family fulfill critical functions in epithelial fluid transport, smooth muscle contraction and sensory signal processing. Little is known, however, about their contribution to information processing in the central nervous system. Here we examined the recent finding that a calcium-dependent chloride conductance impacts on GABAergic synaptic inhibition in Purkinje cells of the cerebellum. We asked whether anoctamin channels may underlie this chloride conductance. We identified two anoctamin channel proteins, ANO1 and ANO2, in the cerebellar cortex. ANO1 was expressed in inhibitory interneurons of the molecular layer and the granule cell layer. Both channels were expressed in Purkinje cells but, while ANO1 appeared to be retained in the cell body, ANO2 was targeted to the dendritic tree. Functional studies confirmed that ANO2 was involved in a calcium-dependent mode of ionic plasticity that reduces the efficacy of GABAergic synapses. ANO2 channels attenuated GABAergic transmission by increasing the postsynaptic chloride concentration, hence reducing the driving force for chloride influx. Our data suggest that ANO2 channels are involved in a Ca2+-dependent regulation of synaptic weight in GABAergic inhibition. Thus, in balance with the chloride extrusion mechanism via the co-transporter KCC2, ANO2 appears to regulate ionic plasticity in the cerebellum. PMID:26558388

  6. Anoctamin Calcium-Activated Chloride Channels May Modulate Inhibitory Transmission in the Cerebellar Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Parthier, Daniel; Frings, Stephan; Möhrlen, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Calcium-activated chloride channels of the anoctamin (alias TMEM16) protein family fulfill critical functions in epithelial fluid transport, smooth muscle contraction and sensory signal processing. Little is known, however, about their contribution to information processing in the central nervous system. Here we examined the recent finding that a calcium-dependent chloride conductance impacts on GABAergic synaptic inhibition in Purkinje cells of the cerebellum. We asked whether anoctamin channels may underlie this chloride conductance. We identified two anoctamin channel proteins, ANO1 and ANO2, in the cerebellar cortex. ANO1 was expressed in inhibitory interneurons of the molecular layer and the granule cell layer. Both channels were expressed in Purkinje cells but, while ANO1 appeared to be retained in the cell body, ANO2 was targeted to the dendritic tree. Functional studies confirmed that ANO2 was involved in a calcium-dependent mode of ionic plasticity that reduces the efficacy of GABAergic synapses. ANO2 channels attenuated GABAergic transmission by increasing the postsynaptic chloride concentration, hence reducing the driving force for chloride influx. Our data suggest that ANO2 channels are involved in a Ca2+-dependent regulation of synaptic weight in GABAergic inhibition. Thus, in balance with the chloride extrusion mechanism via the co-transporter KCC2, ANO2 appears to regulate ionic plasticity in the cerebellum. PMID:26558388

  7. Ice-melting characteristics of calcium magnesium acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenk, R. U.

    1986-01-01

    The objectives of the study are to determine the pertinent properties of Calcium/Magnesium Acetate and to determine the pH and ratio of calcium to magnesium that provide optimum road deicing characteristics.

  8. Electrochemical studies of calcium chloride-based molten salt systems

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, T.P. Jr.

    1992-12-01

    Conductance and EMF studies of CaCl{sub 2}-based melts were performed in the temperature range 790--990 C. Conductivity data collected using magnesia tubes and capillaries showed deviations from the data recommended by the National Bureau of Standards. These deviations are attributed to the slow dissolution of magnesia by the CaCl{sub 2}-CaO melt. Conductivity data for molten CaCl{sub 2} using a pyrolytic boron nitride capillary were in reasonable agreement with the recommended data; however, undissolved CaO in CaCl{sub 2} may have caused blockage of the pyrolytic boron nitride capillary, resulting in fluctuations in the measured resistance. The utility of the AgCl/Ag reference electrode in CaCl{sub 2}-AgCl and CaCl{sub 2}-CaO-AgCl melts, using asbestos diaphragms and Vycor glass as reference half-cell membranes, was also investigated. Nernstian behavior was observed using both types of reference half-cell membranes in CaCl{sub 2}-AgCl melts. The AgCl/Ag reference electrode also exhibited Nernstian behavior in CaCl{sub 2}-CaO-AgCl melts using a Vycor reference half-cell membrane and a magnesia crucible. The use of CaCl{sub 2} as a solvent is of interest since it is used in plutonium metal purification, as well as various other commercial applications. 97 refs., 33 figs., 13 tabs.

  9. Initial Observations of the Effects of Calcium Chloride Infusions in Pediatric Patients with Low Cardiac Output.

    PubMed

    Averin, Konstantin; Villa, Chet; Krawczeski, Catherine D; Pratt, Jesse; King, Eileen; Jefferies, John L; Nelson, David P; Cooper, David S; Ryan, Thomas D; Sawyer, Jaclyn; Towbin, Jeffrey A; Lorts, Angela

    2016-03-01

    Myocardial contractility and relaxation are highly dependent on calcium homeostasis. Immature myocardium, as in pediatric patients, is thought to be more dependent on extracellular calcium for optimal function. For this reason, intravenous calcium chloride infusions may improve myocardial function in the pediatric patient. The objectives of this study were to report the hemodynamic changes seen after administration of continuous calcium chloride to critically ill children. We retrospectively identified pediatric patients (newborn to 17 years old) with hemodynamic instability admitted to the cardiac ICU between May 2011 and May 2012 who received a continuous infusion of calcium chloride. The primary outcome was improvement in cardiac output, assessed by arterial-mixed venous oxygen saturation (A-V) difference. Sixty-eight patients, mean age 0.87 ± 2.67 years, received a total of 116 calcium infusions. Calcium chloride infusions resulted in significant improvements in primary and secondary measures of cardiac output at 2 and 6 h. Six hours after calcium initiation, A-V oxygen saturation difference decreased by 7.4 % (32.6 ± 2.1 to 25.2 ± 2.0 %, p < 0.001), rSO2 increased by 5.5 % (63.1 vs 68.6 %, p < 0.001), and serum lactate decreased by 0.9 mmol/l (3.3 vs 2.4 mmol/l, p < 0.001) with no change in HR (149.1 vs 145.6 bpm p = 0.07). Urine output increased 0.66 ml/kg/h in the 8-h period after calcium initiation when compared to pre-initiation (p = 0.003). Neonates had the strongest evidence of effectiveness with other age groups trending toward significance. Calcium chloride infusions improve markers of cardiac output in a heterogenous group of pediatric patients in a cardiac ICU. Neonates appear to derive the most benefit from utilization of these infusions. PMID:26687150

  10. 40 CFR 415.40 - Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory. 415.40 Section 415.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING...

  11. Consumer acceptability of cucumber pickles produced by fermentation in calcium chloride brine for reduced environmental impact

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fermentation of cucumbers in calcium chloride brine has been proposed as an alternative process to reduce the environmental impact of traditional, high salt fermentations. The objective of this research was to determine whether consumer acceptability of pickle products would be impacted by fermentat...

  12. The comparative effects of feeding ammonium carbonate, ammonium sulfate, and ammonium chloride on urinary calcium excretion in the rat.

    PubMed

    Whiting, S J; Cole, D E

    1987-11-01

    When either sulfate or chloride is added to the diet, the resulting acid load causes a rise in urinary calcium excretion. There is, however, the possibility that sulfate, which has been shown to complex renal tubular calcium, will further decrease renal calcium reabsorption and thus produce a greater calciuria than chloride. Because addition of a fixed cation (e.g., sodium) to the diet may also stimulate calciuresis, experiments were conducted using metabolizable ammonium to minimize cation effects. Ammonium salts of sulfate, chloride, and carbonate (control) were added to the diets of male rats at 0.3 mequiv./g weight of diet. Twenty-four hour excretion rates of calcium, sulfate, chloride, and net acid were measured at various intervals up to 1 month. As expected, the chloride and sulfate diets were both associated with significantly elevated urine calcium and net acid excretion as compared with controls. However, those fed sulfate exhibited significantly less calcium and acid excretion and absorbed a smaller proportion of the anion load than those given chloride. In a second experiment, the amounts of supplemental sulfate and chloride were adjusted so that total absorptions were similar. At 2 weeks, both calcium and acid excretions in the fixed anion groups were no longer significantly different. Thus, in chronic feeding trials, there appears to be no measurable difference in the calciuretic properties of sulfate and chloride anions. PMID:3449184

  13. A study of the oral toxicity of calcium chloride in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, L G; Pelletier, R P

    1966-02-01

    The effects of oral administration of calcium chloride solutions to dairy cows were studied. When a 0.3 per cent solution was given ad libitum, and as the sole source of water for a period of 75 days, we observed no significant changes in feed consumption, body weight or milk production. The average daily water intake was increased by approximately 20 per cent, and signs of slight gastro-intestinal irritation were seen. No major changes in blood hemoglobin levels, hematocrits, total and differential white cell counts or thrombocyte numbers could be attributed to the treatment. We observed no significant effect on the serum calcium, chloride, magnesium, potassium, or sodium content. The level of inorganic phosphate in the serum rose to higher, but still normal values. During the entire experiment the urine pH was abnormally acid for dairy cows. Electrocardiograms were taken after 45 days of calcium chloride administration, and they appeared normal. When 0.1 and 0.2 per cent solutions were given as the sole source of water for a period of 81 days, the cows remained in good condition, and we observed no changes in appetite, body weight or milk production. In general, dairy cows will refuse to drink calcium chloride solutions when the concentration exceeds 0.5 per cent, even when they have been deprived of water for 18-24 hours. On the other hand, since the administration of lower concentrations for periods of 75 and 81 days did not cause any clinical sign of disease, it seems that on farms where more than one source of water are usually available, poisoning of dairy cattle by calcium chloride in solution is quite unlikely. PMID:4223697

  14. Melting point equations for the ternary system water/sodium chloride/ethylene glycol revisited.

    PubMed

    Benson, James D; Bagchi, Aniruddha; Han, Xu; Critser, John K; Woods, Erik J

    2010-12-01

    Partial phase diagrams are of considerable utility in the development of optimized cryobiological procedures. Recent theoretical predictions of the melting points of ternary solutions of interest to cryobiology have caused us to re-examine measurements that our group made for the ethylene-glycol-sodium chloride-water phase diagram. Here we revisit our previous experiments by measuring melting points at five ethylene-glycol to sodium chloride ratios (R values; R=5, 10, 15, 30, and 45) and five levels of concentration for each ratio. Melting points were averaged from three measurements and plotted as a function of total solute concentration for each R value studied. The new measurements differed from our original experimental values and agreed with predicted values from both theoretical models. Additionally, the data were fit to the polynomial described in our previous report and the resulting equation was obtained: T(m) = (38.3-2.145 x 10⁻¹ R)w + (81.19 - 2.909×10⁻¹ R)w², where w is the total solute mass fraction. This new equation provided good fits to the experimental data as well as published values and relates the determined polynomial constants to the R value of the corresponding isopleths of the three dimensional phase diagram, allowing the liquids curve for any R value to be obtained. PMID:20955693

  15. A comprehensive search for calcium binding sites critical for TMEM16A calcium-activated chloride channel activity.

    PubMed

    Tien, Jason; Peters, Christian J; Wong, Xiu Ming; Cheng, Tong; Jan, Yuh Nung; Jan, Lily Yeh; Yang, Huanghe

    2014-01-01

    TMEM16A forms calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCCs) that regulate physiological processes such as the secretions of airway epithelia and exocrine glands, the contraction of smooth muscles, and the excitability of neurons. Notwithstanding intense interest in the mechanism behind TMEM16A-CaCC calcium-dependent gating, comprehensive surveys to identify and characterize potential calcium sensors of this channel are still lacking. By aligning distantly related calcium-activated ion channels in the TMEM16 family and conducting systematic mutagenesis of all conserved acidic residues thought to be exposed to the cytoplasm, we identify four acidic amino acids as putative calcium-binding residues. Alterations of the charge, polarity, and size of amino acid side chains at these sites alter the ability of different divalent cations to activate the channel. Furthermore, TMEM16A mutant channels containing double cysteine substitutions at these residues are sensitive to the redox potential of the internal solution, providing evidence for their physical proximity and solvent accessibility. PMID:24980701

  16. A calcium- and voltage-dependent chloride current in developing chick skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Hume, R I; Thomas, S A

    1989-01-01

    1. Depolarization of embryonic chick myotubes from negative potentials elicits a rapid spike followed by a long-duration after-potential. The ionic basis of the long-duration after-potential was examined by making intracellular recordings from cultured myotubes, and by making whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from myoblasts and myoballs. 2. The peak potential of the long-duration after-potential varied with the chloride gradient, suggesting that a conductance increase to chloride is involved in generating the after-potential. However, a calcium current was also implicated, since lowering the extracellular calcium or replacing extracellular calcium with cobalt abolished the after-potential. 3. When extracellular calcium was replaced with strontium or barium, short-duration spikes similar to calcium spikes were observed, but only strontium was able to support activation of long-duration after-potentials. Intracellular injection of calcium or strontium into myotubes bathed in calcium-free extracellular solutions restored the ability of depolarization to evoke an after-potential. Intracellular injection of magnesium, barium, nickel or cobalt did not restore this ability. These experiments strongly suggested that the long-duration after-potential was due to a calcium- and voltage-activated chloride current. 4. Whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings from myoballs and myoblasts showed that a large chloride conductance could be activated by depolarization when the internal free calcium concentration was buffered at levels greater than 10(-7) M. At 2.5 x 10(-7) M-calcium, the voltage dependence of activation was steepest in the range of -30 to -20 mV and the activation kinetics varied with the membrane potential. The time to half-maximal activation ranged from 0.1 s at positive potentials to greater than 1 s at more negative potentials. The time constant for deactivation was approximately 1 s at -50 mV. No inactivation was observed. 5. The selectivity of the chloride current

  17. A glass-encapsulated calcium phosphate wasteform for the immobilization of actinide-, fluoride-, and chloride-containing radioactive wastes from the pyrochemical reprocessing of plutonium metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donald, I. W.; Metcalfe, B. L.; Fong, S. K.; Gerrard, L. A.; Strachan, D. M.; Scheele, R. D.

    2007-03-01

    Chloride-containing radioactive wastes are generated during the pyrochemical reprocessing of Pu metal. Immobilization of these wastes in borosilicate glass or Synroc-type ceramics is not feasible due to the very low solubility of chlorides in these hosts. Alternative candidates have therefore been sought including phosphate-based glasses, crystalline ceramics and hybrid glass/ceramic systems. These studies have shown that high losses of chloride or evolution of chlorine gas from the melt make vitrification an unacceptable solution unless suitable off-gas treatment facilities capable of dealing with these corrosive by-products are available. On the other hand, both sodium aluminosilicate and calcium phosphate ceramics are capable of retaining chloride in stable mineral phases, which include sodalite, Na 8(AlSiO 4) 6Cl 2, chlorapatite, Ca 5(PO 4) 3Cl, and spodiosite, Ca 2(PO 4)Cl. The immobilization process developed in this study involves a solid state process in which waste and precursor powders are mixed and reacted in air at temperatures in the range 700-800 °C. The ceramic products are non-hygroscopic free-flowing powders that only require encapsulation in a relatively low melting temperature phosphate-based glass to produce a monolithic wasteform suitable for storage and ultimate disposal.

  18. Optimization of operation conditions for extracting lithium ions from calcium chloride-type oil field brine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hong-jun; Li, Qing-hai; Li, Bing; Guo, Feng-qin; Meng, Qing-fen; Li, Wu

    2012-04-01

    Al(OH)3 was prepared to extract lithium ions from calcium chloride-type oil field brine. The influences of four factors, namely temperature, Al3+/Li+ molar ratio, OH-/Al3+ molar ratio, and contact time between Al(OH)3 and the brine, on the yield of lithium ions were investigated. It is found that their optimal values are 35°C, 4.5, 2.6, and 6 h, respectively. In the course of the experiment, the apparent pH value was observed. The results reveal that the apparent pH value has no remarkable influence on the yield of lithium ions. Meanwhile, the effects of the concentrations of calcium ions and magnesium ions in the brine on lithium recovery were studied. The results indicate that calcium ions have minor negative influence on the yield of lithium ions under optimal conditions, and magnesium ions slightly influence the yield of lithium ions.

  19. Direct chemical reduction of neptunium oxide to neptunium metal using calcium and calcium chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squires, Leah N.; Lessing, Paul

    2016-04-01

    A process of direct reduction of neptunium oxide to neptunium metal using calcium metal as the reducing agent is discussed. After reduction of the oxide to metal, the metal is separated by density from the other components of the reaction mixture and can be easily removed upon cooling. The direct reduction technique consistently produces high purity (98%-99% pure) neptunium metal.

  20. Calcium-activated chloride currents prolongs the duration of contractions in pregnant rat myometrial tissue.

    PubMed

    Young, Roger C; Bemis, Adam

    2009-08-01

    We investigated the importance of pharmacologically blocking calcium-activated chloride (I(Cl(Ca))) and L-type calcium currents on isometric contractions of strips of D21 pregnant rat myometrial tissue, while simultaneously measuring the electrical activity of the tissue strips with extracellular contact electrodes. When measured with contact electrodes, the duration of the spiking activity directly reflects the duration of the tissue-level plateau potential. We correlated the number of spikes, durations of spiking activity, and the spiking frequencies with changes of the area under the force curves as a function of exposure to low doses of anthracene-9-carboxylate (9-AC, a non-specific Cl channel blocker), chlorotoxin (a specific I(Cl(Ca)) blocker) and nifedipine (an L-type calcium channel blocker). The area under the force curve was measured only during spiking electrical activity, thereby separating pharmacological effects on tissue relaxation from those that modulate force production. Blocking chloride channels reduced impulse, shortened the duration of spiking activity, and reduced the number of spikes generated in each contraction. This was observed without a change in the frequency of spike production or a reduction of peak force. Nifedipine reduced impulse, shortened the duration of spiking activity, and reduced the number of spikes. In contrast to chloride channel blockade, nifedipine reduced maximum spike frequency and peak force. Taken together, our data suggest that blocking L-type calcium channels reduces impulse directly by reducing peak force, and indirectly by reducing activation of I(Cl(Ca)) , which shortens the duration of the contraction. PMID:19380901

  1. Calcium chloride effects on the glass transition of condensed systems of potato starch.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Lillian; Panyoyai, Naksit; Katopo, Lita; Shanks, Robert; Kasapis, Stefan

    2016-05-15

    The effect of calcium chloride on the structural properties of condensed potato starch undergoing a thermally induced glass transition has been studied using dynamic mechanical analysis and modulated differential scanning calorimetry. Extensive starch gelatinisation was obtained by hot pressing at 120°C for 7 min producing materials that covered a range of moisture contents from 3.7% w/w (11% relative humidity) to 18.8% w/w (75% relative humidity). FTIR, ESEM and WAXD were also performed in order to elucidate the manner by which salt addition affects the molecular interactions and morphology of condensed starch. Experimental protocol ensured the development of amorphous matrices that exhibited thermally reversible glassy consistency. Both moisture content and addition of calcium chloride affected the mechanical strength and glass transition temperature of polymeric systems. Highly reactive calcium ions form a direct interaction with starch to alter considerably its structural properties via an anti-plasticizing effect, as compared to the polymer-water matrix. PMID:26776036

  2. 43 CFR 3511.11 - If I am mining calcium chloride, may I obtain a noncompetitive mineral lease to produce the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... obtain a noncompetitive mineral lease to produce the commingled sodium chloride? 3511.11 Section 3511.11... mineral lease to produce the commingled sodium chloride? Yes. If you are producing calcium chloride in... lease to produce the commingled sodium chloride. You must already have authorization, under part 3800...

  3. 43 CFR 3511.11 - If I am mining calcium chloride, may I obtain a noncompetitive mineral lease to produce the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... obtain a noncompetitive mineral lease to produce the commingled sodium chloride? 3511.11 Section 3511.11... mineral lease to produce the commingled sodium chloride? Yes. If you are producing calcium chloride in... lease to produce the commingled sodium chloride. You must already have authorization, under part 3800...

  4. 43 CFR 3511.11 - If I am mining calcium chloride, may I obtain a noncompetitive mineral lease to produce the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... obtain a noncompetitive mineral lease to produce the commingled sodium chloride? 3511.11 Section 3511.11... mineral lease to produce the commingled sodium chloride? Yes. If you are producing calcium chloride in... lease to produce the commingled sodium chloride. You must already have authorization, under part 3800...

  5. 43 CFR 3511.11 - If I am mining calcium chloride, may I obtain a noncompetitive mineral lease to produce the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... obtain a noncompetitive mineral lease to produce the commingled sodium chloride? 3511.11 Section 3511.11... mineral lease to produce the commingled sodium chloride? Yes. If you are producing calcium chloride in... lease to produce the commingled sodium chloride. You must already have authorization, under part 3800...

  6. Thermal performance of a heat storage module using calcium chloride hexahydrate

    SciTech Connect

    Dietz, D.

    1984-02-01

    The thermal performance of an air-heated/cooled, phase-change, heat stoage module was tested and evaluated. The module (rated at 38.7 kWh) consist of 130 vertically oriented tubes filled with 729 kg (1607 lb) of calcium chloride hexahydrate and enclosed in a rectangular box. Heat transfer rates measured during charging and discharging decreased with time as a result of decreasing effective heat transfer area and increasing thermal resistance of the phase-change material. These two dominant effects are included in a proposed mathematical model that predicted the experimental data.

  7. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. LXXXV: Calcium-Activated Chloride Channels

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Fen; Wong, Xiuming

    2012-01-01

    Calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCCs) are widely expressed in various tissues and implicated in physiological processes such as sensory transduction, epithelial secretion, and smooth muscle contraction. Transmembrane proteins with unknown function 16 (TMEM16A) has recently been identified as a major component of CaCCs. Detailed molecular analysis of TMEM16A will be needed to understand its structure-function relationships. The role this channel plays in physiological systems remains to be established and is currently a subject of intense investigation. PMID:22090471

  8. Calmodulin-dependent activation and inactivation of anoctamin calcium-gated chloride channels

    PubMed Central

    Vocke, Kerstin; Dauner, Kristin; Hahn, Anne; Ulbrich, Anne; Broecker, Jana; Keller, Sandro; Frings, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    Calcium-dependent chloride channels serve critical functions in diverse biological systems. Driven by cellular calcium signals, the channels codetermine excitatory processes and promote solute transport. The anoctamin (ANO) family of membrane proteins encodes three calcium-activated chloride channels, named ANO 1 (also TMEM16A), ANO 2 (also TMEM16B), and ANO 6 (also TMEM16F). Here we examined how ANO 1 and ANO 2 interact with Ca2+/calmodulin using nonstationary current analysis during channel activation. We identified a putative calmodulin-binding domain in the N-terminal region of the channel proteins that is involved in channel activation. Binding studies with peptides indicated that this domain, a regulatory calmodulin-binding motif (RCBM), provides two distinct modes of interaction with Ca2+/calmodulin, one at submicromolar Ca2+ concentrations and one in the micromolar Ca2+ range. Functional, structural, and pharmacological data support the concept that calmodulin serves as a calcium sensor that is stably associated with the RCBM domain and regulates the activation of ANO 1 and ANO 2 channels. Moreover, the predominant splice variant of ANO 2 in the brain exhibits Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent inactivation, a loss of channel activity within 30 s. This property may curtail ANO 2 activity during persistent Ca2+ signals in neurons. Mutagenesis data indicated that the RCBM domain is also involved in ANO 2 inactivation, and that inactivation is suppressed in the retinal ANO 2 splice variant. These results advance the understanding of Ca2+ regulation in anoctamin Cl− channels and its significance for the physiological function that anoctamin channels subserve in neurons and other cell types. PMID:24081981

  9. Noradrenaline activates a calcium-activated chloride conductance and increases the voltage-dependent calcium current in cultured single cells of rat portal vein.

    PubMed

    Pacaud, P; Loirand, G; Mironneau, C; Mironneau, J

    1989-05-01

    1. Membrane responses were recorded by a patch pipette technique in cultured cells isolated from rat portal vein. Using the whole-cell mode, pressure ejections of noradrenaline evoked depolarization (current clamp) and inward current (voltage clamp) at membrane potentials of -60 to -70 mV. The noradrenaline-induced response was reversibly blocked by prazosin indicating that the response was mediated by alpha 1-adrenoceptors. 2. The ionic mechanism of the noradrenaline-induced inward current was investigated in potassium-free caesium-containing solutions. Alteration of the chloride equilibrium potential produced similar changes in the reversal potential of the noradrenaline-induced current, indicating that noradrenaline opened chloride-selective channels. There was no evidence implicating sodium or calcium as the charge-carrying ion. 3. Caffeine applied in the bathing solution also induced a transient increase in chloride conductance but the noradrenaline-induced response was lost after application of caffeine. This is interpreted to mean that the increase in chloride conductance induced by noradrenaline and caffeine can occur as a consequence of a rise in intracellular calcium concentration depending on release of calcium from the same intracellular stores. 4. In the presence of caffeine, noradrenaline increased both the voltage-dependent calcium and chloride membrane conductances during application of repetitive depolarizing pulses. It is concluded that in isolated cells of the rat portal vein the depolarization in response to noradrenaline is mediated by an increase in chloride conductance depending on both the calcium release from intracellular stores and the increase of the voltage-dependent calcium current. PMID:2470458

  10. Clinical Evaluation of Non-surgical Sterilization of Male Cats with Single Intra-testicular Injection of Calcium Chloride

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Calcium chloride solution is an established injectable sterilant in dogs and other mammals. With cat populations a continuing problem, we sought to explore its first use in cats. Six cats per group were injected with 5%, 10% or 20% calcium chloride dihydrate in saline solution with lignocaine hydrochloride, a local anaesthetic. Results At the 60th day post-injection, cat testes were collected and showed complete testicular necrosis and replacement by fibrous tissue; very low sperm counts; and reduction of serum testosterone by at least 70% in 20% dose. Androgenic enzyme activities and their expressions were also reduced in all the treated groups along with intra-testicular testosterone concentration was also low. Increased testicular lipid peroxidation, with reduced antioxidants and mitochondrial membrane potential, were evident following calcium chloride treatments. However, there were no apparent changes in serum concentrations of cortisol, fasting blood sugar level, blood urea nitrogen, packed cell volume, or total serum protein following calcium chloride injection, suggesting that this method of sterilization is not associated with any general stress response. Conclusion Calcium chloride solution demonstrates potential for androgenesis-eliminating nonsurgical sterilization of male cats in addition to its proven efficacy in dogs and other mammals. PMID:21774835

  11. An in situ crosslinked compression coat comprised of pectin and calcium chloride for colon-specific delivery of indomethacin.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiuli; Lu, Yi; Qi, Jianping; Wu, Baojian; Chen, Jian; Xu, Huinan; Wu, Wei

    2015-05-01

    The use of pectin for colon-specific drug delivery has been extensively investigated; however, when used alone, pectin is often compromised due to its high solubility. This study explored the feasibility of using an in situ compression-coated crosslinking system, composed of pectin and calcium chloride, for colon-specific drug delivery. A pectin/calcium chloride (P/Ca) coating was compressed onto a core tablet. The colon specificity of the compression-coated tablet was verified by dissolution, pharmacokinetics and scintigraphy with (99m)Tc labeling. The in situ pectin and calcium chloride gel slowed the release of indomethacin. The lag time varied between 3 h and 7 h depending on the amount of calcium chloride and the coating weight. Pectinase triggered the release of indomethacin from the compression-coated tablet, which was then accelerated by the calcium chloride in the coating layer. The compression-coated tablet had a prolonged tmax and apparent t1/2, as well as a decreased Cmax and AUC0-t, compared with the core tablet counterpart. Evaluation with γ-scintigraphy verified colon-specific delivery of the compression-coated tablet. In conclusion, the P/Ca in situ crosslinking system worked well for colon-specific drug delivery. PMID:24471938

  12. Biocompatibility of Portland Cement Modified with Titanium Oxide and Calcium Chloride in a Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Hoshyari, Narjes; Labbaf, Hossein; Jalayer Naderi, Nooshin; Kazemi, Ali; Bastami, Farshid; Koopaei, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the biocompatibility of two modified formulations of Portland cement (PC) mixed with either titanium oxide or both titanium oxide and calcium chloride. Methods and Materials: Polyethylene tubes were filled with modified PCs or Angelus MTA as the control; the tubes were then implanted in 28 Wistar rats subcutaneously. One tube was left empty as a negative control in each rat. Histologic samples were taken after 7, 15, 30 and 60 days. Sections were assessed histologically for inflammatory responses and presence of fibrous capsule and granulation tissue formation. Data were analyzed using the Fisher’s exact and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Result: PC mixed with titanium oxide showed the highest mean scores of inflammation compared with others. There was no statistically significant difference in the mean inflammatory grades between all groups in each of the understudy time intervals. Conclusion: The results showed favorable biocompatibility of these modified PC mixed with calcium chloride and titanium oxide. PMID:27141221

  13. Bioactive PMMA bone cement prepared by modification with methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane and calcium chloride.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Toshiki; Ohtsuki, Chikara; Kyomoto, Masayuki; Tanihara, Masao; Mori, Akiko; Kuramoto, Kou-ichi

    2003-12-15

    Bone cement consisting of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) powder and methylmethacrylate (MMA) liquid is used extensively for fixation of implants such as artificial hip joints with living bone. This type of cement, however, does not show direct bonding to the living body, and hence the fixation is liable to loosen over a long implantation period. Bioactive materials have received much attention because of their capability for bone-bonding, i.e., bioactivity, when implanted in bony defects. Osteoconduction of the bioactive materials is caused by formation of a bone-like apatite layer through a surface reaction between the material and surrounding body fluid. The apatite formation can be induced by a silanol (Sibond;OH) group formed on the materials as well as a dissolution of calcium ion (Ca(2+)) from the material. Incorporation of alkoxysilane and calcium chloride (CaCl(2)) may provide PMMA bone cement with bioactivity, because alkoxysilane gives Sibond;OH after hydrolysis, whereas CaCl(2) releases Ca(2+). In this study, we investigated the potential on bioactivity of the modified PMMA bone cement with alkoxysilane and calcium chloride. PMMA powder was mixed with various amounts of CaCl(2), and MMA liquid with various amounts of 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS). The mixed paste was immersed in a simulated body fluid (Kokubo solution) that has a similar concentration in inorganic constituents to human blood plasma. After soaking for various periods, apatite formation on the cement was examined. Apatite formation was observed by the addition of CaCl(2) with contents of 16 mass % and more. Incorporation of MPS accelerates the apatite formation. Setting time of the cement was significantly elongated after the addition of MPS, whereas compressive strength significantly decreased with increasing the contents of CaCl(2) and MPS. The hardened cement containing 20 mass % of CaCl(2) in the powder and 20 mass % of MPS in the liquid showed a tendency to be more

  14. Shikonin Inhibits Intestinal Calcium-Activated Chloride Channels and Prevents Rotaviral Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yu; Yu, Bo; Yang, Hong; Ma, Tonghui

    2016-01-01

    Secretory diarrhea remains a global health burden and causes major mortality in children. There have been some focuses on antidiarrheal therapies that may reduce fluid losses and intestinal motility in diarrheal diseases. In the present study, we identified shikonin as an inhibitor of TMEM16A chloride channel activity using cell-based fluorescent-quenching assay. The IC50 value of shikonin was 6.5 μM. Short-circuit current measurements demonstrated that shikonin inhibited Eact-induced Cl(-) current in a dose-dependent manner, with IC50 value of 1.5 μM. Short-circuit current measurement showed that shikonin exhibited inhibitory effect against CCh-induced Cl(-) currents in mouse colonic epithelia but did not affect cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration as well as the other major enterocyte chloride channel conductance regulator. Characterization study found that shikonin inhibited basolateral K(+) channel activity without affecting Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activities. In vivo studies revealed that shikonin significantly delayed intestinal motility in mice and reduced stool water content in a neonatal mice model of rotaviral diarrhea without affecting the viral infection process in vivo. Taken together, the results suggested that shikonin inhibited enterocyte calcium-activated chloride channels, the inhibitory effect was partially through inhbition of basolateral K(+) channel activity, and shikonin could be a lead compound in the treatment of rotaviral secretory diarrhea. PMID:27601995

  15. Shikonin Inhibits Intestinal Calcium-Activated Chloride Channels and Prevents Rotaviral Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yu; Yu, Bo; Yang, Hong; Ma, Tonghui

    2016-01-01

    Secretory diarrhea remains a global health burden and causes major mortality in children. There have been some focuses on antidiarrheal therapies that may reduce fluid losses and intestinal motility in diarrheal diseases. In the present study, we identified shikonin as an inhibitor of TMEM16A chloride channel activity using cell-based fluorescent-quenching assay. The IC50 value of shikonin was 6.5 μM. Short-circuit current measurements demonstrated that shikonin inhibited Eact-induced Cl- current in a dose-dependent manner, with IC50 value of 1.5 μM. Short-circuit current measurement showed that shikonin exhibited inhibitory effect against CCh-induced Cl- currents in mouse colonic epithelia but did not affect cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration as well as the other major enterocyte chloride channel conductance regulator. Characterization study found that shikonin inhibited basolateral K+ channel activity without affecting Na+/K+-ATPase activities. In vivo studies revealed that shikonin significantly delayed intestinal motility in mice and reduced stool water content in a neonatal mice model of rotaviral diarrhea without affecting the viral infection process in vivo. Taken together, the results suggested that shikonin inhibited enterocyte calcium-activated chloride channels, the inhibitory effect was partially through inhbition of basolateral K+ channel activity, and shikonin could be a lead compound in the treatment of rotaviral secretory diarrhea. PMID:27601995

  16. Catalytic liquefaction by zinc chloride melts at pre-pyrolysis temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Vermeulen, T.; Onu, C.; Joyce, P.J.; Hershkowitz, F.; Grens, E.A.

    1980-02-01

    Liquid-phase catalysts have proved effective for opening chemical linkages in subbituminous coal and capping the reactive segments with hydrogen atoms or other low-molecular-weight groups. The preferred temperature range is 275 to 325/sup 0/C (530 to 620/sup 0/F), so that the linkages are opened by controlled catalytic action rather than by thermal pyrolysis which requires appreciably higher temperatures. The best catalyst melt compositions used to date are zinc chloride with 10% water together with tetralin, and zinc chloride with 15% methanol and 3% of zinc metal. Useful residence times range from 30 minutes, or less, to as high as 90 minutes. The products of the treatment have predominately low (300) to medium (3000) molecular weights, analogous to syncrudes and solvent-refined coal. Conversions to pyridine-soluble products of 95% or better are achieved with Wyodak Roland Seam coal, and to date as much as 70% of that coal has been recovered as toluene-solubles (oils and asphaltenes). A major benefit of these conversion conditions is the almost complete absence of by-product char or gas. At these lower temperatures the hydrogen pressures used can be less than in conventional liquefaction; for example, 40 atm rather than 100 atm or more. Hydrogen consumption is significantly lower than in conventional liquefaction; the product yield is higher; and simpler procedures are foreseen for product recovery. The research performed so far clearly shows the industrial potential of homogeneous (liquid-phase) catalysts in penetrating and interacting with the mild temperature and pressure of these studies.

  17. Eclogite-associated potassic silicate melts and chloride-rich fluids in the mantle: a possible connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safonov, O.; Butvina, V.

    2009-04-01

    Relics of potassium-rich (4-14 wt. % of K2O and K2O/Na2O > 1.0) melts are a specific features of some partially molten diamondiferous eclogite xenoliths in kimberlites worldwide [1, 2]. In addition, potassic silicic melt inclusions with up to 16 wt. % of K2O are associated with eclogite phases in kimberlitic diamonds (O. Navon, pers. comm.). According to available experimental data, no such potassium contents can be reached by "dry" and hydrous melting of eclogite. These data point to close connection between infiltration of essentially potassic fluids, partial melting and diamond formation in mantle eclogites [2]. Among specific components of these fluids, alkali chlorides, apparently, play an important role. This conclusion follows from assemblages of the melt relics with chlorine-bearing phases in eclogite xenoliths [1], findings of KCl-rich inclusions in diamonds from the xenoliths [3], and concentration of Cl up to 0.5-1.5 wt. % in the melt inclusions in diamonds. In this presentation, we review our experimental data on reactions of KCl melts and KCl-bearing fluids with model and natural eclogite-related minerals and assemblages. Experiments in the model system jadeite(±diopside)-KCl(±H2O) at 4-7 GPa showed that, being immiscible, chloride liquids provoke a strong K-Na exchange with silicates (jadeite). As a result, low-temperature ultrapotassic chlorine-bearing (up to 3 wt. % of Cl) aluminosilicate melts form. These melts is able to produce sanidine, which is characteristic phase in some partially molten eclogites. In addition, in presence of water Si-rich Cl-bearing mica (Al-celadonite-phlogopite) crystallizes in equilibrium with sanidine and/or potassic melt and immiscible chloride liquid. This mica is similar to that observed in some eclogitic diamonds bearing chloride-rich fluid inclusions [4], as well as in diamonds in partially molten eclogites [2]. Interaction of KCl melt with pyrope garnet also produce potassic aluminosilicate melt because of high

  18. Calcium-activated chloride current expression in axotomized sensory neurons: what for?

    PubMed Central

    Boudes, Mathieu; Scamps, Frédérique

    2012-01-01

    Calcium-activated chloride currents (CaCCs) are activated by an increase in intracellular calcium concentration. Peripheral nerve injury induces the expression of CaCCs in a subset of adult sensory neurons in primary culture including mechano- and proprioceptors, though not nociceptors. Functional screenings of potential candidate genes established that Best1 is a molecular determinant for CaCC expression among axotomized sensory neurons, while Tmem16a is acutely activated by inflammatory mediators in nociceptors. In nociceptors, such CaCCs are preferentially activated under receptor-induced calcium mobilization contributing to cell excitability and pain. In axotomized mechano- and proprioceptors, CaCC activation does not promote electrical activity and prevents firing, a finding consistent with electrical silencing for growth competence of adult sensory neurons. In favor of a role in the process of neurite growth, CaCC expression is temporally correlated to neurons displaying a regenerative mode of growth. This perspective focuses on the molecular identity and role of CaCC in axotomized sensory neurons and the future directions to decipher the cellular mechanisms regulating CaCC during neurite (re)growth. PMID:22461766

  19. Cellulose aerogels prepared from an aqueous zinc chloride salt hydrate melt.

    PubMed

    Schestakow, Maria; Karadagli, Ilknur; Ratke, Lorenz

    2016-02-10

    Monolithic cellulose aerogels are prepared using a salt hydrate melt based on cheap zinc chloride tetrahydrate (ZnCl2·4H2O) that can be washed out of the wet gel-body by using common solvents such as water, ethanol, isopropanol or acetone. Cellulose aerogels with concentrations of 1-5 wt.% cellulose were produced. These aerogels are characterized with respect to shrinkage, density and surface area as well as mechanical properties and micro-structure via SEM. Cellulose aerogels regenerated in acetone show a specific surface area of around 340 m(2)g(-1) being 60% higher than those regenerated in water. The onset of irreversible plastic deformation under compressive load is around 0.8 MPa for acetone-regenerated aerogels and thus a factor of two larger compared to ethanol regenerated ones. The Young's modulus depends almost linearly on the cellulose concentration which is observed for all regenerative fluids with the exception of water. The results achieved are presented in light of the polarity and ability of solvation of ZnCl2·4H2O in the regenerative fluids used. PMID:26686174

  20. Location of Release Sites and Calcium-Activated Chloride Channels Relative to Calcium Channels at the Photoreceptor Ribbon Synapse

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, A. J.; Rabl, K.; Riccardi, G. E.; Brecha, N. C.; Stella, S. L.

    2011-01-01

    Vesicle release from photoreceptor ribbon synapses is regulated by L-type Ca2+ channels, which are in turn regulated by Cl− moving through calcium-activated chloride [Cl(Ca)] channels. We assessed the proximity of Ca2+ channels to release sites and Cl(Ca) channels in synaptic terminals of salamander photoreceptors by comparing fast (BAPTA) and slow (EGTA) intracellular Ca2+ buffers. BAPTA did not fully block synaptic release, indicating some release sites are <100 nm from Ca2+ channels. Comparing Cl(Ca) currents with predicted Ca2+ diffusion profiles suggested that Cl(Ca) and Ca2+ channels average a few hundred nanometers apart, but the inability of BAPTA to block Cl(Ca) currents completely suggested some channels are much closer together. Diffuse immunolabeling of terminals with an antibody to the putative Cl(Ca) channel TMEM16A supports the idea that Cl(Ca) channels are dispersed throughout the presynaptic terminal, in contrast with clustering of Ca2+ channels near ribbons. Cl(Ca) currents evoked by intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+]i) elevation through flash photolysis of DM-nitrophen exhibited EC50 values of 556 and 377 nM with Hill slopes of 1.8 and 2.4 in rods and cones, respectively. These relationships were used to estimate average submembrane [Ca2+]i in photoreceptor terminals. Consistent with control of exocytosis by [Ca2+] nanodomains near Ca2+ channels, average submembrane [Ca2+]i remained below the vesicle release threshold (∼400 nM) over much of the physiological voltage range for cones. Positioning Ca2+ channels near release sites may improve fidelity in converting voltage changes to synaptic release. A diffuse distribution of Cl(Ca) channels may allow Ca2+ influx at one site to influence relatively distant Ca2+ channels. PMID:21084687

  1. Inactivation of calcium-activated chloride channels in smooth muscle by calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yong-Xiao; Kotlikoff, Michael I.

    1997-01-01

    To determine the mechanisms responsible for the termination of Ca2+-activated Cl− currents (ICl(Ca)), simultaneous measurements of whole cell currents and intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) were made in equine tracheal myocytes. In nondialyzed cells, or cells dialyzed with 1 mM ATP, ICl(Ca) decayed before the [Ca2+]i decline, whereas the calcium-activated potassium current decayed at the same rate as [Ca2+]i. Substitution of AMP-PNP or ADP for ATP markedly prolonged the decay of ICl(Ca), resulting in a rate of current decay similar to that of the fall in [Ca2+]i. In the presence of ATP, dialysis of the calmodulin antagonist W7, the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) inhibitor KN93, or a CaMKII-specific peptide inhibitor the rate of ICl(Ca) decay was slowed and matched the [Ca2+]i decline, whereas H7, a nonspecific kinase inhibitor with low affinity for CaMKII, was without effect. When a sustained increase in [Ca2+]i was produced in ATP dialyzed cells, the current decayed completely, whereas in cells loaded with 5′-adenylylimidodiphosphate (AMP-PNP), KN93, or the CaMKII inhibitory peptide, ICl(Ca) did not decay. Slowly decaying currents were repeatedly evoked in ADP- or AMP-PNP-loaded cells, but dialysis of adenosine 5′-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) or okadaic acid resulted in a smaller initial ICl(Ca), and little or no current (despite a normal [Ca2+]i transient) with a second stimulation. These data indicate that CaMKII phosphorylation results in the inactivation of calcium-activated chloride channels, and that transition from the inactivated state to the closed state requires protein dephosphorylation. PMID:9405714

  2. Chloride-bearing liquids and partial melting of mantle eclogites: experimental study and application to the diamond-forming processes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safonov, Oleg

    2010-05-01

    Recent studies prove that the partial melting in some eclogite xenoliths in kimberlites is closely related to formation of diamonds in these rocks at 4-6 GPa and 1150-12500C [e.g. 1, 2]. Along with specific mineral assemblages, the products of the eclogite partial melting commonly include relics of potassium-rich silicic melts (45-65 wt. % of SiO2, 4-14 wt. % of K2O and K2O/Na2O > 1.0) [1, 2]. Available experimental data, however, demonstrate that such melts can not be produced by 'dry' or hydrous melting of a common eclogite. It implies that partial melting and conjugate diamond formation in mantle eclogites was triggered by infiltration of potassic fluids/melts. Assemblages of Cl-bearing phases and carbonates in eclogite xenoliths [1], and eclogitic diamonds [3-6] suggest that these agents were chloride-carbonate-H2O melts or/and chloride-H2O-CO2 fluids. In order to characterize interaction of both types of liquids with eclogites and their minerals, experiments in the eclogite-related systems with participation of CaCO3-Na2CO3-KCl-H2O or H2O-CO2-KCl are reviewed. Melting relations in the system eclogite-CaCO3-Na2CO3-KCl-H2O follow the general scheme proposed earlier for chloride-carbonate-silicate systems [7]. Below 12000C, Grt, Cpx and phlogopite (Phl) coexist with LCC only. Formation of Phl and Ca-rich Grt after Cpx indicate active reactions of Cpx with LCC accompanied by CO2 degassing and depletion of the clinopyroxene in jadeite. Subsequent dissolution of silicates in LCC at >1200OC results in formation of potassic silica-undersaturated carbonate and Cl-bearing melt (LCS) (37-40 wt. % of SiO2, 10-12 wt. % of K2O, ~3.5 wt. % of Cl) immiscible with the LCC. Compositional feature of this melt is very comparable to those of low-Mg carbonate-silicate melt inclusions in diamonds [6]. However, it is not relevant to the melt relics preserved in the partially molten eclogite xenoliths. Melting of eclogites with participation of the H2O-CO2-KCl fluid at 5 GPa at 1200

  3. Freezing of snow layers saturated with a calcium chloride aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugawara, M.; Tago, M.; Nozawa, R.; Beer, H.

    2002-09-01

    This paper provides a basic information to control snow layers on roads or runways in order to maintain road safety. The snow saturated with a calcium chloride aqueous solution is initially in the thermodynamic equilibrium at the desired concentration and temperature. Since the snow layer bottom is quickly cooled by maintaining a fixed cooling wall temperature, the aqueous solution in the snow layer will freeze gradually upwards without natural convection in the layer due to the stable density distribution. It is seen that the temperature/concentration and the freezing volume fraction are affected by the cooling wall temperature and the initial concentration in the layer. A simple idealized numerical model predicts well the freezing behavior of the snow layer saturated with the aqueous solution.

  4. Calcium chloride electron injection/extraction layers in organic electronic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Bo E-mail: qhgong@pku.edu.cn; Gao, Zhi; Yang, Hongsheng; Xiao, Lixin; Chen, Zhijian; Gong, Qihuang E-mail: qhgong@pku.edu.cn

    2014-01-27

    Nontoxic calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}) was introduced into organic electronic devices as cathode buffer layer (CBL). The turn-on voltage and maximum luminance of organic light-emitting diode (OLED) with 1.5 nm CaCl{sub 2} was 3.5 V and 21 960 cd/m{sup 2}, respectively. OLED with 1.5 nm CaCl{sub 2} possessed comparable electroluminescent characteristics to that of the commonly used LiF. Moreover, the performance of the organic photovoltaic device with 0.5 nm CaCl{sub 2} was comparable to that of the control device with LiF. Therefore, CaCl{sub 2} has the potential to be used as the CBL for organic electronic devices.

  5. Study of permeation and blocker binding in TMEM16A calcium-activated chloride channels.

    PubMed

    Reyes, J P; Huanosta-Gutiérrez, A; López-Rodríguez, A; Martínez-Torres, A

    2015-01-01

    We studied the effects of mutations of positively charged amino acid residues in the pore of X. tropicalis TMEM16A calcium-activated chloride channels: K613E, K628E, K630E; R646E and R761E. The activation and deactivation kinetics were not affected, and only K613E showed a lower current density. K628E and R761E affect anion selectivity without affecting Na(+) permeation, whereas K613E, R646E and the double mutant K613E + R646E affect anion selectivity and permeability to Na(+). Furthermore, altered blockade by the chloride channel blockers anthracene-9-carboxylic acid (A-9-C), 4, 4'-Diisothiocyano-2,2'-stilbenedisulfonic acid (DIDS) and T16inh-A01 was observed. These results suggest the existence of 2 binding sites for anions within the pore at electrical distances of 0.3 and 0.5. These sites are also relevant for anion permeation and blockade. PMID:25853341

  6. Influence of calcium chloride on the thermal behavior of heavy and alkali metals in sewage sludge incineration.

    PubMed

    Han, Jun; Xu, Minghou; Yao, Hong; Furuuchi, Masami; Sakano, Takeo; Kim, Hee Joon

    2008-01-01

    In order to separate and reuse heavy and alkali metals from flue gas during sewage sludge incineration, experiments were carried out in a pilot incinerator. The experimental results show that most of the heavy and alkali metals form condensed phase at temperature above 600 degrees C. With the addition of 5% calcium chloride into sewage sludge, the gas/solid transformation temperature of part of the metals (As, Cu, Mg and Na) is evidently decreased due to the formation of chloride, while calcium chloride seems to have no significant influence on Zn and P. Moreover, the mass fractions of some heavy and alkali metals in the collected fly ash are relatively high. For example, the mass fractions for Pb and Cu in the fly ash collected by the filter are 1.19% and 19.7%, respectively, which are well above those in lead and copper ores. In the case of adding 5% calcium chloride, the heavy and alkali metals can be divided into three groups based on their conversion temperature: Group A that includes Na, Zn, K, Mg and P, which are converted into condensed phase above 600 degrees C; Group B that includes Pb and Cu which solidify when the temperature is above 400 degrees C; and Group C that includes As, whose condensation temperature is as low as 300 degrees C. PMID:17412581

  7. Activation and inhibition of TMEM16A calcium-activated chloride channels.

    PubMed

    Ni, Yu-Li; Kuan, Ai-Seon; Chen, Tsung-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCC) encoded by family members of transmembrane proteins of unknown function 16 (TMEM16) have recently been intensely studied for functional properties as well as their physiological roles as chloride channels in various tissues. One technical hurdle in studying these channels is the well-known channel rundown that frequently impairs the precision of electrophysiological measurements for the channels. Using experimental protocols that employ fast-solution exchange, we circumvented the problem of channel rundown by normalizing the Ca(2+)-induced current to the maximally-activated current obtained within a time period in which the channel rundown was negligible. We characterized the activation of the TMEM16A-encoded CaCC (also called ANO1) by Ca(2+), Sr(2+), and Ba(2+), and discovered that Mg(2+) competes with Ca(2+) in binding to the divalent-cation binding site without activating the channel. We also studied the permeability of the ANO1 pore for various anions and found that the anion occupancy in the pore-as revealed by the permeability ratios of these anions-appeared to be inversely correlated with the apparent affinity of the ANO1 inhibition by niflumic acid (NFA). On the other hand, the NFA inhibition was neither affected by the degree of the channel activation nor influenced by the types of divalent cations used for the channel activation. These results suggest that the NFA inhibition of ANO1 is likely mediated by altering the pore function but not through changing the channel gating. Our study provides a precise characterization of ANO1 and documents factors that can affect divalent cation activation and NFA inhibition of ANO1. PMID:24489780

  8. Consumer Acceptability of Cucumber Pickles Produced by Fermentation in Calcium Chloride Brine for Reduced Environmental Impact.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Emily M; Johanningsmeier, Suzanne D; Osborne, Jason A

    2015-06-01

    Fermentation of cucumbers in calcium chloride (CaCl2 ) brine has been proposed as an alternative process to reduce the environmental impact of traditional, high salt fermentations. The objective of this research was to determine whether consumer acceptability of pickle products would be impacted by fermentation and storage of cucumbers in CaCl2 brine. Cucumbers were fermented and stored with 0.1M CaCl2 or 1M sodium chloride (NaCl) in open-air, 3000 gal tanks at a commercial facility and processed into hamburger dill chips containing 0.38M NaCl. Cucumbers fermented in CaCl2 required additional desalting to reduce CaCl2 concentrations to that of current products. Consumers (n = 101) showed no significant preference for pickles from different fermentation treatments, whether stored for 2 mo (P = 0.75) or 8 mo (P = 0.68) prior to processing. In contrast, NaCl fermented pickles were preferred over CaCl2 fermented pickles stored for 10 mo and desalted only once (P < 0.01). A series of preference tests indicated that the taste of CaCl2 was not the factor affecting consumer preference, and the 50% detection threshold of CaCl2 in dill pickle chips was found to be 61.8 ± 7.6 mM, indicating that processors could potentially use CaCl2 fermentations with a single desalting step. Consumer liking of flavor (n = 73) was not influenced by fermentation in CaCl2 or by 23 or 35 mM CaCl2 in finished products (P > 0.05), but variability in texture decreased consumer liking (P < 0.05). Although promising, individual fermentation variability and texture quality of CaCl2 fermented products should be further evaluated prior to broad implementation of this process. PMID:25981784

  9. Laboratory studies of the low-temperature deliquescence of calcium chloride salts: Relevance to aqueous solutions on Mars and in the Antarctic Dry Valleys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gough, R. V.; Chevrier, V.; Tolbert, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    There is significant interest in the possible existence of liquid water on current Mars. This water would likely exist as a brine in order to be stable on Mars today. It has been proposed that soil salts could form aqueous solutions through either the melting of ice by low-eutectic salts, or by the deliquescence of hygroscopic salts present in the Martian soil. The focus thus far has largely been on perchlorate species, which can melt ice at temperatures as low as 206 K and can deliquesce at relative humidity values as low as 38% RH. A Mars-relevant salt that has been neglected thus far is calcium chloride (CaCl2). Calcium has been reported to be an abundant cation at the Phoenix landing site and Mars Science Laboratory instruments have recently identified calcium as well. Simulations suggest subsurface CaCl2 is an ideal candidate to produce brines with seasonality consistent with observed recurring slope lineae (RSL) (Chevrier et al., 2012). Finally, the only terrestrial site where RSL-like features have been observed (near Don Juan Pond in the Antarctic Dry Valleys) contains abundant CaCl2. These seasonal slope streaks are thought to form when CaCl2 in the soil deliquesces due to contact with atmospheric water vapor (Dickson et al., 2013). It is important to understand how this CaCl2 interacts with water vapor at low temperatures relevant to Mars and the Martian analog sites. Here we use a Raman microscope and environmental cell to monitor the low-temperature (223 - 273 K) deliquescence (solid to aqueous phase transition) and efflorescence (aqueous to solid phase transition) of three hydration states of CaCl2 (dihydrate, tetrahydrate, hexahydrate). We have found that the deliquescence relative humidity (DRH) increases with increasing hydration state, which is an expected result. Average DRH values over the temperature range studied are 20.0 × 2.6% RH for the dihydrate, 31.8 × 6.3% RH for the tetrahydrate and 60.7 × 1.6% RH for the hexahydrate. Once the aqueous

  10. Coadministration of calcium chloride with lead acetate can improve motility of cauda epididymal spermatozoa in Swiss white mice

    PubMed Central

    Golshan Iranpour, Farhad; Kheiri, Soleiman

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lead is an industrial heavy metal that can decrease sperm motility. Objective: The aim was to investigate the protective effects of calcium against lead on motility of spermatozoa. Materials and Methods: In total 40 adult male Swiss white mice were randomly divided into 5 groups (control, lead of 1st wk, lead of 2nd wk, lead/calcium of 1st wk and lead/calcium of 2nd wk). The lead groups of mice were injected by a single dose of lead acetate (200 mg/kg) intraperitoneally. Lead/calcium groups of mice were injected by a single same dose of lead acetate along with three doses of 80 mg/kg calcium chloride. The control group of mice was injected only with same volume of distilled water through the same route. Mice of 1st and 2nd wk groups were sacrificed through cervical dislocation one and two weeks after injections respectively. Results: Mean of the progressive motile spermatozoa of cauda epididymis in lead/calcium group of the first week was higher than the lead group of the first week and this difference was significant. There was not any significant difference among weight of testes and epididymides of all groups. Conclusion: It can be concluded that calcium can decrease the effects of lead on sperm motility. PMID:27200429

  11. Effects of calcium chloride and sodium hexametaphosphate on certain chemical and physical properties of soymilk.

    PubMed

    Pathomrungsiyounggul, P; Grandison, A S; Lewis, M J

    2007-10-01

    Soymilks with sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP) (0% to 1.2%) and calcium chloride (12.50, 18.75, and 25.00 mM Ca) were analyzed for total Ca, Ca ion concentration, pH, kinematic viscosity, particle diameter, and sediment after pasteurization. Higher added Ca led to significant (P

  12. Aggrandizing power output from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 microbial fuel cells using calcium chloride.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Lisa A; Petersen, Emily R; Gross, Benjamin J; Soto, Carissa M; Ringeisen, Bradley R; El-Naggar, Mohamed Y; Biffinger, Justin C

    2012-01-15

    There are several interconnected metabolic pathways in bacteria essential for the conversion of carbon electron sources directly into electrical currents using microbial fuel cells (MFCs). This study establishes a direct exogenous method to increase power output from a Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 containing MFC by adding calcium chloride to the culture medium. The current output from each CaCl(2) concentration tested revealed that the addition of CaCl(2) to 1400 μM increased the current density by >80% (0.95-1.76 μA/cm(2)) using sodium lactate as the sole carbon source. Furthermore, polarization curves showed that the maximum power output could be increased from 157 to 330 μW with the addition of 2080 μM CaCl(2). Since the conductivity of the culture medium did not change after the addition of CaCl(2) (confirmed by EIS and bulk conductivity measurements), this increase in power was primarily biological and not based on ionic effects. Thus, controlling the concentration of CaCl(2) is a pathway to increase the efficiency and performance of S. oneidensis MR-1 MFCs. PMID:22154401

  13. Restaurant consumer acceptance of beef loin strip steaks tenderized with calcium chloride.

    PubMed

    Hoover, L C; Cook, K D; Miller, M F; Huffman, K L; Wu, C K; Lansdell, J L; Ramsey, C B

    1995-12-01

    Beef strip loins from either the right or left side of 22 carcasses of Bos indicus-type steers were injected with 200 mM calcium chloride (CaCl2) solution at 5% (wt/wt) to determine its effect on tenderness and other selected quality traits of steaks. Loins from opposite sides of the carcasses were untreated and served as the control. The steaks were evaluated for tenderness, juiciness, flavor intensity, tenderness acceptability, and overall acceptability by 62 restaurant consumers over a 6-wk period. The CaCl2 injection improved (P < .05) tenderness and flavor intensity ratings by the restaurant consumers. Tenderness acceptability and overall acceptability were improved 23 and 17%, respectively, by the CaCl2 injection. Flavor was not compromised by the CaCl2 injection. The CaCl2-treated steaks were rated superior(P < .05) for flavor compared to the control steaks. Restaurant consumers preferred the beef loin strip steaks injected with 200 mM CaCl2 at 5% (wt/wt). The results of this study are interpreted to indicate that, from a restaurant consumer perspective, CaCl2 injection is an acceptable means of making beef a more consistently tender product. PMID:8655438

  14. The plasticizing mechanism and effect of calcium chloride on starch/poly(vinyl alcohol) films.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiancai; Jiang, Ting; Gan, Lingling; Zhang, Xiaofei; Dai, Hua; Zhang, Xi

    2012-11-01

    Starch/poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) films were prepared with calcium chloride (CaCl(2)) as the plasticizer. The micro morphology of pure starch/PVA film and CaCl(2) plasticized starch/PVA film was observed by scanning electron microscope. The interaction between CaCl(2) and starch/PVA molecules was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The influence of CaCl(2) on the crystalline, thermal and mechanical properties of starch/PVA films was studied by X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, and tensile testing, respectively. The results indicated that CaCl(2) could interact with starch and PVA molecules and then effectively destroy the crystals of starch and PVA. Starch/PVA films plasticized with CaCl(2) became soft and ductile, with lower tensile strength and higher elongation at break compared with pure starch/PVA film. The water content of starch/PVA film would increase with the addition of CaCl(2). This is an important cause of the plasticization of CaCl(2) on starch/PVA film. PMID:22944433

  15. Leaching of lead from zinc leach residue in acidic calcium chloride aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Le; Mu, Wen-ning; Shen, Hong-tao; Liu, Shao-ming; Zhai, Yu-chun

    2015-05-01

    A process with potentially reduced environmental impacts and occupational hazards of lead-bearing zinc plant residue was studied to achieve a higher recovery of lead via a cost-effective and environmentally friendly process. This paper describes an optimization study on the leaching of lead from zinc leach residue using acidic calcium chloride aqueous solution. Six main process conditions, i.e., the solution pH value, stirring rate, concentration of CaCl2 aqueous solution, liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratio, leaching temperature, and leaching time, were investigated. The microstructure and components of the residue and tailing were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). On the basis of experimental results, the optimum reaction conditions were determined to be a solution pH value of 1, a stirring rate of 500 r·min-1, a CaCl2 aqueous solution concentration of 400 g·L-1, a liquid-to-solid mass ratio of 7:1, a leaching temperature of 80°C, and a leaching time of 45 min. The leaching rate of lead under these conditions reached 93.79%, with an iron dissolution rate of 19.28%. Silica did not take part in the chemical reaction during the leaching process and was accumulated in the residue.

