Sample records for calcium foliar application

  1. Impacts of an exotic disease and vegetation change on foliar calcium cycling in Appalachian forests.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Michael A; Jose, Shibu; White, Peter S

    2007-04-01

    Because of the high calcium content of its foliage, Cornus florida (flowering dogwood) has been described as a calcium "pump" that draws calcium from deeper mineral soil and enriches surface soil horizons. However, over the last two decades an exotic fungal disease (dogwood anthracnose, Discula destructiva) has decimated populations of this once-common understory species. Its loss, combined with forest stand development, could alter intra-stand calcium cycling. We used data from long-term vegetation monitoring plots to examine the ecological role of C. florida in calcium cycling and to identify changes in annual foliar calcium cycling over a 20-year period between two sampling intervals, 1977-1979 (preanthracnose) and 1995-2000 (post-anthracnose). Published equations were used to estimate foliar biomass per species for five forest types: alluvial, typic cove, acid cove, oak-hickory, and oak-pine. Calcium concentrations derived from foliage samples were used to estimate annual foliar calcium production per species for understory woody stems (<20 cm dbh) and total foliar calcium production for overstory stems (> or =20 cm dbh). At a given level of soil calcium availability, C. florida foliage contained greater concentrations of calcium than three other dominant understory species (Tsuga canadensis, Acer rubrum, and Rhododendron maximum). Between 1977-1979 and 1995-2000, the annual calcium contributions of understory woody vegetation declined across all forest types, ranging from 26% in oak-pine stands to 49% in acid coves. Loss of C. florida was responsible for only 13% of this decline in oak-pine stands, but accounted for 96% of the decline in typic coves. In oak-hickory and oak-pine stands, we observed large increases in the foliar biomass of T. canadensis, a species whose calcium-poor foliage increases soil acidity. Increases in overstory foliar biomass and calcium offset understory losses in three forest types (alluvial, typic coves, and oak-pine) but not in oak-hickory and acid cove stands. Overall, calcium cycling in oak-hickory stands was more negatively affected by the loss of C. florida than the other forest types. Oak-hickory forests comprise over a third of the total forest cover in the eastern United States, and decreases in annual calcium cycling could have cascading effects on forest biota. PMID:17494403

  2. USE OF CALCIUM FOLIAR FEED FERTILIZATION TO REDUCE RAIN-RELATED SPLITTING IN RABBITEYE AND SOUTHERN HIGHBUSH BLUEBERRY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calcium is commonly known to affect the developmental processes of many plants, and its role as a major nutrient has been interpreted in terms of its interaction with components of the cell wall and membrane. A two-year study was conducted to assess the affects of calcium foliar feed fertilization ...

  3. EFFECTS OF NITROGEN FERTILIZATION ON FOLIAR NUTRIENT DYNAMICS IN GINKGO SEEDLINGS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yowhan Son

    2002-01-01

    A fertilization experiment was established in three-year-old ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba L.) seedlings in central Korea. Four levels of nitrogen (N) in the form of ammonium sulfate were applied. Foliar nutrient concentrations were similar to those reported for angiosperms. Application of N fertilizer increased foliar N, potassium (K), calcium (Ca), and magnesium (Mg) concentrations. Foliar N, phosphorus (P), and K concentrations

  4. EFFECT OF VARIOUS FOLIAR SPRAYS ON SOME FRUIT QUALITY ATTRIBUTES AND LEAF NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF THE PEACH CULTIVAR ‘ANDROSS’

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Sotiropoulos; Ioannis Therios; Nikolaos Voulgarakis

    2010-01-01

    The effect of various products applied as foliar sprays on some fruit quality attributes and leaf nutritional status of the peach cultivar ‘Andross’ for a three year period is reported. Foliar application of all calcium (Ca) products plus boron (B), did not affect mean fruit weight compared to the control. Application of profical plus calcium phosphite plus power 7-B resulted

  5. IMPACTS OF AN EXOTIC DISEASE AND VEGETATION CHANGE ON FOLIAR CALCIUM CYCLING IN APPALACHIAN FORESTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael A. Jenkins; Shibu Jose; Peter S. White

    2007-01-01

    Because of the high calcium content of its foliage, Cornus florida (flowering dogwood) has been described as a calcium ''pump'' that draws calcium from deeper mineral soil and enriches surface soil horizons. However, over the last two decades an exotic fungal disease (dogwood anthracnose, Discula destructiva) has decimated populations of this once- common understory species. Its loss, combined with forest

  6. Methyl jasmonate foliar application to tempranillo vineyard improved grape and wine phenolic content.

    PubMed

    Portu, Javier; Santamaría, Pilar; López-Alfaro, Isabel; López, Rosa; Garde-Cerdán, Teresa

    2015-03-01

    The importance of phenolic compounds for grape and wine quality has drawn attention to studying different practices with the aim of increasing their content. Cluster application of elicitors is a viticultural practice that has shown promising results in recent years. However, cluster application requires a previous defoliation, which is time-consuming and expensive. In the present study, methyl jasmonate was foliar applied to Tempranillo grapevines in order to study its effect on grape and wine phenolic composition. Methyl jasmonate foliar application increased anthocyanin and stilbene content in both grape and wine, besides enhancing wine flavonol content. This treatment induced the synthesis of 3-O-glucosides of petunidin and peonidin and trans-p-coumaroyl derivatives of cyanidin and peonidin. For stilbenes, trans-piceid content was considerably increased in both grape and wine. The results obtained suggest that methyl jasmonate foliar application could be a simple and accessible practice to enhance grape and wine quality. PMID:25672964

  7. Changes on grape phenolic composition induced by grapevine foliar applications of phenylalanine and urea.

    PubMed

    Portu, J; López-Alfaro, I; Gómez-Alonso, S; López, R; Garde-Cerdán, T

    2015-08-01

    Grapevines may require the input of nitrogen to grow and to guarantee an appropriate grape composition. Recently there has been a growing interest in foliar fertilization, which entails a fast and efficient assimilation of the products. The aim of this work was to study the influence of foliar applications of phenylalanine and urea, at two different doses, on grape anthocyanins, flavonols, flavan-3-ols, phenolic acids, and stilbenes. All treatments were applied at veraison and one week later at doses of 0.9 and 1.5kgN/ha. The results showed that the synthesis of phenolic compounds was favoured by foliar applications of phenylalanine and urea. The application of the lowest dose of urea was the most effective treatment, increasing the content of several anthocyanins and flavonols. Moreover, none of the foliar treatments worsened the grape phenolic composition. In conclusion, foliar application of phenylalanine and especially urea, could be an interesting management tool for improving grape quality and their health-promoting properties. PMID:25766815

  8. Efficacy of Foliar Applications, Trunk Injections, and Soil Drenches in Reducing Populations of Elongate Hemlock Scale on Eastern Hemlock

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Raupp; Robert Ahern; Brad Onken; Richard Reardon; Stacey Bealmear; Joseph Doccola; Paul Wolfe II; Peter Becker

    2008-01-01

    We examined the efficacy of two approaches for controlling elongate hemlock scale on eastern hemlocks in an arboretum. One approach relied on foliar applications of an insect growth regulator, pyriproxyfen, and horticultural spray oil when crawlers were abundant. The second approach evaluated soil drenches and trunk injections of the systemic insecticides imida- cloprid, dinotefuron, and acephate. Foliar applications of pyriproxyfen

  9. EFFECT OF FOLIAR APPLICATION OF PARTICLE FILMS ON DROUGHT STRESS AND AFLATOXIN CONTAMINATION OF PEANUT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foliar application of Kaolin-based particle films has been shown to suppress insect pests and diseases in tree fruit, and to improve transpiration efficiency. Drought tolerant peanut lines have been shown to have greatly reduced aflatoxin contamination. The objective of this study was to evaluate ...

  10. Application of Calcium Phosphate Materials in Dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sanabani, Jabr S.; Al-Sanabani, Fadhel A.

    2013-01-01

    Calcium phosphate materials are similar to bone in composition and in having bioactive and osteoconductive properties. Calcium phosphate materials in different forms, as cements, composites, and coatings, are used in many medical and dental applications. This paper reviews the applications of these materials in dentistry. It presents a brief history, dental applications, and methods for improving their mechanical properties. Notable research is highlighted regarding (1) application of calcium phosphate into various fields in dentistry; (2) improving mechanical properties of calcium phosphate; (3) biomimetic process and functionally graded materials. This paper deals with most common types of the calcium phosphate materials such as hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate which are currently used in dental and medical fields. PMID:23878541

  11. Application of calcium phosphate materials in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Al-Sanabani, Jabr S; Madfa, Ahmed A; Al-Sanabani, Fadhel A

    2013-01-01

    Calcium phosphate materials are similar to bone in composition and in having bioactive and osteoconductive properties. Calcium phosphate materials in different forms, as cements, composites, and coatings, are used in many medical and dental applications. This paper reviews the applications of these materials in dentistry. It presents a brief history, dental applications, and methods for improving their mechanical properties. Notable research is highlighted regarding (1) application of calcium phosphate into various fields in dentistry; (2) improving mechanical properties of calcium phosphate; (3) biomimetic process and functionally graded materials. This paper deals with most common types of the calcium phosphate materials such as hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate which are currently used in dental and medical fields. PMID:23878541

  12. Effects of Foliar and Root Applications of Methanol on the Growth of Arabidopsis , Tobacco, and Tomato Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ingrid Ramírez; Fernando Dorta; Valeria Espinoza; Edra Jiménez; Ana Mercado; Hugo Peña-Cortés

    2006-01-01

    The effects of aqueous methanol solutions applied as a foliar spray or via irrigation were investigated in Arabidopsis, tobacco, and tomato plants. Methanol applied to roots leads to phytotoxic damage in all three species tested. Foliar application\\u000a causes an increase of fresh and dry weight in Arabidopsis and tobacco plants, but not in tomato plants. The increase in fresh and

  13. Phenylalanine and urea foliar applications to grapevine: Effect on wine phenolic content.

    PubMed

    Portu, J; González-Arenzana, L; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, I; Santamaría, P; Garde-Cerdán, T

    2015-08-01

    Phenolic compounds play a key role in the organoleptic properties of wines. Viticultural practices may influence grape and wine phenolic content, thus determining their quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of foliar applications of phenylalanine and urea, at two different doses, on wine phenolic composition. Grapes were harvested at their optimal technological maturity and their respective wines were elaborated at small scale. Wine detailed phenolic composition was determined. Results revealed that the content of several anthocyanins and flavonols was enhanced by the application of both phenylalanine doses and by the application of the low dose of urea. In contrast, flavanols and non-flavonoid compounds were less affected by the foliar treatments. The findings seem to be related to the time of application, since anthocyanins and flavonols are accumulated after veraison. In conclusion, nitrogen foliar fertilization increased the phenolic content of Tempranillo wines. This could be of interest since anthocyanins and flavonols are associated with wine quality, especially with its color. PMID:25766801

  14. Nitrogen metabolism and seed composition as influenced by foliar boron application in soybean

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nacer Bellaloui; Krishna N. Reddy; Anne M. Gillen; Craig A. Abel

    2010-01-01

    The physiological effects of foliar boron application (FB) on nitrogen metabolism and seed composition have not been well\\u000a established in soybean [(Glycine max(L.)Merr.)]. Therefore, the effect of FB on nitrogen metabolism and seed composition was investigated. Nitrate assimilation\\u000a was evaluated by measuring nitrate reductase activity (NRA) and nitrogen fixation was evaluated by measuring nitrogenase activity\\u000a and natural abundance of 15N\\/14N.

  15. Application Parameters Affecting Field Efficacy of Beauveria bassiana Foliar Treatments against Colorado Potato Beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. P Wraight; M. E Ramos

    2002-01-01

    The effects of various spray-application parameters on the efficacy of Beauveria bassiana foliar treatments against Leptinotarsa decemlineata larvae were evaluated during three field seasons. Treatments were applied to small plots (6 rows × 7–12 m) using a CO2-powered backpack hydraulic sprayer with nozzles affixed to lateral drop tubes and directed upward at a 45° angle to target ventral leaf surfaces.

  16. Potential of Foliar, Dip, and Injection Applications of Avermectins for Control of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Jansson, Richard K.; Rabatin, Susan

    1998-01-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the potential of two avermectin compounds, abamectin and emamectin benzoate, for controlling plant-parasitic nematodes when applied by three methods: foliar spray, root dip, and pseudostem injection. Experiments were conducted against Meloidogyne incognita on tomato, M. javanica on banana, and Radopholus similis on banana. Foliar applications of both avermectins to banana and tomato were not effective for controlling any of the nematodes evaluated. Root dips of banana and tomato were moderately effective for controlling M. incognita on tomato and R. similis on banana. Injections (1 ml) of avermectins into banana pseudostems were effective for controlling M. javanica and R similis, and were comparable to control achieved with a conventional chemical nematicide, fenamiphos. Injections of 125 to 2,000 ?g/plant effectively controlled one or both nematodes on banana; abamectin was more effective than emamectin benzoate for controlling nematodes. PMID:19274200

  17. Foliar potassium nitrate application improves the tolerance of Citrus macrophylla L. seedlings to drought conditions.

    PubMed

    Gimeno, V; Díaz-López, L; Simón-Grao, S; Martínez, V; Martínez-Nicolás, J J; García-Sánchez, F

    2014-10-01

    Scarcity of water is a severe limitation in citrus tree productivity. There are few studies that consider how to manage nitrogen (N) nutrition in crops suffering water deficit. A pot experiment under controlled-environment chambers was conducted to explore if additional N supply via foliar application could improve the drought tolerance of Citrus macrophylla L. seedlings under dry conditions. Two-month-old seedlings were subjected to a completely random design with two water treatments (drought stress and 100% water/field capacity). Plants under drought stress (DS) received three different N supplies via foliar application (DS: 0, DS + NH4NO3: 2% NH4NO3, DS + KNO3: 2% KNO3). KNO3-spraying increased leaf and stem DW as compared with DS + NH4NO3 and DS treatments. Leaf water potential (?w) was decreased by drought stress in all the treatments. However, in plants from DS + NH4NO and DS + KNO3, this was due to a decrease in the leaf osmotic potential, whereas the decrease in those from the DS treatment was due to a decrease in the leaf turgor potential. These responses were correlated with the leaf proline and K concentrations. DS + KNO3-treated plants had a higher leaf proline and K concentration than DS-treated plants. In terms of leaf gas exchange parameters, it was observed that net assimilation of CO2 [Formula: see text] was decreased by drought stress, but this reduction was much lower in DS + KNO3-treated plants. Thus, when all results are taken into account, it can be concluded that a 2% foliar-KNO3 application can enhance the tolerance of citrus plants to water stress by increasing the osmotic adjustment process. PMID:25218731

  18. Foliar application with nano-silicon alleviates Cd toxicity in rice seedlings.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shihua; Wang, Fayuan; Gao, Shuangcheng

    2015-02-01

    Nanofertilizers may be more effective than regular fertilizers in improving plant nutrition, enhancing nutrition use efficiency, and protecting plants from environmental stress. A hydroponic pot experiment was conducted to study the role of foliar application with 2.5 mM nano-silicon in alleviating Cd stress in rice seedlings (Oryza sativa L. cv Youyou 128) grown in solution added with or without 20 ?M CdCl2. The results showed that Cd treatment decreased the growth and the contents of Mg, Fe, Zn, chlorophyll a, and glutathione (GSH), accompanied by a significant increase in Cd accumulation. However, foliar application with nano-Si improved the growth, Mg, Fe, and Zn nutrition, and the contents of chlorophyll a of the rice seedlings under Cd stress and decreased Cd accumulation and translocation of Cd from root to shoot. Cd treatment produced oxidative stress to rice seedlings indicated by a higher lipid peroxidation level (as malondialdehyde (MDA)) and higher activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT), and a lower GSH content. However, those nano-Si-treated plants had lower MDA but higher GSH content and different antioxidant enzyme activities, indicating a higher Cd tolerance in them. The results suggested that nano-Si application alleviated Cd toxicity in rice by decreasing Cd accumulation, Cd partitioning in shoot and MDA level and by increasing content of some mineral elements (Mg, Fe, and Zn) and antioxidant capacity. PMID:25217281

  19. 40 CFR 415.40 - Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory. 415...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Chloride Production Subcategory § 415...Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory....

  20. 40 CFR 461.20 - Applicability; description of the calcium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Applicability; description of the calcium subcategory. 461.20 Section 461...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Subcategory § 461.20 Applicability; description of the calcium subcategory. This subpart...

  1. 40 CFR 461.20 - Applicability; description of the calcium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Applicability; description of the calcium subcategory. 461.20 Section 461...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Subcategory § 461.20 Applicability; description of the calcium subcategory. This subpart...

  2. 40 CFR 461.20 - Applicability; description of the calcium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Applicability; description of the calcium subcategory. 461.20 Section 461...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Subcategory § 461.20 Applicability; description of the calcium subcategory. This subpart...

  3. 40 CFR 461.20 - Applicability; description of the calcium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Applicability; description of the calcium subcategory. 461.20 Section 461...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Subcategory § 461.20 Applicability; description of the calcium subcategory. This subpart...

  4. 40 CFR 461.20 - Applicability; description of the calcium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Applicability; description of the calcium subcategory. 461.20 Section 461...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Subcategory § 461.20 Applicability; description of the calcium subcategory. This subpart...

  5. Foliar Boron Applications Increase the Final Number of Branches and Pods on Branches of Field-Grown Soybeans 1

    PubMed Central

    Schon, Mary K.; Blevins, Dale G.

    1990-01-01

    Our previous work demonstrated that boron (B) supplied to soybeans (Glycine max [L.] Merrill cv `Williams 82') by a stem infusion technique increased the number of pods on branches and led to a significant yield increase. Therefore, research was continued to determine whether soil or foliar applications of B could be used to achieve the same results. Field experiments were completed with both soil and foliar applications of B. Only the foliar applications of B resulted in a significant increase in the number of pods/branch. When split foliar treatments were applied twice during flowering, the total application of 0.56 kilograms of B per hectare was the optimal treatment for increasing pods/branch. In a second field experiment in 1987, soybeans were treated weekly from flowering through podfill with six split foliar applications of aqueous H3BO3 solutions so that total applications were either 0, 1.1, or 2.24 kilograms of B per hectare. Foliar applications increased the number of branches/plant at the end of the season and significantly stimulated the formation of pods on branches, with 1.12 kilograms of B per hectare being the optimal treatment for these variables. This rate also tended to increase the number of seeds/plant and seed yield/plant. A duplicate experiment with minor modifications was conducted during the summer of 1988, and again the 1.12 kilograms of B per hectare application rate resulted in significant increases in number of branches at harvest as well as number of pods on branches. The 2.24 kilograms of B per hectare application rate also significantly increased these parameters. Foliar B applications induced increases in leaf B concentration far above the 60 micrograms per gram level that was previously accepted as the upper level of tolerance for soybeans. Since optimal branching and per plant yield parameters were achieved by plants with B leaf concentrations greater than 160 micrograms per gram, the accepted range of soybean tolerance for B must be reconsidered when B is foliarly applied. Images Figure 1 PMID:16667322

  6. Effect of soil and foliar application of zinc on grain zinc and cadmium concentration of wheat genotypes differing in Zn-efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A two-year field experiment was carried out to investigate the effectiveness of soil and foliar applications of zinc sulfate and soil application of waste rubber ash to increase Zn and decrease cadmium (Cd) concentration in grain of 10 wheat genotypes with different Zn-efficiency. Foliar spray of zi...

  7. Effects of foliar boron application on seed composition, cell wall boron, and seed delta 15N and delta 13C isotopes in soybean are influenced by water stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although the effect of foliar boron (B) application on yield and quality is well established for crops, limited information and controversial results still exist on the effects of foliar B application on soybean seed composition (seed protein, oil, fatty acids, and sugars). The objective of this res...

  8. Seed protein, oil, fatty acids, and minerals concentration as affected by foliar K-glyphosate application in soybean cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies showed that glyphosate (Gly) may chelate cation nutrients, including potassium (K), which might affect the nutritional status of soybean seed. The objective of this study was to evaluate seed composition (protein, oil, fatty acids, and minerals) as influenced by foliar applications ...

  9. Improving efficacy of Beauveria bassiana foliar treatments against Colorado potato beetle via manipulation of spray-application parameters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of hydraulic spray pressure and sprayer configuration on efficacy of foliar applications of B. bassiana against Leptinotarsa decemlineata larvae were evaluated during 4 field seasons. Treatments were applied to small plots using a tractor-mounted sprayer with nozzles mounted on swivels on sh...

  10. Foliar nickel application can increase the incidence of peach tree short life and consequent peach tree mortality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability of postplant nickel (Ni) foliar application to suppress Mesocriconema xenoplax populations and thereby prolong tree survival of peach trees on a peach tree short life (PTSL) site was investigated from 2004-2011. The study was conducted in an orchard infested with M. xenoplax and a histo...

  11. Effects of foliar application of some macro- and micro-nutrients on tomato plants in aquaponic and hydroponic systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hamid R. Roosta; Mohsen Hamidpour

    2011-01-01

    An aquaponic system was designed to investigate effects of foliar applications of some micro- and macro-nutrients on tomato growth and yield in comparison with a hydroponic system. Common carp, grass carp and silver carp were stocked in the rearing tanks at 15, 20 and 15fishm?3, respectively. The fish were fed three times daily with a pellet diet containing 46% protein.

  12. Effect of Foliar-Applied Humic Acid to Dry Weight and Mineral Nutrient Uptake of Maize under Calcareous Soil Conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hakan Çelik; Ali Vahap Katkat; Bar?? Bülent A??k; Murat Ali Turan

    2010-01-01

    Greenhouse research was conducted to determine the effects of foliar application of humic acid on dry matter and some nutrient element uptake of maize grown under calcareous soil conditions. Agricultural lime was used to obtain five calcium carbonate (CaCO3) doses (0, 5, 10 20, and 40%) and three foliar application doses of humic acid (0, 0.1, and 0.2%) sprayed at

  13. Foliar Application of Phosphorus Has Minimal Impact on 'Pinot noir' Growth, Mycorrhizal Colonization, or Fruit Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grapevines grown in low phosphorus (P) soils typical of western Oregon vineyards may benefit from additional P applied to the canopy using foliar sprays. Alternatively, vines may be negatively affected by foliar P sprays because lower root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) could red...

  14. Effect of pre-harvest calcium chloride applications on fruit calcium level and post-harvest anthracnose disease of papaya

    E-print Network

    Biggs, Alan R.

    Effect of pre-harvest calcium chloride applications on fruit calcium level and post October 2013 Keywords: Papaya Anthracnose Calcium Disease incidence Disease severity a b s t r a c losses. The goal of this research was to use pre-harvest calcium applications to reduce anthracnose

  15. Effects of Calcium-Containing Foliar Sprays Combined with Titanium and Algae Extract on Plum Fruit Quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos Alcaraz-Lopez; Maria Botía; Carlos F. Alcaraz; Fernando Riquelme

    2004-01-01

    An experiment was performed in which soluble calcium (Ca) was sprayed on plum trees in combinations with two bioactivators containing (Ti)-ascorbate and\\/or marine algae extract to study the effects on the commercial quality of fruits, with special attention paid to any increase in their resistance to postharvest handling damage. All the treatments containing titanium (Ti) increased tree development and fruit

  16. Growth Promotion of Yunnan Pine Early Seedlings in Response to Foliar Application of IAA and IBA

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yulan; Zhang, Yuemin; Li, Yunfei; Li, Genqian; Liu, Daiyi; Zhao, Minchong; Cai, Nianhui

    2012-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted using a 3 × 3 orthogonal regression design to explore the growth promotion of one-year-old Yunnan pine seedlings (Pinus yunnanensis Franch.) in response to foliar application of IAA (indole-3-acetic acid) at rates of 0, 200 and 400 mg·L?1 and IBA (indole-3-butyric acid) at rates of 0, 200 and 400 mg·L?1 in order to promote the growth during the seedlings’ early stage. The experiment was conducted at the Lufeng Village Forest Farm of Yiliang County in Kunming, Yunnan, China. The results showed that IAA and IBA were effective in growth promotion of Yunnan pine seedlings. The response of both growth increment and biomass accumulation to the concentration of IAA and IBA can be modeled using a bivariate surface response, and each growth index had a peak value. Growth indexes increased with the increase of the dosage of photohormones before reaching a peak value, and then decreased. The different growth indexes had various responses to the concentrations and ratio of IAA and IBA. The foliar application of IAA in combination with IBA showed the largest improvement on the biomass of the needles, followed by stems and roots. The higher ratio of IAA promoted stem diameter growth, root system development and biomass accumulation in the needles, while a higher ratio of IBA contributed to height growth and biomass accumulation in the stem. Based on the auxin effect equations on the different growth indexes and surface response, the optimum concentrations and the (IAA:IBA) ratios can be obtained. The optimum concentrations of IAA and IBA were 167 and 186, 310 and 217, 193 and 159, 191 and 221, and 206 and 186 mg·L?1, with corresponding ratios of 1:1.11, 1:0.70, 1:0.82, 1:1.15 and 1:0.90, respectively, at the maximum seedling height and collar diameter growth as well as biomass accumulation at the root, stem and needle. The above growth indexes were 22.00%, 79.80%, 48.65%, 82.20% and 107.00% higher than the control treatment. PMID:22754380

  17. Foliar application of glyphosate affects molecular mechanisms in underground adventitious buds of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) and alters their vegetative growth patterns

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long term control of leafy spurge with glyphosate requires multiple applications because the plant reproduces vegetatively from abundant underground adventitious buds (UABs). Determining the molecular mechanisms involved in controlling vegetative reproduction in leafy spurge following foliar glyphos...

