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Sample records for calcium deficiency related

  1. Calcium Deficiency Reduces Circulating Levels of FGF23

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Ortiz, María E.; Lopez, Ignacio; Muñoz-Castañeda, Juan R.; Martinez-Moreno, Julio M.; Ramírez, Alan Peralta; Pineda, Carmen; Canalejo, Antonio; Jaeger, Philippe; Aguilera-Tejero, Escolastico; Felsenfeld, Arnold; Almaden, Yolanda

    2012-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 23 inhibits calcitriol production, which could exacerbate calcium deficiency or hypocalcemia unless calcium itself modulates FGF23 in this setting. In Wistar rats with normal renal function fed a diet low in both calcium and vitamin D, the resulting hypocalcemia was associated with low FGF23 despite high parathyroid hormone (PTH) and high calcitriol levels. FGF23 correlated positively with calcium and negatively with PTH. Addition of high dietary phosphorus to this diet increased FGF23 except in rats with hypocalcemia despite high PTH levels. In parathyroidectomized rats, an increase in dietary calcium for 10 days increased serum calcium, with an associated increase in FGF23, decrease in calcitriol, and no change in phosphorus. Also in parathyroidectomized rats, FGF23 increased significantly 6 hours after administration of calcium gluconate. Taken together, these results suggest that hypocalcemia reduces the circulating concentrations of FGF23. This decrease in FGF23 could be a response to avoid a subsequent reduction in calcitriol, which could exacerbate hypocalcemia. PMID:22581996

  2. On the composition and atomic arrangement of calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite: An ab-initio analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Zahn, Dirk Hochrein, Oliver

    2008-08-15

    A systematic study of defect constellations in calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite is reported. Along this line, we explore different arrangements for charge compensation, including cationic vacancies and substitutional defects. The overall defect constellation is governed by both the different proton affinity of the anions or energy costs related to vacancy formation and minimization of the Coulomb energy which implies small distances of the anionic and cationic defects. Depending on the type of the calcium-deficient site, this gives rise to two specific defect arrangements. Among these, the calcium ions forming triangles which embed the OH{sup -} ions of hydroxyapatite are most likely to be deficient. The resulting charge is compensated by protonation of the OH{sup -} ion within the deficient calcium-triangle and protonation of a PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} ion in the nearest neighbourhood of the vacant calcium site. The strong energetic favouring of such constellations indicates that the commonly used chemical formulae Ca{sub 10-x}(HPO{sub 4}){sub x}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6-x}(OH){sub 2-x}(H{sub 2}O){sub x} (0calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite. - Graphical abstract: Preferred constellation of a Ca vacancy in hydroxyapatite, accompanied by a H{sub 2}O defect and a HPO{sub 4}{sup 2-} defect adjacent to the deficient Ca site. The preferential defect arrangement reflects a compromise of local charge compensation, different proton affinities of the anions and hydrogen bonding.

  3. Nutritional rickets: deficiency of vitamin D, calcium, or both?

    PubMed

    Pettifor, John M

    2004-12-01

    Nutritional rickets remains a public health problem in many countries, despite dramatic declines in the prevalence of the condition in many developed countries since the discoveries of vitamin D and the role of ultraviolet light in prevention. The disease continues to be problematic among infants in many communities, especially among infants who are exclusively breast-fed, infants and children of dark-skinned immigrants living in temperate climates, infants and their mothers in the Middle East, and infants and children in many developing countries in the tropics and subtropics, such as Nigeria, Ethiopia, Yemen, and Bangladesh. Vitamin D deficiency remains the major cause of rickets among young infants in most countries, because breast milk is low in vitamin D and its metabolites and social and religious customs and/or climatic conditions often prevent adequate ultraviolet light exposure. In sunny countries such as Nigeria, South Africa, and Bangladesh, such factors do not apply. Studies indicated that the disease occurs among older toddlers and children and probably is attributable to low dietary calcium intakes, which are characteristic of cereal-based diets with limited variety and little access to dairy products. In such situations, calcium supplements alone result in healing of the bone disease. Studies among Asian children and African American toddlers suggested that low dietary calcium intakes result in increased catabolism of vitamin D and the development of vitamin D deficiency and rickets. Dietary calcium deficiency and vitamin D deficiency represent 2 ends of the spectrum for the pathogenesis of nutritional rickets, with a combination of the 2 in the middle. PMID:15585795

  4. Marked increase of calcium uptake in the ATP-depleted red cells of patients with iron deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Shimoda, M.; Yawata, Y.

    1985-05-01

    Calcium (Ca) uptake was markedly increased in ATP-depleted red cells of patients with iron deficiency anemia (IDA) compared to ATP- depleted normal red cells. The extent of increased Ca uptake was related to the severity of iron deficiency as judged by decreased mean cell volume. Moreover, the increased Ca uptake returned to normal levels after oral iron supplementation therapy. The net calcium content of fresh red cells from iron-deficient individuals was the same as in red cells from normal subjects. Sodium influx and ferric ion uptake appeared to be virtually unaffected in the iron deficient red cells.

  5. Use of reflectance spectroscopy for early detection of calcium deficiency in plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bingqing; Wah, Liew Oi; Asundi, Anand K.

    2005-04-01

    This article investigates calcium deficiency symptoms of the plants grown under hydroponics conditions. Leaf reflectance data were collected from plants, and then transformed to L*, a*, b* values, which provide color information of the leaves. After comparing the color information of deficient plants to control plants, a set of deficiency criterion was established for early detection of calcium deficiency in the plants. Calcium deficiency could be detected as early as two days from the onset of stress in mature plants when optical data were collected from terminal young leaves. Young plants subjected to calcium stress for 9 days could not be distinguished from nutrient sufficient plants.

  6. Calcium Deficient Hydroxyapatite for Medical Application Prepared by Hydrothermal Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioku, Koji; Kamitakahara, Masanobu; Ikeda, Tohru

    2010-11-01

    Hydrothermal processing plays a key role in the synthesis of biomaterials with excellent biocompatibility in the physiological environment. Especially, calcium phosphates are paid to much attention for the regenerative medicine. Two kinds of porous materials of hydroxyapatite with 70% porosity were prepared. One of them is a newly developed calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite composed of rod-shaped particles of about 20 μm in length synthesized hydrothermally (HHA) and the other one is the stoichiometric hydroxyapatite (SHA) prepared by the conventional sintering method. These materials were used for animal implantation tests to compare these biological responses. In the rabbit femur, implanted HHA was slowly resorbed and then most of the implanted HHA was resorbed after 72 weeks. The implanted SHA was unresorbed throughout the experimental period. The volume of newly formed bone and the number of osteoclasts in the implanted region were significantly larger in HHA than in SHA after 24 weeks. Results in the present research suggested that the activity of osteoclasts correlated to the bone forming activity of osteoblasts. The method to synthesize biodegradable pure calcium-deficient HA is expected to provide adequate biodegradability and bone replaceability.

  7. Multi-Functions of Carbonated Calcium Deficient Hydroxyapatite (CDHA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Huan

    Natural bone is a complex composite mainly constituted of inorganic minerals and organic collagen molecules. Calcium phosphate (CaP) based materials have been proposed as the predominant bone substitute for bone tissue engineering applications due to their chemical similarity to bone mineral. Amorphous carbonated calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA) is an important compound among CaP materials because of the amorphous crystallite structure. The presence of extra ions in its lattice structure not only influences cell attachment and proliferation of osteoblasts, but also helps in bone metabolism. Biomimetic coating approach is the most widely used approach to produce CDHA coatings to implant. It is a process using simulated body fluid (SBF) to deposit bone-like CDHA coating to various material surfaces. The CDHA formation mechanism, SBF compositions and reacting conditions of biomimetic coating have already been sufficiently studied and compared in the past 20 years. It is an attempt in this thesis to explore new applications of SBF in biomedical research, focusing on different biomaterial applications: 1) based on the low temperature reaction condition of SBF, bisphosphonate incorporated CDHA coatings were deposited onto Ti6Al4V surface for the treatment of osteoporosis; 2) amorphous calcium phosphate nanospheres with extra elements in the lattice structure were prepared by a novel microwave assisted approach, providing a new potential of CaP materials production; 3) CDHA particles formed in SBF can be used as great fillers with biopolymers for preparing biocomposites for biomedical applications; 4) based on the high activity of CDHA amorphous structure and the stabilization ability of ethanol, yttrium and europium doped calcium phosphates were prepared using CDHA as a sacrificing template. In the end, future work based on these observations in the thesis is addressed, including areas of drug delivery, biocomposite fabrication and preparation of functionalized

  8. Vegetable Bitterness is Related to Calcium Content

    PubMed Central

    Tordoff, Michael G.; Sandell, Mari A.

    2009-01-01

    In the U.S. and Europe, most people do not consume the recommended amounts of either calcium or vegetables. We investigated whether there might be a connection; specifically, whether the taste of calcium in vegetables contributes to their bitterness and thus acceptability. We found a strong correlation between the calcium content of 24 vegetables, based on USDA Nutrient Database values, and bitterness, based on the average ratings of 35 people (r = 0.93). Correlations between the content of other nutrients and bitterness were lower and most were not statistically significant. To assess whether it is feasible that humans can detect calcium in vegetables we tested two animal models known to display a calcium appetite. Previous work indicates that calcium solutions are preferentially ingested by PWK/PhJ mice relative to C57BL/6J mice, and by rats deprived of dietary calcium relative to replete controls. In choice tests between collard greens, a high-calcium vegetable, and cabbage, a low-calcium vegetable, the calcium-favoring animals had higher preferences for collard greens than did controls. These observations raise the possibility that the taste of calcium contributes to the bitterness and thus acceptability of vegetables. PMID:19260165

  9. Vegetable bitterness is related to calcium content.

    PubMed

    Tordoff, Michael G; Sandell, Mari A

    2009-04-01

    In the U.S. and Europe, most people do not consume the recommended amounts of either calcium or vegetables. We investigated whether there might be a connection; specifically, whether the taste of calcium in vegetables contributes to their bitterness and thus acceptability. We found a strong correlation between the calcium content of 24 vegetables, based on USDA Nutrient Database values, and bitterness, based on the average ratings of 35 people (r = 0.93). Correlations between the content of other nutrients and bitterness were lower and most were not statistically significant. To assess whether it is feasible that humans can detect calcium in vegetables we tested two animal models known to display a calcium appetite. Previous work indicates that calcium solutions are preferentially ingested by PWK/PhJ mice relative to C57BL/6J mice, and by rats deprived of dietary calcium relative to replete controls. In choice tests between collard greens, a high-calcium vegetable, and cabbage, a low-calcium vegetable, the calcium-favoring animals had higher preferences for collard greens than did controls. These observations raise the possibility that the taste of calcium contributes to the bitterness and thus acceptability of vegetables. PMID:19260165

  10. Dietary calcium deficiency in laying ducks impairs eggshell quality by suppressing shell biomineralization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Zhao, Fei; Tian, Zhi Mei; Zhang, Han Xing; Ruan, Dong; Li, Yan; Wang, Shuang; Zheng, Chun Tian; Lin, Ying Cai

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dietary calcium deficiency on the process of shell formation. Four hundred and fifty female ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) at 22 weeks were randomly assigned to three groups. Ducks were fed one of two calcium-deficient diets (containing 1.8% or 0.38% calcium, respectively) or a calcium-adequate control diet (containing 3.6% calcium) for 67 days (depletion period) and then all ducks were fed a calcium-adequate diet for an additional 67 days (repletion period). Compared with the calcium-adequate control, the average shell thickness, egg shell weight, breaking strength, mammillae density and mammillary knob thickness of shell from ducks that consumed the diet with 0.38% calcium were significantly decreased (P<0.05) during the depletion period, accompanied by reduced tibia quality. The mRNA expression of both secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1) and carbonic anhydrase 2 (CA2) in the uterus was decreased after feeding calcium-deficient diets (1.8% or 0.38% calcium). mRNA transcripts of calbindin 1 (CALB1), an important protein responsible for calcium transport, and the matrix protein genes ovocalyxin-32 (OCX-32) and ovocleidin-116 (OC-116) were reduced in ducks fed 0.38% calcium but not 1.8% calcium. Plasma estradiol concentration was decreased by both of the calcium-deficient diets (P<0.05). The impaired shell quality and suppressed functional proteins involved in shell formation could be reversed by repletion of dietary calcium. The results of the present study suggest that dietary calcium deficiency negatively affects eggshell quality and microarchitecture, probably by suppressing shell biomineralization. PMID:26385336

  11. Elevation of PTH and PTHrp induced by excessive fluoride in rats on a calcium-deficient diet.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hui; Liu, Qin-Yi; Zhang, Jing-Min; Zhang, He; Li, Guang-Sheng

    2010-10-01

    Study on the role of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrp) in the process of skeletal fluorosis, involved especially in calcium deficiency, is rare. We evaluated the level of serum PTH and mRNA expression of PTHrp in femur when rats were exposed to excessive fluoride with low-calcium diet. Wistar rats (n = 60) was divided into four groups, a control group, fluoride group, low-calcium group, and low-calcium fluoride group. The fluoride groups were treated with fluoride by drinking tap water containing 100 mg F-/L. The low-calcium diet contained 0.05% calcium. Serum was collected in the first, fourth, eighth, and 12th of phase for the detemination of PTH and Ca(2+). RNA extraction from femora was used to analyze the mRNA express of PTHrp, osteopontin (OPN), and osteocalcin (OCN) after 12 weeks of fluoride dosing. Results showed that serum PTH increased gradually with the extension of fluoride exposure, but Ca2+ decreased, both of which embodied a time-dependent relationship. Cotreatment of excessive fluoride with low-calcium diet largely stimulated the secretion of PTH. The low dietary calcium markedly increased mRNA expression of PTHrp in animals with fluoride treatment. Expression of OPN and OCN significantly increased in the rats treated with excessive fluoride and low-calcium diet. We demonstrated that fluoride by itself affected the body's calcium metabolism and stimulate the secretion of PTH. PTH may play an important role in anabolic effect of excessive fluoride on bone turnover of skeletal fluorosis and calcium deficiency exacerbated the action of PTH and PTHrp on the characteristic bone lesion of fluorosis. PMID:19915804

  12. Effect of calcium deficiency on vitamin B12 absorption in rats.

    PubMed

    Bergesen, O; Schjønsby, H; Schjerven, L

    1990-03-01

    The influence of calcium on vitamin B12 absorption was investigated in two experiments. In the first we investigated whether B12 malabsorption in rats with biliary diversion through choledochocolic fistula is caused by deficiency of calcium in the small intestine. Calcium concentrations were measured in 10 fistula- and 10 sham-operated rats. Fistula rats had steatorrhea, but the concentration of calcium in the intestinal lumen was increased. In the second experiment we studied the effect of calcium deficiency on B12 absorption. Ten young rats were fed a low-calcium diet and 10 rats a control diet for 4 weeks. Rats on the low-calcium diet had moderately reduced calcium concentration in the blood and in the intestinal juice but unaltered calcium concentration in the cytosol fraction of intestinal mucosal scrapings. The absorption of 57CoB12 was unimpaired. This suggests that moderate calcium deficiency does not influence the intestinal absorption of vitamin B12 in the rat. PMID:2320946

  13. Impaired Calcium Entry into Cells Is Associated with Pathological Signs of Zinc Deficiency12

    PubMed Central

    O’Dell, Boyd L.; Browning, Jimmy D.

    2013-01-01

    Zinc is an essential trace element whose deficiency gives rise to specific pathological signs. These signs occur because an essential metabolic function is impaired as the result of failure to form or maintain a specific metal-ion protein complex. Although zinc is a component of many essential metalloenzymes and transcription factors, few of these have been identified with a specific sign of incipient zinc deficiency. Zinc also functions as a structural component of other essential proteins. Recent research with Swiss murine fibroblasts, 3T3 cells, has shown that zinc deficiency impairs calcium entry into cells, a process essential for many cell functions, including proliferation, maturation, contraction, and immunity. Impairment of calcium entry and the subsequent failure of cell proliferation could explain the growth failure associated with zinc deficiency. Defective calcium uptake is associated with impaired nerve transmission and pathology of the peripheral nervous system, as well as the failure of platelet aggregation and the bleeding tendency of zinc deficiency. There is a strong analogy between the pathology of genetic diseases that result in impaired calcium entry and other signs of zinc deficiency, such as decreased and cyclic food intake, taste abnormalities, abnormal water balance, skin lesions, impaired reproduction, depressed immunity, and teratogenesis. This analogy suggests that failure of calcium entry is involved in these signs of zinc deficiency as well. PMID:23674794

  14. Impaired calcium entry into cells is associated with pathological signs of zinc deficiency.

    PubMed

    O'Dell, Boyd L; Browning, Jimmy D

    2013-05-01

    Zinc is an essential trace element whose deficiency gives rise to specific pathological signs. These signs occur because an essential metabolic function is impaired as the result of failure to form or maintain a specific metal-ion protein complex. Although zinc is a component of many essential metalloenzymes and transcription factors, few of these have been identified with a specific sign of incipient zinc deficiency. Zinc also functions as a structural component of other essential proteins. Recent research with Swiss murine fibroblasts, 3T3 cells, has shown that zinc deficiency impairs calcium entry into cells, a process essential for many cell functions, including proliferation, maturation, contraction, and immunity. Impairment of calcium entry and the subsequent failure of cell proliferation could explain the growth failure associated with zinc deficiency. Defective calcium uptake is associated with impaired nerve transmission and pathology of the peripheral nervous system, as well as the failure of platelet aggregation and the bleeding tendency of zinc deficiency. There is a strong analogy between the pathology of genetic diseases that result in impaired calcium entry and other signs of zinc deficiency, such as decreased and cyclic food intake, taste abnormalities, abnormal water balance, skin lesions, impaired reproduction, depressed immunity, and teratogenesis. This analogy suggests that failure of calcium entry is involved in these signs of zinc deficiency as well. PMID:23674794

  15. Marginal Zinc Deficiency Increases Magnesium Retention and Impairs Calcium Utilization in Rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment with rats was conducted to determine whether magnesium retention is increased and calcium utilization is altered by, and whether increased oxidative stress induced by a marginal copper deficiency exacerbated responses to, a marginal zinc deficiency. Weanling rats were assigned to six g...

  16. Effects of magnesium deficiency on intratubular calcium oxalate formation and crystalluria in hyperoxaluric rats.

    PubMed

    Rushton, H G; Spector, M

    1982-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that magnesium deficiency accelerates renal tubular calcium oxalate monohydrate deposition in rats on chronic hyperoxaluric, lithogenic protocols. The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of magnesium deficiency on intratubular calcium oxalate formation in rats from the 1st day of administration of a hyperoxaluric agent. The objectives were to delineate early ultrastructural features of the formation, mechanisms of retention, and development of renal tubular crystal deposits and to characterize the crystalluria in rats on the hyperoxaluric/hypomagnesuric protocol. Intratubular calcium oxalate monohydrate deposits were found in magnesium deficient rats after only 24 hours of ad libitum administration of 1 per cent ethylene glycol drinking water. Animals on regular food diet did not display renal tubular deposition after 11 days of ethylene glycol administration. Strand- and sheet-like organic material emanating from the luminal wall of the tubules was adherent to the crystals, thereby serving to immobilize them within the tubule. Calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals predominated in the urines of hyperoxaluric/hypomagnesuric animals with intratubular deposits while dihydrate crystals were the primary constituent of urines from rats administered ethylene glycol alone (no intratubular deposition). The results support the supposition that under certain conditions magnesium deficiency is a significant risk factor for intrarenal calcium oxalate deposition and stone formation. Furthermore the identification of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystalluria may be an important indicator of the propensity toward intranephronic calcium oxalate formation and urolithiasis. PMID:7062446

  17. Vitamin D deficiency and calcium absorption during childhood

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although the importance of providing adequate calcium and vitamin D during childhood and adolescent growth is well known, there remain important gaps in our understanding regarding the process of calcium absorption and utilization in childhood. Certain time periods in development appear to be critic...

  18. Calcium-regulating hormones, bone mineral content, breaking load and trabecular remodeling are altered in growing pigs fed calcium-deficient diets.

    PubMed

    Eklou-Kalonji, E; Zerath, E; Colin, C; Lacroix, C; Holy, X; Denis, I; Pointillart, A

    1999-01-01

    Studies on calcium nutrition in appropriate large animal models can be directly relevant to humans. We have examined the effect of dietary Ca deficiency on various bone and bone-related variables, including plasma markers, histomorphometry, mineral content and breaking strength in pigs. Three groups of eight 38-d-old female pigs were fed adequate (0.9%; control), low (0.4%; LCa) or very low (0.1%; VLCa) Ca diets for 32 d. Plasma Ca significantly decreased over time only in the VLCa-deficient pigs. The concentrations of the parathyroid hormones (PTH) and calcitriol increased as Ca deficiency developed, and the plasma PTH and calcitriol levels varied inversely with dietary Ca. The total bone ash contents, bending moments, trabecular bone volume and the mineral apposition rate all decreased as the calcium intake decreased. The osteoclast surface areas were greater than those of controls in both Ca-deficient groups, whereas the osteoblast surface areas were greater only in the VLCa group. The plasma osteoblast-related markers (alkaline phosphatase, carboxy-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen and osteocalcin) were either greater or unaffected in the Ca-deficient pigs. The results indicate that deficient bone mineralization combined with an increased bone resorption led to bone loss and fragility. The differences in the changes in bone cells (number and activity) between LCa and VLCa groups might be due to differences (time and extent) of circulating PTH and calcitriol. The defective mineralization in both Ca-depleted groups resulted mainly from the lack of Ca because their osteoblast activity was either maintained or stimulated. The results also underline the progressive sensitivity of pigs to Ca supply and the usefulness of this model. PMID:9915898

  19. Calcium-deficiency rickets in a four-year-old boy with milk allergy.

    PubMed

    Davidovits, M; Levy, Y; Avramovitz, T; Eisenstein, B

    1993-02-01

    A 4-year-old boy was found to have rickets associated with normal serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and high serum levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. These findings were thought to be the result of dietary calcium deficiency caused by the prolonged elimination from his diet of cow milk and milk products because of allergy. Adequate intake of calcium resulted in rapid improvement. PMID:8429441

  20. Aromatase Deficient Female Mice Demonstrate Altered Expression of Molecules Critical for Renal Calcium Reabsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öz, Orhan K.; Hajibeigi, Asghar; Cummins, Carolyn; van Abel, Monique; Bindels, René J.; Kuro-o, Makoto; Pak, Charles Y. C.; Zerwekh, Joseph E.

    2007-04-01

    The incidence of kidney stones increases in women after the menopause, suggesting a role for estrogen deficiency. In order to determine if estrogen may be exerting an effect on renal calcium reabsorption, we measured urinary calcium excretion in the aromatase-deficient female mouse (ArKO) before and following estrogen therapy. ArKO mice had hypercalciuria that corrected during estrogen administration. To evaluate the mechanism by which estrogen deficiency leads to hypercalciuria, we examined the expression of several proteins involved in distal tubule renal calcium reabsorption, both at the message and protein levels. Messenger RNA levels of TRPV5, TRPV6, calbindin-D28K, the Na+/Ca++ exchanger (NCX1), and the plasma membrane calcium ATPase (PMCA1b) were significantly decreased in kidneys of ArKO mice. On the other hand, klotho mRNA levels were elevated in kidneys of ArKO mice. ArKO renal protein extracts had lower levels of calbindin-D28K but higher levels of the klotho protein. Immunochemistry demonstrated increased klotho expression in ArKO kidneys. Estradiol therapy normalized the expression of TRPV5, calbindin-D28K, PMCA1b and klotho. Taken together, these results demonstrate that estrogen deficiency produced by aromatase inactivation is sufficient to produce a renal leak of calcium and consequent hypercalciuria. This may represent one mechanism leading to the increased incidence of kidney stones following the menopause in women.

  1. Intestinal absorption of calcium from yogurt in lactase-deficient subjects.

    PubMed

    Wynckel, A; Jaisser, F; Wong, T; Drüeke, T; Chanard, J

    1991-01-01

    Fractional intestinal absorption of calcium (FACa) was measured using radioactive calcium and 200 mg of calcium carrier provided either by yogurt or by CaCl2 in 7 lactase-deficient (L(-] and 7 normal (L(+] subjects. During the control period prior to yogurt consumption, mean calcium intake was 819 mg per day in L(-) and 931 mg per day in L(+) subjects (NS). In both groups of subjects yogurt increased FACa from 20.8 +/- 3.9% to 26.9 +/- 7.2% (P = 0.065) in L(+) subjects and from 20.2 +/- 5.6% to 23.5 +/- 6.4% (P = 0.050) in L(-) subjects. The significant increase in FACa observed in L(-) subjects indicates that yogurt, which is an autodigesting source of lactose, does not impair calcium absorption. FACa increase could reflect the lower dietary calcium intake in L(-) subjects when compared with L(+) subjects, due to avoidance of milk and non-fermented dairy products which could cause intestinal discomfort. It is concluded that yogurt is a well-tolerated and efficient source of calcium in subjects with lactase deficiency. PMID:1747199

  2. Mechanisms involved in calcium deficiency development in tomato fruit in response to gibberellins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although gibberellins (GAs) have been shown to induce the calcium deficiency disorder, blossom-end rot (BER), development in tomato fruit (Solanum lycopersicum), the mechanisms involved remain largely unexplored. Our objectives were to better understand how GAs and a GA biosynthesis inhibitor affect...

  3. Hippocampal calcium dyshomeostasis and long-term potentiation in 2-week zinc deficiency.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Atsushi; Yamada, Kohei; Tamano, Haruna; Fuke, Sayuri; Kawamura, Mika; Oku, Naoto

    2008-01-01

    On the basis of abnormal neuropsychological behavior in the open-field test after 2-week zinc deprivation, neurochemical response was examined in young mice fed a zinc-deficient diet for 2 weeks. Serum corticosterone concentration was markedly higher in zinc-deficient mice than in the control mice. Basal signals of intracellular calcium (fluo-4 FF) were also significantly more in hippocampal slices from zinc-deficient mice. These results suggest that basal Ca2+ levels in hippocampal cells are increased by zinc deficiency. On the other hand, Schaffer collateral long-term potentiation (LTP) was unaffected by zinc deficiency; the averaged fEPSP after tetanic stimulation was 162+/-8% of baseline value in the control and 172+/-22% in zinc-deficient mice. In the Morris water maze, there was also no significant difference in learning behavior for the hidden platform task between the control and zinc-deficient mice. The present study indicates that Schaffer collateral LTP associated with spatial cognition performance are unaffected by calcium dyshomeostasis in the hippocampus elicited by 2-week zinc deprivation, which may be linked to the increased serum corticosterone concentration. PMID:17683830

  4. Dietary calcium and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status in relation to bone mineral density among US adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A higher calcium intake is still the primary recommendation for the prevention of osteoporosis, while vitamin D deficiency is often not addressed. To study the relative importance of dietary calcium intake and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) status in regard to hip bone mineral density (BMD) in ...

  5. Vitamin E deficiency reduced lumbar bone calcium content in female rats.

    PubMed

    Norazlina, M; Chua, C W; Ima-Nirwana, S

    2004-12-01

    Vitamin E deficiency has been found to impair bone calcification. This study was done to determine the effects of vitamin E deficiency and supplementation on parathyroid hormone, i.e. the hormone involved in bone regulation. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups: 1) normal rat chow (RC), 2) vitamin E deficiency (VED), vitamin E deficient rats supplemented with 3) 60 mg/kg alpha-tocotrienol (ATT) and 4) 60 mg/kg (alpha-tocopherol (ATF). Treatment was carried out for 3 months. Vitamin E deficiency caused hypocalcaemia during the first month of the treatment period, increased the parathyroid hormone level in the second month and decreased the bone calcium content in the 4th lumbar bone at the end of the treatment. Vitamin E supplementation (ATT and ATF) failed to improve these conditions. The bone formation marker, osteocalcin, and the bone resorption marker, deoxypyridinoline did not change throughout the study period. In conclusion vitamin E deficiency impaired bone calcium homeostasis with subsequent secondary hyperparathyroidism and vertebral bone loss. Replacing the vitamin E with pure ATF or pure ATT alone failed to correct the changes seen. PMID:15889565

  6. Bone morphology, strength and density are compromised in iron-deficient rats and exacerbated by calcium restriction.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Denis M; Plattner, Aaron; Jennings, Dianne; Stoecker, Barbara

    2002-10-01

    Rats fed an iron-deficient diet develop decreased bone mass and increased fragility. This study documents that rats fed two minerals likely to be low in American diets, calcium and iron, had dramatic changes in bone density and morphometry. Weanling male Long-Evans rats were fed a diet that was either deficient in iron (5-8 mg/kg or 89-143 micro mol/kg diet), low in calcium (1.0 g/kg Ca or 0.025 mol/kg diet) or deficient in both minerals or a control diet with adequate iron and calcium. Eight rats in each of the four groups were fed their respective diets for 5 wk. Total femur and tibia widths were decreased in all experimental groups and iron-deficient rats had decreased medullary widths compared with the other three groups. Cortical width was decreased in all experimental groups, with either the calcium-restricted group or the iron-deficient + calcium-restricted group showing the greatest impact. Both calcium restriction and iron deficiency, either singly or in combination with one another, had reduced cortical bone area. Analysis by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry revealed a pattern of significant reductions in bone density for iron-deficient, calcium-restricted and the combination of calcium-restricted+ iron-deficient rats, respectively, as compared with controls. These data suggest that a commonly deficient trace element in American diets, iron, has a negative impact upon bone health, and this impact is exacerbated by a calcium-restricted diet. PMID:12368407

  7. The effect of fluoride on bone of rats fed diets deficient in calcium or phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Guggenheim, K; Simkin, A; Wolinsky, I

    1976-11-24

    Four groups of weanling rats were fed for 2 weeks on a diet sufficient or insufficient in calcium and/or phosphorus. Each group was divided into four subgroups which were offered distilled water supplemented with 0, 50, 75, or 150 ppm fluoride. High levels of fluoride in drinking water inhibited weight gain. This inhibition was less in rats deficient in phosphorus than when normal-phosphorus diets were offered. At a low level, fluoride was without any effect on bone ash, thickness of femoral cortical bone, and mechanical strength, as measured by maximal load, ultimate stress to breaking, and limit of elasticity. Modulus of elasticity was decreased. At higher levels fluoride tended to decrease most of these parameters, except in rats deprived of both calcium and phosphorus. The effect of fluoride was modified by lack of dietary calcium and/or phosphorus and appeared to be weaker in rats deficient in these nutrients. Lack of dietary calcium and/or phosphorus decreased bone strength more than did fluoride content of water and of bone mineral. Concentration of bone ash and thickness of femoral cortical bone were closely correlated with parameters of mechanical strength. PMID:1000346

  8. Dietary calcium and zinc deficiency risks are decreasing but remain prevalent

    PubMed Central

    Kumssa, Diriba B.; Joy, Edward J. M.; Ander, E. Louise; Watts, Michael J.; Young, Scott D.; Walker, Sue; Broadley, Martin R.

    2015-01-01

    Globally, more than 800 million people are undernourished while >2 billion people have one or more chronic micronutrient deficiencies (MNDs). More than 6% of global mortality and morbidity burdens are associated with undernourishment and MNDs. Here we show that, in 2011, 3.5 and 1.1 billion people were at risk of calcium (Ca) and zinc (Zn) deficiency respectively due to inadequate dietary supply. The global mean dietary supply of Ca and Zn in 2011 was 684 ± 211 and 16 ± 3 mg capita−1 d−1 (±SD) respectively. Between 1992 and 2011, global risk of deficiency of Ca and Zn decreased from 76 to 51%, and 22 to 16%, respectively. Approximately 90% of those at risk of Ca and Zn deficiency in 2011 were in Africa and Asia. To our knowledge, these are the first global estimates of dietary Ca deficiency risks based on food supply. We conclude that continuing to reduce Ca and Zn deficiency risks through dietary diversification and food and agricultural interventions including fortification, crop breeding and use of micronutrient fertilisers will remain a significant challenge. PMID:26098577

  9. Dietary calcium and zinc deficiency risks are decreasing but remain prevalent.

    PubMed

    Kumssa, Diriba B; Joy, Edward J M; Ander, E Louise; Watts, Michael J; Young, Scott D; Walker, Sue; Broadley, Martin R

    2015-01-01

    Globally, more than 800 million people are undernourished while >2 billion people have one or more chronic micronutrient deficiencies (MNDs). More than 6% of global mortality and morbidity burdens are associated with undernourishment and MNDs. Here we show that, in 2011, 3.5 and 1.1 billion people were at risk of calcium (Ca) and zinc (Zn) deficiency respectively due to inadequate dietary supply. The global mean dietary supply of Ca and Zn in 2011 was 684 ± 211 and 16 ± 3 mg capita(-1) d(-1) (± SD) respectively. Between 1992 and 2011, global risk of deficiency of Ca and Zn decreased from 76 to 51%, and 22 to 16%, respectively. Approximately 90% of those at risk of Ca and Zn deficiency in 2011 were in Africa and Asia. To our knowledge, these are the first global estimates of dietary Ca deficiency risks based on food supply. We conclude that continuing to reduce Ca and Zn deficiency risks through dietary diversification and food and agricultural interventions including fortification, crop breeding and use of micronutrient fertilisers will remain a significant challenge. PMID:26098577

  10. Overexpression of Sly41 suppresses COPII vesicle–tethering deficiencies by elevating intracellular calcium levels

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Indrani; Barlowe, Charles

    2016-01-01

    SLY41 was identified as a multicopy suppressor of loss of Ypt1, a Rab GTPase essential for COPII vesicle tethering at the Golgi complex. SLY41 encodes a polytopic membrane protein with homology to a class of solute transporter proteins, but how overexpression suppresses vesicle-tethering deficiencies is not known. Here we show that Sly41 is efficiently packaged into COPII vesicles and actively cycles between the ER and Golgi compartments. SLY41 displays synthetic negative genetic interactions with PMR1, which encodes the major Golgi-localized Ca2+/Mn2+ transporter and suggests that Sly41 influences cellular Ca2+ and Mn2+ homeostasis. Experiments using the calcium probe aequorin to measure intracellular Ca2+ concentrations in live cells reveal that Sly41 overexpression significantly increases cytosolic calcium levels. Although specific substrates of the Sly41 transporter were not identified, our findings indicate that localized overexpression of Sly41 to the early secretory pathway elevates cytosolic calcium levels to suppress vesicle-tethering mutants. In vitro SNARE cross-linking assays were used to directly monitor the influence of Ca2+ on tethering and fusion of COPII vesicles with Golgi membranes. Strikingly, calcium at suppressive concentrations stimulated SNARE-dependent membrane fusion when vesicle-tethering activity was reduced. These results show that calcium positively regulates the SNARE-dependent fusion stage of ER–Golgi transport. PMID:27030673

  11. Supplemental levels of iron and calcium interfere with repletion of zinc status in zinc-deficient animals.

    PubMed

    Jayalakshmi, S; Platel, Kalpana

    2016-05-18

    Negative interactions between minerals interfering with each other's absorption are of concern when iron and calcium supplements are given to pregnant women and children. We have previously reported that supplemental levels of iron and calcium inhibit the bioaccessibility of zinc, and compromise zinc status in rats fed diets with high levels of these two minerals. The present study examined the effect of supplemental levels of iron and calcium on the recovery of zinc status during a zinc repletion period in rats rendered zinc-deficient. Iron and calcium, both individually and in combination, significantly interfered with the recovery of zinc status in zinc deficient rats during repletion with normal levels of zinc in the diet. Rats maintained on diets containing supplemental levels of these two minerals had significantly lower body weight, and the concentration of zinc in serum and organs was significantly lower than in zinc-deficient rats not receiving the supplements. Iron and calcium supplementation also significantly inhibited the activity of zinc-containing enzymes in the serum as well as liver. Both iron and calcium independently exerted this negative effect on zinc status, while their combination seemed to have a more prominent effect, especially on the activities of zinc containing enzymes. This investigation is probably the first systematic study on the effect of these two minerals on the zinc status of zinc deficient animals and their recovery during repletion with normal amounts of zinc. PMID:27101872

  12. [Bone and calcium metabolism in life-style related diseases].

    PubMed

    Kanazawa, Ippei; Sugimoto, Toshitsugu

    2016-03-01

    Accumulating evidence shows that life-style related diseases such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia are associated with bone and calcium metabolism. Patients with diabetes mellitus have increased fracture risks, independently of bone mineral density, with abnormality of parathyroid hormone secretion and impaired osteoblastic function. On the other hand, osteocalcin secreted from bone is reported to regulate glucose metabolism. Thus, bone, calcium and glucose metabolism may be deeply associated with each other. In this review, we describe the association between life-style related diseases, especially diabetes mellitus, and metabolism of bone and calcium. PMID:26923977

  13. [The separate and combined effects of calcium pantothenate deficiency and cadmium intoxication on rat reproductive function].

    PubMed

    Tyshko, N V; Seliaskin, K E; Mel'nik, E A; Pashorina, V A; Zhminchenko, V M

    2012-01-01

    The publication presents investigation evaluated of separate and combined effects of calcium pantothenate deficiency and cadmium (Cd2+) intoxication on rat reproductive function. The experi-ments were performed on 280 adult and 890 offspring of Wistar rats. Reproductive function was estimated by fertility study, prenatal and postnatal development of offspring. The separate and combined effects of and cadmium intoxication during the mating period and pregnancy had no effect on fertility and fecundity of rats, pre-and postimplantation loss, the survival of offspring, and not caused the abnormal development of skeleton and internal organs. However, in prenatal ontogeny of this effect was manifested by lower body weight and fetal growth, postnatal - underdevelopment of rat pups in all morphological and functional studied parameters and increasing number of stillbirths in the offspring. PMID:22642163

  14. Biomimetic synthesis of calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite in a natural hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Hutchens, Stacy A; Benson, Roberto S; Evans, Barbara R; O'Neill, Hugh M; Rawn, Claudia J

    2006-09-01

    A novel composite material consisting of calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (CdHAP) biomimetically deposited in a bacterial cellulose hydrogel was synthesized and characterized. Cellulose produced by Gluconacetobacter hansenii was purified and sequentially incubated in solutions of calcium chloride followed by sodium phosphate dibasic. A substantial amount of apatite (50-90% of total dry weight) was homogeneously incorporated throughout the hydrogel after this treatment. X-ray diffractometry (XRD) showed that CdHAP crystallites had formed in the cellulose. XRD further demonstrated that the CdHAP was comprised of 10-50 nm anisotropic crystallites elongated in the c-axis, similar to natural bone apatite. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy demonstrated that hydroxyl IR bands of the cellulose shifted to lower wave numbers indicating that a coordinate bond had possibly formed between the CdHAP and the cellulose hydroxyl groups. FTIR also suggested that the CdHAP had formed from an octacalcium phosphate precursor similar to physiological bone. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images confirmed that uniform approximately 1 microm spherical CdHAP particles comprised of nanosized crystallites with a lamellar morphology had formed in the cellulose. The synthesis of the composite mimics the natural biomineralization of bone indicating that bacterial cellulose can be used as a template for biomimetic apatite formation. This composite may have potential use as an orthopedic biomaterial. PMID:16713623

  15. Biomimetic Synthesis of Calcium-Deficient Hydroxyapatite in a Natural Hydrogel

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchens, Stacy A; Benson, Roberto S.; Evans, Barbara R; O'Neill, Hugh Michael; Rawn, Claudia J

    2006-01-01

    A novel composite material consisting of calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (CdHAP) biomimetically deposited in a bacterial cellulose hydrogel was synthesized and characterized. Cellulose produced by Gluconacetobacter hansenii was purified and sequentially incubated in solutions of calcium chloride followed by sodium phosphate dibasic. A substantial amount of apatite (50-90% of total dry weight) was homogeneously incorporated throughout the hydrogel after this treatment. X-ray diffractometry (XRD) showed that CdHAP crystallites had formed in the cellulose. XRD further demonstrated that the CdHAP was comprised of 10-50nm anisotropic crystallites elongated in the c-axis, similar to natural bone apatite. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy demonstrated that hydroxyl IR bands of the cellulose shifted to lower wave numbers indicating that a coordinate bond had possibly formed between the CdHAP and the cellulose hydroxyl groups. FTIR also suggested that the CdHAP had formed from an octacalcium phosphate precursor similar to physiological bone. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images confirmed that uniform ?1 mm spherical CdHAP particles comprised of nanosized crystallites with a lamellar morphology had formed in the cellulose. The synthesis of the composite mimics the natural biomineralization of bone indicating that bacterial cellulose can be used as a template for biomimetic apatite formation. This composite may have potential use as an orthopedic biomaterial.

  16. Effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on colonic calcium transport in vitamin D-deficient and normal rats.

    PubMed

    Favus, M J; Langman, C B

    1984-03-01

    To determine whether prior vitamin D intake influences the intestinal calcium absorptive action of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3], we measured in vitro the two unidirectional transepithelial fluxes of calcium across descending colon segments from rats fed either a vitamin D-deficient or normal diet and injected with either 10, 25, or 75 ng of 1,25(OH)2D3 or vehicle alone. Vitamin D deficiency abolished net calcium absorption [J net, -2 +/- 2 vs. 12 +/- 2 (SE) nmol X cm-2 X h-1, P less than 0.001], and 10 ng of 1,25(OH)2D3 raised J net to levels found in normal rats. Larger doses (25 and 75 ng) increased J net above levels in normal rats given the same dose. In normal rats only 75 ng of 1,25(OH)2D3 increased calcium J net above vehicle control values (12 +/- 2 vs. 38 +/- 4 nmol X cm-2 X h-1, P less than 0.001). Circulating 1,25(OH)2D3 measured by radioreceptor assay was well correlated with calcium transport. For each dose of 1,25(OH)2D3 higher serum 1,25(OH)2D3 levels were reached in vitamin D-deficient rats. Only the 75-ng dose increased circulating 1,25(OH)2D3 and colonic calcium transport in normal rats. Intravenous [3H]-1,25(OH)2D3 disappeared more rapidly from the circulation of normal rats, suggesting that accelerated metabolic degradative processes for 1,25(OH)2D3 may be present in normal but not in vitamin D-deficient rats and may account for the lack of a biological response to 1,25(OH)2D3 in normal animals. PMID:6546644

  17. Oral zinc therapy for zinc deficiency-related telogen effluvium.

    PubMed

    Karashima, Tadashi; Tsuruta, Daisuke; Hamada, Takahiro; Ono, Fumitake; Ishii, Norito; Abe, Toshifumi; Ohyama, Bungo; Nakama, Takekuni; Dainichi, Teruki; Hashimoto, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Zinc is crucial for maintaining human body homeostasis and is one of the major components of hormones, signal molecules, and enzymes. Zinc deficiency is caused by insufficient uptake of zinc from food, or caused by malabsorption syndromes, increased gastrointestinal and urinary losses, and administration of various medications. In order to test whether oral zinc administration can successfully improve zinc deficiency-related alopecia, we treated five patients with zinc deficiency-related telogen effluvium with oral zinc administration in the form of polaprezinc (Promac®). In all patients, hair loss was cured or improved. The administration of zinc for zinc deficiency-related alopecia may recover appropriate activities of metalloenzymes, hedgehog signaling, and immunomodulation, all of which are required for normal control of hair growth cycle. PMID:22741940

  18. Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis, superoxide production and calcium signaling of beta 2 integrin-deficient bovine neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Nagahata, H; Sawada, C; Higuchi, H; Teraoka, H; Yamaguchi, M

    1997-01-01

    Fc receptor for immunoglobulin G-mediated phagocytosis, superoxide production and intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) signaling of complement receptor type 3 (CR3)-deficient neutrophils from a heifer with leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) were compared to those of control heifers. The mean phagocytic activity of IgG-coated yeasts and aggregated bovine IgG (Agg-IgG)-induced superoxide production of CR3-deficient neutrophils were 10% and 77.9%, respectively, of those of control neutrophils. The [Ca2+]i signals in CR3-deficient neutrophils stimulated with Agg-IgG or concanavalin A were different with mean peak [Ca2+]i concentrations of 78% and 41.9%, respectively, of those of control neutrophils. These findings suggest that Fc receptor-mediated neutrophil functions are closely dependent on the presence of CR3 (CD11b/CD18) on the neutrophil cell surfaces. PMID:9343828

  19. A Resorbable Calcium-Deficient Hydroxyapatite Hydrogel Composite for Osseous Regeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchens, Stacy A; O'Neill, Hugh Michael; Benson, Roberto S.; Evans, Barbara R; Rawn, Claudia J

    2009-01-01

    It was previously discovered that the unique structure and chemistry of bacterial cellulose (BC) permits the formation of calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (CdHAP) nanocrystallites under aqueous conditions at ambient pH and temperature. In this study, BC was chemically modified via a limited periodate oxidation reaction to render the composite degradable and thus more suitable for bone regeneration. While native BC does not degrade in mammalian systems, periodate oxidation yields dialdehyde cellulose which breaks down at physiological pH. The composite was characterized by tensile testing, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction showed that oxidized BC retains its structure and could biomimetically form CdHAP. Degradation behavior was analyzed by incubating the samples in simulated physiological fluid (pH 7.4) at 37 C under static and dynamic conditions. The oxidized BC and oxidized BC-CdHAP composites both lost significant mass after exposure to the simulated physiological environment. Examination of the incubation solutions by UV-Vis spectrophotometric analysis demonstrated that, while native BC released only small amounts of soluble cellulose fragments, oxidized cellulose releases carbonyl containing degradation products as well as soluble cellulose fragments. By entrapping CdHAP in a degradable hydrogel carrier, this composite should elicit bone regeneration then resorb over time to be replaced by new osseous tissue.

  20. Rapid coating of AZ31 magnesium alloy with calcium deficient hydroxyapatite using microwave energy.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yufu; Zhou, Huan; Nabiyouni, Maryam; Bhaduri, Sarit B

    2015-04-01

    Due to their unique biodegradability, magnesium alloys have been recognized as suitable metallic implant materials for degradable bone implants and bioresorbable cardiovascular stents. However, the extremely high degradation rate of magnesium alloys in physiological environment has restricted its practical application. This paper reports the use of a novel microwave assisted coating technology to improve the in vitro corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of Mg alloy AZ31. Results indicate that a dense calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA) layer was uniformly coated on a AZ31 substrate in less than 10min. Weight loss measurement and SEM were used to evaluate corrosion behaviors in vitro of coated samples and of non-coated samples. It was seen that CDHA coatings remarkably reduced the mass loss of AZ31 alloy after 7days of immersion in SBF. In addition, the prompt precipitation of bone-like apatite layer on the sample surface during immersion demonstrated a good bioactivity of the CDHA coatings. Proliferation of osteoblast cells was promoted in 5days of incubation, which indicated that the CDHA coatings could improve the cytocompatibility of the AZ31 alloy. All the results suggest that the CDHA coatings, serving as a protective layer, can enhance the corrosion resistance and biological response of magnesium alloys. Furthermore, this microwave assisted coating technology could be a promising method for rapid surface modification of biomedical materials. PMID:25686961

  1. Osteocyte-derived RANKL is a critical mediator of the increased bone resorption caused by dietary calcium deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Jinhu; Piemontese, Marilina; Thostenson, Jeff D.; Weinstein, Robert S.; Manolagas, Stavros C.; O’Brien, Charles A.

    2014-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) excess stimulates bone resorption. This effect is associated with increased expression of the osteoclastogenic cytokine receptor activator of nuclear factor кB ligand (RANKL) in bone. However, several different cell types, including bone marrow stromal cells, osteocytes, and T lymphocytes, express both RANKL and the PTH receptor and it is unclear whether RANKL expression by any of these cell types is required for PTH-induced bone loss. Here we have used mice lacking the RANKL gene in osteocytes to determine whether RANKL produced by this cell type is required for the bone loss caused by secondary hyperparathyroidism induced by dietary calcium deficiency in adult mice. Thirty days of dietary calcium deficiency caused bone loss in control mice, but this effect was blunted in mice lacking RANKL in osteocytes. The increase in RANKL expression in bone and the increase in osteoclast number caused by dietary calcium deficiency were also blunted in mice lacking RANKL in osteocytes. These results demonstrate that RANKL produced by osteocytes contributes to the increased bone resorption and the bone loss caused by secondary hyperparathyroidism, strengthening the evidence that osteocytes are an important target cell for hormonal control of bone remodeling. PMID:24933342

  2. Calcium-deficient apatite: influence of granule size and consolidation mode on release and in vitro activity of vancomycin.

    PubMed

    Obadia, L; Amador, G; Daculsi, G; Bouler, J-M

    2003-03-01

    The use of dynamic compaction and isostatic compression to consolidate calcium phosphate powder loaded with a therapeutic agent avoids a sintering step that could destroy the drug. The present study applied these consolidation methods to vancomycin-loaded calcium-deficient apatite powder, using three granulometric fractions (40-80, 80-200 and 200-500 micrometer). In vitro release profiles were determined via an original system derived from low-pressure liquid chromatography. The biological activity of vancomycin was measured by an in vitro standardized bacteriologic assay, which showed that the drug is completely active after association with calcium phosphate. Regardless of the consolidation method and granulometric fraction used, release profiles were not significantly different and therefore adaptable to injectable suspensions. PMID:12527267

  3. Zinc deficiency induced in Swiss 3T3 cells by a low-zinc medium impairs calcium entry and two mechanisms of entry are involved.

    PubMed

    O'Dell, Boyd L; Browning, Jimmy D

    2013-04-01

    Zinc deficiency in 3T3 cells induced by the use of diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (DTPA) has been shown to impair calcium entry associated with failure of proliferation when the cells are stimulated with polypeptide growth factors (GF). These functions of zinc have been evaluated here in the same clone of cells by simple depletion using a low-zinc medium (0.05 μmol/L zinc) without chelator. Confluent cells were maintained for 1 day in the low-zinc medium without GF, then loaded with Fluo-4, and stimulated with GF. Calcium entry was measured by the increase in sustained fluorescence. It was preceded by the release of stored calcium as observed in the previous study using DTPA. Zinc deprivation decreased calcium entry when calcium was added at 0 or 0.05 mmol/L but not when 0.1 mmol/L or higher. Cell proliferation reflected similar effects of zinc and calcium concentrations. In a newly acquired clone of 3T3 cells, GF did not induce internal calcium release but thapsigargin (TG) did. When added in a low-calcium medium, both agonists stimulated calcium entry when external calcium was added, suggesting that two different mechanisms of entry were impaired by zinc deficiency. Zinc deficiency produced by DTPA in the newer clones gave similar results, decreasing calcium entry induced by both agonists. The effects of GF and TG were not additive. The results confirm the earlier observation that zinc deficiency impairs calcium entry into 3T3 cells when stimulated by GF and show that the cells can take up calcium by either store-operated or receptor-operated mechanisms. PMID:23292302

  4. Calcium

    MedlinePlus

    ... of calcium dietary supplements are carbonate and citrate. Calcium carbonate is inexpensive, but is absorbed best when taken ... antacid products, such as Tums® and Rolaids®, contain calcium carbonate. Each pill or chew provides 200–400 mg ...

  5. Caspase-2 Deficiency Enhances Aging-Related Traits in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yingpei; Padalecki, Susan S; Chaudhuri, Asish R; Waal, Eric De; Goins, Beth A; Grubbs, Barry; Ikeno, Yuji; Richardson, Arlan; Mundy, Gregory R; Herman, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Alteration of apoptotic activity has been observed in a number of tissues in aging mammals, but it remains unclear whether and/or how apoptosis may affect aging. Caspase-2 is a member of the cysteine protease family that plays a critical role in apoptosis. To understand the impact of compromised apoptosis function on mammalian aging, we conducted a comparative study on caspase-2 deficient mice and their wild-type littermates with a specific focus on the aging-related traits at advanced ages. We found that caspase-2 deficiency enhanced a number of traits commonly seen in premature aging animals. Loss of caspase-2 was associated with shortened maximum lifespan, impaired hair growth, increased bone loss, and reduced body fat content. In addition, we found that the livers of caspase-2 deficient mice had higher levels of oxidized proteins than those of age-matched wild-type mice, suggesting that caspase-2 deficiency compromised the animal's ability to clear oxidatively damaged cells. Collectively, these results suggest that caspase-2 deficiency affects aging in the mice. This study thus demonstrates for the first time that disruption of a key apoptotic gene has a significant impact on aging. PMID:17188333

  6. Effects of nanocrystalline calcium deficient hydroxyapatite incorporation in glass ionomer cements.

    PubMed

    Goenka, Sumit; Balu, Rajkamal; Sampath Kumar, T S

    2012-03-01

    Glass ionomer cements (GICs) are clinically attractive filling materials often employed in the field of dentistry as restorative and luting materials. The present work aims to formulate bioactive nanocrystalline calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (nCDHA)-GIC composite cements with improved mechanical and resorption properties of the set cement than GICs. The nCDHA was synthesized via an accelerated microwave process and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) methods. The synthesized nCDHA was mixed with GIC in different compositions (5, 10 and 15 wt%) maintaining the powder to liquid ratio. Cylinders of dimensions 8 mm height and 4 mm diameter were formed using a Teflon mold following a conventional cement forming technique. The XRD and FT-IR of the cylinders showed increased intensity and characteristic bands of CDHA with increase in nCDHA content. The surface cracks and the elemental composition of the set cements were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). Decreased surface hardness was observed for composite cements with increase in nCDHA addition. The cement cylinders were tested for ionic release in Millipore water (pH=7) via inductive coupled plasma (ICP) spectroscopy and in demineralization solution of pH=5 to find out the weight loss in an acidic environment at 37 °C performed periodically for 5 weeks. The ionic release percentage, weight loss and compressive strength were observed to increase with an increase in nCDHA addition. PMID:22340686

  7. Calcium and Vitamin D in Obesity and Related Chronic Disease.

    PubMed

    Pannu, Poonam K; Calton, Emily K; Soares, Mario J

    2016-01-01

    There is a pandemic of lifestyle-related diseases. In both developed and lesser developed countries of the world, an inadequacy of calcium intake and low vitamin D status is common. In this chapter, we explore a mechanistic framework that links calcium and vitamin D status to chronic conditions including obesity, systemic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. We also update the available clinical evidence, mainly from randomized controlled trials, to provide a synthesis of evidence in favor or against these hypotheses. There is consistent data to support calcium increasing whole body fat oxidation and increasing fecal fat excretion, while there is good cellular evidence for vitamin D reducing inflammation. Clinical trials support a marginal reduction in circulating lipids and some meta-analysis support an increase in insulin sensitivity following vitamin D. However, these mechanistic pathways and intermediate biomarkers of disease do not consistently transcribe into measurable health outcomes. Cementing the benefits of calcium and vitamin D for extraskeletal health needs a reexamination of the target 25(OH)D level to be achieved and the minimum duration of future trials. PMID:26944102

  8. In vitro precipitation of electrodeposited calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite coatings on Ti6Al4V substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Dumelie, N.; Benhayoune, H. Richard, D.; Laurent-Maquin, D.; Balossier, G.

    2008-02-15

    In this study, electrodeposited calcium phosphate coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction, using a scanning electron microscope equipped with an EDAX detector, before and after immersion in DMEM (Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium). After 1, 7, 14, and 21 days of immersion, the calcium and phosphate contents in solution were measured by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The results indicated that precipitation of the coating occurred. Before immersion in DMEM, the electrodeposited coating was a mixed crystalline and amorphous calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite with a Ca/P atomic ratio of about 1.5, but during the immersion period these phases rapidly disappeared and were followed by the precipitation of a crystalline apatite with a Ca/P atomic ratio near 1.65. On the basis of these results, we conclude that an electrodeposited calcium phosphate coating on roughened titanium alloy substrate may act as a precursor for newly precipitated calcium phosphate in in vitro experiments independent of cellular activities.

  9. Increase of Calcium Sensing Receptor Expression Is Related to Compensatory Insulin Secretion during Aging in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Yoon Sin; Seo, Eun-Hui; Lee, Young-Sun; Cho, Sung Chun; Jung, Hye Seung; Park, Sang Chul; Jun, Hee-Sook

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is caused by both insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency. To investigate age-related changes in glucose metabolism and development of type 2 diabetes, we compared glucose homeostasis in different groups of C57BL/6J mice ranging in age from 4 months to 20 months (4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 months). Interestingly, we observed that non-fasting glucose levels were not significantly changed, but glucose tolerance gradually increased by 20 months of age, whereas insulin sensitivity declined with age. We found that the size of islets and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion increased with aging. However, mRNA expression of pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 and granuphilin was decreased in islets of older mice compared with that of 4-month-old mice. Serum calcium (Ca2+) levels were significantly decreased at 12, 20 and 28 months of age compared with 4 months and calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) mRNA expression in the islets significantly increased with age. An extracellular calcium depletion agent upregulated CaSR mRNA expression and consequently enhanced insulin secretion in INS-1 cells and mouse islets. In conclusion, we suggest that decreased Ca2+ levels and increased CaSR expression might be involved in increased insulin secretion to compensate for insulin resistance in aged mice. PMID:27441644

  10. Diagnosis and assessment of skeletal related disease using calcium 41

    DOEpatents

    Hillegonds, Darren J.; Vogel, John S.; Fitzgerald, Robert L.; Deftos, Leonard J.; Herold, David; Burton, Douglas W.

    2012-05-15

    A method of determining calcium metabolism in a patient comprises the steps of administering radioactive calcium isotope .sup.41Ca to the patient, allowing a period of time to elapse sufficient for dissemination and reaction of the radioactive calcium isotope .sup.41Ca by the patient, obtaining a sample of the radioactive calcium isotope .sup.41Ca from the patient, isolating the calcium content of the sample in a form suitable for precise measurement of isotopic calcium concentrations, and measuring the calcium content to determine parameters of calcium metabolism in the patient.

  11. Diagnosis and assessment of skeletal related disease using calcium 41

    DOEpatents

    Hillegonds, Darren J.; Vogel, John S.; Fitzgerald, Robert L.; Deftos, Leonard J.; Herold, David; Burton, Douglas W.

    2013-03-05

    A method of determining calcium metabolism in a patient comprises the steps of administering radioactive calcium isotope .sup.41Ca to the patient, allowing a period of time to elapse sufficient for dissemination and reaction of the radioactive calcium isotope .sup.41Ca by the patient, obtaining a sample of the radioactive calcium isotope .sup.41Ca from the patient, isolating the calcium content of the sample in a form suitable for precise measurement of isotopic calcium concentrations, and measuring the calcium content to determine parameters of calcium metabolism in the patient.

  12. The Abnormal Phenotypes of Cartilage and Bone in Calcium-Sensing Receptor Deficient Mice Are Dependent on the Actions of Calcium, Phosphorus, and PTH

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Chunxiang; Ding, Guoxian; Karaplis, Andrew; Brown, Edward; Goltzman, David; Miao, Dengshun

    2011-01-01

    Patients with neonatal severe hyperparathyroidism (NSHPT) are homozygous for the calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) mutation and have very high circulating PTH, abundant parathyroid hyperplasia, and severe life-threatening hypercalcemia. Mice with homozygous deletion of CaR mimic the syndrome of NSHPT. To determine effects of CaR deficiency on skeletal development and interactions between CaR and 1,25(OH)2D3 or PTH on calcium and skeletal homeostasis, we compared the skeletal phenotypes of homozygous CaR–deficient (CaR−/−) mice to those of double homozygous CaR– and 1α(OH)ase–deficient [CaR−/−1α(OH)ase−/−] mice or those of double homozygous CaR– and PTH–deficient [CaR−/−PTH−/−] mice at 2 weeks of age. Compared to wild-type littermates, CaR−/− mice had hypercalcemia, hypophosphatemia, hyperparathyroidism, and severe skeletal growth retardation. Chondrocyte proliferation and PTHrP expression in growth plates were reduced significantly, whereas trabecular volume, osteoblast number, osteocalcin-positive areas, expression of the ALP, type I collagen, osteocalcin genes, and serum ALP levels were increased significantly. Deletion of 1α(OH)ase in CaR−/− mice resulted in a longer lifespan, normocalcemia, lower serum phosphorus, greater elevation in PTH, slight improvement in skeletal growth with increased chondrocyte proliferation and PTHrP expression, and further increases in indices of osteoblastic bone formation. Deletion of PTH in CaR−/− mice resulted in rescue of early lethality, normocalcemia, increased serum phosphorus, undetectable serum PTH, normalization in skeletal growth with normal chondrocyte proliferation and enhanced PTHrP expression, and dramatic decreases in indices of osteoblastic bone formation. Our results indicate that reductions in hypercalcemia play a critical role in preventing the early lethality of CaR−/− mice and that defects in endochondral bone formation in CaR−/− mice result from effects of the

  13. The abnormal phenotypes of cartilage and bone in calcium-sensing receptor deficient mice are dependent on the actions of calcium, phosphorus, and PTH.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingning; Lv, Fangqiao; Sun, Wen; Tao, Chunxiang; Ding, Guoxian; Karaplis, Andrew; Brown, Edward; Goltzman, David; Miao, Dengshun

    2011-09-01

    Patients with neonatal severe hyperparathyroidism (NSHPT) are homozygous for the calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) mutation and have very high circulating PTH, abundant parathyroid hyperplasia, and severe life-threatening hypercalcemia. Mice with homozygous deletion of CaR mimic the syndrome of NSHPT. To determine effects of CaR deficiency on skeletal development and interactions between CaR and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) or PTH on calcium and skeletal homeostasis, we compared the skeletal phenotypes of homozygous CaR-deficient (CaR(-/-)) mice to those of double homozygous CaR- and 1α(OH)ase-deficient [CaR(-/-)1α(OH)ase(-/-)] mice or those of double homozygous CaR- and PTH-deficient [CaR(-/-)PTH(-/-)] mice at 2 weeks of age. Compared to wild-type littermates, CaR(-/-) mice had hypercalcemia, hypophosphatemia, hyperparathyroidism, and severe skeletal growth retardation. Chondrocyte proliferation and PTHrP expression in growth plates were reduced significantly, whereas trabecular volume, osteoblast number, osteocalcin-positive areas, expression of the ALP, type I collagen, osteocalcin genes, and serum ALP levels were increased significantly. Deletion of 1α(OH)ase in CaR(-/-) mice resulted in a longer lifespan, normocalcemia, lower serum phosphorus, greater elevation in PTH, slight improvement in skeletal growth with increased chondrocyte proliferation and PTHrP expression, and further increases in indices of osteoblastic bone formation. Deletion of PTH in CaR(-/-) mice resulted in rescue of early lethality, normocalcemia, increased serum phosphorus, undetectable serum PTH, normalization in skeletal growth with normal chondrocyte proliferation and enhanced PTHrP expression, and dramatic decreases in indices of osteoblastic bone formation. Our results indicate that reductions in hypercalcemia play a critical role in preventing the early lethality of CaR(-/-) mice and that defects in endochondral bone formation in CaR(-/-) mice result from effects of the marked elevation in serum

  14. In vivo biocompatibility of new nano-calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite/poly-amino acid complex biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Zhenyu; Li, Yue; Lu, Weizhong; Jiang, Dianming; Li, Hong; Yan, Yonggang; Lv, Guoyu; Yang, Aiping

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the compatibility of novel nano-calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite/poly-amino acid (n-CDHA/PAA) complex biomaterials with muscle and bone tissue in an in vivo model. Methods Thirty-two New Zealand white rabbits were used in this study. Biomaterials were surgically implanted into each rabbit in the back erector spinae and in tibia with induced defect. Polyethylene was implanted into rabbits in the control group and n-CDHA/PAA into those of the experimental group. Animals were examined at four different points in time: 2 weeks, 4 weeks, 12 weeks, and 24 weeks after surgery. They were euthanized after embolization. Back erector spinae muscles with the surgical implants were examined after hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining at these points in time. Tibia bones with the surgical implants were examined by X-ray and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) at these points in time to evaluate the interface of the bone with the implanted biomaterials. Bone tissues were sectioned and subjected to HE, Masson, and toluidine blue staining. Results HE staining of back erector spinae muscles at 4 weeks, 12 weeks, and 24 weeks after implantation of either n-CDHA/PAA or polyethylene showed disappearance of inflammation and normal arrangement in the peripheral tissue of implant biomaterials; no abnormal staining was observed. At 2 weeks after implantation, X-ray imaging of bone tissue samples in both experimental and control groups showed that the peripheral tissues of the implanted biomaterials were continuous and lacked bone osteolysis, absorption, necrosis, or osteomyelitis. The connection between implanted biomaterials and bone tissue was tight. The results of HE, Masson, toluidine blue staining and SEM confirmed that the implanted biomaterials were closely connected to the bone defect and that no rejection had taken place. The n-CDHA/PAA biomaterials induced differentiation of a large number of chondrocytes. New bone trabecula began to form at 4 weeks after

  15. Deficiencies in extrusion of the second polar body due to high calcium concentrations during in vitro fertilization in inbred C3H/He mice.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Yuki; Nagao, Yoshikazu; Minami, Naojiro; Tsukamoto, Satoshi; Kito, Seiji

    2016-08-01

    Successful in vitro fertilization (IVF) of all inbred strains of laboratory mice has not yet been accomplished. We have previously shown that a high calcium concentration improved IVF in various inbred mice. However, we also found that in cumulus-free ova of C3H/He mice such IVF conditions significantly increased the deficiency of extrusion of the second polar body (PBII) in a dose-dependent manner (2% at 1.71 mM and 29% at 6.84 mM, P < 0.05) and that PBII extrusion was affected by high calcium levels at 2-3 h post-insemination. While developmental competence of ova without PBII extrusion to blastocysts after 96 h culture was not affected, a significant reduction in the nuclear number of the inner cell mass was observed in blastocyst fertilized under high calcium condition. We also examined how high calcium concentration during IVF affects PBII extrusion in C3H/He mice. Cumulus cells cultured under high calcium conditions showed a significantly alleviated deficient PBII extrusion. This phenomenon is likely to be specific to C3H/He ova because deficient PBII extrusion in reciprocal fertilization between C3H and BDF1 gametes was observed only in C3H/He ova. Sperm factor(s) was still involved in deficient PBII extrusion due to high calcium concentrations, as this phenomenon was not observed in ova activated by ethanol. The cytoskeletal organization of ova without PBII extrusion showed disturbed spindle rotation, incomplete formation of contractile ring and disturbed localization of actin, suggesting that high calcium levels affect the anchoring machinery of the meiotic spindle. These results indicate that in C3H/He mice high calcium levels induce abnormal fertilization, i.e. deficient PBII extrusion by affecting the cytoskeletal organization, resulting in disturbed cytokinesis during the second meiotic division. Thus, use of high calcium media for IVF should be avoided for this strain. PMID:26503636

  16. Vitamin B12 deficiency in relation to functional disabilities.

    PubMed

    Oberlin, Breanna S; Tangney, Christy C; Gustashaw, Kristin A R; Rasmussen, Heather E

    2013-11-01

    This study was designed to assess whether symptoms, functional measures, and reported disabilities were associated with vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency when defined in three ways. Participants, aged 60 or more years of age, in 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) were categorized in relation to three previously used definitions of B12 deficiency: (1) serum B12 < 148 pmol/L; (2) serum B12 < 200 pmol/L and serum homocysteine > 20 μmol/L; and (3) serum B12 < 258 pmol/L or serum methylmalonic acid > 0.21 μmol/L. Functional measures of peripheral neuropathy, balance, cognitive function, gait speed, along with self-reported disability (including activities of daily living) were examined with standardized instruments by trained NHANES interviewers and technicians. Individuals identified as B12 deficient by definition 2 were more likely to manifest peripheral neuropathy OR (odds) (95% confidence intervals), p value: 9.70 (2.24, 42.07), 0.004 and report greater total disability, 19.61 (6.22, 61.86) 0.0001 after adjustments for age, sex, race, serum creatinine, and ferritin concentrations, smoking, diabetes, and peripheral artery disease. Smaller, but significantly increased, odds of peripheral neuropathy and total disability were also observed when definition 3 was applied. Functional measures and reported disabilities were associated with B12 deficiency definitions that include B12 biomarkers (homocysteine or methylmalonic acid). Further study of these definitions is needed to alert clinicians of possible subclinical B12 deficiency because functional decline amongst older adults may be correctable if the individual is B12 replete. PMID:24225845

  17. On the relation between malaria and G-6-PD deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Bottini, E.; Gloria-Bottini, F.; Maggioni, G.

    1978-01-01

    On the basis of the hypothesis that in the regions where favism is present a high correlation exists between endemic malaria and the frequency of G-6-PD deficiency, Huheey and Martin (1975) in a recent paper suggest that the haemolytic event in a malarial environment is a favourable selective factor. Therefore, the fitness of the G-6-PD-deficient individual who shows haemolysis is higher than that of those who do not show haemolysis. Modiano (1976) also suggested that haemolysis may not be a negative component of the selective forces which act on the G-6-PD-deficient variants. In this paper, some facts which make these hypotheses unlikely are considered. Other, more promising, lines for the analysis of the complex relation between malaria and G-6-PD deficiency are suggested. In Sardinia and in the area of the Po Delta, even though favism is present, there is a very low correlation between the frequency of G-6-PD deficiency and past malarial morbidity. Therefore, the situation is similar to that observed in other parts of the world, in which malaria is highly endemic, but where favism is absent. The following facts seem to be in contrast with the possibility that haemolysis could `by itself' be a favourable event: (1) In the hemizygous male, haemolysis due to favism is generally severe and there is a high mortality rate; (2) In the heterozygous female, the erythrocytes with G-6-PD deficiency seem to show a low parasite rate compared to normal cells, and it is just these erythrocytes that are destroyed during the haemolytic crisis; (3) In malarial environments, enzymopenic variants associated with continuous haemolysis have not been selected. A positive selection of such variants would be expected if haemolysis was `by itself' a positive factor. Several observations suggest that the G-6-PD system interacts with various factors, both genetical (thalassaemia, erythrocyte acid phosphatase, adenosine deaminase) and environmental (Vicia Faba, altitude, viral and protozoal

  18. Calcium

    MedlinePlus

    ... body stores more than 99 percent of its calcium in the bones and teeth to help make and keep them ... in the foods you eat. Foods rich in calcium include Dairy products such as milk, cheese, and yogurt Leafy, green vegetables Fish with soft bones that you eat, such as canned sardines and ...

  19. Mini-dystrophin Expression Down-regulates IP3-mediated Calcium Release Events in Resting Dystrophin-deficient Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Balghi, Haouaria; Sebille, Stéphane; Mondin, Ludivine; Cantereau, Anne; Constantin, Bruno; Raymond, Guy; Cognard, Christian

    2006-01-01

    We present here evidence for the enhancement, at rest, of an inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)–mediated calcium signaling pathway in myotubes from dystrophin-deficient cell lines (SolC1(−)) as compared to a cell line from the same origin but transfected with mini-dystrophin (SolD(+)). With confocal microscopy, the number of sites discharging calcium (release site density [RSD]) was quantified and found more elevated in SolC1(−) than in SolD(+) myotubes. Variations of membrane potential had no significant effect on this difference, and higher resting [Ca2+]i in SolC1(−) (Marchand, E., B. Constantin, H. Balghi, M.C. Claudepierre, A. Cantereau, C. Magaud, A. Mouzou, G. Raymond, S. Braun, and C. Cognard. 2004. Exp. Cell Res. 297:363–379) cannot explain alone higher RSD. The exposure with SR Ca2+ channel inhibitors (ryanodine and 2-APB) and phospholipase C inhibitor (U73122) significantly reduced RSD in both cell types but with a stronger effect in dystrophin-deficient SolC1(−) myotubes. Immunocytochemistry allowed us to localize ryanodine receptors (RyRs) as well as IP3 receptors (IP3Rs), IP3R-1 and IP3R-2 isoforms, indicating the presence of both RyRs-dependent and IP3-dependent release systems in both cells. We previously reported evidence for the enhancement, through a Gi protein, of the IP3-mediated calcium signaling pathway in SolC1(−) as compared to SolD(+) myotubes during a high K+ stimulation (Balghi, H., S. Sebille, B. Constantin, S. Patri, V. Thoreau, L. Mondin, E. Mok, A. Kitzis, G. Raymond, and C. Cognard. 2006. J. Gen. Physiol. 127:171–182). Here we show that, at rest, these regulation mechanisms are also involved in the modulation of calcium release activities. The enhancement of resting release activity may participate in the calcium overload observed in dystrophin-deficient myotubes, and our findings support the hypothesis of the regulatory role of mini-dystrophin on intracellular signaling. PMID:16847098

  20. Reducing Iron Deficiency in 18-36-months-old US Children: Is the Solution Less Calcium?

    PubMed

    Kerling, Elizabeth H; Souther, Laura M; Gajewski, Byron J; Sullivan, Debra K; Georgieff, Michael K; Carlson, Susan E

    2016-09-01

    Objectives National surveys consistently identify iron deficiency (ID) in US children between 1 and 3 years of age, when the brain is rapidly developing and vulnerable to the effects of ID. However, controversy remains as to how best to recognize and prevent ID in young children, in part because of the multiple potential etiologies. The objective of this project was to assess ID in children and identify potential individual dietary predictors of status. Methods We examined three biomarkers of ID [soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) and serum ferritin (SF), and body iron (calculated from sTfR and SF)] against parent-provided dietary calcium and iron intake for eight-three 18-36 month old children from middle class families. Results Using literature-based cutoffs, fourteen children (16.9 %) had at least one indicator of ID: low SF(<10 μg/l, 7.2 %), negative body iron (<0 mg/kg, 7.2 %) or elevated sTfR (>8.4 μg/ml, 13.2 %). All children consumed more than the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) Estimated Average Requirement of 3 mg/d iron. The mean iron intake of children identified with ID approximated the Recommended Dietary Allowance of 7 mg/d. Most children (81 %) consumed above the DRI Adequate Intake of 500 mg/d of calcium. Calcium intakes were generally high and predicted lower body iron (p = 0.0005), lower SF (p = 0.0086) and higher sTfR (p = 0.0176). Conclusions for Practice We found rates of ID similar to US national averages. Dietary calcium intake predicted lower iron status more than deficits in iron intake. Teaching parents to balance calcium and iron intake in toddlers could be a strategy to prevent ID. PMID:26987860

  1. Calcium

    MedlinePlus

    ... milligrams) of calcium each day. Get it from: Dairy products. Low-fat milk, yogurt, cheese, and cottage ... lactase that helps digest the sugar (lactose) in dairy products, and may have gas, bloating, cramps, or ...

  2. Use of electron microprobe x-ray analysis for determination of low calcium concentrations across leaves deficient in calcium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, D. J.; Tibbitts, T. W.

    1991-01-01

    An electron microprobe with wavelength-dispersive x-ray spectrometry (WDS) was found to be useful for the determination of Ca concentrations in leaf tissue deficient in Ca. WDS effectively detected Ca concentrations as low as 0.2 mg/g dry wt in the presence of high levels of K and Mg (120 and 50 mg/g dry wt, respectively). Leaf specimens were prepared for analysis by quick-freezing in liquid nitrogen and freeze-drying at -20 degrees C to maintain elemental integrity within the tissue. Because dry material was analyzed, sample preparation was simple and samples could be stored for long periods before analysis. A large beam diameter of 50 gm was used to minimize tissue damage under the beam and analyze mineral concentrations within several cells at one time. Beam penetration was between 50 and 55 microns, approximately one-third of the thickness of the leaf. For analysis of concentrations in interveinal areas, analyses directed into the abaxial epidermis were found most useful. However, because of limited beam penetration, analyses of veinal areas would require use of cross sections [correction of crosssections]. Solid mineral standards were used for instrument standardization. To prevent measurement errors resulting from differences between the matrix of the mineral standards and the analyzed tissue, concentrations in leaves were corrected using gelatin standards prepared and analyzed under the same conditions. WDS was found to be useful for documenting that very low Ca levels occur in specific areas of lettuce leaves exhibiting the Ca deficiency injury termed tipburn.