  16. Hydroxyapatite Mineralization on the Calcium Chloride Blended Polyurethane Nanofiber via Biomimetic Method.

    PubMed

    Nirmala, R; Nam, Ki Taek; Navamathavan, R; Park, Soo-Jin; Kim, Hak Yong

    2010-01-01

    Polyurethane nanofibers containing calcium chloride (CaCl2) were prepared via an electrospinning technique for the biomedical applications. Polyurethane nanofibers with different concentration of CaCl2 were electrospun, and their bioactivity evaluation was conducted by incubating in biomimetic simulated body fluid (SBF) solution. The morphology, structure and thermal properties of the polyurethane/CaCl2 composite nanofibers were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), field-emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetry. SEM images revealed that the CaCl2 salt incorporated homogeneously to form well-oriented nanofibers with smooth surface and uniform diameters along their lengths. The SBF incubation test confirmed the formation of apatite-like materials, exhibiting enhanced bioactive behavior of the polyurethane/CaCl2 composite nanofibers. This study demonstrated that the electrospun polyurethane containing CaCl2 composite nanofibers enhanced the in vitro bioactivity and supports the growth of apatite-like materials. PMID:21711574

  17. Hydroxyapatite Mineralization on the Calcium Chloride Blended Polyurethane Nanofiber via Biomimetic Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nirmala, R.; Nam, Ki Taek; Navamathavan, R.; Park, Soo-Jin; Kim, Hak Yong

    2011-12-01

    Polyurethane nanofibers containing calcium chloride (CaCl2) were prepared via an electrospinning technique for the biomedical applications. Polyurethane nanofibers with different concentration of CaCl2 were electrospun, and their bioactivity evaluation was conducted by incubating in biomimetic simulated body fluid (SBF) solution. The morphology, structure and thermal properties of the polyurethane/CaCl2 composite nanofibers were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), field-emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetry. SEM images revealed that the CaCl2 salt incorporated homogeneously to form well-oriented nanofibers with smooth surface and uniform diameters along their lengths. The SBF incubation test confirmed the formation of apatite-like materials, exhibiting enhanced bioactive behavior of the polyurethane/CaCl2 composite nanofibers. This study demonstrated that the electrospun polyurethane containing CaCl2 composite nanofibers enhanced the in vitro bioactivity and supports the growth of apatite-like materials.

  18. The effect of calcium chloride concentration on alginate/Fmoc-diphenylalanine hydrogel networks.

    PubMed

    Çelik, Ekin; Bayram, Cem; Akçapınar, Rümeysa; Türk, Mustafa; Denkbaş, Emir Baki

    2016-09-01

    Peptide based hydrogels gained a vast interest in the tissue engineering studies thanks to great superiorities such as biocompatibility, supramolecular organization without any need of additional crosslinker, injectability and tunable nature. Fmoc-diphenylalanine (FmocFF) is one of the earliest and widely used example of these small molecule gelators that have been utilized in biomedical studies. However, Fmoc-peptides are not feasible for long term use due to low stability and weak mechanical properties at neutral pH. In this study, Fmoc-FF dipeptides were mechanically enhanced by incorporation of alginate, a biocompatible and absorbable polysaccharide. The binary hydrogel is obtained via molecular self-assembly of FmocFF dipeptide in alginate solution followed by ionic crosslinking of alginate moieties with varying concentrations of calcium chloride. Hydrogel characterization was evaluated in terms of morphology, viscoelastic moduli and diffusional phenomena and the structures were tested as 3D scaffolds for bovine chondrocytes. In vitro evaluation of scaffolds lasted up to 14days and cell viability, sulphated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) levels, collagen type II synthesis were determined. Our results showed that alginate incorporation into FmocFF hydrogels leads to better mechanical properties and higher stability with good biocompatibility. PMID:27207058

  19. Reduction of the spent nuclear fuel of a VVER-1000 reactor by lithium in a lithium chloride melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bychkov, A. V.; Ishunin, V. S.; Kormilitsyn, M. V.

    2010-08-01

    Researchers at FGUP GNTs RF NIIAR performed a series of experiments on the lithium reduction of the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) of a VVER-1000 reactor to a metal in a lithium chloride melt. The depletion of the nuclear fuel taken before experiments is about 30000 (MW day)/t, and the cooling time is 5 years. The experiments are performed on 5.8-kg samples of a prepared SNF powder. Data are obtained on a decrease in the heat release, the specific activity of the processed powder, and the distribution of actinides and the main fission products between a salt phase and a reduced SNF powder.

  20. Developmental change in calcium-activated chloride current during the differentiation of Xenopus spinal neurons in culture.

    PubMed

    Hussy, N

    1991-09-01

    The duration and ionic dependence of action potentials change during the differentiation of embryonic amphibian spinal neurons both in vivo and in culture. The development of sodium, calcium, and potassium currents has been characterized in these cells and the shortening of the action potential has been shown to depend to a great extent on developmental changes of potassium currents. Previous evidence suggests that a chloride current may also be present in these embryonic neurons. Chloride currents were investigated with intracellular current-clamp and single-electrode and whole-cell voltage-clamp techniques. Most neurons exhibited a calcium-activated chloride current (ICl(Ca] that contributed to the postdepolarization following the action potential recorded in the absence of sodium and potassium currents. This current appeared to decrease in density and its deactivation rate increased during the first day in culture. Its incidence also declined during this period. A much larger Ca(2+)-dependent Cl- current was also observed in a subset of neurons after 24 hr, but was absent at earlier stages of development. The results suggest the presence of two Cl- currents with different developmental fates. The early current probably contributes to the repolarization of long calcium-dependent action potentials at initial stages of neuronal development, when potassium currents are small, and may serve to reduce the extent of repetitive firing. PMID:1715301

  1. Determination of the Optimum Conditions for Leaching of Zinc Cathode Melting Furnace Slag in Ammonium Chloride Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behnajady, Bahram; Babaeidehkordi, Amin; Moghaddam, Javad

    2014-04-01

    This research is part of a continuing effort to leach zinc from zinc cathode melting furnace slags (ZCMFSs) to produce zinc oxide. The slag with an assay of 68.05 pct Zn was used in ammonium chloride leaching for zinc extraction. In this paper, the effects of influential factors on extraction efficiency of Zn from a ZCMFS were investigated. The Taguchi's method based on orthogonal array (OA) design has been used to arrange the experimental runs in order to maximize zinc extraction from a slag. The softwares named Excel and Design-Expert 7 have been used to design experiments and subsequent analysis. OA L 25 (55) consisting of five parameters, each with five levels, was employed to evaluate the effects of reaction time ( t = 10, 30, 50, 70, 90 minutes), reaction temperature [ T = 313, 323, 333, 343, 353 (40, 50, 60, 70, 80) K (°C)], pulp density ( S/ L = 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 g/L), stirring speed ( R = 300, 400, 500, 600, 700 rpm), and ammonium chloride concentration ( C = 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 pctwt), on zinc extraction percent. Statistical analysis, ANOVA, was also employed to determine the relationship between experimental conditions and yield levels. The results showed that the significant parameters affecting leaching of slag were ammonium chloride concentration and pulp density, and increasing pulp density reduced leaching efficiency of zinc. However, increasing ammonium chloride concentration promoted the extraction of zinc. The optimum conditions for this study were found to be t 4: 70 minutes, T 5: 353 K (80 °C), ( S/ L)2: 40 g/L, R 3: 500 rpm, and C 4: 25 pctwt. Under these conditions, the dissolution percentage of Zn in ammonium chloride media was 94.61 pct.

  2. Small-molecule activators of TMEM16A, a calcium-activated chloride channel, stimulate epithelial chloride secretion and intestinal contraction

    PubMed Central

    Namkung, Wan; Yao, Zhen; Finkbeiner, Walter E.; Verkman, A. S.

    2011-01-01

    TMEM16A (ANO1) is a calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) expressed in secretory epithelia, smooth muscle, and other tissues. Cell-based functional screening of ∼110,000 compounds revealed compounds that activated TMEM16A CaCC conductance without increasing cytoplasmic Ca2+. By patch-clamp, N-aroylaminothiazole “activators” (Eact) strongly increased Cl− current at 0 Ca2+, whereas tetrazolylbenzamide “potentiators” (Fact) were not active at 0 Ca2+ but reduced the EC50 for Ca2+-dependent TMEM16A activation. Of 682 analogs tested, the most potent activator (Eact) and potentiator (Fact) produced large and more sustained CaCC Cl− currents than general agonists of Ca2+ signaling, with EC50 3–6 μM and Cl− conductance comparable to that induced transiently by Ca2+-elevating purinergic agonists. Analogs of activators were identified that fully inhibited TMEM16A Cl− conductance, providing further evidence for direct TMEM16A binding. The TMEM16A activators increased CaCC conductance in human salivary and airway submucosal gland epithelial cells, and IL-4 treated bronchial cells, and stimulated submucosal gland secretion in human bronchi and smooth muscle contraction in mouse intestine. Small-molecule, TMEM16A-targeted activators may be useful for drug therapy of cystic fibrosis, dry mouth, and gastrointestinal hypomotility disorders, and for pharmacological dissection of TMEM16A function.—Namkung, W., Yao, Z., Finkbeiner, W. E., Verkman, A. S. Small-molecule activators of TMEM16A, a calcium-activated chloride channel, stimulate epithelial chloride secretion and intestinal contraction. PMID:21836025

  3. Corrosion Effects of Calcium Chloride Injection for Mercury Control on the Pollution Control Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Vijay Sethi; M.P. Sharma

    2009-02-28

    In response to the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) of 2005, Black Hills Power (BHP) initiated testing of a calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}) injection method in their Wygen 1 (Gillette, WY) coal-fired power plant to help lower mercury emissions. In 2006, Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) was contracted to test their CaCl{sub 2} technology in-situ by adding a CaCl{sub 2} solution onto the raw, pre-pulverized coal during normal operation of Wygen 1. Follow-up tests were conducted by BHP in 2007. Data were collected from these two time periods and analyzed by a collaborative investigation team from Western Research Institute (WRI) and the University of Wyoming (UW) to see if there were any effects on the current air pollution control systems. During a CaCl{sub 2} injection period in 2007, corrosion was monitored in the flue and recycle ash system by placing corrosion coupons in strategic locations to test if corrosion was enhanced by the CaCl{sub 2} injection. While the CaCl{sub 2} produced a reduction in stack mercury levels, there was some evidence of beneficial impacts on the removal of SO{sub 2} from the flue gas during CaCl{sub 2} injection. Data on NOx remained inconclusive. It was also discovered that corrosion was enhanced significantly in the Spray Drier Absorber (SDA) vessel and corresponding outlet ductwork during CaCl{sub 2} injections. Further studies are being carried out in the field and lab to better understand the corrosive effects of CaCl{sub 2} to help formulate operation controls to manage the increased corrosion rates.

  4. Phase diagram and phase transitions in ferroelectric tris-sarcosine calcium chloride and its brominated isomorphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, S. P. P.; Evans, D. M.; Carpenter, M. A.; Redfern, S. A. T.; Scott, J. F.; Straube, U.; Schmidt, V. H.

    2011-03-01

    Tris-sarcosine calcium chloride [(TSCC), (CH3NHCH2COOH)3CaCl2] is a uniaxial ferroelectric (FE) with a displacive second-order phase transition near Tc=130 K. A continuous range of solid solutions can be made by substituting Br for Cl, which lowers Tc to 0 K at ˜72% Br. Such a quantum critical point differs from that in pseudocubic FEs, such as O-18 SrTiO3 or doped KTaO3. For many years, this system was thought to have only two phases, paraelectric and FE, at ambient pressure. However, we find from dielectric and resonant ultrasound spectroscopy that there are four phase transitions in TSCC and in TSCC:Br (for 0 < Br < 40%): Order-disorder of the sarcosine methyl group at 185 K; displacive FE transition at 130 K (in pure TSCC); a second FE transition [previously hypothesized to be antiferroelectric (AFE) but probably not] at 64 K; and a new anomaly at ˜45 K which might be due to a phase transition or to Debye-like freezing of orientational disorder of some part of the sarcosine molecule. The probable sequence of structures is (upon cooling): Pnma with Z=4(D2h16) ambient 500 K > T > 185 K, disordered; Pnma with Z=4(D2h16)185K>T>130K (ordered); Pn21a with Z=4(C2v9)130K>T>64K (FE); P21a (C2h5) with Z =4, 64 K > T > 45 K (not AFE); T < 45 K, unknown structure. A sixth hexagonal structure at high temperatures (>500 K) is hypothesized to be D6h3(P63/mcm) with Z =2, but the samples decompose first at 503 K (230 °C).

  5. The Effect of Calcium Chloride on Growth, Photosynthesis, and Antioxidant Responses of Zoysia japonica under Drought Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chengbin; Li, Xuemei; Zhang, Lihong

    2013-01-01

    Few attempts have been made to study the alleviating effects of signal molecules on zoysiagrass (Zoysiajaponica) under drought stress. Calcium chloride has been shown to ameliorate the adverse effects of drought stress on many plants. It is necessary to investigate how to enhance drought tolerance of zoysiagrass using calcium chloride. The study elucidated the effects of calcium chloride on zoysiagrass under drought conditions by investigating the following parameters: biomass, chlorophyll (Chl) content, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), chlorophyll fluorescence, antioxidant enzymes, proline content, and malondialdehyde (MDA) content. Experimental conditions consisted of an aqueous CaCl2 solution at 5, 10, and 20 mM sprayed on zoysiagrass leaves for 3 d, following by an inducement of drought conditions by withholding water for 16 d. Under drought conditions, all CaCl2 pretreatments were found to increase the above-ground fresh biomass, as well as below-ground fresh and dry biomass. The resulting Chl (a, b, a+b) contents of the 5 and 10 mM CaCl2 pretreatment groups were higher than those of the control. In the later stages of drought conditions, the chlorophyll fluorescence parameter Fv/Fm was higher in leaves treated with 10 mM CaCl2 than in the leaves of the other two treatment groups. Zoysiagrass pretreated with 10 mM CaCl2 possessed both the maximum observed Pn and antioxidant enzyme activities. Meanwhile, lower MDA and proline contents were recorded in the plants pretreated with 5 and 10 mM CaCl2 under drought conditions. As a whole, the drought tolerance of zoysiagrass was improved to some extent by the application of a moderate calcium concentration. PMID:23844172

  6. The influence of fluoride ions on the equilibrium between titanium ions and titanium metal in fused alkali chloride melts.

    PubMed

    Song, Jianxun; Wang, Qiuyu; Wu, Jinyu; Jiao, Shuqiang; Zhu, Hongmin

    2016-08-15

    KF is employed as a source of fluoride ions added to the melt to disclose the influence of fluoride on the disproportionation reactions of titanium ions, 3Ti(2+) = 2Ti(3+) + Ti, and 4Ti(3+) = 3Ti(4+) + Ti. The results reveal that the equilibrium transferred to the right direction for the first reaction and the apparent equilibrium constant increased sharply, mainly because of the formation of coordination compounds: TiFi(3-i). The accurate values of the equilibrium constants referring to the formation reactions of Ti(3+) + iF(-) = TiFi(3-i) (i = 1-6) in NaCl-KCl melt at 1023 K were evaluated with a best fit least squares method. It is also revealed that the stable states of the coordination compounds are TiF(2+), TiF2(+), TiF4(-) and TiF6(3-). Moreover, the Gibbs free energies for complex formation were estimated. Ti(2+) was undetectable when the concentration of fluoride ion was high enough. The equilibrium constant for the formation reaction, Ti(4-) + 6F(-) = TiF6(2-), was evaluated. The equilibrium constant, Kc2, for the disproportionation reaction 4Ti(3+) = 3Ti(4+) + Ti, in chloride melt was determined as 0.015. PMID:27212433

  7. Purification of aqueous plutonium chloride solutions via precipitation and washing.

    SciTech Connect

    Stroud, M. A.; Salazar, R. R.; Abney, Kent David; Bluhm, E. A.; Danis, J. A.

    2003-01-01

    Pyrochemical operations at Los Alamos Plutonium Facility (TA-55) use high temperature melt s of calcium chloride for the reduction of plutonium oxide to plutonium metal and hi gh temperature combined melts of sodium chloride and potassium chloride mixtures for the electrorefining purification of plutonium metal . The remaining plutonium and americium are recovered from thes e salts by dissolution in concentrated hydrochloric acid followed by either solvent extraction or io n exchange for isolation and ultimately converted to oxide after precipitation with oxalic acid . Figur e 1 illustrates the current aqueous chloride flow sheet used for plutonium processing at TA-55 .

  8. Individual effects of sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium chloride salts on Lactobacillus pentosus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth.

    PubMed

    Bautista-Gallego, J; Arroyo-López, F N; Durán-Quintana, M C; Garrido-Fernandez, A

    2008-07-01

    A quantitative investigation on the individual effects of sodium (NaCl), potassium (KCl), calcium (CaCl2), and magnesium (MgCl2) chloride salts against Lactobacillus pentosus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two representative microorganisms of table olives and other fermented vegetables, was carried out. In order to assess their potential activities, both the kinetic growth parameters and dose-response profiles in synthetic media (deMan Rogosa Sharpe broth medium and yeast-malt-peptone-glucose broth medium, respectively) were obtained and analyzed. Microbial growth was monitored via optical density measurements as a function of contact time in the presence of progressive chloride salt concentrations. Relative maximum specific growth rate and lag-phase period were modeled as a function of the chloride salt concentrations. Moreover, for each salt and microorganism tested, the noninhibitory concentrations and the MICs were estimated and compared. All chloride salts exerted a significant antimicrobial effect on the growth cycle; particularly, CaCl2 showed a similar effect to NaCl, while KCl and MgCl2 were progressively less inhibitory. Microbial susceptibility and resistance were found to be nonlinearly dose related. PMID:18680941

  9. Nitrate (chloride) melts as media for crystal growth of complex phosphates of alkali and trivalent metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livitska, Oksana; Strutynska, Nataliia; Zatovsky, Igor; Slobodyanik, Nikolai; Odinets, Eugen

    2016-01-01

    The interaction in the molten systems MIPO3-MIII2O3-MINO3 (MICl) (MI - Na, K; MIII - Al, Fe, Y, Bi) was investigated at molar ratios P/MIII=1 or 3 at the temperatures 400 °C (for MINO3) or 810 °C (for MICl). Formation conditions of complex phosphates MI3MIII2(PO4)3 and MI3MIII(PO4)2 (MI - Na, K; MIII - Al, Fe, Bi) were established. It was shown that the crystal size of obtained phosphates can be controlled by using different salt melts. The synthesized compounds were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Optical microscopy and Scanning electron microscopy with Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Differential thermal data for Na3Bi(PO4)2 and Na3Fe(PO4)2 showed congruent and incongruent melting, respectively.

  10. Roles of Cationic and Elemental Calcium in the Electro-Reduction of Solid Metal Oxides in Molten Calcium Chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Guohong; Jiang, Kai; Ma, Meng; Wang, Dihua; Jin, Xianbo; Chen, George Z.

    2007-06-01

    Previous work, mainly from this research group, is re-visited on electrochemical reduction of solid metal oxides, in the form of compacted powder, in molten CaCl2, aiming at further understanding of the roles of cationic and elemental calcium. The discussion focuses on six aspects: 1.) debate on two mechanisms proposed in the literature, i. e. electro-metallothermic reduction and electro-reduction (or electro-deoxidation), for the electrolytic removal of oxygen from solid metals or metal oxides in molten CaCl2; 2.) novel metallic cavity working electrodes for electrochemical investigations of compacted metal oxide powders in high temperature molten salts assisted by a quartz sealed Ag/AgCl reference electrode (650 ºC- 950 ºC); 3.) influence of elemental calcium on the background current observed during electrolysis of solid metal oxides in molten CaCl2; 4.) electrochemical insertion/ inclusion of cationic calcium into solid metal oxides; 5.) typical features of cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry (potentiostatic electrolysis) of metal oxide powders in molten CaCl2; and 6.) some kinetic considerations on the electrolytic removal of oxygen.

  11. Stereocontrolled synthesis of rosuvastatin calcium via iodine chloride-induced intramolecular cyclization.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Fangjun; Wang, Haifeng; Yan, Lingjie; Han, Sheng; Tao, Yuan; Wu, Yan; Chen, Fener

    2016-01-28

    A novel, stereoselective approach towards rosuvastatin calcium from the known (S)-homoallylic alcohol has been developed. The synthesis is highlighted by a regio- and stereocontrolled ICl-induced intramolecular cyclization of chiral homoallylic carbonate to deliver the C6-formyl statin side chain with a syn-1,3-diol moiety. An improved synthesis of the rosuvastatin pyrimidine core moiety is also included. Moreover, this methodology is useful in the asymmetric synthesis of structural variants of statins such as pitavastatin calcium and atorvastatin calcium and their related analogs. PMID:26659808

  12. Extracellular zinc stimulates a calcium-activated chloride conductance through mobilisation of intracellular calcium in renal inner medullary collecting duct cells.

    PubMed

    Linley, J E; Simmons, N L; Gray, M A

    2007-01-01

    We have used the perforated patch clamp and fura-2 fluorescence techniques to study the effect of extracellular Zn(2+) on whole-cell Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) currents (I (CLCA)) in mouse inner medullary collecting duct cells (mIMCD-3). I (CLCA) was spontaneously active in 74% of cells under basal conditions and displayed time and voltage-independent kinetics and an outwardly rectifying current/voltage relationship (I/V). Addition of zinc chloride (10-400 microM) to the bathing solution resulted in a dose-dependent increase in I (CLCA) with little change in Cl(-) selectivity or biophysical characteristics, whereas gadolinium chloride (30 microM) and lanthanum chloride (100 microM) had no significant effect on the whole-cell current. Using fura-2-loaded mIMCD-3 cells, extracellular Zn(2+) (400 microM) stimulated an increase in intracellular Ca(2+) to an elevated plateau. The Zn(2+)-stimulated [Ca(2+)](i) increase was inhibited by thapsigargin (200 nM), the IP(3) receptor antagonist 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (10 microM) and removal of bath Ca(2+). Pre-exposure to Zn(2+) (400 microM) markedly attenuated the ATP (100 microM)-stimulated [Ca(2+)](i) increase. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that extracellular Zn(2+) stimulates an increase in [Ca(2+)](i) by a release of calcium from thapsigargin/IP(3) sensitive stores. A possible physiological role for a divalent metal ion receptor, distinct from the extracellular Ca(2+)-sensing receptor, in IMCD cells is discussed. PMID:17021797

  13. Partitioning of elements between silicate melt and immiscible fluoride, chloride, carbonate, phosphate and sulfate melts, with implications to the origin of natrocarbonatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veksler, Ilya V.; Dorfman, Alexander M.; Dulski, Peter; Kamenetsky, Vadim S.; Danyushevsky, Leonid V.; Jeffries, Teresa; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2012-02-01

    Liquid-liquid partitioning of 42 elements between synthetic silicate melts and immiscible fluoride, chloride, carbonate, phosphate and sulfate liquids was studied at temperatures of 650-1100 °C, pressures 72-100 MPa, with 0-11 wt.% H2O. One series of experiments was performed in a rotating internally-heated autoclave where separation of the immiscible liquids was assisted by centrifugal forces. An analogous series of experiments was done in static rapid-quench cold-seal pressure vessels. The experimentally determined liquid-liquid distribution coefficients (D's) vary over several orders of magnitude, as a result of variable Coulombic interactions between cations and anions. For alkaline, alkaline earth and rare earth elements ther is a strong and systematic dependence of the liquid/liquid D values on the ionic potential Z/r for all the examined systems. In contrast, highly charged cations (e.g., HFSE) show no systematic relationships between the D's and Z/r. New experimental constraints on the carbonate/silicate liquid-liquid D values presented here confirm that rare metals such as Nb, Zr, REE, Th and U concentrate in silicate liquids, and therefore carbonatites that carry economical rare metal mineralization are not likely to have formed by liquid immiscibility. The comparison between experimentally-determined carbonate-silicate liquid-liquid D values and bulk-rock natrocarbonatite vs. nephelinite compositions at the Oldoinyo Lengai in Tanzania reveals significant discrepancies for Cs, Rb, Ba, Be, Zn, heavy REE, Ti, Mo and W, thus rendering a simple, one-stage immiscibility model for Oldoinyo Lengai questionable.

  14. POSTHARVEST CALCIUM CHLORIDE DIPS OF WHOLE TOMATO FRUIT REDUCE POSTHARVEST DECAY UNDER COMMERCIAL CONDITIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research showed that mature green tomato fruit dipped 1 to 4 minutes in a 1% CaCl2 solutions before storage had significantly increased peel calcium content and reduced postharvest decay. The present experiments, conducted over 3-day periods (reps), evaluate treatment effectiveness under c...

  15. Preparation and Characterization of a Calcium Phosphate Ceramic for the Immobilization of Chloride-containing Intermediate Level Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Metcalfe, Brian; Donald, Ian W.; Scheele, Randall D.; Strachan, Denis M.

    2003-12-01

    Attention has recently been given to the immobilization of special categories of radioactive wastes, some of which contain high concentrations of actinide chlorides. Although vitrification in phosphate glass has been proposed, this was rejected because of the high losses of chloride. On the basis of non-radioactive and, more recently, radioactive studies, we have shown that calcium phosphate is an effective host for immobilizing the chloride constituents [1]. In this instance, the chlorine is retained as chloride, rather than evolved as a chlorine-bearing gas. The immobilized product is in the form of a free-flowing, non-hygroscopic powder, in which the chlorides are chemically combined within the mineral phases chlorapatite [Ca5(PO4)3Cl] and spodiosite [Ca2(PO4)Cl]. Data from studies on non-radioactive simulated waste consisting of a mixture of CaCl2 and SmCl3, and radioactive simulated waste composed of CaCl2 with PuCl3 or PuCl3 and AmCl3, are presented and compared. The XRD data confirm the presence of chlorapatite and spodiosite in the non-radioactive and radioactive materials. The durability of all specimens was measured with a modified MCC-1 test. Releases of Cl after 28 days were 1.6 x 10-3 g m-2 for the non-radioactive specimens and 7 x 10-3 g m-2 for the Pu-bearing specimens. Releases of Ca after 28 days were 0.3 x 10-3 and 2.0 x 10-3 g m-2 for the non-radioactive composition and the Pu composition, respectively, whilst release of Pu from the radioactive specimens was lower for the mixed Pu/Am specimen at 1.2 x 10-5g m-2. The release of Am from the mixed Pu/Am composition was exceptionally low at 2.4 x 10-7 g m-2. Overall, the release rate data suggest that the ceramics dissolve congruently, followed by precipitation of Sm, Pu and Am as less soluble phases, possibly oxides or phosphates. The differences in behaviour noted between non-radioactive and radioactive specimens are interpreted in terms of the crystal chemistry of the individual systems.

  16. Differential effect of calcium-activated potassium and chloride channels on rat basilar artery vasomotion.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Wang, Rui; Ma, Ke-tao; Li, Xin-zhi; Zhang, Chuan-lin; Liu, Wei-dong; Zhao, Lei; Si, Jun-qiang

    2014-08-01

    Spontaneous, rhythmical contractions, or vasomotion, can be recorded from cerebral vessels under both normal physiological and pathophysiological conditions. We investigated the cellular mechanisms underlying vasomotion in the cerebral basilar artery (BA) of Wistar rats. Pressure myograph video microscopy was used to study the changes in cerebral artery vessel diameter. The main results of this study were as follows: (1) The diameters of BA and middle cerebral artery (MCA) were 314.5±15.7 μm (n=15) and 233.3±10.1 μm (n=12) at 10 mmHg working pressure (P<0.05), respectively. Pressure-induced vasomotion occurred in BA (22/28, 78.6%), but not in MCA (4/31, 12.9%) from 0 to 70 mmHg working pressure. As is typical for vasomotion, the contractile phase of the response was more rapid than the relaxation phase; (2) The frequency of vasomotion response and the diameter were gradually increased in BA from 0 to 70 mmHg working pressure. The amplitude of the rhythmic contractions was relatively constant once stable conditions were achieved. The frequency of contractions was variable and the highest value was 16.7±4.7 (n=13) per 10 min at 60 mmHg working pressure; (3) The pressure-induced vasomotion of the isolated BA was attenuated by nifedipine, NFA, 18β-GA, TEA or in Ca(2+)-free medium. Nifedipine, NFA, 18β-GA or Ca(2+)-free medium not only dampened vasomotion, but also kept BA in relaxation state. In contrasts, TEA kept BA in contraction state. These results suggest that the pressure-induced vasomotion of the isolated BA results from an interaction between Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels (CaCCs) currents and K(Ca) currents. We hypothesize that vasomotion of BA depends on the depolarizing of the vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) to activate CaCCs. Depolarization in turn activates voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels, synchronizing contractions of adjacent cells through influx of extracellular calcium and the flow of calcium through gap junctions. Subsequent calcium

  17. Self-cleavage of Human CLCA1 Protein by a Novel Internal Metalloprotease Domain Controls Calcium-activated Chloride Channel Activation*♦

    PubMed Central

    Yurtsever, Zeynep; Sala-Rabanal, Monica; Randolph, David T.; Scheaffer, Suzanne M.; Roswit, William T.; Alevy, Yael G.; Patel, Anand C.; Heier, Richard F.; Romero, Arthur G.; Nichols, Colin G.; Holtzman, Michael J.; Brett, Tom J.

    2012-01-01

    The chloride channel calcium-activated (CLCA) family are secreted proteins that regulate both chloride transport and mucin expression, thus controlling the production of mucus in respiratory and other systems. Accordingly, human CLCA1 is a critical mediator of hypersecretory lung diseases, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cystic fibrosis, that manifest mucus obstruction. Despite relevance to homeostasis and disease, the mechanism of CLCA1 function remains largely undefined. We address this void by showing that CLCA proteins contain a consensus proteolytic cleavage site recognized by a novel zincin metalloprotease domain located within the N terminus of CLCA itself. CLCA1 mutations that inhibit self-cleavage prevent activation of calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC)-mediated chloride transport. CaCC activation requires cleavage to unmask the N-terminal fragment of CLCA1, which can independently gate CaCCs. Gating of CaCCs mediated by CLCA1 does not appear to involve proteolytic cleavage of the channel because a mutant N-terminal fragment deficient in proteolytic activity is able to induce currents comparable with that of the native fragment. These data provide both a mechanistic basis for CLCA1 self-cleavage and a novel mechanism for regulation of chloride channel activity specific to the mucosal interface. PMID:23112050

  18. Corrosion-electrochemical properties of the anodic oxide films formed on aluminum in a chloride-nitrate melt in a 0.5 M Aqueous NaCl solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elshina, L. A.; Malkov, V. B.; Kudyakov, V. Ya.; Gnedenkov, S. V.; Sinebryukhov, S. L.; Egorkin, V. S.; Mashtalyar, D. V.

    2014-02-01

    The corrosion-electrochemical behavior of aluminum is studied in a chloride-nitrate melt containing 50 wt % eutectic mixture of cesium and sodium chlorides and 50 wt % sodium nitrate in the temperature range 790-900 K in an argon atmosphere.

  19. Calcium-activated chloride currents in olfactory sensory neurons from mice lacking bestrophin-2

    PubMed Central

    Pifferi, Simone; Dibattista, Michele; Sagheddu, Claudia; Boccaccio, Anna; Al Qteishat, Ahmed; Ghirardi, Filippo; Tirindelli, Roberto; Menini, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Olfactory sensory neurons use a chloride-based signal amplification mechanism to detect odorants. The binding of odorants to receptors in the cilia of olfactory sensory neurons activates a transduction cascade that involves the opening of cyclic nucleotide-gated channels and the entry of Ca2+ into the cilia. Ca2+ activates a Cl− current that produces an efflux of Cl− ions and amplifies the depolarization. The molecular identity of Ca2+-activated Cl− channels is still elusive, although some bestrophins have been shown to function as Ca2+-activated Cl− channels when expressed in heterologous systems. In the olfactory epithelium, bestrophin-2 (Best2) has been indicated as a candidate for being a molecular component of the olfactory Ca2+-activated Cl− channel. In this study, we have analysed mice lacking Best2. We compared the electrophysiological responses of the olfactory epithelium to odorant stimulation, as well as the properties of Ca2+-activated Cl− currents in wild-type (WT) and knockout (KO) mice for Best2. Our results confirm that Best2 is expressed in the cilia of olfactory sensory neurons, while odorant responses and Ca2+-activated Cl− currents were not significantly different between WT and KO mice. Thus, Best2 does not appear to be the main molecular component of the olfactory channel. Further studies are required to determine the function of Best2 in the cilia of olfactory sensory neurons. PMID:19622610

  20. Calcium-activated chloride currents in primary cultures of rabbit distal convoluted tubule.

    PubMed

    Bidet, M; Tauc, M; Rubera, I; de Renzis, G; Poujeol, C; Bohn, M T; Poujeol, P

    1996-10-01

    Chloride (Cl-) conductances were studied in primary cultures of rabbit distal convoluted tubule (very early distal "bright" convoluted tubule, DCTb) by the whole cell patch-clamp technique. We identified a Cl- current activated by 2 microM extracellular ionomycin. The kinetics of the macroscopic current were time dependent for depolarizing potentials with a slow developing component. The steady state current presented outward rectification, and the ion selectivity sequence was I- > Br- > > Cl > glutamate. The current was inhibited by 0.1 mM 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropyl-amino)benzoic acid, 1 mM 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid, and 1 mM diphenylamine-2-carboxylate. To identify the location of the Cl- conductance, 6-methoxy-N-(3-sulfopropyl)quinolinium fluorescence experiments were carried out in confluent cultures developed on collagen-coated permeable filters. Cl- removal from the apical solution induced a Cl- efflux that was stimulated by 10 microM forskolin. Forskolin had no effect on the basolateral Cl- permeability Cl- substitution in the basolateral solution induced an efflux stimulated by 2 microM ionomycin or 50 microM extracellular ATP Ionomycin had no effect on the apical Cl- fluxes. Thus cultured DCTb cells exhibit Ca(2+)-activated Cl- channels located in the basolateral membrane. This Cl- permeability was active at a resting membrane potential and could participate in the Cl- reabsorption across the DCTb in control conditions. PMID:8898026

  1. Congruent melting of calcium carbonate in a static experiment at 3500 K and 10-22 GPa: Its role in the genesis of ultradeep diamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spivak, A. V.; Dubrovinskii, L. S.; Litvin, Yu. A.

    2011-08-01

    Resulting from static experiments performed to study the phase state of CaCO3, it was found that its melting is congruent at 20-22 GPa and 3500 K. The obtained experiment data show that the field of congruent melting of calcium carbonate is rather broad (form 2300 to 3500-3800 K at 20-22 GPa). However, the potential presence of a high-temperature phase boundary at which CaCO3 is decomposed into CaO and CO2 is not ruled out. The existence of a wide area of congruent melting of calcium carbonate (a common primary inclusion in diamonds of the transition zone and lower mantle of the Earth) allow one to consider deep-seated melts as potential parental media for ultradeep diamonds.

  2. Calcium

    MedlinePlus

    ... of calcium dietary supplements are carbonate and citrate. Calcium carbonate is inexpensive, but is absorbed best when taken ... antacid products, such as Tums® and Rolaids®, contain calcium carbonate. Each pill or chew provides 200–400 mg ...

  3. Human ClCa1 modulates anionic conduction of calcium-dependent chloride currents

    PubMed Central

    Hamann, Martine; Gibson, Adele; Davies, Noel; Jowett, Amanda; Walhin, Jean Philippe; Partington, Leanne; Affleck, Karen; Trezise, Derek; Main, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Proteins of the CLCA gene family including the human ClCa1 (hClCa1) have been suggested to constitute a new family of chloride channels mediating Ca2+-dependent Cl− currents. The present study examines the relationship between the hClCa1 protein and Ca2+-dependent Cl− currents using heterologous expression of hClCa1 in HEK293 and NCIH522 cell lines and whole cell recordings. By contrast to previous reports claiming the absence of Cl− currents in HEK293 cells, we find that HEK293 and NCIH522 cell lines express constitutive Ca2+-dependent Cl− currents and show that hClCa1 increases the amplitude of Ca2+-dependent Cl− currents in those cells. We further show that hClCa1 does not modify the permeability sequence but increases the Cl− conductance while decreasing the GSCN−/GCl− conductance ratio from ∼2–3 to ∼1. We use an Eyring rate theory (two barriers, one site channel) model and show that the effect of hClCa1 on the anionic channel can be simulated by its action on lowering the first and the second energy barriers. We conclude that hClCa1 does not form Ca2+-dependent Cl− channels per se or enhance the trafficking/insertion of constitutive channels in the HEK293 and NCIH522 expression systems. Rather, hClCa1 elevates the single channel conductance of endogenous Ca2+-dependent Cl− channels by lowering the energy barriers for ion translocation through the pore. PMID:19307298

  4. The effects of calcium hydroxide on hydrogen chloride emission characteristics during a simulated densified refuse-derived fuel combustion process.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Kung-Yuh; Jih, Jer-Chyuan; Lin, Kae-Long

    2008-08-30

    This study investigated the effects of different calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)(2)) addition methods on the potential for hydrogen chloride (HCl) formation in a simulated densified refuse-derived fuel (RDF-5) with single metal combustion system. These experiments were conducted at 850 degrees C with the Ca(OH)(2) spiked in the RDF-5 production or injection in the flue gas treatment system. The results indicated that the potential for HCl formation was decreased significantly by Ca(OH)(2) spiked in the RDF-5 production or injection in the flue gas treatment system. However, the Ca(OH)(2) injection method in the flue gas for HCl emission reduction was better than other method. According to the relationship between the HCl emission and amount of Ca(OH)(2) injected or spiked, it is interesting to find that when the Ca(OH)(2) injected or spiked ranged from 0% to 5%, the potential for HCl formation in the single metal combustion system decreases significantly with increasing Ca(OH)(2) injected or spiked ratio. A corresponding increase in the amount of CaCl(2) partitioned to the fly ash was observed. However, with the ratio of Ca(OH)(2) higher than 5%, the amount of HCl formation showed that no further significant variation occurred with increasing Ca(OH)(2) spiked ratio. PMID:18272287

  5. Calcium-activated chloride channels in bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Nilius, B; Prenen, J; Szücs, G; Wei, L; Tanzi, F; Voets, T; Droogmans, G

    1997-01-01

    1. We characterized Ca(2+)-activated Cl- currents in calf pulmonary artery endothelial (CPAE) cells by using a combined patch clamp and fura-2 microfluorescence technique to simultaneously measure ionic currents and the intracellular Ca2+ concentration, [Ca2+]i. 2. Various procedures that increased [Ca2+]i, such as stimulation with ATP or ionomycin, or loading the cells with Ca2+ via the patch pipette, activated a strongly outwardly rectifying current with a reversal potential close to the Cl- equilibrium potential. Changing the extracellular Cl- concentration shifted this reversal potential as predicted for a Cl- current. Buffering Ca2+ rises with BAPTA prevented ATP from activating the current. 3. Ca(2+)-activated Cl- currents could be distinguished from volume-activated Cl- currents, which were sometimes coactivated in the same cell. The latter showed much less outward rectification, their activation was voltage independent, and they could be inhibited by exposing the cells to hypertonic solutions. 4. The permeability ratio for the Ca(2+)-activated conductance of the anions iodide:chloride: gluconate was 1.71 +/- 0.06:1:0.39 +/- 0.03 (n = 12). 5. This Ca(2+)-activated Cl- current, ICl, Ca, inactivated rapidly at negative potentials and activated slowly at positive potentials. Outward tail currents were slowly decaying, while inward tail currents decayed much faster. 6. 4,4'-Diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic-acid (DIDS) and niflumic acid inhibited Icl,Ca in a voltage-dependent manner, i.e. they exerted a more potent block at positive potentials. The block by N-phenylanthracilic acid (NPA), 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoate (NPPB) and tamoxifen was voltage independent. Niflumic acid and tamoxifen were the most potent blockers. 7. The single-channel conductance was 7.9 +/- 0.7 pS (n = 15) at 300 mM extracellular Cl-. The channel open probability was high at positive potentials, but very small at negative potentials. 8. It is concluded that [Ca2+]i

  6. Pyrochemical recovery of plutonium from calcium fluoride reduction slag

    DOEpatents

    Christensen, D.C.

    A pyrochemical method of recovering finely dispersed plutonium metal from calcium fluoride reduction slag is claimed. The plutonium-bearing slag is crushed and melted in the presence of at least an equimolar amount of calcium chloride and a few percent metallic calcium. The calcium chloride reduces the melting point and thereby decreases the viscosity of the molten mixture. The calcium reduces any oxidized plutonium in the mixture and also causes the dispersed plutonium metal to coalesce and settle out as a separate metallic phase at the bottom of the reaction vessel. Upon cooling the mixture to room temperature, the solid plutonium can be cleanly separated from the overlying solid slag, with an average recovery yield on the order of 96 percent.

  7. Bile acids stimulate chloride secretion through CFTR and calcium-activated Cl- channels in Calu-3 airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hendrick, Siobhán M; Mroz, Magdalena S; Greene, Catherine M; Keely, Stephen J; Harvey, Brian J

    2014-09-01

    Bile acids resulting from the aspiration of gastroesophageal refluxate are often present in the lower airways of people with cystic fibrosis and other respiratory distress diseases. Surprisingly, there is little or no information on the modulation of airway epithelial ion transport by bile acids. The secretory effect of a variety of conjugated and unconjugated secondary bile acids was investigated in Calu-3 airway epithelial cells grown under an air-liquid interface and mounted in Ussing chambers. Electrogenic transepithelial ion transport was measured as short-circuit current (Isc). The taurine-conjugated secondary bile acid, taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA), was found to be the most potent modulator of basal ion transport. Acute treatment (5 min) of Calu-3 cells with TDCA (25 μM) on the basolateral side caused a stimulation of Isc, and removal of extracellular Cl(-) abolished this response. TDCA produced an increase in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-dependent current that was abolished by pretreatment with the CFTR inhibitor CFTRinh172. TDCA treatment also increased Cl(-) secretion through calcium-activated chloride (CaCC) channels and increased the Na(+)/K(+) pump current. Acute treatment with TDCA resulted in a rapid cellular influx of Ca(2+) and increased cAMP levels in Calu-3 cells. Bile acid receptor-selective activation with INT-777 revealed TGR5 localized at the basolateral membrane as the receptor involved in TDCA-induced Cl(-) secretion. In summary, we demonstrate for the first time that low concentrations of bile acids can modulate Cl(-) secretion in airway epithelial cells, and this effect is dependent on both the duration and sidedness of exposure to the bile acid. PMID:24993131

  8. In-situ temperature field measurements and direct observation of crystal/melt at vertical Bridgman growth of lead chloride under stationary and dynamic arrangement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Král, Robert; Nitsch, Karel

    2015-10-01

    Influence of growth conditions, i.e. temperature gradient in the furnace and the pulling rate, on the position and the shape of the crystal/melt interface during vertical Bridgman growth was studied. The position and the shape of the crystal/melt interface are a key factor for describing the final quality of growing crystal. Following two methods for characterization of its position and shape were used: (i) direct observation and (ii) direct temperature field measurement during simulated vertical Bridgman growth. As a model compound a lead chloride is used. Three different ampoule positions in two different temperature gradients in the furnace and two experimental arrangements - stationary (0 mm/h pulling rate) and dynamic (3 mm/h pulling rate) were analyzed. Obtained temperature data were projected as 2D planar cut under radial symmetry and denoted as isolevels. Their further conversion by linear approximation into isotherms allowed detail analysis of heat conditions in the system during simulated growth by comparison of isotherms 500 °C (m.p. of lead chloride) at different growth conditions.

  9. Calcium

    MedlinePlus

    ... body stores more than 99 percent of its calcium in the bones and teeth to help make and keep them ... in the foods you eat. Foods rich in calcium include Dairy products such as milk, cheese, and yogurt Leafy, green vegetables Fish with soft bones that you eat, such as canned sardines and ...

  10. Four basic residues critical for the ion selectivity and pore blocker sensitivity of TMEM16A calcium-activated chloride channels.

    PubMed

    Peters, Christian J; Yu, Haibo; Tien, Jason; Jan, Yuh Nung; Li, Min; Jan, Lily Yeh

    2015-03-17

    TMEM16A (transmembrane protein 16) (Anoctamin-1) forms a calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) that regulates a broad array of physiological properties in response to changes in intracellular calcium concentration. Although known to conduct anions according to the Eisenman type I selectivity sequence, the structural determinants of TMEM16A anion selectivity are not well-understood. Reasoning that the positive charges on basic residues are likely contributors to anion selectivity, we performed whole-cell recordings of mutants with alanine substitution for basic residues within the putative pore region and identified four residues on four different putative transmembrane segments that significantly increased the permeability of the larger halides and thiocyanate relative to that of chloride. Because TMEM16A permeation properties are known to shift with changes in intracellular calcium concentration, we further examined the calcium dependence of anion selectivity. We found that WT TMEM16A but not mutants with alanine substitution at those four basic residues exhibited a clear decline in the preference for larger anions as intracellular calcium was increased. Having implicated these residues as contributing to the TMEM16A pore, we scrutinized candidate small molecules from a high-throughput CaCC inhibitor screen to identify two compounds that act as pore blockers. Mutations of those four putative pore-lining basic residues significantly altered the IC50 of these compounds at positive voltages. These findings contribute to our understanding regarding anion permeation of TMEM16A CaCC and provide valuable pharmacological tools to probe the channel pore. PMID:25733897

  11. Calcium

    MedlinePlus

    ... milligrams) of calcium each day. Get it from: Dairy products. Low-fat milk, yogurt, cheese, and cottage ... lactase that helps digest the sugar (lactose) in dairy products, and may have gas, bloating, cramps, or ...

  12. Electrochemical Synthesis of Binary and Ternary Refractory Compounds in the System Ti-Si-B from Chloride-Fluoride Melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devyatkin, Sergei V.

    2007-09-01

    Electrochemical synthesis of binary and ternary compounds in the system Ti-Si-B from chloridefluoride melts has been investigated by voltammetry and electrolysis. Electrochemical syntheses of titanium diboride, four titanium silicides (TiSi2, TiSi, Ti5Si4, Ti5Si3), silicon tetraboride and a new ternary compound, Ti5Si3B3, have been found to be one-step processes. The stoichiometry of the deposited compounds has been found to correlate with the bulk concentration of Ti, Si and B ions in the melt.

  13. Calcium-activated chloride conductance in a pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line of ductal origin (HPAF) and in freshly isolated human pancreatic duct cells.

    PubMed

    Winpenny, J P; Harris, A; Hollingsworth, M A; Argent, B E; Gray, M A

    1998-05-01

    Using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique, a calcium-activated chloride conductance (CACC) could be elicited in HPAF cells by addition of 1 microM ionomycin to the bath solution (66 +/- 22 pA/pF;Vm + 60 mV) or by addition of 1 microM calcium to the pipette solution (136 +/- 17 pA/pF; Vm + 60 mV). Both conductances had similar biophysical characteristics, including time-dependent inactivation at hyperpolarising potentials and a linear/slightly outwardly rectifying current/voltage (I/V) curve with a reversal potential (Erev) close to the calculated chloride equilibrium potential. The anion permeability sequence obtained from shifts in Erev was I > Br >/= Cl. 4,4'-Diisothiocyanatostilbene disulphonic acid (DIDS, 500 microM) caused a 13% inhibition of the current (Vm + 60 mV) while 100 microM glibenclamide, 30 nM TS-TM-calix[4]arene and 10 microM tamoxifen, all chloride channel blockers, had no marked effects (8%, -6% and -2% inhibition respectively). Niflumic acid (100 microM) caused a voltage-dependent inhibition of the current of 48% and 17% (Vm +/- 60 mV, respectively). In freshly isolated human pancreatic duct cells (PDCs) a CACC was elicited with 1 microM calcium in the pipette solution (260 +/- 62 pA/pF; Vm + 60 mV). The presence of this CACC in human PDCs could provide a possible therapeutic pathway for treatment of pancreatic insufficiency of the human pancreas in cystic fibrosis. PMID:9518508

  14. TMEM16A Inhibitors Reveal TMEM16A as a Minor Component of Calcium-activated Chloride Channel Conductance in Airway and Intestinal Epithelial Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Namkung, Wan; Phuan, Puay-Wah; Verkman, A. S.