  18. The effect of foliar application of phosphonate formulations on the susceptibility of potato tubers to late blight.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Louise R; Little, George

    2002-01-01

    Foliar sprays of potato plants with phosphonic acid (partially neutralised with potassium hydroxide to pH 6.4) substantially reduced infection of the tubers by Phytophthora infestans, the cause of late blight, in glasshouse and field experiments over a 4-year period. Healthy tubers of blight-susceptible cultivars removed from treated plants and artificially inoculated by spraying with sporangial/zoospore suspensions of P infestans did not develop disease symptoms, demonstrating that the phosphonate applications had directly reduced the susceptibility of tubers to infection, probably as a result of translocation into tuber tissue. In contrast, foliar application of fosetyl-aluminium did not significantly reduce tuber blight development following inoculation. Five to six sprays of partially neutralised phosphonic acid (2 kg ha-1) applied at 10-14 day intervals resulted in the least tuber infection, but such a treatment regime may not be economic. In trials where the effect of timing and rate of application of 2-4 kg phosphonic acid ha-1 was examined, a single treatment of 4 kg ha-1 applied mid- or late-season proved the most effective. A spray programme in which one or two applications of phosphonic acid are combined with use of a non-systemic or systemic fungicide to enhance foliar protection offers the possibility of controlling both foliage and tuber blight and could have a major impact in reducing overwinter survival of P infestans in tubers. PMID:11838279

  19. 40 CFR 415.50 - Applicability; description of the calcium oxide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...true Applicability; description of the calcium oxide production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Oxide Production Subcategory § 415.50 Applicability; description of the calcium oxide production subcategory....

  20. 40 CFR 415.40 - Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...false Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.40 Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory....

  1. 40 CFR 424.50 - Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory. 424...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Other Calcium Carbide Furnaces Subcategory § 424.50 Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory....

  2. 40 CFR 415.300 - Applicability; description of the calcium carbonate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...true Applicability; description of the calcium carbonate production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Carbonate Production Subcategory § 415.300 Applicability; description of the calcium carbonate production subcategory....

  3. 40 CFR 424.50 - Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory. 424...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Other Calcium Carbide Furnaces Subcategory § 424.50 Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory....

  4. 40 CFR 415.310 - Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...false Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Hydroxide Production Subcategory § 415.310 Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory....

  5. 40 CFR 415.300 - Applicability; description of the calcium carbonate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...false Applicability; description of the calcium carbonate production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Carbonate Production Subcategory § 415.300 Applicability; description of the calcium carbonate production subcategory....

  6. 40 CFR 415.30 - Applicability; description of the calcium carbide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...false Applicability; description of the calcium carbide production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Carbide Production Subcategory § 415.30 Applicability; description of the calcium carbide production subcategory....

  7. 40 CFR 415.30 - Applicability; description of the calcium carbide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...true Applicability; description of the calcium carbide production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Carbide Production Subcategory § 415.30 Applicability; description of the calcium carbide production subcategory....

  8. 40 CFR 415.50 - Applicability; description of the calcium oxide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...false Applicability; description of the calcium oxide production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Oxide Production Subcategory § 415.50 Applicability; description of the calcium oxide production subcategory....

  9. 40 CFR 415.50 - Applicability; description of the calcium oxide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...true Applicability; description of the calcium oxide production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Oxide Production Subcategory § 415.50 Applicability; description of the calcium oxide production subcategory....

  10. 40 CFR 415.40 - Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...true Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.40 Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory....

  11. 40 CFR 415.50 - Applicability; description of the calcium oxide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...true Applicability; description of the calcium oxide production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Oxide Production Subcategory § 415.50 Applicability; description of the calcium oxide production subcategory....

  12. 40 CFR 415.310 - Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...true Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Hydroxide Production Subcategory § 415.310 Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory....

  13. 40 CFR 424.50 - Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory. 424...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Other Calcium Carbide Furnaces Subcategory § 424.50 Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory....

  14. 40 CFR 415.300 - Applicability; description of the calcium carbonate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...true Applicability; description of the calcium carbonate production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Carbonate Production Subcategory § 415.300 Applicability; description of the calcium carbonate production subcategory....

  15. 40 CFR 424.50 - Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory. 424...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Other Calcium Carbide Furnaces Subcategory § 424.50 Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory....

  16. 40 CFR 415.300 - Applicability; description of the calcium carbonate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...true Applicability; description of the calcium carbonate production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Carbonate Production Subcategory § 415.300 Applicability; description of the calcium carbonate production subcategory....

  17. 40 CFR 415.30 - Applicability; description of the calcium carbide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...true Applicability; description of the calcium carbide production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Carbide Production Subcategory § 415.30 Applicability; description of the calcium carbide production subcategory....

  18. 40 CFR 415.310 - Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...true Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Hydroxide Production Subcategory § 415.310 Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory....

  19. 40 CFR 415.40 - Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...true Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.40 Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory....

  20. 40 CFR 415.310 - Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...true Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Hydroxide Production Subcategory § 415.310 Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory....

  1. 40 CFR 415.30 - Applicability; description of the calcium carbide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...true Applicability; description of the calcium carbide production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Carbide Production Subcategory § 415.30 Applicability; description of the calcium carbide production subcategory....

  2. 40 CFR 415.40 - Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...true Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.40 Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory....

  3. 40 CFR 424.50 - Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory. 424...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Other Calcium Carbide Furnaces Subcategory § 424.50 Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory....

  4. 40 CFR 415.30 - Applicability; description of the calcium carbide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...true Applicability; description of the calcium carbide production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Carbide Production Subcategory § 415.30 Applicability; description of the calcium carbide production subcategory....

  5. 40 CFR 415.300 - Applicability; description of the calcium carbonate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...true Applicability; description of the calcium carbonate production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Carbonate Production Subcategory § 415.300 Applicability; description of the calcium carbonate production subcategory....

  6. 40 CFR 415.310 - Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...true Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Hydroxide Production Subcategory § 415.310 Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory....

  7. 40 CFR 415.50 - Applicability; description of the calcium oxide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...true Applicability; description of the calcium oxide production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Oxide Production Subcategory § 415.50 Applicability; description of the calcium oxide production subcategory....

  8. Calcium

    MedlinePLUS

    ... following: Milk, yogurt, and cheese are the main food sources of calcium for the majority of people in ... on Calcium Minerals, MedlinePlus® For more information on food sources of calcium: U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA) National ...

  9. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 107 (2001) 167175 Reduction of transpiration through foliar application of chitosan

    E-print Network

    Flury, Markus

    Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 107 (2001) 167­175 Reduction of transpiration through foliar of chitosan, a natural beta-1-4-linked glucosamine polymer, to reduce plant transpiration. Chitosan-chambers, where transpiration was measured by weighing pots. In an accompanying field study, water use

  10. Response of young bearing pecan trees to spring foliar nickel applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The lower critical leaf concentration for nickel (Ni) has not been fully determined for commercial pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wang.) K. Koch.] orchards. In a two-year study, foliar Ni was applied to orchard trees in early spring beginning at the parachute stage of leaf development and followed by ...

  11. Calcium orthophosphate cements for biomedical application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sergey V. Dorozhkin

    2008-01-01

    In early 1980s, researchers discovered self-setting calcium orthophosphate cements, which are a bioactive and biodegradable grafting material in the form of a powder and a liquid. Both phases after mixing form a viscous paste that after being implanted sets and hardens within the body as either a non-stoichiometric calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA) or brushite, sometimes blended with unreacted particles and

  12. Calcium

    MedlinePLUS

    ... loss. Some clinical research shows that increasing calcium consumption from dairy products such as yogurt seems to ... and vitamin D. For weight loss, increasing calcium consumption from dairy products to total intake of 500- ...

  13. Calcium

    MedlinePLUS

    ... strong bones and teeth. Why Do I Need Calcium? Bones grow rapidly during adolescence, and teens need ... salmon with bones. Almond milk. Back Continue Working Calcium Into Your Diet Looking for ways to up ...

  14. Calcium

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and blood vessels contract and expand, to secrete hormones and enzymes and to send messages through the nervous system. It is important to get plenty of calcium in the foods you eat. Foods rich in calcium include Dairy ...

  15. First evidence on phloem transport of nanoscale calcium oxide in groundnut using solution culture technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deepa, Manchala; Sudhakar, Palagiri; Nagamadhuri, Kandula Venkata; Balakrishna Reddy, Kota; Giridhara Krishna, Thimmavajjula; Prasad, Tollamadugu Naga Venkata Krishna Vara

    2014-08-01

    Nanoscale materials, whose size typically falls below 100 nm, exhibit novel chemical, physical and biological properties which are different from their bulk counterparts. In the present investigation, we demonstrated that nanoscale calcium oxide particles (n-CaO) could transport through phloem tissue of groundnut unlike the corresponding bulk materials. n-CaO particles are prepared using sol-gel method. The size of the as prepared n-CaO measured (69.9 nm) using transmission electron microscopic technique (TEM). Results of the hydroponics experiment using solution culture technique revealed that foliar application of n-CaO at different concentrations (10, 50, 100, 500, 1,000 ppm) on groundnut plants confirmed the entry of calcium into leaves and stems through phloem compared to bulk source of calcium sprayed (CaO and CaNO3). After spraying of n-CaO, calcium content in roots, shoots and leaves significantly increased. Based on visual scoring of calcium deficiency correction and calcium content in plant parts, we may establish the fact that nanoscale calcium oxide particles (size 69.9 nm) could move through phloem tissue in groundnut. This is the first report on phloem transport of nanoscale calcium oxide particles in plants and this result points to the use of nanoscale calcium oxide particles as calcium source to the plants through foliar application, agricultural crops in particular, as bulk calcium application through foliar nutrition is restricted due to its non-mobility in phloem.

  16. Foliar Application of Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Increases Antifungal Compounds in Pea (Pisum sativum) Against Erysiphe pisi

    PubMed Central

    Bahadur, A.; Sarma, B. K.; Singh, D. P.; Singh, K. P.; Singh, A.

    2007-01-01

    Systemic effect of two plant growth-promoting rhizobacterial (PGPR) strains,viz., Pseudomonas fluorescens (Pf4) and P. aeruginosa (Pag), was evaluated on pea (Pisum sativum) against the powdery mildew pathogen Erysiphe pisi. Foliar spray of the two PGPR strains was done on specific nodal leaves of pea and conidial germination of E. pisi was observed on other nodal leaves,distal to the treated ones. Conidial germination was reduced on distant leaves and at the same time,specific as well as total phenolic compounds increased in the leaves distal to those applied with PGPR strains,thereby indicating a positive correlation. The strains induced accumulation of phenolic compounds in pea leaves and the amount increased when such leaves were get inoculated with E. pisi conidia. Between the two strains, Pag was found to be more effective than Pf4 as its effect was more persistent in pea leaves. Foliar application of PGPR strains for the control of powdery mildew of pea is demonstrated in vitro while correlating it with the increased accumulation of plant phenolics. PMID:24015083

  17. Biomineralization of calcium carbonates and their engineered applications: a review

    PubMed Central

    Dhami, Navdeep K.; Reddy, M. Sudhakara; Mukherjee, Abhijit

    2013-01-01

    Microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation (MICCP) is a naturally occurring biological process in which microbes produce inorganic materials as part of their basic metabolic activities. This technology has been widely explored and promising with potential in various technical applications. In the present review, the detailed mechanism of production of calcium carbonate biominerals by ureolytic bacteria has been discussed along with role of bacteria and the sectors where these biominerals are being used. The applications of bacterially produced carbonate biominerals for improving the durability of buildings, remediation of environment (water and soil), sequestration of atmospheric CO2 filler material in rubbers and plastics etc. are discussed. The study also sheds light on benefits of bacterial biominerals over traditional agents and also the issues that lie in the path of successful commercialization of the technology of microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation from lab to field scale. PMID:24194735

  18. Carbohydrates in plant immunity and plant protection: roles and potential application as foliar sprays

    PubMed Central

    Trouvelot, Sophie; Héloir, Marie-Claire; Poinssot, Benoît; Gauthier, Adrien; Paris, Franck; Guillier, Christelle; Combier, Maud; Trdá, Lucie; Daire, Xavier; Adrian, Marielle

    2014-01-01

    Increasing interest is devoted to carbohydrates for their roles in plant immunity. Some of them are elicitors of plant defenses whereas other ones act as signaling molecules in a manner similar to phytohormones. This review first describes the main classes of carbohydrates associated to plant immunity, their role and mode of action. More precisely, the state of the art about perception of “PAMP, MAMP, and DAMP (Pathogen-, Microbe-, Damage-Associated Molecular Patterns) type” oligosaccharides is presented and examples of induced defense events are provided. A particular attention is paid to the structure/activity relationships of these compounds. The role of sugars as signaling molecules, especially in plant microbe interactions, is also presented. Secondly, the potentialities and limits of foliar sprays of carbohydrates to stimulate plant immunity for crop protection against diseases are discussed, with focus on the roles of the leaf cuticle and phyllosphere microflora. PMID:25408694

  19. Reversible loss of gravitropic sensitivity in maize roots after tip application of calcium chelators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. S.; Mulkey, T. J.; Evans, M. L.

    1983-01-01

    The application of calcium chelating agents (EDTA or EGTA) to the tips of maize roots caused a loss of gravitropic sensitivity. When the chelator was replaced with calcium chloride, gravitropic sensitivity was restored. Asymmetric application of calcium chloride near the tip of a vertical root caused curvature toward the calcium source. When the calcium was applied to the upper surface of the tip of a root oriented horizontally, the root curved upward even though control roots exhibited strong downward curvature. Application of calcium chloride to the tips of decapped roots, which are known to be gravitropically insensitive, did not restore gravitropic sensitivity. However, asymmetric application of calcium chloride near the tips of decapped roots caused curvature toward the calcium source. Calcium may play a key role in linking gravity detection to gravitropic curvature in roots.

  20. Application of glycerol as a foliar spray activates the defence response and enhances disease resistance of Theobroma cacao.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yufan; Smith, Philip; Maximova, Siela N; Guiltinan, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    Previous work has implicated glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P) as a mobile inducer of systemic immunity in plants. We tested the hypothesis that the exogenous application of glycerol as a foliar spray might enhance the disease resistance of Theobroma cacao through the modulation of endogenous G3P levels. We found that exogenous application of glycerol to cacao leaves over a period of 4 days increased the endogenous level of G3P and decreased the level of oleic acid (18:1). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were produced (a marker of defence activation) and the expression of many pathogenesis-related genes was induced. Notably, the effects of glycerol application on G3P and 18:1 fatty acid content, and gene expression levels, in cacao leaves were dosage dependent. A 100?mm glycerol spray application was sufficient to stimulate the defence response without causing any observable damage, and resulted in a significantly decreased lesion formation by the cacao pathogen Phytophthora capsici; however, a 500?mm glycerol treatment led to chlorosis and cell death. The effects of glycerol treatment on the level of 18:1 and ROS were constrained to the locally treated leaves without affecting distal tissues. The mechanism of the glycerol-mediated defence response in cacao and its potential use as part of a sustainable farming system are discussed. PMID:24863347

  1. ENHANCEMENT OF GROWTH AND NORMAL GROWTH PARAMETERS BY FOLIAR APPLICATION OF POTASSIUM AND PHOSPHORUS IN TOMATO CULTIVARS GROWN AT HIGH (NaCl) SALINITY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cengiz Kaya; Halil Kirnak; David Higgs

    2001-01-01

    Three tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) cvs., Rio Grande, Monika F1, and Marylin F1, were grown hydroponically in a controlled temperature (CT) room for 6 weeks to investigate the effectiveness of foliar application of supplementary potassium (K) and phosphorus (P) to the leaves of plants grown at high NaCl concentration (60 mM). Supplementary 5 mM K and P as KH2PO4 was supplied

  2. Cottonseed, Protein, Oil Yields and Oil Properties as Affected by Nitrogen Fertilization and Foliar Application of Potassium and a Plant Growth Retardant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zakaria M. Sawan; Saeb A. Hafez; Ahmed E. Basyony; Abou-El-Ela R. Alkassas

    2006-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted in two successive seasons, at the Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt. The aim was to investigate the effect of N-fertilization rate (95.2 and 142.8 kg of N\\/ha, applied as ammonium nitrate containing 33.5% N in two equal doses at 6 and 8 weeks after sowing), together with foliar application of potassium (applied as potassium sulfate containing

  3. Amorphous calcium phosphate and its application in dentistry

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Amorphous Calcium Phosphate (ACP) is an essential mineral phase formed in mineralized tissues and the first commercial product as artificial hydroxyapatite. ACP is unique among all forms of calcium phosphates in that it lacks long-range, periodic atomic scale order of crystalline calcium phosphates. The X-ray diffraction pattern is broad and diffuse with a maximum at 25 degree 2 theta, and no other different features compared with well-crystallized hydroxyapatite. Under electron microscopy, its morphological form is shown as small spheroidal particles in the scale of tenths nanometer. In aqueous media, ACP is easily transformed into crystalline phases such as octacalcium phosphate and apatite due to the growing of microcrystalline. It has been demonstrated that ACP has better osteoconductivity and biodegradability than tricalcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite in vivo. Moreover, it can increase alkaline phosphatase activities of mesoblasts, enhance cell proliferation and promote cell adhesion. The unique role of ACP during the formation of mineralized tissues makes it a promising candidate material for tissue repair and regeneration. ACP may also be a potential remineralizing agent in dental applications. Recently developed ACP-filled bioactive composites are believed to be effective anti-demineralizing/remineralizing agents for the preservation and repair of tooth structures. This review provides an overview of the development, structure, chemical composition, morphological characterization, phase transformation and biomedical application of ACP in dentistry. PMID:21740535

  4. 75 FR 28608 - Calcium Hydroxide; Receipt of Application for Emergency Exemption, Solicitation of Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ...EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0411; FRL-8826-7] Calcium Hydroxide; Receipt of Application for...Department of Agriculture to use the pesticide calcium hydroxide (CAS No. 1305-62-0) to...a quarantine exemption for the use of calcium hydroxide on outdoor potted and...

  5. Evaluation of spinning disc technology for the application of entomopathogenic nematodes against a foliar pest.

    PubMed

    Mason, J M; Matthews, G A; Wright, D J

    1999-05-01

    Two spinning disc spray application systems, the Micron Herbaflex and Micron Ulva+, were assessed for their potential for the application of infective juveniles (IJs) of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) against larvae of the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella. The effect of initial concentration of IJs on subsequent infection was examined for three species of EPNs: Steinernema sp. (M87), Steinernema sp. (SSL85), and Heterorhabditis sp. Increasing the concentration of IJs generally resulted in a significant increase in both DBM mortality and the mean number of nematodes per larva following spray application with the Micron Herbaflex sprayer. Application with the Micron Ulva+ was examined using two different initial concentration of IJs, which generally resulted in an increase in DBM mortality and intensity of infection. The effect of changing the flow rate to the Ulva+ was also examined. This generally resulted in increased DBM mortality as flow rate was increased but there was little change in the mean number of nematodes per host larva. The effect of addition of a number of adjuvants to the spray solution on subsequent infection showed that DBM mortality by the IJs was not significantly affected but that the mean number of nematodes infecting was significantly enhanced by some of the adjuvants. Desiccation survival studies with IJs of Heterorhabditis sp. following application with both sprayers onto Chinese cabbage leaf discs, with or without the addition of an adjuvant, showed that the survival time of 50% of IJs was over 3 h. Infection of DBM larvae was also assessed following desiccation on Chinese cabbage leaf discs. High levels of infection were attainable, in terms of resultant DBM mortality, for at least 150 min following spray application. PMID:10222182

  6. Influence of phosphorus application and arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation on growth, foliar nitrogen mobilization, and phosphorus partitioning in cowpea plants.

    PubMed

    Taffouo, Victor Désiré; Ngwene, Benard; Akoa, Amougou; Franken, Philipp

    2014-07-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of phosphorus (P) application and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi (Funneliformis mosseae) on growth, foliar nitrogen mobilization, and phosphorus partitioning in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata cv. Vita-5) plants. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse in pots containing a mixture of vermiculite and sterilized quartz sand. Mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal cowpea plants were supplied with three levels of soluble P (0.1 (low P), 0.5 (medium P), or 1.0 mM (high P)).Cowpea plants supplied with low P fertilization showed significantly (p?

  7. Metabolization of Elemental Sulfur in Wheat Leaves Consecutive to Its Foliar Application 1

    PubMed Central

    Legris-Delaporte, Stéphanie; Ferron, Françoise; Landry, Jacques; Costes, Claude

    1987-01-01

    The qualitative and quantitative aspects of elemental sulfur metabolization in wheat leaves and its effect upon photosynthetic metabolism were studied through the application of micronized sulfur upon the third leaf. Energy-dispersive x-ray analysis combined with scanning electron microscopy emphasized the existence of a sulfur peak associated with a strong potassium peak in the spectra of different tissue regions for treated leaves only, supplying an original evidence of sulfur uptake. Experiments with35S-labeled micronized sulfur showed that about 2% of the labeled S was absorbed and metabolized into cystine, methionine, glutathione, and sulfate. The close correlation between the excess of oxygen uptake and oxygen needs for sulfur oxidation in conjunction with the absence of hydrogen sulfide released by treated leaves support direct and fast oxidation of sulfur into sulfate according to a pathway still unclear but independent of photosynthetic CO2 metabolism in treated leaf. The mechanisms involved in the primary metabolism of element sulfur in wheat therefore appear to be different from those in fungi. Images Fig. 2 PMID:16665797

  8. Effect of Time of Application on the Action of Foliar Sprays of Oxamyl on Meloidogyne hapla in Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Stephan, Z. A.; Trudgill, D. L.

    1983-01-01

    Foliar sprays containing 3,000 or 4,000 ppm oxamyl applied before inoculation with Meloidogyne hapla completely protected tomato plants from intection for up to 36 days but sprays containing 1,000 or 2,000 ppm provided only partial protection. Postinoculation sprays were less effective than preinoculation sprays but they decreased the numbers of females and their rate of development and increased the numbers of males. Similar amounts of oxamyl applied to the soil as a drench or as granules controlled M. hapla more effectively than foliar sprays but the longer treatment was delayed after infection the fewer the larvae that were killed and the more that became male. PMID:19295771

  9. Foliar Mn accumulation in eastern Australian herbarium specimens: prospecting for ‘new’ Mn hyperaccumulators and potential applications in taxonomy

    PubMed Central

    Fernando, Denise R.; Guymer, Gordon; Reeves, Roger D.; Woodrow, Ian E.; Baker, Alan J.; Batianoff, George N.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims The analysis of herbarium specimens has previously been used to prospect for ‘new’ hyperaccumulators, while the use of foliar manganese (Mn) concentrations as a taxonomic tool has been suggested. On the basis of their geographic and taxonomic affiliations to known Mn hyperaccumulators, six eastern Australian genera from the Queensland Herbarium collection were sampled for leaf tissue analyses. Methods ICP-OES was used to measure Mn and other elemental concentrations in 47 species within the genera Austromyrtus, Lenwebbia, Gossia (Myrtaceae), Macadamia (Proteaceae), Maytenus and Denhamia (Celastraceae). Key Results The resulting data demonstrated (a) up to seven ‘new’ Mn hyperaccumulators, mostly tropical rainforest species; (b) that one of these ‘new’ Mn hyperaccumulators also had notably elevated foliar Ni concentrations; (c) evidence of an interrelationship between foliar Mn and Al uptake among the Macadamias; (d) considerable variability of Mn hyperaccumulation within Gossia; and (e) the possibility that Maytenus cunninghamii may include subspecies. Conclusions Gossia bamagensis, G. fragrantissima, G. sankowsiorum, G. gonoclada and Maytenus cunninghamii were identified as ‘new’ Mn hyperaccumulators, while Gossia lucida and G. shepherdii are possible ‘new’ Mn hyperaccumulators. Of the three Myrtaceae genera examined, Mn hyperaccumulation appears restricted to Gossia, supporting its recent taxonomic revision. In the context of this present investigation and existing information, a reassesment of the general definition of Mn hyperaccumulation may be warranted. Morphological variation of Maytenus cunninghamii at two extremities was consistent with variation in Mn accumulation, indicating two possible ‘new’ subspecies. Although caution should be exercised in interpreting the data, surveying herbarium specimens by chemical analysis has provided an effective means of assessing foliar Mn accumulation. These findings should be followed up by field studies. PMID:19211572

  10. The role of calcium in improving photosynthesis and related physiological and biochemical attributes of spring wheat subjected to simulated acid rain.