  3. Development and characterization of an injectable cement of nano calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite/multi(amino acid) copolymer/calcium sulfate hemihydrate for bone repair

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Xiaotong; Li, Hong; Qiao, Bo; Li, Weichao; Hao, Xinyan; Wu, Jun; Su, Bao; Jiang, Dianming

    2013-01-01

    A novel injectable bone cement was developed by integration of nano calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite/multi(amino acid) copolymer (n-CDHA/MAC) and calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CSH; CaSO4 · 1/2H2O). The structure, setting time, and compressive strength of the cement were investigated. The results showed that the cement with a liquid to powder ratio of 0.8 mL/g exhibited good injectability and appropriate setting time and mechanical properties. In vitro cell studies indicated that MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on the n-CDHA/MAC/CSH composite spread well and showed a good proliferation state. The alkaline phosphatase activity of the MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on the n-CDHA/MAC/CSH composite was significantly higher than that of the cells on pure CSH at 4 and 7 days of culture. The n-CDHA/MAC/CSH cement was implanted into critical size defects of the femoral condyle in rabbits to evaluate its biocompatibility and osteogenesis in vivo. Radiological and histological results indicated that introduction of the n-CDHA/MAC into CSH enhanced new bone formation, and the n-CDHA/MAC/CSH cement exhibited good biocompatibility and degradability. In conclusion, the injectable n-CDHA/MAC/CSH composite cement has a significant clinical advantage over pure CSH cement, and may be a promising bone graft substitute for the treatment of bone defects. PMID:24293996

  4. Development and characterization of an injectable cement of nano calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite/multi(amino acid) copolymer/calcium sulfate hemihydrate for bone repair.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xiaotong; Li, Hong; Qiao, Bo; Li, Weichao; Hao, Xinyan; Wu, Jun; Su, Bao; Jiang, Dianming

    2013-01-01

    A novel injectable bone cement was developed by integration of nano calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite/multi(amino acid) copolymer (n-CDHA/MAC) and calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CSH; CaSO4 · 1/2H2O). The structure, setting time, and compressive strength of the cement were investigated. The results showed that the cement with a liquid to powder ratio of 0.8 mL/g exhibited good injectability and appropriate setting time and mechanical properties. In vitro cell studies indicated that MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on the n-CDHA/MAC/CSH composite spread well and showed a good proliferation state. The alkaline phosphatase activity of the MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on the n-CDHA/MAC/CSH composite was significantly higher than that of the cells on pure CSH at 4 and 7 days of culture. The n-CDHA/MAC/CSH cement was implanted into critical size defects of the femoral condyle in rabbits to evaluate its biocompatibility and osteogenesis in vivo. Radiological and histological results indicated that introduction of the n-CDHA/MAC into CSH enhanced new bone formation, and the n-CDHA/MAC/CSH cement exhibited good biocompatibility and degradability. In conclusion, the injectable n-CDHA/MAC/CSH composite cement has a significant clinical advantage over pure CSH cement, and may be a promising bone graft substitute for the treatment of bone defects. PMID:24293996

  5. Calcium absorption on high and low calcium intakes in relation to vitamin D receptor genotype

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson-Hughes, B.; Harris, S.S.; Finneran, S.

    1995-12-01

    The finding that the link between polymorphism at the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene and rates of bone loss from the femoral neck in postmenopausal women is enhanced at low calcium intakes suggests that intestinal calcium absorption is a site of differential action of the VDR alleles. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25-(OH){sub 2}D] and its receptor mediate active calcium transport, the major mechanism of calcium absorption in healthy late postmenopausal women with (bb) and without (BB) the BSM-1 restriction site. In 60 women (26 BB and 34 bb), we measured calcium absorption and plasma 1,25-(OH){sub 2}D after 2 weeks on a high (1500 mg/day) and 2 weeks on a low (<300 mg/day) calcium intake. The mean {sup 45}Ca absorption indexes were similar in the two groups on the high calcium intake [19.01 {+-} 1.12% ({+-}SEM)/L in BB and 20.45 {+-} 0.97%/L in bb; P = 0.346] and differed significantly on the low calcium intake (20.57 {+-} 1.10%L vs. 23.66 {+-} 0.95%L; P = 0.044). Calcium restriction induced similar percent increases in plasma 1,25-(OH){sub 2}D, but the BB group had a smaller increase in the fractional {sup 45}Ca absorption index [7.8 {+-} 3.8% ({+-}SEM) vs. 20.7 {+-} 3.3% in bb; P = 0.016; increments adjusted for initial absorption value]. In conclusion, compared to women with the bb variants, women with BB allelic variants of the VDR have reduced calcium absorption efficiency on low calcium intake, consistent with a functional defect in the intestinal VDR. The impact of this heritable difference is reduced at higher calcium intakes. 33 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  6. Deficient Glutathione in the Pathophysiology of Mycotoxin-Related Illness

    PubMed Central

    Guilford, Frederick T.; Hope, Janette

    2014-01-01

    Evidence for the role of oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of mycotoxin-related illness is increasing. The glutathione antioxidant and detoxification systems play a major role in the antioxidant function of cells. Exposure to mycotoxins in humans requires the production of glutathione on an “as needed” basis. Research suggests that mycotoxins can decrease the formation of glutathione due to decreased gene expression of the enzymes needed to form glutathione. Mycotoxin-related compromise of glutathione production can result in an excess of oxidative stress that leads to tissue damage and systemic illness. The review discusses the mechanisms by which mycotoxin-related deficiency of glutathione may lead to both acute and chronic illnesses. PMID:24517907

  7. Deficient glutathione in the pathophysiology of mycotoxin-related illness.

    PubMed

    Guilford, Frederick T; Hope, Janette

    2014-02-01

    Evidence for the role of oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of mycotoxin-related illness is increasing. The glutathione antioxidant and detoxification systems play a major role in the antioxidant function of cells. Exposure to mycotoxins in humans requires the production of glutathione on an "as needed" basis. Research suggests that mycotoxins can decrease the formation of glutathione due to decreased gene expression of the enzymes needed to form glutathione. Mycotoxin-related compromise of glutathione production can result in an excess of oxidative stress that leads to tissue damage and systemic illness. The review discusses the mechanisms by which mycotoxin-related deficiency of glutathione may lead to both acute and chronic illnesses. PMID:24517907

  8. Fruit Calcium: Transport and Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Hocking, Bradleigh; Tyerman, Stephen D.; Burton, Rachel A.; Gilliham, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Calcium has well-documented roles in plant signaling, water relations and cell wall interactions. Significant research into how calcium impacts these individual processes in various tissues has been carried out; however, the influence of calcium on fruit ripening has not been thoroughly explored. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on how calcium may impact the development, physical traits and disease susceptibility of fruit through facilitating developmental and stress response signaling, stabilizing membranes, influencing water relations and modifying cell wall properties through cross-linking of de-esterified pectins. We explore the involvement of calcium in hormone signaling integral to the physiological mechanisms behind common disorders that have been associated with fruit calcium deficiency (e.g., blossom end rot in tomatoes or bitter pit in apples). This review works toward an improved understanding of how the many roles of calcium interact to influence fruit ripening, and proposes future research directions to fill knowledge gaps. Specifically, we focus mostly on grapes and present a model that integrates existing knowledge around these various functions of calcium in fruit, which provides a basis for understanding the physiological impacts of sub-optimal calcium nutrition in grapes. Calcium accumulation and distribution in fruit is shown to be highly dependent on water delivery and cell wall interactions in the apoplasm. Localized calcium deficiencies observed in particular species or varieties can result from differences in xylem morphology, fruit water relations and pectin composition, and can cause leaky membranes, irregular cell wall softening, impaired hormonal signaling and aberrant fruit development. We propose that the role of apoplasmic calcium-pectin crosslinking, particularly in the xylem, is an understudied area that may have a key influence on fruit water relations. Furthermore, we believe that improved knowledge of the calcium

  9. Fruit Calcium: Transport and Physiology.

    PubMed

    Hocking, Bradleigh; Tyerman, Stephen D; Burton, Rachel A; Gilliham, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Calcium has well-documented roles in plant signaling, water relations and cell wall interactions. Significant research into how calcium impacts these individual processes in various tissues has been carried out; however, the influence of calcium on fruit ripening has not been thoroughly explored. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on how calcium may impact the development, physical traits and disease susceptibility of fruit through facilitating developmental and stress response signaling, stabilizing membranes, influencing water relations and modifying cell wall properties through cross-linking of de-esterified pectins. We explore the involvement of calcium in hormone signaling integral to the physiological mechanisms behind common disorders that have been associated with fruit calcium deficiency (e.g., blossom end rot in tomatoes or bitter pit in apples). This review works toward an improved understanding of how the many roles of calcium interact to influence fruit ripening, and proposes future research directions to fill knowledge gaps. Specifically, we focus mostly on grapes and present a model that integrates existing knowledge around these various functions of calcium in fruit, which provides a basis for understanding the physiological impacts of sub-optimal calcium nutrition in grapes. Calcium accumulation and distribution in fruit is shown to be highly dependent on water delivery and cell wall interactions in the apoplasm. Localized calcium deficiencies observed in particular species or varieties can result from differences in xylem morphology, fruit water relations and pectin composition, and can cause leaky membranes, irregular cell wall softening, impaired hormonal signaling and aberrant fruit development. We propose that the role of apoplasmic calcium-pectin crosslinking, particularly in the xylem, is an understudied area that may have a key influence on fruit water relations. Furthermore, we believe that improved knowledge of the calcium

  10. Preservation and promotion of bone formation in the mandible as a response to a novel calcium-phosphate based biomaterial in mineral deficiency induced low bone mass male versus female rats

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Kritika; Naula, Diana P.; Mijares, Dindo Q.; Janal, Malvin N.; LeGeros, Raquel Z.; Zhang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Calcium and other trace mineral supplements have previously demonstrated to safely improve bone quality. We hypothesize that our novel calcium-phosphate based biomaterial (SBM) preserves and promotes mandibular bone formation in male and female rats on mineral deficient diet (MD). Sixty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to receive one of three diets (n = 10): basic diet (BD), MD or mineral deficient diet with 2% SBM. Rats were sacrificed after 6 months. Micro-Computed Tomography (μCT) was used to evaluate bone volume and 3D-microarchitecture while microradiography (Faxitron) was used to measure bone mineral density from different sections of the mandible. Results showed that bone quality varied with region, gender and diet. MD reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and volume and increased porosity. SBM preserved BMD and bone mineral content (BMC) in the alveolar bone and condyle in both genders. In the alveolar crest and mandibular body, while preserving more bone in males, SBM also significantly supplemented female bone. Results indicate that mineral deficiency leads to low bone mass in skeletally immature rats, comparatively more in males. Furthermore, SBM administered as a dietary supplement was effective in preventing mandibular bone loss in all subjects. This study suggests that the SBM preparation has potential use in minimizing low peak bone mass induced by mineral deficiency and related bone loss irrespective of gender. PMID:26914814

  11. Preservation and promotion of bone formation in the mandible as a response to a novel calcium-phosphate based biomaterial in mineral deficiency induced low bone mass male versus female rats.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Kritika; Naula, Diana P; Mijares, Dindo Q; Janal, Malvin N; LeGeros, Racquel Z; Zhang, Yu

    2016-07-01

    Calcium and other trace mineral supplements have previously demonstrated to safely improve bone quality. We hypothesize that our novel calcium-phosphate based biomaterial (SBM) preserves and promotes mandibular bone formation in male and female rats on mineral deficient diet (MD). Sixty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to receive one of three diets (n = 10): basic diet (BD), MD or mineral deficient diet with 2% SBM. Rats were sacrificed after 6 months. Micro-computed tomography (µCT) was used to evaluate bone volume and 3D-microarchitecture while microradiography (Faxitron) was used to measure bone mineral density from different sections of the mandible. Results showed that bone quality varied with region, gender and diet. MD reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and volume and increased porosity. SBM preserved BMD and bone mineral content (BMC) in the alveolar bone and condyle in both genders. In the alveolar crest and mandibular body, while preserving more bone in males, SBM also significantly supplemented female bone. Results indicate that mineral deficiency leads to low bone mass in skeletally immature rats, comparatively more in males. Furthermore, SBM administered as a dietary supplement was effective in preventing mandibular bone loss in all subjects. This study suggests that the SBM preparation has potential use in minimizing low peak bone mass induced by mineral deficiency and related bone loss irrespective of gender. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 1622-1632, 2016. PMID:26914814

  12. Calcium source (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Getting enough calcium to keep bones from thinning throughout a person's life may be made more difficult if that person has ... as a tendency toward kidney stones, for avoiding calcium-rich food sources. Calcium deficiency also effects the ...

  13. Complete globozoospermia associated with PLCζ deficiency treated with calcium ionophore and ICSI results in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, SL; Yoon, SY; Morshedi, MS; Lacey, DR; Jellerette, T; Fissore, RA; Oehninger, S

    2010-01-01

    Globozoospermia is an infrequent pathology in which spermatozoa lack acrosomes. Patients are considered sterile without IVF augmented with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), as fertilization is impaired due to absence of oocyte activation. As far as is known, this is the first study to report results of a comprehensive approach to the treatment of the semen parameters, sperm DNA fragmentation, aneuploidy, transmission electron microscopy, Western blotting and immunofluorescence for detection of phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ), as well as ICSI outcome, of an affected patient. Morphological evaluation and transmission electron microscopy revealed complete globozoospermia with significant duplicate heads and tails. Analysis for DNA damage revealed fragmentation rates of approximately 80% in semen and 15–23% in swim-up fractions. PLCζ was not detected by immunofluorescence or Western blotting. Aneuploidy rates were within normal ranges. ICSI followed by oocyte activation with calcium ionophore resulted in high rates of fertilization, and an ongoing pregnancy was established after transfer of cryopreserved–thawed embryos. PMID:20133201

  14. Ion microscopic imaging of calcium transport in the intestinal tissue of vitamin D-deficient and vitamin D-replete chickens: A sup 44 Ca stable isotope study

    SciTech Connect

    Chandra, S.; Fullmer, C.S.; Smith, C.A.; Wasserman, R.H.; Morrison, G.H. )

    1990-08-01

    The intestinal absorption of calcium includes at least three definable steps; transfer across the microvillar membrane, movement through the cytosolic compartment, and energy-dependent extrusion into the lamina propria, Tracing the movement of calcium through the epithelium has been hampered by lack of suitable techniques and, in this study, advantage was taken of ion microscopy in conjunction with cryosectioning and use of the stable isotope 44Ca to visualize calcium in transit during the absorptive process. The effect of vitamin D, required for optimal calcium absorption, was investigated. Twenty millimolar 44Ca was injected into the duodenal lumen in situ of vitamin D-deficient and vitamin D-replete chickens. At 2.5, 5.0, and 20.0 min after injection, duodenal tissue was obtained and processed for ion microscopic imaging. At 2.5 min. 44Ca was seen to be concentrated in the region subjacent to the microvillar membrane in tissue from both groups. At 5.0 and 20.0 min, a similar pattern of localization was evident in D-deficient tissues. In D-replete tissues, the distribution of 44Ca became more homogenous, indicating that vitamin D increased the rate of transfer of Ca2+ from the apical to the basolateral membrane, a function previously ascribed to the vitamin D-induced calcium-binding protein (28-kDa calbindin-D). Quantitative aspects of the calcium absorptive process were determined in parallel experiments with the radionuclide 47Ca. Complementary information on the localization of the naturally occurring isotopes of calcium (40Ca) and potassium (39K) is also described.

  15. Dietary calcium deficiency increases Ca2+ uptake and Ca2+ extrusion mechanisms in chick enterocytes.

    PubMed

    Centeno, Viviana A; Díaz de Barboza, Gabriela E; Marchionatti, Ana M; Alisio, Arturo E; Dallorso, Maria E; Nasif, Renée; Tolosa de Talamoni, Nori G

    2004-10-01

    Ca2+ uptake and Ca2+ extrusion mechanisms were studied in enterocytes with different degree of differentiation from chicks adapted to a low Ca2+ diet as compared to animals fed a normal diet. Chicks adapted to a low Ca2+ diet presented hypocalcemia, hypophosphatemia and increased serum 1,25(OH)2D3 and Ca2+ absorption. Low Ca2+ diet increased the alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity, independently of the cellular maturation, but it did not alter gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase activity. Ca2+ uptake, Ca2+-ATPase and Na(+)/Ca2+ exchanger activities and expressions were increased by the mineral-deficient diet either in mature or immature enterocytes. Western blots analysis shows that vitamin D receptor (VDR) expression was much higher in crypt cells than in mature cells. Low Ca2+ diet decreased the number of vitamin D receptor units in both kinds of cells. In conclusion, changes in Ca2+ uptake and Ca2+ extrusion mechanisms in the enterocytes by a low Ca2+ diet appear to be a result of enhanced serum levels of 1,25(OH)2D3, which would promote cellular differentiation producing cells more efficient to express vitamin D dependent genes required for Ca2+ absorption. PMID:15528161

  16. Biotechnologically-modified carrots: Calcium absorption relative to milk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biotechnology to increase the nutrient content of fruits and vegetables is an innovative strategy to address insufficient mineral intakes. A novel biotechnologically modified carrot that has higher levels of calcium than control carrots has been developed. For dietary guidance, it is necessary to un...

  17. Probing the limit of magnesium uptake by β-tricalcium phosphate in biphasic mixtures formed from calcium deficient apatites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, P. Nandha; Mishra, Sandeep K.; Kannan, S.

    2015-11-01

    A series of magnesium doped non-stoichiometric calcium deficient apatites were synthesized through an aqueous precipitation route. The resultant structural changes during heat treatment were investigated by X-ray diffraction, Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy and Rietveld refinement. The results confirmed the formation of biphasic mixtures comprising Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 and β-Ca3(PO4)2 after heat treatment at 1000 °C with the preferential occupancy of Mg2+ at the crystal lattice of β-Ca3(PO4)2. The concentration of Mg2+ uptake in β-Ca3(PO4)2 is limited till reaching the stoichiometric ratio of (Ca+Mg)/P=1.67 and beyond this stoichiometric value [(Ca+Mg)/P>1.67], Mg2+ precipitates as Mg(OH)2 and thereafter gets converted to MgO during heat treatment. Any kind of Mg2+ uptake in the crystal lattice of Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 is discarded from the investigation.

  18. Seizures Related to Vitamin B6 Deficiency in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Gun; Lee, Yeonkyung; Shin, Hyeeun; Kang, Kyusik; Park, Jong-Moo; Kim, Byung-Kun; Kwon, Ohyun; Lee, Jung-Ju

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin B6 is closely associated with functions of the nervous, immune, and endocrine systems. Its deficiency may result in neurological disorders including convulsions and epileptic encephalopathy. Until today, this has only been reported in infants, children, and critically ill adult patients. We report a case of a 36year-old man with chronic alcoholism who presented with seizures after gastrointestinal disturbance. His seizures persisted even after treatment with antiepileptic drugs, but eventually disappeared after administration of pyridoxine. Hence, vitamin B6 deficiency may cause seizures in adult patients with chronic alcoholism. PMID:26157671

  19. Reversing Sports-Related Iron and Zinc Deficiencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loosli, Alvin R.

    1993-01-01

    Many active athletes do not consume enough zinc or iron, which are important for oxygen activation, electron transport, and injury healing. Subclinical deficiencies may impair performance and impair healing times. People who exercise regularly need counseling about the importance of adequate dietary intake of iron and zinc. (SM)

  20. Osteopetrorickets due to Snx10 Deficiency in Mice Results from Both Failed Osteoclast Activity and Loss of Gastric Acid-Dependent Calcium Absorption

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Liang; Morse, Leslie R.; Zhang, Li; Sasaki, Hajime; Mills, Jason C.; Odgren, Paul R.; Sibbel, Greg; Stanley, James R. L.; Wong, Gee; Zamarioli, Ariane; Battaglino, Ricardo A.

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in sorting nexin 10 (Snx10) have recently been found to account for roughly 4% of all human malignant osteopetrosis, some of them fatal. To study the disease pathogenesis, we investigated the expression of Snx10 and created mouse models in which Snx10 was knocked down globally or knocked out in osteoclasts. Endocytosis is severely defective in Snx10-deficent osteoclasts, as is extracellular acidification, ruffled border formation, and bone resorption. We also discovered that Snx10 is highly expressed in stomach epithelium, with mutations leading to high stomach pH and low calcium solubilization. Global Snx10-deficiency in mice results in a combined phenotype: osteopetrosis (due to osteoclast defect) and rickets (due to high stomach pH and low calcium availability, resulting in impaired bone mineralization). Osteopetrorickets, the paradoxical association of insufficient mineralization in the context of a positive total body calcium balance, is thought to occur due to the inability of the osteoclasts to maintain normal calcium–phosphorus homeostasis. However, osteoclast-specific Snx10 knockout had no effect on calcium balance, and therefore led to severe osteopetrosis without rickets. Moreover, supplementation with calcium gluconate rescued mice from the rachitic phenotype and dramatically extended life span in global Snx10-deficient mice, suggesting that this may be a life-saving component of the clinical approach to Snx10-dependent human osteopetrosis that has previously gone unrecognized. We conclude that tissue-specific effects of Snx10 mutation need to be considered in clinical approaches to this disease entity. Reliance solely on hematopoietic stem cell transplantation can leave hypocalcemia uncorrected with sometimes fatal consequences. These studies established an essential role for Snx10 in bone homeostasis and underscore the importance of gastric acidification in calcium uptake. PMID:25811986

  1. Plasma cytokine concentration changes induced by the antitumor agents dipterinyl calcium pentahydrate (DCP) and related calcium pterins.

    PubMed

    Moheno, Phillip; Pfleiderer, Wolfgang; Fuchs, Dietmar

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of plasma cytokine concentration changes determined that oral dosing with the antitumor agent (1:4 mol:mol) calcium pterin (CaPterin) increased plasma IL-10, decreased plasma IL-6, and decreased plasma IFN-gamma concentrations in nude mice with MDA-MB-231 xenograph tumors [Moheno, P., Pfleiderer, W., Dipasquale, A.G., Rheingold, A.L., Fuchs, D., 2008. Cytokine and IDO metabolite changes effected by calcium pterin during inhibition of MDA-MB-231 xenograph tumors in nude mice. Int. J. Pharm. 355, 238-248]. A further analysis, reported here, of plasma cytokine concentration changes in nude mice with the same tumor xenographs treated with dipterinyl calcium pentahydrate (DCP), (1:2 mol:mol) calcium pterin, and CaCl(2).2H(2)O has been carried out. The measured cytokines included: IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, IFN-gamma, and TNF-alpha. The major preliminary findings from the analyses of these data are that (1) the overall relative tumor volumes for the treatments correlated significantly with a full study antitumor plasma cytokine pattern (fsAPCP), a composite measure consisting of decreased plasma IL-6 and increased IL-4 concentrations, and (2) DCP induces a significant threshold antitumor response strongly correlated to a derived DCP antitumor plasma cytokine pattern (DCP/APCP) consisting of plasma IL-12, IL-6, and IL-4 concentration changes. This DCP/APCP composite measure identifies plasma IL-12 concentration increases, plasma IL-6 concentration decreases, and plasma IL-4 concentration increases correlated to relative tumor volume decreases caused by DCP dosing. The finding that the novel calcium pterins and CaCl(2).2H(2)O treatments decrease plasma IL-6 concentrations corroborates the previous finding that CaPterin dosing decreases plasma IL-6 concentrations in this mouse/tumor system [Moheno, P., Pfleiderer, W., Dipasquale, A.G., Rheingold, A.L., Fuchs, D., 2008. Cytokine and IDO metabolite changes effected by calcium pterin during inhibition

  2. Selenoprotein K knockout mice exhibit deficient calcium flux in immune cells and impaired immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Saguna; Hoffmann, FuKun W.; Kumar, Mukesh; Huang, Zhi; Roe, Kelsey; Nguyen-Wu, Elizabeth; Hashimoto, Ann S.; Hoffmann, Peter R.

    2011-01-01

    Selenoprotein K (Sel K) is a selenium-containing protein for which no function has been identified. We found that Sel K is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) transmembrane protein expressed at relatively high levels in immune cells and is regulated by dietary selenium. Sel K−/− mice were generated and found to be similar to WT controls regarding growth and fertility. Immune system development was not affected by Sel K deletion, but specific immune cell defects were found in Sel K−/− mice. Receptor-mediated Ca2+ flux was decreased in T cells, neutrophils, and macrophages from Sel K−/− mice compare to controls. Ca2+-dependent functions including T cell proliferation, T cell and neutrophil migration, and Fcγ-receptor-mediated oxidative burst in macrophages were decreased in cells from Sel K−/− mice compared to controls. West Nile virus (WNV) infections were performed and Sel K−/− mice exhibited decreased viral clearance in the periphery and increased viral titers in brain. Furthermore, WNV-infected Sel K−/− mice demonstrated significantly lower survival (2/23; 8.7%) compared to WT controls (10/26; 38.5%). These results establish Sel K as an ER-membrane protein important for promoting effective Ca2+ flux during immune cell activation and provide insight into molecular mechanisms by which dietary selenium enhances immune responses. PMID:21220695

  3. Controlled environment life support system: Calcium-related leaf injuries on plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tibbitts, T. W.

    1985-01-01

    A calcium related injury in lettuce termed tipburn was the focus of this study. It affects the young developing leaves as they become enclosed during head formation. It is a good model system to study because the injury can be induced with good predictability and lettuce is one of the crops chosen by the CELSS program for concentrated study. Investigations were undertaken to study a number of different procedures, that would have the potential for encouraging movement of calcium into the young developing leaves and to study the time course and pattern of calcium accumulation in developing leaves to provide a basis for developing effective control procedures for this injury.

  4. Synthesis of calcium vanadate minerals and related compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marvin, Richard F.

    1956-01-01

    Synthesis of natural vanadates shows that most of them are stable in an acid environment. Phase studies of a portion of the system CaO-V2O5-H2O indicate that calcium vanadates are an indicator of environmental pH conditions. Some minerals, such as pascoute, indicate rapid evaporation of vanadite solutions; other minerals, such as hewettite, show that slow evaporation took place. Cursory examination of systems K2O-UO2-(NO3)2-V2O5 and CaO-UO2(NO3)2-V2O5, both in aqueous solution, has yielded information on the relationships among carnotite, tyuyamunite, and rauvite.

  5. Quantitative proteomic analysis reveals metabolic alterations, calcium dysregulation, and increased expression of extracellular matrix proteins in laminin α2 chain-deficient muscle.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Bruno Menezes; Matsumura, Cintia Y; Fontes-Oliveira, Cibely C; Gawlik, Kinga I; Acosta, Helena; Wernhoff, Patrik; Durbeej, Madeleine

    2014-11-01

    Congenital muscular dystrophy with laminin α2 chain deficiency (MDC1A) is one of the most severe forms of muscular disease and is characterized by severe muscle weakness and delayed motor milestones. The genetic basis of MDC1A is well known, yet the secondary mechanisms ultimately leading to muscle degeneration and subsequent connective tissue infiltration are not fully understood. In order to obtain new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying MDC1A, we performed a comparative proteomic analysis of affected muscles (diaphragm and gastrocnemius) from laminin α2 chain-deficient dy(3K)/dy(3K) mice, using multidimensional protein identification technology combined with tandem mass tags. Out of the approximately 700 identified proteins, 113 and 101 proteins, respectively, were differentially expressed in the diseased gastrocnemius and diaphragm muscles compared with normal muscles. A large portion of these proteins are involved in different metabolic processes, bind calcium, or are expressed in the extracellular matrix. Our findings suggest that metabolic alterations and calcium dysregulation could be novel mechanisms that underlie MDC1A and might be targets that should be explored for therapy. Also, detailed knowledge of the composition of fibrotic tissue, rich in extracellular matrix proteins, in laminin α2 chain-deficient muscle might help in the design of future anti-fibrotic treatments. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000978 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD000978). PMID:24994560

  6. Controlled environment life support system: Calcium-related leaf injuries on plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tibbitts, T. W.

    1986-01-01

    Calcium related injuries to plants grown in controlled environments under conditions which maximize plant growth rates are described. Procedures to encourage movement of calcium into developing leaves of lettuce plants were investigated. The time course and pattern of calcium accumulation was determined to develop effective control procedures for this injury, termed tipburn. Procedures investigated were: (1) increasing the relative humidity to saturation during the dark period and altering root temperatures, (2) maximizing water stress during light and minimizing water stress during dark periods, (3) shortening the light-dark cycle lengths in combination with elevated moisture levels during the dark cycles, (4) reducing nutrient concentrations and (5) vibrating the plants. Saturated humidities at night increased the rate of growth and the large fluctuation in plant water potential encouraged calcium movement to the young leaves and delayed tipburn. Root temperature regulation between 15 and 26 C was not effective in preventing tipburn. Attempts to modulate water stress produced little variation, but no difference in tipburn development. Variations in light-dark cycle lengths also had no effect on calcium concentrations within developing leaves and no variation in tipburn development. Low concentrations of nutrient solution delayed tipburn, presumably because of greater calcium transport in the low concentration plants. Shaking of the plants did not prevent tipburn, but did delay it slightly.

  7. Mice deficient in carbonic anhydrase type 8 exhibit motor dysfunctions and abnormal calcium dynamics in the somatic region of cerebellar granule cells.

    PubMed

    Lamont, Matthew G; Weber, John T

    2015-06-01

    The waddles (wdl) mouse is characterized by a namesake "side-to-side" waddling gait due to a homozygous mutation of the Car8 gene. This mutation results in non-functional copies of the protein carbonic anhydrase type 8. Rota-rod testing was conducted to characterize the wdl mutations' effect on motor output. Results indicated that younger homozygotes outperformed their older cohorts, an effect not seen in previous studies. Heterozygotes, which were thought to be free of motor impairment, displayed motor learning deficiencies when compared with wild type performance. Acute cerebellar slices were then utilized for fluorescent calcium imaging experiments, which revealed significant alterations in cerebellar granule cell somatic calcium signaling when exposed to glutamate. The contribution of GABAergic signaling to these alterations was also verified using bath application of bicuculline. Changes in somatic calcium signals were found to be applicable to an in vivo scenario by comparing group responses to electrical stimulation of afferent mossy fiber projections. Finally, intracellular calcium store function was also found to be altered by the wdl mutation when slices were treated with thapsigargin. These findings, taken together with previous work on the wdl mouse, indicate a widespread disruption in cerebellar circuitry hampering proper neuronal communication. PMID:25721739

  8. Calcium absorption from corn tortilla is relatively high and is dependent upon calcium content and liming in Mexican women.

    PubMed

    Rosado, Jorge L; Díaz, Margarita; Rosas, Angélica; Griffit, Ian; García, Olga P

    2005-11-01

    Corn tortillas are the staple food of Mexico. During their preparation, calcium is added to the tortillas; therefore, tortillas are the main source of calcium for a large proportion of the population. The bioavailability of calcium from lime-treated tortillas in humans is not known. The objectives of the present study were to determine calcium absorption from corn tortilla, to determine the effect of lime treatment on calcium absorption from corn tortilla, and to compare calcium absorption from tortilla prepared with a commercial corn flour and tortillas prepared with the traditional lime treatment at home. Nonpregnant, nonlactating women (n = 9) were administered 3 different treatments: 1) 180 g of corn tortilla prepared from corn flour with no lime treatment (CF), 2) 180 g of corn tortilla prepared from lime-treated commercial corn flour (LTCCF), or 3) 180 g of corn tortillas prepared from lime-treated home-prepared corn flour (LTHCF). Calcium absorption was measured using an established dual-tracer stable isotope technique. Calcium absorption of CF, LTCCF, and LTHCF was (mean +/- SD): 44 +/- 3.2, 32 +/- 4.4, and 30 +/- 2.4%, respectively; the fractional calcium absorption from CF differed from that of either LTCCF or LTHCF (P < 0.01). The total amount of calcium absorbed per treatment was higher in LTHCF (98.10 mg +/- 21.7) than in LTCCF (59.9 mg +/- 23.7, P < 0.001) and CF (3.78 mg +/- 0.9, P < 0.0.001). In conclusion, calcium absorption from corn tortillas is high and dependent on calcium concentration. The addition of calcium during lime treatment increases calcium concentration and total calcium absorption. PMID:16251614

  9. Impaired Intestinal Calcium Absorption in Protein 4.1R-deficient Mice Due to Altered Expression of Plasma Membrane Calcium ATPase 1b (PMCA1b)*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Congrong; Weng, Haibao; Chen, Lixiang; Yang, Shaomin; Wang, Hua; Debnath, Gargi; Guo, Xinhua; Wu, Liancheng; Mohandas, Narla; An, Xiuli

    2013-01-01

    Protein 4.1R was first identified in the erythrocyte membrane skeleton. It is now known that the protein is expressed in a variety of epithelial cell lines and in the epithelia of many tissues, including the small intestine. However, the physiological function of 4.1R in the epithelial cells of the small intestine has not so far been explored. Here, we show that 4.1R knock-out mice exhibited a significantly impaired small intestinal calcium absorption that resulted in secondary hyperparathyroidism as evidenced by increased serum 1,25-(OH)2-vitamin D3 and parathyroid hormone levels, decreased serum calcium levels, hyperplasia of the parathyroid, and demineralization of the bones. 4.1R is located on the basolateral membrane of enterocytes, where it co-localizes with PMCA1b (plasma membrane calcium ATPase 1b). Expression of PMCA1b in enterocytes was decreased in 4.1−/− mice. 4.1R directly associated with PMCA1b, and the association involved the membrane-binding domain of 4.1R and the second intracellular loop and C terminus of PMCA1b. Our findings have enabled us to define a functional role for 4.1R in small intestinal calcium absorption through regulation of membrane expression of PMCA1b. PMID:23460639

  10. Iron deficiency chlorosis in plants as related to Fe sources in soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, I.; Delgado, A.; de Santiago, A.; del Campillo, M. C.; Torrent, J.

    2012-04-01

    Iron deficiency chlorosis (IDC) is a relevant agricultural problem in many areas of the World where calcareous soils are dominant. Although this problem has been traditionally ascribed to the pH-buffering effect of soil carbonates, the content and type of Fe oxides in soil contribute to explain Fe uptake by plants and the incidence of this problem. During the last two decades, it has been demonstrated Fe extraction with oxalate, related to the content of poorly crystalline Fe oxides, was well-correlated with the chlorophyll content of plants and thus with the incidence of IDC. This reveals the contribution of poorly crystalline Fe oxides in soil to Fe availability to plants in calcareous soils, previously shown in microcosm experiments using ferrihydrite as Fe source in the growing media. In order to supply additional information about the contribution of Fe sources in soil to explain the incidence of IDC and to perform accurate methods to predict it, a set of experiments involving different methods to extract soil Fe and plant cultivation in pots to correlate amounts of extracted Fe with the chlorophyll content of plants (measured using the SPAD chlorophyll meter) were performed. The first experiment involved 21 soils and white lupin cultivation, sequential Fe extraction in soil to study Fe forms, and single extractions (DTPA, rapid oxalate and non-buffered hydroxylamine). After that, a set of experiments in pot involving growing of grapevine rootstocks, chickpea, and sunflower were performed, although in this case only single extractions in soil were done. The Fe fraction more closely related to chlorophyll content in plants (r = 0.5, p < 0.05) was the citrate + ascorbate (CA) extraction, which was the fraction that releases most of the Fe related to poorly crystalline Fe oxides, thus revealing the key role of these compounds in Fe supply to plants. Fe extracted with CA was more correlated with chlorophyll content in plants that oxalate extractable Fe, probably

  11. Consumers’ Health-Related Motive Orientations and Reactions to Claims about Dietary Calcium

    PubMed Central

    Hoefkens, Christine; Verbeke, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Health claims may contribute to better informed and healthier food choices and to improved industrial competitiveness by marketing foods that support healthier lifestyles in line with consumer preferences. With the more stringent European Union regulation of nutrition and health claims, insights into consumers’ health-related goal patterns and their reactions towards such claims are needed to influence the content of lawful claims. This study investigated how consumers’ explicit and implicit health-related motive orientations (HRMOs) together with the type of calcium-claim (nutrition claim, health claim and reduction of disease risk claim) influence perceived credibility and purchasing intention of calcium-enriched fruit juice. Data were collected in April 2006 through a consumer survey with 341 Belgian adults. The findings indicate that stronger implicit HRMOs (i.e., indirect benefits of calcium for personal health) are associated with higher perceived credibility, which is not (yet) translated into a higher purchasing intention. Consumers’ explicit HRMOs, which refer to direct benefits or physiological functions of calcium in the body—as legally permitted in current calcium-claims in the EU—do not associate with reactions to the claims. Independently of consumers’ HRMOs, the claim type significantly affects the perceived credibility and purchasing intention of the product. Implications for nutrition policy makers and food industries are discussed. PMID:23306190

  12. Consumers’ health-related motive orientations and reactions to claims about dietary calcium.

    PubMed

    Hoefkens, Christine; Verbeke, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Health claims may contribute to better informed and healthier food choices and to improved industrial competitiveness by marketing foods that support healthier lifestyles in line with consumer preferences. With the more stringent European Union regulation of nutrition and health claims, insights into consumers' health-related goal patterns and their reactions towards such claims are needed to influence the content of lawful claims. This study investigated how consumers' explicit and implicit health-related motive orientations (HRMOs) together with the type of calcium-claim (nutrition claim, health claim and reduction of disease risk claim) influence perceived credibility and purchasing intention of calcium-enriched fruit juice. Data were collected in April 2006 through a consumer survey with 341 Belgian adults. The findings indicate that stronger implicit HRMOs (i.e., indirect benefits of calcium for personal health) are associated with higher perceived credibility, which is not (yet) translated into a higher purchasing intention. Consumers' explicit HRMOs, which refer to direct benefits or physiological functions of calcium in the body-as legally permitted in current calcium-claims in the EU-do not associate with reactions to the claims. Independently of consumers' HRMOs, the claim type significantly affects the perceived credibility and purchasing intention of the product. Implications for nutrition policy makers and food industries are discussed. PMID:23306190

  13. Housing Interventions and Control of Injury-Related Structural Deficiencies: A Review of the Evidence

    PubMed Central

    DiGuiseppi, Carolyn; Jacobs, David E.; Phelan, Kieran J.; Mickalide, Angela; Ormandy, David

    2010-01-01

    Subject matter experts systematically reviewed evidence on the effectiveness of housing interventions that affect safety and injury outcomes, such as falls, fire-related injuries, burns and drowning, carbon monoxide poisoning, heat-related deaths, and noise-related harm, associated with structural housing deficiencies. Structural deficiencies were defined as those deficiencies for which a builder, landlord, or homeowner would take responsibility (ie, design, construction, installation, repair, monitoring). Three of the 17 interventions reviewed had sufficient evidence for implementation: installed, working smoke alarms; 4-sided isolation pool fencing; and preset safe hot water temperature. Five interventions needed more field evaluation, 8 needed formative research, and 1 was found to be ineffective. This evidence review shows that housing improvements are likely to help reduce burns and scalds, drowning in pools, and fire-related deaths and injuries. PMID:20689373

  14. Housing interventions and control of injury-related structural deficiencies: a review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    DiGuiseppi, Carolyn; Jacobs, David E; Phelan, Kieran J; Mickalide, Angela D; Ormandy, David

    2010-01-01

    Subject matter experts systematically reviewed evidence on the effectiveness of housing interventions that affect safety and injury outcomes, such as falls, fire-related injuries, burns, drowning, carbon monoxide poisoning, heat-related deaths, and noise-related harm, associated with structural housing deficiencies. Structural deficiencies were defined as those deficiencies for which a builder, landlord, or home-owner would take responsibility (ie, design, construction, installation, repair, monitoring). Three of the 17 interventions reviewed had sufficient evidence for implementation: installed, working smoke alarms; 4-sided isolation pool fencing; and preset safe hot water temperature. Five interventions needed more field evaluation, 8 needed formative research, and 1 was found to be ineffective. This evidence review shows that housing improvements are likely to help reduce burns and scalds, drowning in pools, and fire-related deaths and injuries. PMID:20689373

  15. Location of Release Sites and Calcium-Activated Chloride Channels Relative to Calcium Channels at the Photoreceptor Ribbon Synapse

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, A. J.; Rabl, K.; Riccardi, G. E.; Brecha, N. C.; Stella, S. L.

    2011-01-01

    Vesicle release from photoreceptor ribbon synapses is regulated by L-type Ca2+ channels, which are in turn regulated by Cl− moving through calcium-activated chloride [Cl(Ca)] channels. We assessed the proximity of Ca2+ channels to release sites and Cl(Ca) channels in synaptic terminals of salamander photoreceptors by comparing fast (BAPTA) and slow (EGTA) intracellular Ca2+ buffers. BAPTA did not fully block synaptic release, indicating some release sites are <100 nm from Ca2+ channels. Comparing Cl(Ca) currents with predicted Ca2+ diffusion profiles suggested that Cl(Ca) and Ca2+ channels average a few hundred nanometers apart, but the inability of BAPTA to block Cl(Ca) currents completely suggested some channels are much closer together. Diffuse immunolabeling of terminals with an antibody to the putative Cl(Ca) channel TMEM16A supports the idea that Cl(Ca) channels are dispersed throughout the presynaptic terminal, in contrast with clustering of Ca2+ channels near ribbons. Cl(Ca) currents evoked by intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+]i) elevation through flash photolysis of DM-nitrophen exhibited EC50 values of 556 and 377 nM with Hill slopes of 1.8 and 2.4 in rods and cones, respectively. These relationships were used to estimate average submembrane [Ca2+]i in photoreceptor terminals. Consistent with control of exocytosis by [Ca2+] nanodomains near Ca2+ channels, average submembrane [Ca2+]i remained below the vesicle release threshold (∼400 nM) over much of the physiological voltage range for cones. Positioning Ca2+ channels near release sites may improve fidelity in converting voltage changes to synaptic release. A diffuse distribution of Cl(Ca) channels may allow Ca2+ influx at one site to influence relatively distant Ca2+ channels. PMID:21084687

  16. Review: mechanisms for boron deficiency-mediated changes in plant water relations.

    PubMed

    Wimmer, Monika A; Eichert, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Boron (B) is an essential microelement for plants and is constantly needed throughout the plant life due to its function as a structural element of the plant cell wall. B deficiency is a wide-spread problem in agricultural areas world-wide, and management of B nutrition is challenged by sudden occurrences of B deficiency or inconsistent effects of foliar B application. The effects of insufficient B supply on different structures relevant for the plant water status have been heavily researched, but the resulting conclusions are contradictory and no clear picture has so far emerged that fully explains the inconsistencies. B deficiency can affect water uptake by inhibition of root and shoot growth and by upregulation of water channels. Structural damage to xylem vessels can limit water transport to arial plant parts, while water loss can be altered by impaired barrier functions of leaf surfaces and reduced photosynthesis. In consequence of all these effects, transpiration is reduced in B-deficient plants under well-watered conditions. Under drought conditions, the responsiveness of stomata is impaired. Possible consequences of damaged vasculature for plant B nutrition include the reduced effectiveness of foliar B fertilization, especially in species with high B phloem mobility. Changes in leaf surface properties can further reduce B uptake after foliar application. In species with low B phloem mobility, weakened xylem vessels may not be able to supply sufficient B to arial parts under conditions of increased B demand, such as during bud development of trees. Since structural damage to vessels is hardly reversible, these effects could be permanent, even if B deficiency was only transient. Another consequence of reduced water status is the higher susceptibility of B-deficient plants to other abiotic stresses, which also impair water relations, especially drought. Since damage to vasculature can occur before visible symptoms of B deficiency appear in shoots, the

  17. Inherited catalase deficiency: is it benign or a factor in various age related disorders?

    PubMed

    Góth, László; Nagy, Teréz

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide was - and is still - considered toxic for a wide range of living organisms. Oxidative stress occurs when there is an excess of pro-oxidants over antioxidants and it has been implicated in several diseases. Catalase is involved in hydrogen peroxide catabolism and is important in defense against oxidative stress. Acatalasemia means the inherited near-total deficiency of catalase activity, usually in reference to red cell catalase. Acatalasemia was thought at first to be an asymptotic disorder. In the absence of catalase, neither the Japanese, or Hungarian acatalasemics nor acatalasemic mice had significantly increased blood glutathione peroxidase activity. In animal models, catalase deficient tissues show much slower rates of removal of extracellular hydrogen peroxide. In catalase knock-out mice, a decreased hydrogen peroxide removing capacity and increased reactive oxygen species formation were reported. Hydrogen peroxide may cause methemoglobinemia in patients with catalase deficiency. During anesthesia for a Japanese acatalasemic patient the disinfection with hydrogen peroxide solution caused severe methemoglobinemia. Patients with inherited catalase deficiency, who are treated with uric acid oxidase (rasburicase) may experience very high concentrations of hydrogen peroxide and may suffer from methemoglobinemia and hemolysis. The high (18.5%) prevalence of diabetes mellitus in inherited catalase deficient individuals and the earlier (10 years) manifestation of the disease may be attributed to the oxidative damage of oxidant sensitive, insulin producing pancreatic beta-cells. Ninety-seven of 114 acatalasemics had diseases related to oxidative stress and aging. The oxidative stress due to catalase deficiency could contribute to the manifestation of diabetes while for the other diseases it may be one of the factors in their causations. In summary, inherited catalase deficiency is associated with clinical features, pathologic laboratory test results

  18. High relative air humidity influences mineral accumulation and growth in iron deficient soybean plants

    PubMed Central

    Roriz, Mariana; Carvalho, Susana M. P.; Vasconcelos, Marta W.

    2014-01-01

    Iron (Fe) deficiency chlorosis (IDC) in soybean results in severe yield losses. Cultivar selection is the most commonly used strategy to avoid IDC but there is a clear interaction between genotype and the environment; therefore, the search for quick and reliable tools to control this nutrient deficiency is essential. Several studies showed that relative humidity (RH) may influence the long distance transport of mineral elements and the nutrient status of plants. Thus, we decided to analyze the response of an “Fe-efficient” (EF) and an “Fe-inefficient” (INF) soybean accession grown under Fe-sufficient and deficient conditions under low (60%) and high (90%) RH, evaluating morphological, and physiological parameters. Furthermore, the mineral content of different plant organs was analyzed. Our results showed beneficial effects of high RH in alleviating IDC symptoms as seen by increased SPAD values, higher plant dry weight (DW), increased plant height, root length, and leaf area. This positive effect of RH in reducing IDC symptoms was more pronounced in the EF accession. Also, Fe content in the different plant organs of the EF accession grown under deficient conditions increased with RH. The lower partitioning of Fe to roots and stems of the EF accessions relative to dry matter also supported our hypothesis, suggesting a greater capacity of this accession in Fe translocation to the aerial parts under Fe deficient conditions, when grown under high RH. PMID:25566297

  19. The kinetics relating calcium and force in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Stein, R B; Bobet, J; Oğuztöreli, M N; Fryer, M

    1988-01-01

    The kinetics relating Ca2+ transients and muscle force were examined using data obtained with the photoprotein aequorin in skeletal muscles of the rat, barnacle, and frog. These data were fitted by various models using nonlinear methods for minimizing the least mean square errors. Models in which Ca2+ binding to troponin was rate limiting for force production did not produce good agreement with the observed data, except for a small twitch of the barnacle muscle. Models in which cross-bridge kinetics were rate limiting also did not produce good agreement with the observed data, unless the detachment rate constant was allowed to increase sharply on the falling phase of tension production. Increasing the number of cross-bridge states did not dramatically improve the agreement between predicted and observed force. We conclude that the dynamic relationship between Ca2+ transients and force production in intact muscle fibers under physiological conditions can be approximated by a model in which (a) two Ca2+ ions bind rapidly to each troponin molecule, (b) force production is limited by the rate of formation of tightly bound cross-bridges, and (c) the rate of cross-bridge detachment increases rapidly once tension begins to decline and free Ca2+ levels have fallen to low values after the last stimulus. Such a model can account not only for the pattern of force production during a twitch and tetanus, but also the complex, nonlinear pattern of summation which is observed during an unfused tetanus at intermediate rates of stimulation. PMID:3224152

  20. Elevated relative humidity increases the incidence of boron deficiency in bedding plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High relative humidity (RH) can cause lower concentrations of B accumulating in plants. The common greenhouse practice of controlling excess temperatures by applying mist irrigation to youngplants (plugs) results in elevated RH levels. Reports of boron (B) deficiency have become more prevalent ove...

  1. Single-spore elemental analyses indicate that dipicolinic acid-deficient Bacillus subtilis spores fail to accumulate calcium.

    PubMed

    Hintze, Paul E; Nicholson, Wayne L

    2010-06-01

    Dipicolinic acid (pyridine-2,6-carboxylic acid; DPA) is a major component of bacterial spores and has been shown to be an important determinant of spore resistance. In the core of dormant Bacillus subtilis spores, DPA is associated with divalent calcium in a 1:1 chelate (Ca-DPA). Spores excrete Ca-DPA during germination, but it is unknown whether Ca and DPA are imported separately or together into the developing spore. Elemental analysis by scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) of wild-type spores and mutant spores lacking the ability to synthesize DPA showed that DPA-less spores also lacked calcium, suggesting that the two compounds may be co-imported. PMID:20396869

  2. Enhanced healing of rat calvarial defects with sulfated chitosan-coated calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite/bone morphogenetic protein 2 scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jun; Shen, Gang; Liu, Changsheng; Wang, Shaoyi; Zhang, Wenjie; Zhang, Xiaochen; Zhang, Xiuli; Ye, Dongxia; Wei, Jie; Zhang, Zhiyuan; Jiang, Xinquan

    2012-01-01

    Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs), which are widely used in bone regeneration, possess good biocompatibility and osteoconductivity and have been demonstrated to be candidate carriers for bone growth factors. However, limited release of growth factors from CPCs and slow degradation of the materials are not desirable for certain clinical applications. Previous studies have shown that calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA) from CPCs presents more rapid degradation rate than CPCs. In this study, a hybrid growth factor delivery system was prepared by using bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) loaded CDHA porous scaffold with sulfated chitosan (SCS) coating for improved release profile. We tested the BMP-2 release characteristic of CDHA/BMP-2/SCS composite in vitro and its ability to repair rat calvarial bone defects. A higher percentage of BMP-2 was released when sulfated chitosan coating was present compared with CDHA/BMP-2 group. Eight weeks postoperation, the repaired crania were evaluated by microcomputed tomography, sequential fluorescent labeling, histological analysis, and immunohistochemistry. CDHA/BMP-2/SCS group promoted the most extensive new bone formation than CDHA/BMP-2 and CDHA groups. Our observations suggest that sulfated chitosan coating could enhance the release profile of CDHA/BMP-2 composite in vitro and promote new bone formation in vivo. The hybrid CDHA/BMP-2/SCS system is a promising growth factor delivery strategy for bone regeneration. PMID:21830854

  3. VITAMIN D DEFICIENCY IN NEOVASCULAR VERSUS NONNEOVASCULAR AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION

    PubMed Central

    Itty, Sujit; Day, Shelley; Lyles, Kenneth W.; Stinnett, Sandra S.; Vajzovic, Lejla M.; Mruthyunjaya, Prithvi

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To compare 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (NVAMD) with patients with nonneovascular age-related macular degeneration and control patients. Methods Medical records of all patients diagnosed with age-related macular degeneration and tested for serum 25OHD level at a single medical center were reviewed. Control patients were selected from patients diagnosed with pseudophakia but without age-related macular degeneration. The lowest 25OHD level available for each patient was recorded. Results Two hundred sixteen patients with nonneovascular age-related macular degeneration, 146 with NVAMD, and 100 non–age-related macular degeneration control patients were included. The levels of 25OHD (mean ± SD) were significantly lower in NVAMD patients (26.1 ± 14.4 ng/mL) versus nonneovascular age-related macular degeneration (31.5 ± 18.2 ng/mL, P = 0.003) and control (29.4 ± 10.1 ng/mL, P = 0.049) patients. The prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency (<30 ng/mL 25OHD), deficiency (<20 ng/mL), and severe deficiency (<10 ng/mL) were highest in the NVAMD group. The highest quintile of 25OHD was associated with a 0.35 (95% confidence interval, 0.18– 0.68) odds ratio for NVAMD. Conclusion This is the largest study to compare 25OHD levels in patients with the different clinical forms of age-related macular degeneration. Mean 25OHD levels were lower and vitamin D deficiency was more prevalent in NVAMD patients. These associations suggest that further research is necessary regarding vitamin D deficiency as a potentially modifiable risk factor for the development of NVAMD. PMID:24946100

  4. The mechanism of action of calcium antagonists relative to their clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Singh, B N

    1986-01-01

    As a class of therapeutic agents calcium antagonists have attracted increasing attention in recent years. Their major indications have been in the treatment of ischaemic myocardial syndromes, certain cardiac arrhythmias, hypertension, obstructive cardiomyopathies, and a number of lesser clinical disorders in which their role is less clearly defined. With the widening spectrum of therapeutic utility and an increasing plethora of newer agents under development, it is of importance to relate the overall pharmacodynamics of individual agents to their clinical effects. Calcium antagonists have a variable specificity for cardiac and peripheral activity. Based on such activity, it is useful to construct a classification of these compounds, new and old, into four categories. Type I agents, typified by verapamil and its congeners (tiapamil and gallopamil) and diltiazem, prolong AV nodal conduction and refractoriness with little effect on ventricular or atrial refractory period. These actions account for their direct antiarrhythmic properties. Type II agents include nifedipine and other dihydropyridines. In vivo, these agents are devoid of electrophysiologic effects in usual doses. They are potent peripheral vasodilators with some selectivity of action for different vascular beds; their overall haemodynamic effects are dominated by this peripheral vasodilatation and reflex augmentation of sympathetic reflexes. Type III agents include flunarizine and cinnarizine (piperazine derivatives), which, in vitro and in vivo, are potent dilators of peripheral vessels, with no corresponding calcium-blocking actions in the heart. Type IV agents are agents with a broader pharmacologic profile (perhexiline, lidoflazine and bepridil); they block calcium fluxes in the heart, in the peripheral vessels, or both. They may inhibit the fast channel in the heart and have other electrophysiologic actions. A clear understanding of the varied pharmacologic properties of the different classes of

  5. An Unusual Association: Iliopsoas Bursitis Related to Calcium Pyrophosphate Crystal Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Di Carlo, Marco; Draghessi, Antonella; Carotti, Marina; Salaffi, Fausto

    2015-01-01

    A 71-year-old man with osteoarthritis and chondrocalcinosis came to our observation developing a swelling in the groin region after a recent left colectomy for adenocarcinoma. The imaging techniques revealed the presence of an iliopsoas bursitis in connection with the hip. The synovial fluid analysis detected the presence of calcium pyrophosphate (CPP) crystals and allowed the final and unusual diagnosis of iliopsoas bursitis related to acute CPP crystal hip arthritis. PMID:26550514

  6. Biosynthesis of B2-integrin, intracellular calcium signalling and functional responses of normal and CD18-deficient bovine neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Nagahata, H; Higuchi, H; Nochi, H; Tamoto, K; Araiso, T; Noda, H; Kociba, G J

    1996-09-01

    1Biosynthesis of CD11/CD18 in bovine leucocytes, intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) signalling, chemiluminescent responses and membrane fluidity of neutrophils and the effects of D-mannose on neutrophils from control heifers and a heifer with bovine leucocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) were measured. The synthesis of CD11/CD18 complex was clearly detected in leucocytes from a normal heifer, but not in a BLAD-affected heifer. The transient phase of increased [Ca2+]i was clearly detected in neutrophils from a heifer with BLAD stimulated with opsonised zymosan, aggregated bovine immunoglobulin G or concanavalin A, whereas the sustained phase was deficient or significantly decreased compared with control heifers. [Ca2+]i signalling of neutrophils from control heifers and a heifer with BLAD stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate via an 11b/CD18-independent pathway showed no transient phase, and the subsequent increase in [Ca2+]i was almost identical in neutrophils from affected and control heifers. [Ca2+]i concentration and chemiluminescent responses of neutrophils from a control heifer were clearly decreased by treatment with anti-CD18 and anti-IgG antibodies. No differences in membrane fluidity were detected between neutrophils derived from control and CD18-deficient cattle. D-mannose binds mainly to Fc rather than CD18 receptors, and decreased Agg-IgG induced [Ca2+]i and the chemiluminescent response of neutrophils. The [Ca2+]i responses and Agg-IgG induced chemiluminescent responses of neutrophils from control heifers and a BLAD-affected heifer were inhibited by D-mannose. The characteristic changes of [Ca2+]i signalling and functional responses of B2-integrin-deficient neutrophils were demonstrated. PMID:8880976

  7. Evidence for Cross-Tolerance to Nutrient Deficiency in Three Disjunct Populations of Arabidopsis lyrata ssp. lyrata in Response to Substrate Calcium to Magnesium Ratio

    PubMed Central

    Veatch-Blohm, Maren E.; Roche, Bernadette M.; Campbell, MaryJean

    2013-01-01

    Species with widespread distributions that grow in varied habitats may consist of ecotypes adapted to a particular habitat, or may exhibit cross-tolerance that enables them to exploit a variety of habitats. Populations of Arabidopsis lyrata ssp. lyrata (L.) O’Kane & Al-Shehbaz grow in a wide variety of edaphic settings including serpentine soil, limestone sand, and alluvial flood plains. While all three of these environments share some stressors, a crucial difference among these environments is soil calcium to magnesium ratio, which ranges from 25∶1 in the limestone sand to 0.2∶1 in serpentine soil. The three populations found on these substrates were subjected to three different Ca to Mg ratios under controlled environmental conditions during germination and rosette growth. Response to Ca to Mg ratio was evaluated through germination success and radicle growth rate, rosette growth rate, and the content of Ca and Mg in the rosette. All three populations were particularly efficient in fueling growth under nutrient deficiency, with the highest nutrient efficiency ratio for Ca under Ca deficiency and for Mg under Mg deficiency. Although the serpentine population had significantly higher leaf Ca to Mg ratio than the limestone or flood plain populations under all three Ca to Mg ratios, this increase did not result in any advantage in growth or appearance of the serpentine plants, during early life stages before the onset of flowering, even in the high Mg substrate. The three populations showed no population by substrate interaction for any of the parameters measured indicating that these populations may have cross-tolerance to substrate Ca to Mg ratio. PMID:23650547

  8. Reconstitution of the NF1 GAP-related domain in NF1-deficient human Schwann cells

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Stacey L.; Deadwyler, Gail D.; Tang, Jun; Stubbs, Evan B.; Muir, David; Hiatt, Kelly K. . E-mail: George.Devries@med.va.gov

    2006-09-29

    Schwann cells derived from peripheral nerve sheath tumors from individuals with Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) are deficient for the protein neurofibromin, which contains a GAP-related domain (NF1-GRD). Neurofibromin-deficient Schwann cells have increased Ras activation, increased proliferation in response to certain growth stimuli, increased angiogenic potential, and altered cell morphology. This study examined whether expression of functional NF1-GRD can reverse the transformed phenotype of neurofibromin-deficient Schwann cells from both benign and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors. We reconstituted the NF1-GRD using retroviral transduction and examined the effects on cell morphology, growth potential, and angiogenic potential. NF1-GRD reconstitution resulted in morphologic changes, a 16-33% reduction in Ras activation, and a 53% decrease in proliferation in neurofibromin-deficient Schwann cells. However, NF1-GRD reconstitution was not sufficient to decrease the in vitro angiogenic potential of the cells. This study demonstrates that reconstitution of the NF1-GRD can at least partially reverse the transformation of human NF1 tumor-derived Schwann cells.

  9. Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency and Its Related Factors Among University Students in Shiraz, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Faghih, Shiva; Abdolahzadeh, Maryam; Mohammadi, Mohsen; Hasanzadeh, Jafar

    2014-01-01

    Backgrounds: Vitamin D deficiency is a public health concern even in sunny areas, so we decided to assess the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its related factors among university students in Shiraz. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 254 (128 male and 126 female) university students. Demographic questionnaires and a questionnaire on exposure to sun light and sun protection were completed by the participants. Serum 25OH-vitamin D was measured using a radioimmunoassay kit. Data analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software # 16. A P value less than 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Mean ± standard deviation (SD) of serum 25OH-vitamin D was 49.29 ± 12.87 (nmol/l) and 27.46 ± 10.37 (nmol/l) among male and female students, respectively. 51.2% of female students were vitamin D insufficient and 44% of them had vitamin D deficiency. Prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and marginal status among male students were 49.5 and 48%, respectively. Serum vitamin D of female students was significantly less than the males (P < 0.001). Serum vitamin D was negatively correlated to sun protection score (P < 0.001, r = 0.50), but there was no correlation between serum vitamin D and sun exposure. Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency especially among female students is alarmingly prevalent. Increasing use of sunscreen lotion and clothing style could be the main factors inhibiting endogenous vitamin D synthesis which results in its deficiency. PMID:25013702

  10. Safety evaluation of daidzein in laying hens: part II. Effects on calcium-related metabolism.

    PubMed

    Gu, H; Shi, S R; Chang, L L; Tong, H B; Wang, Z Y; Zou, J M

    2013-05-01

    Daidzein, an estrogen-like product, has become increasingly popular as a dietary supplement, particularly for postpeak-estrus animals seeking a safe natural alternative to play a role of estrogen. However, there is little available safety data of it for raisers and consumers. A subchronic laying hensafety study has been conducted to examine if the high-dose daidzein could affect calcium-related metabolism (eggshell quality and bone mineralization). Seven hundred and sixty-eight 56-week-old Hyline Brown were randomly assigned to 4 groups with 8 replicates of 24 birds each (192 laying hensper group) and 3weeks later fed diets supplemented with 0(control), 10, 50 and 100mg of daidzein/kg for 12week. Eggshell thickness, eggshell percentage, eggshell strength, eggshell Ca concentration was increased linearly with increasing dietary daidzein supplementation (P=0.001, P=0.007, P=0.002 and P=0.000, respectively). Serum Ca increased linearly with increasing dietarydaidzein supplementation (P=0.042), and serum P showed a significant quadratic response to dietarydaidzein supplementation (P=0.036). Bone ash and bone Ca were significantly influenced by dietarydaidzein supplementation (P<0.05). These findings indicate that daidzein hold no observed adverse effect on calcium metabolism, but also a safe and effective food additive for calcium metabolism in animals and humans. PMID:23354391

  11. Effect of calcium, bicarbonate, and albumin on capacitation-related events in equine sperm.

    PubMed

    Macías-García, B; González-Fernández, L; Loux, S C; Rocha, A M; Guimarães, T; Peña, F J; Varner, D D; Hinrichs, K

    2015-01-01

    Repeatable methods for IVF have not been established in the horse, reflecting the failure of standard capacitating media to induce changes required for fertilization capacity in equine sperm. One important step in capacitation is membrane cholesterol efflux, which in other species is triggered by cholesterol oxidation and is typically enhanced using albumin as a sterol acceptor. We incubated equine sperm in the presence of calcium, BSA, and bicarbonate, alone or in combination. Bicarbonate induced an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) that was abolished by the addition of calcium or BSA. Bicarbonate induced protein tyrosine phosphorylation (PY), even in the presence of calcium or BSA. Incubation at high pH enhanced PY but did not increase ROS production. Notably, no combination of these factors was associated with significant cholesterol efflux, as assessed by fluorescent quantitative cholesterol assay and confirmed by filipin staining. By contrast, sperm treated with methyl-β-cyclodextrin showed a significant reduction in cholesterol levels, but no significant increase in PY or ROS. Presence of BSA increased sperm binding to bovine zonae pellucidae in all three stallions. These results show that presence of serum albumin is not associated with a reduction in membrane cholesterol levels in equine sperm, highlighting the failure of equine sperm to exhibit core capacitation-related changes in a standard capacitating medium. These data indicate an atypical relationship among cholesterol efflux, ROS production, and PY in equine sperm. Our findings may help to elucidate factors affecting failure of equine IVF under standard conditions. PMID:25349439

  12. Differential expression of calcium-related genes in gastric cancer cells transfected with cellular prion protein.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jie; Luo, Guanhong; Ning, Xiaoxuan; Shi, Yongquan; Zhai, Huihong; Sun, Shiren; Jin, Haifeng; Liu, Zhenxiong; Zhang, Faming; Lu, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Yunping; Chen, Xiong; Zhang, Hongbo; Guo, Xuegang; Wu, Kaichun; Fan, Daiming

    2007-06-01

    The prion protein (PrPC) has a primary role in the pathogenesis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, which causes prion disorders partially due to Ca2+ dysregulation. In our previous work, we found that overexpressed PrPC in gastric cancer was involved in apoptosis, cell proliferation, and metastasis of gastric cancer. To better understand how PrPC acts in gastric cancer, a human microarray was performed to select differentially regulated genes that correlate with the biological function of PrPC. The microarray data were analyzed and revealed 3798 genes whose expression increased at least 2-fold in gastric cancer cells transfected with PrPC. These genes encode proteins involved in several aspects of cell biology, among which, we specially detected molecules related to calcium, especially the S100 calcium-binding proteins, and found that PrPC upregulates S100A1, S100A6, S100B, and S100P but downregulates CacyBP in gastric cancer cells. We also found that intracellular Ca2+ levels in cells transfected with PrPC increased, whereas these levels decreased in knockdowns of these cells. Taken together, PrPC might increase intracellular Ca2+, partially through calcium-binding proteins, or PrPC might upregulate the expression of S100 proteins, partially through stimulating the intracellular calcium level in gastric cancer. Though the underlying mechanisms need further exploration, this study provides a new insight into the role of PrPC in gastric cancer and enriches our knowledge of prion protein. PMID:17612632

  13. Aging-associated formaldehyde-induced norepinephrine deficiency contributes to age-related memory decline.

    PubMed

    Mei, Yufei; Jiang, Chun; Wan, You; Lv, Jihui; Jia, Jianping; Wang, Xiaomin; Yang, Xu; Tong, Zhiqian

    2015-08-01

    A norepinephrine (NE) deficiency has been observed in aged rats and in patients with Alzheimer's disease and is thought to cause cognitive disorder. Which endogenous factor induces NE depletion, however, is largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of aging-associated formaldehyde (FA) on the inactivation of NE in vitro and in vivo, and on memory behaviors in rodents. The results showed that age-related DNA demethylation led to hippocampal FA accumulation, and when this occurred, the hippocampal NE content was reduced in healthy male rats of different ages. Furthermore, biochemical analysis revealed that FA rapidly inactivated NE in vitro and that an intrahippocampal injection of FA markedly reduced hippocampal NE levels in healthy adult rats. Unexpectedly, an injection of FA (at a pathological level) or 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA, a NE depletor) can mimic age-related NE deficiency, long-term potentiation (LTP) impairments, and spatial memory deficits in healthy adult rats. Conversely, an injection of NE reversed age-related deficits in both LTP and memory in aged rats. In agreement with the above results, the senescence-accelerated prone 8 (SAMP8) mice also exhibited a severe deficit in LTP and memory associated with a more severe NE deficiency and FA accumulation, when compared with the age-matched, senescence-resistant 1 (SAMR1) mice. Injection of resveratrol (a natural FA scavenger) or NE into SAMP8 mice reversed FA accumulation and NE deficiency and restored the magnitude of LTP and memory. Collectively, these findings suggest that accumulated FA is a critical endogenous factor for aging-associated NE depletion and cognitive decline. PMID:25866202

  14. Aging-associated formaldehyde-induced norepinephrine deficiency contributes to age-related memory decline

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Yufei; Jiang, Chun; Wan, You; Lv, Jihui; Jia, Jianping; Wang, Xiaomin; Yang, Xu; Tong, Zhiqian

    2015-01-01

    A norepinephrine (NE) deficiency has been observed in aged rats and in patients with Alzheimer’s disease and is thought to cause cognitive disorder. Which endogenous factor induces NE depletion, however, is largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of aging-associated formaldehyde (FA) on the inactivation of NE in vitro and in vivo, and on memory behaviors in rodents. The results showed that age-related DNA demethylation led to hippocampal FA accumulation, and when this occurred, the hippocampal NE content was reduced in healthy male rats of different ages. Furthermore, biochemical analysis revealed that FA rapidly inactivated NE in vitro and that an intrahippocampal injection of FA markedly reduced hippocampal NE levels in healthy adult rats. Unexpectedly, an injection of FA (at a pathological level) or 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA, a NE depletor) can mimic age-related NE deficiency, long-term potentiation (LTP) impairments, and spatial memory deficits in healthy adult rats. Conversely, an injection of NE reversed age-related deficits in both LTP and memory in aged rats. In agreement with the above results, the senescence-accelerated prone 8 (SAMP8) mice also exhibited a severe deficit in LTP and memory associated with a more severe NE deficiency and FA accumulation, when compared with the age-matched, senescence-resistant 1 (SAMR1) mice. Injection of resveratrol (a natural FA scavenger) or NE into SAMP8 mice reversed FA accumulation and NE deficiency and restored the magnitude of LTP and memory. Collectively, these findings suggest that accumulated FA is a critical endogenous factor for aging-associated NE depletion and cognitive decline. PMID:25866202

  15. [Neurological disorders related to vitamin B12 deficiency in prisons in Guinea: a 22-case study].

    PubMed

    Cisse, F A; Bah, H; Konate, F; Camara, N; Camara, M I; Conde, K; Kassory, I F B; Sanogo, A; Diakhate, I; Cisse, A

    2013-08-01

    Neurological disorders related to vitamin B12 deficiency are common in prisons of tropical Africa. We collected 22 cases (20 men and 2 women). They all showed vitamin B12 deficiency associated with neurological signs that were represented by sclerosis combined with bone marrow (n = 9), peripheral neuropathy (n = 6), cerebellar syndrome (n = 2), a pyramidal syndrome of the lower limbs (n = 4) and optic neuropathy (n = 1). Laboratory tests showed a mean hemoglobin concentration of 7.2 ± 1.5 g/dl, mean 104 ± 28 fl, macrocytic anemia in 10 patients. Biermer's disease was identified in 9 patients, 3 patients showed the syndrome of non dissociation of vitamin B12, a gastrectomy in 2 patients and no etiology was identified in 8 patients. PMID:23793871

  16. ADAR2-dependent RNA editing of GluR2 is involved in thiamine deficiency-induced alteration of calcium dynamics

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency (TD) causes mild impairment of oxidative metabolism and region-selective neuronal loss in the central nervous system (CNS). TD in animals has been used to model aging-associated neurodegeneration in the brain. The mechanisms of TD-induced neuron death are complex, and it is likely multiple mechanisms interplay and contribute to the action of TD. In this study, we demonstrated that TD significantly increased intracellular calcium concentrations [Ca2+]i in cultured cortical neurons. Results TD drastically potentiated AMPA-triggered calcium influx and inhibited pre-mRNA editing of GluR2, a Ca2+-permeable subtype of AMPA receptors. The Ca2+ permeability of GluR2 is regulated by RNA editing at the Q/R site. Edited GluR2 (R) subunits form Ca2+-impermeable channels, whereas unedited GluR2 (Q) channels are permeable to Ca2+ flow. TD inhibited Q/R editing of GluR2 and increased the ratio of unedited GluR2. The Q/R editing of GluR2 is mediated by adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 2 (ADAR2). TD selectively decreased ADAR2 expression and its self-editing ability without affecting ADAR1 in cultured neurons and in the brain tissue. Over-expression of ADAR2 reduced AMPA-mediated rise of [Ca2+]i and protected cortical neurons against TD-induced cytotoxicity, whereas down-regulation of ADAR2 increased AMPA-elicited Ca2+ influx and exacerbated TD-induced death of cortical neurons. Conclusions Our findings suggest that TD-induced neuronal damage may be mediated by the modulation of ADAR2-dependent RNA Editing of GluR2. PMID:21110885

  17. T-type calcium channel Cav3.2 deficient mice show elevated anxiety, impaired memory and reduced sensitivity to psychostimulants.

    PubMed

    Gangarossa, Giuseppe; Laffray, Sophie; Bourinet, Emmanuel; Valjent, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    The fine-tuning of neuronal excitability relies on a tight control of Ca(2+) homeostasis. The low voltage-activated (LVA) T-type calcium channels (Cav3.1, Cav3.2 and Cav3.3 isoforms) play a critical role in regulating these processes. Despite their wide expression throughout the central nervous system, the implication of T-type Cav3.2 isoform in brain functions is still poorly characterized. Here, we investigate the effect of genetic ablation of this isoform in affective disorders, including anxiety, cognitive functions as well as sensitivity to drugs of abuse. Using a wide range of behavioral assays we show that genetic ablation of the cacna1h gene results in an anxiety-like phenotype, whereas novelty-induced locomotor activity is unaffected. Deletion of the T-type channel Cav3.2 also triggers impairment of hippocampus-dependent recognition memories. Acute and sensitized hyperlocomotion induced by d-amphetamine and cocaine are dramatically reduced in T-type Cav3.2 deficient mice. In addition, the administration of the T-type blocker TTA-A2 prevented the expression of locomotor sensitization observed in wildtype mice. In conclusion, our data reveal that physiological activity of this specific Ca(2+) channel is required for affective and cognitive behaviors. Moreover, our work highlights the interest of T-type channel blockers as therapeutic strategies to reverse drug-associated alterations. PMID:24672455

  18. A prospective, randomized controlled preclinical trial to evaluate different formulations of biphasic calcium phosphate in combination with a hydroxyapatite collagen membrane to reconstruct deficient alveolar ridges.

    PubMed

    Nevins, Myron; Nevins, Marc L; Schupbach, Peter; Kim, Soo-Woo; Lin, Zhao; Kim, David M

    2013-04-01

    Many patients and clinicians would prefer a synthetic particulate bone replacement graft, but most available alloplastic biomaterials have limited osteogenic potential. An alloplast with increased regenerative capacity would be advantageous for the treatment of localized alveolar ridge defects. This prospective, randomized controlled preclinical trial utilized 6 female foxhounds to analyze the osteogenic impact of different formulations of biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) in combination with an hydroxyapatite-collagen membrane and their ability to reconstruct deficient alveolar ridges for future implant placement. The grafted sites were allowed to heal 3 months, and then trephine biopsies were obtained to perform light microscopic and histomorphometric analyses. All treated sites healed well with no early membrane exposure or adverse soft tissue responses during the healing period. The grafted sites exhibited greater radiopacity than the surrounding native bone with BCP particles seen as radiopaque granules. The graft particles appeared to be well-integrated and no areas of loose particles were observed. Histologic evaluation demonstrated BCP particles embedded in woven bone with dense connective tissue/marrow space. New bone growth was observed around the graft particles as well as within the structure of the graft particulate. There was intimate contact between the graft particles and newly formed bone, and graft particles were bridged by the newly formed bone in all biopsies from the tested groups. The present study results support the potential of these BCP graft particulates to stimulate new bone formation. Clinical studies are recommended to confirm these preclinical findings. PMID:23611676

  19. T-type calcium channel Cav3.2 deficient mice show elevated anxiety, impaired memory and reduced sensitivity to psychostimulants

    PubMed Central

    Gangarossa, Giuseppe; Laffray, Sophie; Bourinet, Emmanuel; Valjent, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    The fine-tuning of neuronal excitability relies on a tight control of Ca2+ homeostasis. The low voltage-activated (LVA) T-type calcium channels (Cav3.1, Cav3.2 and Cav3.3 isoforms) play a critical role in regulating these processes. Despite their wide expression throughout the central nervous system, the implication of T-type Cav3.2 isoform in brain functions is still poorly characterized. Here, we investigate the effect of genetic ablation of this isoform in affective disorders, including anxiety, cognitive functions as well as sensitivity to drugs of abuse. Using a wide range of behavioral assays we show that genetic ablation of the cacna1h gene results in an anxiety-like phenotype, whereas novelty-induced locomotor activity is unaffected. Deletion of the T-type channel Cav3.2 also triggers impairment of hippocampus-dependent recognition memories. Acute and sensitized hyperlocomotion induced by d-amphetamine and cocaine are dramatically reduced in T-type Cav3.2 deficient mice. In addition, the administration of the T-type blocker TTA-A2 prevented the expression of locomotor sensitization observed in wildtype mice. In conclusion, our data reveal that physiological activity of this specific Ca2+ channel is required for affective and cognitive behaviors. Moreover, our work highlights the interest of T-type channel blockers as therapeutic strategies to reverse drug-associated alterations. PMID:24672455

  20. Gallium nitrate inhibits calcium resorption from bone and is effective treatment for cancer-related hypercalcemia.

    PubMed Central

    Warrell, R P; Bockman, R S; Coonley, C J; Isaacs, M; Staszewski, H

    1984-01-01

    Approximately two-thirds of patients who receive the anticancer drug gallium nitrate develop mild hypocalcemia. To evaluate the mechanism of drug-induced hypocalcemia, we tested the effects of gallium nitrate upon in vitro release of 45Ca++ from explanted fetal rat bones. The drug significantly inhibited 45Ca++ release in response to stimulation with both parathyroid hormone and a lymphokine preparation with osteoclast activating factor activity. The inhibitory effects on bone resorption were both time- and dose-dependent. Later, in a pilot study, we treated 10 patients who had cancer-related hypercalcemia with gallium nitrate administered by continuous infusion. All patients responded by a reduction of total serum calcium to normal or subnormal concentrations (13.8 +/- 1.05 mg/dl, mean +/- SD pretreatment, to 8.03 +/- 1.03 mg/dl, mean posttreatment nadir). Our results indicate that gallium nitrate effectively treats cancer-related hypercalcemia and that it probably acts by inhibiting calcium release from bone. Images PMID:6715548

  1. Understanding cystic-fibrosis-related diabetes: best thought of as insulin deficiency?

    PubMed Central

    Dobson, Lee; Sheldon, Christopher D; Hattersley, Andrew T

    2004-01-01

    The limited available evidence supports the use of insulin treatment in CFRD. This fits with the dominant problem in CFRD being insulin deficiency and progressive beta cell dysfunction, making tablets that stimulate the beta cell unlikely to be a successful strategy. It is possible that patients with IGT or CFRD with moderate hyperglycaemia (e.g. relative preservation of fasting glucose) may initially respond to beta cell secretagogues. A large randomized prospective trial in the USA should answer this point in the next few years. PMID:15239291

  2. Co-crystallization of cholesterol and calcium phosphate as related to atherosclerosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, Danielle; Azoury, Reuven; Sarig, Sara

    1990-09-01

    Calcification of atherosclerotic plaques occurs very frequently and aggravates the disease. In biological systems, epitaxial relationships between crystal structures may be important in nucleating the deposit of a solid phase. The biologically preferred calcium phosphate species, apatite, and cholesterol crystal have structurally compatible crystallographic faces which allow epitaxial growth of one crystal upon another. The present study describes a new approach to explore, in vitro, the crystallization processes of calcium phosphate (CaP) with cholesterol (CS) and cholestanol (CN) which are related to atherosclerosis. Aqueous solutions containing calcium and phosphate ions or CaP crystals as hydroxyapatite were added into saturated ethanolic solutions of CS or CS and 10% CN. After precipitation, crystals were collected and analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), infra-red (IR), X-ray, scanning electron microscope (SEM-LINK), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and atomic absorption. The principal result is the well-formed crystals precipitation when an aqueous solution and CaP seed crystals were added to saturated solutions of CS and 10% CN. Cholesterol-cholestanol dihydrate (CC2W) crystals precipitated in the presence of CaP seeds were compared to the CC2W crystals obtained without the mineral compound. The results of this comparison indicate a special link between crystals of CaP and CC2W, and support the epitaxial relationship between the two kinds of crystals. The potential of CC2W crystals to be precipitated by CaP seed crystals prove likewise the possible significant role of the cholestanol metabolite in the process of cholesterol crystallization and calcification in the arteries.