    2011-01-01

    TMEM16A (ANO1) functions as a calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC). We developed pharmacological tools to investigate the contribution of TMEM16A to CaCC conductance in human airway and intestinal epithelial cells. A screen of ∼110,000 compounds revealed four novel chemical classes of small molecule TMEM16A inhibitors that fully blocked TMEM16A chloride current with an IC50 < 10 μm, without interfering with calcium signaling. Following structure-activity analysis, the most potent inhibitor, an aminophenylthiazole (T16Ainh-A01), had an IC50 of ∼1 μm. Two distinct types of inhibitors were identified. Some compounds, such as tannic acid and the arylaminothiophene CaCCinh-A01, fully inhibited CaCC current in human bronchial and intestinal cells. Other compounds, including T16Ainh-A01 and digallic acid, inhibited total CaCC current in these cells poorly, but blocked mainly an initial, agonist-stimulated transient chloride current. TMEM16A RNAi knockdown also inhibited mainly the transient chloride current. In contrast to the airway and intestinal cells, all TMEM16A inhibitors fully blocked CaCC current in salivary gland cells. We conclude that TMEM16A carries nearly all CaCC current in salivary gland epithelium, but is a minor contributor to total CaCC current in airway and intestinal epithelia. The small molecule inhibitors identified here permit pharmacological dissection of TMEM16A/CaCC function and are potential development candidates for drug therapy of hypertension, pain, diarrhea, and excessive mucus production. PMID:21084298

  15. Angiotensin II modulates mouse skeletal muscle resting conductance to chloride and potassium ions and calcium homeostasis via the AT1 receptor and NADPH oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Cozzoli, Anna; Liantonio, Antonella; Conte, Elena; Cannone, Maria; Massari, Ada Maria; Giustino, Arcangela; Scaramuzzi, Antonia; Pierno, Sabata; Mantuano, Paola; Capogrosso, Roberta Francesca; Camerino, Giulia Maria

    2014-01-01

    Angiotensin II (ANG II) plays a role in muscle wasting and remodeling; however, little evidence shows its direct effects on specific muscle functions. We presently investigated the acute in vitro effects of ANG II on resting ionic conductance and calcium homeostasis of mouse extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle fibers, based on previous findings that in vivo inhibition of ANG II counteracts the impairment of macroscopic ClC-1 chloride channel conductance (gCl) in the mdx mouse model of muscular dystrophy. By means of intracellular microelectrode recordings we found that ANG II reduced gCl in the nanomolar range and in a concentration-dependent manner (EC50 = 0.06 μM) meanwhile increasing potassium conductance (gK). Both effects were inhibited by the ANG II receptors type 1 (AT1)-receptor antagonist losartan and the protein kinase C inhibitor chelerythrine; no antagonism was observed with the AT2 antagonist PD123,319. The scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS) N-acetyl cysteine and the NADPH-oxidase (NOX) inhibitor apocynin also antagonized ANG II effects on resting ionic conductances; the ANG II-dependent gK increase was blocked by iberiotoxin, an inhibitor of calcium-activated potassium channels. ANG II also lowered the threshold for myofiber and muscle contraction. Both ANG II and the AT1 agonist L162,313 increased the intracellular calcium transients, measured by fura-2, with a two-step pattern. These latter effects were not observed in the presence of losartan and of the phospholipase C inhibitor U73122 and the in absence of extracellular calcium, disclosing a Gq-mediated calcium entry mechanism. The data show for the first time that the AT1-mediated ANG II pathway, also involving NOX and ROS, directly modulates ion channels and calcium homeostasis in adult myofibers. PMID:25080489

  16. Variomics Screen Identifies the Re-entrant Loop of the Calcium-activated Chloride Channel ANO1 That Facilitates Channel Activation*

    PubMed Central

    Bill, Anke; Popa, M. Oana; van Diepen, Michiel T.; Gutierrez, Abraham; Lilley, Sarah; Velkova, Maria; Acheson, Kathryn; Choudhury, Hedaythul; Renaud, Nicole A.; Auld, Douglas S.; Gosling, Martin; Groot-Kormelink, Paul J.; Gaither, L. Alex

    2015-01-01

    The calcium-activated chloride channel ANO1 regulates multiple physiological processes. However, little is known about the mechanism of channel gating and regulation of ANO1 activity. Using a high-throughput, random mutagenesis-based variomics screen, we generated and functionally characterized ∼6000 ANO1 mutants and identified novel mutations that affected channel activity, intracellular trafficking, or localization of ANO1. Mutations such as S741T increased ANO1 calcium sensitivity and rendered ANO1 calcium gating voltage-independent, demonstrating a critical role of the re-entrant loop in coupling calcium and voltage sensitivity of ANO1 and hence in regulating ANO1 activation. Our data present the first unbiased and comprehensive study of the structure-function relationship of ANO1. The novel ANO1 mutants reported have diverse functional characteristics, providing new tools to study ANO1 function in biological systems, paving the path for a better understanding of the function of ANO1 and its role in health and diseases. PMID:25425649

  17. Computing the melting point and thermodynamic stability of the orthorhombic and monoclinic crystalline polymorphs of the ionic liquid 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayaraman, Saivenkataraman; Maginn, Edward J.

    2007-12-01

    The melting point, enthalpy of fusion, and thermodynamic stability of two crystal polymorphs of the ionic liquid 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride are calculated using a thermodynamic integration-based atomistic simulation method. The computed melting point of the orthorhombic phase ranges from 365 to 369 K, depending on the classical force field used. This compares reasonably well with the experimental values, which range from 337 to 339 K. The computed enthalpy of fusion ranges from 19 to 29 kJ/mol, compared to the experimental values of 18.5-21.5 kJ/mol. Only one of the two force fields evaluated in this work yielded a stable monoclinic phase, despite the fact that both give accurate liquid state densities. The computed melting point of the monoclinic polymorph was found to be 373 K, which is somewhat higher than the experimental range of 318-340 K. The computed enthalpy of fusion was 23 kJ/mol, which is also higher than the experimental value of 9.3-14.5 kJ/mol. The simulations predict that the monoclinic form is more stable than the orthorhombic form at low temperature, in agreement with one set of experiments but in conflict with another. The difference in free energy between the two polymorphs is very small, due to the fact that a single trans-gauche conformational difference in an alkyl sidechain distinguishes the two structures. As a result, it is very difficult to construct simple classical force fields that are accurate enough to definitively predict which polymorph is most stable. A liquid phase analysis of the probability distribution of the dihedral angles in the alkyl chain indicates that less than half of the dihedral angles are in the gauche-trans configuration that is adopted in the orthorhombic crystal. The low melting point and glass forming tendency of this ionic liquid is likely due to the energy barrier for conversion of the remaining dihedral angles into the gauche-trans state. The simulation procedure used to perform the melting point

  18. Gravimetric Determination of Calcium as Calcium Carbonate Hydrate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henrickson, Charles H.; Robinson, Paul R.

    1979-01-01

    The gravimetric determination of calcium as calcium carbonate is described. This experiment is suitable for undergraduate quantitative analysis laboratories. It is less expensive than determination of chloride as silver chloride. (BB)

  19. Three-Day-Old Human Unfertilized Oocytes after In Vitro Fertilization/Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection Can Be Activated by Calcium Ionophore A23187 or Strontium Chloride and Develop to Blastocysts

    PubMed Central

    Han, Xiao-jie; Liu, Ming-hui; Wang, Shu-yu; Jia, Chan-wei; Yu, Lan; Ren, Guoqing; Wang, Li; Li, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Our objective was to observe the effectiveness of the calcium ionophore A23187 or strontium chloride on the activation and subsequent embryonic development of 3-day-old human unfertilized oocytes after in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). A total of 279 3-day-old unfertilized oocytes after IVF or ICSI were randomized to be activated by the calcium ionophore A23187 (n=138) or strontium chloride (n=141). The activated oocytes were cultured in vitro for 3–5 days. Activation rate, pronucleus formation, cleavage rate, and developmental potential of parthenotes during culture were evaluated. A total of 170 unfertilized oocytes were activated; 65 developed to cleavage stage, 19 developed to greater than the eight-cell stage, and five blastocysts were obtained. The activation rate of the calcium ionophore A23187 group was higher than that of the strontium chloride group (75.4% and 46.8%, respectively; p<0.05); there was significant difference between two groups (p<0.05). Among the 44 cleaved oocytes in the calcium ionophore A23187 group, eight developed to the two- to four-cell stage, 17 developed to the five- to eight-cell stage, 15 developed to greater than the eight-cell stage, and four blastocysts were obtained. Among the 21 cleaved oocytes in the strontium chloride group, six developed to the two- to four- cell stage, 10 developed to the five- to eight-cell stage, four developed to greater than the eight-cell stage, and one blastocyst was obtained. Three-day-old unfertilized human oocytes after IVF or ICSI could be activated by the calcium ionophore A23187 or strontium chloride, and a small part of parthenogenetic embryos developed into blastocysts. The treatment with the calcium ionophore A23187 was better than that of strontium chloride in respect to the activation rate of 3-day-old unfertilized human oocytes after IVF or ICSI. PMID:24960285

  20. A Solution NMR Investigation into the Early Events of Amelogenin Nanosphere Self-Assembly Initiated with Sodium Chloride or Calcium Chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Buchko, Garry W.; Tarasevich, Barbara J.; Bekhazi, Jacky G.; Snead, Malcolm L.; Shaw, Wendy J.

    2008-12-08

    Using solution-state NMR spectroscopy, new insights into the early intermolecular interactions stabilizing amelogenin supramolecular assembly and the potential role of calcium ions have been discovered. Two-dimensional 1H-15N spectra were recorded for 15N-labeled amelogenin as a function of increasing Ca2+ concentration starting from monomeric conditions. Evidence for protein-protein interactions were observed between residues E18 and E40 in the N-terminus. At higher Ca2+ concentrations there was concurrent involvement of residues in both the N- (Y12-Q56) and the C-terminus (Q144-T171). Neither specific residues nor their stepwise interaction have previously been identified in the initial stages of nanosphere assembly.

  1. Effects of Small Molecule Calcium-Activated Chloride Channel Inhibitors on Structure and Function of Accessory Cholera Enterotoxin (Ace) of Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Tanaya; Sheikh, Irshad Ali; Chakravarty, Devlina; Chakrabarti, Pinak; Sarkar, Paramita; Saha, Tultul; Chakrabarti, Manoj K.; Hoque, Kazi Mirajul

    2015-01-01

    Cholera pathogenesis occurs due to synergistic pro-secretory effects of several toxins, such as cholera toxin (CTX) and Accessory cholera enterotoxin (Ace) secreted by Vibrio cholerae strains. Ace activates chloride channels stimulating chloride/bicarbonate transport that augments fluid secretion resulting in diarrhea. These channels have been targeted for drug development. However, lesser attention has been paid to the interaction of chloride channel modulators with bacterial toxins. Here we report the modulation of the structure/function of recombinant Ace by small molecule calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) inhibitors, namely CaCCinh-A01, digallic acid (DGA) and tannic acid. Biophysical studies indicate that the unfolding (induced by urea) free energy increases upon binding CaCCinh-A01 and DGA, compared to native Ace, whereas binding of tannic acid destabilizes the protein. Far-UV CD experiments revealed that the α-helical content of Ace-CaCCinh-A01 and Ace-DGA complexes increased relative to Ace. In contrast, binding to tannic acid had the opposite effect, indicating the loss of protein secondary structure. The modulation of Ace structure induced by CaCC inhibitors was also analyzed using docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Functional studies, performed using mouse ileal loops and Ussing chamber experiments, corroborate biophysical data, all pointing to the fact that tannic acid destabilizes Ace, inhibiting its function, whereas DGA stabilizes the toxin with enhanced fluid accumulation in mouse ileal loop. The efficacy of tannic acid in mouse model suggests that the targeted modulation of Ace structure may be of therapeutic benefit for gastrointestinal disorders. PMID:26540279

  2. Corrosion Resistances of Iron-Based Amorphous Metals with Yttrium and Tungsten Additions in Hot Calcium Chloride Brine & Natural Seawater: Fe48Mo14CR15Y2C15B6 and Variants

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J; Haslam, J; Day, S; Lian, T; Saw, C; Hailey, P; Choi, J; Yang, N; Blue, C; Peter, W; Payer, J; Perepezko, J; Hildal, K; Branagan, D J; Beardsley, M B; Aprigliano, L

    2006-10-12

    The passive film stability of several Fe-based amorphous metal formulations have been found to be comparable to that of stainless steels and Ni-based Alloy C-22 (UNS No. N06022), based on electrochemical measurements of the passive film breakdown potential and general corrosion rates. Electrochemical studies of the passive film stability of SAM1651 are reported here. Chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo) and tungsten (W) provide corrosion resistance; boron (B) enables glass formation; and rare earths such as yttrium (Y) lower critical cooling rate (CCR). Yttrium-containing SAM1651, also known as SAM7 (Fe{sub 48.0}Cr{sub 15.0}Mo{sub 14.0}B{sub 6.0}C{sub 15.0}Y{sub 2.0}), has a critical cooling rate (CCR) of approximately 80 Kelvin per second, while yttrium-free SAM2X5 (Fe{sub 49.7}Cr{sub 17.7}Mn{sub 1.9}Mo{sub 7.4}W{sub 1.6}B{sub 15.2}C{sub 3.8}Si{sub 2.4}) has a higher critical cooling rate of approximately 600 Kelvin per second. SAM1651's low CCR enables it to be rendered as a completely amorphous material in practical materials processes. While the yttrium enables a low CCR to be achieved, it makes the material relatively difficult to atomize, due to increases in melt viscosity. Consequently, the powders have irregular shape, which makes pneumatic conveyance during thermal spray deposition difficult. The reference material, nickel-based Alloy C-22, is an outstanding corrosion-resistant engineering material. Even so, crevice corrosion has been observed with C-22 in hot sodium chloride environments without buffer or inhibitor. SAM1651 may also experience crevice corrosion under sufficiently harsh conditions. Both Alloy C-22 and Type 316L stainless lose their resistance to corrosion during thermal spraying, due to the formation of deleterious intermetallic phases which depletes the matrix of key alloy elements, whereas SAM1651 can be applied as coatings with the same corrosion resistance as a fully-dense completely amorphous melt-spun ribbon, provided that its amorphous

  3. Application of calcium chloride as an additive for secondary refrigerant in the air conditioning system type chiller to minimized energy consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwono, A.; Indartono, Y. S.; Irsyad, M.; Al-Afkar, I. C.

    2015-09-01

    One way to resolve the energy problem is to increase the efficiency of energy use. Air conditioning system is one of the equipment that needs to be considered, because it is the biggest energy user in commercial building sector. Research currently developing is the use of phase change materials (PCM) as thermal energy storage (TES) in the air conditioning system to reduce energy consumption. Salt hydrates have been great potential to be developed because they have been high latent heat and thermal conductivity. This study has used a salt hydrate from calcium chloride to be tested in air conditioning systems type chiller. Thermal characteristics were examined using temperature history (T-history) test and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The test results showed that the thermal characteristics of the salt hydrate has been a high latent heat and in accordance with the evaporator temperature. The use of salt hydrates in air conditioning system type chiller can reduce energy consumption by 51.5%.

  4. Recessive mutations in the putative calcium-activated chloride channel Anoctamin 5 cause proximal LGMD2L and distal MMD3 muscular dystrophies.

    PubMed

    Bolduc, Véronique; Marlow, Gareth; Boycott, Kym M; Saleki, Khalil; Inoue, Hiroshi; Kroon, Johan; Itakura, Mitsuo; Robitaille, Yves; Parent, Lucie; Baas, Frank; Mizuta, Kuniko; Kamata, Nobuyuki; Richard, Isabelle; Linssen, Wim H J P; Mahjneh, Ibrahim; de Visser, Marianne; Bashir, Rumaisa; Brais, Bernard

    2010-02-12

    The recently described human anion channel Anoctamin (ANO) protein family comprises at least ten members, many of which have been shown to correspond to calcium-activated chloride channels. To date, the only reported human mutations in this family of genes are dominant mutations in ANO5 (TMEM16E, GDD1) in the rare skeletal disorder gnathodiaphyseal dysplasia. We have identified recessive mutations in ANO5 that result in a proximal limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD2L) in three French Canadian families and in a distal non-dysferlin Miyoshi myopathy (MMD3) in Dutch and Finnish families. These mutations consist of a splice site, one base pair duplication shared by French Canadian and Dutch cases, and two missense mutations. The splice site and the duplication mutations introduce premature-termination codons and consequently trigger nonsense-mediated mRNA decay, suggesting an underlining loss-of-function mechanism. The LGMD2L phenotype is characterized by proximal weakness, with prominent asymmetrical quadriceps femoris and biceps brachii atrophy. The MMD3 phenotype is associated with distal weakness, of calf muscles in particular. With the use of electron microscopy, multifocal sarcolemmal lesions were observed in both phenotypes. The phenotypic heterogeneity associated with ANO5 mutations is reminiscent of that observed with Dysferlin (DYSF) mutations that can cause both LGMD2B and Miyoshi myopathy (MMD1). In one MMD3-affected individual, defective membrane repair was documented on fibroblasts by membrane-resealing ability assays, as observed in dysferlinopathies. Though the function of the ANO5 protein is still unknown, its putative calcium-activated chloride channel function may lead to important insights into the role of deficient skeletal muscle membrane repair in muscular dystrophies. PMID:20096397

  5. Recessive Mutations in the Putative Calcium-Activated Chloride Channel Anoctamin 5 Cause Proximal LGMD2L and Distal MMD3 Muscular Dystrophies

    PubMed Central

    Bolduc, Véronique; Marlow, Gareth; Boycott, Kym M.; Saleki, Khalil; Inoue, Hiroshi; Kroon, Johan; Itakura, Mitsuo; Robitaille, Yves; Parent, Lucie; Baas, Frank; Mizuta, Kuniko; Kamata, Nobuyuki; Richard, Isabelle; Linssen, Wim H.J.P.; Mahjneh, Ibrahim; de Visser, Marianne; Bashir, Rumaisa; Brais, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    The recently described human anion channel Anoctamin (ANO) protein family comprises at least ten members, many of which have been shown to correspond to calcium-activated chloride channels. To date, the only reported human mutations in this family of genes are dominant mutations in ANO5 (TMEM16E, GDD1) in the rare skeletal disorder gnathodiaphyseal dysplasia. We have identified recessive mutations in ANO5 that result in a proximal limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD2L) in three French Canadian families and in a distal non-dysferlin Miyoshi myopathy (MMD3) in Dutch and Finnish families. These mutations consist of a splice site, one base pair duplication shared by French Canadian and Dutch cases, and two missense mutations. The splice site and the duplication mutations introduce premature-termination codons and consequently trigger nonsense-mediated mRNA decay, suggesting an underlining loss-of-function mechanism. The LGMD2L phenotype is characterized by proximal weakness, with prominent asymmetrical quadriceps femoris and biceps brachii atrophy. The MMD3 phenotype is associated with distal weakness, of calf muscles in particular. With the use of electron microscopy, multifocal sarcolemmal lesions were observed in both phenotypes. The phenotypic heterogeneity associated with ANO5 mutations is reminiscent of that observed with Dysferlin (DYSF) mutations that can cause both LGMD2B and Miyoshi myopathy (MMD1). In one MMD3-affected individual, defective membrane repair was documented on fibroblasts by membrane-resealing ability assays, as observed in dysferlinopathies. Though the function of the ANO5 protein is still unknown, its putative calcium-activated chloride channel function may lead to important insights into the role of deficient skeletal muscle membrane repair in muscular dystrophies. PMID:20096397

  6. Effect of post-harvest calcium chloride dip treatment and gamma irradiation on storage quality and shelf-life extension of Red delicious apple.

    PubMed

    Hussain, P R; Meena, R S; Dar, M A; Wani, A M

    2012-08-01

    Freshly harvested Red delicious apples were dipped in calcium chloride solution of varying concentrations (0.5-2.0% w/v) for 1 h prior to irradiation at dose level of 0.4 kGy. Fruits after radiation treatment were stored at 2 ± 1°C, RH 90% and evaluated at intervals of 30 days for various quality parameters. Results revealed significant (p ≤ 0.05) retention in firmness, juice yield and ascorbic acid content in samples treated with combination of calcium chloride at 2.0% w/v and gamma irradiation (0.4 kGy) during storage. Water soluble pectin was inversely correlated with firmness (r = 0.88) and was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) lower in samples subjected to combination treatment of 2.0% w/v CaCl2 and 0.4 kGy irradiation throughout the storage. The combination treatment of 2.0% CaCl2 and 0.4 kGy irradiation gave about 4.3 log reduction in yeast and mold count of apple samples. Results of the post refrigeration weight loss, firmness and overall acceptability revealed that combination treatment was helpful in extending the shelf-life of Red Delicious apples by around 20-25 days at 17 ± 2°C, RH 75% following 90 days of refrigeration. PMID:23904650

  7. Contribution of calcium-activated chloride channel to elevated pulmonary artery pressure in pulmonary arterial hypertension induced by high pulmonary blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kai; Chen, Chuansi; Ma, Jianfa; Lao, Jinquan; Pang, Yusheng

    2015-01-01

    The correlation between calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) induced by high pulmonary blood flow remains uncertain. In this study, we investigated the possible role and effects of CaCC in this disease. Sixty rats were randomly assigned to normal, sham, and shunt groups. Rats in the shunt group underwent abdominal aorta and inferior vena cava shunt surgery. The pulmonary artery pressure was measured by catheterization. Pathological changes, right ventricle hypertrophy index (RVHI), arterial wall area/vessel area (W/V), and arterial wall thickness/vessel external diameter (T/D) were analyzed by optical microscopy. Electrophysiological characteristics of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) were investigated using patch clamp technology. After 11 weeks of shunting, PAH and pulmonary vascular structural remodeling (PVSR) developed, accompanied by increased pulmonary pressure and pathological interstitial pulmonary changes. Compared with normal and sham groups, pulmonary artery pressure, RVHI, W/V, and T/D of the shunt group rats increased significantly. Electrophysiological results showed primary CaCC characteristics. Compared with normal and sham groups, membrane capacitance and current density of PASMCs in the shunt group increased significantly, which were subsequently attenuated following chloride channel blocker niflumic acid (NFA) treatment. To conclude, CaCC contributed to PAH induced by high pulmonary blood flow and may represent a potential target for treatment of PAH. PMID:25755701

  8. Contribution of calcium-activated chloride channel to elevated pulmonary artery pressure in pulmonary arterial hypertension induced by high pulmonary blood flow.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Chen, Chuansi; Ma, Jianfa; Lao, Jinquan; Pang, Yusheng

    2015-01-01

    The correlation between calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) induced by high pulmonary blood flow remains uncertain. In this study, we investigated the possible role and effects of CaCC in this disease. Sixty rats were randomly assigned to normal, sham, and shunt groups. Rats in the shunt group underwent abdominal aorta and inferior vena cava shunt surgery. The pulmonary artery pressure was measured by catheterization. Pathological changes, right ventricle hypertrophy index (RVHI), arterial wall area/vessel area (W/V), and arterial wall thickness/vessel external diameter (T/D) were analyzed by optical microscopy. Electrophysiological characteristics of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) were investigated using patch clamp technology. After 11 weeks of shunting, PAH and pulmonary vascular structural remodeling (PVSR) developed, accompanied by increased pulmonary pressure and pathological interstitial pulmonary changes. Compared with normal and sham groups, pulmonary artery pressure, RVHI, W/V, and T/D of the shunt group rats increased significantly. Electrophysiological results showed primary CaCC characteristics. Compared with normal and sham groups, membrane capacitance and current density of PASMCs in the shunt group increased significantly, which were subsequently attenuated following chloride channel blocker niflumic acid (NFA) treatment. To conclude, CaCC contributed to PAH induced by high pulmonary blood flow and may represent a potential target for treatment of PAH. PMID:25755701

  9. Cardioprotective activity of alcoholic extract of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers in calcium chloride-induced cardiac arrhythmia in rats

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ashish Kumar; Kishore, Kunal; Sharma, Divya; Srinivasan, B.P; Agarwal, Shyam Sunder; Sharma, Ashok; Singh, Santosh Kumar; Gaur, Samir; Jatav, Vijay Singh

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the antiarrhythmic activity of alcoholic extract of Tinospora cordifolia (T. cordifolia) in CaCl2 induced arrhythmia. CaCl2 (25 mg/kg) was administered by intravenous infusion (iv) to produce arrhythmia in rats. The animals were then treated with T. cordifolia extract (150, 250, and 450 mg/kg) and verapamil (5 mg/kg,iv). Lead II electrocardiogram was monitored. Plasma calcium, sodium and potassium levels were measured. In CaCl2 induced arrhythmia, heart rate was decreased by 41.10%, T. cordifolia at 150, 300, and 450 mg/kg decreased the heart rate by 26.30%, 29.16%, and 38.29%, respectively, and verapamil reduced the heart rate by 9.70% compared to the normal group. The PQRST waves were normalized and atrial and ventricular fibrillation was controlled in rats treated with verapamil and T. cordifolia. CaCl2 increased calcium and sodium levels and decreased potassium levels in blood. T. cordifolia dose-dependently decreased calcium and sodium levels and increased potassium levels. Hence, T. cordifolia can be used in antiarrhythmic clinical settings and beneficial in atrial and ventricular fibrillation and flutter and may be indicated in ventricular tachyarrhythmia. PMID:23554702

  10. An XAFS study of nickel chloride in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride/ aluminum chloride

    SciTech Connect

    D Roeper; G Cheek; K Pandya; W OGrady

    2011-12-31

    Nickel chloride was studied with cyclic voltammetry and X-ray absorption spectroscopy in acidic and basic aluminum chloride/1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride (EMIC) ionic liquids. Acidic melts display metal stripping peaks which are not observed in the basic melt. EXAFS analysis shows that the nickel is tetrahedrally coordinated with chloride ions in the basic solution. In the acidic solution the nickel is coordinated by six chloride ions that are also associated with aluminum ions.

  11. Physical characteristics and biocompatibility of the polycaprolactone-biphasic calcium phosphate scaffolds fabricated using the modified melt stretching and multilayer deposition.

    PubMed

    Thuaksuban, Nuttawut; Luntheng, Thunmaruk; Monmaturapoj, Naruporn

    2016-05-01

    Physical properties and biocompatibility of polycaprolactone (PCL)-biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) scaffolds fabricated by the modified melt stretching and multilayer deposition (mMSMD) technique were evaluated in vitro. The PCL-BCP scaffold specimens included group A; PCL: BCP (wt%) = 80:20 and group B; 70:30. Mechanical properties of the scaffolds were assessed using a universal testing machine. Degradation behaviors of the scaffolds were assessed over 60 days. The amount of calcium and phosphate ions released from the scaffolds was detected over 30 days. Attachment and growth of osteoblasts on the scaffolds and indirect cytocompatibility to those cells were evaluated. The results showed that the scaffolds of both groups could withstand compressive forces on their superior aspect very well; however, their lateral aspect could only withstand light forces. Degradation of the scaffolds over 2 months was low (group A = 1.92 ± 0.47% and group B = 2.9 ± 1.3%,p > 0.05). The concentrations of calcium and phosphate ions released from the scaffolds of both groups significantly increased on day 7 (p < 0.05). Growth of the cells seemed to relate to accumulative increase in those ions. All results between the two ratios of the scaffolds were not statistically different. PMID:27013219

  12. Activation of chloride channels in normal and cystic fibrosis airway epithelial cells by multifunctional calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, John A.; Cozens, Alison L.; Schulman, Howard; Gruenert, Dieter C.; Stryer, Lubert; Gardner, Phyllis

    1991-02-01

    CYSTIC fibrosis is associated with defective regulation of apical membrane chloride channels in airway epithelial cells. These channels in normal cells are activated by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase1,2 and protein kinase C3,4. In cystic fibrosis these kinases fail to activate otherwise normal Cl- channels1-4. But Cl- flux in cystic fibrosis cells, as in normal cells, can be activated by raising intracellular Ca2+ (refs 5-10). We report here whole-cell patch clamp studies of normal and cystic fibrosis-derived airway epithelial cells showing that Cl- channel activation by Ca2+ is mediated by multifunctional Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase. We find that intracellular application of activated kinase and ATP activates a Cl- current similar to that activated by a Ca2+ ionophore, that peptide inhibitors of either the kinase or calmodulin block Ca2+-dependent activation of Cl- channels, and that a peptide inhibitor of protein kinase C does not block Ca2+-dependent activation. Ca2+/calmodulin activation of Cl- channels presents a pathway with therapeutic potential for circumventing defective regulation of Cl- channels in cystic fibrosis.

  13. Effect of calcium chloride on abating inhibition due to volatile fatty acids during the start-up period in anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sunil; Das, Avijit; Srinivas, G Lohit Kumar; Dhar, Hiya; Ojha, Vivek Kumar; Wong, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Biomethanation of municipal solid waste (MSW) is a slow process and the yield of biogas is usually low. The present study was carried out to examine the effect of calcium chloride (CaCl2) on anaerobic digestion of MSW. Three anaerobic digesters with different concentrations of CaCl2, namely sample without additives (Control), sample with 2.5 g/L CaCl2 (R1) and sample with 5 g/L CaCl2 (R2) were studied separately and the significant results are presented. From the experimental results, it was observed that pH decreased with an increase in the dosage of CaCl2. Total solids and volatile solids reduction percentage in digester R2 was considerably lower than Control and R1 digesters. The significant positive correlation with small increments in volatile solids and chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction were observed with an increase in pH. The cumulative biogas production in all the three digesters (Control, R1 and R2) were observed to be 35.38, 46.46 and 37.56 L, respectively. It was also observed that the volatile fatty acids (VFAs) removal efficiency in digester R1 was the best among all the three digesters. A comparison of the effluent characteristics revealed improvement in the overall performance of the digester R1 amended with 2.5 g/L CaCl2 over the other two digesters. PMID:26609893

  14. Inhibition of Calcium-Activated Chloride Channel ANO1/TMEM16A Suppresses Tumor Growth and Invasion in Human Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Jia, Linghan; Liu, Wen; Guan, Lizhao; Lu, Min; Wang, KeWei

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer or pulmonary carcinoma is primarily derived from epithelial cells that are thin and line on the alveolar surfaces of the lung for gas exchange. ANO1/TMEM16A, initially identified from airway epithelial cells, is a member of Ca2+-activated Cl- channels (CaCCs) that function to regulate epithelial secretion and cell volume for maintenance of ion and tissue homeostasis. ANO1/TMEM16A has recently been shown to be highly expressed in several epithelium originated carcinomas. However, the role of ANO1 in lung cancer remains unknown. In this study, we show that inhibition of calcium-activated chloride channel ANO1/TMEM16A suppresses tumor growth and invasion in human lung cancer. ANO1 is upregulated in different human lung cancer cell lines. Knocking-down ANO1 by small hairpin RNAs inhibited proliferation, migration and invasion of GLC82 and NCI-H520 cancel cells evaluated by CCK-8, would-healing, transwell and 3D soft agar assays. ANO1 protein is overexpressed in 77.3% cases of human lung adenocarcinoma tissues detected by immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, the tumor growth in nude mice implanted with GLC82 cells was significantly suppressed by ANO1 silencing. Taken together, our findings provide evidence that ANO1 overexpression contributes to tumor growth and invasion of lung cancer; and suppressing ANO1 overexpression may have therapeutic potential in lung cancer therapy. PMID:26305547

  15. Enhanced inactivation of avian influenza virus at −20°C by disinfectants supplemented with calcium chloride or other antifreeze agents

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Jiewen; Chan, Maria; Brooks, Brian W.; Rohonczy, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Avian influenza outbreaks have occurred during winter months, and effective disinfection of poultry premises at freezing temperatures is needed. The commercial disinfectants Virkon and Accel, supplemented with an antifreeze agent [propylene glycol (PG), methanol (MeOH), or calcium chloride (CaCl2)], were evaluated for their effectiveness in killing avian influenza virus (AIV) at −20°C or 21°C. An AIV suspension was applied to stainless steel disks, air-dried, and covered with a disinfectant or antifreeze agent for 5 to 30 min. Virkon (2%) and Accel (6.25%) with 30% PG, 20% MeOH, or 20% CaCl2 inactivated 6 log10 AIV within 5 min at −20°C and 21°C. At these temperatures PG and MeOH alone did not kill AIV, but the 20% CaCl2 solution alone inactivated 5 log10 AIV within 10 min. The results suggested that CaCl2 is potentially useful to enhance the effectiveness of disinfection of poultry facilities after outbreaks of AIV infection in warm and cold seasons. PMID:26424918

  16. The Porcine Chloride Channel Calcium-Activated Family Member pCLCA4a Mirrors Lung Expression of the Human hCLCA4

    PubMed Central

    Plog, Stephanie; Grötzsch, Tanja; Klymiuk, Nikolai; Kobalz, Ursula; Gruber, Achim D.

    2012-01-01

    Pig models of cystic fibrosis (CF) have recently been established that are expected to mimic the human disease closer than mouse models do. The human CLCA (originally named chloride channels, calcium-activated) member hCLCA4 is considered a potential modifier of disease severity in CF, but its murine ortholog, mCLCA6, is not expressed in the mouse lung. Here, we have characterized the genomic structure, protein processing, and tissue expression patterns of the porcine ortholog to hCLCA4, pCLCA4a. The genomic structure and cellular protein processing of pCLCA4a were found to closely mirror those of hCLCA4 and mCLCA6. Similar to human lung, pCLCA4a mRNA was strongly expressed in porcine lungs, and the pCLCA4a protein was immunohistochemically detected on the apical membranes of tracheal and bronchial epithelial cells. This stands in sharp contrast to mouse mCLCA6, which has been detected exclusively in intestinal epithelia but not the murine lung. The results may add to the understanding of species-specific differences in the CF phenotype and support the notion that the CF pig model may be more suitable than murine models to study the role of hCLCA4. PMID:22205680

  17. Inhibition of Calcium-Activated Chloride Channel ANO1/TMEM16A Suppresses Tumor Growth and Invasion in Human Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Linghan; Liu, Wen; Guan, Lizhao; Lu, Min; Wang, KeWei

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer or pulmonary carcinoma is primarily derived from epithelial cells that are thin and line on the alveolar surfaces of the lung for gas exchange. ANO1/TMEM16A, initially identified from airway epithelial cells, is a member of Ca2+-activated Cl- channels (CaCCs) that function to regulate epithelial secretion and cell volume for maintenance of ion and tissue homeostasis. ANO1/TMEM16A has recently been shown to be highly expressed in several epithelium originated carcinomas. However, the role of ANO1 in lung cancer remains unknown. In this study, we show that inhibition of calcium-activated chloride channel ANO1/TMEM16A suppresses tumor growth and invasion in human lung cancer. ANO1 is upregulated in different human lung cancer cell lines. Knocking-down ANO1 by small hairpin RNAs inhibited proliferation, migration and invasion of GLC82 and NCI-H520 cancel cells evaluated by CCK-8, would-healing, transwell and 3D soft agar assays. ANO1 protein is overexpressed in 77.3% cases of human lung adenocarcinoma tissues detected by immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, the tumor growth in nude mice implanted with GLC82 cells was significantly suppressed by ANO1 silencing. Taken together, our findings provide evidence that ANO1 overexpression contributes to tumor growth and invasion of lung cancer; and suppressing ANO1 overexpression may have therapeutic potential in lung cancer therapy. PMID:26305547

  18. Enhanced inactivation of avian influenza virus at -20°C by disinfectants supplemented with calcium chloride or other antifreeze agents.

    PubMed

    Guan, Jiewen; Chan, Maria; Brooks, Brian W; Rohonczy, Elizabeth

    2015-10-01

    Avian influenza outbreaks have occurred during winter months, and effective disinfection of poultry premises at freezing temperatures is needed. The commercial disinfectants Virkon and Accel, supplemented with an antifreeze agent [propylene glycol (PG), methanol (MeOH), or calcium chloride (CaCl₂)], were evaluated for their effectiveness in killing avian influenza virus (AIV) at -20°C or 21°C. An AIV suspension was applied to stainless steel disks, air-dried, and covered with a disinfectant or antifreeze agent for 5 to 30 min. Virkon (2%) and Accel (6.25%) with 30% PG, 20% MeOH, or 20% CaCl₂ inactivated 6 log₁₀ AIV within 5 min at -20°C and 21°C. At these temperatures PG and MeOH alone did not kill AIV, but the 20% CaCl₂ solution alone inactivated 5 log10 AIV within 10 min. The results suggested that CaCl₂ is potentially useful to enhance the effectiveness of disinfection of poultry facilities after outbreaks of AIV infection in warm and cold seasons. PMID:26424918

  19. Structures and spectroscopic characterization of calcium chloride-nicotinamide, -isonicotinamide, -picolinamide and praseodymium bromide-nicotinamide complexes.

    PubMed

    Xue, Junhui; Jiang, Ye; Li, Weihong; Yang, Limin; Xu, Yizhuang; Zhao, Guozhong; Zhang, Gaohui; Bu, Xiaoxia; Liu, Kexin; Chen, Jia'er; Wu, Jinguang

    2015-02-25

    The coordination structures formed by calcium complexes with nicotinamide (na), isonicotinamide (ina) and picolinamide (pa) and praseodymium bromide-na are reported. The structures of CaCl2·(C6H6N2O)2·2H2O (Ca-na), CaCl2·(C6H6N2O)2·4H2O (Ca-ina), CaCl2·(C6H6N2O)2·5H2O (Ca-pa) and PrBr3·(C6H6N2O)2·6H2O (PrBr-na) in the solid state have been characterized by X-ray single crystal diffraction, FTIR, FIR, THz and Raman spectroscopies. Carbonyl oxygen of nicotinamide is coordinated to Ca(2+), but it is O-monodentate (carbonyl oxygen) and N,O-bidentate ligand (pyridyl nitrogen and carbonyl oxygen) for Pr(3+) to form a chain structure in PrBr-na. For isonicotinamide, only carbonyl oxygen atom is coordinated to Ca(2+). Pyridyl nitrogen and carbonyl oxygen of picolinamide are coordinated to Ca(2+) to form a five-membered ring structure. The crystal structure and spectroscopic results indicate the differences of the coordination of Ca and Pr ions, the changes of hydrogen bonds and conformation of the ligands induced by complexation. Unlike transition metal ions, Sr(2+) or lanthanide ions, Ca(2+) is inclined to coordinate to carbonyl oxygen atoms of the ligands. PMID:25280333

  20. Deep formation waters of Western Europe, Russia and North America characterised by sodium, calcium, magnesium and chloride concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozau, Elke; Hemme, Christina; Sattler, Carl-Diedrich; van Berk, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    Deep formation water can be classified according to depth, temperature, and salinity (e.g., Graf et al. 1966, Kharaka & Hanor 2007). Most of the deep formation waters contain dissolved solids in excess of sea water. The hydrogeochemical development of formation water has been discussed for a long time. It is widely accepted that deep aquifers are influenced by the meteoric cycle and geochemical processes within the crust (e.g., Hebig et al. 2012). Similar hydrogeochemical signatures are found in deep formation waters of all continents and can be explained by general geochemical processes within the deep reservoirs (e.g., Land 1995). Therefore, data of deep formation waters from Western Europe, Russia, and North America are collected and classified by the major water components. The data are used to identify important hydrogeochemical processes (e.g., halite dissolution and albitisation) leading to different compositions of formation water. Two significant water types are identified: Na-Cl water and Na-Ca-Cl water. Based on the collected hydrogeochemical data, development trends are stated for the formation waters, and albitisation is favoured as the main process for calcium enrichment. Furthermore, differences of formation water according to stratigraphical units are shown for deep reservoirs of the North German Basin and the North Sea. References: Graf, D.L., 1982. Chemical osmosis, reverse chemical osmosis, and the origin of subsurface brines. Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta 46, 1431-1448. Hebig, K.H., Ito, N., Scheytt, T., Marui, A., 2012. Review: Deep groundwater research with focus on Germany. Hydrogeology Journal 20, 227-243. Kharaka, Y.K., Hanor, J.S., 2007. Deep fluids in continents: I. Sedimentary Basins. Treatise on Geochemistry 5, 1-48. Land, L.S., 1995. The role of saline formation water in the crustal cycling. Aquatic Geochemistry 1, 137-145. Acknowledgements: The presented data are results of the collaborative research program "gebo" (Geothermal energy

  1. Regeneration of zinc chloride hydrocracking catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Zielke, Clyde W.

    1979-01-01

    Improved rate of recovery of zinc values from the solids which are carried over by the effluent vapors from the oxidative vapor phase regeneration of spent zinc chloride catalyst is achieved by treatment of the solids with both hydrogen chloride and calcium chloride to selectively and rapidly recover the zinc values as zinc chloride.

  2. An XAFS Study of Niobium chloride in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride/ aluminum chloride

    SciTech Connect

    D Roeper; K Pandya; G Cheek; W OGrady

    2011-12-31

    Niobium chloride was studied with extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) in acidic and basic aluminum chloride/1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride (EMIC) ionic liquids. Although anhydrous Nb2Cl10 is more soluble in the basic melt than in the acidic melt, the EXAFS data shows that the coordination shell around the niobium does not change in the different ionic liquids. Both the acidic and basic melts show a coordination of five chlorides in the first shell. This indicates that in this series of ionic liquids, the Nb2Cl10 breaks up into two NbCl5 entities in both the acidic and the basic melts.

  3. Comparative Proteomics of Ovarian Cancer Aggregate Formation Reveals an Increased Expression of Calcium-activated Chloride Channel Regulator 1 (CLCA1)*

    PubMed Central

    Musrap, Natasha; Tuccitto, Alessandra; Karagiannis, George S.; Saraon, Punit; Batruch, Ihor; Diamandis, Eleftherios P.

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is a lethal gynecological disease that is characterized by peritoneal metastasis and increased resistance to conventional chemotherapies. This increased resistance and the ability to spread is often attributed to the formation of multicellular aggregates or spheroids in the peritoneal cavity, which seed abdominal surfaces and organs. Given that the presence of metastatic implants is a predictor of poor survival, a better understanding of how spheroids form is critical to improving patient outcome, and may result in the identification of novel therapeutic targets. Thus, we attempted to gain insight into the proteomic changes that occur during anchorage-independent cancer cell aggregation. As such, an ovarian cancer cell line, OV-90, was cultured in adherent and non-adherent conditions using stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC). Anchorage-dependent cells (OV-90AD) were grown in tissue culture flasks, whereas anchorage-independent cells (OV-90AI) were grown in suspension using the hanging-drop method. Cellular proteins from both conditions were then identified using LC-MS/MS, which resulted in the quantification of 1533 proteins. Of these, 13 and 6 proteins were up-regulated and down-regulated, respectively, in aggregate-forming cells compared with cells grown as monolayers. Relative gene expression and protein expression of candidates were examined in other cell line models of aggregate formation (TOV-112D and ES-2), which revealed an increased expression of calcium-activated chloride channel regulator 1 (CLCA1). Moreover, inhibitor and siRNA transfection studies demonstrated an apparent effect of CLCA1 on cancer cell aggregation. Further elucidation of the role of CLCA1 in the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer is warranted. PMID:26004777

  4. Comparative Proteomics of Ovarian Cancer Aggregate Formation Reveals an Increased Expression of Calcium-activated Chloride Channel Regulator 1 (CLCA1).

    PubMed

    Musrap, Natasha; Tuccitto, Alessandra; Karagiannis, George S; Saraon, Punit; Batruch, Ihor; Diamandis, Eleftherios P

    2015-07-10

    Ovarian cancer is a lethal gynecological disease that is characterized by peritoneal metastasis and increased resistance to conventional chemotherapies. This increased resistance and the ability to spread is often attributed to the formation of multicellular aggregates or spheroids in the peritoneal cavity, which seed abdominal surfaces and organs. Given that the presence of metastatic implants is a predictor of poor survival, a better understanding of how spheroids form is critical to improving patient outcome, and may result in the identification of novel therapeutic targets. Thus, we attempted to gain insight into the proteomic changes that occur during anchorage-independent cancer cell aggregation. As such, an ovarian cancer cell line, OV-90, was cultured in adherent and non-adherent conditions using stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC). Anchorage-dependent cells (OV-90AD) were grown in tissue culture flasks, whereas anchorage-independent cells (OV-90AI) were grown in suspension using the hanging-drop method. Cellular proteins from both conditions were then identified using LC-MS/MS, which resulted in the quantification of 1533 proteins. Of these, 13 and 6 proteins were up-regulated and down-regulated, respectively, in aggregate-forming cells compared with cells grown as monolayers. Relative gene expression and protein expression of candidates were examined in other cell line models of aggregate formation (TOV-112D and ES-2), which revealed an increased expression of calcium-activated chloride channel regulator 1 (CLCA1). Moreover, inhibitor and siRNA transfection studies demonstrated an apparent effect of CLCA1 on cancer cell aggregation. Further elucidation of the role of CLCA1 in the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer is warranted. PMID:26004777

  5. Effect of Azadirachta indica (neem), sodium thiosulphate and calcium chloride on changes in nitrogen transformations and inhibition of nitrification in soil incubated under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, M Kaleem; Hina, Munazza; Tahir, Majid Mahmood

    2011-03-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to examine the effects of nitrification inhibitors (NIs) neem seed-cake (Azadirachta indica) (NSC), sodium thiosulphate (Na₂S₂O₃) and calcium chloride (CaCl₂) on changes in NH₄(+)⁻N, inhibition of nitrification and recovery of applied nitrogen (N) in soil. Surface soil samples of 0-15 cm were collected from an arable field, amended with urea N (UN) at the rate 200 mg N kg⁻¹, UN+NSC, UN+Na₂S₂O₃ and UN+CaCl₂ and incubated at 22°C periodically over 50 d. Soil without any amendment was used as check (control). Results indicated that more than 58% of N applied as NH₄⁻ disappeared over a period of 50 d from the soil mineral-N pool. Some of this N (21%) was accumulated as NO₃⁻-N while the remaining N was unaccounted for. Addition of nitrification inhibitors NSC, Na₂S₂O₃, and CaCl₂ resulted in a decrease in the extent of NH₄(+) disappearance by 35%, 44% and 30%, respectively. In the treatment receiving UN alone, 56 mg NO₃⁻-N kg⁻¹ was accumulated over 50 d (maximum 93 mg kg⁻¹) indicated an active nitrification. Application of nitrification inhibitors NSC, Na₂S₂O₃, and CaCl₂ with UN inhibited nitrification by 54%, 64%, and 59%, respectively. Apparent N recovery (ANR) in the treatment receiving UN alone was 63% that substantially increased to 83%, 89% and 76% in the treatments receiving UN+NSC, UN+Na₂S₂O₃, and UN+CaCl₂, respectively indicating 32%, 41% and 20% increase in N recovery. Among three NIs tested, Na₂S₂O₃ proved superior in inhibiting nitrification and increasing ANR. The study demonstrated that application of NSC, Na₂S₂O₃, and CaCl₂ which are cheap and easily available NIs inhibited nitrification and improved N recovery efficiency of applied N in an arable soil very effectively. It is suggested that these inhibitors should be tested under field conditions for increasing NUE and improving crop productivity. PMID:21146192

  6. The role of chloride-carbonate melts in the formation of sideritic carbonatites of the KARASUg FE-F-REE deposit (Tyva Republic, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokop'ev, I. R.; Borovikov, A. A.; Pavlova, G. G.; Borisenko, A. S.

    2014-04-01

    The authors have studied melt-fluid and fluid inclusions in quartz and fluorite of sideritic and ankerite-calcitic carbonatites of the Karasug ore field, as well as melt inclusions in apatite from granosyenites. The content of salt and fluid components in brine-melt inclusions was evaluated on the basis of the thermodynamic data, the calculations of volumes and densities of the solid phases, a solution of about 50% concentration, and the gas phase of the inclusions, as well as the results of the LA-ICP-MS analysis. The content of salt phases, the solution, and the gas phase amounted to 85-70, 10-25, and about 5% of the inclusion substance, respectively. The total percentage of salt and fluid components (H2O and CO2) amounted to 90-80 and 10-20 wt %, respectively. The fraction of a carbonate constituent in the inclusions was as high as 45-50% and over in ankerite-calcite carbonatites and about 15 wt % in sideritic carbonatites. The 117.2 ± 1.3 Ma age of these carbonatites by 40Ar/39Ar, along with other datings for this area, shows that their formation was associated with a manifestation of the Cretaceous alkaline-mafic magmatism (117-120 Ma). The presented model of the formation of carbonatites is in agreement with the sequence of the development of magmatic processes and mineralization in this area. The model is also confirmed by the results of the studies of melt and fluid inclusions in minerals.

  7. Solubilities and raman spectra of NdOCl in some chloride melts of interest for the electrowinning of magnesium from its oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mediaas, H.; Tkatcheva, O.; Dracopoulos, V.; Papatheodorou, G. N.; Kipouros, G. J.; Østvold, T.

    2000-08-01

    Some fundamental data related to the solvent proposed for a new technical electrolytic process for magnesium production based on MgO as the raw material are presented. Liquidus data are obtained for MgCl2-rich melts in the MgCl2-NdOCl system. The solubility of MgO and NdOCl in pure liquid NdCl3, MgO in NdCl3-MgCl2 and in MgCl2-NdCl3-NaCl liquid mixtures, and NdOCl in CaCl2 and Cs2MgCl4 have also been studied. The solubility of MgO decreases when MgCl2 is added to the pure NdCl3 and further by additions of NaCl as expected. A so far unidentified compound having the composition Mg x Nd y OCl2 x-3 y-2 where x and y are larger than 1 seems to be formed in very small amounts in these melts. This compound seems to precipitate at temperatures higher than 910 °C in the NdCl3-MgO quasi-binary system containing about 8 mol pct MgO and seems to remain suspended in the melt in small quantities. The first liquid-solid phase transition observed, however, was the NdCl3 (1)=NdCl3 (s) transition <758 °C. X-ray diffraction (XRD) data of filtered samples of this solid show new X-ray lines not detected in MgCl2, NdCl3, NaCl, MgO, and NdOCl. The published phase diagram of the quasi binary system MgCl2-NdOCl is, according to the present work, not correct because the solubility of MgO seems to be much less than previously reported. Raman spectroscopic data of NdCl3-MgCl2-NdOCl melts show the known features of the NdCl3-MgCl2 and NdCl3-NdOCl melts. Raman bands due to dissolved species of the unidentified compound were not detected. In view of the obvious small concentration of this species in the liquid phase, this was reasonable.

  8. Ultrastructure of the embryonic dorsal organ of Orchestia cavimana (crustacea, amphipoda); with a note on localization of chloride and on the change in calcium-deposition before the embryonic moult.

    PubMed

    Meschenmoser, M

    1989-01-01

    The transitory dorsal organ of Orchestia cavimana appears simultaneously with the development of the germ layer and is gradually reduced during the last 2-3 days of embryonic development. It represents the only direct connection of the embryo with the chorion or-after the embryonic moult-with the embryonic envelope. The shape is hemispherical and it consists of about 50 bottle-shaped cells, arranged radially around a centre. This centre is filled with different kinds of extracellular material which forms a central plug apically and a central cone below it. The bottle-shaped cells taper apically. The neck region of these cells is characterized by numerous microvilli which project into the intercellular space. This space is filled with an electron dense substance and is in contact with the central cone. In the basal neck region numerous mitochondria are associated with the microvilli. The high density of mitochondria is characteristic for the nuclear region. The cytoplasm of the basal region below the nucleus contains numerous calcium granules. Evidence for the concentration of chloride in the apical dorsal organ is shown. Before the embryonic moult and during the duplication of the egg-volume the number of calcium granules in the dorsal organ and the integument is reduced. Simultaneously calcium granules appear in the now visible periembryonic space. This suggests that part of the calcium is shifted into this space. The function of the dorsal organ is discussed. Besides the probable main function-transport activity of ions-its role before and during embryonic moult and its part in the utilisation of yolk are discussed. PMID:18620268

  9. Effect of anions or foods on absolute bioavailability of calcium from calcium salts in mice by pharmacokinetics

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Yukari; Taira, Zenei

    2013-01-01

    We studied the absolute bioavailability of calcium from calcium L-lactate in mice using pharmacokinetics, and reviewed the absolute bioavailability of calcium from three other calcium salts in mice previously studied: calcium chloride, calcium acetate, and calcium ascorbate. The results showed that calcium metabolism is linear between intravenous administration of 15 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg, and is not affected by anions. Results after oral calcium administration of 150 mg/kg showed that the intestinal absorption process was significantly different among the four calcium salts. The rank of absolute bioavailability of calcium was calcium ascorbate > calcium L-lactate ≥ calcium acetate > calcium chloride. The mean residence time (MRTab) of calcium from calcium ascorbate (32.2 minutes) in the intestinal tract was much longer than that from calcium L-lactate (9.5 minutes), calcium acetate (15.0 minutes) and calcium chloride (13.6 minutes). Furthermore, the foods di-D-fructo-furanose-1,2′:2,3′-dianhydride, sudachi (Citrus sudachi) juice, and moromi-su (a Japanese vinegar) increased the absolute bioavailability of calcium from calcium chloride by 2.46-fold, 2.86-fold, and 1.23-fold, respectively, and prolonged MRTab by 48.5 minutes, 43.1 minutes, and 44.9 minutes, respectively. In conclusion, the prolonged MRTab of calcium in the intestinal tract by anion or food might cause the increased absorbability of calcium.

  10. Dynamic Solvent Control of a Reaction in Ionic Deep Eutectic Solvents: Time-Resolved Fluorescence Measurements of Reactive and Nonreactive Dynamics in (Choline Chloride + Urea) Melts.