    PubMed

    Dolatabadian, Aria; Sanavy, Seyed Ali Mohammad Modarres; Gholamhoseini, Majid; Joghan, Aydin Khodaei; Majdi, Mohammad; Kashkooli, Arman Beyraghdar

    2013-04-01

    The response of photosynthesis parameters, catalase, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activity, malondialdehyde, proline, chlorophyll, yield and yield components to foliar application of calcium and simulated acid rain in wheat were investigated. Foliar treatment of calcium led to significant increases in the photosynthesis rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, proline, chlorophyll, yield and yield components in plants subjected to acid rain. Antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation in the wheat leaves decreased because of calcium foliar application. Calcium hindered degradation of the rubisco subunits under acid rain treatment compared with water-treated plants. Results suggest that acid rain induces the production of free radicals resulting in lipid peroxidation of the cell membrane so that significant increase in antioxidant enzyme activity was observed. In addition, photosynthetic parameters i.e. photosynthesis rate, transpiration rate and stomatal conductance were drastically suppressed by acid rain. The cellular damage caused by free radicals might be reduced or prevented by a protective metabolism including antioxidative enzymes and calcium. We report that foliar application of calcium before acid rain may ameliorate the adverse effects of acid rain in wheat plants. PMID:24431486

  11. Biphasic calcium phosphate bioceramics: preparation, properties and applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Z. LeGeros; S. Lin; R. Rohanizadeh; D. Mijares; J. P. LeGeros

    2003-01-01

    Biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) bioceramics belong to a group of bone substitute biomaterials that consist of an intimate mixture of hydroxyapatite (HA), Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, and beta-tricalcium phosphate (ß-TCP), Ca3(PO4)2, of varying HA\\/ß-TCP ratios. BCP is obtained when a synthetic or biologic calcium-deficient apatite is sintered at temperatures at and above 700 °C. Calcium deficiency depends on the method of preparation (precipitation,

  12. Calcium and sodium bentonite for hydraulic containment applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark H. Gleason; David E. Daniel; Gerald R. Eykholt

    1997-01-01

    The hydraulic conductivity of calcium and sodium bentonites was investigated for sand-bentonite mixtures, a thin bentonite layer simulating a geosynthetic clay liner (GCL), and bentonite-cement mixtures simulating backfill for a vertical cutoff wall. The permeant liquids were tap water and distilled water containing 0.25 M calcium chloride. In general, the hydraulic performance of calcium bentonite was not significantly better than

  13. Foliar application of microbial and plant based biostimulants increases growth and potassium uptake in almond (Prunus dulcis [Mill.] D. A. Webb)

    PubMed Central

    Saa, Sebastian; Olivos-Del Rio, Andres; Castro, Sebastian; Brown, Patrick H.

    2015-01-01

    The use of biostimulants has become a common practice in agriculture. However, there is little peer-reviewed research on this topic. In this study we tested, under controlled and replicated conditions, the effect of one biostimulant derived from seaweed extraction (Bio-1) and another biostimulant derived from microbial fermentation (Bio-2). This experiment utilized 2-years-old almond plants over two growing seasons in a randomized complete design with a full 2 × 4 factorial structure with two soil potassium treatments (125 ?g g-1 of K vs. 5 ?g g-1) and four foliar treatments (No spray, Foliar-K, Bio-1, Bio-2). Rubidium was utilized as a surrogate for short-term potassium uptake and plant growth, nutrient concentration, and final plant biomass were evaluated. There was a substantial positive effect of both biostimulant treatments on total shoot leaf area, and significant increases in shoot length and biomass under adequate soil potassium supply with a positive effect of Bio-1 only under low K supply. Rubidium uptake was increased by Bio-1 application an effect that was greater under the low soil K treatment. Though significant beneficial effects of the biostimulants used on plant growth were observed, it is not possible to determine the mode of action of these materials. The results presented here illustrate the promise and complexity of research involving biostimulants. PMID:25755660

  14. Foliar application of microbial and plant based biostimulants increases growth and potassium uptake in almond (Prunus dulcis [Mill.] D. A. Webb).

    PubMed

    Saa, Sebastian; Olivos-Del Rio, Andres; Castro, Sebastian; Brown, Patrick H

    2015-01-01

    The use of biostimulants has become a common practice in agriculture. However, there is little peer-reviewed research on this topic. In this study we tested, under controlled and replicated conditions, the effect of one biostimulant derived from seaweed extraction (Bio-1) and another biostimulant derived from microbial fermentation (Bio-2). This experiment utilized 2-years-old almond plants over two growing seasons in a randomized complete design with a full 2 × 4 factorial structure with two soil potassium treatments (125 ?g g(-1) of K vs. 5 ?g g(-1)) and four foliar treatments (No spray, Foliar-K, Bio-1, Bio-2). Rubidium was utilized as a surrogate for short-term potassium uptake and plant growth, nutrient concentration, and final plant biomass were evaluated. There was a substantial positive effect of both biostimulant treatments on total shoot leaf area, and significant increases in shoot length and biomass under adequate soil potassium supply with a positive effect of Bio-1 only under low K supply. Rubidium uptake was increased by Bio-1 application an effect that was greater under the low soil K treatment. Though significant beneficial effects of the biostimulants used on plant growth were observed, it is not possible to determine the mode of action of these materials. The results presented here illustrate the promise and complexity of research involving biostimulants. PMID:25755660

  15. Effect of pre-harvest calcium sprays on post-harvest life of winter guava ( Psidium guajava L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mandal Goutam; H. S. Dhaliwal; B. V. C. Mahajan

    2010-01-01

    Influence of pre-harvest foliar application of calcium nitrate on quality attributes of winter guava cv. ‘Sardar’ during different\\u000a interval of cold storage and post cold storage shelf-life under ambient conditions was investigated. Plants were sprayed with\\u000a calcium nitrate solutions (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5%) at colour break stage of fruit and a fruit with no treatment was control. The\\u000a fruits were

  16. Effects of foliar boron application on seed composition, cell wall boron, and seed ?15N and ?13C isotopes in water-stressed soybean plants

    PubMed Central

    Bellaloui, Nacer; Hu, Yanbo; Mengistu, Alemu; Kassem, My A.; Abel, Craig A.

    2013-01-01

    Limited information is available on the effects of foliar boron (B) application on soybean seed composition. The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of foliar B on seed composition (protein, oil, fatty acids, and sugars). Our hypothesis was that since B is involved in nitrogen and carbon metabolism, it may impact seed composition. A repeated greenhouse experiment was conducted where half of the soybean plants was exposed to water stress (WS) and the other half was well-watered. Foliar boron (FB) in the form of boric acid was applied twice at a rate of 1.1 kg ha?1. The first application was during flowering stage, and the second application was during seed-fill stage. Treatments were water stressed plants with no FB (WS–B); water stressed plants with FB (WS+B); watered plants without FB (W–B), and watered plants with FB (W+B). The treatment W–B was used as a control. Comparing with WS–B plants, B concentration was the highest in leaves and seed of W+B plants (84% increase in leaves and 73% in seed). Seeds of W+B plants had higher protein (11% increase), oleic acid (27% increase), sucrose (up to 40% increase), glucose, and fructose comparing with W–B. However, seed stachyose concentrations increased by 43% in WS–B plants seed compared with W–B plants. Cell wall (structural) B concentration in leaves was higher in all plants under water stress, especially in WS–B plants where the percentage of cell wall B reached up to 90%. Water stress changed seed ?15N and ?13C values in both B applied and non-B applied plants, indicating possible effects on nitrogen and carbon metabolism. This research demonstrated that FB increased B accumulation in leaves and seed, and altered seed composition of well-watered and water stressed plants, indicating a possible involvement of B in seed protein, and oleic and linolenic fatty acids. Further research is needed to explain mechanisms of B involvement in seed protein and fatty acids. PMID:23888163

  17. EFECTO DE APLICACIONES FOLIARES DE METANOL SOBRE EL RENDIMIENTO DE LECHUGA (Lactuca sativa L.) EFFECTS OF METHANOL FOLIAR APPLICATIONS ON THE GROWTH AND YIELD OF LETTUCE (Lactuca sativa L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mónica Solari; Alfredo Rodríguez-Delfín; Sven E. Jacobsen; Hugo Soplín; Juan Guerrero; Salomón Helfgott

    Resumen Anteriores investigaciones, sugieren una incorporación por las plantas del carbono proveniente del metanol; por ello se diseñaron experimentos para determinar si su aplicación foliar afectaría el rendimiento y crecimiento en un cultivo hidropónico de lechuga (Lactuca sativa L.). Se utilizó metanol a los porcentajes de 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70 y 80, con un testigo sin tratamiento.

  18. Cumulative Effect of Soil and Foliar Application of Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Sulfur on Growth, Physico-Biochemical Parameters, Yield Attributes, and Fatty Acid Composition in Oil of Erucic Acid-Free Rapeseed-Mustard Genotypes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manzer H. Siddiqui; Firoz Mohammad; M. Nasir Khan; M. Masroor A. Khan

    2008-01-01

    The feasibility of split (soil + foliar) applications of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) and addition of a small quantity of sulfur (S) in the spray was tested for improving performance of rapeseed-mustard genotypes in a factorial randomized field experiment. Three genotypes (two erucic acid free, viz. Brassica napus L. cv. ‘Hyola PAC – 401’ and Brassica juncea L. Czern.

  19. Calcium orthophosphates: occurrence, properties, biomineralization, pathological calcification and biomimetic applications.

    PubMed

    Dorozhkin, Sergey V

    2011-01-01

    The present overview is intended to point the readers' attention to the important subject of calcium orthophosphates. This type of materials is of special significance for human beings, because they represent the inorganic part of major normal (bones, teeth and antlers) and pathological (i.e., those appearing due to various diseases) calcified tissues of mammals. For example, atherosclerosis results in blood vessel blockage caused by a solid composite of cholesterol with calcium orthophosphates, while dental caries and osteoporosis mean a partial decalcification of teeth and bones, respectively, that results in replacement of a less soluble and harder biological apatite by more soluble and softer calcium hydrogenphosphates. Therefore, the processes of both normal and pathological calcifications are just an in vivo crystallization of calcium orthophosphates. Similarly, dental caries and osteoporosis might be considered an in vivo dissolution of calcium orthophosphates. Thus, calcium orthophosphates hold a great significance for humankind, and in this paper, an overview on the current knowledge on this subject is provided. PMID:23507744

  20. Foliar application of Zn at flowering stage improves plant's performance, yield and yield attributes of black gram.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Nalini; Gupta, Bhavana; Pathak, Girish Chandra

    2013-07-01

    Black gram plants subjected to varying levels of Zn supply (0.01 to 10 microM Zn) showed optimum growth and dry matter yield in plants receiving 1 microM Zn. The dry matter yield of plants decreased in plants receiving 0.01 and 0.1 microM Zn (deficient) and excess levels of Zn (2 and 10 microM Zn). The plants grown with Zn deficient supply showed delayed flowering, premature bud abscission, reduced size of anthers, pollen producing capacity, pollen viability and stigma receptivity resulting in poor pod formation and seed yield. Providing Zn as a foliar spray at pre-flowering stage minimized the severity of Zn deficiency on reproductive structure development and enhanced the seed nutritional status by enhancing seed Zn density, seed carbohydrate (sugar and starch content) and storage proteins (albumins, globulins, glutenins, and prolamines). PMID:23898554

  1. Foliar applied urea improves freezing protection to avocado and peach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Zilkah; Z. Wiesmann; I. Klein; I. David

    1996-01-01

    The effect of foliar applied urea on freeze hardiness was evaluated under orchard and laboratory conditions. Freezing injury and senescence of avocado (Persea americana Mill.) cv. ‘Hass’ leaves in the orchard was inversely correlated to N content. Three foliar applications of 2% low-biuret urea caused a 26% nitrogen enrichment of leaves. Consequently, leaf freezing hardiness was increased and senescence retarded.

  2. [Calcium antagonists: current and future applications based on new evidence. Neuroprotective effect of calcium antagonists].

    PubMed

    Ito, Yasuo; Araki, Nobuo

    2010-01-01

    Voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels have been divided into at least 5 types (L-, N-, T-, P-, and Q-type). L/N-type Ca(2+) channel blocker cilnidipine could reduce the size of cerebral infarction in the rat focal brain ischemia. L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker amlodipine reduced cerebral edema and inhibit neuronal cell death. N-type Ca(2+) channel blocker omega-conotoxin reduce the size of cerebral infarction and inhibit delayed neuronal cell death in hippocampal CA1 area. It is suggested that calcium antagonist has neuroprotective effect. PMID:20048438

  3. Foliar application of biofilm formation-inhibiting compounds enhances control of citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinyun; Wang, Nian

    2014-02-01

    Citrus canker caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri is an economically important disease of citrus worldwide. Biofilm formation plays an important role in early infection of X. citri subsp. citri on host leaves. In this study, we assessed the hypothesis that small molecules inhibiting biofilm formation reduce X. citri subsp. citri infection and enhance the control of citrus canker disease. D-leucine and 3-indolylacetonitrile (IAN) were found to prevent biofilm formation by X. citri subsp. citri on different abiotic surfaces and host leaves at a concentration lower than the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that IAN repressed expression of chemotaxis/motility-related genes in X. citri subsp. citri. In laboratory experiments, planktonic and biofilm cells of X. citri subsp. citri treated with D-leucine and IAN, either alone or in combination, were more susceptible to copper (CuSO4) than those untreated. In greenhouse assays, D-leucine and IAN applied alone or combined with copper reduced both the number of canker lesions and bacterial populations of X. citri subsp. citri on citrus host leaves. This study provides the basis for the use of foliar-applied biofilm inhibitors for the control of citrus canker alone or combined with copper-based bactericides. PMID:23901828

  4. Effects of atmospheric CO{sub 2} enrichment and foliar methanol application on net photosynthesis of sour orange tree (Citrus Aurantium; Rutaceae) leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Idso, S.B.; Garcia, R.L.; Kimball, B.A. [Water Conservation Lab., Phoenix, AR (United States); Idso, K.E.; Hoober, J.K. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AR (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Foliar spray applications of 40% aqueous methanol were made to sunlit leaves of sour orange trees that had been grown continuously in clear-plastic-wall open-top enclosures maintained out-of-doors at Phoenix, Arizona, for over 5.5 years in ambient air of approximately 400 {mu}mol mol{sup -1} CO{sub 2} and in air enriched with CO{sub 2} to a concentration of approximately 700 {mu}mol mol{sup -1}. No unambiguous effects of the methanol applications were detected in photosynthesis measurements made on foliage in either of the two CO{sub 2} treatments. THe 75% increase in CO{sub 2}, however, raised the upper-limiting leaf temperature for positive net photosynthesis by approximately 7 C, which resulted in a 75% enhancement in net photosynthesis at a leaf temperature of 31 C, a 100% enhancement at a leaf temperature of 35 C, and a 200% enhancement at 42 C. 13 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Controls on foliar nutrient and aluminium concentrations in a tropical tree flora: phylogeny, soil chemistry and interactions among elements.

    PubMed

    Metali, Faizah; Abu Salim, Kamariah; Tennakoon, Kushan; Burslem, David F R P

    2015-01-01

    Foliar elemental concentrations are predictors of life-history variation and contribute to spatial patterns in biogeochemical cycling. We examined the contributions of habitat association, local soil environment, and elemental interactions to variation in foliar elemental concentrations in tropical trees using methods that account for phylogeny. We sampled top-soils and leaves of 58 tropical trees in heath forest (HF) on nutrient-poor sand and mixed dipterocarp forest (MDF) on nutrient-rich clay soils. A phylogenetic generalized least squares method was used to determine how foliar nutrient and aluminium (Al) concentrations varied in response to habitat distribution, soil chemistry and other elemental concentrations. Foliar nitrogen (N) and Al concentrations were greater for specialists of MDF than for specialists of HF, while foliar calcium (Ca) concentrations showed the opposite trend. Foliar magnesium (Mg) concentrations were lower for generalists than for MDF specialists. Foliar element concentrations were correlated with fine-scale variation in soil chemistry in phylogenetically controlled analyses across species, but there was limited within-species plasticity in foliar elemental concentrations. Among Al accumulators, foliar Al concentration was positively associated with foliar Ca and Mg concentrations, and negatively associated with foliar phosphorus (P) concentrations. The Al-accumulation trait and relationships between foliar elemental and Al concentrations may contribute to species habitat partitioning and ecosystem-level differences in biogeochemical cycles. PMID:25138655

  6. From plant surface to plant metabolism: the uncertain fate of foliar-applied nutrients

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Victoria; Brown, Patrick H.

    2013-01-01

    The application of agrochemical sprays to the aerial parts of crop plants is an important agricultural practice world-wide. While variable effectiveness is often seen in response to foliar treatments, there is abundant evidence showing the beneficial effect of foliar fertilizers in terms of improving the metabolism, quality, and yields of crops. This mini-review is focused on the major bottlenecks associated with the uptake and translocation of foliar-applied nutrient solutions. A better understanding of the complex scenario surrounding the ultimate delivery of foliar-applied nutrients to sink cells and organs is essential for improving the effectiveness and performance of foliar fertilizers. PMID:23914198

  7. [Calcium antagonists: current and future applications based on new evidence. Calcium channel blockers and autonomic nervous system].

    PubMed

    Hirooka, Yoshitaka; Sunagawa, Kenji

    2010-01-01

    Calcium channel blockers are widely used for the treatment of hypertension. Although they are effective for their strong vasodilator action, there are concerns regarding related baroreflex-mediated activation of sympathetic nervous system. However, long-acting calcium channel blockers, such as amlodipine, are now known safe for the treatment of hypertension. Furthermore, the new type of calcium channel blockers, such as cilnidipine with N-type calcium channel blocking action, or azelnidipine that has sympatho-inhibitory action with anti-oxidant effect, provide a new insight for the future use of calcium channel blockers. PMID:20048431

  8. Biofilm-induced calcium carbonate precipitation: application in the subsurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, A. J.; Eldring, J.; Lauchnor, E.; Hiebert, R.; Gerlach, R.; Mitchell, A. C.; Esposito, R.; Cunningham, A. B.; Spangler, L.

    2012-12-01

    We have investigated mitigation strategies for sealing high permeability regions, like fractures, in the subsurface. This technology has the potential to, for example, improve the long-term security of geologically-stored carbon dioxide (CO2) by sealing fractures in cap rocks or to mitigate leakage pathways to prevent contamination of overlying aquifers from hydraulic fracturing fluids. Sealing technologies using low-viscosity fluids are advantageous since they potentially reduce the necessary injection pressures and increase the radius of influence around injection wells. In this technology, aqueous solutions and suspensions are used to promote microbially-induced mineral precipitation which can be applied in subsurface environments. To this end, a strategy was developed to twice seal a hydraulically fractured, 74 cm (2.4') diameter Boyles Sandstone core, collected in North-Central Alabama, with biofilm-induced calcium carbonate (CaCO3) precipitates under ambient pressures. Sporosarcina pasteurii biofilms were established and calcium and urea containing reagents were injected to promote saturation conditions favorable for CaCO3 precipitation followed by growth reagents to resuscitate the biofilm's ureolytic activity. Then, in order to evaluate this process at relevant deep subsurface pressures, a novel high pressure test vessel was developed to house the 74 cm diameter core under pressures as high as 96 bar (1,400 psi). After determining that no impact to the fracture permeability occurred due to increasing overburden pressure, the fractured core was sealed under subsurface relevant pressures relating to 457 meters (1,500 feet) below ground surface (44 bar (650 psi) overburden pressure). After fracture sealing under both ambient and subsurface relevant pressure conditions, the sandstone core withstood three times higher well bore pressure than during the initial fracturing event, which occurred prior to biofilm-induced CaCO3 mineralization. These studies suggest biofilm-induced CaCO3 precipitation technologies may potentially seal and strengthen high permeability regions or fractures (either natural or induced) in the subsurface. Novel high pressure test vessel to investigate biogeochemical processes under relevant subsurface scales and pressures.

  9. Synthesis of spherical calcium phosphate particles for dental and orthopedic applications

    PubMed Central

    Bohner, Marc; Tadier, Solène; van Garderen, Noémie; de Gasparo, Alex; Döbelin, Nicola; Baroud, Gamal

    2013-01-01

    Calcium phosphate materials have been used increasingly in the past 40 years as bone graft substitutes in the dental and orthopedic fields. Accordingly, numerous fabrication methods have been proposed and used. However, the controlled production of spherical calcium phosphate particles remains a challenge. Since such particles are essential for the synthesis of pastes and cements delivered into the host bone by minimally-invasive approaches, the aim of the present document is to review their synthesis and applications. For that purpose, production methods were classified according to the used reagents (solutions, slurries, pastes, powders), dispersion media (gas, liquid, solid), dispersion tools (nozzle, propeller, sieve, mold), particle diameters of the end product (from 10 nm to 10 mm), and calcium phosphate phases. Low-temperature calcium phosphates such as monetite, brushite or octacalcium phosphate, as well as high-temperature calcium phosphates, such as hydroxyapatite, ?-tricalcium phosphate or tetracalcium phosphate, were considered. More than a dozen production methods and over hundred scientific publications were discussed. PMID:23719177

  10. Synthesis of spherical calcium phosphate particles for dental and orthopedic applications.

    PubMed

    Bohner, Marc; Tadier, Solène; van Garderen, Noémie; de Gasparo, Alex; Döbelin, Nicola; Baroud, Gamal

    2013-01-01

    Calcium phosphate materials have been used increasingly in the past 40 years as bone graft substitutes in the dental and orthopedic fields. Accordingly, numerous fabrication methods have been proposed and used. However, the controlled production of spherical calcium phosphate particles remains a challenge. Since such particles are essential for the synthesis of pastes and cements delivered into the host bone by minimally-invasive approaches, the aim of the present document is to review their synthesis and applications. For that purpose, production methods were classified according to the used reagents (solutions, slurries, pastes, powders), dispersion media (gas, liquid, solid), dispersion tools (nozzle, propeller, sieve, mold), particle diameters of the end product (from 10 nm to 10 mm), and calcium phosphate phases. Low-temperature calcium phosphates such as monetite, brushite or octacalcium phosphate, as well as high-temperature calcium phosphates, such as hydroxyapatite, ?-tricalcium phosphate or tetracalcium phosphate, were considered. More than a dozen production methods and over hundred scientific publications were discussed. PMID:23719177

  11. Limited fungicide applications affect foliar and fruit disease severity and phytochemical content of muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia Michx.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Berry rot diseases cause significant reductions in yield and quality of muscadine grapes, but these losses may be reduced significantly by fungicide applications. Four studies were conducted to explore the relationship between yield, disease control, berry quality, and phytochemical content followin...

  12. Influence of foliar copper and nickel applications on sugarcane yields in brown rust infested fields in Louisiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane fields with severe brown rust infections have been documented to show a decrease in sugar per hectare yields of up to 1680 kg/ha ($170/ha). Currently, control of this disease is accomplished with multiple fungicide applications. This is a costly practice for sugarcane producers who are alr...

  13. Proteins associated with heat-induced leaf senescence in creeping bentgrass as affected by foliar application of nitrogen, cytokinins, and an ethylene inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Jespersen, David; Huang, Bingru

    2015-02-01

    Heat stress causes premature leaf senescence in cool-season grass species. The objective of this study was to identify proteins regulated by nitrogen, cytokinins, and ethylene inhibitor in relation to heat-induced leaf senescence in creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera). Plants (cv. Penncross) were foliar sprayed with 18 mM carbonyldiamide (N source), 25 ?M aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG, ethylene inhibitor), 25 ?M zeatin riboside (ZR, cytokinin), or a water control, and then exposed to 20/15°C (day/night) or 35/30°C (heat stress) in growth chambers. All treatments suppressed heat-induced leaf senescence, as shown by higher turf quality and chlorophyll content, and lower electrolyte leakage in treated plants compared to the untreated control. A total of 49 proteins were responsive to N, AVG, or ZR under heat stress. The abundance of proteins in photosynthesis increased, with ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase affected by all three treatments, chlorophyll a/b-binding protein by AVG and N or Rubisco activase by AVG. Proteins for amino acid metabolism were upregulated, including alanine aminotransferase by three treatments and ferredoxin-dependent glutamate synthase by AVG and N. Upregulated proteins also included catalase by AVG and N and heat shock protein by ZR. Exogenous applications of AVG, ZR, or N downregulated proteins in respiration (enolase, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and succinate dehygrogenase) under heat stress. Alleviation of heat-induced senescence by N, AVG, or ZR was associated with enhanced protein abundance in photosynthesis and amino acid metabolism and stress defense systems (heat shock protection and antioxidants), as well as suppression of those imparting respiration metabolism. PMID:25407697

  14. Evaluation of Dry Protonated Calcium Alginate Beads for Biosorption Applications and Studies of Lead Uptake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ricardo Lagoa; J. R. Rodrigues

    2007-01-01

    Alginate polysaccharide is a promising biosorbent for metal uptake. Dry protonated calcium alginate beads for biosorption\\u000a applications were prepared, briefly characterized and tested for lead uptake. Several advantages of this biosorbent are reported\\u000a and discussed in comparison with other alginate-based sorbents. The alginate beads contained 4.7 mmol\\/g of COOH groups, which\\u000a suffered hydrolysis near pH 4. The Weber and Morris model, applied

  15. Proceedings of the Seventh Walnut Council Research Symposium 101GTR-NRS-P-115 INFLUENCE OF FOLIAR FERTILIZATION ON FOLIAR ZINC LEVELS

    E-print Network

    FERTILIZATION ON FOLIAR ZINC LEVELS AND NUT PRODUCTION IN BLACK WALNUT William R. Reid and Andrew L. Thomas1 Abstract.--The impact of foliar zinc fertilizer application on nut-bearing black walnut (Juglans nigra L growing seasons by wetting the foliage of the entire crown using a tank mix containing 500 ppm zinc

  16. Three-year growth response of young Douglas-fir to nitrogen, calcium, phosphorus, and blended fertilizers in Oregon and Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mainwaring, Douglas B.; Maguire, Douglas A.; Perakis, Steven S.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of nutrient limitation in Douglas-fir forests of the Pacific Northwest focus predominantly on nitrogen, yet many stands demonstrate negligible or even negative growth response to nitrogen fertilization. To understand what nutrients other than nitrogen may limit forest productivity in this region, we tested six fertilizer treatments for their ability to increase stem volume growth response of dominant and co-dominant trees in young Douglas-fir plantations across a range of foliar and soil chemistry in western Oregon and Washington. We evaluated responses to single applications of urea, lime, calcium chloride, or monosodium phosphate at 16 sites, and to two site-specific nutrients blends at 12 of these sites. Across sites, the average stem volume growth increased marginally with urea, lime, and phosphorus fertilization. Fertilization responses generally aligned with plant and soil indicators of nutrient limitation. Response to nitrogen addition was greatest on soils with low total nitrogen and high exchangeable calcium concentrations. Responses to lime and calcium chloride additions were greatest at sites with low foliar calcium and low soil pH. Response to phosphorus addition was greatest on sites with low foliar phosphorus and high soil pH. Blended fertilizers yielded only marginal growth increases at one site, with no consistent effect across sites. Overall, our results highlight that calcium and phosphorus can be important growth limiting nutrients on specific sites in nitrogen-rich Douglas-fir forests of the Pacific Northwest.

