Sample records for calcium foliar application

  1. Chinese Privet: Foliar application in water (inconsistent)

    E-print Network

    Jawitz, James W.

    Chinese Privet: Foliar application in water (inconsistent) Glyphosate----5% solution Arsenal----1 spraying or 1 qt./acre broadcast Cogon grass Glyphosate (Accord/Roundup)----3.5 quarts per acre broadcast Edmondson, Pat Minogue, and Jay Ferrell. or mix .75% imazapyr plus 2% glyphosate in growing season or 8

  2. USE OF CALCIUM FOLIAR FEED FERTILIZATION TO REDUCE RAIN-RELATED SPLITTING IN RABBITEYE AND SOUTHERN HIGHBUSH BLUEBERRY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calcium is commonly known to affect the developmental processes of many plants, and its role as a major nutrient has been interpreted in terms of its interaction with components of the cell wall and membrane. A two-year study was conducted to assess the affects of calcium foliar feed fertilization ...

  3. Foliar nickel application alleviates detrimental effects of glyphosate drift on yield and seed quality of wheat.

    PubMed

    Kutman, Bahar Yildiz; Kutman, Umit Baris; Cakmak, Ismail

    2013-09-01

    Glyphosate drift to nontarget crops causes growth aberrations and yield losses. This herbicide can also interact with divalent nutrients and form poorly soluble complexes. The possibility of using nickel (Ni), an essential divalent metal, for alleviating glyphosate drift damage to wheat was investigated in this study. Effects of Ni applications on various growth parameters, seed yield, and quality of durum wheat ( Triticum durum ) treated with sublethal glyphosate at different developmental stages were investigated in greenhouse experiments. Nickel concentrations of various plant parts and glyphosate-induced shikimate accumulation were measured. Foliar but not soil Ni applications significantly reduced glyphosate injuries including yield losses, stunting, and excessive tillering. Both shoot and grain Ni concentrations were enhanced by foliar Ni treatment. Seed germination and seedling vigor were impaired by glyphosate and improved by foliar Ni application to parental plants. Foliar Ni application appears to have a great potential to ameliorate glyphosate drift injury to wheat. PMID:23882996

  4. Methyl jasmonate foliar application to Tempranillo vineyard improved grape and wine phenolic content.

    PubMed

    Portu, Javier; Santamaría, Pilar; López-Alfaro, Isabel; López, Rosa; Garde-Cerdán, Teresa

    2015-03-01

    The importance of phenolic compounds for grape and wine quality has drawn attention to studying different practices with the aim of increasing their content. Cluster application of elicitors is a viticultural practice that has shown promising results in recent years. However, cluster application requires a previous defoliation, which is time-consuming and expensive. In the present study, methyl jasmonate was foliar applied to Tempranillo grapevines in order to study its effect on grape and wine phenolic composition. Methyl jasmonate foliar application increased anthocyanin and stilbene content in both grape and wine, besides enhancing wine flavonol content. This treatment induced the synthesis of 3-O-glucosides of petunidin and peonidin and trans-p-coumaroyl derivatives of cyanidin and peonidin. For stilbenes, trans-piceid content was considerably increased in both grape and wine. The results obtained suggest that methyl jasmonate foliar application could be a simple and accessible practice to enhance grape and wine quality. PMID:25672964

  5. Changes on grape phenolic composition induced by grapevine foliar applications of phenylalanine and urea.

    PubMed

    Portu, J; López-Alfaro, I; Gómez-Alonso, S; López, R; Garde-Cerdán, T

    2015-08-01

    Grapevines may require the input of nitrogen to grow and to guarantee an appropriate grape composition. Recently there has been a growing interest in foliar fertilization, which entails a fast and efficient assimilation of the products. The aim of this work was to study the influence of foliar applications of phenylalanine and urea, at two different doses, on grape anthocyanins, flavonols, flavan-3-ols, phenolic acids, and stilbenes. All treatments were applied at veraison and one week later at doses of 0.9 and 1.5 kg N/ha. The results showed that the synthesis of phenolic compounds was favoured by foliar applications of phenylalanine and urea. The application of the lowest dose of urea was the most effective treatment, increasing the content of several anthocyanins and flavonols. Moreover, none of the foliar treatments worsened the grape phenolic composition. In conclusion, foliar application of phenylalanine and especially urea, could be an interesting management tool for improving grape quality and their health-promoting properties. PMID:25766815

  6. RESPONSE OF YOUNG BEARING PECAN TREES TO SPRING FOLIAR NICKEL APPLICATIONS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pradeep Wagle; Michael W. Smith; Bruce W. Wood; Charles T. Rohla

    2011-01-01

    The lower critical leaf concentration for nickel (Ni) has not been fully determined for commercial pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch.] orchards. In a two-year study, foliar Ni was applied to orchard trees in early spring beginning at the parachute stage of leaf development and followed by two additional applications at two week intervals. Yield, yield efficiency (ratio of yield

  7. Effect of Foliar Salicylic Acid Applications on Growth, Chlorophyll, and Mineral Content of Cucumber Grown Under Salt Stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ertan Yildirim; Metin Turan; Ismail Guvenc

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of foliar salicylic acid (SA) applications on growth, chlorophyll, and mineral content of cucumber grown under salt stress. The study was conducted in pot experiments under greenhouse conditions. Cucumber seedlings were treated with foliar SA applications at different concentrations (0.0, 0.25, 0.50, and 1.00 mM). Salinity treatments were established by

  8. Effect of foliar application of selenium on its uptake and speciation in carrot

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emese Kápolna; Peter R. Hillestrøm; Kristian H. Laursen; Søren Husted; Erik H. Larsen

    2009-01-01

    Carrot (Daucus carota) shoots were enriched by selenium using foliar application. Solutions of sodium selenite or sodium selenate at 10 and 100?gSeml?1, were sprayed on the carrot leaves and the selenium content and uptake rate of selenium were estimated by ICP–MS analysis. Anion and cation exchange HPLC were tailored to and applied for the separation of selenium species in proteolytic

  9. Application Parameters Affecting Field Efficacy of Beauveria bassiana Foliar Treatments against Colorado Potato Beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. P Wraight; M. E Ramos

    2002-01-01

    The effects of various spray-application parameters on the efficacy of Beauveria bassiana foliar treatments against Leptinotarsa decemlineata larvae were evaluated during three field seasons. Treatments were applied to small plots (6 rows × 7–12 m) using a CO2-powered backpack hydraulic sprayer with nozzles affixed to lateral drop tubes and directed upward at a 45° angle to target ventral leaf surfaces.

  10. Growth response of komatsuna ( Brassica rapa var. peruviridis) to root and foliar applications of phosphite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hoang Thi Bich Thao; Takeo Yamakawa; Katsuhiro Shibata; Papa Saliou Sarr; Aung Kyaw Myint

    2008-01-01

    Soil and hydroponic culture experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of phosphite (Phi) as phosphorus (P) fertilizer\\u000a via root and foliar applications on the growth and P supply of komatsuna. In both experiments, root P treatments were combinations\\u000a of Phi and phosphate (Pi) at different Pi:Phi ratios, for a total of high P level (92 mg P pot?1; the soil

  11. 40 CFR 461.20 - Applicability; description of the calcium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Applicability; description of the calcium subcategory. 461.20 Section 461...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Subcategory § 461.20 Applicability; description of the calcium subcategory. This subpart...

  12. 40 CFR 461.20 - Applicability; description of the calcium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Applicability; description of the calcium subcategory. 461.20 Section 461...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Subcategory § 461.20 Applicability; description of the calcium subcategory. This subpart...

  13. 40 CFR 461.20 - Applicability; description of the calcium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Applicability; description of the calcium subcategory. 461.20 Section 461...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Subcategory § 461.20 Applicability; description of the calcium subcategory. This subpart...

  14. 40 CFR 461.20 - Applicability; description of the calcium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Applicability; description of the calcium subcategory. 461.20 Section 461...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Subcategory § 461.20 Applicability; description of the calcium subcategory. This subpart...

  15. Potential of Foliar, Dip, and Injection Applications of Avermectins for Control of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Jansson, Richard K.; Rabatin, Susan

    1998-01-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the potential of two avermectin compounds, abamectin and emamectin benzoate, for controlling plant-parasitic nematodes when applied by three methods: foliar spray, root dip, and pseudostem injection. Experiments were conducted against Meloidogyne incognita on tomato, M. javanica on banana, and Radopholus similis on banana. Foliar applications of both avermectins to banana and tomato were not effective for controlling any of the nematodes evaluated. Root dips of banana and tomato were moderately effective for controlling M. incognita on tomato and R. similis on banana. Injections (1 ml) of avermectins into banana pseudostems were effective for controlling M. javanica and R similis, and were comparable to control achieved with a conventional chemical nematicide, fenamiphos. Injections of 125 to 2,000 ?g/plant effectively controlled one or both nematodes on banana; abamectin was more effective than emamectin benzoate for controlling nematodes. PMID:19274200

  16. Foliar application of brassinosteroids alleviates adverse effects of zinc toxicity in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) plants.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishna, Bellamkonda; Rao, S Seeta Ram

    2015-03-01

    Growth chamber experiments were conducted to investigate the comparative effect of 24-epibrassinolide (EBL) and 28-homobrassinolide (HBL) at 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 ?M concentrations by foliar application on radish plants growing under Zn(2+) stress. In radish plants exposed to excess Zn(2+), growth was substantially reduced in terms of shoot and root length, fresh and dry weight. However, foliar application of brassinosteroids (BRs) was able to alleviate Zn(2+)-induced stress and significantly improve the above growth traits. Zinc stress decreased chlorophyll a, b, and carotenoids levels in radish plants. However, follow-up treatment with BRs increased the photosynthetic pigments in stressed and stress-free plants. The treatment of BRs led to reduced levels of H2O2, lipid peroxidation and, electrolyte leakage (ELP) and improved the leaf relative water content (RWC) in stressed plants. Increased levels of carbonyls indicating enhanced protein oxidation under Zn(2+) stress was effectively countered by supplementation of BRs. Under Zn(2+) stress, the activities of catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and superoxidase dismutase (SOD) were increased but peroxidase (POD) and glutathione reductase (GR) decreased. Foliar spraying of BRs enhanced all these enzymatic activities in radish plants under Zn(2+) stress. The BRs application greatly enhanced contents of ascorbate (ASA), glutathione (GSH), and proline under Zn(2+) stress. The decrease in the activity of nitrate reductase (NR) caused by Zn(2+) stress was restored to the level of control by application of BRs. These results point out that BRs application elevated levels of antioxidative enzymes as well as antioxidants could have conferred resistance to radish plants against Zn(2+) stress resulting in improved plant growth, relative water content and photosynthetic attributes. Of the two BRs, EBL was most effective in amelioration of Zn(2+) stress. PMID:25308099

  17. Foliar application with nano-silicon alleviates Cd toxicity in rice seedlings.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shihua; Wang, Fayuan; Gao, Shuangcheng

    2015-02-01

    Nanofertilizers may be more effective than regular fertilizers in improving plant nutrition, enhancing nutrition use efficiency, and protecting plants from environmental stress. A hydroponic pot experiment was conducted to study the role of foliar application with 2.5 mM nano-silicon in alleviating Cd stress in rice seedlings (Oryza sativa L. cv Youyou 128) grown in solution added with or without 20 ?M CdCl2. The results showed that Cd treatment decreased the growth and the contents of Mg, Fe, Zn, chlorophyll a, and glutathione (GSH), accompanied by a significant increase in Cd accumulation. However, foliar application with nano-Si improved the growth, Mg, Fe, and Zn nutrition, and the contents of chlorophyll a of the rice seedlings under Cd stress and decreased Cd accumulation and translocation of Cd from root to shoot. Cd treatment produced oxidative stress to rice seedlings indicated by a higher lipid peroxidation level (as malondialdehyde (MDA)) and higher activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT), and a lower GSH content. However, those nano-Si-treated plants had lower MDA but higher GSH content and different antioxidant enzyme activities, indicating a higher Cd tolerance in them. The results suggested that nano-Si application alleviated Cd toxicity in rice by decreasing Cd accumulation, Cd partitioning in shoot and MDA level and by increasing content of some mineral elements (Mg, Fe, and Zn) and antioxidant capacity. PMID:25217281

  18. Calcium

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Consumer Datos en español Health Professional Other Resources Calcium Fact Sheet for Consumers What is calcium and what does it do? Calcium is a ... find out more about calcium? Disclaimer How much calcium do I need? The amount of calcium you ...

  19. Effect of foliar application of micronutrients on the yield and quality of sweet orange (Citrus Sinensis L.).

    PubMed

    Tariq, M; Sharif, M; Shah, Z; Khan, R

    2007-06-01

    An experiment was designed to study the effect of foliar application of micronutrients on the yield, quality and leaf composition of sweet orange, Blood red variety at Shabazgari, Mardan. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design in 2) factorial arrangement. Zinc, manganese and boron were applied as foliar spray at the rate of 0.4, 0.2 and 0.04 kg ha(-1), respectively in the presence of 1.56 kg N ha(-1) as urea and 0.4 kg surfactance ha(-1) (as wetting agent) in 400 L of water. The maximum fruit yield was obtained, when 0.4 kg Zn ha(-1) and 0.2 kg Mn ha(-1) was sprayed along with 1.56 kg N ha(-1) and 0.4 kg surfactance ha(-1) in 400 L of water. The minimum % peel was obtained with B alone and minimum % rag with Zn + Mn, maximum fruit size with Zn + B and maximum fruit volume with Zn + Mn. Similarly, % juice in sweet oranges was increased significantly by B alone, reducing sugar by Mn alone and vitamin C contents by Zn + B through foliar spray, suggested that each micronutrient had different role on the quality of citrus fruit. Foliar spray of Zn, Mn and B along with urea significantly increased the concentration of Zn and Mn in citrus leaves, while the concentration of B was not affected with foliar spray, perhaps due to dilution within the citrus tissues. Therefore, it is suggested that either Zn+Mn or Zn+B may be applied as foliar spray in combination with urea and surfactance for getting the maximum yield and improved quality of citrus fruit under prevailing conditions. PMID:19086544

  20. Nanostructured calcium phosphates for biomedical applications: novel synthesis and characterization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Prashant N. Kumta; Charles Sfeir; Dong-Hyun Lee; Dana Olton; Daiwon Choi

    2005-01-01

    Materials play a key role in several biomedical applications, and it is imperative that both the materials and biological aspects are clearly understood for attaining a successful biological outcome. This paper illustrates our approach to implement calcium phosphates as gene delivery agents. Calcium phosphates (CaP) belong to the family of biocompatible apatites and there are several CaP phases, the most

  1. 40 CFR 415.30 - Applicability; description of the calcium carbide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...true Applicability; description of the calcium carbide production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Carbide Production Subcategory § 415.30 Applicability; description of the calcium carbide production subcategory....

  2. 40 CFR 415.40 - Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...true Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.40 Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory....

  3. 40 CFR 424.50 - Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory. 424...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Other Calcium Carbide Furnaces Subcategory § 424.50 Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory....

  4. 40 CFR 415.50 - Applicability; description of the calcium oxide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...false Applicability; description of the calcium oxide production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Oxide Production Subcategory § 415.50 Applicability; description of the calcium oxide production subcategory....

  5. 40 CFR 415.310 - Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...true Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Hydroxide Production Subcategory § 415.310 Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory....

  6. 40 CFR 415.50 - Applicability; description of the calcium oxide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...true Applicability; description of the calcium oxide production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Oxide Production Subcategory § 415.50 Applicability; description of the calcium oxide production subcategory....

  7. 40 CFR 415.40 - Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...true Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.40 Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory....

  8. 40 CFR 424.50 - Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory. 424...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Other Calcium Carbide Furnaces Subcategory § 424.50 Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory....

  9. 40 CFR 415.40 - Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...false Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.40 Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory....

  10. 40 CFR 424.50 - Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory. 424...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Other Calcium Carbide Furnaces Subcategory § 424.50 Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory....

  11. 40 CFR 415.50 - Applicability; description of the calcium oxide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...true Applicability; description of the calcium oxide production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Oxide Production Subcategory § 415.50 Applicability; description of the calcium oxide production subcategory....

  12. 40 CFR 415.310 - Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...false Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Hydroxide Production Subcategory § 415.310 Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory....

  13. 40 CFR 415.30 - Applicability; description of the calcium carbide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...false Applicability; description of the calcium carbide production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Carbide Production Subcategory § 415.30 Applicability; description of the calcium carbide production subcategory....

  14. 40 CFR 415.300 - Applicability; description of the calcium carbonate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...false Applicability; description of the calcium carbonate production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Carbonate Production Subcategory § 415.300 Applicability; description of the calcium carbonate production subcategory....

  15. 40 CFR 415.50 - Applicability; description of the calcium oxide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...true Applicability; description of the calcium oxide production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Oxide Production Subcategory § 415.50 Applicability; description of the calcium oxide production subcategory....

  16. 40 CFR 415.300 - Applicability; description of the calcium carbonate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...true Applicability; description of the calcium carbonate production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Carbonate Production Subcategory § 415.300 Applicability; description of the calcium carbonate production subcategory....

  17. 40 CFR 415.310 - Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...true Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Hydroxide Production Subcategory § 415.310 Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory....

  18. 40 CFR 415.30 - Applicability; description of the calcium carbide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...true Applicability; description of the calcium carbide production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Carbide Production Subcategory § 415.30 Applicability; description of the calcium carbide production subcategory....

  19. 40 CFR 415.300 - Applicability; description of the calcium carbonate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...true Applicability; description of the calcium carbonate production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Carbonate Production Subcategory § 415.300 Applicability; description of the calcium carbonate production subcategory....

  20. 40 CFR 415.50 - Applicability; description of the calcium oxide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...true Applicability; description of the calcium oxide production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Oxide Production Subcategory § 415.50 Applicability; description of the calcium oxide production subcategory....

  1. 40 CFR 415.30 - Applicability; description of the calcium carbide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...true Applicability; description of the calcium carbide production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Carbide Production Subcategory § 415.30 Applicability; description of the calcium carbide production subcategory....

  2. 40 CFR 415.40 - Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...true Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.40 Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory....

  3. 40 CFR 415.300 - Applicability; description of the calcium carbonate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...true Applicability; description of the calcium carbonate production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Carbonate Production Subcategory § 415.300 Applicability; description of the calcium carbonate production subcategory....

  4. 40 CFR 415.310 - Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...true Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Hydroxide Production Subcategory § 415.310 Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory....

  5. 40 CFR 424.50 - Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory. 424...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Other Calcium Carbide Furnaces Subcategory § 424.50 Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory....

  6. 40 CFR 424.50 - Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory. 424...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Other Calcium Carbide Furnaces Subcategory § 424.50 Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory....

  7. 40 CFR 415.40 - Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...true Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.40 Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory....

  8. 40 CFR 415.300 - Applicability; description of the calcium carbonate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...true Applicability; description of the calcium carbonate production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Carbonate Production Subcategory § 415.300 Applicability; description of the calcium carbonate production subcategory....

  9. 40 CFR 415.30 - Applicability; description of the calcium carbide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...true Applicability; description of the calcium carbide production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Carbide Production Subcategory § 415.30 Applicability; description of the calcium carbide production subcategory....

  10. 40 CFR 415.310 - Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...true Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Hydroxide Production Subcategory § 415.310 Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory....

  11. Calcium

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of calcium dietary supplements are carbonate and citrate. Calcium carbonate is inexpensive, but is absorbed best when taken ... antacid products, such as Tums® and Rolaids®, contain calcium carbonate. Each pill or chew provides 200–400 mg ...

  12. Assisted phytoremediation of mixed metal(loid)-polluted pyrite waste: effects of foliar and substrate IBA application on fodder radish.

    PubMed

    Vamerali, Teofilo; Bandiera, Marianna; Hartley, William; Carletti, Paolo; Mosca, Giuliano

    2011-06-01

    Exogenous application of plant-growth promoting substances may potentially improve phytoremediation of metal-polluted substrates by increasing shoot and root growth. In a pot-based study, fodder radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiformis Pers.) was grown in As-Zn-Cu-Co-Pb-contaminated pyrite waste, and treated with indolebutyric acid (IBA) either by foliar spraying (10 mgL(-1)), or by direct application of IBA to the substrate (0.1 and 1 mgkg(-1)) in association, or not, with foliar spraying. With the exception of foliar spraying, IBA reduced above-ground biomass, whilst direct application of IBA to the substrate surface reduced root biomass (-59%). Trace element concentrations were generally increased, but removals (mg per plant) greatly reduced with IBA application, together with greater metal leaching from the substrate. It is concluded that, in our case, IBA had a negative effect on plant growth and phytoextraction of trace elements, possibly due to unsuitable root indoleacetic acid concentration following soil IBA application, the direct chelating effect of IBA and the low microbial activity in the pyrite waste affecting its breakdown. PMID:21570105

  13. Foliar application of glyphosate affects molecular mechanisms in underground adventitious buds of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) and alters their vegetative growth patterns

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long term control of leafy spurge with glyphosate requires multiple applications because the plant reproduces vegetatively from abundant underground adventitious buds (UABs). Determining the molecular mechanisms involved in controlling vegetative reproduction in leafy spurge following foliar glyphos...

  14. The effect of foliar application of phosphonate formulations on the susceptibility of potato tubers to late blight.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Louise R; Little, George

    2002-01-01

    Foliar sprays of potato plants with phosphonic acid (partially neutralised with potassium hydroxide to pH 6.4) substantially reduced infection of the tubers by Phytophthora infestans, the cause of late blight, in glasshouse and field experiments over a 4-year period. Healthy tubers of blight-susceptible cultivars removed from treated plants and artificially inoculated by spraying with sporangial/zoospore suspensions of P infestans did not develop disease symptoms, demonstrating that the phosphonate applications had directly reduced the susceptibility of tubers to infection, probably as a result of translocation into tuber tissue. In contrast, foliar application of fosetyl-aluminium did not significantly reduce tuber blight development following inoculation. Five to six sprays of partially neutralised phosphonic acid (2 kg ha-1) applied at 10-14 day intervals resulted in the least tuber infection, but such a treatment regime may not be economic. In trials where the effect of timing and rate of application of 2-4 kg phosphonic acid ha-1 was examined, a single treatment of 4 kg ha-1 applied mid- or late-season proved the most effective. A spray programme in which one or two applications of phosphonic acid are combined with use of a non-systemic or systemic fungicide to enhance foliar protection offers the possibility of controlling both foliage and tuber blight and could have a major impact in reducing overwinter survival of P infestans in tubers. PMID:11838279

  15. Effect of foliar applications of neem oil and fish emulsion on bacterial spot and yield of tomatoes and peppers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pervaiz A. Abbasi; Diane A. Cuppels; George Lazarovits

    2003-01-01

    Foliar applications of neem oil and fish emulsion, derived from neem seed and menhaden fish, respectively, were tested for their ability to reduce bacterial spot of tomato and bell pepper under both greenhouse and field conditions. Greenhouse-grown tomato and pepper plants sprayed with aqueous suspensions (0.5%, v\\/v) of neem oil or fish emulsion and then inoculated with Xanthomonas campestris pv.

  16. Yield and quality of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) in relation to basal and foliar application of nitrogen and phosphorus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M. A. Khan; Samiullah; S. H. Afaq; M. M. R. K. Afridi

    1992-01-01

    A split?plot field trial was conducted to study the effect of foliar application of 0 kg\\/ha (control), 20 kg N\\/ha, 2 kg P\\/ha or 20 kg N + 2 kg P\\/ha at two basal levels, viz., 90 kg N + 40 kg P\\/ha (optimal dose) and 60 kg N + 27 kg P\\/ha (sub?optimal dose). Each group received 50 kg

  17. Calcium

    MedlinePLUS

    ... you eat. Foods rich in calcium include Dairy products such as milk, cheese, and yogurt Leafy, green vegetables Fish with soft bones that you eat, such as canned sardines and salmon Calcium-enriched foods such as breakfast ... tofu. Check the product labels. The exact amount of calcium you need ...

  18. First evidence on phloem transport of nanoscale calcium oxide in groundnut using solution culture technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deepa, Manchala; Sudhakar, Palagiri; Nagamadhuri, Kandula Venkata; Balakrishna Reddy, Kota; Giridhara Krishna, Thimmavajjula; Prasad, Tollamadugu Naga Venkata Krishna Vara

    2015-06-01

    Nanoscale materials, whose size typically falls below 100 nm, exhibit novel chemical, physical and biological properties which are different from their bulk counterparts. In the present investigation, we demonstrated that nanoscale calcium oxide particles (n-CaO) could transport through phloem tissue of groundnut unlike the corresponding bulk materials. n-CaO particles are prepared using sol-gel method. The size of the as prepared n-CaO measured (69.9 nm) using transmission electron microscopic technique (TEM). Results of the hydroponics experiment using solution culture technique revealed that foliar application of n-CaO at different concentrations (10, 50, 100, 500, 1,000 ppm) on groundnut plants confirmed the entry of calcium into leaves and stems through phloem compared to bulk source of calcium sprayed (CaO and CaNO3). After spraying of n-CaO, calcium content in roots, shoots and leaves significantly increased. Based on visual scoring of calcium deficiency correction and calcium content in plant parts, we may establish the fact that nanoscale calcium oxide particles (size 69.9 nm) could move through phloem tissue in groundnut. This is the first report on phloem transport of nanoscale calcium oxide particles in plants and this result points to the use of nanoscale calcium oxide particles as calcium source to the plants through foliar application, agricultural crops in particular, as bulk calcium application through foliar nutrition is restricted due to its non-mobility in phloem.

  19. Foliar boron and nickel applications reduce water-stage fruit-split of pecan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water-stage fruit-split (WSFS) is a relatively common and often major problem of certain pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] cultivars. This study evaluates the possibility that the malady can be influenced by improving tree micronutrient nutrition. Foliar sprays of boron (B) and nickel...

  20. Biomineralization of calcium carbonates and their engineered applications: a review

    PubMed Central

    Dhami, Navdeep K.; Reddy, M. Sudhakara; Mukherjee, Abhijit

    2013-01-01

    Microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation (MICCP) is a naturally occurring biological process in which microbes produce inorganic materials as part of their basic metabolic activities. This technology has been widely explored and promising with potential in various technical applications. In the present review, the detailed mechanism of production of calcium carbonate biominerals by ureolytic bacteria has been discussed along with role of bacteria and the sectors where these biominerals are being used. The applications of bacterially produced carbonate biominerals for improving the durability of buildings, remediation of environment (water and soil), sequestration of atmospheric CO2 filler material in rubbers and plastics etc. are discussed. The study also sheds light on benefits of bacterial biominerals over traditional agents and also the issues that lie in the path of successful commercialization of the technology of microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation from lab to field scale. PMID:24194735

  1. Influence of foliar application of chemicals on the root exudations and rhizosphere microflora of Sorghum vulgare and Crotalaria juncea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. BALASUBRANIAIVIAIV; G. RAIVGASWAMI

    1973-01-01

    The effect of foliar application of sodium nitrate (0.1%), disodium hydrogen phosphate (0.1%), 2,4-D (25 p.p.m.) and Dithane\\u000a Z-78 (200p.p.m.) on the quantity, and quality of sugars and amino acids exuded by sorghum and sunnhemp and on the rhizosphere\\u000a microflora were studied. The sodium oitrate spray adversely affected the amino acid exudation in sorghum but increased the\\u000a same in sunnhemp;

  2. The effect of postharvest calcium application on tissue calcium concentration, quality attributes, incidence of flesh browning and cell wall physicochemical aspects of peach fruits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. A. Manganaris; M. Vasilakakis; G. Diamantidis; I. Mignani

    2007-01-01

    The effects of postharvest calcium applications on cell wall properties and quality attributes of peach fruits (Prunus persica L. Batsch, cv. ‘Andross’) after harvest or cold storage up to 4 weeks were determined. The fruits were immersed in deionised water or in different calcium sources (calcium chloride, calcium lactate and calcium propionate) at two calcium concentrations (62.5 and 187.5mM Ca).

  3. Calcium

    MedlinePLUS

    ... prevent falls in women, but not in men. Metabolic syndrome. Some evidence suggests that getting more calcium from ... vitamin D, might lower the risk of developing metabolic syndrome. Cancer. Research shows that healthy older women who ...

  4. Environmental geochemistry of calcium isotopes: Applications of a new stable isotope approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhanmin Liu; Congqiang Liu; Guilin Han; Zhongliang Wang; Zichen Xue; Zhaoliang Song; Cheng Yang

    2006-01-01

    This paper summarizes isotope fractionation mechanism, analytical method and applications in environmental geochemistry of\\u000a calcium isotopes. Calcium isotopic composition can be used to constrain material sources and study geological and environmental\\u000a processes as the isotopic composition of calcium (?44Ca) and fractionation processes depend on geochemical circumstances in nature. Recently, thanks to current advances in analytical\\u000a technology of calcium isotopes, calcium

  5. Quinclorac Ester Toxicity and Metabolism in Leafy Spurge ( Euphorbia esula) Soil Systems: Effects of Foliar vs Soil Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald G. Rusness; Janice K. Huwe; Gerald L. Lamoureux

    1998-01-01

    Quinclorac and 13 synthesized esters were monitored for toxicity in foliar- and soil-treated leafy spurge plants. Foliar treatment at 0.5 ?mol\\/plant with quinclorac resulted with 100% mortality, whereas treatment with esters at 2 ?mol\\/plant showed initial toxicity symptoms, but the plants recovered with time (24 weeks). Foliar toxicity symptoms and mortality increased throughout 24 weeks after soil treatment at 0.4

  6. Foliar Damage, Ion Content, and Mortality Rate of Five Common Roadside Tree Species Treated with Soil Applications of Magnesium Chloride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Betsy A. Goodrich; William R. Jacobi

    Sensitivity to magnesium chloride (MgCl2) was assessed on five common roadside tree species by maintaining soil concentrations at 0-, 400-, 800-, or 1,600-ppm chloride\\u000a via MgCl2 solution over four growing seasons. Evaluations of growth, leaf retention, foliar damage, and ion concentrations were conducted.\\u000a Water potentials were measured on two species. Foliar chloride and magnesium concentrations were positively correlated with\\u000a foliar

  7. Water Stress and Foliar Boron Application Altered Cell Wall Boron and Seed Nutrition in Near-Isogenic Cotton Lines Expressing Fuzzy and Fuzzless Seed Phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Bellaloui, Nacer; Turley, Rickie B; Stetina, Salliana R

    2015-01-01

    Our previous research, conducted under well-watered conditions without fertilizer application, showed that fuzziness cottonseed trait resulted in cottonseed nutrition differences between fuzzy (F) and fuzzless (N) cottonseed. Under water stress conditions, B mobility is further limited, inhibiting B movement within the plant, affecting seed nutrition (quality). Therefore, we hypothesized that both foliar B and water stress can affect B mobility, altering cottonseed protein, oil, and mineral nutrition. The objective of the current research was to evaluate the effects of the fuzziness seed trait on boron (B) and seed nutrition under water stress and foliar B application using near-isogenic cotton lines (NILs) grown in a repeated greenhouse experiment. Plants were grown under-well watered conditions (The soil water potential was kept between -15 to -20 kPa, considered field capacity) and water stress conditions (soil water potential between -100 and -150 kPa, stressed conditions). Foliar B was applied at a rate of 1.8 kg B ha-1 as H3BO3. Under well-watered conditions without B the concentrations of seed oil in N lines were higher than in F lines, and seed K and N levels were lower in N lines than in F lines. Concentrations of K, N, and B in leaves were higher in N lines than in F lines, opposing the trend in seeds. Water-stress resulted in higher seed protein concentrations, and the contribution of cell wall (structural) B to the total B exceeded 90%, supporting the structural role of B in plants. Foliar B application under well-watered conditions resulted in higher seed protein, oil, C, N, and B in only some lines. This research showed that cottonseed nutrition differences can occur due to seed fuzziness trait, and water stress and foliar B application can alter cottonseed nutrition. PMID:26098564

  8. Water Stress and Foliar Boron Application Altered Cell Wall Boron and Seed Nutrition in Near-Isogenic Cotton Lines Expressing Fuzzy and Fuzzless Seed Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Our previous research, conducted under well-watered conditions without fertilizer application, showed that fuzziness cottonseed trait resulted in cottonseed nutrition differences between fuzzy (F) and fuzzless (N) cottonseed. Under water stress conditions, B mobility is further limited, inhibiting B movement within the plant, affecting seed nutrition (quality). Therefore, we hypothesized that both foliar B and water stress can affect B mobility, altering cottonseed protein, oil, and mineral nutrition. The objective of the current research was to evaluate the effects of the fuzziness seed trait on boron (B) and seed nutrition under water stress and foliar B application using near-isogenic cotton lines (NILs) grown in a repeated greenhouse experiment. Plants were grown under-well watered conditions (The soil water potential was kept between -15 to -20 kPa, considered field capacity) and water stress conditions (soil water potential between -100 and -150 kPa, stressed conditions). Foliar B was applied at a rate of 1.8 kg B ha-1 as H3BO3. Under well-watered conditions without B the concentrations of seed oil in N lines were higher than in F lines, and seed K and N levels were lower in N lines than in F lines. Concentrations of K, N, and B in leaves were higher in N lines than in F lines, opposing the trend in seeds. Water-stress resulted in higher seed protein concentrations, and the contribution of cell wall (structural) B to the total B exceeded 90%, supporting the structural role of B in plants. Foliar B application under well-watered conditions resulted in higher seed protein, oil, C, N, and B in only some lines. This research showed that cottonseed nutrition differences can occur due to seed fuzziness trait, and water stress and foliar B application can alter cottonseed nutrition. PMID:26098564

  9. Root biomass response to foliar application of imazapyr for two imidazolinone tolerant alleles of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Sala, Carlos A.; Bulos, Mariano; Altieri, Emiliano; Ramos, María Laura

    2012-01-01

    Imisun and CLPlus are two imidazolinone tolerance traits in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) determined by the expression of two alleles at the locus Ahasl1. Both traits differed in their tolerance level to imazapyr —a type of imidazolinone herbicide— when aboveground biomass is considered, but the concomitant herbicide effect over the root system has not been reported. The objective of this work was to quantify the root biomass response to increased doses of imazapyr in susceptible (ahasl1/ahasl1), Imisun (Ahasl1-1/Ahasl1-1) and CLPlus (Ahasl1-3/Ahasl1-3) homozygous sunflower genotypes. These materials were sprayed at the V2–V4 stage with increased doses of imazapyr (from 0 to 480 g active ingredient ha?1) and 14 days after treatment root biomass of each plant was assessed. Genotype at the Ahasl1 locus, dose of imazapyr and their interaction significantly contributed (P < 0.001) to explain the reduction in root biomass accumulation after herbicide application. Estimated dose of imazapyr required to reduce root biomass accumulation by fifty percent (GR50) differed statistically for the three genotypes under study (P < 0.001). CLPlus genotypes showed the highest values of GR50, 300 times higher on average than the susceptible genotypes, and almost 8 times higher than Imisun materials, demonstrating that both alleles differ in their root biomass response to foliar application of increased doses of imazapyr. PMID:23226083

  10. Foliar Application Of Boron Influences The Leaf Mineral Status, Vegetative And Reproductive Growth, Yield And Fruit Quality Of ‘Kinnow’ Mandarin (Citrus Reticulata Blanco.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Ullah; A. S. Khan; A. U. Malik; I. Afzal; M. Shahid; K. Razzaq

    2012-01-01

    The effects of foliar application of boron (B) in the form of boric acid on vegetative and reproductive growth, yield and fruit quality of ‘Kinnow’ mandarin (Citrus reticulate Blanco.) were investigated. Kinnow mandarin was sprayed with different concentration of boric acid viz. (0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3% and 0.4%) at fruit set stage. Leaf nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), B, and

  11. The Effect of Spray Application Rate and Airflow Rate on Foliar Deposition in a Hedgerow Vineyard

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gianfranco Pergher; Rino Gubiani

    1995-01-01

    Two experiments were performed in a hedgerow vineyard, in June (after end of blossom) and July (full vegetation development) to assess the influence of spray application rate and air output on the spray distribution from an axial-fan sprayer. Measurements were performed by fluorometry, using Brilliant Sulpha Flavine as a tracer.Increasing spray application rate and air output both led to higher

  12. Nontarget effects of foliar fungicide application on the rhizosphere: diversity of nifH gene and nodulation in chickpea field

    PubMed Central

    Yang, C; Hamel, C; Vujanovic, V; Gan, Y

    2012-01-01

    Aims This study explores nontarget effects of fungicide application on field-grown chickpea. Methods and Results Molecular methods were used to test the effects of foliar application of fungicide on the diversity and distribution of nifH genes associated with two chickpea cultivars and their nodulation. Treatments were replicated four times in a split-plot design in the field, in 2008 and 2009. Chemical disease control did not change the richness of the nifH genes associated with chickpea, but selected different dominant nifH gene sequences in 2008, as revealed by correspondence analysis. Disease control strategies had no significant effect on disease severity or nifH gene distribution in 2009. Dry weather conditions rather than disease restricted plant growth that year, suggesting that reduced infection rather than the fungicide is the factor modifying the distribution of nifH gene in chickpea rhizosphere. Reduced nodule size and enhanced N2-fixation in protected plants indicate that disease control affects plant physiology, which may in turn influence rhizosphere bacteria. The genotypes of chickpea also affected the diversity of the nifH gene in the rhizosphere, illustrating the importance of plant selective effects on bacterial communities. Conclusions We conclude that the chemical disease control affects nodulation and the diversity of nifH gene in chickpea rhizosphere, by modifying host plant physiology. A direct effect of fungicide on the bacteria cannot be ruled out, however, as residual amounts of fungicide were found to accumulate in the rhizosphere soil of protected plants. Significance and Impact of the Study Systemic nontarget effect of phytoprotection on nifH gene diversity in chickpea rhizosphere is reported for the first time. This result suggests the possibility of manipulating associative biological nitrogen fixation in the field. PMID:22335393

  13. Amorphous calcium phosphate and its application in dentistry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jie Zhao; Yu Liu; Wei-bin Sun; Hai Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Amorphous Calcium Phosphate (ACP) is an essential mineral phase formed in mineralized tissues and the first commercial product\\u000a as artificial hydroxyapatite. ACP is unique among all forms of calcium phosphates in that it lacks long-range, periodic atomic\\u000a scale order of crystalline calcium phosphates. The X-ray diffraction pattern is broad and diffuse with a maximum at 25 degree\\u000a 2 theta, and

  14. Calcium and sodium bentonite for hydraulic containment applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark H. Gleason; David E. Daniel; Gerald R. Eykholt

    1997-01-01

    The hydraulic conductivity of calcium and sodium bentonites was investigated for sand-bentonite mixtures, a thin bentonite layer simulating a geosynthetic clay liner (GCL), and bentonite-cement mixtures simulating backfill for a vertical cutoff wall. The permeant liquids were tap water and distilled water containing 0.25 M calcium chloride. In general, the hydraulic performance of calcium bentonite was not significantly better than

  15. Physiological Response of Soybean (Glycine max) to Foliar Application of Methanol Under Different Soil Moistures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Farzad Paknejad; Mojtaba Mirakhori; Majid Jami Al-Ahmadi; Mohammad Reza Tookalo; Ali Reza Pazoki; Parisa Nazeri

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: Many cultivated area are situated in arid zone, whe re crop photosynthesis and productivity has limited by drou ght. Thus any treatment, such as methanol, that improve plant water relation and reduce stress impa cts, could be benefit. Approach: In order to investigate effects of methanol application on some physiological properties of soybean under low water stress, a

  16. Calcium orthophosphate deposits: Preparation, properties and biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Dorozhkin, Sergey V

    2015-10-01

    Since various interactions among cells, surrounding tissues and implanted biomaterials always occur at their interfaces, the surface properties of potential implants appear to be of paramount importance for the clinical success. In view of the fact that a limited amount of materials appear to be tolerated by living organisms, a special discipline called surface engineering was developed to initiate the desirable changes to the exterior properties of various materials but still maintaining their useful bulk performances. In 1975, this approach resulted in the introduction of a special class of artificial bone grafts, composed of various mechanically stable (consequently, suitable for load bearing applications) implantable biomaterials and/or bio-devices covered by calcium orthophosphates (CaPO4) to both improve biocompatibility and provide an adequate bonding to the adjacent bones. Over 5000 publications on this topic were published since then. Therefore, a thorough analysis of the available literature has been performed and about 50 (this number is doubled, if all possible modifications are counted) deposition techniques of CaPO4 have been revealed, systematized and described. These CaPO4 deposits (coatings, films and layers) used to improve the surface properties of various types of artificial implants are the topic of this review. PMID:26117762

  17. Metabolization of elemental sulfur in wheat leaves consecutive to its foliar application

    SciTech Connect

    Legris-Delaporte, S.; Ferron, F.; Landry, J.; Costes, C.

    1987-12-01

    The qualitative and quantitative aspects of elemental sulfur metabolization in wheat leaves and its effect upon photosynthetic metabolism were studied through the application of micronized sulfur upon the third leaf. Energy-dispersive x-ray analysis combined with scanning electron microscopy emphasized the existence of a sulfur peak associated with a strong potassium peak in the spectra of different tissue regions for treated leaves only, supplying an original evidence of sulfur uptake. Experiments with /sup 35/S-labeled micronized sulfur showed that about 2% of the labeled S was absorbed and metabolized into cystine, methionine, glutathione, and sulfate. The close correlation between the excess of oxygen uptake and oxygen needs for sulfur oxidation in conjunction with the absence of hydrogen sulfide released by treated leaves support direct and fast oxidation of sulfur into sulfate according to a pathway still unclear but independent of photosynthetic CO/sub 2/ metabolism in treated leaf. The mechanisms involved in the primary metabolism of element sulfur in wheat therefore appear to be different from those in fungi.

  18. Cumulative Effect of Soil and Foliar Application of Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Sulfur on Growth, Physico-Biochemical Parameters, Yield Attributes, and Fatty Acid Composition in Oil of Erucic Acid-Free Rapeseed-Mustard Genotypes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manzer H. Siddiqui; Firoz Mohammad; M. Nasir Khan; M. Masroor A. Khan

    2008-01-01

    The feasibility of split (soil + foliar) applications of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) and addition of a small quantity of sulfur (S) in the spray was tested for improving performance of rapeseed-mustard genotypes in a factorial randomized field experiment. Three genotypes (two erucic acid free, viz. Brassica napus L. cv. ‘Hyola PAC – 401’ and Brassica juncea L. Czern.

  19. Yolk-Shell Porous Microspheres of Calcium Phosphate Prepared by Using Calcium L-Lactate and Adenosine 5'-Triphosphate Disodium Salt: Application in Protein/Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Ding, Guan-Jun; Zhu, Ying-Jie; Qi, Chao; Sun, Tuan-Wei; Wu, Jin; Chen, Feng

    2015-06-26

    A facile and environmentally friendly approach has been developed to prepare yolk-shell porous microspheres of calcium phosphate by using calcium L-lactate pentahydrate (CL) as the calcium source and adenosine 5'-triphosphate disodium salt (ATP) as the phosphate source through the microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. The effects of the concentration of CL, the microwave hydrothermal temperature, and the time on the morphology and crystal phase of the product are investigated. The possible formation mechanism of yolk-shell porous microspheres of calcium phosphate is proposed. Hemoglobin from bovine red cells (Hb) and ibuprofen (IBU) are used to explore the application potential of yolk-shell porous microspheres of calcium phosphate in protein/drug loading and delivery. The experimental results indicate that the as-prepared yolk-shell porous microspheres of calcium phosphate have relatively high protein/drug loading capacity, sustained protein/drug release, favorable pH-responsive release behavior, and a high biocompatibility in the cytotoxicity test. Therefore, the yolk-shell porous microspheres of calcium phosphate have promising applications in various biomedical fields such as protein/drug delivery. PMID:25982303

  20. RBS and XPS analyses of the composite calcium phosphate coatings for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ide-Ektessabi, Ari; Yamaguchi, Tetsuro; Tanaka, Yoshikazu

    2005-12-01

    The calcium phosphate coatings on metallic implants are widely used for biomedical applications. The calcium phosphate coatings require mechanical strength, strong adhesion to the metallic implants, chemical stability and low dissolution into the human body fluid for stable functioning in the corrosive environment of the human body. In this study, a novel approach for improving the calcium phosphate coatings is utilized by adding trace metallic element into the coatings. We focused on teeth enamel, which is the hardest calcium phosphate tissue in the human body. Zn concentration increases exponentially from the interior to the surface of the enamel. As the Zn concentration increases, so the local hardness increases. Our previous studies suggest that Zn has influence on the hardness and other properties of enamel, calcium phosphate tissue. Calcium phosphate coatings doped with Zn was fabricated and characterized. The atomic composition and chemical state were investigated by using Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) and X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS), respectively. Scratch test was also carried out for measuring the adhesion of the coatings.

  1. Foliar applied urea improves freezing protection to avocado and peach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Zilkah; Z. Wiesmann; I. Klein; I. David

    1996-01-01

    The effect of foliar applied urea on freeze hardiness was evaluated under orchard and laboratory conditions. Freezing injury and senescence of avocado (Persea americana Mill.) cv. ‘Hass’ leaves in the orchard was inversely correlated to N content. Three foliar applications of 2% low-biuret urea caused a 26% nitrogen enrichment of leaves. Consequently, leaf freezing hardiness was increased and senescence retarded.

  2. Foliar application of pyraclostrobin fungicide enhances the growth, rhizobial-nodule formation and nitrogenase activity in soybean (var. JS-335).