  3. Genomic Analysis of Storage Protein Deficiency in Genetically Related Lines of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    PubMed Central

    Pandurangan, Sudhakar; Diapari, Marwan; Yin, Fuqiang; Munholland, Seth; Perry, Gregory E.; Chapman, B. Patrick; Huang, Shangzhi; Sparvoli, Francesca; Bollini, Roberto; Crosby, William L.; Pauls, Karl P.; Marsolais, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    A series of genetically related lines of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) integrate a progressive deficiency in major storage proteins, the 7S globulin phaseolin and lectins. SARC1 integrates a lectin-like protein, arcelin-1 from a wild common bean accession. SMARC1N-PN1 is deficient in major lectins, including erythroagglutinating phytohemagglutinin (PHA-E) but not α-amylase inhibitor, and incorporates also a deficiency in phaseolin. SMARC1-PN1 is intermediate and shares the phaseolin deficiency. Sanilac is the parental background. To understand the genomic basis for variations in protein profiles previously determined by proteomics, the genotypes were submitted to short-fragment genome sequencing using an Illumina HiSeq 2000/2500 platform. Reads were aligned to reference sequences and subjected to de novo assembly. The results of the analyses identified polymorphisms responsible for the lack of specific storage proteins, as well as those associated with large differences in storage protein expression. SMARC1N-PN1 lacks the lectin genes pha-E and lec4-B17, and has the pseudogene pdlec1 in place of the functional pha-L gene. While the α-phaseolin gene appears absent, an approximately 20-fold decrease in β-phaseolin accumulation is associated with a single nucleotide polymorphism converting a G-box to an ACGT motif in the proximal promoter. Among residual lectins compensating for storage protein deficiency, mannose lectin FRIL and α-amylase inhibitor 1 genes are uniquely present in SMARC1N-PN1. An approximately 50-fold increase in α-amylase inhibitor like protein accumulation is associated with multiple polymorphisms introducing up to eight potential positive cis-regulatory elements in the proximal promoter specific to SMARC1N-PN1. An approximately 7-fold increase in accumulation of 11S globulin legumin is not associated with variation in proximal promoter sequence, suggesting that the identity of individual proteins involved in proteome rebalancing might

  4. Genomic Analysis of Storage Protein Deficiency in Genetically Related Lines of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Pandurangan, Sudhakar; Diapari, Marwan; Yin, Fuqiang; Munholland, Seth; Perry, Gregory E; Chapman, B Patrick; Huang, Shangzhi; Sparvoli, Francesca; Bollini, Roberto; Crosby, William L; Pauls, Karl P; Marsolais, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    A series of genetically related lines of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) integrate a progressive deficiency in major storage proteins, the 7S globulin phaseolin and lectins. SARC1 integrates a lectin-like protein, arcelin-1 from a wild common bean accession. SMARC1N-PN1 is deficient in major lectins, including erythroagglutinating phytohemagglutinin (PHA-E) but not α-amylase inhibitor, and incorporates also a deficiency in phaseolin. SMARC1-PN1 is intermediate and shares the phaseolin deficiency. Sanilac is the parental background. To understand the genomic basis for variations in protein profiles previously determined by proteomics, the genotypes were submitted to short-fragment genome sequencing using an Illumina HiSeq 2000/2500 platform. Reads were aligned to reference sequences and subjected to de novo assembly. The results of the analyses identified polymorphisms responsible for the lack of specific storage proteins, as well as those associated with large differences in storage protein expression. SMARC1N-PN1 lacks the lectin genes pha-E and lec4-B17, and has the pseudogene pdlec1 in place of the functional pha-L gene. While the α-phaseolin gene appears absent, an approximately 20-fold decrease in β-phaseolin accumulation is associated with a single nucleotide polymorphism converting a G-box to an ACGT motif in the proximal promoter. Among residual lectins compensating for storage protein deficiency, mannose lectin FRIL and α-amylase inhibitor 1 genes are uniquely present in SMARC1N-PN1. An approximately 50-fold increase in α-amylase inhibitor like protein accumulation is associated with multiple polymorphisms introducing up to eight potential positive cis-regulatory elements in the proximal promoter specific to SMARC1N-PN1. An approximately 7-fold increase in accumulation of 11S globulin legumin is not associated with variation in proximal promoter sequence, suggesting that the identity of individual proteins involved in proteome rebalancing might

  5. Aging and calcium as an environmental factor.

    PubMed

    Fujita, T

    1985-12-01

    Calcium deficiency is a constant menace to land-abiding animals, including mammals. Humans enjoying exceptional longevity on earth are especially susceptible to calcium deficiency in old age. Low calcium and vitamin D intake, short solar exposure, decreased intestinal absorption, and falling renal function with insufficient 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D biosynthesis all contribute to calcium deficiency, secondary hyperparathyroidism, bone loss and possibly calcium shift from the bone to soft tissue, and from the extracellular to the intracellular compartment, blunting the sharp concentration gap between these compartments. The consequences of calcium deficiency might thus include not only osteoporosis, but also arteriosclerosis and hypertension due to the increase of calcium in the vascular wall, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and senile dementia due to calcium deposition in the central nervous system, and a decrease in cellular function, because of blunting of the difference in extracellular-intracellular calcium, leading to diabetes mellitus, immune deficiency and others (Fig. 6). PMID:2943880

  6. An acidic peptide sequence of nucleolin-related protein can mediate the attachment of calcium oxalate to renal tubule cells.

    PubMed

    Sorokina, Elena A; Wesson, Jeffrey A; Kleinman, Jack G

    2004-08-01

    Crystals that form in tubular fluid must be retained in the kidney to become stones. Nucleolin-related protein (NRP) is found on the surface of inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) cells in culture (cIMCD) and selectively adsorbs to calcium oxalate (CaOx). We proposed that NRP mediates attachment to the renal tubular epithelium of Ca stone crystals through an electrostatic interaction with a highly acidic region (acidic fragment [AF]) similar to those of other proteins that have been reported to affect urinary crystal formation. The current studies demonstrate that nucleolin is expressed on both apical and basolateral cell surfaces of cIMCD, reaching a peak in the late stages of mitosis and gradually declining to undetectable levels with maturation of the polarized epithelium. Scraping areas of mature monolayers stimulated the cells surrounding the defects to migrate and proliferate so as to repair them, and these areas demonstrate surface NRP expression and enhanced attachment of CaOx monohydrate crystals. Surface expression of the NRP AF was produced by cloning the NRP AF into a display vector. Transfected cIMCD demonstrating copious surface expression of AF enhanced CaOx attachment 6.7-fold compared with control cIMCD, whereas cells transfected with a vector without the AF did not differ from control. AF was also cloned into a replication-deficient adenovirus and expressed in 293 cells, resulting in AF secretion into the nutrient medium. This medium inhibited CaOx attachment to cIMCD, compared with conditioned medium from cells infected with wild-type virus. These results demonstrate that surface-bound AF can mediate CaOx attachment and that secreted AF can inhibit attachment. These results support the notion that surface-associated NRP could mediate attachment of CaOx to the renal tubule epithelium, thereby causing retention of crystals that might eventually become kidney stones. PMID:15284292

  7. Calcium, calcification, and melatonin biosynthesis in the human pineal gland: a postmortem study into age-related factors.

    PubMed

    Schmid, H A; Requintina, P J; Oxenkrug, G F; Sturner, W

    1994-05-01

    It is believed that pineal calcification may be age-associated and that the well-demonstrated age-related decline in melatonin biosynthesis may be an expression of an alteration in calcium homeostasis in the pinealocyte. Prior correlations of melatonin to calcium deposition and age were made on the basis of radiological or semiquantitative analysis. In this postmortem study of 33 subjects (age range 3 months to 65 years) calcium deposits measured by atomic absorption spectrometry correlated positively with age in day and night samples (day: r = 0.56, P < 0.05; night: r = 0.818, P < 0.001). Nighttime (2200 h to 0800 h) pineal melatonin content (HPLC fluorometry) was higher than daytime melatonin levels (nighttime 3.80 +/- 0.3 vs. daytime 0.85 +/- 0.4 ng/mg protein). Nighttime calcium levels in the supernatant correlated negatively with melatonin content (r = -0.59, P < 0.05). PMID:7807371

  8. Vitamin D Deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... deficiency can lead to a loss of bone density (size and strength), broken bones (fractures), muscle weakness, ... get too much calcium in their blood or urine. Careful monitoring of blood vitamin D levels will ...

  9. Using yeast to model calcium-related diseases: example of the Hailey-Hailey disease.

    PubMed

    Voisset, Cécile; García-Rodríguez, Néstor; Birkmire, April; Blondel, Marc; Wellinger, Ralf Erik

    2014-10-01

    Cross-complementation studies offer the possibility to overcome limitations imposed by the inherent complexity of multicellular organisms in the study of human diseases, by taking advantage of simpler model organisms like the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This review deals with, (1) the use of S. cerevisiae as a model organism to study human diseases, (2) yeast-based screening systems for the detection of disease modifiers, (3) Hailey-Hailey as an example of a calcium-related disease, and (4) the presentation of a yeast-based model to search for chemical modifiers of Hailey-Hailey disease. The preliminary experimental data presented and discussed here show that it is possible to use yeast as a model system for Hailey-Hailey disease and suggest that in all likelihood, yeast has the potential to reveal candidate drugs for the treatment of this disorder. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Calcium signaling in health and disease. Guest Editors: Geert Bultynck, Jacques Haiech, Claus W. Heizmann, Joachim Krebs, and Marc Moreau. PMID:24583118

  10. Determination of (210)Po in calcium supplements and the possible related dose assessment to the consumers.

    PubMed

    Strumińska-Parulska, Dagmara I

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this pioneer study was to investigate the most popular calcium supplements as a potential additional source of polonium (210)Po in human diet. The analyzed calcium pharmaceutics contained organic or inorganic calcium compounds; some from natural sources as mussels' shells, fish extracts, or sedimentary rocks. The objectives of this research were to investigate the naturally occurring (210)Po activity concentrations in calcium supplements, find the correlations between (210)Po concentration in medicament and calcium chemical form, and calculate the effective radiation dose connected to analyzed calcium supplement consumption. As results showed, (210)Po concentrations in natural origin calcium supplements (especially sedimentary rocks) were higher than the other analyzed. Also the results of (210)Po analysis obtained for inorganic forms of calcium supplements were higher. The highest (210)Po activity concentrations were determined in mineral tablets made from sedimentary rocks: dolomite and chalk - 3.88 ± 0.22 and 3.36 ± 0.10 mBq g(-1) respectively; while the lowest in organic calcium compounds: calcium lactate and calcium gluconate - 0.07 ± 0.02 and 0.17 ± 0.01 mBq g(-1). The annual effective radiation doses from supplements intake were estimated as well. The highest annual radiation dose from (210)Po taken with 1 tablet of calcium supplement per day was connected to sample made from chalk - 2.5 ± 0.07 μSv year(-1), while the highest annual radiation dose from (210)Po taken with 1 g of pure calcium per day was connected to dolomite - 12.7 ± 0.70 μSv year(-1). PMID:26318774

  11. The Effects of Vitamin D-K-Calcium Co-Supplementation on Endocrine, Inflammation, and Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Vitamin D-Deficient Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Razavi, M; Jamilian, M; Karamali, M; Bahmani, F; Aghadavod, E; Asemi, Z

    2016-07-01

    The current study was conducted to assess the effects of vitamin D-K-calcium co-supplementation on endocrine, inflammation, and oxidative stress biomarkers in vitamin D-deficient women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was performed on 60 vitamin D-deficient women diagnosed with PCOS aged 18-40 years old. Participants were randomly allocated into 2 groups to intake either 200 IU vitamin D, 90 μg vitamin K plus, 500 mg calcium supplements (n=30), or placebo (n=30) twice a day for 8 weeks. Endocrine, inflammation, and oxidative stress biomarkers were quantified at the beginning and the end of the study. After 8 weeks of intervention, compared with the placebo, vitamin D-K-calcium co-supplementation resulted in a significant reduction in serum-free testosterone (- 2.1±1.6 vs.+0.1±1.0 pg/ml, p<0.001) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) levels (- 0.8±1.0 vs.-0.1±0.5 μg/ml, p=0.006). In addition, a significant increase in plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) (+ 75.7±126.1 vs.-80.4±242.8 mmol/l, p=0.005) and a significant difference in plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations (+ 0.03±0.6 vs.+1.4±2.4 μmol/l, p=0.005) was observed following the supplementation with vitamin D-K-calcium compared with the placebo. A trend toward a greater decrease in luteinizing hormone was observed in vitamin D-K-calcium co-supplement group compared to placebo group (- 7.0 vs.-1.2 IU/l, p=0.09). We did not find any significant effect of vitamin D-K-calcium co-supplementation on prolactin, follicle-stimulating hormone, 17-OH progesterone, inflammatory markers, and glutathione levels. Overall, vitamin D-K-calcium co-supplementation for 8 weeks among vitamin D-deficient women with PCOS had beneficial effects on serum DHEAS, free testosterone, plasma TAC, and MDA levels. PMID:27050252

  12. Expanding the Phenotype Associated with NAA10-Related N-Terminal Acetylation Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Saunier, Chloé; Støve, Svein Isungset; Popp, Bernt; Gérard, Bénédicte; Blenski, Marina; AhMew, Nicholas; de Bie, Charlotte; Goldenberg, Paula; Isidor, Bertrand; Keren, Boris; Leheup, Bruno; Lampert, Laetitia; Mignot, Cyril; Tezcan, Kamer; Mancini, Grazia M S; Nava, Caroline; Wasserstein, Melissa; Bruel, Ange-Line; Thevenon, Julien; Masurel, Alice; Duffourd, Yannis; Kuentz, Paul; Huet, Frédéric; Rivière, Jean-Baptiste; van Slegtenhorst, Marjon; Faivre, Laurence; Piton, Amélie; Reis, André; Arnesen, Thomas; Thauvin-Robinet, Christel; Zweier, Christiane

    2016-08-01

    N-terminal acetylation is a common protein modification in eukaryotes associated with numerous cellular processes. Inherited mutations in NAA10, encoding the catalytic subunit of the major N-terminal acetylation complex NatA have been associated with diverse, syndromic X-linked recessive disorders, whereas de novo missense mutations have been reported in one male and one female individual with severe intellectual disability but otherwise unspecific phenotypes. Thus, the full genetic and clinical spectrum of NAA10 deficiency is yet to be delineated. We identified three different novel and one known missense mutation in NAA10, de novo in 11 females, and due to maternal germ line mosaicism in another girl and her more severely affected and deceased brother. In vitro enzymatic assays for the novel, recurrent mutations p.(Arg83Cys) and p.(Phe128Leu) revealed reduced catalytic activity. X-inactivation was random in five females. The core phenotype of X-linked NAA10-related N-terminal-acetyltransferase deficiency in both males and females includes developmental delay, severe intellectual disability, postnatal growth failure with severe microcephaly, and skeletal or cardiac anomalies. Genotype-phenotype correlations within and between both genders are complex and may include various factors such as location and nature of mutations, enzymatic stability and activity, and X-inactivation in females. PMID:27094817

  13. Neuropeptide Y and Agouti-Related Peptide Mediate Complementary Functions of Hyperphagia and Reduced Energy Expenditure in Leptin Receptor Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Na; Marcelin, Genevieve; Liu, Shun Mei; Schwartz, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related peptide (AGRP) can produce hyperphagia, reduce energy expenditure, and promote triglyceride deposition in adipose depots. As these two neuropeptides are coexpressed within the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus and mediate a major portion of the obesity caused by leptin signaling deficiency, we sought to determine whether the two neuropeptides mediated identical or complementary actions. Because of separate neuropeptide receptors and signal transduction mechanisms, there is a possibility of distinct encoding systems for the feeding and energy expenditure aspects of leptin-regulated metabolism. We have genetically added NPY deficiency and/or AGRP deficiency to LEPR deficiency isolated to AGRP cells. Our results indicate that the obesity of LEPR deficiency in AGRP/NPY neurons can produce obesity with either AGRP or NPY alone with AGRP producing hyperphagia while NPY promotes reduced energy expenditure. The absence of both NPY and AGRP prevents the development of obesity attributable to isolated LEPR deficiency in AGRP/NPY neurons. Operant behavioral testing indicated that there were no alterations in the reward for a food pellet from the AGRP-specific LEPR deficiency. PMID:21285324

  14. Calcium biofortification of crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More than half of the world's population is deficient in calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), iodine (I), magnesium (Mg), selenium (Se), or zinc (Zn). The consumption of plants, directly or via livestock, containing inadequate concentrations of particular minerals causes these deficiencies. Agronomic and geneti...

  15. Increased Mitochondrial Calcium Sensitivity and Abnormal Expression of Innate Immunity Genes Precede Dopaminergic Defects in Pink1-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Akundi, Ravi S.; Huang, Zhenyu; Eason, Joshua; Pandya, Jignesh D.; Zhi, Lianteng; Cass, Wayne A.; Sullivan, Patrick G.; Büeler, Hansruedi

    2011-01-01

    Background PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) is linked to recessive Parkinsonism (EOPD). Pink1 deletion results in impaired dopamine (DA) release and decreased mitochondrial respiration in the striatum of mice. To reveal additional mechanisms of Pink1-related dopaminergic dysfunction, we studied Ca2+ vulnerability of purified brain mitochondria, DA levels and metabolism and whether signaling pathways implicated in Parkinson's disease (PD) display altered activity in the nigrostriatal system of Pink1−/− mice. Methods and Findings Purified brain mitochondria of Pink1−/− mice showed impaired Ca2+ storage capacity, resulting in increased Ca2+ induced mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT) that was rescued by cyclosporine A. A subpopulation of neurons in the substantia nigra of Pink1−/− mice accumulated phospho-c-Jun, showing that Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activity is increased. Pink1−/− mice 6 months and older displayed reduced DA levels associated with increased DA turnover. Moreover, Pink1−/− mice had increased levels of IL-1β, IL-12 and IL-10 in the striatum after peripheral challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and Pink1−/− embryonic fibroblasts showed decreased basal and inflammatory cytokine-induced nuclear factor kappa-β (NF-κB) activity. Quantitative transcriptional profiling in the striatum revealed that Pink1−/− mice differentially express genes that (i) are upregulated in animals with experimentally induced dopaminergic lesions, (ii) regulate innate immune responses and/or apoptosis and (iii) promote axonal regeneration and sprouting. Conclusions Increased mitochondrial Ca2+ sensitivity and JNK activity are early defects in Pink1−/− mice that precede reduced DA levels and abnormal DA homeostasis and may contribute to neuronal dysfunction in familial PD. Differential gene expression in the nigrostriatal system of Pink1−/− mice supports early dopaminergic dysfunction and shows that Pink1 deletion causes aberrant

  16. Betaine deficiency in maize: Metabolic basis and relation to osmotic adjustment

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, D. ); Hanson, A.D. ); Lerma, C.; Bolanos, J.

    1990-05-01

    A single recessive gene causes betaine deficiency in certain maize inbred lines. As betaine may act as a cytosolic osmolyte, deficiency might be expected to reduce osmotic adjustment. Two near-isogenic maize lines differing for betaine, as well as groups of diverse betaine-containing and deficient inbreds, were tested under field water-stress conditions. The betaine-deficient isogenic line, and the group of deficient inbreds as a whole, showed significantly (P<0.05) less osmotic adjustment than their respective betaine-containing counterparts. When leaves from field-grown plants of the isogenic lines were supplied with ({sup 14}C)choline, the betaine-containing line produced ({sup 14}C)betaine whereas the deficient line did not.

  17. Cytochemical calcium distribution in secretory ameloblasts of the rat in relation to enamel mineralization.

    PubMed

    Chen, S; Eisenmann, D R; Zaki, A E; Ashrafi, S H

    1986-01-01

    Calcium distribution in secretory ameloblasts was studied in rat incisor enamel in which mineralization was temporarily disturbed by injection of either fluoride or cobalt. Pyroantimonate precipitates of calcium were analysed morphometrically in regions of the cell membranes, mitochondria and secretory granules. The disturbances in mineralization were characterized by accumulations of unmineralized enamel matrix at the secretory regions of Tomes' process within 1 h after injection. Fluoride-induced disturbances in mineralization were not accompanied by marked changes in calcium concentration and distribution. It may be that fluoride causes alterations in the synthesis and secretion of the organic matrix which affects its ability to mineralize. Secretory ameloblasts treated with cobalt showed a broad basis for interference with calcium, in particular that which is associated with cell membranes and secretory granules. Secretory ameloblasts may be actively controlling the availability of calcium to enamel by mechanisms involving the cell membrane as well as the secretory granules. PMID:3739601

  18. Rankings of iron, vitamin D, and calcium intakes in relation to maternal characteristics of pregnant Canadian women.

    PubMed

    Morisset, Anne-Sophie; Weiler, Hope A; Dubois, Lise; Ashley-Martin, Jillian; Shapiro, Gabriel D; Dodds, Linda; Massarelli, Isabelle; Vigneault, Michel; Arbuckle, Tye E; Fraser, William D

    2016-07-01

    Iron, vitamin D, and calcium intakes in the prenatal period are important determinants of maternal and fetal health. The objective of this study was to examine iron, vitamin D, and calcium intakes from diet and supplements in relation to maternal characteristics. Data were collected in a subsample of 1186 pregnant women from the Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) Study, a cohort study including pregnant women recruited from 10 Canadian sites between 2008 and 2011. A food frequency questionnaire was administered to obtain rankings of iron, calcium, and vitamin D intake (16-21 weeks of pregnancy). Intakes from supplements were obtained from a separate questionnaire (6-13 weeks of pregnancy). Women were divided into 2 groups according to the median total intake of each nutrient. Supplement intake was an important contributor to total iron intake (median 74%, interquartile range (IQR) 0%-81%) and total vitamin D intake (median 60%, IQR 0%-73%), while the opposite was observed for calcium (median 18%, IQR 0%-27%). Being born outside of Canada was significantly associated with lower total intakes of iron, vitamin D, and calcium (p ≤ 0.01 for all). Consistent positive indicators of supplement use (iron, vitamin D, and calcium) were maternal age over 30 years and holding a university degree. In conclusion, among Canadian women, the probability of having lower iron, vitamin D, and calcium intakes is higher among those born outside Canada; supplement intake is a major contributor to total iron and vitamin D intakes; and higher education level and age over 30 years are associated with supplement intake. PMID:27324651

  19. Vitamin A deficiency in patients with hepatitis C virus-related chronic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Peres, W A F; Chaves, G V; Gonçalves, J C S; Ramalho, A; Coelho, H S M

    2011-12-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with oxidative stress and vitamin A possesses antioxidant activity. The objective of the present study was to investigate vitamin A nutritional status in chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), according to biochemical, functional and dietetic indicators correlating these findings with liver function, liver damage and death. Vitamin A nutritional status was analysed by serum retinol levels, dietetic indicators and functional indicators. A total of 140 patients with HCV-related liver disease were enrolled. Vitamin A deficiency was detected in 54·3 % of all patients, and there was a progressive drop in serum retinol levels from chronic hepatitis C patients towards cirrhosis and HCC patients. Increased total bilirubin, liver transaminases and prothrombin time, presence of hepatic encephalopathy and ascites were related to reduced serum retinol levels, and values ≤ 0·78 μmol/l of serum retinol were associated with liver-related death. A high prevalence of inadequate intake of vitamin A was observed in all stages of chronic liver disease. The functional indicator was not an adequate parameter for evaluating the vitamin A nutritional status. Therefore, serum retinol concentration is related to severity of the disease, liver complications and mortality. The effectiveness of nutritional counselling and measures of intervention in this group in improving vitamin A nutritional status should be examined further in a controlled study. PMID:21736776

  20. [The effect of the albumin concentration on the relation between the concentration of ionized calcium and total calcium in the blood of dogs].

    PubMed

    Mischke, R; Hänies, R; Lange, K; Rivera Ramirez, P A

    1996-06-01

    Based on the results of 367 healthy dogs of different age, it could be demonstrated that the concentration of ionized calcium corrected to the pH-value of 7.4 ([Cai (7.4)]) as well as the concentration of total calcium ([Catot]) clearly decreased with increasing age. The most obvious changes were found during the first four months. The [Cai (7.4)] was not influenced distinctly by sex or by breed. The reference range (2.5-97.5% quantil) for [Cai (7.4)] in heparinized plasma was 1.32-1.51 mmol/l in 4-months- to 1-year-old dogs and 1.22-1.46 mmol/l in dogs older than one year, corresponding to a proportion of Cai to Catot of 44.9-54.9%. A moderately close correlation existed between [Cai (7.4)] and the [Catot] (r = 0.754) (n = 393 adult dogs: 180 healthy animals and 213 unselected patients). A similar correlation coefficient was found between the concentrations of Catot and albumin (r = 0.718) or total protein (r = 0.617), respectively. The proportion of Cai to Catot decreased with an increasing concentration of albumin, whereas [Cai (7.4)] tended to increase. The correction of the [Catot] for albumin did not lead to an increased correlation coefficient for the relation with [Cai (7.4)] (r = 0.676). In addition to albumin concentration, the relation between [Cai (7.4)] and the Catot is primarily influenced by complex-forming ions. This became clear by the transient citrate-induced decrease of [Cai (7.4)] whereas [Catot] increased after infusion of fresh frozen plasma in dogs suffering from diarrhea. This investigation shows the limits of the estimation of calcium homoeostasis on the basis of the [Catot]. PMID:8766900

  1. Assessment of cardiac function in mice lacking the mitochondrial calcium uniporter.

    PubMed

    Holmström, Kira M; Pan, Xin; Liu, Julia C; Menazza, Sara; Liu, Jie; Nguyen, Tiffany T; Pan, Haihui; Parks, Randi J; Anderson, Stasia; Noguchi, Audrey; Springer, Danielle; Murphy, Elizabeth; Finkel, Toren

    2015-08-01

    Mitochondrial calcium is thought to play an important role in the regulation of cardiac bioenergetics and function. The entry of calcium into the mitochondrial matrix requires that the divalent cation pass through the inner mitochondrial membrane via a specialized pore known as the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU). Here, we use mice deficient of MCU expression to rigorously assess the role of mitochondrial calcium in cardiac function. Mitochondria isolated from MCU(-/-) mice have reduced matrix calcium levels, impaired calcium uptake and a defect in calcium-stimulated respiration. Nonetheless, we find that the absence of MCU expression does not affect basal cardiac function at either 12 or 20months of age. Moreover, the physiological response of MCU(-/-) mice to isoproterenol challenge or transverse aortic constriction appears similar to control mice. Thus, while mitochondria derived from MCU(-/-) mice have markedly impaired mitochondrial calcium handling, the hearts of these animals surprisingly appear to function relatively normally under basal conditions and during stress. PMID:26057074

  2. TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand deficiency enhances survival in murine colon ascendens stent peritonitis

    PubMed Central

    Beyer, Katharina; Stollhof, Laura; Poetschke, Christian; von Bernstorff, Wolfram; Partecke, Lars Ivo; Diedrich, Stephan; Maier, Stefan; Bröker, Barbara M; Heidecke, Claus-Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Background Apart from inducing apoptosis in tumor cells, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) influences inflammatory reactions. Murine colon ascendens stent peritonitis (CASP) represents a model of diffuse peritonitis. Recently, it has been demonstrated that administration of exogenous TRAIL not only induces apoptosis in neutrophils but also enhances survival in this model. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of genetic TRAIL deficiency on the course of CASP. Methods Peritonitis was induced in 6- to 8-week-old female TRAIL−/− mice as well as in wild-type mice. The sepsis severity score and survival of mice were monitored. Bacterial loads in blood as well as in the lymphoid organs were examined. Additionally, the number of apoptotic cells within the lymphoid organs was determined. Results As early as 8 hours postinduction of CASP, TRAIL−/− mice were significantly more affected by sepsis than wild-type mice, as measured by the sepsis severity score. However, during the further course of sepsis, TRAIL deficiency led to significantly decreased sepsis severity scores, resulting in an enhanced overall survival in TRAIL−/− mice. The better survival of TRAIL−/− mice was accompanied by a decreased bacterial load within the blood. In marked contrast, the number of apoptotic cells within the lymphoid organs was highly increased in TRAIL−/− mice 20 hours after induction of CASP. Conclusion Hence, exogenous and endogenous TRAIL is protective during the early phase of sepsis, while endogenous TRAIL appears to be detrimental in the later course of this disease. PMID:27366100

  3. 61 FR 28881 - Review of the Calcium and Related Nutrient Needs of the U.S. Population; Announcement of Open...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1996-06-06

    ... review will also include the metabolism of related nutrients (such as vitamin D, magnesium, phosphorus... nutrients (such as vitamin D, magnesium, phosphorus, and fluoride) in order to prevent deficiency states... requirements for the related nutrients, vitamin D, magnesium, phosphorus, and fluoride. The impact of...

  4. Wernicke's Encephalopathy, Wet Beriberi, and Polyneuropathy in a Patient with Folate and Thiamine Deficiency Related to Gastric Phytobezoar.

    PubMed

    Huertas-González, Nuria; Hernando-Requejo, Virgilio; Luciano-García, Zaida; Cervera-Rodilla, Juan Luis

    2015-01-01

    Background. Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) is an acute neurological disorder resulting from thiamine deficiency. It is mainly related to alcohol abuse but it can be associated with other conditions such as gastrointestinal disorders. This vitamin deficiency can also present with cardiovascular symptoms, called "wet beriberi." Association with folate deficit worsens the clinical picture. Subject. A 70-year-old man with gastric phytobezoar presented with gait instability, dyspnoea, chest pain associated with right heart failure and pericarditis, and folate deficiency. Furosemide was administered and cardiac symptoms improved but he soon developed vertiginous syndrome, nystagmus, diplopia, dysmetria, and sensitive and motor deficit in all four limbs with areflexia. Results. A cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed typical findings of WE. He was immediately treated with thiamine. Neurological symptoms improved in a few days and abnormal signals disappeared in a follow-up MRI two weeks later. Conclusion. Patients with malabsorption due to gastrointestinal disorders have an increased risk of thiamine deficiency, and folate deficiency can make this vitamin malabsorption worse. An established deficiency mainly shows neurological symptoms, WE, or rarely cardiovascular symptoms, wet beriberi. Early vitamin treatment in symptomatic patients improves prognosis. We recommend administration of prophylactic multivitamins supplements in patients at risk as routine clinical practice. PMID:26697247

  5. Wernicke's Encephalopathy, Wet Beriberi, and Polyneuropathy in a Patient with Folate and Thiamine Deficiency Related to Gastric Phytobezoar

    PubMed Central

    Huertas-González, Nuria; Hernando-Requejo, Virgilio; Luciano-García, Zaida; Cervera-Rodilla, Juan Luis

    2015-01-01

    Background. Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) is an acute neurological disorder resulting from thiamine deficiency. It is mainly related to alcohol abuse but it can be associated with other conditions such as gastrointestinal disorders. This vitamin deficiency can also present with cardiovascular symptoms, called “wet beriberi.” Association with folate deficit worsens the clinical picture. Subject. A 70-year-old man with gastric phytobezoar presented with gait instability, dyspnoea, chest pain associated with right heart failure and pericarditis, and folate deficiency. Furosemide was administered and cardiac symptoms improved but he soon developed vertiginous syndrome, nystagmus, diplopia, dysmetria, and sensitive and motor deficit in all four limbs with areflexia. Results. A cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed typical findings of WE. He was immediately treated with thiamine. Neurological symptoms improved in a few days and abnormal signals disappeared in a follow-up MRI two weeks later. Conclusion. Patients with malabsorption due to gastrointestinal disorders have an increased risk of thiamine deficiency, and folate deficiency can make this vitamin malabsorption worse. An established deficiency mainly shows neurological symptoms, WE, or rarely cardiovascular symptoms, wet beriberi. Early vitamin treatment in symptomatic patients improves prognosis. We recommend administration of prophylactic multivitamins supplements in patients at risk as routine clinical practice. PMID:26697247

  6. XPC deficiency is related to APE1 and OGG1 expression and function.

    PubMed

    de Melo, Julliane Tamara Araújo; de Souza Timoteo, Ana Rafaela; Lajus, Tirzah Braz Petta; Brandão, Juliana Alves; de Souza-Pinto, Nadja Cristhina; Menck, Carlos Frederico Martins; Campalans, Anna; Radicella, J Pablo; Vessoni, Alexandre Teixeira; Muotri, Alysson Renato; Agnez-Lima, Lucymara Fassarella

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative DNA damage is considered to be a major cause of neurodegeneration and internal tumors observed in syndromes that result from nucleotide excision repair (NER) deficiencies, such as Xeroderma Pigmentosum (XP) and Cockayne Syndrome (CS). Recent evidence has shown that NER aids in removing oxidized DNA damage and may interact with base excision repair (BER) enzymes. Here, we investigated APE1 and OGG1 expression, localization and activity after oxidative stress in XPC-deficient cells. The endogenous APE1 and OGG1 mRNA levels were lower in XPC-deficient fibroblasts. However, XPC-deficient cells did not show hypersensitivity to oxidative stress compared with NER-proficient cells. To confirm the impact of an XPC deficiency in regulating APE1 and OGG1 expression and activity, we established an XPC-complemented cell line. Although the XPC complementation was only partial and transient, the transfected cells exhibited greater OGG1 expression and activity compared with XPC-deficient cells. However, the APE1 expression and activity did not significantly change. Furthermore, we observed a physical interaction between the XPC and APE1 proteins. Together, the results indicate that the responses of XPC-deficient cells under oxidative stress may not only be associated with NER deficiency per se but may also include new XPC functions in regulating BER proteins. PMID:26811994

  7. Lead phytotoxicity in soils and nutrient solutions is related to lead induced phosphorus deficiency.

    PubMed

    Cheyns, Karlien; Peeters, Sofie; Delcourt, Dorien; Smolders, Erik

    2012-05-01

    This study was set up to relate lead (Pb) bioavailability with its toxicity to plants in soils. Tomato and barley seedlings were grown in six different PbCl(2) spiked soils (pH: 4.7-7.4; eCEC: 4.2-41.7 cmol(c)/kg). Soils were leached and pH corrected after spiking to exclude confounding factors. Plant growth was halved at 1600-6500 mg Pb/kg soil for tomato and at 1900-8300 mg Pb/kg soil for barley. These soil Pb threshold were unrelated to soil pH, organic carbon, texture or eCEC and neither soil solution Pb nor Pb(2+) ion activity adequately explained Pb toxicity among soils. Shoot phosphorus (P) concentrations significantly decreased with increasing soil Pb concentrations. Tomato grown in hydroponics at either varying P supply or at increasing Pb (equal initial P) illustrated that shoot P explained growth response in both scenarios. The results suggest that Pb toxicity is partially related to Pb induced P deficiency, likely due to lead phosphate precipitation. PMID:22377902

  8. Were kinetics of Archean calcium carbonate precipitation related to oxygen concentration?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumner, D. Y.; Grotzinger, J. P.

    1996-01-01

    Archean carbonates commonly contain decimetre- to metre-thick beds consisting entirely of fibrous calcite and neomorphosed fibrous aragonite that precipitated in situ on the sea floor. The fact that such thick accumulations of precipitated carbonate are rare in younger marine carbonates suggests an important change in the modes of calcium carbonate precipitation through time. Kinetics of carbonate precipitation depend on the concentration of inhibitors to precipitation that reduce crystallization rates and crystal nuclei formation, leading to kinetic maintenance of supersaturated solutions. Inhibitors also affect carbonate textures by limiting micrite precipitation and promoting growth of older carbonate crystals on the sea floor. Fe2+, a strong calcite-precipitation inhibitor, is thought to have been present at relatively high concentrations in Archean seawater because oxygen concentrations were low. The rise in oxygen concentration at 2.2-1.9 Ga led to the removal of Fe2+ from seawater and resulted in a shift from Archean facies, which commonly include precipitated beds, to Proterozoic facies, which contain more micritic sediment and only rare precipitated beds.

  9. Relation of Dietary Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load to Coronary Artery Calcium in Asymptomatic Korean Adults.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yuni; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Cho, Juhee; Kim, Mi Kyung; Ahn, Younjhin; Lee, Jung Eun; Sung, Eunju; Kim, Boyoung; Ahn, Jiin; Kim, Chan-Won; Rampal, Sanjay; Zhao, Di; Zhang, Yiyi; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; Lima, Joao A C; Chung, Eun Chul; Shin, Hocheol; Guallar, Eliseo

    2015-08-15

    The relation between glycemic index, glycemic load, and subclinical coronary atherosclerosis is unknown. The aim of the study was to evaluate the associations between energy-adjusted glycemic index, glycemic load, and coronary artery calcium (CAC). This study was cross-sectional analysis of 28,429 asymptomatic Korean men and women (mean age 41.4 years) without a history of diabetes or cardiovascular disease. All participants underwent a health screening examination between March 2011 and April 2013, and dietary intake over the preceding year was estimated using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Cardiac computed tomography was used for CAC scoring. The prevalence of detectable CAC (CAC score >0) was 12.4%. In multivariable-adjusted models, the CAC score ratios (95% confidence intervals) comparing the highest to the lowest quintile of glycemic index and glycemic load were 1.74 (1.08 to 2.81; p trend = 0.03) and 3.04 (1.43 to 6.46; p trend = 0.005), respectively. These associations did not differ by clinical subgroups, including the participants at low cardiovascular risk. In conclusion, these findings suggest that high dietary glycemic index and glycemic load were associated with a greater prevalence and degree of CAC, with glycemic load having a stronger association. PMID:26073677

  10. Micronutrients and the premenstrual syndrome: the case for calcium.

    PubMed

    Thys-Jacobs, S

    2000-04-01

    Premenstrual syndrome afflicts millions of premenopausal women and has been described as one of the most common disorders in women. Research over the past few years suggests that a variety of nutrients may have an important role in the phase related mood and behavioral disturbances of the premenstrual syndrome. There is scientific evidence, at least for a few of these micronutrients, specifically calcium and vitamin D, supporting cyclic fluctuations during the menstrual cycle that may help explain some features of PMS. Ovarian hormones influence calcium, magnesium and vitamin D metabolism. Estrogen regulates calcium metabolism, intestinal calcium absorption and parathyroid gene expression and secretion, triggering fluctuations across the menstrual cycle. Alterations in calcium homeostasis (hypocalcemia and hypercalcemia) have long been associated with many affective disturbances. PMS shares many features of depression, anxiety and the dysphoric states. The similarity between the symptoms of PMS and hypocalcemia is remarkable. Clinical trials in women with PMS have found that calcium supplementation effectively alleviates the majority of mood and somatic symptoms. Evidence to date indicates that women with luteal phase symptomatology have an underlying calcium dysregulation with a secondary hyperparathyroidism and vitamin D deficiency. This strongly suggests that PMS represents the clinical manifestation of a calcium deficiency state that is unmasked following the rise of ovarian steroid hormone concentrations during the menstrual cycle. PMID:10763903

  11. Calcium supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... TYPES OF CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTS Forms of calcium include: Calcium carbonate: Over-the-counter (OTC) antacid products, such as Tums and Rolaids, contain calcium carbonate. These sources of calcium do not cost much. ...

  12. Precipitable immune complexes in healthy homosexual men, acquired immune deficiency syndrome and the related lymphadenopathy syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Euler, H H; Kern, P; Löffler, H; Dietrich, M

    1985-01-01

    Increased levels of 3% PEG precipitable circulating immune complexes (CIC) were found in healthy homosexual men, in homosexual patients with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), and in the AIDS related lymphadenopathy syndrome (LAS). The degree of CIC elevation increases from healthy homosexual men to LAS and AIDS. Patients suffering from AIDS associated with opportunistic infections had a more pronounced increase in CIC than patients with AIDS associated Kaposi's sarcoma. In LAS and AIDS the amount of CIC correlated with the degree of inversion of the T4/T8 lymphocyte ratio, whereas in healthy homosexual men with increased levels of CIC the T4/T8 ratio was not significantly altered. Laser nephelometric partial components analysis revealed that these complexes were of a complement poor subtype with low component levels of C4, C1q and C3c. IgM and IgG were found to be the major components. It is suggested that these CIC might represent a marker of the total antigenic burden of the immune system. Possibly, they are of prognostic and monitoring value for clinical handling of patients at risk for AIDS. PMID:3156700

  13. Relation of vitamin D deficiency and new-onset atrial fibrillation among hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Ozgur Ulas; Gurlek, Adalet; Gursoy, Eren; Gerede, Demet Menekse; Erol, Cetin

    2015-04-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is associated with various cardiovascular disorders including hypertension, coronary artery disease, and heart failure. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAS) axis is activated in vitamin D deficiency. The RAS axis also plays a role in the pathophysiology of atrial fibrillation (AF). We aimed to investigate whether vitamin D deficiency is a risk factor for the development of new-onset AF in hypertension. A total of 227 hypertensive patients were enrolled, of whom 137 had new-onset AF; 90 patients without AF were included in the control group. The age of the patient, left atrial diameter, and vitamin D deficiency increased the probability of new-onset AF independent from confounding factors (odds ratio [OR], 1.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-1.08; P = .03 for age; OR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.15-3.45; P = .03 for left atrial diameter; OR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.18-2.64; P = .03 for vitamin D deficiency). Vitamin D deficiency is associated with new-onset AF in hypertension. PMID:25753298

  14. Iatrogenic nutritional deficiencies.

    PubMed

    Young, R C; Blass, J P

    1982-01-01

    This article catalogs the nutritional deficiencies inadvertently introduced by certain treatment regimens. Specifically, the iatrogenic effects on nutrition of surgery, hemodialysis, irradiation, and drugs are reviewed. Nutritional problems are particularly frequent consequences of surgery on the gastrointestinal tract. Gastric surgery can lead to deficiencies of vitamin B12, folate, iron, and thiamine, as well as to metabolic bone disease. The benefits of small bowel bypass are limited by the potentially severe nutritional consequences of this procedure. Following bypass surgery, patients should be monitored for signs of possible nutritional probems such as weight loss, neuropathy, cardiac arrhythmias, loss of stamina, or changes in mental status. Minimal laboratory tests should include hematologic evaluation, B12, folate, iron, albumin, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, transaminases, sodium, potassium, chloride, and carbon dioxide levels. Roentgenologic examination of the bone should also be obtained. Loss of bone substance is a major consequence of many forms of treatment, and dietary supplementation with calcium is warranted. Patients undergoing hemodialysis have shown carnitine and choline deficiencies, potassium depletion, and hypovitaminosis, as well as osteomalacia. Chronic drug use may alter intake, synthesis, absorption, transport, storage, metabolism, or excretion of nutrients. Patients vary markedly in the metabolic effects of drugs, and recommendations for nutrition must be related to age, sex, reproductive status, and genetic endowment. Moreover, the illness being treated can itself alter nutritional requirements and the effect of the treatment on nutrient status. The changes in nutritional levels induced by use of estrogen-containing oral contraceptives (OCs) are obscure; however, the effects on folate matabolism appear to be of less clinical import than previously suggested. Reduction in pyridoxine and serum vitamin B12 levels has been

  15. Arginine-related guanidino compounds and nitric oxide synthase in the brain of ornithine transcarbamylase deficient spf mutant mouse: effect of metabolic arginine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Ratnakumari, L; Qureshi, I A; Butterworth, R F; Marescau, B; De Deyn, P P

    1996-09-13

    The sparse-fur (spf) mouse, with an X-linked hepatic ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC, E.C.2.1.3.3) deficiency, exhibits significantly lower levels of arginine in the brain as compared to normal controls. In the present study, the effect of a sustained lower metabolic arginine was studied by measuring the levels of several arginine-related guanidino compounds in brain. The concentrations of gamma-guanidinobutyric acid (gamma-GBA), N-alpha-acetylarginine (N-alpha-AA), argininic acid (Arg-A), guanidinoacetic acid (GAA), and creatine were significantly lower in spf mice as compared to controls. Since arginine is the precursor for nitric oxide, we also measured the activity of nitric oxide synthase which was significantly reduced in cerebellum, striatum, hippocampus and cerebral cortex of spf mice. The changes seen in cerebral guanidino compound and nitric oxide metabolism of spf mice could be due to a sustained deficiency of arginine, caused by a metabolic block in the area cycle. PMID:8899736

  16. Rickets–vitamin D deficiency and dependency

    PubMed Central

    Sahay, Manisha; Sahay, Rakesh

    2012-01-01

    Rickets is an important problem even in countries with adequate sun exposure. The causes of rickets/osteomalacia are varied and include nutritional deficiency, especially poor dietary intake of vitamin D and calcium. Non-nutritional causes include hypophosphatemic rickets primarily due to renal phosphate losses and rickets due to renal tubular acidosis. In addition, some varieties are due to inherited defects in vitamin D metabolism and are called vitamin D dependent rickets. This chapter highlights rickets/osteomalacia related to vitamin D deficiency or to inherited defects in vitamin D metabolism. Hypophosphatemic rickets and rickets due to renal tubular acidosis are discussed in other sections of the journal. PMID:22470851

  17. Calcium mobilization from fish scales is mediated by parathyroid hormone related protein via the parathyroid hormone type 1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Rotllant, J; Redruello, B; Guerreiro, P M; Fernandes, H; Canario, A V M; Power, D M

    2005-12-15

    The scales of bony fish represent a significant reservoir of calcium but little is known about their contribution, as well as of bone, to calcium balance and how calcium deposition and mobilization are regulated in calcified tissues. In the present study we report the action of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) on calcium mobilization from sea bream (Sparus auratus) scales in an in vitro bioassay. Ligand binding studies of piscine 125I-(1-35(tyr))PTHrP to the membrane fraction of isolated sea bream scales revealed the existence of a single PTH receptor (PTHR) type. RT-PCR of fish scale cDNA using specific primers for two receptor types found in teleosts, PTH1R, and PTH3R, showed expression only of PTH1R. The signalling mechanisms mediating binding of the N-terminal amino acid region of PTHrP were investigated. A synthetic peptide (10(-8) M) based on the N-terminal 1-34 amino acid residues of Fugu rubripes PTHrP strongly stimulated cAMP synthesis and [3H]myo-inositol incorporation in sea bream scales. However, peptides (10(-8) M) with N-terminal deletions, such as (2-34), (3-34) and (7-34)PTHrP, were defective in stimulating cAMP production but stimulated [3H]myo-inositol incorporation. (1-34)PTHrP induced significant osteoclastic activity in scale tissue as indicated by its stimulation of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase. In contrast, (7-34)PTHrP failed to stimulate the activity of this enzyme. This activity could also be abolished by the adenylyl cyclase inhibitor SQ-22536, but not by the phospholipase C inhibitor U-73122. The results of the study indicate that one mechanism through which N-terminal (1-34)PTHrP stimulates osteoclastic activity of sea bream scales, is through PTH1R and via the cAMP/AC intracellular signalling pathway. It appears, therefore, that fish scales can act as calcium stores and that (1-34)PTHrP regulates calcium mobilization from them; it remains to be established if this mechanism contributes to calcium homeostasis in vivo

  18. Depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors and stress-related neuronal activation in vasopressin-deficient female Brattleboro rats.

    PubMed

    Fodor, Anna; Kovács, Krisztina Bea; Balázsfi, Diána; Klausz, Barbara; Pintér, Ottó; Demeter, Kornél; Daviu, Nuria; Rabasa, Cristina; Rotllant, David; Nadal, Roser; Zelena, Dóra

    2016-05-01

    Vasopressin can contribute to the development of stress-related psychiatric disorders, anxiety and depression. Although these disturbances are more common in females, most of the preclinical studies have been done in males. We compared female vasopressin-deficient and +/+ Brattleboro rats. To test anxiety we used open-field, elevated plus maze (EPM), marble burying, novelty-induced hypophagia, and social avoidance tests. Object and social recognition were used to assess short term memory. To test depression-like behavior consumption of sweet solutions (sucrose and saccharin) and forced swim test (FST) were studied. The stress-hormone levels were followed by radioimmunoassay and underlying brain areas were studied by c-Fos immunohistochemistry. In the EPM the vasopressin-deficient females showed more entries towards the open arms and less stretch attend posture, drank more sweet fluids and struggled more (in FST) than the +/+ rats. The EPM-induced stress-hormone elevations were smaller in vasopressin-deficient females without basal as well as open-field and FST-induced genotype-differences. On most studied brain areas the resting c-Fos levels were higher in vasopressin-deficient rats, but the FST-induced elevations were smaller than in the +/+ ones. Similarly to males, female vasopressin-deficient animals presented diminished depression- and partly anxiety-like behavior with significant contribution of stress-hormones. In contrast to males, vasopressin deficiency in females had no effect on object and social memory, and stressor-induced c-Fos elevations were diminished only in females. Thus, vasopressin has similar effect on anxiety- and depression-like behavior in males and females, while only in females behavioral alterations are associated with reduced neuronal reactivity in several brain areas. PMID:26939727

  19. Muc-2-deficient mice display a sex-specific, COX-2-related impairment of gastric mucosal repair.

    PubMed

    Wallace, John L; Vong, Linda; Dharmani, Poonam; Srivastava, Vikas; Chadee, Kris

    2011-03-01

    Mucus is known to contribute significantly to the prevention and repair of mucosal damage throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Although not normally expressed in the stomach, mucin-2 (MUC-2, encoded by the MUC2 gene) is expressed in certain disease states. The aim of this study was to determine in a mouse model whether the absence of Muc-2 would result in impaired susceptibility to and healing of gastric mucosal injury. Acute gastric damage was induced in mice deficient in Muc-2 and in wild-type controls, through oral administration of indomethacin. Chronic gastric ulcers were induced by serosal application of acetic acid. The extent of injury and the extent of healing of the damage over time were examined in both models. Indomethacin administration caused similar levels of gastric damage in Muc-2-deficient and wild-type mice, but the erosions healed more slowly in the former. Acetic acid-induced gastric ulcers were initially similar in size in Muc-2-deficient and wild-type mice of both sexes, but ulcer healing was significantly impaired in male Muc-2-deficient mice. Induction of cyclooxygenase-2 in the stomach, in response to indomethacin- or acetic acid-induced ulceration, was significantly reduced in male Muc-2-deficient mice. This phenomenon, and the sex specificity, was also apparent in bone marrow-derived macrophages stimulated with endotoxin. These results demonstrate a marked impairment of gastric mucosal repair in male Muc-2-deficient mice that may be related to an insufficient induction of cyclooxygenase-2, an enzyme known to contribute to mucosal repair. PMID:21356364

  20. Acute severe encephalopathy related to human herpesvirus-6 infection in a patient with carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 deficiency carrying thermolabile variants.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yoshiyuki; Ishikawa, Nobutsune; Tsumura, Miyuki; Fujii, Yuji; Okada, Satoshi; Shigematsu, Yosuke; Kobayashi, Masao

    2013-05-01

    We describe a male infant with carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 (CPT2) deficiency who presented with acute encephalopathy related to human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) infection. He was hospitalized for pylexia and status epilepticus, diagnosed with acute encephalopathy, and treated with intensive supportive care including mechanical ventilation, support for hypothermia, and control of the intracranial pressure, that caused severe neurological sequelae. HHV-6 was detected in his cerebrospinal fluid, indicating HHV-6 related encephalopathy. In the acute phase, acylcarnitine analysis of blood suggested a defect of long chain fatty acid β-oxidation, and CPT2 deficiency was genetically confirmed. In addition, other gene alterations that have been previously reported as "thermolabile variants" were found. Some patients with the infantile form of CPT2 deficiency present with acute encephalopathy, but others do not develop encephalopathy. The correlation between phenotype and genotype has not been clarified. Our case may contribute to the elucidation of the genetic factor involved in acute encephalopathy in CPT2 deficiency. PMID:22854105

  1. Increased Prevalence of Bisphosphonate-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw with Vitamin D Deficiency in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hokugo, Akishige; Christensen, Russell; Chung, Evelyn M; Sung, Eric C; Felsenfeld, Alan L; Sayre, James W; Garrett, Neal; Adams, John S; Nishimura, Ichiro

    2010-01-01

    Necrotic bone exposure in the oral cavity has recently been reported in patients treated with nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates as part of their therapeutic regimen for multiple myeloma or metastatic cancers to bone. It has been postulated that systemic conditions associated with cancer patients combined with tooth extraction may increase the risk of osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ). The objective of this study was to establish an animal model of bisphosphonate-related ONJ by testing the combination of these risk factors. The generation of ONJ lesions in rats resembling human disease was achieved under the confluence of intravenous injection of zoledronate (ZOL; 35 µg/kg every 2 weeks), maxillary molar extraction, and vitamin D deficiency [VitD(−)]. The prevalence of ONJ in the VitD(−)/ZOL group was 66.7%, which was significantly higher (p < .05, Fisher exact test) than the control (0%), VitD(−) (0%), and ZOL alone (14.3%) groups. Similar to human patients, rat ONJ lesions prolonged the oral exposure of necrotic bone sequestra and were uniquely associated with pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia. The number of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase–mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate–biotin nick-end label–positive (TUNEL+) osteoclasts significantly increased on the surface of post–tooth extraction alveolar bone of the VitD(−)/ZOL group, where sustained inflammation was depicted by [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose micro-positron emission tomography (µPET). ONJ lesions were found to be associated with dense accumulation of mixed inflammatory/immune cells. These cells, composed of neutrophils and lymphocytes, appeared to juxtapose apoptotic osteoclasts. It is suggested that the pathophysiologic mechanism(s) underpinning ONJ may involve the interaction between bisphosphonates and compromised vitamin D functions in the realm of skeletal homeostasis and innate immunity. © 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:20200938

  2. Lipids and calcium uptake of sperm in relation to cold shock and preservation: a review.

    PubMed

    White, I G

    1993-01-01

    When sperm of the ram, bull, boar and stallion are cold-shocked by rapid cooling to near freezing point, motility and metabolic activity are irreversibly depressed and the acrosome and plasma membrane disrupted. Ram sperm become susceptible to cold shock in the proximal corpus region of the epididymis when the cytoplasmic droplet has moved backwards to the distal portion of the sperm midpiece. The membrane constituents phospholipids and cholesterol are important in cold shock which causes loss of lipid from sperm. The susceptibility of sperm to cold shock is linked with a high ratio of unsaturated:saturated fatty acids in the phospholipids and a low cholesterol content. The high unsaturated fatty acid content of sperm also makes them susceptible to damage from peroxidation which adversely affects motility, metabolism, ultrastructure and fertility. Hydroxynonenal, a product of fatty acid peroxidation, depresses the motility and oxygen uptake of ram sperm in vitro and may react with the -SH groups of the axonemal microtubules. High calcium concentrations in the external medium may decrease the motility and metabolism of sperm and 'calcium intoxication' may be a factor in cold shock. Lowering the environmental temperature increases calcium uptake by sperm and the effect is aggravated if the rate of cooling is rapid. Phospholipids, particularly those in egg yolk, protect sperm to some extent from cold shock and also prevent increased calcium flux into the sperm. Suggestions are made for increasing the life span of sperm during preservation and microencapsulation by adding agents that may stabilize membranes, counter peroxidation and decrease calcium uptake. PMID:9627725

  3. Drastic reduction of sarcalumenin in Dp427 (dystrophin of 427 kDa)-deficient fibres indicates that abnormal calcium handling plays a key role in muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed Central

    Dowling, Paul; Doran, Philip; Ohlendieck, Kay

    2004-01-01

    Although the primary abnormality in dystrophin is the underlying cause for mdx (X-chromosome-linked muscular dystrophy), abnormal Ca2+ handling after sarcolemmal microrupturing appears to be the pathophysiological mechanism leading to muscle weakness. To develop novel pharmacological strategies for eliminating Ca2+-dependent proteolysis, it is crucial to determine the fate of Ca2+-handling proteins in dystrophin-deficient fibres. In the present study, we show that a key luminal Ca2+-binding protein SAR (sarcalumenin) is affected in mdx skeletal-muscle fibres. One- and two-dimensional immunoblot analyses revealed the relative expression of the 160 kDa SR (sarcoplasmic reticulum) protein to be approx. 70% lower in mdx fibres when compared with normal skeletal muscles. This drastic reduction in SAR was confirmed by immunofluorescence microscopy. Patchy internal labelling of SAR in dystrophic fibres suggests an abnormal formation of SAR domains. Differential co-immunoprecipitation experiments and chemical cross-linking demonstrated a tight linkage between SAR and the SERCA1 (sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic-reticulum Ca2+-ATPase 1) isoform of the SR Ca2+-ATPase. However, the relative expression of the fast Ca2+ pump was not decreased in dystrophic membrane preparations. This implies that the reduction in SAR and calsequestrin-like proteins plays a central role in the previously reported impairment of Ca2+ buffering in the dystrophic SR [Culligan, Banville, Dowling and Ohlendieck (2002) J. Appl. Physiol. 92, 435-445]. Impaired Ca2+ shuttling between the Ca2+-uptake SERCA units and calsequestrin clusters via SAR, as well as an overall decreased luminal ion-binding capacity, might indirectly amplify the Ca2+-leak-channel-induced increase in cytosolic Ca2+ levels. This confirms the idea that abnormal Ca2+ cycling is involved in Ca2+-induced myonecrosis. Hence, manipulating disturbed Ca2+ handling might represent new modes of abolishing proteolytic degradation in muscular dystrophy

  4. The Role of Calcium in Prevention and Treatment of Osteoporosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heaney, Robert P.

    1987-01-01

    Osteoporosis results from several factors. Calcium deficiency is only one, and high calcium intake will prevent only those cases in which calcium is the limiting factor. Calcium cannot reverse, but only arrest, bone loss. A high calcium intake for every member of the population is advocated. (Author/MT)

  5. Influence of prednisolone on urinary calcium oxalate and struvite relative supersaturation in healthy young adult female domestic shorthaired cats.

    PubMed

    Geyer, Nicole; Bartges, Joseph W; Kirk, Claudia A; Cox, Sherry; Hezel, Alisha; Moyers, Tammy; Hayes, Jimmy

    2007-01-01

    Prednisolone (10 mg PO q24h) or placebo was administered to healthy cats for 2 weeks in a masked, placebo-controlled, crossover-design study, and 24-hour urine samples were collected. When cats received prednisolone, 24-hour urine pH was lower and 24-hour urine excretion of creatinine, magnesium, phosphate, and potassium was higher than when cats received placebo. No significant difference was found in urinary relative supersaturation for calcium oxalate (CaOx) or struvite between treatment groups. Prednisolone administration did not induce diuresis, nor was it associated with increased calcium excretion or urinary saturation for CaOx in these healthy cats. Results of this study, however, should not be extrapolated to cats that form CaOx uroliths associated with idiopathic hypercalcemia. PMID:18183542

  6. Age Related Changes in Craniofacial Morphology in GDF-8 (Myostatin) Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Vecchione, Lisa; Miller, Jeffrey; Byron, Craig; Cooper, Gregory M.; Barbano, Timothy; Cray, James; Losee, Joseph E.; Hamrick, Mark W.; Sciote, James J.; Mooney, Mark P.

    2011-01-01

    It is well recognized that masticatory muscle function helps determine morphology, although the extent of function on final form is still debated. GDF-8 (myostatin), a transcription factor is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth. A recent study has shown that mice homozygous for the myostatin mutation had increased muscle mass and craniofacial dysmorphology in adulthood. However, it is unclear whether such dysmorphology is present at birth. This study examines the onset and relationship between hypermuscularity and craniofacial morphology in neonatal and adult mice with GDF-8 deficiency. Fifteen (8 wild-type and 7 GDF-8 −/−), 1 day old and 16 (9 wt and 7 GDF-8 −/−), 180 day old male CD-1 mice were used. Standardized radiographs were taken of each head, scanned, traced, and cephalometric landmarks identified. Significant mean differences were assessed using a group × age, two-way ANOVA. Myostatin-deficient mice had significantly (p<0.01) smaller body and masseter muscle weights and craniofacial skeletons at 1 day of age and significantly greater body and masseter muscle weights at 180 days of age compared to controls. Myostatin-deficient mice showed significantly (p<0.001) longer and “rocker-shaped” mandibles and shorter and wider crania compared to controls at 180 days. Significant correlations were noted between masseter muscle weight and all cephalometric measurements in 180 day old Myostatin-deficient mice. Results suggest in this mouse model, there may be both early systemic skeletal growth deficiencies and later compensatory changes from hypermuscularity. These findings reiterate the role that masticatory muscle function plays on the ontogeny of the cranial vault, base, and most notably the mandible. PMID:19899116

  7. Relation between Neonatal Icter and Gilbert Syndrome in Gloucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficient Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Zahedpasha, Yadollah; Ahmadpour, Mousa; Niaki, Haleh Akhavan; Alaee, Ehsan

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim: The pathogenesis of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia hasn’t been completely defined in Gloucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficient newborns. The aim of this study was to detect the relationship between Gilbert’s syndrome and hyperbilirubinemia in Gloucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficient neonates. Materials and Methods: This case-control study was conducted in Amirkola pediatrics teaching hospital, Babol, Iran. A total number of one hundred four infants were included in the study (51 infants with neonatal jaundice and Gloucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency admitted to phototherapy or transfusion were selected as the case group and 53 infants with Gloucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency admitted for other reasons than jaundice were selected as the control group). Exclusion criteria were ABO or Rh incompatibility or other reasons that made Coombs test positive, sepsis, hepatosplenomegaly, metabolic diseases, medical treatment and phototherapy. The promoter and coding regions of Uridine diphosphate Glucuronosyl Transferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) of genomic DNA were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) isolated from leukocytes. We used chi-square test and t-test to compare cases and controls. Results: Distribution of Gilbert genome was not significantly different between the two groups; among cases, 33.3% were homozygote, 35.3% heterozygote, and 31.4% normal. Among controls, 22.6% were homozygote, 34% heterozygote, and 43.4% normal (p-value=xxx). Hyperbilirubinemia family history didn’t differ significantly between these two groups. Conclusions: We showed that in Gloucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficient neonates, there was no significant association between Gilbert’s syndrome (promoter polymorphism) and hyperbilirubinemia. PMID:24783083

  8. Calcium metabolism in lithium-treated patients. Relation to uni-bipolar dichotomy.

    PubMed

    Baastrup, P C; Christiansen, C; Transbøl, I

    1978-02-01

    The bone mineral content (BMC) together with biochemical indices of calcium metabolism were measured in 83 manic-depressive patients on long-term lithium therapy. The patients were diagnosed and divided into a unipolar and a bipolar group according to strict symptomatic course criteria. The patients with bipolar course had a significantly decreased BMC (88% of normal, P is less than 0.001), while the unipolar patients had normal BMC. Both groups had biochemical changes consistent with primary hyperparathyroidism. PMID:636904

  9. Complement C3-Deficient Mice Fail to Display Age-Related Hippocampal Decline.

    PubMed

    Shi, Qiaoqiao; Colodner, Kenneth J; Matousek, Sarah B; Merry, Katherine; Hong, Soyon; Kenison, Jessica E; Frost, Jeffrey L; Le, Kevin X; Li, Shaomin; Dodart, Jean-Cosme; Caldarone, Barbara J; Stevens, Beth; Lemere, Cynthia A

    2015-09-23

    The complement system is part of the innate immune response responsible for removing pathogens and cellular debris, in addition to helping to refine CNS neuronal connections via microglia-mediated pruning of inappropriate synapses during brain development. However, less is known about the role of complement during normal aging. Here, we studied the role of the central complement component, C3, in synaptic health and aging. We examined behavior as well as electrophysiological, synaptic, and neuronal changes in the brains of C3-deficient male mice (C3 KO) compared with age-, strain-, and gender-matched C57BL/6J (wild-type, WT) control mice at postnatal day 30, 4 months, and 16 months of age. We found the following: (1) region-specific and age-dependent synapse loss in aged WT mice that was not observed in C3 KO mice; (2) age-dependent neuron loss in hippocampal CA3 (but not in CA1) that followed synapse loss in aged WT mice, neither of which were observed in aged C3 KO mice; and (3) significantly enhanced LTP and cognition and less anxiety in aged C3 KO mice compared with aged WT mice. Importantly, CA3 synaptic puncta were similar between WT and C3 KO mice at P30. Together, our results suggest a novel and prominent role for complement protein C3 in mediating aged-related and region-specific changes in synaptic function and plasticity in the aging brain. Significance statement: The complement cascade, part of the innate immune response to remove pathogens, also plays a role in synaptic refinement during brain development by the removal of weak synapses. We investigated whether complement C3, a central component, affects synapse loss during aging. Wild-type (WT) and C3 knock-out (C3 KO) mice were examined at different ages. The mice were similar at 1 month of age. However, with aging, WT mice lost synapses in specific brain regions, especially in hippocampus, an area important for memory, whereas C3 KO mice were protected. Aged C3 KO mice also performed better on

  10. Calcium - ionized

    MedlinePlus

    ... at both ionized calcium and calcium attached to proteins. You may need to have a separate ionized calcium test if you have factors that increase or decrease total calcium levels. These may include abnormal blood levels ...

  11. Age-Related Loss of Calcium Buffering and Selective Neuronal Vulnerability in Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Riascos, David; de Leon, Dianne; Baker-Nigh, Alaina; Nicholas, Alexander; Yukhananov, Rustam; Bu, Jing; Wu, Chuang-Kuo; Geula, Changiz

    2011-01-01

    The reasons for the selective vulnerability of distinct neuronal populations in neurodegenerative disorders are unknown. The cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain are vulnerable to pathology and loss early in Alzheimer’s disease and in a number of other neurodegenerative disorders of the elderly. In the primate, including man, these neurons are rich in the calcium buffer calbindin-D28K. Here we confirm that these neurons undergo a substantial loss of calbindin in the course of normal aging and report a further loss of calbindin in Alzheimer’s disease both at the level of RNA and protein. Significantly, cholinergic neurons that had lost their calbindin in the course of normal aging were those that selectively degenerated in Alzheimer’s disease. Furthermore, calbindin containing neurons were virtually resistant to the process of tangle formation, a hallmark of the disease. We conclude that the loss of calcium buffering capacity in these neurons and the resultant pathological increase in intracellular calcium are permissive to tangle formation and degeneration. PMID:21874328

  12. Structure-related blockage of calcium channels by vasodilator alkamides in mice mesenteric artery.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Daniela C G; Pereira, Aline C; Gutierrez, Stanley J C; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; Lemos, Virgínia S; Côrtes, Steyner F

    2016-07-01

    The development of new calcium channel blockers is still relevant for the understanding of their physiological role and pharmacological and therapeutic purposes. For this task, natural products represent a relevant source of new drugs. The present work investigated the mechanism and the structural relationship of the vasodilator effect of riparins I, II and III in mouse small mesenteric artery. Riparins I, II and III induced an endothelium-independent and concentration-dependent vasodilator effect in mesenteric arteries. Riparins II and III were more potent than riparin I, suggesting a structural relationship of the effect of these drugs. All riparins inhibited the contractile effect of KCl, similarly to nifedipine. However, the inhibitory profile was different for the contractile responses to phenylephrine and caffeine, passing from similar to nifedipine with riparin I, for similar to SKF-96365 with riparin III. A comparable effect was observed for the increase in the intracellular calcium concentration induced by caffeine and phenylephrine. These results suggest that the higher hydroxylation provides the alkamides the ability to inhibit non-selective cation channels in addition to the inhibition of L-type calcium channels in mouse mesenteric arteries. These observations may give support to the development of new selective inhibitors of non-selective cation channels using alkamides as leading compounds. PMID:27173831

  13. The IOC consensus statement: beyond the Female Athlete Triad--Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S).

    PubMed

    Mountjoy, Margo; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn; Burke, Louise; Carter, Susan; Constantini, Naama; Lebrun, Constance; Meyer, Nanna; Sherman, Roberta; Steffen, Kathrin; Budgett, Richard; Ljungqvist, Arne

    2014-04-01

    Protecting the health of the athlete is a goal of the International Olympic Committee (IOC). The IOC convened an expert panel to update the 2005 IOC Consensus Statement on the Female Athlete Triad. This Consensus Statement replaces the previous and provides guidelines to guide risk assessment, treatment and return-to-play decisions. The IOC expert working group introduces a broader, more comprehensive term for the condition previously known as 'Female Athlete Triad'. The term 'Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport' (RED-S), points to the complexity involved and the fact that male athletes are also affected. The syndrome of RED-S refers to impaired physiological function including, but not limited to, metabolic rate, menstrual function, bone health, immunity, protein synthesis, cardiovascular health caused by relative energy deficiency. The cause of this syndrome is energy deficiency relative to the balance between dietary energy intake and energy expenditure required for health and activities of daily living, growth and sporting activities. Psychological consequences can either precede RED-S or be the result of RED-S. The clinical phenomenon is not a 'triad' of the three entities of energy availability, menstrual function and bone health, but rather a syndrome that affects many aspects of physiological function, health and athletic performance. This Consensus Statement also recommends practical clinical models for the management of affected athletes. The 'Sport Risk Assessment and Return to Play Model' categorises the syndrome into three groups and translates these classifications into clinical recommendations. PMID:24620037

  14. Zinc-deficient sprouting blight potatoes and their possible relation with neural tube defects.

    PubMed

    Ulman, Cevval; Taneli, Fatma; Oksel, Figen; Hakerlerler, Huseyin

    2005-01-01

    Maternal nutritional zinc deficiency is blamed in the pathogenesis of neural tube defects. In animal and plant domains zinc is required for growth and development. The objective of the present study was to show that sprouting blighted potato tuber is zinc deficient. In five potato varieties, zinc was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in wet-ashed paired slices of edible potato tuber and in its peel, in blighted potato tuber and in its sprout. Zinc contents were measured as the mean (+/- SEM) and the following values were found, 0.388 +/- 0.036, 0.623 +/- 0.059, 0.550 +/- 0.030 and 1.089 +/- 0.181 mg per 100 g wet weight, respectively. In conclusion, we believe that long-term consumption of zinc-depleted, blight potato tuber by pregnant woman could be potentially teratogenic with the consequent birth of a baby with neural tube defects. PMID:15376231

  15. Age-Related Differences in Cardiac Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury: Effects of Estrogen Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Korzick, D.H.; Lancaster, T.S.

    2013-01-01

    Despite conflicting evidence for the efficacy of hormone replacement therapy in cardioprotection of postmenopausal women, numerous studies have demonstrated reductions in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury following chronic or acute exogenous estradiol (E2) administration in adult male and female, gonad-intact and gonadectomized animals. It has become clear that ovariectomized adult animals may not accurately represent the combined effects of age and E2 deficiency on reductions in ischemic tolerance seen in the postmenopausal females. E2 is known to regulate the transcription of several cardioprotective genes. Acute, non-genomic E2 signaling can also activate many of the same signaling pathways recruited in cardioprotection. Alterations in cardioprotective gene expression or cardioprotective signal transduction are therefore likely to result within the context of aging and E2 deficiency, and may help explain the reduced ischemic tolerance and loss of cardioprotection in the senescent female heart. Quantification of the mitochondrial proteome as it adapts to advancing age and E2 deficiency may also represent a key experimental approach to uncover proteins associated with disruptions in cardiac signaling contributing to age-associated declines in ischemic tolerance. These alterations have important ramifications for understanding the increased morbidity and mortality due to ischemic cardiovascular disease seen in postmenopausal females. Functional perturbations that occur in mitochondrial respiration and Ca2+ sensitivity with age-associated E2 deficiency may also allow for the identification of alternative therapeutic targets for reducing I/R injury and treatment of the leading cause of death in postmenopausal women. PMID:23525672

  16. Mfn2 deficiency links age-related sarcopenia and impaired autophagy to activation of an adaptive mitophagy pathway.

    PubMed

    Sebastián, David; Sorianello, Eleonora; Segalés, Jessica; Irazoki, Andrea; Ruiz-Bonilla, Vanessa; Sala, David; Planet, Evarist; Berenguer-Llergo, Antoni; Muñoz, Juan Pablo; Sánchez-Feutrie, Manuela; Plana, Natàlia; Hernández-Álvarez, María Isabel; Serrano, Antonio L; Palacín, Manuel; Zorzano, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction and accumulation of damaged mitochondria are considered major contributors to aging. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for these mitochondrial alterations remain unknown. Here, we demonstrate that mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) plays a key role in the control of muscle mitochondrial damage. We show that aging is characterized by a progressive reduction in Mfn2 in mouse skeletal muscle and that skeletal muscle Mfn2 ablation in mice generates a gene signature linked to aging. Furthermore, analysis of muscle Mfn2-deficient mice revealed that aging-induced Mfn2 decrease underlies the age-related alterations in metabolic homeostasis and sarcopenia. Mfn2 deficiency reduced autophagy and impaired mitochondrial quality, which contributed to an exacerbated age-related mitochondrial dysfunction. Interestingly, aging-induced Mfn2 deficiency triggers a ROS-dependent adaptive signaling pathway through induction of HIF1α transcription factor and BNIP3. This pathway compensates for the loss of mitochondrial autophagy and minimizes mitochondrial damage. Our findings reveal that Mfn2 repression in muscle during aging is a determinant for the inhibition of mitophagy and accumulation of damaged mitochondria and triggers the induction of a mitochondrial quality control pathway. PMID:27334614

  17. The Deterioration Seen in Myelin Related Morphophysiology in Vanadium Exposed Rats is Partially Protected by Concurrent Iron Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Usende, Ifukibot Levi; Leitner, Dominque F; Neely, Elizabeth; Connor, James R; Olopade, James O

    2016-01-01

    Oligodendrocyte development and myelination occurs vigorously during the early post natal period which coincides with the period of peak mobilization of iron. Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) are easily disturbed by any agent that affects iron homeostasis and its assimilation into these cells. Environmental exposure to vanadium, a transition metal can disrupt this iron homeostasis. We investigated the interaction of iron deficiency and vanadium exposure on the myelination infrastructure and its related neurobehavioural phenotypes, and neurocellular profiles in developing rat brains. Control group (C) dams were fed normal diet while Group 2 (V) dams were fed normal diet and pups were injected with 3mg/kg body weight of sodium metavanadate daily from postnatal day (PND) 1-21. Group 3 (I+V) dams were fed iron deficient diet after delivery and pups injected with 3mg/kg body weight sodium metavanadate from PND1-21. Body and brain weights deteriorated in I+V relative to C and V while neurobehavioral deficit occurred more in V. Whereas immunohistochemical staining shows more astrogliosis and microgliosis indicative of neuroinflammation in I+V, more intense OPCs depletion and hypomyelination were seen in the V, and this was partially protected in I+V. In in vitro studies, vanadium induced glial cells toxicity was partially protected only at the LD 50 dose with the iron chelator, desferroxamine. The data indicate that vanadium promotes myelin damage and iron deficiency in combination with vanadium partially protects this neurotoxicological effects of vanadium. PMID:27574759

  18. Fibromyalgia syndrome: is it related to vitamin D deficiency in premenopausal female patients?

    PubMed

    Okumus, Muyesser; Koybası, Mine; Tuncay, Figen; Ceceli, Esma; Ayhan, Figen; Yorgancioglu, Rezan; Borman, Pinar

    2013-12-01

    There are a number of studies that have evaluated the relationship between fibromyalgia (FM) and vitamin D deficiency with conflicting results. The aim of this study was to assess vitamin D deficiency in patients with FM and to evaluate the relationship with the common symptoms of FM and levels of serum vitamin D. Forty premenopausal female fibromyalgia patients and 40 age- and sex-matched control subjects were included in the study. The demographic characteristics of all subjects, including age, sex, and body mass index, were recorded. The number of tender points was recorded, and the intensity of the widespread pain of the subjects was measured by the visual analog scale. The activities of daily living component of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ-ADL), was used to assess physical functional capacity. Serum vitamin D was measured in both groups, and vitamin D levels <37.5 nmol/L were accepted as vitamin D deficiency. The vitamin D levels and clinical and laboratory characteristics of the patient and control groups were comparatively analyzed. The relationship between vitamin D levels and clinical findings of the FM patients were also determined. The mean age was 41.23 ± 4.8 and 39.48 ± 4.08 years for the patient and control groups, respectively. The pain intensity, number of tender points, and FIQ-ADL scores were higher in FM patients than in control subjects. The mean levels of vitamin D in the patient and control groups were determined to be 31.97 ± 15.50 and 28.97 ± 13.31 nmol/L, respectively (p > .05). The incidence of vitamin D deficiency was similar between the patient and control groups (67.5% vs. 70%). Vitamin D levels significantly correlated with pain intensity (r = -0.653; p = .001) and FIQ-ADL scores in the FM group (r = -0.344; p = .030). In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that deficiency of vitamin D is not more common in premenopausal female patients with FM than in control subjects without FM. However, the association

  19. Dangerous nutrition? Calcium, vitamin D, and shark cartilage nutritional supplements and cancer-related hypercalcemia.