  17. Gas phase laser synthesis and processing of calcium phosphate nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bapat, Parimal V.

    Biochemical processes make pervasive use of calcium and phosphate ions. Calcium phosphate salts that are naturally nontoxic and bioactive have been used for several medical applications in form of coatings and micropowders. Nanoparticle-based calcium phosphates have been shown to be internalized by living cells and be effective in DNA transfection, drug delivery, and transport of fluorophores for imaging of intracellular processes. They are also expected to interact strongly with cell adhesive proteins and are therefore promising elements in approaches to mimic the complex environment of the extra cellular matrix of bone. Harnessing this biomedical potential requires the ability to control the numerous characteristics of nanophase calcium phosphates that affect biological response, including nanoparticle chemical composition, crystal phase, crystallinity, crystallographic orientation of exposed faces, size, shape, surface area, number concentration, and degree of aggregation. This dissertation focuses on the use of laser-induced gas-phase synthesis for creation of calcium phosphate nanoparticles, and corresponding nanoparticle-based substrates that could offer new opportunities for guiding biological responses through well-controlled biochemical and topological cues. Gas-phase synthesis of nanoparticles has several characteristics that could enhance control over particle morphology, crystallinity, and surface area, compared to liquid-phase techniques. Synthesis from gas-phase precursors can be carried out at high temperatures and in high-purity inert or reactive gas backgrounds, enabling good control of chemistry, crystal structure, and purity. Moreover, the particle mean free path and number concentration can be controlled independently. This allows regulation of interparticle collision rates, which can be adjusted to limit aggregation. High-temperature synthesis of well-separated particles is therefore possible. In this work high power lasers are employed to vaporize microcrystalline calcium phosphate materials to generate an aerosol of nanoparticles which is further processed and deposited using principles of aerosol mechanics. Particles and resulting particle-based systems are analyzed by transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and optical absorption. Obtained substrates are functionalized with cell adhesive peptides. Findings show that laser-induced gas-phase synthesis provides attractive new dimensions in the controlled fabrication of calcium phosphate nanoparticles, including manipulation not only of size and chemical composition, but also crystal phase make-up, fractal structure, and nanotopography of derived substrates.

  18. Preparation of polyelectrolyte/calcium phosphate hybrids for drug delivery application.

    PubMed

    Salama, Ahmed; El-Sakhawy, Mohamed

    2014-11-26

    Biocompatible and biodegradable polyelectrolyte complex consisting of carboxylmethyl cellulose (CMC) and chitosan (CHI) were studied as a template for calcium phosphate biomimetic mineralization. CMC/CHI/calcium phosphate hybrids were prepared using different concentrations of simulated body fluid (2, 5 and 10 × SBF) for producing hybrids with different organic/inorganic ratio. These hybrids were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The equilibrium swelling extents of the hybrids were found to be dependent on the inorganic % in the hybrids. The release profile of bovine serum albumin as a model drug in simulated intestine solution (pH 7.4) during 24h has established the efficiency of the hybrids as a sustained delivery system. The hybrids developed in this contribution exhibit a great potential in bone tissue engineering and drug delivery applications. PMID:25256512

  19. Uptake of Hydrophilic Solutes Through Plant Leaves: Current State of Knowledge and Perspectives of Foliar Fertilization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Fernández; T. Eichert

    2009-01-01

    Foliar fertilization is an agricultural practice of increasing importance in practical terms. Since nutrient sprays are mostly applied as water solutions, the focus of the article was placed on the penetration of ionic, polar solutes through the leaf surface, although the mechanisms of cuticular penetration of lipophilics are also taken into consideration. In theory, application of foliar nutrient sprays may

  20. FOLIAR POTASSIUM IMPROVES CANTALOUPE MARKETABLE AND NUTRITIONAL QUALITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potassium (K) is needed to optimize both crop yield and quality. Roots, the sole source of K uptake, are poor suppliers of K during fruit crop production. This study has shown that supplementing optimal soil K with additional foliar K applications, superficially during cantaloupe fruit growth, can...

  1. Fatigue Behavior of Ti-6-4 Alloy with Application of Calcium Phosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamboj, Jaspal Singh

    It is key to consider a material's mechanical properties when determining its use for any given application, including biomaterial implantations. One such characteristic includes the fatigue life, which is determined by repeatedly cycling specified amounts of load on any given material. The fatigue life is then measured according to how many cycles of load the material can undergo before fracture. When a material is introduced to the human body it is usually expected that the life of the material will not match that of the patient. It is crucial to understand the fatigue life of the material before implantation to pre-diagnose how often and when the implant will need to be replaced. The purpose of this project is to help determine and compare the fatigue behaviors of a commonly used biocompatible coating on Titanium 6-4 metal alloy. The comparison will help identify how the material properties vary with the addition of calcium phosphate when compared to the bare alloy itself. Multiple, small rectangular samples were cut by electrical discharge machining (EDM) of which half were covered with calcium phosphate coating. Fatigue crack initiations and propagation would then be analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to help determine the nature of the damage processes. It was found that the fatigue life of the coated samples varied at different stresses but was greater than the bare samples, and particularly high in the 900 MPa - 1000 MPa stress range.

  2. Ion microprobe measurement of strontium isotopes in calcium carbonate with application to salmon otoliths

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weber, P.K.; Bacon, C.R.; Hutcheon, I.D.; Ingram, B.L.; Wooden, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    The ion microprobe has the capability to generate high resolution, high precision isotopic measurements, but analysis of the isotopic composition of strontium, as measured by the 87Sr/ 86Sr ratio, has been hindered by isobaric interferences. Here we report the first high precision measurements of 87Sr/ 86Sr by ion microprobe in calcium carbonate samples with moderate Sr concentrations. We use the high mass resolving power (7000 to 9000 M.R.P.) of the SHRIMP-RG ion microprobe in combination with its high transmission to reduce the number of interfering species while maintaining sufficiently high count rates for precise isotopic measurements. The isobaric interferences are characterized by peak modeling and repeated analyses of standards. We demonstrate that by sample-standard bracketing, 87Sr/86Sr ratios can be measured in inorganic and biogenic carbonates with Sr concentrations between 400 and 1500 ppm with ???2??? external precision (2??) for a single analysis, and subpermil external precision with repeated analyses. Explicit correction for isobaric interferences (peak-stripping) is found to be less accurate and precise than sample-standard bracketing. Spatial resolution is ???25 ??m laterally and 2 ??m deep for a single analysis, consuming on the order of 2 ng of material. The method is tested on otoliths from salmon to demonstrate its accuracy and utility. In these growth-banded aragonitic structures, one-week temporal resolution can be achieved. The analytical method should be applicable to other calcium carbonate samples with similar Sr concentrations. Copyright ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Application of Atomic Absorption Spectro- photometry in the Determination of Calcium in Serum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alfred Zettner; David Seligson

    Atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) was applied to the determination of serum calcium. A specialdiluent was developedto abolishthe effect of absorption depressors.This made possiblemeasurement of calcium in directly diluted serum sampleswithout prior removalof any serum constituents. Values obtained by AAS on calcium oxalate precipitates from serum were identical with those found by the direct dilution technique. THE RECENT appearance of good

  4. Foliar Fertilization of Keith Kelling

    E-print Network

    Balser, Teri C.

    .5 69.2 66.9 55.4 78.7 55.0 LSD (10%) NS 1.2 NS NS NS ------------------------- Leaf Tissue B ---------------------- 0 36.8 33.8 -- -- -- 0.5 39.1 36.3 -- -- -- LSD (10%) 2.1 1.0 -- -- -- 1 Applied as a foliar spray

  5. Synthesis and characterization of bioresorbable calcium phosphosilicate nanocomposite particles for fluorescence imaging and biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Thomas T.

    Organically doped calcium phosphosilicate nanoparticles (CPSNPs) were developed and characterized, driven by the need for non-toxic vectors for drug delivery and fluorescence biological imaging applications. In particular, advancement in drug delivery for the chemotherapeutic treatment of cancers is required to increase drug efficacy and improve patient quality of life. Additionally, brighter and more photostable fluorophores are needed to meet demands for improved sensitivity and experimental diversity, which may lead to improvements in early detection of solid tumors and advancement in understanding of biological processes. A literature survey on the state of the field for nanoparticle based biological fluorescence imaging and drug delivery is presented in Chapter 1. Chapter 2 focuses on the characterization techniques used in this work. The development and optical characterization of 20-40 nm diameter, citrate functionalized Cy3 amidite doped calcium phosphosilicate nanoparticles (Cy3 CPSNPs) for in vitro fluorescence imaging is outlined in Chapters 3 and 4, respectively. In particular, sodium citrate was used to functionalize the surface and provide electrosteric dispersion of these particles. CPSNPs stabilized with sodium citrate routinely exhibited highly negative zeta potentials greater than -25 mV in magnitude. Furthermore, the fluorescence quantum yield of the encapsulated fluorophore was improved by more than 4.5-fold when compared to the unencapsulated dye. The bioimaging and drug delivery capability of CPSNPs was explored. Cy3 CPSNPs dissolved quickly in the acidic environment experienced during endocytosis, releasing the encapsulated fluorophore. This is consistent with solution phase experiments that show the particles are dissolved at pH 5. CPSNPs loaded with fluorescein and a hydrophobic growth inhibitor, ceramide C6, proved the ability to simultaneously image and delivery of the hydrophobic drug to cells in vitro. Chapter 5 examined the colloidal stability of citrate and polyethylene glycol (PEG) functionalized CPSNPs in 70 volume % ethanol/30% water, both experimentally using TEM and theoretically using DLVO and polymeric steric dispersion theories. There are three basic mechanisms for colloidal stability for macroscopic suspensions (i.e., for particulate diameters down to ˜100nm), metastable electrostatic in which some finite degree of agglomeration continuously takes place because a finite energy barrier against agglomeration; and electrosteric and steric mechanisms in which infinitely high potential energy barriers toward agglomeration are present leading to thermodynamically stable suspensions. One of the fundamental issues addressed in this chapter was whether the mechanisms of electrosteric or steric dispersion, based on relatively large adsorbed polyelectrolytes for macroscopic size particulates, scales with particles in the range of ˜40 nm diameter such that a small, charged organic molecule such as citrate provides the thermodynamic colloidal stability of electrosteric mechanisms as suggested by preliminary theoretical calculations. The particle diameter-number distributions for as-prepared and after drying (at 25°C) and redispersion were used as metrics for thermodynamic colloidal stability. How efficiently particles redispersed after drying and reintroduction into the 70:30 ethanol:water solvent was used as the primary metric for whether the metastable electrostatic mechanism or thermodynamically stable electrosteric or steric approaches were responsible for the robust dispersion experimentally observed in the colloids. These experiments found that, even with the thin electrosteric layer provided by the adsorbed citrate, particles were electrosterically dispersed, and were unagglomerated when dried under argon and redispersed. Preliminary work outlining the synthesis and characterization of silver core, calcium phosphosilicate shell nanoparticles for surface plasmon coupled emission and metal enhanced fluorescence applications is discussed in Chapter 6. Thin (2-5 nm) calcium phosphosilicat

  6. Effect of GA3 and 2,4-D foliar application on the anatomy of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) seedling leaf

    PubMed Central

    Doaigey, Abdullah R.; Al-Whaibi, M.H.; Siddiqui, M.H.; Al Sahli, A.A.; El-Zaidy, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Two concentrations (10-5M and 10-3M) of both GA3 and 2,4-D were used as foliar spray to evaluate the response of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cv. Khedri seedlings. They affected some of the anatomical characteristics of the first leaf emerging after the beginning of the spray. The high concentration of GA3 increased the size of the midrib and its vascular bundle numbers. Both low and high concentrations of 2,4-D inhibited the formation of the midrib. 2,4-D in both low and high concentrations decreased the number of vessels in both protoxylem and metaxylem and also decreased their diameters, where as GA3 in low and high concentrations have less effect on the number of vessels and its diameters. GA3 in high concentration increased the number of vascular bundles in 1mm long of the leaf blade, while 2,4-D in low and high concentrations decreased their numbers. 10-3M of 2,4-D increased the size and layers of special hypodermal cells. PMID:23961229

  7. Ion Association versus Ion Interaction Models in Examining Electrolyte Solutions: Application to Calcium Hydroxide Solubility Equilibrium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menéndez, M. Isabel; Borge, Javier

    2014-01-01

    The heterogeneous equilibrium of the solubility of calcium hydroxide in water is used to predict both its solubility product from solubility and solubility values from solubility product when inert salts, in any concentration, are present. Accepting the necessity of including activity coefficients to treat the saturated solution of calcium

  8. Printability of calcium phosphate: calcium sulfate powders for the application of tissue engineered bone scaffolds using the 3D printing technique.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zuoxin; Buchanan, Fraser; Mitchell, Christina; Dunne, Nicholas

    2014-05-01

    In this study, calcium phosphate (CaP) powders were blended with a three-dimensional printing (3DP) calcium sulfate (CaSO4)-based powder and the resulting composite powders were printed with a water-based binder using the 3DP technology. Application of a water-based binder ensured the manufacture of CaP:CaSO4 constructs on a reliable and repeatable basis, without long term damage of the printhead. Printability of CaP:CaSO4 powders was quantitatively assessed by investigating the key 3DP process parameters, i.e. in-process powder bed packing, drop penetration behavior and the quality of printed solid constructs. Effects of particle size, CaP:CaSO4 ratio and CaP powder type on the 3DP process were considered. The drop penetration technique was used to reliably identify powder formulations that could be potentially used for the application of tissue engineered bone scaffolds using the 3DP technique. Significant improvements (p<0.05) in the 3DP process parameters were found for CaP (30-110 ?m):CaSO4 powders compared to CaP (<20 ?m):CaSO4 powders. Higher compressive strength was obtained for the powders with the higher CaP:CaSO4 ratio. Hydroxyapatite (HA):CaSO4 powders showed better results than beta-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP):CaSO4 powders. Solid and porous constructs were manufactured using the 3DP technique from the optimized CaP:CaSO4 powder formulations. High-quality printed constructs were manufactured, which exhibited appropriate green compressive strength and a high level of printing accuracy. PMID:24656346

  9. One-step bulk preparation of calcium carbonate nanotubes and its application in anticancer drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jing; Sun, Dong-Mei; Qian, Wen-Yu; Zhu, Rong-Rong; Sun, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Wen-Rui; Li, Kun; Wang, Shi-Long

    2012-06-01

    Bulk fabrication of ordered hollow structural particles (HSPs) with large surface area and high biocompatibility simultaneously is critical for the practical application of HSPs in biosensing and drug delivery. In this article, we describe a smart approach for batch synthesis of calcium carbonate nanotubes (CCNTs) based on supported liquid membrane (SLM) with large surface area, excellent structural stability, prominent biocompatibility, and acid degradability. The products were characterized by transmission electron micrograph, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectra, UV-vis spectroscopy, zeta potential, and particle size distribution. The results showed that the tube-like structure facilitated podophyllotoxin (PPT) diffusion into the cavity of hollow structure, and the drug loading and encapsulation efficiency of CCNTs for PPT are as high as 38.5 and 64.4 wt.%, respectively. In vitro drug release study showed that PPT was released from the CCNTs in a pH-controlled and time-dependent manner. The treatment of HEK 293T and SGC 7901 cells demonstrated that PPT-loaded CCNTs were less toxic to normal cells and more effective in antitumor potency compared with free drugs. In addition, PPT-loaded CCNTs also enhanced the apoptotic process on tumor cells compared with the free drugs. This study not only provides a new kind of biocompatible and pH-sensitive nanomaterial as the feasible drug container and carrier but more importantly establishes a facile approach to synthesize novel hollow structural particles on a large scale based on SLM technology. PMID:22351100

  10. Effect of calcium silicate slag application on radium-226 concentrations in plant tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Mortvedt, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to determine if plants absorb Ra from slag applied to soil. Slag at rates equivalent to 0 and 22 mt/ha was mixed with Mountview silt loam (Typic Paleudults) limed to pH 5.8 and 7.2. Three clippings each of fescue (Festuca arundiancea Schreb.), and Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L.), and one harvest of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) for grain and straw were grown on separate series of treated soil, and plant samples were analyzed for radioactivity due to /sup 226/Ra uptake. Samples of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) forage and extracted juice from field experiments in Florida testing this slage as a Si source also were analyzed for radioactivity. Dry forage yields of fescue and wheat were not affected by slag applications, but those of Swiss chard were somewhat higher on slag-treated soil at pH 5.8. Wheat grain and straw yields were higher on soil at pH 7.2 than at pH 5.8 regardless of slag treatment. Uptake of /sup 226/Ra by fescue forage and wheat grain and straw was not affected by slag application. Concentrations of /sup 226/Ra were similar in forage and extracted juice from untreated sugarcane or that treated with slag at rates up to 5.6 mt/ha. These results suggest that plant uptake of radionuclides is negligible from calcium silicate slag applied at the recommended rates for liming acid soils or as a source of Si for sugarcane.

  11. Amorphous calcium silicate hydrate/block copolymer hybrid nanoparticles: synthesis and application as drug carriers.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jin; Zhu, Ying-Jie; Chen, Feng; Zhao, Xin-Yu; Zhao, Jing; Qi, Chao

    2013-05-21

    Amorphous calcium silicate hydrate (CSH)/block copolymer monomethoxy(polyethyleneglycol)-block-poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (mPEG-PLGA) (CSHP) hybrid nanoparticles have been prepared in aqueous solution via a facile coprecipitation route at room temperature. The block copolymer mPEG-PLGA micelles in aqueous solution serve as the templates, and the CSH links to the micelles by hydrogen bonding between the silanol groups and the hydrophilic mPEG segments. The obtained core/shell hybrid nanoparticles can be transformed to solid hybrid nanoparticles by washing with water. The drug ibuprofen (IBU) loading capacity of the CSHP hybrid nanoparticles is ultrahigh (~1.9 g drug per g carrier), and the IBU loading efficiency can reach as high as ~100%. The drug release of loaded IBU in the CSHP hybrid nanoparticles has been investigated in simulated body fluid (SBF). The loaded IBU drug in CSHP hybrid nanoparticles can release in SBF for a long period of time (about 300 h), during which the CSHP nanocarrier is completely transformed to hydroxyapatite, exhibiting a good bioactivity. The IBU drug release profile can be interpreted by the Higuchi model. The loading capacity for the anticancer drug docetaxel (DTX) in the CSHP hybrid nanoparticles is about 82 mg g(-1). More importantly, the release of the loaded DTX in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) at pH 5.5 is obviously faster than that at pH 7.4, which is promising for the application in cancer therapy. Human gastric carcinoma (SGC-7901) cells can be effectively killed in the presence of the DTX-loaded CSHP hybrid nanoparticles at appropriate concentrations. Thus, the CSHP hybrid nanoparticles are promising nanocarriers in drug delivery. Furthermore, the hemoglobin (Hb) loading capacity of CSHP hybrid nanoparticles can achieve an utrahigh value of 995 mg g(-1), suggesting that the as-prepared CSHP hybrid nanoparticles are excellent protein adsorbents. PMID:23511873

  12. Exogenous application of calcium and silica alleviates cadmium toxicity by suppressing oxidative damage in rice seedlings.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Rajneesh Kumar; Pandey, Poonam; Rajpoot, Ritika; Rani, Anjana; Gautam, Arti; Dubey, R S

    2014-11-21

    The present study was undertaken to examine the possible roles of calcium (Ca(2+)) and silica (Si) in protection against oxidative damage due to Cd(2+) toxicity in rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings grown in hydroponics. Rice seedlings raised for 12 days in hydroponics containing Cd(NO3)2 (75 ?M) showed reduced growth; increase in the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) (O2 (·-) and H2O2), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARSs) and protein carbonylation; and increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes-superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) compared to untreated controls. Exogenously added Ca(2+) (2 mM) and Si (200 ?M) significantly alleviated negative effect of Cd(2+) by restoration of growth of the seedlings, suppression of Cd(2+) uptake and restoration of root plasma membrane integrity. The levels of O2 (·-), H2O2, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyls were much lower when Ca(2+) and Si were added in the growth medium along with Cd(2+) as compared to Cd-alone-treated seedlings. Ca(2+) and Si lowered Cd-induced increase in SOD, GPX and APX activities while they elevated Cd-induced decline in CAT activity. Using histochemical staining of O2 (·-) and H2O2 in leaf tissues, it was further confirmed that added Ca(2+) and Si suppressed Cd-induced accumulation of O2 (·-) and H2O2 in the leaves. The results suggest that exogenous application of Ca(2+) and Si appears to be advantageous for rice plants in alleviating Cd(2+) toxicity effects by reducing Cd(2+) uptake, decreasing ROS production and suppressing oxidative damage. The observations indicate that Ca(2+) and Si treatments can help in reducing Cd(2+) toxicity in rice plants. PMID:25413289

  13. Characterization of nickel-doped biphasic calcium phosphate/graphene nanoplatelet composites for biomedical application.

    PubMed

    Baradaran, S; Moghaddam, E; Nasiri-Tabrizi, Bahman; Basirun, W J; Mehrali, M; Sookhakian, M; Hamdi, M; Alias, Y

    2015-04-01

    The effect of the addition of an ionic dopant to calcium phosphates for biomedical applications requires specific research due to the essential roles played in such processes. In the present study, the mechanical and biological properties of Ni-doped hydroxyapatite (HA) and Ni-doped HA mixed with graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) were evaluated. Ni (3wt.% and 6wt.%)-doped HA was synthesized using a continuous precipitation method and calcined at 900°C for 1h. The GNP (0.5-2wt.%)-reinforced 6% Ni-doped HA (Ni6) composite was prepared using rotary ball milling for 15h. The sintering process was performed using hot isostatic pressing at processing conditions of 1150°C and 160MPa with a 1-h holding time. The results indicated that the phase compositions and structural features of the products were noticeably affected by the Ni and GNPs. The mechanical properties of Ni6 and 1.5Ni6 were increased by 55% and 75% in hardness, 59% and 163% in fracture toughness and 120% and 85% in elastic modulus compared with monolithic HA, respectively. The in-vitro biological behavior was investigated using h-FOB osteoblast cells in 1, 3 and 5days of culture. Based on the osteoblast results, the cytotoxicity of the products was indeed affected by the Ni doping. In addition, the effect of GNPs on the growth and proliferation of osteoblast cells was investigated in Ni6 composites containing different ratios of GNPs, where 1.5wt.% was the optimum value. PMID:25686995

  14. 40 CFR 424.40 - Applicability; description of the covered calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control devices subcategory...Calcium Carbide Furnaces With Wet Air Pollution Control Devices Subcategory ...calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control devices...

  15. 40 CFR 424.40 - Applicability; description of the covered calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control devices subcategory...Calcium Carbide Furnaces With Wet Air Pollution Control Devices Subcategory ...calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control devices...

  16. 40 CFR 424.40 - Applicability; description of the covered calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control devices subcategory...Calcium Carbide Furnaces With Wet Air Pollution Control Devices Subcategory ...calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control devices...

  17. 40 CFR 424.40 - Applicability; description of the covered calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control devices subcategory...Calcium Carbide Furnaces With Wet Air Pollution Control Devices Subcategory ...calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control devices...

  18. 40 CFR 424.40 - Applicability; description of the covered calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control devices subcategory...Calcium Carbide Furnaces With Wet Air Pollution Control Devices Subcategory ...calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control devices...

  19. Calcium - urine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... best treatment for the most common type of kidney stone , which is made of calcium. This type of ... the kidneys into the urine, which causes calcium kidney stones Sarcoidosis Taking too much calcium Too much production ...

  20. Calcium Carbonate

    MedlinePLUS

    Calcium carbonate is a dietary supplement used when the amount of calcium taken in the diet is not ... for healthy bones, muscles, nervous system, and heart. Calcium carbonate also is used as an antacid to relieve ...