    PubMed

    Joshi, Juhie; Sharma, Sonika; Guruprasad, K N

    2014-09-01

    A field study was conducted to investigate the impact of the fungicide pyraclostrobin (F500 - Headline®; a.i. 20%) on the activity of nitrogenase in soybean (var. JS-335). Pyraclostrobin (F500) was applied on the leaves of soybean plants at 10 and 20 days after emergence (DAE) of seedlings at concentrations ranging from 0.05% to 1%. Leghemoglobin (Lb) content and nitrogenase activity in root nodules were analyzed at 45(th)day after emergence of seedlings indicated a remarkable increase in Lb content and enhanced activity of nitrogenase in the root nodules of pyraclostrobin treated plants. The fungicide also enhanced the number of nodules along with weight of nodules, root biomass and growth of shoot and leaves. Enhanced nitrogen fixation in the root nodules by pyraclostrobin improves the growth of the plant in soybean before flowering and pod formation which ultimately resulted in yield and yield attributes. These results suggest that pyraclostrobin (F500) can be successfully employed as a foliar spray under field conditions to enhance the growth, nitrogen assimilation and hence yield of soybean. PMID:25175651

  3. Accumulation of Glycoconjugates of 3-Methyl-4-hydroxyoctanoic Acid in Fruits, Leaves, and Shoots of Vitis vinifera cv. Monastrell following Foliar Applications of Oak Extract or Oak Lactone.

    PubMed

    Pardo-Garcia, Ana I; Wilkinson, Kerry L; Culbert, Julie A; Lloyd, Natoiya D R; Alonso, Gonzalo L; Salinas, M Rosario

    2015-05-13

    Grapevines are capable of absorbing volatile compounds present in the vineyard during the growing season, and in some cases, volatiles have been found to accumulate in fruits or leaves in glycoconjugate forms, that is, with one or more sugar moieties attached. The presence of oak lactone in wine is usually attributable to oak maturation, but oak lactone has been detected in wines made with fruit from grapevines treated with oak extract or oak lactone. This study investigated the accumulation of glycoconjugates of 3-methyl-4-hydroxyoctanoic acid (i.e., the ring-opened form of oak lactone) in the fruits, leaves, and shoots of Monastrell grapevines following foliar application of either oak extract or oak lactone at approximately 7 days postveraison. Fruits, leaves, and shoots were collected at three different time points, including at maturity. The oak lactone content of fruit was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, with declining concentrations observed in fruit from grapevines treated with oak lactone with ripening. The concentrations of a ?-d-glucopyranoside of 3-methyl-4-hydroxyoctanoic acid in fruits, leaves, and shoots was determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, with the highest oak lactone glucoside levels observed in leaves of grapevines treated with oak lactone. A glucose-glucose disaccharide was also tentatively identified. These results demonstrate both ring-opening and glycosylation of oak lactone occurred after experimental treatments were imposed. PMID:25912091

  4. ATP-stabilized amorphous calcium carbonate nanospheres and their application in protein adsorption.

    PubMed

    Qi, Chao; Zhu, Ying-Jie; Lu, Bing-Qiang; Zhao, Xin-Yu; Zhao, Jing; Chen, Feng; Wu, Jin

    2014-05-28

    Calcium carbonate is a common substance found in rocks worldwide, and is the main biomineral formed in shells of marine organisms and snails, pearls and eggshells. Amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) is the least stable polymorph of calcium carbonate, which is so unstable under normal conditions that it is difficult to be prepared in vitro because it rapidly crystallizes to form one of the more stable polymorphs in aqueous solution. Herein, we report the successful synthesis of highly stable ACC nanospheres in vitro using adenosine 5'-triphosphate disodium salt (ATP) as a stabilizer. The effect of ATP on the stability of ACC nanospheres is investigated. Our experiments show that ATP plays an unique role in the stabilization of ACC nanospheres in aqueous solution. Moreover, the as-prepared ACC nanospheres are highly stable in phosphate buffered saline for a relatively long period of time (12 days) even under relatively high concentrations of calcium and phosphate ions. The cytotoxicity tests show that the as-prepared highly stable ACC nanospheres have excellent biocompatibility. The highly stable ACC nanospheres have high protein adsorption capacity, implying that they are promising for applications in biomedical fields such as drug delivery and protein adsorption. PMID:24578276

  5. Mg2+ substituted calcium phosphate nano particles synthesis for non viral gene delivery application.

    PubMed

    Hanifi, A; Fathi, M H; Sadeghi, H Mir Mohammad; Varshosaz, J

    2010-08-01

    Gene therapy provides a unique approach to medicine as it can be adapted towards the treatment of both inherited and acquired diseases. Recently, calcium phosphate vectors as a new generation of the non viral gene delivery nano carriers have been studied because of their biocompatibility and DNA condensation and gene transfer ability. Substituting cations, like magnesium, affects physical and chemical properties of calcium phosphate nano particles. In this study, Mg(2+) substituted calcium phosphate nano particles have been prepared using the simple sol gel method. X-ray diffraction analysis, Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, specific surface area analysis, zeta potential measurement and ion release evaluation were used for characterization of the samples. It was concluded that presence of Mg ions decrease particle size and crystallinity of the samples and increase positive surface charge as well as beta tricalcium phosphate fraction in chemical composition of calcium phosphate. These properties result in increasing the DNA condensation ability, specific surface area and dissolution rate of the samples which make them suitable particles for gene delivery application. PMID:20464457

  6. From plant surface to plant metabolism: the uncertain fate of foliar-applied nutrients

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Victoria; Brown, Patrick H.

    2013-01-01

    The application of agrochemical sprays to the aerial parts of crop plants is an important agricultural practice world-wide. While variable effectiveness is often seen in response to foliar treatments, there is abundant evidence showing the beneficial effect of foliar fertilizers in terms of improving the metabolism, quality, and yields of crops. This mini-review is focused on the major bottlenecks associated with the uptake and translocation of foliar-applied nutrient solutions. A better understanding of the complex scenario surrounding the ultimate delivery of foliar-applied nutrients to sink cells and organs is essential for improving the effectiveness and performance of foliar fertilizers. PMID:23914198

  7. Regulation of growth and photosynthetic parameters by salicylic acid and calcium in Brassica juncea under cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Hayat, Shamsul; Ahmad, Abrar; Wani, Arif Shafi; Alyemeni, Mohammed Nasser; Ahmad, Aqil

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium, a non-essential and toxic metal, negatively affects plant growth and productivity, and alters the plant's physiological processes necessary for its survival. The present study was designed to explore the individual and combined effects of calcium and salicylic acid (SA) on the morphology and physiology of Brassica juncea L. cv. Varuna under cadmium stress. The application of calcium (2 mM) through the soil and/or SA (10-5 M) as foliar spray enhanced the growth, photosynthetic parameters, and proline content determined after 45 days of treatment. The application of cadmium (6 mg kg-1) through the soil was toxic and decreased both growth and the photosynthetic parameters. The application of calcium and SA in combination was most effective in alleviating the harmful effects of cadmium on growth and photosynthesis. Calcium and SA clearly induced plant protection mechanisms by enhancing proline and chlorophyll accumulation in the leaves. PMID:25854765

  8. Proteins associated with heat-induced leaf senescence in creeping bentgrass as affected by foliar application of nitrogen, cytokinins, and an ethylene inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Jespersen, David; Huang, Bingru

    2015-02-01

    Heat stress causes premature leaf senescence in cool-season grass species. The objective of this study was to identify proteins regulated by nitrogen, cytokinins, and ethylene inhibitor in relation to heat-induced leaf senescence in creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera). Plants (cv. Penncross) were foliar sprayed with 18 mM carbonyldiamide (N source), 25 ?M aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG, ethylene inhibitor), 25 ?M zeatin riboside (ZR, cytokinin), or a water control, and then exposed to 20/15°C (day/night) or 35/30°C (heat stress) in growth chambers. All treatments suppressed heat-induced leaf senescence, as shown by higher turf quality and chlorophyll content, and lower electrolyte leakage in treated plants compared to the untreated control. A total of 49 proteins were responsive to N, AVG, or ZR under heat stress. The abundance of proteins in photosynthesis increased, with ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase affected by all three treatments, chlorophyll a/b-binding protein by AVG and N or Rubisco activase by AVG. Proteins for amino acid metabolism were upregulated, including alanine aminotransferase by three treatments and ferredoxin-dependent glutamate synthase by AVG and N. Upregulated proteins also included catalase by AVG and N and heat shock protein by ZR. Exogenous applications of AVG, ZR, or N downregulated proteins in respiration (enolase, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and succinate dehygrogenase) under heat stress. Alleviation of heat-induced senescence by N, AVG, or ZR was associated with enhanced protein abundance in photosynthesis and amino acid metabolism and stress defense systems (heat shock protection and antioxidants), as well as suppression of those imparting respiration metabolism. PMID:25407697

  9. Effect of pre-harvest calcium chloride applications on fruit calcium level and post-harvest anthracnose disease of papaya

    E-print Network

    Biggs, Alan R.

    -harvest anthracnose disease of papaya Babak Madani a,*, Mahmud Tengku Muda Mohamed a,**, Alan R. Biggs c , Jugah Kadir October 2013 Keywords: Papaya Anthracnose Calcium Disease incidence Disease severity a b s t r a c t Anthracnose disease of papaya, caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz, can cause extensive postharvest

  10. Proceedings of the Seventh Walnut Council Research Symposium 101GTR-NRS-P-115 INFLUENCE OF FOLIAR FERTILIZATION ON FOLIAR ZINC LEVELS

    E-print Network

    FERTILIZATION ON FOLIAR ZINC LEVELS AND NUT PRODUCTION IN BLACK WALNUT William R. Reid and Andrew L. Thomas1 Abstract.--The impact of foliar zinc fertilizer application on nut-bearing black walnut (Juglans nigra L growing seasons by wetting the foliage of the entire crown using a tank mix containing 500 ppm zinc

  11. [Influence of foliar dust on crop reflectance spectrum and nitrogen monitoring].

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Liu, Yang; Wu, Hai-Yun; Zuo, Yue-Ming

    2012-07-01

    More researches were carried out to investigate the application of spectral technology on crop nutrition diagnosis. However, the complex conditions in the field results in the uncertainty of spectrum. In this paper, the influence of foliar dust on spectral of the crop beside the nation road was studied, the differences of the raw spectral reflectance and first derivative spectral reflectance between the foliar with dust and the foliar washed with deionised water were analyzed, nitrogen prediction models were built on the disturbance of foliar dust. Result showed that the dust foliar spectral reflectance increased in the visible light (350-720 nm) and shortwave infrared (SWIR) (1 360-2 500 nm) regions whereas the spectral reflectance in the near infrared (NIR) (720-1 360 nm) wavelength regions decreased. There were no change rules for blue edge position, yellow edge position, red edge position, blue edge slope and yellow edge slope on the effect of foliar dust, but red edge slope, blue edge area, yellow edge area, red edge area decreased. Determinate coefficient (R2) of nitrogen prediction models reduced in the condition of foliar dust. The primary research work about the condition of foliar dust was studied which helps to provide foundation for evaluating effect of foliar dust and proposing foliar dust modification model in the future. PMID:23016348

  12. Ion microprobe measurement of strontium isotopes in calcium carbonate with application to salmon otoliths

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weber, P.K.; Bacon, C.R.; Hutcheon, I.D.; Ingram, B.L.; Wooden, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    The ion microprobe has the capability to generate high resolution, high precision isotopic measurements, but analysis of the isotopic composition of strontium, as measured by the 87Sr/ 86Sr ratio, has been hindered by isobaric interferences. Here we report the first high precision measurements of 87Sr/ 86Sr by ion microprobe in calcium carbonate samples with moderate Sr concentrations. We use the high mass resolving power (7000 to 9000 M.R.P.) of the SHRIMP-RG ion microprobe in combination with its high transmission to reduce the number of interfering species while maintaining sufficiently high count rates for precise isotopic measurements. The isobaric interferences are characterized by peak modeling and repeated analyses of standards. We demonstrate that by sample-standard bracketing, 87Sr/86Sr ratios can be measured in inorganic and biogenic carbonates with Sr concentrations between 400 and 1500 ppm with ???2??? external precision (2??) for a single analysis, and subpermil external precision with repeated analyses. Explicit correction for isobaric interferences (peak-stripping) is found to be less accurate and precise than sample-standard bracketing. Spatial resolution is ???25 ??m laterally and 2 ??m deep for a single analysis, consuming on the order of 2 ng of material. The method is tested on otoliths from salmon to demonstrate its accuracy and utility. In these growth-banded aragonitic structures, one-week temporal resolution can be achieved. The analytical method should be applicable to other calcium carbonate samples with similar Sr concentrations. Copyright ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Application of pulsed spark discharge for calcium carbonate precipitation in hard water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong Yang; Hyoungsup Kim; Andrey Starikovskiy; Alexander Fridman; Young I. Cho

    2010-01-01

    The effect of underwater pulsed spark discharge on the precipitation of dissolved calcium ions was investigated in the present study. Water samples with different calcium hardness were prepared by continuous evaporation of tap water using a laboratory cooling tower. It was shown that the concentration of calcium ions dropped by 20–26% after 10-min plasma treatment, comparing with no drop for

  14. Remote sensing of foliar chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, Paul J.

    1989-01-01

    Remotely sensed data are being used to estimate foliar chemical content. This paper reviews how stepwise multiple regression and deconvolution have been used to extract chemical information from foliar spectra, and concludes that both methods are useful, but neither is ideal. It is recommended that the focus of research be modeling in the long term and experimentation in the short term. Long-term research should increase our understanding of the interaction between radiation and foliar chemistry so that the focus of research can move from leaf model to canopy model to field experiment. Short-term research should aim to design experiments in which remotely sensed data are used to generate unambiguous and accurate estimates of foliar chemical content.

  15. Application of BY-2 cell model in evaluating an effect of newly prepared potential calcium channel blockers.

    PubMed

    Bobal, Pavel; Otevrel, Jan; Poborilova, Zuzana; Vaverkova, Veronika; Csollei, Jozef; Babula, Petr

    2015-07-01

    Calcium channel blockers represent a group of therapeutically important compounds that have found an application in treatment of systemic vascular resistance and arterial pressure, eventually angina pectoris. We studied possibility of application of a BY-2 cell model to evaluate the potential of newly prepared potential calcium channel blockers. In the preliminary experiment, toxicity of studied compounds was determined. In the next experiment, we evaluated possible protective effect of studied compounds on programmed cell death induced by hydrogen peroxide on the BY-2 cells. Calcium channel blocker lanthanum ions and imidazole, inhibitor of NAD(P)H oxidase (EC 1.6.3.1) that prevents reactive oxygen species formation and programmed cell death, were used as reference compounds to compare the effect of studied compounds. We studied changes in the cell viability and growth as well as markers of cell proliferation, levels of intracellular free calcium ions, reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, and markers of programmed cell death, mitochondrial membrane potential and caspase-like activity. Late signs of programmed cell death (changes in nuclear architecture) were also evaluated. Our experiments revealed protective potential of studied compounds against programmed cell death induced by hydrogen peroxide and possibility of application of the BY-2 cell culture to evaluate pharmacological effects of studied compounds in preliminary tests. PMID:26142519

  16. Application of reutilization technology to calcium fluoride sludge from semiconductor manufacturers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei-Ting; Li, Kung-Cheh

    2011-01-01

    Glass ceramics were prepared from mixtures of wastes generated from refining of waste glass and semiconductor industrial wastewater sludge. The aim is then indeed to study the possible use and effects of integrating calcium fluoride (CaF2) as present in semiconductor wastewater sludge in the silica (glass) melts. CaF2 sludge was blended with a conditioner according to characteristics of the target. Calcium oxide-silicon dioxide-aluminum oxide system glass ceramics have relatively high melting points. Addition of CaF2 sludge to fluxes can significantly reduce the melting point and hence improve the kinetics of the reactions. CaF2 sludge and waste glass were co-melted in various ratios to elucidate their interactions at various heating temperatures. The results indicate that the lowest melting temperature was 1163 degrees C, obtained for the CaF2 sludge-waste glass mixture at a ratio 6:4 (wt:wt), which is significantly lower than that of CaF2 sludge (1378 degrees C). The benefits of using melting to dispose of sludge are the reduction of waste and the fixation of heavy metals. Heat treatment was used to convert the obtained glass into glass ceramics. Heavy metal leaching tests revealed that melting conditions lowered the heavy metal concentrations in the leachate to an order of magnitude lower than that in the sludge. Consequently, industrial sludge can be safely used as a fine aggregate material for a potentially wide range of construction applications. PMID:21305892

  17. Calcium supplements

    MedlinePLUS

    ... The two main forms of calcium pills are: Calcium carbonate: Over-the-counter antacid products, such as Tums and Rolaids contain calcium carbonate. These sources of calcium carbonate do not cost ...

  18. Europium-doped amorphous calcium phosphate porous nanospheres: preparation and application as luminescent drug carriers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Feng Chen; Ying-Jie Zhu; Kui-Hua Zhang; Jin Wu; Ke-Wei Wang; Qi-Li Tang; Xiu-Mei Mo

    2011-01-01

    Calcium phosphate is the most important inorganic constituent of biological tissues, and synthetic calcium phosphate has been widely used as biomaterials. In this study, a facile method has been developed for the fabrication of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP)\\/polylactide-block-monomethoxy(polyethyleneglycol) hybrid nanoparticles and ACP porous nanospheres. Europium-doping is performed to enable photoluminescence (PL) function of ACP porous nanospheres. A high specific surface

  19. Ion Association versus Ion Interaction Models in Examining Electrolyte Solutions: Application to Calcium Hydroxide Solubility Equilibrium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menéndez, M. Isabel; Borge, Javier

    2014-01-01

    The heterogeneous equilibrium of the solubility of calcium hydroxide in water is used to predict both its solubility product from solubility and solubility values from solubility product when inert salts, in any concentration, are present. Accepting the necessity of including activity coefficients to treat the saturated solution of calcium

  20. Development and Field Application of a Novel Non-acid Calcium Naphthenate Inhibitor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Justin Debord; Piyush Srivastava

    2009-01-01

    Current state of the art for treating calcium naphthenates requires addition of large doses of acid to the production fluids. Although effective in dissolving deposits, acid treatments result in increased corrosion in production equipment, decreased oil quality and increased transport and HSE costs. Consequently, an opportunity exists for the development of non-acid inhibitors to prevent calcium naphthenate formation without the

  1. Retardation of Phosphate Release from Freshwater Benthic Sediments by Application of Ocher Pellets with Calcium Nitrate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu-Mee Na; Seok S. Park

    2004-01-01

    This article presents an in situ treatment method for retardation of phosphate release from freshwater benthic sediments. The method is based on the addition of ocher pellets into benthic sediments. The pellets consist of ocher and calcium nitrate (OCN pellet). The OCN pellet slowly releases calcium and nitrate, together with ocher, into the sediment–water interface, where all three components play

  2. Watermelon foliar fungicide timing trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foliar diseases are a persistent threat to watermelon production in Oklahoma. Several diseases that include anthracnose, downy mildew, and powdery mildew can result in yield and fruit quality losses when foliage is damaged. Effective fungicides are available for the control of these diseases. How...

  3. Foliar Fertilization of Keith Kelling

    E-print Network

    Balser, Teri C.

    .5 69.2 66.9 55.4 78.7 55.0 LSD (10%) NS 1.2 NS NS NS ------------------------- Leaf Tissue B ---------------------- 0 36.8 33.8 -- -- -- 0.5 39.1 36.3 -- -- -- LSD (10%) 2.1 1.0 -- -- -- 1 Applied as a foliar spray

  4. Effect of calcium silicate slag application on radium-226 concentrations in plant tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Mortvedt, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to determine if plants absorb Ra from slag applied to soil. Slag at rates equivalent to 0 and 22 mt/ha was mixed with Mountview silt loam (Typic Paleudults) limed to pH 5.8 and 7.2. Three clippings each of fescue (Festuca arundiancea Schreb.), and Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L.), and one harvest of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) for grain and straw were grown on separate series of treated soil, and plant samples were analyzed for radioactivity due to /sup 226/Ra uptake. Samples of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) forage and extracted juice from field experiments in Florida testing this slage as a Si source also were analyzed for radioactivity. Dry forage yields of fescue and wheat were not affected by slag applications, but those of Swiss chard were somewhat higher on slag-treated soil at pH 5.8. Wheat grain and straw yields were higher on soil at pH 7.2 than at pH 5.8 regardless of slag treatment. Uptake of /sup 226/Ra by fescue forage and wheat grain and straw was not affected by slag application. Concentrations of /sup 226/Ra were similar in forage and extracted juice from untreated sugarcane or that treated with slag at rates up to 5.6 mt/ha. These results suggest that plant uptake of radionuclides is negligible from calcium silicate slag applied at the recommended rates for liming acid soils or as a source of Si for sugarcane.

  5. Response of potatoes (cv russet burbank) to supplemental calcium applications under field conditions: Tuber calcium, yield, and incidence of internal brown spot

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Senay Ozgen; Björn H. Karlsson; Jiwan P. Palta

    2006-01-01

    Potato tuber tissue is low in calcium as compared to leaves and stems. Several recent studies have provided evidence linking\\u000a tuber quality with tuber tissue Ca concentration. The purpose of the present study was to determine the influence of supplemental\\u000a Ca and N fertilization on tuber Ca concentration and internal brown spot of potato. Three soluble products (calcium nitrate,\\u000a calcium

  6. Isolation of calcium-binding proteins on selective adsorbents. Application to purification of bovine calmodulin.

    PubMed

    Chaga, G S; Ersson, B; Porath, J O

    1996-05-01

    We report the fractionation of calcium-binding proteins using immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC) with hard metal ions. Various hard metal ions (Mn2+, La3+, Nd3+, Eu(3 were immobilized on cross-linked agarose substituted with Tris(carboxymethyl)ethylenediamine (TED) and used as an adsorbent. After systematic studies, europium was selected for further work on the fractionation of calcium-binding proteins. It was found that the presence of Ca2+ in the sample and the solvent strongly promoted the adsorption and selectivity. Selective elution was accomplished in stepwise mode by the addition of calcium chelators such as malonate, citrate and phosphate. Calmodulin of high purity was isolated from a crude extract. Similar behavior of other calcium-binding proteins indicates that the reported chromatographic procedure can be generally applied to such proteins. PMID:8653201

  7. Synthesis of calcium carbonate nanocrystals and their potential application as vessels for drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergaro, Viviana; Carata, Elisabetta; Panzarini, Elisa; Baldassare, Francesca; Dini, Luciana; Ciccarella, Giuseppe

    2015-06-01

    Pure and stable calcium carbonate (CaCO3) nanocrystals were synthesized by spray drying method. We exploited the opportunity to use them as vessels for drug delivery studying the biocompatibility and the internalization in HeLa cells.

  8. Calcium Isotopic Variation in Marine Evaporites and Carbonates: Applications to Late Miocene Mediterranean Brine Chemistry and Late Cenozoic Calcium Cycling in the Oceans

    E-print Network

    Hensley, Tabitha Michele

    2006-01-01

    of the equilibrium fractionation controlled oxygen isotopeequilibrium fractionation effects for calcium isotopes, butisotope fractionation in synthetically precipitated calcite is controlled by an equilibrium

  9. BIOMASS, NITROGEN, SULFUR, AND PHOSPHORUS CONTENTS OF BEANS GROWN IN LIMED SOIL IN RESPONSE TO FOLIAR APPLICATION OF HNO3 OR H2SO4 MISTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Klõšeiko; M. Mandre; I. Ruga

    2001-01-01

    Bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) were subjected to simulated acid mist treatments (pH 4.5, 3.0, 2.3) in the greenhouse. Solutions containing either HNO3 or H2SO4 were applied as mists over a period of 31 days. The growth medium had a pHKCl of 7.9 and a calcium (Ca) content of 18.5 mg g. Plants were sampled at flowering and at ripening,

  10. The preparation of calcium superoxide for air breathing and scrubbing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballou, E. V.; Wood, P. C.; Spitze, L. A.; Wydeven, T.

    1976-01-01

    There is interest in the preparation of high-purity calcium superoxide as an oxygen source for breathing apparatus because both the available oxygen and the capacity for carbon dioxide removal, per unit weight of superoxide, are higher than that of a number of other chemical oxygen sources. A review of earlier findings shows that the general method used by Vol'nov and coworkers for the decomposition of calcium peroxide diperoxyhydrate can yield preparations containing more than 58.4% calcium superoxide maximum predicted for an equimolar disproportionation reaction. The decomposition of solid calcium peroxide diperoxyhydrate is studied using an apparatus that allows good control of the critical reaction parameters. The removal of water from decomposing calcium peroxide diperoxyhydrate, before the same water has an opportunity to back react with the calcium superoxide formed in the reaction, constitutes the rationale of the experiments. Even with allowance for the anomalies observed in the analytical results, the yields appear to be in the 65+ percent range, and optimization of the experimental variables is still being pursued.

  11. Calcium Carbonate

    MedlinePLUS

    Calcium carbonate is a dietary supplement used when the amount of calcium taken in the diet is not ... for healthy bones, muscles, nervous system, and heart. Calcium carbonate also is used as an antacid to relieve ...

  12. Effect of GA3 and 2,4-D foliar application on the anatomy of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) seedling leaf

    PubMed Central

    Doaigey, Abdullah R.; Al-Whaibi, M.H.; Siddiqui, M.H.; Al Sahli, A.A.; El-Zaidy, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Two concentrations (10-5M and 10-3M) of both GA3 and 2,4-D were used as foliar spray to evaluate the response of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cv. Khedri seedlings. They affected some of the anatomical characteristics of the first leaf emerging after the beginning of the spray. The high concentration of GA3 increased the size of the midrib and its vascular bundle numbers. Both low and high concentrations of 2,4-D inhibited the formation of the midrib. 2,4-D in both low and high concentrations decreased the number of vessels in both protoxylem and metaxylem and also decreased their diameters, where as GA3 in low and high concentrations have less effect on the number of vessels and its diameters. GA3 in high concentration increased the number of vascular bundles in 1mm long of the leaf blade, while 2,4-D in low and high concentrations decreased their numbers. 10-3M of 2,4-D increased the size and layers of special hypodermal cells. PMID:23961229

  13. Effect of Pre-Harvest Foliar Application of Citric Acid and Malic Acid on Chlorophyll Content and Post-Harvest Vase Life of Lilium cv. Brunello

    PubMed Central

    Darandeh, Nafiseh; Hadavi, Ebrahim

    2012-01-01

    Citric acid is a regular ingredient in many vase solution formulations but pre-harvest use of citric acid is a novel method in vase life extension of cut flowers, which is reported on tuberose earlier. In order to verify previous result, and check for possible substitution of citric acid by malic acid, the current research was designed. Citric acid (0, 0.075, 0.15% w/v) and malic acid (0, 0.075, 0.15% w/v) were used in a factorial design with three replications. Foliar sprays were applied two times during growth period of Lilium plants. The results point out that 0.15% citric acid alone had increased vase life from 11.8 in control treatment to 14?days (??

  14. Effect of Pre-Harvest Foliar Application of Citric Acid and Malic Acid on Chlorophyll Content and Post-Harvest Vase Life of Lilium cv. Brunello.

    PubMed

    Darandeh, Nafiseh; Hadavi, Ebrahim

    2011-01-01

    Citric acid is a regular ingredient in many vase solution formulations but pre-harvest use of citric acid is a novel method in vase life extension of cut flowers, which is reported on tuberose earlier. In order to verify previous result, and check for possible substitution of citric acid by malic acid, the current research was designed. Citric acid (0, 0.075, 0.15% w/v) and malic acid (0, 0.075, 0.15% w/v) were used in a factorial design with three replications. Foliar sprays were applied two times during growth period of Lilium plants. The results point out that 0.15% citric acid alone had increased vase life from 11.8 in control treatment to 14?days (??

  15. Intrinsic porosity of calcium phosphate cements and its significance for drug delivery and tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Espanol, M; Perez, R A; Montufar, E B; Marichal, C; Sacco, A; Ginebra, M P

    2009-09-01

    One key point in the field of tissue engineering and drug delivery is to provide materials with an adequate porosity. Many events, including nutrient and waste exchange in scaffolds for tissue engineering, as well as the drug-loading capacity and control of the release rate in drug delivery systems, are controlled by the size, shape and distribution of the pores in the material. Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) possess an intrinsic porosity that is highly suited for these applications, and this porosity can be controlled by modifying some processing parameters. The objective of this work was to characterize and control the intrinsic porosity of alpha-tricalcium phosphate (alpha-TCP) cements, and to investigate its role against adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA). Cements with different percentages of open porosity (35-55%) were prepared by modifying the liquid-to-powder ratio. In addition, two different TCP particles were used to yield cements with specific surface areas of approximately 20 and approximately 37m(2)g(-1). Mercury porosimetry analysis on the set cements showed in most cases a bimodal pore size distribution which varied with the processing parameters and affected differently the adsorption and penetration of BSA. The peak occurring at larger pore dimensions controlled the penetration of BSA and was ascribed to the voids generated in between crystal aggregates, while the peak appearing at lower pore sizes was believed to be due to the intercrystallite voids within aggregates. It was found that, at the concentrations studied, the high intrinsic porosity in CPC does not ensure protein penetration unless there is an adequate pore size distribution. PMID:19357005

  16. Influence of soil pH and application rate on the oxidation of calcium sulfite derived from flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.B.; Bigham, J.M.; Dick, W.A.; Jones, E.S.; Ramsier, C. [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States). School of Environmental & Natural Resources

    2007-01-15

    Calcium sulfite hemihydrate (CaSO{sub 3} {center_dot} 0.5H{sub 2}O), a common byproduct of coal-fired utilities, is fairly insoluble and can decompose to release toxic SO{sub 2} under highly acidic soil conditions; however, it can also oxidize to form gypsum. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of application rate and soil pH on the oxidation of calcium sulfite under laboratory conditions. Oxidation rates measured by release of SO{sub 4}-S to solution decreased with increasing application rate. Leachate SO{sub 4}-S from soils amended with 1.0 to 3.0 g kg{sup -1} CaSO{sub 3} increased over a 21 to 28 d period before reaching a plateau. At 4 g kg{sup -1}, maximum SO{sub 4}-S release was delayed until Week 7. Oxidation and release of SO{sub 4}-S from soil amended with 3.0 g kg{sup -1} calcium sulfite increased markedly with decreasing soil pH. After only 3 d incubation, the concentrations of SO{sub 4}-S in aqueous leachates were 77, 122, 1709 220, and 229 mg L{sup -1} for initial soil pH values of 7.8, 6.5, 5.5, 5.1, and 4.0, respectively. At an initial soil pH value of 4.0, oxidation/dissolution did not increase much after 3 d. At higher pH values, oxidation was maximized after 21 d. These results suggest that autumn surface applications of calcium sulfite in no-till systems should permit ample time for oxidation/dissolution reactions to occur without introducing biocidal effects related to oxygen scavenging. Soil and annual crops can thus benefit from additions of soluble Ca and SO{sub 4} if calcium sulfite is applied in advance of spring planting.

  17. Organic Foliar Fertilizer Prepared from Fermented Fruits on Growth of Vochysia guatemalensis in the Costa Rican Humid Tropics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ricardo O. Russo

    2001-01-01

    This note examines the effects of an organic foliar fertilizer prepared from fermented waste fruits on the growth of a tropical tree (Vochysia guatemalensis) under nursery conditions in the Costa Rican Humid Tropics. Results from this single experiment revealed a positive response to the foliar application of this organic fertilizer for seven out of ten evaluated variables. Root fresh weight

  18. Application of pulsed spark discharge for calcium carbonate precipitation in hard water.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong; Kim, Hyoungsup; Starikovskiy, Andrey; Fridman, Alexander; Cho, Young I

    2010-06-01

    The effect of underwater pulsed spark discharge on the precipitation of dissolved calcium ions was investigated in the present study. Water samples with different calcium hardness were prepared by continuous evaporation of tap water using a laboratory cooling tower. It was shown that the concentration of calcium ions dropped by 20-26% after 10-min plasma treatment, comparing with no drop for untreated cases. A laser particle counting method demonstrated that the total number of solid particles suspended in water increased by over 100% after the plasma treatment. The morphology and the crystal form of the particles were identified by both scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Calcite with rhombohedron morphology was observed for plasma treated cases, comparing with the round structure observed for no-treatment cases. It was hypothesized that the main mechanisms for the plasma-assisted calcium carbonate precipitation might include electrolysis, local heating in the vicinity of plasma channel and a high electric field at the tip of plasma streamers, inducing structural changes in the electric double layer of hydrated ions. PMID:20494397

  19. Growth and Characterization of Yttrium Calcium Oxy Borate (YCOB) Single Crystals for Nonlinear Optical Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Arun Kumar; M. Senthilkumar; R. Dhanasekaran

    2008-01-01

    The growth of yttrium calcium oxy borate (YCOB) single crystals by the flux technique is reported. Polycrystalline YCOB sample was synthesized and confirmed. Differential thermal analysis was carried out with lithium carbonate flux. The growth of YCOB crystals by flux technique was attempted and several crystals with dimensions of 3×3×5 mm were obtained. Powder XRD analysis confirms the formation of YCOB

  20. Influence of Application Variables on Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Response to Prohexadione Calcium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Excessive vegetative growth of peanut reduces row visibility during the digging and inversion process. Prohexadione calcium retards vegetative growth, improves row visibility, and in some instances reduces pod shed and increases pod yield compared with non-treated peanut. However, prohexadione cal...

  1. Iron concentration, bioavailability, and nutritional quality of polished rice affected by different forms of foliar iron fertilizer.

    PubMed

    He, Wanling; Shohag, M J I; Wei, Yanyan; Feng, Ying; Yang, Xiaoe

    2013-12-15

    The present study compared the effects of four different forms of foliar iron (Fe) fertilizers on Fe concentration, bioavailability and nutritional quality of polished rice. The results showed that foliar fertilisation at the anthesis stage was an effective way to promote Fe concentration and bioavailability of polished rice, especially in case of DTPA-Fe. Compared to the control, foliar application of DTPA-Fe increased sulphur concentration and the nutrition promoter cysteine content, whereas decreased phosphorus concentration and the antinutrient phytic acid content of polished rice, as a result increased 67.2% ferrtin formation in Caco-2 cell. Moreover, foliar DTPA-Fe application could maintain amylase, protein and minerals quality of polished rice. According to the current study, DTPA-Fe is recommended as an excellent foliar Fe form for Fe biofortification program. PMID:23993594

  2. Calcium phosphate sol-gel-derived coatings on titanium-aluminum-vanadium substrate for biomedical applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lu Gan

    2003-01-01

    Osseointegration of implants to host bone is a necessary requirement for dental and orthopaedic implants. The rate and quality of osseointegration were enhanced through the use of calcium phosphate (Ca-P) films on metallic substrates. The present study investigates the characteristics of Ca-P films applied using sol-gel dip coating methods to sintered porous-surfaced implants. Ca-P films have been formed using Inorganic

  3. Peptide immobilization on calcium alginate beads: applications to antibody purification and assay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gianna Palmieri; Giovanni Cassani; Giorgio Fassina

    1995-01-01

    Two different procedures were developed for the non-covalent immobilization of peptide antigens on calcium alginate beads. The antigenic peptide is first synthesized in a multimeric form starting from a polydentate lysine core, and then immobilized on alginate beads (average volume 0.05 ml) by entrapment or simply by non-covalent adsorption. Coupling yields, as monitored by RP-HPLC analysis of the immobilization time

  4. A dual?analysis approach in tribochemistry: application to ZDDP\\/calcium borate additive interactions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Varlot; J. M. Martin; C. Grossiord; R. Vargiolu; B. Vacher; K. Inoue

    1999-01-01

    Tribochemical interactions between zinc dithiophosphate (ZDDP) and micellar calcium borate (CB) under boundary lubrication\\u000a were investigated by coupling, in the same location of the wear track, both analytical TEM analysis of collected wear fragments\\u000a from the tribofilm and XPS surface analysis of the tribofilm directly underneath. This is the so?called dual?analysis approach,\\u000a which improves the interpretation of tribochemical reactions. The

  5. Europium-doped amorphous calcium phosphate porous nanospheres: preparation and application as luminescent drug carriers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feng; Zhu, Ying-Jie; Zhang, Kui-Hua; Wu, Jin; Wang, Ke-Wei; Tang, Qi-Li; Mo, Xiu-Mei

    2011-01-01

    Calcium phosphate is the most important inorganic constituent of biological tissues, and synthetic calcium phosphate has been widely used as biomaterials. In this study, a facile method has been developed for the fabrication of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP)/polylactide-block-monomethoxy(polyethyleneglycol) hybrid nanoparticles and ACP porous nanospheres. Europium-doping is performed to enable photoluminescence (PL) function of ACP porous nanospheres. A high specific surface area of the europium-doped ACP (Eu3+:ACP) porous nanospheres is achieved (126.7 m2/g). PL properties of Eu3+:ACP porous nanospheres are investigated, and the most intense peak at 612 nm is observed at 5 mol% Eu3+ doping. In vitro cytotoxicity experiments indicate that the as-prepared Eu3+:ACP porous nanospheres are biocompatible. In vitro drug release experiments indicate that the ibuprofen-loaded Eu3+:ACP porous nanospheres show a slow and sustained drug release in simulated body fluid. We have found that the cumulative amount of released drug has a linear relationship with the natural logarithm of release time (ln(t)). The Eu3+:ACP porous nanospheres are bioactive, and can transform to hydroxyapatite during drug release. The PL properties of drug-loaded nanocarriers before and after drug release are also investigated. PMID:21711603

  6. Economical Route to Produce High Seebeck Coefficient Calcium Cobaltate for Bulk Thermoelectric Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Selig, Jiri [Lamar University; Lin, Sidney [Lamar University; Lin, Hua-Tay [ORNL; Johnson, D Ray [ORNL; Wang, Hsin [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Phase pure calcium cobaltate (Ca1.24Co1.62O3.86) was prepared by Self-propagating High-temperature Synthesis (SHS) followed by a short post heat treatment. Prepared powders were characterized by XRD for phase purity, and SEM for particle size and distribution. Temperature histories at the center and on the surface of reaction pellet during the SHS process were monitored and recorded. Particles size of synthesized powders was reduced using a planetary mill to increase its specific surface area. Electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity and Seebeck coefficient of the prepared power were measured and figure of merit was reported.

  7. Calcium-energized motor protein forisome controls damage in phloem: potential applications as biomimetic "smart" material.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Vineet Kumar; Tuteja, Renu; Tuteja, Narendra

    2015-06-01

    Forisomes are ATP independent, mechanically active proteins from the Fabaceae family (also called Leguminosae). These proteins are located in sieve tubes of phloem and function to prevent loss of nutrient-rich photoassimilates, upon mechanical injury/wounding. Forisomes are SEO (sieve element occlusion) gene family proteins that have recently been shown to be involved in wound sealing mechanism. Recent findings suggest that forisomes could act as an ideal model to study self assembly mechanism for the development of nanotechnological devices like microinstruments, the microfluidic system frequently used in space exploration missions. Technology enabling improvement in micro instruments has been identified as a key technology by NASA in future space exploration missions. Forisomes are designated as biomimetic smart materials which are calcium-energized motor proteins. Since forisomes are biomolecules from plant systems it can be doctored through genetic engineering. In contrast, "smart" materials which are not derived from plants are difficult to modify in their properties. Current levels of understanding about forisomes conformational shifts with respect to calcium ions and pH changes requires supplement of future advances with relation to its 3D structure to understand self assembly processes. In plant systems it forms blood clots in the form of occlusions to prevent nutrient fluid leakage and thus proves to be a unique damage control system of phloem tissue. PMID:24020505

  8. The impact of foliar boron sprays on reproductive biology and seed quality of black gram.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Nalini; Gupta, Bhavana

    2013-01-01

    An experiment was conducted under glass house condition to study the effect of foliar application of boron (B) on reproductive biology and seed quality of black gram (Vigna mungo). Black gram (V. mungo L. var. DPU-88-31) was grown under controlled sand culture condition at deficient and sufficient B levels. After 32 days of sowing B deficient plants were sprayed with three concentrations of B (0.05%, 0.1% and 0.2% borax) at three different stages of reproductive development, i.e. prior to flowering, initiation of bud formation and after bud formation. Deficient B supply decreased the anther and pollen size, pollen tube growth, pollen viability as well as stigmatic receptivity which were increased by foliar B application. Foliar spray at all the three concentrations and at all stages increased the yield parameters like number of pods, pod size and number of seeds formed per plant. Foliar B application also improved the seed yield and seed quality in terms of storage seed proteins (albumin, globulin, glutenin and prolamin) and carbohydrates (sugars and starch) in black gram. The foliar application of B in appropriate doses (particularly 0.1%) after bud formation made quantitative and qualitative improvement in seed yield of black gram by supplementing additional/critical B requirements for reproductive development. PMID:22947393

  9. The effect of increasing application rate of granular calcium ammonium nitrate on net nitrification in a laboratory study of grassland soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J. Watson; D. J. Kilpatrick; J. E. Cooper

    1994-01-01

    Soil incubation studies were undertaken in controlled environment cabinets at 15°C to investigate the effect of increasing application rates of calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN) on net nitrification in two grassland soils. Granular CAN was applied to the surface of freshly collected, moist soil, at a rate equivalent to 0, 100, 200, 400, 800 and 1600µg NH

  10. Calcium phosphate hybrid nanoparticles: self-assembly formation, characterization, and application as an anticancer drug nanocarrier.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin-Yu; Zhu, Ying-Jie; Chen, Feng; Lu, Bing-Qiang; Qi, Chao; Zhao, Jing; Wu, Jin

    2013-06-01

    Calcium phosphate hybrid nanoparticles (CaP-HNPs) have been synthesized in aqueous solution through self-assembly by using two oppositely charged polyelectrolytes (poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC) and poly(acrylate sodium) (PAS)) as dual templates. First, the PAS/Ca(2+) and PDADMAC/PO4(3-) complexes form through electrostatic interactions and then two complexes self-assemble into CaP-HNPs after mixing them together. The as-prepared CaP-HNPs exhibit a spherical morphology with a narrow size distribution, good dispersibility, and high colloidal stability in water. The CaP-HNPs are explored as a nanocarrier for the anticancer drug docetaxel (Dtxl). The CaP-HNPs show excellent biocompatibility, high drug-loading capacity, pH-sensitive drug-release behavior, and high anticancer effect after being loaded with Dtxl. Therefore, the as-prepared CaP-HNPs are promising drug nanocarriers for cancer therapy. PMID:23589508

  11. Size controlled hydroxyapatite and calcium carbonate particles: synthesis and their application as templates for SERS platform.

    PubMed

    Parakhonskiy, B V; Svenskaya, Yu I; Yashchenok, A ?; Fattah, H A; Inozemtseva, O A; Tessarolo, F; Antolini, R; Gorin, D A

    2014-06-01

    An elegant route for hydroxyapatite (HA) particle synthesis via ionic exchange reaction is reported. Calcium carbonate particles (CaCO3) were recrystallized into HA beads in water solution with phosphate ions. The size of initial CaCO3 particles was controlled upon the synthesis by varying the amount of ethylene glycol (EG) in aqueous solution. The average size of HA beads ranged from 0.6±0.1 to 4.3±1.1?m. Silver nanoparticles were deposited on the surface of HA and CaCO3 particles via silver mirror reaction. Surface enhanced Raman scattering of silver functionalized beads was demonstrated by detecting Rhodamine B. CaCO3 and HA particles have a great potential for design of carrier which can provide diagnostic and therapeutic functions. PMID:24802965

  12. INOCULATION AND GROWTH WITH FOLIAR PATHOGENIC FUNGI

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter describes methods for evaluating responses of Medicago truncatula to foliar plant-pathogenic fungi. Growth of plants, preparation of inoculum, incubation conditions, and disease assessment are described for five necrotrophic pathogens (Ascochyta lentis, Ascochyta rabiei, Colletotrichum ...

  13. Calcium phosphate sol-gel-derived coatings on titanium-aluminum-vanadium substrate for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Lu

    Osseointegration of implants to host bone is a necessary requirement for dental and orthopaedic implants. The rate and quality of osseointegration were enhanced through the use of calcium phosphate (Ca-P) films on metallic substrates. The present study investigates the characteristics of Ca-P films applied using sol-gel dip coating methods to sintered porous-surfaced implants. Ca-P films have been formed using Inorganic Route and Organic Route processes. It has been shown that both approaches resulted in the formation of carbonated hydroxyapatite but with different Ca/P ratios as well as different surface textures and film structures, the Inorganic Route-formed film being more porous at its outermost surface, and having a more irregular topography. An interfacial reaction product (calcium titanium oxide) was detected for the Inorganic Route-formed coatings while this interfacial phase was not detectable in the Organic Route-formed coatings. The interface tensile and shear adhesion strength properties of Ca-P films have been evaluated using an improved direct pull-off testing (ASTM C633) and a substrate straining method, respectively. For both Ca-P films, the adhesive tensile strength was higher than the failure stress of ˜38 MPa occurring between the Ca-P films and the glue or in the glue. A shear lag approach revealed a shear strength of 347 +/- 64MPa and 280 +/- 28MPa for the Inorganic Route and the Organic Route Ca-P films, respectively. In vivo animal model studies have been performed to compare the effect on early bone formation of sintered porous-surfaced implants that had been modified through the addition of Ca-P film. In Group I study (i.e. Inorganic Route-formed Ca-P-coated implants vs. non-coated implants), it has been found that the Inorganic Route-formed Ca-P film significantly enhances the early rate of bone ingrowth for sintered porous-surfaced implants. However, in Group II study (i.e. Organic Route-formed Ca-P-coated implants vs. non-coated implants), significant improvement was not observed for the Organic Route-formed Ca-P film. It is speculated that the slightly different surface topography and film density between the two Ca-P films result in a different amounts of protein adsorption on the implant surface at the early stage, which further affects the following processes leading to osseointegration.