    PubMed

    Das, Anuradha; Biswas, Ranjit

    2015-08-01

    Dynamic fluorescence anisotropy and Stokes shift measurements of [f choline chloride + (1 - f) urea)] deep eutectic solvents at f = 0.33 and 0.40 have been carried out using a dipolar solute, coumarin 153 (C153), in the temperature range 298 ≤ T ≤ 333 K. Subsequently, measured time-dependent solvent response is utilized to investigate the dynamic solvent control on the measured rates of photoexcited intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) reactions of two molecules, 4-(1-azetidinyl)benzonitrile (P4C) and 4-(1-pyrrolidinyl)benzonitrile (P5C), occurring in these media. Measured average reaction time scales (⟨τ(rxn)⟩) exhibit the following dependence on average solvation times scales (⟨τ(s)⟩): ⟨τ(rxn)⟩ ∝ ⟨τ(s)⟩(α) with α = 0.5 and 0.35 for P4C and P5C, respectively. Such a strong dynamic solvent control of ⟨τ(rxn)⟩, particularly for P4C, is different from earlier observations with these ICT molecules in conventional molecular solvents. Excitation wavelength-dependent fluorescence emissions of C153 and trans-2-[4-(dimethylamino)styryl]-benzothiazole (DMASBT), which differ widely in average fluorescence lifetimes (⟨τ(life)⟩), suggest the presence of substantial spatial heterogeneity in these systems. Dynamic heterogeneity is reflected via the following fractional viscosity (η) dependences of ⟨τ(s)⟩ and ⟨τ(r)⟩ (⟨τ(r)⟩ being solute's average rotation time): ⟨τx⟩ ∝ (η/T)(p) with 0.7 ≤ p ≤ 0.9. Different correlations between ⟨τ(s)⟩ and ⟨τ(r)⟩ emerge at different temperature regimes, indicating variable frictional coupling at low and high temperatures. Estimated dynamic Stokes shifts in these media vary between ∼1200 and ∼1600 cm(-1), more than 50% of which possess a time scale much faster than the temporal resolution (∼75 ps) employed in these measurements. Estimated activation energy for η is closer to that for ⟨τ(r)⟩ than that for ⟨τ(s)⟩, suggesting ⟨τ(s)⟩ being more decoupled

  11. Mass concentration and ion composition of coarse and fine particles in an urban area in Beirut: effect of calcium carbonate on the absorption of nitric and sulfuric acids and the depletion of chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouyoumdjian, H.; Saliba, N. A.

    2006-05-01

    Levels of coarse (PM10-2.5) and fine (PM2.5) particles were determined between February 2004 and January 2005 in the city of Beirut, Lebanon. While low PM mass concentrations were measured in the rainy season, elevated levels were detected during sand storms originating from Arabian desert and/or Africa. Using ATR-FTIR and IC, it was shown that nitrate, sulfate, carbonate and chloride were the main anionic constituents of the coarse particles, whereas sulfate was mostly predominant in the fine particles in the form of (NH4)2SO4. Ammonium nitrate was not expected to be important because the medium was defined as ammonium poor. In parallel, the cations Ca2+ and Na+ dominated in the coarse, and NH4+, Ca2+ and Na+ in the fine particles. Coarse nitrate and sulfate ions resulted from the respective reactions of nitric and sulfuric acid with a relatively high amount of calcium carbonate. Both CaCO3 and Ca(NO3)2 crystals identified by ATR-FTIR in the coarse particles were found to be resistant to soaking in water for 24 h but became water soluble when they were formed in the fine particles suggesting, thereby, different growth and adsorption phenomena. The seasonal variational study showed that nitrate and sulfate ion concentrations increased in the summer due to the enhancement of photochemical reactions which facilitated the conversion of NO2 and SO2 gases into NO3- and SO42-, respectively. While nitrate was mainly due to local heavy traffic, sulfates were due to local and long-range transport phenomena. Using the air mass trajectory HYSPLIT model, it was found that the increase in the sulfate concentration correlated with wind vectors coming from Eastern and Central Europe. Chloride levels, on the other hand, were high when wind originated from the sea and low during sand storms. In addition to sea salt, elevated levels of chloride were also attributed to waste mass burning in proximity to the site. In comparison to other neighboring Mediterranean countries, relatively

  12. Reaction of. cap alpha. ,. cap alpha. ,omega-trihydroperfluoroalkanols with thionyl chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Krolevets, A.A.; Ragulin, L.I.; Popov, A.G.

    1987-06-10

    The effect of catalysts on the reaction of thionyl chloride with ..cap alpha..,..cap alpha..,omega-trihydroperfluoroalkanols was investigated. It was shown that the use of calcium chloride, aluminum chloride, ferric chloride, and magnesium chloride as catalysts makes it possible to obtain polyfluoroalkyl chlorosulfites and bis(polyfluoroalkyl) sulfites with good yields.

  13. Chloride Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Addison disease, or increased salt intake. If both chloride and sodium levels are high in a person on a ... anything else I should know? Drugs that affect sodium blood levels will also cause changes in chloride. In addition, swallowing large amounts of baking soda ...

  14. Hyperosmolar sodium chloride is toxic to cultured neurons and causes reduction of glucose metabolism and ATP levels, an increase in glutamate uptake, and a reduction in cytosolic calcium.

    PubMed

    Morland, Cecilie; Pettersen, Mi Nguyen; Hassel, Bjørnar

    2016-05-01

    Elevation of serum sodium, hypernatremia, which may occur during dehydration or treatment with sodium chloride, may cause brain dysfunction and damage, but toxic mechanisms are poorly understood. We found that exposure to excess NaCl, 10-100mmol/L, for 20h caused cell death in cultured cerebellar granule cells (neurons). Toxicity was due to Na(+), since substituting excess Na(+) with choline reduced cell death to control levels, whereas gluconate instead of excess Cl(-) did not. Prior to cell death from hyperosmolar NaCl, glucose consumption and lactate formation were reduced, and intracellular aspartate levels were elevated, consistent with reduced glycolysis or glucose uptake. Concomitantly, the level of ATP became reduced. Pyruvate, 10mmol/L, reduced NaCl-induced cell death. The extracellular levels of glutamate, taurine, and GABA were concentration-dependently reduced by excess NaCl; high-affinity glutamate uptake increased. High extracellular [Na(+)] caused reduction in intracellular free [Ca(2+)], but a similar effect was seen with mannitol, which was not neurotoxic. We suggest that inhibition of glucose metabolism with ensuing loss of ATP is a neurotoxic mechanism of hyperosmolar sodium, whereas increased uptake of extracellular neuroactive amino acids and reduced intracellular [Ca(2+)] may, if they occur in vivo, contribute to the cerebral dysfunction and delirium described in hypernatremia. PMID:26994581

  15. The efflux of potassium, sodium, chloride, calcium and sulphate ions and of sorbitol and glycerol during the cardiac cycle in frog's ventricle

    PubMed Central

    Lamb, J. F.; McGuigan, J. A. S.

    1968-01-01

    1. The exchanges of potassium and various other substances have been measured in beating frog's ventricles, using both superfused and distended preparations. In both preparations the high fluid flow rates used (1 ml./sec) cleared the ventricular cavity with a half-time (T½) of about 130 msec. 2. Histological sections show that the modal strand radius in the relaxed or contracted distended ventricle is 17·5 μ, and in the relaxed and contracted superfused ventricle is 17·5 and 27·5 μ respectively. 3. In quiescent ventricles the resting potassium influx and efflux are approximately equal at about 16 p-mole/cm2.sec. This figure is computed from Niedergerke's (1963b) estimate of a cell size of 3·5 μ taken from electron-micrographs. If the older figure of 9·2 μ from single isolated cells is used (Skramlik, 1921) then the fluxes are about 44 p-mole/cm2.sec. To allow for some cell damage in these preparations a further increase in flux of about 30% may be necessary. 4. Contraction leads to a diminution of both potassium influx and efflux. Measurements made at 100 msec intervals throughout the cardiac cycle have demonstrated (a) that this decreased K efflux occurs at the same time as the mechanical twitch, and (b) that the size of the decrease is dependent on the external calcium concentration. Other experiments show that a similar decrease can be obtained by inducing a contracture at a constant membrane potential. It is concluded that the decreased K efflux during contraction is due to mechanical distortion of the tissue. This leads to a further slowing of the K diffusion and allows considerable reabsorption of K to occur into the cells. 5. Efflux analysis suggests that normal K diffusion in the extracellular space may be about 1/10 of that in free solution. If this is correct the true membrane fluxes may be × 5 those measured. 6. Phasic efflux measurements of Na, Ca, K, Cl, SO4, sorbitol and erythritol show that a peak of efflux occurs just after the point of

  16. Electrochemical cell with calcium anode

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, John F.; Hosmer, Pamela K.; Kelly, Benjamin E.

    1979-01-01

    An electrochemical cell comprising a calcium anode and a suitable cathode in an alkaline electrolyte consisting essentially of an aqueous solution of an hydroxide and a chloride. Specifically disclosed is a mechanically rechargeable calcium/air fuel cell with an aqueous NaOH/NaCl electrolyte.

  17. Calcium supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... TYPES OF CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTS Forms of calcium include: Calcium carbonate: Over-the-counter (OTC) antacid products, such as Tums and Rolaids, contain calcium carbonate. These sources of calcium do not cost much. ...

  18. Application of the Molecular Interaction Volume Model (MIVM) to Calcium-Based Liquid Alloys of Systems Forming High-Melting Intermetallics

    SciTech Connect

    Poizeau, S; Sadoway, DR

    2013-06-05

    The thermodynamic properties of multiple liquid alloys with strong negative deviation from ideality were successfully modeled by the molecular interaction volume model (MIVM). The modeled partial Gibbs free energy of calcium in Ca-Ag, Ca-In, Ca-Pb, Ca-Sn, Ca-Tl, and Ca-Zn at 800 degrees C was within 1.5 kJ/mol of the existing experimental data. The partial Gibbs free energy of calcium in Ca-Bi liquid alloys at 600 degrees C was predicted within 1.6 kJ/mol (or 1%) by the MIVM from experimental data at 800 degrees C. For the first time, the MIVM was applied to a ternary system far from ideality, Ca-Sb-Pb. The partial Gibbs free energy of Ca in six Ca-Pb-Sb alloys was determined by emf measurements in a cell configured as Ca(s)vertical bar CaF2(s)vertical bar Ca-Sb-Pb, over the temperature range of 500-830 degrees C. These values were 2% (or 5 kJ/mol) more negative than those predicted by the MIVM using experimental data for the Ca-Pb, Ca-Sb, and Pb-Sb binary alloys. This difference was attributed to the inability of the MIVM to account for interactions between the first nearest neighbors of Ca, Pb and Sb in the ternary Ca-Sb-Pb alloy.

  19. Vinyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Vinyl chloride ; CASRN 75 - 01 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  20. Methyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Methyl chloride ; CASRN 74 - 87 - 3 ( 07 / 17 / 2001 ) Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for

  1. Ethyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ethyl chloride ; CASRN 75 - 00 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  2. Benzyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Benzyl chloride ; CASRN 100 - 44 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  3. Hydrogen chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Hydrogen chloride ; CASRN 7647 - 01 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogeni

  4. Mepiquat chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Mepiquat chloride ; CASRN 24307 - 26 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  5. Allyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Allyl chloride ; CASRN 107 - 05 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  6. Acetyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Acetyl chloride ; CASRN 75 - 36 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  7. Production of anhydrous aluminum chloride composition

    DOEpatents

    Vandergrift, G.F. III; Krumpelt, M.; Horwitz, E.P.

    1981-10-08

    A process is described for producing an anhydrous aluminum chloride composition from a water-based aluminous material such as a slurry of aluminum hydroxide in a multistage extraction process in which the aluminum ion is first extracted into an organic liquid containing an acidic extractant and then extracted from the organic phase into an alkali metal chloride or chlorides to form a melt containing a mixture of chlorides of alkali metal and aluminum. In the process, the organic liquid may be recycled. In addition, the process advantageously includes an electrolysis cell for producing metallic aluminum and the alkali metal chloride or chlorides may be recycled for extraction of the aluminum from the organic phase.

  8. Calcium - ionized

    MedlinePlus

    ... at both ionized calcium and calcium attached to proteins. You may need to have a separate ionized calcium test if you have factors that increase or decrease total calcium levels. These may include abnormal blood levels ...

  9. A new titanium-bearing calcium aluminosilicate phase. 2: Crystallography and crystal chemistry of grains formed in slowly cooled melts with bulk compositions of calcium-aluminium-rich inclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barber, David J.; Beckett, John R.; Paque, Julie M.; Stolper, Edward

    1994-01-01

    The crystallography and crystal chemistry of a new calcium- titanium-aluminosilicate mineral (UNK) observed in synthetic analogs to calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) from carbonaceous chondrites was studied by electron diffraction techniques. The unit cell is primitive hexagonal or trigonal, with a = 0.790 +/- 0.02 nm and c = 0.492 +/- 0.002 nm, similar to the lattice parameters of melilite and consistent with cell dimensions for crystals in a mixer furnace slag described by Barber and Agrell (1994). The phase frequently displays an epitactic relationship in which melilite acts as the host, with (0001)(sub UNK) parallel (001)(sub mel) and zone axis group 1 0 -1 0(sub UNK) parallel zone axis group 1 0 0(sub mel). If one of the two space groups determined by Barber and Agrell (1994) for their sample of UNK is applicable (P3m1 or P31m), then the structure is probably characterized by puckered sheets of octahedra and tetrahedra perpendicular to the c-axis with successive sheets coordinated by planar arrays of Ca. In this likely structure, each unit cell contains three Ca sites located in mirror planes, one octahedrally coordinated cation located along a three-fold axis and five tetrahedrally coordinated cations, three in mirrors and two along triads. The octahedron contains Ti but, because there are 1.3-1.9 cations of Ti/formula unit, some of the Ti must also be in tetrahedral coordination, an unusual but not unprecedented situation for a silicate. Tetrahedral sites in mirror planes would contain mostly Si, with lesser amounts of Al while those along the triads correspondingly contain mostly Al with subordinate Ti. The structural formula, therefore, can be expressed as Ca(sub 3)(sup VIII)(Ti,Al)(sup VI)(Al,Ti,Si)(sub 2)(sup IV)(Si,Al)(sub 3)(sup IV)O14 with Si + Ti = 4. Compositions of meteoritic and synthetic Ti-bearing samples of the phase can be described in terms of a binary solid solution between the end-members Ca3TiAl2Si3O14 and Ca3Ti(AlTi)(AlSi2)O14. A Ti

  10. 21 CFR 184.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... bases as defined in § 170.3(n)(3) of this chapter; 0.2 percent for cheese as defined in § 170.3(n)(5) of this chapter and for processed fruit and fruit juices as defined in § 170.3(n)(35) of this chapter; 0... for processed vegetables and vegetable juices as defined in § 170.3(n)(36) of this chapter; and...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... bases as defined in § 170.3(n)(3) of this chapter; 0.2 percent for cheese as defined in § 170.3(n)(5) of this chapter and for processed fruit and fruit juices as defined in § 170.3(n)(35) of this chapter; 0... for processed vegetables and vegetable juices as defined in § 170.3(n)(36) of this chapter; and...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... § 170.3(n)(3) of this chapter; 0.2 percent for cheese as defined in § 170.3(n)(5) of this chapter and for processed fruit and fruit juices as defined in § 170.3(n)(35) of this chapter; 0.32 percent for... plant protein products as defined in § 170.3(n)(33) of this chapter; 0.4 percent for...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... bases as defined in § 170.3(n)(3) of this chapter; 0.2 percent for cheese as defined in § 170.3(n)(5) of this chapter and for processed fruit and fruit juices as defined in § 170.3(n)(35) of this chapter; 0... for processed vegetables and vegetable juices as defined in § 170.3(n)(36) of this chapter; and...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) The ingredient is used in foods at levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practices in accordance with § 184.1(b)(1). Current good manufacturing practices result in a maximum level, as served,...

  15. Calcium Oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Dupont, Geneviève; Combettes, Laurent; Bird, Gary S.; Putney, James W.

    2011-01-01

    Calcium signaling results from a complex interplay between activation and inactivation of intracellular and extracellular calcium permeable channels. This complexity is obvious from the pattern of calcium signals observed with modest, physiological concentrations of calcium-mobilizing agonists, which typically present as sequential regenerative discharges of stored calcium, a process referred to as calcium oscillations. In this review, we discuss recent advances in understanding the underlying mechanism of calcium oscillations through the power of mathematical modeling. We also summarize recent findings on the role of calcium entry through store-operated channels in sustaining calcium oscillations and in the mechanism by which calcium oscillations couple to downstream effectors. PMID:21421924

  16. Electrochemical and spectroscopic studies of sulfur in aluminum chloride-N-(n-butyl)pyridinium chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Marassi, R.; Laher, T.M.; Mamantov, G.; Trimble, D.S.

    1985-07-01

    The behavior of sulfur in aluminum chloride-N-(n-butyl)pyridinium chloride (AlCl/sub 3/-BPC) was studied using Raman spectroscopy and electrochemical techniques. In basic (BPC-rich) melts, sulfur can be reduced to sulfide, probably in the form of an AlSCl-like species. No oxidation to positive oxidation states of sulfur is observed in basic melts. In acidic (AlCl/sub 3/-rich) melts, sulfur can be oxidized to S(I) and eventually to S(IV), which is only stabl in the melt for short periods of time. No reduction to sulfide-like species or formation of low oxidation states is observed in acidic melts.

  17. [Calcium--essential for everybody].

    PubMed

    Cichosz, Grazyna; Czeczot, Hanna

    2014-06-01

    Calcium regulates majority of metabolic processes within human organism and its optimal intake decreases risk of metabolic illnesses conditioned by diet. Deficiency of calcium results in higher body max index, increase risk of insulin resistance, diabetes type 2 and osteoporosis. Diet delivering full calcium load diminished impendency of hypertension; calcium regulates tension of smooth muscles of blood vessels, limits neurotransmitters activity and also diminish hazardous activity of sodium chloride. Anticancerogenic activity of calcium results from formation insoluble bile acids and fat acids salts, and most of all, from inhibition of intestine mucosa cells hyper proliferation. Due to presence of vitamin D3, CLA, proteins and bioactive peptides emerging from them, milk is more efficient in prophylaxis of diet conditioned illnesses than calcium supplements. Efficiency of milk and dairy products in treatment of obesity, sclerosis and hypertension has been proved by DASH diet. PMID:25095643

  18. Calcium Carbonate

    MedlinePlus

    Calcium carbonate is a dietary supplement used when the amount of calcium taken in the diet is not ... for healthy bones, muscles, nervous system, and heart. Calcium carbonate also is used as an antacid to relieve ...

  19. Calcium - urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... best treatment for the most common type of kidney stone , which is made of calcium. This type of ... the kidneys into the urine, which causes calcium kidney stones Sarcoidosis Taking too much calcium Too much production ...

  20. Melting relations of the Allende meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seitz, M. G.; Kushiro, I.

    1974-01-01

    The proportions of major oxides in the Allende carbonaceous chondrite after partial reduction are remarkably similar to those in possible mantle material of the earth. When heated, the Allende meteorite generates a sulfide melt, a ferrobasaltic melt, and olivine with or without pyroxene, over a wide pressure range (5 to 25 kilobar). The silicate melt contains more sodium and less titanium than lunar ferrobasalts. An aggregate of the Allende chondrite rich in calcium and aluminum produces silica-undersaturated, calcium-rich melt and spinel over a wide pressure and temperature range. It is suggested that the earth's core contains significant amounts of both nickel and sulfur and that a 3:2 mixture of Allende bulk sample and calcium- and aluminum-rich agregates is closer in major element abundances than either of these components to the average composition of the moon.

  1. Molybdenum In Cathodes Of Sodium/Metal Chloride Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Attia, Alan I.; Halpert, Gerald

    1992-01-01

    Cyclic voltammetric curves of molybdenum wire in NaAlCl4 melt indicate molybdenum chloride useful as cathode material in rechargeable sodium/metal chloride electrochemical cells. Batteries used in electric vehicles, for electric-power load leveling, and other applications involving high energy and power densities.

  2. [Activity of Ca(2+)-dependent neutral proteinases in rat organs under cobalt and mercury chloride injection].

    PubMed

    Kaliman, P A; Samokhin, A A; Samokhina, L M

    2003-01-01

    The activity of Ca(2+)-dependent neutral proteinases in rats under cobalt and mercury chloride injection was investigated. The calpains activity increase in the lungs, heart, liver and kidneys was revealed after 2 h cobalt chloride action. The mercury chloride gives a reliable increase of calcium-dependent neutral proteinases only in the kidneys. PMID:14574747

  3. —Part I. Interaction of Calcium and Copper-Calcium Alloy with Electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaikov, Yurii P.; Batukhtin, Victor P.; Shurov, Nikolay I.; Ivanovskii, Leonid E.; Suzdaltsev, Andrey V.

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the interaction between calcium and molten CaCl2 and the solubility of calcium in this melt, depending on the calcium content in the copper-calcium alloy that comes in contact with the molten CaCl2. The negative influence of the dissolved calcium on the current efficiency was verified. The negative effects of moisture and CaO impurities on the calcium current efficiency were demonstrated. The dependence of the current efficiency and the purity of the metal obtained by the electrolysis conditions were studied in a laboratory electrolyzer (20 to 80 A).

  4. Materials for Conoco zinc chloride hydrocracking process

    SciTech Connect

    Baylor, V.B.; Keiser, J.R.; DeVan, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    Use of zinc chloride to augment hydrogenation of coal and yield a high-octane gasoline product is the most significant feature of a coal liquefaction process being developed by Conoco Coal Development Company. The zinc chloride catalyst is regenerated in a fluidized sand bed, where the spent melt is mixed with air and hydrogen chloride at about 1000/sup 0/C. Recovery is completed at 370/sup 0/C in a condenser, where the zinc chloride is collected and the oxygen and sulfur are separated as H/sub 2/O and SO/sub 2/. The economic viability of the entire process is highly dependent on almost complete recovery of the zinc chloride. The severe environmental conditions of this recovery process cause unique materials problems. Although high-temperature oxidation and sulfidation are being studied in related programs, suitable materials to resist their combined effects along with those of chlorides have not yet been specifically addressed. Common engineering materials, such as the austenitic stainless steels and many nickel-base alloys, are unsuitable because of their inability to tolerate the elevated temperatures and sulfidation, respectively. The objectives of this task are to screen various metallic and ceramic materials for resistance to the zinc chloride recovery system environment and to determine the nature of the attack by exposing coupons to the simulated environment in the laboratory.

  5. Effects of Cations on Corrosion of Inconel 625 in Molten Chloride Salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ming; Ma, Hongfang; Wang, Mingjing; Wang, Zhihua; Sharif, Adel

    2016-04-01

    Hot corrosion of Inconel 625 in sodium chloride, potassium chloride, magnesium chloride, calcium chloride and their mixtures with different compositions is conducted at 900°C to investigate the effects of cations in chloride salts on corrosion behavior of the alloy. XRD, SEM/EDS were used to analyze the compositions, phases, and morphologies of the corrosion products. The results showed that Inconel 625 suffers more severe corrosion in alkaline earth metal chloride molten salts than alkaline metal chloride molten salts. For corrosion in mixture salts, the corrosion rate increased with increasing alkaline earth metal chloride salt content in the mixture. Cations in the chloride molten salts mainly affect the thermal and chemical properties of the salts such as vapor pressure and hydroscopicities, which can affect the basicity of the molten salt. Corrosion of Inconel 625 in alkaline earth metal chloride salts is accelerated with increasing basicity.

  6. Calcium - urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... into the urine, which causes calcium kidney stones Sarcoidosis Taking too much calcium Too much production of ... Milk-alkali syndrome Proximal renal tubular acidosis Rickets Sarcoidosis Vitamin D Update Date 5/3/2015 Updated ...

  7. Copper, aluminum, iron and calcium inhibit human acetylcholinesterase in vitro.

    PubMed

    Pohanka, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is an important part of cholinergic nerves where it participates in termination of neurotransmission. AChE can be inhibited by e.g. some Alzheimer disease drugs, nerve agents, and secondary metabolites. In this work, metal salts aluminum chloride, calcium chloride, cupric chloride, ferric chloride, potassium chloride, magnesium chloride and sodium chloride were tested for their ability to inhibit AChE. Standard Ellman assay based on human recombinant AChE was done and inhibition was measured using Dixon plot. No inhibition was proved for sodium, potassium and magnesium ions. However, aluminum, cupric, ferric and calcium ions were able to inhibit AChE via noncompetitive mechanism of inhibition. Though the inhibition is much weaker when compared to e.g. drugs with noncompetitive mechanism of action, biological relevance of the findings can be anticipated. PMID:24473150

  8. Calcium supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... SHOULD TAKE CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTS? Calcium is an important mineral for the human body. It helps build and protect your teeth ... absorb calcium. You can get vitamin D from sunlight exposure to your skin and from your diet. Ask your provider whether ...

  9. Production of anhydrous aluminum chloride composition and process for electrolysis thereof

    DOEpatents

    Vandegrift, George F.; Krumpelt, Michael; Horwitz, E. Philip

    1983-01-01

    A process for producing an anhydrous aluminum chloride composition from a water-based aluminous material such as a slurry of aluminum hydroxide in a multistage extraction process in which the aluminum ion is first extracted into an organic liquid containing an acidic extractant and then extracted from the organic phase into an alkali metal chloride or chlorides to form a melt containing a mixture of chlorides of alkali metal and aluminum. In the process, the organic liquid may be recycled. In addition, the process advantageously includes an electrolysis cell for producing metallic aluminum and the alkali metal chloride or chlorides may be recycled for extraction of the aluminum from the organic phase.

  10. Investigation of factors influencing chloride extraction efficiency during electrochemical chloride extraction from reinforcing concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, Stephen R.

    2005-11-01

    residue revealed that it contains calcium carbonate, calcium chloride, and other yet unidentified minor components when calcium hydroxide was used as the electrolyte. The surface film can be completely removed mechanically or to some extent inhibited chemically, with both of these processes resulting in an increase in the efficiency of the electrochemical chloride extraction process. In addition, an obvious relationship between the cover depth, water-to-cement ratio, and chloride extraction efficiency does not exist, however, cover depth does influence the current density. The final phase of this study will be presented in a VTRC/FHWA final report. This report will include the results that are presented in this dissertation, in addition to the results from the ongoing research. It will also include an estimation of the additional service life that can be expected following treatment.

  11. Chloride in diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... found in table salt or sea salt as sodium chloride. It is also found in many vegetables. Foods ... Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate. National Academy Press, Washington, DC: 2005. ...

  12. Chloride channels in stroke

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ya-ping; Zhang, Hao; Duan, Dayue Darrel

    2013-01-01

    Vascular remodeling of cerebral arterioles, including proliferation, migration, and apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), is the major cause of changes in the cross-sectional area and diameter of the arteries and sudden interruption of blood flow or hemorrhage in the brain, ie, stroke. Accumulating evidence strongly supports an important role for chloride (Cl−) channels in vascular remodeling and stroke. At least three Cl− channel genes are expressed in VSMCs: 1) the TMEM16A (or Ano1), which may encode the calcium-activated Cl− channels (CACCs); 2) the CLC-3 Cl− channel and Cl−/H+ antiporter, which is closely related to the volume-regulated Cl− channels (VRCCs); and 3) the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), which encodes the PKA- and PKC-activated Cl− channels. Activation of the CACCs by agonist-induced increase in intracellular Ca2+ causes membrane depolarization, vasoconstriction, and inhibition of VSMC proliferation. Activation of VRCCs by cell volume increase or membrane stretch promotes the production of reactive oxygen species, induces proliferation and inhibits apoptosis of VSMCs. Activation of CFTR inhibits oxidative stress and may prevent the development of hypertension. In addition, Cl− current mediated by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor has also been implicated a role in ischemic neuron death. This review focuses on the functional roles of Cl− channels in the development of stroke and provides a perspective on the future directions for research and the potential to develop Cl− channels as new targets for the prevention and treatment of stroke. PMID:23103617

  13. Determination of metallic iron in a mixture of lime, calcium sulphide and pyrrhotite.

    PubMed

    Sastri, V S

    A method is described for the determination of metallic iron in a complex matrix consisting of calcium oxide, calcium sulphide, carbon and pyrrhotite. The procedure consists of leaching the sample with 5% ammonium chloride solution (10% sucrose solution in some cases) followed by treatment with mercury(II) chloride solution and titration with dichromate solution. PMID:18962353

  14. Extended sensitivity for the calcium selective electrode.

    PubMed

    Morton, R W; Chung, J K; Miller, J L; Charlton, J P; Fager, R S

    1986-09-01

    Sensitivity of calcium-selective electrodes heretofore has been limited to calcium concentrations above 10(-8) M in the absence of competing ions. We describe the use of calcium buffers to stabilize the free calcium in the reference electrode. Electrode calibration is linear to 10(-8) M and is curvilinear to 10(-11) M in the presence of 0.1 M ionic strength. Selectivity with respect to competing cations, magnesium, potassium, sodium, and hydrogen is preserved. Electrode response time is less than 2 s for small changes in calcium activity. Response range is linear over 9 log units of calcium activity. Potential-time stability is less than 10 mV/h at saturation currents. Although the silver-silver chloride terminals are photosensitive throughout the visible and near-ultraviolet regions, housing the reference and indifferent in opaque barrels avoids false photovoltaic response. PMID:3777438

  15. Arsenic removal by ferric chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Hering, J.G.; Chen, P.Y.; Wilkie, J.A.; Elimelech, M.; Liang, S.

    1996-04-01

    Bench-scale studies were conducted in model freshwater systems to investigate how various parameters affected arsenic removal during coagulation with ferric chloride and arsenic adsorption onto preformed hydrous ferric oxide. Parameters included arsenic oxidation state and initial concentration, coagulant dosage or adsorbent concentration, pH, and the presence of co-occurring inorganic solutes. Comparison of coagulation and adsorption experiments and of experimental results with predictions based on surface complexation modeling demonstrated that adsorption is an important (though not the sole) mechanism governing arsenic removal during coagulation. Under comparable conditions, better removal was observed with arsenic(V) [As(V)] than with arsenic(III) [As(III)] in both coagulation and adsorption experiments. Below neutral pH values, As(III) removal-adsorption was significantly decreased in the presence of sulfate, whereas only a slight decrease in As(V) removal-adsorption was observed. At high pH, removal-adsorption of As(V) was increased in the presence of calcium. Removal of As(V) during coagulation with ferric chloride is both more efficient and less sensitive than that of As(III) to variations in source water composition.

  16. Melaminium chloride hemihydrate.

    PubMed

    Janczak, J; Perpétuo, G J

    2001-09-01

    The crystals of a new melaminium salt, 2,4,6-triamino-1,3,5-triazin-1-ium chloride hemihydrate, C(3)H(7)N(6)(+).Cl(-).0.5H(2)O, are built up from single-protonated melaminium residues, chloride anions and water molecules. The protonated melaminium cations lie on a twofold axis, while the chloride anions and water molecule lie on the m plane. The melaminium residues are interconnected by N-H...N hydrogen bonds, forming chains parallel to the (001) plane. The chains of melaminium residues form a three-dimensional network through hydrogen-bond interactions with chloride anions and water molecules. PMID:11588391

  17. A method for synthesizing pollucite from chabazite and cesium chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, Candido

    1997-08-11

    A method is described for immobilizing waste chlorides salts containing radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material for permanent disposal, and in particular, a method for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing cesium, in a synthetic form of pollucite. The method for synthesizing pollucite from chabazite and cesium chloride includes mixing dry, non-aqueous cesium chloride with chabazite and heating the mixture to a temperature greater than the melting temperature of the cesium chloride, or above about 700 C. The method further comprises significantly improving the rate of retention of cesium in ceramic products comprised of a salt-loaded zeolite by adding about 10% chabazite by weight to the salt-loaded zeolite prior to conversion at elevated temperatures and pressures to the ceramic composite.

  18. Method for synthesizing pollucite from chabazite and cesium chloride

    DOEpatents

    Pereira, Candido

    1999-01-01

    A method for immobilizing waste chlorides salts containing radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material for permanent disposal, and in particular, a method for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing cesium, in a synthetic form of pollucite. The method for synthesizing pollucite from chabazite and cesium chloride includes mixing dry, non-aqueous cesium chloride with chabazite and heating the mixture to a temperature greater than the melting temperature of the cesium chloride, or above about 700.degree. C. The method further comprises significantly improving the rate of retention of cesium in ceramic products comprised of a salt-loaded zeolite by adding about 10% chabazite by weight to the salt-loaded zeolite prior to conversion at elevated temperatures and pressures to the ceramic composite.

  19. Method for synthesizing pollucite from chabazite and cesium chloride

    DOEpatents

    Pereira, C.

    1999-02-23

    A method is described for immobilizing waste chlorides salts containing radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material for permanent disposal, and in particular, a method is described for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing cesium, in a synthetic form of pollucite. The method for synthesizing pollucite from chabazite and cesium chloride includes mixing dry, non-aqueous cesium chloride with chabazite and heating the mixture to a temperature greater than the melting temperature of the cesium chloride, or above about 700 C. The method further comprises significantly improving the rate of retention of cesium in ceramic products comprised of a salt-loaded zeolite by adding about 10% chabazite by weight to the salt-loaded zeolite prior to conversion at elevated temperatures and pressures to the ceramic composite. 3 figs.

  20. Calcium antagonists.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Ehud; Messerli, Franz H

    2004-01-01

    Calcium antagonists were introduced for the treatment of hypertension in the 1980s. Their use was subsequently expanded to additional disorders, such as angina pectoris, paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardias, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, Raynaud phenomenon, pulmonary hypertension, diffuse esophageal spasms, and migraine. Calcium antagonists as a group are heterogeneous and include 3 main classes--phenylalkylamines, benzothiazepines, and dihydropyridines--that differ in their molecular structure, sites and modes of action, and effects on various other cardiovascular functions. Calcium antagonists lower blood pressure mainly through vasodilation and reduction of peripheral resistance. They maintain blood flow to vital organs, and are safe in patients with renal impairment. Unlike diuretics and beta-blockers, calcium antagonists do not impair glucose metabolism or lipid profile and may even attenuate the development of arteriosclerotic lesions. In long-term follow-up, patients treated with calcium antagonists had development of less overt diabetes mellitus than those who were treated with diuretics and beta-blockers. Moreover, calcium antagonists are able to reduce left ventricular mass and are effective in improving anginal pain. Recent prospective randomized studies attested to the beneficial effects of calcium antagonists in hypertensive patients. In comparison with placebo, calcium antagonist-based therapy reduced major cardiovascular events and cardiovascular death significantly in elderly hypertensive patients and in diabetic patients. In several comparative studies in hypertensive patients, treatment with calcium antagonists was equally effective as treatment with diuretics, beta-blockers, or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. From these studies, it seems that a calcium antagonist-based regimen is superior to other regimens in preventing stroke, equivalent in preventing ischemic heart disease, and inferior in preventing congestive heart failure

  1. Fast atom bombardment mass spectrometric studies of the aluminim chloride/n-butylpyridinium chloride molten salt

    SciTech Connect

    Ackermann, B.L.; Tsarbopoulos, A.; Allison, J.

    1985-07-01

    A fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectrometric analysis of the aluminum chloride N-n-butyl-pyridinium chloride molten salt system (AlCl/sub 3//BPCl) which is an ionic (ion-paired) liquid formed by mixing its two solid components, AlCl/sub 3/ and BPCl is reported. This system has received considerable attention recently since it is a melt at room temperature in contrast to the more commonly studied molten salt systems of the type AlCl/sub 3//MX (M is an alkali metal), which exist as melts at elevated temperatures (greater than or equal to150/sup 0/C). Results for the positive ions obtained from fast atom bombardment of a series of AlCl/sub 3//BPCl mixtures varying in composition are presented. The data obtained by FAB-MS are then discussed in light of the results previously obtained by other analytical techniques commonly used to characterize molten salts. 18 references, 2 figures.

  2. Calcium in diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... of calcium dietary supplements include calcium citrate and calcium carbonate. Calcium citrate is the more expensive form of ... the body on a full or empty stomach. Calcium carbonate is less expensive. It is absorbed better by ...

  3. Calcium Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... as thyroid disease , parathyroid disorder , malabsorption , cancer, or malnutrition An ionized calcium test may be ordered when ... albumin , which can result from liver disease or malnutrition , both of which may result from alcoholism or ...

  4. Calcium Calculator

    MedlinePlus

    ... with Sarcopenia Skeletal Rare Disorders Data & Publications Facts and Statistics Vitamin D map Fracture Risk Map Hip Fracture ... Training Courses Working Groups Regional Audits Reports Facts and Statistics Popular content Calcium content of common foods What ...

  5. Calcium - ionized

    MedlinePlus

    ... levels. These may include abnormal blood levels of albumin or immunoglobulins. Normal Results Children: 4.8 to ... 2016:chap 245. Read More Acute kidney failure Albumin - blood (serum) test Bone tumor Calcium blood test ...

  6. Phosphonium chloride for thermal storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, J. G.; Heimlich, P. F.; Tepper, E. H.

    1972-01-01

    Development of systems for storage of thermal energy is discussed. Application of phosphonium chloride for heat storage through reversible dissociation is described. Chemical, physical, and thermodynamic properties of phosphonium chloride are analyzed and dangers in using phosphonium chloride are explained.

  7. Calcium Carbonate.

    PubMed

    Al Omari, M M H; Rashid, I S; Qinna, N A; Jaber, A M; Badwan, A A

    2016-01-01

    Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3 formed by three main elements: carbon, oxygen, and calcium. It is a common substance found in rocks in all parts of the world (most notably as limestone), and is the main component of shells of marine organisms, snails, coal balls, pearls, and eggshells. CaCO3 exists in different polymorphs, each with specific stability that depends on a diversity of variables. PMID:26940168

  8. Calcium orthophosphates

    PubMed Central

    Dorozhkin, Sergey V.

    2011-01-01

    The present overview is intended to point the readers’ attention to the important subject of calcium orthophosphates. This type of materials is of special significance for human beings, because they represent the inorganic part of major normal (bones, teeth and antlers) and pathological (i.e., those appearing due to various diseases) calcified tissues of mammals. For example, atherosclerosis results in blood vessel blockage caused by a solid composite of cholesterol with calcium orthophosphates, while dental caries and osteoporosis mean a partial decalcification of teeth and bones, respectively, that results in replacement of a less soluble and harder biological apatite by more soluble and softer calcium hydrogenphosphates. Therefore, the processes of both normal and pathological calcifications are just an in vivo crystallization of calcium orthophosphates. Similarly, dental caries and osteoporosis might be considered an in vivo dissolution of calcium orthophosphates. Thus, calcium orthophosphates hold a great significance for humankind, and in this paper, an overview on the current knowledge on this subject is provided. PMID:23507744

  9. Calcium Hydroxylapatite

    PubMed Central

    Yutskovskaya, Yana Alexandrovna; Philip Werschler, WM.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Calcium hydroxylapatite is one of the most well-studied dermal fillers worldwide and has been extensively used for the correction of moderate-to-severe facial lines and folds and to replenish lost volume. Objectives: To mark the milestone of 10 years of use in the aesthetic field, this review will consider the evolution of calcium hydroxylapatite in aesthetic medicine, provide a detailed injection protocol for a global facial approach, and examine how the unique properties of calcium hydroxylapatite provide it with an important place in today’s market. Methods: This article is an up-to-date review of calcium hydroxylapatite in aesthetic medicine along with procedures for its use, including a detailed injection protocol for a global facial approach by three expert injectors. Conclusion: Calcium hydroxylapatite is a very effective agent for many areas of facial soft tissue augmentation and is associated with a high and well-established safety profile. Calcium hydroxylapatite combines high elasticity and viscosity with an ability to induce long-term collagen formation making it an ideal agent for a global facial approach. PMID:25610523

  10. Major element concentrations in six Alaskan arctic rivers from melt to freeze-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, T. A.; Barker, A.; Jacobson, A. D.; McClelland, J. W.; Khosh, M. S.; Lehn, G. O.

    2010-12-01

    It is increasingly evident that permafrost in the Arctic is responding to climate warming. An expected response to this warming is permafrost degradation and the downward migration of the seasonally thawed (active) layer into previously frozen material. This could allow weathering of previously frozen soils and influence surface water biogeochemistry in Arctic rivers. The weathering signal would most likely be evident in surface waters during summer and early fall base flow when the active layer is at its deepest extent. Studies collecting water samples from spring through late fall could capture these flows. Fieldwork in remote regions often requires long storage times for samples prior to analysis. One aspect of our study was to investigate whether waters collected for major element analyses should be preserved by acidification. We collected up to 60 surface water samples from each of six rivers between April and October, 2009. Two rivers were underlain by organic rich permafrost, two of the rivers drained mountainous bedrock, and two rivers were underlain by a combination of both bedrock and organic rich permafrost. We collected duplicate samples from each river. Samples were filtered in the field to less than 0.45 microns and collected into high density polyethylene bottles. Waters were stored for six months prior to analysis. One set of samples was analyzed without acidification while the second set was acidified with nitric acid to a pH of 2 after 6 months of storage. Concentrations of sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, ammonium, fluoride, chloride, nitrate, sulfate and phosphate were measured from all samples by ion chromatography. Sulfate, calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium concentrations increase steadily through the summer from the end of spring melt into early fall. In all six rivers the potassium concentrations are unaffected by acidification. In the two streams underlain by organic rich permafrost and in one of the bedrock streams the calcium

  11. Chloride flux in phagocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guoshun

    2016-09-01

    Phagocytes, such as neutrophils and macrophages, engulf microbes into phagosomes and launch chemical attacks to kill and degrade them. Such a critical innate immune function necessitates ion participation. Chloride, the most abundant anion in the human body, is an indispensable constituent of the myeloperoxidase (MPO)-H2 O2 -halide system that produces the potent microbicide hypochlorous acid (HOCl). It also serves as a balancing ion to set membrane potentials, optimize cytosolic and phagosomal pH, and regulate phagosomal enzymatic activities. Deficient supply of this anion to or defective attainment of this anion by phagocytes is linked to innate immune defects. However, how phagocytes acquire chloride from their residing environment especially when they are deployed to epithelium-lined lumens, and how chloride is intracellularly transported to phagosomes remain largely unknown. This review article will provide an overview of chloride protein carriers, potential mechanisms for phagocytic chloride preservation and acquisition, intracellular chloride supply to phagosomes for oxidant production, and methods to measure chloride levels in phagocytes and their phagosomes. PMID:27558337

  12. Damage development, phase changes, transport properties, and freeze-thaw performance of cementitious materials exposed to chloride based salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farnam, Yaghoob

    Recently, there has been a dramatic increase in premature deterioration in concrete pavements and flat works that are exposed to chloride based salts. Chloride based salts can cause damage and deterioration in concrete due to the combination of factors which include: increased saturation, ice formation, salt crystallization, osmotic pressure, corrosion in steel reinforcement, and/or deleterious chemical reactions. This thesis discusses how chloride based salts interact with cementitious materials to (1) develop damage in concrete, (2) create new chemical phases in concrete, (3) alter transport properties of concrete, and (4) change the concrete freeze-thaw performance. A longitudinal guarded comparative calorimeter (LGCC) was developed to simultaneously measure heat flow, damage development, and phase changes in mortar samples exposed to sodium chloride (NaCl), calcium chloride (CaCl 2), and magnesium chloride (MgCl2) under thermal cycling. Acoustic emission and electrical resistivity measurements were used in conjunction with the LGCC to assess damage development and electrical response of mortar samples during cooling and heating. A low-temperature differential scanning calorimetry (LT-DSC) was used to evaluate the chemical interaction that occurs between the constituents of cementitious materials (i.e., pore solution, calcium hydroxide, and hydrated cement paste) and salts. Salts were observed to alter the classical phase diagram for a salt-water system which has been conventionally used to interpret the freeze-thaw behavior in concrete. An additional chemical phase change was observed for a concrete-salt-water system resulting in severe damage in cementitious materials. In a cementitious system exposed to NaCl, the chemical phase change occurs at a temperature range between -6 °C and 8 °C due to the presence of calcium sulfoaluminate phases in concrete. As a result, concrete exposed to NaCl can experience additional freeze-thaw cycles due to the chemical

  13. Strontium-89 Chloride

    MedlinePlus

    ... ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information.Strontium-89 chloride is in a class of drugs known as radioisotopes. It delivers radiation to cancer sites and ultimately decreases bone pain. The length of treatment depends on the ...

  14. Mercuric chloride poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mercuric chloride is a very poisonous form of mercury. It is a type of mercury salt. There are different types of mercury poisonings . This article discusses poisoning from swallowing mercuric ...

  15. Hydrogen chloride test set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, G. L.

    1976-01-01

    Detector uses tertiary amine, which makes reaction fairly specific for relatively small highly polarized hydrogen chloride molecule. Reaction is monitored by any microbalance capable of measuring extremely small mass differences in real time.

  16. Hydrothermal alteration of impact melt sheets with implications for Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newsom, H. E.

    1980-01-01

    A model of the interaction of water with an impact melt sheet is constructed to explain the presence of hydrothermal alteration, fluid flow channels, and the redistribution of volatile elements in terrestrial melt sheets. A calculation of the amount of water vaporized beneath a melt sheet with a large fraction of melt results in a maximum total steam/melt sheet ratio of 23% by weight. The model also applies to Martian impact melt sheets, which have a total volume greater than a global layer 60 m thick. Hydrothermal circulation of steam in Martian melt sheets may have produced iron-rich alteration clays, ferric hydroxides, and near-surface accumulations of salts. The ability of vapor-dominated hydrothermal systems to concentrate sulfate relative to chloride is consistent with the high sulfate to chloride ratio found in the Martian soil by the Viking landers. A major fraction of the Martian soil may consist of the erosion products of hydrothermally altered impact melt sheets.

  17. Altered Regulation of Airway Epithelial Cell Chloride Channels in Cystic Fibrosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frizzell, Raymond A.; Rechkemmer, Gerhard; Shoemaker, Richard L.

    1986-08-01

    In many epithelial cells the chloride conductance of the apical membrane increases during the stimulation of electrolyte secretion. Single-channel recordings from human airway epithelial cells showed that β -adrenergic stimulation evoked apical membrane chloride channel activity, but this response was absent in cells from patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). However, when membrane patches were excised from CF cells into media containing sufficient free calcium (approximately 180 nanomolar), chloride channels were activated. The chloride channels of CF cells were similar to those of normal cells as judged by their current-voltage relations, ion selectivity, and kinetic behavior. These findings demonstrate the presence of chloride channels in the apical membranes of CF airway cells. Their regulation by calcium appears to be intact, but cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent control of their activity is defective.

  18. Regulation of Chloride Channels by Protein Kinase C in Normal and Cystic Fibrosis Airway Epithelia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming; McCann, John D.; Anderson, Matthew P.; Clancy, John P.; Liedtke, Carole M.; Nairn, Angus C.; Greengard, Paul; Welsh, Michael J.

    1989-06-01

    Apical membrane chloride channels control chloride secretion by airway epithelial cells. Defective regulation of these channels is a prominent characteristic of cystic fibrosis. In normal intact cells, activation of protein kinase C (PKC) by phorbol ester either stimulated or inhibited chloride secretion, depending on the physiological status of the cell. In cell-free membrane patches, PKC also had a dual effect: at a high calcium concentration, PKC inactivated chloride channels; at a low calcium concentration, PKC activated chloride channels. In cystic fibrosis cells, PKC-dependent channel inactivation was normal, but activation was defective. Thus it appears that PKC phosphorylates and regulates two different sites on the channel or on an associated membrane protein, one of which is defective in cystic fibrosis.

  19. The effect of melt composition on the partitioning of oxidized sulfur between silicate melts and magmatic volatiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zajacz, Zoltán

    2015-06-01

    Experiments were conducted at 500 MPa and 1240 °C in a piston cylinder apparatus to assess the effect of melt composition on the melt/volatile partition coefficient of sulfur (DSmelt/volatile) , which was used as a measure of the silicate melt's capacity to dissolve oxidized sulfur species. Iron-free, three- and four-component silicate melts were equilibrated with H2O-S fluids with sulfur concentrations ⩽2 mol% at an oxygen fugacity imposed by the Re-ReO2 buffer (1.4 log units above the Ni-NiO buffer). At these conditions, SO2 (S4+) is predicted to be the dominant sulfur species in the volatile phase and sulfate (S6+) is the dominant sulfur species in the silicate melt. The values of DSmelt /volatile were calculated by mass balance. The results show that DSmelt /volatile values increase exponentially with decreasing the degree of polymerization of the silicate melt structure. For example, in calcium-aluminosilicate melts, DSmelt /volatile changes from 0.005 to 0.3 as the degree of melt polymerization changes from the equivalent of a rhyolite to the equivalent of a basalt. At a constant degree of melt polymerization, DSmelt /volatile in equilibrium with sodium-aluminosilicate (NAS) melts is more than an order of magnitude higher than in equilibrium with calcium-aluminosilicate (CAS) melts, and more than two orders of magnitude higher than in equilibrium with magnesium-aluminosilicate (MAS) melts. The value of DSmelt /volatile changes from 0.014 in MAS glasses to 3.4 in NAS glasses for the most depolymerized compositions in each series. Potassium has a similar effect on sulfate dissolution to that of Na. The variation of DSmelt /volatile in equilibrium with various calcium-sodium aluminosilicate (CNAS), magnesium-sodium aluminosilicate (MNAS) and magnesium-potassium aluminosilicate (MKAS) melts indicates that alkalis are only available for sulfate complexation when they are present in excess compared to the required amount to charge balance for the Si4+ to Al3

  20. Calcium and bones

    MedlinePlus

    Bone strength and calcium ... calcium (as well as phosphorus) to make healthy bones. Bones are the main storage site of calcium in ... your body does not absorb enough calcium, your bones can get weak or will not grow properly. ...

  1. Get Enough Calcium

    MedlinePlus

    ... Calcium Print This Topic En español Get Enough Calcium Browse Sections The Basics Overview Foods and Vitamins ... 2 of 4 sections Take Action! Take Action: Calcium Sources Protect your bones – get plenty of calcium ...

  2. Calcium carbonate overdose

    MedlinePlus

    Tums overdose; Calcium overdose ... Calcium carbonate can be dangerous in large amounts. ... Some products that contain calcium carbonate are certain: ... and mineral supplements Other products may also contain calcium ...

  3. Calcium cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Jump to main content . Integrated Risk Information System Recent Additions | Contact Us Search : All EPA IRIS • You are here : EPA Home • Research • Environmental Assessment • IRIS • IRIS Summaries Redirect Page As of September 28 , 2010 , the assessment summary for calcium cyanide is included in th

  4. Novel Roles for Chloride Channels, Exchangers, and Regulators in Chronic Inflammatory Airway Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Sala-Rabanal, Monica; Yurtsever, Zeynep; Berry, Kayla N.; Brett, Tom J.

    2015-01-01

    Chloride transport proteins play critical roles in inflammatory airway diseases, contributing to the detrimental aspects of mucus overproduction, mucus secretion, and airway constriction. However, they also play crucial roles in contributing to the innate immune properties of mucus and mucociliary clearance. In this review, we focus on the emerging novel roles for a chloride channel regulator (CLCA1), a calcium-activated chloride channel (TMEM16A), and two chloride exchangers (SLC26A4/pendrin and SLC26A9) in chronic inflammatory airway diseases. PMID:26612971

  5. An Apical-Membrane Chloride Channel in Human Tracheal Epithelium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsh, Michael J.

    1986-06-01

    The mechanism of chloride transport by airway epithelia has been of substantial interest because airway and sweat gland-duct epithelia are chloride-impermeable in cystic fibrosis. The decreased chloride permeability prevents normal secretion by the airway epithelium, thereby interfering with mucociliary clearance and contributing to the morbidity and mortality of the disease. Because chloride secretion depends on and is regulated by chloride conductance in the apical cell membrane, the patch-clamp technique was used to directly examine single-channel currents in primary cultures of human tracheal epithelium. The cells contained an anion-selective channel that was not strongly voltage-gated or regulated by calcium in cell-free patches. The channel was also blocked by analogs of carboxylic acid that decrease apical chloride conductance in intact epithelia. When attached to the cell, the channel was activated by isoproterenol, although the channel was also observed to open spontaneously. However, in some cases, the channel was only observed after the patch was excised from the cell. These results suggest that this channel is responsible for the apical chloride conductance in airway epithelia.

  6. Pharmacological analysis of epithelial chloride secretion mechanisms in adult murine airways.

    PubMed

    Gianotti, Ambra; Ferrera, Loretta; Philp, Amber R; Caci, Emanuela; Zegarra-Moran, Olga; Galietta, Luis J V; Flores, Carlos A

    2016-06-15

    Defective epithelial chloride secretion occurs in humans with cystic fibrosis (CF), a genetic defect due to loss of function of CFTR, a cAMP-activated chloride channel. In the airways, absence of an active CFTR causes a severe lung disease. In mice, genetic ablation of CFTR function does not result in similar lung pathology. This may be due to the expression of an alternative chloride channel which is activated by calcium. The most probable protein performing this function is TMEM16A, a calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC). Our aim was to assess the relative contribution of CFTR and TMEM16A to chloride secretion in adult mouse trachea. For this purpose we tested pharmacological inhibitors of chloride channels in normal and CF mice. The amplitude of the cAMP-activated current was similar in both types of animals and was not affected by a selective CFTR inhibitor. In contrast, a CaCC inhibitor (CaCCinh-A01) strongly blocked the cAMP-activated current as well as the calcium-activated chloride secretion triggered by apical UTP. Although control experiments revealed that CaCCinh-A01 also shows inhibitory activity on CFTR, our results indicate that transepithelial chloride secretion in adult mouse trachea is independent of CFTR and that another channel, possibly TMEM16A, performs both cAMP- and calcium-activated chloride transport. The prevalent function of a non-CFTR channel may explain the absence of a defect in chloride transport in CF mice. PMID:27063443

  7. Oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane on dynamically rearranging supported chloride catalysts.

    PubMed

    Gärtner, Christian A; van Veen, André C; Lercher, Johannes A

    2014-09-10

    Ethane is oxidatively dehydrogenated with a selectivity up to 95% on catalysts comprising a mixed molten alkali chloride supported on a mildly redox-active Dy2O3-doped MgO. The reactive oxyanionic OCl(-) species acting as active sites are catalytically formed by oxidation of Cl(-) at the MgO surface. Under reaction conditions this site is regenerated by O2, dissolving first in the alkali chloride melt, and in the second step dissociating and replenishing the oxygen vacancies on MgO. The oxyanion reactively dehydrogenates ethane at the melt-gas phase interface with nearly ideal selectivity. Thus, the reaction is concluded to proceed via two coupled steps following a Mars-van-Krevelen-mechanism at the solid-liquid and gas-liquid interface. The dissociation of O2 and/or the oxidation of Cl(-) at the melt-solid interface is concluded to have the lowest forward rate constants. The compositions of the oxide core and the molten chloride shell control the catalytic activity via the redox potential of the metal oxide and of the OCl(-). Traces of water may be present in the molten chloride under reaction conditions, but the specific impact of this water is not obvious at present. The spatial separation of oxygen and ethane activation sites and the dynamic rearrangement of the surface anions and cations, preventing the exposure of coordinatively unsaturated cations, are concluded to be the origin of the surprisingly high olefin selectivity. PMID:25118821

  8. Carbon-enriched calcium carbide and its potential use

    SciTech Connect

    Ivakhnyuk, G.K.; Samonin, V.V.; Fedorov, N.F.; Vladimirov, V.A.; Stepanova, L.V.; Kas'yanova, O.M.