  1. Calcium supplements

    MedlinePLUS

    ... enough calcium over your lifetime can help prevent osteoporosis . Most people get enough calcium in their normal diet. Calcium is found in dairy foods and leafy green vegetables. Older women and men ...

  2. Influence of soil pH and application rate on the oxidation of calcium sulfite derived from flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.B.; Bigham, J.M.; Dick, W.A.; Jones, E.S.; Ramsier, C. [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States). School of Environmental & Natural Resources

    2007-01-15

    Calcium sulfite hemihydrate (CaSO{sub 3} {center_dot} 0.5H{sub 2}O), a common byproduct of coal-fired utilities, is fairly insoluble and can decompose to release toxic SO{sub 2} under highly acidic soil conditions; however, it can also oxidize to form gypsum. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of application rate and soil pH on the oxidation of calcium sulfite under laboratory conditions. Oxidation rates measured by release of SO{sub 4}-S to solution decreased with increasing application rate. Leachate SO{sub 4}-S from soils amended with 1.0 to 3.0 g kg{sup -1} CaSO{sub 3} increased over a 21 to 28 d period before reaching a plateau. At 4 g kg{sup -1}, maximum SO{sub 4}-S release was delayed until Week 7. Oxidation and release of SO{sub 4}-S from soil amended with 3.0 g kg{sup -1} calcium sulfite increased markedly with decreasing soil pH. After only 3 d incubation, the concentrations of SO{sub 4}-S in aqueous leachates were 77, 122, 1709 220, and 229 mg L{sup -1} for initial soil pH values of 7.8, 6.5, 5.5, 5.1, and 4.0, respectively. At an initial soil pH value of 4.0, oxidation/dissolution did not increase much after 3 d. At higher pH values, oxidation was maximized after 21 d. These results suggest that autumn surface applications of calcium sulfite in no-till systems should permit ample time for oxidation/dissolution reactions to occur without introducing biocidal effects related to oxygen scavenging. Soil and annual crops can thus benefit from additions of soluble Ca and SO{sub 4} if calcium sulfite is applied in advance of spring planting.

  3. Calcium bioavailability of vegetarian diets in rats: potential application in a bioregenerative life-support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickel, K. P.; Nielsen, S. S.; Smart, D. J.; Mitchell, C. A.; Belury, M. A.

    1997-01-01

    Calcium bioavailability of vegetarian diets containing various proportions of candidate crops for a controlled ecological life-support system (CELSS) was determined by femur 45Ca uptake. Three vegetarian diets and a control diet were labeled extrinsically with 45Ca and fed to 5-wk old male rats. A fifth group of rats fed an unlabeled control diet received an intraperitoneal (IP) injection of 45Ca. There was no significant difference in mean calcium absorption of vegetarian diets (90.80 +/- 5.23%) and control diet (87.85 +/- 5.25%) when calculated as the percent of an IP dose. The amounts of phytate, oxalate, and dietary fiber in the diets did not affect calcium absorption.

  4. HumanWildlife Interactions 8(1):139149, Spring 2014 Evaluation of foliar sprays to reduce crop

    E-print Network

    ,000 managing crop damage caused by grazing Canada geese (Branta canadensis). Foliar applications of a chemical, South Dakota, USA Canada geese (Branta canadensis) historically nested throughout the Great Plains

  5. Process for decontaminating radioactive liquids using a calcium cyanamide-containing composition. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Silver, G.L.

    1980-09-24

    The present invention provides a process for decontaminating a radioactive liquid containing a radioactive element capable of forming a hydroxide. This process includes the steps of contacting the radioactive liquid with a decontaminating composition and separating the resulting radioactive sludge from the resulting liquid. The decontaminating composition contains calcium cyanamide.

  6. Influence of Application Variables on Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Response to Prohexadione Calcium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Excessive vegetative growth of peanut reduces row visibility during the digging and inversion process. Prohexadione calcium retards vegetative growth, improves row visibility, and in some instances reduces pod shed and increases pod yield compared with non-treated peanut. However, prohexadione cal...

  7. Comportement physico-chimique des ammoniacates de calcium. Application la rfrigration solaire

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    solaire J. Flechon, K. Benhammou. F. Machizaud et G. Godmel Laboratoire de Physique des Dépôts Métalliques meilleures conditions le couple chlorure de calcium-ammoniac en vue de la réfrigération solaire ou du refrigeration or energy stockage, we show the bad effect of the water on the binary. The law giving

  8. CALCIUM-INDUCED SUPRAMOLECULAR STRUCTURES IN THE CALCIUM CASEINATE SYSTEM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The molecular details deciphering the spontaneous calcium-induced protein aggregation process in the calcium caseinate system remain obscure. Understanding this complex process could lead to potential new applications of this important food ingredient. In this work, we studied calcium-induced supra...

  9. INOCULATION AND GROWTH WITH FOLIAR PATHOGENIC FUNGI

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter describes methods for evaluating responses of Medicago truncatula to foliar plant-pathogenic fungi. Growth of plants, preparation of inoculum, incubation conditions, and disease assessment are described for five necrotrophic pathogens (Ascochyta lentis, Ascochyta rabiei, Colletotrichum ...

  10. Augmentation of Bone Tunnel Healing in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Grafts: Application of Calcium Phosphates and Other Materials

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, F. R.; Bach, J. S.; Detrez, F.; Cantournet, S.; Corté, L.; Cherkaoui, M.; Ku, D. N.

    2010-01-01

    Bone tunnel healing is an important consideration after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) replacement surgery. Recently, a variety of materials have been proposed for improving this healing process, including autologous bone tissue, cells, artificial proteins, and calcium salts. Amongst these materials are calcium phosphates (CaPs), which are known for their biocompatibility and are widely commercially available. As with the majority of the materials investigated, CaPs have been shown to advance the healing of bone tunnel tissue in animal studies. Mechanical testing shows fixation strengths to be improved, particularly by the application of CaP-based cement in the bone tunnel. Significantly, CaP-based cements have been shown to produce improvements comparable to those induced by potentially more complex treatments such as biologics (including fibronectin and chitin) and cultured cells. Further investigation of CaP-based treatment in the bone tunnels during ACL replacement is therefore warranted in order to establish what improvements in healing and resulting clinical benefits may be achieved through its application. PMID:21350646

  11. Application of Reutilization Technology to Calcium Fluoride Sludge from Semiconductor Manufacturers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei-Ting Liu; Kung-Cheh Li

    2011-01-01

    Glass ceramics were prepared from mixtures of wastes generated from refining of waste glass and semiconductor industrial wastewater sludge. The aim is then indeed to study the possible use and effects of integrating calcium fluoride (CaF2) as present in semiconductor wastewater sludge in the silica (glass) melts. CaF2 sludge was blended with a conditioner according to characteristics of the target.

  12. Europium-doped amorphous calcium phosphate porous nanospheres: preparation and application as luminescent drug carriers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Calcium phosphate is the most important inorganic constituent of biological tissues, and synthetic calcium phosphate has been widely used as biomaterials. In this study, a facile method has been developed for the fabrication of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP)/polylactide-block-monomethoxy(polyethyleneglycol) hybrid nanoparticles and ACP porous nanospheres. Europium-doping is performed to enable photoluminescence (PL) function of ACP porous nanospheres. A high specific surface area of the europium-doped ACP (Eu3+:ACP) porous nanospheres is achieved (126.7 m2/g). PL properties of Eu3+:ACP porous nanospheres are investigated, and the most intense peak at 612 nm is observed at 5 mol% Eu3+ doping. In vitro cytotoxicity experiments indicate that the as-prepared Eu3+:ACP porous nanospheres are biocompatible. In vitro drug release experiments indicate that the ibuprofen-loaded Eu3+:ACP porous nanospheres show a slow and sustained drug release in simulated body fluid. We have found that the cumulative amount of released drug has a linear relationship with the natural logarithm of release time (ln(t)). The Eu3+:ACP porous nanospheres are bioactive, and can transform to hydroxyapatite during drug release. The PL properties of drug-loaded nanocarriers before and after drug release are also investigated. PMID:21711603

  13. Europium-doped amorphous calcium phosphate porous nanospheres: preparation and application as luminescent drug carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Feng; Zhu, Ying-Jie; Zhang, Kui-Hua; Wu, Jin; Wang, Ke-Wei; Tang, Qi-Li; Mo, Xiu-Mei

    2011-12-01

    Calcium phosphate is the most important inorganic constituent of biological tissues, and synthetic calcium phosphate has been widely used as biomaterials. In this study, a facile method has been developed for the fabrication of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP)/polylactide-block-monomethoxy(polyethyleneglycol) hybrid nanoparticles and ACP porous nanospheres. Europium-doping is performed to enable photoluminescence (PL) function of ACP porous nanospheres. A high specific surface area of the europium-doped ACP (Eu3+:ACP) porous nanospheres is achieved (126.7 m2/g). PL properties of Eu3+:ACP porous nanospheres are investigated, and the most intense peak at 612 nm is observed at 5 mol% Eu3+ doping. In vitro cytotoxicity experiments indicate that the as-prepared Eu3+:ACP porous nanospheres are biocompatible. In vitro drug release experiments indicate that the ibuprofen-loaded Eu3+:ACP porous nanospheres show a slow and sustained drug release in simulated body fluid. We have found that the cumulative amount of released drug has a linear relationship with the natural logarithm of release time ( ln( t)). The Eu3+:ACP porous nanospheres are bioactive, and can transform to hydroxyapatite during drug release. The PL properties of drug-loaded nanocarriers before and after drug release are also investigated.

  14. Combined effect of CO2 enrichment and foliar application of salicylic acid on the production and antioxidant activities of anthocyanin, flavonoids and isoflavonoids from ginger

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration caused by climate change and agricultural practices is likely to affect biota by producing changes in plant growth, allocation and chemical composition. This study was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of the application of salicylic acid (SA, at two levels: 0 and 10-3 M) and CO2 enrichment (at two levels: 400 and 800 ?mol·mol?1) on the production and antioxidant activities of anthocyanin, flavonoids and isoflavonoids from two Malaysian ginger varieties, namely Halia Bentong and Halia Bara. Methods High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with photodiode array detection and mass spectrometry was employed to identify and quantify the flavonoids and anthocyanins in the ginger extracts. The antioxidant activity of the leaf extracts was determined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) assays. The substrate specificity of chalcone synthase, the key enzyme for flavonoid biosynthesis, was investigated using the chalcone synthase (CHS) assay. Results CO2 levels of 800 ?mol·mol?1 significantly increased anthocyanin, rutin, naringenin, myricetin, apigenin, fisetin and morin contents in ginger leaves. Meanwhile, the combined effect of SA and CO2 enrichment enhanced anthocyanin and flavonoid production compared with single treatment effects. High anthocyanin content was observed in H Bara leaves treated with elevated CO2 and SA. The highest chalcone synthase (CHS) activity was observed in plants treated with SA and CO2 enrichment. Plants not treated with SA and kept under ambient CO2 conditions showed the lowest CHS activity. The highest free radical scavenging activity corresponded to H Bara treated with SA under high CO2 conditions, while the lowest activity corresponded to H Bentong without SA treatment and under atmospheric CO2 levels. As the level of CO2 increased, the DPPH activity increased. Higher TBA activity was also recorded in the extracts of H Bara treated with SA and grown under high CO2 conditions. Conclusions The biological activities of both ginger varieties were enhanced when the plants were treated with SA and grown under elevated CO2 concentration. The increase in the production of anthocyanin and flavonoids in plants treated with SA could be attributed to the increase in CHS activity under high CO2 levels. PMID:23176249

  15. Measurement of free cytosolic calcium in single cells: method and application.

    PubMed

    Raue, F; Zink, A

    1992-05-01

    Intracellular calcium [Ca2+]i acts as an important intracellular messenger system for secretion and synthesis, cell growth and differentiation. In order to demonstrate definitively that a change in [Ca2+]i is responsible for a physiological event, one has to measure [Ca2+]i directly within intact cells and correlate the time course of any [Ca2+]i changes with the biological response. Measurement of [Ca2+]i was done in a single cell preloaded with fluorescent Ca indicator fura2 using a fluorescent unit (lonoquant) consisting of an inverted microscope (Zeiss IM 35) equipped with a mercury lamp and a rotating filter wheel containing filters at wavelengths of 340 and 380 nm. Cells were alternately excited and emission signals of fura 2-loaded cells were collected by a photomultiplier and recorded on-line on a computer screen. As a model system, the rat C-cell carcinoma cell line rMTC 6-23 secreting calcitonin was used. An acute elevation of extracellular calcium resulted in an increase in [Ca2+]i within 5 sec and rapid release of preformed calcitonin. This tight linkage between extracellular calcium and [Ca2+]i is mediated via Ca influx through voltage-dependent Ca channels. These channels are modulated by intracellular cAMP, yielding a rhythmic oscillation of [Ca2+]i, as well as by extracellular somatostatin blocking the Ca channel and the increase of [Ca2+]i via a pertussis toxin sensitive Gi protein. The change in [Ca2+]i is associated with changes in calcitonin secretion, confirming the stimulus secretion coupling via voltage-dependent Ca channels in C-cells. PMID:1354776

  16. Porous microspheres of amorphous calcium phosphate: block copolymer templated microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis and application in drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Ding, Guan-Jun; Zhu, Ying-Jie; Qi, Chao; Lu, Bing-Qiang; Wu, Jin; Chen, Feng

    2015-04-01

    Amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) microspheres with a porous and hollow structure have been prepared using an aqueous solution containing CaCl2 as a calcium source, adenosine triphosphate disodium salt (Na2ATP) as a phosphorus source in the presence of a block copolymer methoxyl poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(D,L-lactide) (mPEG-PLA) by the microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. The effects of microwave hydrothermal temperature and the concentrations of CaCl2 and Na2ATP on the crystal phase and morphology of the product are investigated. The as-prepared ACP porous hollow microspheres have a relatively high specific surface area of 232.9 m(2) g(-1) and an average pore size of 9.9 nm. A typical anticancer drug, docetaxel, is used to evaluate the drug loading ability and drug release behavior of ACP porous hollow microspheres in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) with different pH values of 4.5 and 7.4. The experiments reveal that the ACP porous hollow microspheres have a high drug loading capacity and favorable pH-responsive drug release property, and the ACP porous hollow microsphere drug delivery system shows a high ability to damage tumor cells. It is expected that the as-prepared ACP porous hollow microspheres are promising for the applications in various biomedical fields such as drug delivery. PMID:25535849

  17. Neural field theory of calcium dependent plasticity with applications to transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Fung, P K; Robinson, P A

    2013-05-01

    Calcium dependent plasticity (CaDP), a physiologically realistic plasticity mechanism in the microscopic regime, is incorporated into a neural field theory to explore system-level plasticity. This system-level plasticity model is capable of reproducing the characteristic plasticity window of spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP) in paired associative stimulation (PAS), where a peripheral electric pulse stimulation is paired to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in the cortex, and rTMS frequency dependent plasticity, where low and high frequency rTMS trains induce depression and potentiation, respectively. These thus reproduce experimental results for system-level plasticity for the first time. This also bridges the gap between microscopic plasticity theory and system-level plasticity observed experimentally, and addresses long standing problems of stability and adaptability by predicting stable plasticity, a possible seizure state where neurons fire at a high rate, and spike-rate adaptation. PMID:23376643

  18. The development of a foliar fungal path M. Jrme CASAS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    The development of a foliar fungal path Jury M. Jérôme CASAS M. Michael SHAW M. Bertrand NEY M. Philippe GATE M. Michaël CHELLE M. Ivan SACHE M. Frédéric SUFFERT Spécialité The development of a foliar soutenue publiquement par The development of a foliar fungal path temperature, Co-encadrants Professeur

  19. Hyperspectral Remote Sensing of Foliar Nitrogen Content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knyazikhin, Yuri; Schull, Mitchell A.; Stenberg, Pauline; Moettus, Matti; Rautiainen, Miina; Yang, Yan; Marshak, Alexander; Carmona, Pedro Latorre; Kaufmann, Robert K.; Lewis, Philip; Disney, Mathias I.; Vanderbilt, Vern; Davis, Anthony B.; Baret, Frederic; Jacquemoud, Stephane; Lyapustin, Alexei; Myneni, Ranga B.

    2013-01-01

    A strong positive correlation between vegetation canopy bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) in the near infrared (NIR) spectral region and foliar mass-based nitrogen concentration (%N) has been reported in some temperate and boreal forests. This relationship, if true, would indicate an additional role for nitrogen in the climate system via its influence on surface albedo and may offer a simple approach for monitoring foliar nitrogen using satellite data. We report, however, that the previously reported correlation is an artifact - it is a consequence of variations in canopy structure, rather than of %N. The data underlying this relationship were collected at sites with varying proportions of foliar nitrogen-poor needleleaf and nitrogen-rich broadleaf species, whose canopy structure differs considerably. When the BRF data are corrected for canopy-structure effects, the residual reflectance variations are negatively related to %N at all wavelengths in the interval 423-855 nm. This suggests that the observed positive correlation between BRF and %N conveys no information about %N. We find that to infer leaf biochemical constituents, e.g., N content, from remotely sensed data, BRF spectra in the interval 710-790 nm provide critical information for correction of structural influences. Our analysis also suggests that surface characteristics of leaves impact remote sensing of its internal constituents. This further decreases the ability to remotely sense canopy foliar nitrogen. Finally, the analysis presented here is generic to the problem of remote sensing of leaf-tissue constituents and is therefore not a specific critique of articles espousing remote sensing of foliar %N.

  20. Improved methods for reducing calcium and magnesium concentrations in tissue culture medium: Application to studies of lymphoblast proliferation in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James K. Brennan; James Mansky; Geraldine Roberts; Marshall A. Lichtman

    1975-01-01

    Summary  We have compared several methods for reducing calcium and magnesium concentrations in tissue culture medium, with the objective\\u000a of producing selective deficiency effects on the growth of mouse (L5178Y) and human (P1R) lymphoblasts. In experiments in\\u000a which calcium- and magnesium-“free” McCoy’s medium was supplemented with 15% horse or fetal calf serum, enough calcium and\\u000a magnesium was provided by serum to

  1. [Calcium antagonists: current and future applications based on new evidence. The mechanisms on lowering serum uric acid level by calcium channel blockers].

    PubMed

    Mizuta, Einosuke; Hamada, Toshihiro; Igawa, Osamu; Shigemasa, Chiaki; Hisatome, Ichiro

    2010-01-01

    In hypertensive subjects, their serum uric acid levels tend to be higher because of decreasing urinary secretion or overproduction of uric acid. Among calcium channel blockers (CCBs) , long acting nifedipine and cilnidipine reveal serum uric acid lowering action. They decrease the production of uric acid precursor in skeletal muscles under anaerobic condition induced by hypertension or insulin resistance. Hyperuricemia is considered to be a risk factor of not only gout but also renal and cardiovascular diseases, thus, it is important to use CCBs without adverse effect on uric acid metabolisms. PMID:20048433

  2. Effect of cluster thinning and prohexadione calcium applications on phenolic composition and sensory properties of red wines.

    PubMed

    Avizcuri-Inac, José-Miguel; Gonzalo-Diago, Ana; Sanz-Asensio, Jesús; Martínez-Soria, María-Teresa; López-Alonso, Miguel; Dizy-Soto, Marta; Echávarri-Granado, José-Federico; Vaquero-Fernández, Luis; Fernández-Zurbano, Purificación

    2013-02-01

    The overall objective of this study was to investigate the effect of manual cluster thinning (CT) and the application of the growth regulator Prohexadione calcium (ProCa) on the phenolic composition and the sensory profile of Tempranillo and Grenache wines produced from treated vines in La Rioja (Spain). ProCa was applied at preblooming and CT was carried out at veraison in two consecutive years. Different physicochemical parameters and analyses of phenolic compounds were carried out in control, CT and ProCa grapes and wines and wine sensory was performed. Thinning treatments decreased crop yield, besides ProCa application reduced berry size, and berry weight. Color and phenolic composition of Grenache and Tempranillo wines in general were affected by thinning treatments, with an increase in anthocyanin, flavanol and flavonol concentrations. In sensory analysis, wines obtained from thinned vines presented higher values for several aromatic (e.g., white and yellow fruits, fresh flowers) and taste attributes (i.e., astringency, bitternes, persistence). CT and ProCa treatments resulted in an improvement in wine quality. In general, similar results in phenolic composition, sensory properties and quality of wines were obtained by manual and chemical cluster thinning. ProCa as a growth regulator may be an option for a quality vitiviniculture. PMID:23293882

  3. Current perspectives of bio-ceramic technology in endodontics: calcium enriched mixture cement - review of its composition, properties and applications.

    PubMed

    Utneja, Shivani; Nawal, Ruchika Roongta; Talwar, Sangeeta; Verma, Mahesh

    2015-02-01

    Advancements in bio-ceramic technology has revolutionised endodontic material science by enhancing the treatment outcome for patients. This class of dental materials conciliates excellent biocompatibility with high osseoconductivity that render them ideal for endodontic care. Few recently introduced bio-ceramic materials have shown considerable clinical success over their early generations in terms of good handling characteristics. Calcium enriched mixture (CEM) cement, Endosequence sealer, and root repair materials, Biodentine and BioAggregate are the new classes of bio-ceramic materials. The aim of this literature review is to present investigations regarding properties and applications of CEM cement in endodontics. A review of the existing literature was performed by using electronic and hand searching methods for CEM cement from January 2006 to December 2013. CEM cement has a different chemical composition from that of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) but has similar clinical applications. It combines the biocompatibility of MTA with more efficient characteristics, such as significantly shorter setting time, good handling characteristics, no staining of tooth and effective seal against bacterial leakage. PMID:25671207

  4. Current perspectives of bio-ceramic technology in endodontics: calcium enriched mixture cement - review of its composition, properties and applications

    PubMed Central

    Nawal, Ruchika Roongta; Talwar, Sangeeta; Verma, Mahesh

    2015-01-01

    Advancements in bio-ceramic technology has revolutionised endodontic material science by enhancing the treatment outcome for patients. This class of dental materials conciliates excellent biocompatibility with high osseoconductivity that render them ideal for endodontic care. Few recently introduced bio-ceramic materials have shown considerable clinical success over their early generations in terms of good handling characteristics. Calcium enriched mixture (CEM) cement, Endosequence sealer, and root repair materials, Biodentine and BioAggregate are the new classes of bio-ceramic materials. The aim of this literature review is to present investigations regarding properties and applications of CEM cement in endodontics. A review of the existing literature was performed by using electronic and hand searching methods for CEM cement from January 2006 to December 2013. CEM cement has a different chemical composition from that of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) but has similar clinical applications. It combines the biocompatibility of MTA with more efficient characteristics, such as significantly shorter setting time, good handling characteristics, no staining of tooth and effective seal against bacterial leakage. PMID:25671207

  5. Alleviation of Cadmium Toxicity in Brassica juncea L. (Czern. & Coss.) by Calcium Application Involves Various Physiological and Biochemical Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Parvaiz; Sarwat, Maryam; Bhat, Nazir Ahmad; Wani, Mohd Rafiq; Kazi, Alvina Gul; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2015-01-01

    Calcium (Ca) plays important role in plant development and response to various environmental stresses. However, its involvement in mitigation of heavy metal stress in plants remains elusive. In this study, we examined the effect of Ca (50 mM) in controlling cadmium (Cd) uptake in mustard (Brassica juncea L.) plants exposed to toxic levels of Cd (200 mg L?1 and 300 mg L?1). The Cd treatment showed substantial decrease in plant height, root length, dry weight, pigments and protein content. Application of Ca improved the growth and biomass yield of the Cd-stressed mustard seedlings. More importantly, the oil content of mustard seeds of Cd-stressed plants was also enhanced with Ca treatment. Proline was significantly increased in mustard plants under Cd stress, and exogenously sprayed Ca was found to have a positive impact on proline content in Cd-stressed plants. Different concentrations of Cd increased lipid peroxidation but the application of Ca minimized it to appreciable level in Cd-treated plants. Excessive Cd treatment enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase, which were further enhanced by the addition of Ca. Additionally, Cd stress caused reduced uptake of essential elements and increased Cd accumulation in roots and shoots. However, application of Ca enhanced the concentration of essential elements and decreased Cd accumulation in Cd-stressed plants. Our results indicated that application of Ca enables mustard plant to withstand the deleterious effect of Cd, resulting in improved growth and seed quality of mustard plants. PMID:25629695

  6. Alleviation of Cadmium Toxicity in Brassica juncea L. (Czern. & Coss.) by Calcium Application Involves Various Physiological and Biochemical Strategies.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Parvaiz; Sarwat, Maryam; Bhat, Nazir Ahmad; Wani, Mohd Rafiq; Kazi, Alvina Gul; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2015-01-01