  14. Improved methods for reducing calcium and magnesium concentrations in tissue culture medium: Application to studies of lymphoblast proliferation in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James K. Brennan; James Mansky; Geraldine Roberts; Marshall A. Lichtman

    1975-01-01

    Summary  We have compared several methods for reducing calcium and magnesium concentrations in tissue culture medium, with the objective\\u000a of producing selective deficiency effects on the growth of mouse (L5178Y) and human (P1R) lymphoblasts. In experiments in\\u000a which calcium- and magnesium-“free” McCoy’s medium was supplemented with 15% horse or fetal calf serum, enough calcium and\\u000a magnesium was provided by serum to

  15. Current perspectives of bio-ceramic technology in endodontics: calcium enriched mixture cement - review of its composition, properties and applications

    PubMed Central

    Nawal, Ruchika Roongta; Talwar, Sangeeta; Verma, Mahesh

    2015-01-01

    Advancements in bio-ceramic technology has revolutionised endodontic material science by enhancing the treatment outcome for patients. This class of dental materials conciliates excellent biocompatibility with high osseoconductivity that render them ideal for endodontic care. Few recently introduced bio-ceramic materials have shown considerable clinical success over their early generations in terms of good handling characteristics. Calcium enriched mixture (CEM) cement, Endosequence sealer, and root repair materials, Biodentine and BioAggregate are the new classes of bio-ceramic materials. The aim of this literature review is to present investigations regarding properties and applications of CEM cement in endodontics. A review of the existing literature was performed by using electronic and hand searching methods for CEM cement from January 2006 to December 2013. CEM cement has a different chemical composition from that of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) but has similar clinical applications. It combines the biocompatibility of MTA with more efficient characteristics, such as significantly shorter setting time, good handling characteristics, no staining of tooth and effective seal against bacterial leakage. PMID:25671207

  16. Alleviation of Cadmium Toxicity in Brassica juncea L. (Czern. & Coss.) by Calcium Application Involves Various Physiological and Biochemical Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Parvaiz; Sarwat, Maryam; Bhat, Nazir Ahmad; Wani, Mohd Rafiq; Kazi, Alvina Gul; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2015-01-01

    Calcium (Ca) plays important role in plant development and response to various environmental stresses. However, its involvement in mitigation of heavy metal stress in plants remains elusive. In this study, we examined the effect of Ca (50 mM) in controlling cadmium (Cd) uptake in mustard (Brassica juncea L.) plants exposed to toxic levels of Cd (200 mg L?1 and 300 mg L?1). The Cd treatment showed substantial decrease in plant height, root length, dry weight, pigments and protein content. Application of Ca improved the growth and biomass yield of the Cd-stressed mustard seedlings. More importantly, the oil content of mustard seeds of Cd-stressed plants was also enhanced with Ca treatment. Proline was significantly increased in mustard plants under Cd stress, and exogenously sprayed Ca was found to have a positive impact on proline content in Cd-stressed plants. Different concentrations of Cd increased lipid peroxidation but the application of Ca minimized it to appreciable level in Cd-treated plants. Excessive Cd treatment enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase, which were further enhanced by the addition of Ca. Additionally, Cd stress caused reduced uptake of essential elements and increased Cd accumulation in roots and shoots. However, application of Ca enhanced the concentration of essential elements and decreased Cd accumulation in Cd-stressed plants. Our results indicated that application of Ca enables mustard plant to withstand the deleterious effect of Cd, resulting in improved growth and seed quality of mustard plants. PMID:25629695

  17. Alleviation of cadmium toxicity in Brassica juncea L. (Czern. & Coss.) by calcium application involves various physiological and biochemical strategies.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Parvaiz; Sarwat, Maryam; Bhat, Nazir Ahmad; Wani, Mohd Rafiq; Kazi, Alvina Gul; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2015-01-01

    Calcium (Ca) plays important role in plant development and response to various environmental stresses. However, its involvement in mitigation of heavy metal stress in plants remains elusive. In this study, we examined the effect of Ca (50 mM) in controlling cadmium (Cd) uptake in mustard (Brassica juncea L.) plants exposed to toxic levels of Cd (200 mg L(-1) and 300 mg L(-1)). The Cd treatment showed substantial decrease in plant height, root length, dry weight, pigments and protein content. Application of Ca improved the growth and biomass yield of the Cd-stressed mustard seedlings. More importantly, the oil content of mustard seeds of Cd-stressed plants was also enhanced with Ca treatment. Proline was significantly increased in mustard plants under Cd stress, and exogenously sprayed Ca was found to have a positive impact on proline content in Cd-stressed plants. Different concentrations of Cd increased lipid peroxidation but the application of Ca minimized it to appreciable level in Cd-treated plants. Excessive Cd treatment enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase, which were further enhanced by the addition of Ca. Additionally, Cd stress caused reduced uptake of essential elements and increased Cd accumulation in roots and shoots. However, application of Ca enhanced the concentration of essential elements and decreased Cd accumulation in Cd-stressed plants. Our results indicated that application of Ca enables mustard plant to withstand the deleterious effect of Cd, resulting in improved growth and seed quality of mustard plants. PMID:25629695

  18. A Novel Application of Calcium Phosphate-Based Bone Cement as an Adjunct Procedure in Adult Craniofacial Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Samuel; Nallathamby, Vigneswaran; Ng, Huiwen; Ho, Michelle; Wong, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    Secondary corrective osteotomy of malunited craniofacial fractures can be a challenging proposition. The exposure, extrusion, and palpability of the titanium implants used become a genuine concern especially in areas of relatively thin skin, such as the periorbital region. Restoring a satisfactory contour to the midface is another major task for the plastic surgeon. Bone cement used to reconstruct craniofacial defects has existed for many years. However, most applications have been as a substitute for autogenous bone grafts for defects less than 25 cm2. In this article, we present two cases of malunited facial fractures that underwent corrective osteotomy, during which we felt that despite the conventional osteotomy and reduction techniques, there was still either a small remnant step deformity or suboptimal contour smoothness due to prominence of the implants used. We thus used bone cement as a resurfacing medium over titanium implants to restore good malar contour and reduce the palpability and exposure rate of the titanium implants. We report good patient satisfaction with contour correction with no increase in wound infection rates or any delay in wound healing. There was initial chemosis associated with the use of the bone cement, which resolved in both patients within 3 to 4 weeks. Postoperative computed tomography showed some degree of osteointegration but no fraction of the bone cement. Calcium phosphate bone cement thus presents an attractive adjunctive method for midfacial contour resurfacing, when used in conjunction with conventional osteotomy procedures and as an onlay over prominent titanium implants. PMID:23205176

  19. Fabrication of a biodegradable calcium polyphosphate/polyvinyl-urethane carbonate composite for high load bearing osteosynthesis applications.

    PubMed

    Ramsay, Scott D; Pilliar, Robert M; Santerre, J Paul

    2010-07-01

    The formation of biodegradable implants for use in osteosynthesis has been a major goal of biomaterials research for the past 2-3 decades. Self-reinforced polylactide systems represent the most significant success of this research to date, however, with elastic constants up to 12-15 GPa at best, they fail to provide the initial stiffness required of devices for stabilizing fractures of major load-bearing bones. Our research has investigated the use of calcium polyphosphate (CPP), an inorganic polymer in combination with polyvinyl-urethane carbonate (PVUC) organic polymers for such applications. Initial studies indicated that composite samples formed as interpenetrating phase composites (IPC) exhibited suitable as-made strength and stiffness, however, they displayed a rapid loss of properties when exposed to in vitro aging. An investigation to determine the mechanism of this accelerated in vitro degradation for the IPCs as well as to identify possible design changes to overcome this drawback was undertaken using a model IPC system. It was found that strong interfacial strength and minimal swelling of the PVUC are very important for obtaining and maintaining appropriate mechanical properties in vitro. PMID:20524193

  20. X-Ray Detector with CMOS Sensor Camera Application of Calcium Denisty Measurement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Pititheerapab; T. Chanmalueang; T. Rerksngaem; C. Kitipol; C. Pintavirooj

    2006-01-01

    This paper presented a design of an x-ray-detector using CMOS image sensor. The main components consist of CMOS sensor, taper fiber optic, and image intensifier screen. CMOS sensor offers various advantages including miniature-sized, low power consumption and cost effective. CMOS-based digital camera becomes hence very demanding due to its potential application in multimedia and information technology. To apply the CMOS

  1. Influence of fertilisation with foliar urea on the content of amines in wine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Ancín-Azpilicueta; R. Nieto-Rojo; J. Gómez-Cordón

    2011-01-01

    Amines are substances that could cause toxic effects in the consumer. The concentration of amines in wine depends on different factors such as grape variety, vinification conditions and nitrogen fertilisation of the vines. The aim of this work was to study the influence of the application of foliar urea on the concentration of amines in wine. To carry out the

  2. Calcium - urine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... much calcium Too much production of parathyroid hormone (PTH) by the parathyroid glands in the neck (hyperparathyroidism) ... glands in the neck do not produce enough PTH (hypoparathyroidism) Use of a water pill called a ...

  3. Micro-arc oxidation as a tool to develop multifunctional calcium-rich surfaces for dental implant applications.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, A R; Oliveira, F; Boldrini, L C; Leite, P E; Falagan-Lotsch, P; Linhares, A B R; Zambuzzi, W F; Fragneaud, B; Campos, A P C; Gouvêa, C P; Archanjo, B S; Achete, C A; Marcantonio, E; Rocha, L A; Granjeiro, J M

    2015-09-01

    Titanium (Ti) is commonly used in dental implant applications. Surface modification strategies are being followed in last years in order to build Ti oxide-based surfaces that can fulfill, simultaneously, the following requirements: induced cell attachment and adhesion, while providing a superior corrosion and tribocorrosion performance. In this work micro-arc oxidation (MAO) was used as a tool for the growth of a nanostructured bioactive titanium oxide layer aimed to enhance cell attachment and adhesion for dental implant applications. Characterization of the surfaces was performed, in terms of morphology, topography, chemical composition and crystalline structure. Primary human osteoblast adhesion on the developed surfaces was investigated in detail by electronic and atomic force microscopy as well as immunocytochemistry. Also an investigation on the early cytokine production was performed. Results show that a relatively thick hybrid and graded oxide layer was produced on the Ti surface, being constituted by a mixture of anatase, rutile and amorphous phases where calcium (Ca) and phosphorous (P) were incorporated. An outermost nanometric-thick amorphous oxide layer rich in Ca was present in the film. This amorphous layer, rich in Ca, improved fibroblast viability and metabolic activity as well as osteoblast adhesion. High-resolution techniques allowed to understand that osteoblasts adhered less in the crystalline-rich regions while they preferentially adhere and spread over in the Ca-rich amorphous oxide layer. Also, these surfaces induce higher amounts of IFN-? cytokine secretion, which is known to regulate inflammatory responses, bone microarchitecture as well as cytoskeleton reorganization and cellular spreading. These surfaces are promising in the context of dental implants, since they might lead to faster osseointegration. PMID:26046283

  4. Calcium orthophosphates

    PubMed Central

    Dorozhkin, Sergey V.

    2011-01-01

    The present overview is intended to point the readers’ attention to the important subject of calcium orthophosphates. This type of materials is of special significance for human beings, because they represent the inorganic part of major normal (bones, teeth and antlers) and pathological (i.e., those appearing due to various diseases) calcified tissues of mammals. For example, atherosclerosis results in blood vessel blockage caused by a solid composite of cholesterol with calcium orthophosphates, while dental caries and osteoporosis mean a partial decalcification of teeth and bones, respectively, that results in replacement of a less soluble and harder biological apatite by more soluble and softer calcium hydrogenphosphates. Therefore, the processes of both normal and pathological calcifications are just an in vivo crystallization of calcium orthophosphates. Similarly, dental caries and osteoporosis might be considered an in vivo dissolution of calcium orthophosphates. Thus, calcium orthophosphates hold a great significance for humankind, and in this paper, an overview on the current knowledge on this subject is provided. PMID:23507744

  5. Calcium Hydroxylapatite

    PubMed Central

    Yutskovskaya, Yana Alexandrovna; Philip Werschler, WM.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Calcium hydroxylapatite is one of the most well-studied dermal fillers worldwide and has been extensively used for the correction of moderate-to-severe facial lines and folds and to replenish lost volume. Objectives: To mark the milestone of 10 years of use in the aesthetic field, this review will consider the evolution of calcium hydroxylapatite in aesthetic medicine, provide a detailed injection protocol for a global facial approach, and examine how the unique properties of calcium hydroxylapatite provide it with an important place in today’s market. Methods: This article is an up-to-date review of calcium hydroxylapatite in aesthetic medicine along with procedures for its use, including a detailed injection protocol for a global facial approach by three expert injectors. Conclusion: Calcium hydroxylapatite is a very effective agent for many areas of facial soft tissue augmentation and is associated with a high and well-established safety profile. Calcium hydroxylapatite combines high elasticity and viscosity with an ability to induce long-term collagen formation making it an ideal agent for a global facial approach. PMID:25610523

  6. The effect of postharvest calcium application in hydro-cooling water on tissue calcium content, biochemical changes, and quality attributes of sweet cherry fruit.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Xie, Xingbin; Long, Lynn E

    2014-10-01

    To improve storage/shipping quality of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.), the effect of calcium chloride (CaCl2) added to hydro-cooling water on physiological and biochemical processes related to fruit and pedicel quality was investigated on two major cultivars. The fruit tissue Ca content increased up to 29-85% logarithmically for 'Sweetheart' and 39-188% linearly for 'Lapins' as CaCl2 rate increased from 0.2% to 2.0% at 0 °C for 5 min. The increase of fruit tissue Ca content was accompanied by reductions in respiration rate, ascorbic acid degradation, and membrane lipid peroxidation, which enhanced total phenolics content and total antioxidant capacity, and resulted in increases in fruit firmness and pitting resistance and decreases in titratable acidity loss and decay of both cultivars. Pedicel browning was inhibited by CaCl2 at 0.2% and 0.5%, but increased by higher rates at 1.0% and 2.0%, possibly via modifying membrane lipid peroxidation. PMID:24799204

  7. Effect of Foliar Boron Sprays on Yield and Fruit Quality of Navel Oranges in 1998 and 19991

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Maurer; James Truman

    A field study was designed to determine if foliar boron (B) sprays could increase fruit set and yield of 'Parent Washington' navel oranges (Citrus sinensis). Treatments consisted of two application timings (prebloom and postbloom) and five application rates 0, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 ppm B as Solubor. Leaf B levels had a significant response to both application timing and

  8. Calcium Film Based Testing of Edge-Seal Materials for Photovoltaic Applications (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Kempe, M.; Dameron, A.; Reese, M.

    2011-04-01

    Because of the sensitivity of some photovoltaic devices to moisture-induced corrosion, they are packaged using impermeable front- and back-sheets with an edge seal to prevent moisture ingress. Evaluation of edge seal materials can be difficult because of the low permeation rates involved and/or non-Fickian behavior. Here, using a Ca film deposited on a glass substrate, we demonstrate the evaluation of edge seal materials in a manner that effectively duplicates their use in a photovoltaic application and compare the results with standard methods for measuring water vapor transport. We demonstrate how moisture permeation data from polymer films can be used to estimate moisture ingress rates and compare the results of these two methods. Encapsulant materials were also evaluated for comparison and to highlight the need for edge seals. Of the materials studied, dessicant-filled polyisobutene materials demonstrate by far the best potential to keep moisture out for a 20 to 30 year lifetime.

  9. Hyperspectral remote sensing of foliar nitrogen content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A strong positive correlation between vegetation canopy Bidirectional Reflectance Factor (BRF) in the Near'InfraRed (NIR) spectral region and foliar mass-based nitrogen concentration (%N) has been reported in some temperate and boreal forests. This relationship, if true, would indicate an additional...

  10. Foliar Nitrogen Fertilization for Perennial Nursery Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen (N) availability affects plant growth and development and is intimately linked to the quality of nursery plants. In nursery production, N is commonly applied to the soil as controlled release and/or liquid fertilizers. However, research has shown that combining foliar N fertilization with a...

  11. [Organic and element carbon in foliar smoke].

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui-yu; Liu Gang; Xu, Hui; Li, Jiu-hai; Wu, Dan

    2015-03-01

    A home-made combustion and sampling apparatus was used to burn green leaves under flaming and smoldering conditions and to collect the smoke generated. The smoke was measured with Organic/Elemental Carbon (OC/EC) Analyzer using IMPROVE thermal-optical reflectance (TOR) method, to investigate the mass fractions and the distribution of OC, EC and eight carbon fractions in foliar smoke. The results showed that in smoldering condition, the mean OC, EC mass fractions of ten foliar smokes were 48.9% and 4.5%, respectively. The mean mass fraction of char-EC (EC1 - POC) was 4.4%. The average emission factors (EF) of particulate matters, OC and EC in smoldering foliar smoke were 102.4 g x kg(-1), 50.0 g x kg(-1) and 4.7 g x kg(-1), respectively. The mean ratios of OC/EC, OC1/OC2 and char-EC/soot-EC (EC1 - POC/EC2 + EC3) in this condition were 11.5, 1.9 and 48.1, respectively. For the foliar smoke emitted in flaming condition, the mean mass fractions of OC, EC and char-EC were 44.9%, 10.9% and 10.7%, respectively. The average EF of PM, OC and EC in flaming smoke were 59.2 g x kg(-1), 26.6 g x kg(-1) and 6.0 g x kg(-1). And the three ratios mentioned above in this condition were 4.8, 1.1 and 133.0, respectively. In conclusion, foliar smoke had higher OC1 mass fractions and OC1/OC2 values in smoldering condition. While flaming foliar smoke had higher char-EC mass fractions and char-EC/soot-EC values. The compositions of OC, EC in foliar smoke varied between different tree species and different combustion conditions. The composition was also obviously different from those of other biomass smoke. PMID:25929047

  12. Hyperspectral Remote Sensing of Foliar Nitrogen Content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knyazikhin, Yuri; Schull, Mitchell A.; Stenberg, Pauline; Moettus, Matti; Rautiainen, Miina; Yang, Yan; Marshak, Alexander; Carmona, Pedro Latorre; Kaufmann, Robert K.; Lewis, Philip; Disney, Mathias I.; Vanderbilt, Vern; Davis, Anthony B.; Baret, Frederic; Jacquemoud, Stephane; Lyapustin, Alexei; Myneni, Ranga B.

    2013-01-01

    A strong positive correlation between vegetation canopy bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) in the near infrared (NIR) spectral region and foliar mass-based nitrogen concentration (%N) has been reported in some temperate and boreal forests. This relationship, if true, would indicate an additional role for nitrogen in the climate system via its influence on surface albedo and may offer a simple approach for monitoring foliar nitrogen using satellite data. We report, however, that the previously reported correlation is an artifact - it is a consequence of variations in canopy structure, rather than of %N. The data underlying this relationship were collected at sites with varying proportions of foliar nitrogen-poor needleleaf and nitrogen-rich broadleaf species, whose canopy structure differs considerably. When the BRF data are corrected for canopy-structure effects, the residual reflectance variations are negatively related to %N at all wavelengths in the interval 423-855 nm. This suggests that the observed positive correlation between BRF and %N conveys no information about %N. We find that to infer leaf biochemical constituents, e.g., N content, from remotely sensed data, BRF spectra in the interval 710-790 nm provide critical information for correction of structural influences. Our analysis also suggests that surface characteristics of leaves impact remote sensing of its internal constituents. This further decreases the ability to remotely sense canopy foliar nitrogen. Finally, the analysis presented here is generic to the problem of remote sensing of leaf-tissue constituents and is therefore not a specific critique of articles espousing remote sensing of foliar %N.

  13. Hyperspectral remote sensing of foliar nitrogen content.

    PubMed

    Knyazikhin, Yuri; Schull, Mitchell A; Stenberg, Pauline; Mõttus, Matti; Rautiainen, Miina; Yang, Yan; Marshak, Alexander; Latorre Carmona, Pedro; Kaufmann, Robert K; Lewis, Philip; Disney, Mathias I; Vanderbilt, Vern; Davis, Anthony B; Baret, Frédéric; Jacquemoud, Stéphane; Lyapustin, Alexei; Myneni, Ranga B

    2013-01-15

    A strong positive correlation between vegetation canopy bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) in the near infrared (NIR) spectral region and foliar mass-based nitrogen concentration (%N) has been reported in some temperate and boreal forests. This relationship, if true, would indicate an additional role for nitrogen in the climate system via its influence on surface albedo and may offer a simple approach for monitoring foliar nitrogen using satellite data. We report, however, that the previously reported correlation is an artifact--it is a consequence of variations in canopy structure, rather than of %N. The data underlying this relationship were collected at sites with varying proportions of foliar nitrogen-poor needleleaf and nitrogen-rich broadleaf species, whose canopy structure differs considerably. When the BRF data are corrected for canopy-structure effects, the residual reflectance variations are negatively related to %N at all wavelengths in the interval 423-855 nm. This suggests that the observed positive correlation between BRF and %N conveys no information about %N. We find that to infer leaf biochemical constituents, e.g., N content, from remotely sensed data, BRF spectra in the interval 710-790 nm provide critical information for correction of structural influences. Our analysis also suggests that surface characteristics of leaves impact remote sensing of its internal constituents. This further decreases the ability to remotely sense canopy foliar nitrogen. Finally, the analysis presented here is generic to the problem of remote sensing of leaf-tissue constituents and is therefore not a specific critique of articles espousing remote sensing of foliar %N. PMID:23213258

  14. Salinity-induced calcium deficiencies in wheat and barley

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. L. Ehret; R. E. Redmann; B. L. Harvey; A. Cipywnyk

    1990-01-01

    Salinity-calcium interactions, which have been shown to be important in plants grown in dryland saline soils of the Canadian prairies, were studied in two species differing in salt tolerance. In solution culture, wheat showed a greater reduction in growth and a higher incidence of foliar Ca deficiency symptoms than barley when grown under MgSO4 or Na2SO4 plus MgSO4 salt stress.

  15. Meteoric calcium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plane, John M. C.

    2011-11-01

    Calcium is found throughout the solar system, the Earth's crust and oceans, and is an essential constituent of cells, shells and bones -- yet it is curiously scarce in the upper atmosphere. John Plane ponders on this 25-year-old mystery.

  16. Project Calcium

    SciTech Connect

    Hurley, J.P.; Benson, S.A.; Erickson, T.A.; Allan, S.E.; Bieber, J.

    1992-09-01

    Fouling problems in utility boilers have been classified into two principal types: high-temperature and low-temperature fouling. A multiclient-sponsored program was initiated at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) to better understand the causes of low-temperature fouling when burning high-calcium western US coals. The goals of Project Calcium were to define the low-temperature deposition problem, identify the calcium-based components that are responsible for the formation of the deposits, develop ways to predict their formation, and identify possible methods to mitigate the formation of these deposits. To achieve the goals of Project Calcium, detailed sampling of utility boilers and laboratory-scale studies coupled with state-of-the-art methods to determine the inorganic components in coals and coal ash-derived materials were conducted. Boiler Sampling was also performed. The work involved sampling coal, entrained ash, deposits and slags from five full-scale utility boilers combined with detailed advanced characterization of the materials. The results of this work aided in identifying the key phenomena to focus the laboratory studies and in model verification. Field testing was conducted at three utilities.

  17. Original article Availability of calcium from skim milk, calcium sulfate

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Availability of calcium from skim milk, calcium sulfate and calcium carbonate; accepted 19 November 1999) Abstract --Dairy products provide abundant, accessible calcium for humans, while some calcium sulfate-rich mineral waters could provide appreciable amounts of calcium

  18. Calcium Signalling in Rat Brain Neurons and Differentiation of PC12 Cells Induced by Application of a Probiotic Product

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. V. Sobol; G. B. Belostotskaya; M. W. Kenworthy

    2005-01-01

    The effects of a biotechnological probiotic product, PP, produced by food fermentation with Lactobacilli (US patent approved), on the growth of neurites in rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC-12) and on calcium responses of rat brain neurons were studied in culture. The PP increased the length of neurites in PC-12 cells, resulting in an irreversible differentiation of cancerous cells into neuron-like structures.

  19. Application of acidic calcium sulfate and e-polylysine to pre-rigor beef rounds for reduction of pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foodborne illness continues to be a serious public health problem and is a major concern for the United States food industry. This study evaluated the effectiveness of warm solutions of acidic calcium sulfate (ACS), lactic acid (LA), episolon-polylysine (EPL), ACS plus EPL, and sterile distilled wa...

  20. LOW CONCENTRATION MERCURY SORPTION MECHANISMS AND CONTROL BY CALCIUM-BASED SORBENTS; APPLICATION IN COAL-FIRED PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The capture of elemental mercury (Hgo) and mercuric chloride (HgCl2) by three types of calcium (Ca)-based sorbents was examined in this bench-scale study under conditions prevalent in coal fired utilities. Ca-based sorbent performances were compared to that of an activated carbon...

  1. Phosphorous acid residues in apples after foliar fertilization: results of field trials.

    PubMed

    Malusà, E; Tosi, L

    2005-06-01

    The levels of phosphorous acid residues in apples after foliar fertilization with P fertilizers and after treatment with a phosphonate fungicide (Fosetyl-Al) were determined and compared. Two field trials and a glasshouse experiment, using different genotypes and plants of different age, were carried out and monitored over a three-year period. Phosphorous acid residues were found in apples after application of foliar P fertilizers. Concentrations of the residues ranged between 0.02 and 14 mg kg(-1) depending on the phosphorous acid content in the fertilizer used and the plant size and yield. The treatments induced an accumulation of the residue in the course of the experiments, which in some cases reached a level exceeding the maximum limit set by EU legislation. Residues were also detected in other plant organs, i.e., roots and buds. Plants treated with Fosetyl-Al contained phosphorous acid residues in their fruits and buds two years after the suspension of the treatment, suggesting a long-term persistence of the substance in plant storage organs. A second experiment, involving treatment of trees with seven foliar fertilizers of different composition, also induced accumulation of phosphorous acid residues in fruits. It is concluded that a wide array of foliar products containing phosphorous acid, even as a minor component, could mimic the residue effect of phosphonate fungicide treatments. PMID:16019827

  2. Calcium oxide as a solid base catalyst for transesterification of soybean oil and its application to biodiesel production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masato Kouzu; Takekazu Kasuno; Masahiko Tajika; Yoshikazu Sugimoto; Shinya Yamanaka; Jusuke Hidaka

    2008-01-01

    In order to study solid base catalyst for biodiesel production with environmental benignity, transesterification of edible soybean oil with refluxing methanol was carried out in the presence of calcium oxide (CaO), -hydroxide (Ca(OH)2), or -carbonate (CaCO3). At 1h of reaction time, yield of FAME was 93% for CaO, 12% for Ca(OH)2, and 0% for CaCO3. Under the same reacting condition,

  3. Calcium and Vitamin D

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calcium is required for the bone formation phase of bone remodeling. Typically about 5 nmol (200 mg) of calcium is removed from the adult skeleton and replaced each day. To supply this amount, one would need to consume about 600 mg of calcium, since calcium is not very efficiently absorbed. Calcium ...

  4. Calcium addition at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest increases the capacity for stress tolerance and carbon capture in red spruce ( Picea rubens ) trees during the cold season

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul G. Schaberg; Rakesh Minocha; Stephanie Long; Joshua M. Halman; Gary J. Hawley; Christopher Eagar

    Red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) trees are uniquely vulnerable to foliar freezing injury during the cold season (fall and winter), but are also capable\\u000a of photosynthetic activity if temperatures moderate. To evaluate the influence of calcium (Ca) addition on the physiology\\u000a of red spruce during the cold season, we measured concentrations of foliar polyamines and free amino acids (putative stress-protection

  5. Forest vegetation monitoring and foliar chemistry of red spruce and red maple at Acadia National Park in Maine.

    PubMed

    Wiersma, G Bruce; Elvir, Jose Alexander; Eckhoff, Janet D

    2007-03-01

    The USDA Forest Service Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) program indicators, including forest mensuration, crown condition classification, and damage and mortality indicators were used in the Cadillac Brook and Hadlock Brook watershed forests at Acadia National Park (ANP) along coastal Maine. Cadillac Brook watershed burned in a wildfire in 1947. Hadlock Brook watershed, undisturbed for several centuries, serves as the reference site. These two small watersheds have been gauged and monitored at ANP since 1998 as part of the Park Research and Intensive Monitoring of Ecosystems Network (PRIMENet). Forest vegetation at Hadlock Brook was dominated by late successional species such as Acer saccharum, Fagus grandifolia, Betula alleghaniensis, Acer rubrum and Picea rubens. Forest vegetation at Cadillac Brook, on the other hand, was younger and more diverse and included those species found in Hadlock as well as early successional species such as Betula papyrifera and Populus grandidentata. Differences in forest species composition and stand structure were attributed to the severe wildfire that affected the Cadillac Brook watershed. Overall, the forests at these ANP watersheds were healthy with a low percentage (Foliar nitrogen (N) concentrations were higher in A. rubrum and P. rubens trees growing in Hadlock Brook watershed, but differences were significant only for P. rubens. Foliar aluminum (Al) concentrations were also higher in both species growing in Hadlock Brook watershed but differences were significant only for A. rubrum. Foliar calcium (Ca) and manganese (Mn) concentrations, on the other hand, were significantly lower in Hadlock Brook watershed for both species. Foliar potassium (K) was significantly higher for P. rubens growing in Hadlock Brook. No differences in foliar concentrations of magnesium (Mg), phosphorus (P), boron (B), copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) were found between watersheds. The higher foliar N concentrations as well as higher foliar concentrations of Ca and Al might indicate early stages of N saturation and acidification in Hadlock Brook watershed as also suggested by Hadlock Brook stream N flux data in published PRIMENet studies at ANP. PMID:17180435

  6. Foliar Lead Uptake by Lettuce Exposed to Atmospheric Fallouts

    E-print Network

    Mailhes, Corinne

    Foliar Lead Uptake by Lettuce Exposed to Atmospheric Fallouts G A ¨E L L E U Z U , S O P H I E S O gardens near industrial plants. The mechanisms of foliar uptake of lead by lettuce (Lactuca sativa) exposed to the atmospheric fallouts of a lead-recycling plant were studied. After43daysofexposure

  7. Helminthosporium spiciferum, foliar parasite of rice in Morocco

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Note Helminthosporium spiciferum, foliar parasite of rice in Morocco B Ennaffah, F Bouslim, R in the Gharb were susceptible to this parasite. The foliar lesions are different from those noted on the plants; Helminthosporium spiciferum, parasite des feuilles de riz au Maroc. Dans cette étude, le pouvoir pathogène de deux

  8. Effect of glyphosate on foliar diseases in Roundup Ready alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foliar diseases are a serious problem for alfalfa management in all areas where alfalfa is grown. Defoliation due to foliar diseases varies from 3-71% depending on time of year, environmental conditions, and locale. Fungicide treatments are cost-effective in only some years and locations. Recently, ...

  9. Get Enough Calcium

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Physical Activity > Nutrition > Get Enough Calcium Get Enough Calcium The Basics Take Action! Ver en español Content ... June 26, 2015 The Basics Your body needs calcium to build strong bones when you are young ...

  10. Calcium and bones (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Calcium is one of the most important minerals for the growth, maintenance, and reproduction of the human ... body, are continually being re-formed and incorporate calcium into their structure. Calcium is essential for the ...

  11. Coronary Calcium Scan

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Coronary Calcium Scan? A coronary calcium scan is a test ... you have calcifications in your coronary arteries. Coronary Calcium Scan Figure A shows the position of the ...

  12. Effect of Deficit Irrigation and Kaolin-based Foliar Reflectant Particle Film on Aroma of cv. Merlot (Vitis vinifera L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water deficit during development of red-skinned wine grape enhances berry composition for wine production but increases risk of fruit exposure to deleterious levels of heat and/or solar radiation. Foliar application of a kaolin-based particle film has been shown in many crops to alleviate stress sym...

  13. EFFECTS OF DEFOLIANTS (CUEDTA AND ZNSO4) AND FOLIAR UREA ON DEFOLIATION AND NITROGEN RESERVES OF ALMOND NURSERY PLANTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One-year-old field-grown ‘Nonpareil’/’Nemaguard’ and ‘Nonpareil’/‘Lovell’ almond nursery trees were used to study the effects of chemical defoliants (CuEDTA and ZnSO4) and foliar applications of urea on defoliation and nitrogen (N) reserves. Although both chemical defoliants significantly promoted e...

  14. FOLIAR SPRAYS OF PHOTOSYNTHETIC BACTERIA IMPROVE THE GROWTH AND ANTI-OXIDATIVE CAPABILITY ON CHINESE DWARF CHERRY SEEDLINGS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ze Peng Yin; Zhi Wei Shang; Chao Wei; Jing Ren; Xing Shun Song

    2012-01-01

    Recently, there has been increasing attempts for photosynthetic bacteria (PSB) as foliar fertilizer in China. The biomass, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), maximal photochemical efficiency of PS II(Fv\\/Fm) and antioxidant isoenzymes metabolism were examined in Chinese dwarf cherry (Prunus humilis Bunge) seedlings with or without exogenous PSB application in this study. PSB sprays resulted in a significant accumulation of fresh weight

  15. Interpretation of epicardial mapping by means of computer simulations: applications to calcium, lidocaine and to BRL 34915.

    PubMed

    Auger, P; Cardinal, R; Bril, A; Rochette, L; Bardou, A

    1992-09-01

    The aim of this work was to compare experimental investigations on effects of lidocaine, calcium and, BRL 34915 on reentries to simulated data obtained by use of a model of propagation based on the Huygens' construction method already described in previous works. Calcium and lidocaine effects are investigated on anisotropic conduction conditions. In both cases, reduction in conduction velocities are observed. In lidocaine case, a refractory area is located along the longitudinal axis. In agreement with experimental electrical mapping, the simulations show that the stabilization of reentrant excitation is mainly due to the existence of this refractory area around which the reentrant circuit can develop. The experimental study shows that BRL 34915 has both arrhythmogenic and antiarrhythmic effects. A detailed electrophysiological analysis has shown that drug infusion act on normal cardiac cells by decreasing the relative and absolute refractory period. BRL 34915 action is simulated by a decrease in the refractory period showing that the time frequency of the reentrant activity is increased and that the spatial size where the reentry is developing is becoming smaller. These two effects are arrhythmogenic, the simulated data being so in good agreement with the experimental ones. PMID:1462734

  16. Chemically controlled formation of a DNA/calcium phosphate coprecipitate: application for transfection of mature hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Goetze, Bernhard; Grunewald, Barbara; Baldassa, Simona; Kiebler, Michael

    2004-09-15

    Numerous methods exist for transfecting postmitotic neurons, for example, DNA/calcium phosphate coprecipitation, cationic lipids, viruses, and physical methods such as microinjection, electroporation, and biolistics. Most methods, however, are either toxic to the cell, yield only poor transfection efficiencies, or cells have to be electroporated before plating. In this article, we present a standardized and fast transfection method using DNA/calcium phosphate coprecipitates that efficiently transfer DNA into mature, postmitotic hippocampal neurons. Shifting to CO(2)-independent media with a well-defined pH allows for the tight control of the coprecipitate formation and for adjusting the transfection parameters for the individual DNA plasmid used. The two critical parameters for reproducible and efficient transfections are: the precise pH during crystal formation, and the incubation time of the cells with the coprecipitate. This improved procedure now enables biochemical approaches. By transfecting a dominant-positive Ras mutant, we activate the Erk/MAP kinase signal transduction pathway. Furthermore, using a siRNA plasmid directed against MAP2, the level of an endogenously expressed protein is down-regulated upon transfection. These two approaches demonstrate that the presented transient transfection method can now be used to address questions on a biochemical level in hippocampal neurons. PMID:15307155

  17. Availability of phosphorus in calcium silicate slag

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. L. Anderson; G. H. Snyder; J. D. Warren

    1992-01-01

    Significant yield increases of sugarcane and rice have been observed in the Everglades Agricultural Area of Florida from application of soluble silicon as calcium silicate slag. Although calcium silicate slag contains trace quantities of P, significant quantities of P can be applied using commercial rates of slag. This may be of concern to both the agronomists responsible for determining P

  18. Calcium Isotope Analysis by Mass Spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Boulyga; S. Richter

    2010-01-01

    The variations in the isotopic composition of calcium caused by fractionation in heterogeneous systems and by nuclear reactions can provide insight into numerous biological, geological, and cosmic processes, and therefore isotopic analysis finds a wide spectrum of applications in cosmo- and geochemistry, paleoclimatic, nutritional, and biomedical studies. The measurement of calcium isotopic abundances in natural samples has challenged the analysts

  19. Foliar nutrient status of Pinus ponderosa exposed to ozone and acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, P.D.; Houpis, J.L.J. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States))

    1991-05-01

    A direct effect of foliar exposure to acid rain may be increased leaching of nutrient elements. Ozone exposure, through degradation of the cuticle and cellular membranes, may also result in increased nutrient leaching. To test these hypotheses, the foliar concentrations of 13 nutrient elements were monitored for mature branches of three clones of Pinus ponderosa exposed to ozone and/or acid rain. The three clones represented three distinct levels of phenotypic vigor. Branches were exposed to charcoal filtered, ambient, or 2 x ambient concentrations of ozone and received no acid rain (NAP), pH 5.1 rain (5.1), or pH 3.0 (3.0) rain. Following 10 months of continuous ozone exposure and 3 months of weekly rain applications, the concentrations of P and Mg differed significantly among rain treatments with a ranking of: 5.1 < NAP < 3.0. The S concentration increased with rain application regardless of pH. For the clones of moderate and low vigor, the concentration of N decreased with increasing rain acidity. There was no evidence of significant ozone or ozone x acid rain response. Among the three families, high phenotypic vigor was associated with significantly greater concentrations of N, P, K, Mg, B and An. These results indicate generally negligible leaching as a result of exposure to acid rain and/or ozone for one growing season. Increases in foliar concentrations of S, Mg and P are possibly the result of evaporative surface deposition from the rain solution.

  20. Soil versus foliar iodine fertilization as a biofortification strategy for field-grown vegetables

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Patrick G.; Daum, Diemo; Czauderna, Roman; Meuser, Helmut; Härtling, Joachim W.

    2015-01-01

    Iodine (I) biofortification of vegetables by means of soil and foliar applications was investigated in field experiments on a sandy loam soil. Supply of iodine to the soil in trial plots fertilized with potassium iodide (KI) and potassium iodate directly before planting (0, 1.0, 2.5, 7.5, and 15 kg I ha-1) increased the iodine concentration in the edible plant parts. The highest iodine accumulation levels were observed in the first growing season: In butterhead lettuce and kohlrabi the desired iodine content [50–100 ?g I (100 g FM)-1] was obtained or exceeded at a fertilizer rate of 7.5 kg IO3--I ha-1 without a significant yield reduction or impairment of the marketable quality. In contrast, supplying KI at the same rate resulted in a much lower iodine enrichment and clearly visible growth impairment. Soil applied iodine was phytoavailable only for a short period of time as indicated by a rapid decline of CaCl2-extractable iodine in the top soil. Consequently, long-term effects of a one-time iodine soil fertilization could not be observed. A comparison between the soil and the foliar fertilization revealed a better performance of iodine applied aerially to butterhead lettuce, which reached the desired iodine accumulation in edible plant parts at a fertilizer rate of 0.5 kg I--I ha-1. In contrast, the iodine content in the tuber of sprayed kohlrabi remained far below the targeted range. The results indicate that a sufficient spreading of iodine applied on the edible plant parts is crucial for the efficiency of the foliar approach and leafy vegetables are the more suitable target crops. The low iodine doses needed as well as the easy and inexpensive application may favor the implementation of foliar sprays as the preferred iodine biofortification strategy in practice. PMID:26157445

  1. The relationship between foliar nitrogen content and feeding by Odontota dorsalis Thun. on Robinia pseudoacacia L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leslie A. Athey; Edward F. Connor

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between total foliar nitrogen content and feeding by Odontota dorsalis Thun. on Black Locust trees (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) was examined via experimental manipulation of foliar nitrogen levels. Trees with high concentrations of foliar nitrogen received more herbivory by adult O. dorsalis, but herbivory by larvae was independent of foliar nitrogen concentration. Late in the growing season, leaf abscission

  2. Optimal Intracellular Calcium Signaling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. Shuai; P. Jung

    2002-01-01

    In many cell types, calcium is released from internal stores through calcium release channels upon external stimulation (e.g., pressure or receptor binding). These channels are clustered with a typical cluster size of about 20 channels, generating stochastic calcium puffs. We find that the clustering of the release channels in small clusters increases the sensitivity of the calcium response, allowing for

  3. Effects of crown position and initial spacing on foliar nutrient composition of seven bottomland hardwoods. Forest Service research note

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, H.E.

    1993-01-01

    Seven plantation-grown bottomland hardwoods, sweetgum (Liquidambar stryaciflua L.), green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh.), American sycamore (Platanus occidentalis L.), water oak (Quercus nigra L.), Nuttall oak (Q. nuttallii Palmer), cherrybark oak (Q. falcata var. pagodifolia Ell.), and swamp chestnut oak (Q. michauxii Nutt.), were sampled after the seventh growing season to determine foliar nutrient concentrations. Foliage samples were collected from the upper, middle, and lower crown positions and from the entire crown. Determinations were made for levels of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, and magnesium. Spacing had no effect on nutrient concentrations. Nutrient levels differed by crown position for some nutrients in most species. Most of the differences were in the nitrogen, calcium, and magnesium levels.

  4. Update on Calcium Signaling Calcium Signaling through Protein Kinases. The

    E-print Network

    Sheen, Jen

    Update on Calcium Signaling Calcium Signaling through Protein Kinases. The Arabidopsis Calcium protein kinase activities occur through calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs). These novel calcium provides a valuable opportunity to understand the plant calcium-signaling network. Calcium is a ubiquitous

  5. Role of polyhydroxybutyrate in mitochondrial calcium uptake

    PubMed Central

    Smithen, Matthew; Elustondo, Pia A.; Winkfein, Robert; Zakharian, Eleonora; Abramov, Andrey Y.; Pavlov, Evgeny

    2013-01-01

    Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is a biological polymer which belongs to the class of polyesters and is ubiquitously present in all living organisms. Mammalian mitochondrial membranes contain PHB consisting of up to 120 hydroxybutyrate residues. Roles played by PHB in mammalian mitochondria remain obscure. It was previously demonstrated that PHB of the size similar to one found in mitochondria mediates calcium transport in lipid bilayer membranes. We hypothesized that the presence of PHB in mitochondrial membrane might play a significant role in mitochondrial calcium transport. To test this, we investigated how the induction of PHB hydrolysis affects mitochondrial calcium transport. Mitochondrial PHB was altered enzymatically by targeted expression of bacterial PHB hydrolyzing enzyme (PhaZ7) in mitochondria of mammalian cultured cells. The expression of PhaZ7 induced changes in mitochondrial metabolism resulting in decreased mitochondrial membrane potential in HepG2 but not in U87 and HeLa cells. Furthermore, it significantly inhibited mitochondrial calcium uptake in intact HepG2, U87 and HeLa cells stimulated by the ATP or by the application of increased concentrations of calcium to the digitonin permeabilized cells. Calcium uptake in PhaZ7 expressing cells was restored by mimicking calcium uniporter properties with natural electrogenic calcium ionophore - ferutinin. We propose that PHB is a previously unrecognized important component of the mitochondrial calcium uptake system. PMID:23702223

  6. Foliar or root exposures to smelter particles: consequences for lead compartmentalization and speciation in plant leaves.

    PubMed

    Schreck, Eva; Dappe, Vincent; Sarret, Géraldine; Sobanska, Sophie; Nowak, Dorota; Nowak, Jakub; Stefaniak, El?bieta Anna; Magnin, Valérie; Ranieri, Vincent; Dumat, Camille

    2014-04-01

    In urban areas with high fallout of airborne particles, metal uptake by plants mainly occurs by foliar pathways and can strongly impact crop quality. However, there is a lack of knowledge on metal localization and speciation in plants after pollution exposure, especially in the case of foliar uptake. In this study, two contrasting crops, lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and rye-grass (Lolium perenne L.), were exposed to Pb-rich particles emitted by a Pb-recycling factory via either atmospheric or soil application. Pb accumulation in plant leaves was observed for both ways of exposure. The mechanisms involved in Pb uptake were investigated using a combination of microscopic and spectroscopic techniques (electron microscopy, laser ablation, Raman microspectroscopy, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy). The results show that Pb localization and speciation are strongly influenced by the type of exposure (root or shoot pathway) and the plant species. Foliar exposure is the main pathway of uptake, involving the highest concentrations in plant tissues. Under atmospheric fallouts, Pb-rich particles were strongly adsorbed on the leaf surface of both plant species. In lettuce, stomata contained Pb-rich particles in their apertures, with some deformations of guard cells. In addition to PbO and PbSO4, chemical forms that were also observed in pristine particles, new species were identified: organic compounds (minimum 20%) and hexagonal platy crystals of PbCO3. In rye-grass, the changes in Pb speciation were even more egregious: Pb-cell wall and Pb-organic acid complexes were the major species observed. For root exposure, identified here as a minor pathway of Pb transfer compared to foliar uptake, another secondary species, pyromorphite, was identified in rye-grass leaves. Finally, combining bulk and spatially resolved spectroscopic techniques permitted both the overall speciation and the minor but possibly highly reactive lead species to be determined in order to better assess the health risks involved. PMID:24508855

  7. November 2003 Issue #5 2003 FOLIAR FERTILIZATION OF SOYBEANS

    E-print Network

    Balser, Teri C.

    days afer seedling emergence. More recently, research in Iowa (Haq and Mallarino, 1998) showed/acre across all trials. In subsequent work, Haq and Mallarino (2000) showed that N­P­K foliar fertilization

  8. Application of 2-factorial design on the enhanced production of calcium gluconate by a mutant strain of Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Mariam, I; Nagra, S A; Haq, I; Ali, S

    2010-06-01

    Sixty-eight isolates of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger were examined for calcium gluconate production under submerged culture conditions in 500-ml Erlenmeyer flasks. The isolate Chem-15 was selected for improvement through ultraviolet (UV) light-induced mutagenesis. Among viable mutants, strain 32 exhibited the best gluconate productivity, and it was subjected to N-methyl N-nitro N-nitroso guanidine (NG) treatment. Mutant strain NG-7 gave the highest gluconate production (86.48g/L) which varied significantly (p0.05) from that of the wild type. The mutant was cultured overnight and plated on 5-fluorocytosine-PDA medium. Gluconate productivity was increased by 35% when the process parameters, incubation period (72h), initial pH (6.5), glucose as carbon source (15%), inoculum size (1.875x10(6)CFU/ml) and corn steep liquor (CSL) as nitrogen source (0.5%) were optimized using a 2-factorial Plackett-Burman design. Maximal glucose oxidase activity (28U/ml/min) was achieved at the optimal fermentation conditions with 26.5g/L DCM. The model terms were highly significant thus suggesting the potential commercial utility of the mutant (HS, df=3 approximately 0.0182). PMID:20129776

  9. Structure and chemical composition of an experimentally formed apical barrier after the application of calcium-glycerophosphate.