    1987-10-10

    The authors comparatively assess the feasibility of a variety of carbonaceous materials--lean coal, specialty coke, coal coke, semicoke, and coke residue from shale production--as raw materials for the production and carburization of calcium carbide and subsequently assess the value of the calcium carbide produced as a raw material in the production of graphite. They determine that calcium carbide enriched by their process is characterized by a high carbon content having the graphite structure and that the use of carburized calcium carbide allows for a significant increase in the output of graphite during low-temperature reaction of the carbide with magnesium chloride.

  9. The effect of chloride ion concentration gradients on the initiation of localized corrosion of steel in reinforced concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, M.J.; Brown, R.

    1994-12-31

    It has been established that for steel reinforced concrete roads treated with deicing salts or exposed to a marine environment, chloride ions are introduced at the surface of the concrete structure. Two models were discussed in which chloride ion concentration gradients would form in a steel reinforced concrete structure. Electrochemical testing to investigate the models was conducted on plain carbon steel specimens in a simulated concrete environment of saturated calcium hydroxide solution with varying concentrations of sodium chloride. The varying chloride ion concentrations promoted open circuit potential shifts. These potential shifts may lead to galvanic corrosion effects depending on the chloride ion concentration gradients in the structure.

  10. Experimental study of chlorine behavior in hydrous silicic melts

    SciTech Connect

    Metrich, N. ); Rutherford, M.J. )

    1992-02-01

    Chlorine solubility in silicate melts has been investigated at 830-850 {plus minus} 5C and at pressures ranging from 50 to 200 MPa, using both natural (pantellerite, rhyolite, phonolite) and synthetic (SiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-K{sub 2}O-Na{sub 2}O) compositions and a stated H{sub 2}O-NaCl-KCl fluid phase near 4 molal. At 100 MPa, Cl contents in pantelleritic melts reach a solubility plateau at initial aqueous phase molality near 2. This plateau coincides with a large immiscibility gap between aqueous and chloride-rich fluids. With the coexisting Cl-saturated aqueous phase, Cl ranges from 2,720 {plus minus} 120 ppm in rhyolite to 8,960 {plus minus} 85 ppm in pantellerite and reaches 6,270 {plus minus} 170 ppm in phonolite, at 100 MPa. Between 50 and 200 MPa, the Cl content in pantelleritic melt decreases from 9,640 {plus minus} 200 ppm to 5,040 {plus minus} 150 ppm. Although Cl solubility increases with increasing FeO{sup *} in high SiO{sub 2} melts, it is mainly controlled by the Al/Si and (Na + K)/Al molar ratios of the melt with a minimum at Na + K/Al = 1 in a series of synthetic rhyolitic to pantelleritic melts. The experimental results suggest that chlorine occurs as alkali-chloride complexes in high SiO{sub 2} melts. They also indicate that Cl is concentrated in the aqueous fluids in equilibrium with SiO{sub 2}-rich melts, the exact value of D depending on melt composition and melt chlorine concentration. Volcanic degassing will create chlorine-rich hydrothermal fluids and decrease chlorine melt content.

  11. Chloride removal from vitrification offgas

    SciTech Connect

    Slaathaug, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    This study identified and investigated techniques of selectively purging chlorides from the low-level waste (LLW) vitrification process with the purge stream acceptable for burial on the Hanford Site. Chlorides will be present in high concentration in several individual feeds to the LLW Vitrification Plant. The chlorides are highly volatile in combustion type melters and are readily absorbed by wet scrubbing of the melter offgas. The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) process flow sheets show that the resulting chloride rich scrub solution is recycled back to the melter. The chlorides must be purged from the recycle loop to prevent the buildup of excessively high chloride concentrations.

  12. Pyramidal cells accumulate chloride at seizure onset

    PubMed Central

    Lillis, Kyle P; Kramer, Mark A; Mertz, Jerome; Staley, Kevin J

    2012-01-01

    Seizures are thought to originate from a failure of inhibition to quell hyperactive neural circuits, but the nature of this failure remains unknown. Here we combine high-speed two-photon imaging with electrophysiological recordings to directly evaluate the interaction between populations of interneurons and principal cells during the onset of seizure-like activity in mouse hippocampal slices. Both calcium imaging and dual patch clamp recordings reveal that in vitro seizure-like events (SLEs) are preceded by pre-ictal bursts of activity in which interneurons predominate. Corresponding changes in intracellular chloride concentration were observed in pyramidal cells using the chloride indicator Clomeleon. These changes were measurable at SLE onset and became very large during the SLE. Pharmacological manipulation of GABAergic transmission, either by blocking GABAA receptors or by hyperpolarizing the GABAA reversal potential, converted SLEs to short interictal-like bursts. Together, our results support a model in which pre-ictal GABAA receptor-mediated chloride influx shifts EGABA to produce a positive feedback loop that contributes to the initiation of seizure activity. PMID:22677032

  13. Damage development, phase changes, transport properties, and freeze-thaw performance of cementitious materials exposed to chloride based salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farnam, Yaghoob

    Recently, there has been a dramatic increase in premature deterioration in concrete pavements and flat works that are exposed to chloride based salts. Chloride based salts can cause damage and deterioration in concrete due to the combination of factors which include: increased saturation, ice formation, salt crystallization, osmotic pressure, corrosion in steel reinforcement, and/or deleterious chemical reactions. This thesis discusses how chloride based salts interact with cementitious materials to (1) develop damage in concrete, (2) create new chemical phases in concrete, (3) alter transport properties of concrete, and (4) change the concrete freeze-thaw performance. A longitudinal guarded comparative calorimeter (LGCC) was developed to simultaneously measure heat flow, damage development, and phase changes in mortar samples exposed to sodium chloride (NaCl), calcium chloride (CaCl 2), and magnesium chloride (MgCl2) under thermal cycling. Acoustic emission and electrical resistivity measurements were used in conjunction with the LGCC to assess damage development and electrical response of mortar samples during cooling and heating. A low-temperature differential scanning calorimetry (LT-DSC) was used to evaluate the chemical interaction that occurs between the constituents of cementitious materials (i.e., pore solution, calcium hydroxide, and hydrated cement paste) and salts. Salts were observed to alter the classical phase diagram for a salt-water system which has been conventionally used to interpret the freeze-thaw behavior in concrete. An additional chemical phase change was observed for a concrete-salt-water system resulting in severe damage in cementitious materials. In a cementitious system exposed to NaCl, the chemical phase change occurs at a temperature range between -6 °C and 8 °C due to the presence of calcium sulfoaluminate phases in concrete. As a result, concrete exposed to NaCl can experience additional freeze-thaw cycles due to the chemical

  14. Electron beam melting of charge based on titanium sponge

    SciTech Connect

    Tikhonovsky, A.L.; Tikhonovsky, K.A.

    1995-12-31

    An experience of 0.8 MW consumable box melting furnace operation and theoretical simulation have led to the further development of the FIKO plant under construction on the base of melting of two consumable box-like bullets which move opposite each other and form narrow heated space between melted butt ends. It allows to reduce vaporization, spatter and radiation losses by several times and to reach two times increase in melting rate and 99%(97%) yield for c.p. titanium (alloys) without furnace power add. Future furnace design will provide the optimum protection of vacuum pumps against chlorides, the safety when melting titanium sponge and will permit hot ingots to move to the special furnace for EB surface conditioning. The maximum productivity is to be 18,000 t/year. The furnace can be used for the manufacture of aluminum-, copper-, iron-, nickel-, tungsten-based alloys and others of any charge including salvage.

  15. Strontium-89 Chloride

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor if you have or have ever had bone marrow disease, blood disorders, or kidney disease.you should know that strontium-89 chloride may interfere with the normal menstrual cycle (period) in women and may stop sperm production in men. However, ...

  16. Lithium thionyl chloride battery

    SciTech Connect

    Saathoff, D.J.; Venkatasetty, H.V.

    1982-10-19

    The discharge rate and internal conductivity of electrochemical cell including a lithium anode, and a cathode and an electrolyte including LiAlCl4 and SOC2 is improved by the addition of an amount of a mixture containing AlCl3 and butyl pyridinium chloride.

  17. PHOTOOXIDATION OF ALLYL CHLORIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The photooxidation of allyl chloride was studied by irradiation either in 100-L Teflon bags or in a 22.7-cu m Teflon smog chamber in the presence of added NOx. In the absence of added hydrocarbons, the reaction involves a Cl atom chain, which leads to a highly reactive system. A ...

  18. Depolarization-induced contractile activity of smooth muscle in calcium-free solution.

    PubMed

    Mangel, A W; Nelson, D O; Rabovsky, J L; Prosser, C L; Connor, J A

    1982-01-01

    In calcium-free solution, strips of cat intestinal muscle developed slow, rhythmic electrical potential changes that triggered contractions. Some strips failed to develop spontaneous electrical activity in calcium-free solution but responded with contractions to depolarization by direct electrical stimulation or by treatment with barium chloride, potassium chloride, or acetylcholine. Similar results were obtained with segments of cat stomach, colon, esophagus, bladder, uterus, and vena cava, as well as with rabbit vena cava. In calcium-free saline, rat small intestinal muscle showed fast electrical activity with accompanying development of a tetanuslike contraction. After 60 min in calcium-free solution, cat small intestinal muscle retained 17.7% of its original concentration of calcium. It is concluded that in some smooth muscles, depolarization-triggered release of intracellular calcium does not require an associated influx of calcium. PMID:7058877

  19. The preparation of calcium superoxide from calcium peroxide diperoxyhydrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballou, E. V.; Wood, P. C.; Spitze, L. A.; Wydeven, T.

    1977-01-01

    There is interest in solid materials containing a high percentage of stored oxygen for use in emergency breathing apparatus for miners and as auxiliary oxygen sources for astronauts. In theory, the amount of available oxygen in calcium superoxide, Ca(O2)2 is higher than in potassium superoxide, KO2, and its availability during use should be unhindered by the formation of a low melting and hydrous coating. The decomposition of solid calcium peroxide diperoxyhydrate, CaO2.2H2O2 has been studied, using an apparatus which allows good control of the critical reaction parameters. Samples have been prepared showing apparent superoxide contents in excess of those previously reported and higher than the theoretical 58.4% expected from a disproportionation reaction.

  20. Theoretical study on the structures and properties of mixtures of urea and choline chloride.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hui; Li, Yan; Wu, Xue; Li, Guohui

    2013-06-01

    In this work, we investigated in detail the structural characteristics of mixtures of choline chloride and urea with different urea contents by performing molecular dynamic (MD) simulations, and offer possible explanations for the low melting point of the eutectic mixture of choline chloride and urea with a ratio of 1:2. The insertion of urea molecules was found to change the density distribution of cations and anions around the given cations significantly, disrupting the long-range ordered structure of choline chloride. Moreover, with increasing urea concentration, the hydrogen bond interactions between choline cations and Cl(-) anions decreased, while those among urea molecules obviously increased. From the hydrogen bond lifetimes, it was found that a ratio of 1:2 between choline chloride and urea is necessary for a reasonable strength of hydrogen bond interaction to maintain the low melting point of the mixture of choline chloride with urea. In addition, it was also deduced from the interaction energies that a urea content of 67.7 % may make the interactions of cation-anion, cation-urea and anion-urea modest, and thus results in the lower melting point of the eutectic mixture of choline chloride and urea. The present results may offer assistance to some extent for understanding the physicochemical properties of the eutectic mixture of choline chloride and urea, and give valuable information for the further development and application of deep eutectic solvents. PMID:23435478

  1. Blockade of swelling-induced chloride channels by phenol derivatives.

    PubMed Central

    Gschwentner, M.; Jungwirth, A.; Hofer, S.; Wöll, E.; Ritter, M.; Susanna, A.; Schmarda, A.; Reibnegger, G.; Pinggera, G. M.; Leitinger, M.; Frick, J.; Deetjen, P.; Paulmichl, M.

    1996-01-01

    1. In NIH3T3 fibroblasts, the chloride channel involved in regulatory volume decrease (RVD) was identified as ICln, a protein isolated from a cDNA library derived from Madin Darby canine Kidney (MDCK) cells. ICln expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes gives rise to an outwardly rectifying chloride current, sensitive to the extracellular addition of nucleotides and the known chloride channel blockers, DIDS (4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid) and NPPB (5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoic acid). We set out to study whether substances structurally similar to NPPB are able to interfere with RVD. 2. RVD in NIH3T3 fibroblasts and MDCK cells is temperature-dependent. 3. RVD, the swelling-dependent chloride current and the depolarization seen after reducing extracellular osmolarity can be blocked by gossypol and NDGA (nordihydroguaiaretic acid), both structurally related to NPPB. 4. The cyclic AMP-dependent chloride current elicited in CaCo cells is less sensitive to the two substances tested while the calcium-activated chloride current in fibroblasts is insensitive. 5. The binding site for the two phenol derivatives onto ICln seems to be distinct but closely related to the nucleotide binding site identified as G x G x G, a glycine repeat located at the predicted outer mouth of the ICln channel protein. PMID:8733574

  2. Chloride chemical form in various types of fly ash.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fenfen; Takaoka, Masaki; Shiota, Kenji; Oshita, Kazuyuki; Kitajima, Yoshinori

    2008-06-01

    Chloride content is a critical problem for the reuse of fly ash as a raw material in cement, and the method used by recyclers to reduce the fly ash chloride content depends on the chemical form of the chlorides. However, limited information is available on the quantitative distribution of chlorides and the identity of some chlorides such as Friedel's salt. We examined chloride forms and percentages using X-ray absorption near edge structure and X-ray diffraction analyses, as well as corresponding washing experiments. Approximately 15% of the chlorine in raw fly ash was estimated to be in the form of NaCI, 10% in KCl, 50% in CaCl2, and the remainder in the form of Friedel's salt. Fly ash collected in a bag filter with the injection of calcium hydroxide for acid gas removal (CaFA) contained 35% chlorine as NaCl, 11% as KCI, 37% as CaCl2, 13% as Friedel's salt, and the remaining 4% as CaClOH. In fly ash collected in a bag filter with the injection of sodium bicarbonate for acid gas removal (NaFA), approximately 79% of chlorine was in NaCl, 12% was in KCl, and 9% was in Friedel's salt. PMID:18589947

  3. Chloride chemical form in various types of fly ash

    SciTech Connect

    Fenfen Zhu; Masaki Takaoka; Kenji Shiota; Kazuyuki Oshita; Yoshinori Kitajima

    2008-06-01

    Chloride content is a critical problem for the reuse of fly ash as a raw material in cement, and the method used by recyclers to reduce the fly ash chloride content depends on the chemical form of the chlorides. However, limited information is available on the quantitative distribution of chlorides and the identity of some chlorides such as Friedel's salt. We examined chloride forms and percentages using X-ray absorption near edge structure and X-ray diffraction analyses, as well as corresponding washing experiments. Approximately 15% of the chlorine in raw fly ash was estimated to be in the form of NaCl, 10% in KCl, 50% in CaCl{sub 2}, and the remainder in the form of Friedel's salt. Fly ash collected in a bag filter with the injection of calcium hydroxide for acid gas removal (CaFA) contained 35% chlorine as NaCl, 11% as KCl, 37% as CaCl{sub 2}, 13% as Friedel's salt, and the remaining 4% as CaClOH. In fly ash collected in a bag filter with the injection of sodium bicarbonate for acid gas removal (NaFA), approximately 79% of chlorine was in NaCl, 12% was in KCl, and 9% was in Friedel's salt. 25 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Chloride Channels of Intracellular Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, John C.; Kahl, Christina R.

    2010-01-01

    Proteins implicated as intracellular chloride channels include the intracellular ClC proteins, the bestrophins, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, the CLICs, and the recently described Golgi pH regulator. This paper examines current hypotheses regarding roles of intracellular chloride channels and reviews the evidence supporting a role in intracellular chloride transport for each of these proteins. PMID:20100480

  5. Histological effects of calcium chloride in stored apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mature apples, Malus domestica Borkh., cv. 'Golden Delicious' were immersed for 2 min in 0, 0.14, 0.27, or 0.41 mol L-1 (0, 2%, 4%, or 6%, respectively) aqueous solutions (w/v) of CaCl2 at 0 or 68.95 Kpa, and stored at 0°C. Histological samples of peel/cortex were taken at harvest and at four month...

  6. Corrosion studies in molten calcium chloride with chlorine

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, D.F. . Science and Technology Center); Sessions, C.E.; Marra, J.E. )

    1990-01-01

    This study is aimed at testing new materials for use in molten salt processing of plutonium. Because of the high corrosiveness of chlorine, present materials have a high rate of failure. Materials less subject to corrosion are needed to minimize costs resulting from rapid failure of sparge tubes, stirring apparatus, and crucibles; to reduce the quantity of plutonium-contaminated scrap; and to improve the purity of the plutonium product. The processing environment of molten CaCl{sub 2}--CaO salts, molten plutonium, and chlorine-oxygen gas at temperatures from 750{degree} to 900{degree} is extremely severe. Materials with resistance to both corrosion and mechanical failure are desired. Also, the incorporation of corrosion products into the final plutonium product cannot exceed the allowable impurity limits. We require materials for crucibles, sparge tubes, stirrers, and containment and pull cans. Four metallic and two ceramics materials were tested. The metallic materials were Inconel-601, Inconel-617, tantalum, and tungsten. Silicon nitride and magnesium oxide were the ceramics tested.

  7. Preparation and application of low molecular weight poly(vinyl chloride). III mechanical properties of blended poly(vinyl chloride)

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Kikuo; Maehala, Takashi; Mitani, Katsuo; Mizutani, Yukio )

    1993-11-05

    The blending effect of poly(vinyl chloride) with relatively higher molecular weight (HMW-PVC) and relatively lower molecular weight (LMW-PVC) has been investigated by measuring various mechanical properties: melt properties, tensile strength, tensile modulus, and impact strength. The blended PVC has slightly improved melt properties in comparison with the HMW-PVC used. The tensile strength of the blended PVC is related to the weight-average polymerization degree (Pw) of LMW-PVC and the LMW-PVC content. At the LMW-PVC content of 20%, the tensile strength of blended PVC is a maximum: approximately 58 MPa.

  8. Calcium and Vitamin D

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calcium is required for the bone formation phase of bone remodeling. Typically about 5 nmol (200 mg) of calcium is removed from the adult skeleton and replaced each day. To supply this amount, one would need to consume about 600 mg of calcium, since calcium is not very efficiently absorbed. Calcium ...

  9. Studies on endogenous circulating calcium entry blocker and stimulator

    SciTech Connect

    Pang, P.K.T.; Yang, M.C.M.

    1986-03-01

    Several synthetic compounds have been studied extensively for their calcium entry blockade and stimulation in smooth muscles. It is hypothesized that there should be endogenous substances which control calcium entry into cells. We recently investigated the effect of some vasoactive hormones on calcium entry. Our studies on rat tail artery helical strip showed that the in vitro vasoconstriction produced by arginine vasopressin (AVP) decreased stepwise with decreasing concentration of both calcium. After exposure of the tail artery to calcium-free Ringer's solution for 1 minute or longer, the tissue lost its ability to respond to AVP. Subsequent addition of calcium to the medium produced immediate contraction. Measurements of low affinity lanthanum resistant pool of calcium with /sup 45/Ca showed that AVP increased calcium uptake by tail artery in a dose-dependent manner. In another study rat tail artery helical strip indicated that the vasorelaxing action of parathyroid hormone (PTH) was related to an inhibition of calcium uptake. AVP or 60 mM potassium chloride increased the low affinity lanthanum resistant pool of calcium in rate tail artery and PTH inhibited the increase. In conclusion, AVP and PTH may behave like endogenous calcium entry stimulator and inhibitor respectively in vascular tissues.

  10. Effects of oral administration of a calcium-containing gel on serum calcium concentration in postparturient dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Queen, W G; Miller, G Y; Masterson, M A

    1993-02-15

    Various nutritious nutritional-supplement gels are being marketed for use in veterinary medicine. This study was designed to determine whether serum calcium, phosphorous, or magnesium concentrations were different between cows given a gel containing calcium chloride as its active ingredient (treated) and cows given inert carrier gel (control). The study revealed a significant (P < 0.01) increase in serum total calcium concentration within 5 minutes of administration of a calcium gel given to cows within 1 hour of parturition. Serum total calcium concentration had returned to baseline value by 24 hours after calcium gel administration. Serum inorganic phosphorus concentration also increased significantly (P < 0.05) after treatment. Significant changes in serum magnesium concentrations were not detected. PMID:8449800

  11. Melt containment member

    SciTech Connect

    Rieken, Joel R.; Heidloff, Andrew J.

    2014-09-09

    A tubular melt containment member for transient containment of molten metals and alloys, especially reactive metals and alloys, includes a melt-contacting layer or region that comprises an oxygen-deficient rare earth oxide material that is less reactive as compared to the counterpart stoichiometric rare earth oxide. The oxygen-deficient (sub-stoichiometric) rare earth oxide can comprise oxygen-deficient yttria represented by Y.sub.2O.sub.3-x wherein x is from 0.01 to 0.1. Use of the oxygen-deficient rare earth oxide as the melt-contacting layer or region material reduces reaction with the melt for a given melt temperature and melt contact time.

  12. [Degradation of succinylcholine chloride].

    PubMed

    Németh, G; Török, I; Paál, T

    1993-05-01

    Quantitative thin-layer chormatographic method has been developed for the investigation of the degradation of injection formulations containing succinylcholinium chloride. The method is based on the denistometric determination of the main degradation product, choline at 430 nm after visualization with iodine vapour. The stability of the injection was investigated under various storage conditions and it has been stated that considerable decomposition takes place during as short a period as one week. PMID:8362654

  13. Calcium and bones (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Calcium is one of the most important minerals for the growth, maintenance, and reproduction of the human ... body, are continually being re-formed and incorporate calcium into their structure. Calcium is essential for the ...

  14. Calcium source (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Getting enough calcium to keep bones from thinning throughout a person's life may be made more difficult if that person has ... as a tendency toward kidney stones, for avoiding calcium-rich food sources. Calcium deficiency also effects the ...

  15. Coronary Calcium Scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Coronary Calcium Scan? A coronary calcium scan is a test ... you have calcifications in your coronary arteries. Coronary Calcium Scan Figure A shows the position of the ...

  16. Calcium hydroxide poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hydrate - calcium; Lime milk; Slaked lime ... Calcium hydroxide ... These products contain calcium hydroxide: Cement Limewater Many industrial solvents and cleaners (hundreds to thousands of construction products, flooring strippers, brick cleaners, cement ...

  17. Complexation of Sr in aqueous fluids equilibrated with silicate melts: effect of melt and fluid composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borchert, Manuela; Wilke, Max; Schmidt, Christian; Kvashnina, Kristina

    2010-05-01

    At crustal conditions, the fluid-melt partitioning of Sr is mainly controlled by the salinity of the fluid and the composition of the melt (Borchert et al., 2010). The data show a sharp increase in the Sr partition coefficient with the alumina saturation index (ASI) to a maximum of 0.3 at an ASI of 1.05. Because fluid-melt partitioning of a given element depends on its complexation in the fluid and its incorporation in the melt, these data imply a change in the Sr speciation at least one of the two phases. For silicate melts, Kohn et al. (1990) found only small changes in the first coordination shell of Sr in a suite of melts with various degrees of polymerization, and argued that incorporation of Sr in the melt should not play a major role in controlling Sr partitioning. For the aqueous fluid, Bai and Koster van Groos (1999) and Webster et al. (1989) suggested a control of the Sr partition coefficient by SrCl2 complexes based on the correlation between partition coefficient and Cl concentration in the fluid after quenching. Both hypotheses cannot explain our partitioning data. Thus, new information on Sr complexation is required. Here, we studied the complexation of Sr in peraluminous or peralkaline melt dissolved in aqueous fluids in-situ at elevated PT conditions using hydrothermal diamond-anvil cells (HDAC) and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The starting materials were peraluminous or peralkaline glass and H2O or a chloridic solution. The glass was doped with high concentrations of 5000 or 10000 ppm Sr. We used bulk compositions with 10 to 15 wt.% glass to ensure that the melt was completely dissolved in the fluid at high PT conditions. For qualitative evaluation, we analyzed the starting glasses and various crystalline compounds and standard solutions. The experiments were performed at beamline ID26 at ESRF (Grenoble, France) using a high resolution emission spectrometer and Si(311) monochromator crystals for high resolution and Si

  18. Chloride channels as drug targets

    PubMed Central

    Verkman, Alan S.; Galietta, Luis J. V.

    2013-01-01

    Chloride channels represent a relatively under-explored target class for drug discovery as elucidation of their identity and physiological roles has lagged behind that of many other drug targets. Chloride channels are involved in a wide range of biological functions, including epithelial fluid secretion, cell-volume regulation, neuroexcitation, smooth-muscle contraction and acidification of intracellular organelles. Mutations in several chloride channels cause human diseases, including cystic fibrosis, macular degeneration, myotonia, kidney stones, renal salt wasting and hyperekplexia. Chloride-channel modulators have potential applications in the treatment of some of these disorders, as well as in secretory diarrhoeas, polycystic kidney disease, osteoporosis and hypertension. Modulators of GABAA (γ-aminobutyric acid A) receptor chloride channels are in clinical use and several small-molecule chloride-channel modulators are in preclinical development and clinical trials. Here, we discuss the broad opportunities that remain in chloride-channel-based drug discovery. PMID:19153558

  19. The effect of the electrochemical chloride extraction treatment on steel-reinforced mortar. Part II: Microstructural characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Marcotte, T.D.; Hansson, C.M.; Hope, B.B.

    1999-10-01

    A study has been made of the changes in cement composition and microstructures resulting from electrochemical chloride extraction applied to mortar samples in which the chlorides were added with the mixing water, ingressed by ponding with an NaCl solution, or both. After exposure for 1 year, specimens with and without chlorides were subjected to an electrochemical chloride extraction treatment. Microstructural analyses of fracture surfaces through the steel/mortar interface revealed a significant alteration of the cementitious phases. In untreated samples, calcium-silicon-rich phases consistent with Types I and II calcium silicate hydrate were observed. After the extraction treatment, these phases were not detectable and instead, sodium-rich, iron-rich, and calcium-aluminum-rich phases were observed.

  20. Study on dehydrochlorination of waste poly (vinyl chloride) resins by microwave irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriwaki, Saburo; Qian, Qingrong; Sunohara, Satoshi; Machida, Motoi; Tatsumoto, Hideki

    Waste poly (vinyl chloride: PVC) resins are experimentally dehydrochlorinated by microwave irradiation. The following unique results are obtained: (1) plasticizer in PVC resin absorbs microwave power more effectively than PVC polymer. The higher the plasticizer content in PVC resin, the higher is the dehydrochlorination reaction (2) low PVC polymer content materials such as cushion floor require high microwave irradiation power to secure a high dehydrochlorination yield, (3) calcium carbonate in PVC resin reacts with released hydrochloric acid gas and results calcium chloride during microwave irradiation, (4) additives in PVC resin strongly influence dehydrochlorination yield, (5) it is evidenced that the PVC copolymer is also dehydrochlorinated by microwave irradiation.

  1. Fermentation of cucumbers brined with calcium chloride instead of sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    McFeeters, Roger F; Pérez-Díaz, Ilenys

    2010-04-01

    Waste water containing high levels of NaCl from cucumber fermentation tank yards is a continuing problem for the pickled vegetable industry. A major reduction in waste salt could be achieved if NaCl were eliminated from the cucumber fermentation process. The objectives of this project were to ferment cucumbers in brine containing CaCl(2) as the only salt, to determine the course of fermentation metabolism in the absence of NaCl, and to compare firmness retention of cucumbers fermented in CaCl(2) brine during subsequent storage compared to cucumbers fermented in brines containing both NaCl and CaCl(2) at concentrations typically used in commercial fermentations. The major metabolite changes during fermentation without NaCl were conversion of sugars in the fresh cucumbers primarily to lactic acid which caused pH to decrease to less than 3.5. This is the same pattern that occurs when cucumbers are fermented with NaCl as the major brining salt. Lactic acid concentration and pH were stable during storage and there was no detectable production of propionic acid or butyric acid that would indicate growth of spoilage bacteria. Firmness retention in cucumbers fermented with 100 to 300 mM CaCl(2) during storage at a high temperature (45 degrees C) was not significantly different from that obtained in fermented cucumbers with 1.03 M NaCl and 40 mM CaCl(2). In closed jars, cucumber fermentations with and without NaCl in the fermentation brine were similar both in the chemical changes caused by the fermentative microorganisms and in the retention of firmness in the fermented cucumbers. PMID:20492282

  2. Calcium and nitrogen balance, experiment M007

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whedon, G. D.; Lutwak, L.; Neuman, W. F.; Lachance, P. A.

    1971-01-01

    The collection of data on the response of the skeletal and muscular systems to 14-day space flights was evaluated for loss of calcium, nitrogen, and other metabolically related elements. Considerable interindividual variability was demonstrated in all experimental factors that were measured. Calcium balance became less positive and urinary phosphate excretion increased substantially in flight despite a reduction in phosphate intake. Patterns of excretion of magnesium, sodium, potassium, and chloride were different for each subject, and, in part, could be correlated with changes in adrenocortical steroid production. The principal hormonal change was a striking decrease during flight in the urinary excretion of 17-hydroxycortocosteroids. Dermal losses of calcium, magnesium, sulfate, and phosphate were insignificant during all three phases.

  3. Melt inclusions: Chapter 6

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Audétat A.; Lowenstern, J. B.

    2014-01-01

    Melt inclusions are small droplets of silicate melt that are trapped in minerals during their growth in a magma. Once formed, they commonly retain much of their initial composition (with some exceptions) unless they are re-opened at some later stage. Melt inclusions thus offer several key advantages over whole rock samples: (i) they record pristine concentrations of volatiles and metals that are usually lost during magma solidification and degassing, (ii) they are snapshots in time whereas whole rocks are the time-integrated end products, thus allowing a more detailed, time-resolved view into magmatic processes (iii) they are largely unaffected by subsolidus alteration. Due to these characteristics, melt inclusions are an ideal tool to study the evolution of mineralized magma systems. This chapter first discusses general aspects of melt inclusions formation and methods for their investigation, before reviewing studies performed on mineralized magma systems.

  4. Glass Melt Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeffer, Helmut A.; Müller-Simon, Hayo

    The employment of sensors during glass melting represents a major prerequisite for an improved process control leading to higher production yields. In situ sensoring techniques can be divided into two groups: on the one hand, techniques which extract information of glass melt properties, e.g., oxidation state and concentrations of relevant polyvalent species (such as iron, sulfur, chromium) and on the other hand, techniques which monitor the furnace atmosphere with respect to toxic emissions (e.g., SO2, NO x ) and combustion species (e.g., CO, CO2, H2O). Nowadays it is feasible not only to install early warning systems indicating deviations from target glass properties, but also to implement process control systems which enforce a stable and reproducible glass melting. Examples are given for the redox control of green glass melting utilizing high portions of recycled cullet and the redox control of amber glass melting.

  5. Thermodynamics of Glass Melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conradt, Reinhard

    First, a model based on linear algebra is described by which the thermodynamic properties of industrial multi-component glasses and glass melts can be accurately predicted from their chemical composition. The model is applied to calculate the heat content of glass melts at high temperatures, the standard heat of formation of glasses from the elements, and the vapor pressures of individual oxides above the melt. An E-fiber glass composition is depicted as an example. Second, the role of individual raw materials in the melting process of E-glass is addressed, with a special focus on the decomposition kinetics and energetic situation of alkaline earth carriers. Finally, the heat of the batch-to-melt conversion is calculated. A simplified reaction path model comprising heat turnover, content of residual solid matter, and an approach to batch viscosity is outlined.

  6. Shock-Induced Melting of Martian Basalts: Insights on Subducting Oceanic Crust Melting Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, P.; Gillet, P.; Barrat, J.-A.; Gautron, L.; Daniel, I.; El Goresy, A.

    2003-04-01

    Experiments carried out on rocks at upper and lower mantle P-T conditions have produced series of candidate minerals for the Earth mantle mineralogical model. Basaltic compositions can also suffer ultra high-pressure and temperature when subducting in the mantle. The phase diagram of basalts has been studied to characterize potential chemical and mineralogical heterogeneities produced by partial melting and phase transformations of the oceanic crust. Shergottites that represent the most important sub-class of Martian meteorite have compositions close to terrestrial basalts and gabbros. During their extraction from Mars, they were severely shocked with pressures up to 50 GPa. These shocks induced partial melting. These melt pocket are an opportunity to study melting phenomena of basaltic compositions (i.e. oceanic crust) under high-pressure. We have performed a Raman spectroscopy investigation to determine the mineralogy of the melt pockets. Four shergottites were studied, NWA 480, NWA 856, NWA 1068 and Zagami. In each meteorite, abundant "large" minerals in melt pockets are hollandite (both Ca-Na and K-Na hollandite), stishovite, amorphous pyroxene and high-pressure phosphate. Meltpocket matrix seems to have a similar mineralogy as "megacrysts". In NWA 856 we observed at a melt pocket rim that maskelynite successively transforms into hollandite, and a polycrystalline aggregate. This aggregate was identified as a mixture of stishovite and a calcium aluminosilicate phase (CAS), a phase previously described in high-pressure experiments, but never observed in natural samples. The Raman spectra identifies unambiguously this silicate of composition CaAl_4Si_2O11 and of Ba-ferrite type structure. Such a phase is supposed to be present in basalt subsolidus melting experiments for pressures above 25 GPa and temperatures between 2500 and 2700 K. Its discovery reinforces the proposition that this CAS phase is a valuable candidate for hosting Al in subducting oceanic crust.

  7. Oxomemazine hydro-chloride.

    PubMed

    Siddegowda, M S; Butcher, Ray J; Akkurt, Mehmet; Yathirajan, H S; Ramesh, A R

    2011-08-01

    IN THE TITLE COMPOUND [SYSTEMATIC NAME: 3-(5,5-dioxo-phen-othia-zin-10-yl)-N,N,2-trimethyl-propanaminium chloride], C(18)H(23)N(2)O(2)S(+)·Cl(-), the dihedral angle between the two outer aromatic rings of the phenothia-zine unit is 30.5 (2)°. In the crystal, the components are linked by N-H⋯Cl and C-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds and C-H⋯π inter-actions. PMID:22090928

  8. Effect of oral calcium and calcium + fluoride treatments on mouse bone properties during suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simske, S. J.; Luttges, M. W.; Allen, K. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    The bone effects of oral dosages of calcium chloride with or without supplementary sodium fluoride were assessed in antiorthostatically suspended mice. Two calcium dosages were used to replace half (3.1 mM) or all(6.3 mM) of the dietary calcium lost due to reduced food intake by the suspended mice. Two groups of 6.3 mM CaCl2-treated mice were additionally treated with 0.25 or 2.5 mM NaF. The results indicate that supplementation of the mouse drinking water with calcium salts prevents bone changes induced by short-term suspension, while calcium salts in combination with fluoride are less effective as fluoride dosage increases. However, the calcium supplements change the relationship between the femur mechanical properties and the mineral composition of the bone. Because of this, it appears that oral calcium supplements are effective through a mechanism other than simple dietary supplementation and may indicate a dependence of bone consistency on systemic and local fluid conditions.

  9. Air bubble contact with endothelial cells in vitro induces calcium influx and IP3-dependent release of calcium stores

    PubMed Central

    Sobolewski, Peter; Kandel, Judith; Klinger, Alexandra L.

    2011-01-01

    Gas embolism is a serious complication of decompression events and clinical procedures, but the mechanism of resulting injury remains unclear. Previous work has demonstrated that contact between air microbubbles and endothelial cells causes a rapid intracellular calcium transient and can lead to cell death. Here we examined the mechanism responsible for the calcium rise. Single air microbubbles (50–150 μm), trapped at the tip of a micropipette, were micromanipulated into contact with individual human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) loaded with Fluo-4 (a fluorescent calcium indicator). Changes in intracellular calcium were then recorded via epifluorescence microscopy. First, we confirmed that HUVECs rapidly respond to air bubble contact with a calcium transient. Next, we examined the involvement of extracellular calcium influx by conducting experiments in low calcium buffer, which markedly attenuated the response, or by pretreating cells with stretch-activated channel blockers (gadolinium chloride or ruthenium red), which abolished the response. Finally, we tested the role of intracellular calcium release by pretreating cells with an inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptor blocker (xestospongin C) or phospholipase C inhibitor (neomycin sulfate), which eliminated the response in 64% and 67% of cases, respectively. Collectively, our results lead us to conclude that air bubble contact with endothelial cells causes an influx of calcium through a stretch-activated channel, such as a transient receptor potential vanilloid family member, triggering the release of calcium from intracellular stores via the IP3 pathway. PMID:21633077

  10. Strength, porosity, and chloride resistance of mortar using the combination of two kinds of pozzolanic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rukzon, Sumrerng; Chindaprasirt, Prinya

    2013-08-01

    This article presents a study on the resistance to chloride penetration, corrosion, porosity, and strength of mortar containing fine fly ash (FA), ground rice husk-bark ash (RB), and ground bagasse ash (BA). Ordinary Portland cement (CT) was blended with a single pozzolan and two pozzolans. Strength, porosity, rapid chloride penetration, immersion, and corrosion tests were performed to characterize the mortar. Test results showed that the use of ternary blends of CT, FA, and RB or BA decreased the porosity of the mortar, as compared with binary blended mortar containing CT and RB or BA. The resistance to chloride penetration of the mortar improved substantially with partial replacement of CT with FA, RB, and BA. The use of ternary blends of CT, FA and RB or BA produced the mortar with good strength and resistance to chloride penetration. The resistance to chloride penetration was higher with an increase in the replacement level due to the reduced calcium hydroxide.

  11. Chemical characterization of a potassium hydroxyapatite prepared by soaking in potassium chloride and carbonate solutions.

    PubMed

    Nordström, E G; Karlsson, K H

    1992-01-01

    A potassium-doped synthetic apatite was prepared by soaking hydroxyapatite in potassium carbonate and potassium chloride solutions. The hydroxyapatite was prepared by firing slip cast ceramic bodies in vacuum at 1100 degrees C. The conical ceramic samples and a crushed material of this were soaked in carbonate and chloride solutions for 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks. Potassium, calcium, and phosphate were determined by direct current plasma emission spectroscopy. The carbonate content was determined by thermogravimetric analysis and chloride titrimetrically. After 2 weeks, one potassium ion substituted one calcium ion when soaked in a carbonate solution. When soaked in the chloride solution substitution occurred to the same extent. At phosphate sites the substitution of phosphate for carbonate occurred at one sixth of the sites after 2 weeks. Chloride incorporated one half of the OH-sites after 2 weeks. After 4 weeks about one chloride ion was found in the apatite, and after 6 weeks one and a half of the OH-sites were occupied by chloride ions. PMID:1483120

  12. Modeling acid-gas generation from boiling chloride brines

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Guoxiang; Spycher, Nicolas; Sonnenthal, Eric; Steefel, Carl

    2009-11-16

    This study investigates the generation of HCl and other acid gases from boiling calcium chloride dominated waters at atmospheric pressure, primarily using numerical modeling. The main focus of this investigation relates to the long-term geologic disposal of nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, where pore waters around waste-emplacement tunnels are expected to undergo boiling and evaporative concentration as a result of the heat released by spent nuclear fuel. Processes that are modeled include boiling of highly concentrated solutions, gas transport, and gas condensation accompanied by the dissociation of acid gases, causing low-pH condensate. Simple calculations are first carried out to evaluate condensate pH as a function of HCl gas fugacity and condensed water fraction for a vapor equilibrated with saturated calcium chloride brine at 50-150 C and 1 bar. The distillation of a calcium-chloride-dominated brine is then simulated with a reactive transport model using a brine composition representative of partially evaporated calcium-rich pore waters at Yucca Mountain. Results show a significant increase in boiling temperature from evaporative concentration, as well as low pH in condensates, particularly for dynamic systems where partial condensation takes place, which result in enrichment of HCl in condensates. These results are in qualitative agreement with experimental data from other studies. The combination of reactive transport with multicomponent brine chemistry to study evaporation, boiling, and the potential for acid gas generation at the proposed Yucca Mountain repository is seen as an improvement relative to previously applied simpler batch evaporation models. This approach allows the evaluation of thermal, hydrological, and chemical (THC) processes in a coupled manner, and modeling of settings much more relevant to actual field conditions than the distillation experiment considered. The actual and modeled distillation experiments do not represent

  13. Modeling acid-gas generation from boiling chloride brines

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background This study investigates the generation of HCl and other acid gases from boiling calcium chloride dominated waters at atmospheric pressure, primarily using numerical modeling. The main focus of this investigation relates to the long-term geologic disposal of nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, where pore waters around waste-emplacement tunnels are expected to undergo boiling and evaporative concentration as a result of the heat released by spent nuclear fuel. Processes that are modeled include boiling of highly concentrated solutions, gas transport, and gas condensation accompanied by the dissociation of acid gases, causing low-pH condensate. Results Simple calculations are first carried out to evaluate condensate pH as a function of HCl gas fugacity and condensed water fraction for a vapor equilibrated with saturated calcium chloride brine at 50-150°C and 1 bar. The distillation of a calcium-chloride-dominated brine is then simulated with a reactive transport model using a brine composition representative of partially evaporated calcium-rich pore waters at Yucca Mountain. Results show a significant increase in boiling temperature from evaporative concentration, as well as low pH in condensates, particularly for dynamic systems where partial condensation takes place, which result in enrichment of HCl in condensates. These results are in qualitative agreement with experimental data from other studies. Conclusion The combination of reactive transport with multicomponent brine chemistry to study evaporation, boiling, and the potential for acid gas generation at the proposed Yucca Mountain repository is seen as an improvement relative to previously applied simpler batch evaporation models. This approach allows the evaluation of thermal, hydrological, and chemical (THC) processes in a coupled manner, and modeling of settings much more relevant to actual field conditions than the distillation experiment considered. The actual and modeled distillation

  14. Signatures of nonthermal melting.

    PubMed

    Zier, Tobias; Zijlstra, Eeuwe S; Kalitsov, Alan; Theodonis, Ioannis; Garcia, Martin E

    2015-09-01

    Intense ultrashort laser pulses can melt crystals in less than a picosecond but, in spite of over thirty years of active research, for many materials it is not known to what extent thermal and nonthermal microscopic processes cause this ultrafast phenomenon. Here, we perform ab-initio molecular-dynamics simulations of silicon on a laser-excited potential-energy surface, exclusively revealing nonthermal signatures of laser-induced melting. From our simulated atomic trajectories, we compute the decay of five structure factors and the time-dependent structure function. We demonstrate how these quantities provide criteria to distinguish predominantly nonthermal from thermal melting. PMID:26798822

  15. Signatures of nonthermal melting

    PubMed Central

    Zier, Tobias; Zijlstra, Eeuwe S.; Kalitsov, Alan; Theodonis, Ioannis; Garcia, Martin E.

    2015-01-01

    Intense ultrashort laser pulses can melt crystals in less than a picosecond but, in spite of over thirty years of active research, for many materials it is not known to what extent thermal and nonthermal microscopic processes cause this ultrafast phenomenon. Here, we perform ab-initio molecular-dynamics simulations of silicon on a laser-excited potential-energy surface, exclusively revealing nonthermal signatures of laser-induced melting. From our simulated atomic trajectories, we compute the decay of five structure factors and the time-dependent structure function. We demonstrate how these quantities provide criteria to distinguish predominantly nonthermal from thermal melting. PMID:26798822

  16. Metal binding to porcine pancreatic elastase: calcium or not calcium.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Manfred S; Panjikar, Santosh; Nowak, Elzbieta; Tucker, Paul A

    2002-09-01

    Porcine pancreatic elastase has been crystallized at slightly acidic pH under two similar but slightly different conditions. Diffraction data were collected at a wavelength of 1.5 A to a maximum resolution of 1.7 A. Both difference electron-density maps and anomalous difference electron-density maps suggest that in crystals grown from a sodium sulfate solution PPE binds Na(+) in its metal-binding site. In contrast, PPE binds Ca(2+) in crystals grown from a solution containing sodium citrate and calcium chloride. This observation is in contradiction to most PPE structures reported in the PDB. In addition to the metal-binding site, up to three other binding sites, which appear to be anion-binding sites, could be identified based on the observed anomalous intensity differences. PMID:12198296

  17. Lead-calcium alloy development: quality improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caillerie, J.-L.; Albert, L.

    In the 1980s, most of the European lead producers and battery manufacturers had an interest in the lead-calcium alloys developed in the North American market. Fifteen years later, the alloy is used in most of the automotive and industrial batteries produced in Europe. During this development period, the composition of lead-calcium alloy has been improved. Physical metallurgy and electrochemistry research carried out by the lead industry has established the composition of the lead-calcium for negative grids. Metaleurop, as a lead producer, initiated in 1975 the production of lead-calcium alloys for sealed lead/acid batteries and was quickly convinced of the necessity to improve the performance of the alloy by further fundamental research (in 1980) and supporting customers' efforts. The parameters involved in the production battery plates are well specified. The composition of the alloy is dependent on the equipment used to cast the alloy. Improving the hardness by increasing the calcium content over 0.10 wt.% may not be the solution when melting and cooling conditions should als be adapted. The addition of aluminium to prevent calcium oxidation is efficient, its level being linked to the remelting and casting conditions.

  18. 21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ferric chloride. 184.1297 Section 184.1297 Food... GRAS § 184.1297 Ferric chloride. (a) Ferric chloride (iron (III) chloride, FeC13, CAS Reg. No. 7705-08-0) may be prepared from iron and chlorine or from ferric oxide and hydrogen chloride. The...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ferric chloride. 184.1297 Section 184.1297 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1297 Ferric chloride. (a) Ferric chloride (iron (III) chloride... hydrogen chloride. The pure material occurs as hydroscopic, hexagonal, dark crystals. Ferric...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ferric chloride. 184.1297 Section 184.1297 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1297 Ferric chloride. (a) Ferric chloride (iron (III) chloride... hydrogen chloride. The pure material occurs as hydroscopic, hexagonal, dark crystals. Ferric...

  1. Structural and thermal study of calcium undecanoate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valor, A.; Kycia, S.; Torres-García, E.; Reguera, E.; Vázquez-Ramos, C.; Sánchez-Sinencio, F.

    2003-05-01

    In the present work, an X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermal study of calcium undecanoate is presented. The measured high-resolution XRD powder pattern of the synthesized salt at room temperature, using synchrotron radiation, showed that the salt is a mixture of monohydrated and anhydrous calcium undecanoate. Calcium undecanoate monohydrate proved to have a monoclinic cell with a symmetry described by the P2 1/ a space group. The structure dehydrates at about 100°C. After dehydration, the salt undergoes a phase transformation which results in a thermotropic mesophase. Further heating of the salt leads to decomposition and melting. Ketones are the probable products of decomposition at 400°C.

  2. Benzalkonium Chloride and Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Paul L.; Kiland, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Glaucoma patients routinely take multiple medications, with multiple daily doses, for years or even decades. Benzalkonium chloride (BAK) is the most common preservative in glaucoma medications. BAK has been detected in the trabecular meshwork (TM), corneal endothelium, lens, and retina after topical drop installation and may accumulate in those tissues. There is evidence that BAK causes corneal and conjunctival toxicity, including cell loss, disruption of tight junctions, apoptosis and preapoptosis, cytoskeleton changes, and immunoinflammatory reactions. These same effects have been reported in cultured human TM cells exposed to concentrations of BAK found in common glaucoma drugs and in the TM of primary open-angle glaucoma donor eyes. It is possible that a relationship exists between chronic exposure to BAK and glaucoma. The hypothesis that BAK causes/worsens glaucoma is being tested experimentally in an animal model that closely reflects human physiology. PMID:24205938

  3. Melt fracture revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, J. M.

    2003-07-16

    In a previous paper the author and Demay advanced a model to explain the melt fracture instability observed when molten linear polymer melts are extruded in a capillary rheometer operating under the controlled condition that the inlet flow rate was held constant. The model postulated that the melts were a slightly compressible viscous fluid and allowed for slipping of the melt at the wall. The novel feature of that model was the use of an empirical switch law which governed the amount of wall slip. The model successfully accounted for the oscillatory behavior of the exit flow rate, typically referred to as the melt fracture instability, but did not simultaneously yield the fine scale spatial oscillations in the melt typically referred to as shark skin. In this note a new model is advanced which simultaneously explains the melt fracture instability and shark skin phenomena. The model postulates that the polymer is a slightly compressible linearly viscous fluid but assumes no slip boundary conditions at the capillary wall. In simple shear the shear stress {tau}and strain rate d are assumed to be related by d = F{tau} where F ranges between F{sub 2} and F{sub 1} > F{sub 2}. A strain rate dependent yield function is introduced and this function governs whether F evolves towards F{sub 2} or F{sub 1}. This model accounts for the empirical observation that at high shears polymers align and slide more easily than at low shears and explains both the melt fracture and shark skin phenomena.

  4. Basolateral K+ channel involvement in forskolin-activated chloride secretion in human colon.

    PubMed

    McNamara, B; Winter, D C; Cuffe, J E; O'Sullivan, G C; Harvey, B J

    1999-08-15

    1. In this study we investigated the role of basolateral potassium transport in maintaining cAMP-activated chloride secretion in human colonic epithelium. 2. Ion transport was quantified in isolated human colonic epithelium using the short-circuit current technique. Basolateral potassium transport was studied using nystatin permeabilization. Intracellular calcium measurements were obtained from isolated human colonic crypts using fura-2 spectrofluorescence imaging. 3. In intact isolated colonic strips, forskolin and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) activated an inward transmembrane current (ISC) consistent with anion secretion (for forskolin DeltaISC = 63.8+/-6.2 microA cm(-2), n = 6; for PGE2 DeltaISC = 34.3+/-5.2 microA cm(-2), n = 6). This current was inhibited in chloride-free Krebs solution or by inhibiting basolateral chloride uptake with bumetanide and 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid DIDS). 4. The forskolin- and PGE2-induced chloride secretion was inhibited by basolateral exposure to barium (5 mM), tetrapentylammonium (10 microM) and tetraethylammonium (10 mM). 5. The transepithelial current produced under an apical to serosal K+ gradient in nystatin-perforated colon is generated at the basolateral membrane by K+ transport. Forskolin failed to activate this current under conditions of high or low calcium and failed to increase the levels of intracellular calcium in isolated crypts 6. In conclusion, we propose that potassium recycling through basolateral K+ channels is essential for cAMP-activated chloride secretion. PMID:10432355

  5. Reactor-chromatographic determination of vinyl chloride in polyvinyl chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Berezkin, V.G.

    1986-08-01

    The authors carry out a chromatographic study of the volatile products that evolve when various grades of domestic polyvinyl chloride are heated, to determine the concentration of residual monomer. To find vinyl chloride in complex mixtures of air pollutants the authors used sorptive reaction concentration of impurities. This new combination of methods is based on preliminary separation at the sampling stage of impurities that interfere in the analysis, followed by concentration of the desired components in a trap with an adsorbent, and chromatographic determination of the concentrated trace materials. The method obtains low vinyl chloride concentrations (down to 10/sup -4/-10/sup -5/ wt. %) with +/-5 relative error.

  6. [Do cows drink calcium?].

    PubMed

    Geishauser, T; Lechner, S; Plate, I; Heidemann, B

    2008-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate how well cows drink the Propeller calcium drink, and it's effect on blood calcium concentration. Drinking was tested in 120 cows right after calving, before cows drank anything else. 60 cows each were offered 20 liters of Propeller calcium drink or 20 liters of water. Cows drank the Propeller as good as water. 72% of all cows drank all 20 liters, 18% drank on average 8.2 liters and 10% drank less than 1 liter. Blood calcium concentration was studied in 16 cows right after calving. Eight cows each were offered 20 liters of Propeller calcium drink or no calcium drink. Blood calcium significantly increased ten minutes after Propeller intake and stayed significantly elevated for 24 hours. Without calcium drink blood calcium levels decreased significantly. Advantages of the new Propeller calcium drink over calcium gels or boli could be that cows now drink calcium themselves and that the Propeller increases blood calcium concentration rapidly and long lasting. PMID:18429501

  7. Behaviour of heavy metals immobilized by co-melting treatment of sewage sludge ash and municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kae-Long; Huang, Wu-Jang; Chen, Kuan-Chung; Chow, Jing-Dong; Chen, His-Jien

    2009-10-01

    This study elucidates the behaviour of heavy metals in slag produced from four different sewage sludge ashes mixed with municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash and then co-melted. Experimental results indicate that sewage sludge ashes consisted of SiO(2), CaO, and Al(2)O(3). Fly ash consisted of CaO, Na(2)O and SO(3). The speciation of sewage sludge ashes indicates that the ashes contained quartz and AlPO(4). The speciation in fly ash consisted of anhydrite, microcline, calcium chloride, sylvite and halite. The leaching behaviours of sewage sludge ashes met the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration's regulatory standards. The fly ash had high concentrations of Zn and Pb; however, the leaching of these metals was low. The major components of synthetic slags were SiO(2) (33.5-54.0%), CaO (21.4-36.7%), and Al(2)O(3) (8.1-15.7%). The X-ray diffraction patterns of co-melted slags demonstrate that the slags contained significant amounts of glass. Most heavy metals can be fixed in a net-like structure; thus, they can not be extracted easily. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) leaching concentrations for target metals in all slags met the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration's regulatory standards. PMID:19470538

  8. Primary carbonatite melt from deeply subducted oceanic crust

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, M.J.; Bulanova, G.P.; Armstrong, L.S.; Keshav, S.; Blundy, J.D.; Gudfinnesson, G.; Lord, O.T.; Lennie, A.R.; Clark, S.M.; Smith, C.B.; Gobbo, L.