    Calcium (Ca) plays important role in plant development and response to various environmental stresses. However, its involvement in mitigation of heavy metal stress in plants remains elusive. In this study, we examined the effect of Ca (50 mM) in controlling cadmium (Cd) uptake in mustard (Brassica juncea L.) plants exposed to toxic levels of Cd (200 mg L-1 and 300 mg L-1). The Cd treatment showed substantial decrease in plant height, root length, dry weight, pigments and protein content. Application of Ca improved the growth and biomass yield of the Cd-stressed mustard seedlings. More importantly, the oil content of mustard seeds of Cd-stressed plants was also enhanced with Ca treatment. Proline was significantly increased in mustard plants under Cd stress, and exogenously sprayed Ca was found to have a positive impact on proline content in Cd-stressed plants. Different concentrations of Cd increased lipid peroxidation but the application of Ca minimized it to appreciable level in Cd-treated plants. Excessive Cd treatment enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase, which were further enhanced by the addition of Ca. Additionally, Cd stress caused reduced uptake of essential elements and increased Cd accumulation in roots and shoots. However, application of Ca enhanced the concentration of essential elements and decreased Cd accumulation in Cd-stressed plants. Our results indicated that application of Ca enables mustard plant to withstand the deleterious effect of Cd, resulting in improved growth and seed quality of mustard plants. PMID:25629695

  7. Title: In vitro meets in silico: measuring and modeling the influence of calcium gradients on cell In tissue engineering applications, scaffolds act as carriers for cells and growth factors that restore

    E-print Network

    Wolper, Pierre

    behavior. Background In tissue engineering applications, scaffolds act as carriers for cells and growthTitle: In vitro meets in silico: measuring and modeling the influence of calcium gradients on cell during an in vitro dissolution test. However, the reaction of the cells to these local calcium

  8. Adhesive polydopamine coated avermectin microcapsules for prolonging foliar pesticide retention.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xin; Sheng, Wen-bo; Li, Wei; Tong, Yan-bin; Liu, Zhi-yong; Zhou, Feng

    2014-11-26

    In this work, we report a conceptual strategy for prolonging foliar pesticide retention by using an adhesive polydopamine (PDA) microcapsule to encapsulate avermectin, thereby minimizing its volatilization and improving its residence time on crop surfaces. Polydopamine coated avermectin (Av@PDA) microcapsules were prepared by emulsion interfacial-polymerization and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscope, and transmission electron microscopy. The in situ synthesis route confers Av@PDA microcapsules with remarkable avermectin loading ability of up to 66.5% (w/w). Kinetic study of avermectin release demonstrated that Av@PDA microcapsules exhibit sustained- and controlled-release properties. The adhesive property of Av@PDA microcapsules on different surfaces was verified by a comparative study between Av@PDA and passivated Av@SiO2 and Av@PDA@SiO2 capsules with silica shell. Moreover, PDA shell could effectively shield UV irradiation and so protect avermectin from photodegradation, making it more applicable for foliar spraying. Meanwhile, it is determinated that Av@PDA microcapsules have good mechanical stability property. PMID:25390545

  9. Design and application of chitosan/biphasic calcium phosphate porous scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sendemir-Urkmez, Aylin

    For the restoration of maxillofacial bone tissue, design of novel tissue engineering scaffolds capable of inducing bone remodeling through the delivery of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and an angiogenic growth factor, directly at the site of the defect was investigated in order to replace autogenous cancellous bone grafts with synthetic materials. Porous, three dimensional scaffolds were fabricated by a freeze drying method. In culture media, biphasic calcium phosphate particles within chitosan produced a surface reprecipitate of a composition similar to natural apatite that led to a uniform distribution of cells and mineralized ECM through chemotaxis. Further, the reprecipitation regulated the differentiation pathway and phenotype commitment of stem cells by altering the initial cell attachment morphology and actin cytoskeleton organization. In order to induce neovascularization after implantation, constructs were designed to be loaded with gelatin microspheres that delivered basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), a potent angiogenic factor. In vitro proliferation tests performed on fibroblastic cells showed no detectible loss of bFGF activity when delivered through enzymatic degradation of gelatin. Laser scanning confocal microscopy was used to demonstrate that gelatin microspheres can be injected evenly into cell-scaffold constructs owing to the spongy characteristics of the scaffold. To examine the binding interactions of bFGF with surface bound gelatin, a label free biosensor system, Biomolecular INteraction Detection sensor (BIND) was used. Results confirm that the principal interaction that takes place between bFGF and gelatin is electrostatic. Cell loaded tissue engineered constructs were produced in vitro at clinically relevant sizes and implanted with and without bFGF into a porcine mandibular defect model. Tissue engineered constructs facilitated the healing of mandibular defects only if combined with delivery of bFGF via gelatin microspheres. bFGF release from the constructs improved neovascularization in the defect area and subsequently enhanced new bone formation. Although the rate and extent of bone formation was similar in bFGF group to those in empty defects for the period of the study, existence of woven bone in bFGF group suggests that bone formation is continuing while the lamellar structure in empty defects indicates that bone formation in that group was finalized.

  10. Application of calcium carbonate slows down organic amendments mineralization in reclaimed soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zornoza, Raúl; Faz, Ángel; Acosta, José A.; Martínez-Martínez, Silvia; Ángeles Muñoz, M.

    2014-05-01

    A field experiment was set up in Cartagena-La Unión Mining District, SE Spain, aimed at evaluating the short-term effects of pig slurry (PS) amendment alone and together with marble waste (MW) on organic matter mineralization, microbial activity and stabilization of heavy metals in two tailing ponds. These structures pose environmental risk owing to high metals contents, low organic matter and nutrients, and null vegetation. Carbon mineralization, exchangeable metals and microbiological properties were monitored during 67 days. The application of amendments led to a rapid decrease of exchangeable metals concentrations, except for Cu, with decreases up to 98%, 75% and 97% for Cd, Pb and Zn, respectively. The combined addition of MW+PS was the treatment with greater reduction in metals concentrations. The addition of PS caused a significant increase in respiration rates, although in MW+PS plots respiration was lower than in PS plots. The mineralised C from the pig slurry was low, approximately 25-30% and 4-12% for PS and MW+PS treatments, respectively. Soluble carbon (Csol), microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and ?-galactosidase and ?-glucosidase activities increased after the application of the organic amendment. However, after 3 days these parameters started a decreasing trend reaching similar values than control from approximately day 25 for Csol and MBC. The PS treatment promoted highest values in enzyme activities, which remained high upon time. Arylesterase activity increased in the MW+PS treatment. Thus, the remediation techniques used improved soil microbiological status and reduced metal availability. The combined application of PS+MW reduced the degradability of the organic compounds. Keywords: organic wastes, mine soils stabilization, carbon mineralization, microbial activity.

  11. Phosphorous acid residues in apples after foliar fertilization: results of field trials.

    PubMed

    Malusà, E; Tosi, L

    2005-06-01

    The levels of phosphorous acid residues in apples after foliar fertilization with P fertilizers and after treatment with a phosphonate fungicide (Fosetyl-Al) were determined and compared. Two field trials and a glasshouse experiment, using different genotypes and plants of different age, were carried out and monitored over a three-year period. Phosphorous acid residues were found in apples after application of foliar P fertilizers. Concentrations of the residues ranged between 0.02 and 14 mg kg(-1) depending on the phosphorous acid content in the fertilizer used and the plant size and yield. The treatments induced an accumulation of the residue in the course of the experiments, which in some cases reached a level exceeding the maximum limit set by EU legislation. Residues were also detected in other plant organs, i.e., roots and buds. Plants treated with Fosetyl-Al contained phosphorous acid residues in their fruits and buds two years after the suspension of the treatment, suggesting a long-term persistence of the substance in plant storage organs. A second experiment, involving treatment of trees with seven foliar fertilizers of different composition, also induced accumulation of phosphorous acid residues in fruits. It is concluded that a wide array of foliar products containing phosphorous acid, even as a minor component, could mimic the residue effect of phosphonate fungicide treatments. PMID:16019827

  12. The development of a foliar fungal pathogen does react to leaf temperature!

    PubMed

    Bernard, Frédéric; Sache, Ivan; Suffert, Frédéric; Chelle, Michaël

    2013-04-01

    The thermal performance curve is an ecological concept relating the phenotype of organisms and temperature. It requires characterization of the leaf temperature for foliar fungal pathogens. Epidemiologists, however, use air temperature to assess the impacts of temperature on such pathogens. Leaf temperature can differ greatly from air temperature, either in controlled or field conditions. This leads to a misunderstanding of such impacts. Experiments were carried out in controlled conditions on adult wheat plants to characterize the response of Mycosphaerella graminicola to a wide range of leaf temperatures. Three fungal isolates were used. Lesion development was assessed twice a week, whereas the temperature of each leaf was monitored continuously. Leaf temperature had an impact on disease dynamics. The latent period of M. graminicola was related to leaf temperature by a quadratic relationship. The establishment of thermal performance curves demonstrated differences among isolates as well as among leaf layers. For the first time, the thermal performance curve of a foliar fungal pathogen has been established using leaf temperature. The experimental setup we propose is applicable, and efficient, for other foliar fungal pathogens. Results have shown the necessity of such an approach, when studying the acclimatization of foliar fungal pathogens. PMID:23373986

  13. Characterization and application of calcium-dependent ?-propeller phytase from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens DS11.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jae-Hoon; Oh, Byung-Chul

    2012-08-01

    The enzyme phytase has broad biotechnological applications, especially in the reduction of phytate, antinutritional factors that chelate essential minerals, in human and animal food. We investigated the enzymatic properties of ?-propeller phytase (BPP) from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens DS11. Thermal refolding analysis demonstrated that BPP can remarkably restore its enzymatic activity in the presence of 5 mM Ca(2+) to 87% of its original activity after heating to 100 °C and subsequent cooling, indicating that the enzyme requires Ca(2+) for appropriate refolding. Furthermore, pH-dependent kinetic studies showed that BPP required excess Ca(2+) for its enzymatic activity as the pH decreased, suggesting that the optimal Ca(2+)-phytate ratio for enzymatic catalysis depends on the pH value of the environment. Finally, we verified the practical application of BPP at two different pH's using soybean meal as a natural source of phytate. As compared to a commercial phytase, BPP efficiently hydrolyzed food phytate over neutral pH ranges. PMID:22775008

  14. The effect of postharvest calcium application in hydro-cooling water on tissue calcium content, biochemical changes, and quality attributes of sweet cherry fruit.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Xie, Xingbin; Long, Lynn E

    2014-10-01

    To improve storage/shipping quality of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.), the effect of calcium chloride (CaCl2) added to hydro-cooling water on physiological and biochemical processes related to fruit and pedicel quality was investigated on two major cultivars. The fruit tissue Ca content increased up to 29-85% logarithmically for 'Sweetheart' and 39-188% linearly for 'Lapins' as CaCl2 rate increased from 0.2% to 2.0% at 0 °C for 5 min. The increase of fruit tissue Ca content was accompanied by reductions in respiration rate, ascorbic acid degradation, and membrane lipid peroxidation, which enhanced total phenolics content and total antioxidant capacity, and resulted in increases in fruit firmness and pitting resistance and decreases in titratable acidity loss and decay of both cultivars. Pedicel browning was inhibited by CaCl2 at 0.2% and 0.5%, but increased by higher rates at 1.0% and 2.0%, possibly via modifying membrane lipid peroxidation. PMID:24799204

  15. Calcium Film Based Testing of Edge-Seal Materials for Photovoltaic Applications (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Kempe, M.; Dameron, A.; Reese, M.

    2011-04-01

    Because of the sensitivity of some photovoltaic devices to moisture-induced corrosion, they are packaged using impermeable front- and back-sheets with an edge seal to prevent moisture ingress. Evaluation of edge seal materials can be difficult because of the low permeation rates involved and/or non-Fickian behavior. Here, using a Ca film deposited on a glass substrate, we demonstrate the evaluation of edge seal materials in a manner that effectively duplicates their use in a photovoltaic application and compare the results with standard methods for measuring water vapor transport. We demonstrate how moisture permeation data from polymer films can be used to estimate moisture ingress rates and compare the results of these two methods. Encapsulant materials were also evaluated for comparison and to highlight the need for edge seals. Of the materials studied, dessicant-filled polyisobutene materials demonstrate by far the best potential to keep moisture out for a 20 to 30 year lifetime.

  16. Gadolinium calcium oxyborate piezoelectric single crystals for ultrahigh temperature (>1000 °C) applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shujun; Frantz, Eric; Xia, Ru; Everson, William; Randi, Joseph; Snyder, David W.; Shrout, Thomas R.

    2008-10-01

    ReCa4O(BO3)3 oxyborate crystals (ReCOB, where Re is a rare earth element such as Gd) were grown using the Czochralski pulling technique. The crystals belong to Cm space group and the relationships of the as-grown crystal morphology with crystallographic and physical coordinates were determined. The optimum length extensional and thickness shear vibrations of GdCOB were found for (ZYl)40° and (YXt)33° cuts, with electromechanical coupling factors k32 and k26, being on the order of 17.5% and 25% and piezoelectric coefficients d32 and d26 around -4.5 and 11.7 pC/N, respectively. Of particular significance is the nearly temperature independent behavior up to >1000 °C. Together with its high resistivity (˜5×106 ? cm at 1000 °C) and high mechanical quality factor (˜4000 at 1000 °C) make GdCOB and/or ReCOB crystals promising candidates for the next generation sensing applications at ultrahigh temperature (>1000 °C).

  17. Fluoride absorption by the root and foliar tissues of the horse-bean (calicole) and lupin (calcifuge)

    SciTech Connect

    Garrec, J.P.; Letourneur, L.

    1981-01-01

    In the root and foliar tissues of calcicole (horse-bean) and calcifuge (lupin) plants, absorption of fluoride, at least in weak concentrations, does not appear to be related to the metabolism of these plants. Nevertheless the comparison of these two tissues highlights clearly the differences in absorption of fluoride in the two species. Absorption appears to be slower and of longer duration in calcifuge plants whereas between the two tissues, absorption is essentially quantitative, the foliar tissues always showing higher levels of fluoride than the roots. On the other hand, fluoride is only weakly attached to the tissues since most of it can be easily exsorbed into the water. Our data disclose a great similarity in the absorption mechanism of fluoride and calcium ions in calcicole and calcifuge plants.

  18. Calcium orthophosphates

    PubMed Central

    Dorozhkin, Sergey V.

    2011-01-01

    The present overview is intended to point the readers’ attention to the important subject of calcium orthophosphates. This type of materials is of special significance for human beings, because they represent the inorganic part of major normal (bones, teeth and antlers) and pathological (i.e., those appearing due to various diseases) calcified tissues of mammals. For example, atherosclerosis results in blood vessel blockage caused by a solid composite of cholesterol with calcium orthophosphates, while dental caries and osteoporosis mean a partial decalcification of teeth and bones, respectively, that results in replacement of a less soluble and harder biological apatite by more soluble and softer calcium hydrogenphosphates. Therefore, the processes of both normal and pathological calcifications are just an in vivo crystallization of calcium orthophosphates. Similarly, dental caries and osteoporosis might be considered an in vivo dissolution of calcium orthophosphates. Thus, calcium orthophosphates hold a great significance for humankind, and in this paper, an overview on the current knowledge on this subject is provided. PMID:23507744

  19. Calcium Hydroxylapatite

    PubMed Central

    Yutskovskaya, Yana Alexandrovna; Philip Werschler, WM.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Calcium hydroxylapatite is one of the most well-studied dermal fillers worldwide and has been extensively used for the correction of moderate-to-severe facial lines and folds and to replenish lost volume. Objectives: To mark the milestone of 10 years of use in the aesthetic field, this review will consider the evolution of calcium hydroxylapatite in aesthetic medicine, provide a detailed injection protocol for a global facial approach, and examine how the unique properties of calcium hydroxylapatite provide it with an important place in today’s market. Methods: This article is an up-to-date review of calcium hydroxylapatite in aesthetic medicine along with procedures for its use, including a detailed injection protocol for a global facial approach by three expert injectors. Conclusion: Calcium hydroxylapatite is a very effective agent for many areas of facial soft tissue augmentation and is associated with a high and well-established safety profile. Calcium hydroxylapatite combines high elasticity and viscosity with an ability to induce long-term collagen formation making it an ideal agent for a global facial approach. PMID:25610523

  20. Feasibility of digital image colorimetry--application for water calcium hardness determination.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Molinero, Angel; Tejedor Cubero, Valle; Domingo Irigoyen, Rosa; Sipiera Piazuelo, Daniel

    2013-01-15

    Interpretation and relevance of basic RGB colors in Digital Image-Based Colorimetry have been treated in this paper. The studies were carried out using the chromogenic model formed by the reaction between Ca(II) ions and glyoxal bis(2-hydroxyanil). It produced orange-red colored solutions in alkaline media. Individual basic color data (RGB) and also the total intensity of colors, I(tot), were the original variables treated by Factorial Analysis. Te evaluation evidenced that the highest variance of the system and the highest analytical sensitivity were associated to the G color. However, after the study by Fourier transform the basic R color was recognized as an important feature in the information. It was manifested as an intrinsic characteristic that appeared differentiated in terms of low frequency in Fourier transform. The Principal Components Analysis study showed that the variance of the system could be mostly retained in the first principal component, but was dependent on all basic colors. The colored complex was also applied and validated as a Digital Image Colorimetric method for the determination of Ca(II) ions. RGB intensities were linearly correlated with Ca(II) in the range 0.2-2.0 mg L(-1). In the best conditions, using green color, a simple and reliable method for Ca determination could be developed. Its detection limit was established (criterion 3s) as 0.07 mg L(-1). And the reproducibility was lower than 6%, for 1.0 mg L(-1) Ca. Other chromatic parameters were evaluated as dependent calibration variables. Their representativeness, variance and sensitivity were discussed in order to select the best analytical variable. The potentiality of the procedure as a field and ready-to-use method, susceptible to be applied 'in situ' with a minimum of experimental needs, was probed. Applications of the analysis of Ca in different real water samples were carried out. Water of the city net, mineral bottled, and natural-river were analyzed and results were compared and evaluated statistically. The validity was assessed by the alternative techniques of flame atomic absorption spectroscopy and titrimetry. Differences were appreciated but they were consistent with the applied methods. PMID:23200383

  1. Foliar phloem infrastructure in support of photosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Adams, William W.; Cohu, Christopher M.; Muller, Onno; Demmig-Adams, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Acclimatory adjustments of foliar minor loading veins in response to growth at different temperatures and light intensities are evaluated. These adjustments are related to their role in providing infrastructure for the export of photosynthetic products as a prerequisite for full acclimation of photosynthesis to the respective environmental conditions. Among winter-active apoplastic loaders, higher photosynthesis rates were associated with greater numbers of sieve elements per minor vein as well as an increased apparent total membrane area of cells involved in phloem loading (greater numbers of cells and/or greater cell wall invaginations). Among summer-active apoplastic loaders, higher photosynthesis rates were associated with increased vein density and, possibly, a greater number of sieve elements and companion cells per minor vein. Among symplastic loaders, minor loading vein architecture (number per vein and arrangement of cells) was apparently constrained, but higher photosynthesis rates were associated with higher foliar vein densities and larger intermediary cells (presumably providing a greater volume for enzymes involved in active raffinose sugar synthesis). Winter-active apoplastic loaders thus apparently place emphasis on adjustments of cell membrane area (presumably available for transport proteins active in loading of minor veins), while symplastic loaders apparently place emphasis on increasing the volume of cells in which their active loading step takes place. Presumably to accommodate a greater flux of photosynthate through the foliar veins, winter-active apoplastic loaders also have a higher number of sieve elements per minor loading vein, whereas symplastic loaders and summer-active apoplastic loaders have a higher total number of veins per leaf area. These latter adjustments in the vasculature (during leaf development) may also apply to the xylem (via greater numbers of tracheids per vein and/or greater vein density per leaf area) serving to increase water flux to mesophyll tissues in support of high rates of transpiration typically associated with high rates of photosynthesis. PMID:23785375

  2. Salinity-induced calcium deficiencies in wheat and barley

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. L. Ehret; R. E. Redmann; B. L. Harvey; A. Cipywnyk

    1990-01-01

    Salinity-calcium interactions, which have been shown to be important in plants grown in dryland saline soils of the Canadian prairies, were studied in two species differing in salt tolerance. In solution culture, wheat showed a greater reduction in growth and a higher incidence of foliar Ca deficiency symptoms than barley when grown under MgSO4 or Na2SO4 plus MgSO4 salt stress.

  3. Calcium pyrophosphate arthritis (Pseudogout)

    MedlinePLUS

    Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease; CPPD disease; Acute CPPD arthritis; Pseudogout ... Calcium pyrophosphate arthritis is caused by the collection of salt called calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD). The buildup ...

  4. Calcium carbonate overdose

    MedlinePLUS

    Tums overdose; Calcium overdose ... Calcium ... Products containing calcium carbonate, including Certain antacids (Tums, Chooz) Certain mineral supplements Certain hand lotions Certain vitamin and mineral supplements Note: ...

  5. Calcium orthophosphates in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Dorozhkin, Sergey V

    2013-06-01

    Dental caries, also known as tooth decay or a cavity, remains a major public health problem in the most communities even though the prevalence of disease has decreased since the introduction of fluorides for dental care. Therefore, biomaterials to fill dental defects appear to be necessary to fulfill customers' needs regarding the properties and the processing of the products. Bioceramics and glass-ceramics are widely used for these purposes, as dental inlays, onlays, veneers, crowns or bridges. Calcium orthophosphates belong to bioceramics but they have some specific advantages over other types of bioceramics due to a chemical similarity to the inorganic part of both human and mammalian bones and teeth. Therefore, calcium orthophosphates (both alone and as components of various formulations) are used in dentistry as both dental fillers and implantable scaffolds. This review provides brief information on calcium orthophosphates and describes in details current state-of-the-art on their applications in dentistry and dentistry-related fields. Among the recognized dental specialties, calcium orthophosphates are most frequently used in periodontics; however, the majority of the publications on calcium orthophosphates in dentistry are devoted to unspecified "dental" fields. PMID:23468163

  6. FOLIAR WASHOFF OF PESTICIDES (FWOP) MODEL: DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Foliar Washoff of Pesticides (FWOP) Model was developed to provide an empirical simulation of pesticide washoff from plant leaf surfaces as influenced by rainfall amount. To evaluate the technique, simulations by the FWOP Model were compared to those by the foliar washoff alg...

  7. Helminthosporium spiciferum, foliar parasite of rice in Morocco

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Note Helminthosporium spiciferum, foliar parasite of rice in Morocco B Ennaffah, F Bouslim, R in the Gharb were susceptible to this parasite. The foliar lesions are different from those noted on the plants; Helminthosporium spiciferum, parasite des feuilles de riz au Maroc. Dans cette étude, le pouvoir pathogène de deux

  8. 16 The Response of Foliar Carbohydrates to Elevated [CO2

    E-print Network

    Rogers, Alistair

    16 The Response of Foliar Carbohydrates to Elevated [CO2] Alistair Rogers and Elizabeth A. Ainsworth 16.1 Introduction Accumulation of foliar carbohydrates is one of the most pronounced and uni]). Carbohydrates are both the product of photosynthetic cells and the substrate for sink metabolism. However

  9. Forest vegetation monitoring and foliar chemistry of red spruce and red maple at Acadia National Park in Maine.

    PubMed

    Wiersma, G Bruce; Elvir, Jose Alexander; Eckhoff, Janet D

    2007-03-01

    The USDA Forest Service Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) program indicators, including forest mensuration, crown condition classification, and damage and mortality indicators were used in the Cadillac Brook and Hadlock Brook watershed forests at Acadia National Park (ANP) along coastal Maine. Cadillac Brook watershed burned in a wildfire in 1947. Hadlock Brook watershed, undisturbed for several centuries, serves as the reference site. These two small watersheds have been gauged and monitored at ANP since 1998 as part of the Park Research and Intensive Monitoring of Ecosystems Network (PRIMENet). Forest vegetation at Hadlock Brook was dominated by late successional species such as Acer saccharum, Fagus grandifolia, Betula alleghaniensis, Acer rubrum and Picea rubens. Forest vegetation at Cadillac Brook, on the other hand, was younger and more diverse and included those species found in Hadlock as well as early successional species such as Betula papyrifera and Populus grandidentata. Differences in forest species composition and stand structure were attributed to the severe wildfire that affected the Cadillac Brook watershed. Overall, the forests at these ANP watersheds were healthy with a low percentage (Foliar nitrogen (N) concentrations were higher in A. rubrum and P. rubens trees growing in Hadlock Brook watershed, but differences were significant only for P. rubens. Foliar aluminum (Al) concentrations were also higher in both species growing in Hadlock Brook watershed but differences were significant only for A. rubrum. Foliar calcium (Ca) and manganese (Mn) concentrations, on the other hand, were significantly lower in Hadlock Brook watershed for both species. Foliar potassium (K) was significantly higher for P. rubens growing in Hadlock Brook. No differences in foliar concentrations of magnesium (Mg), phosphorus (P), boron (B), copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) were found between watersheds. The higher foliar N concentrations as well as higher foliar concentrations of Ca and Al might indicate early stages of N saturation and acidification in Hadlock Brook watershed as also suggested by Hadlock Brook stream N flux data in published PRIMENet studies at ANP. PMID:17180435

  10. LOW CONCENTRATION MERCURY SORPTION MECHANISMS AND CONTROL BY CALCIUM-BASED SORBENTS; APPLICATION IN COAL-FIRED PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The capture of elemental mercury (Hgo) and mercuric chloride (HgCl2) by three types of calcium (Ca)-based sorbents was examined in this bench-scale study under conditions prevalent in coal fired utilities. Ca-based sorbent performances were compared to that of an activated carbon...