    PubMed

    Viloria, I L; Yanagiguchi, K; Hayashi, Y

    2000-10-01

    Transformation in the structure and composition of calcium-glycerophosphate (Ca-GP) was investigated using a scanning electron microscope fitted with an energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX) system. Ca-GP was packed inside roots that were subsequently implanted into the mandibles of rats to stimulate the formation of an apical barrier. Scanning electron microscopic observations of packed Ca-GP revealed three types of structures: globular aggregates, plate or flake-like aggregates, and granular aggregates. The average Ca/P molar ratios of EDX by area mode--postoperatively obtained at days 1, 3, 5, and 7--were 1.300, 1.533, 1.472, and 1.495 (analytic area: 0.01 to 0.03 mm2) and those of EDX by point mode were 1.220, 1.451, 1.487, and 1.467 (analytic point: 0.05 micron 2). The magnesium (Mg) weight percentage was found to be approximately 1.9 at days 3, 5, and 7, similar to Mg-substituted whitlockite. These findings suggest that Ca-GP are transformed, over a period of 3 days into Mg-substituted whitlockite as a result of being hydrolyzed by tissue fluid. PMID:11199803

  10. CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING IN CENTER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING IN CENTER, CALCIUM CHLORIDE STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT WITH SA (SODA ASH) BUILDING IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Solvay Process Company, Calcium Chloride Plant, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  11. Involvement of intracellular calcium in the phosphate efflux from mammalian nonmyelinated nerve fibers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Jirounek; J. Vitus; G. J. Jones; W. F. Pralong; R. W. Straub

    1984-01-01

    Summary Phosphate efflux was measured as the fractional rate of loss of radioactivity from desheathed rabbit vagus nerves after loading with radiophosphate. The effects of strategies designed to increase intracellular calcium were investigated. At the same time, the exchangeable calcium content was measured using45Ca. Application of calcium ionophore A23187 increased phosphate efflux in the presence of external calcium in parallel

  12. Heat stability and calcium bioavailability of calcium-fortified milk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Singh; S. Arora; G. S. Sharma; J. S. Sindhu; V. K. Kansal; R. B. Sangwan

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the study was to fortify calcium in cow milk in order to prepare calcium-enriched heat-stable milk for individuals who may not ingest enough calcium to meet minimum daily requirements. Therefore, cow milk was fortified with calcium at the rate of 50mg\\/100ml using three salts of calcium, viz. calcium chloride, calcium lactate and calcium gluconate. Upon addition of

  13. Calcium and aluminum impacts on sugar maple physiology in a northern hardwood forest.

    PubMed

    Halman, Joshua M; Schaberg, Paul G; Hawley, Gary J; Pardo, Linda H; Fahey, Timothy J

    2013-11-01

    Forests of northeastern North America have been exposed to anthropogenic acidic inputs for decades, resulting in altered cation relations and disruptions to associated physiological processes in multiple tree species, including sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.). In the current study, the impacts of calcium (Ca) and aluminum (Al) additions on mature sugar maple physiology were evaluated at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (Thornton, NH, USA) to assess remediation (Ca addition) or exacerbation (Al addition) of current acidified conditions. Fine root cation concentrations and membrane integrity, carbon (C) allocation, foliar cation concentrations and antioxidant activity, foliar response to a spring freezing event and reproductive ability (flowering, seed quantity, filled seed and seed germination) were evaluated for dominant sugar maple trees in a replicated plot study. Root damage and foliar antioxidant activity were highest in Al-treated trees, while growth-associated C, foliar re-flush following a spring frost and reproductive ability were highest in Ca-treated trees. In general, we found that trees on Ca-treated plots preferentially used C resources for growth and reproductive processes, whereas Al-treated trees devoted C to defense-based processes. Similarities between Al-treated and control trees were observed for foliar cation concentrations, C partitioning and seed production, suggesting that sugar maples growing in native forests may be more stressed than previously perceived. Our experiment suggests that disruption of the balance of Ca and Al in sugar maples by acid deposition continues to be an important driver of tree health. PMID:24300338

  14. Calcium and Mitosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepler, P.

    1983-01-01

    Although the mechanism of calcium regulation is not understood, there is evidence that calcium plays a role in mitosis. Experiments conducted show that: (1) the spindle apparatus contains a highly developed membrane system that has many characteristics of sarcoplasmic reticulum of muscle; (2) this membrane system contains calcium; and (3) there are ionic fluxes occurring during mitosis which can be seen by a variety of fluorescence probes. Whether the process of mitosis can be modulated by experimentally modulating calcium is discussed.

  15. RESEARCH ARTICLE CALCIUM CHANNEL STRUCTURE

    E-print Network

    Napp, Nils

    RESEARCH ARTICLE CALCIUM CHANNEL STRUCTURE Structural basis for a pH-sensitive calcium leak across,3 Wayne A. Hendrickson,1,2,4,5 Qun Liu1,4 * Calcium homeostasis balances passive calcium leak and active calcium uptake. Human Bax inhibitor­1 (hBI-1) is an antiapoptotic protein that mediates a calcium leak

  16. Calcium Secretion into Milk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margaret C. Neville

    2005-01-01

    Ionized calcium ([Ca2+]) is present in milk at concentrations around 3 mM, a concentration that drives the formation of complexes with citrate, phosphate, and casein, thereby generating compounds that carry the major portion of calcium in milk. In humans and cows, where it has been studied, changes in milk calcium appear to be regulated by the amount of citrate and

  17. Effects of glyphosate and foliar amendments on activity of microorganisms in the soybean rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Means, Nathan E; Kremer, Robert J; Ramsier, Clifford

    2007-02-01

    A field study was conducted to determine the effects of glyphosate on microbial activity in the rhizosphere of glyphosate-resistant (GR) soybean and to evaluate interactions with foliar amendments. Glyphosate at 0.84 kg ae ha(-1) was applied GR soybean at the V4-V5 development stages. Check treatments included a conventional herbicide tank mix (2003 study only) and no herbicides (hand-weeded). Ten days after herbicide application, a commercially available biostimulant and a urea solution (21.0% N) were applied to soybean foliage at 33.5 mL ha(-1) and 9.2 kg ha(-1), respectively. Soil and plant samples were taken 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 days after herbicide application then assayed for enzyme and respiration activities. Soil respiration and enzyme activity increased with glyphosate and foliar amendment applications during the 2002 growing season; however, similar increases were not observed in 2003. Contrasting cumulative rainfall between 2002 and 2003 likely accounted for differences in soil microbial activities. Increases in soil microbial activity in 2002 suggest that adequate soil water and glyphosate application acted together to increase microbial activity. Our study suggests that general soil microbial properties including those involving C and N transformations are not sensitive enough to detect effects of glyphosate on rhizosphere microbial activity. Measurements of soil-plant-microbe relationships including specific microbial groups (i.e., root-associated Fusarium spp.) are likely better indicators of impacts of glyphosate on soil microbial ecology. PMID:17365326

  18. Supplemental macronutrients and microbial fermentation products improve the uptake and transport of foliar applied zinc in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants. Studies utilizing micro X-ray florescence.

    PubMed

    Tian, Shengke; Lu, Lingli; Xie, Ruohan; Zhang, Minzhe; Jernstedt, Judith A; Hou, Dandi; Ramsier, Cliff; Brown, Patrick H

    2014-01-01

    Enhancing nutrient uptake and the subsequent elemental transport from the sites of application to sites of utilization is of great importance to the science and practical field application of foliar fertilizers. The aim of this study was to investigate the mobility of various foliar applied zinc (Zn) formulations in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and to evaluate the effects of the addition of an organic biostimulant on phloem loading and elemental mobility. This was achieved by application of foliar formulations to the blade of sunflower (H. annuus L.) and high-resolution elemental imaging with micro X-ray fluorescence (?-XRF) to visualize Zn within the vascular system of the leaf petiole. Although no significant increase of total Zn in petioles was determined by inductively-coupled plasma mass-spectrometer, ?-XRF elemental imaging showed a clear enrichment of Zn in the vascular tissues within the sunflower petioles treated with foliar fertilizers containing Zn. The concentration of Zn in the vascular of sunflower petioles was increased when Zn was applied with other microelements with EDTA (commercial product Kick-Off) as compared with an equimolar concentration of ZnSO4 alone. The addition of macronutrients N, P, K (commercial product CleanStart) to the Kick-Off Zn fertilizer, further increased vascular system Zn concentrations while the addition of the microbially derived organic biostimulant "GroZyme" resulted in a remarkable enhancement of Zn concentrations in the petiole vascular system. The study provides direct visualized evidence for phloem transport of foliar applied Zn out of sites of application in plants by using ?-XRF technique, and suggests that the formulation of the foliar applied Zn and the addition of the organic biostimulant GroZyme increases the mobility of Zn following its absorption by the leaf of sunflower. PMID:25653663

  19. Supplemental macronutrients and microbial fermentation products improve the uptake and transport of foliar applied zinc in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants. Studies utilizing micro X-ray florescence

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Shengke; Lu, Lingli; Xie, Ruohan; Zhang, Minzhe; Jernstedt, Judith A.; Hou, Dandi; Ramsier, Cliff; Brown, Patrick H.

    2014-01-01

    Enhancing nutrient uptake and the subsequent elemental transport from the sites of application to sites of utilization is of great importance to the science and practical field application of foliar fertilizers. The aim of this study was to investigate the mobility of various foliar applied zinc (Zn) formulations in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and to evaluate the effects of the addition of an organic biostimulant on phloem loading and elemental mobility. This was achieved by application of foliar formulations to the blade of sunflower (H. annuus L.) and high-resolution elemental imaging with micro X-ray fluorescence (?-XRF) to visualize Zn within the vascular system of the leaf petiole. Although no significant increase of total Zn in petioles was determined by inductively-coupled plasma mass-spectrometer, ?-XRF elemental imaging showed a clear enrichment of Zn in the vascular tissues within the sunflower petioles treated with foliar fertilizers containing Zn. The concentration of Zn in the vascular of sunflower petioles was increased when Zn was applied with other microelements with EDTA (commercial product Kick-Off) as compared with an equimolar concentration of ZnSO4 alone. The addition of macronutrients N, P, K (commercial product CleanStart) to the Kick-Off Zn fertilizer, further increased vascular system Zn concentrations while the addition of the microbially derived organic biostimulant “GroZyme” resulted in a remarkable enhancement of Zn concentrations in the petiole vascular system. The study provides direct visualized evidence for phloem transport of foliar applied Zn out of sites of application in plants by using ?-XRF technique, and suggests that the formulation of the foliar applied Zn and the addition of the organic biostimulant GroZyme increases the mobility of Zn following its absorption by the leaf of sunflower. PMID:25653663

  20. Process for converting magnesium fluoride to calcium fluoride

    DOEpatents

    Kreuzmann, A.B.; Palmer, D.A.

    1984-12-21

    This invention is a process for the conversion of magnesium fluoride to calcium fluoride whereby magnesium fluoride is decomposed by heating in the presence of calcium carbonate, calcium oxide or calcium hydroxide. Magnesium fluoride is a by-product of the reduction of uranium tetrafluoride to form uranium metal and has no known commercial use, thus its production creates a significant storage problem. The advantage of this invention is that the quality of calcium fluoride produced is sufficient to be used in the industrial manufacture of anhydrous hydrogen fluoride, steel mill flux or ceramic applications.

  1. Application of the specular and diffuse reflection analysis for in vitro diagnostics of dental erosion: correlation with enamel softening, roughness, and calcium release.

    PubMed

    Rakhmatullina, Ekaterina; Bossen, Anke; Höschele, Christoph; Wang, Xiaojie; Beyeler, Barbara; Meier, Christoph; Lussi, Adrian

    2011-10-01

    We present assembly and application of an optical reflectometer for the analysis of dental erosion. The erosive procedure involved acid-induced softening and initial substance loss phases, which are considered to be difficult for visual diagnosis in a clinic. Change of the specular reflection signal showed the highest sensitivity for the detection of the early softening phase of erosion among tested methods. The exponential decrease of the specular reflection intensity with erosive duration was compared to the increase of enamel roughness. Surface roughness was measured by optical analysis, and the observed tendency was correlated with scanning electron microscopy images of eroded enamel. A high correlation between specular reflection intensity and measurement of enamel softening (r(2) ? -0.86) as well as calcium release (r(2) ? -0.86) was found during erosion progression. Measurement of diffuse reflection revealed higher tooth-to-tooth deviation in contrast to the analysis of specular reflection intensity and lower correlation with other applied methods (r(2) = 0.42-0.48). The proposed optical method allows simple and fast surface analysis and could be used for further optimization and construction of the first noncontact and cost-effective diagnostic tool for early erosion assessment in vivo. PMID:22029364

  2. Application of the specular and diffuse reflection analysis for in vitro diagnostics of dental erosion: correlation with enamel softening, roughness, and calcium release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakhmatullina, Ekaterina; Bossen, Anke; Höschele, Christoph; Wang, Xiaojie; Beyeler, Barbara; Meier, Christoph; Lussi, Adrian

    2011-10-01

    We present assembly and application of an optical reflectometer for the analysis of dental erosion. The erosive procedure involved acid-induced softening and initial substance loss phases, which are considered to be difficult for visual diagnosis in a clinic. Change of the specular reflection signal showed the highest sensitivity for the detection of the early softening phase of erosion among tested methods. The exponential decrease of the specular reflection intensity with erosive duration was compared to the increase of enamel roughness. Surface roughness was measured by optical analysis, and the observed tendency was correlated with scanning electron microscopy images of eroded enamel. A high correlation between specular reflection intensity and measurement of enamel softening (r2 >= -0.86) as well as calcium release (r2 >= -0.86) was found during erosion progression. Measurement of diffuse reflection revealed higher tooth-to-tooth deviation in contrast to the analysis of specular reflection intensity and lower correlation with other applied methods (r2 = 0.42-0.48). The proposed optical method allows simple and fast surface analysis and could be used for further optimization and construction of the first noncontact and cost-effective diagnostic tool for early erosion assessment in vivo.

  3. Local application of neurotrophins specifies axons through inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, calcium, and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Nakamuta, Shinichi; Funahashi, Yasuhiro; Namba, Takashi; Arimura, Nariko; Picciotto, Marina R; Tokumitsu, Hiroshi; Soderling, Thomas R; Sakakibara, Akira; Miyata, Takaki; Kamiguchi, Hiroyuki; Kaibuchi, Kozo

    2011-01-01

    Neurons are highly polarized cells that have structurally distinct processes-the axons and dendrites-that differentiate from common immature neurites. In cultured hippocampal neurons, one of these immature neurites stochastically initiates rapid extension and becomes an axon, whereas the others become dendrites. Various extracellular and intracellular signals contribute to axon specification; however, the specific intracellular pathways whereby particular extracellular stimuli lead to axon specification remain to be delineated. Here, we found that the neurotrophins brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) were required for axon specification in an autocrine or a paracrine fashion. Using local application with a micropipette to selectively stimulate individual neurites, we found that stimulation of a selected neurite by BDNF or NT-3 induced neurite outgrowth and subsequent axon formation. NT-3 induced a rapid increase in calcium ions (Ca(2+)) in an inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3))-dependent fashion as well as local activation of the Ca(2+) effector Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase (CaMKK) in the growth cone. Inhibition of neurotrophin receptors or CaMKK attenuated NT-3-induced axon specification in cultured neurons and axon formation in cortical neurons in vivo. These results identify a role for IP(3)-Ca(2+)-CaMKK signaling in axon specification. PMID:22087032

  4. Studies on sintering additives for hydroxyapatite, and controlled porosity structures of calcium aluminates and polypropylene-tricalcium phosphate for bone graft applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalita, Samar Jyoti

    Tissue engineering has made a significant contribution in developing new biomaterials that can restore the structural features and physiological functions of natural tissues. Various materials, such as metals, ceramics, polymers and composites have been developed for their use in hard tissue engineering applications. Part A of this thesis describes my research on HAp ceramics. HAp, a bioactive ceramic, is known for its osteoconductivity, but shows poor mechanical performance. This program aimed at improving mechanical performance of synthetic HAp by introducing small quantities of various sintering additives. A range of oxide-based sintering additives were selected and prepared. Dense compacts were prepared using a uniaxial press with an average green density of 1.6 g/cc. Results showed that some of these sintering additives improved densification, hardness and compression strength of synthetic HAp compared to the pure composition. A maximum bulk density of 3.06 g/cc was achieved for 2.5 wt% addition of MgO. A Microhardness of 4.9 GPa (505 HV) was measured for 2.5 wt% addition of BaO, and the highest compression strength (220MPa) was reported for 2.5 wt% addition of CaO. Cytotoxicity and cell proliferation studies with a modified human osteoblast (HOB) cell-line (OPC1) proved most of these materials non-toxic and biocompatible. Microscopic observation revealed that bone cells were attached and grew well on most of these ceramic matrices. Part B describes my work on development of controlled porosity polypropylene-tricalcium phosphate composite scaffolds via the fused deposition modeling (FDM) process. Hg-porosimetry was performed to determine pore size and their distribution. Uniaxial compression testing performed on samples with 36 vol% porosity and pore size of 160 mum showed the best compressive strength of 12.7 MPa. Part C includes my research on development of "3-D honeycomb" porous calcium aluminate structures via the indirect FDM process. Samples of 29% and 44% VFP (designed) with average pore size of 300 mum showed compressive strength between 2 and 24 MPa. Cell proliferation studies conducted with OPC1 cells on polymer-ceramic composite scaffolds and porous calcium aluminate structures showed good cell attachment and a steady cell growth behavior during the first three weeks of in vitro analyses.

  5. Identification of genes in Thuja plicata foliar terpenoid defenses.

    PubMed

    Foster, Adam J; Hall, Dawn E; Mortimer, Leanne; Abercromby, Shelley; Gries, Regine; Gries, Gerhard; Bohlmann, Jörg; Russell, John; Mattsson, Jim

    2013-04-01

    Thuja plicata (western redcedar) is a long-lived conifer species whose foliage is rarely affected by disease or insect pests, but can be severely damaged by ungulate browsing. Deterrence to browsing correlates with high foliar levels of terpenoids, in particular the monoterpenoid ?-thujone. Here, we set out to identify genes whose products may be involved in the production of ?-thujone and other terpenoids in this species. First, we generated a foliar transcriptome database from which to draw candidate genes. Second, we mapped the storage of thujones and other terpenoids to foliar glands. Third, we used global expression profiling to identify more than 600 genes that are expressed at high levels in foliage with glands, but can either not be detected or are expressed at low levels in a natural variant lacking foliar glands. Fourth, we used in situ RNA hybridization to map the expression of a putative monoterpene synthase to the epithelium of glands and used enzyme assays with recombinant protein of the same gene to show that it produces sabinene, the monoterpene precursor of ?-thujone. Finally, we identified candidate genes with predicted enzymatic functions for the conversion of sabinene to ?-thujone. Taken together, this approach generated both general resources and detailed functional characterization in the identification of genes of foliar terpenoid biosynthesis in T. plicata. PMID:23388118

  6. Live cell calcium imaging at the single ion hit facility of GSI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Guanghua; Fischer, Bernd E.; Voss, Kay-Obbe

    2011-10-01

    To study the fast intracellular calcium response after ion irradiation in living mammalian cells, a live cell calcium imaging set-up was constructed at the targeted cell irradiation facility at GSI. This work introduces the live cell calcium imaging system, shows its performance, an example of the ratio-metric calcium measurement and its application to on-line study calcium response to targeted ion irradiation in human cells.

  7. Enhanced selenium content in buckwheat ( Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) and pumpkin ( Cucurbita pepo L.) seeds by foliar fertilisation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vekoslava Stibilj; Ivan Kreft; Polona Smrkolj; Jože Osvald

    2004-01-01

    The fruit and thin-husked seeds of the pumpkin ( Cucurbita pepo L.) and buckwheat grain ( Fagopyrum esculentum Moench), both grown in Slovenia, were analysed for selenium (Se) content following foliar application of Se(VI) solution during the period of blooming. Samples were digested by a H 2SO 4-HNO 3-H 2O 2-V 2O 5 mixture and Se determined, based on hydride

  8. Estimate of net calcium fluxes and sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium content during systole in rat ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Negretti, N; Varro, A; Eisner, D A

    1995-01-01

    1. The experiments were performed on voltage-clamped cells in which intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) was measured with the fluorescent indicator indo-1 (acetoxymethyl ester (AM) loading). When cells were stimulated with a short (100 ms) depolarizing pulse, following a rest, the magnitude of the first systolic calcium transient was greater than that in the steady state (rest potentiation) and decayed to its steady level over a few stimuli. If a longer pulse (800 ms) was used then the systolic calcium transient was either unaffected or increased in magnitude following a rest. During constant stimulation, if the length of the pulse is decreased, then the magnitude of the calcium transient decreased reversibly over several beats. 2. The calcium entry into the cell was measured from the integral of the inward calcium current and the efflux from the Na(+)-Ca2+ exchange current on repolarization. During the negative staircase the calcium current was approximately constant whilst the Na(+)-Ca2+ exchange current decayed in parallel with the systolic calcium transient. A net loss of calcium from the cell can be calculated from the extra Na(+)-Ca2+ exchange current following the initial pulses. 3. The application of caffeine produces a transient increase of both [Ca2+]i and an inward Na(+)-Ca2+ exchange current. The integral of this current can be used to estimate the caffeine-releasable calcium content of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), which decreases following stimulation with short compared to long pulses. This difference in SR calcium content is quantitatively similar to that estimated from the sarcolemmal currents. 4. At a given membrane potential, the relationship between [Ca2+]i and current during the caffeine exposure can be used to estimate the Na(+)-Ca2+ exchange flux from the measured [Ca2+]i and thence the Na(+)-Ca2+ exchange flux during depolarization. 5. For a long depolarizing pulse the extrusion of calcium from the cell on Na(+)-Ca2+ exchange is comparable to the entry on the calcium current. In contrast, for short pulses the extrusion of calcium on the Na(+)-Ca2+ exchange immediately after the pulse is greater than the entry during the pulse on the calcium current. 6. These results show that rest potentiation can be correlated with changes in the amount of calcium stored in the SR and this, in turn, can be accounted for by sarcolemmal fluxes. PMID:7473221

  9. High-calcium coal combustion by-products: Engineering properties, ettringite formation, and potential application in solidification and stabilization of selenium and boron

    SciTech Connect

    Solem-Tishmack, J.K.; McCarthy, G.J. [North Dakota State Univ., Fargo, ND (United States). Dept. of Chemistry] [North Dakota State Univ., Fargo, ND (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Docktor, B.; Eylands, K.E.; Thompson, J.S.; Hassett, D.J. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center] [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center

    1995-04-01

    Four high-calcium coal combustion by-products (two pulverized coal fly ashes (PCFA), a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) residue, and an atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) fly ash), were tested for engineering properties and ability to immobilize boron and selenium. These data are needed to explore high-volume utilization in engineered structure or in solidification/stabilization (S/S) technology. Strengths of cured pastes (91 days), varied from as much as 27 MPa (3,900 psi) for one of the PCFA specimens to 4.6 MPa (670 psi) for the FGD specimen. All of the coal by-product pastes developed more than the 0.34 MPa (50 psi) required for S/S applications. Ettringite formation is important to engineering properties and S/S mechanisms. XRD on plain specimens cured for 91 days indicated that the two PCFA pastes formed 5--6% ettringite, the FGD paste formed 22%, and the AFBC paste formed 32%. The hydrating PCFA pastes showed little expansion, the FGD paste contracted slightly, and the AFBC paste expanded by 2.9% over 91 days. Se and B were spiked into the mixing water as sodium selenite, selenate and borate, and for most pastes this had little effect on strength, workability, and expansion. Leaching of ground specimens (cured for 91 days) showed a generally positive correlation between the amount of ettringite formed and resistance to Se and B leaching. Se spiked as selenate was more readily leached than Se spiked as selenite. B showed a high level of fixation.

  10. CALCIUM EQUILIBRIUM IN MUSCLE

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Daniel L.; Fenn, Wallace O.

    1957-01-01

    1. A study of the calcium equilibrium in isolated frog muscle has been attempted. 2. When sartorius muscles were immersed in Ca45 Ringer's solution, the surface phase took up the Ca45 in about 1 minute; the extracellular water space and connective tissue in about 30 minutes; and the intracellular space in about 300 minutes. 3. The percentages of total calcium in the whole muscle immersed in Ringer's solution was as follows: 10 per cent in the surface phase; 12 per cent in the extracellular water space; 17 per cent in the dry connective tissue; 24 per cent in the intracellular space; and 37 per cent as non-exchangeable calcium. 4. The exchange constants of isolated frog sartorius muscle to calcium has been determined. The flux of intracellular calcium in the steady state was approximately 0.8 mM/(liter hr). 5. It appears that there is a calcium pump pushing calcium out of the cell against an electrochemical gradient of about 4 cal./mM of calcium. However, since the flux is low, the maximum energy required per hour to pump calcium out of the cell against this high gradient is only about 2 cal./kg. muscle or about 1 per cent of the resting energy. PMID:13398571

  11. REGULAR ARTICLE Foliar nitrogen and phosphorus accumulation responses

    E-print Network

    Ostertag, Rebecca

    of Hawaii at Hilo, Hilo, HI 96720, USA e-mail: ostertag@hawaii.edu #12;Nutrient limitation of ecosystems constraints in various ecosystems. The present study examined foliar concentrations after fertilization cycling . Soil chronosequence . Stoichiometry Introduction Nutrients limit plant growth in many ecosystems

  12. Reporting neural activity with genetically encoded calcium indicators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Andrew Hires; Lin Tian; Loren L. Looger

    2008-01-01

    Genetically encoded calcium indicators (GECIs), based on recombinant fluorescent proteins, have been engineered to observe\\u000a calcium transients in living cells and organisms. Through observation of calcium, these indicators also report neural activity.\\u000a We review progress in GECI construction and application, particularly toward in vivo monitoring of sparse action potentials (APs). We summarize the extrinsic and intrinsic factors that influence GECI

  13. Controlling Foliar Disease with ZeroTol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ZeroTol is a disinfestant labeled for direct application on plants. Laboratory, field, and greenhouse experiments were performed to determine the rates and intervals in days between applications needed to control daylily rust. In laboratory trials, a very high rate was required to achieve 100% morta...

  14. Effect of a plant growth regulator prohexadione-calcium on insect pests of apple and pear.

    PubMed

    Paulson, G S; Hull, L A; Biddinger, D J

    2005-04-01

    The effect of prohexadione-calcium, a plant growth regulator that inhibits gibberellin metabolism, on Cacopsylla pyricoloa (Foerster) in pear trees, and Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) and Aphis spireacola Patch, in apple trees was studied. C. pyricoloa and A. spireacola populations were significantly reduced in prohexadione-calcium-treated pear and apple, respectively. Insecticide control of both pests with imidacloprid was synergized in treatments with prohexadione-calcium. In apples treated with prohexadione-calcium, there was a significant reduction in the number of C. rosaceana shelters per tree and amount of fruit injury at harvest attributable to the C. rosaceana. There was an additive effect when tebufenozide was used to control C. rosaceana in trees treated with prohexadione-calcium. Prohexadione-calcium significantly reduced vegetative growth in both pears and apples. Synergistic and additive treatment effects of prohexadione-calcium and pesticides used in this study may be due to better penetration and coverage of pesticides due to reduced foliar growth or to changes in the nutritional quality of the host plants. PMID:15889734

  15. Disorders of Calcium Metabolism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John F. O’Toole

    2011-01-01

    The genetic contribution to calcium metabolism is well recognized. Many of the proteins that contribute to calcium homeostasis through intestinal absorption, bone deposition and resorption, renal reabsorption and the molecules regulating these processes have been identified. Mutations in many of the genes coding for these proteins have been identified and often have clear clinical phenotypes. These mutations are generally rare

  16. Calcium signaling in neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Marambaud, Philippe; Dreses-Werringloer, Ute; Vingtdeux, Valérie

    2009-01-01

    Calcium is a key signaling ion involved in many different intracellular and extracellular processes ranging from synaptic activity to cell-cell communication and adhesion. The exact definition at the molecular level of the versatility of this ion has made overwhelming progress in the past several years and has been extensively reviewed. In the brain, calcium is fundamental in the control of synaptic activity and memory formation, a process that leads to the activation of specific calcium-dependent signal transduction pathways and implicates key protein effectors, such as CaMKs, MAPK/ERKs, and CREB. Properly controlled homeostasis of calcium signaling not only supports normal brain physiology but also maintains neuronal integrity and long-term cell survival. Emerging knowledge indicates that calcium homeostasis is not only critical for cell physiology and health, but also, when deregulated, can lead to neurodegeneration via complex and diverse mechanisms involved in selective neuronal impairments and death. The identification of several modulators of calcium homeostasis, such as presenilins and CALHM1, as potential factors involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, provides strong support for a role of calcium in neurodegeneration. These observations represent an important step towards understanding the molecular mechanisms of calcium signaling disturbances observed in different brain diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases. PMID:19419557

  17. Calcium Nutrition in Adolescence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marta Mesías; Isabel Seiquer; M. Pilar Navarro

    2011-01-01

    Adolescence is an important period of nutritional vulnerability due to increased dietary requirements for growth and development and special dietary habits. Calcium needs are elevated as a result of the intensive bone and muscular development and thus adequate calcium intake during growth is extremely important to reach the optimum peak bone mass and to protect against osteoporosis in the adult

  18. Lead in calcium supplements.

    PubMed Central

    Scelfo, G M; Flegal, A R

    2000-01-01

    Intercalibrated measurements of lead in calcium supplements indicate the importance of rigorous analytical techniques to accurately quantify contaminant exposures in complex matrices. Without such techniques, measurements of lead concentrations in calcium supplements may be either erroneously low, by as much as 50%, or below the detection limit needed for new public health criteria. In this study, we determined the lead content of 136 brands of supplements that were purchased in 1996. The calcium in the products was derived from natural sources (bonemeal, dolomite, or oyster shell) or was synthesized and/or refined (chelated and nonchelated calcium). The dried products were acid digested and analyzed for lead by high resolution-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The method's limit of quantitation averaged 0.06 microg/g, with a coefficient of variation of 1.7% and a 90-100% lead recovery of a bonemeal standard reference material. Two-thirds of those calcium supplements failed to meet the 1999 California criteria for acceptable lead levels (1.5 microg/daily dose of calcium) in consumer products. The nonchelated synthesized and/or refined calcium products, specifically antacids and infant formulas, had the lowest lead concentrations, ranging from nondetectable to 2.9 microg Pb/g calcium, and had the largest proportion of brands meeting the new criteria (85% of the antacids and 100% of the infant formulas). Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10753088

  19. Effect of pre-harvest application of calcium and boron on dietary fibre, hydrolases and ultrastructure in ‘Cara Cara’ navel orange ( Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) fruit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tao Dong; Renxue Xia; Zhiyan Xiao; Peng Wang; Wenhua Song

    2009-01-01

    High dietary fibre diets are associated with the prevention, reduction and treatment of some diseases, such as diverticular and coronary heart diseases. However, pre-harvest calcium and boron sprays associated with the dietary fibre compounds in fruits remain unknown. In the present study, specific activities and gene expression levels of hydrolases were determined in order to identify the effect of pre-harvest

  20. [Applicability of laser-based geological techniques in bone research: analysis of calcium oxide distribution in thin-cut animal bones].

    PubMed

    Andrássy, László; Maros, Gyula; Kovács, István János; Horváth, Ágnes; Gulyás, Katalin; Bertalan, Éva; Besnyi, Anikó; Füri, Judit; Fancsik, Tamás; Szekanecz, Zoltán; Bhattoa, Harjit Pal

    2014-11-01

    The structural similarities between the inorganic component of bone tissue and geological formations make it possible that mathematic models may be used to determine weight percentage composition of different mineral element oxides constituting the inorganic component of bone tissue. The determined weight percentage composition can be verified with the determination of element oxide concentration values by laser induced plasma spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. It can be concluded from calculated weight percentage composition of the inorganic component of bone tissue and laboratory analyses that the properties of bone tissue are determined primarily by hydroxylapatite. The inorganic bone structure can be studied well by determining the calcium oxide concentration distribution using the laser induced plasma spectroscopy technique. In the present study, thin polished bone slides prepared from male bovine tibia were examined with laser induced plasma spectroscopy in a regular network and combined sampling system to derive the calculated calcium oxide concentration distribution. The superficial calcium oxide concentration distribution, as supported by "frequency distribution" curves, can be categorized into a number of groups. This, as such, helps in clearly demarcating the cortical and trabecular bone structures. Following analyses of bovine tibial bone, the authors found a positive association between the attenuation value, as determined by quantitative computer tomography and the "?" density, as used in geology. Furthermore, the calculated "?" density and the measured average calcium oxide concentration values showed inverse correlation. PMID:25362641

  1. Enhancing Interfacial Bonding of a Biodegradable Calcium Polyphosphate\\/ Polyvinyl-urethane Carbonate Interpenetrating Phase Composite for Load Bearing Fracture Fixation Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi Guo

    2010-01-01

    This thesis describe methods to improve the interfacial stability of an interpenetrating phase composite (IPC) (comprised of porous calcium polyphosphate and polyvinylurethanecarbonate), and to increase the hydrophobicity of the polymer phase. The current IPCs introduce covalent bonding between the two phases via silanizing agents to enhance the interfacial stability. Incorporation of the silanizing agents was also intended to reduce the

  2. Meta-analysis of yield response of hybrid field corn to foliar fungicides in the U.S. Corn Belt.

    PubMed

    Paul, P A; Madden, L V; Bradley, C A; Robertson, A E; Munkvold, G P; Shaner, G; Wise, K A; Malvick, D K; Allen, T W; Grybauskas, A; Vincelli, P; Esker, P

    2011-09-01

    The use of foliar fungicides on field corn has increased greatly over the past 5 years in the United States in an attempt to increase yields, despite limited evidence that use of the fungicides is consistently profitable. To assess the value of using fungicides in grain corn production, random-effects meta-analyses were performed on results from foliar fungicide experiments conducted during 2002 to 2009 in 14 states across the United States to determine the mean yield response to the fungicides azoxystrobin, pyraclostrobin, propiconazole + trifloxystrobin, and propiconazole + azoxystrobin. For all fungicides, the yield difference between treated and nontreated plots was highly variable among studies. All four fungicides resulted in a significant mean yield increase relative to the nontreated plots (P < 0.05). Mean yield difference was highest for propiconazole + trifloxystrobin (390 kg/ha), followed by propiconazole + azoxystrobin (331 kg/ha) and pyraclostrobin (256 kg/ha), and lowest for azoxystrobin (230 kg/ha). Baseline yield (mean yield in the nontreated plots) had a significant effect on yield for propiconazole + azoxystrobin (P < 0.05), whereas baseline foliar disease severity (mean severity in the nontreated plots) significantly affected the yield response to pyraclostrobin, propiconazole + trifloxystrobin, and propiconazole + azoxystrobin but not to azoxystrobin. Mean yield difference was generally higher in the lowest yield and higher disease severity categories than in the highest yield and lower disease categories. The probability of failing to recover the fungicide application cost (p(loss)) also was estimated for a range of grain corn prices and application costs. At the 10-year average corn grain price of $0.12/kg ($2.97/bushel) and application costs of $40 to 95/ha, p(loss) for disease severity <5% was 0.55 to 0.98 for pyraclostrobin, 0.62 to 0.93 for propiconazole + trifloxystrobin, 0.58 to 0.89 for propiconazole + azoxystrobin, and 0.91 to 0.99 for azoxystrobin. When disease severity was >5%, the corresponding probabilities were 0.36 to 95, 0.25 to 0.69, 0.25 to 0.64, and 0.37 to 0.98 for the four fungicides. In conclusion, the high p(loss) values found in most scenarios suggest that the use of these foliar fungicides is unlikely to be profitable when foliar disease severity is low and yield expectation is high. PMID:21554185

  3. PHOTOSENSITIVE CENTERS AND CHARGE TRANSFER PROCESSES IN BARIUM CALCIUM TITANATE

    E-print Network

    Malovichko, Galina

    PHOTOSENSITIVE CENTERS AND CHARGE TRANSFER PROCESSES IN BARIUM CALCIUM TITANATE G.MALOVICHKO, V calcium titanate crystals, Ba0.77Ca0.23TiO3, in the temperature range between 4.2 K and 300 K are reported of crystals from barium titanate (BT) family make them promising candidates for various applications

  4. EFFECT OF CHELATED CALCIUM ON VALENCIA PEANUT YIELD

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calcium nutrition is often a yield limiting factor for peanuts and is necessary for pod growth and increased peg strength. Calcium (Ca) applied to the fruiting zone increases the number of pods per plant. Application of Ca 30 to 45 days after penetration of gynophores into the soil increased the p...

  5. T-type Calcium Channel Blockers as Neuroprotective Agents

    PubMed Central

    Kopecky, Benjamin J.; Liang, Ruqiang; Bao, Jianxin

    2014-01-01

    T-type calcium channels are expressed in many diverse tissues, including neuronal, cardiovascular, and endocrine. T-type calcium channels are known to play roles in the development, maintenance, and repair of these tissues but have also been implicated in disease when not properly regulated. Calcium channel blockers have been developed to treat various diseases and their use clinically is widespread due to both their efficacy as well as their safety. Aside from their established clinical applications, recent studies have suggested neuroprotective effects of T-type calcium channels blockers. Many of the current T-type calcium channel blockers could act on other molecular targets besides T-type calcium channels making it uncertain whether their neuroprotective effects are solely due to blocking of T-type calcium channels. In this review, we discuss these drugs as well as newly developed chemical compounds that are designed to be more selective for T-type calcium channels. We review in vitro and in vivo evidence of neuroprotective effects by these T-type calcium channel blockers. We conclude by discussing possible molecular mechanisms underlying neuroprotective effects by T-type calcium channel blockers. PMID:24563219

  6. Winter wheat and cheat seed response to foliar nitrogen applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. B. Phillips; J. Chen; W. R. Raun; G. V. Johnson; D. A. Cossey; D. S. Murray; R. B. Westerman

    1999-01-01

    Growing winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars in a weed?free environment is necessary for optimum grain yield. Cheat (Bromus secalinus L.) is an important grass weed in winter wheat and can cause grain yield loss in excess of 40% in heavily infested fields. Two field experiments were conducted during the 1994–95 and 1995–96 crop years to evaluate the effect of

  7. Foliar application of nickel and copper on pecan performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mobilization and conversion of reserve nitrogen (N) is critical for pecans [Carya illinoinensis (Wang.) K. Koch] during early spring when trees begin growing actively. Conversion of N reserves to translocatable forms (amides, amino acids, ureides) is adversely affected by a nickel (Ni) shortage...

  8. CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING ON LEFT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING ON LEFT, CALCIUM CHLORIDE STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT OF CENTER WITH TOP OF SA (SODA ASH) BUILDING IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Solvay Process Company, Calcium Chloride Plant, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  9. Calcium Imaging Perspectives in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Kanchiswamy, Chidananda Nagamangala; Malnoy, Mickael; Occhipinti, Andrea; Maffei, Massimo E.

    2014-01-01

    The calcium ion (Ca2+) is a versatile intracellular messenger. It provides dynamic regulation of a vast array of gene transcriptions, protein kinases, transcription factors and other complex downstream signaling cascades. For the past six decades, intracellular Ca2+ concentration has been significantly studied and still many studies are under way. Our understanding of Ca2+ signaling and the corresponding physiological phenomenon is growing exponentially. Here we focus on the improvements made in the development of probes used for Ca2+ imaging and expanding the application of Ca2+ imaging in plant science research. PMID:24599077

  10. Calcium oxyhalide batteries - a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peled

    1983-01-01

    The electrochemistry, safety aspects and performance of calcium-thionyl chloride (TC) and calcium sulfuryl chloride (SC) batteries containing lithium or calcium based electrolytes are reviewed. In Ca -oxyhalide solutions, the calcium anode is covered by CaClâ passivating layer which is a good ionic conductor and good electronic insulator. Therefore it is called Solid Electrolyte Interphase (SEI) and these batteries are called

  11. Teaching calcium-induced calcium release in cardiomyocytes using a classic paper by Fabiato

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Willmann Liang (Nanyang Technological University Biological Sciences)

    2007-11-09

    This teaching paper utilizes the materials presented by Dr. Fabiato in his review article entitled "Calcium-induced release of calcium from the cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum." In the review, supporting evidence of calcium-induced calcium release (CICR) is presented. Data concerning potential objections to the CICR theory are discussed as well. In closing, technical issues associated with the skinned cell model are mentioned. Based on this review article, teaching and learning points are put forth in this article to highlight two concepts: 1) the regulatory mechanisms of CICR in cardiomyocytes and 2) the recognition of contradicting hypotheses and limitations in experimental design. The first concept is certainly an important one for physiology students. The second concept is universally applicable to researchers in all fields of science. It is thus the aim of this article to cultivate a rewarding teaching and learning experience for both instructors and students.

  12. Chloride- and alkali-containing calcium phosphates as basic materials to prepare calcium phosphate cements.

    PubMed

    Bermúdez, O; Boltong, M G; Driessens, F C; Ginebra, M P; Fernández, E; Planell, J A

    1994-10-01

    Combinations of an alkali-containing calcium phosphate-like rhenanite, sodium whitlockite or calcium potassium phosphate and a chloride-containing calcium phosphate-like spodiosite or chloroapatite with or without additions of other calcium phosphates like monocalcium phosphate monohydrate, dicalcium phosphate or dicalcium phosphate dihydrate were made and mixed with water into pastes. The setting time of these pastes was determined. After soaking for a day in Ringer's solution at 37 degrees C the compressive strength and the diametral tensile strength were determined. Two of the combinations tried in this study resulted in the formation of cements at room temperature. One cement was of the type dicalcium phosphate, whereas the other gave octocalcium phosphate as the solid reaction product. The byproducts formed were an aqueous solution of NaCl and one of K2HPO4, respectively. Applications for bone repair and augmentation are envisaged. PMID:7841290

  13. MICROCALORIMETRIC STUDY ON CALCIUM ALUMINATE CEMENT HYDRATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neven Ukrainczyk; Pero Dabi?

    Calcium aluminate cement (CAC) is very versatile special cement used for specific applications. During the hydration of CAC a large quantity of heat is liberated within one day that causes a considerable increase of temperature in material. This paper examines the hydration of three samples (A, B and aged B) of commercial CAC ISTRA 40 (producer: Istra Cement, Pula, Croatia).

  14. Determination of Sr isotopes in calcium phosphates using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and their application to archaeological tooth enamel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. A. Horstwood; J. A. Evans; J. Montgomery

    2008-01-01

    The determination of accurate Sr isotope ratios in calcium phosphate matrices by laser ablation multi-collector ICP-MS is demonstrated as possible even with low Sr concentration archaeological material. Multiple on-line interference correction routines for doubly-charged REE, Ca dimers and Rb with additional calibration against TIMS-characterised materials are required to achieve this. The calibration strategy proposed uses both inorganic and biogenic apatite

  15. High-calcium coal combustion by-products: Engineering properties, ettringite formation, and potential application in solidification and stabilization of selenium and boron

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Docktor; K. E. Eylands; J. S. Thompson; D. J. Hassett

    1995-01-01

    Four high-calcium coal combustion by-products (two pulverized coal fly ashes (PCFA), a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) residue, and an atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) fly ash), were tested for engineering properties and ability to immobilize boron and selenium. These data are needed to explore high-volume utilization in engineered structures or in solidification\\/stabilization (S\\/S) technology. Strengths of cured pastes (91 days),

  16. Calcium, Bone, and Life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert P. Heaney

    \\u000a Calcium is a divalent mineral cation that functions as an intracellular messenger in virtually all life forms. In multicellular\\u000a organisms it functions also as an integrator tying body systems together, and in land-living vertebrates it provides the principal\\u000a mineral component of the endoskeleton (bone). Calcium cannot be synthesized and must be ingested, first to build an adult\\u000a skeleton and then

  17. Portable fluorescence photometer for monitoring free calcium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struckmeier, Jens; Klopp, Erk; Born, Matthias; Hofmann, Martin; Tenbosch, Jochen; Jones, David B.

    2000-12-01

    We introduce a compact and portable photometric system for measurements of the calcium dynamics in cells. The photometer is designed for applications in centrifuges or in zero gravity environment and thus extremely compact and reliable. It operates with the calcium-sensitive dye Indo-1. The excitation wavelength of 345 nm is generated by frequency doubling of a laser diode. Two compact photomultiplier tubes detect the fluorescent emission. The electronics provide the sensitivity of photon counting combined with simultaneous measurement of the temperature, of air pressure, and of gravitational force. Internal data storage during the experiment is possible. A newly developed cell chamber stabilizes the cell temperature to 37.0±0.1 °C and includes a perfusion system to supply the cells with medium. The system has a modular setup providing the possibility of changing the light source and detectors for investigation of ions other than calcium. Measurements of the intracellular calcium concentration are based on a comprehensive calibration of our system. First experiments show that the calcium dynamics of osteosarcoma cells stimulated by parathyroid hormone is observable.

  18. Conformational model for ion permeation in membrane channels: a comparison with multi-ion models and applications to calcium channel permeability.