    PubMed

    Lagman, Ruth; Walsh, Declan

    2003-04-01

    The use of nutritional supplements in the general population and in cancer patients has become very popular. These supplements are not perceived as medications and are presumed to be safe by cancer patients, who may however be at risk for hypercalcemia. We note that many of our patients who have developed symptomatic hypercalcemia were taking vitamin D, calcium, or shark cartilage supplements. We report eight cases of hypercalcemia in cancer patients seen at the Cleveland Clinic Foundation in whom these nutritional supplements may have contributed to the prevalence or severity of hypercalcemia. PMID:12673461

  20. Calcium Oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Dupont, Geneviève; Combettes, Laurent; Bird, Gary S.; Putney, James W.

    2011-01-01

    Calcium signaling results from a complex interplay between activation and inactivation of intracellular and extracellular calcium permeable channels. This complexity is obvious from the pattern of calcium signals observed with modest, physiological concentrations of calcium-mobilizing agonists, which typically present as sequential regenerative discharges of stored calcium, a process referred to as calcium oscillations. In this review, we discuss recent advances in understanding the underlying mechanism of calcium oscillations through the power of mathematical modeling. We also summarize recent findings on the role of calcium entry through store-operated channels in sustaining calcium oscillations and in the mechanism by which calcium oscillations couple to downstream effectors. PMID:21421924

  1. Dental alveolar bone defects related to Vitamin D and calcium status.

    PubMed

    Davideau, J L; Lezot, F; Kato, S; Bailleul-Forestier, I; Berdal, A

    2004-05-01

    Vitamin D is important for skeletal development, growth, and homeostasis but has been sparsely studied in the oro-facial bone. Dental alveolar bone anchors teeth to mandible and maxilla bones via a periodontal ligament. Its formation and maintenance are strictly dependent on the presence of tooth organs and it is characterized by a high turnover rate. In order to study the role of Vitamin D and the calcium status on dental alveolar bone formation, microradiographic and histologic comparison of wild-type, Vitamin D receptor null mutant (VDR (-/-) hypo- and normo-calcemic mice and tissues were performed at 2 months. In hypo-calcemic VDR (-/-) mice, alveolar bone was hypomineralized and demonstrated a cellular and matrix organization, similar to the immature woven bone. In normo-calcemic VDR (-/-) mice, mineralization of dental alveolar bone appeared normal, but bone was morphologically abnormal in some specific anatomical locations. These data show that Vitamin D and calcium status may control the formation of dental alveolar bone. The differences of phenotype between hypo- and normo-calcemic VDR null mutant mice suggested a specific Vitamin D control of alveolar bone formation by the Vitamin D nuclear receptor pathway. PMID:15225849

  2. Calcium optical frequency standard with ultracold atoms: Approaching 10{sup -15} relative uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    Degenhardt, Carsten; Stoehr, Hardo; Lisdat, Christian; Wilpers, Guido; Schnatz, Harald; Lipphardt, Burghard; Nazarova, Tatiana; Pottie, Paul-Eric; Sterr, Uwe; Helmcke, Juergen; Riehle, Fritz

    2005-12-15

    An optical frequency standard based on an ensemble of neutral calcium atoms laser-cooled to 12 {mu}K has been realized. By using ultracold atoms, one major previous source of uncertainty, the residual Doppler effect, was reduced. We show that cold collisions contribute a negligible amount to the uncertainty. The influence of a temporal evolution of the phase of the laser pulses used to interrogate the clock transition was measured and corrected for. The frequency of the clock transition at 657 nm was referenced to the caesium fountain clock of PTB utilizing a femtosecond comb generator with a fractional uncertainty of 1.2x10{sup -14}. The transition frequency was determined to be (455 986 240 494 144{+-}5.3) Hz, making the calcium clock transition one of the most accurately known optical transitions. A frequency stability of 3x10{sup -15} at 100 s averaging time was achieved and the noise contributions that limit to the observed stability were analyzed in detail. Additionally, the natural linewidth of the clock transition has been determined.

  3. Phase transformation of calcium oxalate dihydrate-monohydrate: Effects of relative humidity and new spectroscopic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conti, Claudia; Casati, Marco; Colombo, Chiara; Realini, Marco; Brambilla, Luigi; Zerbi, Giuseppe

    2014-07-01

    New data on vibrational properties of calcium oxalates and their controversial transformation mechanism are presented. We have focused on whewellite (CaC2O4·H2O) and weddellite [CaC2O4·(2 + x) H2O], the most common phases of calcium oxalate; these compounds occur in many organisms, in kidney stones and in particular kinds of films found on the surface of many works of art. Low temperature experiments carried out by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy have highlighted both the high structural order in the crystalline state of whewellite and the disordered distribution of the zeolitic water molecules in weddellite. The synthesised nanocrystals of weddellite have been kept under different hygrometric conditions in order to study, by X-ray powder diffraction, the role of “external” water molecules on their stability. Moreover, in order to identify the different kinds of water molecules, a re-investigation, supported by quantum chemical calculations, of the observed vibrational spectra (IR and Raman) of whewellite has been conducted.

  4. Identification of gene fragments related to nitrogen deficiency in Eichhornia crassipes (Pontederiaceae).

    PubMed

    Fu, Minghui; Jiang, Lihua; Li, Yuanmei; Yan, Guohua; Zheng, Lijun; Jinping, Peng

    2014-12-01

    Eichhornia crassipes is an aquatic plant native to the Amazon River Basin. It has become a serious weed in freshwater habitats in rivers, lakes and reservoirs both in tropical and warm temperate areas worldwide. Some research has stated that it can be used for water phytoremediation, due to its strong assimilation of nitrogen and phosphorus, and the accumulation of heavy metals, and its growth and spread may play an important role in environmental ecology. In order to explore the molecular mechanism of E. crassipes to responses to nitrogen deficiency, we constructed forward and reversed subtracted cDNA libraries for E. crassipes roots under nitrogen deficient condition using a suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) method. The forward subtraction included 2,100 clones, and the reversed included 2,650 clones. One thousand clones were randomly selected from each library for sequencing. About 737 (527 unigenes) clones from the forward library and 757 (483 unigenes) clones from the reversed library were informative. Sequence BlastX analysis showed that there were more transporters and adenosylhomocysteinase-like proteins in E. crassipes cultured in nitrogen deficient medium; while, those cultured in nitrogen replete medium had more proteins such as UBR4-like e3 ubiquitin-protein ligase and fasciclin-like arabinogalactan protein 8-like, as well as more cytoskeletal proteins, including actin and tubulin. Cluster of Orthologous Group (COG) analysis also demonstrated that in the forward library, the most ESTs were involved in coenzyme transportation and metabolism. In the reversed library, cytoskeletal ESTs were the most abundant. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis categories demonstrated that unigenes involved in binding, cellular process and electron carrier were the most differentially expressed unigenes between the forward and reversed libraries. All these results suggest that E. crassipes can respond to different nitrogen status by efficiently regulating and controlling

  5. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency? Alpha-1 antitrypsin (an-tee-TRIP-sin) deficiency, or AAT ... as it relates to lung disease. Overview Alpha-1 antitrypsin, also called AAT, is a protein made ...

  6. C. elegans whole-genome sequencing reveals mutational signatures related to carcinogens and DNA repair deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Bettina; Cooke, Susanna L.; Weiss, Joerg; Bailly, Aymeric P.; Alexandrov, Ludmil B.; Marshall, John; Raine, Keiran; Maddison, Mark; Anderson, Elizabeth; Stratton, Michael R.; Campbell, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Mutation is associated with developmental and hereditary disorders, aging, and cancer. While we understand some mutational processes operative in human disease, most remain mysterious. We used Caenorhabditis elegans whole-genome sequencing to model mutational signatures, analyzing 183 worm populations across 17 DNA repair-deficient backgrounds propagated for 20 generations or exposed to carcinogens. The baseline mutation rate in C. elegans was approximately one per genome per generation, not overtly altered across several DNA repair deficiencies over 20 generations. Telomere erosion led to complex chromosomal rearrangements initiated by breakage–fusion–bridge cycles and completed by simultaneously acquired, localized clusters of breakpoints. Aflatoxin B1 induced substitutions of guanines in a GpC context, as observed in aflatoxin-induced liver cancers. Mutational burden increased with impaired nucleotide excision repair. Cisplatin and mechlorethamine, DNA crosslinking agents, caused dose- and genotype-dependent signatures among indels, substitutions, and rearrangements. Strikingly, both agents induced clustered rearrangements resembling “chromoanasynthesis,” a replication-based mutational signature seen in constitutional genomic disorders, suggesting that interstrand crosslinks may play a pathogenic role in such events. Cisplatin mutagenicity was most pronounced in xpf-1 mutants, suggesting that this gene critically protects cells against platinum chemotherapy. Thus, experimental model systems combined with genome sequencing can recapture and mechanistically explain mutational signatures associated with human disease. PMID:25030888

  7. [Maternal Crohn's disease-related vitamin B12 deficient megaloblastic anemia in an infant].

    PubMed

    Ohyama, Wataru; Yamaoka, Masayoshi; Yokoi, Kentaro; Iwahashi, Megumi; Inage, Yuka; Arihiro, Seiji; Koganei, Kazutaka; Sugita, Akira; Ida, Hiroyuki; Akiyama, Masaharu

    2016-01-01

    We report an 11-month-old breast-fed boy with feeding difficulties, lethargy, and developmental delay. Blood examination showed pancytopenia and decreased serum levels of vitamin B12. Anisocytosis and poikilocytes were detected in his peripheral blood, and increased megaloblastosis without leukemic cells was detected in his bone marrow. After the diagnosis of megaloblastic anemia due to vitamin B12 deficiency, symptoms were improved by vitamin B12 administration. Further investigation of the mother identified Crohn's disease and suggested that the supply of vitamin B12 from the mother to the infant, via the placenta during pregnancy and via breast milk after birth, was decreased due to impaired absorption of vitamin B12 in the mother's small intestine. Magnetic resonance imaging of the boy's brain on admission showed cerebral cortex atrophy which had improved by the age of 1 year and 10 months after vitamin B12 treatment, though developmental delay was still evident at the age of 3 years. Infantile vitamin B12 deficiency often presents with nonspecific manifestations, such as developmental delay and failure to thrive, in addition to anemia and is thus not easily diagnosed. To prevent severe neurological sequelae, this condition must be rapidly diagnosed, because a prolonged duration increases the risk of permanent disabilities. PMID:26861098

  8. Mice heterozygous for cathepsin D deficiency exhibit mania-related behavior and stress-induced depression.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Rui; Lu, Yi; Han, Yong; Li, Xia; Lou, Huifang; Zhu, Liya; Zhen, Xuechu; Duan, Shumin

    2015-12-01

    Mutations in cathepsin D (CTSD), an aspartic protease in the endosomal-lysosomal system, underlie congenital neuronal ceroid-lipofuscinosis (cNCL, also known as CLN10), a devastating neurodegenerative disease. CLN10 patients die within the first few days of life, and in the few patients who live into adulthood psychopathological symptoms have not been reported. Extensive neuropathology and altered neurotransmission have been reported in CTSD-deficient mice; however signs of neuropsychiatric behavior in these mice are not well characterized due to the severe movement disorder and premature death of the animal. In the present study, we show that heterozygous CTSD-deficient (CTSD HET) mice display an overall behavioral profile that is similar to human mania, including hyperlocomotion, d-amphetamine-induced hyperactivity, sleep-disturbance, and reduced anxiety-like behavior. However, under stressful conditions CTSD HET mice manifest depressive-like behavior, including anhedonia, behavioral despair, and enhanced learned helplessness. Chronic administration of lithium chloride or valproic acid, two clinically effective mood stabilizers, reverses the majority of these behavioral abnormalities. In addition, CTSD HET mice display stress-induced hypersecretion of corticosterone. These findings suggest an important role for CTSD in the regulation of mood stabilization. PMID:26092248

  9. In vivo evaluation of teicoplanin- and calcium sulfate-loaded PMMA bone cement in preventing implant-related osteomyelitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Tuzuner, T; Sencan, I; Ozdemir, D; Alper, M; Duman, S; Yavuz, T; Yildirim, M

    2006-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of teicoplanin- and calcium sulphate-loaded polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cements in preventing experimental implant-related osteomyelitis in rats. Four groups of antibiotic-loaded rods were prepared and were implanted into the lateral condylus of the rat femur after inoculation of Staphylococcus aureus. The effectiveness of these were assessed microbiologically, radiographically, and histopathologically. Radiographic evaluation revealed a significant reduction of periostal reaction and osteolysis in rats that received calcium sulphate- and teicoplanin-loaded rods. Histopathological evaluation confirmed these results. Acute infection and bone necrosis were found to be significantly lower in rats that had received calcium sulphate- and teicoplanin-loaded rods. The addition of calcium sulfate to teicoplanin-loaded PMMA bone cement appeared satisfactory as an antibiotic-carrying system for prophylaxis of experimental implant-related osteomyelitis, but further investigations are needed to reach definitive statements for clinical applications. PMID:17267341

  10. Calcium Carbonate

    MedlinePlus

    Calcium carbonate is a dietary supplement used when the amount of calcium taken in the diet is not ... for healthy bones, muscles, nervous system, and heart. Calcium carbonate also is used as an antacid to relieve ...

  11. Calcium - urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... best treatment for the most common type of kidney stone , which is made of calcium. This type of ... the kidneys into the urine, which causes calcium kidney stones Sarcoidosis Taking too much calcium Too much production ...

  12. CNS Voltage-gated Calcium Channel Gene Variation And Prolonged Recovery Following Sport-related Concussion

    PubMed Central

    McDevitt, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the association between concussion duration and two calcium channel, voltage-dependent, R type, alpha 1E subunit (CACNA1E) single nucleotide polymorphisms (i.e., rs35737760 and rs704326). A secondary purpose was to examine the association between CACNA1E single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and three acute concussion severity scores (i.e., vestibule-ocular reflex test, balance error scoring scale, and Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing). Methods: Forty athletes with a diagnosed concussion from a hospital concussion program completed a standardized initial evaluation. Concussion injury characteristics, acute signs and symptoms followed by an objective screening (i.e., vestibular ocular assessments, balance error scoring system test, and Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing exam) were assessed. Enrolled participants provided salivary samples for isolation of DNA. Two exon SNPs rs35737760 and rs704326 within CACNA1E were genotyped. Results: There was a significant difference found between acute balance deficits and prolonged recovery group (X2 = 5.66, p = 0.017). There was an association found between the dominant model GG genotype (X2 = 5.41, p = 0.027) within the rs704326 SNP and prolonged recovery group. Significant differences were identified for the rs704326 SNP within the dominant model GG genotype (p = 0.030) for VOR scores by recovery. A significant difference was found between the rs704326 SNP codominant model AA (p = 0.042) and visual memory. There was an association between acute balance deficits and prolonged recovery (X2 = 5.66, p = 0.017) for the rs35737760 SNP. No significant associations between concussion severity and genotype for rs35737760 SNP. Conclusion: Athletes carrying the CACNA1E rs704326 homozygous genotype GG are at a greater risk of a prolonged recovery. Athletes that reported balance deficits at the time of injury were more likely to have prolonged recovery. These

  13. Relationship of calcium absorption with 25(OH)D and calcium intake in children with rickets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutritional rickets has long been considered a disease caused by vitamin D deficiency, but recent data indicate that inadequate dietary calcium intake is an important cause of rickets, particularly in tropical countries. Children with rickets due to calcium deficiency do not have very low 25(OH) D c...

  14. Frequency and Relative Prevalence of Calcium Blips and Puffs in a Model of Small IP3R Clusters

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Hong; Huang, Yandong; Rüdiger, Sten; Shuai, Jianwei

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we model the local calcium release from clusters with a few inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) channels, focusing on the stochastic process in which an open channel either triggers other channels to open (as a puff) or fails to cause any channel to open (as a blip). We show that there are linear relations for the interevent interval (including blips and puffs) and the first event latency against the inverse cluster size. However, nonlinearity is found for the interpuff interval and the first puff latency against the inverse cluster size. Furthermore, the simulations indicate that the blip fraction among all release events and the blip frequency are increasing with larger basal [Ca2+], with blips in turn giving a growing contribution to basal [Ca2+]. This result suggests that blips are not just lapses to trigger puffs, but they may also possess a biological function to contribute to the initiation of calcium waves by a preceding increase of basal [Ca2+] in cells that have small IP3R clusters. PMID:24896114

  15. Decreased agonist-stimulated mitochondrial ATP production caused by a pathological reduction in endoplasmic reticulum calcium content in human complex I deficiency.

    PubMed

    Visch, Henk-Jan; Koopman, Werner J H; Leusink, Anouk; van Emst-de Vries, Sjenet E; van den Heuvel, Lambertus W P J; Willems, Peter H G M; Smeitink, Jan A M

    2006-01-01

    Although a large number of mutations causing malfunction of complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) of the OXPHOS system is now known, their cell biological consequences remain obscure. We previously showed that the bradykinin (Bk)-induced increase in mitochondrial [ATP] ([ATP](M)) is significantly reduced in primary skin fibroblasts from a patient with an isolated complex I deficiency. The present work addresses the mechanism(s) underlying this impaired response. Luminometry of fibroblasts from 6 healthy subjects and 14 genetically characterized patients expressing mitochondria targeted luciferase revealed that the Bk-induced increase in [ATP](M) was significantly, but to a variable degree, decreased in 10 patients. The same variation was observed for the increases in mitochondrial [Ca(2+)] ([Ca(2+)](M)), measured with mitochondria targeted aequorin, and cytosolic [Ca(2+)] ([Ca(2+)](C)), measured with fura-2, and for the Ca(2+) content of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), calculated from the increase in [Ca(2+)](C) evoked by thapsigargin, an inhibitor of the ER Ca(2+) ATPase. Regression analysis revealed that the increase in [ATP](M) was directly proportional to the increases in [Ca(2+)](C) and [Ca(2+)](M) and to the ER Ca(2+) content. Our findings provide evidence that a pathological reduction in ER Ca(2+) content is the direct cause of the impaired Bk-induced increase in [ATP](M) in human complex I deficiency. PMID:16213125

  16. Cadmium toxicity in tadpoles of Rhinella arenarum in relation to calcium and humic acids.

    PubMed

    Mastrángelo, Martina; Afonso, María Dos Santos; Ferrari, Lucrecia

    2011-08-01

    Bioassays were carried out to study the differences in cadmium (Cd) toxicity to premetamorphic tadpoles of Rhinella arenarum, in aqueous solutions with variable contents of calcium in the presence and absence of humic acids, and to analyze the relationship between the free Cd(2+) ion concentrations calculated by chemical modeling and the biological results. The correlation analysis of the free Cd(2+) concentration calculated by chemical speciation and the analytical Cd yielded a direct relationship between the degree of toxicity and the slope value. The lowest slope was obtained from the treatments with lowest free Cd(2+) ion concentration and lowest toxicity, whereas the highest slope was obtained from the most toxic treatment. At comparable concentrations of free Cd(2+), intralarval Cd increased as the Ca in the solution decreased. At equal contents of Ca, in the presence of humic acids, the content of Cd in larvae was higher and the toxicity values lower. The results obtained in this study show that waterborne Ca could offer some protection from metal uptake and accumulation by competitive inhibition in the uptake mechanism that involves active transport via cell membrane. In the systems with humic materials, a certain proportion of the Cd present in the solution was associated to them and thus became less bioavailable. PMID:21465180

  17. Structures and phase relations of aluminum-substituted calcium silicate hydrate

    SciTech Connect

    Kwan, S.; LaRosa-Thompson, J.; Grutzeck, M.W.

    1996-04-01

    The structures of aluminum-substituted calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) forming in a series of aqueous suspensions formulated with colloidal silica, reactive alumina, and lime and aged for 1 year have been studied using {sup 29}Si and {sup 27}Al magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (with and without cross polarization (CP)), solution pH, electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. As in earlier work dealing with the nature of C-S-H in the system CaO-SiO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O, two aluminum-substituted C-S-H phases, having distinctly different anionic structures on the atomic level (Q{sub 2} versus Q{sub 1}Q{sub 2}), were found to extend into the system CaO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O. X-ray diffraction patterns of the two aluminum-containing C-S-H phases are nearly identical, suggesting that their intermediate-range order is very similar, but MASNMR spectra show that these two phases have markedly different silicate structures on the atomic-level scale. Both C-S-H structures can accommodate approximately 5 mol% of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in tetrahedral and possibly octahedral coordination as well.

  18. DOCK8 Deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... on ClinicalTrials.gov . Related Links Primary Immune Deficiency Diseases (PIDDs) Immune System ​​​​​​​ Javascript Error Your browser JavaScript is turned ... Scientists Identify Genetic Cause of Previously Undefined Primary Immune Deficiency Disease Signs and Symptoms DOCK8 deficiency causes persistent skin ...

  19. Enhanced head-twitch response to 5-HT-related agonists in thiamine-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Nakagawasai, O; Murata, A; Arai, Y; Ohba, A; Wakui, K; Mitazaki, S; Niijima, F; Tan-No, K; Tadano, T

    2007-01-01

    While many studies suggest an involvement of brain serotonergic systems in neuro-psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and depression, their role in Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS) remains unclear. Since dietary thiamine deficiency (TD) in mice is considered as a putative model of WKS, it was used in the present study to investigate the function of serotonergic neurons in this disorder. After 20 days of TD feeding, the intensity of tryptophan hydroxylase immunofluorescence was found to be significantly decreased in the dorsal and medial raphe nuclei. In addition, the head-twitch response (HTR) elicited by the intracerebroventricular administration of the 5-HT(2A) agonist 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine hydrochloride (DOI) was significantly increased in TD versus control mice, whereas the injection of ketanserin, a 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist, prevented this enhancement. A single injection of thiamine HCl on the 19th day of TD feeding did not reduce the enhanced DOI-induced HTR. On the other hand, the administration of d-fenfluramine, a 5-HT releaser, did not enhance the HTR in TD mice. Together, our results indicate that TD causes a super-sensitivity of 5-HT(2A) receptors by reducing presynaptic 5-HT synthesis derived from degenerating neurons projecting from the raphe nucleus. PMID:17372673

  20. Protein C deficiency related obscure gastrointestinal bleeding treated by enteroscopy and anticoagulant therapy

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Wei-Fan; Tsang, Yuk-Ming; Teng, Chung-Jen; Chung, Chen-Shuan

    2015-01-01

    Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding is an uncommonly encountered and difficult-to-treat clinical problem in gastroenterology, but advancements in endoscopic and radiologic imaging modalities allow for greater accuracy in diagnosing obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. Ectopic varices account for less than 5% of all variceal bleeding cases, and jejunal variceal bleeding due to extrahepatic portal hypertension is rare. We present a 47-year-old man suffering from obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. Computed tomography of the abdomen revealed multiple vascular tufts around the proximal jejunum but no evidence of cirrhosis, and a visible hypodense filling defect suggestive of thrombus was visible in the superior mesenteric vein. Enteroscopy revealed several serpiginous varices in the proximal jejunum. Serologic data disclosed protein C deficiency (33.6%). The patient was successfully treated by therapeutic balloon-assisted enteroscopy and long-term anticoagulant therapy, which is normally contraindicated in patients with gastrointestinal bleeding. Diagnostic modalities for obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, such as capsule endoscopy, computed tomography enterography, magnetic resonance enterography, and enteroscopy, were also reviewed in this article. PMID:25624741

  1. Fatp1 Deficiency Affects Retinal Light Response and Dark Adaptation, and Induces Age-Related Alterations

    PubMed Central

    Chekroud, Karim; Guillou, Laurent; Grégoire, Stephane; Ducharme, Gilles; Brun, Emilie; Cazevieille, Chantal; Bretillon, Lionel; Hamel, Christian P.

    2012-01-01

    FATP1 is involved in lipid transport into cells and in intracellular lipid metabolism. We showed previously that this protein interacts with and inhibits the limiting-step isomerase of the visual cycle RPE65. Here, we aimed to analyze the effect of Fatp1-deficiency in vivo on the visual cycle, structure and function, and on retinal aging. Among the Fatp family members, we observed that only Fatp1 and 4 are expressed in the control retina, in both the neuroretina and the retinal pigment epithelium. In the neuroretina, Fatp1 is mostly expressed in photoreceptors. In young adult Fatp1−/− mice, Fatp4 expression was unchanged in retinal pigment epithelium and reduced two-fold in the neuroretina as compared to Fatp1+/+ mice. The Fatp1−/− mice had a preserved retinal structure but a decreased electroretinogram response to light. These mice also displayed a delayed recovery of the b-wave amplitude after bleaching, however, visual cycle speed was unchanged, and both retinal pigment epithelium and photoreceptors presented the same fatty acid pattern compared to controls. In 2 year-old Fatp1−/− mice, transmission electron microscopy studies showed specific abnormalities in the retinas comprising choroid vascularization anomalies and thickening of the Bruch membrane with material deposits, and sometimes local disorganization of the photoreceptor outer segments. These anomalies lead us to speculate that the absence of FATP1 accelerates the aging process. PMID:23166839

  2. Evaluation of the relative rates of bone mineral content loss in postmenopause due to both estrogen deficiency and ageing.

    PubMed

    Gnudi, S; Mongiorgi, R; Figus, E; Bertocchi, G

    1990-12-01

    To evaluate the relative rates of bone mineral content loss in postmenopause due to both estrogen deficiency and ageing, three groups of women were studied by computerized bone densitometry at the radius mid-point and at the distal point, modified according to the Abwrey technique. All women were in apparent good health and never had estrogen therapy. In the first group there were 64 women aged between 30 and 50 who were ovariectomized between 25 and 35 years of age. The second group was made up of 309 women between 50 and 55 years. In the third group there were 136 women aged 30-50 with normal ovaric function. The ordinary functions of linear polynomial regression were used to describe the variations in density with age. The percentage of postmenopausal bone loss was determined by calculating the BMC value at the start of the menopause and again twenty years later, according to the linear regression equation of postmenopausal period of each group of women in the study. The women who had natural menopause showed an average bone loss per year of 1.63% at the mid radius and 1.0% at the distal point. The ovariectomized women had an average loss of 0.85% at the mid point and 0.66% at the distal point. No significant decrease of bone mass was found before menopause. From a comparison between the two groups of women with analogous periods of menopause, it comes out that, during the first 20 years of natural menopause, estrogen deficiency is responsible for 52.5%-66.4% of the bone mineral loss, the remaining amount being attributable to other causes, connected with ageing. Estrogen deficiency is therefore, the principal factor causing bone mineral loss in natural menopause. PMID:2100526

  3. Zinc deprivation impairs growth factor-stimulated calcium influx into murine 3T3 cells associated with decreased cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    O'Dell, Boyd L; Browning, Jimmy D

    2011-06-01

    Zinc plays a critical role in growth, a process that depends primarily on cell proliferation. Murine fibroblasts, Swiss 3T3 cells, were used to explore the hypothesis that a critical role of zinc in cell proliferation relates to its function in calcium influx. Cells were deprived of zinc by an impermeant chelator, diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (0.6 mmol/L), and low-calcium status was achieved by using a low- (<5 μmol/L) calcium medium. Cells were stimulated by a composite of growth factors (GF): platelet-derived GF, insulin-like GF-I, and epidermal GF. GF stimulation of cell proliferation was assessed by the incorporation of tritiated thymidine and calcium influx by the increase in fluorescence of cells loaded with Fluo-4. Proliferation was dependent on both zinc and calcium and they interacted in this process. GF stimulated an immediate sharp increase in intracellular calcium, indicative of internal calcium release, which peaked within 1 min and decreased to an elevated plateau, a pattern typical of a store-operated calcium channel. The sustained calcium influx of zinc-deprived cells was markedly lower than that of supplemented cells. Verapamil, a calcium channel blocker, also depressed both cell proliferation and calcium influx. In summary, zinc deficiency impaired GF-stimulated calcium influx into murine fibroblasts in association with decreased cell proliferation. PMID:21508206

  4. High fructose feeding induces copper deficiency in Sprague-Dawley rats: A novel mechanism for obesity related fatty liver

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary copper deficiency is associated with a variety of manifestations of the metabolic syndrome, including hyperlipidemia and fatty liver. Fructose feeding has been reported to exacerbate complications of copper deficiency. In this study, we investigated whether copper deficiency plays a role in ...

  5. Iron deficiency in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Fleming, A F

    1982-06-01

    Iron in food is classified as belonging to the haem pool, the nonhaem pool, and extraneous sources. Haem iron is derived from vegetable and animal sources with varying bioavailability. Hookworm infestation of the intestinal tract affects 450 million people in the tropics. Schistosoma mansoni caused blood loss in 7 Egyptian patients of 7.5- 25.9 ml/day which is equivalent to a daily loss of iron of .6-7.3 mg daily urinary loss of iron in 9 Egyptian patients. Trichuris trichiura infestation by whipworm is widespread in children with blood loss of 5 ml/day/worm. The etiology of anemia in children besides iron deficiency includes malaria, bacterial or viral infections, folate deficiency and sickle-cell disease. Severe infections cause profound iron-deficiency anemia in children in central American and Malaysia. Plasmodium falciparum malaria-induced anaemia in tropical Africa lowers the mean haemoglobin concentration in the population by 2 g/dI, causing profound anaemia in some. The increased risk of premature delivery, low birthweight, fetal abnormalities, and fetal death is directly related to the degree of maternal anemia. Perinatal mortality was reduced from 38 to 4% in treated anemic mothers. Mental performance was significantly lower in anemic school children and improved after they received iron. Supplements of iron, soy-protein, calcium, and vitamins given to villagers with widespread malnutrition, iron deficiency, and hookworm infestation in Colombia reduced enteric infections in children. Severe iron-deficiency anemia was treated in adults in northern Nigeria by daily in Ferastral 10 ml, which is equivalent to 500 mg of iron per day. Choloroquine, folic acid, rephenium hydroxynaphthoate, and tetrachlorethylene treat adults with severe iron deficiency from hookworm infestation in rural tropical Africa. Blood transfusion is indicated if the patient is dying of anaemia or is pregnant with a haemoglobin concentration 6 gm/dl. In South East Asia, mg per day

  6. Loading-related regulation of gene expression in bone in the contexts of estrogen deficiency, lack of estrogen receptor α and disuse

    PubMed Central

    Zaman, Gul; Saxon, Leanne K.; Sunters, Andrew; Hilton, Helen; Underhill, Peter; Williams, Debbie; Price, Joanna S.; Lanyon, Lance E.

    2010-01-01

    Loading-related changes in gene expression in resident cells in the tibia of female mice in the contexts of normality (WT), estrogen deficiency (WT-OVX), absence of estrogen receptor α (ERα−/−) and disuse due to sciatic neurectomy (WT-SN) were established by microarray. Total RNA was extracted from loaded and contra-lateral non-loaded tibiae at selected time points after a single, short period of dynamic loading sufficient to engender an osteogenic response. There were marked changes in the expression of many genes according to context as well as in response to loading within those contexts. In WT mice at 3, 8, 12 and 24 h after loading the expression of 642, 341, 171 and 24 genes, respectively, were differentially regulated compared with contra-lateral bones which were not loaded. Only a few of the genes differentially regulated by loading in the tibiae of WT mice have recognized roles in bone metabolism or have been linked previously to osteogenesis (Opn, Sost, Esr1, Tgfb1, Lrp1, Ostn, Timp, Mmp, Ctgf, Postn and Irs1, BMP and DLX5). The canonical pathways showing the greatest loading-related regulation were those involving pyruvate metabolism, mitochondrial dysfunction, calcium-induced apoptosis, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, aryl hydrocarbon receptor and oxidative phosphorylation. In the tibiae from WT-OVX, ERα−/− and WT-SN mice, 440, 439 and 987 genes respectively were differentially regulated by context alone compared to WT. The early response to loading in tibiae of WT-OVX mice involved differential regulation compared to their contra-lateral non-loaded pair of fewer genes than in WT, more down-regulation than up-regulation and a later response. This was shared by WT-SN. In tibiae of ERα−/− mice, the number of genes differentially regulated by loading was markedly reduced at all time points. These data indicate that in resident bone cells, both basal and loading-related gene expression is substantially modified by context. Many of the genes

  7. Age-related differences in the structure of human pineal calcium deposits: results of transmission electron microscopy and mineralographic microanalysis.

    PubMed

    Schmid, H A; Raykhtsaum, G

    1995-01-01

    Pineal tissue calcifications (male, ages 14, 47, 62, 82), which were metallographically embedded and polished at controlled levels and studied by transmission electron microscopy and microanalytic spectroscopy, showed age-related differences. Results show that concentrically arranged crescent-shaped lamellae increase in number and decrease in width with age. Calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) per point measurements in dark and light lamellae at various distances from the core show Ca/P molar ratios between 1.49-1.62 in the 82-year-old specimen as compared to 1.26 to 1.41 in the younger specimens. The 62-year-old specimens show a decrease in P and an increase in Ca from periphery to center. These data and other descriptive details suggest that the sum of these changes represent remodelling of the mineralogical structure within the same calcification throughout the life span. PMID:7776174

  8. GJIC Enhances the phototoxicity of photofrin-mediated photodynamic treatment by the mechanisms related with ROS and Calcium pathways.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dengpan; Fan, Lixia; Xu, Chengfang; Liu, Zhen; Zhang, Yuan; Liu, Lucy; Wang, Qin; Tao, Liang

    2015-09-01

    Despite initially positive responses, recurrences after Photodynamic treatment (PDT) can occur and there is need for improvement in the effectiveness of PDT. Our study uniquely showed that there was a significantly gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC)-dependent PDT cytotoxicity. The presence of GJIC composed of Connexin 32 increased the PDT phototoxicity in transfected HeLa cells and in the xenograft tumors, and the enhanced phototoxicity of Photofrin-mediated PDT by GJIC was related with ROS and calcium pathways. Our study indicates the possibility that up-regulation or maintenance of gap junction functionality may be used to increase the efficacy of PDT. The phototoxicity effect of Photofrin was substantially greater in Dox-treated cells, which expressed the Cx32 and formed the GJ, than Dox-untreated. PMID:25597481

  9. Influence of hydrochlorothiazide on urinary calcium oxalate relative supersaturation in healthy young adult female domestic shorthaired cats.

    PubMed

    Hezel, Alisha; Bartges, Joseph W; Kirk, Claudia A; Cox, Sherry; Geyer, Nicole; Moyers, Tammy; Hayes, Jimmy

    2007-01-01

    Hydrochlorothiazide (1 mg/kg PO q12h) or placebo was administered to healthy cats for 2 weeks in a masked, placebo-controlled, crossover-design study, and 24-hour urine samples were collected. When cats received hydrochlorothiazide, 24-hour urine volume, ammonia, chloride, creatinine, magnesium, oxalic acid, phosphate, potassium, and sodium were significantly higher than when cats received placebo. Hydrochlorothiazide was associated with significantly lower urinary saturation for calcium oxalate, but no difference was found in 24-hour urine calcium and citrate, urinary saturation for struvite, or blood ionized calcium. Hydrochlorothiazide decreased urinary saturation for calcium oxalate and could be useful in managing cats with calcium oxalate uroliths. Results of this study, however, should not be extrapolated to cats that form calcium oxalate uroliths. PMID:18183543

  10. Relation of plasma calcium to total protein and albumin in African grey (Psittacus erithacus) and Amazon (Amazona spp.) parrots.

    PubMed

    Lumeij, J T

    1990-10-01

    A significant correlation was found between total calcium and albumin concentration in the plasma of 70 African grey parrots (r=0.37; P<0.05). A correlation formula for plasma calcium concentration in the African grey parrot was derived on the basis of the concentration of albumin: Adjusted Ca (mmol/1) = Ca (mmol/1) - 0.015 Albumin (g/1) + 0.4. About 14% of the variability in calcium was attributable to the change in the concentration of plasma albumin concentration (R2=0.137). The correlation between calcium and total protein in African greys and between calcium and albumin and calcium and total protein in Amazons was not significant. PMID:18679980

  11. SMARCA4 inactivation defines a group of undifferentiated thoracic malignancies transcriptionally related to BAF-deficient sarcomas.

    PubMed

    Le Loarer, Francois; Watson, Sarah; Pierron, Gaelle; de Montpreville, Vincent Thomas; Ballet, Stelly; Firmin, Nelly; Auguste, Aurelie; Pissaloux, Daniel; Boyault, Sandrine; Paindavoine, Sandrine; Dechelotte, Pierre Joseph; Besse, Benjamin; Vignaud, Jean Michel; Brevet, Marie; Fadel, Elie; Richer, Wilfrid; Treilleux, Isabelle; Masliah-Planchon, Julien; Devouassoux-Shisheboran, Mojgan; Zalcman, Gerard; Allory, Yves; Bourdeaut, Franck; Thivolet-Bejui, Francoise; Ranchere-Vince, Dominique; Girard, Nicolas; Lantuejoul, Sylvie; Galateau-Sallé, Francoise; Coindre, Jean Michel; Leary, Alexandra; Delattre, Olivier; Blay, Jean Yves; Tirode, Franck

    2015-10-01

    While investigating cohorts of unclassified sarcomas by RNA sequencing, we identified 19 cases with inactivation of SMARCA4, which encodes an ATPase subunit of BAF chromatin-remodeling complexes. Clinically, the cases were all strikingly similar, presenting as compressive mediastino-pulmonary masses in 30- to 35-year-old adults with a median survival time of 7 months. To help define the nosological relationships of these tumors, we compared their transcriptomic profiles with those of SMARCA4-mutated small-cell carcinomas of the ovary, hypercalcemic type (SCCOHTs), SMARCB1-inactivated malignant rhabdoid tumors (MRTs) and lung carcinomas (of which 10% display SMARCA4 mutations). Gene profiling analyses demonstrated that these tumors were distinct from lung carcinomas but related to MRTs and SCCOHTs. Transcriptome analyses, further validated by immunohistochemistry, highlighted strong expression of SOX2, a marker that supports the differential diagnosis of these tumors from SMARCA4-deficient lung carcinomas. The prospective recruitment of cases confirmed this new category of 'SMARCA4-deficient thoracic sarcomas' as readily recognizable in clinical practice, providing opportunities to tailor their therapeutic management. PMID:26343384

  12. Serum lipids in rats as related to modifications in dietary fat, fiber, and sodium with magnesium deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, C.A.; Kubena, K.S. )

    1991-03-11

    Recommendations to modify dietary intake to attenuate risk of cardiovascular disease have been released by numerous governmental and health organizations. Since magnesium is associated with lipid metabolism and normal cardiovascular function, this study was designed to determine the effect of modifications in dietary fat, fiber, and sodium with magnesium deficiency on serum lipids and tissue minerals. The control (C) diet was based upon the AIN-76 diet formulation; the American (A) diet included average fat, fiber, and sodium levels in the US; and the recommended (R) diet was lower in fat and sodium and higher in fiber. Diets contained either 1,000 or 150 (L) mg Mg/kg diet. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were fed one of the diets (C, CL, A, Al, R, RL) for six weeks. Levels of tissue Mg, Ca, Zn, and P were determined. Neither initial nor final body weights varied between groups. Serum levels of triglyceride were higher in the C and Cl groups than in the others. Serum cholesterol was lower in the R and Rl groups than in the Cl and A groups. Animals which were fed the diet modified with regard to fat, fiber, and sodium had lower serum cholesterol levels than did those fed the American diet. Magnesium deficiency was not consistently related to serum lipid levels.

  13. The relative effects of phylloquinone and menaquinone-4 on the blood coagulation factor synthesis in vitamin K-deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Groenen-van Dooren, M M; Soute, B A; Jie, K S; Thijssen, H H; Vermeer, C

    1993-08-01

    Rats were made vitamin K-deficient by feeding them a 1:1 (w/w) mixture of a commercial vitamin K-depleted diet and boiled white rice. After one week of treatment the rats had developed severe vitamin K deficiency, resulting in Thrombotest values of 5-10% of the initial values. In this experimental system the efficacy of phylloquinone (K1) was compared with that of menaquinone-4 (MK-4) by measuring the extent to which the Thrombotest was normalized after the administration of varying doses of the respective vitamins. Oral administration of the vitamins showed that the efficacy of K1 was at least two-fold higher than that of MK-4. As comparable results were obtained after subcutaneous administration of the vitamins, we conclude that after oral administration the intestinal absorption had been quick and nearly complete. A less pronounced effect of K1 and MK-4 was found after colorectal administration. For both forms of vitamin K relatively high amounts (well above the physiological concentration) were required before significant effects on the Thrombotest could be observed. Therefore these data demonstrate the importance of sufficient dietary vitamin K consumption in rats. The efficacy of other menaquinones may be investigated in the same experimental animal model system. PMID:8347166

  14. Nod Factor Elicits Two Separable Calcium Responses in Medicago truncatula Root Hair Cells1

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Sidney L.; Long, Sharon R.

    2003-01-01

    Modulation of intracellular calcium levels plays a key role in the transduction of many biological signals. Here, we characterize early calcium responses of wild-type and mutant Medicago truncatula plants to nodulation factors produced by the bacterial symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti using a dual-dye ratiometric imaging technique. When presented with 1 nm Nod factor, root hair cells exhibited only the previously described calcium spiking response initiating 10 min after application. Nod factor (10 nm) elicited an immediate increase in calcium levels that was temporally earlier and spatially distinct from calcium spikes occurring later in the same cell. Nod factor analogs that were structurally related, applied at 10 nm, failed to initiate this calcium flux response. Cells induced to spike with low Nod factor concentrations show a calcium flux response when Nod factor is raised from 1 to 10 nm. Plant mutants previously shown to be deficient for the calcium spiking response (dmi1 and dmi2) exhibited an immediate, truncated calcium flux with 10 nm Nod factor, demonstrating a competence to respond to Nod factor but an impaired ability to generate a full biphasic response. These results demonstrate that the legume root hair cell exhibits two independent calcium responses to Nod factor triggered at different agonist concentrations and suggests an early branch point in the Nod factor signal transduction pathway. PMID:12644650

  15. [Calcium--essential for everybody].

    PubMed

    Cichosz, Grazyna; Czeczot, Hanna

    2014-06-01

    Calcium regulates majority of metabolic processes within human organism and its optimal intake decreases risk of metabolic illnesses conditioned by diet. Deficiency of calcium results in higher body max index, increase risk of insulin resistance, diabetes type 2 and osteoporosis. Diet delivering full calcium load diminished impendency of hypertension; calcium regulates tension of smooth muscles of blood vessels, limits neurotransmitters activity and also diminish hazardous activity of sodium chloride. Anticancerogenic activity of calcium results from formation insoluble bile acids and fat acids salts, and most of all, from inhibition of intestine mucosa cells hyper proliferation. Due to presence of vitamin D3, CLA, proteins and bioactive peptides emerging from them, milk is more efficient in prophylaxis of diet conditioned illnesses than calcium supplements. Efficiency of milk and dairy products in treatment of obesity, sclerosis and hypertension has been proved by DASH diet. PMID:25095643

  16. [Effects of different form calcium on growth and tissue calcium level in rats].

    PubMed

    Xu, Q; Yin, S A; Hu, S; Zhao, X; Meng, J; Ge, K Y

    1997-01-01

    In order to solve the problem of calcium deficiency and to look for economic and efficient source of calcium, the effects of calcium carbonate, active calcium and calcium lactate on growth, development and tissue calcium level in rats were compared. Fifty-six 3-week old weaning rats were fed with calcium deficient diet (containing vitamin D 500 IU per kg diet) for 3 weeks, and then were divided into four groups randomly with 14 rats in each group, half male and half female. The diet of control group (A) was the basic diet, while the three experiment diets were supplemented with calcium carbonate (B), active calcium (C) and calcium lactate (D) (3000 mg calcium per kg diet), respectively. The experiment term was 12 weeks. The results showed that the body weight and length of calcium supplemented group were significantly higher than that of control group (P<0.05). Among the calcium supplemented groups, no significant differences were observed except the difference of body length between the group D and the group A in female. Calcium deficiency dramatically hindered the development with reduced dietary intake and decreased food consumption efficiency. The calcium levels in plasma, red blood cells and liver were significantly higher in the supplemented groups than that in the control group (P<0.05), however, there was no difference among the supplemented groups. No significant difference of calcium levels in muscle and heart was observed among all groups. Based on needs for reaching the RDA with additional 400 mg/d from present calcium status in Chinese population, the calcium carbonate is the most economic one and the ideal calcium source for supplementation. PMID:15747462

  17. In utero physiology: role in nutrient delivery and fetal development for calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Only limited aspects of the transfer of calcium across the placenta to the fetus are known. Clinical outcome studies suggest that bone mineral mass in newborn infants is related to maternal size and dairy intake. Available data indicate that vitamin D deficiency may also limit in utero fetal bone mi...

  18. Leptin activates cytosolic calcium responses through protein kinase-C dependent mechanism in immortalized RFamide-related peptide-3 neurons.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Mete; Saatci, Tugrul; Ayar, Ahmet; Canpolat, Sinan; Kelestimur, Haluk

    2015-03-19

    RFamide-related peptide-3 (RFRP-3), a mammalian ortholog of avian gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), seems to be an important regulator of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) reproductive axis. Leptin, a permissive hormonal regulator of fertility, provides energy signal to brain. According to current view, leptin does not act directly on gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons. RFRP-3 neurons have been shown to express leptin receptors. The goal of the present study was to examine whether leptin acts through RFRP-3 neurons to modulate activity of the GnRH neurons. For this aim, the effects of leptin on intracellular free Ca(2+) levels ([Ca(2+)]i) in RFRP-3 neurons were investigated by using in vitro calcium imaging system. In the present study, rHypoE-7 cell line was used as a model to explore the effects of leptin on RFRP-3 neurons. rHypoE-7 cells were placed on glass coverslip and loaded with 1 μM Fura-2 AM. [Ca(2+)]i responses were quantified by the changes in 340/380 ratio. Leptin (0.1-10 μM) caused increases in [Ca(2+)]i in a dose-dependent manner. The changes in [Ca(2+)]i were significantly attenuated by pre-treatment with protein kinase C inhibitor. These results demonstrate that leptin activates intracellular calcium signaling in RFRP-3 neurons through PKC-dependent pathway, and thus leptin may exert its effect on GnRH neurons by means of RFRP-3 cells. PMID:25575434

  19. Primary stomal lymphoma. An unusual complication of ileostomy in a patient with transfusion-related acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Levecq, H; Hautefeuille, M; Hoang, C; Galian, A; Hautefeuille, P; Rambaud, J C

    1990-02-15

    A 73-year-old heterosexual man developed a high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma at the site of an ileostomy only 2 years after proctectomy for undetermined colitis not cured by previous colectomy. In fact, the early occurrence of this usually very late and rare complication of ileostomy was probably favored by the simultaneous presence of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) due to repeated blood transfusions for refractory anemia with excess blasts. The intestinal location of the tumor, its high-grade malignancy and B-cell origin are all features of AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. This case report seems to be one of the rarely identified examples of the cooperation between general predisposing factors and local irritating agents at the origin of a malignant tumor. PMID:2297651

  20. Deficiency in the nuclear-related factor erythroid 2 transcription factor (Nrf1) leads to genetic instability.

    PubMed

    Oh, Diane H; Rigas, Diamanda; Cho, Ara; Chan, Jefferson Y

    2012-11-01

    Nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-related factor 1 (Nrf1) regulates cellular stress response genes, and has also been suggested to play a role in other cellular processes. We previously demonstrated that hepatocyte-specific deletion of Nrf1 in mice resulted in spontaneous apoptosis, inflammation, and development of liver tumors. Here, we showed that both fibroblasts derived from Nrf1 null mouse embryos and fibroblasts expressing a conditional Nrf1 allele showed increased micronuclei and formation of abnormal nuclei. Lentiviral shRNA-mediated knockdown of Nrf1 in SAOS-2 cells also resulted in increased micronuclei, abnormal mitosis and multi-nucleated cells. Metaphase analyses showed increased aneuploidy in Nrf1(-/-) embryonic fibroblasts. Nuclear defects in Nrf1-deficient cells were associated with decreased expression of various genes encoding kinetochore and mitotic checkpoint proteins. Our findings suggest that Nrf1 may play a role in maintaining genomic integrity, and that Nrf1 dysregulation may induce tumorigenesis. PMID:22971132

  1. Folate Deficiency Triggered Apoptosis of Synoviocytes: Role of Overproduction of Reactive Oxygen Species Generated via NADPH Oxidase/Mitochondrial Complex II and Calcium Perturbation.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hung-Chih; Chang, Wen-Ming; Wu, Jin-Yi; Huang, Chin-Chin; Lu, Fung-Jou; Chuang, Yi-Wen; Chang, Pey-Jium; Chen, Kai-Hua; Hong, Chang-Zern; Yeh, Rang-Hui; Liu, Tsan-Zon; Chen, Ching-Hsein

    2016-01-01

    Despite a plethora of literature has documented that osteoarthritis (OA) is veritably associated with oxidative stress-mediated chondrocyte death and matrix degradation, yet the possible involvement of synoviocyte abnormality as causative factor of OA has not been thoroughly investigated. For this reason, we conduct the current studies to insight into how synoviocytes could respond to an episode of folate-deprived (FD) condition. First, when HIG-82 synoviocytes were cultivated under FD condition, a time-dependent growth impediment was observed and the demise of these cells was demonstrated to be apoptotic in nature mediated through FD-evoked overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and drastically released of cytosolic calcium (Ca2+) concentrations. Next, we uncovered that FD-evoked ROS overproduction could only be strongly suppressed by either mitochondrial complex II inhibitors (TTFA and carboxin) or NADPH oxidase (NOX) inhibitors (AEBSF and apocynin), but not by mitochondrial complex I inhibitor (rotenone) and mitochondrial complex III inhibitor (antimycin A). Interestingly, this selective inhibition of FD-evoked ROS by mitochondrial complex II and NOX inhibitors was found to correlate excellently with the suppression of cytosolic Ca2+ release and reduced the magnitude of the apoptotic TUNEL-positive cells. Taken together, we present the first evidence here that FD-triggered ROS overproduction in synoviocytes is originated from mitochondrial complex II and NOX. Both elevated ROS in tandem with cytosolic Ca2+ overload serve as final arbitrators for apoptotic lethality of synoviocytes cultivated under FD condition. Thus, folate supplementation may be beneficial to patients with OA. PMID:26771387

  2. Folate Deficiency Triggered Apoptosis of Synoviocytes: Role of Overproduction of Reactive Oxygen Species Generated via NADPH Oxidase/Mitochondrial Complex II and Calcium Perturbation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jin-Yi; Huang, Chin-Chin; Lu, Fung-Jou; Chuang, Yi-Wen; Chang, Pey-Jium; Chen, Kai-Hua; Hong, Chang-Zern; Yeh, Rang-Hui; Liu, Tsan-Zon; Chen, Ching-Hsein

    2016-01-01

    Despite a plethora of literature has documented that osteoarthritis (OA) is veritably associated with oxidative stress-mediated chondrocyte death and matrix degradation, yet the possible involvement of synoviocyte abnormality as causative factor of OA has not been thoroughly investigated. For this reason, we conduct the current studies to insight into how synoviocytes could respond to an episode of folate-deprived (FD) condition. First, when HIG-82 synoviocytes were cultivated under FD condition, a time-dependent growth impediment was observed and the demise of these cells was demonstrated to be apoptotic in nature mediated through FD-evoked overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and drastically released of cytosolic calcium (Ca2+) concentrations. Next, we uncovered that FD-evoked ROS overproduction could only be strongly suppressed by either mitochondrial complex II inhibitors (TTFA and carboxin) or NADPH oxidase (NOX) inhibitors (AEBSF and apocynin), but not by mitochondrial complex I inhibitor (rotenone) and mitochondrial complex III inhibitor (antimycin A). Interestingly, this selective inhibition of FD-evoked ROS by mitochondrial complex II and NOX inhibitors was found to correlate excellently with the suppression of cytosolic Ca2+ release and reduced the magnitude of the apoptotic TUNEL-positive cells. Taken together, we present the first evidence here that FD-triggered ROS overproduction in synoviocytes is originated from mitochondrial complex II and NOX. Both elevated ROS in tandem with cytosolic Ca2+ overload serve as final arbitrators for apoptotic lethality of synoviocytes cultivated under FD condition. Thus, folate supplementation may be beneficial to patients with OA. PMID:26771387

  3. The α-tocopherol status and expression of α-tocopherol-related proteins in methionine-choline deficient rats treated with vitamin E

    PubMed Central

    Miyazaki, Hiroshi; Takitani, Kimitaka; Koh, Maki; Yoden, Atsushi; Tamai, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the most common liver disorder in developed countries, and its incidence is increasing in all population groups. As an antioxidant, vitamin E is effective in the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, although the mechanism is still unclear. Methionine-choline deficient Wistar rats (n = 5) used as an experimental model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease were fed a vitamin E-enriched diet (500 mg/kg) for 4 weeks. The effects were assessed by measuring lipid peroxidation, α-tocopherol levels, and the expression of α-tocopherol-related proteins in the liver. In vitamin E-treated methionine-choline deficient rats, lipid peroxidation was reduced, but liver histopathological changes were not improved. Hepatic α-tocopherol levels in these rats were significantly elevated compared to normal rats treated with vitamin E. Expression of liver α-tocopherol transfer protein in vitamin E-treated methionine-choline deficient rats was significantly repressed compared to methionine-choline deficient rats. The expression of liver cytochrome P450 4F2 and ATP-binding cassette transporter protein 1, involved in metabolism and transport of α-tocopherol, respectively, was significantly repressed in vitamin E-treated methionine-choline deficient rats. In methionine-choline deficient rats, vitamin E treatment altered the hepatic α-tocopherol-related protein expression, which may affect α-tocopherol status in the liver, leading to reduced lipid peroxidation. PMID:24895482

  4. Height and height Z-score are related to calcium absorption in five- to fifteen-year-old girls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    CONTEXT: Understanding the relationship between calcium absorption and growth has been limited. We have developed a database of calcium absorption measurements in 315 girls aged 5.0-15.0 yr. DESIGN: We have used this database to assess the relationship between height, its age- and gender-normalized...

  5. Nonstructural 5A Protein of Hepatitis C Virus Regulates Soluble Resistance-Related Calcium-Binding Protein Activity for Viral Propagation

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Giao V. Q.; Luong, Trang T. D.; Park, Eun-Mee; Kim, Jong-Wook; Choi, Jae-Woong; Park, Chorong; Lim, Yun-Sook

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of chronic liver disease and is highly dependent on cellular proteins for virus propagation. To identify the cellular factors involved in HCV propagation, we recently performed protein microarray assays using the HCV nonstructural 5A (NS5A) protein as a probe. Of 90 cellular protein candidates, we selected the soluble resistance-related calcium-binding protein (sorcin) for further characterization. Sorcin is a calcium-binding protein and is highly expressed in certain cancer cells. We verified that NS5A interacted with sorcin through domain I of NS5A, and phosphorylation of the threonine residue 155 of sorcin played a crucial role in protein interaction. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of sorcin impaired HCV propagation. Silencing of sorcin expression resulted in a decrease of HCV assembly without affecting HCV RNA and protein levels. We further demonstrated that polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1)-mediated phosphorylation of sorcin was increased by NS5A. We showed that both phosphorylation and calcium-binding activity of sorcin were required for HCV propagation. These data indicate that HCV modulates sorcin activity via NS5A protein for its own propagation. IMPORTANCE Sorcin is a calcium-binding protein and regulates intracellular calcium homeostasis. HCV NS5A interacts with sorcin, and phosphorylation of sorcin is required for protein interaction. Gene silencing of sorcin impaired HCV propagation at the assembly step of the HCV life cycle. Sorcin is phosphorylated by PLK1 via protein interaction. We showed that sorcin interacted with both NS5A and PLK1, and PLK1-mediated phosphorylation of sorcin was increased by NS5A. Moreover, calcium-binding activity of sorcin played a crucial role in HCV propagation. These data provide evidence that HCV regulates host calcium metabolism for virus propagation, and thus manipulation of sorcin activity may represent a novel therapeutic target for HCV. PMID:26719254

  6. Calcium dysregulation and neuroinflammation: Discrete and integrated mechanisms for age-related synaptic dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Sama, Diana M.; Norris, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    Some of the best biomarkers of age-related cognitive decline are closely linked to synaptic function and plasticity. This review highlights several age-related synaptic alterations as they relate to Ca2+ dyshomeostasis, through elevation of intracellular Ca2+, and neuroinflammation, through production of pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Though distinct in many ways, Ca2+ and neuroinflammatory signaling mechanisms exhibit extensive cross-talk and bidirectional interactions. For instance, cytokine production in glial cells is strongly dependent on the Ca2+ dependent protein phosphatase calcineurin, which shows elevated activity in animal models of aging and disease. In turn, pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF, can augment the expression/activity of L-type voltage sensitive Ca2+ channels in neurons, leading to Ca2+ dysregulation, hyperactive calcineurin activity, and synaptic depression. Thus, in addition to discussing unique contributions of Ca2+ dyshomeostasis and neuroinflammation, this review emphasizes how these processes interact to hasten age-related synaptic changes. PMID:23751484

  7. EFFECT OF RELATIVE HUMIDITY AND ADDITIVES ON THE REACTION OF SULFUR DIOXIDE WITH CALCIUM HYDROXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a study of the reaction of SO2 with Ca(OH)2 at conditions similar to those of commercial-scale bag filters: 19-74 percent relative humidity (RH), 30.4-95 C, and 300-4000 ppm SO2. The study was carried out in a bench-scale reactor with powder reagent Ca(...

  8. Effect of calcium on skeletal development, bone loss, and risk of fractures.

    PubMed

    Heaney, R P

    1991-11-25

    In assessing the role of calcium, it must be stressed that calcium is not the cause of bone health but simply a necessary condition for it. It is mechanical usage that is of primary importance for bone. In just the same way iron is essential for hemoglobin synthesis and protein is essential for muscle mass, but neither is sufficient by itself. What, then, ought we to expect from a high calcium intake? Can we prevent estrogen-withdrawal bone loss? No. Calcium is not a substitute for estrogen, anymore than it is a substitute for exercise. Will calcium slow the remodeling loss that occurs with aging? Yes, to some extent; as calcium slows remodeling, it will inevitably slow remodeling-related loss. But most importantly, a high calcium intake will prevent calcium-deficiency bone loss. The only question, therefore, is the extent to which calcium deficiency loss may contribute significantly to bone fragility in various populations. The bone loss and fracture data reviewed briefly here indicate that an important portion of the osteoporotic fracture burden is calcium-related. What that portion is will be a function of the fraction of the population with inadequate intakes in any given country. Better than half of all adult American women have calcium intakes less than 500 mg/day, whereas only a small fraction of Dutch or Danish women, for example, would be under that level. Hence, a population-wide program to increase calcium intake in the United States would be likely to yield a greater benefit than in either the Netherlands or Denmark. That does not mean, of course, that there could not be substantial benefit to individuals with low intakes in all countries. Calcium intakes of greater than or equal to 1,500 mg are both safe and natural. While not all bone loss and low trauma fractures are due to low calcium intake, some almost certainly are. Adaptation to low intakes does occur, but it is seldom sufficient to compensate for the low intake. We cannot easily distinguish

  9. Bone, Calcium and Spaceflight: A Living Systems Experiment Relating Animals and Plants the Effects of Calcium on Plant Growth and Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiss-Bubenheim, D.; Navarro, B.J.; Morey-Holton, E.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    This NASA-sponsored educational outreach activity provided local students with information about Ames Research Center's (ARC) role in conducting life sciences research in space. Students were introduced to the scientific method while conducting a plant experiment that correlated with the Spacelab Life Sciences-2 (SLS-2) flight animal experiment of Dr. Emily Morey-Holton entitled "Bone, Calcium and Spaceflight". Students made daily observations, collected data and reported on their findings. Students also had the opportunity to witness the STS-58 landing at Edwards Air Force Base in southern California and attended a briefing given by the Payload Commander, Dr. Rhea Seddon at ARC last month. This classroom experiment providing a hands-on learning opportunity about terrestrial and space biology and, hopefully, introduced the students to new fields of study for future endeavors.

  10. Intrathecal inhibition of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in diabetic neuropathy adversely affects pain-related behavior.

    PubMed

    Jelicic Kadic, Antonia; Boric, Matija; Ferhatovic, Lejla; Banozic, Adriana; Sapunar, Damir; Puljak, Livia

    2013-10-25

    Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is considered an important enzyme contributing to the pathogenesis of persistent pain. The aim of this study was to test whether intrathecal injection of CaMKII inhibitors may reduce pain-related behavior in diabetic rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Diabetes was induced with intraperitoneal injection of 55mg/kg streptozotocin. Two weeks after diabetes induction, CaMKII inhibitor myristoil-AIP or KN-93 was injected intrathecally. Behavioral testing with mechanical and thermal stimuli was performed before induction of diabetes, the day preceding the injection, as well as 2h and 24h after the intrathecal injection. The expression of total CaMKII and its alpha isoform in dorsal horn was quantified using immunohistochemistry. Intrathecal injection of mAIP and KN-93 resulted in significant decrease in expression of total CaMKII and CaMKII alpha isoform activity. Also, mAIP and KN93 injection significantly increased sensitivity to a mechanical stimulus 24h after i.t. injection. Intrathecal inhibition of CaMKII reduced the expression of total CaMKII and its CaMKII alpha isoform activity in diabetic dorsal horn, which was accompanied with an increase in pain-related behavior. Further studies about the intrathecal inhibition of CaMKII should elucidate its role in nociceptive processes of diabetic neuropathy. PMID:24035897

  11. Tight relation between the oxygen deficiency and Tc in LaFeAsO1-δ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Y. F.; Shi, Y. G.; Yu, S.; Belik, A. A.; Matsushita, Y.; Tanaka, M.; Katsuya, Y.; Kobayashi, K.; Hata, Y.; Yasuoka, H.; Yamaura, K.; Takayama-Muromachi, E.

    2010-12-01

    Oxygen vacant superconductors LaFeAsO1-δ were synthesized under a high-pressure condition. A bell-shaped feature in Tc vs. δ was observed for LaFeAsO1-δ as well as TbFeAsO1-δ. The optimized Tc was achieved at δ of 0.15, being comparable with that for TbFeAsO1-δ. The relatively wide δ window of LaFeAsO1-δ may merit scientific and technical studies of high-Tc superconductivity.

  12. Accident investigation reporting deficiencies related to organizational factors in machinery space fires and explosions.

    PubMed

    Schröder-Hinrichs, Jens U; Baldauf, Michael; Ghirxi, Kevin T

    2011-05-01

    Careful accident investigation provides opportunities to review safety arrangements in socio-technical systems. There is consensus that human intervention is involved in the majority of accidents. Ever cautious of the consequences attributed to such a claim vis-à-vis the apportionment of blame, several authors have highlighted the importance of investigating organizational factors in this respect. Specific regulations to limit what were perceived as unsuitable organizational influences in shipping operations were adopted by the International Maritime Organization (IMO). Guidance is provided for the investigation of human and organizational factors involved in maritime accidents. This paper presents a review of 41 accident investigation reports related to machinery space fires and explosions. The objective was to find out if organizational factors are identified during maritime accident investigations. An adapted version of the Human Factor Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) with minor modifications related to machinery space features was used for this review. The results of the review show that organizational factors were not identified by maritime accident investigators to the extent expected had the IMO guidelines been observed. Instead, contributing factors at the lower end of organizational echelons are over-represented. PMID:21376918

  13. Relation between muscarinic receptor cationic current and internal calcium in guinea-pig jejunal smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed Central

    Pacaud, P; Bolton, T B

    1991-01-01

    1. The action of carbachol, which activates muscarinic receptors, was studied in single patch-clamped cells where free internal calcium concentration in the cell (Cai2+) was estimated using the emission from the dye Indo-1. Cells were dialysed with potassium-free caesium solution to block any Ca(2+)-activated K(+)-current. 2. Carbachol applied to the cell evoked an initial peak in Cai2+ followed by a smaller sustained rise (plateau) upon which several oscillations in Cai2+ were often superimposed; the changes in inward, cationic current (icarb) followed changes in Cai2+ closely. Calcium entry blocker did not affect these responses. 3. The initial peak in Cai2+ produced by carbachol was due to calcium store release: it was essentially unchanged at +50 mV, and abolished by prior application of caffeine (10 mM) to the cell or by inclusion of heparin (which blocks D-myoinositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors) in the pipette. In contrast, the rise in Cai2+ produced by ATP in rabbit ear artery smooth muscle cells was unaffected by caffeine or heparin as it was due to calcium entry into the cell. 4. The later sustained rise (plateau) in Cai2+ produced by carbachol was due to the entry of calcium into the cell down its electrochemical gradient as it was affected by changing the cell membrane potential or the calcium concentration of the bathing solution. As the sustained rise in Cai2+ produced by caffeine had similar properties, it was suggested that depletion of calcium stores can evoke an increased calcium entry into the cell through some pathway. 5. The cationic current evoked by carbachol was strongly dependent on Cai2+. It was small if any rise in Cai2+ due to calcium store release was prevented by the inclusion of heparin in the pipette solution and increased greatly if calcium entry was provoked through voltage-dependent channels by applying a depolarizing pulse or if calcium was released from stores by caffeine. 6. In the longitudinal muscle of guinea-pig small

  14. Relative importance of calcium and magnesium in hardness-based modification of copper toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Welsh, P.G.; Lipton, J.; Chapman, G.A.; Podrabsky, T.L.

    2000-06-01

    Because of the relationship between water hardness and the toxicity of many metals, total hardness is used as a model parameter to calculate ambient water quality criteria for copper and other metals. However, the relative contribution of the Ca and Mg components of total hardness as modifiers of metals toxicity is not considered in the water quality criteria. Acute Cu toxicity was measured in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) swim-up fry in laboratory waters that were formulated to have similar total hardness and alkalinity but different Ca and Mg concentrations. Experiments were performed at nominal total hardness values of 40 and 90 mg/L (as CaCO{sub 3}). In four paired toxicity tests, acute Cu toxicity was significantly lower, i.e., 96-h LC50s were higher, in laboratory waters containing proportionately more Ca (Ca:Mg molar ratios of 1.5--5.2) than in waters containing less Ca (Ca:Mg molar ratios of 0.2--0.8). the relative increase in the 96-h Cu LC50 at higher Ca concentrations, but similar total hardness concentrations, was between 29 and 86% when the low Ca treatment was similar to American Society for Testing and Materials laboratory water. Failure to account for differences in Ca when matching or adjusting for total hardness thus exerts an important influence on the prediction of metal toxicity. These differences must be addressed in water-effect ratio testing in which paired tests with laboratory and site waters are conducted.

  15. Calcium - urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... into the urine, which causes calcium kidney stones Sarcoidosis Taking too much calcium Too much production of ... Milk-alkali syndrome Proximal renal tubular acidosis Rickets Sarcoidosis Vitamin D Update Date 5/3/2015 Updated ...

  16. Age-related prefrontal impairments implicate deficient prediction of future reward in older adults.

    PubMed

    Eppinger, Ben; Heekeren, Hauke R; Li, Shu-Chen

    2015-08-01

    Foresighted decision-making depends on the ability to learn the value of future outcomes and the sequential choices necessary to achieve them. Using a 3-stage Markov decision task and functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated age differences in the ability to extract state transition structures while learning to predict future reward. In younger adults learning was associated with enhanced activity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). In older adults (OA) we found no evidence for PFC recruitment. However, high-performing OA showed enhanced striatal activity, suggesting that they may engage in a model-free (experience-based) learning strategy. Change point analyses revealed that in younger adults learning was characterized by distinct and abrupt shifts in PFC activity, which were predictive of behavioral change points. In OA PFC activity was less pronounced and not predictive of behavior. Our findings suggest that age-related impairments in learning future reward value can be attributed to a deficit in extracting sequential state transition structures. This deficit may lead to myopic decisions in OA if contextual information has to be temporally integrated. PMID:26004018

  17. Prmt7 Deficiency Causes Reduced Skeletal Muscle Oxidative Metabolism and Age-Related Obesity.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hyeon-Ju; Lee, Hye-Jin; Vuong, Tuan Anh; Choi, Kyu-Sil; Choi, Dahee; Koo, Sung-Hoi; Cho, Sung Chun; Cho, Hana; Kang, Jong-Sun

    2016-07-01

    Maintenance of skeletal muscle function is critical for metabolic health and the disruption of which exacerbates many chronic diseases such as obesity and diabetes. Skeletal muscle responds to exercise or metabolic demands by a fiber-type switch regulated by signaling-transcription networks that remains to be fully defined. Here, we report that protein arginine methyltransferase 7 (Prmt7) is a key regulator for skeletal muscle oxidative metabolism. Prmt7 is expressed at the highest levels in skeletal muscle and decreased in skeletal muscles with age or obesity. Prmt7(-/-) muscles exhibit decreased oxidative metabolism with decreased expression of genes involved in muscle oxidative metabolism, including PGC-1α. Consistently, Prmt7(-/-) mice exhibited significantly reduced endurance exercise capacities. Furthermore, Prmt7(-/-) mice exhibit decreased energy expenditure, which might contribute to the exacerbated age-related obesity of Prmt7(-/-) mice. Similarly to Prmt7(-/-) muscles, Prmt7 depletion in myoblasts also reduces PGC-1α expression and PGC-1α-promoter driven reporter activities. Prmt7 regulates PGC-1α expression through interaction with and activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK), which in turn activates ATF2, an upstream transcriptional activator for PGC-1α. Taken together, Prmt7 is a novel regulator for muscle oxidative metabolism via activation of p38MAPK/ATF2/PGC-1α. PMID:27207521

  18. Protein Expression in the Nucleus Accumbens of Rats Exposed to Developmental Vitamin D Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    McGrath, John; Iwazaki, Takeshi; Eyles, Darryl; Burne, Thomas; Cui, Xiaoying; Ko, Pauline; Matsumoto, Izuru

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Developmental vitamin D (DVD) deficiency is a candidate risk factor for schizophrenia. Animal models have confirmed that DVD deficiency is associated with a range of altered genomic, proteomic, structural and behavioural outcomes in the rat. Because the nucleus accumbens has been implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders, in the current study we examined protein expression in this region in adult rats exposed to DVD deficiency Methods Female Sprague Dawley rats were maintained on a vitamin D deficient diet for 6 weeks, mated and allowed to give birth, after which a diet containing vitamin D was reintroduced. Male adult offspring (n = 8) were compared to control male (n = 8). 2-D gel electrophoresis-based proteomics and mass spectroscopy were used to investigate differential protein expression. Results There were 35 spots, mapped to 33 unique proteins, which were significantly different between the two groups. Of these, 22 were down-regulated and 13 up-regulated. The fold changes were uniformly small, with the largest FC being −1.67. Within the significantly different spots, three calcium binding proteins (calbindin1, calbindin2 and hippocalcin) were altered. Other proteins associated with DVD deficiency related to mitochondrial function, and the dynamin-like proteins. Conclusions Developmental vitamin D deficiency was associated with subtle changes in protein expression in the nucleus accumbens. Disruptions in pathways related to calcium-binding proteins and mitochondrial function may underlie some of the behavioural features associated with animal models of developmental vitamin D deficiency PMID:18545652

  19. Hepcidin-Induced Iron Deficiency Is Related to Transient Anemia and Hypoferremia in Kawasaki Disease Patients.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying-Hsien; Kuo, Ho-Chang; Huang, Fu-Chen; Yu, Hong-Ren; Hsieh, Kai-Sheng; Yang, Ya-Ling; Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Li, Sung-Chou; Kuo, Hsing-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is a type of systemic vasculitis that primarily affects children under the age of five years old. For sufferers of KD, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) has been found to successfully diminish the occurrence of coronary artery lesions. Anemia is commonly found in KD patients, and we have shown that in appropriately elevated hepcidin levels are related to decreased hemoglobin levels in these patients. In this study, we investigated the time period of anemia and iron metabolism during different stages of KD. A total of 100 patients with KD and 20 control subjects were enrolled in this study for red blood cell and hemoglobin analysis. Furthermore, plasma, urine hepcidin, and plasma IL-6 levels were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 20 KD patients and controls. Changes in hemoglobin, plasma iron levels, and total iron binding capacity (TIBC) were also measured in patients with KD. Hemoglobin, iron levels, and TIBC were lower (p < 0.001, p = 0.009, and p < 0.001, respectively) while plasma IL-6 and hepcidin levels (both p < 0.001) were higher in patients with KD than in the controls prior to IVIG administration. Moreover, plasma hepcidin levels were positively and significantly correlated with urine hepcidin levels (p < 0.001) prior to IVIG administration. After IVIG treatment, plasma hepcidin and hemoglobin levels significantly decreased (both p < 0.001). Of particular note was a subsequent gradual increase in hemoglobin levels during the three weeks after IVIG treatment; nevertheless, the hemoglobin levels stayed lower in KD patients than in the controls (p = 0.045). These findings provide a longitudinal study of hemoglobin changes and among the first evidence that hepcidin induces transient anemia and hypoferremia during KD's acute inflammatory phase. PMID:27187366

  20. Hepcidin-Induced Iron Deficiency Is Related to Transient Anemia and Hypoferremia in Kawasaki Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ying-Hsien; Kuo, Ho-Chang; Huang, Fu-Chen; Yu, Hong-Ren; Hsieh, Kai-Sheng; Yang, Ya-Ling; Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Li, Sung-Chou; Kuo, Hsing-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is a type of systemic vasculitis that primarily affects children under the age of five years old. For sufferers of KD, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) has been found to successfully diminish the occurrence of coronary artery lesions. Anemia is commonly found in KD patients, and we have shown that in appropriately elevated hepcidin levels are related to decreased hemoglobin levels in these patients. In this study, we investigated the time period of anemia and iron metabolism during different stages of KD. A total of 100 patients with KD and 20 control subjects were enrolled in this study for red blood cell and hemoglobin analysis. Furthermore, plasma, urine hepcidin, and plasma IL-6 levels were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 20 KD patients and controls. Changes in hemoglobin, plasma iron levels, and total iron binding capacity (TIBC) were also measured in patients with KD. Hemoglobin, iron levels, and TIBC were lower (p < 0.001, p = 0.009, and p < 0.001, respectively) while plasma IL-6 and hepcidin levels (both p < 0.001) were higher in patients with KD than in the controls prior to IVIG administration. Moreover, plasma hepcidin levels were positively and significantly correlated with urine hepcidin levels (p < 0.001) prior to IVIG administration. After IVIG treatment, plasma hepcidin and hemoglobin levels significantly decreased (both p < 0.001). Of particular note was a subsequent gradual increase in hemoglobin levels during the three weeks after IVIG treatment; nevertheless, the hemoglobin levels stayed lower in KD patients than in the controls (p = 0.045). These findings provide a longitudinal study of hemoglobin changes and among the first evidence that hepcidin induces transient anemia and hypoferremia during KD’s acute inflammatory phase. PMID:27187366

  1. [Deficiencies and resources of working population in relation to age: a multidisciplinary approach].