  11. Application of acidic calcium sulfate and e-polylysine to pre-rigor beef rounds for reduction of pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foodborne illness continues to be a serious public health problem and is a major concern for the United States food industry. This study evaluated the effectiveness of warm solutions of acidic calcium sulfate (ACS), lactic acid (LA), episolon-polylysine (EPL), ACS plus EPL, and sterile distilled wa...

  12. Project Calcium

    SciTech Connect

    Hurley, J.P.; Benson, S.A.; Erickson, T.A.; Allan, S.E.; Bieber, J.

    1992-09-01

    Fouling problems in utility boilers have been classified into two principal types: high-temperature and low-temperature fouling. A multiclient-sponsored program was initiated at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) to better understand the causes of low-temperature fouling when burning high-calcium western US coals. The goals of Project Calcium were to define the low-temperature deposition problem, identify the calcium-based components that are responsible for the formation of the deposits, develop ways to predict their formation, and identify possible methods to mitigate the formation of these deposits. To achieve the goals of Project Calcium, detailed sampling of utility boilers and laboratory-scale studies coupled with state-of-the-art methods to determine the inorganic components in coals and coal ash-derived materials were conducted. Boiler Sampling was also performed. The work involved sampling coal, entrained ash, deposits and slags from five full-scale utility boilers combined with detailed advanced characterization of the materials. The results of this work aided in identifying the key phenomena to focus the laboratory studies and in model verification. Field testing was conducted at three utilities.

  13. Foliar nutrient status of Pinus ponderosa exposed to ozone and acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, P.D.; Houpis, J.L.J. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States))

    1991-05-01

    A direct effect of foliar exposure to acid rain may be increased leaching of nutrient elements. Ozone exposure, through degradation of the cuticle and cellular membranes, may also result in increased nutrient leaching. To test these hypotheses, the foliar concentrations of 13 nutrient elements were monitored for mature branches of three clones of Pinus ponderosa exposed to ozone and/or acid rain. The three clones represented three distinct levels of phenotypic vigor. Branches were exposed to charcoal filtered, ambient, or 2 x ambient concentrations of ozone and received no acid rain (NAP), pH 5.1 rain (5.1), or pH 3.0 (3.0) rain. Following 10 months of continuous ozone exposure and 3 months of weekly rain applications, the concentrations of P and Mg differed significantly among rain treatments with a ranking of: 5.1 < NAP < 3.0. The S concentration increased with rain application regardless of pH. For the clones of moderate and low vigor, the concentration of N decreased with increasing rain acidity. There was no evidence of significant ozone or ozone x acid rain response. Among the three families, high phenotypic vigor was associated with significantly greater concentrations of N, P, K, Mg, B and An. These results indicate generally negligible leaching as a result of exposure to acid rain and/or ozone for one growing season. Increases in foliar concentrations of S, Mg and P are possibly the result of evaporative surface deposition from the rain solution.

  14. Remote sensing of foliar biochemistry with a terrestrial laser scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eitel, J.; Vierling, L. A.; Long, D. S.

    2011-12-01

    Foliar biochemistry provides important information about the physiological status of plants. Several different tools and techniques have been developed to infer plant biochemistry (such as state and change of foliar nitrogen (N) and chlorophyll) using remote sensing. However, few techniques allow accurate mapping of foliar biochemistry in 3-dimensions at a sub-cm level. Scanning laser technology is available that measures the x,y,z location of each reflected laser pulse in addition to the intensity of the reflected laser light within a mm-scale ground instantaneous field of view at a very high sampling rate (up to 50,000 points sec-1 in this study). We examined the ability to quantify foliar N of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and chlorophyll content of two broadleaf tree species saplings (Quercus macrocarpa and Acer saccharum) using a green (532 nm) terrestrial laser scanner. The return intensity of the reflected green laser light was significantly correlated with foliar N concentration of wheat (r2 = 0.68) and the foliar chlorophyll content (r2 = 0.77) of the broadleaf saplings. The results indicate that laser scanners are useful to obtain spatially explicit estimates of foliar biochemistry.

  15. Original article Availability of calcium from skim milk, calcium sulfate

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Availability of calcium from skim milk, calcium sulfate and calcium carbonate; accepted 19 November 1999) Abstract --Dairy products provide abundant, accessible calcium for humans, while some calcium sulfate-rich mineral waters could provide appreciable amounts of calcium

  16. Role of calcium in gravity perception of plant roots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Michael L.

    Calcium ions may play a key role in linking graviperception by the root cap to the asymmetric growth which occurs in the elongation zone of gravistimulated roots. Application of calcium-chelating agents to the root cap inhibits gravitropic curvature without affecting growth. Asymmetric application of calcium to one side of the root cap induces curvature toward the calcium source, and gravistimulation induces polar movement of applied 45Ca2+ across the root cap toward the lower side. The action of calcium may be linked to auxin movement in roots since 1) auxin transport inhibitors interfere both with gravitropic curvature and gravi-induced polar calcium movement and 2) asymmetric application of calcium enhances auxin movement across the elongation zone of gravistimulated roots. Indirect evidence indicates that the calcium-modulated regulator protein, calmodulin, may be involved in either the transport or action of calcium in the gravitropic response mechanism of roots.

  17. Increasing sennoside yields in tinnevelly senna (Cassia angustifolia) I: effects of drought, foliar nitrogen spray and crop type.

    PubMed

    Ratnayaka, H; Meurer-Grimes, B; Kincaid, D

    1998-06-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the promise of Tinnevelly senna, Cassia angustifolia Vahl, as an alternative crop for stressful agroecosystems. Effects of drought, foliar nitrogen application and crop type on sennoside yields were studied with simultaneous measurements of net photosynthesis. Short term drought increased sennoside A + B concentration (% dw). After drought-induced morphological changes had occurred, long term drought did not influence sennoside A + B concentration but severe loss of leaf biomass caused 78% reduction of the sennoside yield per plant. Foliar nitrogen application increased the total sennoside A + B content per plant by 140% when the plants were not water stressed, but in severely droughted plants, no effect of foliar nitrogen application was detected. Although foliar nitrogen application increased sennoside A + B per plant, the sennoside concentration (% dw) decreased. The latter effect was still persistent three months after the nitrogen treatments were discontinued. In a comparison among three crop types of Tinnevelly senna, ratoon plants had the highest sennoside A + B concentration in leaves followed by seedlings and cuttings. However, seedlings produced the highest sennoside A + B yield per plant due to the higher leaf biomass. Except in long term drought, sennoside levels were higher in leaves with lower net photosynthesis, and were increased by treatments that induced physiological stress. Lower net photosynthesis occurred in short term and long term drought, and with deprivation of foliar nitrogen supplement. In contrast, sennoside yields per plant are readily increased by treatments that increase the total leaf biomass. Short term drought, nitrogen stress and ratooning are promising component technologies for field and on-farm investigations with the goal of increasing sennoside yields. PMID:17253262

  18. Nostoc calcicola Immobilized in Silica-coated Calcium Alginate and Silica Gel for Applications in Heavy Metal Biosorption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Subramanian Ramachandran; Thibaud Coradin; Pankaj Kumar Jain; Sanjay Kumar Verma

    2009-01-01

    The present study reports the preparation and characterization of silica-based immobilization matrices for the purpose of\\u000a metal accumulation using immobilized cyanobacterium Nostoc calcicola. Silica gel was prepared using aqueous sodium silicate and colloidal silica. Calcium alginate (CAG) beads were coated with\\u000a silica using sodium silicate solutions. Microscopy observations and TTC tests confirmed that the immobilized cells were intact\\u000a and viable.

  19. Changes of extracellular calcium concentration induced by application of excitatory amino acids in the human neocortex in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Lücke; R. Köhling; H. Straub; D. Moskopp; H. Wassmann; E.-J. Speckmann

    1995-01-01

    The influence of the glutamate subreceptor agonists N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) on cortical field potentials and on changes in extracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]o) was tested on human neocortical slices (eleven from nine different patients). The tissue used was a small portion of that which is normally removed for the treatment of a brain tumor. [Ca2+]o and field

  20. Calcium and bone disease

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Harry C.; Robinson, Lisa J.; Huang, Christopher L.-H.; Sun, Li; Friedman, Peter A.; Schlesinger, Paul H.; Zaidi, Mone

    2013-01-01

    Calcium transport and calcium signaling are of basic importance in bone cells. Bone is the major store of calcium and a key regulatory organ for calcium homeostasis. Bone, in major part, responds to calcium-dependent signals from the parathyroids and via vitamin D metabolites, although bone retains direct response to extracellular calcium if parathyroid regulation is lost. Improved understanding of calcium transporters and calcium-regulated cellular processes has resulted from analysis of genetic defects, including several defects with low or high bone mass. Osteoblasts deposit calcium by mechanisms including phosphate and calcium transport with alkalinization to absorb acid created by mineral deposition; cartilage calcium mineralization occurs by passive diffusion and phosphate production. Calcium mobilization by osteoclasts is mediated by acid secretion. Both bone forming and bone resorbing cells use calcium signals as regulators of differentiation and activity. This has been studied in more detail in osteoclasts, where both osteoclast differentiation and motility are regulated by calcium. PMID:21674636

  1. Effect of bio-regulator and foliar fertilizers on chemical composition and yield of soybean.

    PubMed

    Piccinin, Gleberson Guillen; Braccini, Alessandro Lucca; da Silva, Luiz Henrique; Mariucci, Giovanna Emanuêlle Gonçalves; Suzukawa, Andréia Kazumi; Dan, Lilian Gomes de Morais; Tonin, Telmo António

    2013-11-15

    Current study evaluates the effects of bio-regulator associated with foliar fertilizers on the yield components, productivity and chemical composition of soybean. The experimental design was entirely randomized blocks, with four replications. The treatments consisted of: T1-absolute control, T2-application of 0.25 L h(-1) Stimulate in R1 stage of development, T3-application of 0.25 L h(-1) Stimulate and 3 L h(-1) Sett in R1, T4-application of 0.25 L h(-1) Stimulate and 3 L h(-1) Sett in R1 and 0.25 L h(-1) Stimulate and 2 L h(-1) Mover in R5.1; T5-application of 0.25 L h(-1) Stimulate and 3 L h(-1) Sett in R1 and 2 L h(-1) Mover in R5.1, T6-application of 3 L h(-1) Sett in R1 and 0.25 L h(-1) Stimulate and 2 L h(-1) Mover in R5.1 and T7-application of 0.25 L h(-1) Stimulate and 2 L h(-1) Mover in R1. Application of Sett and Mover is a potentially efficient handling as it favors the soybean agronomic performance in R1 stage. Chemical composition of processed grains has influence with applying bio-regulator and foliar fertilizers. PMID:24511692

  2. Influence of calcium sources on microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation by Bacillus sp. CR2.

    PubMed

    Achal, Varenyam; Pan, Xiangliang

    2014-05-01

    Stimulation of microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation (MICCP) is likely to be influenced by calcium sources. In order to study such influences, we performed MICCP using Bacillus sp. CR2 in nutrient broth containing urea, supplemented with different calcium sources (calcium chloride, calcium oxide, calcium acetate and calcium nitrate). The experiment lasted 7 days, during which bacterial growth, urease activity, calcite production and pH were measured. Our results showed that calcium chloride is the better calcium source for MICCP process, since it provides higher urease activity and more calcite production. The influences of calcium sources on MICCP were further studied using Fourier transform-infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. These analyses confirmed that the precipitate formed was CaCO3 and composed of predominantly calcite crystals with a little amount of aragonite and vaterite crystals. The maximum yield of calcite precipitation was achievable with calcium chloride followed by calcium nitrate as a calcium source. The results of present study may be applicable to media preparation during efficient MICCP process. PMID:24643454

  3. Ecological ramifications of the direct foliar uptake of nitrogen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jed P. Sparks

    2009-01-01

    The foliar incorporation of various reactive forms of nitrogen (N) has been identified and studied for nearly 30 years. However,\\u000a the ecosystem-level ramifications of this uptake pathway have only recently been considered by the scientific community. In\\u000a this review, I present our current understanding of the foliar uptake process and then discuss why this pathway of N addition\\u000a to ecosystems should

  4. Calcium and Vitamin D

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calcium is required for the bone formation phase of bone remodeling. Typically about 5 nmol (200 mg) of calcium is removed from the adult skeleton and replaced each day. To supply this amount, one would need to consume about 600 mg of calcium, since calcium is not very efficiently absorbed. Calcium ...

  5. Calcium and osteoporosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. E. Christopher Nordin

    1997-01-01

    Calcium is an essential nutrient that is involved in most metabolic processes and the phosphate salts of which provide mechanical rigidity to the bones and teeth, where 99% of the body's calcium resides. The calcium in the skeleton has the additional role of acting as a reserve supply of calcium to meet the body's metabolic needs in states of calcium

  6. Calcium Collage

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    OMSI

    2004-01-01

    In this activity (on pages 11-14 of PDF), learners cut out pictures from magazines of foods that help make bones strong and glue the pictures to a paper bone. The lesson plan includes information about various activities - including physical exercise as well as diet - that lead to healthy bones. It also includes a list of foods that provide calcium to strengthen bones, including dairy products, spinach, and tofu. The paper bones can be cut out of construction paper prior to the activity.

  7. Characterization of calcium oxide catalysts from natural sources and their application in the transesterification of sunflower oil.

    PubMed

    Correia, Leandro Marques; Saboya, Rosana Maria Alves; Campelo, Natália de Sousa; Cecilia, Juan Antonio; Rodríguez-Castellón, Enrique; Cavalcante, Célio Loureiro; Vieira, Rodrigo Silveira

    2014-01-01

    The catalytic activities of calcium oxide obtained from natural sources (crab shell and eggshell) were characterized and evaluated in the transesterification of vegetable oil. These catalysts are mainly composed of calcium carbonate, which is partially converted into CaO after calcination (900°C for 2h). The catalysts have some advantages, such as abundant occurrence, low cost, porous structure, and nontoxic. The materials were characterized by XRD, FTIR, TG/DTG, CO2-TPD, XPS, SEM, and BET methods. The thermal treatment produces small particles of CaCO3 and CaO that are responsible for the catalytic activity. The conversion from triglycerides to methyl ester was not observed in transesterification carried out using natural crab shell and eggshell. Under optimized reaction conditions, the conversions to YFAME using the calcined catalysts were: crab shell (83.10±0.27 wt.%) and eggshell (97.75±0.02 wt.%). These results, showed that these materials have promising viability in transesterification for biodiesel production. PMID:24240148

  8. Calcium hydroxide poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    Calcium hydroxide is a white powder produced by mixing calcium oxide ("lime") with water. Calcium hydroxide poisoning ... Blood in the stool Burns in the esophagus (food pipe) Severe abdominal pain Vomiting Vomiting blood Heart ...

  9. Calcium source (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Getting enough calcium to keep bones from thinning throughout a person's life may be made more difficult if that person has ... as a tendency toward kidney stones, for avoiding calcium-rich food sources. Calcium deficiency also effects the ...

  10. Coronary Calcium Scan

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Coronary Calcium Scan? A coronary calcium scan is a test ... you have calcifications in your coronary arteries. Coronary Calcium Scan Figure A shows the position of the ...

  11. Calcium and bones (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Calcium is one of the most important minerals for the growth, maintenance, and reproduction of the human ... body, are continually being re-formed and incorporate calcium into their structure. Calcium is essential for the ...

  12. Get Enough Calcium

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Physical Activity > Nutrition > Get Enough Calcium Get Enough Calcium The Basics Take Action! Ver en español Content ... February 24, 2015 The Basics Your body needs calcium to build strong bones when you are young ...

  13. Calcium-Rich Foods

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Disorders - Osteoporosis - Prevention - Calcium - Calcium content of common foods Printer friendly Email Share Tweet Like Below is ... Green/French beans 90 g cooked 50 Starchy foods Food Serving Size Calcium (mg) Pasta (cooked) 180 ...

  14. Effects of glyphosate and foliar amendments on activity of microorganisms in the soybean rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Means, Nathan E; Kremer, Robert J; Ramsier, Clifford

    2007-02-01

    A field study was conducted to determine the effects of glyphosate on microbial activity in the rhizosphere of glyphosate-resistant (GR) soybean and to evaluate interactions with foliar amendments. Glyphosate at 0.84 kg ae ha(-1) was applied GR soybean at the V4-V5 development stages. Check treatments included a conventional herbicide tank mix (2003 study only) and no herbicides (hand-weeded). Ten days after herbicide application, a commercially available biostimulant and a urea solution (21.0% N) were applied to soybean foliage at 33.5 mL ha(-1) and 9.2 kg ha(-1), respectively. Soil and plant samples were taken 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 days after herbicide application then assayed for enzyme and respiration activities. Soil respiration and enzyme activity increased with glyphosate and foliar amendment applications during the 2002 growing season; however, similar increases were not observed in 2003. Contrasting cumulative rainfall between 2002 and 2003 likely accounted for differences in soil microbial activities. Increases in soil microbial activity in 2002 suggest that adequate soil water and glyphosate application acted together to increase microbial activity. Our study suggests that general soil microbial properties including those involving C and N transformations are not sensitive enough to detect effects of glyphosate on rhizosphere microbial activity. Measurements of soil-plant-microbe relationships including specific microbial groups (i.e., root-associated Fusarium spp.) are likely better indicators of impacts of glyphosate on soil microbial ecology. PMID:17365326

  15. In vitro evaluation of biomimetic chitosan-calcium phosphate scaffolds with potential application in bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Tanase, C E; Sartoris, A; Popa, M I; Verestiuc, L; Unger, R E; Kirkpatrick, C J

    2013-04-01

    This work reports on the physicochemical properties and in vitro cytotoxicity assessment of chitosan-calcium phosphate (Cs-CP) scaffolds for bone tissue engineering, which were synthesized by a novel biomimetic co-precipitation method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) along with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis confirmed the porous morphology of the scaffolds and the amorphous nature of the inorganic phase with different crystallite sizes and the formation of various forms of calcium phosphate. Compressive mechanical testing revealed that the Young's modulus of the biomaterials is in the range of human trabecular bone. In vitro tests were performed on the biomaterials for up to 14 days to study the behavior of the osteoblast-like human cell line (MG63), primary human osteoblasts (HOS) and human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMEC). The cytotoxicity was evaluated by the MTS assay for cell metabolism and the detection of membrane integrity (lactate dehydrogenase-LDH release). An expression of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the cell supernatants was quantified by ELISA. Cell viability gave values close to untreated controls for MG63 and HOS, while in the case of HDMEC the viability after 2 weeks in the cell culture was between 80-90%. The cytotoxicity induced by the Cs-CP scaffolds on MG63, HOS and HDMEC in vitro was evaluated by the amount of LDH released, which is a sensitive and accurate marker for cellular toxicity. The increased levels of VEGF obtained in the osteoblast culture highlights its important role in the regulation of vascularization and bone remodeling. The biological responses of the Cs-CP scaffolds demonstrate a similar proliferation and differentiation characteristics of the cells comparable to the controls. These results reveal that biomimetic Cs-CP composite scaffolds are promising biomaterials for bone tissue engineering; their in vivo response remains to be tested. PMID:23343569

  16. Supplemental macronutrients and microbial fermentation products improve the uptake and transport of foliar applied zinc in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants. Studies utilizing micro X-ray florescence.

    PubMed

    Tian, Shengke; Lu, Lingli; Xie, Ruohan; Zhang, Minzhe; Jernstedt, Judith A; Hou, Dandi; Ramsier, Cliff; Brown, Patrick H

    2014-01-01

    Enhancing nutrient uptake and the subsequent elemental transport from the sites of application to sites of utilization is of great importance to the science and practical field application of foliar fertilizers. The aim of this study was to investigate the mobility of various foliar applied zinc (Zn) formulations in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and to evaluate the effects of the addition of an organic biostimulant on phloem loading and elemental mobility. This was achieved by application of foliar formulations to the blade of sunflower (H. annuus L.) and high-resolution elemental imaging with micro X-ray fluorescence (?-XRF) to visualize Zn within the vascular system of the leaf petiole. Although no significant increase of total Zn in petioles was determined by inductively-coupled plasma mass-spectrometer, ?-XRF elemental imaging showed a clear enrichment of Zn in the vascular tissues within the sunflower petioles treated with foliar fertilizers containing Zn. The concentration of Zn in the vascular of sunflower petioles was increased when Zn was applied with other microelements with EDTA (commercial product Kick-Off) as compared with an equimolar concentration of ZnSO4 alone. The addition of macronutrients N, P, K (commercial product CleanStart) to the Kick-Off Zn fertilizer, further increased vascular system Zn concentrations while the addition of the microbially derived organic biostimulant "GroZyme" resulted in a remarkable enhancement of Zn concentrations in the petiole vascular system. The study provides direct visualized evidence for phloem transport of foliar applied Zn out of sites of application in plants by using ?-XRF technique, and suggests that the formulation of the foliar applied Zn and the addition of the organic biostimulant GroZyme increases the mobility of Zn following its absorption by the leaf of sunflower. PMID:25653663

  17. Supplemental macronutrients and microbial fermentation products improve the uptake and transport of foliar applied zinc in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants. Studies utilizing micro X-ray florescence

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Shengke; Lu, Lingli; Xie, Ruohan; Zhang, Minzhe; Jernstedt, Judith A.; Hou, Dandi; Ramsier, Cliff; Brown, Patrick H.

    2014-01-01

    Enhancing nutrient uptake and the subsequent elemental transport from the sites of application to sites of utilization is of great importance to the science and practical field application of foliar fertilizers. The aim of this study was to investigate the mobility of various foliar applied zinc (Zn) formulations in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and to evaluate the effects of the addition of an organic biostimulant on phloem loading and elemental mobility. This was achieved by application of foliar formulations to the blade of sunflower (H. annuus L.) and high-resolution elemental imaging with micro X-ray fluorescence (?-XRF) to visualize Zn within the vascular system of the leaf petiole. Although no significant increase of total Zn in petioles was determined by inductively-coupled plasma mass-spectrometer, ?-XRF elemental imaging showed a clear enrichment of Zn in the vascular tissues within the sunflower petioles treated with foliar fertilizers containing Zn. The concentration of Zn in the vascular of sunflower petioles was increased when Zn was applied with other microelements with EDTA (commercial product Kick-Off) as compared with an equimolar concentration of ZnSO4 alone. The addition of macronutrients N, P, K (commercial product CleanStart) to the Kick-Off Zn fertilizer, further increased vascular system Zn concentrations while the addition of the microbially derived organic biostimulant “GroZyme” resulted in a remarkable enhancement of Zn concentrations in the petiole vascular system. The study provides direct visualized evidence for phloem transport of foliar applied Zn out of sites of application in plants by using ?-XRF technique, and suggests that the formulation of the foliar applied Zn and the addition of the organic biostimulant GroZyme increases the mobility of Zn following its absorption by the leaf of sunflower. PMID:25653663

  18. Identification of genes in Thuja plicata foliar terpenoid defenses.

    PubMed

    Foster, Adam J; Hall, Dawn E; Mortimer, Leanne; Abercromby, Shelley; Gries, Regine; Gries, Gerhard; Bohlmann, Jörg; Russell, John; Mattsson, Jim

    2013-04-01

    Thuja plicata (western redcedar) is a long-lived conifer species whose foliage is rarely affected by disease or insect pests, but can be severely damaged by ungulate browsing. Deterrence to browsing correlates with high foliar levels of terpenoids, in particular the monoterpenoid ?-thujone. Here, we set out to identify genes whose products may be involved in the production of ?-thujone and other terpenoids in this species. First, we generated a foliar transcriptome database from which to draw candidate genes. Second, we mapped the storage of thujones and other terpenoids to foliar glands. Third, we used global expression profiling to identify more than 600 genes that are expressed at high levels in foliage with glands, but can either not be detected or are expressed at low levels in a natural variant lacking foliar glands. Fourth, we used in situ RNA hybridization to map the expression of a putative monoterpene synthase to the epithelium of glands and used enzyme assays with recombinant protein of the same gene to show that it produces sabinene, the monoterpene precursor of ?-thujone. Finally, we identified candidate genes with predicted enzymatic functions for the conversion of sabinene to ?-thujone. Taken together, this approach generated both general resources and detailed functional characterization in the identification of genes of foliar terpenoid biosynthesis in T. plicata. PMID:23388118

  19. Non-destructive estimation of foliar carotenoid content of tree species using merged vegetation indices.

    PubMed

    Fassnacht, Fabian E; Stenzel, Stefanie; Gitelson, Anatoly A

    2015-03-15

    Leaf pigment content is an important indicator of plant status and can serve to assess the vigor and photosynthetic activity of plants. The application of spectral information gathered from laboratory, field and remote sensing-based spectrometers to non-destructively assess total chlorophyll (Chl) content of higher plants has been demonstrated in earlier studies. However, the precise estimation of carotenoid (Car) content with non-destructive spectral measurements has so far not reached accuracies comparable to the results obtained for Chl content. Here, we examined the potential of a recently developed angular vegetation index (AVI) to estimate total foliar Car content of three tree species. Based on an iterative search of all possible band combinations, we identified a best candidate AVIcar. The identified index showed quite close but essentially not linear relation with Car contents of the examined species with increasing sensitivity to high Car content and a lack of sensitivity to low Car content for which earlier proposed vegetation indices (VI) performed better. To make use of the advantages of both VI types, we developed a simple merging procedure, which combined the AVIcar with two earlier proposed carotenoid indices. The merged indices had close linear relationship with total Car content and outperformed all other examined indices. The merged indices were able to accurately estimate total Car content with a percental root mean square error (%RMSE) of 8.12% and a coefficient of determination of 0.88. Our findings were confirmed by simulations using the radiative transfer model PROSPECT-5. For simulated data, the merged indices again showed a quasi linear relationship with Car content. This strengthens the assumption that the proposed merged indices have a general ability to accurately estimate foliar Car content. Further examination of the proposed merged indices to estimate foliar Car content of other plant species is desirable to prove the general applicability of the index for non-destructive estimation of Car from leaf reflectance data. PMID:25512167