    PubMed Central

    Mironov, S L

    1992-01-01

    The permeation properties of ion channels existing in several conductive states were analyzed. Each state was represented by the one-ion model. A special emphasis was placed on features, assumed to be indicative of a multi-ion mode of channel occupancy such as a deviation of concentration dependence of channel conductance from the Michaelis-Menten equation, an anomalous mole fraction effect, a strong voltage dependence of ion block and coupling of unidirectional fluxes (anomalous Ussing flux ratio). The conformational model was shown to have all these properties. The ion permeation through voltage-sensitive calcium channels fulfilled all the characteristics of the model proposed. PMID:1384738

  19. Role of domain calcium in purinergic P2X2 receptor channel desensitization.

    PubMed

    Coddou, Claudio; Yan, Zonghe; Stojilkovic, Stanko S

    2015-05-01

    Activation of P2X2 receptor channels (P2X2Rs) is characterized by a rapid current growth accompanied by a decay of current during sustained ATP application, a phenomenon known as receptor desensitization. Using rat, mouse, and human receptors, we show here that two processes contribute to receptor desensitization: bath calcium-independent desensitization and calcium-dependent desensitization. Calcium-independent desensitization is minor and comparable during repetitive agonist application in cells expressing the full size of the receptor but is pronounced in cells expressing shorter versions of receptors, indicating a role of the COOH terminus in control of receptor desensitization. Calcium-dependent desensitization is substantial during initial agonist application and progressively increases during repetitive agonist application in bath ATP and calcium concentration-dependent manners. Experiments with substitution of bath Na(+) with N-methyl-d-glucamine (NMDG(+)), a large organic cation, indicate that receptor pore dilation is a calcium-independent process in contrast to receptor desensitization. A decrease in the driving force for calcium by changing the holding potential from -60 to +120 mV further indicates that calcium influx through the channel pores at least partially accounts for receptor desensitization. Experiments with various receptor chimeras also indicate that the transmembrane and/or intracellular domains of P2X2R are required for development of calcium-dependent desensitization and that a decrease in the amplitude of current slows receptor desensitization. Simultaneous calcium and current recording shows development of calcium-dependent desensitization without an increase in global intracellular calcium concentrations. Combined with experiments with clamping intrapipette concentrations of calcium at various levels, these experiments indicate that domain calcium is sufficient to establish calcium-dependent receptor desensitization in experiments with whole-cell recordings. PMID:25673774

  20. Foliar anthocyanin content - Sensitivity of vegetation indices using green reflectance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vina, A.; Gitelson, A. A.

    2009-12-01

    The amount and composition of photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic foliar pigments varies primarily as a function of species, developmental and phenological stages, and environmental stresses. Information on the absolute and relative amounts of these pigments thus provides insights onto the physiological conditions of plants and their responses to stress, and has the potential to be used for evaluating plant species composition and diversity across broad geographic regions. Anthocyanins in particular, are non-photosynthetic pigments associated with the resistance of plants to environmental stresses (e.g., drought, low soil nutrients, high radiation, herbivores, and pathogens). As they absorb radiation primarily in the green region of the electromagnetic spectrum (around 540-560 nm), broad-band vegetation indices that use this region in their formulation will respond to their presence. We evaluated the sensitivity of three vegetation indices using reflectance in the green spectral region (the green Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, gNDVI, the green Chlorophyll Index, CIg, and the Visible Atmospherically Resistant Vegetation Index, VARI) to foliar anthocyanins in five different species. For comparison purposes the widely used Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, NDVI was also evaluated. Among the four indices tested, the VARI, which uses only spectral bands in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum, was found to be inversely and linearly related to the relative amount of foliar anthocyanins. While this result was obtained at leaf level, it opens new possibilities for analyzing anthocyanin content across multiple scales, by means of currently operational aircraft- and spacecraft-mounted broad-band sensor systems. Further studies that evaluate the sensitivity of the VARI to the relative content of anthocyanins across space (e.g., at canopy and regional scales) and time, and its relationship with plant biodiversity and vegetation stresses, are needed.

  1. Natural foliar variegation without costs? The case of Begonia

    PubMed Central

    Sheue, Chiou-Rong; Pao, Shang-Horng; Chien, Lee-Feng; Chesson, Peter; Peng, Ching-I

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Foliar variegation is recognized as arising from two major mechanisms: leaf structure and pigment-related variegation. Begonia has species with a variety of natural foliar variegation patterns, providing diverse examples of this phenomenon. The aims of this work are to elucidate the mechanisms underlying different foliar variegation patterns in Begonia and to determine their physiological consequences. Methods Six species and one cultivar of Begonia were investigated. Light and electron microscopy revealed the leaf structure and ultrastructure of chloroplasts in green and light areas of variegated leaves. Maximum quantum yields of photosystem II were measured by chlorophyll fluorescence. Comparison with a cultivar of Ficus revealed key features distinguishing variegation mechanisms. Key Results Intercellular space above the chlorenchyma is the mechanism of variegation in these Begonia. This intercellular space can be located (a) below the adaxial epidermis or (b) below the adaxial water storage tissue (the first report for any taxa), creating light areas on a leaf. In addition, chlorenchyma cell shape and chloroplast distribution within chlorenchyma cells differ between light and green areas. Chloroplasts from both areas showed dense stacking of grana and stroma thylakoid membranes. The maximum quantum yield did not differ significantly between these areas, suggesting minimal loss of function with variegation. However, the absence of chloroplasts in light areas of leaves in the Ficus cultivar led to an extremely low quantum yield. Conclusions Variegation in these Begonia is structural, where light areas are created by internal reflection between air spaces and cells in a leaf. Two forms of air space structural variegation occur, distinguished by the location of the air spaces. Both forms may have a common origin in development where dermal tissue becomes loosely connected to mesophyll. Photosynthetic functioning is retained in light areas, and these areas do not include primary veins, potentially limiting the costs of variegation. PMID:22362664

  2. 21 CFR 172.410 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 172.410 Section 172.410 Food...HUMAN CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.410 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium...

  3. 21 CFR 172.410 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 172.410 Section 172.410 Food...HUMAN CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.410 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium...

  4. 21 CFR 172.410 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 172.410 Section 172.410 Food...HUMAN CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.410 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium...

  5. 21 CFR 172.410 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 172.410 Section 172.410 Food...HUMAN CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.410 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium...

  6. Nuclear calcium signaling.

    PubMed

    Bengtson, C Peter; Bading, Hilmar

    2012-01-01

    Calcium is the major intracellular messenger linking synaptic activity in neurons to gene expression to control diverse functions including adaptive responses to synaptic activity as well as survival and death (Bading et al. 1993; Hardingham et al. 1997; Chawla and Bading 2001; West et al. 2001; Zhang et al. 2007; Flavell and Greenberg 2008; Mellstrom et al. 2008; Redmond 2008; Wayman et al. 2008; Bootman et al. 2009; Zhang et al. 2009; Hardingham and Bading 2010). Calcium entry at the synapse acts locally to activate signaling cascades which regulate posttranslational modifications essential for synaptic plasticity, such as the insertion of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs) into the postsynaptic membrane (Soderling 2000; Malinow and Malenka 2002; Ehrlich and Malinow 2004). Synaptic activity can also evoke calcium signals in the nucleus which regulate gene pools largely through the phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and its coactivator, CREB-binding protein (CBP) (Bading et al. 1993; Hardingham et al. 1997; Hardingham et al. 1999; Hu et al. 1999; Hardingham et al. 2001b; Impey et al. 2002; Zhang et al. 2009). Distinct mechanisms have been proposed to mediate synaptically generated calcium signals in subcompartments of pyramidal neurons; N-methyl-D -aspartate receptors (NMDARs) and ryanodine receptors have been implicated in the spine, inositol 3,4,5 triphosphate (IP3) receptors in the dendrites, and L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) at the soma and nucleus, although both NMDARs and IP3 receptors can also contribute to somatic and nuclear calcium signals under certain stimulation conditions (Nakamura et al. 1999; Bardo et al. 2006; Raymond and Redman 2006; Watanabe et al. 2006; Hong and Ross 2007; Hagenston et al. 2008; Bengtson et al. 2010). We review here the calcium signaling pathways underlying synaptically activated gene transcription leading to long-lasting changes in synaptic efficacy and memory as well as the physiological mechanisms by which synaptic activity evokes nuclear calcium signals. PMID:22351065

  7. Variation in foliar ? 13 C in Hawaiian Metrosideros polymorpha : a case of internal resistance?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter M. Vitousek; Christopher B. Field; Pamela A. Matson

    1990-01-01

    Sun leaves of Metrosideros polymorpha were collected in 51 sites on 9 lava flows that represented gradients of elevation, precipitation, substrate age, and substrate texture on Mauna Loa volcano, Hawai'i. Leaf mass per unit leaf area increased with increasing elevation on all flows, while foliar nitrogen concentration decreased with increasing elevation and increased with increasing substrate age. Foliar d13C became

  8. Effects of fertilization on decomposition rate of Populus tremuloides foliar litter in a boreal forest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. E. Prescott; R. Kabzems; L. M. Zabek

    1999-01-01

    Rates of mass loss of foliar litter of trembling aspen ( Populus tremuloides Michx.) were measured for 4 years after a single fertilization with N at 200 kg N\\/ha or a mix of N, P, K. Ca, Mg, S, and B. Foliar litter from fertilized plots had higher N concentrations than litter from control plots; litter from the nutrient-mix plots

  9. Foliar d13C within a temperate deciduous forest: spatial, temporal, and species sources of variation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles T Garten Jr; G. E. TaylorJr

    1992-01-01

    Foliar ¹³C-abundance (¹³C) was analyzed in the dominant trees of a temperate deciduous forest in east Tennessee (Walker Branch Watershed) to investigate the variation in foliar ¹³C as a function of time (within-year and between years), space (canopy height, watershed topography and habitat) and species (deciduous and coniferous taxa). Various hypotheses were tested by analyzing (i) samples collected from the

  10. Absorption of foliar-applied arsenic by the arsenic hyperaccumulating fern (Pteris vittata L.)

    E-print Network

    Ma, Lena

    Absorption of foliar-applied arsenic by the arsenic hyperaccumulating fern (Pteris vittata L brake fern (Pteris vittata L.), a hyperaccumulator of arsenic, a carcinogenic metalloid, was proficient by the brake fern; also examined were the effects of foliar sprays on surface ultrastructure and arsenic

  11. Foliar fungicides on alfalfa: 2012 University extension field trial results from Minnesota and Wisconsin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To answer the increasing number of questions received regarding the use of foliar fungicide on alfalfa, a group of Extension and USDA Agricultural Research Station staff in southeastern Minnesota and Wisconsin worked together to conduct field research trials to examine the benefit of using a foliar ...

  12. Ozone air pollution and foliar injury development on native plants of Switzerland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristopher Novak; John M. Skelly; Marcus Schaub; Norbert Krauchi; Christian Hug; Werner Landolt; Peter Bleuler

    The objectives of this study were to examine the foliar sensitivity to ozone exposure of 12 tree, shrub, and herbaceous species native to southern Switzerland and determine the seasonal cumulative ozone exposures required to induce visible foliar injury. The study was conducted from the beginning of May through the end of August during 2000 and 2001 using an open-top chamber

  13. Ozone air pollution and foliar injury development on native plants of Switzerland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristopher Novak; John M. Skelly; Marcus Schaub; Norbert Kräuchi; Christian Hug; Werner Landolt; Peter Bleuler

    2003-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the foliar sensitivity to ozone exposure of 12 tree, shrub, and herbaceous species native to southern Switzerland and determine the seasonal cumulative ozone exposures required to induce visible foliar injury. The study was conducted from the beginning of May through the end of August during 2000 and 2001 using an open-top chamber

  14. Segregation of progeny of Solanum tuberosum subsp. andigena for foliar and tuber resistance to late blight.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Breeding solely for foliar resistance to late blight without emphasis on tuber resistance has the potential to exacerbate tuber infection. Wild potato species are valuable sources of foliar and tuber blight resistance. However, most species are difficult to sexually hybridize with cultivated potat...

  15. Calcium carbonate with magnesium overdose

    MedlinePLUS

    The combination of calcium carbonate and magnesium is commonly found in antacids, which are medicines that provide heartburn relief. Calcium carbonate with magnesium overdose occurs when someone accidentally or ...

  16. Calcium nutrition and metabolism during infancy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Kirk Bass; Gary M. Chan

    2006-01-01

    Calcium is a vital mineral for the developing newborn infant. This review discusses perinatal and neonatal calcium metabolism, with an emphasis on enteral calcium absorption and the nutritional factors affecting calcium bioavailability including the three major endocrine hormones involved in calcium metabolism: parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, and calcitonin. The placenta transports calcium to the fetus throughout pregnancy, with the largest

  17. Volatile compounds and sensory attributes of wine from cv. Merlot (Vitis vinifera L.) grown under differential levels of water deficit with or without a kaolin-based, foliar reflectant particle film

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influences on wine volatile composition and wine sensory attributes from a foliar application of a kaolin-based particle film on vines under differing levels of water deficit were evaluated over three consecutive seasons for the cultivar Merlot grown in the high desert region of southwestern Ida...

  18. Osteoinduction by calcium phosphate biomaterials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huipin Yuan; Zongjian Yang; Yubao Li; Xingdong Zhang; J. D. De Bruijn; K. De Groot

    1998-01-01

    Different materials were implanted in muscles of dogs to study the osteoinduction of calcium phosphate biomaterials. Bone formation was only seen in calcium phosphate biomaterials with micropores, and could be found in hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramic, tricalcium phosphate\\/hydroxyapatite ceramic (BCP), ß-TCP ceramic and calcium phosphate cement. The osteoinductive potential was different in different materials. The results indicate that osteoinduction can be

  19. Mechanisms of Renal Calcium Transport

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter A. Friedman

    2000-01-01

    The kidneys play a key role in the integrated regulation of calcium homeostasis. Calcium absorption takes place throughout the nephron. Proximal tubules, thick ascending limbs of Henle’s loop, and distal tubules are the major sites of calcium absorption. The mechanisms of absorption vary significantly from one segment to another, as does the extent of hormonal regulation. At one extreme is

  20. Plant protein and calcium balance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olufunmike A. Ajayi

    1977-01-01

    The effect of low protein intake from plant sources on calcium excretions and calcium balance of seven young adults was investigated. The diets (four combinations of egg, groundnut and soyabean nitrogen) furnished 43 g protein (0.58 g protein\\/kg) and 550 mg calcium daily.

  1. Foliar bacterial communities of trembling aspen in a common garden.

    PubMed

    Mason, Charles J; Pfammatter, Jesse A; Holeski, Liza M; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2015-02-01

    Microbial associations with plants are widely distributed and are structured by a number of biotic and physical factors. Among biotic factors, the host plant genotype may be integral to these plant-microbe interactions. Trees in the genus Populus have become models for studies in scaling effects of host plant genetics and in plant-microbe interactions. Using 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, we assessed the foliar bacterial community of 7 genotypes of mature trembling aspen trees (Populus tremuloides Michx.) grown in a common garden. Trees were selected based on prior analyses showing clonal variation in their concentration of chemicals conferring resistance against insect herbivores. At broad taxonomic designations, the bacterial community of trembling aspen was similar across all plant genotypes. At a finer taxonomic scale, the foliage of these trees varied in their community composition, but there was no distinct pattern to colonization or abundance related to plant genotype. The most abundant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were classified as Ralstonia, Bradyrhizobium, Pseudomonas, and Brucella. These OTUs varied across the common garden, but there was no significant effect of host plant genotype or spatial position on the abundance of these members. Our results suggest that aspen genotype is less important in the structuring of its foliar bacterial communities than are other, poorly understood processes. PMID:25602743

  2. Mapping Amazonian Canopy Foliar Traits with Imaging Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asner, G. P.; Martin, R.; Anderson, C. B.; Knapp, D. E.

    2014-12-01

    Spatial and temporal information on plant functional traits is lacking in ecology, which limits our understanding of how plant communities and ecosystems are changing. This problem is acute in remote tropical regions such as in Andean and Amazonian forests, where information on plant functional traits is difficult to ascertain. We used Carnegie Airborne Observatory visible-to-shortwave infrared (VSWIR) imaging spectroscopy with light detection and ranging (LiDAR) to assess the chemical composition of tropical forests along a 3000 m elevation gradient from lowland Amazonia to the Andean treeline. We calibrated and validated the retrieval of 15 canopy foliar chemicals and leaf mass per area (LMA) in 81 one-hectare field plots using a new VSWIR-LiDAR fusion approach. Remotely sensed estimates of elevational changes in forest foliar pigments, nitrogen, phosphorus, water, soluble and total carbon, cellulose and LMA were similar to those derived via laborious field survey and laboratory analysis. This new airborne approach addresses the inherent limitations and sampling biases associated with field-based studies of forest functional traits, particularly in structurally and floristically complex tropical canopies.

  3. Foliar soluble proline accumulation in sulfur dioxide-stressed seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, S.S.

    1982-01-01

    Greenhouse-grown Hordeum vulgare with 80 to 90% expanded first leaves were fumigated (F) with 1.0 to 10.0 ppM sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) for 0.25 to 4.00 h within a chamber. Non-fumigated (NF) seedlings (controls) were kept within a greenhouse. Leaves from both F and NF plants were harvested 0 to 168 h after fumigation. Visibly injured F leaves always contained more SP than did NF leaves. Proline within necrotic areas of F leaves was 15 to 30 times > that within NF leaves, while SP of non-necrotic areas of F leaves increased 1.5 to 18-fold above that in corresponding areas of NF leaves. Accumulation of SP occurred prior to the appearance of injury in those plants grown under short daylength, 18 to 21/sup 0/C, high relative humidity (winter greenhouse). In contrast, seedlings raised under long day-length, 21 to 32/sup 0/C, low relative humidity (summer greenhouse) accumulated SP following fumigation only if SO/sub 2/-induced visible foliar injury. These results suggest that foliar, SP accumulation within SO/sub 2/-stressed plants does not result from either proteolysis or synthesis from glutamate.

  4. Lysosomal calcium regulates autophagy.

    PubMed

    Medina, Diego L; Ballabio, Andrea

    2015-06-01

    Recent evidence has indicated that the lysosome is able to act as a signaling organelle that senses nutrient availability and generates an adaptive response that is important for cellular homeostasis. We recently discovered another example of lysosomal signaling where lysosomal calcium release activates the master autophagy regulator TFEB via the phosphatase calcineurin. PMID:26000950

  5. Calcium silicate insulation structure

    DOEpatents

    Kollie, Thomas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1995-01-01

    An insulative structure including a powder-filled evacuated casing utilizes a quantity of finely divided synthetic calcium silicate having a relatively high surface area. The resultant structure-provides superior thermal insulating characteristics over a broad temperature range and is particularly well-suited as a panel for a refrigerator or freezer or the insulative barrier for a cooler or a insulated bottle.

  6. Calcium biofortification of crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More than half of the world's population is deficient in calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), iodine (I), magnesium (Mg), selenium (Se), or zinc (Zn). The consumption of plants, directly or via livestock, containing inadequate concentrations of particular minerals causes these deficiencies. Agronomic and geneti...

  7. Neurotransmitters Calcium ions

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    Actin Nerve terminal Active zone Neurotransmitters Calcium ions Sodium ions Ultrafast endocytosis.These`bouton-type'ter- minalscontainapproximately200synapticves- icles (30­40 nanometres across), each packed with about 2,000 neurotransmitter). It is thought that one to three of those docked vesicles are primed to release neurotransmitters by a process

  8. Calcium and Vitamin D

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adequate intakes of vitamin D and calcium are essential preventative measures and essential components of any therapeutic regimen for osteoporosis. Vitamin D is also important for the prevention of falls. Current evidence suggests that a 25-hydroxyvitamin D level of 75 nmol/L (30 ng/ml) or higher ...

  9. Circadian models of serum potassium, sodium, and calcium concentrations in healthy individuals and their application to cardiac electrophysiology simulations at individual level.

    PubMed

    Fijorek, Kamil; Puskulluoglu, Miroslawa; Polak, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    In the article a brief description of the biological basis of the regulation of human biological clocks was presented in order to introduce the role of circadian rhythms in physiology and specifically in the pharmacological translational tools based on the computational physiology models to motivate the need to provide models of circadian fluctuation in plasma cations. The main aim of the study was to develop statistical models of the circadian rhythm of potassium, sodium, and calcium concentrations in plasma. The developed ion models were further tested by assessing their influence on QT duration (cardiac endpoint) as simulated by the biophysically detailed models of human left ventricular cardiomyocyte. The main results are model equations along with an electronic supplement to the article that contains a fully functional implementation of all models. PMID:24078832

  10. In situ precipitation of amorphous calcium phosphate and ciprofloxacin crystals during the formation of chitosan hydrogels and its application for drug delivery purposes.

    PubMed

    Nardecchia, Stefania; Gutiérrez, María C; Serrano, M Concepción; Dentini, Mariella; Barbetta, Andrea; Ferrer, M Luisa; del Monte, Francisco

    2012-11-13

    The immobilization of more than one single substance within the structure of a biocompatible polymer provides multifunctional biomaterials with attractive and enhanced properties. In the context of bone tissue engineering, it could be of great interest to synthesize a biomaterial that simultaneously contains amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP), to favor calcium and phosphate precipitation and promote osteogenesis, and an antibiotic such as ciprofloxacin (CFX) that can, eventually, avoid infections resulting after surgical scaffold implantation. However, the co-immobilization of multiple substances is by no means a trivial issue because of the enhanced number of interactions that can take place. One of the main issues is controlling not only the diverse solid forms that individual substances can eventually adopt, but also the forces responsible for the self-organization of the individual components. The latter determines whether phase-separated structures or conjugated architectures are obtained and, consequently, may dramatically affect their functionality. Herein, we have observed-by SEM, TEM, and solid-state NMR-that enzymatically-assisted coprecipitation of ACP and CFX resulted in phase-separated structures. Thus, CFX crystals showed identical morphology to that obtained in the absence of ACP, but the size was smaller. Neither the size nor the morphology of ACP exhibited significant differences whether precipitated with or without CFX, but, in the former case, ACP was stabilized over a wider range of pH and temperature. Finally, by using this methodology and the ice segregation induced self-assembly process (ISISA), we have successfully co-immobilized ACP and CFX in chitosan-based scaffolds. Interestingly, the presence of ACP exerted significant control on the CFX release from these materials. PMID:23088184

  11. Response of sugar maple to calcium addition to northern hardwood forest.

    PubMed

    Juice, Stephanie M; Fahey, Timothy J; Siccama, Thomas G; Driscoll, Charles T; Denny, Ellen G; Eagar, Christopher; Cleavitt, Natalie L; Minocha, Rakesh; Richardson, Andrew D

    2006-05-01

    Watershed budget studies at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF), New Hampshire, USA, have demonstrated high calcium depletion of soil during the 20th century due, in part, to acid deposition. Over the past 25 years, tree growth (especially for sugar maple) has declined on the experimental watersheds at the HBEF. In October 1999, 0.85 Mg Ca/ha was added to Watershed 1 (W1) at the HBEF in the form of wollastonite (CaSiO3), a treatment that, by summer 2002, had raised the pH in the Oie horizon from 3.8 to 5.0 and, in the Oa horizon, from 3.9 to 4.2. We measured the response of sugar maple to the calcium fertilization treatment on W1. Foliar calcium concentration of canopy sugar maples in W1 increased markedly beginning the second year after treatment, and foliar manganese declined in years four and five. By 2005, the crown condition of sugar maple was much healthier in the treated watershed as compared with the untreated reference watershed (W6). Following high seed production in 2000 and 2002, the density of sugar maple seedlings increased significantly on W1 in comparison with W6 in 2001 and 2003. Survivorship of the 2003 cohort through July 2005 was much higher on W1 (36.6%) than W6 (10.2%). In 2003, sugar maple germinants on W1 were approximately 50% larger than those in reference plots, and foliar chlorophyll concentrations were significantly greater (0.27 g/m2 vs. 0.23 g/m2 leaf area). Foliage and fine-root calcium concentrations were roughly twice as high, and manganese concentrations twice as low in the treated than the reference seedlings in 2003 and 2004. Mycorrhizal colonization of seedlings was also much greater in the treated (22.4% of root length) than the reference sites (4.4%). A similar, though less dramatic, difference was observed for mycorrhizal colonization of mature sugar maples (56% vs. 35%). These results reinforce and extend other regional observations that sugar maple decline in the northeastern United States and southern Canada is caused in part by anthropogenic effects on soil calcium status, but the causal interactions among inorganic nutrition, physiological stress, mycorrhizal colonization, and seedling growth and health remain to be established. PMID:16761605

  12. Metabolomic assessment reveals a stimulatory effect of calcium treatment on glucosinolates contents in broccoli microgreen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Preharvest calcium application has been shown to increase broccoli microgreen yield and extend shelf life. Here we investigated the effect of calcium application on its metabolome using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) tandem with mass spectrometry (HRMS). The data collected were...

  13. Stochastic calcium mechanisms cause dendritic calcium spike variability.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Haroon; Hepburn, Iain; Nedelescu, Hermina; Chen, Weiliang; De Schutter, Erik

    2013-10-01

    Bursts of dendritic calcium spikes play an important role in excitability and synaptic plasticity in many types of neurons. In single Purkinje cells, spontaneous and synaptically evoked dendritic calcium bursts come in a variety of shapes with a variable number of spikes. The mechanisms causing this variability have never been investigated thoroughly. In this study, a detailed computational model using novel simulation routines is applied to identify the roles that stochastic ion channels, spatial arrangements of ion channels, and stochastic intracellular calcium have toward producing calcium burst variability. Consistent with experimental recordings from rats, strong variability in the burst shape is observed in simulations. This variability persists in large model sizes in contrast to models containing only voltage-gated channels, where variability reduces quickly with increase of system size. Phase plane analysis of Hodgkin-Huxley spikes and of calcium bursts identifies fluctuation in phase space around probabilistic phase boundaries as the mechanism determining the dependence of variability on model size. Stochastic calcium dynamics are the main cause of calcium burst fluctuations, specifically the calcium activation of mslo/BK-type and SK2 channels. Local variability of calcium concentration has a significant effect at larger model sizes. Simulations of both spontaneous and synaptically evoked calcium bursts in a reconstructed dendrite show, in addition, strong spatial and temporal variability of voltage and calcium, depending on morphological properties of the dendrite. Our findings suggest that stochastic intracellular calcium mechanisms play a crucial role in dendritic calcium spike generation and are therefore an essential consideration in studies of neuronal excitability and plasticity. PMID:24089492

  14. Regional patterns in foliar (15)N across a gradient of nitrogen deposition in the northeastern US.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Linda H; McNulty, Steven G; Boggs, Johnny L; Duke, Sara

    2007-10-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that natural abundance (15)N can be a useful tool for assessing nitrogen saturation, because as nitrification and nitrate loss increase, delta(15)N of foliage and soil also increases. We measured foliar delta(15)N at 11 high-elevation spruce-fir stands along an N deposition gradient in 1987-1988 and at seven paired northern hardwood and spruce-fir stands in 1999. In 1999, foliar delta(15)N increased from -5.2 to -0.7 per thousand with increasing N deposition from Maine to NY. Foliar delta(15)N decreased between 1987-1988 and 1999, while foliar %N increased and foliar C:N decreased at most sites. Foliar delta(15)N was strongly correlated with N deposition, and was also positively correlated with net nitrification potential and negatively correlated with soil C:N ratio. Although the increase in foliar %N is consistent with a progression towards N saturation, other results of this study suggest that, in 1999, these stands were further from N saturation than in 1987-1988. PMID:17643595

  15. Determination of Sr isotopes in calcium phosphates using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and their application to archaeological tooth enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horstwood, M. S. A.; Evans, J. A.; Montgomery, J.

    2008-12-01

    The determination of accurate Sr isotope ratios in calcium phosphate matrices by laser ablation multi-collector ICP-MS is demonstrated as possible even with low Sr concentration archaeological material. Multiple on-line interference correction routines for doubly-charged REE, Ca dimers and Rb with additional calibration against TIMS-characterised materials are required to achieve this. The calibration strategy proposed uses both inorganic and biogenic apatite matrices to monitor and correct for a 40Ca- 31P- 16O polyatomic present at levels of 0.3-1% of the non-oxide peak, which interferes on 87Sr causing inaccuracies of 0.03-0.4% in the 87Sr/ 86Sr isotope ratio. The possibility also exists for synthetic materials to be used in this calibration. After correction for interferences total combined uncertainties of 0.04-0.15% (2SD) are achieved for analyses of 13-24 ?g of archaeological tooth enamel with Sr concentrations of ca. 100-500 ppm using MC-ICP-MS. In particular, for samples containing >300 ppm Sr, total uncertainties of ˜0.05% are possible utilising 7-12 ng Sr. Data quality is monitored by determination of 84Sr/ 86Sr ratios. When applied to an archaeological cattle tooth this approach shows Sr-isotope variations along the length of the tooth in agreement with independent TIMS data. The 40Ca- 31P- 16O polyatomic interference is the root cause of the bias at mass 87 during laser ablation ICP-MS analysis of inorganic and biogenic calcium phosphate (apatite) matrices. This results in inaccurate 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios even after correction of Ca dimers and doubly charged rare earth elements. This interference is essentially constant at specific ablation conditions and therefore the effect on 87Sr/ 86Sr data varies in proportion to changes in the Sr concentration of the ablated material. Complete elimination of this interference is unlikely through normal analytical mechanisms and therefore represents a limitation on the achievable accuracy of LA-(MC-)ICP-MS 87Sr/ 86Sr data without rigorous calibration to known reference materials.

  16. Field evaluation of in situ remediation of Cd-contaminated soil using four additives, two foliar fertilisers and two varieties of pakchoi.

    PubMed

    Feng, Renwei; Qiu, Weiwen; Lian, Fei; Yu, Zhihong; Yang, YiXin; Song, Zhengguo

    2013-07-30

    This study was conducted to determine the optimal planting mode for pakchoi (Brassica rapa chinensis) in Cd-contaminated soil to reduce the accumulation of Cd in the edible parts while maintaining yields. Four additives (red mud (RM), silicon calcium fertiliser (SC), spodium (SP) and calcium magnesium phosphate (CMP)), two foliar fertilisers (Ca and Zn) and two varieties of pakchoi (Aijiaohuang (AJ) and Baixuegongzhu (BX)) were used in this study. The results show that the addition of SC and RM had an effect, but the other additives did not appear to increase the biomasses of AJ and BX. In some cases, the growth responses of AJ and BX to the same treatment were different. Extra additions of Ca or Zn to additive-treated pakchoi did not help the additives stimulate the growth of AJ and BX, except for SC-treated AJ and BX and SP-treated AJ. The SC and CMP additives significantly reduced the available Cd concentration in both the AJ soil and the BX soil; however, they did not significantly decrease the Cd concentration in the aboveground parts of AJ and BX. The RM treatments (for both levels) and some treatments containing SP reduced the available Cd concentration in the soils and reduced the accumulation of Cd in the two pakchoi varieties. Additions of Ca or Zn fertiliser significantly reduced the Cd concentration in the aboveground parts of AJ and BX. However, when Ca or Zn was sprayed on the additive-treated AJ and BX, they did not help the additives reduce the Cd accumulation in the aboveground parts of AJ and BX, except for the additive CMP. This study shows that RM may be an optimal amendment to reduce the accumulation of Cd in the edible part of pakchoi while simultaneously maintaining yields. The utilisation of Ca or Zn as a foliar fertiliser to additive-treated pakchoi showed positive effects only under some conditions. PMID:23603772

  17. Synthesis of calcium superoxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rewick, R. T.; Blucher, W. G.; Estacio, P. L.

    1972-01-01

    Efforts to prepare Ca(O2) sub 2 from reactions of calcium compounds with 100% O3 and with O(D-1) atoms generated by photolysis of O3 at 2537 A are described. Samples of Ca(OH) sub 2, CaO, CaO2, Ca metal, and mixtures containing suspected impurities to promote reaction have been treated with excess O3 under static and flow conditions in the presence and absence of UV irradiation. Studies with KO2 suggest that the superoxide anion is stable to radiation at 2537 A but reacts with oxygen atoms generated by the photolysis of O3 to form KO3. Calcium superoxide is expected to behave in an analogous.

  18. Calcium in Plants

    PubMed Central

    WHITE, PHILIP J.; BROADLEY, MARTIN R.

    2003-01-01

    Calcium is an essential plant nutrient. It is required for various structural roles in the cell wall and membranes, it is a counter?cation for inorganic and organic anions in the vacuole, and the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]cyt) is an obligate intracellular messenger coordinating responses to numerous developmental cues and environmental challenges. This article provides an overview of the nutritional requirements of different plants for Ca, and how this impacts on natural flora and the Ca content of crops. It also reviews recent work on (a) the mechanisms of Ca2+ transport across cellular membranes, (b) understanding the origins and specificity of [Ca2+]cyt signals and (c) characterizing the cellular [Ca2+]cyt?sensors (such as calmodulin, calcineurin B?like proteins and calcium?dependent protein kinases) that allow plant cells to respond appropriately to [Ca2+]cyt signals. PMID:12933363

  19. Enhancing Interfacial Bonding of a Biodegradable Calcium Polyphosphate/ Polyvinyl-urethane Carbonate Interpenetrating Phase Composite for Load Bearing Fracture Fixation Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yi

    This thesis describe methods to improve the interfacial stability of an interpenetrating phase composite (IPC) (comprised of porous calcium polyphosphate and polyvinylurethanecarbonate), and to increase the hydrophobicity of the polymer phase. The current IPCs introduce covalent bonding between the two phases via silanizing agents to enhance the interfacial stability. Incorporation of the silanizing agents was also intended to reduce the IPC's sensitivity to interfacial hydration, thereby further enhancing the IPC's resistance to rapid degradation during aqueous solution aging. Lysine diisocyanate was used to increase the hydrophobic character in the polyvinylurethanecarbonate infiltrating resin. The polymer resins were infiltrated into porous CPP blocks with 25 volume % interconnected porosity and polymerized to produce the IPCs. After mechanical testing following a 28-day aging study it was found that the silanizing agents contributed to long-term stability of the mechanical properties under aqueous conditions. It was concluded that the mechanical properties and long-term stability were comparable to available nonmetallic and biodegradable composites, as well as being biocompatible to a preosteoblast model cell line.

  20. Calcium signaling in lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Oh-hora, Masatsugu; Rao, Anjana

    2008-01-01

    In cells of the immune system, calcium signals are essential for diverse cellular functions including differentiation, effector function and gene transcription. After engagement of immunoreceptors such as T-cell and B-cell antigen receptors and the Fc receptors on mast cells and NK cells, the intracellular concentration of calcium ions is increased through the sequential operation of two interdependent processes: depletion of endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ stores as a result of binding of inositol trisphosphate (IP3) to IP3 receptors, followed by “store-operated” Ca2+ entry through plasma membrane Ca2+ channels. In lymphocytes, mast cells and other immune cell types, store-operated Ca2+ entry through specialised Ca2+ release-activated calcium (CRAC) channels constitutes the major pathway of intracellular Ca2+ increase. A recent breakthrough in our understanding of CRAC channel function is the identification of STIM and ORAI, two essential regulators of CRAC channel function. This review focuses on the signaling pathways upstream and downstream of Ca2+ influx (the STIM/ ORAI and calcineurin/ NFAT pathways respectively). PMID:18515054

  1. Foliar uptake of nitrogen oxides: A nitrogen source for forests

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, P.J.; Taylor, G.E. Jr.; Gunderson, C.A. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (USA))

    1989-04-01

    Non-urban concentrations of nitrogen oxide gases are insufficient to directly impede plant growth processes, but foliar uptake of these gases may represent a significant N source. Measurements of NO{sub 2} and HNO{sub 3} vapor uptake by elements representative of a forest landscape (e.g. foliage, bark, forest floor) were conducted in an open gas exchange system. Under daylight conditions using a mean NO{sub 2} level of 33 ml l{sup {minus}1}, NO{sub 2} uptake by foliage of forest tree species ranged from 0.35 to 5.75 nmol m{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}. Uptake of NO{sub 2} by broadleaf species was greater than by conifers. Dry bark surfaces showed about half the conductance to NO{sub 2} than did plant shoots. Forest floor samples had a disproportionately high conductance to NO{sub 2} when compared to bark or foliage surfaces. At similar concentrations, uptake of HNO{sub 3} vapor exceeded that for NO{sub 2}. Foliar NO{sub 2} uptake, under stomatal control, was principally to leaf interiors, but HNO{sub 3} uptake occurred to leaf interiors and surfaces. Based on ambient NO{sub 2} concentrations and conductance data scaled to the forest canopy, NO{sub 2} deposition provides from 0.1 to 2.0 kg ha{sup {minus}1} y{sup {minus}1} of nitrogen to natural forests (0.1 to 3% of annual needs). Conversely, deposition to urban forests may supply >10% of a forest's annual need.

  2. Chemistry misconceptions associated with understanding calcium and phosphate homeostasis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    William H. Cliff (Niagara University Biology)

    2009-12-01

    Successful learning of many aspects in physiology depends on a meaningful understanding of fundamental chemistry concepts. Two conceptual diagnostic questions measured student understanding of the chemical equilibrium underlying calcium and phosphate homeostasis. One question assessed the ability to predict the change in phosphate concentration when calcium ions were added to a saturated calcium phosphate solution. Fifty-two percent of the students correctly predicted that the phosphate concentration would decrease in accord with the common ion effect. Forty-two percent of the students predicted that the phosphate concentration would not change. Written explanations showed that most students failed to evoke the idea of competing chemical equilibria. A second question assessed the predicted change in calcium concentration after solid calcium phosphate was added to a saturated solution. Only 11% of the students correctly predicted no change in calcium concentration; 86% of the students predicted an increase, and many based their prediction on a mistaken application of Le Chatelier's principle to heterogeneous equilibria. These results indicate that many students possess misconceptions about chemical equilibrium that may hamper understanding of the processes of calcium and phosphate homeostasis. Instructors can help students gain greater understanding of these physiochemical phenomena by adopting strategies that enable students achieve more accurate conceptions of chemical equilibria.

  3. Foliar Spray with Vermiwash Modifies the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Dependency and Nutrient Stoichiometry of Bhut Jolokia (Capsicum assamicum)

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Rajeev; Veer, Vijay; Singh, Lokendra; Kalita, Mohan C.

    2014-01-01

    Vermiwash (VW), a liquid extract obtained from vermicomposting beds, is used as an organic fertilizer for crop plants. The current study investigated the effect of a vermiwash foliar spray on the response of bhut jolokia (Capsicum assamicum) exposed to two different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF: Rhizophagus irregularis, RI and G. mosseae, GM) in acidic soil under naturally ventilated greenhouse conditions. The VW spray significantly influenced the growth of plants receiving the dual treatment of AMF+VW. Plant growth was more prominent in the GM+VW treatment group than that in the RI+VW treatment group. The plant-AMF interactions in relation to growth and nutrient requirements were also significantly influenced by the application of VW. Interestingly, the VW treatment appeared to contribute more N to plants when compared to that under the AMF treatment, which led to changes in the C:N:P stoichiometry in plant shoots. Furthermore, the increased potassium dependency, as observed in the case of the dual treatments, suggests the significance of such treatments for improving crop conditions under salt stress. Overall, our study shows that the VW foliar spray modifies the response of a crop to inoculations of different AMF with regard to growth and nutrient utilization, which has implications for the selection of an efficient combination of nutrient source for improving crop growth. PMID:24651577

  4. Foliar spray with vermiwash modifies the Arbuscular mycorrhizal dependency and nutrient stoichiometry of Bhut Jolokia (Capsicum assamicum).

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad Haneef; Meghvansi, Mukesh K; Gupta, Rajeev; Veer, Vijay; Singh, Lokendra; Kalita, Mohan C

    2014-01-01

    Vermiwash (VW), a liquid extract obtained from vermicomposting beds, is used as an organic fertilizer for crop plants. The current study investigated the effect of a vermiwash foliar spray on the response of bhut jolokia (Capsicum assamicum) exposed to two different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF: Rhizophagus irregularis, RI and G. mosseae, GM) in acidic soil under naturally ventilated greenhouse conditions. The VW spray significantly influenced the growth of plants receiving the dual treatment of AMF+VW. Plant growth was more prominent in the GM+VW treatment group than that in the RI+VW treatment group. The plant-AMF interactions in relation to growth and nutrient requirements were also significantly influenced by the application of VW. Interestingly, the VW treatment appeared to contribute more N to plants when compared to that under the AMF treatment, which led to changes in the C:N:P stoichiometry in plant shoots. Furthermore, the increased potassium dependency, as observed in the case of the dual treatments, suggests the significance of such treatments for improving crop conditions under salt stress. Overall, our study shows that the VW foliar spray modifies the response of a crop to inoculations of different AMF with regard to growth and nutrient utilization, which has implications for the selection of an efficient combination of nutrient source for improving crop growth. PMID:24651577

  5. Soil and foliar nutrient and nitrogen isotope composition (?(15)N) at 5 years after poultry litter and green waste biochar amendment in a macadamia orchard.

    PubMed

    Bai, Shahla Hosseini; Xu, Cheng-Yuan; Xu, Zhihong; Blumfield, Timothy J; Zhao, Haitao; Wallace, Helen; Reverchon, Frédérique; Van Zwieten, Lukas

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the improvement in soil fertility and plant nutrient use in a macadamia orchard following biochar application. The main objectives of this study were to assess the effects of poultry litter and green waste biochar applications on nitrogen (N) cycling using N isotope composition (?(15)N) and nutrient availability in a soil-plant system at a macadamia orchard, 5 years following application. Biochar was applied at 10 t ha(-1) dry weight but concentrated within a 3-m diameter zone when trees were planted in 2007. Soil and leaf samples were collected in 2012, and both soil and foliar N isotope composition (?(15)N) and nutrient concentrations were assessed. Both soil and foliar ?(15)N increased significantly in the poultry litter biochar plots compared to the green waste biochar and control plots. A significant relationship was observed between soil and plant ?(15)N. There was no influence of either biochars on foliar total N concentrations or soil NH4 (+)-N and NO3 (-)-N, which suggested that biochar application did not pose any restriction for plant N uptake. Plant bioavailable phosphorus (P) was significantly higher in the poultry litter biochar treatment compared to the green waste biochar treatment and control. We hypothesised that the bioavailability of N and P content of poultry litter biochar may play an important role in increasing soil and plant ?(15)N and P concentrations. Biochar application affected soil-plant N cycling and there is potential to use soil and plant ?(15)N to investigate N cycling in a soil-biochar-tree crop system. The poultry litter biochar significantly increased soil fertility compared to the green waste biochar at 5 years following biochar application which makes the poultry litter a better feedstock to produce biochar compared to green waste for the tree crops. PMID:25266060

  6. [Calcium--essential for everybody].

    PubMed

    Cichosz, Grazyna; Czeczot, Hanna

    2014-06-01

    Calcium regulates majority of metabolic processes within human organism and its optimal intake decreases risk of metabolic illnesses conditioned by diet. Deficiency of calcium results in higher body max index, increase risk of insulin resistance, diabetes type 2 and osteoporosis. Diet delivering full calcium load diminished impendency of hypertension; calcium regulates tension of smooth muscles of blood vessels, limits neurotransmitters activity and also diminish hazardous activity of sodium chloride. Anticancerogenic activity of calcium results from formation insoluble bile acids and fat acids salts, and most of all, from inhibition of intestine mucosa cells hyper proliferation. Due to presence of vitamin D3, CLA, proteins and bioactive peptides emerging from them, milk is more efficient in prophylaxis of diet conditioned illnesses than calcium supplements. Efficiency of milk and dairy products in treatment of obesity, sclerosis and hypertension has been proved by DASH diet. PMID:25095643

  7. Calcium Kinetics During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Wastney, Meryl E.; OBrien, Kimberly O.; Lane, Helen W.

    1999-01-01

    Bone loss is one of the most detrimental effects of space flight, threatening to limit the duration of human space missions. The ability to understand and counteract this loss will be critical for crew health and safety during and after extended-duration missions. The hypotheses to be tested in this project are that space flight alters calcium homeostasis and bone mineral metabolism, and that calcium homeostasis and bone mineral metabolism will return to baseline within days to weeks of return to Earth. These hypotheses will be evidenced by elevated rates of bone mineral resorption and decreased bone mineral deposition, decreased absorption of dietary calcium, altered calcitropic endocrine profiles, elevated excretion of calcium in urine and feces, and elevated excretion of markers of bone resorption. The second hypothesis will be evidenced by return of indices of calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism to preflight levels within days to weeks of return to Earth. Studies will be conducted on International Space Station astronauts before, during, and after extended-duration flights. Measurements of calcium kinetics, bone mass, and endocrine/biochemical markers of bone and calcium homeostasis will be conducted. Kinetic studies utilizing dual isotope tracer kinetic studies and mathematical modeling techniques will allow for determination of bone calcium deposition, bone calcium resorption, dietary calcium absorption and calcium excretion (both urinary and endogenous fecal excretion). These studies will build upon preliminary work conducted on the Russian Mir space station. The results from this project will be critical for clarifying how microgravity affects bone and calcium homeostasis, and will provide an important control point for assessment of countermeasure efficacy. These results are expected to aid in developing countermeasures for bone loss, both for space crews and for individuals on Earth who have metabolic bone diseases.