    2008-07-01

    Partial melting in the Earth's mantle plays an important part in generating the geochemical and isotopic diversity observed in volcanic rocks at the surface. Identifying the composition of these primary melts in the mantle is crucial for establishing links between mantle geochemical 'reservoirs' and fundamental geodynamic processes. Mineral inclusions in natural diamonds have provided a unique window into such deep mantle processes. Here they provide exper8imental and geochemical evidence that silicate mineral inclusions in diamonds from Juina, Brazil, crystallized from primary and evolved carbonatite melts in the mantle transition zone and deep upper mantle. The incompatible trace element abundances calculated for a melt coexisting with a calcium-titanium-silicate perovskite inclusion indicate deep melting of carbonated oceanic crust, probably at transition-zone depths. Further to perovskite, calcic-majorite garnet inclusions record crystallization in the deep upper mantle from an evolved melt that closely resembles estimates of primitive carbonatite on the basis of volcanic rocks. Small-degree melts of subducted crust can be viewed as agents of chemical mass-transfer in the upper mantle and transition zone, leaving a chemical imprint of ocean crust that can possibly endure for billions of years.

  9. Primary carbonatite melt from deeply subducted oceanic crust.

    PubMed

    Walter, M J; Bulanova, G P; Armstrong, L S; Keshav, S; Blundy, J D; Gudfinnsson, G; Lord, O T; Lennie, A R; Clark, S M; Smith, C B; Gobbo, L

    2008-07-31

    Partial melting in the Earth's mantle plays an important part in generating the geochemical and isotopic diversity observed in volcanic rocks at the surface. Identifying the composition of these primary melts in the mantle is crucial for establishing links between mantle geochemical 'reservoirs' and fundamental geodynamic processes. Mineral inclusions in natural diamonds have provided a unique window into such deep mantle processes. Here we provide experimental and geochemical evidence that silicate mineral inclusions in diamonds from Juina, Brazil, crystallized from primary and evolved carbonatite melts in the mantle transition zone and deep upper mantle. The incompatible trace element abundances calculated for a melt coexisting with a calcium-titanium-silicate perovskite inclusion indicate deep melting of carbonated oceanic crust, probably at transition-zone depths. Further to perovskite, calcic-majorite garnet inclusions record crystallization in the deep upper mantle from an evolved melt that closely resembles estimates of primitive carbonatite on the basis of volcanic rocks. Small-degree melts of subducted crust can be viewed as agents of chemical mass-transfer in the upper mantle and transition zone, leaving a chemical imprint of ocean crust that can possibly endure for billions of years. PMID:18668105

  10. Liquidus Temperatures of Cryolite Melts With Low Cryolite Ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apisarov, Alexei; Dedyukhin, Alexander; Nikolaeva, Elena; Tinghaev, Pavel; Tkacheva, Olga; Redkin, Alexander; Zaikov, Yurii

    2011-02-01

    The effect of calcium fluoride on liquidus temperatures of the cryolite melts with a low cryolite ratio (CR) was studied. The systems KF-NaF-AlF3 and KF-LiF-AlF3 with CRs of 1.3, 1.5, and 1.7 have been investigated. The liquidus curves of systems containing CaF2 are different and depend on the K/(K + Na) and K/(K + Li) ratios. In potassium cryolite with CRs of 1.3 and 1.5, the calcium fluoride solubility is low and increases with NaF (LiF) concentration.

  11. Calcium and Vitamin D

    MedlinePlus

    ... to your weekly shopping list. Produce Serving Size Estimated Calcium* Collard greens, frozen 8 oz 360 mg ... Oranges 1 whole 55 mg Seafood Serving Size Estimated Calcium* Sardines, canned with bones 3 oz 325 ...

  12. Fenoprofen calcium overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002649.htm Fenoprofen calcium overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Fenoprofen calcium is a type of medicine called a nonsteroidal ...

  13. Calcium channel blocker overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002580.htm Calcium channel blocker overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Calcium channel blockers are a type of medicine used ...

  14. Fenoprofen calcium overdose

    MedlinePlus

    Fenoprofen calcium is a type of medicine called a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. It is a prescription pain medicine used to relieve symptoms of arthritis . Fenoprofen calcium overdose occurs when someone takes more than the ...

  15. Calcium and bones (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Calcium is one of the most important minerals for the growth, maintenance, and reproduction of the human body. Bones, like other tissues in the body, are continually being re-formed and incorporate calcium into their ...

  16. Electrode potentials of uranium in the LiCl-KCl-CsCl eutectic melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maltsev, D. S.; Volkovich, V. A.; Vladykin, E. N.; Vasin, B. D.

    2015-08-01

    The electrode potentials of uranium in the melt of the eutectic mixture of lithium, potassium, and cesium chlorides are measured in the temperature range 573-1073 K. Formal standard potentials E U * (III)/U and the main thermodynamic characteristics of uranium trichloride in the LiCl-KCl-CsCl melt are calculated, and the electronic absorption spectra of UCl 6 3- ions are measured.

  17. Calcium and magnesium disorders.

    PubMed

    Goff, Jesse P

    2014-07-01

    Hypocalcemia is a clinical disorder that can be life threatening to the cow (milk fever) and predisposes the animal to various other metabolic and infectious disorders. Calcium homeostasis is mediated primarily by parathyroid hormone, which stimulates bone calcium resorption and renal calcium reabsorption. Parathyroid hormone stimulates the production of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D to enhance diet calcium absorption. High dietary cation-anion difference interferes with tissue sensitivity to parathyroid hormone. Hypomagnesemia reduces tissue response to parathyroid hormone. PMID:24980727

  18. Calcium and Mitosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepler, P.

    1983-01-01

    Although the mechanism of calcium regulation is not understood, there is evidence that calcium plays a role in mitosis. Experiments conducted show that: (1) the spindle apparatus contains a highly developed membrane system that has many characteristics of sarcoplasmic reticulum of muscle; (2) this membrane system contains calcium; and (3) there are ionic fluxes occurring during mitosis which can be seen by a variety of fluorescence probes. Whether the process of mitosis can be modulated by experimentally modulating calcium is discussed.

  19. Ion exchange in a zeolite-molten chloride system

    SciTech Connect

    Woodman, R.H.; Pereira, C.

    1997-07-01

    Electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel results in a secondary waste stream of radioactive fission products dissolved in chloride salt. Disposal plans include a waste form that can incorporate chloride forms featuring one or more zeolites consolidated with sintered glass. A candidate method for incorporating fission products in the zeolites is passing the contaminated salt over a zeolite column for ion exchange. To date, the molten chloride ion-exchange properties of four zeolites have been investigated for this process: zeolite A, IE95{reg_sign}, clinoptilolite, and mordenite. Of these, zeolite A has been the most promising. Treating zeolite 4A, the sodium form of zeolite A , with the solvent salt for the waste stream-lithium-potassium chloride of eutectic melting composition, is expected to provide a material with favorable ion-exchange properties for the treatment of the waste salt. The authors constructed a pilot-plant system for the ion-exchange column. Initial results indicate that there is a direct relationship between the two operating variable of interest, temperature, and initial sodium concentration. Also, the mass ratio has been about 3--5 to bring the sodium concentration of the effluent below 1 mol%.

  20. Calcium and Vitamin D

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter describes the roles of calcium and vitamin D in bone health. Calcium is required for the bone formation phase of bone remodeling and it also affects bone mass through its impact on the remodeling rate. Typically, about 5 nmol (200 mg) of calcium is removed from the adult skeleton and ...

  1. Calcium and bones

    MedlinePlus

    Bone strength and calcium ... or if your body does not absorb enough calcium, your bones can get weak or will not grow properly. ... injury. As you age, your body still needs calcium to keep your bones dense and strong. Most experts recommend at least ...

  2. Properties of sugar-based low-melting mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Veronika; Kunz, Werner

    2014-05-01

    Physico-chemical properties of ternary sugar-based low-melting mixtures were determined. Choline chloride, urea and glucose or sorbitol, serving as sugars, were blended in various compositions. The refractive index, density, viscosity, decomposition temperatures and glass transition temperatures were measured. Further, the influence of temperature and water content was investigated. The results show that the mixtures are liquid below room temperature and the viscosity and density are dependent on the temperature and composition. Moreover, the viscosity decreases with increasing water content. These mixtures are biodegradable, low toxic, non-volatile, non-reactive with water and can be accomplished with low-cost materials. In consideration of these advantages and a melting point below room temperature, these low-melting mixtures can be a good alternative to ionic liquids as well as environmentally unfriendly and toxic solvents.

  3. Studies Update Vinyl Chloride Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawls, Rebecca

    1980-01-01

    Extensive study affirms that vinyl chloride is a potent animal carcinogen. Epidemiological studies show elevated rates of human cancers in association with extended contact with the compound. (Author/RE)

  4. Calcium bioavailability from calcium fortified food products.

    PubMed

    Kohls, K

    1991-08-01

    The calcium balance of 12 presumed healthy human young adult subjects was assessed. Subjects consumed a constant laboratory-controlled diet supplemented with one of four calcium-fortified food products: orange juice (OJ), milk (M), experimental pasteurized processed cheese (T), soda (S), or a calcium carbonate plus vitamin D tablet (CC). Study length was 6 weeks with seven-day experimental periods (2-days allowed for adjustment with 5-days combined for purposes of analysis). All urine and fecal samples were collected by the subjects for the duration of the study. Blood samples were drawn at the end of each experimental period. Urine and fecal calcium contents were determined. Blood samples were analyzed for alkaline phosphatase. Results of this study indicate a higher fecal calcium content (mg/day) when subjects consumed CC and T, and when subjects consumed self-selected diets, than when given S, M, or OJ. Urinary calcium excretion was significantly lower when subjects consumed OJ than when they consumed M, T, or their self-selected diets. A significantly larger positive calcium balance was demonstrated when subjects consumed OJ as compared to T. Fecal transmit time did not vary significantly. Serum alkaline phosphatase was significantly lower when subjects consumed T than when they consumed self-selected diets. PMID:1765836

  5. Origin of REE-rich ferrocarbonatites in southern Siberia (Russia): implications based on melt and fluid inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokopyev, Ilya R.; Borisenko, Alexander S.; Borovikov, Andrey A.; Pavlova, Galina G.

    2016-06-01

    Fe-rich carbonatites with a mineral assemblage of ankerite-calcite or siderite are widespread in southern Siberia, Russia. The siderite carbonatites are associated with F-Ba-Sr-REE mineralization and have a 40Ar/39Ar age of 117.2 ± 1.3 Ma. Melt and fluid inclusions suggest that the carbonatites formed from volatile-rich alkali- and chloride-bearing carbonate melts. Ankerite-calcite carbonatites formed from carbonatite melt at a temperature of more than 790 °C. The ferrocarbonatites (the second phase of carbonatite intrusion) formed from a sulfate-carbonate-chloride fluid phase (brine-melt) at >650 °C and ≥360 MPa. The brine-melt fluid phase had high concentrations of Fe and LREEs. A subsequent hydrothermal overprint contributed to the formation of economically important barite-Sr-fluorite-REE mineralization in polymict siderite breccia.

  6. Viscosity Measurement for Tellurium Melt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Bochuan; Li, Chao; Ban, Heng; Scripa, Rosalia N.; Su, Ching-Hua; Lehoczky, Sandor L.

    2006-01-01

    The viscosity of high temperature Te melt was measured using a new technique in which a rotating magnetic field was applied to the melt sealed in a suspended ampoule, and the torque exerted by rotating melt flow on the ampoule wall was measured. Governing equations for the coupled melt flow and ampoule torsional oscillation were solved, and the viscosity was extracted from the experimental data by numerical fitting. The computational result showed good agreement with experimental data. The melt velocity transient initiated by the rotating magnetic field reached a stable condition quickly, allowing the viscosity and electrical conductivity of the melt to be determined in a short period.

  7. Vitrification of Polyvinyl Chloride Waste from Korean Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, Jiawei; Choi, Kwansik; Yang, Kyung-Hwa; Lee, Myung-Chan; Song, Myung-Jae

    2000-02-15

    Vitrification is considered as an economical and safe treatment technology for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated from nuclear power plants (NPPs). Korea is in the process of preparing for its first ever vitrification plant to handle LLW from its NPPs. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) has the largest volume of dry active wastes and is the main waste stream to treat. Glass formulation development for PVC waste is the focus of study. The minimum additive waste stabilization approach has been utilized in vitrification. It was found that glasses can incorporate a high content of PVC ash (up to 50 wt%), which results in a large volume reduction. A glass frit, KEP-A, was developed to vitrify PVC waste after the optimization of waste loading, melt viscosity, melting temperature, and chemical durability. The KEP-A could satisfactorily vitrify PVC with a waste loading of 30 to 50 wt%. The PVC-frit was tolerant of variations in waste composition.

  8. Recurring Slope Lineae (RSL) and Chloride Hydrates within Mars Subsurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Y.; Wang, A.

    2012-12-01

    thermodynamics and kinetics properties of chloride hydrates. The goals are to determine (1) the stability fields of Mg-, Fe2+-, Fe3+-, Ca-, Al-, Na-chloride hydrates in RH-T space, especially the phase boundaries of hydrates-deliquescence; (2) the rate of their dehydration, and especially the rate of their deliquescence as function of T, P, and PH2O; (3) the RH level that each chloride hydrate can maintain in an enclosure at T relevant to those within Mars subsurface. We will report the experimental results from (3), and will compare them with a similar set of data from hydrous sulfates (Mg, Fe, Ca, Al). The criticality of learning the property (3) is that the deliquescence of a hydrous salt at a T only occurs when RH is higher than a threshold. For example, deliquescence of ferricopiapite would happen when RH > 75% at 0°C. If the environmental RH is lower, the dehydration of hydrous salt will go through solid-solid phase transition, instead of deliquescence, such that water would be released to the atmosphere and brine would not form. It is possible that deliquescence of both hydrous sulfates and chlorides (as well as the melting of Cl-enriched brines) contributed the RSL. Our working hypothesis favors chloride hydrates because dry chloride (after releasing water) in RSL would not be visible by Vis-NIR spectroscopy, which is consistent with the mission observations.

  9. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... GRAS § 184.1138 Ammonium chloride. (a) Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, CAS Reg. No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg... levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Potassium chloride may be used in...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg... levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Potassium chloride may be used in...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg... levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Potassium chloride may be used in...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food... GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg. No. 7447-40-7) is a white... manufacturing practice. Potassium chloride may be used in infant formula in accordance with section 412(g)...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg... levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Potassium chloride may be used in...

  15. Thermoacoustic Streaming and Ultrasonic Processing of Low Melting Melts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, E. H.

    1997-01-01

    Ultrasonic levitation allows the processing of low melting materials both in 1 G as well as in microgravity. The free suspension of the melts also facilitates undercooling, permitting the measurements of the physical properties of the metastable liquids.

  16. Crystallization of sodium chloride from a concentrated calcium chloride-potassium chloride-sodium chloride solution in a CMSMPR crystallizer: Observation of crystal size distribution and model validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Byung Sang

    Compared to overwhelming technical data available in other advanced technologies, knowledge about particle technology, especially in particle synthesis from a solution, is still poor due to the lack of available equipment to study crystallization phenomena in a crystallizer. Recent technical advances in particle size measurement such as Coulter counter and laser light scattering have made in/ex situ study of some of particle synthesis, i.e., growth, attrition, and aggregation, possible with simple systems. Even with these advancements in measurement technology, to grasp fully the crystallization phenomena requires further theoretical and technical advances in understanding such particle synthesis mechanisms. Therefore, it is the motive of this work to establish the general processing parameters and to produce rigorous experimental data with reliable performance and characterization that rigorously account for the crystallization phenomena of nucleation, growth, aggregation, and breakage including their variations with time and space in a controlled continuous mixed-suspension mixed-product removal (CMSMPR) crystallizer. This dissertation reports the results and achievements in the following areas: (1) experimental programs to support the development and validation of the phenomenological models and generation of laboratory data for the purpose of testing, refining, and validating the crystallization process, (2) development of laboratory well-mixed crystallizer system and experimental protocols to generate crystal size distribution (CSD) data, (3) the effects of feed solution concentration, crystallization temperature, feed flow rate, and mixing speed, as well as different types of mixers resulting in the evolution of CSDs with time from a concentrated brine solution, (4) with statistically designed experiments the effects of processing variables on the resultant particle structure and CSD at steady state were quantified and related to each of those operating conditions by studying the detailed crystallization processes, such as nucleation, growth, and breakage, as well as agglomeration. The purification of CaCl2 solution involving the crystallization of NaCl from the solution mixture of CaCl2, KCl, and NaCl as shipped from Dow Chemical, Ludington, in a CMSMPR crystallizer was studied as our model system because of its nucleation and crystal growth tendencies with less agglomeration. This project also generated a significant body of experimental data that are available at URL that is http://www.che.utah.edu/˜ring/CrystallizationWeb.

  17. Low-melting mixtures based on choline ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Rengstl, Doris; Fischer, Veronika; Kunz, Werner

    2014-11-01

    In this article a strategy is proposed for the design of low toxic, room temperature liquid low-melting mixtures (LMMs) which are entirely composed of natural materials. From literature it is well known that, in general, deep eutectic solvents based on choline chloride and dicarboxylic acids are LMMs, but not liquids at room temperature, with one exception: a 1 : 1 molar mixture of malonic acid and choline chloride. Therefore, the starting point of this study was the decrease of the melting point of one of the components, namely the dicarboxylic acid, which is succinic, glutaric or adipic acid. For this purpose, one of the two protons of the acidic group was exchanged by a bulky unsymmetrical choline cation. The resulting ionic liquids (ILs) were still solid at room temperature, but have a reduced melting temperature compared to the corresponding acids. In the second step, mixtures of these ILs with choline chloride were prepared. It turned out that choline glutarate-choline chloride mixtures are liquids at room temperature at compositions containing 95-98 wt% of choline glutarate. Finally, urea was added as another hydrogen bond donor. Density, conductivity and viscosity measurements were performed for all obtained mixtures. Moreover, a Walden plot was drawn which indicates that all mixtures are liquids with fully dissociated ions moving independently. Therefore, they are considered as "good" ionic liquids and, thus, for example they can be used to exchange more toxic or less biodegradable ILs in application processes. A brief outlook containing application possibilities is given. It is demonstrated that choline dodecylsulfate is readily soluble in these mixtures, forming aggregates in the LMM at temperatures exceeding 55 °C. PMID:25242504

  18. Modification of cesium toxicity by calcium in mammalian system.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, A; Ghosh, A K; Sharma, A; Talukder, G

    1991-11-01

    The interaction between cesium chloride CsCl and calcium chloride CaCl2 was observed in bone marrow chromosomes of mice. The two salts were administered orally to laboratory bred Swiss albino mice in vivo singly or one followed by the other, or both simultaneously. CsCl induced chromosomal aberrations in frequencies directly proportional to the dose administered. The frequency of aberrations was reduced significantly when the two chemicals were administered simultaneously or when CaCl2 was given 2 h before CsCl. Thus, CaCl2 is able to protect against the cytotoxicity of CsCl. PMID:9438035

  19. In situ cross-linking of sodium alginate with calcium and aluminum ions to sustain the release of theophylline from polymeric matrices.

    PubMed

    Nokhodchi, Ali; Tailor, Anish

    2004-12-01

    Small matrices of calcium alginate or aluminium alginate have been investigated as possible controlled release systems for drugs. The objective of the present study was to sustain the release of theophylline from alginate matrices using different concentrations of aluminium chloride and calcium chloride in presence and absence of HPMC. Tablets containing differing concentrations of aluminium and calcium chloride were produced and the release rate of theophylline was tested using the basket dissolution apparatus over 8 h. Increasing amounts of aluminium chloride from 0.0001 to 0.00068 moles decreased the release of theophylline from 95.1 +/- 0.27 to 29.5 +/- 1.5, indicating a significant effect of aluminium ions on a reduction in the release rate of theophylline from sodium alginate matrices. In the case of matrices containing different concentrations of calcium ions, as the concentration of calcium chloride increased, the release rate increased to an optimum then declined after this. This was due to insufficient calcium ions being available to cross-link with the sodium alginate to form an insoluble gel. The effect of aluminium ions, as this is a trivalent ion compared to calcium, which is a divalent ion, aluminium ions are able to decrease the release rate with a smaller concentration compared to calcium ions. The results also showed that the presence of HPMC caused a reduction in release rate of theophylline from alginate matrices containing calcium chloride. Whereas, in the case of alginate matrices containing aluminium chloride the release rate of theophylline increased in presence of HPMC. For comparing the dissolution data, dissolution efficiency (DE) was used. The values of DE are consistent with the dissolution data. The results show that within a formulation series, DE values generally decrease when the cation concentration increases and this criterion can be used to describe the effect of calcium and aluminium ions on the release behaviour of theophylline

  20. CHLORIDE WASHER PERFORMACE TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    Coughlin, J; David Best, D; Robert Pierce, R

    2007-11-30

    Testing was performed to determine the chloride (Cl-) removal capabilities of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) designed and built Cl- washing equipment intended for HB-Line installation. The equipment to be deployed was tested using a cerium oxide (CeO2) based simulant in place of the 3013 plutonium oxide (PuO2) material. Two different simulant mixtures were included in this testing -- one having higher Cl- content than the other. The higher Cl- simulant was based on K-Area Interim Surveillance Inspection Program (KIS) material with Cl- content approximately equal to 70,000 ppm. The lower Cl- level simulant was comparable to KIS material containing approximately 8,000-ppm Cl- content. The performance testing results indicate that the washer is capable of reducing the Cl- content of both surrogates to below 200 ppm with three 1/2-liter washes of 0.1M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution. Larger wash volumes were used with similar results - all of the prescribed test parameters consistently reduced the Cl- content of the surrogate to a value below 200 ppm Cl- in the final washed surrogate material. The washer uses a 20-micron filter to retain the surrogate solids. Tests showed that 0.16-0.41% of the insoluble fraction of the starting mass passed through the 20-micron filter. The solids retention performance indicates that the fissile masses passing through the 20-micron filter should not exceed the waste acceptance criteria for discard in grout to TRU waste. It is recommended that additional testing be pursued for further verification and optimization purposes. It is likely that wash volumes smaller than those tested could still reduce the Cl- values to acceptable levels. Along with reduced wash volumes, reuse of the third wash volume (in the next run processed) should be tested as a wash solution minimization plan. A 67% reduction in the number of grouted paint pails could be realized if wash solution minimization testing returned acceptable results.

  1. The amount of recycled crust in sources of mantle-derived melts.

    PubMed

    Sobolev, Alexander V; Hofmann, Albrecht W; Kuzmin, Dmitry V; Yaxley, Gregory M; Arndt, Nicholas T; Chung, Sun-Lin; Danyushevsky, Leonid V; Elliott, Tim; Frey, Frederick A; Garcia, Michael O; Gurenko, Andrey A; Kamenetsky, Vadim S; Kerr, Andrew C; Krivolutskaya, Nadezhda A; Matvienkov, Vladimir V; Nikogosian, Igor K; Rocholl, Alexander; Sigurdsson, Ingvar A; Sushchevskaya, Nadezhda M; Teklay, Mengist

    2007-04-20

    Plate tectonic processes introduce basaltic crust (as eclogite) into the peridotitic mantle. The proportions of these two sources in mantle melts are poorly understood. Silica-rich melts formed from eclogite react with peridotite, converting it to olivine-free pyroxenite. Partial melts of this hybrid pyroxenite are higher in nickel and silicon but poorer in manganese, calcium, and magnesium than melts of peridotite. Olivine phenocrysts' compositions record these differences and were used to quantify the contributions of pyroxenite-derived melts in mid-ocean ridge basalts (10 to 30%), ocean island and continental basalts (many >60%), and komatiites (20 to 30%). These results imply involvement of 2 to 20% (up to 28%) of recycled crust in mantle melting. PMID:17395795

  2. [Metabolism and utilization of calcium derived from hydrolysed oyster shell in rats].

    PubMed

    Shen, X; Lu, R; Wu, M

    1996-03-01

    Experimental rats modeled on calcium deficiency were fed with calcium derived from hydrolysed oyster shell, calcium carbonate and calcium chloride respectively, equivalent to 45 mg a day, for four weeks to study their bioavailability. Calcium contents in the blood, urine, feces and bone of rats were determined with atomic absorption spectrometry and EDTA complex titration, and their bone density was measured with densitometry. Results showed proportions of calcium absorption and retention were 67.3% +/- 16.7% and 64.6% +/- 17.5%, respectively, in rats fed with calcium from hydrolysed oyster, and their femur calcium content and bone density (BMC/BW) 131.2 +/- 1.48 mg/g and 0.318 +/- 0.034 g/cm2, respectively, significantly higher than those in the rats fed with calcium carbonate. There were no significant difference in blood calcium contents, weight gains and feed intake between those three groups of rats. It suggests that calcium derived from hydrolysed oyster shell may be absorbed and utilized more easily than calcium carbonate. PMID:8758856

  3. Selective Measurement of Calcium and Sodium Ion Conductance Using Sub-Micropipette Probes with Ion Filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Xiao Long; Takami, Tomohide; Son, Jong Wan; Kawai, Tomoji; Park, Bae Ho

    2012-02-01

    Selective ion currents in aqueous calcium chloride and sodium chloride solutions with concentrations of up to 1.0 M were observed with sub-micropipettes in which poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) films containing ionophores selectively filtered cations. Calcium bis[4-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)phenyl] phosphate (HDOPP-Ca) and bis[(12-crown-4)methyl]-2-dodecyl-2-methylmalonate [bis(12-crown-4)] were used as the ionophores to filter calcium and sodium ions, respectively. The selective ion current was observed using a low-current detection system developed from scanning tunneling microscopy. The approximate linear relationship between the ion concentration and ion current suggests that the sub-micropipette probe can be used to detect the intracellular local concentration of a specific ion up to 1.0 M.

  4. Synthesis, structure, and frequency-doubling effect of calcium cyanurate.

    PubMed

    Kalmutzki, Markus; Ströbele, Markus; Wackenhut, Frank; Meixner, Alfred J; Meyer, H-Jürgen

    2014-12-15

    Calcium cyanurate is synthesized by reacting calcium chloride with potassium cyanate following a solid-state reaction. The formation of the new compound Ca3(O3C3N3)2 (CCY), which occurs by the cyclotrimerization of cyanate ions, was examined thermoanalytically and the crystal structure was determined by single-crystal structure analysis. The structure of CCY is closely related to the structure of the well-known oxoborate β-BaB2O4 (BBO). Second harmonic generation (SHG) measurements on crystal powders show a higher SHG efficiency for CCY than for BBO by about one order of magnitude. PMID:25345390

  5. Contribution of calcium oxalate to soil-exchangeable calcium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dauer, Jenny M.; Perakis, Steven S.

    2013-01-01

    Acid deposition and repeated biomass harvest have decreased soil calcium (Ca) availability in many temperate forests worldwide, yet existing methods for assessing available soil Ca do not fully characterize soil Ca forms. To account for discrepancies in ecosystem Ca budgets, it has been hypothesized that the highly insoluble biomineral Ca oxalate might represent an additional soil Ca pool that is not detected in standard measures of soil-exchangeable Ca. We asked whether several standard method extractants for soil-exchangeable Ca could also access Ca held in Ca oxalate crystals using spike recovery tests in both pure solutions and soil extractions. In solutions of the extractants ammonium chloride, ammonium acetate, and barium chloride, we observed 2% to 104% dissolution of Ca oxalate crystals, with dissolution increasing with both solution molarity and ionic potential of cation extractant. In spike recovery tests using a low-Ca soil, we estimate that 1 M ammonium acetate extraction dissolved sufficient Ca oxalate to contribute an additional 52% to standard measurements of soil-exchangeable Ca. However, in a high-Ca soil, the amount of Ca oxalate spike that would dissolve in 1 M ammonium acetate extraction was difficult to detect against the large pool of exchangeable Ca. We conclude that Ca oxalate can contribute substantially to standard estimates of soil-exchangeable Ca in acid forest soils with low soil-exchangeable Ca. Consequently, measures of exchangeable Ca are unlikely to fully resolve discrepancies in ecosystem Ca mass balance unless the contribution of Ca oxalate to exchangeable Ca is also assessed.

  6. Thermodynamics of Oligonucleotide Duplex Melting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreiber-Gosche, Sherrie; Edwards, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Melting temperatures of oligonucleotides are useful for a number of molecular biology applications, such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Although melting temperatures are often calculated with simplistic empirical equations, application of thermodynamics provides more accurate melting temperatures and an opportunity for students to apply…

  7. Multiple myeloma with hypercalcemia and chloride resistant metabolic alkalosis.

    PubMed

    Alshayeb, Hala; Patel, Vikul; Naseer, Adnan; Mangold, Therese A; Wall, Barry M

    2011-10-01

    This report describes a novel presentation of chloride resistant metabolic alkalosis in a patient with hypercalcemia related to Multiple Myeloma (MM). A 51-year-old male with newly diagnosed MM presented with widespread skeletal involvement, calcium (Ca(+2)) of 18 mg/dL, phosphorous (PO4) of 6 mg/dL, serum bicarbonate (HCO3) of 37 mEq/L, and serum creatinine (Cr) of 2.6 mg/dL Other causes of metabolic alkalosis such as vomiting, diuretics, alkali ingestion, mineralocorticoid excess and hypokalemia were excluded. Hypercalcemia and metabolic alkalosis were only partially corrected after rehydration, calcitonin and steroids. Subsequent treatment with zoledronic acid resulted in resolution of hypercalcemia and correction of metabolic alkalosis.The chloride resistant component of metabolic alkalosis was most likely related to extensive release of Ca(+2), carbonate and phosphate from bone by activated osteoclasts with inhibited osteoblastic activity. The additional reduction in glomerular filtration rate due to MM, contributed to a triad mimicking Calcium-Alkali syndrome. PMID:22073517

  8. Chloride in vesicular trafficking and function.

    PubMed

    Stauber, Tobias; Jentsch, Thomas J

    2013-01-01

    Luminal acidification is of pivotal importance for the physiology of the secretory and endocytic pathways and its diverse trafficking events. Acidification by the proton-pumping V-ATPase requires charge compensation by counterion currents that are commonly attributed to chloride. The molecular identification of intracellular chloride transporters and the improvement of methodologies for measuring intraorganellar pH and chloride have facilitated the investigation of the physiology of vesicular chloride transport. New data question the requirement of chloride for pH regulation of various organelles and furthermore ascribe functions to chloride that are beyond merely electrically shunting the proton pump. This review surveys the currently established and proposed intracellular chloride transporters and gives an overview of membrane-trafficking steps that are affected by the perturbation of chloride transport. Finally, potential mechanisms of membrane-trafficking modulation by chloride are discussed and put into the context of organellar ion homeostasis in general. PMID:23092411

  9. Stability of succinylcholine chloride injection.

    PubMed

    Schmutz, C W; Mühlebach, S F

    1991-03-01

    The stability of succinylcholine chloride injection prepared by a hospital pharmacy was studied under a wide variety of conditions. Batches of succinylcholine chloride injection 10 mg/mL containing sodium chloride, methyl-4-hydroxybenzoate, hydrochloric acid, and water were prepared. Samples were tested for the effect of initial pH (3.0 and 4.2) and sterilization (steam treatment at 100 degrees C for 30 minutes and 121 degrees C for 20 minutes) on stability after three weeks; long-term stability under refrigeration (12, 17, and 23 months of storage at 4 degrees C); and the effect of storage temperature (4-6 degrees C, 20-26 degrees C, 35 degrees C, and 70 degrees C) and light exposure at various intervals up to 12 months. Samples were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Unlike heating at 121 degrees C, heating at 100 degrees C produced no significant loss of succinylcholine chloride, independent of the initial pH. Succinylcholine chloride was hydrolyzed only minimally over 23 months if the solution was stored at 4-6 degrees C. A 10% loss of drug content occurred if solutions were kept at 20-26 degrees C for five months, at 35 degrees C for one month, or at 70 degrees C for one day. Initial degradation was slowed if the solution was protected from light. The assessments by TLC proved to be more sensitive than the HPLC measurements. Succinylcholine chloride injection sterilized at 100 degrees C for 30 minutes can be stored for up to five months at room temperature if protected from light. The preparation is stable for at least two years under refrigeration. PMID:2028996

  10. Pure, transparent-melting starch esters: synthesis and characterization.

    PubMed

    Liebert, Tim; Nagel, Matilde C V; Jordan, Torsten; Heft, Andreas; Grünler, Bernd; Heinze, Thomas

    2011-09-01

    Long chain starch esters were prepared by a new method using molten imidazole as solvent for the biopolymer. The advantage is the simplicity of the reaction mixture. Imidazole is acting not only as solvent, but also as reagent and base. The reaction succeeds via the imidazolide, which is formed in situ with an acid chloride. It yields highly pure derivatives, as could be shown by NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. No hints for desoxychloro substituents or other impurities could be found. The high quality of the products prepared is responsible for the occurrence of colorless melts. Although DSC measurements show a variety of thermal transitions, the formation of melts in the range of 40 to 255 °C could be observed with a hot stage microscope. The melting behavior can be adjusted by the type of ester moiety and the amount of ester functions introduced. In case of starch palmitates completely transparent melts are obtained within two distinct DS regions namely around 1.5 and 2.2 to 3.0. Upon cooling the melts form homogeneous films on different supports including glass. They show good adhesion and should therefore be a suitable basic material for the preparation of composites like laminated glass. PMID:21823185

  11. Copper and molybdenum in silicate melt-aqueous fluid systems

    SciTech Connect

    Candela, P.A.

    1982-01-01

    The partitioning of copper (Cu) and molybdenum (Mo) between silicate melts and aqueous fluids has been determined. The vapor/melt partition coefficient for Cu, D(Cu) was found to be D(Cu) = 9.2 m/sub Cl//sup v/ at NNO. The partition coefficient for Mo, D(Mo), is equal to 2.5 at NNO and QFM, and is independent of the F and Cl concentration. Equations have been derived for the efficiency of the removal of the metals from magmas into aqueous fluids. Copper is concentrated so efficiently into a moderately to highly saline aqueous phase that liquid-vapor extraction seems to be a reasonable process to account for the concentration of Cu in porphyry Cu deposits. However, geological evidence suggests that Cu behaves as a compatible element during magmatic processes(BPC > 1). Therefore, the efficiency of Cu removal from magmas into aqueous fluids is strongly dependent upon the amount of the melt crystallized before water saturation, and efficient extraction of Cu results when aqueous fluids are evolved early in the crystallization of the intrusion. The value of D(Mo) is small relative to D(Cu) at moderate to high chloride concentrations, and the extraction of Mo from melts into aqueous fluids therefore tends to be less efficient. However, vapor-liquid partitioning can extract the requisite quantities of Mo from granitic melts of batholithic size.

  12. Effect of Potassium Citrate on Calcium Phosphate Stones in a Model of Hypercalciuria.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Nancy S; Asplin, John R; Frick, Kevin K; Granja, Ignacio; Culbertson, Christopher D; Ng, Adeline; Grynpas, Marc D; Bushinsky, David A

    2015-12-01

    Potassium citrate is prescribed to decrease stone recurrence in patients with calcium nephrolithiasis. Citrate binds intestinal and urine calcium and increases urine pH. Citrate, metabolized to bicarbonate, should decrease calcium excretion by reducing bone resorption and increasing renal calcium reabsorption. However, citrate binding to intestinal calcium may increase absorption and renal excretion of both phosphate and oxalate. Thus, the effect of potassium citrate on urine calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate supersaturation and stone formation is complex and difficult to predict. To study the effects of potassium citrate on urine supersaturation and stone formation, we utilized 95th-generation inbred genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming rats. Rats were fed a fixed amount of a normal calcium (1.2%) diet supplemented with potassium citrate or potassium chloride (each 4 mmol/d) for 18 weeks. Urine was collected at 6, 12, and 18 weeks. At 18 weeks, stone formation was visualized by radiography. Urine citrate, phosphate, oxalate, and pH levels were higher and urine calcium level was lower in rats fed potassium citrate. Furthermore, calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate supersaturation were higher with potassium citrate; however, uric acid supersaturation was lower. Both groups had similar numbers of exclusively calcium phosphate stones. Thus, potassium citrate effectively raises urine citrate levels and lowers urine calcium levels; however, the increases in urine pH, oxalate, and phosphate levels lead to increased calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate supersaturation. Potassium citrate induces complex changes in urine chemistries and resultant supersaturation, which may not be beneficial in preventing calcium phosphate stone formation. PMID:25855777

  13. Biomimetic Calcium-Silicate Cements Support Differentiation Of Human Orofacial Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gandolfi, Maria Giovanna; Shah, Sara N.; Feng, Ruoxue; Prati, Carlo; Akintoye, Sunday O.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Human orofacial bone mesenchymal stem cells (OFMSCs) from maxilla and mandible have robust osteogenic regenerative properties based on our previous reports that demonstrate phenotypic and functional differences between jaw and axial bone mesenchymal stem cells in same individuals. Furthermore, a combination of OFMSCs with bioactive calcium-releasing cements can potentially improve OFMSC multi-lineage differentiation capacity, but biocompatibility of calcium silicate cements with OFMSCs is still unclear. We tested the hypothesis that material extracts of calcium-releasing calcium-silicate cements support biomimetic microenvironment for survival and differentiation of human OFMSCs. Methods Two experimental calcium-silicate cements 1) calcium-silicate mineral powder (wTC) containing di- and tricalcium-silicate, calcium sulphate, and calcium chloride and 2) wTC doped with alpha-tricalcium phosphate (wTC-αTCP) were designed and prepared. Cement setting times were assessed by Gilmore needles, ability to release calcium and hydroxyl ions was assessed by potentiometric methods and OFMSC attachment to calcium-silicate discs was assessed. Calcium-silicate material extracts were tested for ability to support OFMSCs survival and in vitro/in vivo differentiation. Results Fewer OFMSCs attached to calcium-silicate discs relative to tissue culture plastic (p=0.001). Extracts of calcium-silicate cements sustained OFMSC survival, maintained steady state levels of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, alkaline phosphatase and bone sialoprotein while upregulating their respective gene transcripts. Adipogenic and in vivo bone regenerative capacities of OFMSCs were also unaffected by calcium-silicate extracts. Conclusions Ion-releasing calcium-silicate cements support a biomimetic microenvironment conducive to survival and differentiation of OFMSCs. Combination of OFMSCs and calcium-silicate cement can potentially promote tissue regeneration in periapical bone defects. PMID

  14. Melt spinning study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Workman, Gary L.; Rathz, Thomas

    1993-04-01

    Containerless processing of materials provides an excellent opportunity to study nucleation phenomena and produce unique materials, primarily through the formation of metastable phases and deep undercoolings. Deep undercoolings can be readily achieved in falling drops of molten material. Extended solute solubilities and greatly refined microstructures can also be obtained in containerless processing experiments. The Drop Tube Facility at Marshall Space Flight Center has played an important role in enhancing that area of research. Previous experiments performed in the Drop Tube with refractory metals has shown very interesting microstructural changes associated with deep undercoolings. It is apparent also that the microstructure of the deep undercooled species may be changing due to the release of the latent heat of fusion during recalescence. For scientific purposes, it is important to be able to differentiate between the microstructures of the two types of metallic species. A review of the literature shows that although significant advances have been made with respect to the engineering aspects of rapid solidification phenomena, there is still much to be learned in terms of understanding the basic phenomena. The two major ways in which rapid solidification processing provides improved structures and hence improved properties are: (1) production of refined structures such as fine dendrites and eutectics, and (2) production of new alloy compositions, microstructures, and phases through extended solid solubility, new phase reaction sequences, and the formation of metallic-glass microstructures. The objective of this work has been to determine the optimal methodology required to extract this excess energy without affecting the thermo-physical parameters of the under-cooled melt. In normal containerless processing experiments recalescence occurs as the melt returns toward the melting point in order to solidify. A new type of experiment is sought in which the resultant

  15. Melt spinning study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.; Rathz, Thomas

    1993-01-01

    Containerless processing of materials provides an excellent opportunity to study nucleation phenomena and produce unique materials, primarily through the formation of metastable phases and deep undercoolings. Deep undercoolings can be readily achieved in falling drops of molten material. Extended solute solubilities and greatly refined microstructures can also be obtained in containerless processing experiments. The Drop Tube Facility at Marshall Space Flight Center has played an important role in enhancing that area of research. Previous experiments performed in the Drop Tube with refractory metals has shown very interesting microstructural changes associated with deep undercoolings. It is apparent also that the microstructure of the deep undercooled species may be changing due to the release of the latent heat of fusion during recalescence. For scientific purposes, it is important to be able to differentiate between the microstructures of the two types of metallic species. A review of the literature shows that although significant advances have been made with respect to the engineering aspects of rapid solidification phenomena, there is still much to be learned in terms of understanding the basic phenomena. The two major ways in which rapid solidification processing provides improved structures and hence improved properties are: (1) production of refined structures such as fine dendrites and eutectics, and (2) production of new alloy compositions, microstructures, and phases through extended solid solubility, new phase reaction sequences, and the formation of metallic-glass microstructures. The objective of this work has been to determine the optimal methodology required to extract this excess energy without affecting the thermo-physical parameters of the under-cooled melt. In normal containerless processing experiments recalescence occurs as the melt returns toward the melting point in order to solidify. A new type of experiment is sought in which the resultant

  16. Acidic species and chloride depletion in coarse aerosol particles in the US east coast.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yunliang; Gao, Yuan

    2008-12-15

    To investigate the interactions of water-soluble acidic species associated with coarse mode aerosol particles (1.8-10 microm) and chlorine depletion, ten sets of size-segregated aerosol samples were collected by a 10-stage Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI) in Newark, New Jersey on the U.S. east coast. The samples were grouped into two categories according to the air-mass back trajectories and mass ratios of sodium to magnesium and calcium: Group I was primarily impacted by marine air mass and Group II was dominated by the continental air mass. In Group I, the concentrations of coarse mode nitrate and chloride depletion showed a strong correlation (R2=0.88). Without considering other cations, nitrate was found to account for all of the chloride depletion in coarse particles for most samples. The association of coarse mode nitrate with sea-salt particles is favored when the mass ratio of sodium to calcium is approximately equal to or greater than unity. Excess sulfate accounts for a maximum of 33% of chloride depletion in the coarse particles. Regarding chloride depletion in the different particle sizes, excess nitrate and sulfate account for 89% of the chloride depletion in the particle size range of 1.8-3.2 microm in the sample from July 13-14; all of the determined dicarboxylic acids and mono-carboxylic acids cannot compensate for the rest of the chloride depletion. In Group II, high percentages of chloride depletion were not observed. With nitrate being dominant in chlorine depletion observed at this location, N-containing species from pollution emissions may have profound impact on atmospheric composition through altering chlorine chemistry in this region. PMID:18973925

  17. Alternate cathodes for sodium-metal chloride batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.

    1991-01-01

    Various metal chlorides were tested as possible cathode materials for sodium-metal batteries (in addition to Fe and Ni chlorides, which have been already developed to a stage of commercialization), using an electrochemical cell consisting of a pyrex tube, heated to 250 C, with the metal wire as working electrode, concentric Ni foil as counterelectrode, and high-purity Al as reference electrode. In particular, the aim of this study was to identify metal chlorides insoluble even in neutral melts, possible at the interface during overcharge, in order to eliminate the failure mode of the cell through a cationic exchange of the dissolved metal ions with sodium beta-double-prime alumina solid electrolyte. Results indicate that Mo and Co are likely alternatives to FeCl2 and NiCl2 cathodes in sodium batteries. The open circuit voltages of Na/CoCl(x) and Na/MoCl(x) cells at 250 C would be 2.55 V and 2.64 V, respectively.

  18. Influence of water hardness and sulfate on the acute toxicity of chloride to sensitive freshwater invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Soucek, David J; Linton, Tyler K; Tarr, Christopher D; Dickinson, Amy; Wickramanayake, Nilesh; Delos, Charles G; Cruz, Luis A

    2011-04-01

    Total dissolved solids (TDS) represent the sum of all common ions (e.g., Na, K, Ca, Mg, chloride, sulfate, and bicarbonate) in freshwater. Currently, no federal water quality criteria exist for the protection of aquatic life for TDS, but because the constituents that constitute TDS are variable, the development of aquatic life criteria for specific ions is more practical than development of aquatic life criteria for TDS. Chloride is one such ion for which aquatic life criteria exist; however, the current aquatic life criteria dataset for chloride is more than 20 years old. Therefore, additional toxicity tests were conducted in the current study to confirm the acute toxicity of chloride to several potentially sensitive invertebrates: water flea (Ceriodaphnia dubia), fingernail clams (Sphaerium simile and Musculium transversum), snail (Gyraulus parvus), and worm (Tubifex tubifex), and determine the extent to which hardness and sulfate modify chloride toxicity. The results indicated a significant ameliorating effect of water hardness (calcium and magnesium) on chloride toxicity for all species tested except the snail; for example, the 48-h chloride median lethal concentration (LC50) for C. dubia at 50 mg/L hardness (977 mg Cl(-) /L) was half that at 800 mg/L hardness (1,836 mg Cl(-) /L). Conversely, sulfate over the range of 25 to 600 mg/L exerted a negligible effect on chloride toxicity to C. dubia. Rank order of LC50 values for chloride at a given water hardness was in the order (lowest to highest): S. simile < C. dubia < M. transversum < G. parvus < T. tubifex. Results of the current study support the contention that the specific conductivity or TDS concentration of a water body alone is not a sufficient predictor of acute toxicity and that knowledge of the specific ion composition is critical. PMID:21191883

  19. CHEMILUMINESCENT MONITOR FOR VINYL CHLORIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A monitor for vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) in ambient air was constructed using commercially available components of a gas chromatograph (GC) coupled with a chemiluminescence ozone analyzer slightly modified to make it suitable for use as a GC detector. The specificity for VCM is...

  20. Laser using lead chloride vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C. J.

    1975-01-01

    By applying electric discharge, lead chloride vapor in tube is dissociated into lead and chlorine atoms. Population inversion of lead atoms is attained subsequently by second discharge, before chemical recombination of lead and chlorine has occurred. Optimum time interval between two discharges is required for maximum laser output.

  1. Melting the Divide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, S. M.

    2014-12-01

    Presenting Quaternary Environmental Change to students who fall into Widening Participation criteria at the University of Cambridge, gives a unique opportunity to present academic debate in an approachable and entertaining way. Literally by discussing the melting of our ice caps, melts the divide Cambridge has between its reputation and the reality for the brightest, underprivileged, students. There is a balance between presenting cutting edge research with the need to come across as accessible (and importantly valuable to "learning"). Climate change over the Quaternary lends itself well to this aim. By lecturing groups of potential students through the entire Quaternary in an hour, stopping to discuss how our ancestors interacted with past Interglacials and what are the mechanisms driving change (in generalized terms), you are able to introduce cutting edge research (such as the latest NEEM ice core) to the students. This shows the evolution and importance of higher education and academic research. The lecture leads well onto group discussions (termed "supervisions" in Cambridge), to explore their opinions on the concern for present Anthropogenic Climate Change in relation to Past Climate Change after being presented with images that our ancestors "made it". Here discussion thrives off students saying obvious things (or sarcastic comments!) which quickly can lead into a deep technical discussion on their terms. Such discussions give the students a zest for higher education, simply throwing Ruddiman's (2003) "The Anthroprocene Started Several Thousand Years Ago" at them, questions in a second their concept of Anthropogenic Climate Change. Supervisions lend themselves well to bright, articulate, students and by offering these experiences to students of Widening Participation criteria we quickly melt the divide between the reputation of Cambridge ( and higher education as a whole) and the day to day practice. Higher education is not for the privileged, but a free and

  2. Formation of harzburgite by pervasive melt/rock reaction in the upper mantle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelemen, P.B.; Dick, H.J.B.; Quick, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    Many mantle peridotite samples are too rich in SiO2 (in the form of orthopyroxene) and have ratios of light to heavy rare earth elements that are too high to be consistent with an origin as the residuum of partial melting of the primitive mantle. Trace element studies of melt/rock reaction zones in the Trinity peridotite provide evidence for reaction of the mantle lithosphere with ascending melts, which dissolved calcium-pyroxene and precipitated orthopyroxene as magma mass decreased. This process can account for the observed major and trace element compositions of lithospheric mantle samples, and may accordingly be prevalent in the upper mantle.

  3. Buffering effects of calcium salts in kimchi: lowering acidity, elevating lactic acid bacterial population and dextransucrase activity.

    PubMed

    Chae, Seo Eun; Moon, Jin Seok; Jung, Jee Yun; Kim, Ji-Sun; Eom, Hyun-Ju; Kim, So-Young; Yoon, Hyang Sik; Han, Nam Soo

    2009-12-01

    This study investigates the buffering effects of calcium salts in kimchi on total acidity, microbial population, and dextransucrase activity. Calcium chloride or calcium carbonate was added in dongchimi-kimchi, a watery-radish kimchi, and their effects on various biochemical attributes were analyzed. The addition of 0.1% calcium chloride produced a milder decrease in the pH after 24 days of incubation, which allowed the lactic acid bacteria to survive longer than in the control. In particular, the heterofermentative Leuconostoc genus population was 10-fold higher than that in the control. When sucrose and maltose were also added along with the calcium salts, the dextransucrase activity in the kimchi was elevated and a higher concentration of isomaltooligosaccharides was synthesized when compared with the control. Calcium chloride was determined as a better activator compound of dextransucrase than calcium carbonate, probably because of its higher solubility. Therefore, the results of this study confirm the ability of the proposed approach to modulate the kimchi fermentation process and possibly enhance the quality of kimchi based on the addition of dietary calcium salts. PMID:20075632

  4. [Effects of chlorides on Cd partitioning and speciation in a simulated MSW incinerator].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong; Zhang, Yan-Guo; Li, Qing-Hai; Zhuo, Yu-Qun; Chen, Chang-He

    2008-05-01

    The effects of chlorides (including inorganic chloride NaCl and organic chloride PVC) on Cd emission in MSW (municipal solid waste) incineration was investigated using a simulated tubular furnace and the simulated MSW spiked with heavy metals. The concentrations of heavy metals were measured by ICP-AES after the digesting of samples including bottom ash, fly ash and flue gas according to related USEPA Methods. Heavy metal species in bottom ash and fly ash were identified by X-ray diffraction technique and the spectra of elements distributed and micrographs of bottom ash and fly ash were detected by energy dispersive X-ray system and scanning electron microscope, respectively. The results indicated that the emission of Cd tended to be enhanced with the increasing of chloride content, and 97% Cd partitioned in fly ash after spiked chlorides. However, the content effect of inorganic chloride NaCl and inorganic chloride PVC on Cd emission had no significant difference. The effect of PVC on Cd partitioning was affected by temperature, 80.51% Cd partitioned in fly ash at 550 degrees C and 97.91% Cd partitioned in fly ash at 850 degrees C, when temperature went above the melting point of CdCl2 (568 degrees C), the effect of temperature became less important. The effect of NaCl on Cd partitioning was not affected by temperature, 95.02% Cd partitioned in fly ash at 550 degrees C and 96.58% Cd partitioned at 1 000 degrees C when spiked NaCl. Residence time had no significant effect on Cd partitioning with spiked chlorides. The two different mechanisms of chlorides effects on Cd emission were identified by bottom ash and fly ash analysis using SEM/EDS and XRD technique. PMID:18624222

  5. Lead in calcium supplements.

    PubMed

    Scelfo, G M; Flegal, A R

    2000-04-01

    Intercalibrated measurements of lead in calcium supplements indicate the importance of rigorous analytical techniques to accurately quantify contaminant exposures in complex matrices. Without such techniques, measurements of lead concentrations in calcium supplements may be either erroneously low, by as much as 50%, or below the detection limit needed for new public health criteria. In this study, we determined the lead content of 136 brands of supplements that were purchased in 1996. The calcium in the products was derived from natural sources (bonemeal, dolomite, or oyster shell) or was synthesized and/or refined (chelated and nonchelated calcium). The dried products were acid digested and analyzed for lead by high resolution-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The method's limit of quantitation averaged 0.06 microg/g, with a coefficient of variation of 1.7% and a 90-100% lead recovery of a bonemeal standard reference material. Two-thirds of those calcium supplements failed to meet the 1999 California criteria for acceptable lead levels (1.5 microg/daily dose of calcium) in consumer products. The nonchelated synthesized and/or refined calcium products, specifically antacids and infant formulas, had the lowest lead concentrations, ranging from nondetectable to 2.9 microg Pb/g calcium, and had the largest proportion of brands meeting the new criteria (85% of the antacids and 100% of the infant formulas). PMID:10753088

  6. Lead in calcium supplements.

    PubMed Central

    Scelfo, G M; Flegal, A R

    2000-01-01

    Intercalibrated measurements of lead in calcium supplements indicate the importance of rigorous analytical techniques to accurately quantify contaminant exposures in complex matrices. Without such techniques, measurements of lead concentrations in calcium supplements may be either erroneously low, by as much as 50%, or below the detection limit needed for new public health criteria. In this study, we determined the lead content of 136 brands of supplements that were purchased in 1996. The calcium in the products was derived from natural sources (bonemeal, dolomite, or oyster shell) or was synthesized and/or refined (chelated and nonchelated calcium). The dried products were acid digested and analyzed for lead by high resolution-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The method's limit of quantitation averaged 0.06 microg/g, with a coefficient of variation of 1.7% and a 90-100% lead recovery of a bonemeal standard reference material. Two-thirds of those calcium supplements failed to meet the 1999 California criteria for acceptable lead levels (1.5 microg/daily dose of calcium) in consumer products. The nonchelated synthesized and/or refined calcium products, specifically antacids and infant formulas, had the lowest lead concentrations, ranging from nondetectable to 2.9 microg Pb/g calcium, and had the largest proportion of brands meeting the new criteria (85% of the antacids and 100% of the infant formulas). Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10753088

  7. Composition of primary fluid and melt inclusions in regenerated olivines from hypabyssal kimberlites of the Malokuonapskaya pipe (Yakutia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomilenko, A. A.; Kuzmin, D. V.; Bulbak, T. A.; Timina, T. Yu.; Sobolev, N. V.