    PubMed

    Volkoff, S

    2000-01-01

    The aging of the population as a whole and the later age at which young people start work are increasing the percentage of older employees. In situations where the working conditions are highly demanding, as in shiftwork, time-pressure jobs, and adaptation to modern technology or skill diversification, this demographic trend may cause serious problems. The way in which job constraints and demands are withstood at various ages should be considered in relation to health, which is often, whether implicitly or explicitly, a selection criterion in the work place. The connection between work and health can rarely be described by a single causal relationship and requires specific epidemiological methods. Moreover, a health problem linked to age can have a feedback effect on the manner in which a job is performed. While these problems do indeed arise in the areas of work and health, they are nonetheless usually symptoms of modifications that have taken place in the work activity itself. The ergonomic approach nevertheless allows us to improve our understanding of changes in work behavior as age increases, as experience is gained, and as skills are acquired. Men and women on the job are not passive spectators of the good or poor fit between the characteristics of their jobs and their own functional state. Consciously or unconsciously, they modify their operating modes (movements, work pace, posture, etc.), reduce their effort level in some subtasks, make more plans to avoid emergency situations, check the outcome of their actions so as to reduce errors that would be costly to correct, and adjust the distribution of tasks in cooperative and collective work situations. But these strategies can only be implemented if the work conditions and organization foster and promote them. PMID:11098595

  2. Processing-microstructure-property relations in HVOF sprayed calcium phosphate based bioceramic coatings.

    PubMed

    Khor, K A; Li, H; Cheang, P

    2003-06-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) based bioceramic coatings were deposited onto titanium alloy substrates using the high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) spray technique. This study aimed to reveal the relations among processing parameters, microstructure, and properties of the bioceramic coatings. The processing conditions were altered through changing the starting HA powder size, content of bioinert ceramic additives or composite powder preparation techniques. Coating structure was characterized through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM); and the mechanical properties, Young's modulus and fracture toughness, of the coatings were evaluated through indentation techniques. Results demonstrated dominant influence of the melt state of HA powders on the phase composition of resultant coatings, and it was found that the HVOF HA coatings possess competitive mechanical properties. Furthermore, addition of titania or zirconia, as secondary phase in HA, showed promising effect on improving the mechanical properties of the HVOF HA-based coatings. Chemical reactions between HA and titania; and, HA and zirconia during coating deposition were revealed and characterized. Incorporation modes of the additives into HA and their reinforcing mechanisms were elucidated. The relationship among the processing, microstructure, and mechanical properties of the HVOF sprayed bioceramic coatings was summarily examined. PMID:12699659

  3. Differential antifungal and calcium channel-blocking activity among structurally related plant defensins.

    PubMed

    Spelbrink, Robert G; Dilmac, Nejmi; Allen, Aron; Smith, Thomas J; Shah, Dilip M; Hockerman, Gregory H

    2004-08-01

    Plant defensins are a family of small Cys-rich antifungal proteins that play important roles in plant defense against invading fungi. Structures of several plant defensins share a Cys-stabilized alpha/beta-motif. Structural determinants in plant defensins that govern their antifungal activity and the mechanisms by which they inhibit fungal growth remain unclear. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) seed defensin, MsDef1, strongly inhibits the growth of Fusarium graminearum in vitro, and its antifungal activity is markedly reduced in the presence of Ca(2+). By contrast, MtDef2 from Medicago truncatula, which shares 65% amino acid sequence identity with MsDef1, lacks antifungal activity against F. graminearum. Characterization of the in vitro antifungal activity of the chimeras containing portions of the MsDef1 and MtDef2 proteins shows that the major determinants of antifungal activity reside in the carboxy-terminal region (amino acids 31-45) of MsDef1. We further define the active site by demonstrating that the Arg at position 38 of MsDef1 is critical for its antifungal activity. Furthermore, we have found for the first time, to our knowledge, that MsDef1 blocks the mammalian L-type Ca(2+) channel in a manner akin to a virally encoded and structurally unrelated antifungal toxin KP4 from Ustilago maydis, whereas structurally similar MtDef2 and the radish (Raphanus sativus) seed defensin Rs-AFP2 fail to block the L-type Ca(2+) channel. From these results, we speculate that the two unrelated antifungal proteins, KP4 and MsDef1, have evolutionarily converged upon the same molecular target, whereas the two structurally related antifungal plant defensins, MtDef2 and Rs-AFP2, have diverged to attack different targets in fungi. PMID:15299136

  4. Calcium supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... SHOULD TAKE CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTS? Calcium is an important mineral for the human body. It helps build and protect your teeth ... absorb calcium. You can get vitamin D from sunlight exposure to your skin and from your diet. Ask your provider whether ...

  5. PGK deficiency.

    PubMed

    Beutler, Ernest

    2007-01-01

    Phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) deficiency is one of the relatively uncommon causes of hereditary non-spherocytic haemolytic anaemia (HNSHA). The gene encoding the erythrocyte enzyme PGK1, is X-linked. Mutations of this gene may cause chronic haemolysis with or without mental retardation and they may cause myopathies, often with episodes of myoglobinuria, or a combination of these clinical manifestations. Twenty-six families have been described and in 20 of these the mutations are known. The reason for different clinical manifestations of mutations of the same gene remains unknown. PMID:17222195

  6. Crystal Structure of Pure and Aluminous Calcium Silicate Perovskites at Mantle Related Pressure and Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H.; Shim, S. H.; Leinenweber, K. D.; Meng, Y.; Prakapenka, V.

    2015-12-01

    CaSiO3-perovskite (CaPv) is believed to be the third most abundant mineral (5 wt%) in the Earth's lower mantle (LM). Subducted slabs contain 23 wt% CaPv at the LM related pressure (P) and temperature (T), where Al2O3 could be incorporated into the crystal structure of CaPv (AlCaPv). However, there remains important discrepancy between computations and experiments on the crystal structure of CaPv at high P and low T. Some computations have predicted a tetragonal I4/mcm structure with a pseudo-cubic axial ratio (cp/ap) greater than 1, while X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies have suggested a tetragonal P4/mmm structure with cp/ap ~ 0.995. Using Ne as a pressure medium, we conducted in-situ XRD of CaSiO3 and 5 wt% Al-bearing CaSiO3 in the laser heated diamond anvil cell at the GSECARS and HPCAT sectors of the Advanced Photon Source. Rietveld refinements are performed on the diffraction patterns of CaPv at 300 K and 20-60 GPa. Similar to previous studies, we observed splitting of the 200 and 211 peaks after T-quench in pure CaPv. However, unlike previous experiments, diffraction patterns were more consistent with a tetragonal I4/mcm structure with cp/ap ~ 1.005 than P4/mmm. All the previous diffraction patterns have been measured with an Ar or MgO medium, or even without a medium, while we used more hydrostatic Ne medium. Considering the small free energy differences among different perovskite structures, the crystal structure of CaPv may be very sensitive to non-hydrostatic stresses. In runs with AlCaPv, asymmetrical 200 peaks are found up to 60 GPa and 2200 K, showing that non-cubic could be still stable at mantle geotherm temperatures in AlCaPv. The extreme sensitivity of CaPv on deviatoric stresses may have important implications for the elastic properties of the mantle regions with strong deformations, because the elastic anisotropy can change with the crystal structure of CaPv.

  7. Phase Relations and Defect Chemistry of Bismuth Strontium Calcium Copper Oxide Superconducting Oxides at Elevated Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Byungsun

    1992-01-01

    Subsolidus phase relations in the system (Bi-Sr -Ca-Cu)-O at 800^circC were investigated via powder X-ray diffraction and electron probe microanalysis of solid-state reaction products. The only truly quaternary compound detected is the superconducting phase of n = 2 in Bi_2(Sr _{rm x}Ca_ {rm 1-x})_{ rm n+1}Cu_{rm n}O_{rm y} . The n = 2 phase is compatible with eight different binary or ternary phases. Tie lines, tie triangles, and compatibility tetrahedra involving superconducting phases were determined. The cation solubility limits of the n = 2 and n = 3 superconducting phases were established along tie lines with compatible phases via EPMA on bi- (or poly -) phasic samples prepared at 860^circ C. In each case football-shaped volumes in composition space were established as the solubility limits which bordered on the nominal compositions 2212 or 2223 with the long axis parallel to the Sr-Ca side of the quaternary but also extending toward Bi and Cu. T_{rm c} variations could be correlated with variations in Sr or (Bi+Sr) content and the length of the c-axis parameter. Via in-situ high temperature (550-650 ^circC) electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient measurements in Bi_ {2.1}Sr_{1.9} (Ca_{rm 1-x}Y _{rm x})Cu _2O_{rm y} , a point defect model/diagram is presented which explains the variation of thermopower with composition in the system. The reference, insulating composition should be between Bi_{2.1}Sr _{1.9}Ca_ {0.2}Y_{0.8} Cu_2O_{8.45 } and Bi_{2.1}Sr _{1.9}Ca_ {0.3}Y_{0.7} Cu_2O_{8.4 }. Y-contents higher than x = 0.8 result in a second phase. A structural phase transition from pseudo -tetragonal to orthorhombic takes place at x = 0.5, and plays a major role in determining the physical properties. Oxygen transfer from the Bi-O block to the Cu-O based perovskite block is suggested at the phase boundary of x = 0.5. Jonker analysis and oxygen pressure dependence of carrier concentration confirm p-type behavior despite the change in sign of the thermopower

  8. Impregnating Coal With Calcium Carbonate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, Pramod K.; Voecks, Gerald E.; Gavalas, George R.

    1991-01-01

    Relatively inexpensive process proposed for impregnating coal with calcium carbonate to increase rates of gasification and combustion of coal and to reduce emission of sulfur by trapping sulfur in calcium sulfide. Process involves aqueous-phase reactions between carbon dioxide (contained within pore network of coal) and calcium acetate. Coal impregnated with CO2 by exposing it to CO2 at high pressure.

  9. Age-related vulnerability to diencephalic amnesia produced by thiamine deficiency: the role of time of insult.

    PubMed

    Pitkin, Shane R; Savage, Lisa M

    2004-01-01

    Age is a risk factor for the development of many neurological disorders, including alcohol-related neurological disorders. A rodent model of Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome (WKS), acute pyrithiamine-induced thiamine deficiency (PTD), produces diencephalic damage and impairments of memory similar to what is seen in WKS patients. Advanced age increases the vulnerability to the cascade of acute and some chronic neurological events caused by PTD treatment. Interactions between PTD treatment and age at the time of treatment (3, 10, or 21 months), in addition to the effects of an increased recovery period, were examined relative to spatial memory impairment and neuropathology in Fischer 344 rats. Although acute neurological disturbances and medial thalamic brain lesions were more prevalent in middle-aged and senescent rats exposed to PTD treatment, relative to young rats, behavioral data did not support the view that PTD and aging have synergistic effects. In addition, both advanced age and PTD treatment result in a loss of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons, though there was no interaction. Despite the fact that no convincing evidence was found for an effect of extended recovery time on neuropathology measures, young rats given an extensive recovery period displayed less working memory impairment. In summary, these data provide evidence for an increased susceptibility of the aged rat to the acute neurological consequences and diencephalic pathology associated with PTD treatment and indicated a similar vulnerability of the middle-aged rat. However, the synergistic interaction between aging and PTD treatment in thalamic tissue loss did not express behaviorally. PMID:14684251

  10. Alleviation of neuronal energy deficiency by mTOR inhibition as a treatment for mitochondria-related neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xinde; Boyer, Leah; Jin, Mingji; Kim, Yongsung; Fan, Weiwei; Bardy, Cedric; Berggren, Travis; Evans, Ronald M; Gage, Fred H; Hunter, Tony

    2016-01-01

    mTOR inhibition is beneficial in neurodegenerative disease models and its effects are often attributable to the modulation of autophagy and anti-apoptosis. Here, we report a neglected but important bioenergetic effect of mTOR inhibition in neurons. mTOR inhibition by rapamycin significantly preserves neuronal ATP levels, particularly when oxidative phosphorylation is impaired, such as in neurons treated with mitochondrial inhibitors, or in neurons derived from maternally inherited Leigh syndrome (MILS) patient iPS cells with ATP synthase deficiency. Rapamycin treatment significantly improves the resistance of MILS neurons to glutamate toxicity. Surprisingly, in mitochondrially defective neurons, but not neuroprogenitor cells, ribosomal S6 and S6 kinase phosphorylation increased over time, despite activation of AMPK, which is often linked to mTOR inhibition. A rapamycin-induced decrease in protein synthesis, a major energy-consuming process, may account for its ATP-saving effect. We propose that a mild reduction in protein synthesis may have the potential to treat mitochondria-related neurodegeneration. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13378.001 PMID:27008180

  11. Selenium Deficiency Facilitates Inflammation Following S. aureus Infection by Regulating TLR2-Related Pathways in the Mouse Mammary Gland.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xuejiao; Zhang, Zecai; Li, Ying; Shen, Peng; Hu, Xiaoyu; Cao, Yongguo; Zhang, Naisheng

    2016-08-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient affecting various aspects of health. Se deficiency has been associated with inflammation and immune responses. Mastitis poses a serious problem for humans and animals in the postpartum period. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is the most common infectious bacterial pathogen associated with mastitis. The present study sought to determine the effects and underlying mechanism of dietary Se on S. aureus-induced inflammation using a model of mouse mastitis. ELISA and Western blotting were performed to detect protein levels. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) was performed to detect messenger RNA (mRNA) levels. The histopathological changes indicated that Se deficiency resulted in increased inflammatory lesions in S. aureus mastitis, whereas Se deficiency did not induce inflammatory lesions in the mammary gland. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity was increased in Se-deficient mice with S. aureus mastitis. Analysis of cytokine mRNA and protein showed that Se deficiency leads to increased TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 production in S. aureus mastitis. In addition, Se deficiency enhanced the mRNA and protein expressions of toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), which were originally upregulated by S. aureus in the mammary gland tissues and human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293)-mTLR2 cells. When Se-deficient mice were infected with S. aureus, the phosphorylation of IκB, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 was greatly increased. The results indicate that Se deficiency could intensify the inflammatory reaction in S. aureus mastitis. This work contributes to the exploration of new methods of preventing or treating of S. aureus mastitis and other infectious diseases. PMID:26743867

  12. Two successive calcium-dependent transitions mediate membrane binding and oligomerization of daptomycin and the related antibiotic A54145.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Robert; Butt, Khalida; Scott, Bradley; Zhang, TianHua; Muraih, Jawad K; Mintzer, Evan; Taylor, Scott; Palmer, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Daptomycin and A54145 are homologous lipopeptide antibiotics that permeabilize the cell membranes of Gram-positive bacteria. Membrane permeabilization depends on the presence of both phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and calcium, and it involves the formation of oligomeric transmembrane pores that consist of approximately 6-8 subunits. We here show that each lipopeptide molecule binds two calcium ions in separable, successive steps. The first calcium ion causes the lipopeptide molecule to bind to the target membrane, and likely to form a loosely associated oligomer. Higher calcium concentrations induce binding of a second ion, which produces the more tightly associated and more deeply membrane-inserted final, functional form of the oligomer. Both calcium-dependent steps are accompanied by fluorescence signals that indicate transition of specific amino acid residues into less polar environments, suggestive of insertion into the target membrane. Our findings agree with the earlier observation that two of the four acidic amino acid residues in the daptomycin molecule are essential for antibacterial activity. PMID:27237728

  13. Fructus ligustri lucidi ethanol extract improves bone mineral density and properties through modulating calcium absorption-related gene expression in kidney and duodenum of growing rats.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xin; Lyu, Ying; Wu, Zhenghao; Fang, Yuehui; Xu, Hao; Zhao, Pengling; Xu, Yajun; Feng, Haotian

    2014-04-01

    Optimizing peak bone mass in early life is one of key preventive strategies against osteoporosis. Fructus ligustri lucidi (FLL), the fruit of Ligustrum lucidum Ait., is a commonly prescribed herb in many kidney-tonifying traditional Chinese medicinal formulas to alleviate osteoporosis. Previously, FLL extracts have been shown to have osteoprotective effect in aged or ovariectomized rats. In the present study, we investigated the effects of FLL ethanol extract on bone mineral density (BMD) and mechanical properties in growing male rats and explored the underlying mechanisms. Male weaning Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into four groups and orally administrated for 4 months an AIN-93G formula-based diet supplementing with different doses of FLL ethanol extract (0.40, 0.65, and 0.90 %) or vehicle control, respectively. Then calcium balance, serum level of Ca, P, 25(OH)2D3, 1,25(OH)2D3, osteocalcin (OCN), C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX-I), and parathyroid hormone, bone microarchitecture, and calcium absorption-related genes expression in duodenum and kidney were analyzed. The results demonstrated that FLL ethanol extract increased BMD of growing rats and improved their bone microarchitecture and mechanical properties. FLL ethanol extract altered bone turnover, as evidenced by increasing a bone formation maker, OCN, and decreasing a bone resorption maker, CTX-I. Intriguingly, both Ca absorption and Ca retention rate were elevated by FLL ethanol extract treatment, possibly through the mechanisms of up-regulating the transcriptions of calcitropic genes in kidney (1α-hydroxylase) and duodenum (vitamin D receptor, calcium transporter calbindin-D9k, and transient receptor potential vanilloid 6). In conclusion, FLL ethanol extract increased bone mass gain and improved bone properties via modulating bone turnover and up-regulating calcium absorption-related gene expression in kidney and duodenum, which could then activate 1,25(OH)2D3-dependent calcium

  14. Vitamin D deficiency and causative factors in the population of Tehran

    PubMed Central

    Hashemipour, Sima; Larijani, Bagher; Adibi, Hossein; Javadi, Ebrahim; Sedaghat, Mojtaba; Pajouhi, Mohammad; Soltani, Akbar; Shafaei, Ali Reza; Hamidi, Zohreh; Fard, Ali Reza Khalili; Hossein-Nezhad, Arash; Booya, Fargol

    2004-01-01

    Background There are multiple studies in different countries regarding the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency. These studies showed high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Asian countries. This study tries to elucidate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its influencing factors in population of Tehran. Methods 1210 subjects 20–64 years old were randomly selected. 25 (OH) D serum levels were measured. Duration of exposure to sunlight, the type of clothing and level of calcium intake and BMI were quantified based on a questionnaire. Results A high percentage of vitamin D deficiency was defined in the study population. Prevalence of severe, moderate and mild Vitamin D deficiency was 9.5%, 57.6% and 14.2% respectively. Vitamin D serum levels had no significant statistical relation with the duration of exposure to sunlight, kind of clothing and BMI. Calcium intake in the normal vitamin D group was significantly higher than the other groups (714.67 ± 330.8 mg/day vs 503.39 ± 303.1, 577.93 ± 304.9,595.84 ± 313.6). Vitamin D serum levels in young and middle aged females were significantly lower than the older group. Conclusions Vitamin D deficiency has a high prevalence in Tehran. In order to avoid complications of vitamin D deficiency, supplemental dietary intake seems essential. PMID:15327695

  15. Effects of dietary calcium on lead absorption, distribution, and elimination kinetics in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Aungst, B.J.; Fung, H.L.

    1985-01-01

    A pharmacokinetic analysis of lead absorption, distribution, and elimination was conducted in rats maintained on calcium-deficient, control, and calcium-supplemented diets. Dietary calcium affected lead disposition in a number of ways. Systematic lead clearance after a 10-mg/kg intracardiac lead dose was approximately 25% lower than control in rats administered dietary calcium supplements. In rats maintained on a calcium-deficient diet, systemic lead clearance was estimated to be 40% less than control. The apparent volume of lead distribution was increased. The apparent systemic availability of 1-, 10-, and 100-mg.kg oral lead doses was three- to fourfold greater than control in calcium-deficient rats. The percentage absorption was dose-dependent in control and calcium-deficient rats. The observed changes in lead absorption and systemic clearance associated with the calcium-deficient diet represent synergistic effects that could elevate blood lead accumulation and thus potentially influence susceptibility to lead toxicity.

  16. Impaired myogenesis in estrogen-related receptor γ (ERRγ)-deficient skeletal myocytes due to oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Jennifer; Auwerx, Johan; Huss, Janice M.

    2013-01-01

    Specialized contractile function and increased mitochondrial number and oxidative capacity are hallmark features of myocyte differentiation. The estrogen-related receptors (ERRs) can regulate mitochondrial biogenesis or mitochondrial enzyme expression in skeletal muscle, suggesting that ERRs may have a role in promoting myogenesis. Therefore, we characterized myogenic programs in primary myocytes isolated from wild-type (M-ERRγWT) and muscle-specific ERRγ−/− (M-ERRγ−/−) mice. Myotube maturation and number were decreased throughout differentiation in M-ERRγ−/− primary myocytes, resulting in myotubes with reduced mitochondrial content and sarcomere assembly. Compared with M-ERRγWT myocytes at the same differentiation stage, the glucose oxidation rate was reduced by 30% in M-ERRγ−/− myotubes, while medium-chain fatty acid oxidation was increased by 34% in M-ERRγ−/− myoblasts and 36% in M-ERRγ−/− myotubes. Concomitant with increased reliance on mitochondrial β-oxidation, H2O2 production was significantly increased by 40% in M-ERRγ−/− myoblasts and 70% in M-ERRγ−/− myotubes compared to M-ERRγWT myocytes. ROS activation of FoxO and NF-κB and their downstream targets, atrogin-1 and MuRF1, was observed in M-ERRγ−/− myocytes. The antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine rescued myotube formation and atrophy gene induction in M-ERRγ−/− myocytes. These results suggest that loss of ERRγ causes metabolic defects and oxidative stress that impair myotube formation through activation of skeletal muscle atrophy pathways.—Murray, J., Auwerx, J., Huss, J. M. Impaired myogenesis in estrogen-related receptor γ (ERRγ)-deficient skeletal myocytes due to oxidative stress. PMID:23038752

  17. [Diagnostic criteria for vitamin D-deficient rickets and hypocalcemia-].

    PubMed

    Ozono, Keiichi

    2016-02-01

    Vitamin D deficiency causes rickets or osteomalacia, which is associated with hypomineralization of bone and chondrocytes, and/or hypocalcemia. Accumulating evidence indicates increase in frequency of vitamin D deficiency due to insufficient intake of vitamin D and calcium and decrease in sunshine. It is necessary for clinician to diagnose vitamin D deficiency accurately and treat patients with vitamin D deficiency adequately. For the purpose, clinical guideline or expert opinion on vitamin D deficiency has been reported. PMID:26813501

  18. Vitamin D and Calcium Insufficiency-Related Chronic Diseases: an Emerging World-Wide Public Health Problem

    PubMed Central

    Peterlik, Meinrad; Boonen, Steven; Cross, Heide S.; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel

    2009-01-01

    Vitamin D and calcium insufficiencies are risk factors for multiple chronic diseases. Data from 46 recent studies from Europe, North America, South-East Asia and the South Pacific area clearly indicate that a low vitamin D status and inadequate calcium nutrition are highly prevalent in the general population (30–80%), affecting both genders. The extent of insufficiencies is particularly high in older populations, and in some geographical areas, also in children and in young women of child-bearing age, in ethnic minorities and immigrants, as well as in people of low socio-economic status. Enrichment of cereal grain products with vitamin D and calcium would be a viable approach to increase consumption and improve health outcomes in the general population worldwide. PMID:20054456

  19. Evaluation of postmortem serum calcium and magnesium levels in relation to the causes of death in forensic autopsy.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bao-Li; Ishikawa, Takaki; Quan, Li; Li, Dong-Ri; Zhao, Dong; Michiue, Tomomi; Maeda, Hitoshi

    2005-12-01

    There appears to be very poor investigation of postmortem serum calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) for diagnostic evidence to determine the cause of death. The aim of the present study was a comprehensive analysis of the serum levels in relation to the causes of death in routine casework. Autopsy cases (total, n=360; 5-48 h postmortem), including blunt injury (n=76), sharp injury (n=29), asphyxiation (n=42), drownings (n=28: freshwater, n=11; saltwater, n=17), fire fatalities (n=79), methamphetamine (MA) poisoning (n=8), delayed death from traumas (n=37), and acute myocardial infarction/ischemia (AMI, n=61), were examined. In total cases, there was no significant postmortem time-dependent rise in serum Ca and Mg. Both Ca and Mg levels in the heart and peripheral blood were significantly higher in saltwater drowning compared with those of the other groups. In addition, a significant elevation in the Ca level was observed in freshwater drowning and fire fatalities, and in the Mg level in fatal MA intoxication and asphyxiation. Topographic analyses suggested a rise in serum Ca and Mg due to aspirated saltwater in drowning, that in serum Ca in freshwater drowning and fire fatalities of peripheral skeletal muscle origin and that in serum Mg in MA fatality and asphyxiation of myocardial and/or peripheral origin. These markers may be useful especially for diagnosis and differentiation of salt- and freshwater drownings and may be also helpful to determine the causes of death involving skeletal muscle damage, including burns and MA intoxication. PMID:16216707

  20. Antithrombin Dublin (p.Val30Glu): a relatively common variant with moderate thrombosis risk of causing transient antithrombin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Fernández, José; de la Morena-Barrio, María Eugenia; Padilla, José; Miñano, Antonia; Bohdan, Nataliya; Águila, Sonia; Martínez-Martínez, Irene; Sevivas, Teresa S; de Cos, Carmen; Fernández-Mosteirín, Nuria; Llamas, Pilar; Asenjo, Susana; Medina, Pilar; Souto, Juan Carlos; Overvad, Kim; Kristensen, Søren R; Corral, Javier; Vicente, Vicente

    2016-07-01

    The key haemostatic role of antithrombin and the risk of thrombosis associated with its deficiency support that the low incidence of antithrombin deficiency among patients with thrombosis might be explained by underestimation of this disorder. It was our aim to identify mutations in SERPINC1 causing transient antithrombin deficiency. SERPINC1 was sequenced in 214 cases with a positive test for antithrombin deficiency, including 67 with no deficiency in the sample delivered to our laboratory. The p.Val30Glu mutation (Antithrombin Dublin) was identified in five out of these 67 cases, as well as in three out of 127 cases with other SERPINC1 mutations. Genotyping in 1593 patients with venous thrombosis and 2592 controls from two populations, revealed a low prevalent polymorphism (0.3 %) that moderately increased the risk of venous thrombosis (OR: 2.9; 95 % CI: 1.07-8.09; p= 0.03) and identified one homozygous patient with an early thrombotic event. Carriers had normal anti-FXa activity, and plasma antithrombin was not sensitive to heat stress or proteolytic cleavage. Analysis of one sample with transient deficit revealed a type I deficiency, without aberrant or increased latent forms. The recombinant variant, which lacked the two amino-terminal residues, had reduced secretion from HEK-EBNA cells, formed hyperstable disulphide-linked polymers, and had negligible activity. In conclusion, p.Val30Glu by affecting the cleavage of antithrombin's signal peptide, results in a mature protein lacking the N-terminal dipeptide with no functional consequences in normal conditions, but that increases the sensitivity to be folded intracellularly into polymers, facilitating transient antithrombin deficiency and the subsequent risk of thrombosis. PMID:27098529

  1. The Association between Coffee Consumption and Bone Status in Young Adult Males according to Calcium Intake Level.

    PubMed

    Choi, Mi-Kyeong; Kim, Mi-Hyun

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between coffee consumption and bone status (bone mineral density and bone metabolism-related markers) according to calcium intake level in Korean young adult males. Healthy and nonsmoking males (19-26 years, n = 330) participated in this study. Anthropometric measurements, dietary habits, and nutrient intakes were surveyed. Bone status of the calcaneus was measured by using quantitative ultrasound (QUS). Bone metabolism-related markers including serum total alkaline phosphatase activity (TALP), N-mid osteocalcin (OC), and type 1 collagen C-terminal telopeptide (1CTP) were analyzed. The subjects were divided into two groups based on daily calcium intake level: a calcium-sufficient group (calcium intake ≥ 75% RI, n = 171) and a calcium-deficient group (calcium intake < 75% RI, n = 159). Each group was then further divided into three subgroups based on daily average coffee consumption: no-coffee, less than one serving of coffee per day, and one or more servings of coffee per day. There were no significant differences in height, body weight, body mass index, energy intake, or calcium intake among the three coffee consumption subgroups. QUS parameters and serum 1CTP, TALP, and OC were not significantly different among either the two calcium-intake groups or the three coffee consumption subgroups. Our results may show that current coffee consumption level in Korean young men is not significantly associated with their bone status and metabolism according to the calcium intake level. PMID:27482522

  2. The Association between Coffee Consumption and Bone Status in Young Adult Males according to Calcium Intake Level

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Mi-Kyeong

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between coffee consumption and bone status (bone mineral density and bone metabolism-related markers) according to calcium intake level in Korean young adult males. Healthy and nonsmoking males (19-26 years, n = 330) participated in this study. Anthropometric measurements, dietary habits, and nutrient intakes were surveyed. Bone status of the calcaneus was measured by using quantitative ultrasound (QUS). Bone metabolism-related markers including serum total alkaline phosphatase activity (TALP), N-mid osteocalcin (OC), and type 1 collagen C-terminal telopeptide (1CTP) were analyzed. The subjects were divided into two groups based on daily calcium intake level: a calcium-sufficient group (calcium intake ≥ 75% RI, n = 171) and a calcium-deficient group (calcium intake < 75% RI, n = 159). Each group was then further divided into three subgroups based on daily average coffee consumption: no-coffee, less than one serving of coffee per day, and one or more servings of coffee per day. There were no significant differences in height, body weight, body mass index, energy intake, or calcium intake among the three coffee consumption subgroups. QUS parameters and serum 1CTP, TALP, and OC were not significantly different among either the two calcium-intake groups or the three coffee consumption subgroups. Our results may show that current coffee consumption level in Korean young men is not significantly associated with their bone status and metabolism according to the calcium intake level. PMID:27482522

  3. Calcium and Vitamin D Supplementations: 2015 Position Statement of the Korean Society for Bone and Mineral Research

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoung Min; Choi, Han Seok; Choi, Mi-Ja

    2015-01-01

    Calcium and vitamin D are essential components for bone health, thus calcium and vitamin D supplementation is an important strategy in the management of osteoporosis. However, the benefit of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on bone health is still controversial. Moreover, potentially harmful effects of excessive calcium supplementation on cardiovascular health are recently suggested. Too high a level of vitamin D has been also reported to have several, possibly related, harmful events. Korea is well known for low dietary calcium intake and vitamin D deficiency in its population. This position statement developed the following recommendation for adequate levels of calcium and vitamin D intake in Korean, postmenopausal women and men older than 50 years: Adequate calcium intake and optimal vitamin D level are essential for preventing and treating osteoporosis in postmenopausal women and men older than 50 years. We recommend a daily calcium intake of 800 to 1,000 mg/day. Food remains the best source of calcium; however calcium supplements should be considered when dietary intake of calcium is inadequate. We recommend dietary vitamin D intake of more than 800 IU per day, a level which appears to reduce the risk of fractures. When vitamin D deficiency is suspected, serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25-[OH]D) level should be tested. We suggest that a serum 25-(OH)D level greater than 20 ng/mL is generally appropriate for prevention of osteoporosis. However, a serum 25-(OH)D level greater than 30 ng/mL is probably helpful for management of osteoporosis and prevention of fractures. PMID:26713305

  4. Calcium and Vitamin D Supplementations: 2015 Position Statement of the Korean Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung Min; Choi, Han Seok; Choi, Mi-Ja; Chung, Ho Yeon

    2015-11-01

    Calcium and vitamin D are essential components for bone health, thus calcium and vitamin D supplementation is an important strategy in the management of osteoporosis. However, the benefit of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on bone health is still controversial. Moreover, potentially harmful effects of excessive calcium supplementation on cardiovascular health are recently suggested. Too high a level of vitamin D has been also reported to have several, possibly related, harmful events. Korea is well known for low dietary calcium intake and vitamin D deficiency in its population. This position statement developed the following recommendation for adequate levels of calcium and vitamin D intake in Korean, postmenopausal women and men older than 50 years: Adequate calcium intake and optimal vitamin D level are essential for preventing and treating osteoporosis in postmenopausal women and men older than 50 years. We recommend a daily calcium intake of 800 to 1,000 mg/day. Food remains the best source of calcium; however calcium supplements should be considered when dietary intake of calcium is inadequate. We recommend dietary vitamin D intake of more than 800 IU per day, a level which appears to reduce the risk of fractures. When vitamin D deficiency is suspected, serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25-[OH]D) level should be tested. We suggest that a serum 25-(OH)D level greater than 20 ng/mL is generally appropriate for prevention of osteoporosis. However, a serum 25-(OH)D level greater than 30 ng/mL is probably helpful for management of osteoporosis and prevention of fractures. PMID:26713305

  5. Prospective study of the development of growth hormone deficiency in children given cranial irradiation, and its relation to statural growth

    SciTech Connect

    Brauner, R.; Rappaport, R.; Prevot, C.; Czernichow, P.; Zucker, J.M.; Bataini, P.; Lemerle, J.; Sarrazin, D.; Guyda, H.J.

    1989-02-01

    Although GH deficiency (GHD) is the most frequent hormonal abnormality that occurs after cranial radiation, the natural course of this complication and its relationship to growth in children are not known. Therefore, we undertook a 2-yr prospective study of 16 children, aged 1.7-15 yr at the time of treatment, who received cranial (31-42 Gy (1 Gy = 100 rads)) and spinal radiation for medulloblastoma or ependymoma (group I). Their growth was compared to that of 11 children given similar doses of cranial radiation only (group II). The mean plasma GH response to arginine-insulin test (AITT) was 9.1 +/- 1.5 (+/- SE) micrograms/L in group I and 8.5 +/- 1.8 micrograms/L in group II (P = NS). After 2 yr, 16 of the 27 children had a peak plasma GH value below 8 micrograms/L after AITT, and 10 children had a peak response less than 5 micrograms/L. In addition, in group I, AITT and sleep-related GH secretion were compared; at the 2 yr follow-up only 3 of 13 children had discrepant results. At the 2 yr follow-up children treated by cranial and spinal radiation had a mean height of -1.46 +/- 0.40 SD below the normal mean. In contrast, the children given only cranial radiation had a mean height of -0.15 +/- 0.18 SD; P less than 0.02. Therefore, most of the growth retardation appeared to be due to lack of spinal growth. GHD is thus an early complication of cranial radiation in these children, and no significant growth retardation can be attributed to GHD during the first 2 yr. These data contribute to the organization of follow-up in irradiated children in order to decide when human GH treatment is necessary.

  6. Age-related downregulation of the CaV3.1 T-type calcium channel as a mediator of amyloid beta production

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Rachel A.; Berchtold, Nicole C.; Cotman, Carl W.; Green, Kim N.

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's is a crippling neurodegenerative disease that largely affects aged individuals. Decades of research have highlighted age-related changes in calcium homeostasis that occur before and throughout the duration of the disease, and the contributions of such dysregulation to Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. We report an age-related decrease in expression of the CaV3.1 T-type calcium channel at the level of messenger RNA and protein in both humans and mice that is exacerbated with the presence of Alzheimer's disease. Downregulating T-type calcium channels in N2a cells and the 3xTg-AD mouse model of Alzheimer's disease, by way of pharmacologic inhibition with NNC-55-0396, results in a rapid increase in amyloid beta production via reductions in non-amyloidogenic processing, whereas genetic over-expression of the channel in human embryonic kidney cells expressing amyloid precursor protein produces complementary effects. The age-related decline in CaV3.1 expression may therefore contribute to a pro-amyloidogenic environment in the aging brain and represents a novel opportunity to intervene in the course of Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. PMID:24268883

  7. Urinary calcium excretion in non-lactating dairy cows in relation to intake of fat-coated rice bran.

    PubMed

    Martín-Tereso, J; Derks, M; van Laar, H; Mulder, K; den Hartog, L A; Verstegen, M W A

    2010-02-01

    At calving, many older cows fail to compensate the sudden demand of calcium by an adequate activation of intestinal absorption. This results in a variable degree of hypocalcaemia. Reducing intestinal availability of calcium during the close-up period can prevent milk fever. Fat-coated rice bran (FCRB) was investigated for its potential to reduce Ca availability in pre-calving cows. Fat-coated rice bran was incubated in situ to estimate ruminal degradation of dry matter and phytic acid. Also, seven dry multiparous dairy cows were used for a feeding trial in three periods of approximately 1 week each: P1: adaptation; P2: feeding of 2 kg of FCRB and P3: withdrawal of FCRB. Feed intake was recorded and daily urine samples were analysed for pH, Ca and creatinine. The bypass fraction of phytic acid (passage rate: 5%/h) was 30%. Fat-coated rice bran depressed dry matter intake in P2, resulting in a lower Ca intake. In P2 urine pH and calcium excretion were lower. Daily calcium excretion decreased after introduction of FCRB, peaked after withdrawal and dropped 2 days later. Changes in urinary Ca excretion by feeding FCRB indicate that FCRB affected Ca homeostasis in dry multiparous dairy cows. PMID:19364378

  8. Intracellular calcium disturbances induced by arsenic and its methylated derivatives in relation to genomic damage and apoptosis induction.

    PubMed

    Florea, Ana-Maria; Yamoah, Ebenezer N; Dopp, Elke

    2005-06-01

    Arsenic and its methylated derivatives are contaminants of air, water, and food and are known as toxicants and carcinogens. Arsenic compounds are also being used as cancer chemotherapeutic agents. In humans, inorganic arsenic is metabolically methylated to mono-, di-, and trimethylated forms. Recent findings suggest that the methylation reactions represent a toxification rather than a detoxification pathway. In recent years, the correlation between arsenic exposure, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity, mutagenicity, and tumor promotion has been established, as well as the association of arsenic exposure with perturbation of physiologic processes, generation of reactive oxygen species, DNA damage, and apoptosis induction. Trivalent forms of arsenic have been found to induce apoptosis in several cellular systems with involvement of membrane-bound cell death receptors, activation of caspases, release of calcium stores, and changes of the intracellular glutathione level. It is well known that calcium ion deregulation plays a critical role in apoptotic cell death. A calcium increase in the nuclei might lead to toxic effects in the cell. In this review, we highlight the relationship between induced disturbances of calcium homeostasis, genomic damage, and apoptotic cell death caused by arsenic and its organic derivatives. PMID:15929885

  9. Origins of the p-Type Nature and Cation Deficiency in Cu2O and Related Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Raebiger, H.; Lany, S.; Zunger, A.

    2007-01-01

    While most of crystalline wide gap oxides are both stoichiometric and insulating, a handful of them including ZnO and In{sub 2}O{sub 3} are naturally anion-deficient and electron conductors. Even fewer of the oxides are naturally cation-deficient and hole conductors, the arch-type of which is Cu{sub 2}O. Based on first principles calculation of equilibrium nonstoichiometry and defect stability, we explain why the Cu{sup (I)}(d{sup 10}) oxide-based materials are both p-type and naturally cation-deficient, and why cation vacancies lead to delocalized, conductive states, whereas in other oxides (e.g., ZnO and MgO), they lead to localized, nonconductive states.

  10. Downregulation of Transketolase Activity Is Related to Inhibition of Hippocampal Progenitor Cell Proliferation Induced by Thiamine Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yanling; Wu, Yiying; Hu, Haolu; Cai, Jinghui; Ning, Min; Ni, Xiushi; Zhong, Chunjiu

    2014-01-01

    In animal experiments, hippocampal neurogenesis and the activity of thiamine-dependent transketolase decrease markedly under conditions of thiamine deficiency. To further investigate the effect of thiamine deficiency on the proliferation of hippocampal progenitor cells (HPCs) and the potential mechanisms involved in this effect, we cultured HPCs in vitro in the absence of thiamine and found that proliferation and transketolase activity were both significantly repressed. Furthermore, specific inhibition of transketolase activity by oxythiamine strongly inhibited HPC proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. However, thiamine deficiency itself inhibited the proliferation to a greater degree than did oxythiamine. Taken together, our results suggest that modulation of transketolase activity might be one of the mechanisms by which thiamine regulates the proliferation of hippocampal progenitor cells. PMID:25028661

  11. The Role of Calcium in Human Aging

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Calcium is an essential nutrient that is necessary for many functions in human health. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body with 99% found in teeth and bone. Only 1% is found in serum. The serum calcium level is tightly monitored to remain within normal range by a complex metabolic process. Calcium metabolism involves other nutrients including protein, vitamin D, and phosphorus. Bone formation and maintenance is a lifelong process. Early attention to strong bones in childhood and adulthood will provide more stable bone mass during the aging years. Research has shown that adequate calcium intake can reduce the risk of fractures, osteoporosis, and diabetes in some populations. The dietary requirements of calcium and other collaborative nutrients vary slightly around the world. Lactose intolerance due to lactase deficiency is a common cause of low calcium intake. Strategies will be discussed for addressing this potential barrier to adequate intake. The purpose of this narrative review is a) to examine the role of calcium in human health, b) to compare nutrient requirements for calcium across lifecycle groups and global populations, c) to review relationships between calcium intake, chronic disease risk, and fractures, and d) to discuss strategies to address diet deficiencies and lactose intolerance. PMID:25713787

  12. The role of calcium in human aging.

    PubMed

    Beto, Judith A

    2015-01-01

    Calcium is an essential nutrient that is necessary for many functions in human health. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body with 99% found in teeth and bone. Only 1% is found in serum. The serum calcium level is tightly monitored to remain within normal range by a complex metabolic process. Calcium metabolism involves other nutrients including protein, vitamin D, and phosphorus. Bone formation and maintenance is a lifelong process. Early attention to strong bones in childhood and adulthood will provide more stable bone mass during the aging years. Research has shown that adequate calcium intake can reduce the risk of fractures, osteoporosis, and diabetes in some populations. The dietary requirements of calcium and other collaborative nutrients vary slightly around the world. Lactose intolerance due to lactase deficiency is a common cause of low calcium intake. Strategies will be discussed for addressing this potential barrier to adequate intake. The purpose of this narrative review is a) to examine the role of calcium in human health, b) to compare nutrient requirements for calcium across lifecycle groups and global populations, c) to review relationships between calcium intake, chronic disease risk, and fractures, and d) to discuss strategies to address diet deficiencies and lactose intolerance. PMID:25713787

  13. CatSper and the relationship of hyperactivated motility to intracellular calcium and pH kinetics in equine sperm.

    PubMed

    Loux, Shavahn C; Crawford, Kristin R; Ing, Nancy H; González-Fernández, Lauro; Macías-García, Beatriz; Love, Charles C; Varner, Dickson D; Velez, Isabel C; Choi, Young Ho; Hinrichs, Katrin

    2013-11-01

    In vitro fertilization does not occur readily in the horse. This may be related to failure of equine sperm to initiate hyperactivated motility, as treating with procaine to induce hyperactivation increases fertilization rates. In mice, hyperactivated motility requires a sperm-specific pH-gated calcium channel (CatSper); therefore, we investigated this channel in equine sperm. Motility was assessed by computer-assisted sperm motility analysis and changes in intracellular pH and calcium were assessed using fluorescent probes. Increasing intracellular pH induced a rise in intracellular calcium, which was inhibited by the known CatSper blocker mibefradil, supporting the presence of a pH-gated calcium channel, presumably CatSper. Hyperactivation was associated with moderately increased intracellular pH, but appeared inversely related to increases in intracellular calcium. In calcium-deficient medium, high-pH treatment induced motility loss, consistent with influx of sodium through open CatSper channels in the absence of environmental calcium. However, sperm treated with procaine in calcium-deficient medium both maintained motility and underwent hyperactivation, suggesting that procaine did not act via opening of the CatSper channel. CATSPER1 mRNA was identified in equine sperm by PCR, and CATSPER1 protein was localized to the principal piece on immunocytochemistry. Analysis of the predicted equine CATSPER1 protein revealed species-specific differences in structure in the pH-sensor region. We conclude that the CatSper channel is present in equine sperm but that the relationship of hyperactivated motility to calcium influx is weak. Procaine does not appear to act via CatSper in equine sperm, and its initial hyperactivating action is not dependent upon external calcium influx. PMID:24048572

  14. Combined effects of estrogen deficiency and cadmium exposure on calcified hard tissues: Animal model relating to itai-itai disease in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    KAKEI, Mitsuo; SAKAE, Toshiro; YOSHIKAWA, Masayoshi

    2013-01-01

    Using ovariectomized rats as a model of postmenopausal women, we studied the effects of estrogen (Es) deficiency and in combination with cadmium (Cd) exposure on the calcified hard tissues related to the development of itai-itai disease. Es deficiency suppressed the synthesis of carbonic anhydrase required for the crystal nucleation process, causing the crystal structure defects in the tooth enamel. Regarding the combined effects of Es deficiency and Cd exposure on the bone, in which rats were given drinking water containing Cd ions, soft X-ray radiography revealed a development of labyrinthine pattern in the calvaria, and micro-computed tomography demonstrated the declining trabecular architecture of the tibia, suggesting Cd–induced osteoporotic change. Further, electron microscopy showed the increase of amorphous minerals in the calvaria. In conclusion, the combined effects of Es deficiency and Cd exposure can be responsible for accelerating the declining bone strength together with the crystal structure defects resulting in the preferential occurrence of itai-itai disease in postmenopausal women. PMID:23883612

  15. Folate–vitamin B-12 interaction in relation to cognitive impairment, anemia, and biochemical indicators of vitamin B-12 deficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous reports on pernicious anemia treatment suggested that high folic acid intake adversely influences the natural history of vitamin B-12 deficiency, which affects many elderly individuals. However, experimental investigation of this hypothesis is unethical, and the few existing observational d...

  16. Nickel deficiency is influenced by the relative concentrations of Zn, Cu, and Fe to Ni within tree organs and cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The occurrence of nickel (Ni) deficiency of pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] in orchards is an increasingly common problem. There is uncertainty regarding the primary cause of the problem, as orchard soils have plenty of Ni. The influence of essential micronutrients on the endogenous...

  17. Iron Deficiency Anemia in Relation to Respiratory Disease and Social Behaviors In Low-Income Infants in France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    1993-01-01

    Examined a sample of 177 infants (age 9 through 12 months) with iron deficiency anemia (IDA) from low-income French, African, and North African Muslim families in Paris. Found a higher than normal incidence of otitis media and respiratory diseases such as bronchitis among the infants. Also examined the relationship between infant IDA and child…

  18. Enlightenment on the aequorin-based platform for screening Arabidopsis stress sensory channels related to calcium signaling.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhiming; Taylor, Jemma L; He, Yue; Ni, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Free calcium ions (Ca(2+)) are an important signal molecule in response to a large array of external stimuli encountered by plants. Using the aequorin-based Ca(2+) recording system, tremendous progress has been made in understanding the Ca(2+) responses to biotic or abiotic stresses in dicotyledonous Arabidopsis. However, due to the lack of a similar detection system, little information has been obtained from the monocotyledonous rice (Oryza sativa). Recombinant aequorin has been introduced into rice, and the Ca(2+) responses to NaCl and H2O2 in rice roots were characterized. Although rice calcium signal sensor research has just started, the transgenic rice expressing aequorin provides a good platform to study rice adapted to different environmental conditions. PMID:26336841

  19. Enlightenment on the aequorin-based platform for screening Arabidopsis stress sensory channels related to calcium signaling

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zhiming; Taylor, Jemma L; He, Yue; Ni, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Free calcium ions (Ca2+) are an important signal molecule in response to a large array of external stimuli encountered by plants. Using the aequorin-based Ca2+ recording system, tremendous progress has been made in understanding the Ca2+ responses to biotic or abiotic stresses in dicotyledonous Arabidopsis. However, due to the lack of a similar detection system, little information has been obtained from the monocotyledonous rice (Oryza sativa). Recombinant aequorin has been introduced into rice, and the Ca2+ responses to NaCl and H2O2 in rice roots were characterized. Although rice calcium signal sensor research has just started, the transgenic rice expressing aequorin provides a good platform to study rice adapted to different environmental conditions. PMID:26336841

  20. Lenticular energy metabolism during exogenous calcium deprivation and during recovery: effects of dextran-40.

    PubMed

    Glonek, T; Kopp, S J; Greiner, J V; Sanders, D R

    1985-02-01

    Phosphatic metabolites of the intact rabbit lens were quantitated as a function of time by phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance (P-31 NMR) spectroscopy during in vitro incubations at 37 degrees C in calcium-sufficient and calcium-deficient modified Earle's buffer with and without the osmotic agent, Dextran-40. Intralenticular pH was determined from the resonance shift position of inorganic orthophosphate (Pi). Incubation of lenses in calcium-deficient buffer resulted in a pronounced, time-dependent decrease in lenticular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels. The half-life of ATP within the lens was 11 hr under these experimental conditions. A concomitant, essentially stoichiometric increase in adenosine diphosphate and Pi levels was observed also. The other phosphatic metabolites were unaffected by exogenous calcium deprivation except for adenosine and inosine monophosphate which accumulated with time. Dextran-40 (6%), which has been shown to prevent lens swelling under these same experimental conditions, did not influence the metabolic responses of the lens to external calcium deprivation and did not facilitate subsequent restoration of lens phosphatic metabolites following restoration of a physiologic calcium concentration to the supporting medium. The Dextran-40 did, however, promote the retention of intralenticular pH environment during the experimental period. These findings suggest that the previously reported Dextran-40-dependent recovery of intralenticular sodium and potassium concentrations to control levels following 10 hr of incubation in calcium-deficient media cannot be attributed to a direct energy-sparing action of Dextran-40 on lenticular energy metabolism. Instead, the mechanistic basis for the action of Dextran-40 would appear to be related to its colloid osmotic properties and its ability to prevent lenticular swelling, which otherwise occurs in the absence of Dextran under these experimental conditions. PMID:2579839

  1. Maleic Acid – but Not Structurally Related Methylmalonic Acid – Interrupts Energy Metabolism by Impaired Calcium Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bei-Tzu; Okun, Jürgen Günther; Kölker, Stefan; Morath, Marina Alexandra; Sauer, Sven Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Maleic acid (MA) has been shown to induce Fanconi syndrome via disturbance of renal energy homeostasis, though the underlying pathomechanism is still under debate. Our study aimed to examine the pathomechanism underlying maleic acid-induced nephrotoxicity. Methylmalonic acid (MMA) is structurally similar to MA and accumulates in patients affected with methymalonic aciduria, a defect in the degradation of branched-chain amino acids, odd-chain fatty acids and cholesterol, which is associated with the development of tubulointerstitial nephritis resulting in chronic renal failure. We therefore used MMA application as a control experiment in our study and stressed hPTECs with MA and MMA to further validate the specificity of our findings. MMA did not show any toxic effects on proximal tubule cells, whereas maleic acid induced concentration-dependent and time-dependent cell death shown by increased lactate dehydrogenase release as well as ethidium homodimer and calcein acetoxymethyl ester staining. The toxic effect of MA was blocked by administration of single amino acids, in particular L-alanine and L-glutamate. MA application further resulted in severe impairment of cellular energy homeostasis on the level of glycolysis, respiratory chain, and citric acid cycle resulting in ATP depletion. As underlying mechanism we could identify disturbance of calcium homeostasis. MA toxicity was critically dependent on calcium levels in culture medium and blocked by the extra- and intracellular calcium chelators EGTA and BAPTA-AM respectively. Moreover, MA-induced cell death was associated with activation of calcium-dependent calpain proteases. In summary, our study shows a comprehensive pathomechanistic concept for MA-induced dysfunction and damage of human proximal tubule cells. PMID:26086473

  2. Familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... and white-colored blood vessels in the retinas Pancreatitis that keeps returning Yellowing of the eyes and ... discuss your diet needs with a registered dietitian. Pancreatitis that is related to lipoprotein lipase deficiency responds ...

  3. Supplemental calcium nutrition improves tuber yield and quality of native potatoes in the Peruvian highlands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato tubers are known to be calcium deficient. This is because calcium moves with water and most water is transported to leaves and tubers being in soil do not have the draw for water and calcium. Calcium fertilizers are now routinely used to improve tuber quality and production in the US. Potatoe...

  4. Calcium antagonists.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Ehud; Messerli, Franz H

    2004-01-01

    Calcium antagonists were introduced for the treatment of hypertension in the 1980s. Their use was subsequently expanded to additional disorders, such as angina pectoris, paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardias, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, Raynaud phenomenon, pulmonary hypertension, diffuse esophageal spasms, and migraine. Calcium antagonists as a group are heterogeneous and include 3 main classes--phenylalkylamines, benzothiazepines, and dihydropyridines--that differ in their molecular structure, sites and modes of action, and effects on various other cardiovascular functions. Calcium antagonists lower blood pressure mainly through vasodilation and reduction of peripheral resistance. They maintain blood flow to vital organs, and are safe in patients with renal impairment. Unlike diuretics and beta-blockers, calcium antagonists do not impair glucose metabolism or lipid profile and may even attenuate the development of arteriosclerotic lesions. In long-term follow-up, patients treated with calcium antagonists had development of less overt diabetes mellitus than those who were treated with diuretics and beta-blockers. Moreover, calcium antagonists are able to reduce left ventricular mass and are effective in improving anginal pain. Recent prospective randomized studies attested to the beneficial effects of calcium antagonists in hypertensive patients. In comparison with placebo, calcium antagonist-based therapy reduced major cardiovascular events and cardiovascular death significantly in elderly hypertensive patients and in diabetic patients. In several comparative studies in hypertensive patients, treatment with calcium antagonists was equally effective as treatment with diuretics, beta-blockers, or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. From these studies, it seems that a calcium antagonist-based regimen is superior to other regimens in preventing stroke, equivalent in preventing ischemic heart disease, and inferior in preventing congestive heart failure

  5. Parathyroid hormone-related protein overexpression protects goat mammary gland epithelial cells from calcium-sensing receptor activation-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Sun, Yongsen; Zheng, Huiling; Li, Lihui; Yu, Qian; Yao, Xiaotong

    2015-01-01

    Normal mammary gland epithelial cells and breast cancer cells express the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), which is the master regulator of systemic calcium metabolism. During lactation, activation of the CaSR in mammary epithelial cells downregulates parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) levels in milk and in the circulation, and increases calcium transport into milk. However, very little information is available on the role of CaSR in goat mammary gland epithelial cells (GMECs) apoptosis. In this investigation, the full-length cDNA of CaSR from Xinong Saanen dairy goats was cloned, which contains an open-reading frame of 3,258 bp encoding 1,085 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 121.0 kDa and an isoelectric point of 5.65. The amino acid sequence is highly homologous with sheep, and the goat CaSR gene is mapped to chromosome 1. Quantitative real-time PCR suggested that CaSR was predominantly expressed in the heart, kidney and mammary gland. Then, we found the stimulation of CaSR with its activator gadolinium chloride (GdCl3) contributed to increase CaSR mRNA levels in GMECs and simultaneously promoted cell apoptosis, and these effects were abrogated partially by NPS2390 which is an inhibitor of CaSR. We also demonstrated that Ca(2+) increased CaSR mRNA levels and induced GMECs apoptosis and restrained cell proliferation. In contrast, PTHrP overexpression protected GMECs from calcium-induced apoptosis, and promoted cell proliferation. In conclusion, these results suggest that PTHrP overexpression protects GMECs from CaSR activation-induced apoptosis. PMID:25266236

  6. Beat-to-beat cycle length variability of spontaneously beating guinea pig sinoatrial cells: relative contributions of the membrane and calcium clocks.

    PubMed

    Zaniboni, Massimiliano; Cacciani, Francesca; Lux, Robert L

    2014-01-01

    The heartbeat arises rhythmically in the sino-atrial node (SAN) and then spreads regularly throughout the heart. The molecular mechanism underlying SAN rhythm has been attributed by recent studies to the interplay between two clocks, one involving the hyperpolarization activated cation current If (the membrane clock), and the second attributable to activation of the electrogenic NaCa exchanger by spontaneous sarcoplasmic releases of calcium (the calcium clock). Both mechanisms contain, in principle, sources of beat-to-beat cycle length variability, which can determine the intrinsic variability of SAN firing and, in turn, contribute to the heart rate variability. In this work we have recorded long sequences of action potentials from patch clamped guinea pig SAN cells (SANCs) perfused, in turn, with normal Tyrode solution, with the If inhibitor ivabradine (3 µM), then back to normal Tyrode, and again with the ryanodine channels inhibitor ryanodine (3 µM). We have found that, together with the expected increase in beating cycle length (+25%), the application of ivabradine brought about a significant and dramatic increase in beat-to-beat cycle length variability (+50%). Despite the similar effect on firing rate, ryanodine did not modify significantly beat-to-beat cycle length variability. Acetylcholine was also applied and led to a 131% increase of beating cycle length, with only a 70% increase in beat-to-beat cycle length variability. We conclude that the main source of inter-beat variability of SANCs firing rate is related to the mechanism of the calcium clock, whereas the membrane clock seems to act in stabilizing rate. Accordingly, when the membrane clock is silenced by application of ivabradine, stochastic variations of the calcium clock are free to make SANCs beating rhythm more variable. PMID:24940609

  7. Beat-to-Beat Cycle Length Variability of Spontaneously Beating Guinea Pig Sinoatrial Cells: Relative Contributions of the Membrane and Calcium Clocks

    PubMed Central

    Zaniboni, Massimiliano; Cacciani, Francesca; Lux, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    The heartbeat arises rhythmically in the sino-atrial node (SAN) and then spreads regularly throughout the heart. The molecular mechanism underlying SAN rhythm has been attributed by recent studies to the interplay between two clocks, one involving the hyperpolarization activated cation current If (the membrane clock), and the second attributable to activation of the electrogenic NaCa exchanger by spontaneous sarcoplasmic releases of calcium (the calcium clock). Both mechanisms contain, in principle, sources of beat-to-beat cycle length variability, which can determine the intrinsic variability of SAN firing and, in turn, contribute to the heart rate variability. In this work we have recorded long sequences of action potentials from patch clamped guinea pig SAN cells (SANCs) perfused, in turn, with normal Tyrode solution, with the If inhibitor ivabradine (3 µM), then back to normal Tyrode, and again with the ryanodine channels inhibitor ryanodine (3 µM). We have found that, together with the expected increase in beating cycle length (+25%), the application of ivabradine brought about a significant and dramatic increase in beat-to-beat cycle length variability (+50%). Despite the similar effect on firing rate, ryanodine did not modify significantly beat-to-beat cycle length variability. Acetylcholine was also applied and led to a 131% increase of beating cycle length, with only a 70% increase in beat-to-beat cycle length variability. We conclude that the main source of inter-beat variability of SANCs firing rate is related to the mechanism of the calcium clock, whereas the membrane clock seems to act in stabilizing rate. Accordingly, when the membrane clock is silenced by application of ivabradine, stochastic variations of the calcium clock are free to make SANCs beating rhythm more variable. PMID:24940609

  8. Calcium in diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... of calcium dietary supplements include calcium citrate and calcium carbonate. Calcium citrate is the more expensive form of ... the body on a full or empty stomach. Calcium carbonate is less expensive. It is absorbed better by ...

  9. Lack of age-related clinical progression in PGC-1α-deficient mice - implications for mitochondrial encephalopathies.

    PubMed

    Szalardy, Levente; Molnar, Mate; Torok, Rita; Zadori, Denes; Kovacs, Gabor G; Vecsei, Laszlo; Klivenyi, Peter

    2016-10-15

    Impaired peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) function has been demonstrated in several neurodegenerative diseases, and murine whole-body knockouts of PGC-1α have been considered as models for Huntington's disease. Recent neuropathological studies, however, rather propose these animals to be morphological models of mitochondrial encephalopathies, with special reminiscence of Kearns-Sayre syndrome. PGC-1α-deficient animals have already been subjected to behavioral assessments; however, the contradictory findings and the paucity of data assessing long-term progression necessitated further examinations. This study provides a comprehensive neurological phenotypic profiling of full-length-(FL-)PGC-1α-deficient mice in a broad age spectrum, with special focus on previously controversial findings, the issue of long-term phenotypic progression, the histopathological assessment of previously non-characterized tissues of potential clinicopathological relevance, and the gene expression profile of novel brain-specific isoforms of PGC-1α. Our findings demonstrate moderate hypomotility with signs of gait and trunk ataxia in addition to severe impairments in coordination and muscle strength in FL-PGC-1α-deficient mice, phenotypic features consistent of a mitochondrial disease. Intriguingly, however, these early alterations did not progress with age, the understanding of which may unveil mechanisms of potential therapeutic relevance, as discussed. The observed phenotype did not associate with retinal or spinal cord alterations, and was accompanied by mild myopathic changes. Based on these, FL-PGC-1α-deficient mice can be regarded not only as morphological but behavioral models of mitochondrial encephalopathies, with an important temporal limitation that has now been clarified. The mechanisms capable of halting a potentially lethal phenotype are to be unveiled, as they may hold therapeutic value for mitochondrial diseases. PMID

  10. A Delphi Study to Detect Deficiencies and Propose Actions in Real Life Treatment of Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    García-Layana, Alfredo; Arias, Luis; Figueroa, Marta S.; Araiz, Javier; Ruiz-Moreno, José María; García-Arumí, José; Gómez-Ulla, Francisco; López-Gálvez, María Isabel; Cabrera-López, Francisco; García-Campos, José Manuel; Monés, Jordi; Cervera, Enrique; Armadá, Felix; Piñero-Bustamante, Antonio; Serrano-Garcia, Miguel Angel

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Spanish retina specialists were surveyed in order to propose actions to decrease deficiencies in real-life neovascular age macular degeneration treatment (nv-AMD). Methods. One hundred experts, members of the Spanish Vitreoretinal Society (SERV), were invited to complete an online survey of 52 statements about nv-AMD management with a modified Delphi methodology. Four rounds were performed using a 5-point Linkert scale. Recommendations were developed after analyzing the differences between the results and the SERV guidelines recommendations. Results. Eighty-seven specialists completed all the Delphi rounds. Once major potential deficiencies in real-life nv-AMD treatment were identified, 15 recommendations were developed with a high level of agreement. Consensus statements to reduce the burden of the disease included the use of treat and extend regimen and to reduce the amount of diagnostic tests during the loading phase and training technical staff to perform these tests and reduce the time between relapse detection and reinjection, as well as establishing patient referral protocols to outside general ophthalmology clinics. Conclusion. The level of agreement with the final recommendations for nv-AMD treatment among Spanish retinal specialist was high indicating that some actions could be applied in order to reduce the deficiencies in real-life nv-AMD treatment. PMID:25587438

  11. A delphi study to detect deficiencies and propose actions in real life treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    García-Layana, Alfredo; Arias, Luis; Figueroa, Marta S; Araiz, Javier; Ruiz-Moreno, José María; García-Arumí, José; Gómez-Ulla, Francisco; López-Gálvez, María Isabel; Cabrera-López, Francisco; García-Campos, José Manuel; Monés, Jordi; Cervera, Enrique; Armadá, Felix; Gallego-Pinazo, Roberto; Piñero-Bustamante, Antonio; Serrano-Garcia, Miguel Angel

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Spanish retina specialists were surveyed in order to propose actions to decrease deficiencies in real-life neovascular age macular degeneration treatment (nv-AMD). Methods. One hundred experts, members of the Spanish Vitreoretinal Society (SERV), were invited to complete an online survey of 52 statements about nv-AMD management with a modified Delphi methodology. Four rounds were performed using a 5-point Linkert scale. Recommendations were developed after analyzing the differences between the results and the SERV guidelines recommendations. Results. Eighty-seven specialists completed all the Delphi rounds. Once major potential deficiencies in real-life nv-AMD treatment were identified, 15 recommendations were developed with a high level of agreement. Consensus statements to reduce the burden of the disease included the use of treat and extend regimen and to reduce the amount of diagnostic tests during the loading phase and training technical staff to perform these tests and reduce the time between relapse detection and reinjection, as well as establishing patient referral protocols to outside general ophthalmology clinics. Conclusion. The level of agreement with the final recommendations for nv-AMD treatment among Spanish retinal specialist was high indicating that some actions could be applied in order to reduce the deficiencies in real-life nv-AMD treatment. PMID:25587438

  12. Relation between increased anxiety and reduced expression of alpha1 and alpha2 subunits of GABA(A) receptors in Wfs1-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Raud, Sirli; Sütt, Silva; Luuk, Hendrik; Plaas, Mario; Innos, Jürgen; Kõks, Sulev; Vasar, Eero

    2009-08-28

    Mutations in the coding region of the WFS1 gene cause Wolfram syndrome, a rare multisystem neurodegenerative disorder of autosomal recessive inheritance. In clinical studies a relation between mutations in the Wfs1 gene and increased susceptibility for mood disorders has been established. According to our previous studies, mice lacking Wfs1 gene displayed increased anxiety in stressful environment. As the GABA-ergic system plays a significant role in the regulation of anxiety, we analyzed the expression of GABA-related genes in the forebrain structures of wild-type and Wfs1-deficient mice. Experimentally naïve Wfs1-deficient animals displayed a significant down-regulation of alpha1 (Gabra1) and alpha2 (Gabra2) subunits of GABA(A) receptors in the temporal lobe and frontal cortex. Exposure of wild-type mice to the elevated plus-maze decreased levels of Gabra1 and Gabra2 genes in the temporal lobe. A similar tendency was also established in the frontal cortex of wild-type animals exposed to behavioral test. In Wfs1-deficient mice the elevated plus-maze exposure did not induce further changes in the expression of Gabra1 and Gabra2 genes. By contrast, the expression of Gad1 and Gad2 genes, enzymes responsible for the synthesis of GABA, was not significantly affected by the exposure of mice to the elevated plus-maze or by the invalidation of Wfs1 gene. Altogether, the present study demonstrates that increased anxiety of Wfs1-deficient mice is probably linked to reduced expression of Gabra1 and Gabra2 genes in the frontal cortex and temporal lobe. PMID:19477223

  13. Calcium Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... as thyroid disease , parathyroid disorder , malabsorption , cancer, or malnutrition An ionized calcium test may be ordered when ... albumin , which can result from liver disease or malnutrition , both of which may result from alcoholism or ...

  14. Calcium Calculator

    MedlinePlus

    ... with Sarcopenia Skeletal Rare Disorders Data & Publications Facts and Statistics Vitamin D map Fracture Risk Map Hip Fracture ... Training Courses Working Groups Regional Audits Reports Facts and Statistics Popular content Calcium content of common foods What ...

  15. Calcium - ionized

    MedlinePlus

    ... levels. These may include abnormal blood levels of albumin or immunoglobulins. Normal Results Children: 4.8 to ... 2016:chap 245. Read More Acute kidney failure Albumin - blood (serum) test Bone tumor Calcium blood test ...

  16. Calcium metabolism and cardiovascular function after spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatton, Daniel C.; Yue, Qi; Dierickx, Jacqueline; Roullet, Chantal; Otsuka, Keiichi; Watanabe, Mitsuaki; Coste, Sarah; Roullet, Jean Baptiste; Phanouvang, Thongchan; Orwoll, Eric; Orwoll, Shiela; McCarron, David A.

    2002-01-01

    To determine the influence of dietary calcium on spaceflight-induced alterations in calcium metabolism and blood pressure (BP), 9-wk-old spontaneously hypertensive rats, fed either high- (2%) or low-calcium (0.02%) diets, were flown on an 18-day shuttle flight. On landing, flight animals had increased ionized calcium (P < 0.001), elevated parathyroid hormone levels (P < 0.001), reduced calcitonin levels (P < 0.05), unchanged 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) levels, and elevated skull (P < 0.01) and reduced femur bone mineral density. Basal and thrombin-stimulated platelet free calcium (intracellular calcium concentration) were also reduced (P < 0.05). There was a tendency for indirect systolic BP to be reduced in conscious flight animals (P = 0.057). However, mean arterial pressure was elevated (P < 0.001) after anesthesia. Dietary calcium altered all aspects of calcium metabolism (P < 0.001), as well as BP (P < 0.001), but the only interaction with flight was a relatively greater increase in ionized calcium in flight animals fed low- compared with high-calcium diets (P < 0.05). The results indicate that 1) flight-induced disruptions of calcium metabolism are relatively impervious to dietary calcium in the short term, 2) increased ionized calcium did not normalize low-calcium-induced elevations of BP, and 3) parathyroid hormone was paradoxically increased in the high-calcium-fed flight animals after landing.

  17. Calcium Carbonate.

    PubMed

    Al Omari, M M H; Rashid, I S; Qinna, N A; Jaber, A M; Badwan, A A

    2016-01-01

    Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3 formed by three main elements: carbon, oxygen, and calcium. It is a common substance found in rocks in all parts of the world (most notably as limestone), and is the main component of shells of marine organisms, snails, coal balls, pearls, and eggshells. CaCO3 exists in different polymorphs, each with specific stability that depends on a diversity of variables. PMID:26940168

  18. Calcium orthophosphates

    PubMed Central

    Dorozhkin, Sergey V.

    2011-01-01

    The present overview is intended to point the readers’ attention to the important subject of calcium orthophosphates. This type of materials is of special significance for human beings, because they represent the inorganic part of major normal (bones, teeth and antlers) and pathological (i.e., those appearing due to various diseases) calcified tissues of mammals. For example, atherosclerosis results in blood vessel blockage caused by a solid composite of cholesterol with calcium orthophosphates, while dental caries and osteoporosis mean a partial decalcification of teeth and bones, respectively, that results in replacement of a less soluble and harder biological apatite by more soluble and softer calcium hydrogenphosphates. Therefore, the processes of both normal and pathological calcifications are just an in vivo crystallization of calcium orthophosphates. Similarly, dental caries and osteoporosis might be considered an in vivo dissolution of calcium orthophosphates. Thus, calcium orthophosphates hold a great significance for humankind, and in this paper, an overview on the current knowledge on this subject is provided. PMID:23507744

  19. Calcium Hydroxylapatite

    PubMed Central

    Yutskovskaya, Yana Alexandrovna; Philip Werschler, WM.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Calcium hydroxylapatite is one of the most well-studied dermal fillers worldwide and has been extensively used for the correction of moderate-to-severe facial lines and folds and to replenish lost volume. Objectives: To mark the milestone of 10 years of use in the aesthetic field, this review will consider the evolution of calcium hydroxylapatite in aesthetic medicine, provide a detailed injection protocol for a global facial approach, and examine how the unique properties of calcium hydroxylapatite provide it with an important place in today’s market. Methods: This article is an up-to-date review of calcium hydroxylapatite in aesthetic medicine along with procedures for its use, including a detailed injection protocol for a global facial approach by three expert injectors. Conclusion: Calcium hydroxylapatite is a very effective agent for many areas of facial soft tissue augmentation and is associated with a high and well-established safety profile. Calcium hydroxylapatite combines high elasticity and viscosity with an ability to induce long-term collagen formation making it an ideal agent for a global facial approach. PMID:25610523

  20. Changes in physicochemical properties related to the texture of lotus rhizomes subjected to heat blanching and calcium immersion.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wenlin; Xie, Wei; Du, Shenglan; Yan, Shoulei; Li, Jie; Wang, Qingzhang

    2016-11-15

    Pretreatments such as low temperature blanching and/or calcium soaking affect the cooked texture of vegetal food. In the work, lotus rhizomes (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) were pretreated using the following 4 treatments, blanching at 40°C, blanching at 90°C, soaking in 0.5% CaCl2, and blanching at 40°C followed by immersion in 0.5% CaCl2. Subsequently, the cell wall material of pretreated samples was isolated and fractioned to identify changes in the degree of esterification (DE) and monosaccharide content of each section, and the texture of the lotus rhizomes in different pre-treatments was determined after thermal processing with different time. The results showed that the greatest hardness was obtained after blanching at 40°C in CaCl2, possibly attributing to the formation of a pectate calcium network, which maintains the integrity of cell walls. Furthermore, the content of galactose, rhamnose and arabinose decreased due to the breakage of sugar backbones and subsequent damage to cell walls. Our results may provide a reference for lotus rhizome processing. PMID:27283649

  1. Cutaneous findings of nutritional deficiencies in children.

    PubMed

    Goskowicz, M; Eichenfield, L F

    1993-08-01

    Nutritional deficiencies may be associated with a variety of cutaneous findings in children. This review emphasizes new developments relating to cutaneous findings of nutritional deficiencies. Zinc deficiency, acrodermatitis enteropathica, and acrodermatitis enteropathica-like eruptions are seen with a variety of conditions including cystic fibrosis, anorexia nervosa, and breastfeeding. Similar cutaneous findings not related to zinc deficiency may also occur with such metabolic disorders as methylmalonic aciduria, multiple carboxylase deficiency, essential fatty acid deficiency and other amino acid deficiencies. Vitamin K deficiency is associated with hemorrhagic disease of the newborn and coagulopathy. Vitamin A deficiency presents with a variety of systemic findings and distinctive dermatologic findings. Acute vitamin A deficiency may be seen in children infected with measles and is associated with more severe disease. The systemic and cutaneous findings of vitamin C deficiency, scurvy, are discussed. PMID:8374671

  2. Betaine deficiency in maize

    SciTech Connect

    Lerma, C. ); Rich, P.J.; Ju, G.C.; Yang, Wenju; Rhodes, D. ); Hanson, A.D. )

    1991-04-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is a betaine-accumulating species, but certain maize genotypes lack betaine almost completely; a single recessive gene has been implicated as the cause of this deficiency. This study was undertaken to determine whether betaine deficiency in diverse maize germplasm is conditioned by the same genetic locus, and to define the biochemical lesion(s) involved. Complementation tests indicated that all 13 deficient genotypes tested shared a common locus. One maize population (P77) was found to be segregating for betaine deficiency, and true breeding individuals were used to produce related lines with and without betaine. Leaf tissue of both betaine-positive and betaine-deficient lines readily converted supplied betaine aldehyde to betaine, but only the betaine-containing line was able to oxidize supplied choline to betaine. This locates the lesion in betaine-deficient plants at the choline {r arrow} betaine aldehyde step of betaine synthesis. Consistent with this location, betaine-deficient plants were shown to have no detectable endogenous pool of betaine aldehyde.

  3. Iron deficiency.

    PubMed

    Scrimshaw, N S

    1991-10-01

    The world's leading nutritional problem is iron deficiency. 66% of children and women aged 15-44 years in developing countries have it. Further, 10-20% of women of childbearing age in developed countries are anemic. Iron deficiency is identified with often irreversible impairment of a child's learning ability. It is also associated with low capacity for adults to work which reduces productivity. In addition, it impairs the immune system which reduces the body's ability to fight infection. Iron deficiency also lowers the metabolic rate and the body temperature when exposed to cold. Hemoglobin contains nearly 73% of the body's iron. This iron is always being recycled as more red blood cells are made. The rest of the needed iron does important tasks for the body, such as binds to molecules that are reservoirs of oxygen for muscle cells. This iron comes from our diet, especially meat. Even though some plants, such as spinach, are high in iron, the body can only absorb 1.4-7% of the iron in plants whereas it can absorb 20% of the iron in red meat. In many developing countries, the common vegetarian diets contribute to high rates of iron deficiency. Parasitic diseases and abnormal uterine bleeding also promote iron deficiency. Iron therapy in anemic children can often, but not always, improve behavior and cognitive performance. Iron deficiency during pregnancy often contributes to maternal and perinatal mortality. Yet treatment, if given to a child in time, can lead to normal growth and hinder infections. However, excess iron can be damaging. Too much supplemental iron in a malnourished child promotes fatal infections since the excess iron is available for the pathogens use. Many countries do not have an effective system for diagnosing, treating, and preventing iron deficiency. Therefore a concerted international effort is needed to eliminate iron deficiency in the world. PMID:1745900

  4. The Impact of Vitamin D3 Supplementation on Mechanisms of Cell Calcium Signaling in Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lajdova, Ingrid; Spustova, Viera; Oksa, Adrian; Kaderjakova, Zuzana; Chorvat, Dusan; Morvova, Marcela; Sikurova, Libusa; Marcek Chorvatova, Alzbeta

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular calcium concentration in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is significantly increased, and the regulatory mechanisms maintaining cellular calcium homeostasis are impaired. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of vitamin D3 on predominant regulatory mechanisms of cell calcium homeostasis. The study involved 16 CKD stages 2-3 patients with vitamin D deficiency treated with cholecalciferol 7000–14000 IU/week for 6 months. The regulatory mechanisms of calcium signaling were studied in PBMCs and red blood cells. After vitamin D3 supplementation, serum concentration of 25(OH)D3 increased (P < 0.001) and [Ca2+]i decreased (P < 0.001). The differences in [Ca2+]i were inversely related to differences in 25(OH)D3 concentration (P < 0.01). Vitamin D3 supplementation decreased the calcium entry through calcium release activated calcium (CRAC) channels and purinergic P2X7 channels. The function of P2X7 receptors was changed in comparison with their baseline status, and the expression of these receptors was reduced. There was no effect of vitamin D3 on P2X7 pores and activity of plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPases. Vitamin D3 supplementation had a beneficial effect on [Ca2+]i decreasing calcium entry via CRAC and P2X7 channels and reducing P2X7 receptors expression. PMID:26064953

  5. Dendrochemical patterns of calcium, zinc, and potassium related to internal factors detected by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kevin T.; Balouet, Jean Christophe; Shortle, Walter C.; Chalot, Michel; Beaujard, François; Grudd, Håkan; Vroblesky, Don A.; Burkem, Joel G.