  8. Calcium Phosphate Biomaterials: An Overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huipin Yuan; KLAAS DE GROOT

    Calcium phosphates are used by our body to build bones and are being applied to produce biomaterials for bone repair. It is\\u000a well-known that calcium phosphate biomaterials guide new bone formation, form a tight bond with the newly formed bone, and\\u000a are therefore, by definition, osteoconductive. Besides their osteoconductive property, it was found that calcium phosphate\\u000a biomaterials, only with specific

  9. Calcium signaling in immune cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Pierre Kinet; Monika Vig

    2008-01-01

    Calcium acts as a second messenger in many cell types, including lymphocytes. Resting lymphocytes maintain a low concentration of Ca2+. However, engagement of antigen receptors induces calcium influx from the extracellular space by several routes. A chief mechanism of Ca2+ entry in lymphocytes is through store-operated calcium (SOC) channels. The identification of two important molecular components of SOC channels, CRACM1

  10. The bioavailability of dietary calcium.

    PubMed

    Guéguen, L; Pointillart, A

    2000-04-01

    This update focuses on the bioavailability of dietary calcium for humans. Fundamentals of calcium metabolism, intestinal absorption, urinary excretion and balance are recalled. Dietary factors, especially lactose and other milk components, influencing calcium bioavailability at intestinal and renal levels are reviewed. A critical examination of all the methods used for evaluating calcium bioavailability is made. This includes in vitro assays, classical and isotopic balances, urinary excretion, isotope labeling in the urine, plasma and bones, long term evaluation of bone mineralization and the use of biological bone markers. Importance and advantages of animal models are discussed. The state of the art in the comparative bioavailability of calcium in foods is detailed including a comparison of sources of calcium (dairy products and calcium salts) in human studies and in some animal studies, casein phosphopeptides, proteins, lactose and lactase and their relation with calcium bioavailability (in humans and rats). An update on the consumption of dairy products and bone mass is presented. Emphasis on peculiarities and advantages of calcium in milk and dairy products is given. PMID:10759138

  11. Thiosulfate Reduces Calcium Phosphate Nephrolithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Asplin, John R.; Donahue, Susan E.; Lindeman, Christina; Michalenka, Anne; Strutz, Kelly Laplante; Bushinsky, David A.

    2009-01-01

    An uncontrolled trial reported that sodium thiosulfate reduces formation of calcium kidney stones in humans, but this has not been established in a controlled human study or animal model. Using the genetic hypercalciuric rat, an animal model of calcium phosphate stone formation, we studied the effect of sodium thiosulfate on urine chemistries and stone formation. We fed genetic hypercalciuric rats normal food with or without sodium thiosulfate for 18 wk and measured urine chemistries, supersaturation, and the upper limit of metastability of urine. Eleven of 12 untreated rats formed stones compared with only three of 12 thiosulfate-treated rats (P < 0.002). Urine calcium and phosphorus were higher and urine citrate and volume were lower in the thiosulfate-treated rats, changes that would increase calcium phosphate supersaturation. Thiosulfate treatment lowered urine pH, which would lower calcium phosphate supersaturation. Overall, there were no statistically significant differences in calcium phosphate supersaturation or upper limit of metastability between thiosulfate-treated and control rats. In vitro, thiosulfate only minimally affected ionized calcium, suggesting a mechanism of action other than calcium chelation. In summary, sodium thiosulfate reduces calcium phosphate stone formation in the genetic hypercalciuric rat. Controlled trials testing the efficacy and safety of sodium thiosulfate for recurrent kidney stones in humans are needed. PMID:19369406

  12. Shrimp pond effluent dominates foliar nitrogen in disturbed mangroves as mapped using hyperspectral imagery.

    PubMed

    Fauzi, Anas; Skidmore, Andrew K; van Gils, Hein; Schlerf, Martin; Heitkönig, Ignas M A

    2013-11-15

    Conversion of mangroves to shrimp ponds creates fragmentation and eutrophication. Detection of the spatial variation of foliar nitrogen is essential for understanding the effect of eutrophication on mangroves. We aim (i) to estimate nitrogen variability across mangrove landscapes of the Mahakam delta using airborne hyperspectral remote sensing (HyMap) and (ii) to investigate links between the variation of foliar nitrogen mapped and local environmental variables. In this study, multivariate prediction models achieved a higher level of accuracy than narrow-band vegetation indices, making multivariate modeling the best choice for mapping. The variation of foliar nitrogen concentration in mangroves was significantly influenced by the local environment: (1) position of mangroves (seaward/landward), (2) distance to the shrimp ponds, and (3) predominant mangrove species. The findings suggest that anthropogenic disturbances, in this case shrimp ponds, influence nitrogen variation in mangroves. Mangroves closer to the shrimp ponds had higher foliar nitrogen concentrations. PMID:24103095

  13. COMMUNITY AND ECOSYSTEM ECOLOGY Foliar Chemistry and Gypsy Moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), Herbivory

    E-print Network

    Rieske-Kinney, Lynne K.

    COMMUNITY AND ECOSYSTEM ECOLOGY Foliar Chemistry and Gypsy Moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), Herbivory and nutrient uptake, and the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), to measure herbivore suitability. Gypsy moth exactacostinplantgrowthandproductivityforthischestnuthybrid,andmayenhanceplantsuitability for a generalist herbivore. Additionally, enhanced gypsy moth

  14. Estimating foliar biochemistry from hyperspectral data in mixed forest canopy Silvia Huber a,b,

    E-print Network

    Zimmermann, Niklaus E.

    of nitrogen (CN) and carbon (CC) and the content of water (CW). Foliar CN is closely related to the maximum of stomata and results in reduced evaporation from the leaf surface and thus decreases photosynthesis (Dubey

  15. Calcium in the regulation of gravitropism by light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perdue, D. O.; LaFavre, A. K.; Leopold, A. C.

    1988-01-01

    The red light requirement for positive gravitropism in roots of corn (Zea mays cv "Merit") provides an entry for examining the participation of calcium in gravitropism. Applications of calcium chelators inhibit the light response. Calcium channel blockers (verapamil, lanthanum) can also inhibit the light response, and a calcium ionophore, A23187, can substitute for light. One can substitute for red light by treatments which have elsewhere been shown to trigger Ca2+ influx into the cytosol, e.g. heat or cold shock. Agents which are known to be agonists of the phosphatidylinositol second messenger system (serotonin, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, deoxycholate) can each partially substitute for the red light, and Li+ can inhibit the light effect. These experiments suggest that the induction of positive gravitropism by red light involves a rise in cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration, and that a contribution to this end may be made by the phosphatidylinositol second messenger system.

  16. Calcium Orthophosphates as Bioceramics: State of the Art

    PubMed Central

    Dorozhkin, Sergey V.

    2010-01-01

    In the late 1960s, much interest was raised in regard to biomedical applications of various ceramic materials. A little bit later, such materials were named bioceramics. This review is limited to bioceramics prepared from calcium orthophosphates only, which belong to the categories of bioactive and bioresorbable compounds. There have been a number of important advances in this field during the past 30–40 years. Namely, by structural and compositional control, it became possible to choose whether calcium orthophosphate bioceramics were biologically stable once incorporated within the skeletal structure or whether they were resorbed over time. At the turn of the millennium, a new concept of calcium orthophosphate bioceramics—which is able to promote regeneration of bones—was developed. Presently, calcium orthophosphate bioceramics are available in the form of particulates, blocks, cements, coatings, customized designs for specific applications and as injectable composites in a polymer carrier. Current biomedical applications include artificial replacements for hips, knees, teeth, tendons and ligaments, as well as repair for periodontal disease, maxillofacial reconstruction, augmentation and stabilization of the jawbone, spinal fusion and bone fillers after tumor surgery. Exploratory studies demonstrate potential applications of calcium orthophosphate bioceramics as scaffolds, drug delivery systems, as well as carriers of growth factors, bioactive peptides and/or various types of cells for tissue engineering purposes. PMID:24955932

  17. Impact of foliar herbivory on the development of a root-feeding insect and its parasitoid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roxina Soler; T. Martijn Bezemer; Anne Marie Cortesero; Wim H. Van der Putten; Louise E. M. Vet; Jeffrey A. Harvey

    2007-01-01

    The majority of studies exploring interactions between above- and below-ground biota have been focused on the effects of root-associated\\u000a organisms on foliar herbivorous insects. This study examined the effects of foliar herbivory by Pieris brassicae L. (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) on the performance of the root herbivore Delia radicum L. (Diptera: Anthomyiidae) and its parasitoid Trybliographa rapae (Westwood) (Hymenoptera: Figitidae), mediated through

  18. Foliar ? 13 C values of nine dominant species in the Loess Plateau of China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S.-X. Zheng; Z.-P. Shangguan

    2007-01-01

    The foliar stable carbon isotope compositions (?13C) of nine dominant species in seven sites, Yangling, Yongshou, Tongchuan, Fuxian, Ansai, Mizhi, and Shenmu, standing from\\u000a the south to the north in the Loess Plateau of China were studied. The results showed that foliar ?13C values ranged from ?22.61 to ?30.73 ‰ with an average of ?27.23 ‰ in 141 C3 plant

  19. Foliar ? 13 C within a temperate deciduous forest: spatial, temporal, and species sources of variation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. T. Garten; G. E. Taylor

    1992-01-01

    Foliar 13C-abundance (d13C) was analyzed in the dominant trees of a temperate deciduous forest in east Tennessee (Walker Branch Watershed) to investigate the variation in foliar d13C as a function of time (within-year and between years), space (canopy height, watershed topography and habitat) and species (deciduous and coniferous taxa). Various hypotheses were tested by analyzing (i) samples collected from the

  20. Foliar 15 N natural abundance in Hawaiian rainforest: patterns and possible mechanisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter M. Vitousek; Georgia Shearer; Daniel H. Kohl

    1989-01-01

    Foliar samples were obtained from symbiotic nitrogen-fixers and control plants (non-fixers) along elevational and primary successional gradients in volcanic sites in Hawai'i. Most control plants had negative d15N values (range-10.1 to +0.7‰), while most nitrogen-fixers were near 0‰. Foliar 15N in the native tree Metrosideros polymorpha did not vary with elevation (from sea level to tree-line), but it did increase

  1. Exploring the remote sensing of foliar biochemical concentrations with AVIRIS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Geoffrey M.; Curran, Paul J.

    1992-01-01

    Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data shows promise for the estimation of foliar biochemical concentrations at the scale of the canopy. There are, however, several problems associated with the use of AVIRIS data in this way and these are detailed in recent Plant Biochemical Workshop Report. The research reported was concentrated upon three of these problems: field sampling of forest canopies, wet laboratory assay of foliar chemicals, and the visualization of AVIRIS data.

  2. Increasing the absorption of foliar applied nutrients with the use of adjuvants 

    E-print Network

    Putman, Joan Ellen

    1983-01-01

    INCREASING THE ABSORPTION OF FOLIAR APPLIED NUTRIENTS WITH THE USE OF ADJUVANTS A Thesis by JOAN ELLEN PUTNAN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE August 1983 Najor Subject: Horticulture INCREASING THE ABSORPTION OF FOLIAR APPLIED NUTRIENTS WITH THE USE OF ADJUVANTS A Thesis by JOAN ELLEN PUTMAN Approved as to style and content by: J. Benton Storey (Chairman of Committee) David W...

  3. Effect of strontium ions substitution on gene delivery related properties of calcium phosphate nanoparticles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. HanifiM; M. H. Fathi; H. Mir Mohammad Sadeghi

    2010-01-01

    Gene therapy has been considered a strategy for delivery of therapeutic nucleic acids to a specific site. Calcium phosphates\\u000a are one gene delivery vector group of interest. However, low transfection efficiency has limited the use of calcium phosphate\\u000a in gene delivery applications. Present work aims at studying the fabrication of strontium substituted calcium phosphate nanoparticles\\u000a with improved gene delivery related

  4. Foliar water uptake of Tamarix ramosissima from an atmosphere of high humidity.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuang; Xiao, Hong-lang; Zhao, Liang; Zhou, Mao-Xian; Wang, Fang

    2014-01-01

    Many species have been found to be capable of foliar water uptake, but little research has focused on this in desert plants. Tamarix ramosissima was investigated to determine whether its leaves can directly absorb water from high humidity atmosphere and, if they can, to understand the magnitude and importance of foliar water uptake. Various techniques were adopted to demonstrate foliar water uptake under submergence or high atmospheric humidity. The mean increase in leaf water content after submergence was 29.38% and 20.93% for mature and tender leaves, respectively. In the chamber experiment, obvious reverse sap flow occurred when relative humidity (RH) was persistently above 90%. Reverse flow was recorded first in twigs, then in branches and stems. For the stem, the percentage of negative sap flow rate accounting for the maximum value of sap flow reached 10.71%, and its amount accounted for 7.54% of diurnal sap flow. Small rainfall can not only compensate water loss of plant by foliar uptake, but also suppress transpiration. Foliar uptake can appear in the daytime under certain rainfall events. High atmospheric humidity is beneficial for enhancing the water status of plants. Foliar uptake should be an important strategy of water acquisition for desert plants. PMID:24982964

  5. Measurement of calcium transients and slow calcium current in myotubes

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize excitation-contraction (e- c) coupling in myotubes for comparison with e-c coupling of adult skeletal muscle. The whole cell configuration of the patch clamp technique was used in conjunction with the calcium indicator dye Fluo-3 to study the calcium transients and slow calcium currents elicited by voltage clamp pulses in cultured myotubes obtained from neonatal mice. Cells were held at -80 mV and stimulated with 15-20 ms test depolarizations preceded and followed by voltage steps designed to isolate the slow calcium current. The slow calcium current had a threshold for activation of about 0 mV; the peak amplitude of the current reached a maximum at 30 to 40 mV a and then declined for still stronger depolarizations. The calcium transient had a threshold of about -10 mV, and its amplitude increased as a sigmoidal function of test potential and did not decrease again even for test depolarizations sufficiently strong (> or = 50 mV) that the amplitude of the slow calcium current became very small. Thus, the slow calcium current in myotubes appears to have a negligible role in the process of depolarization-induced release of intracellular calcium and this process in myotubes is essentially like that in adult skeletal muscle. After repolarization, however, the decay of the calcium transient in myotubes was very slow (hundreds of ms) compared to adult muscle, particularly after strong depolarizations that triggered larger calcium transients. Moreover, when cells were repolarized after strong depolarizations, the transient typically continued to increase slowly for up to several tens of ms before the onset of decay. This continued increase after repolarization was abolished by the addition of 5 mM BAPTA to the patch pipette although the rapid depolarization-induced release was not, suggesting that the slow increase might be a regenerative response triggered by the depolarization-induced release of calcium. The addition of either 0.5 mM Cd2+ + 0.1 mM La3+ or the dihydropyridine (+)-PN 200-110 (1 microM) reduced the amplitude of the calcium transient by mechanisms that appeared to be unrelated to the block of current that these agents produce. In the majority of cells, the decay of the transient was accelerated by the addition of the heavy metals or the dihydropyridine, consistent with the idea that the removal system becomes saturated for large calcium releases and becomes more efficient when the size of the release is reduced. PMID:8169594

  6. 21 CFR 182.8217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium phosphate. 182.8217 Section 182.8217 Food...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  7. 21 CFR 182.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 182.1217 Section 182.1217 Food...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  8. 21 CFR 182.8217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 182.8217 Section 182.8217 Food...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  9. 21 CFR 182.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 182.1217 Section 182.1217 Food...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  10. 21 CFR 582.6197 - Calcium diacetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium diacetate. 582.6197 Section 582.6197...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6197 Calcium diacetate. (a) Product. Calcium diacetate. (b) Conditions of use....

  11. 21 CFR 172.715 - Calcium lignosulfonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium lignosulfonate. 172.715 Section 172.715... Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.715 Calcium lignosulfonate. Calcium lignosulfonate may be safely used in or on...

  12. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture...Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the...

  13. 21 CFR 582.6197 - Calcium diacetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium diacetate. 582.6197 Section 582.6197...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6197 Calcium diacetate. (a) Product. Calcium diacetate. (b) Conditions of use....

  14. 21 CFR 182.6197 - Calcium diacetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium diacetate. 182.6197 Section 182.6197...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6197 Calcium diacetate. (a) Product. Calcium diacetate. (b) Conditions of use....

  15. 21 CFR 182.6197 - Calcium diacetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium diacetate. 182.6197 Section 182.6197...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6197 Calcium diacetate. (a) Product. Calcium diacetate. (b) Conditions of use....

  16. 21 CFR 182.6197 - Calcium diacetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium diacetate. 182.6197 Section 182.6197...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6197 Calcium diacetate. (a) Product. Calcium diacetate. (b) Conditions of use....

  17. 21 CFR 182.6197 - Calcium diacetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium diacetate. 182.6197 Section 182.6197...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6197 Calcium diacetate. (a) Product. Calcium diacetate. (b) Conditions of use....

  18. 21 CFR 172.715 - Calcium lignosulfonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium lignosulfonate. 172.715 Section 172.715... Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.715 Calcium lignosulfonate. Calcium lignosulfonate may be safely used in or on...

  19. 21 CFR 182.6197 - Calcium diacetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium diacetate. 182.6197 Section 182.6197...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6197 Calcium diacetate. (a) Product. Calcium diacetate. (b) Conditions of use....

  20. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture...Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the...

  1. 21 CFR 172.720 - Calcium lactobionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium lactobionate. 172.720 Section 172...Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.720 Calcium lactobionate. The food additive calcium lactobionate may be safely used in food...

  2. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture...Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the...

  3. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture...Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the...

  4. 21 CFR 582.6197 - Calcium diacetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium diacetate. 582.6197 Section 582.6197...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6197 Calcium diacetate. (a) Product. Calcium diacetate. (b) Conditions of use....

  5. 21 CFR 172.720 - Calcium lactobionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium lactobionate. 172.720 Section 172...Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.720 Calcium lactobionate. The food additive calcium lactobionate may be safely used in food...

  6. 21 CFR 582.6199 - Calcium gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium gluconate. 582.6199 Section 582.6199...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6199 Calcium gluconate. (a) Product. Calcium gluconate. (b) Conditions of use....

  7. 21 CFR 172.720 - Calcium lactobionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium lactobionate. 172.720 Section 172...Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.720 Calcium lactobionate. The food additive calcium lactobionate may be safely used in food...

  8. 21 CFR 582.6199 - Calcium gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium gluconate. 582.6199 Section 582.6199...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6199 Calcium gluconate. (a) Product. Calcium gluconate. (b) Conditions of use....

  9. 21 CFR 582.6197 - Calcium diacetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium diacetate. 582.6197 Section 582.6197...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6197 Calcium diacetate. (a) Product. Calcium diacetate. (b) Conditions of use....

  10. 21 CFR 582.6197 - Calcium diacetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium diacetate. 582.6197 Section 582.6197...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6197 Calcium diacetate. (a) Product. Calcium diacetate. (b) Conditions of use....

  11. 21 CFR 172.715 - Calcium lignosulfonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium lignosulfonate. 172.715 Section 172.715... Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.715 Calcium lignosulfonate. Calcium lignosulfonate may be safely used in or on...

  12. 21 CFR 172.720 - Calcium lactobionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium lactobionate. 172.720 Section 172...Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.720 Calcium lactobionate. The food additive calcium lactobionate may be safely used in food...

  13. 21 CFR 172.715 - Calcium lignosulfonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium lignosulfonate. 172.715 Section 172.715... Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.715 Calcium lignosulfonate. Calcium lignosulfonate may be safely used in or on...

  14. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture...Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the...

  15. 21 CFR 582.6199 - Calcium gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium gluconate. 582.6199 Section 582.6199...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6199 Calcium gluconate. (a) Product. Calcium gluconate. (b) Conditions of use....

  16. 21 CFR 172.720 - Calcium lactobionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium lactobionate. 172.720 Section 172...Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.720 Calcium lactobionate. The food additive calcium lactobionate may be safely used in food...

  17. 21 CFR 582.6199 - Calcium gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium gluconate. 582.6199 Section 582.6199...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6199 Calcium gluconate. (a) Product. Calcium gluconate. (b) Conditions of use....

  18. 21 CFR 582.6199 - Calcium gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium gluconate. 582.6199 Section 582.6199...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6199 Calcium gluconate. (a) Product. Calcium gluconate. (b) Conditions of use....

  19. 21 CFR 172.715 - Calcium lignosulfonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium lignosulfonate. 172.715 Section 172.715... Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.715 Calcium lignosulfonate. Calcium lignosulfonate may be safely used in or on...

  20. Boron Nutrition and Boron Application in Crops

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rodrigo Marcelli Boaretto; Takashi Muraoka; Maria Fernanda Giné; Antonio Enedi Boaretto

    The application of micronutrients in citrus plants has usually been done by foliar spraying. The citrus plants are exigent\\u000a in boron, zinc, manganese, iron and deficiency of these micronutrients is common in worldwide citriculture. In Brazilian citriculture,\\u000a the B and Zn deficiencies are most frequent (Quaggio et al. 2003). For this reason, these micronutrients are routinely applied\\u000a as foliar fertilizers

  1. Extracellular calcium sensing and extracellular calcium signaling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, E. M.; MacLeod, R. J.; O'Malley, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    The cloning of a G protein-coupled extracellular Ca(2+) (Ca(o)(2+))-sensing receptor (CaR) has elucidated the molecular basis for many of the previously recognized effects of Ca(o)(2+) on tissues that maintain systemic Ca(o)(2+) homeostasis, especially parathyroid chief cells and several cells in the kidney. The availability of the cloned CaR enabled the development of DNA and antibody probes for identifying the CaR's mRNA and protein, respectively, within these and other tissues. It also permitted the identification of human diseases resulting from inactivating or activating mutations of the CaR gene and the subsequent generation of mice with targeted disruption of the CaR gene. The characteristic alterations in parathyroid and renal function in these patients and in the mice with "knockout" of the CaR gene have provided valuable information on the CaR's physiological roles in these tissues participating in mineral ion homeostasis. Nevertheless, relatively little is known about how the CaR regulates other tissues involved in systemic Ca(o)(2+) homeostasis, particularly bone and intestine. Moreover, there is evidence that additional Ca(o)(2+) sensors may exist in bone cells that mediate some or even all of the known effects of Ca(o)(2+) on these cells. Even more remains to be learned about the CaR's function in the rapidly growing list of cells that express it but are uninvolved in systemic Ca(o)(2+) metabolism. Available data suggest that the receptor serves numerous roles outside of systemic mineral ion homeostasis, ranging from the regulation of hormonal secretion and the activities of various ion channels to the longer term control of gene expression, programmed cell death (apoptosis), and cellular proliferation. In some cases, the CaR on these "nonhomeostatic" cells responds to local changes in Ca(o)(2+) taking place within compartments of the extracellular fluid (ECF) that communicate with the outside environment (e.g., the gastrointestinal tract). In others, localized changes in Ca(o)(2+) within the ECF can originate from several mechanisms, including fluxes of calcium ions into or out of cellular or extracellular stores or across epithelium that absorb or secrete Ca(2+). In any event, the CaR and other receptors/sensors for Ca(o)(2+) and probably for other extracellular ions represent versatile regulators of numerous cellular functions and may serve as important therapeutic targets.

  2. Fluid fragmentation shapes rain-induced foliar disease transmission.

    PubMed

    Gilet, T; Bourouiba, L

    2015-03-01

    Plant diseases represent a growing threat to the global food supply. The factors contributing to pathogen transmission from plant to plant remain poorly understood. Statistical correlations between rainfalls and plant disease outbreaks were reported; however, the detailed mechanisms linking the two were relegated to a black box. In this combined experimental and theoretical study, we focus on the impact dynamics of raindrops on infected leaves, one drop at a time. We find that the deposition range of most of the pathogen-bearing droplets is constrained by a hydrodynamical condition and we quantify the effect of leaf size and compliance on such constraint. Moreover, we identify and characterize two dominant fluid fragmentation scenarios as responsible for the dispersal of most pathogen-bearing droplets emitted from infected leaves: (i) the crescent-moon ejection is driven by the direct interaction between the impacting raindrop and the contaminated sessile drop and (ii) the inertial detachment is driven by the motion imparted to the leaf by the raindrop, leading to catapult-like droplet ejections. We find that at first, decreasing leaf size or increasing compliance reduces the range of pathogen-bearing droplets and the subsequent epidemic onset efficiency. However, this conclusion only applies for the crescent moon ejection. Above a certain compliance threshold a more effective mechanism of contaminated fluid ejection, the inertial detachment, emerges. This compliance threshold is determined by the ratio between the leaf velocity and the characteristic velocity of fluid fragmentation. The inertial detachment mechanism enhances the range of deposition of the larger contaminated droplets and suggests a change in epidemic onset pattern and a more efficient potential of infection of neighbouring plants. Dimensionless parameters and scaling laws are provided to rationalize our observations. Our results link for the first time the mechanical properties of foliage with the onset dynamics of foliar epidemics through the lens of fluid fragmentation. We discuss how the reported findings can inform the design of mitigation strategies acting at the early stage of a foliar disease outbreak. PMID:25652459

  3. Sequential application of epsilon-polylysine, lauric arginate and acidic calcium sulfate for inactivation of pathogens on raw chicken and beef 

    E-print Network

    Benli, Hakan

    2009-05-15

    Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EC) contamination continues to be one of the major concerns for the microbiological safety of raw poultry and beef products. Application of more than one decontamination agent as a multi-hurdle intervention...

  4. Application of the specular and diffuse reflection analysis for in vitro diagnostics of dental erosion: correlation with enamel softening, roughness, and calcium release

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ekaterina Rakhmatullina; Anke Bossen; Christoph Höschele; Xiaojie Wang; Barbara Beyeler; Christoph Meier; Adrian Lussi

    2011-01-01

    We present assembly and application of an optical reflectometer for the analysis of dental erosion. The erosive procedure involved acid-induced softening and initial substance loss phases, which are considered to be difficult for visual diagnosis in a clinic. Change of the specular reflection signal showed the highest sensitivity for the detection of the early softening phase of erosion among tested

  5. Sequential application of epsilon-polylysine, lauric arginate and acidic calcium sulfate for inactivation of pathogens on raw chicken and beef

    E-print Network

    Benli, Hakan

    2009-05-15

    Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EC) contamination continues to be one of the major concerns for the microbiological safety of raw poultry and beef products. Application of more than one decontamination agent as a multi-hurdle intervention...

  6. Molecular Structure of Calcium Sulfide

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2003-06-03

    Calcium sulfide in pure form is white and shaped like cubic crystals, and is slightly soluble in water. This is used as a base for luminescent materials. Calcium sulfide is also known as hepar calcies; sulfurated lime. This substance is used in phosphors and as a direct fungicide on powdery mildews and insecticides.

  7. An Improved Calcium Flame Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Robert S.

    1985-01-01

    Indicates that the true red color of calcium can be obtained (using the procedure described by Sorm and Logowski) if the calcium ion solution is mixed with an equal volume of saturated ammonium bromide solution. Suggestions for flame tests of other elements are also noted. (JN)

  8. Calcium Intake: A Lifelong Proposition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amschler, Denise H.

    1985-01-01

    This article reviews the current problem of low calcium intake in the United States among all age groups, the role of calcium in the formation and maintenance of bone mass, and major factors influencing absorption. Osteoporosis is discussed, and current recommendations for Recommended Dietary allowance are provided. (Author/MT)

  9. Calcium crystal-associated diseases.

    PubMed

    Halverson, P B

    1996-05-01

    The significance of calcium-containing crystals is unknown. Circumstantial evidence suggests that crystals are associated with more severe arthritis. Addition of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals to a lapine meniscectomy model of osteoarthritis resulted in greater damage to cartilage compared with meniscectomy alone. Elimination of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals may occur extracellularly by enzymatic degradation. Spermine and spermidine both enhance the degradative activity of alkaline phosphatase on crystals. In familial calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal deposition disease, genetic heterogeneity is likely because one family demonstrated a linkage to chromosome 8q, whereas another did not. Tumoral deposition of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals may occur in single locations without radiographic chondrocalcinosis in other joints. Hydroxyapatite crystals are found in the ligamenta flava from surgical specimens but not as tumoral depositions. Magnesium whitlockite crystals have been found not only in osteoarthritic articular cartilage but also in normal cartilage, suggesting that these crystals may be nonpathologic in at least some cases. PMID:8796988

  10. A Review Paper on Biomimetic Calcium Phosphate Coatings

    PubMed Central

    Lin, X.; de Groot, K.; Wang, D.; Hu, Q.; Wismeijer, D.; Liu, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Biomimetic calcium phosphate coatings have been developed for bone regeneration and repair because of their biocompatibility, osteoconductivity, and easy preparation. They can be rendered osteoinductive by incorporating an osteogenic agent, such as bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2), into the crystalline lattice work in physiological situations. The biomimetic calcium phosphate coating enables a controlled, slow and local release of BMP-2 when it undergoes cell mediated coating degradation induced by multinuclear cells, such as osteoclasts and foreign body giant cells, which mimics a physiologically similar release mode, to achieve sustained ectopic or orthotopic bone formation. Therefore, biomimetic calcium phosphate coatings are considered to be a promising delivery vehicle for osteogenic agents. In this review, we present an overview of biomimetic calcium phosphate coatings including their preparation techniques, physico-chemical properties, potential as drug carrier, and their pre-clinical application both in ectopic and orthotopic animal models. We briefly review some features of hydroxyapatite coatings and their clinical applications to gain insight into the clinical applications of biomimetic calcium phosphate coatings in the near future. PMID:25893016

  11. Diterpene Foliar exudates of Blakiella bartsiifolia and phytotoxicity of clerodanes.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Hernandez, Diego; Oliveros-Bastidas, Alberto; Alonso-Amelot, Miguel E; Calcagno-Pissarelli, Maria Pia

    2014-10-01

    Blakiella bartsiifolia (S.F. Blake), an endemic and rare high altitude plant of the northern Andes, appears well adapted to the prevailing harsh environment owing in part to a thick glandular trichome cover. From foliar exudates, two new clerodanes, 15,16-epoxy-2-hydroxy-3,13(16),14-clerodatrien-20-oic acid (bartsiifolic acid) (2) and Z-15,16-dihydroxy-3,13-clerodien-20-oic acid (barthydrolic acid) (3), were isolated in addition to the known junceic acid (1). In addition, three new alicyclic furanoditerpenes: 1,20-epoxy-1,3(20),6(E),10(E),14-phytapentaen-18-methyl-19-oic acid (blakielic acid) (4), 1,20-epoxy- 1,3(20),10(E),14-phytapentaen-18-methyl-19-oic acid (blakifolic acid) (5) and 1,20-epoxy-1,3(20),6,14-phytatetraen-19-methyl-18-oic acid (dihydrocentipedic acid) (6) were obtained in minor quantity. Seed germination and plantlet growth bioassays on Allium cepa and Lactuca sativa to monitor bioactivity during isolation procedures revealed compounds 1-3 with substantial inhibition comparable with synthetic linuron. PMID:25522526

  12. Application of intact cell-based NFAT-?-lactamase reporter assay for Pasteurella multocida toxin-mediated activation of calcium signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Shuhong; Ho, Mengfei; Wilson, Brenda A.

    2009-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida toxin (PMT) stimulates and subsequently uncouples phospholipase C ?1 (PLC?1) signal transduction through its selective action on the alpha subunit of the Gq protein. Here, we describe the application of an NFAT-?-lactamase reporter assay as a functional readout for PMT-induced activation of the Gq-protein-coupled PLC?1-IP3-Ca2+ signaling pathway. Use of the NFAT-?-lactamase reporter assay with a cell-permeable fluorogenic substrate provides high sensitivity due to the absence of endogenous ?-lactamase activity in mammalian cells. This assay system was optimized for cell density, dose and time exposure of PMT stimulation. It is suited for quantitative characterization of PMT activity in mammalian cells and for use as a high-throughput screening method for PMT deletion and point mutants suitable for vaccine development. This method has application for diagnostic screening of clinical isolates of toxinogenic P. multocida. PMID:18190943

  13. Coupled nitrogen and calcium cycles in forests of the Oregon Coast Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perakis, S.S.; Maguire, D.A.; Bullen, T.D.; Cromack, K.; Waring, R.H.; Boyle, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) is a critical limiting nutrient that regulates plant productivity and the cycling of other essential elements in forests. We measured foliar and soil nutrients in 22 young Douglas-fir stands in the Oregon Coast Range to examine patterns of nutrient availability across a gradient of N-poor to N-rich soils. N in surface mineral soil ranged from 0.15 to 1.05% N, and was positively related to a doubling of foliar N across sites. Foliar N in half of the sites exceeded 1.4% N, which is considered above the threshold of N-limitation in coastal Oregon Douglas-fir. Available nitrate increased five-fold across this gradient, whereas exchangeable magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca) in soils declined, suggesting that nitrate leaching influences base cation availability more than soil parent material across our sites. Natural abundance strontium isotopes (87Sr/86Sr) of a single site indicated that 97% of available base cations can originate from atmospheric inputs of marine aerosols, with negligible contributions from weathering. Low annual inputs of Ca relative to Douglas-fir growth requirements may explain why foliar Ca concentrations are highly sensitive to variations in soil Ca across our sites. Natural abundance calcium isotopes (??44Ca) in exchangeable and acid leachable pools of surface soil measured at a single site showed 1 per mil depletion relative to deep soil, suggesting strong Ca recycling to meet tree demands. Overall, the biogeochemical response of these Douglas-fir forests to gradients in soil N is similar to changes associated with chronic N deposition in more polluted temperate regions, and raises the possibility that Ca may be deficient on excessively N-rich sites. We conclude that wide gradients in soil N can drive non-linear changes in base-cation biogeochemistry, particularly as forests cross a threshold from N-limitation to N-saturation. The most acute changes may occur in forests where base cations are derived principally from atmospheric inputs. ?? 2006 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  14. Coupled nitrogen and calcium cycling in forests of the Oregon Coast Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perakis, Steven S.; Maguire, Douglas A.; Bullen, Thomas D.; Cromack, Kermit; Waring, Richard H.; Boyle, James R.

    2006-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) is a critical limiting nutrient that regulates plant productivity and the cycling of other essential elements in forests. We measured foliar and soil nutrients in 22 young Douglas-fir stands in the Oregon Coast Range to examine patterns of nutrient availability across a gradient of N-poor to N-rich soils. N in surface mineral soil ranged from 0.15 to 1.05% N, and was positively related to a doubling of foliar N across sites. Foliar N in half of the sites exceeded 1.4% N, which is considered above the threshold of N-limitation in coastal Oregon Douglas-fir. Available nitrate increased five-fold across this gradient, whereas exchangeable magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca) in soils declined, suggesting that nitrate leaching influences base cation availability more than soil parent material across our sites. Natural abundance strontium isotopes (87Sr/86Sr) of a single site indicated that 97% of available base cations can originate from atmospheric inputs of marine aerosols, with negligible contributions from weathering. Low annual inputs of Ca relative to Douglas-fir growth requirements may explain why foliar Ca concentrations are highly sensitive to variations in soil Ca across our sites. Natural abundance calcium isotopes (I'44Ca) in exchangeable and acid leachable pools of surface soil measured at a single site showed 1 per mil depletion relative to deep soil, suggesting strong Ca recycling to meet tree demands. Overall, the biogeochemical response of these Douglas-fir forests to gradients in soil N is similar to changes associated with chronic N deposition in more polluted temperate regions, and raises the possibility that Ca may be deficient on excessively N-rich sites. We conclude that wide gradients in soil N can drive non-linear changes in base-cation biogeochemistry, particularly as forests cross a threshold from N-limitation to N-saturation. The most acute changes may occur in forests where base cations are derived principally from atmospheric inputs.

  15. USING A WILD SPECIES, SOLANUM MICRODONTUM, TO MOVE HIGH TUBER CALCIUM TRAIT TO THE CULTIVATED POTATOES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    CULTIVATED potato tuber tissue is naturally deficient in calcium, resulting in many physiological defects and pathogen susceptibilities that affect the quality of the crop. Recent studies have demonstrated that tuber quality of potatoes can be significantly improved by in-season calcium application....

  16. Formate oxidation-driven calcium carbonate precipitation by Methylocystis parvus OBBP.

    PubMed

    Ganendra, Giovanni; De Muynck, Willem; Ho, Adrian; Arvaniti, Eleni Charalampous; Hosseinkhani, Baharak; Ramos, Jose Angel; Rahier, Hubert; Boon, Nico

    2014-08-01

    Microbially induced carbonate precipitation (MICP) applied in the construction industry poses several disadvantages such asammonia release to the air and nitric acid production. An alternative MICP from calcium formate by Methylocystis parvus OBBP is presented here to overcome these disadvantages. To induce calcium carbonate precipitation, M. parvus was incubated at different calcium formate concentrations and starting culture densities. Up to 91.4% ± 1.6% of the initial calcium was precipitated in the methane-amended cultures compared to 35.1% ± 11.9% when methane was not added. Because the bacteria could only utilize methane for growth, higher culture densities and subsequently calcium removals were exhibited in the cultures when methane was added. A higher calcium carbonate precipitate yield was obtained when higher culture densities were used but not necessarily when more calcium formate was added. This was mainly due to salt inhibition of the bacterial activity at a high calcium formate concentration. A maximum 0.67 ± 0.03 g of CaCO3 g of Ca(CHOOH)2(-1) calcium carbonate precipitate yield was obtained when a culture of 10(9) cells ml(-1) and 5 g of calcium formate liter(-)1 were used. Compared to the current strategy employing biogenic urea degradation as the basis for MICP, our approach presents significant improvements in the environmental sustainability of the application in the construction industry. PMID:24837386

  17. SERCaMP: a carboxy-terminal protein modification that enables monitoring of ER calcium homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Mark J; Wires, Emily S; Trychta, Kathleen A; Richie, Christopher T; Harvey, Brandon K

    2014-09-15

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium homeostasis is disrupted in diverse pathologies, including neurodegeneration, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes. Temporally defining calcium dysregulation during disease progression, however, has been challenging. Here we describe secreted ER calcium-monitoring proteins (SERCaMPs), which allow for longitudinal monitoring of ER calcium homeostasis. We identified a carboxy-terminal modification that is sufficient to confer release of a protein specifically in response to ER calcium depletion. A Gaussia luciferase (GLuc)-based SERCaMP provides a simple and sensitive method to monitor ER calcium homeostasis in vitro or in vivo by analyzing culture medium or blood. GLuc-SERCaMPs revealed ER calcium depletion in rat primary neurons exposed to various ER stressors. In vivo, ER calcium disruption in rat liver was monitored over several days by repeated sampling of blood. Our results suggest that SERCaMPs will have broad applications for the long-term monitoring of ER calcium homeostasis and the development of therapeutic approaches to counteract ER calcium dysregulation. PMID:25031430

  18. SERCaMP: a carboxy-terminal protein modification that enables monitoring of ER calcium homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Mark J.; Wires, Emily S.; Trychta, Kathleen A.; Richie, Christopher T.; Harvey, Brandon K.

    2014-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium homeostasis is disrupted in diverse pathologies, including neurodegeneration, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes. Temporally defining calcium dysregulation during disease progression, however, has been challenging. Here we describe secreted ER calcium-monitoring proteins (SERCaMPs), which allow for longitudinal monitoring of ER calcium homeostasis. We identified a carboxy-terminal modification that is sufficient to confer release of a protein specifically in response to ER calcium depletion. A Gaussia luciferase (GLuc)–based SERCaMP provides a simple and sensitive method to monitor ER calcium homeostasis in vitro or in vivo by analyzing culture medium or blood. GLuc-SERCaMPs revealed ER calcium depletion in rat primary neurons exposed to various ER stressors. In vivo, ER calcium disruption in rat liver was monitored over several days by repeated sampling of blood. Our results suggest that SERCaMPs will have broad applications for the long-term monitoring of ER calcium homeostasis and the development of therapeutic approaches to counteract ER calcium dysregulation. PMID:25031430

  19. Effect of Glyphosate-boron Application on Seed Composition and Nitrogen Metabolism in Glyphosate-resistant Soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information is limited on the effect of combined foliar application of glyphosate (Gly) and boron (B) on seed composition and nitrogen metabolism in glyphosate resistant soybean (Glycine max(L.)Merr.). Therefore, the objective of this two-year field study was to evaluate the effects of single foliar...

  20. Sensitivity to calcium intake in calcium stone forming patients.

    PubMed

    Heilberg, I P; Martini, L A; Draibe, S A; Ajzen, H; Ramos, O L; Schor, N

    1996-01-01

    The absorptive or renal origin of hypercalciuria can be discriminated using an acute oral calcium load test (ACLT). Of 86 patients with calcium oxalate kidney stones, 28 (23%) were found to be hypercalciuric (HCa) and 58 (67%) normocalciuric (NCa) on their customary free diet, containing 542 +/- 29 mg/day (mean +/- SE) of calcium. Since the apparently normal 24-hour calcium excretion of many calcium stone formers (CSF) may be due to a combination of high calcium absorption with moderately low calcium intake, all patients were investigated by ACLT. Of 28 HCa patients, 13 (46%) were classified as absorptive (AH) and 15 (54%) as renal hypercalciuria (RH). Of the 58 NCa patients, 38 (65%) presented features of intestinal hyperabsorption and were therefore designated as AH-like, and 20 (35%) as RH-like. To further elucidate the role of dietary calcium in these CSF, a chronic calcium load test (CCLT), consisting of 1 g/day of oral Ca for 7 days, was designed. A positive response to the CCLT was considered to occur when urinary calcium (uCa) was > or = 4 mg/ kg/24 h on the 7th day. Among NCa patients, 29% of AH-like subjects responded to the CCLT and 71% did not; 50% of RH-like subjects also responded and 50% did not. In HCa patients, 85% of AH and 67% of RH subjects maintained uCa > or = 4 mg/kg/24 h after the CCLT and 15% of AH and 23% of RH subjects did not. However, a significant additional increase in mean uCa was not observed among HCa patients. All patients were submitted to a second evaluation of fasting calciuria (Ca/Cr). A modification of this parameter was noticed in 89% of RH-like and 78% of RH patients. In conclusion, these data suggest the presence of subpopulations of patients sensitive or not to calcium intake, regardless of whether the acute response to a calcium overload test suggested AH or RH. The CCLT disclosed dietary hypercalciuria in 21/58 (36%) of previously NCa patients. In these NCa patients, the ACLT may be replaced by the CCLT. The distinction between AH and RH initially evidenced by the ACLT was not further confirmed. These data suggest that either fasting Ca/Cr is not adequate for subclassification of HCa or that AH and RH represent a different spectrum of the same disease, and that a primary resorptive component should also be considered. PMID:8773335

  1. Foliar uptake of cesium from the water column by aquatic macrophytes.

    PubMed

    Pinder, J E; Hinton, T G; Whicker, F W

    2006-01-01

    The probable occurrence and rate of foliar absorption of stable cesium (133Cs) from the water column by aquatic macrophyte species was analyzed following the addition of 133Cs into a small reservoir near Aiken, South Carolina, USA. An uptake parameter u (10(3)Lkg(-1)d(-1)) and a loss rate parameter k (d(-1)) were estimated for each species using time series of 133Cs concentrations in the water and plant tissues. Foliar uptake, as indicated by rapid increases in plant concentrations following the 133Cs addition, occurred in two floating-leaf species, Brasenia schreberi and Nymphaea odorata, and two submerged species, Myriophyllum spicatum and Utricularia inflata. These species had values of u> or =0.75 x 10(3)Lkg(-1)d(-1). Less evidence for foliar uptake was observed in three emergent species, including Typha latifolia. Ratios of u to k for B. schreberi, M. spicatum, N. odorata and U. inflata can be used to estimate concentration ratios (CR) at equilibrium, and these estimates were generally within a factor of 2 of the CR for 137Cs for these species in the same reservoir. This correspondence suggests that foliar uptake of Cs was the principal absorption mechanism for these species. Assessments of: (1) the prevalence of foliar uptake of potassium, rubidium and Cs isotopes by aquatic macrophytes and (2) the possible importance of foliar uptake of Cs in other lentic systems are made from a review of foliar uptake studies and estimation of comparable u and k values from lake studies involving Cs releases. PMID:15990203

  2. Calcium/Calmodulin-Mediated Gravitropic Response in Plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poovaiah, B. W.

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this project was to gain a fundamental understanding of how calcium/calmodulin-mediated signaling is involved in gravity signal transduction in plants. During the period of support, significant progress was made in elucidating the role of calmodulin and its target proteins in gravitropism. This laboratory has made breakthroughs by cloning and characterizing genes that are involved in calcium/calmodulin-mediated signaling. Some of these genes show altered expression under hypergravity and simulated microgravity conditions. A major advance was made in our attempts to understand gravity signal transduction by cloning and characterizing a catalase which requires calcium/calmodulin for its activation. Our results suggest that calcium/calmodulin have dual roles in regulating the level of hydrogen peroxide (H202), a signal molecule that plays a major role in gravitropism. It is well established that auxin plays a major role in gravitropism. Our results indicate that there is a 'cross-talk' between calcium/calmodulin-mediated signaling and auxin-mediated signal transduction. Auxin-regulated SAUR proteins that are involved in gravitropism bind to calmodulin in a calcium-dependent manner. A novel chimeric calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase was cloned and characterized and its role in gravity signal transduction was investigated. These studies have provided some answers to the fundamental questions about how signal molecules such as calcium, H202, and hormones such as auxin bring about the ultimate gravitropic response and the integral role of calmodulin in gravity signal transduction. This NASA-funded study has led to some spinoffs that have applications in solving agricultural problems. The Washington State University Research Foundation has obtained several patents related to this work.