    2015-11-01

    The primary fluid and melt inclusions in regenerated zonal crystals of olivine from kimberlites of the Malokuonapskaya pipe were first examined by means of microthermometry, optic and scanning electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. The high-pressure genesis of homogenous central parts of the olivines was revealed, probably under intense metasomatism at early hypogene stages with subsequent regeneration in the kimberlitic melt. The olivine crystals were regenerated from silicate-carbonate melts at about 1100°C. The composition of the kimberlitic melt was changed by way of an increase in the calcium content.

  8. The role of calcium in the hydrolysis of the organophosphate paraoxon by human serum A-esterase.

    PubMed

    Vitarius, J A; Sultatos, L G

    1995-01-01

    Human serum A-esterase is a calcium-dependent enzyme that hydrolyzes the organophosphate paraoxon by an Ordered Uni Bi kinetic mechanism. Incubation of various concentrations of calcium chloride with human serum A-esterase resulted in corresponding changes in appk3 and appE for the reaction, while appk2 was unaffected. Carboxyglutamic acid (CAG) prevented calcium chloride from altering appk3, but not appE. Similarly CAG reduced the calcium-stimulated nonenzymatic hydrolysis of paraoxon, as well as the calcium-stimulated de-phosphorylation of chymotrypsin phosphorylated by paraoxon. These results suggest that calcium plays two roles in the hydrolysis of paraoxon by A-esterase. Firstly, calcium is required in order to maintain an active site. In this capacity calcium might participate directly in the catalytic reaction, or it might be required in order to maintain the appropriate confirmation of the active site. And secondly, free calcium (or calcium weakly associated with A-esterase) facilitates the removal of diethyl phosphate from A-esterase, probably by polarizing the P = O bond of the diethyl phosphate-A-esterase intermediate, thereby rendering phosphorus more susceptible to nucleophilic attack by hydroxide ions. PMID:7823759

  9. Method for the abatement of hydrogen chloride

    DOEpatents

    Winston, S.J.; Thomas, T.R.

    1975-11-14

    A method is described for reducing the amount of hydrogen chloride contained in a gas stream by reacting the hydrogen chloride with ammonia in the gas phase so as to produce ammonium chloride. The combined gas stream is passed into a condensation and collection vessel, and a cyclonic flow is created in the combined gas stream as it passes through the vessel. The temperature of the gas stream is reduced in the vessel to below the condensation temperature of ammonium chloride in order to crystallize the ammonium chloride on the walls of the vessel. The cyclonic flow creates a turbulence which breaks off the larger particles of ammonium chloride which are, in turn, driven to the bottom of the vessel where the solid ammonium chloride can be removed from the vessel. The gas stream exiting from the condensation and collection vessel is further cleaned and additional ammonium chloride is removed by passing through additional filters.

  10. Method for the abatement of hydrogen chloride

    DOEpatents

    Winston, Steven J.; Thomas, Thomas R.

    1977-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for reducing the amount of hydrogen chloride contained in a gas stream by reacting the hydrogen chloride with ammonia in the gas phase so as to produce ammonium chloride. The combined gas stream is passed into a condensation and collection vessel and a cyclonic flow is created in the combined gas stream as it passes through the vessel. The temperature of the gas stream is reduced in the vessel to below the condensation temperature of ammonium chloride in order to crystallize the ammonium chloride on the walls of the vessel. The cyclonic flow creates a turbulence which breaks off the larger particles of ammonium chloride which are, in turn, driven to the bottom of the vessel where the solid ammonium chloride can be removed from the vessel. The gas stream exiting from the condensation and collection vessel is further cleaned and additional ammonium chloride is removed by passing through additional filters.

  11. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  12. Melting in Martian Snowbanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zent, A. P.; Sutter, B.

    2005-01-01

    Precipitation as snow is an emerging paradigm for understanding water flow on Mars, which gracefully resolves many outstanding uncertainties in climatic and geomorphic interpretation. Snowfall does not require a powerful global greenhouse to effect global precipitation. It has long been assumed that global average temperatures greater than 273K are required to sustain liquid water at the surface via rainfall and runoff. Unfortunately, the best greenhouse models to date predict global mean surface temperatures early in Mars' history that differ little from today's, unless exceptional conditions are invoked. Snowfall however, can occur at temperatures less than 273K; all that is required is saturation of the atmosphere. At global temperatures lower than 273K, H2O would have been injected into the atmosphere by impacts and volcanic eruptions during the Noachian, and by obliquity-driven climate oscillations more recently. Snow cover can accumulate for a considerable period, and be available for melting during local spring and summer, unless sublimation rates are sufficient to remove the entire snowpack. We decided to explore the physics that controls the melting of snow in the high-latitude regions of Mars to understand the frequency and drainage of snowmelt in the high martian latitudes.

  13. Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride

    DOEpatents

    Spormann, Alfred M [Stanford, CA; Muller, Jochen A [Baltimore, MD; Rosner, Bettina M [Berlin, DE; Von Abendroth, Gregory [Mannheim, DE; Meshulam-Simon, Galit [Los Angeles, CA; McCarty, Perry L [Stanford, CA

    2014-02-11

    Compositions and methods are provided that relate to the bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, particularly the bioremediation of vinyl chloride by Dehalococcoides-like organisms. An isolated strain of bacteria, Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS, that metabolizes vinyl chloride is provided; the genetic sequence of the enzyme responsible for vinyl chloride dehalogenation; methods of assessing the capability of endogenous organisms at an environmental site to metabolize vinyl chloride; and a method of using the strains of the invention for bioremediation.

  14. Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride

    DOEpatents

    Spormann, Alfred M.; Muller, Jochen A.; Rosner, Bettina M.; Von Abendroth, Gregory; Meshulam-Simon, Galit; McCarty, Perry L

    2011-11-22

    Compositions and methods are provided that relate to the bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, particularly the bioremediation of vinyl chloride by Dehalococcoides-like organisms. An isolated strain of bacteria, Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS, that metabolizes vinyl chloride is provided; the genetic sequence of the enzyme responsible for vinyl chloride dehalogenation; methods of assessing the capability of endogenous organisms at an environmental site to metabolize vinyl chloride; and a method of using the strains of the invention for bioremediation.

  15. Insecticide sensitivity of native chloride and sodium channels in a mosquito cell line.

    PubMed

    Jenson, Lacey J; Anderson, Troy D; Bloomquist, Jeffrey R

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the utility of cultured Anopheles gambiae Sua1B cells for insecticide screening applications without genetic engineering or other treatments. Sua1B cells were exposed to the known insecticidal compounds lindane and DIDS, which inhibited cell growth at micromolar concentrations. In patch clamp studies, DIDS produced partial inhibition (69%) of chloride current amplitudes, and an IC50 of 5.1μM was determined for Sua1B cells. A sub-set of chloride currents showed no response to DIDS; however, inhibition (64%) of these currents was achieved using a low chloride saline solution, confirming their identity as chloride channels. In contrast, lindane increased chloride current amplitude (EC50=116nM), which was reversed when cells were bathed in calcium-free extracellular solution. Voltage-sensitive chloride channels were also inhibited by the presence of fenvalerate, a type 2 pyrethroid, but not significantly blocked by type 1 allethrin, an effect not previously shown in insects. Although no evidence of fast inward currents typical of sodium channels was observed, studies with fenvalerate in combination with veratridine, a sodium channel activator, revealed complete inhibition of cell growth that was best fit by a two-site binding model. The high potency effect was completely inhibited in the presence of tetrodotoxin, a specific sodium channel blocker, suggesting the presence of some type of sodium channel. Thus, Sua1B cells express native insect ion channels with potential utility for insecticide screening. PMID:27155485

  16. Material transport in laser-heated diamond anvil cell melting experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Andrew J.; Heinz, Dion L.; Davis, Andrew M.

    1992-01-01

    A previously undocumented effect in the laser-heated diamond anvil cell, namely, the transport of molten species through the sample chamber, over distances large compared to the laser beam diameter, is presented. This effect is exploited to determine the melting behavior of high-pressure silicate assemblages of olivine composition. At pressures where beta-spinel is the phase melted, relative strengths of partitioning can be estimated for the incompatible elements studied. Iron was found to partition into the melt from beta-spinel less strongly than calcium, and slightly more strongly than manganese. At higher pressures, where a silicate perovskite/magnesiowuestite assemblage is melted, it is determined that silicate perovskite is the liquidus phase, with iron-rich magnesiowuestite accumulating at the end of the laser-melted stripe.

  17. Hydrothermal Formation of Calcium Copper Tetrasilicate.

    PubMed

    Johnson-McDaniel, Darrah; Comer, Sara; Kolis, Joseph W; Salguero, Tina T

    2015-12-01

    We describe the first hydrothermal synthesis of CaCuSi4 O10 as micron-scale clusters of thin platelets, distinct from morphologies generated under salt-flux or solid-state conditions. The hydrothermal reaction conditions are surprisingly specific: too cold, and instead of CaCuSi4 O10 , a porous calcium copper silicate forms; too hot, and calcium silicate (CaSiO3 ) forms. The precursors also strongly impact the course of the reaction, with the most common side product being sodium copper silicate (Na2 CuSi4 O10 ). Optimized conditions for hydrothermal CaCuSi4 O10 formation from calcium chloride, copper(II) nitrate, sodium silicate, and ammonium hydroxide are 350 °C at 3000 psi for 72 h; at longer reaction times, competitive delamination and exfoliation causes crystal fragmentation. These results illustrate that CaCuSi4 O10 is an even more unique material than previously appreciated. PMID:26482329

  18. Melting processes under microgravity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glicksman, M. E.; Lupulescu, A.; Koss, M. B.

    2003-07-01

    The kinetics of melting pivalic acid (PVA) dendrites was observed under convection-free conditions on STS-87 as part of the United States Microgravity Payload Mission (USMP-4) flown on Columbia in 1997. Analysis of video data show that PVA dendrites melt without relative motion with respect to the quiescent melt phase. Dendritic fragments display shrinking to extinction, with fragmentation occurring at higher initial supercoblings. Individual fragments follow a characteristic time-dependence derived elsewhere. The microgravity melting kinetics against which the experimental observations are compared is based on conduction-limited quasi-static melting under shape-preserving conditions. Agreement between analytic theory and our experiments is found when the melting process occurs under shape-preserving conditions as measured using the C/A ratio of individual needle-like crystal fragments.

  19. Melting of ice under pressure

    PubMed Central

    Schwegler, Eric; Sharma, Manu; Gygi, François; Galli, Giulia

    2008-01-01

    The melting of ice under pressure is investigated with a series of first-principles molecular dynamics simulations. In particular, a two-phase approach is used to determine the melting temperature of the ice-VII phase in the range of 10–50 GPa. Our computed melting temperatures are consistent with existing diamond anvil cell experiments. We find that for pressures between 10 and 40 GPa, ice melts as a molecular solid. For pressures above ≈45 Gpa, there is a sharp increase in the slope of the melting curve because of the presence of molecular dissociation and proton diffusion in the solid before melting. The onset of significant proton diffusion in ice-VII as a function of increasing temperature is found to be gradual and bears many similarities to that of a type-II superionic solid. PMID:18809909

  20. Melting of Ice under Pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Schwegler, E; Sharma, M; Gygi, F; Galli, G

    2008-07-31

    The melting of ice under pressure is investigated with a series of first principles molecular dynamics simulations. In particular, a two-phase approach is used to determine the melting temperature of the ice-VII phase in the range of 10 to 50 GPa. Our computed melting temperatures are consistent with existing diamond anvil cell experiments. We find that for pressures between 10 to 40 GPa, ice melts as a molecular solid. For pressures above {approx}45 GPa there is a sharp increase in the slope of the melting curve due to the presence of molecular dissociation and proton diffusion in the solid, prior to melting. The onset of significant proton diffusion in ice-VII as a function of increasing temperature is found to be gradual and bears many similarities to that of a type-II superionic solid.

  1. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O, CAS... mineral bischofite. It is prepared by dissolving magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate in...

  2. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b)...

  3. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 582.5985 Section 582.5985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  4. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used...

  5. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 582.5985 Section 582.5985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  6. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 582.5985 Section 582.5985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  7. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used...

  8. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 582.5985 Section 582.5985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  9. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 582.5985 Section 582.5985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  10. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used...

  11. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used...

  12. REMOVAL OF CHLORIDE FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Schulz, W.W.

    1959-08-01

    The removal of chlorides from aqueons solutions is described. The process involves contacting the aqueous chloride containing solution with a benzene solution about 0.005 M in phenyl mercuric acetate whereby the chloride anions are taken up by the organic phase and separating the organic phase from the aqueous solutions.

  13. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures, and ammonium chloride is recovered... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures, and ammonium chloride is recovered... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures, and ammonium chloride is recovered... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures, and ammonium chloride is recovered... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138...

  17. 21 CFR 182.8252 - Choline chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Choline chloride. 182.8252 Section 182.8252 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride....

  18. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 582.5622 Section 582.5622 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  19. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 582.5622 Section 582.5622 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  20. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 582.5622 Section 582.5622 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  1. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 582.5622 Section 582.5622 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  2. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 582.5622 Section 582.5622 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  3. Effect of calcium salts and surfactant concentration on the stability of water-in-oil (w/o) emulsions prepared with polyglycerol polyricinoleate.

    PubMed

    Márquez, Andrés L; Medrano, Alejandra; Panizzolo, Luis A; Wagner, Jorge R

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work was to obtain water-in-oil (w/o) emulsions with polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) as emulsifier and to study the effect of the addition of calcium in the dispersed aqueous phase on the stability of these systems. Emulsions were formulated with 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0% w/w PGPR and 10% w/w water containing calcium chloride at varied concentrations or other salts (calcium lactate or carbonate; sodium, magnesium or potassium chloride). The stability of these systems was studied with a vertical scan analyzer during 15 days; coalescence and sedimentation were observed as simultaneous destabilization processes. The increase of PGPR concentration and/or calcium chloride content gave more stable emulsions. The stabilizing effect of calcium salt was attributed to the diminution of the water droplets size, the decrease of the attractive force between water droplets and the increase of the adsorption density of the emulsifier. The viscoelastic parameters of the interfacial film were decreased with increasing calcium and PGPR concentrations. Calcium chloride produced a higher increase of stability than calcium salts with lower dissociation degree. The presence of any assayed salt in the aqueous phase also allowed the stabilization of w/o emulsions with higher water contents. PMID:19822323

  4. 46 CFR 151.50-34 - Vinyl chloride (vinyl chloride monomer).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Vinyl chloride (vinyl chloride monomer). 151.50-34 Section 151.50-34 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES BARGES CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-34 Vinyl chloride (vinyl chloride monomer). (a)...

  5. Recovery of zinc and lead from fly ash from ash-melting and gasification-melting processes of MSW--comparison and applicability of chemical leaching methods.

    PubMed

    Okada, T; Tojo, Y; Tanaka, N; Matsuto, T

    2007-01-01

    Fly ash generated from MSW ash-melting and gasification-melting plants, known as Melting Furnace Fly Ash (MFA), contains considerable amounts of heavy metals such as Pb and Zn. These metals can be recovered using a smelting furnace after "pre-treatment" for removal of unnecessary elements such as Cl, Sn and Si. Chemical methods have been studied for pretreatment in the past. However, they have been discussed only with regard to treatment cost and the concentration of Pb and Zn recovered, but neither applicability to various types of MFA nor the environmental impact have been considered. In this study, acid, alkaline and ammonia/chloride leaching methods were compared from the standpoints of: (1) applicability to MFA, (2) concentration of Pb and Zn recovered, (3) treatment cost, and (4) environmental impact. Twenty-three samples of MFAs were collected and classified into 4 types based on element contents. A Pb and Zn recovery experiment was conducted for the representative MFA of those types. The results showed: (1) MFA from gasification-melting plants cannot be treated by chemical methods; (2) the other MFA can be treated to an acceptable quality by existing smelting furnaces; (3) only MFA from electric resistance ash-melting plants can be treated easily by the water washing method; and (4) alkaline and ammonia/chloride leaching methods were more effective than acid leaching. PMID:16488594

  6. Lewis-Acid/Base Effects on Gallium Volatility in Molten Chlorides

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, D.F.

    2001-02-26

    It has been proposed that GaCl{sub 3} can be removed by direct volatilization from a Pu-Ga alloy that is dissolved in a molten chloride salt. Although pure GaCl{sub 3} is quite volatile (boiling point, 201 C), the behavior of GaCl{sub 3} dissolved in chloride salts is different due to solution effects and is critically dependent on the composition of the solvent salt (i.e., its Lewis-acid/base character). In this report, the behavior of gallium in prototypical Lewis-acid and Lewis-base salts is compared. It was found that gallium volatility is suppressed in basic melts and enhanced in acidic melts. The implications of these results on the potential for simple gallium removal in molten salt systems are significant.

  7. Solubility of some alkali and alkaline earth chlorides in water at moderate temperatures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clynne, M.A.; Potter, R.W., II

    1979-01-01

    Solubilities for the binary systems, salt-H2O, of the chlorides of lithium, rubidium, cesium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, and barium from near 0??C to the saturated boiling point are reported. The experimental data and coefficients of an equation for a smoothed curve describing each system are listed in the tables. The data are improvements on those previously reported in the literature, having a precision on the average of ??0.09%.

  8. Alternative technique for calcium phosphate coating on titanium alloy implants

    PubMed Central

    Le, Van Quang; Pourroy, Geneviève; Cochis, Andrea; Rimondini, Lia; Abdel-Fattah, Wafa I; Mohammed, Hadeer I; Carradò, Adele

    2014-01-01

    As an alternative technique for calcium phosphate coating on titanium alloys, we propose to functionalize the metal surface with anionic bath containing chlorides of palladium or silver as activators. This new deposition route has several advantages such as controlled conditions, applicability to complex shapes, no adverse effect of heating, and cost effectiveness. A mixture of hydroxyapatite and calcium phosphate hydrate is deposited on the surface of Ti–6Al–4V. Calcium phosphate coating is built faster compared with the one by Simulated Body Fluid. Cell morphology and density are comparable to the control one; and the results prove no toxic compound is released into the medium during the previous seven days of immersion. Moreover, the cell viability is comparable with cells cultivated with the virgin medium. These experimental treatments allowed producing cytocompatible materials potentially applicable to manufacture implantable devices for orthopedic and oral surgeries. PMID:24646569

  9. Fundamental Characteristics of Bioprint on Calcium Alginate Gel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umezu, Shinjiro; Hatta, Tatsuru; Ohmori, Hitoshi

    2013-05-01

    The goal of this study is to fabricate precision three-dimensional (3D) biodevices those are micro fluidics and artificial organs utilizing digital fabrication. Digital fabrication is fabrication method utilizing inkjet technologies. Electrostatic inkjet is one of the inkjet technologies. The electrostatic inkjet method has following two merits; those are high resolution to print and ability to eject highly viscous liquid. These characteristics are suitable to print biomaterials precisely. We are now applying for bioprint. In this paper, the electrostatic inkjet method is applied for fabrication of 3D biodevices that has cave like blood vessel. When aqueous solution of sodium alginate is printed to aqueous solution of calcium chloride, calcium alginate is produced. 3D biodevices are fabricated in case that calcium alginate is piled.

  10. Ion chromatography detection of fluoride in calcium carbonate.

    PubMed

    Lefler, Jamie E; Ivey, Michelle M

    2011-09-01

    Fluoride in aquatic systems is increasing due to anthropogenic pollution, but little is known about how this fluoride affects organisms that live in and around aquatic habitats. Fluoride can bioaccumulate in structures comprised of calcium carbonate, such as shells and skeletons of both freshwater and saltwater species as diverse as snails, corals, and coccolithophorid algae. In this article, ion chromatography (IC) techniques are developed to detect and quantify fluoride in a matrix of calcium carbonate. Solid samples are dissolved in hydrochloric acid, pretreated to remove the majority of the chloride ions, and then analyzed using IC. With these methods, the 3σ limit of detection is 0.2 mg of fluoride/kg of calcium carbonate. PMID:21859530

  11. Hydrogen-alkali exchange between silicate melts and two-phase aqueous mixtures: an experimental investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Thomas J.; Candela, Philip A.; Piccoli, Philip M.

    Experiments were performed in the three-phase system high-silica rhyolite melt + low-salinity aqueous vapor + hydrosaline brine, to investigate the exchange equilibria for hydrogen, potassium, and sodium in magmatic-hydrothermal systems at 800 °C and 100 MPa, and 850 °C and 50 MPa. The Kaqm/meltH,Na and Kaqm/meltH,K for hydrogen-sodium exchange between a vapor + brine mixture and a silicate melt are inversely proportional to the total chloride concentration (ΣCl) in the vapor + brine mixture indicating that HCl/NaCl and HCl/KCl are higher in the low-salinity aqueous vapor relative to high-salinity brine. The equilibrium constants for vapor/melt and brine/melt exchange were extracted from regressions of Kaqm/meltH,Na and Kaqm/meltH,K versus the proportion of aqueous vapor relative to brine in the aqueous mixture (Faqv) at P and T, expressed as a function of ΣCl. No significant pressure effect on the empirically determined exchange constants was observed for the range of pressures investigated. Model equilibrium constants are: Kaqv/meltH,Na(vapor/melt)=26(+/-1.3) at 100 MPa (800 °C), and 19( +/- 7.0) at 50 MPa (850 °C) Kaqv/meltH,K=14(+/-1.1) at 100 MPa (800 °C), and 24(+/-12) at 50 MPa (850 °C) Kaqb/meltH,b(brine/melt)= 1.6(+/-0.7) at 100 MPa (800 °C), and 3.9(+/-2.3) at 50 MPa (850 °C) and Kaqb/meltH,K=2.7(+/-1.2) at 100 MPa (800 °C) and 3.8(+/-2.3) at 50 MPa (850 °C). Values for Kaqv/meltH,K and Kaqb/meltH,K were used to calculate KCl/HCl in the aqueous vapor and brine as a function of melt aluminum saturation index (ASI: molar Al2O3/(K2O+Na2O+CaO) and pressure. The model log KCl/HCl values show that a change in melt ASI from peraluminous (ASI = 1.04) to moderately metaluminous (ASI = 1.01) shifts the cooling pathway (in temperature-log KCl/HCl space) of the aqueous vapor toward the andalusite+muscovite+K-feldspar reaction point.

  12. Melting line of polymeric nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakub, L. N.

    2013-05-01

    We made an attempt to predict location of the melting line of polymeric nitrogen using two equations for Helmholtz free energy: proposed earlier for cubic gauche-structure and developed recently for liquid polymerized nitrogen. The P-T relation, orthobaric densities and latent heat of melting were determined using a standard double tangent construction. The estimated melting temperature decreases with increasing pressure, alike the temperature of molecular-nonmolecular transition in solid. We discuss the possibility of a triple point (solid-molecular fluid-polymeric fluid) at ˜80 GPa and observed maximum of melting temperature of nitrogen.

  13. Melting processes under microgravity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glicksman, M.; Lupulescu, A.; Koss, M.

    The Rensselaer Isothermal Dendritic Growth Experiment (RIDGE) uses the large data archive amassed through a series of three NASA-supported microgravity experiments (IDGE/USMP-2, -3, and -4), all of which flew aboard the space shuttle Columbia. The IDGE instruments aboard USMP-2 and -3 provided in-flight CCD images, and 35-mm films (postflight). USMP-4 also allowed streaming of near-real-time video. Using 30 fps video data, it became possible for the first time to study both freezing and melting sequences for high-purity pivalic acid (PVA). We report on the melting process observed for PVA crystal fragments, observed under nearly ideal convection-free conditions. Conduction-limited melting processes are of importance in orbital melting of materials, meteoritic genesis, mushy-zone evolution, and in fusion weld pools where length scales for thermal buoyancy are restricted. Microgravity video show clearly that PVA dendrites melt into fragments that shrink at accelerating rates to extinction. The melting paths of individual fragments follow characteristic time dependences derived from theory. The theoretical melting kinetics against which the experimental observations are carefully compared is based on conduction-limited quasi-static melting under shape-preserving conditions. Good agreement between theory and experiment is found for the stable melting of needle-shaped prolate spheroidal PVA crystal fragments with aspect ratios near C /A = 12.

  14. Syntheses of neptunium trichloride and measurements of its melting temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Hirokazu; Takano, Masahide; Kurata, Masaki; Minato, Kazuo

    2013-09-01

    Neptunium trichloride (NpCl3) of high purity was synthesized by the solid state reaction of neptunium nitride with cadmium chloride. Lattice parameters of hexagonal NpCl3 were determined from the powder X-ray diffraction pattern to be a = 0.7428 ± 0.0001 nm and c = 0.4262 ± 0.0003 nm, which fairly agree with the reported values. The melting temperature of NpCl3 was measured on a sample of about 1 mg, hermetically encapsulated in a gold crucible with a differential thermal analyzer. The value determined was 1070 ± 3 K which is close to the recommended value (1075 ± 30 K) derived from the mean value of the melting temperature of UCl3 and of PuCl3.

  15. [Calcium and health].

    PubMed

    Ortega Anta, Rosa M; Jiménez Ortega, Ana I; López-Sobaler, Ana M

    2015-01-01

    An adequate intake of calcium is only not limited to avoid the risk of osteoporosis and its benefits in longterm bone health, but also it has been linked to protection against various major diseases, such as hypertension, cancer, kidney stones, insulin resistance, diabetes... and several investigations suggest its importance in preventing and controlling obesity. Studies conducted in Spanish representative samples show that a high percentage of adults and children (> 75%) don't achieve the recommended intake of calcium. Moreover, are growing trends among the population suggesting that calcium intake and dairy consumption (main food source of the mineral) are high, and even excessive, in many individuals. This misconception results in that the calcium intake is increasingly far from the recommended one. The maximum tolerable intake of the mineral is fixed at 2.500 mg/day, but this intake is unusual, and it's more disturbing and frequent, to find intakes below the recommended calcium intakes (1.000 and 1.200 mg/day in adults, men and women, respectively). Data from different studies highlight the risk of an inadequate calcium intake and the damages that may affect the health in a long term. It is not about transmitting indiscriminate guidelines in order to increase the intake of calcium / dairy, but the recommended intakes must be met to achieve both the nutritional and health benefits. Also activities for demystification of misconceptions are need, increasingly frequent, that may impair health population. PMID:25862324

  16. An XAFS Study of Tantalum Chloride in the Ionic Liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl Imidazolium Chloride/ aluminum Chloride

    SciTech Connect

    D Roeper; K Pandya; G Cheek; W OGrady

    2011-12-31

    Tantalum chloride was studied with extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (XAFS) in acidic and basic aluminum chloride/1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride ionic liquids (ILs). Anhydrous Ta2Cl10 is more soluble in the basic solution than in the acidic solution and the X-ray absorption data shows that the coordination shell of chlorides around the tantalum is larger in the basic solution. In the acidic solution, tantalum has five chlorides in its coordination shell while in the basic solution; the tantalum is coordinated by seven chlorides. This indicates that the Lewis acidity of the tantalum chloride causes the Ta to coordinate differently in the acidic and the basic solutions.

  17. [Efficacy of oral calcium and/or sodium phosphate in the prevention of parturient paresis in cows].

    PubMed

    Braun, U; Bryce, B; Liesegang, A; Hässig, M; Bleul, U

    2008-07-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the efficacy of calcium chloride, sodium phosphate or a combination of these two substances administered orally immediately postpartum for the prevention of parturient paresis in cows. Thirty-two cows that had had parturient paresis at the previous calving, and in which serum biochemistry had shown hypocalcaemia and hypophosphataemia, were used in the study. The cows were transferred to the Department of Farm Animals, University of Zurich, five days before their expected due dates. On a randomized trial, the cows were given calcium chloride, sodium phosphate, both substances or no treatment (controls) via a stomach tube immediately postpartum and 12 hours later. The cows were monitored for 96 hours during which time blood was collected on a regular basis for the determination of total calcium, ionized calcium, inorganic phosphorus and magnesium concentrations. Of the 32 cows treated, 19 (59%) had parturient paresis and 13 (41%) did not. The incidence of parturient paresis did not differ significantly among the groups although there was a tendency for a lower incidence in cows treated with both calcium chloride and sodium phosphate. The various treatments had no apparent effect on serum calcium concentration. The concentration of inorganic phosphorus increased significantly in cows treated with sodium phosphate compared with the controls. The results of this study showed that cows treated with both calcium chloride and sodium phosphate orally tended to have a lower incidence of parturient paresis. Further investigation into multiple administrations of oral calcium chloride and sodium phosphate, started before parturition, for the prevention of parturient paresis is required. PMID:18714936

  18. Calcium ion binding to a soil fulvic acid using a donnan potential model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marinsky, J.A.; Mathuthu, A.; Ephraim, J.H.; Reddy, M.M.

    1999-01-01

    Calcium ion binding to a soil fulvic acid (Armadale Bh Horizon) was evaluated over a range of calcium ion concentrations, from pH 3.8 to 7.3, using potentiometric titrations and calcium ion electrode measurements. Fulvic acid concentration was constant (100 milligrams per liter) and calcium ion concentration varied up to 8 X 10-4 moles per liter. Experiments discussed here included: (1) titrations of fulvic acid-calcium ion containing solutions with sodium hydroxide; and (2) titrations of fully neutralized fulvic acid with calcium chloride solutions. Apparent binding constants (expressed as the logarithm of the value, log ??app) vary with solution pH, calcium ion concentration, degree of acid dissociation, and ionic strength (from log ??app = 2.5 to 3.9) and are similar to those reported by others. Fulvic acid charge, and the associated Donnan Potential, influences calcium ion-fulvic acid ion pair formation. A Donnan Potential corrrection term allowed calculation of intrinsic calcium ion-fulvic acid binding constants. Intrinsic binding constants vary from 1.2 to 2.5 (the average value is about log??= 1.6) and are similar to, but somewhat higher than, stability constants for calcium ion-carboxylic acid monodentate complexes. ?? by Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag, Mu??nchen.

  19. Calcium homeostasis is altered in skeletal muscle of spontaneously hypertensive rats: cytofluorimetric and gene expression analysis.

    PubMed

    Liantonio, Antonella; Camerino, Giulia M; Scaramuzzi, Antonia; Cannone, Maria; Pierno, Sabata; De Bellis, Michela; Conte, Elena; Fraysse, Bodvael; Tricarico, Domenico; Conte Camerino, Diana

    2014-10-01

    Hypertension is often associated with skeletal muscle pathological conditions related to function and metabolism. The mechanisms underlying the development of these pathological conditions remain undefined. Because calcium homeostasis is a biomarker of muscle function, we assessed whether it is altered in hypertensive muscles. We measured resting intracellular calcium and store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) in fast- and slow-twitch muscle fibers from normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) by cytofluorimetric technique and determined the expression of SOCE gene machinery by real-time PCR. Hypertension caused a phenotype-dependent dysregulation of calcium homeostasis; the resting intracellular calcium of extensor digitorum longus and soleus muscles of SHRs were differently altered with respect to the related muscle of normotensive animals. In addition, soleus muscles of SHR showed reduced activity of the sarcoplasmic reticulum and decreased sarcolemmal calcium permeability at rest and after SOCE activation. Accordingly, we found an alteration of the expression levels of some SOCE components, such as stromal interaction molecule 1, calcium release-activated calcium modulator 1, and transient receptor potential canonical 1. The hypertension-induced alterations of calcium homeostasis in the soleus muscle of SHRs occurred with changes of some functional outcomes as excitability and resting chloride conductance. We provide suitable targets for therapeutic interventions aimed at counterbalancing muscle performance decline in hypertension, and propose the reported calcium-dependent parameters as indexes to predict how the antihypertensive drugs could influence muscle function. PMID:25084345

  20. Stability and breakdown of Ca13CO3 melt associated with formation of 13C-diamond in static high pressure experiments up to 43 GPa and 3900 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spivak, A. V.; Litvin, Yu. A.; Ovsyannikov, S. V.; Dubrovinskaia, N. A.; Dubrovinsky, L. S.

    2012-07-01

    Melting of calcium carbonate Ca13CO3, stability of the melt and its decomposition were studied in static high pressure experiments at pressures of 11-43 GPa and temperatures of 1600-3900 K using diamond anvil cell technique with laser heating. We observed formation of 13C-graphite (below 16 GPa) and 13C-diamond (between 16 and 43 GPa) on decomposition of the Ca13CO3 melt at temperatures above 3400 K. At temperatures below 3400 K congruent melting of calcium carbonate was confirmed. The experimental results were applied to construction of the phase diagram of CaCO3 up to 43 GPa and 3900 K focusing at the melting curve of calcium carbonate and the decomposition phase boundary of CaCO3 melt.

  1. Viscosity of Hydrous Rhyolitic Melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Xu, Z.; Liu, Y.

    2002-12-01

    It is critical to understand and to be able to predict viscosity of hydrous silicate melts for understanding magma transport, bubble growth, volcanic eruptions, and magma fragmentation. We report new viscosity data for hydrous rhyolitic melt in the viscosity range of 109 to 1015 Pa s based on the kinetics of hydrous species reaction in the melt upon cooling (i.e., based on the equivalence between the glass transition temperature and the apparent equilibrium temperature). We also report viscosity data obtained from bubble growth experiments. Our data show that the viscosity model of Hess and Dingwell (1996) systematically overestimates the viscosity of hydrous rhyolitic melt at the high viscosity range by a factor of 2 to 4 (still within their stated 2σ uncertainty). Another problem with the model of Hess and Dingwell is that the functional dependence of viscosity on total H2O content cannot be extended to dry melt: as total H2O content decreases to zero, the viscosity would first increase, and then decrease to zero. A zero viscosity for a dry melt makes no sense. Hence we need a mixing law for hydrous melt viscosity that is extendible to dry melts. By examining the viscosity of rhyolitic melts containing 6 ppm to about 8.0 wt% total H2O (both our own data and literature data), we propose the following relation for the dependence of viscosity on total H2O content: 1/η = 1/η 1+(1/η 2-1/η 1)xn ≈ 1/η 1+xn/η 2 where η is viscosity and 1/η is fluidity, η 1 is the viscosity of the dry melt, x is the mole fraction of total dissolved H2O, n and η 2 are two fitting parameters, and η 2 can be identified to be the viscosity of the hypothetical melt consisting of pure H2O (η 2 cannot be directly measured since such a melt does not exist). The above equation appears to work well for the viscosity of hydrous rhyolitic melts. By fitting hydrous rhyolitic melt viscosity with the above equation, we find that rhyolitic melt viscosity vary by 1.2 orders of magnitude

  2. Shock compression of polyvinyl chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neogi, Anupam; Mitra, Nilanjan

    2016-04-01

    This study presents shock compression simulation of atactic polyvinyl chloride (PVC) using ab-initio and classical molecular dynamics. The manuscript also identifies the limits of applicability of classical molecular dynamics based shock compression simulation for PVC. The mechanism of bond dissociation under shock loading and its progression is demonstrated in this manuscript using the density functional theory based molecular dynamics simulations. The rate of dissociation of different bonds at different shock velocities is also presented in this manuscript.

  3. Melt pool dynamics during selective electron beam melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scharowsky, T.; Osmanlic, F.; Singer, R. F.; Körner, C.

    2014-03-01

    Electron beam melting is a promising additive manufacturing technique for metal parts. Nevertheless, the process is still poorly understood making further investigations indispensable to allow a prediction of the part's quality. To improve the understanding of the process especially the beam powder interaction, process observation at the relevant time scale is necessary. Due to the difficult accessibility of the building area, the high temperatures, radiation and the very high scanning speeds during the melting process the observation requires an augmented effort in the observation equipment. A high speed camera in combination with an illumination laser, band pass filter and mirror system is suitable for the observation of the electron beam melting process. The equipment allows to observe the melting process with a high spatial and temporal resolution. In this paper the adjustment of the equipment and results of the lifetime and the oscillation frequencies of the melt pool for a simple geometry are presented.

  4. The purification and preparation of high-purity PbCl 2 and ternary alkali lead chloride single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitsch, K.; Cihlář, A.; Málková, Z.; Rodová, M.; Vaněček, M.

    1993-08-01

    Purification and crystal growth of PbCl 2 and congruently melting ternary alkali lead chlorides, KPb 2Cl 5, RbPbCl 3, RbPb 2Cl 5, and CsPbCl 3, will be described in the present paper. Source materials were purified by the chlorination of molten chlorides with gaseous mixture of chlorinating agents in combination with a subsequent zone-melting. The efficiency of this method is confirmed by chemical analysis before and after purification and by the behaviour of the melts. Large single crystals of PbCl 2, KPb 2Cl 5, RbPb 2Cl 5 and CsPbCl 3, 20 mm in diameter and 50-60 mm long, were grown by the Bridgman method. Their quality was checked by the optical absorption and elastic light scattering measurements.

  5. Effect of calcium source on structure and properties of sol-gel derived bioactive glasses.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bobo; Turdean-Ionescu, Claudia A; Martin, Richard A; Newport, Robert J; Hanna, John V; Smith, Mark E; Jones, Julian R

    2012-12-18

    The aim was to determine the most effective calcium precursor for synthesis of sol-gel hybrids and for improving homogeneity of sol-gel bioactive glasses. Sol-gel derived bioactive calcium silicate glasses are one of the most promising materials for bone regeneration. Inorganic/organic hybrid materials, which are synthesized by incorporating a polymer into the sol-gel process, have also recently been produced to improve toughness. Calcium nitrate is conventionally used as the calcium source, but it has several disadvantages. Calcium nitrate causes inhomogeneity by forming calcium-rich regions, and it requires high temperature treatment (>400 °C) for calcium to be incorporated into the silicate network. Nitrates are also toxic and need to be burnt off. Calcium nitrate therefore cannot be used in the synthesis of hybrids as the highest temperature used in the process is typically 40-60 °C. Therefore, a different precursor is needed that can incorporate calcium into the silica network and enhance the homogeneity of the glasses at low (room) temperature. In this work, calcium methoxyethoxide (CME) was used to synthesize sol-gel bioactive glasses with a range of final processing temperatures from 60 to 800 °C. Comparison is made between the use of CME and calcium chloride and calcium nitrate. Using advanced probe techniques, the temperature at which Ca is incorporated into the network was identified for 70S30C (70 mol % SiO(2), 30 mol % CaO) for each of the calcium precursors. When CaCl(2) was used, the Ca did not seem to enter the network at any of the temperatures used. In contrast, Ca from CME entered the silica network at room temperature, as confirmed by X-ray diffraction, (29)Si magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and dissolution studies. CME should be used in preference to calcium salts for hybrid synthesis and may improve homogeneity of sol-gel glasses. PMID:23171477

  6. Conduction-limited crystallite melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupulescu, A.; Glicksman, M. E.; Koss, M. B.

    2005-04-01

    High-purity pivalic acid (PVA) dendrites were observed growing under convection-free conditions during the isothermal dendritic growth experiment (IDGE) flown on NASA's space shuttle Columbia on STS-87. The IDGE was part of the complement of primary scientific experiments designated as the United States Microgravity Payload Mission (USMP4) launched late in 1997. The IDGE video data show that PVA dendrites may be melted without exhibiting any detectable relative motion with respect to the surrounding quiescent melt phase. Thus, melting occurs by heat conduction alone. When a small fixed superheating is imposed on pre-existing dendritic fragments, they melt steadily toward extinction. Individual fragments steadily decrease in size according to a square-root of time dependence predicted using quasi-static conduction-limited theory. Agreement between analytic melting theory and microgravity experiments was found originally if the melting process occurs under the restriction of shape-preserving conditions, where needle-like crystal fragments may be approximated as ellipsoids with a constant axial ratio. Among the new results reported here is the influence of capillarity effects on melting in needle-like crystallites, observed as a dramatic change in their axial ratio, when the size scale of a crystallite decreases below a critical value. In microgravity melting experiments, the axial ratio of individual crystallites does not remain constant, because of interactions with neighboring fragments within the mushy zone. The kinetic data were then "sectorized" to divide the total melting process into a series of short intervals. Each melting sector for a crystallite could then be approximated by a constant average value of the axial ratio. Sectorization also allows accurate prediction of melting kinetics by applying quasi-static heat conduction theory, despite the suspected presence of capillarity and the occurrence of fragmentation. These additional processes that accompany

  7. Chloride secretagogues stimulate inositol phosphate formation in shark rectal gland tubules cultured in suspension

    SciTech Connect

    Ecay, T.W.; Valentich, J.D. )

    1991-03-01

    Neuroendocrine activation of transepithelial chloride secretion by shark rectal gland cells is associated with increases in cellular cAMP, cGMP, and free calcium concentrations. We report here on the effects of several chloride secretagogues on inositol phosphate formation in cultured rectal gland tubules. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), atriopeptin (AP), and ionomycin increase the total inositol phosphate levels of cultured tubules, as measured by ion exchange chromatography. Forskolin, a potent chloride secretagogue, has no effect on inositol phosphate formation. The uptake of {sup 3}H-myo-inositol into phospholipids is very slow, preventing the detection of increased levels of inositol trisphosphate. However, significant increases in inositol monophosphate (IP1) and inositol biphosphate (IP2) were measured. The time course of VIP- and AP-stimulated IP1 and IP2 formation is similar to the effects of these agents on the short-circuit current responses of rectal gland monolayer cultures. In addition, aluminum fluoride, an artificial activator of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, stimulates IP1 and IP2 formation. We conclude that rectal gland cells contain VIP and AP receptors coupled to the activation of phospholipase C. Coupling may be mediated by G-proteins. Receptor-stimulated increases in inositol phospholipid metabolism is one mechanism leading to increased intracellular free calcium concentrations, an important regulatory event in the activation of transepithelial chloride secretion by shark rectal gland epithelial cells.

  8. Filling single-wall carbon nanotubes with d- and f-metal chloride and metal nanowires.

    PubMed

    Satishkumar, B C; Taubert, A; Luzzi, D E

    2003-01-01

    Nanowires of magnetic metals (Fe, Co, Ho, Gd) have been synthesized inside the hollow interiors of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) by filling SWNTs with precursor metal chlorides and subsequent reduction. SWNTs have been filled by either the melt-phase sealed-tube reaction or a solution-phase method. Among the metal chlorides investigated in this study, HoCl3 and GdCl3 filled the SWNTs to a significantly higher extent. The nanowires have been imaged by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy carried out in conjunction with TEM and STEM confirmed the presence of metal chloride and metal nanowires. PMID:12908245

  9. Chloride flux out of Yellowstone National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, Daniel R.; Friedman, Irving

    1985-12-01

    Monitoring of the chloride concentration, electrical conductivity, and discharge was carried out for the four major rivers of Yellowstone National Park from September 1982 to January 1984. Chloride flux out of the Park was determined from the measured values of chloride concentration and discharge. The annual chloride flux from the Park was 5.86 × 10 10 g. Of this amount 45% was from the Madison River drainage basin, 32% from the Yellowstone River basin, 12% from the Snake River basin, and 11% from the Falls River basin. Of the annual chloride flux from the Yellowstone River drainage basin 36% was attributed to the Yellowstone Lake drainage basin. The geothermal contribution to the chloride flux was determined by subtracting the chloride contribution from rock weathering and atmospheric precipitation and is 94% of the total chloride flux. Calculations of the geothermal chloride flux for each river are given and the implications of an additional chloride flux out of the western Park boundary discussed. An anomalous increase in chloride flux out of the Park was observed for several weeks prior to the Mt. Borah earthquake in Central Idaho on October 28, 1983, reaching a peak value shortly thereafter. It is suggested that the rise in flux was a precursor of the earthquake. The information in this paper provides baseline data against which future changes in the hydrothermal systems can be measured. It also provides measurements related to the thermal contributions from the different drainage basins of the Park.

  10. Chloride flux out of Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norton, D.R.; Friedman, I.

    1985-01-01

    Monitoring of the chloride concentration, electrical conductivity, and discharge was carried out for the four major rivers of Yellowstone National Park from September 1982 to January 1984. Chloride flux out of the Park was determined from the measured values of chloride concentration and discharge. The annual chloride flux from the Park was 5.86 ?? 1010 g. Of this amount 45% was from the Madison River drainage basin, 32% from the Yellowstone River basin, 12% from the Snake River basin, and 11% from the Falls River basin. Of the annual chloride flux from the Yellowstone River drainage basin 36% was attributed to the Yellowstone Lake drainage basin. The geothermal contribution to the chloride flux was determined by subtracting the chloride contribution from rock weathering and atmospheric precipitation and is 94% of the total chloride flux. Calculations of the geothermal chloride flux for each river are given and the implications of an additional chloride flux out of the western Park boundary discussed. An anomalous increase in chloride flux out of the Park was observed for several weeks prior to the Mt. Borah earthquake in Central Idaho on October 28, 1983, reaching a peak value shortly thereafter. It is suggested that the rise in flux was a precursor of the earthquake. The information in this paper provides baseline data against which future changes in the hydrothermal systems can be measured. It also provides measurements related to the thermal contributions from the different drainage basins of the Park. ?? 1985.

  11. Salt, chloride, bleach, and innate host defense

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guoshun; Nauseef, William M.

    2015-01-01

    Salt provides 2 life-essential elements: sodium and chlorine. Chloride, the ionic form of chlorine, derived exclusively from dietary absorption and constituting the most abundant anion in the human body, plays critical roles in many vital physiologic functions, from fluid retention and secretion to osmotic maintenance and pH balance. However, an often overlooked role of chloride is its function in innate host defense against infection. Chloride serves as a substrate for the generation of the potent microbicide chlorine bleach by stimulated neutrophils and also contributes to regulation of ionic homeostasis for optimal antimicrobial activity within phagosomes. An inadequate supply of chloride to phagocytes and their phagosomes, such as in CF disease and other chloride channel disorders, severely compromises host defense against infection. We provide an overview of the roles that chloride plays in normal innate immunity, highlighting specific links between defective chloride channel function and failures in host defense. PMID:26048979

  12. Salt, chloride, bleach, and innate host defense.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guoshun; Nauseef, William M

    2015-08-01

    Salt provides 2 life-essential elements: sodium and chlorine. Chloride, the ionic form of chlorine, derived exclusively from dietary absorption and constituting the most abundant anion in the human body, plays critical roles in many vital physiologic functions, from fluid retention and secretion to osmotic maintenance and pH balance. However, an often overlooked role of chloride is its function in innate host defense against infection. Chloride serves as a substrate for the generation of the potent microbicide chlorine bleach by stimulated neutrophils and also contributes to regulation of ionic homeostasis for optimal antimicrobial activity within phagosomes. An inadequate supply of chloride to phagocytes and their phagosomes, such as in CF disease and other chloride channel disorders, severely compromises host defense against infection. We provide an overview of the roles that chloride plays in normal innate immunity, highlighting specific links between defective chloride channel function and failures in host defense. PMID:26048979

  13. Studies on magnetic properties of chemically synthesized crystalline calcium ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debnath, A.; Bera, A.; Chattopadhyay, K. K.; Saha, B.

    2016-05-01

    Spinel-type ferrites have taken a very important role for modern electronic industry. Most of these ferrites exhibit low-loss dielectric properties, high resistivity, low eddy current and also high temperature ferromagnetism. Calcium ferrite is one such important metal oxide which is environmentally safe, chemically stable, low cost and greatly abundant. This outstanding material of calcium ferrite is synthesized by a simple chemical precipitation method using NaOH as the precipitating agent. Ferric chloride anhydrous (FeCl3) and Calcium chloride dihydrate (CaCl2.2H2O) were used as iron and calcium sources respectively. The samples were heated at 200°C for 8h to obtain homogeneous powder of Calcium ferrite. The powders were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), Transmission electrical microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic (FTIR) measurements. The polycrystalline nature of the sample was confirmed by X-ray diffraction study. The magnetic properties of the sample were investigated by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) measurements. Magnetization curve of the prepared sample depicts that as synthesized calcium ferrite nanoparticles have saturation magnetic moment of 1.74 emu/g and the coercivity of 35.08 Oe with superparamagnetic behavior. The synthesized calcium ferrite nanoparticles with such magnetic properties will be a candidate material for different applications in electronics and exploring its functionality in the field of recently developing semiconductor device physics and spintronics.

  14. Calcium in diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... level based on scientific research evidence. Adequate Intake (AI): This level is established when there is not ... enough calcium from the foods they eat. Infants (AI) 0 to 6 months: 200 milligrams per day ( ...

  15. Get Enough Calcium

    MedlinePlus

    ... Previous section Overview 2 of 4 sections Take Action! Take Action: Calcium Sources Protect your bones – get plenty of ... Foods and Vitamins 3 of 4 sections Take Action: Vitamin D Get enough vitamin D. Vitamin D ...

  16. Stoichiometry of Calcium Medicines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Gabriel

    2005-01-01

    The topic of calcium supplement and its effects on human lives is presented in the way of questions to the students. It enables the students to realize the relevance of chemistry outside the classroom surrounding.

  17. Calcium pyrophosphate arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... that can cause attacks of arthritis. Like with gout, crystals form in the joints. But in calcium ... pyrophosphate arthritis can be misdiagnosed as: Gouty arthritis (gout) Osteoarthritis Rheumatoid arthritis

  18. Beyond the Melting Pot Reconsidered.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Elijah

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the 1963 book, "Beyond the Melting Pot," which suggested that eventually the problem of different ethnicities in the U.S. would be resolved and society would become one melting pot. Examines how changes in immigration and economic structures have affected the issue, noting the devastating effect of the dominant culture's denigration of…

  19. A9C sensitive Cl− - accumulation in A. thaliana root cells during salt stress is controlled by internal and external calcium

    PubMed Central

    Saleh, Livia; Plieth, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    The involvement of chloride in salt stress symptoms and salt tolerance mechanisms in plants has been less investigated in the past. Therefore, we studied the salt-induced chloride influx in Arabidopsis expressing the GFP-based anion indicator Clomeleon. High salt concentrations induce two phases of chloride influx. The fast kinetic phase is likely caused by membrane depolarization, and is assumed to be mediated by channels. This is followed by a slower "saturation" phase, where chloride is accumulated in the cytoplasm. Both phases of chloride uptake are dependent on the presence of external calcium. In general: with high [Ca2+] less chloride is accumulated in the cytoplasm. Surprisingly, also the internal calcium availability has an impact on chloride transport. A complete block of the second phase of chloride influx is achieved by the anion channel blocker A9C and trivalent cations (La3+, Gd3+, and Al3+). Other channel blockers and diuretics were found to inhibit the process partially. The results suggest that several transporter species are involved here, including electroneutral cation-chloride-cotransporters, and a part of chloride possibly enters the cells through cation channels after salt application. PMID:23603974

  20. Fault rheology beyond frictional melting.

    PubMed

    Lavallée, Yan; Hirose, Takehiro; Kendrick, Jackie E; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Dingwell, Donald B

    2015-07-28

    During earthquakes, comminution and frictional heating both contribute to the dissipation of stored energy. With sufficient dissipative heating, melting processes can ensue, yielding the production of frictional melts or "pseudotachylytes." It is commonly assumed that the Newtonian viscosities of such melts control subsequent fault slip resistance. Rock melts, however, are viscoelastic bodies, and, at high strain rates, they exhibit evidence of a glass transition. Here, we present the results of high-velocity friction experiments on a well-characterized melt that demonstrate how slip in melt-bearing faults can be governed by brittle fragmentation phenomena encountered at the glass transition. Slip analysis using models that incorporate viscoelastic responses indicates that even in the presence of melt, slip persists in the solid state until sufficient heat is generated to reduce the viscosity and allow remobilization in the liquid state. Where a rock is present next to the melt, we note that wear of the crystalline wall rock by liquid fragmentation and agglutination also contributes to the brittle component of these experimentally generated pseudotachylytes. We conclude that in the case of pseudotachylyte generation during an earthquake, slip even beyond the onset of frictional melting is not controlled merely by viscosity but rather by an interplay of viscoelastic forces around the glass transition, which involves a response in the brittle/solid regime of these rock melts. We warn of the inadequacy of simple Newtonian viscous analyses and call for the application of more realistic rheological interpretation of pseudotachylyte-bearing fault systems in the evaluation and prediction of their slip dynamics. PMID:26124123

  1. Fault rheology beyond frictional melting

    PubMed Central

    Lavallée, Yan; Hirose, Takehiro; Kendrick, Jackie E.; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2015-01-01

    During earthquakes, comminution and frictional heating both contribute to the dissipation of stored energy. With sufficient dissipative heating, melting processes can ensue, yielding the production of frictional melts or “pseudotachylytes.” It is commonly assumed that the Newtonian viscosities of such melts control subsequent fault slip resistance. Rock melts, however, are viscoelastic bodies, and, at high strain rates, they exhibit evidence of a glass transition. Here, we present the results of high-velocity friction experiments on a well-characterized melt that demonstrate how slip in melt-bearing faults can be governed by brittle fragmentation phenomena encountered at the glass transition. Slip analysis using models that incorporate viscoelastic responses indicates that even in the presence of melt, slip persists in the solid state until sufficient heat is generated to reduce the viscosity and allow remobilization in the liquid state. Where a rock is present next to the melt, we note that wear of the crystalline wall rock by liquid fragmentation and agglutination also contributes to the brittle component of these experimentally generated pseudotachylytes. We conclude that in the case of pseudotachylyte generation during an earthquake, slip even beyond the onset of frictional melting is not controlled merely by viscosity but rather by an interplay of viscoelastic forces around the glass transition, which involves a response in the brittle/solid regime of these rock melts. We warn of the inadequacy of simple Newtonian viscous analyses and call for the application of more realistic rheological interpretation of pseudotachylyte-bearing fault systems in the evaluation and prediction of their slip dynamics. PMID:26124123

  2. Mitigation of chloride and sulfate based corrosion in reinforced concrete via electrokinetic nanoparticle treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupwade-Patil, Kunal

    Concrete is a porous material which is susceptible to the migration of highly deleterious species such as chlorides and sulfates. Various external sources, including sea salt spray, direct seawater wetting, deicing salts and chlorides can contaminate reinforced concrete. Chlorides diffuse into the capillary pores of concrete and come into contact with the reinforcement. When chloride concentration at the reinforcement exceeds a threshold level it breaks down the passive oxide layer, leading to chloride induced corrosion. The application of electrokinetics using positively charged nanoparticles for corrosion protection in reinforced concrete structures is an emerging technology. This technique involves the principle of electrophoretic migration of nanoparticles to hinder chloride diffusion in the concrete. The return of chlorides is inhibited by the electrodeposited assembly of the nanoparticles at the reinforcement interface. This work examined the nanoparticle treatment impact on chloride and sulfate induced corrosion in concrete. Electrokinetic Nanoparticle (EN) treatments were conducted on reinforced cylindrical concrete, rectangular ASTM G109 specimens that simulate a bridge deck and full scale beam specimens. EN treatment to mitigate external sulfate attack in concrete was performed on cylindrical concrete specimens. Corrosion results indicated lower corrosion potentials and rates as compared to the untreated specimens. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed a dense microstructure within the EN treated specimens. Chemical analysis (Raman spectroscopy, X ray-diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy FTIR) showed the presence of strength enhancing phases such as calcium aluminate hydrate (C-A-H) and increased amounts of calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) within the EN treated specimens. Strength and porosity results showed an increase in strength and a reduction in porosity among the EN treated specimens. EN treatment acted as a protective

  3. Sodium induces simultaneous changes in cytosolic calcium and pH in salt-tolerant quince protoplasts.

    PubMed

    D'Onofrio, Cladio; Lindberg, Sylvia

    2009-11-01

    Previous experiments with salt-resistant quince BA29 (Cydonia oblonga cv. Mill.) have shown that this cultivar takes up sodium transiently into the cytosol of shoot protoplasts only in the absence of calcium chloride, or at <1mM calcium chloride. Addition of NaCl > or =100mM to single protoplasts from in vitro-cultivated quince in the presence of 1.0mM calcium induced instant changes in the cytosolic concentrations of calcium and protons. These changes were investigated by use of tetra [acetoxymethyl] esters of the fluorescent stilbene chromophores Fura 2 and bis-carboxyethyl-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF), respectively. The cytosolic Ca(2+) dynamics in the protoplasts were dependent on the concentration of NaCl added. The changes in calcium differed in amplitude and final concentration and were correlated in time mainly with changes in pH. Addition of 100-400mM NaCl to the protoplasts caused an oscillating increase in the cytosolic level of calcium, and then a decrease. Addition of mannitol, of equiosmolar concentration to NaCl, did not increase the cytosolic calcium concentration. Moreover, there was no increase in cytosolic calcium when NaCl was added in the presence of calcium binding ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethylether)-N,N,N',N'-tetra acetic acid (EGTA), or lantan or verapamil, two inhibitors of plasma membrane calcium channels. Therefore, we conclude that, in salt-resistant quince, sodium induces an influx of calcium into the cytosol by plasma membrane calcium channels, and a simultaneous increase in cytosolic pH. Because these changes were obtained in the presence of 1mM calcium in the medium, they were not due to sodium uptake into the cytosol. PMID:19556023

  4. Bulk nanostructured alloys prepared by flux melting and melt solidification

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, T.D.; Schwarz, R.B.; Zhang, X.