    2014-01-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) provides highly sensitive and precise spatial resolution of cation content in individual annual growth rings in trees. The sensitivity and precision have prompted successful applications to forensic dendrochemistry and the timing of environmental releases of contaminants. These applications have highlighted the need to distinguish dendrochemical effects of internal processes from environmental contamination. Calcium, potassium, and zinc are three marker cations that illustrate the influence of these processes. We found changes in cation chemistry in tree rings potentially due to biomineralization, development of cracks or checks, heartwood/sapwood differentiation, intra-annual processes, and compartmentalization of infection. Distinguishing internal from external processes that affect dendrochemistry will enhance the value of EDXRF for both physiological and forensic investigations.

  6. Dendrochemical patterns of calcium, zinc, and potassium related to internal factors detected by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF).

    PubMed

    Smith, Kevin T; Balouet, Jean Christophe; Shortle, Walter C; Chalot, Michel; Beaujard, François; Grudd, Håkan; Vroblesky, Don A; Burken, Joel G

    2014-01-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) provides highly sensitive and precise spatial resolution of cation content in individual annual growth rings in trees. The sensitivity and precision have prompted successful applications to forensic dendrochemistry and the timing of environmental releases of contaminants. These applications have highlighted the need to distinguish dendrochemical effects of internal processes from environmental contamination. Calcium, potassium, and zinc are three marker cations that illustrate the influence of these processes. We found changes in cation chemistry in tree rings potentially due to biomineralization, development of cracks or checks, heartwood/sapwood differentiation, intra-annual processes, and compartmentalization of infection. Distinguishing internal from external processes that affect dendrochemistry will enhance the value of EDXRF for both physiological and forensic investigations. PMID:24034830

  7. T-type calcium channels promote predictive homeostasis of input-output relations in thalamocortical neurons of lateral geniculate nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Su Z.; Kim, Haram R.; Fiorillo, Christopher D.

    2014-01-01

    A general theory views the function of all neurons as prediction, and one component of this theory is that of “predictive homeostasis” or “prediction error.” It is well established that sensory systems adapt so that neuronal output maintains sensitivity to sensory input, in accord with information theory. Predictive homeostasis applies the same principle at the cellular level, where the challenge is to maintain membrane excitability at the optimal homeostatic level so that spike generation is maximally sensitive to small gradations in synaptic drive. Negative feedback is a hallmark of homeostatic mechanisms, as exemplified by depolarization-activated potassium channels. In contrast, T-type calcium channels exhibit positive feedback that appears at odds with the theory. In thalamocortical neurons of lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), T-type channels are capable of causing bursts of spikes with an all-or-none character in response to excitation from a hyperpolarized potential. This “burst mode” would partially uncouple visual input from spike output and reduce the information spikes convey about gradations in visual input. However, past observations of T-type-driven bursts may have resulted from unnaturally high membrane excitability. Here we have mimicked within rat brain slices the patterns of synaptic conductance that occur naturally during vision. In support of the theory of predictive homeostasis, we found that T-type channels restored excitability toward its homeostatic level during periods of hyperpolarization. Thus, activation of T-type channels allowed two retinal input spikes to cause one output spike on average, and we observed almost no instances in which output count exceeded input count (a “burst”). T-type calcium channels therefore help to maintain a single optimal mode of transmission rather than creating a second mode. More fundamentally our results support the general theory, which seeks to predict the properties of a neuron's ion

  8. Quantitative Relation between Coronary Calcium Content and Coronary Flow Reserve as Assessed by Integrated PET-CT Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Curillova, Zelmira; Yaman, Bettina F.; Dorbala, Sharmila; Kwong, Raymond Y.; Sitek, Arkadius; El Fakhri, Georges; Anagnostopoulos, Constantinos; Di Carli, Marcelo F.

    2011-01-01

    Background Coronary artery calcium (CAC) is a marker of atherosclerosis. Whether epicardial calcium reflects more widespread atherosclerosis affecting coronary vascular function is unknown. Methods We evaluated 136 consecutive patients without known coronary disease (age 62 ±12 years, 68 % females) undergoing vasodilator stress 82Rb PET and CAC scoring based on clinical grounds. Patients with normal myocardial perfusion on standard semi-quantitative analysis were included. The Agatston CAC score, rest and stress myocardial blood flow (MBF), coronary flow reserve (CFR) and coronary vascular resistance (CVR) were quantified and analyzed on a per patient and per vascular territory basis. Results Global and regional CAC scores showed modest but significant correlation with hyperemic MBF (r= −0.31 and r= −0.26, p≤0.0002, respectively), CFR (r= −0.28 and r= −0.2, p≤0.001, respectively), and CVR during peak hyperemia (r=0.32 and r= 0.26, p≤0.0002, respectively). There was a modest stepwise decline of mean CFR with increasing CAC score on per patient analysis (1.8 ±0.5 vs 1.7 ±0.5 vs 1.5±0.4, p=0.048 with total CAC= 0, 1-400 and >400 respectively) and per vessel analysis (1.8 ±0.6 vs 1.6 ±0.4 vs 1.5 ±0.5 vs 1.5 ±0.5, p=0.004 with vessel CAC score= 0, 1-100, 101-400 and >400 respectively). In multivariable modeling only body mass index (p=0.005), CAC score (p =0.04) and hypertension (p=0.05) remained predictive. Conclusions In patients without overt CAD, there is a modest but statistically significant inverse relationship between CAC content and coronary vasodilator function, which persists after adjusting for the effect of coronary risk factors. PMID:19387640

  9. A distinct cation-sensing mechanism in MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts functionally related to the calcium receptor.

    PubMed

    Quarles, L D; Hartle, J E; Siddhanti, S R; Guo, R; Hinson, T K

    1997-03-01

    The presence of a cation-sensing mechanism in osteoblasts is suggested by the ability of specific cations to stimulate osteoblastic proliferation in culture and to induce de novo bone formation in some experimental models. Our study examines whether extracellular cations stimulate osteoblasts through the recently identified G protein-coupled calcium receptor (CaR). We found that CaR agonists, calcium (Ca2+), gadolinium (Gd3+), aluminum (Al3+), and neomycin, stimulated DNA synthesis in murine-derived MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts, whereas magnesium (Mg2+), nickel (Ni2+), cadmium (Cd2+), and zinc (Zn2+) had no effect. With the exception of Mg2+, the cation specificities and apparent affinities were similar to that reported for CaR. CaR agonists also stimulated DNA synthesis in C3HT10(1/2) fibroblasts, but not in mesangial PVG, CHO, hepatic HTC, COS-7 cells, or malignant transformed ROS17/2.8 and UMR-106 osteoblasts. In addition, similar to other growth factors, CaR agonists activated transcription of a serum response element luciferase reporter construct (SRE-Luc) stably transfected into MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts, but had no effect on SRE-Luc transfected into CHO and COS-7 cells. We were unable to detect CaR expression by Northern analysis using a mouse CaR-specific probe or to amplify CaR mRNA by reverse transcribed polymerase chain reaction in MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts. These findings suggest that an extra-cellular cation-sensing mechanism is present in murine-derived osteoblasts that is functionally similar to but molecularly distinct from CaR. PMID:9076582

  10. Phosphorylation of a twitchin-related protein controls catch and calcium sensitivity of force production in invertebrate smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Siegman, Marion J.; Funabara, Daisuke; Kinoshita, Shigeharu; Watabe, Shugo; Hartshorne, David J.; Butler, Thomas M.

    1998-01-01

    “Catch” is a condition of prolonged, high-force maintenance at resting intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]) and very low energy usage, occurring in invertebrate smooth muscles, including the anterior byssus retractor muscle (ABRM) of Mytilus edulis. Relaxation from catch is rapid on serotonergic nerve stimulation in intact muscles and application of cAMP in permeabilized muscles. This release of catch occurs by protein kinase A-mediated phosphorylation of a high (≈600 kDa) molecular mass protein, the regulator of catch. Here, we identify the catch-regulating protein as a homologue of the mini-titin, twitchin, based on (i) a partial cDNA of the purified isolated protein showing 77% amino acid sequence identity to the kinase domain of Aplysia californica twitchin; (ii) a polyclonal antibody to a synthetic peptide in this sequence reacting with the phosphorylated catch-regulating protein band from permeabilized ABRM; and (iii) the similarity of the amino acid composition and molecular weight of the protein to twitchin. In permeabilized ABRM, at all but maximum [Ca2+], phosphorylation of twitchin results in a decreased calcium sensitivity of force production (half-maximum at 2.5 vs. 1.3 μM calcium). At a given submaximal force, with equal numbers of force generators, twitchin phosphorylation increased unloaded shortening velocity ≈2-fold. These data suggest that aspects of the catch state exist not only at resting [Ca2+], but also at higher submaximal [Ca2+]. The mechanism that gives rise to force maintenance in catch probably operates together, to some extent, with that of cycling myosin crossbridges. PMID:9560285

  11. Effect of calcium-energy supplements on calving-related disorders, fertility and milk yield during the transition period in cows fed anionic diets.

    PubMed

    Melendez, P; Donovan, G A; Risco, C A; Littell, R; Goff, J P

    2003-09-15

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a calcium-energy supplement at calving on the incidence of calving-related disorders (CRD), fertility, BCS and milk yield in cows fed anionic diets and to establish any associations among outcome variables. In Florida, from October to December 1997, 479 cows were assigned to three groups and treated at calving as follows: Group 1: 160 nontreated cows; Group 2: 158 cows, treated orally with 60g Ca as CaCl2; Group 3: 161 cows, treated orally with 110g Ca as calcium propionate (510g) plus propylene glycol (400g). No treatment effect was detected for any of the outcome variables. An association was found between dystocia and age and retained fetal membranes (RFM). Age and RFM were associated with metritis. RFM and displacement of the abomasum were associated with ketosis. Ketosis and age were related to displacement of the abomasum. Parity, BCS, ovarian cysts, RFM and metritis were associated with fertility. PMID:12935862

  12. Inhibition of parathyroid hormone-related protein release by extracellular calcium in dispersed cells from human parathyroid hyperplasia secondary to chronic renal failure and adenoma.

    PubMed Central

    Matsushita, H.; Hara, M.; Honda, K.; Kuroda, M.; Usui, M.; Nakazawa, H.; Hara, S.; Shishiba, Y.

    1995-01-01

    The relationship between parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) release from parathyroid cells and extracellular calcium ion concentration was investigated in three cases of parathyroid hyperplasia secondary to chronic renal failure and in four cases of parathyroid adenoma. Amounts of PTHrP released from individual parathyroid cells dispersed from surgical specimens were estimated by cell immunoblot assay. Parathyroid cells from both hyperplasias and adenomas showed significant suppression in the release of PTHrP with increase in extracellular calcium ions, but the amounts of PTHrP released from adenoma cells were significantly larger than from hyperplasia cells. The maximal value for PTHrP released within 120 minutes from adenoma cells was 2.91 +/- 2.11 x 10(-2) fmol/cell ([Ca2+], 0.4 mmol/L), and the minimal value was 1.32 +/- 0.35 x 10(-2) fmol/cell ([Ca2+], 2.0 mmol/L). On the other hand, the maximal value for PTHrP released from hyperplasia cells was 1.79 +/- 1.56 x 10(-2) fmol/cell ([Ca2+], 0.4 mmol/L), and the minimal value was 0.32 +/- 0.19 x 10(-2) fmol/cell ([Ca2+], 2.0 mmol/L). These results demonstrate actual release of PTHrP from abnormal parathyroid tissues into the extracellular space with the response to extracellular calcium ions depending on the cell status. Given the lack of definite histological criteria to differentiate between hyperplasias and adenomas in the parathyroid gland, the presently demonstrated significant difference in the ability to release PTHrP is important in pointing to parathyroid hyperplasia secondary to chronic renal failure as a distinct pathological entity separate from parathyroid adenoma. Images Figure 3 PMID:7778690

  13. Characterization of calcium phosphate cements modified by addition of amorphous calcium phosphate.

    PubMed

    Van den Vreken, Natasja M F; Pieters, Ilse Y; Declercq, Heidi A; Cornelissen, Maria J; Verbeeck, Ronald M H

    2010-02-01

    In this study the influence of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) on the setting of, and the formed apatite crystallite size in, a calcium phosphate cement (CPC) based on alpha-tricalcium phosphate (alpha-TCP) or tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP)/monocalcium phosphate monohydrate (MCPM) was investigated. Setting times at 22 degrees C were measured in air atmosphere; those at 37 degrees C were measured at 100% relative humidity. The phase composition of the set cements was investigated after 1 week using X-ray diffractometry and infrared spectroscopy and the morphology was investigated using scanning electron microscopy. The compressive strength (CS) of the set CPCs was measured after 1 day. Viability of MC3T3-E1 cells on the CPCs was analyzed after 7, 14 and 21 days of incubation using the CellTiter 96 Aqueous Non-Radioactive Cell Proliferation Assay. The alpha-TCP-based cement exhibited long setting times, a high CS and was converted to a calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHAp). The TTCP/MCPM-based CPC was only partly converted to CDHAp, produced acceptable setting times and had a low CS. Addition of ACP to these two CPCs resulted in cements that exhibited good setting times, CS suitable for non-load-bearing applications and a full conversion to nanocrystalline CDHAp. Moreover, the ACP containing CPCs demonstrated good cell viability, making them suitable candidates for bone substitute materials. PMID:19654057

  14. Adequate dietary calcium restores vertebral trabecular bone microarchitecture and strength and improves femur calcium concentration following calcium depletion in young female rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine whether dietary calcium deficiency during adolescence permanently reduces lifetime potential to attain peak bone mass and strength, female Sprague-Dawley rats were separated into groups (n=10) and fed an AIN-93G-based diet containing 20% (1000 mg Ca/kg) of the calcium requirement from w...

  15. Sex-dependent modulation of age-related cognitive decline by the L-type calcium channel gene Cacna1c (Cav 1.2).

    PubMed

    Zanos, Panos; Bhat, Shambhu; Terrillion, Chantelle E; Smith, Robert J; Tonelli, Leonardo H; Gould, Todd D

    2015-10-01

    Increased calcium influx through L-type voltage-gated calcium channels has been implicated in the neuronal dysfunction underlying age-related memory declines. The present study aimed to test the specific role of Cacna1c (which encodes Cav 1.2) in modulating age-related memory dysfunction. Short-term, spatial and contextual/emotional memory was evaluated in young and aged, wild-type as well as mice with one functional copy of Cacna1c (haploinsufficient), using the novel object recognition, Y-maze and passive avoidance tasks, respectively. Hippocampal expression of Cacna1c mRNA was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Ageing was associated with object recognition and contextual/emotional memory deficits, and a significant increase in hippocampal Cacna1c mRNA expression. Cacna1c haploinsufficiency was associated with decreased Cacna1c mRNA expression in both young and old animals. However, haploinsufficient mice did not manifest an age-related increase in expression of this gene. Behaviourally, Cacna1c haploinsufficiency prevented object recognition deficits during ageing in both male and female mice. A significant correlation between higher Cacna1c levels and decreased object recognition performance was observed in both sexes. Also, a sex-dependent protective role of decreased Cacna1c levels in contextual/emotional memory loss has been observed, specifically in male mice. These data provide evidence for an association between increased hippocampal Cacna1c expression and age-related cognitive decline. Additionally, they indicate an interaction between the Cacna1c gene and sex in the modulation of age-related contextual memory declines. PMID:25989111

  16. Sirt1 deficiency protects cochlear cells and delays the early onset of age-related hearing loss in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Han, Chul; Linser, Paul; Park, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Mi-Jung; White, Karessa; Vann, James M; Ding, Dalian; Prolla, Tomas A; Someya, Shinichi

    2016-07-01

    Hearing gradually declines with age in both animals and humans, and this condition is known as age-related hearing loss (AHL). Here, we investigated the effects of deficiency of Sirt1, a member of the mammalian sirtuin family, on age-related cochlear pathology and associated hearing loss in C57BL/6 mice, a mouse model of early-onset AHL. Sirt1 deficiency reduced age-related oxidative damage of cochlear hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons and delayed the early onset of AHL. In cultured mouse inner ear cell lines, Sirt1 knockdown increased cell viability under oxidative stress conditions, induced nuclear translocation of Foxo3a, and increased acetylation status of Foxo3a. This resulted in increased activity of the antioxidant enzyme catalase. In young wild-type mice, both Sirt1 and Foxo3a proteins resided in the cytoplasm of the supporting cells within the organ of Corti of the cochlea. Therefore, our findings suggest that SIRT1 promotes early-onset AHL through suppressing FOXO3a-mediated oxidative stress resistance in the cochlea of C57BL/6 mice. PMID:27255815

  17. Role of calcium and vitamin D in the treatment of muscle pain

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Raymond CR

    1985-01-01

    Calcium and vitamin D deficiencies are associated with abnormal muscular functions including non-specific pain and weakness. A diet survey of a patient complaining of back pain showed a low calcium intake. Clinically patients may have low utilization of dietary calcium. In addition to the normal chiropractic treatments, the patient was given calcium and vitamin D supplements. These supplements greatly improved the recovery of the patient. The nutritional status of calcium and vitamin D in the general Canadian population is discussed.

  18. Downregualtion of dynamin-related protein 1 attenuates glutamate-induced excitotoxicity via regulating mitochondrial function in a calcium dependent manner in HT22 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Chi; Yuan, Xian-rui; Li, Hao-yu; Zhao, Zi-jin; Liao, Yi-wei; Wang, Xiang-yu; Su, Jun; Sang, Shu-shan; Liu, Qing

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: •Downregulation of Drp-1 attenuates glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. •Downregulation of Drp-1 inhibits glutamate-induced apoptosis. •Downregulation of Drp-1 reduces glutamate-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. •Downregulation of Drp-1 preserves intracellular calcium homeostasis. -- Abstract: Glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity is involved in many acute and chronic brain diseases. Dynamin related protein 1 (Drp-1), one of the GTPase family of proteins that regulate mitochondrial fission and fusion balance, is associated with apoptotic cell death in cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. Here we investigated the effect of downregulating Drp-1 on glutamate excitotoxicity-induced neuronal injury in HT22 cells. We found that downregulation of Drp-1 with specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) increased cell viability and inhibited lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release after glutamate treatment. Downregulation of Drp-1 also inhibited an increase in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and cleavage of caspase-9 and caspase-3. Drp-1 siRNA transfection preserved the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), reduced cytochrome c release, enhanced ATP production, and partly prevented mitochondrial swelling. In addition, Drp-1 knockdown attenuated glutamate-induced increases of cytoplasmic and mitochondrial Ca{sup 2+}, and preserved the mitochondrial Ca{sup 2+} buffering capacity after excitotoxicity. Taken together, these results suggest that downregulation of Drp-1 protects HT22 cells against glutamate-induced excitatory damage, and this neuroprotection may be dependent at least in part on the preservation of mitochondrial function through regulating intracellular calcium homeostasis.

  19. Calcium and bones

    MedlinePlus

    Bone strength and calcium ... calcium (as well as phosphorus) to make healthy bones. Bones are the main storage site of calcium in ... your body does not absorb enough calcium, your bones can get weak or will not grow properly. ...

  20. Get Enough Calcium

    MedlinePlus

    ... Calcium Print This Topic En español Get Enough Calcium Browse Sections The Basics Overview Foods and Vitamins ... 2 of 4 sections Take Action! Take Action: Calcium Sources Protect your bones – get plenty of calcium ...

  1. Calcium carbonate overdose

    MedlinePlus

    Tums overdose; Calcium overdose ... Calcium carbonate can be dangerous in large amounts. ... Some products that contain calcium carbonate are certain: ... and mineral supplements Other products may also contain calcium ...

  2. Calcium cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Jump to main content . Integrated Risk Information System Recent Additions | Contact Us Search : All EPA IRIS • You are here : EPA Home • Research • Environmental Assessment • IRIS • IRIS Summaries Redirect Page As of September 28 , 2010 , the assessment summary for calcium cyanide is included in th

  3. Modelling of calcium phosphates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderin Hidalgo, Lazaro Juan

    This work is a contribution to a large scale joint experimental and theoretical effort to understand the biological properties of silicon doped calcium phosphates undertaken by Queen's University and Millenium Biologix Corp. We have modeled calcium phosphates and silicon doped calcium phosphates in close relation to experiment in order to study possible location of silicon in the lattice. Density functional theory has been used to study the structural and dynamical properties of small systems of calcium phosphates to gain preliminary information on phosphates and the performance of the theoretical methods. The same methods were used to investigate structural and electronic properties of larger scale calcium phosphate systems, while a classical shell model was developed to investigate the dynamical properties of such large and complex systems. In the context of the shell model a method was devised to calculate the dynamical matrix corrected for the long range Coulomb interaction in the long wave length limit. It was necessary also to develop a theoretical expression for the dielectric function in the context of the shell model. Infrared spectra and thermal parameters were calculated based on these methods. We also propose some directions for future research.

  4. Calcium silicate insulation structure

    DOEpatents

    Kollie, Thomas G.; Lauf, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    An insulative structure including a powder-filled evacuated casing utilizes a quantity of finely divided synthetic calcium silicate having a relatively high surface area. The resultant structure-provides superior thermal insulating characteristics over a broad temperature range and is particularly well-suited as a panel for a refrigerator or freezer or the insulative barrier for a cooler or a insulated bottle.

  5. 21 CFR 573.240 - Calcium periodate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.240 Calcium periodate. The food additive calcium periodate may be safely used in... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium periodate. 573.240 Section 573.240...

  6. 21 CFR 573.240 - Calcium periodate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.240 Calcium periodate. The food additive calcium periodate may be safely used in... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium periodate. 573.240 Section 573.240...

  7. 21 CFR 573.240 - Calcium periodate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.240 Calcium periodate. The food additive calcium periodate may be safely used in... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium periodate. 573.240 Section 573.240...

  8. The epidemiology of iodine-deficiency disorders in relation to goitrogenic factors and thyroid-stimulating-hormone regulation.

    PubMed

    Thilly, C H; Swennen, B; Bourdoux, P; Ntambue, K; Moreno-Reyes, R; Gillies, J; Vanderpas, J B

    1993-02-01

    In children aged 5-7 y from goiter-endemic areas in Ubangi, Zaire, and Ntcheu, Malawi, mean serum thyroxin (T4) concentrations were 53 +/- 49 vs 81 +/- 33 nmol/L (P < 0.05), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) values were 24.3 +/- 9.6 vs 4.5 +/- 3.3 mU/L respectively (P < 0.01); mean urinary iodine concentrations were 0.14 +/- 0.02 vs 0.09 +/- 0.02 mumol/L, and mean thiocyanate concentrations were 0.33 +/- 0.05 vs 0.17 +/- 0.05 nmol/L, respectively (P < 0.05). Mean serum selenium concentrations were 0.343 +/- 0.176 mumol/L in Ubangi and 0.437 +/- 0.178 mumol/L in Ntcheu (P < 0.05). In two groups of 11 adolescent girls from Ubangi, the mean values for excretion of urinary iodine were 1.31 +/- 0.14 and 0.58 +/- 0.17 mumol/L (P < 0.05) after a meal of cassava or a control meal of rice, respectively. In euthyroid subjects from Ubangi, mean serum TSH for a given serum T4 was approximately twice as high for children aged < 15 y than for those aged 16-25 y. The high frequency of myxedematous cretins observed in Ubangi very probably result from both severe iodine and selenium deficiency together with thiocyanate overload. PMID:8427202

  9. Dietary galacto-oligosaccharides and calcium: effects on energy intake, fat-pad weight and satiety-related, gastrointestinal hormones in rats.

    PubMed

    Overduin, Joost; Schoterman, Margriet H C; Calame, Wim; Schonewille, Arjan J; Ten Bruggencate, Sandra J M

    2013-04-14

    Galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) are carbohydrates that are fermented by colonic microbiota. The present study examined effects of a 3-week dietary enrichment with 6 % (w/w) GOS on parameters of energy balance in forty-three male Wistar rats. GOS was tested with two doses of calcium phosphate (30 and 100 mmol/kg), known to differently affect colonic fermentation. After 17 d, isoenergetic test meals were presented and plasma responses of ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY) were measured. On day 21 (study termination) epididymal fat pads and caecum were weighed. Additionally, gastrointestinal mucosal samples and proximal colonic contents were analysed for gene expression (ghrelin, proglucagon and PYY) and fermentation metabolites (SCFA and lactate), respectively. GOS reduced energy intake most prominently during the first week, without provoking compensatory overeating later on (average intake reduction: 14 %). The GOS-fed rats showed increased caecal and reduced fat-pad weight and increased gene expression of the satiety-related peptides, PYY (1.7-fold) and proglucagon (3.5-fold). Pre-meal baseline and post-meal plasma levels of PYY, but not of ghrelin or GLP-1, were higher in GOS-fed rats than in control rats. Ca enrichment resulted in higher energy intake (average 4.5 %). GOS diets increased lactic acid levels and slightly reduced butyric acid in proximal colonic contents. Ca abolished the GOS-related elevation of lactic acid, while increasing propionic acid levels, but did not inhibit GOS-related effects on energy intake, fat-pad weight or gene expression. These results indicate that dietary GOS stimulate a number of physiological mechanisms that can reduce energy intake, regardless of the calcium phosphate content of the diet. PMID:22850280

  10. Deficiency of iPLA2β Primes Immune Cells for Proinflammation: Potential Involvement in Age-Related Mesenteric Lymph Node Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Inhoffen, Johannes; Tuma-Kellner, Sabine; Straub, Beate; Stremmel, Wolfgang; Chamulitrat, Walee

    2015-01-01

    Proinflammation can predispose the body to autoimmunity and cancer. We have reported that iPLA2β−/− mice are susceptible to autoimmune hepatitis and colitis. Here we determined whether cytokine release by immune cells could be affected by iPLA2β deficiency alone or combined with CD95/FasL-antibody treatment in vivo. We also determined whether cancer risk could be increased in aged mutant mice. Immune cells were isolated from 3-month old male WT and iPLA2β−/− mice, and some were injected with anti-CD95/FasL antibody for 6 h. Kupffer cells (KC) or splenocytes and liver lymphocytes were stimulated in vitro by lipopolysaccharide or concanavalinA, respectively. Whole-body iPLA2β deficiency caused increased apoptosis in liver, spleen, and mesenteric lymph node (MLN). KC from mutant mice showed suppressed release of TNFα and IL-6, while their splenocytes secreted increased levels of IFNγ and IL-17a. Upon CD95/FasL activation, the mutant KC in turn showed exaggerated cytokine release, this was accompanied by an increased release of IFNγ and IL-17a by liver lymphocytes. Aged iPLA2β−/− mice did not show follicular MLN lymphoma commonly seen in aged C57/BL6 mice. Thus, iPLA2β deficiency renders M1- and Th1/Th17-proinflammation potentially leading to a reduction in age-related MLN lymphoma during aging. PMID:26690222

  11. Loss of ARID1A Expression is Related to Gastric Cancer Progression, Epstein-Barr Virus Infection, and Mismatch Repair Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Han, Nayoung; Kim, Min A; Lee, Hye Seung; Kim, Woo Ho

    2016-01-01

    The AT-rich interactive domain 1A (ARID1A) gene encodes a member of the switch/sucrose nonfermentable (SWI-SNF) chromatin remodeling complex, and is considered to work as a tumor suppressor in concert with p53. We investigated the clinical significance of ARID1A protein expression in gastric cancer (GC), and examined its association with Epstein-Barr virus-associated (EBV) GC, mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency, and p53 alteration. We performed immunohistochemistry for ARID1A in 417 GC specimens using tissue microarray. EBV infection was examined using EBV-encoded small RNA in situ hybridization. Evaluation of MMR protein deficiency and p53 alteration was performed using immunohistochemistry, and microsatellite instability status was also assessed. Loss of ARID1A expression was observed in 21.1% of GC (88/417), but was not observed in gastric adenoma tissues or non-neoplastic gastric mucosa tissues. Loss of ARID1A showed positive correlations with advanced pTNM stage and tumor invasion (P=0.029 and 0.001, respectively). Overall survival was significantly influenced by the loss of ARID1A expression in wild-type p53 group (P=0.016, log-rank test). Moreover, ARID1A loss was significantly associated with EBV positivity, loss of MMR protein expression, and microsatellite instability high status (P=0.028, <0.001, and 0.011, respectively). All of the results from our cohort were verified using data from the Cancer Genome Atlas. In conclusion, loss of ARID1A is more common in advanced GC and is related to EBV positivity and MMR deficiency. PMID:26067140

  12. Relation of Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms to Coronary Artery Calcium (from the ELSA-Brasil Baseline Data).

    PubMed

    Santos, Itamar S; Bittencourt, Marcio S; Rocco, Priscila T; Pereira, Alexandre C; Barreto, Sandhi M; Brunoni, André R; Goulart, Alessandra C; Blaha, Michael J; Lotufo, Paulo A; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2016-07-15

    Previous studies of the association between symptoms of anxiety or depression and coronary artery calcium (CAC) have produced heterogeneous results. Our aim was to investigate whether psychopathological symptoms were associated with CAC in a cross-sectional analysis of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) baseline. We analyzed data from 4,279 ELSA-Brasil subjects (aged 35 to 74 years) from the São Paulo site without previous cardiovascular disease who underwent CAC score assessment at baseline. Prevalent CAC was defined as a CAC score >0. Anxiety and depressive symptoms were assessed using the Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised (CIS-R). We built binary logistic regression models to determine whether CIS-R scores, anxiety, or depression were associated with prevalent CAC. Prevalent CAC was found in 1,211 subjects (28.3%). After adjustment for age and gender, a direct association between CIS-R scores and prevalent CAC was revealed (odds ratio for 1-SD increase: 1.12; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04 to 1.22). This association persisted after multivariate adjustment (odds ratio for 1-SD increase 1.11; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.20). No independent associations were found for specific diagnoses of anxiety or depression and prevalent CAC. In post hoc models, a significant interaction term (p = 0.019) suggested a stronger association in older subjects. In conclusion, psychopathological symptoms were directly associated with coronary atherosclerosis in the ELSA-Brasil baseline in adjusted models, and this association seems to be stronger in older subjects. PMID:27236256

  13. Relation of Depressive Symptoms With Coronary Artery Calcium Determined by Electron-Beam Computed Tomography (from the Rancho Bernardo Study).

    PubMed

    Bellettiere, John; Kritz-Silverstein, Donna; Laughlin, Gail A; LaCroix, Andrea Z; McEvoy, Linda K; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth

    2016-02-01

    Studies linking depressive symptoms and coronary artery calcium (CAC), a measure of subclinical atherosclerosis, have yielded mixed results. No longitudinal studies of depressive symptoms and CAC have included older adults of both genders. This study examined the association of depressive symptoms with CAC and CAC progression in older men and women. Participants were 417 community-dwelling older adults (mean age = 67 ± 7) with no history of heart disease who attended a 1997 to 1999 research clinic visit when depressive symptoms were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). CAC was measured using electron-beam computed tomography in 2000 to 2002 and again in 2005 to 2007. Median BDI was 3, range = 0 to 37; 39% of men and 10% of women had severe CAC (Agatston score ≥ 400) in 2000 to 2002. Ordinal logistic regression analyses examining the odds of greater compared with lesser CAC severity by BDI quartiles showed an unexpected negative association whereby women with the lowest depressive symptoms had 2.4 times the odds of increasing CAC severity compared with women in the second BDI quartile (95% CI 1.1 to 5.4). A nonlinear, U-shaped association was observed in men with those in the first and fourth BDI quartiles having 2.6 and 3.0 times higher odds of increasing CAC severity than subjects in the second quartile (95% CI 1.2 to 5.6 and 1.3 to 6.9, respectively) after adjustment for coronary heart disease risk factors. No significant associations were observed for CAC progression although similar nonlinear patterns were observed in men. In conclusion, our results suggest that depressive symptoms have a gender-specific, cross-sectional association with CAC but no statistically significant associations with CAC progression. PMID:26747734

  14. Markers of bone resorption and calcium metabolism are related to dietary intake patterns in male and female bed rest subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, S. R.; Hargens, A. r.

    2006-01-01

    Dietary potassium and protein intakes predict net endogenous acid production in humans. Intracellular buffers, including exchangeable bone mineral, play a crucial role in balancing chronic acid-base perturbations in the body; subsequently, chronic acid loads can potentially contribute to bone loss. Bone is lost during space flight, and a dietary countermeasure would be desirable for many reasons. We studied the ability of diet protein and potassium to predict levels of bone resorption markers in males and females. Identical twin pairs (8 M, 7 F) were assigned to 2 groups: bed rest (sedentary, SED) or bed rest with supine treadmill exercise in a lower body negative pressure chamber (EX). Diet was controlled for 3 d before and 30 d of bed rest (BR). Urinary Ca, N-telopeptide (NTX), and pyridinium crosslinks (PYD) were measured before and on days 5, 12, 19, and 26 of BR. Data were analyzed by Pearson correlation (P<0.05). The ratio of dietary animal protein/potassium intake was not correlated with NTX before BR for males or females, but they were positively correlated in both groups of males during bed rest. Dietary animal protein/potassium and urine Ca were correlated before and during bed rest for the males, and only during bed rest for the females. Conversely, the ratio of dietary vegetable protein/potassium intake was negatively correlated with urinary calcium during bed rest for the females, but there was no relationship between vegetable protein/potassium intake and bone markers for the males. These data suggest that the ratio of animal protein/potassium intake may affect bone, particularly in bed rest subjects. These data show that the type of protein and gender may be additional factors that modulate the effect of diet on bone metabolism during bed rest. Altering this ratio may help prevent bone loss on Earth and during space flight.

  15. Effects of Combined Calcium and Vitamin D Supplementation on Insulin Secretion, Insulin Sensitivity and β-Cell Function in Multi-Ethnic Vitamin D-Deficient Adults at Risk for Type 2 Diabetes: A Pilot Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gagnon, Claudia; Daly, Robin M.; Carpentier, André; Lu, Zhong X.; Shore-Lorenti, Catherine; Sikaris, Ken; Jean, Sonia; Ebeling, Peter R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether combined vitamin D and calcium supplementation improves insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, β-cell function, inflammation and metabolic markers. Design 6-month randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Participants Ninety-five adults with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] ≤55 nmol/L at risk of type 2 diabetes (with prediabetes or an AUSDRISK score ≥15) were randomized. Analyses included participants who completed the baseline and final visits (treatment n = 35; placebo n = 45). Intervention Daily calcium carbonate (1,200 mg) and cholecalciferol [2,000–6,000 IU to target 25(OH)D >75 nmol/L] or matching placebos for 6 months. Measurements Insulin sensitivity (HOMA2%S, Matsuda index), insulin secretion (insulinogenic index, area under the curve (AUC) for C-peptide) and β-cell function (Matsuda index x AUC for C-peptide) derived from a 75 g 2-h OGTT; anthropometry; blood pressure; lipid profile; hs-CRP; TNF-α; IL-6; adiponectin; total and undercarboxylated osteocalcin. Results Participants were middle-aged adults (mean age 54 years; 69% Europid) at risk of type 2 diabetes (48% with prediabetes). Compliance was >80% for calcium and vitamin D. Mean serum 25(OH)D concentration increased from 48 to 95 nmol/L in the treatment group (91% achieved >75 nmol/L), but remained unchanged in controls. There were no significant changes in insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion and β-cell function, or in inflammatory and metabolic markers between or within the groups, before or after adjustment for potential confounders including waist circumference and season of recruitment. In a post hoc analysis restricted to participants with prediabetes, a significant beneficial effect of vitamin D and calcium supplementation on insulin sensitivity (HOMA%S and Matsuda) was observed. Conclusions Daily vitamin D and calcium supplementation for 6 months may not change OGTT-derived measures of insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion and

  16. VERMILION-DEFICIENCY.

    PubMed

    Bridges, C B

    1919-07-20

    In May, 1916, a culture of Drosophila melanogaster showed that a new sex-linked lethal had arisen. The linkage relations indicated that the position of the lethal was in the neighborhood of the sex-linked recessive "vermilion," whose locus in the X chromosome is at 33.0. When females heterozygous for the lethal were outcrossed to vermilion males, all the daughters that received the lethal-bearing chromosome showed vermilion eye-color, though, from the pedigree, vermilion was known to be absent from the ancestry of the mother. The lethal action and the unexpected appearance of vermilion both suggested that this was another instance of the phenomenon called "deficiency;" that is, the loss or "inactivation" of the genes of a section of the X chromosome. The lethal action would then be due to the deficient region including one or more genes necessary for the life of the individual. The appearance of vermilion in females carrying only one vermilion gene would be explainable on the ground that the deficient-bearing females are virtually haploid for the region including the vermilion locus. Linkage tests showed that the amount of crossing over in the neighborhood of the deficiency was cut down by about five units. Part of this may be attributed to the actual length of the "deficient" region, within which it is probable that no crossing over occurs, and part (probably most) to an alteration in the synaptic relations in the regions immediately adjacent. In more remote regions there was no disturbance or perhaps a slight rise in the frequency of crossing over. Both the local fall and the possible rise in more distant regions would seem to argue that a "pucker" at synapsis had been caused by an actual shortening of the deficient chromosome. That the deficient region extends to the left of the locus of vermilion was indicated by a test in which it was observed that the presence of an extra piece of chromosome including the loci for vermilion and sable ("vermilion

  17. Long-term effects of perinatal essential fatty acid deficiency on anxiety-related behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Palsdottir, Vilborg; Månsson, Jan-Eric; Blomqvist, Maria; Egecioglu, Emil; Olsson, Bob

    2012-04-01

    Dietary essential fatty acids have been shown to regulate behavioral and cognitive functions in rodents. However, the long-term effect on behavior, besides memory and learning, of essential fatty acid deficiency (EFAD), i.e., lack of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids, during the perinatal period has not been investigated. Therefore, pregnant C57Bl/6 mice were given either an EFAD or an isoenergetic control diet from gestational day 16 and throughout lactation. The female offspring were given standard chow from 3 weeks of age, and at 12 to 14 weeks of age, open-field, object recognition, light-dark transition, elevated plus maze, and social interaction tests were performed. The brain glycerophospholipid fatty acid composition was investigated in 3-week-old and adult offspring by gas chromatography. The differences observed in behavior were indicative of lower anxiety in the EFAD mice compared to controls illustrated by more time spent in the open arms of the elevated plus maze (+ 41%, p < .05) and in the light compartment in the light-dark transition test (+ 63%, p < .05). The proportion of total n-3 fatty acids, especially 22:6n-3 in the brain, was lower with a compensatory increase in the proportion of total n-6 fatty acids, foremost 22:5n-6, in the EFAD mice compared to controls at 3 weeks of age. In the adult brains the fatty acid composition was normalized. In conclusion, our data show that EFAD during the perinatal period results in short-term alterations of fatty acid composition in brain and decreased anxiety in adult life. PMID:22352789

  18. Calcium phosphate coatings produced by radiofrequency magnetron sputtering method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolbasov, E. N.; Zheravin, A. A.; Klimov, I. A.; Kulbakin, D. E.; Perelmuter, V. M.; Tverdokhlebov, S. I.; Cherdyntseva, N. V.; Choinzonov, E. L.

    2016-08-01

    Calcium phosphate coatings on titanium implants surface, produced by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering method with hydroxyapatite solid target were investigated. It was found that produced coatings are calcium deficient compared to stoichiometric hydroxyapatite. The surface of the coatings is highly rough at the nanoscale and highly elastic. In vivo experiments on rats revealed that titanium implants with the calcium phosphate coatings do not cause negative tissue reaction after 6 months incubation period.

  19. Histamine release by exocytosis from rat mast cells on reduction of extracellular sodium: a secretory response inhibited by calcium, strontium, barium or magnesium.

    PubMed Central

    Cochrane, D E; Douglas, W W

    1976-01-01

    1. Histamine release from peritoneal mast cells of the rat was stimulated when the cells were exposed for 10 min to sodium-deficient media where all NaCl had been replaced by KC1, RbC1, glucose, sucrose, mannitol, or Tris, provided calcium was less than about 0-5 mM. 2. Light and electron microscopy showed the response to be exocytosis. 3. The chelating agents, EDTA and EGTA, abolished the response to sodium lack and their inhibitory effects were reversed by re-incubating cells with calcium but not magnesium. 4. The response was inhibited by dinitrophenol combined with glucose-deprivation. 5. The response was inversely related to the concentrations of sodium and calcium below 137-5 and 0-5 mM respectively. 6. The related alkaline earth metals, barium, strontium, and magnesium, resembled calcium in inhibiting the response to sodium lack. 7. No secretory response was seen when the cells were exposed for 10 min to calcium-free medium in which lithium replaced sodium. Exposure to this medium for 60 min, however, elicited secretion. 8. It is concluded that when extracellular calcium is low, a reduction in extracellular sodium induces a conventional exocytotic secretory response dependent on energy and cellular calcium. It is suggested that sodium lack may mobilize calcium from a cellular site possibly the inner aspect of the plasma membrane. Images A B C D E F G H PMID:59804

  20. Calcium-Mediated Abiotic Stress Signaling in Roots.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Katie A; Matthus, Elsa; Swarbreck, Stéphanie M; Davies, Julia M

    2016-01-01

    Roots are subjected to a range of abiotic stresses as they forage for water and nutrients. Cytosolic free calcium is a common second messenger in the signaling of abiotic stress. In addition, roots take up calcium both as a nutrient and to stimulate exocytosis in growth. For calcium to fulfill its multiple roles must require strict spatio-temporal regulation of its uptake and efflux across the plasma membrane, its buffering in the cytosol and its sequestration or release from internal stores. This prompts the question of how specificity of signaling output can be achieved against the background of calcium's other uses. Threats to agriculture such as salinity, water availability and hypoxia are signaled through calcium. Nutrient deficiency is also emerging as a stress that is signaled through cytosolic free calcium, with progress in potassium, nitrate and boron deficiency signaling now being made. Heavy metals have the capacity to trigger or modulate root calcium signaling depending on their dose and their capacity to catalyze production of hydroxyl radicals. Mechanical stress and cold stress can both trigger an increase in root cytosolic free calcium, with the possibility of membrane deformation playing a part in initiating the calcium signal. This review addresses progress in identifying the calcium transporting proteins (particularly channels such as annexins and cyclic nucleotide-gated channels) that effect stress-induced calcium increases in roots and explores links to reactive oxygen species, lipid signaling, and the unfolded protein response. PMID:27621742

  1. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Liver Disease Information > Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Explore this section to learn more about alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, including a description of the disorder ...

  2. Cytosolic free calcium dynamics as related to hyphal and colony growth in the filamentous fungal pathogen Colletotrichum graminicola.

    PubMed

    Lange, Mario; Peiter, Edgar

    2016-06-01

    Tip growth of pollen tubes and root hairs of plants is oscillatory and orchestrated by tip-focussed variations of cytosolic free calcium ([Ca(2+)]cyt). Hyphae of filamentous fungi are also tubular tip-growing cells, and components of the Ca(2+) signalling machinery, such as Ca(2+) channels and Ca(2+) sensors, are known to be important for fungal growth. In this study, we addressed the questions if tip-focussed [Ca(2+)]cyt transients govern hyphal and whole-colony growth in the maize pathogen Colletotrichum graminicola, and whether colony-wide [Ca(2+)]cyt dynamics rely on external Ca(2+) or internal Ca(2+) stores. Ratiometric fluorescence microscopy of individual hyphae expressing the Ca(2+) reporter Yellow Cameleon 3.6 revealed that Ca(2+) spikes in hyphal tips precede the re-initiation of growth after wounding. Tip-focussed [Ca(2+)]cyt spikes were also observed in undisturbed growing hyphae. They occurred not regularly and at a higher rate in hyphae growing at a medium-glass interface than in those growing on an agar surface. Hyphal tip growth was non-pulsatile, and growth speed was not correlated with the rate of spike occurrence. A possible relationship of [Ca(2+)]cyt spike generation and growth of whole colonies was assessed by using a codon-optimized version of the luminescent Ca(2+) reporter Aequorin. Depletion of extracellular free Ca(2+) abolished [Ca(2+)]cyt spikes nearly completely, but had only a modest effect on colony growth. In a pharmacological survey, some inhibitors targeting Ca(2+) influx or release from internal stores repressed growth strongly. However, although some of those inhibitors also affected [Ca(2+)]cyt spike generation, the effects on both parameters were not correlated. Collectively, the results indicate that tip growth of C. graminicola is non-pulsatile and not mechanistically linked to tip-focused or global [Ca(2+)]cyt spikes, which are likely a response to micro-environmental parameters, such as the physical properties of the

  3. Calcium supplements: benefits and risks.

    PubMed

    Reid, I R; Bristow, S M; Bolland, M J

    2015-10-01

    Calcium is an essential element in the diet, but there is continuing controversy regarding its optimal intake, and its role in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. Most studies show little evidence of a relationship between calcium intake and bone density, or the rate of bone loss. Re-analysis of data from the placebo group from the Auckland Calcium Study demonstrates no relationship between dietary calcium intake and rate of bone loss over 5 years in healthy older women with intakes varying from <400 to >1500 mg day(-1) . Thus, supplements are not needed within this range of intakes to compensate for a demonstrable dietary deficiency, but might be acting as weak anti-resorptive agents via effects on parathyroid hormone and calcitonin. Consistent with this, supplements do acutely reduce bone resorption and produce small short-term effects on bone density, without evidence of a cumulative density benefit. As a result, anti-fracture efficacy remains unproven, with no evidence to support hip fracture prevention (other than in a cohort with severe vitamin D deficiency) and total fracture numbers are reduced by 0-10%, depending on which meta-analysis is considered. Five recent large studies have failed to demonstrate fracture prevention in their primary analyses. This must be balanced against an increase in gastrointestinal side effects (including a doubling of hospital admissions for these problems), a 17% increase in renal calculi and a 20-40% increase in risk of myocardial infarction. Each of these adverse events alone neutralizes any possible benefit in fracture prevention. Thus, calcium supplements appear to have a negative risk-benefit effect, and so should not be used routinely in the prevention or treatment of osteoporosis. PMID:26174589

  4. Health Significance of Calcium and Magnesium: Examples from Human Studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is clear that many people do not consume recommended intakes of calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg), yet biochemical and/or functional changes indicative of deficiencies in these nutrients have been rare. This prompted two series of studies: one addressing an apparent Ca-deficiency rickets in child...

  5. Calcium, magnesium, and potassium in food

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The biochemical and physiological functions and consequences of deficient intakes, which show the nutritional importance of calcium, magnesium and potassium for humans, are reviewed. The dietary recommendations and food sources for these essential mineral elements for humans are presented. Factors t...

  6. Heterogeneous reactions of gaseous hydrogen peroxide on pristine and acidic gas-processed calcium carbonate particles: Effects of relative humidity and surface coverage of coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yue; Chen, Zhongming; Shen, Xiaoli; Huang, Dao

    2013-03-01

    Atmospheric aging appears to alter physical and chemical properties of mineral dust aerosol and thus its role as reactive surface in the troposphere. Yet, previous studies in the atmosphere have mainly focused on the pristine surfaces of mineral dust aerosol, and the reactivity of aged mineral dust toward atmospheric trace gases is poorly recognized. This work presents the first laboratory investigation of heterogeneous reactions of gaseous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), an important atmospheric oxidant, on the surfaces of HNO3 and SO2-processed calcium carbonate particles as surrogates of atmospheric mineral dust aged by acidic trace gases. It is found that the processing of the calcium carbonate particles with HNO3 and SO2 has a strong impact on their reactivity toward H2O2. On HNO3-processed particles, the presence of nitrate acts to either decrease or increase H2O2 uptake, greatly depending on RH and surface coverage of nitrate. On SO2-processed particles, the presence of surface sulfite appears to enhance the intrinsic reactivity of the mineral particles due to its affinity for H2O2, and the uptake of H2O2 increases significantly relative to the pristine particles, in particular at high RH. The mechanisms for heterogeneous reactions of H2O2 with these processed particles are discussed, as well as their potential implications on tropospheric chemistry. The results of our study suggest that the reactivity of mineral dust aerosol toward H2O2 and maybe other trace gases is markedly dependent on the chemical composition and coverage of the coatings as well as ambient RH, and thus will vary considerably in different polluted air masses.

  7. Prognostic factors for health-related quality of life in adults and children with primary antibody deficiencies receiving SCIG home therapy.

    PubMed

    Gardulf, A; Borte, M; Ochs, H D; Nicolay, U

    2008-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to evaluate the health-related quality of life (HRQL) and treatment satisfaction (TS) of adults and children with primary antibody deficiencies (PAD) before and after the introduction of subcutaneous immunoglobulin G (SCIG) self-infusions at home and to identify prognostic factors (demographic/social, medical, patient/parent reported) for HRQL. 85 adults and 21 parents of children with PAD answered the SF-36 (adults), CHQ-PF50 (parents), and the LQI (adults and parents) at baseline and following 10 months of weekly self-administered SCIG infusions at home. The SCIG home therapy was associated with significant improvements in HRQL and TS, particularly in patients who had previously received IVIG therapy in hospital settings. Background factors that were found to be associated with HRQL changes in adults were age, serum IgG levels at month 10, concomitant joint/muscle/skeletal disorders, clinical study location and smoking status. PMID:17964220

  8. Ablation of neurons expressing agouti-related protein, but not melanin concentrating hormone, in leptin-deficient mice restores metabolic functions and fertility

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qi; Whiddon, Benjamin B.; Palmiter, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    Leptin-deficient (Lepob/ob) mice are obese, diabetic, and infertile. Ablation of neurons that make agouti-related protein (AgRP) in moderately obese adult Lepob/ob mice caused severe anorexia. The mice stopped eating for 2 wk and then gradually recovered. Their body weight fell to within a normal range for WT mice, at which point food intake and glucose tolerance were restored to that of WT mice. Remarkably, both male and female Lepob/ob mice became fertile. Ablation of neurons that express melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) in adult Lepob/ob mice had no effect on food intake, body weight, or fertility, but resulted in improved glucose tolerance. We conclude that AgRP-expressing neurons play a critical role in mediating the metabolic syndrome and infertility of Lepob/ob mice, whereas MCH-expressing neurons have only a minor role. PMID:22232663

  9. Treatment with N- and C-Terminal Peptides of Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein Partly Compensate the Skeletal Abnormalities in IGF-I Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Portal-Núñez, Sergio; Murillo-Cuesta, Silvia; Lozano, Daniel; Cediel, Rafael; Esbrit, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) deficiency causes growth delay, and IGF-I has been shown to partially mediate bone anabolism by parathyroid hormone (PTH). PTH-related protein (PTHrP) is abundant in bone, and has osteogenic features by poorly defined mechanisms. We here examined the capacity of PTHrP (1–36) and PTHrP (107–111) (osteostatin) to reverse the skeletal alterations associated with IGF-I deficiency. Igf1-null mice and their wild type littermates were treated with each PTHrP peptide (80 µg/Kg/every other day/2 weeks; 2 males and 4 females for each genotype) or saline vehicle (3 males and 3 females for each genotype). We found that treatment with either PTHrP peptide ameliorated trabecular structure in the femur in both genotypes. However, these peptides were ineffective in normalizing the altered cortical structure at this bone site in Igf1-null mice. An aberrant gene expression of factors associated with osteoblast differentiation and function, namely runx2, osteoprotegerin/receptor activator of NF-κB ligand ratio, Wnt3a, cyclin D1, connexin 43, catalase and Gadd45, as well as in osteocyte sclerostin, was found in the long bones of Igf1-null mice. These mice also displayed a lower amount of trabecular osteoblasts and osteoclasts in the tibial metaphysis than those in wild type mice. These alterations in Igf1-null mice were only partially corrected by each PTHrP peptide treatment. The skeletal expression of Igf2, Igf1 receptor and Irs2 was increased in Igf1-null mice, and this compensatory profile was further improved by treatment with each PTHrP peptide related to ERK1/2 and FoxM1 activation. In vitro, PTHrP (1–36) and osteostatin were effective in promoting bone marrow stromal cell mineralization in normal mice but not in IGF-I-deficient mice. Collectively, these findings indicate that PTHrP (1–36) and osteostatin can exert several osteogenic actions even in the absence of IGF-I in the mouse bone. PMID:24503961

  10. Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of calcium-dependent protein kinase and its closely related kinase genes in Capsicum annuum

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Hanyang; Cheng, Junbin; Yan, Yan; Xiao, Zhuoli; Li, Jiazhi; Mou, Shaoliang; Qiu, Ailian; Lai, Yan; Guan, Deyi; He, Shuilin

    2015-01-01

    As Ca2+ sensors and effectors, calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) play important roles in plant growth, development, and response to environmental cues. However, no CDPKs have been characterized in Capsicum annuum thus far. Herein, a genome wide comprehensive analysis of genes encoding CDPKs and CDPK-related protein kinases (CRKs) was performed in pepper, a total of 31 CDPK genes and five closely related kinase genes were identified, which were phylogenetically divided into four distinct subfamilies and unevenly distributed across nine chromosomes. Conserved sequence and exon-intron structures were found to be shared by pepper CDPKs within the same subfamily, and the expansion of the CDPK family in pepper was found to be due to segmental duplication events. Five CDPKs in the C. annuum variety CM334 were found to be mutated in the Chiltepin variety, and one CDPK present in CM334 was lost in Chiltepin. The majority of CDPK and CRK genes were expressed in different pepper tissues and developmental stages, and 10, 12, and 8 CDPK genes were transcriptionally modified by salt, heat, and Ralstonia solanacearum stresses, respectively. Furthermore, these genes were found to respond specifically to one stress as well as respond synergistically to two stresses or three stresses, suggesting that these CDPK genes might be involved in the specific or synergistic response of pepper to salt, heat, and R. solanacearum. Our results lay the foundation for future functional characterization of pepper CDPK and its closely related gene families. PMID:26442050

  11. Calcium and Vitamin D

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calcium is required for the bone formation phase of bone remodeling. Typically about 5 nmol (200 mg) of calcium is removed from the adult skeleton and replaced each day. To supply this amount, one would need to consume about 600 mg of calcium, since calcium is not very efficiently absorbed. Calcium ...

  12. Interdependence of Cardiac Iron and Calcium in a Murine Model of Iron Overload

    PubMed Central

    Otto-Duessel, Maya; Brewer, Casey; Wood, John C.

    2010-01-01

    Iron cardiomyopathy in β-thalassemia major patients is associated with vitamin D deficiency. Stores of 25-OH-D3 are markedly reduced, while the active metabolite, 1-25-(OH)-D3, is normal or increased. Interestingly, the ratio of 25-OH-D3 to 1-25-(OH)-D3 (a surrogate for parathyroid hormone (PTH)) is the strongest predictor of cardiac iron. Increased PTH and 1-25-OH-D3 levels have been shown to up-regulate L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (LVGCC), the putative channel for cardiac iron uptake. Therefore, we postulate that vitamin D deficiency increases cardiac iron by altering LVGCC regulation. Hemojuvelin knockout mice were calcitriol treated, PTH treated, vitamin D-depleted, or untreated. Half of the animals in each group received the Ca2+-channel blocker verapamil. Mn2+ was infused to determine LVGCC activity. Hearts and livers were harvested for iron, calcium, and manganese measurements as well as histology. Cardiac iron did not differ amongst the treatment groups; however, liver iron was increased in vitamin D-depleted animals (p<0.0003). Cardiac iron levels did not correlate with manganese uptake, but were proportional to cardiac calcium levels (r2 = 0.6, p < 0.0001). Verapamil treatment reduced both cardiac (p <0.02) and hepatic (p < 0.003) iron levels significantly by 34% and 28%. The association between cardiac iron and calcium levels was maintained after verapamil treatment (r2 = 0.3, p < 0.008). Vitamin D-depletion is associated with an increase in liver, but not cardiac, iron accumulation. Cardiac iron uptake was strongly correlated with cardiac calcium stores and was significantly attenuated by verapamil, suggesting that cardiac calcium and iron are related. PMID:21256461

  13. Deficient Event-Related Theta Oscillations in Individuals at Risk for Alcoholism: A Study of Reward Processing and Impulsivity Features

    PubMed Central

    Kamarajan, Chella; Pandey, Ashwini K.; Chorlian, David B.; Manz, Niklas; Stimus, Arthur T.; Anokhin, Andrey P.; Bauer, Lance O.; Kuperman, Samuel; Kramer, John; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Schuckit, Marc A.; Hesselbrock, Victor M.; Porjesz, Bernice

    2015-01-01

    Background Individuals at high risk to develop alcoholism often manifest neurocognitive deficits as well as increased impulsivity. Event-related oscillations (EROs) have been used to effectively measure brain (dys)function during cognitive tasks in individuals with alcoholism and related disorders and in those at risk to develop these disorders. The current study examines ERO theta power during reward processing as well as impulsivity in adolescent and young adult subjects at high risk for alcoholism. Methods EROs were recorded during a monetary gambling task (MGT) in 12–25 years old participants (N = 1821; males = 48%) from high risk alcoholic families (HR, N = 1534) and comparison low risk community families (LR, N = 287) from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA). Impulsivity scores and prevalence of externalizing diagnoses were also compared between LR and HR groups. Results HR offspring showed lower theta power and decreased current source density (CSD) activity than LR offspring during loss and gain conditions. Younger males had higher theta power than younger females in both groups, while the older HR females showed more theta power than older HR males. Younger subjects showed higher theta power than older subjects in each comparison. Differences in topography (i.e., frontalization) between groups were also observed. Further, HR subjects across gender had higher impulsivity scores and increased prevalence of externalizing disorders compared to LR subjects. Conclusions As theta power during reward processing is found to be lower not only in alcoholics, but also in HR subjects, it is proposed that reduced reward-related theta power, in addition to impulsivity and externalizing features, may be related in a predisposition to develop alcoholism and related disorders. PMID:26580209

  14. Non-destructive Measurement of Calcium and Potassium in Apple and Pear Using Handheld X-ray Fluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Kalcsits, Lee A.

    2016-01-01

    Calcium and potassium are essential for cell signaling, ion homeostasis and cell wall strength in plants. Unlike nutrients such as nitrogen and potassium, calcium is immobile in plants. Localized calcium deficiencies result in agricultural losses; particularly for fleshy horticultural crops in which elemental imbalances in fruit contribute to the development of physiological disorders such as bitter pit in apple and cork spot in pear. Currently, elemental analysis of plant tissue is destructive, time consuming and costly. This is a limitation for nutrition studies related to calcium in plants. Handheld portable x-ray fluorescence (XRF) can be used to non-destructively measure elemental concentrations. The main objective was to test if handheld XRF can be used for semi-quantitative calcium and potassium analysis of in-tact apple and pear. Semi-quantitative measurements for individual fruit were compared to results obtained from traditional lab analysis. Here, we observed significant correlations between handheld XRF measurements of calcium and potassium and concentrations determined using MP-AES lab analysis. Pearson correlation coefficients ranged from 0.73 and 0.97. Furthermore, measuring apple and pear using handheld XRF identified spatial variability in calcium and potassium concentrations on the surface of individual fruit. This variability may contribute to the development of localized nutritional imbalances. This highlights the importance of understanding spatial and temporal variability in elemental concentrations in plant tissue. Handheld XRF is a relatively high-throughput approach for measuring calcium and potassium in plant tissue. It can be used in conjunction with traditional lab analysis to better understand spatial and temporal patterns in calcium and potassium uptake and distribution within an organ, plant or across the landscape. PMID:27092160

  15. Non-destructive Measurement of Calcium and Potassium in Apple and Pear Using Handheld X-ray Fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Kalcsits, Lee A

    2016-01-01

    Calcium and potassium are essential for cell signaling, ion homeostasis and cell wall strength in plants. Unlike nutrients such as nitrogen and potassium, calcium is immobile in plants. Localized calcium deficiencies result in agricultural losses; particularly for fleshy horticultural crops in which elemental imbalances in fruit contribute to the development of physiological disorders such as bitter pit in apple and cork spot in pear. Currently, elemental analysis of plant tissue is destructive, time consuming and costly. This is a limitation for nutrition studies related to calcium in plants. Handheld portable x-ray fluorescence (XRF) can be used to non-destructively measure elemental concentrations. The main objective was to test if handheld XRF can be used for semi-quantitative calcium and potassium analysis of in-tact apple and pear. Semi-quantitative measurements for individual fruit were compared to results obtained from traditional lab analysis. Here, we observed significant correlations between handheld XRF measurements of calcium and potassium and concentrations determined using MP-AES lab analysis. Pearson correlation coefficients ranged from 0.73 and 0.97. Furthermore, measuring apple and pear using handheld XRF identified spatial variability in calcium and potassium concentrations on the surface of individual fruit. This variability may contribute to the development of localized nutritional imbalances. This highlights the importance of understanding spatial and temporal variability in elemental concentrations in plant tissue. Handheld XRF is a relatively high-throughput approach for measuring calcium and potassium in plant tissue. It can be used in conjunction with traditional lab analysis to better understand spatial and temporal patterns in calcium and potassium uptake and distribution within an organ, plant or across the landscape. PMID:27092160

  16. Calcium-Mediated Abiotic Stress Signaling in Roots

    PubMed Central

    Wilkins, Katie A.; Matthus, Elsa; Swarbreck, Stéphanie M.; Davies, Julia M.

    2016-01-01

    Roots are subjected to a range of abiotic stresses as they forage for water and nutrients. Cytosolic free calcium is a common second messenger in the signaling of abiotic stress. In addition, roots take up calcium both as a nutrient and to stimulate exocytosis in growth. For calcium to fulfill its multiple roles must require strict spatio-temporal regulation of its uptake and efflux across the plasma membrane, its buffering in the cytosol and its sequestration or release from internal stores. This prompts the question of how specificity of signaling output can be achieved against the background of calcium’s other uses. Threats to agriculture such as salinity, water availability and hypoxia are signaled through calcium. Nutrient deficiency is also emerging as a stress that is signaled through cytosolic free calcium, with progress in potassium, nitrate and boron deficiency signaling now being made. Heavy metals have the capacity to trigger or modulate root calcium signaling depending on their dose and their capacity to catalyze production of hydroxyl radicals. Mechanical stress and cold stress can both trigger an increase in root cytosolic free calcium, with the possibility of membrane deformation playing a part in initiating the calcium signal. This review addresses progress in identifying the calcium transporting proteins (particularly channels such as annexins and cyclic nucleotide-gated channels) that effect stress-induced calcium increases in roots and explores links to reactive oxygen species, lipid signaling, and the unfolded protein response. PMID:27621742

  17. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress–Related Genes in Yellow Catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco: Molecular Characterization, Tissue Expression, and Expression Responses to Dietary Copper Deficiency and Excess

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yu-Feng; Luo, Zhi; Huang, Chao; Chen, Qi-Liang; Pan, Ya–Xiong; Xu, Yi-Huan

    2015-01-01

    Two endoplasmic reticulum (ER) molecular chaperones [glucose-regulated protein 78 (grp78) and calreticulin (crt)] and three ER stress sensors [PKR-like ER kinase (perk), inositol requiring enzyme (ire)-1α, and activating transcription factor (atf)-6α] cDNAs were first characterized from yellow catfish, Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. The predicted amino acid sequences for the yellow catfish grp78, crt, perk, ire-1α, and atf-6α revealed that the proteins contained all of the structural features that were characteristic of the five genes in other species, including the KDEL motif, signal peptide, sensor domain, and effector domain. mRNAs of the five genes mentioned above were expressed in various tissues, but their mRNA levels varied among tissues. Dietary Cu excess, but not Cu deficiency, activated the chaperones (grp78 and crt) and folding sensors in ER, and the UPR signaling pathways (i.e., perk–eif2α and the ire1–xbp1) in a tissue-specific manner. For the first time, our study cloned grp78, crt, perk, ire-1α, and atf-6α genes in yellow catfish and demonstrated their differential expression among tissues. Moreover, the present study also indicated differential regulation of these ER stress–related genes by dietary Cu deficiency and excess, which will be beneficial for us to evaluate effects of dietary Cu levels in fish at the molecular level, based on the upstream pathway of lipid metabolism (the ER) and thus provide novel insights regarding the nutrition of Cu in fish. PMID:26276384

  18. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Related Genes in Yellow Catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco: Molecular Characterization, Tissue Expression, and Expression Responses to Dietary Copper Deficiency and Excess.

    PubMed

    Song, Yu-Feng; Luo, Zhi; Huang, Chao; Chen, Qi-Liang; Pan, Ya-Xiong; Xu, Yi-Huan

    2015-10-01

    Two endoplasmic reticulum (ER) molecular chaperones [glucose-regulated protein 78 (grp78) and calreticulin (crt)] and three ER stress sensors [PKR-like ER kinase (perk), inositol requiring enzyme (ire)-1α, and activating transcription factor (atf)-6α] cDNAs were first characterized from yellow catfish, Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. The predicted amino acid sequences for the yellow catfish grp78, crt, perk, ire-1α, and atf-6α revealed that the proteins contained all of the structural features that were characteristic of the five genes in other species, including the KDEL motif, signal peptide, sensor domain, and effector domain. mRNAs of the five genes mentioned above were expressed in various tissues, but their mRNA levels varied among tissues. Dietary Cu excess, but not Cu deficiency, activated the chaperones (grp78 and crt) and folding sensors in ER, and the UPR signaling pathways (i.e., perk-eif2α and the ire1-xbp1) in a tissue-specific manner. For the first time, our study cloned grp78, crt, perk, ire-1α, and atf-6α genes in yellow catfish and demonstrated their differential expression among tissues. Moreover, the present study also indicated differential regulation of these ER stress-related genes by dietary Cu deficiency and excess, which will be beneficial for us to evaluate effects of dietary Cu levels in fish at the molecular level, based on the upstream pathway of lipid metabolism (the ER) and thus provide novel insights regarding the nutrition of Cu in fish. PMID:26276384

  19. UV-induced histone H2AX phosphorylation and DNA damage related proteins accumulate and persist in nucleotide excision repair-deficient XP-B cells.

    PubMed

    Oh, Kyu-Seon; Bustin, Michael; Mazur, Sharlyn J; Appella, Ettore; Kraemer, Kenneth H

    2011-01-01

    DNA double strand breaks (DSB) may be caused by ionizing radiation. In contrast, UV exposure forms dipyrimidine photoproducts and is not considered an inducer of DSB. We found that uniform or localized UV treatment induced phosphorylation of the DNA damage related (DDR) proteins H2AX, ATM and NBS1 and co-localization of γ-H2AX with the DDR proteins p-ATM, p-NBS1, Rad51 and FANCD2 that persisted for about 6h in normal human fibroblasts. This post-UV phosphorylation was observed in the absence of nucleotide excision repair (NER), since NER deficient XP-B cells (lacking functional XPB DNA repair helicase) and global genome repair-deficient rodent cells also showed phosphorylation and localization of these DDR proteins. Resolution of the DDR proteins was dependent on NER, since they persisted for 24h in the XP-B cells. In the normal and XP-B cells p53 and p21 was detected at 6h and 24h but Mdm2 was not induced in the XP-B cells. Post-UV induction of Wip1 phosphatase was detected in the normal cells but not in the XP-B cells. DNA DSB were detected with a neutral comet assay at 6h and 24h post-UV in the normal and XP-B cells. These results indicate that UV damage can activate the DDR pathway in the absence of NER. However, a later step in DNA damage processing involving induction of Wip1 and resolution of DDR proteins was not observed in the absence of NER. PMID:20947453

  20. Calcium-sensitive regulation of monoamine oxidase-A contributes to the production of peroxyradicals in hippocampal cultures: implications for Alzheimer disease-related pathology

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Xia; Wei, Zelan; Gabriel, Geraldine G; Li, XinMin; Mousseau, Darrell D

    2007-01-01

    Background Calcium (Ca2+) has recently been shown to selectively increase the activity of monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A), a mitochondria-bound enzyme that generates peroxyradicals as a natural by-product of the deamination of neurotransmitters such as serotonin. It has also been suggested that increased intracellular free Ca2+ levels as well as MAO-A may be contributing to the oxidative stress associated with Alzheimer disease (AD). Results Incubation with Ca2+ selectively increases MAO-A enzymatic activity in protein extracts from mouse hippocampal HT-22 cell cultures. Treatment of HT-22 cultures with the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 also increases MAO-A activity, whereas overexpression of calbindin-D28K (CB-28K), a Ca2+-binding protein in brain that is greatly reduced in AD, decreases MAO-A activity. The effects of A23187 and CB-28K are both independent of any change in MAO-A protein or gene expression. The toxicity (via production of peroxyradicals and/or chromatin condensation) associated with either A23187 or the AD-related β-amyloid peptide, which also increases free intracellular Ca2+, is attenuated by MAO-A inhibition in HT-22 cells as well as in primary hippocampal cultures. Conclusion These data suggest that increases in intracellular Ca2+ availability could contribute to a MAO-A-mediated mechanism with a role in AD-related oxidative stress. PMID:17868476

  1. The effects of intraganglionic injection of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II inhibitors on pain-related behavior in diabetic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Jelicic Kadic, A; Boric, M; Kostic, S; Sapunar, D; Puljak, L

    2014-01-01

    Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) has been implicated in the transmission of nociceptive input in diabetic neuropathy. The aim of this study was to test whether intraganglionic (i.g.) injection of CaMKII inhibitors may alleviate pain-related behavior in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats using 55 mg/kg streptozotocin intraperitoneally. Two weeks after diabetes induction, CaMKII inhibitors myristoil-AIP and KN93 were injected directly into the right L5 dorsal root ganglion (DRG). Behavioral testing with mechanical and thermal stimuli was performed before induction of diabetes, the day preceding the injection, as well as 2 and 24h after the i.g. injection. The expression of total CaMKII and its alpha isoform in DRG neurons was analyzed using immunohistochemistry. CaMKII inhibitors attenuated pain-related behavior in a modality-specific fashion. Attenuation of nociceptive behavior was accompanied with a corresponding decrease of CaMKII alpha expression in DRG neurons on the side of injection. A significant decrease of CaMKII alpha expression was seen in small- and medium-sized neurons. In conclusion, our study provides evidence that CaMKII inhibitors are potential pharmacological agents that should be further explored for treatment of diabetic neuropathy symptoms. PMID:24161721

  2. Calcium and bones (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Calcium is one of the most important minerals for the growth, maintenance, and reproduction of the human ... body, are continually being re-formed and incorporate calcium into their structure. Calcium is essential for the ...

  3. Coronary Calcium Scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Coronary Calcium Scan? A coronary calcium scan is a test ... you have calcifications in your coronary arteries. Coronary Calcium Scan Figure A shows the position of the ...

  4. Calcium hydroxide poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hydrate - calcium; Lime milk; Slaked lime ... Calcium hydroxide ... These products contain calcium hydroxide: Cement Limewater Many industrial solvents and cleaners (hundreds to thousands of construction products, flooring strippers, brick cleaners, cement ...

  5. Age-Related Onset of Obesity Corresponds with Metabolic Dysregulation and Altered Microglia Morphology in Mice Deficient for Ifitm Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wee, Yin Shen; Weis, Janis J.; Gahring, Lorise C.; Rogers, Scott W.; Weis, John H.

    2015-01-01

    The IfitmDel mouse lacks all five of the Ifitm genes via LoxP deletion. This animal breeds normally with no obvious defect in development. The IfitmDel animals exhibit a steady and significantly enhanced weight gain relative to wild-type controls beginning about three months of age and under normal feeding conditions. The increased weight corresponds with elevated fat mass, and in tolerance tests they are hyporesponsive to insulin but respond normally to glucose. Both young (4 mo) and older (12 mo) IfitmDel mice have enhanced levels of serum leptin suggesting a defect in leptin/leptin receptor signaling. Analysis of the gene expression profiles in the hypothalamus of IfitmDel animals, compared to WT, demonstrated an altered ratio of Pomc and Npy neuropeptide expression, which likely impairs the satiation response of the IfitmDel animal leading to an increased eating behavior. Also elevated in hypothalamus of IfitmDel mice were pro-inflammatory cytokine expression and reduced IL-10. Anatomical analysis of the hypothalamus using immunohistochemistry revealed that microglia exhibit an abnormal morphology in IfitmDel animals and respond abnormally to Poly:IC challenge. These abnormalities extend the phenotype of the IfitmDel mouse beyond abnormal responses to viral challenge to include a metabolic phenotype and weight gain. Further, this novel phenotype for the IfitmDel mouse could be related to abnormal neuropeptide production, inflammatory status and microglia status in the hypothalamus. PMID:25856311

  6. Relationship between vitamin A deficiency and the thyroid axis in clinically stable patients with liver cirrhosis related to hepatitis C virus.

    PubMed

    El-Eshmawy, Mervat M; Arafa, Mona M; Elzehery, Rasha R; Elhelaly, Rania M; Elrakhawy, Mohamed M; El-Baiomy, Azza A

    2016-09-01

    Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) and altered thyroid function are commonly encountered in patients with liver cirrhosis. The link between vitamin A metabolism and thyroid function has been previously identified. The aim of this study was to explore the association between VAD and the thyroid axis in clinically stable patients with cirrhosis related to hepatitis C virus (HCV). One hundred and twelve patients with clinically stable HCV-related cirrhosis and 56 healthy controls matched for age, sex, and socioeconomic status were recruited for this study. Vitamin A status, liver function, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), reverse triiodothyronine (rT3), anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies (anti-TPO), and thyroid volume were evaluated. The prevalence of VAD among patients with HCV-related cirrhosis was 62.5% compared with 5.4% among controls (P < 0.001). Patients with HCV-related cirrhosis had significantly higher FT4, FT3, TSH, and thyroid volume than did healthy controls. Of the 112 patients initially recruited, 18 were excluded (patients with subclinical hypothyroidism and/or anti-TPO positive), so a total of 94 patients with HCV-related cirrhosis were divided into 2 groups according to vitamin A status: VAD and normal vitamin A. Patients with VAD had significantly lower vitamin A intake and serum albumin and higher serum bilirubin, FT4, FT3, and TSH than patients with normal vitamin A status. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that VAD was associated with Child-Pugh score (β = 0.11, P = 0.05) and TSH (β = -1.63, P = 0.02) independently of confounding variables. We conclude that VAD may be linked to central hyperthyroidism in patients with clinically stable HCV-related liver cirrhosis. PMID:27557336

  7. Nutrition knowledge, outcome expectations, self-efficacy, and eating behaviors by calcium intake level in Korean female college students

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Ju

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Calcium is important but deficient in diets of young adult women. This study aimed to examine if cognitive factors and eating behaviors differ according to calcium intake based on the Social Cognitive Theory. SUBJECTS/METHODS Subjects were female college students in Seoul, Korea. Three hundred students completed the questionnaire regarding calcium intake, nutrition knowledge, outcome expectations, self-efficacy and eating behaviors. Data on 240 students were analyzed using t-test or χ2-test. Subjects were categorized into two groups, high calcium intake (HC, ≥ 650 mg/day) and low calcium intake (LC, < 650 mg/day), according to recommended intakes of calcium for women aged 19-29 years. RESULTS The LC group constituted 77.9% of total subjects. Nutrition knowledge was not different according to calcium intake. Three out of 12 outcome expectations items were significantly different between the HC and LC groups. Subjects in the HC group agreed more strongly with the practical benefits of consuming calcium-rich foods, including 'taste' (P < 0.01) and 'going well with other snacks' (P < 0.05), compared to those in the LC group. Negative expectations of 'indigestion' were stronger in the LC group than HC group (P < 0.001). Among self-efficacy items, perceived ability of 'eating dairy foods for snacks' (P < 0.001), 'eating dairy foods every day' (P < 0.01), and 'eating calcium-rich side dishes at meals' (P < 0.05) differed significantly between the HC and LC groups. Eating behaviors including more frequent consumption of dairy foods, fruits or fruit juice (P < 0.001), anchovy, seaweeds, green vegetables, protein-rich foods (P < 0.05), and less frequent consumption of sweets or soft drinks (P < 0.01) were significantly related to calcium intake. CONCLUSIONS This study found that outcome expectations, self-efficacy in consuming calcium-rich foods, and eating behaviors are important in explaining calcium intake. Nutrition education needs to address

  8. A transient outward current related to calcium release and development of tension in elephant seal atrial fibres.

    PubMed Central

    Maylie, J; Morad, M

    1984-01-01

    Membrane currents and development of tension in atrial trabeculae from elephant seal hearts were studied using a single sucrose-gap voltage-clamp technique. A transient outward current (Ito) was observed with kinetics, voltage and beat dependence, similar to those of tension. Ito had a bell-shaped voltage dependence similar to that of tension and the slow inward current (Isi). Ito, unlike Isi, showed beat dependence quite similar to developed tension. Increases in [Ca]o, frequency of stimulation, and addition of adrenaline enhanced Ito and developed tension. Ito was suppressed by addition of Mn2+, tetracaine, or by depolarizing pre-pulses (to -40 mV for 250 ms). Caffeine at low concentrations (1 mM) blocked beat dependence of Ito. At higher concentrations (greater than 5 mM) caffeine suppressed the activation of Ito, phasic tension, and the second component of the birefringence signal (related to Ca2+-releasing activity of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (s.r.]. Similar to Isi phasic tension and Ito, the voltage dependence of the second component of the birefringence signal was bell-shaped. Our studies suggest that activation of Ito is related to triggered release of Ca2+ from the s.r. which generates the phasic tension. An excitation-contraction coupling scheme is presented which incorporates these findings and suggests that Ito may be responsible for shorter action potentials found in atrial fibres. Images Plate 1 PMID:6512692

  9. Impaired myogenesis in estrogen-related receptor γ (ERRγ)-deficient skeletal myocytes due to oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Murray, Jennifer; Auwerx, Johan; Huss, Janice M

    2013-01-01

    Specialized contractile function and increased mitochondrial number and oxidative capacity are hallmark features of myocyte differentiation. The estrogen-related receptors (ERRs) can regulate mitochondrial biogenesis or mitochondrial enzyme expression in skeletal muscle, suggesting that ERRs may have a role in promoting myogenesis. Therefore, we characterized myogenic programs in primary myocytes isolated from wild-type (M-ERRγWT) and muscle-specific ERRγ(-/-) (M-ERRγ(-/-)) mice. Myotube maturation and number were decreased throughout differentiation in M-ERRγ(-/-) primary myocytes, resulting in myotubes with reduced mitochondrial content and sarcomere assembly. Compared with M-ERRγWT myocytes at the same differentiation stage, the glucose oxidation rate was reduced by 30% in M-ERRγ(-/-) myotubes, while medium-chain fatty acid oxidation was increased by 34% in M-ERRγ(-/-) myoblasts and 36% in M-ERRγ(-/-) myotubes. Concomitant with increased reliance on mitochondrial β-oxidation, H(2)O(2) production was significantly increased by 40% in M-ERRγ(-/-) myoblasts and 70% in M-ERRγ(-/-) myotubes compared to M-ERRγWT myocytes. ROS activation of FoxO and NF-κB and their downstream targets, atrogin-1 and MuRF1, was observed in M-ERRγ(-/-) myocytes. The antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine rescued myotube formation and atrophy gene induction in M-ERRγ(-/-) myocytes. These results suggest that loss of ERRγ causes metabolic defects and oxidative stress that impair myotube formation through activation of skeletal muscle atrophy pathways. PMID:23038752

  10. Nuclear Factor Erythroid 2-Related Factor 2 Deficiency Results in Amplification of the Liver Fat-Lowering Effect of Estrogen.