  3. Factors affecting calcium balance in Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jing; Zhang, Qian; Liu, Ailing; Du, Weijing; Wang, Xiaoyan; Hu, Xiaoqi; Ma, Guansheng

    2010-01-01

    Chinese dietary reference intakes (DRIs) for calcium were developed mainly from studies conducted amongst Caucasians, yet a recent review showed that reference calcium intakes for Asians are likely to be different from those of Caucasians (Lee and Jiang, 2008). In order to develop calcium DRIs for Chinese adolescents, it is necessary to explore the characteristics and potential influencing factors of calcium metabolic balance in Chinese adolescents. A total of 80 students (15.1+/-0.8 years) were recruited stratified by gender from a 1-year calcium supplementation study. Subjects were randomly designed to four groups and supplemented with calcium carbonate tablets providing elemental calcium at 63, 354, 660, and 966 mg/day, respectively. Subjects consumed food from a 3-day cycle menu prepared by staff for 10 days. Elemental calcium in samples of foods, feces, and urine was determined in duplicates by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. The total calcium intake ranged from 352 to 1323 mg/day. The calcium apparent absorption efficiency and retention in boys were significantly higher than that in girls (68.7% vs. 46.4%, 480 mg/day vs. 204 mg/day, P<0.05). Calcium retention increased with calcium intakes, but did not reach a plateau. Calcium absorption efficiency in boys increased with calcium intake up to 665 mg/day, and decreased after that. In girls, calcium absorption efficiency decreased with calcium intake. Calcium absorption efficiency increased within 1 year after first spermatorrhea in boys, but decreased with pubertal development in girls. Sex, calcium intake, age, and pubertal development were the most important determinants of calcium absorption (R(2)=0.508, P<0.01) and retention (R(2)=0.745, P<0.05). This study indicates that sex, calcium intake, age, and pubertal development are important factors for calcium retention and absorption during growth, which should be considered for the development of calcium DRIs for Chinese adolescents. PMID:19796716

  4. Alternative technique for calcium phosphate coating on titanium alloy implants.

    PubMed

    Le, Van Quang; Pourroy, Geneviève; Cochis, Andrea; Rimondini, Lia; Abdel-Fattah, Wafa I; Mohammed, Hadeer I; Carradò, Adele

    2014-01-01

    As an alternative technique for calcium phosphate coating on titanium alloys, we propose to functionalize the metal surface with anionic bath containing chlorides of palladium or silver as activators. This new deposition route has several advantages such as controlled conditions, applicability to complex shapes, no adverse effect of heating, and cost effectiveness. A mixture of hydroxyapatite and calcium phosphate hydrate is deposited on the surface of Ti-6Al-4V. Calcium phosphate coating is built faster compared with the one by Simulated Body Fluid. Cell morphology and density are comparable to the control one; and the results prove no toxic compound is released into the medium during the previous seven days of immersion. Moreover, the cell viability is comparable with cells cultivated with the virgin medium. These experimental treatments allowed producing cytocompatible materials potentially applicable to manufacture implantable devices for orthopedic and oral surgeries. PMID:24646569

  5. [Calcium signaling in platelet activation].

    PubMed

    Wu, Hong

    2012-12-01

    The activation of platelet is the initial factor for natural hemostasis and thrombosis and the elevation in intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) plays a key role in platelet activation. The increased [Ca2+]i is due to the entry of extracellular Ca2+ through the plasma membrane (PM) and the release of intracellular Ca2+ through Ca2+ pools, which are divided mainly into two types: one is the dense tubular system (DTS), and the other is lysosome-like acidic organelles (LLAO). The former releases calciums via the signal transduction pathway of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3), and the latter via nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP). Sequentially, store-operated calcium channels (SOCC) are responsible for most of calcium influx from extracellular compartment, which is regulated by the cooperation of stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1), a Ca2+ sensor molecule in intracellular stores, and ORAI calcium release-activated calcium modulator 1 (Orail), a plasma membrane protein. Their regulation will emplify the results of elevation of [Ca2+]i. There are two different pumps to remove the intracellular free Ca2+ after the elevation of [Ca2+]i, one is sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ -ATPase (SERCA) to pump Ca2+ back to the intracellular stores, the other is the plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase (PMCA) which pumps Ca2+ out of the cells, to maintain low intracellular calcium concentration relatively in the resting. PMID:23520759

  6. Title: In vitro meets in silico: measuring and modeling the influence of calcium gradients on cell In tissue engineering applications, scaffolds act as carriers for cells and growth factors that restore

    E-print Network

    Wolper, Pierre

    of 3D printing by Sirris (Liège) and tested in the lab of Prof. Lambert. This thesis should lead their introduction, calcium phosphates (CaP) have proven to be an excellent bone substitute material, however

  7. Calcium, dairy products and osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Heaney, R P

    2000-04-01

    Osteoporosis is a multifactorial disorder in which nutrition plays a role but does not account for the totality of the problem. 139 papers published since 1975 and describing studies of the relationship of calcium intake and bone health are briefly analyzed. Of 52 investigator-controlled calcium intervention studies, all but two showed better bone balance at high intakes, or greater bone gain during growth, or reduced bone loss in the elderly, or reduced fracture risk. This evidence firmly establishes that high calcium intakes promote bone health. Additionally, three-fourths of 86 observational studies were also positive, indicating that the causal link established in investigator-controlled trials can be found in free-living subjects as well. The principal reason for failure to find an association in observational studies is the weakness of the methods available for estimating long-term calcium intake. While most of the investigator-controlled studies used calcium supplements, six used dairy sources of calcium; all were positive. Most of the observational studies were based on dairy calcium also, since at the time the studies were done, higher calcium intakes meant higher dairy intakes. All studies evaluating the issue reported substantial augmentation of the osteoprotective effect of estrogen by high calcium intakes. Discussion is provided in regard to the multifactorial complexity of osteoporotic response to interventions and to the perturbing effect in controlled trials of the bone remodeling transient, as well as about how inferences can validly be drawn from the various study types represented in this compilation. PMID:10759135

  8. Core-Shell Collagen Peptide Chelated Calcium/Calcium Alginate Nanoparticles from Fish Scales for Calcium Supplementation.

    PubMed

    Guo, Honghui; Hong, Zhuan; Yi, Ruizao

    2015-07-01

    We report simple methods for preparing collagen peptide chelated calcium (cpcc) and a novel cpcc-loaded nanoparticle from marine fish scales for calcium supplementation. Cpcc nanoparticles have an average diameter of approximately 150 nm and a calcium content of up to 130.4 g/kg. Calcium alginate was selected to encapsulate cpcc for the preparation of core-shell cpcc/calcium alginate nanoparticles. The core-shell nanoparticles were mainly 200 to 500 nm in diameter. The ratio of calcium to sulfur was approximately 1.6:1. In vivo experiments indicated both cpcc and core-shell cpcc were able to improve calcium absorption and prevent calcium deficiency. Especially core-shell cpcc worked well to increase femur bone mineral density and femur calcium content in rats significantly. The study demonstrated that cpcc and core-shell cpcc nanoparticles were ideal for calcium supplementation. PMID:25990921

  9. Foliar Treatments of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid for Control of Common Scab in Potato Have Beneficial Effects on Powdery Scab Control

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Hannah Katherine; Tegg, Robert Stephen; Corkrey, Ross; Wilson, Calum Rae

    2014-01-01

    Prior studies have shown that applications of the synthetic auxin 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) to the foliage of potato plants can reduce common scab. Here field and glasshouse trials suggest that 2,4-D foliar treatments may also reduce the biologically distinct tuber disease, powdery scab. Significant correlations between suppression of common and powdery scab from the field trials suggested an interaction between the two diseases or possible additional broad spectrum mechanisms of enhanced defence against pathogen invasion provided by 2,4-D treatment. PMID:25009832

  10. Using Soluble Calcium to Stimulate Plant Growth

    E-print Network

    Feagley, Sam E.; Fenn, Lloyd B.

    1998-09-09

    , onions, wheat, oats and barley (Figs. 5, 6). Within 30 hours of application, onion and beet bulbs increased in weight by up to 50 percent over bulbs grown with nitrate (without ammonium). The weight of the entire plant, however, did not increase... increases yields from 14 to 50 percent. However, the precise amount of calci- 0 50 100 150 200 0 0.5:1 1:1 1.5:1 2:1 Onion bulbs Onion tops Calcium?Ammonium ratio R e la tiv e n itr o ge n de po si tio n (% ) 0 50...

  11. Total body calcium analysis. [neutron irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewellen, T. K.; Nelp, W. B.

    1974-01-01

    A technique to quantitate total body calcium in humans is developed. Total body neutron irradiation is utilized to produce argon 37. The radio argon, which diffuses into the blood stream and is excreted through the lungs, is recovered from the exhaled breath and counted inside a proportional detector. Emphasis is placed on: (1) measurement of the rate of excretion of radio argon following total body neutron irradiation; (2) the development of the radio argon collection, purification, and counting systems; and (3) development of a patient irradiation facility using a 14 MeV neutron generator. Results and applications are discussed in detail.

  12. Foliar uptake of cesium, iodine and strontium and their transfer to the edible parts of beans, potatoes and radishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oestling, O.; Kopp, P.; Burkart, W.

    Considerable fractions of radionuclide solutions deposited on the surface of the leaves may be transferred to the edible parts of plants. In radishes we observed a transfer of more than 40% of the applied cesium radioisotope within a few days. A rather similar uptake was found for beans and potatoes when harvested a month after application of radioactivity. As much as 60% of the applied cesium-isotope remained in (or on) the potato leaves even 8 days after application. The major part could however be washed off the leaves a few hours after application. When radishes were showered with water within 7 h after the application of activity the uptake was greatly reduced. No competitive effect of potassium chloride for the foliar uptake of cesium was found. A 10 -2 M colloidal suspension of Prussian Blue, a chelating agent for monovalent alkali metals such as potassium, cesium, or other monovalent cations, applied as droplets to the leaves one day prior to application of active cesium was found to strongly inhibit the transfer of cesium to the radish. The transfer of iodine and strontium to the edible parts was found to be negligible (or slower) as compared to cesium. In most cases no detectable amounts of these two nuclides were transfered to the edible parts of the radish after 2-5 weeks.

  13. Influence of dietary calcium on bone calcium utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, M.; Roland, D.A. Sr.; Clark, A.J.

    1986-02-01

    In Experiment 1, 10 microCi /sup 45/Ca/day were administered to 125 hens for 10 days. Hens were then allocated to five treatments with calcium levels ranging from .08 to 3.75% of the diet. In Experiment 2, hens with morning oviposition times were randomly allocated to 11 treatments that were periods of time postoviposition ranging from 6 hr to 24 hr, in 2-hr increments (Experiment 2). At the end of each 2-hr period, eggs from 25 hens were removed from the uterus. The 18-, 20-, and 22-hr treatments were replicated three times. In Experiment 3, hens were fed either ad libitum or feed was withheld the last 5 or 6 hr before oviposition. In Experiment 4, hens were fed 10 microCi of /sup 45/Ca for 15 days to label skeletal calcium. Hens were divided into two groups and fed a .08 or 3.75% calcium diet for 2 days. On the second day, 25 hens fed the 3.75% calcium diet were intubated with 7 g of the same diet containing .5 g calcium at 1700, 2100, 0100, 0500, and 0700 hr. The measurements used were egg weight, shell weight, and /sup 45/Ca content of the egg shell. Results indicated a significant linear or quadratic regression of dietary calcium levels on /sup 45/Ca accumulation in eggshells and eggshell weight (Experiment 1). As the calcium level of the diet increased, eggshell weight increased and /sup 45/Ca recovery decreased. Utilization of skeletal calcium for shell formation ranged from 28 to 96%. In Experiment 2, the rate of shell calcification was not constant throughout the calcification process but varied significantly.

  14. Sr Incorporation and Calcium Isotopic Fractionation during Calcium Carbonate Precipitation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Niedermayr; M. Dietzel; S. J. Köhler; F. Böhm; B. Kisakurek; A. Eisenhauer

    2009-01-01

    Element substitution and calcium isotopic fractionation can provide information about the mechanisms of CaCO3 precipitation, precipitation rates, temperatures and solution chemistry. In the present study precipitation experiments for the formation of the CaCO3 polymorphs: calcite, aragonite and vaterite were carried out. Calcium carbonates are formed at various Mg\\/Ca ratios or in presence of polyaspartic acid at temperatures between 5 and

  15. Calcium Isotope Fractionation of Inorganic and Biogenic Calcium Carbonates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Boehm; N. Gussone; J. Tang; M. Dietzel; B. Kisakurek; M. Amini; S. Reynaud; J. Reitner; W. Dullo; A. Eisenhauer

    2006-01-01

    Calcium isotope fractionation during precipitation of various experimental and biogenic calcium carbonates depends on mineralogy. Fractionation of 44Ca\\/40Ca increases from calcite to aragonite by about 0.7 permil. The temperature dependence of the fractionation is similar in calcites and aragonites (0.015 permil\\/K) and can be explained by the temperature-control on the carbonate ion concentration and consequently on precipitation rate. Following theoretical

  16. Original article Intestinal absorption of calcium

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Intestinal absorption of calcium from yogurt in lactase-deficient subjects absorption of calcium (FACa) was measured using radioactive cal- cium and 200 mg of calcium carrier provided the control period prior to yogurt consumption, mean calcium in- take was 819 mg per day in L(-) and 931 mg

  17. Drought enhances folivory by shifting foliar metabolomes in Quercus ilex trees.

    PubMed

    Rivas-Ubach, Albert; Gargallo-Garriga, Albert; Sardans, Jordi; Oravec, Michal; Mateu-Castell, Laia; Pérez-Trujillo, Míriam; Parella, Teodor; Ogaya, Romà; Urban, Otmar; Peñuelas, Josep

    2014-05-01

    At the molecular level, folivory activity on plants has mainly been related to the foliar concentrations of nitrogen (N) and/or particular metabolites. We studied the responses of different nutrients and the whole metabolome of Quercus ilex to seasonal changes and to moderate field experimental conditions of drought, and how this drought may affect folivory activity, using stoichiometric and metabolomic techniques. Foliar potassium (K) concentrations increased in summer and consequently led to higher foliar K : phosphorus (P) and lower carbon (C) : K and N : K ratios. Foliar N : P ratios were not lowest in spring as expected by the growth rate hypothesis. Trees exposed to moderate drought presented higher concentrations of total sugars and phenolics and these trees also experienced more severe folivory attack. The foliar increases in K, sugars and antioxidant concentrations in summer, the driest Mediterranean season, indicated enhanced osmoprotection under natural drought conditions. Trees under moderate drought also presented higher concentrations of sugars and phenolics; a plant response to avoid water loss. These shifts in metabolism produced an indirect relationship between increased drought and folivory activity. PMID:24443979

  18. Ozone air pollution and foliar injury development on native plants of Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Novak, Kristopher; Skelly, John M; Schaub, Marcus; Kräuchi, Norbert; Hug, Christian; Landolt, Werner; Bleuler, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the foliar sensitivity to ozone exposure of 12 tree, shrub, and herbaceous species native to southern Switzerland and determine the seasonal cumulative ozone exposures required to induce visible foliar injury. The study was conducted from the beginning of May through the end of August during 2000 and 2001 using an open-top chamber research facility located within the Lattecaldo Cantonal Forest Nursery in Canton Ticino, southern Switzerland (600 m asl). Plants were examined daily and dates of initial foliar injury were recorded in order to determine the cumulative AOT40 ppb h ozone exposure required to cause visible foliar injury. Plant responses to ozone varied significantly among species; 11 species exhibited visible symptoms typical of exposures to ambient ozone. The symptomatic species (from most to least sensitive) were Populus nigra, Viburnum lantana, Salix alba, Crataegus monogyna, Viburnum opulus, Tilia platyphyllos, Cornus alba, Prunus avium, Fraxinus excelsior, Ribes alpinum, and Tilia cordata; Clematis spp. did not show foliar symptoms. Of the 11 symptomatic species, five showed initial injury below the critical level AOT40 10 ppmh O3 in the 2001 season. PMID:12804826

  19. Br J Nutr . Author manuscript Calcium carbonate suppresses haem toxicity markers without calcium

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    calcium phosphate side effects on colon carcinogenesis Ossama Allam , Diane Bahuaud , Sylviane Taché. Unexpectedly, high-calcium phosphate control diet-fed rats had more preneoplastic lesions in the colon than low-calcium, in contrast with previously tested calcium phosphate diet. The results suggest that calcium carbonate

  20. Calcium metal to synthesize amorphous or cryptocrystalline calcium phosphates A. Cuneyt Tas

    E-print Network

    Tas, A. Cuneyt

    Calcium metal to synthesize amorphous or cryptocrystalline calcium phosphates A. Cuneyt Tas Metal Phosphate Synthesis Metallic calcium was never used before as the calcium source in synthesizing solutions. The formation of calcium phosphate (CaP) in synthesis solutions was immediately initiated

  1. "Caged Calcium" in Aplysia Pacemaker Neurons Characterization of Calcium-activated Potassium and

    E-print Network

    Zucker, Robert S.

    "Caged Calcium" in Aplysia Pacemaker Neurons Characterization of Calcium-activated Potassium-Anatomy, Universityof California, Berkeley, California 94720 ABSTRACT We have studied calcium-activated potassium neurons, using photolysis of a calcium chelator (nitr-5 or nitr-7) to release "caged calcium

  2. Effect of calcium and fat intake on calcium metabolism in calves.

    PubMed

    Fielding, A S; Miller, W J; Neathery, M W; Gentry, R P; Blackmon, D M

    1985-11-01

    Ten male Holstein calves were fed diets with or without 5% added animal fat in combination with low and high dietary calcium (.15 or .98%) for 4 wk. After 3 wk, the animals were orally dosed with calcium-45. One week later they were killed and tissue samples taken. Except for lower calcium-45 in bile, added dietary fat had no marked influence on calcium metabolism. Net absorption of calcium-45 (not excreted in feces) ranged from 82% for calves fed low calcium to 53% for those given high calcium. Calcium-45 in bone was substantially higher in calves fed .15% calcium. Tailbone biopsies revealed rapid uptake of calcium-45 with approximately as much incorporated during the 1st d as in the following 6 d. Calcium-45 in blood peaked 24 h following dosing. Calves fed .15% calcium had higher calcium-45 in blood and bile than those receiving .98% calcium. Calcium-45 values in soft tissue were low and did not differ materially among treatments. The decreases in radioactive calcium absorption and bone deposition with higher dietary calcium indicated that variable absorption was a major factor in calcium homeostasis. Added fat did not materially effect calcium metabolism with either low or high dietary calcium. PMID:4078121

  3. The structural consequences of calcium crystal deposition.

    PubMed

    Durcan, Laura; Bolster, Ferdia; Kavanagh, Eoin C; McCarthy, Geraldine M

    2014-05-01

    Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate and basic calcium phosphate (BCP) crystals are the most common calcium-containing crystals associated with rheumatic disease. Clinical manifestations of calcium crystal deposition include acute or chronic inflammatory and degenerative arthritides and certain forms of periarthritis. The intra-articular presence of BCP crystals correlates with the degree of radiographic degeneration. Calcium crystal deposition contributes directly to joint degeneration. Vascular calcification is caused by the deposition of calcium hydroxyapatite crystals in the arterial intima. These deposits may contribute to local inflammation and promote further calcification, thus aggravating the atherosclerotic process. Calcium crystal deposition results in substantial structural consequence in humans. PMID:24703349

  4. CONCENTRACIÓN FOLIAR DE NUTRIENTES EN PLANTACIONES DE DIFE- RENTES EDADES DE Pinus taeda L. EN EL NORTE DE MISIONES, ARGENTINA. FOLIAR NUTRIENT CONCENTRATIONS IN PLANTATIONS OF DIFFERENT AGES OF Pinus taeda L, IN NORTH Of MISIONES, ARGENTINA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan F. Goya; Carolina A. Pérez; Roberto Fernández

    SUMMARY The relationship between net primary productivity in Pinus taeda plantations and foliar nutrient concentrations during the productive cycle was investigated. Three different ages were considered from 7 to 21 years of the plantation. Foliar concentrations were compa- red between these ages. Nutrient concentrations were analysed between different ages of leave formation. No significant differences were found among formation ages

  5. Discovery of the Calcium Isotopes

    E-print Network

    J. L. Gross; M. Thoennessen

    2010-09-08

    Twenty four calcium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  6. Discovery of the Calcium Isotopes

    E-print Network

    Gross, J L

    2010-01-01

    Twenty four calcium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  7. High-performance concretes from calcium aluminate cements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen L. Scrivener; Jean-Louis Cabiron; Roger Letourneux

    1999-01-01

    Calcium aluminate cements have a radically different chemistry to Portland cements. Due principally to their higher cost, they do not compete directly with Portland cements. Nevertheless, concretes based on these cements have very high performance in specific applications. Two of these are discussed in this article: resistance to acid attack and particularly biogenic corrosion and abrasion resistance in hydraulic structures.

  8. IP3 Receptor-Operated Calcium Entry

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Katsuhiko Mikoshiba (Japan; University of Tokyo and the Laboratory for Developmental Neurobiology REV)

    2000-09-26

    This Perspective by Mikoshiba and Hattori is the third in a series on cellular calcium release mechanisms. The authors describe the regulated release of calcium from intracellular stores by the inositol 1,4,5 trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) and the relationship of this release mechanism to calcium influx from the extracellular milieu through store-operated calcium channels. They discuss a model proposing that intracellular and plasma membrane calcium channels are functionally and physically coupled.

  9. Medical therapy, calcium oxalate urolithiasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruml, L. A.; Pearle, M. S.; Pak, C. Y.

    1997-01-01

    The development of diagnostic protocols that identify specific risk factors for calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis has led to the formulation of directed medical regimens that are aimed at correcting the underlying metabolic disturbances. Initiation of these treatment programs has reduced markedly the rate of stone formation in the majority of patients who form stones. This article discusses the rationale that underlies the choice of medical therapy for the various pathophysiologic causes of calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis and the appropriate use of available medications.

  10. Effects of ozone on the foliar histology of the mastic plant (Pistacia lentiscus L.).

    PubMed

    Reig-Armiñana, J; Calatayud, V; Cerveró, J; García-Breijo, F J; Ibars, A; Sanz, M J

    2004-11-01

    An open-top chamber study was conducted to investigate the tissue and cellular-level foliar effects of ozone (O3) on a Mediterranean evergreen species, the mastic plant (Pistacia lentiscus L.). Plants were exposed at three different O3 levels, and leaf samples were collected periodically from the beginning of the exposure. Although no visible foliar injury was evident, alterations of the plastids and vacuoles in the mesophyll were observed. Senescence processes were accelerated with an anomalous stacking of tannin vacuoles, and a reduction in the size and number of the chloroplasts. Overall, most of the modifications induced by O3 were consistent with previously reported observations on deciduous broadleaf species, with the exception of alterations in the cells covering the secretory channels, reported here as a new finding. Comments on the feasibility of using microscopy to validate O3 related field observations and subtle foliar injury are also given. PMID:15312944

  11. Purple Phototrophic Bacterium Enhances Stevioside Yield by Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni via Foliar Spray and Rhizosphere Irrigation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jing; Wang, Yiming; Lin, Xiangui

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the effects of foliar spray and rhizosphere irrigation with purple phototrophic bacteria (PPB) on growth and stevioside (ST) yield of Stevia. rebaudiana. The S. rebaudiana plants were treated by foliar spray, rhizosphere irrigation, and spray plus irrigation with PPB for 10 days, respectively. All treatments enhanced growth of S. rebaudiana, and the foliar method was more efficient than irrigation. Spraying combined with irrigation increased the ST yield plant -1 by 69.2% as compared to the control. The soil dehydrogenase activity, S. rebaudiana shoot biomass, chlorophyll content in new leaves, and soluble sugar in old leaves were affected significantly by S+I treatment, too. The PPB probably works in the rhizosphere by activating the metabolic activity of soil bacteria, and on leaves by excreting phytohormones or enhancing the activity of phyllosphere microorganisms. PMID:23825677

  12. Calcium isotope analysis by mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Boulyga, Sergei F

    2010-01-01

    The variations in the isotopic composition of calcium caused by fractionation in heterogeneous systems and by nuclear reactions can provide insight into numerous biological, geological, and cosmic processes, and therefore isotopic analysis finds a wide spectrum of applications in cosmo- and geochemistry, paleoclimatic, nutritional, and biomedical studies. The measurement of calcium isotopic abundances in natural samples has challenged the analysts for more than three decades. Practically all Ca isotopes suffer from significant isobaric interferences, whereas low-abundant isotopes can be particularly affected by neighboring major isotopes. The extent of natural variations of stable isotopes appears to be relatively limited, and highly precise techniques are required to resolve isotopic effects. Isotope fractionation during sample preparation and measurements and instrumental mass bias can significantly exceed small isotope abundance variations in samples, which have to be investigated. Not surprisingly, a TIMS procedure developed by Russell et al. (Russell et al., 1978. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 42: 1075-1090) for Ca isotope measurements was considered as revolutionary for isotopic measurements in general, and that approach is used nowadays (with small modifications) for practically all isotopic systems and with different mass spectrometric techniques. Nevertheless, despite several decades of calcium research and corresponding development of mass spectrometers, the available precision and accuracy is still not always sufficient to achieve the challenging goals. The present article discusses figures of merits of presently used analytical methods and instrumentation, and attempts to critically assess their limitations. In Sections 2 and 3, mass spectrometric methods applied to precise stable isotope analysis and to the determination of (41)Ca are described. Section 4 contains a short summary of selected applications, and includes tracer experiments and the potential use of biological isotope fractionation in medical studies, paleoclimatic and paleoceanographic, and other terrestrial as well as extraterrestrial investigations. PMID:19551693

  13. Eleven-year response of foliar chemistry to chronic nitrogen and sulfur additions at the Bear Brooks Watershed in Maine

    SciTech Connect

    Jose Alexander Elvir; Gregory J. White

    2005-06-01

    The foliar chemistry of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.), American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.), and red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) was studied from 1993 to 2003 at the Bear Brook Watershed in Maine (BBWM). The BBWM is a paired-watershed forest ecosystem study, with one watershed treated bimonthly since 1989 with ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4) at a rate of 25.2 kg N·ha–1·year–1. Foliar N concentrations were higher in all tree species within the treated watershed compared with trees within the reference watershed. Foliar Ca and Mg concentrations were lower in American beech and red spruce within the treated watershed. There were no significant differences in foliar K concentrations between watersheds. Foliar P and Mn concentration differences between watersheds were inconsistent among years. Differences in foliar N concentrations between watersheds declined over time in sugar maple but not in red spruce or American beech. Differences in foliar Ca and Mg concentrations between the treated and reference watersheds increased over time for American beech and red spruce, primarily because of a consistent decline in concentrations of these nutrients in trees within the treated watershed. No temporal trends in foliar Ca and Mg concentration differences between watersheds were observed for sugar maple.

  14. Air-pollution-induced foliar injury to natural populations of jack and white pine in a chronically polluted environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas V. Armentano; Eric S. Menges

    1987-01-01

    Air-pollution-induced foliar injury was determined for natural populations of jack pine (Pinus banksiana) and white pine (P. strobus) on Lake Michigan sand dunes in Indiana. Chlorotic mottle and tip necrosis were found in all populations and one or both symptoms appeared in most trees. However, considering the proximity of the populations to pollution sources, foliar injury levels were notably low.

  15. Abstract--Extensive foliar damage to Utah juniper ( Juniperus osteosperma [Torr.] Little) has been observed in southern Utah.

    E-print Network

    258 Abstract--Extensive foliar damage to Utah juniper ( Juniperus osteosperma [Torr.] Little) has (Juniperus osteosperma [Torr.] Little) has been observed in the Natural Bridges National Monument) analyzed 255 Utah juniper (Juniperus osteo- sperma) trees for foliar mineral composition, total soluble

  16. [Models for estimating foliar Fe and Mn Concentration of Armeniaca vulgaris cv. Luntaibaixing using spectral reflectance].

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhen-Zhu; Pan, Cun-De; Wang, Shi-Wei; Guo, Zhi-Chao; Wang, Qing-Tao; Ding, Fan; Li, Yuan

    2014-09-01

    Aimed at providing technology for a rapid nutrition diagnosis system of micronutrients in Armeniaca vulgaris cv. Luntaibaixing, we established an element concentration estimation model for its foliar ferrum (Fe) and manganese (Mn) concentration based on spectrum analysis. The foliar spectrum reflectance at various phenological periods of fruit development under different soil fertility conditions was measured by Unispec-SC spectrometer. By analyzing the correlation of foliar Fe, Mn concentration at various phenological periods of fruit development, the spectrum reflectance R? and its first-order differential f' (R?), we filtered out its sensitive bands. And we established an element concentration estimation model for its foliar Fe and Mn at various phenological periods of fruit development with the linear regression model. The results showed that the spectral sensitive bands of foliar Fe in fruit setting period were 873 and 874 nm, 375 and 437 nm in fruit core-hardening period, 836 and 837 nm in maturity period and 325 and 1 054 nm in post-harvest period. However, the spectral sensitive bands of Mn were 913 and 1 129 nm, 425 and 970 nm, 390 and 466 nm, 423 and 424 nm, respectively. The Fe and Mn concentration of A. vulgaris cv. Luntaibaixing leaves were the most relevant to the first-order differential f' (RD) of its spectrum reflectance, whose linear spectrum estimation model fitting degree was the highest and reached to a significant or highly significant level. It showed that the spectral sensitive bands of Fe and Mn element varied with different phenological periods of fruit development. The spectrum estimation models for its foliar Fe and Mn concentration could be established with linear model according to its first-order differential f' (R?). PMID:25532350

  17. Calcium Induced Release of Calcium from the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum of Skinned Skeletal Muscle Fibres

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Makoto Endo; Minoru Tanaka; Yasuo Ogawa

    1970-01-01

    The repeated contractions which can be observed in skinned fibres in appropriate concentrations of caffeine, Ca2+ and chelating agent suggest that calcium release is a regenerative process in which calcium itself causes the release of calcium from the reticulum.

  18. Calcium balance in Drakensberg crag lizards (Pseudocordylus melanotus melanotus; Cordylidae).

    PubMed

    van der Wardt, S T; Kik, M J; Klaver, P S; Janse, M; Beynen, A C

    1999-12-01

    Eight nonreproductive female Drakensberg crag lizards (Pseudocordylus melanotus melanotus) were each fed diets of mealworms and calcium capsules with various calcium levels. Excreta were collected and analyzed for calcium and uric acid content. The amount of calcium in the feces was calculated. The lizards appeared to be able to maintain calcium balance at calcium intakes equivalent to 1.4-5.6% calcium in the dry matter of feed. Calcium balance was maintained by adapting intestinal calcium absorption. PMID:10749442

  19. Calcium stimulation of gastrin and gastric acid secretion: effect of small doses of calcium carbonate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Behar; M Hitchings; R D Smyth

    1977-01-01

    Oral calcium carbonate (0-5 g, pH 9-4) increased serum gastrin and gastric acid output with slight but insignificant change in serum calcium. A similar rise in serum calcium during an intravenous infusion of calcium gluconate failed to increase serum gastrin and gastric acid output. Both intragastric calcium actions were abolished by acidification of the calcium carbonate solution (pH 1-0). The

  20. Localised calcium release events in cells from the muscle of guinea-pig gastric fundus.

    PubMed

    Parsons, S P; Bolton, T B

    2004-02-01

    After enzymatic dispersion of the muscle of the guinea-pig gastric fundus, single elongated cells were observed which differed from archetypal smooth muscle cells due to their knurled, tuberose or otherwise irregular surface morphology. These, but not archetypal smooth muscle cells, consistently displayed spontaneous localized (i.e. non-propagating) intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)) release events. Such calcium events were novel in their magnitude and kinetic profiles. They included short transient events, plateau events and events which coalesced spatially or temporally (compound events). Quantitative analysis of the events with an automatic detection programme showed that their spatio-temporal characteristics (full width and full duration at half-maximum amplitude) were approximately exponentially distributed. Their amplitude distribution suggested the presence of two release modes. Carbachol application caused an initial cell-wide calcium transient followed by an increase in localized calcium release events. Pharmacological analysis suggested that localized calcium release was largely dependent on external calcium entry acting on both inositol trisphosphate receptors (IP(3)Rs) and ryanodine receptors (RyRs) to release stored calcium. Nominally calcium-free external solution immediately and reversibly abolished all localized calcium release without blocking the initial transient calcium release response to carbachol. This was inhibited by 2-APB (100 microm), ryanodine (10 or 50 microm) or U-73122 (1 microm). 2-APB (100 microm), xestospongin C (XeC, 10 microm) or U-73122 (1 microm) blocked both spontaneous localized calcium release and localized release stimulated by 10 microm carbachol. Ryanodine (50 microm) also inhibited spontaneous release, but enhanced localized release in response to carbachol. This study represents the first characterization of localized calcium release events in cells from the gastric fundus. PMID:14608011

  1. Calcium homeostasis in barley aleurone

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.L.

    1990-02-21

    Under the auspices of the Department of Energy we investigated calcium homeostasis in aleurone cells of barley. This investigation was initiated to explore the role played by extracellular Ca{sup 2+} in gibberellic acid (GA)-induced synthesis and secretion of hydrolases in the aleurone layer. We have focused our attention on four topics that relate to the role of Ca{sup 2+} in regulating the synthesis of {alpha}-amylase. First, we determined the stoichiometry of Ca{sup 2+} binding to the two principal classes of barley {alpha}-amylase and examined some of the biochemical and physical properties of the native and Ca{sup 2+}-depleted forms of the enzyme. Second, since {alpha}-amylase is a Ca{sup 2+} containing metalloenzyme that binds one atom of Ca{sup 2+} per molecule, we developed methods to determine the concentration of Ca{sup 2+} in the cytosol of the aleurone cell. We developed a technique for introducing Ca{sup 2+}-sensitive dyes into aleurone protoplasts that allows the measurement of Ca{sup 2+} in both cytosol and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Third, because the results of our Ca{sup 2+} measurements showed higher levels of Ca{sup 2+} in the ER than in the cytosol, we examined Ca{sup 2+} transport into the ER of control and GA-treated aleurone tissue. And fourth, we applied the technique of patch-clamping to the barley aleurone protoplast to examine ion transport at the plasma membrane. Our results with the patch-clamp technique established the presence of K{sup +} channels in the plasma membrane of the aleurone protoplast, and they showed that this cell is ideally suited for the application of this methodology for studying ion transport. 34 refs.

  2. Calcium Signaling Network in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Shilpi

    2007-01-01

    Calcium ion (Ca2+) is one of the very important ubiquitous intracellular second messenger molecules involved in many signal transduction pathways in plants. The cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]cyt) have been found to increased in response to many physiological stimuli such as light, touch, pathogenic elicitor, plant hormones and abiotic stresses including high salinity, cold and drought. This Ca2+ spikes normally result from two opposing reactions, Ca2+ influx through channels or Ca2+ efflux through pumps. The removal of Ca2+ from the cytosol against its electrochemical gradient to either the apoplast or to intracellular organelles requires energized ‘active’ transport. Ca2+-ATPases and H+/Ca2+ antiporters are the key proteins catalyzing this movement. The increased level of Ca2+ is recognised by some Ca2+-sensors or calcium-binding proteins, which can activate many calcium dependent protein kinases. These kinases regulate the function of many genes including stress responsive genes, resulted in the phenotypic response of stress tolerance. Calcium signaling is also involved in the regulation of cell cycle progression in response to abiotic stress. The regulation of gene expression by cellular calcium is also crucial for plant defense against various stresses. However, the number of genes known to respond to specific transient calcium signals is limited. This review article describes several aspects of calcium signaling such as Ca2+ requiremant and its role in plants, Ca2+ transporters, Ca2+-ATPases, H+/ Ca2+-antiporter, Ca2+-signature, Ca2+-memory and various Ca2+-binding proteins (with and without EF hand). PMID:19516972

  3. Calcium fortification systems differ in bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Heaney, Robert P; Rafferty, Karen; Dowell, M Susan; Bierman, June

    2005-05-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the bioavailability of calcium from two fortification systems used in orange juice. The design was randomized crossover, within-subject. The subjects were 25 healthy premenopausal women in an academic health sciences center. Two commercially marketed calcium-fortified orange juices, ingested in an amount providing 500 mg calcium, were taken at breakfast after an overnight fast. The two fortification systems tested were calcium citrate malate and a combination of tricalcium phosphate and calcium lactate (tricalcium phosphate/calcium lactate). The main outcome measure was the area under the curve (AUC) for the increase in serum calcium from 0 to 9 hours after ingesting the test calcium source. Statistical analyses performed were repeated measures analysis of variance, testing source, and sequence. AUC 9 was 48% greater for calcium citrate malate than for tricalcium phosphate/calcium lactate ( P < .001); absorbed calcium calculated from AUC 9 values (mean+/-standard error of the mean) was 148+/-9.0 mg and 100+/-8.9 mg for calcium citrate malate and tricalcium phosphate/calcium lactate, respectively. The results indicate that equivalent calcium contents on a nutritional label do not guarantee equivalent nutritional value. Nutritionists and dietetics professionals should encourage manufacturers of fortified products to provide information on bioavailability. PMID:15883561

  4. Calcium bioavailability and its relation to osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Weaver, C M

    1992-06-01

    The balance of data suggests that calcium intake has a positive influence on bone mass in premenopausal women and has a preventive effect on the rate of bone loss in postmenopausal women. Even small advantages in bone mass provide great reductions in fracture rates. However, the majority of studies have tested the relationship of calcium intake and bone mass using calcium supplements. Few intervention studies have manipulated calcium intake through foods. Calcium is only useful to the skeleton once it is absorbed. Therefore, the bioavailability of dietary calcium becomes important in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Isotopic tracer techniques have only recently been employed in the labeling of foods with calcium isotopes for evaluation of calcium absorption. Milk calcium is usually the referent food which is typically absorbed at 20-40% depending on the calcium status of the subject. The absorptive efficiency of most vegetable sources is as good or better than for dairy foods, unless they have high concentrations of oxalic acid (spinach, for example) or phytic acid (wheat bran cereal, for example). Few vegetable sources are concentrated sources of calcium. Therefore, it would be difficult to obtain adequate intakes of calcium to protect against osteoporosis without liberal use of dairy products in the diet. Alternately, calcium supplements provide concentrated amounts of absorbable calcium, but they do not provide other nutrients necessary for skeletal growth and maintenance. PMID:1579576

  5. Calcium-induced calcium release and gap junctions mediate large-scale calcium waves in olfactory ensheathing cells in situ.

    PubMed

    Stavermann, Maren; Meuth, Patrick; Doengi, Michael; Thyssen, Anne; Deitmer, Joachim W; Lohr, Christian

    2015-08-01

    Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) are a specialised type of glial cells, supporting axon growth and guidance during development and regeneration of the olfactory nerve and the nerve layer of the olfactory bulb. We measured calcium signalling in OECs in olfactory bulb in-toto preparations using confocal and epifluorescence microscopy and the calcium indicator Fluo-4. We identified two subpopulations of olfactory bulb OECs: OECs in the outer sublamina of the nerve layer responded to purinergic neurotransmitters such as adenosine triphosphate with calcium transients, while OECs in the inner sublamina of the nerve layer did not respond to neurotransmitters. However, the latter generated spontaneous calcium waves that covered hundreds of cells. These calcium waves persisted in the presence of tetrodotoxin and in calcium-free saline, but were abolished after calcium store depletion with cyclopiazonic acid or inositol trisphosphate receptor blockage with 2-APB. Calcium waves could be triggered by laser photolysis of caged inositol trisphosphate. Blocking purinoceptors with PPADS had no effect on calcium wave propagation, whereas blocking gap junctions with carbenoxolone or meclofenamic acid entirely suppressed calcium waves. Increasing calcium buffer capacity in OECs with NP-EGTA ("caged" Ca(2+)) prevented calcium wave generation, and laser photolysis of NP-EGTA in a small group of OECs resulted in a calcium increase in the irradiated cells followed by a calcium wave. We conclude that calcium waves in OECs can be initiated by calcium-induced calcium release via InsP3 receptors and propagate through gap junctions, while purinergic signalling is not involved. PMID:26091864

  6. Multiple Calcium Stores: Separate but Interacting

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Hon Cheung Lee (University of Minnesota; Department of Pharmacology REV)

    2000-07-11

    Multiple mechanisms exist for increasing the concentration of intracellular calcium. This Perspective by Lee is one in a series on intracellular calcium release mechanisms and focuses on the calcium store operated by nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP). The characterization of the NAADP-operated calcium store as separate from the inositol trisphosphate (IP3)-operated and cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR)-operated calcium stores is discussed. Lee also addresses the role of NAADP in regulating intracellular calcium fluctuations during fertilization and hormonal activation of pancreatic acinar cells.

  7. Multi-Functions of Carbonated Calcium Deficient Hydroxyapatite (CDHA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Huan

    Natural bone is a complex composite mainly constituted of inorganic minerals and organic collagen molecules. Calcium phosphate (CaP) based materials have been proposed as the predominant bone substitute for bone tissue engineering applications due to their chemical similarity to bone mineral. Amorphous carbonated calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA) is an important compound among CaP materials because of the amorphous crystallite structure. The presence of extra ions in its lattice structure not only influences cell attachment and proliferation of osteoblasts, but also helps in bone metabolism. Biomimetic coating approach is the most widely used approach to produce CDHA coatings to implant. It is a process using simulated body fluid (SBF) to deposit bone-like CDHA coating to various material surfaces. The CDHA formation mechanism, SBF compositions and reacting conditions of biomimetic coating have already been sufficiently studied and compared in the past 20 years. It is an attempt in this thesis to explore new applications of SBF in biomedical research, focusing on different biomaterial applications: 1) based on the low temperature reaction condition of SBF, bisphosphonate incorporated CDHA coatings were deposited onto Ti6Al4V surface for the treatment of osteoporosis; 2) amorphous calcium phosphate nanospheres with extra elements in the lattice structure were prepared by a novel microwave assisted approach, providing a new potential of CaP materials production; 3) CDHA particles formed in SBF can be used as great fillers with biopolymers for preparing biocomposites for biomedical applications; 4) based on the high activity of CDHA amorphous structure and the stabilization ability of ethanol, yttrium and europium doped calcium phosphates were prepared using CDHA as a sacrificing template. In the end, future work based on these observations in the thesis is addressed, including areas of drug delivery, biocomposite fabrication and preparation of functionalized calcium phosphate materials.

  8. Denoising Two-Photon Calcium Imaging Data

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Wasim Q.; Schummers, James; Sur, Mriganka; Brown, Emery N.

    2011-01-01

    Two-photon calcium imaging is now an important tool for in vivo imaging of biological systems. By enabling neuronal population imaging with subcellular resolution, this modality offers an approach for gaining a fundamental understanding of brain anatomy and physiology. Proper analysis of calcium imaging data requires denoising, that is separating the signal from complex physiological noise. To analyze two-photon brain imaging data, we present a signal plus colored noise model in which the signal is represented as harmonic regression and the correlated noise is represented as an order autoregressive process. We provide an efficient cyclic descent algorithm to compute approximate maximum likelihood parameter estimates by combing a weighted least-squares procedure with the Burg algorithm. We use Akaike information criterion to guide selection of the harmonic regression and the autoregressive model orders. Our flexible yet parsimonious modeling approach reliably separates stimulus-evoked fluorescence response from background activity and noise, assesses goodness of fit, and estimates confidence intervals and signal-to-noise ratio. This refined separation leads to appreciably enhanced image contrast for individual cells including clear delineation of subcellular details and network activity. The application of our approach to in vivo imaging data recorded in the ferret primary visual cortex demonstrates that our method yields substantially denoised signal estimates. We also provide a general Volterra series framework for deriving this and other signal plus correlated noise models for imaging. This approach to analyzing two-photon calcium imaging data may be readily adapted to other computational biology problems which apply correlated noise models. PMID:21687727

  9. Effects of calcium nitride and calcium carbonate gasifying agents on the porosity of Ni 3 Ti–TiC composites produced by combustion synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas E. Burkes; Jack Milwid; Guglielmo Gottoli; John J. Moore

    2006-01-01

    Combustion synthesis or Self-propagating High Temperature Synthesis (SHS) has been used to produce highly porous materials\\u000a intended for biomedical applications. Two novel gasifying agents, calcium nitride and calcium carbonate, were employed to\\u000a increase product porosity and pore size during the combustion synthesis reaction for two SHS chemical compositions. A greater\\u000a increase in apparent porosity of the products was gained using

  10. Efeito de extratos vegetais no progresso de doenças foliares do cafeeiro orgânico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Florisvalda S. Santos; Paulo E. Souza; Mário L. V. Resende; Edson A. Pozza; Júlio César Miranda; Pedro M. Ribeiro Júnior; Felipe C. Manerba

    2007-01-01

    Effect of vegetal extracts on the progress of foliar diseases in organic coffee The effect of treatments with plant extracts on the induction of resistance against rust, brown eye spot and Phoma was evaluated in coffee grown in the organic crop system. The assay was set up in an organic crop in Santo Antônio do Amparo, MG, made up of

  11. Neonicotinoid Seed Treatments and Foliar Sprays on Sugarbeet for Control of Severe Curly Top

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarbeet production in semiarid regions is hindered by yield loss caused with Beet severe curly top virus and other closely related species vectored by the beet leafhopper. In 2010, a study was established to investigate the level of control from seed treatments and supplemental foliar insecticide...

  12. DEFENDER: A HIGH-YIELDING, PROCESSING POTATO CULTIVAR WITH FOLIAR AND TUBER RESISTANCE TO LATE BLIGHT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato cultivar ‘Defender’ has resistance to both foliar and tuber infection by newer genotypes of Phytophthora infestans. Resistance was derived from its Polish parent, KSA195-90. Released in 2004, Defender is high yielding, white-skinned, and suitable for processing into frozen potato products di...