    2005-10-03

    We have prepared bulk nanostructured Ag{sub 60}Cu{sub 40} alloys by a flux-melting and melt-solidification technique. The flux purifies the melts, leading to a large undercooling and nanometer-sized microstructure. The as-prepared alloys are composed of nanolayered Ag and Cu within micrometer-sized grains. The bulk nanostructured alloys have an ultimate tensile strength of approximately 560 MPa, similar yield strength in tension and compression, elongation of 7% in tension, strain hardening exponent of 0.1, and relatively high mechanical and thermal stability up to 400 deg. C.

  5. Oscillatory chloride current evoked by temperature jumps during muscarinic and serotonergic activation in Xenopus oocyte.

    PubMed Central

    Miledi, R; Parker, I; Sumikawa, K

    1987-01-01

    1. Membrane currents were recorded from voltage-clamped oocytes of Xenopus laevis, during temperature jumps imposed by a heating light. Resting oocytes usually showed little response, but large oscillatory membrane currents developed in response to cooling steps applied during activation of 'native' muscarinic receptors. 2. Similar temperature jump (Tjump) currents were seen during activation of oscillatory chloride currents mediated by muscarinic acetylcholine (ACh), serotonin, glutamate and noradrenaline receptors, expressed in the oocyte following injection with messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) from rat brain. The Tjump response during muscarinic activation was selectively blocked by atropine, and that during serotonergic activation by methysergide. In contrast, the 'smooth' membrane currents elicited by nicotinic ACh, kainate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were not accompanied by Tjump responses. 3. Rapid cooling of the oocyte gave larger Tjump currents than a gradual cooling over a few seconds. The size of the Tjump current elicited by a fixed cooling step increased linearly with the preceding time of warming, becoming maximal at intervals greater than about 100 s. 4. The Tjump current was inward at a clamp potential of -60 mV and reversed direction at about -22 mV, which corresponds to the chloride equilibrium potential in the oocyte. In low-chloride solution the reversal potential was shifted to more positive potentials, but it was almost unchanged by changes in potassium and sodium concentration. The size of the Tjump current decreased as the membrane potential was made more negative than about -40 mV. 5. The period of oscillation of the Tjump current increased with decreasing temperature, following a Q10 of 3.15. Depolarization also caused a small increase in period. 6. The Tjump current was not abolished in calcium-free solution, or by addition of manganese or lanthanum to the bathing solution. However, it was abolished by intracellular injection of

  6. Commercial Zone Melting Ingots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yun; Xie, Hongyao; Shu, Shengcheng; Yan, Yonggao; Li, Han; Tang, Xinfeng

    2014-06-01

    Bismuth telluride-based compounds have been extensively utilized for commercial application. However, thermoelectric materials must suffer numerous mechanical vibrations and thermal stresses while in service, making it equally important to discuss the mechanical properties, especially at high temperature. In this study, the compressive and bending strengths of Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 commercial zone melting (ZM) ingots were investigated at 25, 100, and 200 °C, respectively. Due to the obvious anisotropy of materials prepared by ZM method, the effect of anisotropy on the strengths was also explored. Two-parameter Weibull distribution was employed to fit a series of values acquired by a universal testing machine. And digital speckle photography was applied to record the strain field evolution, providing visual observation of surface strain. The compressive and bending strengths along ZM direction were approximately three times as large as those perpendicular to the ZM direction independent of the temperature, indicating a weak van der Waals bond along the c axis.

  7. The Human Genomic Melting Map

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fang; Tøstesen, Eivind; Sundet, Jostein K; Jenssen, Tor-Kristian; Bock, Christoph; Jerstad, Geir Ivar; Thilly, William G; Hovig, Eivind

    2007-01-01

    In a living cell, the antiparallel double-stranded helix of DNA is a dynamically changing structure. The structure relates to interactions between and within the DNA strands, and the array of other macromolecules that constitutes functional chromatin. It is only through its changing conformations that DNA can organize and structure a large number of cellular functions. In particular, DNA must locally uncoil, or melt, and become single-stranded for DNA replication, repair, recombination, and transcription to occur. It has previously been shown that this melting occurs cooperatively, whereby several base pairs act in concert to generate melting bubbles, and in this way constitute a domain that behaves as a unit with respect to local DNA single-strandedness. We have applied a melting map calculation to the complete human genome, which provides information about the propensities of forming local bubbles determined from the whole sequence, and present a first report on its basic features, the extent of cooperativity, and correlations to various physical and biological features of the human genome. Globally, the melting map covaries very strongly with GC content. Most importantly, however, cooperativity of DNA denaturation causes this correlation to be weaker at resolutions fewer than 500 bps. This is also the resolution level at which most structural and biological processes occur, signifying the importance of the informational content inherent in the genomic melting map. The human DNA melting map may be further explored at http://meltmap.uio.no. PMID:17511513

  8. Chloride Transporting CLC Proteins1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pusch, Michael

    In the early 1980s, Chris Miller and colleagues described a curious "double-barreled" chloride channel from the electric organ of Torpedo fish reconstituted in planar lipid bilayers (Miller and White, 1980). Single-channel openings occurred in "bursts" separated by long closures. A single burst was characterized by the presence of two open conductance levels of equal size and the gating (i.e., openings and closings) during a burst could be almost perfectly described as a superposition of two identical and independent conductances that switched between open and closed states with voltage-dependent rates α and β (Hanke and Miller, 1983) (Fig. 8.1).

  9. Oxomemazine hydro­chloride

    PubMed Central

    Siddegowda, M. S.; Butcher, Ray J.; Akkurt, Mehmet; Yathirajan, H. S.; Ramesh, A. R.

    2011-01-01

    In the title compound [systematic name: 3-(5,5-dioxo­phen­othia­zin-10-yl)-N,N,2-trimethyl­propanaminium chloride], C18H23N2O2S+·Cl−, the dihedral angle between the two outer aromatic rings of the phenothia­zine unit is 30.5 (2)°. In the crystal, the components are linked by N—H⋯Cl and C—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds and C—H⋯π inter­actions. PMID:22090928

  10. Thermodynamic behavior of rare metals in the melting process of municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration residues.

    PubMed

    Jung, Chang-Hwan; Osako, Masahiro

    2007-09-01

    This study aims to identify the thermodynamic behavior of rare metal elements during the melting process of municipal solid waste incineration residues. The fate of several selected rare metal elements was investigated using two approaches: experimental and thermodynamic equilibrium calculation at two actual melting plants. The results revealed that Ag, Bi, Ga, Ge, In, Pd, Sb, Te, and Tl are readily volatilized as chloride and/or gaseous forms and then condensed in melting furnace fly ash. On the other hand, Cr, Ni, Ta, V, and Zr tend to mostly remain in molten slag. Sn is volatilized as SnS (g) under reducing conditions while volatilization is suppressed under oxidizing conditions. Thermodynamically, total volatilization of Mn as MnCl2 (g) occurred with highly available chlorine under oxidizing conditions. However, at the actual plants, only a small proportion was volatilized. As for Co, Mo, and W, no volatilization occurred at the actual plants although the calculations suggest that these elements can form volatile metal chloride and volatilize. Non-equilibrium and heterogeneity of the actual plant melting furnace could explain the discrepancy. This study provided a good qualitative view of the behavior of rare metals in the melting process, but further investigation is required to produce a more accurate simulation and to resolve the discrepancy. PMID:17524456

  11. [Sodium chloride 0.9%: nephrotoxic crystalloid?].

    PubMed

    Dombre, Vincent; De Seigneux, Sophie; Schiffer, Eduardo

    2016-02-01

    Sodium chloride 0.9%, often incorrectly called physiological saline, contains higher concentration of chloride compared to plasma. It is known that the administration of sodium chloride 0.9% can cause hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis in a reproducible manner. The elevated chloride concentration in 0.9% NaCl solution can also adversely affect renal perfusion. This effect is thought to be induced by hyperchloremia that causes renal artery vasoconstriction. For these reasons, the use of 0.9% NaCl solution is raising attention and some would advocate the use of a more "physiological" solution, such as balanced solutions that contain a level of chloride closer to that of plasma. Few prospective, randomized, controlled trials are available today and most were done in a perioperative setting. Some studies suggest that the chloride excess in 0.9% NaCl solution could have clinical consequences; however, this remains to be established by quality randomized controlled trials. PMID:26999998

  12. Chloride transport in human red cells.

    PubMed Central

    Dalmark, M

    1975-01-01

    1. The chloride equilibrium flux (chloride self-exchange) was determined by measuring the rate of 36Cl efflux from radioactively labelled human red cells. The cellular chloride concentration was varied between 5 and 700 mM by the nystatin technique (Cass & Dalmark, 1973). The chloride transport capacity was not affected by the nystatin technique. 2. The chloride equilibrium flux showed saturation kinetics in the pH range between 6-2 and 9-2 (0 degrees C). The chloride transport decreased at chloride concentrations higher than those which gave the maximum transport. 3. The apparent half-saturation constant, (K1/2), depended on the pH and whether the chloride transport was perceived as a function of the chloride concentration in the medium or in the cell water. The (K1/2)m increased and the (K1/2)c decreased with increasing pH. The dependence of the chloride transport on the chloride concentration was described by Michaelis-Menten kinetics at pH 7-2, but at values of pH outside pH 7-8 S-shaped or steeper graphs were observed. 4. The chloride equilibrium flux varied with the pH at constant chloride concentration in the medium (pH 5-7-9-5). The transport had a bell-shaped pH dependence at chloride concentrations below 200 mM. At chloride concentrations between 300 and 600 mM the chloride transport increased with increasing pH to reach a plateau around pH 8. The position of the acidic branches of the pH graphs was independent of the chloride concentration (25-600 mM), but the position of the alkaline branches moved towards higher values of pH with increasing chloride concentration (5-150 mM). Thus, the position of the pH optimum increased with increasing chloride concentration. The chloride transport at low pH values was a function of the inverse second power of the hydrogen ion concentration. The pK of the groups which caused the inhibition was approximately 6 and independent of the temperature (0-18 degrees C). 5. The chloride equilibrium flux as a function of

  13. Impact of sulfate and chloride on sediment phosphorus release in the Yangtze Estuary Reservoir, China.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiaodan; He, Yiliang; Zhang, Bo; Hassan, Younas; George, Kirumba

    2013-01-01

    The impact of sulfate (SO4(2-)) and chloride (Cl(-)) on phosphorus (P) release from sediment in the drinking water reservoir of Yangtze River Estuary was studied systematically. A significant correlation between sodium (Na(+)), Cl(-), SO4(2-) and total P was found, suggesting that P was directly or indirectly associated with these ions. SO4(2-) and Cl(-) were important factors that had an impact on P release from the sediment. The results showed that both sulfate and chloride enhanced phosphorus release from sediment. In the sulfate treatment, the decrease of organic phosphorus (OP) suggested that the mineralization of OP enhanced P release from sediment. Phosphonate was the main factor affecting the P release under sulfate condition. In chloride treatment, the sediment composition of iron (Fe), aluminum (Al), calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) increased. The P fractions of Fe/Al-P, Ca-P and OP in sediment also increased. However, the increase of P was unstable after chloride treatment and was easy to release under disturbance. In this study, it was observed that sulfate and chloride could increase the risk of eutrophication in the Yangtze River Estuary drinking water reservoir. PMID:23579829

  14. An electrochemical study of uranium behaviour in LiCl-KCl-CsCl eutectic melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maltsev, D. S.; Volkovich, V. A.; Vasin, B. D.; Vladykin, E. N.

    2015-12-01

    Electrochemical behaviour of uranium was studied in the low melting ternary LiCl-KCl-CsCl eutectic at 573-1073 K employing potentiometry, cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometry. Uranium electrode potentials were measured directly and U(III)/U(IV) red-ox potentials were determined from the results of cyclic voltammetry measurements. Formal standard electrode and red-ox potentials of uranium, and thermodynamic properties of uranium chlorides in the studied melt were calculated. Diffusion coefficients of U(III) and U(IV) ions were determined using cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometry.

  15. Melting granites to make granites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Bruna B.; Sawyer, Edward W.; Janasi, Valdecir de A.

    2014-05-01

    Large-scale partial melting in the continental crust is widely attributed to fluid-absent incongruent breakdown of hydrous minerals in the case of pelites, greywackes and meta-mafic rocks. Granite is a far more common rock in the continental crust, but fluid-absent hydrate-breakdown melting is unlikely to result in significant melting in granites because of their low modal abundance of mica or amphibole. Experiments show that fluid-present melting can produce ~30% melt at low temperatures (690°C). Thus, granites and leucogranites can be very fertile if H2O-present melting occurs via reactions such as plagioclase + quartz + K-feldspar + H2O = melt, because of their high modal proportions of the reactant phases. Our study investigates the Kinawa Migmatite in the São Francisco Craton, southeastern Brazil. This migmatite is derived from an Archaean TTG sequence and can be divided into; 1) pink diatexites, 2) leucosomes, 3) grey gneisses and 4) amphibolites. The migmatite records upper-amphibolite to beginning of granulite facies metamorphism in a P-T range from 5.1-6.6 kbar and ~650-780°C. Pink diatexites are the most abundant rocks, and their appearance varies depending on the amount of melt they contained. Three types are recognised: residual diatexites (low melt fraction (Mf)), schlieren diatexites (moderate Mf) and homogeneous diatexites (high Mf). They are very closely related spatially in the field, with mostly transitional contacts. There is a sequence with progressive loss of ferromagnesian minerals, schollen and schlieren through the sequence to the most melt-rich parts of the diatexites as magmatic flow became more intense. There are fewer ferromagnesian minerals, thus the melt becomes cleaner (more leucocratic) and, because the schlieren have disaggregated the aspect is more homogeneous. These parts are texturally similar to leucogranites in which the biotite is randomly distributed and pre-melting structures are completely destroyed. The likely protolith

  16. Modelling of calcium phosphates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderin Hidalgo, Lazaro Juan

    This work is a contribution to a large scale joint experimental and theoretical effort to understand the biological properties of silicon doped calcium phosphates undertaken by Queen's University and Millenium Biologix Corp. We have modeled calcium phosphates and silicon doped calcium phosphates in close relation to experiment in order to study possible location of silicon in the lattice. Density functional theory has been used to study the structural and dynamical properties of small systems of calcium phosphates to gain preliminary information on phosphates and the performance of the theoretical methods. The same methods were used to investigate structural and electronic properties of larger scale calcium phosphate systems, while a classical shell model was developed to investigate the dynamical properties of such large and complex systems. In the context of the shell model a method was devised to calculate the dynamical matrix corrected for the long range Coulomb interaction in the long wave length limit. It was necessary also to develop a theoretical expression for the dielectric function in the context of the shell model. Infrared spectra and thermal parameters were calculated based on these methods. We also propose some directions for future research.

  17. Influence of hydrochlorothiazide on urinary calcium oxalate relative supersaturation in healthy young adult female domestic shorthaired cats.

    PubMed

    Hezel, Alisha; Bartges, Joseph W; Kirk, Claudia A; Cox, Sherry; Geyer, Nicole; Moyers, Tammy; Hayes, Jimmy

    2007-01-01

    Hydrochlorothiazide (1 mg/kg PO q12h) or placebo was administered to healthy cats for 2 weeks in a masked, placebo-controlled, crossover-design study, and 24-hour urine samples were collected. When cats received hydrochlorothiazide, 24-hour urine volume, ammonia, chloride, creatinine, magnesium, oxalic acid, phosphate, potassium, and sodium were significantly higher than when cats received placebo. Hydrochlorothiazide was associated with significantly lower urinary saturation for calcium oxalate, but no difference was found in 24-hour urine calcium and citrate, urinary saturation for struvite, or blood ionized calcium. Hydrochlorothiazide decreased urinary saturation for calcium oxalate and could be useful in managing cats with calcium oxalate uroliths. Results of this study, however, should not be extrapolated to cats that form calcium oxalate uroliths. PMID:18183543

  18. Indium-111 chloride imaging with ununited fractures

    SciTech Connect

    Sayle, B.A.; Fawcett, H.D.; Yudt, W.M.; Wang, S.C.; Mader, J.T.; Cierny, G. 3d.

    1987-03-01

    Twenty patients with ununited fractures and a suspicion of infection had In-111 chloride imaging. Surgically obtained cultures were positive for infection in 12 and negative in eight patients. In-111 chloride images were positive in all 12 patients with infection but also were positive in six of the patients with negative cultures. It is not possible to differentiate infected from noninfected ununited fractures by In-111 chloride imaging.

  19. Metal chloride cathode for a battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); Distefano, Salvador (Inventor); Bankston, C. Perry (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A method of fabricating a rechargeable battery is disclosed which includes a positive electrode which contains a chloride of a selected metal when the electrode is in its active state. The improvement comprises fabricating the positive electrode by: providing a porous matrix composed of a metal; providing a solution of the chloride of the selected metal; and impregnating the matrix with the chloride from the solution.

  20. Melting of iron-aluminide alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Sikka, V.K.

    1990-01-01

    The melting of Fe{sub 3}Al-based alloys at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and commercial vendors is described. The melting processes evaluated includes are melting, air-induction melting (AIM), vacuum-induction melting (VIM), and electroslag remelting (ESR). The quality of the ingots studied are base on internal soundness and the surface finish obtained. The ingots were analyzed for recovery of various elements during melting. The impurity levels observed in the alloys by various melting processes were compared. Recommendations are made for viable processes for commercial melting of these alloys. 1 ref., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Uranium (III) precipitation in molten chloride by wet argon sparging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigier, Jean-François; Laplace, Annabelle; Renard, Catherine; Miguirditchian, Manuel; Abraham, Francis

    2016-06-01

    In the context of pyrochemical processes for nuclear fuel treatment, the precipitation of uranium (III) in molten salt LiCl-CaCl2 (30-70 mol%) at 705 °C is studied. First, this molten chloride is characterized with the determination of the water dissociation constant. With a value of 10-4.0, the salt has oxoacid properties. Then, the uranium (III) precipitation using wet argon sparging is studied. The salt is prepared using UCl3 precursor. At the end of the precipitation, the salt is totally free of solubilized uranium. The main part is converted into UO2 powder but some uranium is lost during the process due to the volatility of uranium chloride. The main impurity of the resulting powder is calcium. The consequences of oxidative and reductive conditions on precipitation are studied. Finally, coprecipitation of uranium (III) and neodymium (III) is studied, showing a higher sensitivity of uranium (III) than neodymium (III) to precipitation.

  2. Enrofloxacin hydro-chloride dihydrate.

    PubMed

    Miranda-Calderón, Jorge E; Gutiérrez, Lilia; Flores-Alamo, Marcos; García-Gutiérrez, Ponciano; Sumano, Héctor

    2014-04-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C19H23FN3O3 (+)·Cl(-)·2H2O [systematic name: 4-(3-carb-oxy-1-cyclo-propyl-6-fluoro-4-oxo-1,4-di-hydro-quin-o-lin-7-yl)-1-ethyl-piperazin-1-ium chloride dihydrate], consists of two independent monocations of the protonated enrofloxacin, two chloride anions and four water mol-ecules. In the cations, the piperazinium rings adopt chair conformations and the dihedral angles between the cyclo-propyl ring and the 10-membered quinoline ring system are 56.55 (2) and 51.11 (2)°. An intra-molecular O-H⋯O hydrogen bond is observed in each cation. In the crystal, the components are connected via O-H⋯Cl, N-H⋯Cl and O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, and a π-π inter-action between the benzene rings [centroid-centroid distance = 3.6726 (13) Å], resulting in a three-dimensional array. PMID:24826167

  3. Irreversible gettering of thionyl chloride

    SciTech Connect

    LeRoy Whinnery; Steve Goods; George Buffleben; Tim Sheppodd

    1999-11-01

    The authors have successfully demonstrated the irreversible gettering of SOCl{sub 2} by ZnO/ASZMTEDA carbon over a modest temperature range. While thionyl chloride decomposition was slow below {minus}20 C, lower temperatures are expected to be less of a problem than at higher temperatures. The approximately 30 cc of thionyl chloride in a typical D-cell would require 50 g of ZnO and 107 g of ASZMTEDA carbon. Fortunately, since it is unlikely to happen at all, it is common practice to assume only one cell will fail (leak) in a given battery pack. So, one charge of getter can protect the whole battery pack. In summary, ZnO/ASZMTEDA carbon fulfills all of the requirements of an ideal getter including: irreversible binding or reaction with SOCl{sub 2}, high volumetric uptake capacity, high efficiency, non-volatile, air stable, insensitive to poisoning, non-toxic, cheap, non-corrosive, and the gettering product is not a liquid or oil that could block further flow or accessibility. Future work in this area includes incorporation of the ZnO and carbon into a structural open-celled porous monolith, as well as, gettering for other types of batteries (e.g., Li/MnO{sub 2}).

  4. Calcium isotopic compositions of mid-ocean ridge basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, H.; Zhang, Z.; Sun, W.; Wang, G. Q.

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that Earth's mantle has heterogeneous calcium isotopic compositions. But the reason why mantle has its heterogeneity remains uncertain. In general, δ44/40Ca values of mantle xenolith samples have a variation of >0.45‰. While ultramafic rocks, especially dunites, have higher δ44/40Ca values than volcanic rocks, and there is a positive correlation between δ44/40Ca and Ca/Mg. These phenomena imply that the heterogeneity of Ca isotopic compositions of mantle xenolith samples might result from different degrees of melt extraction, as indicated by large Ca isotopic fractionation between co-existing clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene. However, because ancient marine carbonate has its own unique calcium isotopic characteristics, recycling of even a small amount of ancient marine carbonates into the mantle could also cause the heterogeneity of Ca isotopes in Earth's mantle. This could be the reason why oceanic island basalts (OIB) have lighter Ca isotopic compositions than the mantle xenolith. Thus, the lighter Ca isotopic compositions in the mantle source cannot only be ascribed to magmatic processes. Therefore, it is more important to know calcium isotopic characteristics during partial melting and oceanic crust contamination.Mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) are formed from the partial melts of the upper mantle and are rarely affected by crustal contamination. Different types of MORB, including D-MORB, N-MORB and E-MORB, have experienced different degrees of partial melting and contamination of enriched end-members. Here we report calcium isotopic characteristic of different types of MORB, we believe it will be very helpful to understand the behaviors of Ca isotopes during partial melting and it is possible to provide further information to discover the reason why calcium isotopic compositions is heterogeneous in Earth's mantle. This work was supported by Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41373007, No. 41490632 and No. 91328204

  5. Production of chlorine from chloride salts

    DOEpatents

    Rohrmann, Charles A.

    1981-01-01

    A process for converting chloride salts and sulfuric acid to sulfate salts and elemental chlorine is disclosed. A chloride salt and sulfuric acid are combined in a furnace where they react to produce a sulfate salt and hydrogen chloride. Hydrogen chloride from the furnace contacts a molten salt mixture containing an oxygen compound of vanadium, an alkali metal sulfate and an alkali metal pyrosulfate to recover elemental chlorine. In the absence of an oxygen-bearing gas during the contacting, the vanadium is reduced, but is regenerated to its active higher valence state by separately contacting the molten salt mixture with an oxygen-bearing gas.

  6. Chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, O.M.; Hansen, P.F.; Coats, A.M.; Glasser, F.P.

    1999-09-01

    In this paper chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar is followed by electron probe microanalysis. The influence of several paste and exposure parameters on chloride ingress are examined (e.g., water-cement ratio, silica fume addition, exposure time, and temperature). The measurements are modelled on Fick's law modified by a term for chloride binding. Inclusion of chloride binding significantly improves the profile shape of the modelled ingress profiles. The presence of fine aggregate and formation of interfacial transition zones at paste-aggregate boundaries does not significantly affect diffusion rates.

  7. Fabrication Of Metal Chloride Cathodes By Sintering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Di Stefano, Salvador; Bankston, C. Perry

    1992-01-01

    Transition-metal chloride cathodes for use in high-temperature rechargeable sodium batteries prepared by sintering transition-metal powders mixed with sodium chloride. Need for difficult and dangerous chlorination process eliminated. Proportions of transition metal and sodium chloride in mixture adjusted to suit specific requirements. Cathodes integral to sodium/metal-chloride batteries, which have advantages over sodium/sulfur batteries including energy densities, increased safety, reduced material and thermal-management problems, and ease of operation and assembly. Being evaluated for supplying electrical power during peak demand and electric vehicles.

  8. Effect of Application of Ammonium Chloride and Calcium Chloride on Alfalfa Cation-Anion Content and Yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Periparturient hypocalcemia, or milk fever, occurs in dairy cattle when their dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) is too high. DCAD can be favorably altered to prevent milk fever by either decreasing K and Na or increasing Cl and S in forages for cows in late gestation. The objective of this st...

  9. [Mitochondria, calcium homeostasis and calcium signaling].

    PubMed

    Zavodnik, I B

    2016-03-01

    Са2+ is a very important and versatile intracellular signal which controls numerous biochemical and physiological (pathophysiological) processes in the cell. Good evidence exists that mitochondria are sensors, decoders and regulators of calcium signaling. Precise regulation of calcium signaling in the cell involves numerous molecular targets, which induce and decode changes of Са2+ concentrations in the cell (pumps, channels, Са2+-binding proteins, Са2+-dependent enzymes, localized in the cytoplasm and organelles). Mitochondrial Са2+ uniporter accumulates excess of Са2+ in mitochondria, while Na+/Са2+- and H+/Са2+-antiporters extrude Са2+ in the cytoplasm. Mitochondrial Са2+ overloading results in formation of mitochondria permeability transition pores which play an important role in cell death under many pathological conditions. Mitochondria regulate Са2+ homeostasis and control important cellular functions such as metabolism, proliferation, survival. Identification of cellular and mitochondrial Ca2+ transporters and understanding their functional mechanisms open up new prospects for their using as therapeutic targets. PMID:27420625

  10. Calcium and olfactory transduction.

    PubMed

    Winegar, B D; Rosick, E R; Schafer, R

    1988-01-01

    1. Inorganic cations, organic calcium antagonists, and calmodulin antagonists were applied to olfactory epithelia of frogs (Rana pipiens) while recording electroolfactogram (EOG) responses. 2. Inorganic cations inhibited EOGs in a rank order, reflecting their calcium channel blocking potency: La3+ greater than Zn2+ greater than Cd2+ greater than Al3+ greater than Ca2+ greater than Sr2+ greater than Co2+ greater than Ba2+ greater than Mg2+. Barium ion significantly enhanced EOGs immediately following application. 3. Diltiazem and verapamil produced dose-dependent EOG inhibition. 4. Calmodulin antagonists inhibited EOGs without correlation to their anti-calmodulin potency. PMID:2904344

  11. Calcium metabolism in microgravity.

    PubMed

    Heer, M; Kamps, N; Biener, C; Korr, C; Boerger, A; Zittermann, A; Stehle, P; Drummer, C

    1999-09-01

    Unloading of weight bearing bones as induced by microgravity or immobilization has significant impacts on the calcium and bone metabolism and is the most likely cause for space osteoporosis. During a 4.5 to 6 month stay in space most of the astronauts develop a reduction in bone mineral density in spine, femoral neck, trochanter, and pelvis of 1%-1.6% measured by Dual Energy X-ray Absorption (DEXA). Dependent on the mission length and the individual turnover rates of the astronauts it can even reach individual losses of up to 14% in the femoral neck. Osteoporosis itself is defined as the deterioration of bone tissue leading to enhanced bone fragility and to a consequent increase in fracture risk. Thinking of long-term missions to Mars or interplanetary missions for years, space osteoporosis is one of the major concerns for manned spaceflight. However, decrease in bone density can be initiated differently. It either can be caused by increases in bone formation and bone resorption resulting in a net bone loss, as obtained in fast looser postmenopausal osteoporosis. On the other hand decrease in bone formation and increase in bone resorption also leads to bone losses as obtained in slow looser postmenopausal osteoporosis or in Anorexia Nervosa patients. Biomarkers of bone turnover measured during several missions indicated that the pattern of space osteoporosis is very similar to the pattern of Anorexia Nervosa patients or slow looser postmenopausal osteoporosis. However, beside unloading, other risk factors for space osteoporosis exist such as stress, nutrition, fluid shifts, dehydration and bone perfusion. Especially nutritional factors may contribute considerably to the development of osteoporosis. From earthbound studies it is known that calcium supplementation in women and men can prevent bone loss of 1% bone per year. Based on these results we studied the calcium intake during several European missions and performed an experiment during the German MIR 97 mission

  12. Scaleable Clean Aluminum Melting Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Q.; Das, S.K.

    2008-02-15

    The project entitled 'Scaleable Clean Aluminum Melting Systems' was a Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAs) between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Secat Inc. The three-year project was initially funded for the first year and was then canceled due to funding cuts at the DOE headquarters. The limited funds allowed the research team to visit industrial sites and investigate the status of using immersion heaters for aluminum melting applications. Primary concepts were proposed on the design of furnaces using immersion heaters for melting. The proposed project can continue if the funding agency resumes the funds to this research. The objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate integrated, retrofitable technologies for clean melting systems for aluminum in both the Metal Casting and integrated aluminum processing industries. The scope focused on immersion heating coupled with metal circulation systems that provide significant opportunity for energy savings as well as reduction of melt loss in the form of dross. The project aimed at the development and integration of technologies that would enable significant reduction in the energy consumption and environmental impacts of melting aluminum through substitution of immersion heating for the conventional radiant burner methods used in reverberatory furnaces. Specifically, the program would couple heater improvements with furnace modeling that would enable cost-effective retrofits to a range of existing furnace sizes, reducing the economic barrier to application.

  13. Rapid reduction of titanium dioxide nano-particles by reduction with a calcium reductant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Yoshida, Masumi; Matsuura, Shiki; Natsui, Shungo; Tsuji, Etsuji; Habazaki, Hiroki; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.

    2014-09-01

    Micro-, submicron-, and nano-scale titanium dioxide particles were reduced by reduction with a metallic calcium reductant in calcium chloride molten salt at 1173 K, and the reduction mechanism of the oxides by the calcium reductant was explored. These oxide particles, metallic calcium as a reducing agent, and calcium chloride as a molten salt were placed in a titanium crucible and heated under an argon atmosphere. Titanium dioxide was reduced to metallic titanium through a calcium titanate and lower titanium oxide, and the materials were sintered together to form a micro-porous titanium structure in molten salt at high temperature. The reduction rate of titanium dioxide was observed to increase with decreasing particle size; accordingly, the residual oxygen content in the reduced titanium decreases. The obtained micro-porous titanium appeared dark gray in color because of its low surface reflection. Micro-porous metallic titanium with a low oxygen content (0.42 wt%) and a large surface area (1.794 m2 g-1) can be successfully obtained by reduction under optimal conditions.

  14. XAFS Studies of Ni Ta and Nb Chlorides in the Ionic Liquid 1-Ethyl-3-Methyl Imidazolium Chloride / Aluminum Chloride

    SciTech Connect

    W OGrady; D Roeper; K Pandya; G Cheek

    2011-12-31

    The structures of anhydrous nickel, niobium, and tantalum chlorides have been investigated in situ in acidic and basic ionic liquids (ILs) of 1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride (EMIC)/AlCl{sub 3} with X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The coordination of NiCl{sub 2} changes from tetrahedral in basic solution to octahedral in acidic solution. The NiCl{sub 2} is a strong Lewis acid in that it can induce the AlCl{sub 3} to share its chlorides in the highly acidic IL, forming a structure with six near Cl{sup -} ions and eight further distant Al ions which share the chloride ions surrounding the Ni{sup 2+}. When Nb{sub 2}Cl{sub 10}, a dimer, is added to the acidic or basic solution, the dimer breaks apart and forms two species. In the acid solution, two trigonal bipyramids are formed with five equal chloride distances, while in the basic solution, a square pyramid with four chlorides forming a square base and one shorter axial chloride bond. Ta{sub 2}Cl{sub 10} is also a dimer and divides into half in the acidic solution and forms two trigonal bipyramids. In the basic solution, the dimer breaks apart but the species formed is sufficiently acidic that it attracts two additional chloride ions and forms a seven coordinated tantalum species.

  15. Highly refractory peridotites in Songshugou, Qinling orogen: Insights into partial melting and melt/fluid-rock reactions in forearc mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yi; Song, Shuguang; Su, Li; Jung, Haemyeong; Niu, Yaoling

    2016-05-01

    The Songshugou ultramafic massif is located in the eastern segment of the Qinling orogenic belt, central China. It is a large spinel peridotite body dominated by coarse-grained, porphyroclastic, and fine-grained dunite with minor harzburgite, olivine clinopyroxenite, and banded/podiform chromitite. The compositions of the bulk-rock dunite and harzburgite, and the constituent olivine and spinel, together with the textures and chemical characteristics of multiphase mineral inclusions, point to the highly refractory nature of these rocks with complex histories of high-temperature boninite melt generation and boninitic melt-rock reaction, probably in a young, warm, and volatile-rich forearc lithospheric mantle setting. Additionally, a subsequent low-temperature fluid-rock reaction is also recorded by TiO2-rich spinel with Ti solubility/mobility enhanced by chloride- or fluoride-rich subduction-zone fluids as advocated by Rapp et al. (2010). The olivine clinopyroxenite, on the other hand, was likely crystallized from a residual boninitic melt that had reacted with harzburgitic residues. The ubiquitous occurrences of hydrous minerals, such as anthophyllite, tremolite, Cr-chlorite, and serpentine (stable at lower P-T crustal conditions) in the matrix, suggest that further low-temperature fluid-rock reaction (or retrograde metamorphism) has affected the original volatile-poor peridotites either in a mature and cool subduction zone, or in a continental crust during their exhumation into the Qinling collisional orogeny at early Paleozoic era, or both. The prolonged and intense ductile/brittle deformation can decrease the mineral grain size through dynamic recrystallization and fracturing, and thus aid the fluid-rock reaction or retrograde metamorphism and mineral chemical re-equilibration processes. Therefore, the Songshugou peridotites present a good example for understanding the petrogenesis and evolution of the mantle wedge, with the emphasis on the complex partial

  16. Calcium-based multi-element chemistry for grid-scale electrochemical energy storage

    PubMed Central

    Ouchi, Takanari; Kim, Hojong; Spatocco, Brian L.; Sadoway, Donald R.

    2016-01-01

    Calcium is an attractive material for the negative electrode in a rechargeable battery due to its low electronegativity (high cell voltage), double valence, earth abundance and low cost; however, the use of calcium has historically eluded researchers due to its high melting temperature, high reactivity and unfavorably high solubility in molten salts. Here we demonstrate a long-cycle-life calcium-metal-based rechargeable battery for grid-scale energy storage. By deploying a multi-cation binary electrolyte in concert with an alloyed negative electrode, calcium solubility in the electrolyte is suppressed and operating temperature is reduced. These chemical mitigation strategies also engage another element in energy storage reactions resulting in a multi-element battery. These initial results demonstrate how the synergistic effects of deploying multiple chemical mitigation strategies coupled with the relaxation of the requirement of a single itinerant ion can unlock calcium-based chemistries and produce a battery with enhanced performance. PMID:27001915

  17. Calcium-based multi-element chemistry for grid-scale electrochemical energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouchi, Takanari; Kim, Hojong; Spatocco, Brian L.; Sadoway, Donald R.

    2016-03-01

    Calcium is an attractive material for the negative electrode in a rechargeable battery due to its low electronegativity (high cell voltage), double valence, earth abundance and low cost; however, the use of calcium has historically eluded researchers due to its high melting temperature, high reactivity and unfavorably high solubility in molten salts. Here we demonstrate a long-cycle-life calcium-metal-based rechargeable battery for grid-scale energy storage. By deploying a multi-cation binary electrolyte in concert with an alloyed negative electrode, calcium solubility in the electrolyte is suppressed and operating temperature is reduced. These chemical mitigation strategies also engage another element in energy storage reactions resulting in a multi-element battery. These initial results demonstrate how the synergistic effects of deploying multiple chemical mitigation strategies coupled with the relaxation of the requirement of a single itinerant ion can unlock calcium-based chemistries and produce a battery with enhanced performance.

  18. Calcium-based multi-element chemistry for grid-scale electrochemical energy storage.

    PubMed

    Ouchi, Takanari; Kim, Hojong; Spatocco, Brian L; Sadoway, Donald R

    2016-01-01

    Calcium is an attractive material for the negative electrode in a rechargeable battery due to its low electronegativity (high cell voltage), double valence, earth abundance and low cost; however, the use of calcium has historically eluded researchers due to its high melting temperature, high reactivity and unfavorably high solubility in molten salts. Here we demonstrate a long-cycle-life calcium-metal-based rechargeable battery for grid-scale energy storage. By deploying a multi-cation binary electrolyte in concert with an alloyed negative electrode, calcium solubility in the electrolyte is suppressed and operating temperature is reduced. These chemical mitigation strategies also engage another element in energy storage reactions resulting in a multi-element battery. These initial results demonstrate how the synergistic effects of deploying multiple chemical mitigation strategies coupled with the relaxation of the requirement of a single itinerant ion can unlock calcium-based chemistries and produce a battery with enhanced performance. PMID:27001915

  19. CALCIUM-INDUCED SUPRAMOLECULAR STRUCTURES IN THE CALCIUM CASEINATE SYSTEM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The molecular details deciphering the spontaneous calcium-induced protein aggregation process in the calcium caseinate system remain obscure. Understanding this complex process could lead to potential new applications of this important food ingredient. In this work, we studied calcium-induced supra...

  20. Preparation and detection of calcium alginate/bone powder hybrid microbeads for in vitro culture of ADSCs.

    PubMed

    Song, Kedong; Yan, Xinyu; Li, Shixiao; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Hong; Wang, Ling; Lim, Mayasari; Liu, Tianqing

    2015-01-01

    Calcium alginate microbeads have been widely used in tissue engineering application, due to their excellent biocompatibility, biodegradability, enhanced mechanical strength and toughness. Bone powder containing abundant hydroxylapatite, type I collagen and growth factors such as BMP2 and BMP4, possesses good osteoinductive activity. Herein, a hybrid calcium alginate/bone powder microbead was therefore prepared. Afterwards, different seeding density of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) in these hybrid microbeads was discussed systematically for further in vitro expansion. Optimised microbeads suitable for in vitro expansion and differentiation of ADSCs were prepared using the droplet method under overall considering suitable concentrations of calcium alginate and calcium chloride as well as the density of bone powder through an orthogonal experiment. The results showed that the concentration of sodium alginate had the most influence on inside mass transfer and mechanical strength of the hybrid microbeads, secondly the calcium chloride, then the density of bone powder. The hybrid microbeads could be optimally performed while the concentrations of sodium alginate and calcium chloride were 2.5% and 4.5%, as well as 5.0 mg/mL bone powder, respectively. Live/Dead assay showed that the expanded ADSCs differentiated well with an initial embedding density of 5 × 10(6) cells/mL. PMID:26480963

  1. Chloride substitution in sodium borohydride

    SciTech Connect

    Ravnsbaek, Dorthe B.; Rude, Line H.; Jensen, Torben R.

    2011-07-15

    The dissolution of sodium chloride and sodium borohydride into each other resulting in formation of solid solutions of composition Na(BH{sub 4}){sub 1-x}Cl{sub x} is studied. The dissolution reaction is facilitated by two methods: ball milling or combination of ball milling and annealing at 300 deg. C for three days of NaBH{sub 4}-NaCl samples in molar ratios of 0.5:0.5 and 0.75:0.25. The degree of dissolution is studied by Rietveld refinement of synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction (SR-PXD) data. The results show that dissolution of 10 mol% NaCl into NaBH{sub 4}, forming Na(BH{sub 4}){sub 0.9}Cl{sub 0.1}, takes place during ball milling. A higher degree of dissolution of NaCl in NaBH{sub 4} is obtained by annealing resulting in solid solutions containing up to 57 mol% NaCl, i.e. Na(BH{sub 4}){sub 0.43}Cl{sub 0.57}. In addition, annealing results in dissolution of 10-20 mol% NaBH{sub 4} into NaCl. The mechanism of the dissolution during annealing and the decomposition pathway of the solid solutions are studied by in situ SR-PXD. Furthermore, the stability upon hydrogen release and uptake were studied by Sieverts measurements. - Graphical Abstract: Dissolution of sodium chloride and sodium borohydride into each other resulting in formation of solid solutions of composition Na(BH{sub 4}){sub 1-x}Cl{sub x} is studied. Dissolution is facilitated by two methods: ball milling or annealing at 300 deg. C for three days of NaBH{sub 4}-NaCl samples. Sample compositions and dissolution mechanism are studied by Rietveld refinement of synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction data. Highlights: > Studies of dissolution of sodium chloride and sodium borohydride into each other. > Solid state diffusion facilitated by mechanical and thermal treatments. > Dissolution is more efficiently induced by heating than by mechanical treatment. > Mechanism for dissolution studied by Rietveld refinement of in situ SR-PXD data.

  2. Biphasic release of indomethacin from HPMC/pectin/calcium matrix tablet: I. Characterization and mechanistic study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Baojian; Chen, Zhukang; Wei, Xiuli; Sun, Ningyun; Lu, Yi; Wu, Wei

    2007-11-01

    Calcium-induced crosslinking of pectin acts as the dominating factor controlling drug release from pectin-based matrices. The same interaction was employed to modify indomethacin release from HPMC/pectin/calcium matrix in this study. The aim was to characterize the release profiles, and to study the formulation variables and the underlying mechanisms. The matrix tablet was made up of pectin HM 70, calcium chloride and HPMC K4M, and prepared by the wet granulation method. In vitro release was performed in water and characterized by the power law. Matrix erosion was evaluated by studying the weight loss and pectin release. Biphasic release of indomethacin from the HPMC/pectin/calcium matrix tablet was observed, and extraordinary power law exponent n values of over 1.0 were observed. Increase in calcium amount led to more significant retardation on drug release. The two power law parameters, n and K, correlated to the amount of calcium in the matrix. A lag time of over 4 h can be achieved at HPMC/pectin/calcium chloride amount of 100 mg/100 mg/100 mg. Both matrix weight loss and pectin release were linearly correlated to indomethacin release, indicating erosion-controlled drug release mechanisms. The hybrid matrix showed retarded erosion and hydration rate, which served as the basis for retarded indomethacin release. It is concluded that the pectin/calcium interaction can be employed to modify drug release from HPMC/pectin/calcium matrix tablet with biphasic release patterns for potential timed or site-specific drug delivery. PMID:17540549

  3. Calcium carbonate with magnesium overdose

    MedlinePlus

    The combination of calcium carbonate and magnesium is commonly found in antacids. These medicines provide heartburn relief. Calcium carbonate with magnesium overdose occurs when someone takes more than the ...

  4. Calcium Content of Common Foods

    MedlinePlus

    ... 130 Waffle 80 g 47 Meat, fish and eggs Food Serving Size Calcium (mg) Egg 50 g 27 Red meat 120 g 7 ... foods Food Serving Size Calcium (mg) Quiche (cheese, eggs) 200 g 212 Omelette with cheese 120 g ...

  5. Intestinal Stem Cells: Got Calcium?

    PubMed

    Nászai, Máté; Cordero, Julia B

    2016-02-01

    Calcium ions are well-known intracellular signalling molecules. A new study identifies local cytoplasmic calcium as a central integrator of metabolic and proliferative signals in Drosophila intestinal stem cells. PMID:26859268

  6. Children's Bone Health and Calcium

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trials Resources and Publications Children's Bone Health and Calcium: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links ... straight, walk, run, and lead an active life. Calcium is one of the key dietary building blocks ...

  7. Glutamate-gated Chloride Channels*

    PubMed Central

    Wolstenholme, Adrian J.

    2012-01-01

    Glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCls) are found only in protostome invertebrate phyla but are closely related to mammalian glycine receptors. They have a number of roles in these animals, controlling locomotion and feeding and mediating sensory inputs into behavior. In nematodes and arthropods, they are targeted by the macrocyclic lactone family of anthelmintics and pesticides, making the GluCls of considerable medical and economic importance. Recently, the three-dimensional structure of a GluCl was solved, the first for any eukaryotic ligand-gated anion channel, revealing a macrocyclic lactone-binding site between the channel domains of adjacent subunits. This minireview will highlight some unique features of the GluCls and illustrate their contribution to our knowledge of the entire Cys loop ligand-gated ion channel superfamily. PMID:23038250

  8. Chloride ion pairs in water

    SciTech Connect

    Dang, L.X.; Pettitt, B.M.

    1987-09-02

    The study of ions in water by statistical mechanical methods has made a significant contribution to the authors understanding of solution chemistry and biological processes in saline solutions. Integral equation methods have been used recently by Pettitt and Rossky to study solvent-averaged forces and the effective interactions or the potentials of mean force (PMF) for the alkali halides in water at infinite dilution. In this communication, they report a quantitative study of the Cl/sup -/-Cl/sup -/ PMF in water with use of an umbrella sampling method and the same Hamiltonian as that used in the integral equation study. The system studied here consists of two chloride ions and 295 water molecules in a rectangular box with periodic boundary conditions and lengths of 25.4, 18.6, and 18.6 A in the x,y,z directions, respectively.

  9. Sodium-metal chloride batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.

    1992-01-01

    It was concluded that rapid development in the technology of sodium metal chloride batteries has been achieved in the last decade mainly due to the: expertise available with sodium sulfur system; safety; and flexibility in design and fabrication. Long cycle lives of over 1000 and high energy densities of approx. 100 Wh/kg have been demonstrated in both Na/FeCl2 and Na/NiCl2 cells. Optimization of porous cathode and solid electrolyte geometries are essential for further enhancing the battery performance. Fundamental studies confirm the capabilities of these systems. Nickel dichloride emerges as the candidate cathode material for high power density applications such as electric vehicle and space.

  10. Quantifying melting and mobilistaion of interstitial melts in crystal mushes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veksler, Ilya; Dobson, Katherine; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Ertel-Ingrisch, Werner; Humphreys, Madeleine

    2015-04-01

    The deformation of crystals mushes and separation of melts and crystals in is critical to understanding the development of physical and chemical heterogeneity in magma chambers and has been invoked as an eruption trigger mechanism. Here we investigate the behaviour of the melt in the well characterised, classic crystal mush system of the Skaergaard intrusion by combining experimental petrology and the non-destructive 3D imaging methods. Starting materials for partial melting experiments were four samples from the upper Middle Zone of the Layered Series. Cylinders, 15 mm in diameter and 20 mm in length, were drilled out of the rock samples, placed in alumina crucibles and held for 5 days in electric furnaces at atmospheric pressure and 1050-1100 °C. Redox conditions set by the CO-CO2 gas mixture were kept close to those of the FMQ buffer. We then use spatially registered 3D x-ray computed tomography images, collected before and after the experiment, to determine the volume and distribution of the crystal framework and interstitial phases, and the volume, distribution and connectivity the interstitial phases that undergo melting and extraction while at elevated temperature. Image analysis has allowed us to quantify these physical changes with high spatial resolution. Our work is a first step towards quantitative understanding of the melt mobilisation and migration processes operating in notionally locked crystal rich magmatic systems.

  11. Calcium and phosphorus fluxes during hemodialysis with low calcium dialysate.

    PubMed

    Hou, S H; Zhao, J; Ellman, C F; Hu, J; Griffin, Z; Spiegel, D M; Bourdeau, J E

    1991-08-01

    We evaluated the acute effects of varying dialysate calcium concentration on plasma concentrations and dialyzer fluxes of calcium and phosphorus in adult hemodialysis patients. Seven individuals with stable end-stage renal failure were dialyzed 4 hours, three times weekly. The effects of dialysates containing 1.75, 1.25, or 0.75 mmol/L (70.1, 50.1, or 30.1 mg/L) of calcium were compared. Each patient was studied once at each bath calcium concentration. Compared with the predialysis mean value of 2.27 mmol/L (9.1 mg/dL), plasma total calcium concentration increased, remained constant, or decreased with the 1.75-, 1.25-, or 0.75-mmol/L calcium dialysates, respectively. The 0.75-mmol/L calcium dialysate did not cause signs or symptoms of hypocalcemia (and the plasma calcium concentration did not fall below 1.80 mmol/L [7.2 mg/dL]). Plasma phosphorus concentrations decreased equally from a predialysis mean value of 2.16 mmol/L (6.7 mg/dL), regardless of the dialysate calcium concentration. After 4 hours of treatment with the three different dialysates, the cumulative calcium fluxes were significantly different. With 1.75 mmol/L calcium, mean bodily calcium accumulation was 21.9 mmol (879 mg). With 1.25 mmol/L, there was no net calcium flux. With 0.75 mmol/L, mean patient calcium loss was 5.8 mmol (231 mg). Mean phosphorus removal after 4 hours was 32.5 mmol (1,006 mg) and was unaffected by dialysate calcium concentration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1867178

  12. Methods for Melting Temperature Calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Qi-Jun

    Melting temperature calculation has important applications in the theoretical study of phase diagrams and computational materials screenings. In this thesis, we present two new methods, i.e., the improved Widom's particle insertion method and the small-cell coexistence method, which we developed in order to capture melting temperatures both accurately and quickly. We propose a scheme that drastically improves the efficiency of Widom's particle insertion method by efficiently sampling cavities while calculating the integrals providing the chemical potentials of a physical system. This idea enables us to calculate chemical potentials of liquids directly from first-principles without the help of any reference system, which is necessary in the commonly used thermodynamic integration method. As an example, we apply our scheme, combined with the density functional formalism, to the calculation of the chemical potential of liquid copper. The calculated chemical potential is further used to locate the melting temperature. The calculated results closely agree with experiments. We propose the small-cell coexistence method based on the statistical analysis of small-size coexistence MD simulations. It eliminates the risk of a metastable superheated solid in the fast-heating method, while also significantly reducing the computer cost relative to the traditional large-scale coexistence method. Using empirical potentials, we validate the method and systematically study the finite-size effect on the calculated melting points. The method converges to the exact result in the limit of a large system size. An accuracy within 100 K in melting temperature is usually achieved when the simulation contains more than 100 atoms. DFT examples of Tantalum, high-pressure Sodium, and ionic material NaCl are shown to demonstrate the accuracy and flexibility of the method in its practical applications. The method serves as a promising approach for large-scale automated material screening in which

  13. 29 CFR 1910.1052 - Methylene Chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Methylene Chloride. 1910.1052 Section 1910.1052 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS (CONTINUED) Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1910.1052 Methylene Chloride. This...

  14. 29 CFR 1910.1017 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1910.1017 Section 1910.1017 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS (CONTINUED) Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1910.1017 Vinyl chloride. (a) Scope and...

  15. 29 CFR 1915.1017 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1915.1017 Section 1915.1017 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1017 Vinyl chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this...

  16. 29 CFR 1926.1117 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1926.1117 Section 1926.1117 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1117 Vinyl chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are identical to...

  17. 29 CFR 1915.1017 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1915.1017 Section 1915.1017 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1017 Vinyl chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this...

  18. 29 CFR 1926.1117 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1926.1117 Section 1926.1117 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1117 Vinyl chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are identical to...

  19. 29 CFR 1926.1117 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1926.1117 Section 1926.1117 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1117 Vinyl chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are identical to...

  20. 29 CFR 1915.1017 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1915.1017 Section 1915.1017 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1017 Vinyl chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this...