    PubMed

    Rui, Wenjuan; Zou, Yuhong; Lee, Joonyong; Nambiar, Shashank Manohar; Lin, Jingmei; Zhang, Linjie; Yang, Yan; Dai, Guoli

    2016-07-01

    Transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) regulates multiple biologic processes, including hepatic lipid metabolism. Estrogen exerts actions affecting energy homeostasis, including a liver fat-lowering effect. Increasing evidence indicates the crosstalk between these two molecules. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether Nrf2 modulates estrogen signaling in hepatic lipid metabolism. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) was induced in wild-type and Nrf2-null mice fed a high-fat diet and the liver fat-lowering effect of exogenous estrogen was subsequently assessed. We found that exogenous estrogen eliminated 49% and 90% of hepatic triglycerides in wild-type and Nrf2-null mice with NAFLD, respectively. This observation demonstrates that Nrf2 signaling is antagonistic to estrogen signaling in hepatic fat metabolism; thus, Nrf2 absence results in striking amplification of the liver fat-lowering effect of estrogen. In addition, we found the association of trefoil factor 3 and fatty acid binding protein 5 with the liver fat-lowering effect of estrogen. In summary, we identified Nrf2 as a novel and potent inhibitor of estrogen signaling in hepatic lipid metabolism. Our finding may provide a potential strategy to treat NAFLD by dually targeting Nrf2 and estrogen signaling. PMID:27189962

  11. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor deficiency causes dysregulated cellular matrix metabolism and age-related macular degeneration-like pathology

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Peng; Herrmann, Rolf; Bednar, Amanda; Saloupis, Peter; Dwyer, Mary A.; Yang, Ping; Qi, Xiaoping; Thomas, Russell S.; Jaffe, Glenn J.; Boulton, Michael E.; McDonnell, Donald P.; Malek, Goldis

    2013-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a nuclear receptor that regulates xenobiotic metabolism and detoxification. Herein, we report a previously undescribed role for the AhR signaling pathway as an essential defense mechanism in the pathogenesis of early dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of vision loss in the elderly. We found that AhR activity and protein levels in human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, cells vulnerable in AMD, decrease with age. This finding is significant given that age is the most established risk factor for development of AMD. Moreover, AhR−/− mice exhibit decreased visual function and develop dry AMD-like pathology, including disrupted RPE cell tight junctions, accumulation of RPE cell lipofuscin, basal laminar and linear-like deposit material, Bruch’s membrane thickening, and progressive RPE and choroidal atrophy. High-serum low-density lipoprotein levels were also observed in AhR−/− mice. In its oxidized form, this lipoprotein can stimulate increased secretion of extracellular matrix molecules commonly found in deposits from RPE cells, in an AhR-dependent manner. This study demonstrates the importance of cellular clearance via the AhR signaling pathway in dry AMD pathogenesis, implicating AhR as a potential target, and the mouse model as a useful platform for validating future therapies. PMID:24106308

  12. Apatite Formation from Amorphous Calcium Phosphate and Mixed Amorphous Calcium Phosphate/Amorphous Calcium Carbonate.

    PubMed

    Ibsen, Casper J S; Chernyshov, Dmitry; Birkedal, Henrik

    2016-08-22

    Crystallization from amorphous phases is an emerging pathway for making advanced materials. Biology has made use of amorphous precursor phases for eons and used them to produce structures with remarkable properties. Herein, we show how the design of the amorphous phase greatly influences the nanocrystals formed therefrom. We investigate the transformation of mixed amorphous calcium phosphate/amorphous calcium carbonate phases into bone-like nanocrystalline apatite using in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction and IR spectroscopy. The speciation of phosphate was controlled by pH to favor HPO4 (2-) . In a carbonate free system, the reaction produces anisotropic apatite crystallites with large aspect ratios. The first formed crystallites are highly calcium deficient and hydrogen phosphate rich, consistent with thin octacalcium phosphate (OCP)-like needles. During growth, the crystallites become increasingly stoichiometric, which indicates that the crystallites grow through addition of near-stoichiometric apatite to the OCP-like initial crystals through a process that involves either crystallite fusion/aggregation or Ostwald ripening. The mixed amorphous phases were found to be more stable against phase transformations, hence, the crystallization was inhibited. The resulting crystallites were smaller and less anisotropic. This is rationalized by the idea that a local phosphate-depletion zone formed around the growing crystal until it was surrounded by amorphous calcium carbonate, which stopped the crystallization. PMID:27460160

  13. Age-related impairment of bones' adaptive response to loading in mice is associated with sex-related deficiencies in osteoblasts but no change in osteocytes.

    PubMed

    Meakin, Lee B; Galea, Gabriel L; Sugiyama, Toshihiro; Lanyon, Lance E; Price, Joanna S

    2014-08-01

    Bones adjust their mass and architecture to be sufficiently robust to withstand functional loading by adapting to their strain environment. This mechanism appears less effective with age, resulting in low bone mass. In male and female young adult (17-week-old) and old (19-month-old) mice, we investigated the effect of age in vivo on bones' adaptive response to loading and in vitro in primary cultures of osteoblast-like cells derived from bone cortices. Right tibias were axially loaded on alternate days for 2 weeks. Left tibias were non-loaded controls. In a separate group, the number of sclerostin-positive osteocytes and the number of periosteal osteoblasts were analyzed 24 hours after a single loading episode. The responses to strain of the primary osteoblast-like cells derived from these mice were assessed by EGR2 expression, change in cell number and Ki67 immunofluorescence. In young male and female mice, loading increased trabecular thickness and the number of trabecular connections. Increase in the number of trabecular connections was impaired with age but trabecular thickness was not. In old mice, the loading-related increase in periosteal apposition of the cortex was less than in young ones. Age was associated with a lesser loading-related increase in osteoblast number on the periosteal surface but had no effect on loading-related reduction in the number of sclerostin-positive osteocytes. In vitro, strain-related proliferation of osteoblast-like cells was lower in cells from old than young mice. Cells from aged female mice demonstrated normal entry into the cell cycle but subsequently arrested in G2 phase, reducing strain-related increases in cell number. Thus, in both male and female mice, loading-related adaptive responses are impaired with age. This impairment is different in females and males. The deficit appears to occur in osteoblasts' proliferative responses to strain rather than earlier strain-related responses in the osteocytes. PMID:24644060

  14. Direct evidence that decreased serum opsonization of Streptococcus pneumoniae via the alternative complement pathway in sickle cell disease is related to antibody deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Bjornson, A B; Lobel, J S

    1987-01-01

    Two approaches were used to demonstrate that reduction in serum opsonization of Streptococcus pneumoniae via the alternative complement pathway in children with sickle cell disease is related to a deficiency of antibodies to pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide. First, opsonization of S. pneumoniae mediated by the alternative pathway in patients' sera was restored to normal by addition of the purified IgG or IgM fraction of goat antiserum to capsular polysaccharide of the homologous serotype. Secondly, IgG antibody titers to capsular polysaccharide in patients' sera correlated significantly with alternative pathway-mediated opsonization; the correlation between titers of IgM anticapsular antibodies and opsonization approached statistical significance. The sum of the IgG and IgM anticapsular antibody titers correlated most significantly with opsonization. Our results suggest that reduction in alternative pathway-mediated opsonization in sera from children with sickle cell disease is related to low levels of both IgG and IgM anticapsular antibodies. Images PMID:3805275

  15. Direct evidence that decreased serum opsonization of Streptococcus pneumoniae via the alternative complement pathway in sickle cell disease is related to antibody deficiency.

    PubMed

    Bjornson, A B; Lobel, J S

    1987-02-01

    Two approaches were used to demonstrate that reduction in serum opsonization of Streptococcus pneumoniae via the alternative complement pathway in children with sickle cell disease is related to a deficiency of antibodies to pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide. First, opsonization of S. pneumoniae mediated by the alternative pathway in patients' sera was restored to normal by addition of the purified IgG or IgM fraction of goat antiserum to capsular polysaccharide of the homologous serotype. Secondly, IgG antibody titers to capsular polysaccharide in patients' sera correlated significantly with alternative pathway-mediated opsonization; the correlation between titers of IgM anticapsular antibodies and opsonization approached statistical significance. The sum of the IgG and IgM anticapsular antibody titers correlated most significantly with opsonization. Our results suggest that reduction in alternative pathway-mediated opsonization in sera from children with sickle cell disease is related to low levels of both IgG and IgM anticapsular antibodies. PMID:3805275

  16. The impact of vitamin D deficiency on patients undergoing kidney transplantation: focus on cardiovascular, metabolic, and endocrine outcomes.

    PubMed

    Sarno, Gerardo; Daniele, Giuseppe; Tirabassi, Giacomo; Chavez, Alberto O; Ojo, Opeolu O; Orio, Francesco; Kahleova, Hana; Balercia, Giancarlo; Grant, William B; De Rosa, Paride; Colao, Annamaria; Muscogiuri, Giovanna

    2015-12-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is common among kidney transplant (KT) recipients because of reduced sunlight exposure, low intake of vitamin D, the immunosuppressive drug regimen administered, and steroid therapy. Glucocorticoids regulate expression of genes coding for enzymes that catabolize vitamin D, further reducing its level in serum. Although vitamin D primarily regulates calcium homeostasis, vitamin D deficiency is associated with the risk of several diseases, such as diabetes mellitus and tuberculosis. Aim of this review is to highlight endocrine and metabolic alterations due to the vitamin D deficiency by evaluating the mechanisms involved in the development of KT-related disease (cardiovascular, bone mineral density, and new-onset diabetes after transplantation). Next, we review evidence to support a link between low vitamin D status and KT-related diseases. Finally, we briefly highlight strategies for restoring vitamin D status in KT patients. PMID:25999028

  17. Disrupted-in-schizophrenia-1 (DISC1) Regulates Endoplasmic Reticulum Calcium Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung Jin; Jeong, Jaehoon; Park, Young-Un; Park, Kyung-Sun; Lee, Haeryun; Lee, Namgyu; Kim, Sung-Mo; Kuroda, Keisuke; Nguyen, Minh Dang; Kaibuchi, Kozo; Park, Sang Ki

    2015-01-01

    Disrupted-in-schizophrenia-1 (DISC1) has emerged as a convincing susceptibility gene for multiple mental disorders, but its mechanistic link to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia related psychiatric conditions is yet to be further understood. Here, we showed that DISC1 localizes to the outer surface of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). EXOC1, a subunit of the exocyst complex, interacted with DISC1 and affected its recruitment to inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor 1 (IP3R1). Notably, knockdown of DISC1 and EXOC1 elicited an exaggerated ER calcium response upon stimulation of IP3R agonists. Similar abnormal ER calcium responses were observed in hippocampal neurons from DISC1-deficient mutant mice. Moreover, perturbation of ER calcium dynamics upon DISC1 knockdown was effectively reversed by treatment with antipsychotic drugs, such as clozapine and haloperidol. These results collectively indicate that DISC1 is a regulatory factor in ER calcium dynamics, linking a perturbed intracellular calcium signaling and schizophrenia pathogenesis. PMID:25732993

  18. Disrupted-in-schizophrenia-1 (DISC1) Regulates Endoplasmic Reticulum Calcium Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung Jin; Jeong, Jaehoon; Park, Young-Un; Park, Kyung-Sun; Lee, Haeryun; Lee, Namgyu; Kim, Sung-Mo; Kuroda, Keisuke; Nguyen, Minh Dang; Kaibuchi, Kozo; Park, Sang Ki

    2015-01-01

    Disrupted-in-schizophrenia-1 (DISC1) has emerged as a convincing susceptibility gene for multiple mental disorders, but its mechanistic link to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia related psychiatric conditions is yet to be further understood. Here, we showed that DISC1 localizes to the outer surface of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). EXOC1, a subunit of the exocyst complex, interacted with DISC1 and affected its recruitment to inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor 1 (IP3R1). Notably, knockdown of DISC1 and EXOC1 elicited an exaggerated ER calcium response upon stimulation of IP3R agonists. Similar abnormal ER calcium responses were observed in hippocampal neurons from DISC1-deficient mutant mice. Moreover, perturbation of ER calcium dynamics upon DISC1 knockdown was effectively reversed by treatment with antipsychotic drugs, such as clozapine and haloperidol. These results collectively indicate that DISC1 is a regulatory factor in ER calcium dynamics, linking a perturbed intracellular calcium signaling and schizophrenia pathogenesis. PMID:25732993

  19. Influence of porosity and relative humidity on consolidation of dolostone with calcium hydroxide nanoparticles: Effectiveness assessment with non-destructive techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez-Arce, P.; Gomez-Villalba, L.S.; Pinho, L.; Fernandez-Valle, M.E.; Alvarez de Buergo, M.; Fort, R.

    2010-02-15

    Slaked lime (Ca(OH){sub 2}) nanoparticles were exposed at 33% and 75% relative humidity (RH) to consolidate dolostone samples used in historical buildings. Non-destructive techniques (NDT) were applied to determine the chemical, morphological, physical and hydric properties of the stone samples, before and after 20 days treatment. Morphological and mineralogical characterisation of the nanoparticles was performed. 75% RH favors the consolidation process studied under Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM-EDS), spectrophotometry, capillarity, water absorption under vacuum, ultrasound velocity, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (imaging and relaxometry) and Optical Surface Roughness analyses. At 75% RH the nanoparticles fill the pores and inter-crystalline dolomite grain contacts but do not favor calcite re-crystallization as it occurs at 33% RH. The ESEM, XRD and TEM analyses under 75% RH reveal the fast transformation of portlandite (Ca(OH){sub 2}) into vaterite (CaCO{sub 3}), monohydrocalcite (CaCO{sub 3} . H{sub 2}O) and calcite (CaCO{sub 3}), and eventually the physical and hydric properties of the stones significantly improve. New insights are provided for the assessment of consolidation effectiveness of porous carbonate stones with calcium hydroxide nanoparticles under optimum RH conditions combining several NDT.

  20. Effects of age-related loss of P/Q-type calcium channels in a mice model of peripheral nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Marinelli, Sara; Eleuteri, Cecilia; Vacca, Valentina; Strimpakos, Georgios; Mattei, Elisabetta; Severini, Cinzia; Pavone, Flaminia; Luvisetto, Siro

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed the role of P/Q-type calcium channels in sciatic nerve regeneration after lesion induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) in heterozygous null mutant mice lacking the CaV2.1α1 subunit of these channels (Cacna1a+/-). Compared with wild type, Cacna1a+/- mice showed an initial reduction of the CCI-induced allodynia, indicating a reduced pain perception, but they also evidenced a lack of recovery over time, with atrophy of the injured hindpaw still present 3 months after CCI when wild-type mice fully recovered. In parallel, Cacna1a+/- mice exhibited an early onset of age-dependent loss of P/Q-type channels, which can be responsible for the lack of functional recovery. Moreover, Cacna1a+/- mice showed an early age-dependent reduction of muscular strength, as well as of Schwann cells proliferation and sciatic nerve remyelination. This study demonstrates the important role played by P/Q-type channels in recovery from nerve injury and has important implications for the knowledge of age-related processes. PMID:25150573

  1. [Control of generalized chronic periodontitis combined with calcium-antagonist-related gingival overgrowth by a complex periodontal-endodontic-prosthodontic treatment. Case report].

    PubMed

    Szánto, Erika; Gera, István

    2011-12-01

    To day a relatively high percentage of elderly population of the industrialized world suffers with different cardiovascular diseases and are on permanent antihypertensive therapy. One of the most frequently used drugs is the calcium channel blockers prescribed against high blood pressure. The most common oral side effect of these drugs is the gingival enlargement that might develop even on otherwise healthy gingiva. The incidence of chronic periodontitis in this age group is also high and the Ca antagonist medication in those individuals might substantially modify the clinical course of periodontal inflammation leading to gingival enlargement and hypertrophic pocket wall. The case presented here is a 52 years old hypertonic woman with a long history of Ca-antagonist therapy and generalized chronic periodontitis combined with gingival hyperplasia. After the change of medication the 1,5 years comprehensive periodontal endodontic and prosthodontic therapy restored patient's periodontal health and provided complex dental rehabilitation. Nevertheless, only regular periodontal supportive therapy could ensure predictable outcome and guarantee long lasting periodontal health. PMID:22308953

  2. The role of calcium in improving photosynthesis and related physiological and biochemical attributes of spring wheat subjected to simulated acid rain.

    PubMed

    Dolatabadian, Aria; Sanavy, Seyed Ali Mohammad Modarres; Gholamhoseini, Majid; Joghan, Aydin Khodaei; Majdi, Mohammad; Kashkooli, Arman Beyraghdar

    2013-04-01

    The response of photosynthesis parameters, catalase, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activity, malondialdehyde, proline, chlorophyll, yield and yield components to foliar application of calcium and simulated acid rain in wheat were investigated. Foliar treatment of calcium led to significant increases in the photosynthesis rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, proline, chlorophyll, yield and yield components in plants subjected to acid rain. Antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation in the wheat leaves decreased because of calcium foliar application. Calcium hindered degradation of the rubisco subunits under acid rain treatment compared with water-treated plants. Results suggest that acid rain induces the production of free radicals resulting in lipid peroxidation of the cell membrane so that significant increase in antioxidant enzyme activity was observed. In addition, photosynthetic parameters i.e. photosynthesis rate, transpiration rate and stomatal conductance were drastically suppressed by acid rain. The cellular damage caused by free radicals might be reduced or prevented by a protective metabolism including antioxidative enzymes and calcium. We report that foliar application of calcium before acid rain may ameliorate the adverse effects of acid rain in wheat plants. PMID:24431486

  3. A spectrum of clinical presentations in seven Japanese patients with vitamin d deficiency.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Takuo; Kotani, Tomoo; Miyoshi, Yoko; Santo, Yoko; Hirai, Haruhiko; Namba, Noriyuki; Shima, Masaaki; Shimizu, Kazuo; Nakajima, Shigeo; Ozono, Keiichi

    2006-01-01

    Recently, the reemergence of vitamin D deficiency in developed countries has been pointed out. Vitamin D deficiency is diagnosed based on the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) level. However, its normal range is still controversial, making the diagnosis of vitamin D deficiency difficult. Here, we present seven Japanese patients diagnosed with vitamin D deficiency. Three patients complained of leg bowing, and the other four of tetany. The patients with leg bowing were toddlers. Radiographic surveys demonstrated evidence of rickets. Laboratory findings showed decreased levels of serum inorganic phosphorus and increased levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and intact-parathyroid hormone (iPTH). The serum levels of 25OHD were relatively low, ranging from 13 to 15.2 ng/ml. Of the patients with tetany, three were young infants. Laboratory findings showed decreased levels of serum calcium and increased levels of ALP and iPTH. The serum levels of 25OHD were markedly decreased (below 8 ng/ml). Thus, these results indicate that relatively low levels of 25OHD can cause rickets, a symptom of vitamin D deficiency, and that clinicians should therefore carefully evaluate the levels of 25OHD. PMID:24790316

  4. Age-Related Impairment of Bones' Adaptive Response to Loading in Mice Is Associated With Sex-Related Deficiencies in Osteoblasts but No Change in Osteocytes†

    PubMed Central

    Meakin, Lee B; Galea, Gabriel L; Sugiyama, Toshihiro; Lanyon, Lance E; Price, Joanna S

    2014-01-01

    Bones adjust their mass and architecture to be sufficiently robust to withstand functional loading by adapting to their strain environment. This mechanism appears less effective with age, resulting in low bone mass. In male and female young adult (17-week-old) and old (19-month-old) mice, we investigated the effect of age in vivo on bones' adaptive response to loading and in vitro in primary cultures of osteoblast-like cells derived from bone cortices. Right tibias were axially loaded on alternate days for 2 weeks. Left tibias were non-loaded controls. In a separate group, the number of sclerostin-positive osteocytes and the number of periosteal osteoblasts were analyzed 24 hours after a single loading episode. The responses to strain of the primary osteoblast-like cells derived from these mice were assessed by EGR2 expression, change in cell number and Ki67 immunofluorescence. In young male and female mice, loading increased trabecular thickness and the number of trabecular connections. Increase in the number of trabecular connections was impaired with age but trabecular thickness was not. In old mice, the loading-related increase in periosteal apposition of the cortex was less than in young ones. Age was associated with a lesser loading-related increase in osteoblast number on the periosteal surface but had no effect on loading-related reduction in the number of sclerostin-positive osteocytes. In vitro, strain-related proliferation of osteoblast-like cells was lower in cells from old than young mice. Cells from aged female mice demonstrated normal entry into the cell cycle but subsequently arrested in G2 phase, reducing strain-related increases in cell number. Thus, in both male and female mice, loading-related adaptive responses are impaired with age. This impairment is different in females and males. The deficit appears to occur in osteoblasts' proliferative responses to strain rather than earlier strain-related responses in the osteocytes. © 2014 The Authors

  5. Decreased calcitonin gene-related peptide expression in the dorsal root ganglia of TNF-deficient mice in a monoiodoacetate-induced knee osteoarthritis model

    PubMed Central

    Taniguchi, Aya; Ishikawa, Tetsuhiro; Miyagi, Masayuki; Kamoda, Hiroto; Sakuma, Yoshihiro; Oikawa, Yasuhiro; Kubota, Go; Inage, Kazuhide; Sainoh, Takeshi; Nakamura, Junichi; Aoki, Yasuchika; Toyone, Tomoaki; Inoue, Gen; Suzuki, Miyako; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Suzuki, Takane; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Ohtori, Seiji; Orita, Sumihisa

    2015-01-01

    Background: The detailed mechanisms of knee osteoarthritis (OA) pain have not been clarified, but involvement of inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) has been suggested. The present study aimed to investigate the more detailed neurological involvement of TNF in joint pain using a TNF-knockout mouse OA model. Methods: The right knees of twelve-week-old C57BL/6J wild and TNF-deficient knockout (TNF-ko) mice (n=15, each group) were given a single intra-articular injection of 10 µg monoiodoacetate in 10 mL sterile saline. The left knees were only punctured as the control. Evaluations were performed immediately after the injection (baseline) and at 7, 14, and 28 days after the injection with a subsequent intra-articular injection of neurotracer into both knees. The animals were evaluated for immunofluorescence of the lumbar dorsal root ganglia (DRG) innervating the knee joints. The injected knees were observed macroscopically and mouse pain-related behaviors were scored. Results: Macroscopic observation showed similar knee OA development in both wild and TNF-ko mice. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP, a neuropeptide identified as a inflammatory pain-related biomarker) was significantly increased in DRG neurons innervating OA-induced knee joints with significantly less CGRP expression in TNF-ko animals. Pain-related behavior scoring showed a significant increase in pain in OA-induced joints, but there was no significant difference in pain observed between the wild and TNF-ko mice. Conclusions: The result of the present study indicates the possible association of TNF-alpha in OA pain but not OA development. PMID:26722492

  6. TMEM203 Is a Novel Regulator of Intracellular Calcium Homeostasis and Is Required for Spermatogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Shambharkar, Prashant B.; Bittinger, Mark; Latario, Brian; Xiong, ZhaoHui; Bandyopadhyay, Somnath; Davis, Vanessa; Lin, Victor; Yang, Yi; Valdez, Reginald; Labow, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular calcium signaling is critical for initiating and sustaining diverse cellular functions including transcription, synaptic signaling, muscle contraction, apoptosis and fertilization. Trans-membrane 203 (TMEM203) was identified here in cDNA overexpression screens for proteins capable of modulating intracellular calcium levels using activation of a calcium/calcineurin regulated transcription factor as an indicator. Overexpression of TMEM203 resulted in a reduction of Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) calcium stores and elevation in basal cytoplasmic calcium levels. TMEM203 protein was localized to the ER and found associated with a number of ER proteins which regulate ER calcium entry and efflux. Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from Tmem203 deficient mice had reduced ER calcium stores and altered calcium homeostasis. Tmem203 deficient mice were viable though male knockout mice were infertile and exhibited a severe block in spermiogenesis and spermiation. Expression profiling studies showed significant alternations in expression of calcium channels and pumps in testes and concurrently Tmem203 deficient spermatocytes demonstrated significantly altered calcium handling. Thus Tmem203 is an evolutionarily conserved regulator of cellular calcium homeostasis, is required for spermatogenesis and provides a causal link between intracellular calcium regulation and spermiogenesis. PMID:25996873

  7. DISTILLATION OF CALCIUM

    DOEpatents

    Barton, J.

    1954-07-27

    This invention relates to an improvement in the process for the purification of caicium or magnesium containing an alkali metal as impurity, which comprises distiiling a batch of the mixture in two stages, the first stage distillation being carried out in the presence of an inert gas at an absolute pressure substantially greater than the vapor pressure of calcium or maguesium at the temperature of distillation, but less than the vaper pressure at that temperature of the alkali metal impurity so that only the alkali metal is vaporized and condensed on a condensing surface. A second stage distilso that substantially only the calcium or magnesium distills under its own vapor pressure only and condenses in solid form on a lower condensing surface.

  8. Arginase-1 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Sin, Yuan Yan; Baron, Garrett; Schulze, Andreas; Funk, Colin D

    2015-12-01

    Arginase-1 (ARG1) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder that affects the liver-based urea cycle, leading to impaired ureagenesis. This genetic disorder is caused by 40+ mutations found fairly uniformly spread throughout the ARG1 gene, resulting in partial or complete loss of enzyme function, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of arginine to ornithine and urea. ARG1-deficient patients exhibit hyperargininemia with spastic paraparesis, progressive neurological and intellectual impairment, persistent growth retardation, and infrequent episodes of hyperammonemia, a clinical pattern that differs strikingly from other urea cycle disorders. This review briefly highlights the current understanding of the etiology and pathophysiology of ARG1 deficiency derived from clinical case reports and therapeutic strategies stretching over several decades and reports on several exciting new developments regarding the pathophysiology of the disorder using ARG1 global and inducible knockout mouse models. Gene transfer studies in these mice are revealing potential therapeutic options that can be exploited in the future. However, caution is advised in extrapolating results since the lethal disease phenotype in mice is much more severe than in humans indicating that the mouse models may not precisely recapitulate human disease etiology. Finally, some of the functions and implications of ARG1 in non-urea cycle activities are considered. Lingering questions and future areas to be addressed relating to the clinical manifestations of ARG1 deficiency in liver and brain are also presented. Hopefully, this review will spark invigorated research efforts that lead to treatments with better clinical outcomes. PMID:26467175

  9. Osteopontin Deficiency Increases Bone Fragility but Preserves Bone Mass

    PubMed Central

    Thurner, Philipp J.; Chen, Carol G.; Ionova-Martin, Sophi; Sun, Luling; Harman, Adam; Porter, Alexandra; Ager, Joel W.; Ritchie, Robert O.; Alliston, Tamara

    2010-01-01

    The ability of bone to resist catastrophic failure is critically dependent upon the material properties of bone matrix, a composite of hydroxyapatite, collagen type I, and noncollagenous proteins. These properties include elastic modulus, hardness, and fracture toughness. Like other aspects of bone quality, matrix material properties are biologically-defined and can be disrupted in skeletal disease. While mineral and collagen have been investigated in greater detail, the contribution of noncollagenous proteins such as osteopontin to bone matrix material properties remains unclear. Several roles have been ascribed to osteopontin in bone, many of which have the potential to impact material properties. To elucidate the role of osteopontin in bone quality, we evaluated the structure, composition, and material properties of bone from osteopontin-deficient mice and wild-type littermates at several length scales. Most importantly, the results show that osteopontin deficiency causes a 30% decrease in fracture toughness, suggesting an important role for OPN in preventing crack propagation. This significant decline in fracture toughness is independent of changes in whole bone mass, structure, or matrix porosity. Using nanoindentation and quantitative backscattered electron imaging to evaluate osteopontin-deficient bone matrix at the micrometer level, we observed a significant reduction in elastic modulus and increased variability in calcium concentration. Matrix heterogeneity was also apparent at the ultrastructural level. In conclusion, we find that osteopontin is essential for the fracture toughness of bone, and reduced toughness in osteopontin-deficient bone may be related to the increased matrix heterogeneity observed at the micro-scale. By exploring the effects of osteopontin-deficiency on bone matrix material properties, composition and organization, this study suggests that reduced fracture toughness is one mechanism by which loss of noncollagenous proteins contribute

  10. Effect of vitamin D and calcium on periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Hildebolt, Charles F

    2005-09-01

    The anthropological record indicates that we are exposed to considerably less ultraviolet radiation (required for the synthesis of vitamin D) and consume considerably less calcium than did our early ancestors. Most U.S. citizens have calcium intakes and serum levels of vitamin D far below recommended values. This is despite there having been extensive evidence that optimal calcium and vitamin D intakes not only benefit our postcranial bone health but also have many other health benefits. Numerous articles indicate that vitamin D and calcium deficiencies result in bone loss and increased inflammation, which are well recognized symptoms of periodontal disease. For more than 40 years, investigators have suggested that calcium intake may be associated with alveolar bone resorption, and more recently there have been a number of studies in which investigators have suggested that calcium and vitamin D may benefit periodontal health, and it has been suggested that calcium deficiency may be a risk factor for periodontal disease. There has not, however, been a vitamin-D-calcium-periodontitis clinical trial in which randomization and masking were carefully controlled, the periodontal disease status of patients known, periodontal disease measures were the primary outcomes, and levels of intake optimized to produce maximal effects. Such research might demonstrate that calcium and vitamin D are important adjuncts to standard treatments for preventing and treating periodontal disease. PMID:16171451

  11. Spinal blockage of P/Q- or N-type voltage-gated calcium channels modulates functional and symptomatic changes related to haemorrhagic cystitis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Silva, R B M; Sperotto, N D M; Andrade, E L; Pereira, T C B; Leite, C E; de Souza, A H; Bogo, M R; Morrone, F B; Gomez, M V; Campos, M M

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Spinal voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) are pivotal regulators of painful and inflammatory alterations, representing attractive therapeutic targets. We examined the effects of epidural administration of the P/Q- and N-type VGCC blockers Tx3-3 and Phα1β, respectively, isolated from the spider Phoneutria nigriventer, on symptomatic, inflammatory and functional changes allied to mouse cyclophosphamide (CPA)-induced haemorrhagic cystitis (HC). The effects of P. nigriventer-derived toxins were compared with those displayed by MVIIC and MVIIA, extracted from the cone snail Conus magus. Experimental Approach HC was induced by a single i.p. injection of CPA (300 mg·kg–1). Dose- and time-related effects of spinally administered P/Q and N-type VGCC blockers were assessed on nociceptive behaviour and macroscopic inflammation elicited by CPA. The effects of toxins were also evaluated on cell migration, cytokine production, oxidative stress, functional cystometry alterations and TRPV1, TRPA1 and NK1 receptor mRNA expression. Key Results The spinal blockage of P/Q-type VGCC by Tx3-3 and MVIIC or N-type VGCC by Phα1β attenuated nociceptive and inflammatory events associated with HC, including bladder oxidative stress and cytokine production. CPA produced a slight increase in bladder TRPV1 and TRPA1 mRNA expression, which was reversed by all the toxins tested. Noteworthy, Phα1β strongly prevented bladder neutrophil migration, besides HC-related functional alterations, and its effects were potentiated by co-injecting the selective NK1 receptor antagonist CP-96345. Conclusions and Implications Our results shed new light on the role of spinal P/Q and N-type VGCC in bladder dysfunctions, pointing out Phα1β as a promising alternative for treating complications associated with CPA-induced HC. PMID:25298144

  12. The Role of Calcium in Osteoporosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnaud, C. D.; Sanchez, S. D.

    1991-01-01

    Calcium requirements may vary throughout the lifespan. During the growth years and up to age 25 to 30, it is important to maximize dietary intake of calcium to maintain positive calcium balance and achieve peak bone mass, thereby possibly decreasing the risk of fracture when bone is subsequently lost. Calcium intake need not be greater than 800 mg/day during the relatively short period of time between the end of bone building and the onset of bone loss (30 to 40 years). Starting at age 40 to 50, both men and women lose bone slowly, but women lose bone more rapidly around the menopause and for about 10 years after. Intestinal calcium absorption and the ability to adapt to low calcium diets are impaired in many postmenopausal women and elderly persons owing to a suspected functional or absolute decrease in the ability of the kidney to produce 1,25(OH)2D2. The bones then become more and more a source of calcium to maintain critical extracellular fluid calcium levels. Excessive dietary intake of protein and fiber may induce significant negative calcium balance and thus increase dietary calcium requirements. Generally, the strongest risk factors for osteoporosis are uncontrollable (e.g., sex, age, and race) or less controllable (e.g., disease and medications). However, several factors such as diet, physical activity, cigarette smoking, and alcohol use are lifestyle related and can be modified to help reduce the risk of osteoporosis.

  13. Comparative genomic study of arachnid immune systems indicates loss of beta-1,3-glucanase-related proteins and the immune deficiency pathway.

    PubMed

    Bechsgaard, J; Vanthournout, B; Funch, P; Vestbo, S; Gibbs, R A; Richards, S; Sanggaard, K W; Enghild, J J; Bilde, T

    2016-02-01

    Analyses of arthropod genomes have shown that the genes in the different innate humoral immune responses are conserved. These genes encode proteins that are involved in immune signalling pathways that recognize pathogens and activate immune responses. These immune responses include phagocytosis, encapsulation of the pathogen and production of effector molecules for pathogen elimination. So far, most studies have focused on insects leaving other major arthropod groups largely unexplored. Here, we annotate the immune-related genes of six arachnid genomes and present evidence for a conserved pattern of some immune genes, but also evolutionary changes in the arachnid immune system. Specifically, our results suggest that the family of recognition molecules of beta-1,3-glucanase-related proteins (βGRPs) and the genes from the immune deficiency (IMD) signalling pathway have been lost in a common ancestor of arachnids. These findings are consistent with previous work suggesting that the humoral immune effector proteins are constitutively produced in arachnids in contrast to insects, where these have to be induced. Further functional studies are needed to verify this. We further show that the full haemolymph clotting cascade found in the horseshoe crab is retrieved in most arachnid genomes. Tetranychus lacks at least one major component, although it is possible that this cascade could still function through recruitment of a different protein. The gel-forming protein in horseshoe crabs, coagulogen, was not recovered in any of the arachnid genomes; however, it is possible that the arachnid clot consists of a related protein, spätzle, that is present in all of the genomes. PMID:26528622

  14. Deficiency of Oncostatin M Receptor β (OSMRβ) Exacerbates High-fat Diet-induced Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders in Mice*

    PubMed Central

    Komori, Tadasuke; Tanaka, Minoru; Senba, Emiko; Miyajima, Atsushi; Morikawa, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Oncostatin M (OSM) belongs to the IL-6 family of cytokines and has diverse biological effects, including the modulation of inflammatory responses. In the present study we analyzed the roles of OSM signaling in obesity and related metabolic disorders. Under a high-fat diet condition, OSM receptor β subunit-deficient (OSMRβ−/−) mice exhibited increases in body weight and food intake compared with those observed in WT mice. In addition, adipose tissue inflammation, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis were more severe in OSMRβ−/− mice than in wild-type (WT) mice. These metabolic phenotypes did not improve when OSMRβ−/− mice were pair-fed with WT mice, suggesting that the effects of OSM signaling on these phenotypes are independent of the increases in the body weight and food intake. In the liver of OSMRβ−/− mice, the insulin-induced phosphorylation of p70 S6 kinase remained intact, whereas insulin-induced FOXO1 phosphorylation was impaired. In addition, OSMRβ−/− mice displayed a higher expression of genes related to de novo lipogenesis in the liver than WT mice. Furthermore, treatment of genetically obese ob/ob mice with OSM improved insulin resistance, adipose tissue inflammation, and hepatic steatosis. Intraportal administration of OSM into ob/ob mice activated STAT3 and increased the expression of long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase (ACSL) 3 and ACSL5 with decreased expression of fatty acid synthase in the liver, suggesting that OSM directly induces lipolysis and suppresses lipogenesis in the liver of obese mice. These findings suggest that defects in OSM signaling promote the deterioration of high-fat diet-induced obesity and related metabolic disorders. PMID:24695736

  15. Deficiency of oncostatin M receptor β (OSMRβ) exacerbates high-fat diet-induced obesity and related metabolic disorders in mice.

    PubMed

    Komori, Tadasuke; Tanaka, Minoru; Senba, Emiko; Miyajima, Atsushi; Morikawa, Yoshihiro

    2014-05-16

    Oncostatin M (OSM) belongs to the IL-6 family of cytokines and has diverse biological effects, including the modulation of inflammatory responses. In the present study we analyzed the roles of OSM signaling in obesity and related metabolic disorders. Under a high-fat diet condition, OSM receptor β subunit-deficient (OSMRβ(-/-)) mice exhibited increases in body weight and food intake compared with those observed in WT mice. In addition, adipose tissue inflammation, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis were more severe in OSMRβ(-/-) mice than in wild-type (WT) mice. These metabolic phenotypes did not improve when OSMRβ(-/-) mice were pair-fed with WT mice, suggesting that the effects of OSM signaling on these phenotypes are independent of the increases in the body weight and food intake. In the liver of OSMRβ(-/-) mice, the insulin-induced phosphorylation of p70 S6 kinase remained intact, whereas insulin-induced FOXO1 phosphorylation was impaired. In addition, OSMRβ(-/-) mice displayed a higher expression of genes related to de novo lipogenesis in the liver than WT mice. Furthermore, treatment of genetically obese ob/ob mice with OSM improved insulin resistance, adipose tissue inflammation, and hepatic steatosis. Intraportal administration of OSM into ob/ob mice activated STAT3 and increased the expression of long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase (ACSL) 3 and ACSL5 with decreased expression of fatty acid synthase in the liver, suggesting that OSM directly induces lipolysis and suppresses lipogenesis in the liver of obese mice. These findings suggest that defects in OSM signaling promote the deterioration of high-fat diet-induced obesity and related metabolic disorders. PMID:24695736

  16. Retrieval Deficiency in Brain Activity of Working Memory in Amnesic Mild Cognitive Impairment Patients: A Brain Event-Related Potentials Study.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin-Yin; Tang, Hui-Dong; Chen, Sheng-Di

    2016-01-01

    In the early stage of Alzheimer disease (AD) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI), working memory (WM) deficiency is prominent and could be attributed to failure in encoding, maintenance or retrieval of information. However, evidence for a retention or retrieval deficit remains equivocal. It is also unclear what cognitive mechanism in WM is impaired in MCI or early AD. We enrolled 46 subjects from our Memory Clinics and community, with 24 amnesic MCI patients and 22 normal subjects. After neurological and cognitive assessments, they performed a classic delayed match to sample (DMS) task with simultaneous event-related potential (ERP) recorded. The ERPs in encoding and retrieval epoch during WM were analyzed separately. The latency and amplitude of every ERP component were compared between two groups, and then analyzed to explore their relationship with neuropsychological performance. Finally, the locations of maximal difference in cortex were calculated by standard low-resolution tomographic analysis. A total of five components were found: P1, N1, P2, N2, and P300. The amplitude of P2 and P300 was larger in normal subjects than in MCI patients only during retrieval, not encoding epoch, while the latency did not show statistical difference. The latency and amplitude of P1 and N1 were similar in two groups. P2 amplitude in the retrieval epoch positively correlated with memory test (auditory verbal learning test) and visual spatial score of Chinese Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R), while P300 amplitude correlated with ACE-R. The activation difference in P2 time range was maximal at medial frontal gyrus. However, the difference in cortex activation during P300 time range did not show significance. The amplitude of P2 indicated deficiency in memory retrieval process, potentially due to dysfunction of central executive in WM model. Regarding the location of P2 during WM task, medial frontal plays important role in memory retrieval. The findings in the

  17. Retrieval Deficiency in Brain Activity of Working Memory in Amnesic Mild Cognitive Impairment Patients: A Brain Event-Related Potentials Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bin-Yin; Tang, Hui-Dong; Chen, Sheng-Di

    2016-01-01

    In the early stage of Alzheimer disease (AD) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI), working memory (WM) deficiency is prominent and could be attributed to failure in encoding, maintenance or retrieval of information. However, evidence for a retention or retrieval deficit remains equivocal. It is also unclear what cognitive mechanism in WM is impaired in MCI or early AD. We enrolled 46 subjects from our Memory Clinics and community, with 24 amnesic MCI patients and 22 normal subjects. After neurological and cognitive assessments, they performed a classic delayed match to sample (DMS) task with simultaneous event-related potential (ERP) recorded. The ERPs in encoding and retrieval epoch during WM were analyzed separately. The latency and amplitude of every ERP component were compared between two groups, and then analyzed to explore their relationship with neuropsychological performance. Finally, the locations of maximal difference in cortex were calculated by standard low-resolution tomographic analysis. A total of five components were found: P1, N1, P2, N2, and P300. The amplitude of P2 and P300 was larger in normal subjects than in MCI patients only during retrieval, not encoding epoch, while the latency did not show statistical difference. The latency and amplitude of P1 and N1 were similar in two groups. P2 amplitude in the retrieval epoch positively correlated with memory test (auditory verbal learning test) and visual spatial score of Chinese Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R), while P300 amplitude correlated with ACE-R. The activation difference in P2 time range was maximal at medial frontal gyrus. However, the difference in cortex activation during P300 time range did not show significance. The amplitude of P2 indicated deficiency in memory retrieval process, potentially due to dysfunction of central executive in WM model. Regarding the location of P2 during WM task, medial frontal plays important role in memory retrieval. The findings in the

  18. Relative Carnitine Deficiency in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filipek, Pauline A.; Juranek, Jenifer; Nguyen, Minh T.; Cummings, Christa; Gargus, J. Jay

    2004-01-01

    A random retrospective chart review was conducted to document serum carnitine levels on 100 children with autism. Concurrently drawn serum pyruvate, lactate, ammonia, and alanine levels were also available in many of these children. Values of free and total carnitine ([rho] less than 0.001), and pyruvate ([rho]=0.006) were significantly reduced…

  19. Rapid and Inexpensive Detection of α1-Antitrypsin Deficiency-Related Alleles S and Z by a Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Suitable for a Large-Scale Population-Based Screening

    PubMed Central

    Kaczor, Marcin P.; Sanak, Marek; Szczeklik, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    α1-Antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is one of the most common genetic disorders in Caucasians, leading to early onset pulmonary emphysema and/or liver disorders. Accumulating data suggest that AAT deficiency is commonly under-recognized or misdiagnosed by physicians. The need for a rapid, timesaving, and relatively inexpensive but reliable detection method for the two most common deficiency alleles was developed using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) genotyping. We designed and validated a 5′-nuclease assay for typing of the PI*S and PI*Z alleles using dual-labeled target-specific fluorescent probes. As a reference method, we used restriction fragment length polymorphism. The real-time PCR method was tested on a large, cross-sectional epidemiological trial. Overall, we genotyped about 1200 samples and found a very good concordance with AAT serum levels and restriction fragment length polymorphism results. In addition, external interlaboratory validation confirmed the accuracy of the real-time PCR method. In our experience, the real-time qualitative PCR using 5′-nuclease assay is suitable as a genetic test for AAT deficiency. This method offers an acceptable balance between reliability and expenses. It seems appropriate for both population-based screening and clinical diagnosis of the deficiency. PMID:17251342

  20. Root Responses to Boron Deficiency Mediated by Ethylene

    PubMed Central

    González-Fontes, Agustín; Herrera-Rodríguez, M. B.; Martín-Rejano, Esperanza M.; Navarro-Gochicoa, M. T.; Rexach, Jesús; Camacho-Cristóbal, Juan J.

    2016-01-01

    Low boron (B) supply alters the architecture of the root system in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings, leading to a reduction in the primary root growth and an increase in the length and number of root hairs. At short-term (hours), B deficiency causes a decrease in the cell elongation of the primary root, resulting in a lower growth. Experimental approaches using ethylene insensitive Arabidopsis mutants, inhibitors of ethylene response, and GUS reporter lines suggest that ethylene is involved in these responses of the primary root to B deficiency. Furthermore, it has been shown that auxin participates in the inhibition of cell elongation under short-term B deprivation. These results support that an interaction between ethylene and auxin plays an important role in controlling the primary root elongation, in which a number of genes related to the synthesis, transport, and signaling of both phytohormones could modulate this effect. Evidence for a root cross-talk among both hormones and other possible intermediates (abscisic acid, calcium sensors, and reactive oxygen species) in response to B deficiency is provided and discussed. PMID:26779202

  1. Root Responses to Boron Deficiency Mediated by Ethylene.

    PubMed

    González-Fontes, Agustín; Herrera-Rodríguez, M B; Martín-Rejano, Esperanza M; Navarro-Gochicoa, M T; Rexach, Jesús; Camacho-Cristóbal, Juan J

    2015-01-01

    Low boron (B) supply alters the architecture of the root system in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings, leading to a reduction in the primary root growth and an increase in the length and number of root hairs. At short-term (hours), B deficiency causes a decrease in the cell elongation of the primary root, resulting in a lower growth. Experimental approaches using ethylene insensitive Arabidopsis mutants, inhibitors of ethylene response, and GUS reporter lines suggest that ethylene is involved in these responses of the primary root to B deficiency. Furthermore, it has been shown that auxin participates in the inhibition of cell elongation under short-term B deprivation. These results support that an interaction between ethylene and auxin plays an important role in controlling the primary root elongation, in which a number of genes related to the synthesis, transport, and signaling of both phytohormones could modulate this effect. Evidence for a root cross-talk among both hormones and other possible intermediates (abscisic acid, calcium sensors, and reactive oxygen species) in response to B deficiency is provided and discussed. PMID:26779202

  2. Vitamin D Deficiency Promotes Skeletal Muscle Hypersensitivity and Sensory Hyperinnervation

    PubMed Central

    Tague, Sarah E.; Clarke, Gwenaëlle L.; Winter, Michelle K.; McCarson, Kenneth E.; Wright, Douglas E.; Smith, Peter G.

    2012-01-01

    Musculoskeletal pain affects nearly half of all adults, most of whom are vitamin D deficient. Previous findings demonstrated that putative nociceptors (“pain-sensing” nerves) express vitamin D receptors (VDRs), suggesting responsiveness to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. In the present study, rats receiving vitamin D-deficient diets for 2– 4 weeks showed mechanical deep muscle hypersensitivity, but not cutaneous hypersensitivity. Muscle hypersensitivity was accompanied by balance deficits and occurred before onset of overt muscle or bone pathology. Hypersensitivity was not due to hypocalcemia and was actually accelerated by increased dietary calcium. Morphometry of skeletal muscle innervation showed increased numbers of presumptive nociceptor axons (peripherin-positive axons containing calcitonin gene-related peptide), without changes in sympathetic or skeletal muscle motor innervation. Similarly, there was no change in epidermal innervation. In culture, sensory neurons displayed enriched VDR expression in growth cones, and sprouting was regulated by VDR-mediated rapid response signaling pathways, while sympathetic outgrowth was not affected by different concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. These findings indicate that vitamin D deficiency can lead to selective alterations in target innervation, resulting in presumptive nociceptor hyperinnervation of skeletal muscle, which in turn is likely to contribute to muscular hypersensitivity and pain. PMID:21957236

  3. Distribution of non-collagenous dentin matrix proteins and proteoglycans, and their relation to calcium accumulation in bisphosphonate-affected rat incisors.

    PubMed

    Ohma, N; Takagi, Y; Takano, Y

    2000-06-01

    It has been reported that multiple injections of 1-hydroxyethylidene- 1,1-bisphosphonate (HEBP) to rats prevent mineralization of incisor dentin, thereby revealing high concentrations of calcium in the non-mineralized matrix of circumpulpal dentin. To identify the molecules responsible for calcium accumulation in circumpulpal dentin matrix, rats were injected daily with HEBP (8 mg P/kg) for 7 d, and the incisors processed for various histochemical and immunohistochemical staining of non-collagenous matrices of dentin. Cuprolinic blue reactions for proteoglycans (PGs) were equally distributed in non-mineralized matrix of mantle and circumpulpal dentin layers. Dentin sialoprotein (DSP) and osteopontin (OPN) immunoreactions were found in non-mineralized circumpulpal dentin matrix, but not in mantle dentin. In normal incisors, however, predentin matrix showing significant DSP immunoreactivity was negative for Ca-GBHA reactions. HEBP-affected, non-mineralized OPN immunopositive bone matrix was also non-reactive for calcium. From these observations, neither PGs, OPN nor DSP appear to be responsible for calcium accumulation in HEBP-affected circumpulpal dentin. Stains-all reactive component, possibly dentin phosphoprotein (DPP), only showed the same distribution as that of Ca-GBHA in both HEBP-affected and normal dentin matrix, implicating a possible contribution of DPP to calcium accumulation in circumpulpal dentin and, hence, to appositional mineralization of dentin. PMID:10872993

  4. Abnormal calcium homeostasis in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction is related to both reduced contractile function and incomplete relaxation: an electromechanically detailed biophysical modeling study

    PubMed Central

    Adeniran, Ismail; MacIver, David H.; Hancox, Jules C.; Zhang, Henggui

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) accounts for about 50% of heart failure cases. It has features of incomplete relaxation and increased stiffness of the left ventricle. Studies from clinical electrophysiology and animal experiments have found that HFpEF is associated with impaired calcium homeostasis, ion channel remodeling and concentric left ventricle hypertrophy (LVH). However, it is still unclear how the abnormal calcium homeostasis, ion channel and structural remodeling affect the electro-mechanical dynamics of the ventricles. In this study we have developed multiscale models of the human left ventricle from single cells to the 3D organ, which take into consideration HFpEF-induced changes in calcium handling, ion channel remodeling and concentric LVH. Our simulation results suggest that at the cellular level, HFpEF reduces the systolic calcium level resulting in a reduced systolic contractile force, but elevates the diastolic calcium level resulting in an abnormal residual diastolic force. In our simulations, these abnormal electro-mechanical features of the ventricular cells became more pronounced with the increase of the heart rate. However, at the 3D organ level, the ejection fraction of the left ventricle was maintained due to the concentric LVH. The simulation results of this study mirror clinically observed features of HFpEF and provide new insights toward the understanding of the cellular bases of impaired cardiac electromechanical functions in heart failure. PMID:25852567

  5. Tonoplast calcium sensors CBL2 and CBL3 control plant growth and ion homeostasis through regulating V-ATPase activity in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Ren-Jie; Liu, Hua; Yang, Yang; Yang, Lei; Gao, Xiao-Shu; Garcia, Veder J; Luan, Sheng; Zhang, Hong-Xia

    2012-01-01

    Plant responses to developmental and environmental cues are often mediated by calcium (Ca2+) signals that are transmitted by diverse calcium sensors. The calcineurin B-like (CBL) protein family represents calcium sensors that decode calcium signals through specific interactions with a group of CBL-interacting protein kinases. We report functional analysis of Arabidopsis CBL2 and CBL3, two closely related CBL members that are localized to the vacuolar membrane through the N-terminal tonoplast-targeting sequence. While cbl2 or cbl3 single mutant did not show any phenotypic difference from the wild type, the cbl2 cbl3 double mutant was stunted with leaf tip necrosis, underdeveloped roots, shorter siliques and fewer seeds. These defects were reminiscent of those in the vha-a2 vha-a3 double mutant deficient in vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase). Indeed, the V-ATPase activity was reduced in the cbl2 cbl3 double mutant, connecting tonoplast CBL-type calcium sensors to the regulation of V-ATPase. Furthermore, cbl2 cbl3 double mutant was compromised in ionic tolerance and micronutrient accumulation, consistent with the defect in V-ATPase activity that has been shown to function in ion compartmentalization. Our results suggest that calcium sensors CBL2 and CBL3 serve as molecular links between calcium signaling and V-ATPase, a central regulator of intracellular ion homeostasis. PMID:23184060

  6. Impact of age and sex on the development of atherosclerosis and expression of the related genes in apoE deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mengyang; Zhang, Wenwen; Li, Xiaoju; Han, Jihong; Chen, Yuanli; Duan, Yajun

    2016-01-15

    Development of atherosclerosis is a chronic pathological process. ApoE deficient (apoE(-/-)) mice spontaneously develop atherosclerotic lesions. However, the impact of age and sex on lesions and expression of the related genes have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we collected blood and tissue samples from normal chow fed male and female apoE(-/-) mice at different ages, and determined serum lipids, PCSK9 levels, en face aortic lesions and expression of some pro- or anti-atherogenic genes. We determined that lesion development was clearly associated with age, and more lesions in males than females (12.6 ± 1.7% vs. 8.9 ± 1.1% at 8 months old, P < 0.05). Associated with age, serum total, LDL- and HDL-cholesterol and PCSK9 levels increased with more PCSK9 in females than males (313 ± 31 ng/mL vs. 239 ± 28 ng/mL at 8 months old, P < 0.05); expression of liver LDLR and ABCA1 decreased while of SR-BI increased; expression of macrophage ABCA1 and SR-BI decreased but of CD36 increased. Estrogen and tamoxifen induced ABCA1 and SR-BI expression, respectively, in macrophages isolated from female mice at the different age. Taken together, our study suggests that aging facilitates lesion development in apoE(-/-) mice with greater effect on male mice. The lesion development is also related to expression of pro- or anti-atherogenic genes in tissues, particularly in macrophages. PMID:26592663

  7. The WOMED model of benign thyroid disease: Acquired magnesium deficiency due to physical and psychological stressors relates to dysfunction of oxidative phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Moncayo, Roy; Moncayo, Helga

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to discern whether a relation between biochemical parameters, sonography and musculoskeletal data exists in cases of hyperthyroidism and whether they are modifiable through supplementation with selenomethionine and magnesium citrate as well as by acupuncture and manual medicine methods. Results A direct correlation between whole blood selenium and serum magnesium was found in subjects without thyroid disease and in menopausal women while it was reversed in cases of thyroid diseases as well as in patients with depression, infection, and in infertile women. Vascularization indices were elevated in cases of newly diagnosed benign thyroid diseases. Musculoskeletal changes i.e. lateral tension and idiopathic moving toes, as well as situations of physical and psychological stress and minor trauma and infection led to an increase of vascularization. Magnesium levels correlated negatively with these two conditions. The supplementation brought a reduction of the vascularization indices and reduced the incidence of idiopathic moving toes. Treatment of lateral tension required manual medicine methods and acupuncture (gastrocnemius). A small subgroup of patients showed a further reduction of hyper-vascularization after receiving coenzyme Q10. Conclusions We interpret the elevated thyroid vascularization and low magnesium levels as signs of an inflammatory process related to the musculoskeletal changes. Improvement of thyroid function and morphology can be achieved after correcting the influence of stressors together with the supplementation regime. We hypothesize that the central biochemical event in thyroid disease is that of an acquired, altered mitochondrial function due to deficiency of magnesium, selenium, and coenzyme Q10. PMID:26675817

  8. Relative Dominance of Physical versus Chemical Effects on the Transport of Adhesion-Deficient Bacteria in Intact Cores from South Oyster, Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Hailang; Onstott, Tullis C.; Deflaun, Mary F.; Fuller, Mark E.; Scheibe, Timothy D. ); Streger, Sheryl H.; Rothmel, Randi K.; Mailloux, Brian J.

    2002-03-01

    Bacterial transport experiments were conducted using intact sediment cores collected near South Oyster, VA to delineate the relative importance of physical and chemical heterogeneity in controlling transport of an adhesion-deficient bacterial strain. The sediments consisted of quartz and feldspar with a variable amount of clay and metal hydroxide coatings on the grains. A nonmotile, gram-negative indigenous groundwater strain, designated as Comamonas sp. DA001, was injected into the cores along with a conservative tracer bromide (Br). Bacterial breakthrough preceded the arrival of Br. This differential advection phenomenon can be accounted for by reduction of the effective porosity for the bacteria relative to Br. The distribution of cells remaining in the core was highly variable, ranging from nearly uniform concentrations to exponentially decreasing concentrations. The fraction of bacterial retention in the core was positively correlated with the abundance of the metal hydroxides and negatively correlated with grain size. Because grain size was correlated with the abundance of the metal hydroxide coatings, it was difficult to separate the effects of grain size and mineralogy. The fraction of the bacterial retention accounted for by the effect of grain size exhibited no correlation with the abundance of the metal hydroxides, indicating that the bacterial retention was primarily controlled by grain size. Reasons for the lack of influence of mineralogy on bacterial retention include (1) the slightly negatively charged bacterial surfaces; (2) insufficient heterogeneity of sediment surface properties; and (3) the masking of the positive charge of the metal hydroxide surfaces by adsorbed organic carbon (up to 1180 ppm). This study demonstrates that the laboratory based bacterial transport experiments are effective in delineating physical versus chemical controlling factors, and provide an important link to field-based bacterial transport studies.

  9. Sex-related differences in photoinhibition, photo-oxidative stress and photoprotection in stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) exposed to drought and nutrient deficiency.

    PubMed

    Simancas, Bárbara; Juvany, Marta; Cotado, Alba; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2016-03-01

    Dimorphic plant species can show distinct nutrient needs due to sex-related differences in nutrient allocation to reproductive structures, which can potentially affect their sensitivity to photoinhibition and photo-oxidative stress. Here, we investigated sex-related differences in the extent of photo-oxidative stress in male and female individuals of U. dioica exposed to a combination of severe drought and nutrient starvation. Male and female individuals of U. dioica subject to severe drought stress were exposed to various levels of nutrient availability. First, a set of plants grown under field conditions and exposed to summer drought was used to test the effects of nutrient supply (given as NPK fertilizer). Secondly, the effects of various phosphate concentrations in the nutrient solution were tested in drought-stressed potted plants. The Fv/Fm ratio (maximum efficiency of PSII photochemistry), photoprotection capacity (levels of carotenoids, including the xanthophyll cycle, and vitamins C and E), and the extent of lipid peroxidation (hydroperoxide levels) were measured. Results showed that an application of the NPK fertilizer to the soil had a positive effect on drought-stressed plants, reducing the extent of lipid peroxidation in both males and females. P deficiency led to residual photoinhibition, as indicated by significant reductions in the Fv/Fm ratio, and enhanced lipid peroxidation in females, but not in males. We conclude that (i) increased nutrient availability in the soil can alleviate photo-oxidative stress in drought-stressed U. dioica plants, and (ii) U. dioica plants show sexual secondary dimorphism in terms of photoinhibition and photo-oxidative stress, but this is only apparent when stress infringed on plants is very severe. PMID:26799330

  10. A new anion-deficient fluorite-related superstructure of Bi{sub 28}V{sub 8}O{sub 62}

    SciTech Connect

    Đorđević, T.; Karanović, Lj.

    2014-12-15

    New hydrothermally synthesized Bi{sub 28}V{sub 8}O{sub 62} was structurally characterized using single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. Bi{sub 28}V{sub 8}O{sub 62} crystallizes in the novel type of defect fluorite structure related to the face-centered cubic δ-Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}. It is monoclinic, s. g. P2{sub 1}/c, and the relation to the fluorite subcell is given as a∼(3/2)a{sub F}+(3/2)c{sub F}; b∼ −b{sub F}; c∼2a{sub F} −4c{sub F} (F in subscript indicate the unit cell parameter of fluorite). Its structure is characterized by slabs of edge sharing OBi{sub 4} tetrahedra surrounded by the OBi{sub 3} triangles. As a part of these OBi{sub 3} triangles, two positionally disordered Bi{sup 3+} cations were observed in the marginal part of the slabs. The slabs are extending along b axis and are linked by inter-slab portion of the structure composed of VO{sub 4} tetrahedra and BiO{sub 6−x} coordination polyhedra, where x is a number of vacant oxygen sites. Raman spectra verified the coordination environment of vanadium atoms in the structure. - Graphical abstract: The [4{sup ¯}01] projection of two slabs and inter-slab part of the structure in one layer parallel to the (3{sup ¯}08)=(002{sup ¯}){sub F} plane (F in subscript indicate a fluorite type structure). The large green circles are Bi atoms. Small blue circles represent partly and fully occupied O sites, respectively. Pink (hatched black) are V1O{sub 4} and blue (hatched white) are V2O{sub 4} coordination tetrahedra. - Highlights: • Single crystals of Bi{sub 28}V{sub 8}O{sub 62} were grown using hydrothermal technique. • The crystal structure of Bi{sub 28}V{sub 8}O{sub 62} was solved using single-crystal XRD method. • Bi{sub 28}V{sub 8}O{sub 62} has an anion-deficient fluorite-related superstructure. • Raman spectrum confirmed the coordination environment of vanadium atoms. • Relation to the structurally related compound was discussed.

  11. Contrasting calcium localization and speciation in leaves of Medicago trunculata mutant COD5 analyzed via synchrotron X-ray techniques

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxalate-producing plants accumulate calcium oxalate crystals (CaOx(C)) in the range of 3-80%(w/w) of their dry weight, reducing calcium (Ca) bioavailability. The calcium oxalate deficient 5 (cod5) mutant of Medicago truncatula has been previously shown to contain similar Ca, but lower oxalate and Ca...

  12. Calcium-dependent protein kinase (CDPK) and CDPK-related kinase (CRK) gene families in tomato: genome-wide identification and functional analyses in disease resistance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ji-Peng; Xu, You-Ping; Munyampundu, Jean-Pierre; Liu, Tian-Yu; Cai, Xin-Zhong

    2016-04-01

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) and CDPK-related kinases (CRKs) play multiple roles in plant. Nevertheless, genome-wide identification of these two families is limited to several plant species, and role of CRKs in disease resistance remains unclear. In this study, we identified the CDPK and CRK gene families in genome of the economically important crop tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and analyzed their function in resistance to various pathogens. Twenty-nine CDPK and six CRK genes were identified in tomato genome. Both SlCDPK and SlCRK proteins harbored an STKc_CAMK type protein kinase domain, while only SlCDPKs contained EF-hand type Ca(2+) binding domain(s). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that plant CRK family diverged early from CDPKs, and shared a common ancestor gene with subgroup IV CDPKs. Subgroup IV SlCDPK proteins were basic and their genes contained 11 introns, which were distinguished from other subgroups but similar to CRKs. Subgroup I SlCDPKs generally did not carry an N-terminal myristoylation motif while those of the remaining subgroups and SlCRKs universally did. SlCDPK and SlCRK genes were differently responsive to pathogenic stimuli. Furthermore, silencing analyses demonstrated that SlCDPK18 and SlCDPK10 positively regulated nonhost resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and host resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000, respectively, while SlCRK6 positively regulated resistance to both Pst DC3000 and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in tomato. In conclusion, CRKs apparently evolved from CDPK lineage, SlCDPK and SlCRK genes regulate a wide range of resistance and SlCRK6 is the first CRK gene proved to function in plant disease resistance. PMID:26520101

  13. Charge movement and SR calcium release in frog skeletal muscle can be related by a Hodgkin-Huxley model with four gating particles.

    PubMed Central

    Simon, B. J.; Hill, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    Charge movement currents (IQ) and calcium transients (delta[Ca2+]) were measured simultaneously in frog skeletal muscle fibers, voltage clamped in a double vaseline gap chamber, using Antipyrylazo III as the calcium indicator. The rate of release of calcium from the SR (Rrel) was calculated from the calcium transients using the removal model of Melzer, W., E. Rios, and M. F. Schneider (1987. Biophys. J. 51:849-863.). IQ and delta [Ca2+] were calculated for 100 ms depolarizing test pulses to membrane potentials from -30 to +20 mV. To eliminate an inactivating component of Rrel, each test pulse was preceded by a large, fixed prepulse to +20 mV. The resulting Rrel records, which represent the noninactivating component of Rrel, were compared with integral of IQdt.(Q), the total charge that moves. The voltage dependence of the steady state Rrel was steeper then that of Q and shifted to the right. During depolarization, the Rrel waveform was similar to that of Q but was delayed by several ms, while, during repolarization, Rrel preceded Q. All of these results could be explained with a Hodgkin-Huxley type model for E-C coupling in which four voltage sensors in the t-tubule membrane which give rise to IQ must all be in their activating positions for the calcium release channel in the SR membrane to open. his model is consistent with the structural architecture of the triadic junction in which four dihydropyridine receptors (the voltage sensors for E-C coupling) in the t-tubule membrane are closely associated with each ryanodine receptor(the calcium release channel) in the SR membrane [Block, B. A., T. Imagawa, K. P. Campbell, and C. Franzini-Armstrong. 1988. J.Cell. Biol. 107:2587-2600.]). Some aspects of this work have appeared in abstract form (Simon, B. J., and D. Hill. 1991. Biophys. J.59:64a. ([Abstr.]). PMID:1318090

  14. Vitamin D deficiency in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Ashraf T.; De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Elalaily, Rania; Bedair, Said; Kassem, Islam

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of severe vitamin D deficiency (VDD) in adolescents is variable but considerably high in many countries, especially in Middle-east and Southeast Asia. Different factors attribute to this deficiency including lack of sunlight exposure due to cultural dress codes and veiling or due to pigmented skin, and less time spent outdoors, because of hot weather, and lower vitamin D intake. A potent adaptation process significantly modifies the clinical presentation and therefore clinical presentations may be subtle and go unnoticed, thus making true prevalence studies difficult. Adolescents with severe VDD may present with vague manifestations including pain in weight-bearing joints, back, thighs and/or calves, difficulty in walking and/or climbing stairs, or running and muscle cramps. Adaptation includes increased parathormone (PTH) and deceased insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) secretion. PTH enhances the tubular reabsorption of Ca and stimulates the kidneys to produce 1, 25-(OH) 2D3 that increases intestinal calcium absorption and dissolves the mineralized collagen matrix in bone, causing osteopenia and osteoporosis to provide enough Ca to prevent hypocalcaemia. Decreased insulin like growth factor-I (IGF-I) delays bone growth to economize calcium consumption. Radiological changes are not uncommon and include osteoporosis/osteopenia affecting long bones as well as vertebrae and ribs, bone cysts, decalcification of the metaphysis of the long bones and pseudo fractures. In severe cases pathological fractures and deformities may occur. Vitamin D treatment of adolescents with VDD differs considerably in different studies and proved to be effective in treating all clinical, biochemical, and radiological manifestations. Different treatment regiments for VDD have been discussed and presented in this mini-review for practical use. Adequate vitamin D replacement after treating VDD, improving calcium intake (milk and dairy products), encouraging adequate exposure

  15. Vitamin D deficiency in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Ashraf T; De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Elalaily, Rania; Bedair, Said; Kassem, Islam

    2014-11-01

    The prevalence of severe vitamin D deficiency (VDD) in adolescents is variable but considerably high in many countries, especially in Middle-east and Southeast Asia. Different factors attribute to this deficiency including lack of sunlight exposure due to cultural dress codes and veiling or due to pigmented skin, and less time spent outdoors, because of hot weather, and lower vitamin D intake. A potent adaptation process significantly modifies the clinical presentation and therefore clinical presentations may be subtle and go unnoticed, thus making true prevalence studies difficult. Adolescents with severe VDD may present with vague manifestations including pain in weight-bearing joints, back, thighs and/or calves, difficulty in walking and/or climbing stairs, or running and muscle cramps. Adaptation includes increased parathormone (PTH) and deceased insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) secretion. PTH enhances the tubular reabsorption of Ca and stimulates the kidneys to produce 1, 25-(OH) 2D3 that increases intestinal calcium absorption and dissolves the mineralized collagen matrix in bone, causing osteopenia and osteoporosis to provide enough Ca to prevent hypocalcaemia. Decreased insulin like growth factor-I (IGF-I) delays bone growth to economize calcium consumption. Radiological changes are not uncommon and include osteoporosis/osteopenia affecting long bones as well as vertebrae and ribs, bone cysts, decalcification of the metaphysis of the long bones and pseudo fractures. In severe cases pathological fractures and deformities may occur. Vitamin D treatment of adolescents with VDD differs considerably in different studies and proved to be effective in treating all clinical, biochemical, and radiological manifestations. Different treatment regiments for VDD have been discussed and presented in this mini-review for practical use. Adequate vitamin D replacement after treating VDD, improving calcium intake (milk and dairy products), encouraging adequate exposure

  16. Betaine Deficiency in Maize 1

    PubMed Central

    Lerma, Claudia; Rich, Patrick J.; Ju, Grace C.; Yang, Wen-Ju; Hanson, Andrew D.; Rhodes, David

    1991-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is a betaine-accumulating species, but certain maize genotypes lack betaine almost completely; a single recessive gene has been implicated as the cause of this deficiency (D Rhodes, PJ Rich [1988] Plant Physiol 88: 102-108). This study was undertaken to determine whether betaine deficiency in diverse maize germplasm is conditioned by the same genetic locus, and to define the biochemical lesion(s) involved. Complementation tests indicated that all 13 deficient genotypes tested shared a common locus. One maize population (P77) was found to be segregating for betaine deficiency, and true breeding individuals were used to produce related lines with and without betaine. Leaf tissue of both betaine-positive and betaine-deficient lines readily converted supplied betaine aldehyde to betaine, but only the betaine-containing line was able to oxidize supplied choline to betaine. This locates the lesion in betaine-deficient plants at the choline → betaine aldehyde step of betaine synthesis. Consistent with this location, betaine-deficient plants were shown to have no detectable endogenous pool of betaine aldehyde. PMID:16668098

  17. Micronutrient Deficiencies and Related Factors in School-Aged Children in Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study in Libo Kemkem and Fogera Districts, Amhara Regional State

    PubMed Central

    Herrador, Zaida; Sordo, Luis; Gadisa, Endalamaw; Buño, Antonio; Gómez-Rioja, Rubén; Iturzaeta, Jose Manuel; de Armas, Lisset Fernandez; Benito, Agustín; Aseffa, Abraham; Moreno, Javier; Cañavate, Carmen; Custodio, Estefania

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The present study describes the distribution of selected micronutrients and anaemia among school-aged children living in Libo Kemkem and Fogera (Amhara State, Ethiopia), assessing differences by socio-demographic characteristics, health status and dietary habits. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out during May–December 2009. Socio-demographic characteristics, health status and dietary habits were collected. Biomarkers were determined for 764 children. Bivariate and multivariable statistical methods were employed to assess micronutrient deficiencies (MD), anaemia, and their association with different factors. Results More than two thirds of the school-aged children (79.5%) had at least one MD and 40.5% had two or more coexisting micronutrient deficiencies. The most prevalent deficiencies were of zinc (12.5%), folate (13.9%), vit A (29.3%) and vit D (49%). Anaemia occurred in 30.9% of the children. Children living in rural areas were more likely to have vit D insufficiency [OR: 5.9 (3.7–9.5)] but less likely to have folate deficiency [OR: 0.2 (0.1–0.4)] and anaemia [OR: 0.58 (0.35–0.97)]. Splenomegaly was positively associated with folate deficiency and anaemia [OR: 2.77 (1.19–6.48) and 4.91 (2.47–9.75)]. Meat and fish consumption were inversely correlated with zinc and ferritin deficiencies [OR: 0.2 (0.1–0.8) and 0.2 (0.1–0.9)], while oil consumption showed a negative association with anaemia and deficiencies of folate and vitamin A [0.58 (0.3–0.9), OR: 0.5 (0.3–0.9) and 0.6 (0.4–0.9)]. Serum ferritin levels were inversely correlated to the presence of anaemia (p<0.005). Conclusion There is a high prevalence of vitamin A deficiency and vitamin D insufficiency and a moderate prevalence of zinc and folate deficiencies in school-aged children in this area. The inverse association of anaemia and serum ferritin levels may be due to the presence of infectious diseases in the area. To effectively tackle malnutrition

  18. Effect of dietary calcium and magnesium on experimental renal tubular deposition of calcium oxalate crystal induced by ethylene glycol administration and its prevention with phytin and citrate.