  13. Foliar water uptake: a common water acquisition strategy for plants of the redwood forest.

    PubMed

    Limm, Emily Burns; Simonin, Kevin A; Bothman, Aron G; Dawson, Todd E

    2009-09-01

    Evaluations of plant water use in ecosystems around the world reveal a shared capacity by many different species to absorb rain, dew, or fog water directly into their leaves or plant crowns. This mode of water uptake provides an important water subsidy that relieves foliar water stress. Our study provides the first comparative evaluation of foliar uptake capacity among the dominant plant taxa from the coast redwood ecosystem of California where crown-wetting events by summertime fog frequently occur during an otherwise drought-prone season. Previous research demonstrated that the dominant overstory tree species, Sequoia sempervirens, takes up fog water by both its roots (via drip from the crown to the soil) and directly through its leaf surfaces. The present study adds to these early findings and shows that 80% of the dominant species from the redwood forest exhibit this foliar uptake water acquisition strategy. The plants studied include canopy trees, understory ferns, and shrubs. Our results also show that foliar uptake provides direct hydration to leaves, increasing leaf water content by 2-11%. In addition, 60% of redwood forest species investigated demonstrate nocturnal stomatal conductance to water vapor. Such findings indicate that even species unable to absorb water directly into their foliage may still receive indirect benefits from nocturnal leaf wetting through suppressed transpiration. For these species, leaf-wetting events enhance the efficacy of nighttime re-equilibration with available soil water and therefore also increase pre-dawn leaf water potentials. PMID:19585154

  14. Effects of Foliar Herbivory on Male and Female Reproductive Traits of Wild Radish, Raphanus raphanistrum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kari Lehtila; Sharon Y. Strauss

    1999-01-01

    Abstract. In this study, we examined how foliar herbivory affected the relative allo- cation to male and female reproductive traits in a hermaphroditic plant. In two experiments, one in the greenhouse and the other in a growth chamber, leaves of full sibling plants of the annual wild radish, Raphanus raphanistrum, received one of four damage treatments to leaves (0, 25%

  15. The effectiveness of a foliar spray of kaolinite clay in reducing transpiration of cotton plants

    E-print Network

    McMichael, Bobbie Lee

    1967-01-01

    THE EFFECTIVENESS OF A FOLIAR SPRAY OI" KAOLINITE CLAY IN REDUCING TRANSPIRATION OF COTTON PLANTS A Thesis Bobble L. McMichael Submitted to the Graduate Col]ege cf the Texas A&I University ir, Partial fulfillment of the requirements...

  16. Observations on the foliar nematode, Aphelenchoides besseyi, infecting tuberose and rice in India

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The foliar nematode Aphelenchoides besseyi causes white tip disease in rice (Oryza sativa L.) and floral malady in tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa L.). This nematode is widely distributed in the rice fields of many states of India, including West Bengal (WB), Andhra Pradesh (AP), Madhya Pradesh (MP) a...

  17. SPECIATION OF GAS-PHASE AND FINE PARTICLE EMISSIONS FROM BURNING OF FOLIAR FUELS: JOURNAL ARTICLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    NRMRL-RTP-P- 620 Hays**, M.D., Geron*, C.D., Linna**, K.J., Smith*, N.D., and Schauer, J.J. Speciation of Gas-Phase and Fine Particle Emissions from Burning of Foliar Fuels. Submitted to: Environmental Science & Technology EPA/600/J-02/234, http://pubs.acs.org/journals/esthag/...

  18. Proceedings of the Sudden Oak Death Third Science Symposium Effect of Flooding on Root and Foliar

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    Proceedings of the Sudden Oak Death Third Science Symposium 363 Effect of Flooding on Root and Foliar Disease Severity on Rhododendron Caused by Phytophthora ramorum1 Niklaus J. Grünwald,2 Megan Kitner,3 and Robert G. Linderman4 Abstract It is generally thought that extensive periods of flooding can

  19. Reduction of foliar dislodgable pesticide residues from orange trees through spraywashing with water or lime solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. E. Carman; F. A. Gunther; W. E. Westlake; Y. Iwata

    1976-01-01

    Conclusions The volume of water applied is the single important factor in reducing foliar dislodgable residues by tree-washing with an oscillating boom spray rig, and none of the other washing parameters tested could be altered so as to increase washing efficiency and allow a reduction in the amount of water used. The additiion of lime to the washing solution did

  20. CORRELATION BETWEEN OZONE EXPOSURE AND VISIBLE FOLIAR INJURY IN PONDEROSA AND JEFFREY PINES. (R825433)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ozone exposure was related to ozone-induced visible foliar injury in ponderosa and Jeffrey pines growing on the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California. Measurements of ozone exposure, chlorotic mottle and fascicle retention were collected during the years ...

  1. Foliar injury air pollution surveys of eastern white pine ( Pinus strobus L.): A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James P. Bennett; Robert L. Anderson; Manfred L. Mielke; James J. Ebersole

    1994-01-01

    A thorough review and critical evaluation of field surveys from 1900 to the present of foliar injury to Pinus strobus L. supposedly caused by air pollution was undertaken. Ninety percent of the surveys failed to meet current scientific standards of acceptability. The conduct and peer review of surveys has been poor and the correct injury symptoms have not always been

  2. Experimental evaluation of the foliar flag hypothesis using fruits of Rhus glabra (L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José M. Facelli

    1993-01-01

    I tested experimentally whether the presence of colorful plastic ovals (simulating foliar “flags”) attached to infructescences of Rhus glabra increase fruit removal by birds in a forest-oldfield border. I used a factorial experimental design testing for the effect of size (small or large) and color (yellow or red) of the flags. There was also a control, without flags. Large red

  3. Ozone exposure thresholds and foliar injury on forest plants in Switzerland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. VanderHeyden; J. Skelly; J. Innes; C. Hug; J. Zhang; W. Landolt; P. Bleuler

    2001-01-01

    Canton Ticino in southern Switzerland is exposed to some of the highest concentrations of tropospheric ozone in Europe. During recent field surveys in Canton Ticino, foliar symptoms identical to those caused by ozone have been documented on native tree and shrub species. In Europe, the critical ozone level for forest trees has been defined at an AOT40 of 10 ppm.h

  4. Ozone exposure thresholds and foliar injury on forest plants in Switzerland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. VanderHeyden; J. Skelly; J. Innes; C. Hug; J. Zhang; W. Landolt; P. Bleuler

    2000-01-01

    Canton Ticino in southern Switzerland is exposed to some of the highest concentrations of tropospheric ozone in Europe. During recent field surveys in Canton Ticino, foliar symptoms identical to those caused by ozone have been documented on native tree and shrub species. In Europe, the critical ozone level for forest trees has been defined at an AOT40 of 10 ppm.h

  5. Foliar absorption of intercepted rainfall improves woody plant water status most during drought.

    PubMed

    Breshears, David D; McDowell, Nathan G; Goddard, Kelly L; Dayem, Katherine E; Martens, Scott N; Meyer, Clifton W; Brown, Karen M

    2008-01-01

    A large proportion of rainfall in dryland ecosystems is intercepted by plant foliage and is generally assumed to evaporate to the atmosphere or drip onto the soil surface without being absorbed. We demonstrate foliar absorption of intercepted rainfall in a widely distributed, continental dryland, woody-plant genus: Juniperus. We observed substantial improvement in plant water status, exceeding 1.0 MPa water potential for drought-stressed plants, following precipitation on an experimental plot that excluded soil water infiltration. Experiments that wetted shoots with unlabeled and with isotopically labeled water confirmed that water potential responded substantially to foliar wetting, that these responses were not attributable to re-equilibration with other portions of the xylem, and that magnitude of response increased with water stress. Foliar absorption is not included in most ecological, hydrological, and atmospheric models; has implications for interpreting plant isotopic signatures; and not only supplements water acquisition associated with increases in soil moisture that follow large or repeated precipitation events, but also enables plants to bypass soil water uptake and benefit from the majority of precipitation events, which wet foliage but do not increase soil moisture substantially. Foliar absorption of intercepted water could be more important than previously appreciated, especially during drought when water stress is greatest. PMID:18376545

  6. Effects of Foliar Applied Sulfur and Commercial Growth Regulators in Wheat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Hussain; M. H. Leitch

    2008-01-01

    During the year 1999, two glasshouse experiments (Experiments 1 and 2) were conducted at the University of Wales Aberystwyth, UK to investigate the effects of foliar applied sulfur (S) in wheat in terms of its potential as a growth regulator and to compare the effects with that of commercial growth regulators, chlormequat (CC) and gibberellic acid (GA3). In Experiment 1,

  7. Cold hardiness and foliar disease resistance of North American and Asian Fragaria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirty-two wild strawberry genotypes and two commercial cultivars were obtained from the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Research Service (ARS), National Clonal Germplasm Repository-Corvallis (NCGR) and planted in the field to test cold hardiness and foliar disease resistance at th...

  8. Phenology of foliar and volatile terpenoid production for Thuja plicata families under differential nutrient availability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Owen T. Burney; Anthony S. Davis; Douglass F. Jacobs

    Herbivores use chemoreception to determine forage quality of plants. Certain terpenoid compounds produced by regenerating conifers may deter herbivory through negative feedback resulting from consumption or olfactory detection. Plant resource availability may influence the biosynthesis of terpenoids, yet terpenoid production in relation to changes in foliar chemistry is not well understood. Western redcedar (Thuja plicata Donn ex. D. Don) seedlings

  9. Inheritance of fruit, foliar and plant habit attributes in Capsicum L.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Considerable diversity exists in Capsicum L. germplasm for fruit and leaf shape and size, as well as plant habit. Utilizing F1, F2 and backcross generations developed from diverse parental stocks, this report describes the inheritance patterns and relationships between unique foliar characters and ...

  10. Control of stripe rust of spring wheat with foliar fungicides, 2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nine foliar fungicide treatments were tested for efficacy to control stripe rust on spring wheat at Pullman, Washington during the 2007 growth season using a randomized completed block design experiment with non-treated plots as the experimental control. Susceptible wheat variety ‘Lemhi’ was used i...

  11. Visualizing Calcium Signaling in Astrocytes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    R. Douglas Fields (National Institutes of Health; National Institute of Child Health and Human Development REV)

    2010-11-09

    Astrocytes are nonneuronal cells in the brain (glia) that do not generate electrical impulses but communicate by chemical signaling. This communication can be observed under a microscope with fluorescent calcium indicators that glow more brightly when the concentration of calcium increases inside the cell. Astrocytes release adenosine 5?-triphosphate and other cell signaling molecules that excite membrane receptors on other astrocytes to cause an increase in intracellular calcium in the recipient cell. Many of the substances released by astrocytes also excite neurons, and astrocytes have on their own cell membrane many of the same neurotransmitter receptors used by neurons to communicate across synapses. This allows astrocytes to respond to neural impulse activity, communicate among other astrocytes, and influence neuronal communication by taking up or releasing neurotransmitters from synapses.

  12. Molecular Structure of Calcium Monoxide

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2003-06-03

    Calcium Oxide is a caustic white solid sparingly soluble in water; the commercial form is prepared by roasting calcium carbonate limestone in kilns until all the carbon dioxide is driven off. Calcium oxide is also known as burnt lime or caustic lime. This lime was used in glass production. Its ability to work with silicates is also used in modern metal production (steel, magnesium, aluminum, and other non-ferrous metals) industries to remove impurities as slag. It is also used in water and sewage treatment to reduce acidity; in agriculture to improve acid soils; and in pottery, concrete, paints and the food industry (pH adjuster for ice milk mix, dietary Supplements, dough conditioner, and yeast food).

  13. Alginate-controlled formation of nanoscale calcium carbonate and hydroxyapatite mineral phase within hydrogel networks.

    PubMed

    Xie, Minli; Olderøy, Magnus Ø; Andreassen, Jens-Petter; Selbach, Sverre Magnus; Strand, Berit L; Sikorski, Pawel

    2010-09-01

    A one-step method was used to make nanostructured composites from alginate and calcium carbonate or calcium phosphate. Nanometer-scale mineral phase was successfully formed within the gel network of alginate gel beads, and the composites were characterized. It was found that calcite was the dominating polymorph in the calcium carbonate mineralized beads, while stoichiometric hydroxyapatite was formed in the calcium phosphate mineralized beads. A combination of electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and powder X-ray diffraction showed that alginate played an active role in controlling mineral size, morphology and polymorphy. For the calcium phosphate mineralized beads, alginate was shown to modulate stoichiometric hydroxyapatite with low crystallinity at room temperature, which may have important applications in tissue engineering. The results presented in this work demonstrate important aspects of alginate-controlled crystallization, which contributes to the understanding of composite material design. PMID:20359556

  14. 21 CFR 582.2729 - Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. 582.2729 Section...Agents § 582.2729 Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

  15. 21 CFR 182.2729 - Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. 182...Anticaking Agents § 182.2729 Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

  16. 21 CFR 182.2729 - Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. 182...Anticaking Agents § 182.2729 Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

  17. 21 CFR 182.2729 - Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. 182...Anticaking Agents § 182.2729 Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

  18. 21 CFR 182.2729 - Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. 182...Anticaking Agents § 182.2729 Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

  19. 21 CFR 582.2729 - Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. 582.2729 Section...Agents § 582.2729 Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

  20. 21 CFR 582.2729 - Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. 582.2729 Section...Agents § 582.2729 Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

  1. 21 CFR 582.2729 - Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. 582.2729 Section...Agents § 582.2729 Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

  2. 21 CFR 582.2729 - Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. 582.2729 Section...Agents § 582.2729 Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

  3. 21 CFR 182.2729 - Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. 182...Anticaking Agents § 182.2729 Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

  4. Effect of vitamin D or calcium deficiency on duodenal, jejunal and ileal calcium-binding protein and on plasma calcium

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Effect of vitamin D or calcium deficiency on duodenal, jejunal and ileal calcium-binding protein Josas. Summary. In vitamin D-deficient pigs the amount of intestinal calcium-binding protein (CaBP. In chicks and rats, 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OHD,) is the major circulating metabolite of vitamin D3

  5. Estimation of presynaptic calcium currents and endogenous calcium buffers at the frog neuromuscular junction with two different calcium fluorescent dyes

    PubMed Central

    Samigullin, Dmitry; Fatikhov, Nijaz; Khaziev, Eduard; Skorinkin, Andrey; Nikolsky, Eugeny; Bukharaeva, Ellya

    2015-01-01

    At the frog neuromuscular junction, under physiological conditions, the direct measurement of calcium currents and of the concentration of intracellular calcium buffers—which determine the kinetics of calcium concentration and neurotransmitter release from the nerve terminal—has hitherto been technically impossible. With the aim of quantifying both Ca2+ currents and the intracellular calcium buffers, we measured fluorescence signals from nerve terminals loaded with the low-affinity calcium dye Magnesium Green or the high-affinity dye Oregon Green BAPTA-1, simultaneously with microelectrode recordings of nerve-action potentials and end-plate currents. The action-potential-induced fluorescence signals in the nerve terminals developed much more slowly than the postsynaptic response. To clarify the reasons for this observation and to define a spatiotemporal profile of intracellular calcium and of the concentration of mobile and fixed calcium buffers, mathematical modeling was employed. The best approximations of the experimental calcium transients for both calcium dyes were obtained when the calcium current had an amplitude of 1.6 ± 0.08 pA and a half-decay time of 1.2 ± 0.06 ms, and when the concentrations of mobile and fixed calcium buffers were 250 ± 13 ?M and 8 ± 0.4 mM, respectively. High concentrations of endogenous buffers define the time course of calcium transients after an action potential in the axoplasm, and may modify synaptic plasticity. PMID:25709579

  6. THE CALCIUM EEQUIEEMENT OF ADULT MAN AND THE UTILIZATION OF THE CALCIUM IN MILK AND IN CALCIUM GLUCONATE 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. R. STEGGERDA; H. H. MITCHELL

    The calcium requirement of the adult organism relates to the replacement of endogenous losses of calcium from the body, mainly through the kidneys and the alimentary tract. While the cause of these losses is quite obscure, their ex istence has been definitely established in many published ex periments on human subjects. We may consider the endo genous loss of calcium

  7. Habitat-specific differences in plasticity of foliar ?13C in temperate steppe grasses

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yanjie; Zhang, Lirong; Niu, Haishan; Sun, Yue; Xu, Xingliang

    2014-01-01

    A decrease in foliar ?13C with increasing precipitation is a common tendency in steppe plants. However, the rate of decrease has been reported to differ between different species or populations. We here hypothesized that plant populations in the same habitat of temperate steppes may not differ in foliar ?13C response patterns to precipitation, but could differ in the levels of plasticity of foliar ?13C across different habitats. In order to test this hypothesis, we conducted controlled watering experiments in northeast China at five sites along a west–east transect at latitude 44°N, which show substantial interannual fluctuations and intra-annual changes in precipitation among them. In 2001, watering treatment (six levels, three replicates) was assigned to 18 plots at each site. The responses of foliar ?13C to precipitation (i.e., the sum of watering and rainfall) were determined in populations of several grass species that were common across all sites. Although similar linear regression slopes were observed for populations of different species growing at the same site, significantly different slopes were obtained for populations of the same species growing at different sites. Further, the slope of the line progressively decreased from Site I to Site V for all species in this study. These results suggest habitat-specific differences in plasticity of foliar ?13C in temperate steppe grasses. This indicates that species' ?13C response to precipitation is conservative at the same site due to their long-term acclimation, but the mechanism responsible behind this needs further investigations. PMID:25035804

  8. Atmospheric change alters foliar quality of host trees and performance of two outbreak insect species.

    PubMed

    Couture, John J; Meehan, Timothy D; Lindroth, Richard L

    2012-03-01

    This study examined the independent and interactive effects of elevated carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and ozone (O(3)) on the foliar quality of two deciduous trees species and the performance of two outbreak herbivore species. Trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) and paper birch (Betula papyrifera) were grown at the Aspen FACE research site in northern Wisconsin, USA, under four combinations of ambient and elevated CO(2) and O(3). We measured the effects of elevated CO(2) and O(3) on aspen and birch phytochemistry and on gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) and forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria) performance. Elevated CO(2) nominally affected foliar quality for both tree species. Elevated O(3) negatively affected aspen foliar quality, but only marginally influenced birch foliar quality. Elevated CO(2) slightly improved herbivore performance, while elevated O(3) decreased herbivore performance, and both responses were stronger on aspen than birch. Interestingly, elevated CO(2) largely offset decreased herbivore performance under elevated O(3). Nitrogen, lignin, and C:N were identified as having strong influences on herbivore performance when larvae were fed aspen, but no significant relationships were observed for insects fed birch. Our results support the notion that herbivore performance can be affected by atmospheric change through altered foliar quality, but how herbivores will respond will depend on interactions among CO(2), O(3), and tree species. An emergent finding from this study is that tree age and longevity of exposure to pollutants may influence the effects of elevated CO(2) and O(3) on plant-herbivore interactions, highlighting the need to continue long-term atmospheric change research. PMID:21971584

  9. Climatic limits on foliar growth during major droughts in the Southwestern U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weiss, Jeremy L.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Overpeck, Jonathan T.

    2012-01-01

    Pronounced droughts during the 1950s and 2000s in the Southwestern U.S.A. (SW) provide an opportunity to compare mesoscale ecosystem responses to anomalously dry conditions before and during the regional warming that started in the late 1970s. This year-round warming has produced fewer cool season freezes, losses in regional snowpack, an 8-10 day advance in spring onset, and hotter summers, all of which should affect vegetation differently across seasons and elevations. Here, we examine indices that represent climatic limits on foliar growth for both drought periods, and evaluate these indices for areas that experienced tree mortality during the 2000s drought. Relative to the 1950s drought, warmer conditions during the 2000s drought decreased the occurrence of temperatures too low for foliar growth at lower elevations in winter and higher elevations in summer. Higher vapor pressure deficits (VPDs) largely driven by warmer temperatures in the more recent drought were more limiting to foliar growth from spring through summer at lower and middle elevations. At many locations where tree mortality occurred during the 2000s drought, low-temperature constraints on foliar growth were extremely unlimiting, whereas VPD constraints were extremely limiting from early spring through late autumn. Our analysis shows that in physiographically complex regions like the SW, seasonality and elevational gradients are important for understanding vegetative responses to warming. It also suggests that continued warming will increase the degree to which VPD limits foliar growth during future droughts, and expand its reach to higher elevations and other seasons.

  10. Variations of foliar carbon isotope discrimination and nutrient concentrations in Artemisia ordosica and Caragana korshinskii at the southeastern margin of China's Tengger Desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Liangju; Xiao, Honglang; Liu, Xiaohong

    2006-05-01

    Seasonal variations in foliar stable carbon isotope discrimination (?) of Artemisia ordosica and Caragana korshinskii and correlations of foliar ? with N, P, and K concentrations were studied under different planting regimes at the southeastern margin of China’s Tengger Desert. Foliar ?, N, P, and K concentrations and the correlations of ? with N, P, and K differed between the species and planting regimes. Foliar ?, P and K concentrations in A. ordosica were markedly higher than in C. korshinskii, while foliar N concentrations in C. korshinskii was significantly higher than in A. ordosica. There were no significant differences in N, P, and K concentrations in C. korshinskii between planting regimes, but foliar ? was significantly increased after June in mixed-species planting. In A. ordosica foliar N concentrations in mixed-species planting and foliar ? in single-species planting were significantly higher than those of corresponding planting regimes. According to water-use efficiency (WUE) calculated based on foliar ?, and on N, P, and K concentrations, C. korshinskii’s survival may profit from its higher WUE, whereas A. ordosica can avoid drought damage by its higher P and K concentrations in leaves in arid or semi-arid environments. The complex correlations of foliar ? with foliar N, P and K suggested that water in C. korshinskii and water and P nutrition in A. ordosica were the key factors limiting their growth.

  11. Dairy Dilemma: Are You Getting Enough Calcium?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Dairy Dilemma Dairy Dilemma Are You Getting Enough Calcium? You may be avoiding dairy products because of ... But dairy products are a major source of calcium, vitamin D and other nutrients that are important ...

  12. Calcium Regulation of an Actin Spring

    E-print Network

    Tam, Barney K.

    Calcium is essential for many biological processes involved in cellular motility. However, the pathway by which calcium influences motility, in processes such as muscle contraction and neuronal growth, is often indirect ...

  13. Magnesium/Calcium Competition at Excitable Membranes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belzer, Bill; Fry, Panni

    1998-01-01

    Considers some consequences of altering intracellular calcium supply by magnesium concentration changes. Focuses on using this procedure as an exercise with allied health students as they witness therapeutic uses of magnesium and other calcium entry inhibitors. (DDR)

  14. Towards the development of calcium ion batteries

    E-print Network

    Rogosic, John

    2014-01-01

    A novel system for the study of calcium-ion electroactive materials has been developed, characterized, and utilized to screen a number of candidate calcium intercalation compounds. The system is comprised of a dried, ...

  15. 21 CFR 582.3189 - Calcium ascorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3189 Calcium ascorbate. (a) Product. Calcium ascorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  16. 21 CFR 582.3221 - Calcium propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3221 Calcium propionate. (a) Product. Calcium propionate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  17. 21 CFR 182.3225 - Calcium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3225 Calcium sorbate. (a) Product. Calcium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  18. 21 CFR 182.3189 - Calcium ascorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3189 Calcium ascorbate. (a) Product. Calcium ascorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  19. 21 CFR 582.3189 - Calcium ascorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3189 Calcium ascorbate. (a) Product. Calcium ascorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  20. 21 CFR 582.3225 - Calcium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3225 Calcium sorbate. (a) Product. Calcium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  1. 21 CFR 182.3189 - Calcium ascorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3189 Calcium ascorbate. (a) Product. Calcium ascorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  2. 21 CFR 182.3225 - Calcium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3225 Calcium sorbate. (a) Product. Calcium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  3. 21 CFR 582.3225 - Calcium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3225 Calcium sorbate. (a) Product. Calcium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  4. 21 CFR 582.3221 - Calcium propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3221 Calcium propionate. (a) Product. Calcium propionate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  5. 21 CFR 582.3225 - Calcium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3225 Calcium sorbate. (a) Product. Calcium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  6. 21 CFR 582.3221 - Calcium propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3221 Calcium propionate. (a) Product. Calcium propionate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  7. 21 CFR 182.3189 - Calcium ascorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3189 Calcium ascorbate. (a) Product. Calcium ascorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  8. 21 CFR 182.3225 - Calcium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3225 Calcium sorbate. (a) Product. Calcium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  9. 21 CFR 582.3221 - Calcium propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3221 Calcium propionate. (a) Product. Calcium propionate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  10. 21 CFR 582.3225 - Calcium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3225 Calcium sorbate. (a) Product. Calcium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  11. 21 CFR 582.3189 - Calcium ascorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3189 Calcium ascorbate. (a) Product. Calcium ascorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  12. 21 CFR 182.3225 - Calcium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3225 Calcium sorbate. (a) Product. Calcium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  13. 21 CFR 182.3189 - Calcium ascorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3189 Calcium ascorbate. (a) Product. Calcium ascorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  14. 21 CFR 582.3189 - Calcium ascorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3189 Calcium ascorbate. (a) Product. Calcium ascorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  15. Deformation of the Bowditch staircase in Ca(2+)-overloaded mammalian cardiac tissue--a calcium phenomenon?

    PubMed

    Löhn, M; Szymanski, G; Markwardt, F

    1996-01-01

    Concentrations of 1-4 mumol l-1 isoproterenol cause both in right ventricular papillary muscles and in enzymatically isolated myocytes of the guinea-pig a Ca2+ overload-induced state which is functionally characterized by biphasic (multiphasic) twitches and biphasic (multiphasic) intracellular calcium transients, respectively, during excitation-contraction coupling. This state was stabilized in the in vitro experiments for some hours by a co-ordination of the interstimulus interval, the temperature of the superfusion fluid and the addition of calcium agonists. The functional stability is the precondition for the reproducibility of the experimental results particularly after the application of long-lasting stimulation programmes. Changes in the shape of biphasic contractions were compared with changes in the time course of biphasic intracellular calcium transients using three manipulations of a different kind: (1) the interruption of the steady pacing rhythm, (2) the variation of the interstimulus interval, (3) the addition of ryanodine. It was shown that: (1) The BOWDITCH staircase in calcium overloaded multicellular preparations is changed in that each individual component of the twitch passes through its own staircase. A homologous behaviour can be observed in the configuration of the phasic and tonic component of biphasic intracellular calcium transients. (2) At different driving frequencies the relative proportion of the two components of a biphasic twitch corresponds to the time integrals of the two components of biphasic intracellular calcium transients. (3) Ryanodine suppresses both the first component of the biphasic twitch and the phasic component of the biphasic intracellular calcium transient. The SR Ca(2+)-ATPase inhibitor thapsigargin increases the second component of the biphasic calcium transient. This supports the hypothesis that the size of the tonic component is in part determined by intracellular calcium reuptake. The results of both kinds of experiments would be compatible with the assumption that in calcium overloaded mammalian cardiac cells calcium reaches the contractile system directly as well as via two intracellular stores ('extended two-Ca-store concept'). PMID:8901450

  16. Synaptic calcium regulation in hair cells of the chicken basilar papilla.

    PubMed

    Im, Gi Jung; Moskowitz, Howard S; Lehar, Mohammed; Hiel, Hakim; Fuchs, Paul Albert

    2014-12-10

    Cholinergic inhibition of hair cells occurs by activation of calcium-dependent potassium channels. A near-membrane postsynaptic cistern has been proposed to serve as a store from which calcium is released to supplement influx through the ionotropic ACh receptor. However, the time and voltage dependence of acetylcholine (ACh)-evoked potassium currents reveal a more complex relationship between calcium entry and release from stores. The present work uses voltage steps to regulate calcium influx during the application of ACh to hair cells in the chicken basilar papilla. When calcium influx was terminated at positive membrane potential, the ACh-evoked potassium current decayed exponentially over ?100 ms. However, at negative membrane potentials, this current exhibited a secondary rise in amplitude that could be eliminated by dihydropyridine block of the voltage-gated calcium channels of the hair cell. Calcium entering through voltage-gated channels may transit through the postsynaptic cistern, since ryanodine and sarcoendoplasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase blockers altered the time course and magnitude of this secondary, voltage-dependent contribution to ACh-evoked potassium current. Serial section electron microscopy showed that efferent and afferent synaptic structures are juxtaposed, supporting the possibility that voltage-gated influx at afferent ribbon synapses influences calcium homeostasis during long-lasting cholinergic inhibition. In contrast, spontaneous postsynaptic currents ("minis") resulting from stochastic efferent release of ACh were made briefer by ryanodine, supporting the hypothesis that the synaptic cistern serves primarily as a calcium barrier and sink during low-level synaptic activity. Hypolemmal cisterns such as that at the efferent synapse of the hair cell can play a dynamic role in segregating near-membrane calcium for short-term and long-term signaling. PMID:25505321

  17. Synaptic Calcium Regulation in Hair Cells of the Chicken Basilar Papilla

    PubMed Central

    Im, Gi Jung; Moskowitz, Howard S.; Lehar, Mohammed; Hiel, Hakim

    2014-01-01

    Cholinergic inhibition of hair cells occurs by activation of calcium-dependent potassium channels. A near-membrane postsynaptic cistern has been proposed to serve as a store from which calcium is released to supplement influx through the ionotropic ACh receptor. However, the time and voltage dependence of acetylcholine (ACh)-evoked potassium currents reveal a more complex relationship between calcium entry and release from stores. The present work uses voltage steps to regulate calcium influx during the application of ACh to hair cells in the chicken basilar papilla. When calcium influx was terminated at positive membrane potential, the ACh-evoked potassium current decayed exponentially over ?100 ms. However, at negative membrane potentials, this current exhibited a secondary rise in amplitude that could be eliminated by dihydropyridine block of the voltage-gated calcium channels of the hair cell. Calcium entering through voltage-gated channels may transit through the postsynaptic cistern, since ryanodine and sarcoendoplasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase blockers altered the time course and magnitude of this secondary, voltage-dependent contribution to ACh-evoked potassium current. Serial section electron microscopy showed that efferent and afferent synaptic structures are juxtaposed, supporting the possibility that voltage-gated influx at afferent ribbon synapses influences calcium homeostasis during long-lasting cholinergic inhibition. In contrast, spontaneous postsynaptic currents (“minis”) resulting from stochastic efferent release of ACh were made briefer by ryanodine, supporting the hypothesis that the synaptic cistern serves primarily as a calcium barrier and sink during low-level synaptic activity. Hypolemmal cisterns such as that at the efferent synapse of the hair cell can play a dynamic role in segregating near-membrane calcium for short-term and long-term signaling. PMID:25505321

  18. CALCIUM CHANNELS INVOLVED IN CALCIUM OXALATE CRYSTAL FORMATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pistia stratiotes L. produces calcium (Ca) oxalate crystals in specialized cells called crystal idioblasts. Druse crystal idioblasts are produced in the adaxial mesophyll and raphide idioblasts are produced in the abaxial aerenchyma of this aquatic plant. Leaves formed on plants grown on 0 Ca medi...

  19. Preparation of Calcium-Loaded Liposomes and Their Use in Calcium Phosphate Formation

    E-print Network

    Preparation of Calcium-Loaded Liposomes and Their Use in Calcium Phosphate Formation Phillip B within dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine lipid vesicles, which were then used to form calcium phosphate as high as 85 mM. Addition of inorganic phosphate to the calcium-loaded liposomes resulted in liposome

  20. Teaching Calcium-Induced Calcium Release in Cardiomyocytes Using a Classic Paper by Fabiato

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Willmann

    2008-01-01

    This teaching paper utilizes the materials presented by Dr. Fabiato in his review article entitled "Calcium-induced release of calcium from the cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum." In the review, supporting evidence of calcium-induced calcium release (CICR) is presented. Data concerning potential objections to the CICR theory are discussed as well. In…

  1. Cell Calcium 40 (2006) 441449 Spatially confined diffusion of calcium in dendrites of hippocampal

    E-print Network

    Segal, Menahem

    2006-01-01

    Cell Calcium 40 (2006) 441­449 Spatially confined diffusion of calcium in dendrites of hippocampal neurons revealed by flash photolysis of caged calcium Eduard Korkotian, Menahem Segal Department Available online 24 October 2006 Abstract The extent of diffusion of a locally evoked calcium surge

  2. Extraction and estimation of the quantity of calcium oxalate crystals in the foliage of conifer and hardwood trees.

    PubMed

    Minocha, Rakesh; Chamberlain, Bradley; Long, Stephanie; Turlapati, Swathi A; Quigley, Gloria

    2015-05-01

    The main goal of this study was to develop a method for the extraction and indirect estimation of the quantity of calcium oxalate (CaOx) in the foliage of trees. Foliar tissue was collected from a single tree of each species (five conifers and five hardwoods) for comparison of extractions in different solvents using 10 replicates per species from the same pool of tissue. For each species, calcium (Ca) and oxalate were extracted sequentially in double deionized water and 2N acetic acid, and finally, five replicate samples were extracted in 5% (0.83N) perchloric acid (PCA) and the other five in 2N hydrochloric acid (HCl); three cycles of freezing and thawing were used for each solvent. Total ions were extracted by microwave digestion. Calcium was quantified with an inductively coupled plasma emission spectrophotometer method and oxalate was eluted and quantified using a high performance liquid chromatography method. This experiment was repeated again with two conifer and two hardwood species using four trees per species, and two analytical replicates for each tree. We report here that, regardless of age of individual trees within a species, time of collection or species type, the third extraction in PCA or HCl resulted in near equimolar quantities of Ca and oxalate (r(2)???0.99). This method provides an easy estimate of the quantity of CaOx crystals using a small sample of foliar tissue. An additional benefit of PCA is that it precipitates the nucleic acids and proteins, allowing the quantification of several free/soluble metabolites such as amino acids, polyamines, organic acids and inorganic elements all from a single sample extract. PMID:25934989

  3. Structural Characteristics of Synthetic Amorphous Calcium Carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Michel, F. Marc; MacDonald, Jason; Feng, Jian; Phillips, Brian L.; Ehm, Lars; Tarabrella, Cathy; Parise, John B.; Reeder, Richard J. (SBU)

    2008-08-06

    Amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) is an important phase involved in calcification by a wide variety of invertebrate organisms and is of technological interest in the development of functional materials. Despite widespread scientific interest in this phase a full characterization of structure is lacking. This is mainly due to its metastability and difficulties in evaluating structure using conventional structure determination methods. Here we present new findings from the application of two techniques, pair distribution function analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, which provide new insight to structural aspects of synthetic ACC. Several important results have emerged from this study of ACC formed in vitro using two common preparation methods: (1) ACC exhibits no structural coherence over distances > 15 {angstrom} and is truly amorphous; (2) most of the hydrogen in ACC is present as structural H{sub 2}O, about half of which undergoes restricted motion on the millisecond time scale near room temperature; (3) the short- and intermediate-range structure of ACC shows no distinct match to any known structure in the calcium carbonate system; and (4) most of the carbonate in ACC is monodentate making it distinctly different from monohydrocalcite. Although the structure of synthetic ACC is still not fully understood, the results presented provide an important baseline for future experiments evaluating biogenic ACC and samples containing certain additives that may play a role in stabilization of ACC, crystallization kinetics, and final polymorph selection.

  4. Calcium prevention and treatment of osteoporosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Beth O'Connell; Pamela L. Stamm

    2004-01-01

    Less bone loss occurs when calcium intake is adequate. Calcium therapy can increase bone mineral density by 1.5 to 2%. Most\\u000a studies revealing a reduced fracture rate with antiresorptive agents included concomitant calcium supplementation. Calcium\\u000a absorption occurs predominantly in the upper small bowel under the control of 1,25 hydroxyvitamin D. Adequate vitamin D intake\\u000a should be ensured, especially in winter

  5. Calcium channel blockers and Alzheimer's disease?

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Yi; Deng, Yulin; Qing, Hong

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is characterized by two pathological hallmarks: amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. In addition, calcium homeostasis is disrupted in the course of human aging. Recent research shows that dense plaques can cause functional alteration of calcium signals in mice with Alzheimer's disease. Calcium channel blockers are effective therapeutics for treating Alzheimer's disease. This review provides an overview of the current research of calcium channel blockers involved in Alzheimer's disease therapy. PMID:25767489

  6. Calcium Isotopes as Tracers of Biogeochemical Processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura C. Nielsen; Jennifer L. Druhan; Wenbo Yang; Shaun T. Brown; Donald J. DePaolo

    \\u000a The prevalence of calcium as a major cation in surface and oceanic environments, the necessity of calcium in the functioning\\u000a of living cells and bone growth, and the large spread in mass between calcium isotopes all suggest that calcium isotope biogeochemistry\\u000a can be an important avenue of insight into past and present biogeochemical cycling processes. In the following chapter, we

  7. Voltage and Calcium Dynamics Both Underlie Cellular Alternans in Cardiac Myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Groenendaal, Willemijn; Ortega, Francis A.; Krogh-Madsen, Trine; Christini, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac alternans, a putative trigger event for cardiac reentry, is a beat-to-beat alternation in membrane potential and calcium transient. Alternans was originally attributed to instabilities in transmembrane ion channel dynamics (i.e., the voltage mechanism). As of this writing, the predominant view is that instabilities in subcellular calcium handling are the main underlying mechanism. That being said, because the voltage and calcium systems are bidirectionally coupled, theoretical studies have suggested that both mechanisms can contribute. To date, to our knowledge, no experimental evidence of such a dual role within the same cell has been reported. Here, a combined electrophysiological and calcium imaging approach was developed and used to illuminate the contributions of voltage and calcium dynamics to alternans. An experimentally feasible protocol, quantification of subcellular calcium alternans and restitution slope during cycle-length ramping alternans control, was designed and validated. This approach allows simultaneous illumination of the contributions of voltage and calcium-driven instability to total cellular instability as a function of cycle-length. Application of this protocol in in vitro guinea-pig left-ventricular myocytes demonstrated that both voltage- and calcium-driven instabilities underlie alternans, and that the relative contributions of the two systems change as a function of pacing rate. PMID:24853751

  8. Stochastic Calcium Oscillations James P. Keener

    E-print Network

    Keener, James P.

    Stochastic Calcium Oscillations James P. Keener Department of Mathematics University of Utah Salt Lake City, UT 84112 April 18, 2006 Keywords: calcium dynamics, stochastic release, spark to wave transition, IP3 receptors, fire-diffuse-fire model Abstract While the oscillatory release of calcium from

  9. Original article Calcium-cadmium interaction

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Calcium-cadmium interaction on L-threonine intestinal transport JE Mesonero MC to membrane proteins which pertain to active transport systems or are func- tionally related to them. Calcium be modified by calcium. In media with Ca2+, cadmium signifi- cantly reduces the L-threonine absorption. In Ca2

  10. Calcium Fortification Systems Differ in Bioavailability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert P. Heaney; Karen Rafferty; M. Susan Dowell; June Bierman

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the bioavailability of calcium from two fortification systems used in orange juice. The design was randomized crossover, within-subject. The subjects were 25 healthy premenopausal women in an academic health sciences center. Two commercially marketed calcium-fortified orange juices, ingested in an amount providing 500 mg calcium, were taken at breakfast after an overnight

  11. Strontium-calcium thermometry in coral skeletons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. V. Smith; R. W. Buddemeier; R. C. Dedalje; J. E. Houck

    1979-01-01

    The strontium to calcium ratio of skeletal aragonite in three genera of reef-building corals varies as a sinple function of temperature and the strontium to calcium ratio of the incubation water. The strontium\\/calcium distribution coefficients of coral aragonite apparently differ from the corresponding coefficient of inorganically precipitated aragonite. With some care, coral skeletons can be used as recording thermometers.

  12. Plant calcium content: Ready to remodel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    By identifying the relationship between calcium location in the plant cell and nutrient bioavailability, the plant characteristics leading to maximal calcium absorption by humans can be identified. Knowledge of plant cellular and molecular targets controlling calcium location in plants is emerging. ...

  13. Calcium Signaling in Airway Smooth Muscle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph A. Jude; Mark E. Wylam; Timothy F. Walseth; Mathur S. Kannan

    2008-01-01

    Contractility of airway smooth muscle requires elevation of intra- cellular calcium concentration. Under resting conditions, airway smooth muscle cells maintain a relatively low intracellular calcium concentration, and activation of the surface receptors by contractile agonists results in an elevation of intracellular calcium, culminating in contraction of the cell. The pattern of elevation of intracellular calciumbroughtaboutbyagonistsisadynamicprocessandinvolves the coordinated activities of ion

  14. Toxicity, absorption, and translocation of soil and foliar applied imazaquin in yellow (Cyperus esculentus) and purple (C. rotundus) nutsedge

    SciTech Connect

    Nandihalli, U.B.

    1986-01-01

    Studies were conducted to investigate the toxicity of soil and foliar applied imazaquin in yellow and purple nutsedge. Soil incorporated imazaquin rates from 0.1 to 0.5 ppmw reduced plant dry weight of yellow nutsedge by 92 to 99%, and that of purple nutsedge by 82 to 99%. Imazaquin placement above the tuber was significantly more toxic than placement either around or below the tuber. This suggests that a shallow incorporation of imazaquin at 1 to 2 inch depth should provide effective nutsedge control. Incrementing imazaquin rate significantly increased the number of sprouts when the herbicide was placed above the tuber. This apparent release of apical dominance may be a result of herbicide absorption and translocation from the sprouts to the lateral buds of the tuber at growth regulatory level or a result of the death of the current sprout at lethal concentrations. Three-day old nutsedge propagules absorbed significantly greater amounts of /sup 14/C-imazaquin from shoot application than from root application. The emerging shoot appeared to be the major site of imazaquin uptake at early stages of nutsedge plant development.

  15. Combustion synthesis of calcium aluminates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. Fumo; M. R. Morelli; A. M. Segadães

    1996-01-01

    Commercial calcium aluminate cements for refractory use are known to contain various phases, the hydration behavior of which is interdependent and not fully understood. Hydration studies normally require that pure oxides be synthesized. Solid-state synthesis of single aluminates requires high temperatures and full conversion is not guaranteed. Moreover, it is difficult to obtain a compositionally homogeneous product with this method.

  16. Prophylaxis in idiopathic calcium urolithiasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Ackermann

    1990-01-01

    The most important measure in the prophylaxis of idiopathic calcium urolithiasis is dietary advice. Patients should be kept to a high-fluid intake, increasing their diuresis by at least 0.51. The mineral content of drinking water seems to be of minor importance, but the liquid should be low in carbohydrates and oxalate. The intake of animal proteins should be reduced to

  17. Calcium orthophosphates and human beings

    PubMed Central

    Dorozhkin, Sergey V.

    2012-01-01

    The historical development of a scientific knowledge on calcium orthophosphates from the 1770s until 1940 is described. Many forgotten and poorly known historical facts and approaches have been extracted from old publications and then they have been analyzed, systematized and reconsidered from the modern point of view. The chosen time scale starts with the earliest available studies of 1770s (to the best of my findings, calcium orthophosphates had been unknown before), passes through the entire 19th century and finishes in 1940, because since then the amount of publications on calcium orthophosphates rapidly increases and the subject becomes too broad. Furthermore, since publications of the second half of the 20th century are easily accessible, a substantial amount of them have already been reviewed by other researchers. The reported historical findings clearly demonstrate that the substantial amount of the scientific facts and experimental approaches have been known for very many decades and, in fact, the considerable quantity of relatively recent investigations on calcium orthophosphates is just either a further development of the earlier studies or a rediscovery of the already forgotten knowledge. PMID:23507803

  18. Calcium Loading, Calcium Accumulation, and Associated Cardiovascular Risks in Dialysis Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip J. Klemmer

    2005-01-01

    Calcium and phosphate imbalances are important mutable risk factors for cardiovascular disease in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Nearly all dialysis patients require phosphate binders. These include traditional calcium-based compounds and, more recently, the calcium-free, metal-free, non-absorbed agent, sevelamer hydrochloride. Both binder types reduce serum phosphorus, but differ with respect to calcium load and metabolism. Absorption from calcium-based agents very likely

  19. Calcium Kinetics During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; OBrien, K. O.; Abrams, S. A.; Wastney, M. E.

    2005-01-01

    Bone loss during space flight is one of the most critical challenges to astronaut health on space exploration missions. Defining the time course and mechanism of these changes will aid in developing means to counteract bone loss during space flight, and will have relevance for other clinical situations that impair weight-bearing activity. Bone health is a product of the balance between bone formation and bone resorption. Early space research could not clearly identify which of these was the main process altered in bone loss, but identification of the collagen crosslinks in the 1990s made possible a clear understanding that the impact of space flight was greater on bone resorption, with bone formation being unchanged or only slightly decreased. Calcium kinetics data showed that bone resorption was greater during flight than before flight (668 plus or minus 130 vs. 427 plus or minus 153 mg/d, p less than 0.001), and clearly documented that true intestinal calcium absorption was lower during flight than before flight (233 plus or minus 87 vs. 460 plus or minus 47 mg/d, p less than 0.01). Weightlessness had a detrimental effect on the balance in bone turnover: the difference between daily calcium balance during flight (-234 plus or minus 102 mg/d) and calcium balance before flight (63 plus or minus 75 mg/d) approached 300 mg/d (p less than 0.01). These data demonstrate that the bone loss that occurs during space flight is a consequence of increased bone resorption and decreased intestinal calcium absorption. Examining the changes in bone and calcium homeostasis in the initial days and weeks of space flight, as well as at later times on missions longer than 6 months, is critical to understanding the nature of bone adaptation to weightlessness. To increase knowledge of these changes, we studied bone adaptation to space flight on the 16-day Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-107) mission. When the brave and talented crew of Columbia were lost during reentry on the tragic morning of February 1, 2003, in a much smaller matter, the scientific products of this experiment, successfully obtained on orbit, were lost as well. As we begin to plan for missions back to the Moon, and even off to Mars, many questions remain to be answered. Counteracting bone loss is one of the greatest challenges. Calcium kinetics studies provide a valuable tool for assessing this loss, and evaluating countermeasures.

  20. Effect of Calcium Sprays on Mechanical Strength and Cell Wall Fractions of Herbaceous Peony (Paeonia Lactiflora Pall.) Inflorescence Stems

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chengzhong; Tao, Jun; Zhao, Daqiu; You, Chao; Ge, Jintao

    2012-01-01

    Calcium is an essential element and imparts significant structural rigidity to the plant cell walls, which provide the main mechanical support to the entire plant. In order to increase the mechanical strength of the inflorescence stems of herbaceous peony, the stems are treated with calcium chloride. The results shows that preharvest sprays with 4% (w/v) calcium chloride three times after bud emergence are the best at strengthening “Da Fugui” peonies’ stems. Calcium sprays increased the concentrations of endogenous calcium, total pectin content as well as cell wall fractions in herbaceous peonies stems, and significantly increased the contents of them in the top segment. Correlation analysis showed that the breaking force of the top segment of peonies’ stems was positively correlated with the ratio of water insoluble pectin to water soluble pectin (R = 0.673) as well as lignin contents (R = 0.926) after calcium applications. PMID:22606005