    PubMed

    Ebisuno, S; Morimoto, S; Yoshida, T; Fukatani, T; Yasukawa, S; Ohkawa, T

    1987-01-01

    Oral administration of ethylene glycol to rats, and the resultant intratubular depositions of microcrystals of calcium oxalate were studied investigating the influences of dietary calcium or magnesium and assessing the protective efficacies against the crystallizations by treatment with phytin and sodium citrate. With increase of calcium intake and consequent increase of urinary calcium excretion there was a marked increase in the amount of tubular deposit of calcium oxalate crystal and in the calcium content of renal tissue. Although magnesium deficiency accelerated renal tubular calcium oxalate deposition, the protection against the crystal formation was not observed with excessive dietary magnesium. When rats were fed a high-calcium diet supplemented with phytin, a significant inhibition of the intratubular crystallization was observed. It appeared obvious that a hypocalciuric action of phytin was attributed to the effect of the prevention. There was vigorous protection of crystal formation by treatment with sodium citrate, which correlated with the level of citrate concentration in the drinking water. PMID:3433579

  19. Vasopressin regulates renal calcium excretion in humans

    PubMed Central

    Hanouna, Guillaume; Haymann, Jean-Philippe; Baud, Laurent; Letavernier, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Antidiuretic hormone or arginine vasopressin (AVP) increases water reabsorption in the collecting ducts of the kidney. Three decades ago, experimental models have shown that AVP may increase calcium reabsorption in rat kidney. The objective of this study was to assess whether AVP modulates renal calcium excretion in humans. We analyzed calcium, potassium, and sodium fractional excretion in eight patients affected by insipidus diabetes (nephrogenic or central) under acute vasopressin receptor agonist action and in 10 patients undergoing oral water load test affected or not by inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). Synthetic V2 receptor agonist (dDAVP) reduced significantly calcium fractional excretion from 1.71% to 0.58% (P < 0.05) in patients with central diabetes insipidus. In patients with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (resistant to AVP), calcium fractional excretion did not change significantly after injection (0.48–0.68%, P = NS). In normal subjects undergoing oral water load test, calcium fractional excretion increased significantly from 1.02% to 2.54% (P < 0.05). Patients affected by SIADH had a high calcium fractional excretion at baseline that remained stable during test from 3.30% to 3.33% (P = NS), possibly resulting from a reduced calcium absorption in renal proximal tubule. In both groups, there was a significant correlation between urine output and calcium renal excretion. In humans, dDAVP decreases calcium fractional excretion in the short term. Conversely, water intake, which lowers AVP concentration, increases calcium fractional excretion. The correlation between urine output and calcium excretion suggests that AVP-related antidiuresis increases calcium reabsorption in collecting ducts. PMID:26620256

  20. Reduction of contact activation related fibrinolytic activity in factor XII deficient patients. Further evidence for the role of the contact system in fibrinolysis in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Levi, M; Hack, C E; de Boer, J P; Brandjes, D P; Büller, H R; ten Cate, J W

    1991-01-01

    In this study the contribution of activation of the contact system to activation of the fibrinolytic system in vivo was investigated in healthy volunteers and in factor XII deficient patients. The plasminogen activating activity in plasma from healthy volunteers after infusion of desamino D-arginine vasopressin (DDAVP) was only partially blocked (for 77%) with specific antibodies to tissue-type plasminogen activator and urokinase type plasminogen activator. The residual activity could be quenched by a monoclonal antibody that inhibits factor XII activity and was not present in patients with a factor XII deficiency. The formation of plasmin upon the DDAVP stimulus as reflected by circulating plasmin-alpha 2-antiplasmin complexes was lower in factor XII deficient patients than in healthy volunteers. Activation of the contact system occurred after DDAVP infusion in healthy volunteers and was absent in factor XII deficient patients. These results indicate that DDAVP induces a plasminogen activating activity that is partially dependent on activation of the contact system and that contributes to the overall fibrinolytic activity as indicated by the formation of plasmin-alpha 2-antiplasmin complexes. This fibrinolytic activity is impaired in factor XII deficient patients which may explain the occurrence of thromboembolic complications in these patients. Images PMID:1833421

  1. Self-Setting Calcium Orthophosphate Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Dorozhkin, Sergey V.

    2013-01-01

    In early 1980s, researchers discovered self-setting calcium orthophosphate cements, which are bioactive and biodegradable grafting bioceramics in the form of a powder and a liquid. After mixing, both phases form pastes, which set and harden forming either a non-stoichiometric calcium deficient hydroxyapatite or brushite. Since both of them are remarkably biocompartible, bioresorbable and osteoconductive, self-setting calcium orthophosphate formulations appear to be promising bioceramics for bone grafting. Furthermore, such formulations possess excellent molding capabilities, easy manipulation and nearly perfect adaptation to the complex shapes of bone defects, followed by gradual bioresorption and new bone formation. In addition, reinforced formulations have been introduced, which might be described as calcium orthophosphate concretes. The discovery of self-setting properties opened up a new era in the medical application of calcium orthophosphates and many commercial trademarks have been introduced as a result. Currently such formulations are widely used as synthetic bone grafts, with several advantages, such as pourability and injectability. Moreover, their low-temperature setting reactions and intrinsic porosity allow loading by drugs, biomolecules and even cells for tissue engineering purposes. In this review, an insight into the self-setting calcium orthophosphate formulations, as excellent bioceramics suitable for both dental and bone grafting applications, has been provided. PMID:24956191

  2. Oyster shell calcium induced parotid swelling

    PubMed Central

    Palaniappan, Muthiah; Selvarajan, Sandhiya; Srinivasamurthy, Sureshkumar; Chandrasekaran, Adithan

    2014-01-01

    A 59 year old female consumer was started on therapy with oyster shell calcium in combination with vitamin D3 and she presented with swelling below the ear, after two doses. She stopped the drug by herself and the swelling disappeared in one day. She started the drug one day after recovery and again she developed the swelling. She was advised to stop the drug with a suggestion to take lemon to enhance parotid secretion and the swelling subsided. Calcium plays major role in salivary secretion and studies have shown reduced parotid secretion in rats, deficient of vitamin D. But in humans involvement of calcium and vitamin D3 in parotid secretion is unknown. However, the patient had no history of reaction though she had previously taken vitamin D3 with calcium carbonate which was not from oyster shell. Hence, we ruled out vitamin D3 in this reaction and suspecting oyster shell calcium as a culprit. This adverse drug reaction (ADR) was assessed using World Health Organization (WHO) causality assessment, Naranjo's and Hartwig severity scales. As per WHO causality assessment scale, the ADR was classified as “certain”. This reaction was analyzed as per Naranjo's algorithm and was classified as probable. According to Hartwig's severity scale the reaction was rated as mild. Our case is an example of a mild but rare adverse effect of oyster shell calcium carbonate which is widely used. PMID:25422569

  3. NFATc1 deficiency in T cells protects mice from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Reppert, Sarah; Zinser, Elisabeth; Holzinger, Corinna; Sandrock, Lena; Koch, Sonja; Finotto, Susetta

    2015-05-01

    NFATc1 is a member of the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) family of transcription factors. NFAT is activated upon T-cell receptor activation followed by intracytoplasmatic calcium influx where calmodulin, a calcium sensor protein, activates the phosphatase calcineurin that dephosphorylates NFAT proteins and results in NFAT nuclear import. Here, we show the analysis of conditional NFATc1-deficient mice bearing a deletion of NFATc1 in CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. NFATc1-deficient CD4(+) T cells polarized under Th17 conditions express reduced levels of the Th17-associated transcription factor RORγT (where ROR is RAR-related orphan receptor) as well as the Th17-associated cytokines IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-21, and IL-10. In the murine model of experimental EAE, we found a strong reduction of the disease outcome in conditional NFATc1-deficient mice, as compared with control littermates. This was accompanied by a diminished inflammation in the brain and spinal cord and reduced IL-17A and IFN-γ expression by antigen-specific spleen, spinal cord, and brain cells. Altogether, these results reveal an important role of NFATc1 in inducing Th17-cell responses and IFN-γ, both being relevant for the EAE development. PMID:25689841

  4. Outcome of patients with relapsed/refractory acquired immune deficiency syndrome-related lymphoma diagnosed 1999-2008 and treated with curative intent in the AIDS Malignancy Consortium.

    PubMed

    Bayraktar, Ulas D; Ramos, Juan Carlos; Petrich, Adam; Gupta, Neel; Lensing, Shelly; Moore, P C; Reid, Erin G; Aboulafia, David M; Ratner, Lee; Mitsuyasu, Ronald; Cooley, Timothy; Henry, David H; Barr, Paul; Noy, Ariela

    2012-12-01

    No comparative studies exist for relapsed/refractory (rel/rfr) acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related lymphoma (ARL). To determine practices over the last decade and to assess the outcomes of salvage chemotherapy with curative intent and autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT), we retrospectively evaluated treatment outcomes in patients with rel/rfr ARL who were treated in 13 national AIDS Malignancy Consortium (AMC) sites between 1999 and 2008 (n = 88). The most commonly used second-line therapies were ICE (ifosfamide/carboplatin/etoposide, n = 34), dose adjusted EPOCH (etoposide/prednisone/vincristine/cyclophosphamide/doxorubicin, n = 17) and ESHAP (etoposide/methylprednisolone/cytarabine/cisplatin, n = 11). The odds of achieving a response were lower for those with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) than for those with HL and for those with primary refractory disease than for those with relapse. Overall survival (OS) was significantly longer for those with relapsed disease compared to those with refractory disease and for those with non-Burkitt NHL compared to those with Burkitt. OS was longer in patients who underwent ASCT compared to those who did not (1-year OS: 63.2% vs. 37.2%). However, among 32 patients (36%) who achieved a complete or partial response (CR/PR) after second-line therapy, 1-year OS was not different between the two groups (87.5% for ASCT vs. 81.8% for non-ASCT). Long-term survival in some patients with rel/rfr ARL may be possible without transplant, although transplant remains the standard of care for chemotherapy sensitive disease. PMID:22642936

  5. Forty mouse strain survey of voluntary calcium intake, blood calcium, and bone mineral content.

    PubMed

    Tordoff, Michael G; Bachmanov, Alexander A; Reed, Danielle R

    2007-08-15

    We measured voluntary calcium intake, blood calcium, and bone mineral content of male and female mice from 40 inbred strains. Calcium intakes were assessed using 48-h two-bottle tests with a choice between water and one of the following: water, 7.5, 25, and 75 mM CaCl(2), then 7.5, 25, and 75 mM calcium lactate (CaLa). Intakes were affected by strain, sex, anion, and concentration. In 11 strains females consumed more calcium than did males and in the remaining 29 strains there were no sex differences. Nine strains drank more CaLa than CaCl(2) whereas only one strain (JF1/Ms) drank more CaCl(2) than CaLa. Some strains had consistently high calcium intakes and preferred all calcium solutions relative to water (e.g., PWK/PhJ, BTBR T(+)tf/J, JF1/Ms). Others had consistently low calcium intakes and avoided all calcium solutions relative to water (e.g., KK/H1J, C57BL/10J, CE/J, C58/J). After behavioral tests, blood was sampled and assayed for pH, ionized calcium concentration, and plasma total calcium concentration. Bone mineral density and content were assessed by DEXA. There were no significant correlations between any of these physiological measures and calcium intake. However, strains of mice that had the highest calcium intakes generally fell at the extremes of the physiological distributions. We conclude that the avidity for calcium is determined by different genetic architecture and thus different physiological mechanisms in different strains. PMID:17493644

  6. Forty mouse strain survey of voluntary calcium intake, blood calcium, and bone mineral content

    PubMed Central

    Tordoff, Michael G.; Bachmanov, Alexander A.; Reed, Danielle R.

    2007-01-01

    We measured voluntary calcium intake, blood calcium, and bone mineral content of male and female mice from 40 inbred strains. Calcium intakes were assessed using 48-h two-bottle tests with a choice between water and one of the following: water, 7.5, 25, and 75 mM CaCl2, then 7.5, 25, and 75 mM calcium lactate (CaLa). Intakes were affected by strain, sex, anion, and concentration. In 11 strains females consumed more calcium than did males and in the remaining 29 strains there were no sex differences. Nine strains drank more CaLa than CaCl2 whereas only one strain (JF1/Ms) drank more CaCl2 than CaLa. Some strains had consistently high calcium intakes and preferred all calcium solutions relative to water (e.g., PWK/PhJ, BTBR T+tf/J, JF1/Ms). Others had consistently low calcium intakes and avoided all calcium solutions relative to water (e.g., KK/H1J, C57BL/10J, CE/J, C58/J). After behavioral tests, blood was sampled and assayed for pH, ionized calcium concentration, and plasma total calcium concentration. Bone mineral density and content were assessed by DEXA. There were no significant correlations between any of these physiological measures and calcium intake. However, strains of mice that had the highest calcium intakes generally fell at the extremes of the physiological distributions. We conclude that the avidity for calcium is determined by different genetic architecture and thus different physiological mechanisms in different strains. PMID:17493644

  7. 21 CFR 582.5217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.5217 Section 582.5217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5217 Calcium phosphate....

  8. 21 CFR 582.5210 - Calcium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium oxide. 582.5210 Section 582.5210 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5210 Calcium oxide. (a)...

  9. 21 CFR 582.5195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium citrate. 582.5195 Section 582.5195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5195 Calcium citrate. (a)...

  10. 21 CFR 582.5223 - Calcium pyrophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium pyrophosphate. 582.5223 Section 582.5223 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5223 Calcium...

  11. 21 CFR 582.5230 - Calcium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium sulfate. 582.5230 Section 582.5230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5230 Calcium sulfate. (a)...

  12. 21 CFR 582.5191 - Calcium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium carbonate. 582.5191 Section 582.5191 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5191 Calcium carbonate....

  13. PTH-independent regulation of blood calcium concentration by the calcium-sensing receptor.

    PubMed

    Loupy, Alexandre; Ramakrishnan, Suresh Krishna; Wootla, Bharath; Chambrey, Régine; de la Faille, Renaud; Bourgeois, Soline; Bruneval, Patrick; Mandet, Chantal; Christensen, Erik Ilso; Faure, Hélène; Cheval, Lydie; Laghmani, Kamel; Collet, Corinne; Eladari, Dominique; Dodd, Robert H; Ruat, Martial; Houillier, Pascal

    2012-09-01

    Tight regulation of calcium levels is required for many critical biological functions. The Ca2+-sensing receptor (CaSR) expressed by parathyroid cells controls blood calcium concentration by regulating parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion. However, CaSR is also expressed in other organs, such as the kidney, but the importance of extraparathyroid CaSR in calcium metabolism remains unknown. Here, we investigated the role of extraparathyroid CaSR using thyroparathyroidectomized, PTH-supplemented rats. Chronic inhibition of CaSR selectively increased renal tubular calcium absorption and blood calcium concentration independent of PTH secretion change and without altering intestinal calcium absorption. CaSR inhibition increased blood calcium concentration in animals pretreated with a bisphosphonate, indicating that the increase did not result from release of bone calcium. Kidney CaSR was expressed primarily in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle (TAL). As measured by in vitro microperfusion of cortical TAL, CaSR inhibitors increased calcium reabsorption and paracellular pathway permeability but did not change NaCl reabsorption. We conclude that CaSR is a direct determinant of blood calcium concentration, independent of PTH, and modulates renal tubular calcium transport in the TAL via the permeability of the paracellular pathway. These findings suggest that CaSR inhibitors may provide a new specific treatment for disorders related to impaired PTH secretion, such as primary hypoparathyroidism. PMID:22886306

  14. Development of an Inert Anode for Electrowinning in Calcium Chloride-Calcium Oxide Melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Shuqiang; Fray, Derek J.

    2010-02-01

    Studies were performed investigating the anodic testing of calcium ruthenate for electrowinning in calcium chloride-calcium oxide melts. The results showed that calcium ruthenate may be suitable as an inert anode in calcium chloride containing melts as it exhibited a low rate of corrosion in melts containing a small amount of calcium oxide, capable of producing oxygen on its surface, and did not contaminate the melt. To reduce the amount of ruthenium in the anode, solid solutions of calcium ruthenate in calcium titanate were investigated. At low concentrations, the solid solution is a semiconductor with a relatively low conductivity at room temperature, but at the temperature of operation, 1173 K, the material is an excellent electronic conductor. The other way of reducing the amount of ruthenium is to coat the solid solution onto a substrate. In this way, the substrate would give the mechanical strength while the coating would give the electrical conductivity and corrosion protection. Calcium ruthenate-based anodes can endure long-term use in the laboratory under an applied electrical field with oxygen being liberated on the anode indicating that these materials are candidates for the electrowining in calcium chloride-calcium oxide melts.

  15. Calcium and calcium isotope changes during carbon cycle perturbations at the end-Permian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komar, Nemanja; Zeebe, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Negative carbon and calcium isotope excursions, as well as climate shifts, took place during the most severe mass extinction event in Earth's history, the end-Permian (˜252 Ma). Investigating the connection between carbon and calcium cycles during transient carbon cycle perturbation events, such as the end-Permian, may help resolve the intricacies between the coupled calcium-carbon cycles, as well as provide a tool for constraining the causes of mass extinction. Here, we identify the deficiencies of a simplified calcium model employed in several previous studies and we demonstrate the importance of a fully coupled carbon-cycle model when investigating the dynamics of carbon and calcium cycling. Simulations with a modified version of the LOSCAR model, which includes a fully coupled carbon-calcium cycle, indicate that increased weathering rates and ocean acidification (potentially caused by Siberian Trap volcanism) are not capable of producing trends observed in the record, as previously claimed. Our model results suggest that combined effects of carbon input via Siberian Trap volcanism (12,000 Pg C), the cessation of biological carbon export, and variable calcium isotope fractionation (due to a change in the seawater carbonate ion concentration) represents a more plausible scenario. This scenario successfully reconciles δ13C and δ44Ca trends observed in the sediment record, as well as the proposed warming of >6oC.

  16. Calcium and calcium isotope changes during carbon cycle perturbations at the end-Permian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komar, N.; Zeebe, R. E.

    2016-01-01

    Negative carbon and calcium isotope excursions, as well as climate shifts, took place during the most severe mass extinction event in Earth's history, the end-Permian (˜252 Ma). Investigating the connection between carbon and calcium cycles during transient carbon cycle perturbation events, such as the end-Permian, may help resolve the intricacies between the coupled calcium-carbon cycles, as well as provide a tool for constraining the causes of mass extinction. Here we identify the deficiencies of a simplified calcium model employed in several previous studies, and we demonstrate the importance of a fully coupled carbon cycle model when investigating the dynamics of carbon and calcium cycling. Simulations with a modified version of the Long-term Ocean-atmosphere-Sediment CArbon cycle Reservoir model, which includes a fully coupled carbon-calcium cycle, indicate that increased weathering rates and ocean acidification (potentially caused by Siberian Trap volcanism) are not capable of producing trends observed in the record, as previously claimed. Our model results suggest that combined effects of carbon input via Siberian Trap volcanism (12,000 Pg C), the cessation of biological carbon export, and variable calcium isotope fractionation (due to a change in the seawater carbonate ion concentration) represents a more plausible scenario. This scenario successfully reconciles δ13C and δ44Ca trends observed in the sediment record, as well as the proposed warming of >6°C.

  17. Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) and their eradication.

    PubMed

    Hetzel, B S

    1983-11-12

    Disorders resulting from severe iodine deficiency affect more than 400 million people in Asia alone. These disorders include stillbirths, abortions, and congenital anomalies; endemic cretinism, characterised most commonly by mental deficiency, deaf mutism, and spastic diplegia and lesser degrees of neurological defect related to fetal iodine deficiency; and impaired mental function in children and adults with goitre associated with subnormal concentrations of circulating thyroxine. Use of the term iodine deficiency disorders, instead of "goitre", would help to bridge the serious gap between knowledge and its application. Iodised salt and iodised oil (by injection or by mouth) are suitable for the correction of iodine deficiency on a mass scale. A single dose of iodised oil can correct severe iodine deficiency for 3-5 years. Iodised oil offers a satisfactory immediate measure for primary care services until an iodised salt programme can be implemented. The complete eradication of iodine deficiency is therefore feasible within 5-10 years. PMID:6138653

  18. [Do cows drink calcium?].

    PubMed

    Geishauser, T; Lechner, S; Plate, I; Heidemann, B

    2008-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate how well cows drink the Propeller calcium drink, and it's effect on blood calcium concentration. Drinking was tested in 120 cows right after calving, before cows drank anything else. 60 cows each were offered 20 liters of Propeller calcium drink or 20 liters of water. Cows drank the Propeller as good as water. 72% of all cows drank all 20 liters, 18% drank on average 8.2 liters and 10% drank less than 1 liter. Blood calcium concentration was studied in 16 cows right after calving. Eight cows each were offered 20 liters of Propeller calcium drink or no calcium drink. Blood calcium significantly increased ten minutes after Propeller intake and stayed significantly elevated for 24 hours. Without calcium drink blood calcium levels decreased significantly. Advantages of the new Propeller calcium drink over calcium gels or boli could be that cows now drink calcium themselves and that the Propeller increases blood calcium concentration rapidly and long lasting. PMID:18429501

  19. Restoration of Responsiveness of Phospholipase Cγ2-Deficient Platelets by Enforced Expression of Phospholipase Cγ1

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yongwei; Adams, Tamara; Zhi, Huiying; Yu, Mei; Wen, Renren; Newman, Peter J.; Wang, Demin; Newman, Debra K.

    2015-01-01

    Receptor-mediated platelet activation requires phospholipase C (PLC) activity to elevate intracellular calcium and induce actin cytoskeleton reorganization. PLCs are classified into structurally distinct β, γ, δ, ε, ζ, and η isoforms. There are two PLCγ isoforms (PLCγ1, PLCγ2), which are critical for activation by tyrosine kinase-dependent receptors. Platelets express both PLCγ1 and PLCγ2. Although PLCγ2 has been shown to play a dominant role in platelet activation, the extent to which PLCγ1 contributes has not been evaluated. To ascertain the relative contributions of PLCγ1 and PLCγ2 to platelet activation, we generated conditionally PLCγ1-deficient, wild-type (WT), PLCγ2-deficient, and PLCγ1/PLCγ2 double-deficient mice and measured the ability of platelets to respond to different agonists. We found that PLCγ2 deficiency abrogated αIIbβ3-dependent platelet spreading, GPVI-dependent platelet aggregation, and thrombus formation on collagen-coated surfaces under shear conditions, which is dependent on both GPVI and αIIbβ3. Addition of exogenous ADP overcame defective spreading of PLCγ2-deficient platelets on immobilized fibrinogen, suggesting that PLCγ2 is required for granule secretion in response to αIIbβ3 ligation. Consistently, αIIbβ3-mediated release of granule contents was impaired in the absence of PLCγ2. In contrast, PLCγ1-deficient platelets spread and released granule contents normally on fibrinogen, exhibited normal levels of GPVI-dependent aggregation, and formed thrombi normally on collagen-coated surfaces. Interestingly, enforced expression of PLCγ1 fully restored GPVI-dependent aggregation and αIIbβ3-dependent spreading of PLCγ2-deficient platelets. We conclude that platelet activation through GPVI and αIIbβ3 utilizes PLCγ2 because PLCγ1 levels are insufficient to support responsiveness, but that PLCγ1 can restore responsiveness if expressed at levels normally achieved by PLCγ2. PMID:25793864

  20. Calcium and vitamin D metabolism in children in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Pettifor, John M

    2014-01-01

    Low dietary calcium intakes and poor vitamin D status are common findings in children living in developing countries. Despite many of the countries lying within the tropics and subtropics, overcrowding, atmospheric pollution, a lack of vitamin D-fortified foods, and social customs that limit skin exposure to sunlight are major factors in the development of vitamin D deficiency. Low dietary calcium intakes are typically observed as a consequence of a diet limited in dairy products and high in phytates and oxalates which reduce calcium bioavailability. Calcium intakes of many children are a third to a half of the recommended intakes for children living in developed countries, yet the consequences of these low intakes are poorly understood as there is limited research in this area. It appears that the body adapts very adequately to these low intakes through reducing renal calcium excretion and increasing fractional intestinal absorption. However, severe deficiencies of either calcium or vitamin D can result in nutritional rickets, and low dietary calcium intakes in association with vitamin D insufficiency act synergistically to exacerbate the development of rickets. Calcium supplementation in children from developing countries slightly increases bone mass, but the benefit is usually lost on withdrawal of the supplement. It is suggested that the major effect of calcium supplementation is on reducing the bone remodelling space rather than structurally increasing bone size or volumetric bone density. Limited evidence from one study raises concerns about the use of calcium supplements in children on habitually low calcium intakes as the previously supplemented group went through puberty earlier and had a final height several centimetres shorter than the controls. PMID:25341870

  1. Clinical manifestations of zinc deficiency.

    PubMed

    Prasad, A S

    1985-01-01

    The essentiality of zinc for humans was recognized in the early 1960s. The causes of zinc deficiency include malnutrition, alcoholism, malabsorption, extensive burns, chronic debilitating disorders, chronic renal diseases, following uses of certain drugs such as penicillamine for Wilson's disease and diuretics in some cases, and genetic disorders such as acrodermatitis enteropathica and sickle cell disease. In pregnancy and during periods of growth the requirement of zinc is increased. The clinical manifestations in severe cases of zinc deficiency include bullous-pustular dermatitis, alopecia, diarrhea, emotional disorder, weight loss, intercurrent infections, hypogonadism in males; it is fatal if unrecognized and untreated. A moderate deficiency of zinc is characterized by growth retardation and delayed puberty in adolescents, hypogonadism in males, rough skin, poor appetite, mental lethargy, delayed wound healing, taste abnormalities, and abnormal dark adaptation. In mild cases of zinc deficiency in human subjects, we have observed oligospermia, slight weight loss, and hyperammonemia. Zinc is a growth factor. Its deficiency adversely affects growth in many animal species and humans. Inasmuch as zinc is needed for protein and DNA synthesis and for cell division, it is believed that the growth effect of zinc is related to its effect on protein synthesis. Whether or not zinc is required for the metabolism of somatomedin needs to be investigated in the future. Testicular functions are affected adversely as a result of zinc deficiency in both humans and experimental animals. This effect of zinc is at the end organ level; the hypothalamic-pituitary axis is intact in zinc-deficient subjects. Inasmuch as zinc is intimately involved in cell division, its deficiency may adversely affect testicular size and thus affect its functions. Zinc is required for the functions of several enzymes and whether or not it has an enzymatic role in steroidogenesis is not known at present

  2. Adherence to alendronic or risedronic acid treatment, combined or not to calcium and vitamin D, and related determinants in Italian patients with osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Calabria, S; Cinconze, E; Rossini, M; Rossi, E; Maggioni, AP; Pedrini, A; De Rosa, M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Osteoporosis is a chronic disease and an important health and social burden due to its worldwide prevalence. Literature and clinical experience report incomplete adherence to the therapy. This retrospective observational study aimed at assessing the adherence to first-line antiosteoporosis drugs (AODs; reimbursed by the National Health System, according to the Italian Medicine Agency recommendation number 79), alendronate or risedronate, with or without calcium and/or vitamin D supplements, in a real, Italian clinical setting. Patients and methods Analyses were carried out on data present in the ARNO Observatory, a population-based patient-centric Italian database. From a population of 5,808,832 inhabitants with available data, a cohort of 3.3 million of patients aged ≥40 years was selected. New users of first-line AODs as monotherapy (accrual period, 2007–2009) were followed up over 3 years to assess adherence at 6, 12, and 36 months to AODs and to supplements and related determinants. Results Approximately 40,000 new users were identified: mostly women, aged on average (standard deviation) 71±10 years. Alendronate was the most prescribed (38.2% of patients), followed by risedronate (34.9%) and alendronate with colecalciferol as a fixed-dose combination (25.8%). Adherence at the 6-month follow-up was 54%, and this constantly and significantly decreased after 1 year to 46%, and after 3 years to 33% (P<0.01). Adherence to the fixed-dose combination was higher than to plain alendronate throughout the follow-up period. Similarly, adherence to supplements constantly decreased with the duration of treatment. Women and patients aged >50 years were more likely to adhere to treatment regimen (P<0.001). The use of drugs for peptic ulcer and gastroesophageal reflux disease and of corticosteroids for systemic use were significantly associated with high adherence at different times. Polytherapy (>5 drugs), cardiovascular, and neurological therapies were

  3. Effect of dietary water intake on urinary output, specific gravity and relative supersaturation for calcium oxalate and struvite in the cat.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Catherine M F; Hawthorne, Amanda; Colyer, Alison; Stevenson, Abigail E

    2011-10-01

    It has been reported that daily fluid intake influences urinary dilution, and consequently the risk of urolithiasis in human subjects and dogs. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of dietary moisture on urinary parameters in healthy adult cats by comparing nutritionally standardised diets, varying only in moisture content. A total of six cats were fed a complete dry food (6.3 % moisture) hydrated to 25.4, 53.2 and 73.3 % moisture for 3 weeks in a randomised block cross-over design. Urinary specific gravity (SG), urine volume, water drunk and total fluid intake were measured daily; relative supersaturation (RSS) for calcium oxalate (CaOx) and struvite was calculated using the SUPERSAT computer program. Cats fed the 73.3 % moisture diet produced urine with a significantly lower SG (P < 0.001) compared with diets containing 53.2 % moisture or lower. Mean RSS for CaOx was approaching the undersaturated zone (1.14 (sem 0.21); P = 0.001) for cats fed the diet with 73.3 % moisture and significantly lower than the 6.3 % moisture diet (CaOx RSS 2.29 (sem 0.21)). The effect of diet on struvite RSS was less clear, with no significant difference between treatment groups. Total fluid intake was significantly increased (P < 0.001) in the 73.3 % moisture diet (144.7 (SEM 5.2) ml, or 30 ml/kg body weight per d) compared with the 6.3 % (103.4 (SEM 5.3) ml), 25.4 % (98.6 (SEM 5.3) ml) and 53.3 % (104.7 (SEM 5.3) ml) moisture diets, despite voluntary water intake decreasing as dietary moisture intake increased. Cats fed the 73.3 % moisture diet had a higher total daily fluid intake resulting in a more dilute urine with a lower risk of CaOx when compared with the lower-moisture diets. PMID:22005408

  4. Calcium and Vitamin D

    MedlinePlus

    ... to your weekly shopping list. Produce Serving Size Estimated Calcium* Collard greens, frozen 8 oz 360 mg ... Oranges 1 whole 55 mg Seafood Serving Size Estimated Calcium* Sardines, canned with bones 3 oz 325 ...

  5. Fenoprofen calcium overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002649.htm Fenoprofen calcium overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Fenoprofen calcium is a type of medicine called a nonsteroidal ...

  6. Calcium channel blocker overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002580.htm Calcium channel blocker overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Calcium channel blockers are a type of medicine used ...

  7. Fenoprofen calcium overdose

    MedlinePlus

    Fenoprofen calcium is a type of medicine called a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. It is a prescription pain medicine used to relieve symptoms of arthritis . Fenoprofen calcium overdose occurs when someone takes more than the ...

  8. Calcium and bones (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Calcium is one of the most important minerals for the growth, maintenance, and reproduction of the human body. Bones, like other tissues in the body, are continually being re-formed and incorporate calcium into their ...

  9. Altered Calcium Signaling Following Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Weber, John T.

    2012-01-01

    Cell death and dysfunction after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is caused by a primary phase, related to direct mechanical disruption of the brain, and a secondary phase which consists of delayed events initiated at the time of the physical insult. Arguably, the calcium ion contributes greatly to the delayed cell damage and death after TBI. A large, sustained influx of calcium into cells can initiate cell death signaling cascades, through activation of several degradative enzymes, such as proteases and endonucleases. However, a sustained level of intracellular free calcium is not necessarily lethal, but the specific route of calcium entry may couple calcium directly to cell death pathways. Other sources of calcium, such as intracellular calcium stores, can also contribute to cell damage. In addition, calcium-mediated signal transduction pathways in neurons may be perturbed following injury. These latter types of alterations may contribute to abnormal physiology in neurons that do not necessarily die after a traumatic episode. This review provides an overview of experimental evidence that has led to our current understanding of the role of calcium signaling in death and dysfunction following TBI. PMID:22518104

  10. Calcium and magnesium disorders.

    PubMed

    Goff, Jesse P

    2014-07-01

    Hypocalcemia is a clinical disorder that can be life threatening to the cow (milk fever) and predisposes the animal to various other metabolic and infectious disorders. Calcium homeostasis is mediated primarily by parathyroid hormone, which stimulates bone calcium resorption and renal calcium reabsorption. Parathyroid hormone stimulates the production of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D to enhance diet calcium absorption. High dietary cation-anion difference interferes with tissue sensitivity to parathyroid hormone. Hypomagnesemia reduces tissue response to parathyroid hormone. PMID:24980727

  11. Calcium and Mitosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepler, P.

    1983-01-01

    Although the mechanism of calcium regulation is not understood, there is evidence that calcium plays a role in mitosis. Experiments conducted show that: (1) the spindle apparatus contains a highly developed membrane system that has many characteristics of sarcoplasmic reticulum of muscle; (2) this membrane system contains calcium; and (3) there are ionic fluxes occurring during mitosis which can be seen by a variety of fluorescence probes. Whether the process of mitosis can be modulated by experimentally modulating calcium is discussed.

  12. Higher Prevalence of Iron Deficiency as Strong Predictor of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children

    PubMed Central

    Bener, A; Kamal, M; Bener, HZ; Bhugra, D

    2014-01-01

    Background: It has been reported that ferritin and iron deficiency may be related to the path physiology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the association between iron deficiency and ADHD and the impact and role of iron deficiency on the development of ADHD in children. Subjects and Methods: The study based on the case-control study age- and sex-matched control and conducted at the School Health and Primary Healthcare Clinics, Qatar. A total of 630 children with ADHD aged 5-18 and 630 controls aged 5-18 years old. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected, including physician diagnosis. The health status of the subjects was assessed by ascertaining clinical presentations and symptoms, family history, body mass index (BMI), iron deficiency, ferritin, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus levels. Descriptive, univariate, and multivariate statistical analysis were performed. Results: Mean age (standard deviation [SD] in years) for ADHD and control children were 11.54 (3.83) versus 11.50 (3.62). There were statistically significant differences between ADHD versus control children for vitamin D [16.81 (7.84) vs. 22.18 (9.00) ng/ml], serum iron [82.11 (13.61) vs. 85.60 (12.47) ng/ml], ferritin [36.26 (5.93) vs. 38.19 (5.61) ng/ml], hemoglobin [12.02 (2.13) vs. 12.89 (2.02) g/dL], magnesium [0.82 (0.08) vs. 0.88 (0.06) mmol/L], serum calcium level [2.35 (0.12) vs. 2.39 (0.14) mmol/L], and phosphorous [1.47 (0.30) vs. 1.54 (0.26) mmol/L]. Of total 630 of ADHD children, 116 (18.4%) had severe vitamin D deficiency (<10 ng/ml). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that serum vitamin D level, serum iron, ferritin, serum calcium level, physical activity, nervous behavior, consanguinity, BMI, and child order were considered as the main factors associated with the ADHD after adjusting for age, gender, and other variables. Conclusion: The study indicates that low serum iron

  13. Calcium transport from the intestine and into bone in a rat model simulating weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bikle, D. D.; Globus, R. K.; Morey, E. R.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether a defect in transport of calcium in the duodenum was related to decreased bone formation in the suspended rat. Rats were suspended by the tail at a 40 deg angle for up to 15 days. Ca-45 was injected into the ligated duodenum in situ 15 minutes prior to sacrific. Blood, tibia, vertebra and humerus were obtained for total calcium and Ca-45 analyses. Intestinal calcium transport did not appear to be significantly altered by suspension. However, by 5 days of suspension a significant decrease in accumulation of Ca-45 into tibia and vertebra was observed. A trend of decreasing bone mineral and mass was established in tibia and vertebra by the fifth day of suspension. The humerus failed to demonstrate a significant weight decrease or change in Ca-45 accumulation after 15 days of suspension. Results from this simulated weightlessness model suggest that transport of calcium from intestine into bone is decreased within 5 days of suspension. This deficiency appears to be associated with a progressive decrease in total mass of non-weightbearing bones.

  14. Vitamin D supplementation and depression in the women's health initiative calcium and vitamin D trial.

    PubMed

    Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth R; Powers, Sally I; Spangler, Leslie; Larson, Joseph; Michael, Yvonne L; Millen, Amy E; Bueche, Maria N; Salmoirago-Blotcher, Elena; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Brunner, Robert L; Ockene, Ira; Ockene, Judith K; Liu, Simin; Manson, Joann E

    2012-07-01

    While observational studies have suggested that vitamin D deficiency increases risk of depression, few clinical trials have tested whether vitamin D supplementation affects the occurrence of depression symptoms. The authors evaluated the impact of daily supplementation with 400 IU of vitamin D(3) combined with 1,000 mg of elemental calcium on measures of depression in a randomized, double-blinded US trial comprising 36,282 postmenopausal women. The Burnam scale and current use of antidepressant medication were used to assess depressive symptoms at randomization (1995-2000). Two years later, women again reported on their antidepressant use, and 2,263 completed a second Burnam scale. After 2 years, women randomized to receive vitamin D and calcium had an odds ratio for experiencing depressive symptoms (Burnam score ≥0.06) of 1.16 (95% confidence interval: 0.86, 1.56) compared with women in the placebo group. Supplementation was not associated with antidepressant use (odds ratio = 1.01, 95% confidence interval: 0.92, 1.12) or continuous depressive symptom score. Results stratified by baseline vitamin D and calcium intake, solar irradiance, and other factors were similar. The findings do not support a relation between supplementation with 400 IU/day of vitamin D(3) along with calcium and depression in older women. Additional trials testing higher doses of vitamin D are needed to determine whether this nutrient may help prevent or treat depression. PMID:22573431

  15. [Vitamin K: biochemistry, function, and deficiency. Review].

    PubMed

    Mijares, M E; Nagy, E; Guerrero, B; Arocha-Piñango, C L

    1998-09-01

    Vitamin K is a cofactor for the synthesis of blood coagulation Factors II, VII, IX and X, and inhibitors such as Protein C and S and bone matrix protein. Its active form is a coenzyme in the glutamic acid carboxylation. Vitamin K-dependent factors form enzymatic complexes with calcium and membrane phospholipids. The insufficiency of gamma glutamic carboxylation impairs the hemostatic function. Hereditary deficiencies, antibiotics and oral anticoagulants, decrease the capacity of complex formation giving way to hemorrhage or thrombosis, or bone mass disturbances which are easily treated with administration of Vitamin K. The main causes of Vitamin K deficiency are lack of hepatic storage in newborns, liver insufficiency, malabsorption, dietetic deficiency, therapy with the antibiotics and coumarin administration. For the study of Vitamin K there are methods to measure the Vit K dependent proteins and as well methods to measure specifically the quinonas. PMID:9780555

  16. Calcium and Vitamin D

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter describes the roles of calcium and vitamin D in bone health. Calcium is required for the bone formation phase of bone remodeling and it also affects bone mass through its impact on the remodeling rate. Typically, about 5 nmol (200 mg) of calcium is removed from the adult skeleton and ...

  17. Calcium and bones

    MedlinePlus

    Bone strength and calcium ... or if your body does not absorb enough calcium, your bones can get weak or will not grow properly. ... injury. As you age, your body still needs calcium to keep your bones dense and strong. Most experts recommend at least ...

  18. Deficiency in the nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 renders pancreatic β-cells vulnerable to arsenic-induced cell damage

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Bei; Fu, Jingqi; Zheng, Hongzhi; Xue, Peng; Yarborough, Kathy; Woods, Courtney G.; Hou, Yongyong; Zhang, Qiang; Andersen, Melvin E.; Pi, Jingbo

    2012-11-01

    Chronic human exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs), a potent environmental oxidative stressor, is associated with increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes, where impairment of pancreatic β-cell function is a key pathogenic factor. Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a central transcription factor regulating cellular adaptive response to oxidative stress. However, persistent activation of Nrf2 in response to chronic oxidative stress, including inorganic arsenite (iAs{sup 3+}) exposure, blunts glucose-triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS) signaling and impairs glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). In the current study, we found that MIN6 pancreatic β-cells with stable knockdown of Nrf2 (Nrf2-KD) by lentiviral shRNA and pancreatic islets isolated from Nrf2-knockout (Nrf2−/−) mice exhibited reduced expression of several antioxidant and detoxification enzymes in response to acute iAs{sup 3+} exposure. As a result, Nrf2-KD MIN6 cells and Nrf2−/− islets were more susceptible to iAs{sup 3+} and monomethylarsonous acid (MMA{sup 3+})-induced cell damage, as measured by decreased cell viability, augmented apoptosis and morphological change. Pretreatment of MIN6 cells with Nrf2 activator tert-butylhydroquinone protected the cells from iAs{sup 3+}-induced cell damage in an Nrf2-dependent fashion. In contrast, antioxidant N‐acetyl cysteine protected Nrf2-KD MIN6 cells against acute cytotoxicity of iAs{sup 3+}. The present study demonstrates that Nrf2-mediated antioxidant response is critical in the pancreatic β-cell defense mechanism against acute cytotoxicity by arsenic. The findings here, combined with our previous results on the inhibitory effect of antioxidants on ROS signaling and GSIS, suggest that Nrf2 plays paradoxical roles in pancreatic β-cell dysfunction induced by environmental arsenic exposure. -- Highlights: ► Lack of Nrf2 reduced expression of antioxidant genes induced by iAs{sup 3+} in β-cells. ► Deficiency of Nrf2 in

  19. Calcium signaling and cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Mauro Cunha Xavier; Kihara, Alexandre Hiroaki; Goulart, Vânia A M; Tonelli, Fernanda M P; Gomes, Katia N; Ulrich, Henning; Resende, Rodrigo R

    2015-11-01

    Cell proliferation is orchestrated through diverse proteins related to calcium (Ca(2+)) signaling inside the cell. Cellular Ca(2+) influx that occurs first by various mechanisms at the plasma membrane, is then followed by absorption of Ca(2+) ions by mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum, and, finally, there is a connection of calcium stores to the nucleus. Experimental evidence indicates that the fluctuation of Ca(2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum provides a pivotal and physiological role for cell proliferation. Ca(2+) depletion in the endoplasmatic reticulum triggers Ca(2+) influx across the plasma membrane in an phenomenon called store-operated calcium entries (SOCEs). SOCE is activated through a complex interplay between a Ca(2+) sensor, denominated STIM, localized in the endoplasmic reticulum and a Ca(2+) channel at the cell membrane, denominated Orai. The interplay between STIM and Orai proteins with cell membrane receptors and their role in cell proliferation is discussed in this review. PMID:26275497

  20. Calcium bioavailability from calcium fortified food products.

    PubMed

    Kohls, K

    1991-08-01

    The calcium balance of 12 presumed healthy human young adult subjects was assessed. Subjects consumed a constant laboratory-controlled diet supplemented with one of four calcium-fortified food products: orange juice (OJ), milk (M), experimental pasteurized processed cheese (T), soda (S), or a calcium carbonate plus vitamin D tablet (CC). Study length was 6 weeks with seven-day experimental periods (2-days allowed for adjustment with 5-days combined for purposes of analysis). All urine and fecal samples were collected by the subjects for the duration of the study. Blood samples were drawn at the end of each experimental period. Urine and fecal calcium contents were determined. Blood samples were analyzed for alkaline phosphatase. Results of this study indicate a higher fecal calcium content (mg/day) when subjects consumed CC and T, and when subjects consumed self-selected diets, than when given S, M, or OJ. Urinary calcium excretion was significantly lower when subjects consumed OJ than when they consumed M, T, or their self-selected diets. A significantly larger positive calcium balance was demonstrated when subjects consumed OJ as compared to T. Fecal transmit time did not vary significantly. Serum alkaline phosphatase was significantly lower when subjects consumed T than when they consumed self-selected diets. PMID:1765836

  1. Parents' Calcium Knowledge Is Associated with Parental Practices to Promote Calcium Intake among Parents of Early Adolescent Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunther, Carolyn W.; Rose, Angela M.; Bruhn, Christine; Cluskey, Mary; Reicks, Marla; Richards, Rickelle; Wong, Siew Sun; Boushey, Carol J.; Misner, Scottie; Olson, Beth

    2015-01-01

    The study reported here aimed to identify the relationship of parents' calcium knowledge with diet-related parental practices and determinants of calcium knowledge. A cross-sectional survey was conducted measuring parental practices, calcium knowledge, and demographics. A convenience sample of 599 racially/ethnically diverse parents of children…

  2. The calcium release-activated calcium channel Orai1 represents a crucial component in hypertrophic compensation and the development of dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Horton, Jaime S; Buckley, Cadie L; Alvarez, Ernest M; Schorlemmer, Anita; Stokes, Alexander J

    2014-01-01

    As exceptionally calcium selective store-operated channels, Orai channels play a prominent role in cellular calcium signaling. While most studied in the immune system, we are beginning to recognize that Orai1 provides unique calcium signaling pathways in numerous tissue contexts. To assess the involvement of Orai1 in cardiac hypertrophy we used transverse aortic constriction to model pressure overload cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure in Orai1 deficient mice. We demonstrate that Orai1 deficient mice have significantly decreased survival in this pressure overload model. Transthoracic echocardiography reveals that Orai1 deficient mice develop rapid dilated cardiomyopathy, with greater loss of function, and histological and molecular data indicate that this pathology is associated with significant apoptosis, but not major differences in cellular hypertrophy, fibrosis, and some major hypertrophic makers. Orai1 represents a crucial calcium entry mechanism in the compensation of the heart to pressure overload over-load, and the development of dilated cardiomyopathy. PMID:24135962

  3. The calcium release-activated calcium channel Orai1 represents a crucial component in hypertrophic compensation and the development of dilated cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Horton, Jaime S; Buckley, Cadie L; Alvarez, Ernest M; Schorlemmer, Anita; Stokes, Alexander J

    2014-01-01

    As exceptionally calcium selective store-operated channels, Orai channels play a prominent role in cellular calcium signaling. While most studied in the immune system, we are beginning to recognize that Orai1 provides unique calcium signaling pathways in numerous tissue contexts. To assess the involvement of Orai1 in cardiac hypertrophy we used transverse aortic constriction to model pressure overload cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure in Orai1 deficient mice. We demonstrate that Orai1 deficient mice have significantly decreased survival in this pressure overload model. Transthoracic echocardiography reveals that Orai1 deficient mice develop rapid dilated cardiomyopathy, with greater loss of function, and histological and molecular data indicate that this pathology is associated with significant apoptosis, but not major differences in cellular hypertrophy, fibrosis, and some major hypertrophic makers. Orai1 represents a crucial calcium entry mechanism in the compensation of the heart to pressure overload over-load, and the development of dilated cardiomyopathy. PMID:24135962

  4. Deficiency of the parathyroid hormone-related peptide nuclear localization and carboxyl terminal sequences leads to premature skin ageing partially mediated by the upregulation of p27.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Minyue; Chen, Guangpei; Lu, Na; Zhang, Yongjie; Jin, Shulei; Karaplis, Andrew; Goltzman, David; Miao, Dengshun

    2015-11-01

    We previously reported that deficiency of the PTHrP nuclear localization sequence (NLS) and C-terminus in PTHrP knockin (PTHrP KI) mice resulted in premature ageing of skin. P27, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, was upregulated in PTHrP KI mice and acted as a downstream target of the PTHrP NLS to regulate the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. To determine the effects of p27 deficiency on premature skin ageing of PTHrP KI mice, we compared the skin phenotypes of PTHrP KI mice to those of p27 knockout (p27(-/-) ) mice and to those of double homozygous p27-deficient and PTHrP KI (p27(-/-) PTHrP KI) mice at 2 weeks age. Compared with wild-type littermates, PTHrP KI mice displayed thinner skin and decreased subcutaneous fat and collagen fibres, decreased skin cell proliferation and increased apoptosis, higher expression of p27, p19 and p53 and lower expression of cyclin E and CDK2, and increased reactive oxygen species levels and decreased antioxidant capacity. Deficiency of p27 in the PTHrP KI mice at least in part corrected the skin premature ageing phenotype resulting in thicker skin and increased subcutaneous fat and collagen. These alternations were associated with higher expression of CDK2 and cyclin E, lower expression of p19 and p53, and enhanced antioxidant capacity with increased skin cell proliferation and inhibition of apoptosis. Our results indicate that the NLS and C-terminus of PTHrP play a critical role in preventing skin from premature ageing that is partially mediated by p27. PMID:26121068

  5. α-Thalassemia frequency and mutations in children with hypochromic microcytic anemias and relation with β-thalassemia, iron deficiency anemia.

    PubMed

    Gulen, Huseyin; Hanimeli, Ozlem; Karaca, Ozlem; Taneli, Fatma

    2012-04-01

    The majority of the anemias during childhood are hypochromic and microcytic. The aim of the present study was to determine the status of α-thalassemia mutations and its association with other etiologies, such as iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and β-thalassemia trait, that are frequently seen hypochromic microcytic anemias in children. Children with hypochromic microcytic anemias were included in the study. Serum iron (SI), total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), ferritin levels, and hemoglobin electrophoresis with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method were analyzed. Reverse hybridization of biotinylated polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product method was used for detection of α-globin gene mutations. Of the 46 patients involved in the study, 54.3% (n = 25) were boys, and 45.7% (n = 21) were girls. Iron deficiency anemia and β-thalassemia trait were diagnosed in 67.4% (n = 31) and 19.5% (n = 9), respectively. In 17.4% there were α-thalassemia mutations (in 10.9% 3.7 single-gene heterozygote mutation, in 4.3% 20.5-kb double-gene deletion mutation, and in 2.2% α-2 poly-A-1 heterozygote mutation was detected). In 2 patients (4.3%) no etiology was determined. In 2 patients (4.3%) association between iron deficiency anemia and α-thalassemia, in 1 patient (2.2%) association between β and α-thalassemia was detected. In conclusion, α-thalassemia carrier status and its association with other etiologies are frequently seen in Manisa. So, α-thalassemia should be considered in the differential diagnosis of hypochromic microcytic anemias, especially in cases without iron deficiency (ID) and β-thalassemia carrier state. PMID:22475300

  6. [The effect of calcium and vitamin D deficiency in the food on the uptake and retention of 99mTc-methylenediphosphonate and 85Sr in the bones in rats].

    PubMed

    Kapitola, J; Jahoda, I; Kobos, L

    1990-05-01

    The effects of vitamin D-free diet with low Ca content on 24 hours' 99mTc-methylendiphosphonate retention (in the whole body and tibia), long-term the whole body 85Sr retention and 2 hours' 85Sr catchment in epiphysis, metaphysis and diaphysis of femur and tibia in rats (at the same time in certain experiments femur density and weight after incineration were established) were followed. The whole body 99mTc-MDP retention increases significantly as early as the third day of the diet administration, retention in tibia and the whole body is in further 2 experiments increased after 1, 2 and 4 weeks of the diet (density decreases from the first or the second week). The whole body 85Sr retention is significantly increased as early as after 2 days of the diet, the great difference against controls only slowly decreases after discontinuation of low-Ca diet. Further experiment followed 2 hours' 85Sr catchment in femur and tibia samples after 2, 5, 10 and 20 days of diet--catchment increase is significant after 20 days (bone density and ash weight is significantly decreased after 10 and 20 days of diet). Thus retention of both osteotrophic substances in bone is as a result of low Ca diet increased. This reaction is in case with 85Sr expected, in that of 99mTc-MDP it suggests a possible relation of the catchment and mineral component of osseous tissue. Increased retention of both the substances obviously fails to be related to local blood circulation which was in this situation in our previous experiments decreased.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2371530

  7. Hypothesis: new concepts concerning the pathophysiology of the sudden infant death syndrome due to magnesium deficiency shock.

    PubMed

    Caddell, J L

    1992-09-01

    There appear to be many contributing factors to sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). One final common pathway that may explain some cases of SIDS is presented as a hypothesis: SIDS occurs as a shock-like event in a stressed infant with congenital or acquired magnesium deficiency with respect to calcium, or with genetically determined high magnesium requirements. Increased calcium and stress-related catecholamines favour platelet aggregation and release of mediators, chief of which appears to be thromboxane A2 (TXA2). TXA2, a major vasoconstrictor, bronchoconstrictor, and platelet aggregator is relatively unopposed during shock by prostacyclin, a vasodilator, bronchodilator, and platelet disaggregator which normally counterbalances its effects. The shock episode is self-limited. Infants who recover have suffered an apparent life threatening event (ALTE); those who die have insufficient pathology to explain the cause of death; the diagnosis is SIDS. PMID:1467153

  8. Calcium influx, but not intracellular calcium release, supports PACAP-mediated ERK activation in HEK PAC1 receptor cells.

    PubMed

    May, Victor; Clason, Todd A; Buttolph, Thomas R; Girard, Beatrice M; Parsons, Rodney L

    2014-11-01

    In HEK cells expressing GFP-tagged PAC1Hop1 receptors, PACAP augments ERK phosphorylation through two parallel pathways: one through PACAP/PAC1 receptor internalization/endosome MEK/ERK signaling and the other through PLC/DAG/PKC activation. We examined whether elevation of intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)]i) was required for either of the PACAP/PAC1 receptor-mediated ERK activation mechanisms. The PACAP (25 nM)-induced elevation of [Ca(2+)]i was greater with cells maintained in Ca(2+)-containing than in Ca(2+)-deficient solution, suggesting that both calcium release from internal stores and calcium influx contributed to the rise in [Ca(2+)]i. A thapsigargin-induced increase in [Ca(2+)]i also was greater with calcium in the external solution. OAG, the cell permeable analogue of DAG, increased [Ca(2+)]i, but only in Ca(2+)-containing solution. Decreasing external calcium or depleting internal calcium stores did not block PACAP-induced PAC1 receptor internalization. Omission of calcium from the external solution, but not thapsigargin pretreatment, significantly blunted PACAP-stimulated ERK phosphorylation. The PKC inhibitor BimI decreased PACAP-mediated ERK activation in both Ca(2+)-containing or Ca(2+)-deficient solutions. In contrast, following Pitstop 2 pretreatment to block endocytic mechanisms, PACAP activated ERK only when calcium was present in the external solution. We conclude that the endosome signaling pathway is largely calcium-independent whereas calcium influx appears necessary for the PLC/DAG/PKC component of PACAP-induced ERK activation. PMID:24723666

  9. In vivo Calcium Imaging of Evoked Calcium Waves in the Embryonic Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Yuryev, Mikhail; Pellegrino, Christophe; Jokinen, Ville; Andriichuk, Liliia; Khirug, Stanislav; Khiroug, Leonard; Rivera, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of intracellular calcium fluxes are instrumental in the proliferation, differentiation, and migration of neuronal cells. Knowledge thus far of the relationship between these calcium changes and physiological processes in the developing brain has derived principally from ex vivo and in vitro experiments. Here, we present a new method to image intracellular calcium flux in the cerebral cortex of live rodent embryos, whilst attached to the dam through the umbilical cord. Using this approach we demonstrate induction of calcium waves by laser stimulation. These waves are sensitive to ATP-receptor blockade and are significantly increased by pharmacological facilitation of intracellular-calcium release. This approach is the closest to physiological conditions yet achieved for imaging of calcium in the embryonic brain and as such opens new avenues for the study of prenatal brain development. Furthermore, the developed method could open the possibilities of preclinical translational studies in embryos particularly important for developmentally related diseases such as schizophrenia and autism. PMID:26778965

  10. Diagnosis and clinical manifestations of calcium pyrophosphate and basic calcium phosphate crystal deposition diseases.

    PubMed

    Ea, Hang-Korng; Lioté, Frédéric

    2014-05-01

    Basic calcium phosphate and pyrophosphate calcium crystals are the 2 main calcium-containing crystals that can deposit in all skeletal tissues. These calcium crystals give rise to numerous manifestations, including acute inflammatory attacks that can mimic alarming and threatening differential diagnoses, osteoarthritis-like lesions, destructive arthropathies, and calcific tendinitis. Awareness of uncommon localizations and manifestations such as intraspinal deposition (eg, crowned dens syndrome, tendinitis of longus colli muscle, massive cervical myelopathy compression) prevents inappropriate procedures and cares. Coupling plain radiography, ultrasonography, computed tomography, and synovial fluid analysis allow accurate diagnosis by directly or indirectly identifying the GRAAL of microcrystal-related symptoms. PMID:24703344

  11. Folate-deficiency anemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000551.htm Folate-deficiency anemia To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Folate-deficiency anemia is a decrease in red blood cells (anemia) ...

  12. The Incidence of and Factors Associated with Vitamin D Deficiency in Newly Diagnosed Children with Cancer.

    PubMed

    Genc, Dildar Bahar; Vural, Sema; Yagar, Gulperi

    2016-07-01

    This retrospective chart review study aimed to assess vitamin D status and identify risk factors associated with vitamin D deficiency and bone parameters in children with cancer at admission. The data of 86 (50 males and 36 females) patients between April 2013 and June 2015 were analyzed. Calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), 25(OH)D, age, gender, diagnostic category, body mass index, duration of complaints, and season of blood sampling were recorded. Median age was 7.17 years (range 0.31-17.40) in 29 hematological malignancy and 57 solid tumor patients. According to cut-off level of 20 ng/ml, 63% of children with cancer had vitamin D deficiency at diagnosis with a median 25(OH)D of 16.75 ng/ml. The mean vitamin D value of children >10 years was significantly low in comparison to that observed in younger children [11.83, 95% confidence interval (CI) = = 8.85-14.81 ng/ml vs. 19.81, 95% CI = = 17.02-22.60 ng/ml]. Vitamin D measurement between November and May was a risk factor for vitamin D deficiency (P < 0.05). The frequency of hypocalcemia and hypophosphatemia was not different between two groups of vitamin D. Further longitudinal studies are needed to investigate whether monitoring vitamin D status and supplementation in children with cancer might prevent future complications related to vitamin D deficiency. PMID:27270075

  13. Congenital longitudinal deficiency of the tibia.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, D A; Loder, R T; Crandall, R C

    2003-01-01

    We performed a clinical and radiographic review of 15 patients (19 limbs) with longitudinal deficiency of the tibia treated between 1981 and 2001. Ten limbs with Kalamchi type I deficiencies were managed by through-knee amputation. Five type II deficiencies were treated by foot ablation and tibiofibular synostosis, either at the same time or staged, but prosthetic problems may arise from varus alignment and prominence of the proximal fibula. Patients with type III deficiencies (four cases) were treated by foot ablation. Prosthetic problems relating to proximal or distal tibiofibular instability may necessitate additional surgical intervention. PMID:12879290

  14. Genomics of mineral nutrient biofortification: calcium, iron and zinc

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary deficiencies affect nearly half of the people on the planet, who simply do not receive sufficient nutrition from the food they buy or grow. Inadequate calcium, iron, and zinc consumption create short and long term health problems, which in turn can magnify and stagnate national development. ...

  15. Stochastic models of intracellular calcium signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rüdiger, Sten

    2014-01-01

    Cellular signaling operates in a noisy environment shaped by low molecular concentrations and cellular heterogeneity. For calcium release through intracellular channels-one of the most important cellular signaling mechanisms-feedback by liberated calcium endows fluctuations with critical functions in signal generation and formation. In this review it is first described, under which general conditions the environment makes stochasticity relevant, and which conditions allow approximating or deterministic equations. This analysis provides a framework, in which one can deduce an efficient hybrid description combining stochastic and deterministic evolution laws. Within the hybrid approach, Markov chains model gating of channels, while the concentrations of calcium and calcium binding molecules (buffers) are described by reaction-diffusion equations. The article further focuses on the spatial representation of subcellular calcium domains related to intracellular calcium channels. It presents analysis for single channels and clusters of channels and reviews the effects of buffers on the calcium release. For clustered channels, we discuss the application and validity of coarse-graining as well as approaches based on continuous gating variables (Fokker-Planck and chemical Langevin equations). Comparison with recent experiments substantiates the stochastic and spatial approach, identifies minimal requirements for a realistic modeling, and facilitates an understanding of collective channel behavior. At the end of the review, implications of stochastic and local modeling for the generation and properties of cell-wide release and the integration of calcium dynamics into cellular signaling models are discussed.

  16. Calcium Stone Growth in Urine from Cystic Fibrosis Patients and Healthy Controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McSorley, Anita; Jones, Andrew M.; Webb, A. Kevin; Rao, P. Nagaraj; Kavanagh, John P.

    2007-04-01

    Cystic fibrosis patients have an increased risk of renal stone disease. There is some evidence that this may be related to a different excretory pattern of stone risk factors, but an alternative hypothesis, that the urine of cystic fibrosis patients is deficient in urinary inhibitors of crystallization and stone formation has not been tested. Here we have grown calcium stones, in vitro, in the presence of urine from healthy controls and compared this with growth in the presence of urine from cystic fibrosis patients. A stone farm was used to grow twelve calcium stones simultaneously, firstly in artificial urine for about 200 hours and then in 90% whole human urine for another 500 hours. Six of the stones received urine from healthy controls and six received urine from adult cystic fibrosis patients. There were no significant differences in stone mass at any of the key time points or in the overall growth pattern (p>0.05) between stones destined for, or treated with, urine from CF patients and the controls. Human urine greatly inhibited stone growth in vitro but there was no difference in the growth rate in urine from healthy controls and CF patients. This refutes the hypothesis that a tendency for a higher prevalence of urinary stones in CF patients is related to a deficiency in inhibitory activity.

  17. Who Is at Risk for Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency?

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Twitter. Who Is at Risk for Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency? Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency occurs in all ethnic groups. ... it doesn't mean that you'll develop one of the diseases related to the condition. Some ...

  18. Links between Vitamin D Deficiency and Cardiovascular Diseases.

    PubMed

    Mozos, Ioana; Marginean, Otilia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present paper was to review the most important mechanisms explaining the possible association of vitamin D deficiency and cardiovascular diseases, focusing on recent experimental and clinical data. Low vitamin D levels favor atherosclerosis enabling vascular inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, formation of foam cells, and proliferation of smooth muscle cells. The antihypertensive properties of vitamin D include suppression of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, renoprotective effects, direct effects on endothelial cells and calcium metabolism, inhibition of growth of vascular smooth muscle cells, prevention of secondary hyperparathyroidism, and beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors. Vitamin D is also involved in glycemic control, lipid metabolism, insulin secretion, and sensitivity, explaining the association between vitamin D deficiency and metabolic syndrome. Vitamin D deficit was associated in some studies with the number of affected coronary arteries, postinfarction complications, inflammatory cytokines and cardiac remodeling in patients with myocardial infarction, direct electromechanical effects and inflammation in atrial fibrillation, and neuroprotective effects in stroke. In peripheral arterial disease, vitamin D status was related to the decline of the functional performance, severity, atherosclerosis and inflammatory markers, arterial stiffness, vascular calcifications, and arterial aging. Vitamin D supplementation should further consider additional factors, such as phosphates, parathormone, renin, and fibroblast growth factor 23 levels. PMID:26000280

  19. Changes in barrier health status of the gill for grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) during valine deficiency: Regulation of tight junction protein transcript, antioxidant status and apoptosis-related gene expression.

    PubMed

    Feng, Lin; Luo, Jian-Bo; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Wu, Pei; Jiang, Jun; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary valine on tight junction protein transcription, antioxidant status and apoptosis on grass carp gills (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Fish were fed six different experimental diets containing graded levels of valine (4.3, 8.0, 10.6, 13.1, 16.7, 19.1 g/kg). The results indicated that valine deficiency decreased Claudin b, Claudin 3, Occludin and ZO-1 transcription and increased Claudin 15 expression in the fish gill (P < 0.05). These effects were partly due to the down-regulation of interleukin 10 (IL-10), transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and IκB α and the up-regulation of relative mRNA expression of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), interleukin 8 (IL-8), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and nuclear factor κB P65 (NF-κB P65) (P < 0.05). However, valine deficiency and valine supplementation did not have a significant effect on Claudin c and Claudin 12 expression in grass carp gills (P > 0.05). Valine deficiency also disrupted antioxidant status in the gill by decreasing anti-superoxide radicals and hydroxyl radical capacity, glutathione contents and the activities and mRNA levels of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) (P < 0.05). These results may be ascribed to the down-regulation of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), target of rapamycin (TOR) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) and the up-regulation of Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) (P < 0.05). Additionally, valine deficiency induced DNA fragmentation via the up-regulation of Caspase 3, Caspase 8 and Caspase 9 expressions (P < 0.05). These results may be ascribed to the improvement in ROS levels in the fish gill (P < 0.05). Taken together, the results showed that valine deficiency impaired the structural integrity of fish gill by disrupted fish antioxidant defenses and regulating the expression of tight junction protein, cytokines, antioxidant

  20. The Influence of Alcohol Consumption in Conjunction with Sex Hormone Deficiency on Ca/P Ratio in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lodi, Karina Bortolin; Marchini, Adriana Mathias Pereira da Silva; Santo, Ana Maria do Espírito; Rode, Sigmar de Mello; Marchini, Leonardo; da Rocha, Rosilene Fernandes

    2016-01-01

    Deficiency of sex hormones and excessive alcohol consumption are factors that have been related to alterations in the pattern of bone mineralization and osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible alterations in the calcium/phosphorus (Ca/P) ratio in the femur of rats subjected to sex hormone deficiency and/or alcohol consumption. Methods. Female and male Wistar rats (n = 108) were divided into ovariectomized (Ovx), orchiectomized (Orx), or sham-operated groups and subdivided according to diet: alcoholic diet (20% alcohol solution), isocaloric diet, and ad libitum diet. The diets were administered for 8 weeks. The Ca/P ratio in the femur was analyzed by energy dispersive micro-X-ray spectrometer (μEDX). Results. Consumption of alcohol reduced the Ca/P ratio in both females and males. The isocaloric diet reduced the Ca/P ratio in females. In groups with the ad libitum diet, the deficiency of sex hormones did not change the Ca/P ratio in females or males. However, the combination of sex hormone deficiency and alcoholic diet presented the lowest values for the Ca/P ratio in both females and males. Conclusions. There was a reduced Ca/P ratio in the femur of rats that consumed alcohol, which was exacerbated when combined with a deficiency of sex hormones. PMID:27073396

  1. VISUAL DEFICIENCIES AND READING DISABILITY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ROSEN, CARL L.

    THE ROLE OF VISUAL SENSORY DEFICIENCIES IN THE CAUSATION READING DISABILITY IS DISCUSSED. PREVIOUS AND CURRENT RESEARCH STUDIES DEALING WITH SPECIFIC VISUAL PROBLEMS WHICH HAVE BEEN FOUND TO BE NEGATIVELY RELATED TO SUCCESSFUL READING ACHIEVEMENT ARE LISTED--(1) FARSIGHTEDNESS, (2) ASTIGMATISM, (3) BINOCULAR INCOORDINATIONS, AND (4) FUSIONAL…

  2. Infrared and transport properties of the layered perovskite related oxide Ba 5Nb 4O 15 and its oxygen deficient phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagola, S.; Massa, N. E.; Polla, G.; Leyva, G.; Carbonio, R. E.

    1994-12-01

    Ba 5Nb 4O 15-x oxides were studied by infrared, electrical resistivity and thermogravimmetric analysis (TGA). FIR reflectivity measurementsreveal a strong ionic compound that has well defined features in groups that we assign to oxygen stretching, bending and lattice phonons splitted by the lower symmetry of this layered compound. For the sample with x = 0.56, oxygen vacancies do not affect phonon band profiles, indicating that carriers are not free enough to interact with longitudinal modes. Electrical resistivity vs. temperature measurements show that the oxygen deficient compounds, for low values of x, are small band gap semiconductors.

  3. Calcium release-activated calcium current in rat mast cells.

    PubMed

    Hoth, M; Penner, R

    1993-06-01

    1. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings of membrane currents and fura-2 measurements of free intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) were used to study the biophysical properties of a calcium current activated by depletion of intracellular calcium stores in rat peritoneal mast cells. 2. Calcium influx through an inward calcium release-activated calcium current (ICRAC) was induced by three independent mechanisms that result in store depletion: intracellular infusion of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) or extracellular application of ionomycin (active depletion), and intracellular infusion of calcium chelators (ethylene glycol bis-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) or 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA)) to prevent reuptake of leaked-out calcium into the stores (passive depletion). 3. The activation of ICRAC induced by active store depletion has a short delay (4-14 s) following intracellular infusion of InsP3 or extracellular application of ionomycin. It has a monoexponential time course with a time constant of 20-30 s and, depending on the complementary Ca2+ buffer, a mean normalized amplitude (at 0 mV) of 0.6 pA pF-1 (with EGTA) and 1.1 pA pF-1 (with BAPTA). 4. After full activation of ICRAC by InsP3 in the presence of EGTA (10 mM), hyperpolarizing pulses to -100 mV induced an instantaneous inward current that decayed by 64% within 50 ms. This inactivation is probably mediated by [Ca2+]i, since the decrease of inward current in the presence of the fast Ca2+ buffer BAPTA (10 mM) was only 30%. 5. The amplitude of ICRAC was dependent on the extracellular Ca2+ concentration with an apparent dissociation constant (KD) of 3.3 mM. Inward currents were nonsaturating up to -200 mV. 6. The selectivity of ICRAC for Ca2+ was assessed by using fura-2 as the dominant intracellular buffer (at a concentration of 2 mM) and relating the absolute changes in the calcium-sensitive fluorescence (390 nm excitation) with the calcium current integral

  4. Carnitine Deficiency and Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    de Bruyn, Anouk; Jacquemyn, Yves; Kinget, Kristof; Eyskens, François

    2015-01-01

    We present two cases of carnitine deficiency in pregnancy. In our first case, systematic screening revealed L-carnitine deficiency in the first born of an asymptomatic mother. In the course of her second pregnancy, maternal carnitine levels showed a deficiency as well. In a second case, a mother known with carnitine deficiency under supplementation was followed throughout her pregnancy. Both pregnancies had an uneventful outcome. Because carnitine deficiency can have serious complications, supplementation with carnitine is advised. This supplementation should be continued throughout pregnancy according to plasma concentrations. PMID:26113999

  5. Carnitine Deficiency and Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    de Bruyn, Anouk; Jacquemyn, Yves; Kinget, Kristof; Eyskens, François

    2015-01-01

    We present two cases of carnitine deficiency in pregnancy. In our first case, systematic screening revealed L-carnitine deficiency in the first born of an asymptomatic mother. In the course of her second pregnancy, maternal carnitine levels showed a deficiency as well. In a second case, a mother known with carnitine deficiency under supplementation was followed throughout her pregnancy. Both pregnancies had an uneventful outcome. Because carnitine deficiency can have serious complications, supplementation with carnitine is advised. This supplementation should be continued throughout pregnancy according to plasma concentrations. PMID:26113999

  6. Iron deficiency in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Lawrence P

    2010-01-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) and related anaemia (IDA) during pregnancy are highly prevalent worldwide in both developed and developing nations although the causes are often different. At conception, many women lack sufficient iron stores to meet the increased requirements of pregnancy, which are calculated at approximately 1200 mg. Appraisal of iron status in pregnant women is problematic, however the most reliable available diagnostic test is a serum ferritin < 20 µg/L. ID is often associated with other nutritional disorders, and there is frequently a secondary cause or association. A greater oral intake is usually insufficient to meet the increased demands of pregnancy, however regular oral supplements (given either daily or intermittently) can often meet maternal needs and avoid associated neonatal complications of IDA. Over-treatment with iron should be avoided, but intravenous administration is useful when deficiency is discovered late, is severe, or if the woman is intolerant of oral formulations. This paper reviews the current literature, and addresses differences in the prevalence and causes of ID betwen developed and developing nations. It examines gestational iron requirements, distinguishes between ID and IDA, and highlights difficulties in diagnostic testing. Finally, it appraises the evidence for and against different treatment regimens, ranging from food fortification to intravenous iron infusions, according to availability and to need.

  7. Leaf Senescence by Magnesium Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Tanoi, Keitaro; Kobayashi, Natsuko I.

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium ions (Mg2+) are the second most abundant cations in living plant cells, and they are involved in various functions, including photosynthesis, enzyme catalysis, and nucleic acid synthesis. Low availability of Mg2+ in an agricultural field leads to a decrease in yield, which follows the appearance of Mg-deficient symptoms such as chlorosis, necrotic spots on the leaves, and droop. During the last decade, a variety of physiological and molecular responses to Mg2+ deficiency that potentially link to leaf senescence have been recognized, allowing us to reconsider the mechanisms of Mg2+ deficiency. This review focuses on the current knowledge about the physiological responses to Mg2+ deficiency including a decline in transpiration, accumulation of sugars and starch in source leaves, change in redox states, increased oxidative stress, metabolite alterations, and a decline in photosynthetic activity. In addition, we refer to the molecular responses that are thought to be related to leaf senescence. With these current data, we give an overview of leaf senescence induced by Mg deficiency. PMID:27135350

  8. A Review on Vitamin D Deficiency Treatment in Pediatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Yeon; So, Tsz-Yin; Thackray, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D is essential for calcium absorption and for maintaining bone health in the pediatric population. Vitamin D deficiency may develop from nutritional deficiencies, malabsorption, enzyme-inducing medications, and many other etiologies. It may present as hypocalcemia before bone demineralization at periods of increased growth velocity (infancy and adolescence) because the increased calcium demand of the body cannot be met. In children, inadequate concentrations of vitamin D may cause rickets and/or symptomatic hypocalcemia, such as seizures or tetany. In this review, we will discuss the pharmacology behind vitamin D supplementation, laboratory assessments of vitamin D status, current literature concerning vitamin D supplementation, and various supplementation options for the treatment of vitamin D deficiency in the pediatric population. PMID:24719588

  9. Vitamin D deficiency in a patient with HDR syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kostoglou-Athanassiou, Ifigenia; Stefanopoulos, Dimitrios; Karfi, Areti; Athanassiou, Panagiotis

    2015-01-01

    The case of a patient with clinical symptoms, laboratory and imaging findings of hypoparathyroidism, sensorineural deafness, renal dysplasia HDR, or Barakat syndrome (hypoparathyroidism, deafness, renal dysplasia), and vitamin D deficiency, is presented. A Caucasian man aged 51 years with a history of chronic hypocalcaemia since childhood, was admitted with hypertonia of the body and extremities, and loss of consciousness. On admission, he was found to have severe hypocalcaemia, hyperphosphataemia, severe hypoparathyroidism, low serum magnesium and mild renal insufficiency. Calcium gluconate was administered intravenously supplemented with magnesium, and the patient recovered consciousness while clinical and laboratory findings improved. Evaluation revealed left renal aplasia and sensorineural deafness affecting both ears. Vitamin D deficiency was also present. He was given calcium and vitamin D supplements orally, and the hypocalcaemia was corrected. This case is described as it is an extremely rare case of HDR syndrome with concurrent vitamin D deficiency. PMID:26156834

  10. Zinc deficiency in molybdenum poisoned cattle

    SciTech Connect

    Parada, R.

    1981-02-01

    Clinical signs ascribable to zinc deficiency were noted in a group of Friesian cows industrially poisoned with molybdenum. Zinc, copper, and molybdenum were determined in blood serum and black hair, and in the contaminated alfalfa pasture the group grazed on. Hematological parameters, and serum calcium and alkaline phosphatase activity, were also determined. Pooled samples of alfalfa from 2 uncontaminated pastures, and of blood, serum and black hair of clinically normal Friesian cattle grazing on these were used as controls. A mixed contamination of the polluted pasture with molybdenum and copper was found, both metals being inversely correlated with he distance to the polluting chimney. Zinc concentrations were normal and not significantly correlated with the distance to the chimney very high molybdenum was found in serum and hair of the poisoned animals; copper was normal in serum and hair. Low calcium and Alkaline phosphatase activity were found in serum, both variables being significantly correlated with serum zinc. Reduced red blood cell number, packed cell volumes and hemoglobin concentrations were also found, but no significant correlation of these parameters with any of the trace metals in serum or hair was found. Signs ascribed to zinc deficiency were consistent with the reduction of zinc in serum and hair and decreased alkaline phosphatase activity in serum. A zinc deficiency conditioned by a simultaneous increased intake of molybdenum and copper is proposed.

  11. Structural Basis of Human Triosephosphate Isomerase Deficiency: Mutation E104D is Related to Alterations of a Conserved Water Network at the Dimer Interface

    SciTech Connect

    Rodríguez-Almazan, Claudia; Arreola, Rodrigo; Rodriguez-Larrea, David; Aguirre-Lopez, Beatriz; Gomez-Puyou, Marietta Tuena de; Perez-Montfort, Ruy; Costas, Miguel; Gomez-Puyou, Armando; Torres-Larios, Alfredo

    2010-01-07

    Human triosephosphate isomerase deficiency is a rare autosomal disease that causes premature death of homozygous individuals. The most frequent mutation that leads to this illness is in position 104, which involves a conservative change of a Glu for Asp. Despite the extensive work that has been carried out on the E104D mutant enzyme in hemolysates and whole cells, the molecular basis of this disease is poorly understood. Here, we show that the purified, recombinant mutant enzyme E104D, while exhibiting normal catalytic activity, shows impairments in the formation of active dimers and low thermostability and monomerizes under conditions in which the wild type retains its dimeric form. The crystal structure of the E104D mutant at 1.85 {angstrom} resolution showed that its global structure was similar to that of the wild type; however, residue 104 is part of a conserved cluster of 10 residues, five from each subunit. An analysis of the available high resolution structures of TIM dimers revealed that this cluster forms a cavity that possesses an elaborate conserved network of buried water molecules that bridge the two subunits. In the E104D mutant, a disruption of contacts of the amino acid side chains in the conserved cluster leads to a perturbation of the water network in which the water-protein and water-water interactions that join the two monomers are significantly weakened and diminished. Thus, the disruption of this solvent system would stand as the underlying cause of the deficiency.

  12. Osteoporosis Knowledge, Calcium Intake, and Weight-Bearing Physical Activity in Three Age Groups of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrio, Kate; Auld, Garry W.

    2002-01-01

    Determined the extent and integration of osteoporosis knowledge in three age groups of women, comparing knowledge to calcium intake and weight bearing physical activity (WBPA). Overall calcium intake was relatively high. There were no differences in knowledge, calcium intake, or WBPA by age, nor did knowledge predict calcium intake and WBPA. None…

  13. Calcium orthophosphates and human beings

    PubMed Central

    Dorozhkin, Sergey V.

    2012-01-01

    The historical development of a scientific knowledge on calcium orthophosphates from the 1770s until 1940 is described. Many forgotten and poorly known historical facts and approaches have been extracted from old publications and then they have been analyzed, systematized and reconsidered from the modern point of view. The chosen time scale starts with the earliest available studies of 1770s (to the best of my findings, calcium orthophosphates had been unknown before), passes through the entire 19th century and finishes in 1940, because since then the amount of publications on calcium orthophosphates rapidly increases and the subject becomes too broad. Furthermore, since publications of the second half of the 20th century are easily accessible, a substantial amount of them have already been reviewed by other researchers. The reported historical findings clearly demonstrate that the substantial amount of the scientific facts and experimental approaches have been known for very many decades and, in fact, the considerable quantity of