  20. Update on Calcium Signaling Calcium Signaling through Protein Kinases. The

    E-print Network

    Sheen, Jen

    Update on Calcium Signaling Calcium Signaling through Protein Kinases. The Arabidopsis Calcium protein kinase activities occur through calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs). These novel calcium provides a valuable opportunity to understand the plant calcium-signaling network. Calcium is a ubiquitous

  1. Two-step pH-modulated rapid assembly of trace-element-doped calcium-phosphate nanocrystals into giant porous beads in gelatin hydrosol for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhicheng; Chen, Xiaoyi; Yang, Yongzhu; Yang, Xianyan; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Guojing; Tang, Ruikang; Gou, Zhongru

    2013-11-01

    Biomolecule-ion interactions that occur during changes in pH value are a crucial but poorly investigated area that underlies the aggregation of inorganic nanocrystals. Meanwhile, the disorderly growth of calcium phosphate (CaP) nanocrystals is an obstacle that limits its practical applications. Herein, we have demonstrated for the first time that a simple two-step pH-adjustment process for a gelatin hydrosol reaction medium can modulate the ordered self-assembly of trace-element-doped CaP nanocrystals into porous beads. Two methods are used to adjust the initial pH value of gelatin hydrosol: One is to firstly adjust the pH value to 3.0 and then to 4.0 with acid/base solutions, whilst the other is to directly adjust the pH value to 4.0 with acid. Spherical CaP porous beads are rapidly produced through the two-step pH-adjustment process, whereas the one-step pathway results in disorderly CaP aggregates. We believe that the introduction of additives for pH adjustment is the dominant factor in disturbing the electrokinetic parameters and for driving the self-assembly of nanocrystals, whereas the nucleation of CaP nanocrystals prior to assembly is caused by the relaxation/condensation of the polypeptide network, owing to the increase in pH value on the introduction of the basic calcium salt. This method is facile and rapid and these highly bioactive porous beads are particularly promising for use in hard-tissue repair, tissue engineering, and drug delivery. PMID:23873742

  2. Generation of composites for bone tissue-engineering applications consisting of gellan gum hydrogels mineralized with calcium and magnesium phosphate phases by enzymatic means.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Timothy E L; Krawczyk, Grzegorz; Pamula, Elzbieta; Declercq, Heidi A; Schaubroeck, David; Bucko, Miroslaw M; Balcaen, Lieve; Van Der Voort, Pascal; Bliznuk, Vitaliy; van den Vreken, Natasja M F; Dash, Mamoni; Detsch, Rainer; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Vanhaecke, Frank; Cornelissen, Maria; Dubruel, Peter

    2014-02-21

    Mineralization of hydrogels, desirable for bone regeneration applications, may be achieved enzymatically by incorporation of alkaline phosphatase (ALP). ALP-loaded gellan gum (GG) hydrogels were mineralized by incubation in mineralization media containing calcium and/or magnesium glycerophosphate (CaGP, MgGP). Mineralization media with CaGP:MgGP concentrations 0.1:0, 0.075:0.025, 0.05:0.05, 0.025:0.075 and 0:0.1 (all values mol/dm(3) , denoted A, B, C, D and E, respectively) were compared. Mineral formation was confirmed by IR and Raman, SEM, ICP-OES, XRD, TEM, SAED, TGA and increases in the the mass fraction of the hydrogel not consisting of water. Ca was incorporated into mineral to a greater extent than Mg in samples mineralized in media A-D. Mg content and amorphicity of mineral formed increased in the order A?calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA). Mineral formed in medium C was a combination of CDHA and an amorphous phase. Mineral formed in medium D was an amorphous phase. Mineral formed in medium E was a combination of crystalline and amorphous MgP. Young's moduli and storage moduli decreased in dependence of mineralization medium in the order A?>?B?>?C?>?D, but were significantly higher for samples mineralized in medium E. The attachment and vitality of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells were higher on samples mineralized in media B-E (containing Mg) than in those mineralized in medium A (not containing Mg). All samples underwent degradation and supported the adhesion of RAW 264.7 monocytic cells, and samples mineralized in media A and B supported osteoclast-like cell formation. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24616374

  3. Report on the Study of Radiation Damage in Calcium Fluoride and Magnesium Fluoride Crystals for use in Excimer Laser Applications

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1999-10-04

    A study was performed to investigate the effects of radiation damage in calcium fluoride and magnesium fluoride crystals caused by gamma rays and UV photons from excimer lasers. The purpose was to study and correlate the damage caused by these two different mechanisms in various types of material used for fabricating optical elements in high power excimer lasers and lens systems of lithography tools. These optical systems are easily damaged by the laser itself, and it is necessary to use only the most radiation resistant materials for certain key elements. It was found that a clear correlation exists between the, radiation induced damage caused by high energy gamma rays and that produced by UV photons from the excimer laser. This correlation allows a simple procedure to be developed to select the most radiation resistant material at the ingot level, which would be later used to fabricate various components of the optical system. This avoids incurring the additional cost of fabricating actual optical elements with material that would later be damaged under prolonged use. The result of this screening procedure can result in a considerable savings in the overall cost of the lens and laser system.

  4. Amorphous calcium phosphate nanospheres/polylactide composite coated tantalum scaffold: facile preparation, fast biomineralization and subchondral bone defect repair application.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Rong; Xu, Wei; Chen, Feng; Qi, Chao; Lu, Bing-Qiang; Zhang, Hao; Wu, Jin; Qian, Qi-Rong; Zhu, Ying-Jie

    2014-11-01

    Calcium phosphate (CaP) materials are widely used in various biomedical areas such as drug/gene delivery and bone repair/tissue engineering. In this study, amorphous CaP nanospheres synthesized by a simple co-precipitation method are used to prepare the CaP-polylactide (CaP-PLA) composite. Then, the as-prepared CaP-PLA composite is used to coat tantalum (Ta) plates and porous scaffolds. Compared with bare Ta plate, CaP-PLA coated Ta plates show a high performance of surface biomineralization in simulated body fluid (SBF). In addition, the hydrophilicity of the CaP-PLA coated Ta plates is significantly improved. CaP-PLA coated Ta plates with bovine serum albumin (BSA) are prepared and used for the investigation of BSA release in vitro. The experimental results indicate a sustained BSA release property and simultaneous biomineralization of the as-prepared BSA-containing CaP-PLA coated Ta plates. Furthermore, CaP-PLA coated Ta scaffolds are favorable for the human osteoblast-like MG63 cells adhesion and spreading. The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and transforming growth factor (TGF)-containing CaP-PLA coated porous Ta scaffolds are used for the study of rabbit subchondral bone defect repair, covering with autogeneic periosteums. The as-prepared CaP-PLA composite coated Ta scaffolds are useful to guide the bone regeneration in vivo. PMID:25293870

  5. Preparation of biomorphic porous calcium titanate and its application for preconcentration of nickel in water and food samples.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong; Wang, Min; Ren, Guang-jun; Song, En-jun

    2013-12-01

    Biomorphic porous nanocrystalline-calcium titanate (SPCTO) was successfully prepared using the sol-gel method and with sorghum straw as the template. Characterization was conducted through XRD, SEM and FTIR. The ability of SPCTO to adsorb nickel ion in water was assessed. Elution and regeneration conditions, as well as the thermodynamics and kinetics of nickel adsorption, were also investigated. The result showed that the sorbent by the sol-gel template method was porous and has a perovskite structure with an average particle diameter of 26 nm. The nickel ion could be quantitatively retained at a pH value range of 4-8, but the adsorbed nickel ion could be completely eluted using 2 mol L(-1) HNO3. The adsorption capacity of SPCTO for nickel was found to be 51.814 mg g(-1) and the adsorption behavior followed a Langmuir adsorption isotherm and a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The enthalpy change (?H) of the adsorption process was 33.520 kJ mol(-1). At various temperatures, Gibbs free energy changes (?G) were negative, and entropy changes (?S) were positive. The activation energy (Ea) was 25.291 kJ mol(-1) for the adsorption. These results demonstrate that the adsorption was an endothermic and spontaneous physical process. This same method has been successfully applied in the preconcentration and determination of nickel in water and food samples with good results. PMID:24094175

  6. Novel attempts for the synthesis of calcium sulfate hydrates in calcium chloride solutions under atmospheric conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jen-Chang Yang; Hong-Da Wu; Nai-Chia Teng; Dian-Yu Ji; Sheng-Yang Lee

    The medical grade calcium sulfate is widely used in clinical applications for treating bone defects. A high-purity and predictable calcium sulfate (CS) synthesis process is desirable in the medical industry. The objective of this study was to develop a one-pot method for the direct preparation of calcium sulfate hemihydrates (CSHs; such as the ?- and ?-forms) in a CaCl2 solution.

  7. The stability mechanisms of an injectable calcium phosphate ceramic suspension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmed Fatimi; Jean-François Tassin; Monique A. V. Axelos; Pierre Weiss

    2010-01-01

    Calcium phosphate ceramics are widely used as bone substitutes in dentistry and orthopedic applications. For minimally invasive\\u000a surgery an injectable calcium phosphate ceramic suspension (ICPCS) was developed. It consists in a biopolymer (hydroxypropylmethylcellulose:\\u000a HPMC) as matrix and bioactive calcium phosphate ceramics (biphasic calcium phosphate: BCP) as fillers. The stability of the\\u000a suspension is essential to this generation of “ready to

  8. Biological control of foliar pathogens by means of Trichoderma harzianum and potential modes of action

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Elad

    2000-01-01

    Biocontrol of foliar diseases is an alternative means of management of foliar pathogens. One of the most studied commercial biocontrol agents is isolate T39 of Trichoderma harzianum which can be regarded as a model to demonstrate biocontrol under commercial conditions and the mechanisms involved. This biocontrol agent (BCA) controls the foliar pathogens, Botrytis cinerea, Pseuperonospora cubensis, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Sphaerotheca

  9. CONTROLS OVER FOLIAR N:P RATIOS IN TROPICAL RAIN FORESTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan R. Townsend; Cory C. Cleveland; Gregory P. Asner; Mercedes M. C. Bustamante

    2007-01-01

    Correlations between foliar nutrient concentrations and soil nutrient availability have been found in multiple ecosystems. These relationships have led to the use of foliar nutrients as an index of nutrient status and to the prediction of broadscale patterns in ecosystem processes. More recently, a growing interest in ecological stoichiometry has fueled multiple analyses of foliar nitrogen : phosphorus (N:P) ratios

  10. Changes of extracellular calcium concentration induced by application of excitatory amino acids in the human neocortex in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lücke, A; Köhling, R; Straub, H; Moskopp, D; Wassmann, H; Speckmann, E J

    1995-02-13

    The influence of the glutamate subreceptor agonists N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) on cortical field potentials and on changes in extracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]o) was tested on human neocortical slices (eleven from nine different patients). The tissue used was a small portion of that which is normally removed for the treatment of a brain tumor. [Ca2+]o and field potentials were measured by Ca(2+)-selective microelectrodes. Local pressure-microejection of NMDA (100 mumol/l)- and AMPA (1 mmol/l)-induced negative field potentials with maximal amplitudes of 0.9 +/- 0.1 mV (11 slices, mean +/- S.E.M.) and 1.0 +/- 0.1 mV (nine slices), respectively. The negative field potentials induced by NMDA were accompanied by monophasic decreases of [Ca2+]o (0.8 +/- 0.1 mmol/l, nine slices). AMPA elicited no (three slices) or only minor decreases of [Ca2+]o (0.2 +/- 0.1 mmol/l, five slices). The responses to the glutamate subreceptor agonists NMDA and AMPA were reversibly depressed by adding their specific antagonists DL-2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate (APV, 100 mumol/l, six slices) and 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxalin-2,3-dion (CNQX, 5 mumol/l, four slices), respectively. The results correspond to findings in animal experiments and are consistent with the interpretation that in the human neocortex the Ca2+ permeability of channels gated by NMDA is higher than those gated by AMPA. PMID:7538028

  11. Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate trisodium salt as a new phosphorus source for the rapid microwave synthesis of porous calcium-phosphate microspheres and their application in drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Qi, Chao; Zhu, Ying-Jie; Chen, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Calcium phosphates (CPs), as the major inorganic component of biological hard tissues, have been investigated for applications as biomaterials owing to their excellent biocompatibility. However, the traditional synthetic CPs are usually prepared from inorganic phosphorus and calcium sources. Herein, we report a new strategy for the synthesis of a variety of calcium-phosphate nanostructures, including porous amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) microspheres, hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanorods, and ACP/HAP composite microspheres, by using fructose 1,6-bisphosphate trisodium salt (FBP) as an organic phosphorus source in aqueous solution in a rapid microwave-assisted hydrothermal reaction. The important role of FBP and the effect of the experimental conditions on the formation and evolution of the CPs nanostructures were investigated. The crystal phase and composition of the as-prepared products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), FTIR spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric (TGA) analysis and the morphologies of the products were characterized by SEM and TEM. This method is facile, rapid, surfactant-free, and environmentally friendly. The as-prepared porous ACP microspheres have a relatively high drug-loading capacity and good sustained drug-release behavior; thus, they are promising for applications in drug delivery. PMID:23192854

  12. Staircase-like potentiation of calcium release in mouse myotubes during repetitive short-term application of threshold caffeine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philipp S. Lange; Reinhardt Rüdel; Stuart R. Taylor; Karl Föhr

    2001-01-01

    The release of Ca2+ in response to caffeine at threshold concentration (5 mM) was studied in mouse skeletal myotubes. Repeated 5-s applications of caffeine, each followed by a 30-s washout, caused Ca2+ releases of consecutively growing amplitude (staircase phenomenon). Each response declined rapidly and had a slow tail. Repeated applications of threshold caffeine lowered the threshold concentration. The interval between

  13. MULTIPLE DISEASE RESISTANCE IN DOGWOODS (CORNUS SPP.) TO FOLIAR PATHOGENS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. T. Mmbaga; R. J. Sauvé

    2004-01-01

    Disease resistance in several Cornus species and cultivars to three foliar pathogens was evaluated in a 5-year study. Of the 51 accessions evaluated, 20 were of C. kousa, 21 of C. florida, two of C. sericea, two of C. mas, one of C. alternifolia, and five were interspe- cific hybrids of C. kousa × C. florida. Powdery mildew and spot

  14. THE RESPONSE OF FOLIAR CARBOHYDRATES TO ELEVATED CARBON DIOXIDE CONCENTRATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accumulation of foliar carbohydrates is one of the most pronounced and universal changes observed in the leaves of C3 plants grown at elevated CO2 concentration ([CO2]). Carbohydrates are both the product of photosynthetic cells, and the substrate for sink metabolism. However, carbohydrates are no...

  15. Foliar flavonoids of Annonaceae from Brazil: taxonomic significance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Y. A. C. Santos; M. L. F. Salatino

    2000-01-01

    Foliar flavonoids of 31 species of the Annonaceae native to Brazil, amounting to 76 compounds, were isolated and identified. All phenols found were glycosides of either flavones (apigenin, scutellarein, hispidulin and luteolin) or flavonols (kaempferol, rhamnocitrin, 6-hydroxyrhamnocitrin, quercetin, isorhamnetin and rhamnetin), with the latter predominating. Some members of the tribe Bocageeae are distinctive for accumulating 6-oxygenated flavones and flavonols, in

  16. Original article Foliar senescence in maize plants grown

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Foliar senescence in maize plants grown under different water regimes Arturo) Abstract - The leaf ontogeny of potted maize plants subjected to severe water stress was carried out and water-stressed plants received 100 and 50 % of the water evapotranspired, respectively. After 30 days

  17. Foliar biofilms of Burkholderia pyrrocinia FP62 on geraniums

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biofilm formation on foliar surfaces is commonly associated with plants in water-saturated environments (e.g. tropics or modified environments). On most leaf surfaces bacteria are thought to reside in aggregates with limited production of an exopolysaccharide (EPS) matrix. However, the biocontrol ag...

  18. Professional Master's Project Report: Determination of Springtime Foliar Moisture

    E-print Network

    Schweik, Charles M.

    .......................................................................................................................20 #12;List of Tables Table Description Table 1 Summary of linear relationships between foliar sum in air (AIRSUM) with the 2nd- order polynomial fitting functions and fit statistics for a) 1-year, with a linear fitting function and fit statistics for a) 1-year-old (1YR) and b) 2-year old (2YR) foliage

  19. CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING IN CENTER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING IN CENTER, CALCIUM CHLORIDE STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT WITH SA (SODA ASH) BUILDING IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Solvay Process Company, Calcium Chloride Plant, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  20. Total phosphorous, calcium, aluminum and iron levels in Cecil soil after ten years of poultry litter application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry litter (PL) is a traditionally inexpensive and effective organic fertilizer to improve soil quality and agricultural productivity. However, there is concern with over application as this can lead to excess releases of nutrients, especially phosphorus, and metals into fresh water bodies resul...

  1. Controlling Foliar Disease with ZeroTol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ZeroTol is a disinfestant labeled for direct application on plants. Laboratory, field, and greenhouse experiments were performed to determine the rates and intervals in days between applications needed to control daylily rust. In laboratory trials, a very high rate was required to achieve 100% morta...

  2. Application of the specular and diffuse reflection analysis for in vitro diagnostics of dental erosion: correlation with enamel softening, roughness, and calcium release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakhmatullina, Ekaterina; Bossen, Anke; Höschele, Christoph; Wang, Xiaojie; Beyeler, Barbara; Meier, Christoph; Lussi, Adrian

    2011-10-01

    We present assembly and application of an optical reflectometer for the analysis of dental erosion. The erosive procedure involved acid-induced softening and initial substance loss phases, which are considered to be difficult for visual diagnosis in a clinic. Change of the specular reflection signal showed the highest sensitivity for the detection of the early softening phase of erosion among tested methods. The exponential decrease of the specular reflection intensity with erosive duration was compared to the increase of enamel roughness. Surface roughness was measured by optical analysis, and the observed tendency was correlated with scanning electron microscopy images of eroded enamel. A high correlation between specular reflection intensity and measurement of enamel softening (r2 >= -0.86) as well as calcium release (r2 >= -0.86) was found during erosion progression. Measurement of diffuse reflection revealed higher tooth-to-tooth deviation in contrast to the analysis of specular reflection intensity and lower correlation with other applied methods (r2 = 0.42-0.48). The proposed optical method allows simple and fast surface analysis and could be used for further optimization and construction of the first noncontact and cost-effective diagnostic tool for early erosion assessment in vivo.

  3. Application of the specular and diffuse reflection analysis for in vitro diagnostics of dental erosion: correlation with enamel softening, roughness, and calcium release

    PubMed Central

    Rakhmatullina, Ekaterina; Bossen, Anke; Höschele, Christoph; Wang, Xiaojie; Beyeler, Barbara; Meier, Christoph; Lussi, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    We present assembly and application of an optical reflectometer for the analysis of dental erosion. The erosive procedure involved acid-induced softening and initial substance loss phases, which are considered to be difficult for visual diagnosis in a clinic. Change of the specular reflection signal showed the highest sensitivity for the detection of the early softening phase of erosion among tested methods. The exponential decrease of the specular reflection intensity with erosive duration was compared to the increase of enamel roughness. Surface roughness was measured by optical analysis, and the observed tendency was correlated with scanning electron microscopy images of eroded enamel. A high correlation between specular reflection intensity and measurement of enamel softening (r2 ? ?0.86) as well as calcium release (r2 ? ?0.86) was found during erosion progression. Measurement of diffuse reflection revealed higher tooth-to-tooth deviation in contrast to the analysis of specular reflection intensity and lower correlation with other applied methods (r2 = 0.42–0.48). The proposed optical method allows simple and fast surface analysis and could be used for further optimization and construction of the first noncontact and cost-effective diagnostic tool for early erosion assessment in vivo. PMID:22029364

  4. Application of the specular and diffuse reflection analysis for in vitro diagnostics of dental erosion: correlation with enamel softening, roughness, and calcium release.

    PubMed

    Rakhmatullina, Ekaterina; Bossen, Anke; Höschele, Christoph; Wang, Xiaojie; Beyeler, Barbara; Meier, Christoph; Lussi, Adrian

    2011-10-01

    We present assembly and application of an optical reflectometer for the analysis of dental erosion. The erosive procedure involved acid-induced softening and initial substance loss phases, which are considered to be difficult for visual diagnosis in a clinic. Change of the specular reflection signal showed the highest sensitivity for the detection of the early softening phase of erosion among tested methods. The exponential decrease of the specular reflection intensity with erosive duration was compared to the increase of enamel roughness. Surface roughness was measured by optical analysis, and the observed tendency was correlated with scanning electron microscopy images of eroded enamel. A high correlation between specular reflection intensity and measurement of enamel softening (r(2) ? -0.86) as well as calcium release (r(2) ? -0.86) was found during erosion progression. Measurement of diffuse reflection revealed higher tooth-to-tooth deviation in contrast to the analysis of specular reflection intensity and lower correlation with other applied methods (r(2) = 0.42-0.48). The proposed optical method allows simple and fast surface analysis and could be used for further optimization and construction of the first noncontact and cost-effective diagnostic tool for early erosion assessment in vivo. PMID:22029364

  5. Comparison of Rain-Fast Bait Stations Versus Foliar Bait Sprays for Control of Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, in Papaya Orchards in Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Piñero, Jaime C.; Mau, Ronald F. L.; Vargas, Roger I.

    2010-01-01

    Bait stations represent an environmentally friendly attract-and-kill approach to fruit fly population suppression. Recently a novel, visually attractive, rain-fast bait station was developed in Hawaii for potential use against multiple species of pestiferous fruit flies. Here, we compared the efficacy of GF-120 NF Naturalyte Fruit Fly Bait applied either as foliar sprays or onto bait stations in reducing female oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), population density and level of fruit infestation in commercial papaya orchards in Hawaii. Trapping and infestation data were used as indicators of the effectiveness of the two bait application methods. For the first 10 weeks of the study, captures of female B. dorsalis in monitoring traps were significantly greater in control plots than in plots treated with foliar sprays or bait stations. Six weeks after the first bait spray, incidence of infestation (i.e. number of fruit with one or more B. dorsalis larvae) of quarter to half-ripe papaya fruit was reduced by 71.4% and 63.1% for plots with bait stations and foliar sprays, respectively, as compared to control plots. Twelve weeks after first spray, incidence of infestation was reduced by only 54.5% and 45.4% for plots with bait stations and foliar sprays, respectively, as compared to control plots. About 42% less GF-120 was used in orchard plots with bait stations compared to those subject to foliar sprays. The impact of field sanitation on the outcome is also discussed. The results indicate that bait stations can provide a simple, efficient, and economical method of applying insecticidal baits to control fruit flies and a safer alternative to foliar sprays. PMID:21067423

  6. Relative bioavailability of calcium from calcium formate, calcium citrate, and calcium carbonate

    E-print Network

    Hanzlik, Robert P.; Fowler, S. C.; Fisher, D. H.

    2005-06-01

    Published Abstract: Calcium is an essential nutrient required in substantial amounts, but many diets are deficient in calcium making supplementation necessary or desirable. The objective of this study was to compare the oral bioavailability...

  7. Calcium and Your Child

    MedlinePLUS

    ... t overlook other healthy calcium-fortified foods, including orange juice, soy products, and bread. Here are some ... 300 milligrams 8 ounces (237 milliliters) calcium-fortified orange juice 300 milligrams 2 ounces (57 grams) American ...

  8. Calcium in diet

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Salmon and sardines canned with their soft bones Almonds, Brazil nuts, sunflower seeds, tahini, and dried beans ... greens = 220 mg of calcium 3 ounces of almonds = 210 mg of calcium Vitamin D is needed ...

  9. Influence of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate application, smear layer removal, and storage time on resin-dentin bonding*

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jun; Zheng, Wei-ying; Liu, Peng-ruo-feng; Zhang, Ning; Lin, Hui-ping; Fan, Yi-jing; Gu, Xin-hua; Vollrath, Oliver; Mehl, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of Tooth Mousse (TM) application, smear layer removal, and storage time on resin-dentin microtensile bond strength (?TBS). Dentin specimens were divided into two groups: (1) smear layer covered; (2) smear layer removed using 15% EDTA for 90 s. In each group, half the specimens were treated once with TM for 60 min. After bonding procedures using a two-step self-etching adhesive (Clearfil SE Bond (CSE); Kuraray Medical, Tokyo, Japan), an all-in-one adhesive (G-Bond (GB); GC Corp, Tokyo, Japan), and a total-etch adhesive (Adper Single Bond 2 (SB); 3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN, USA), the specimens were stored for 3 d or 6 months in deionized water at 37 °C, and ?TBS was tested and analyzed. With the exception of SB (no TM application) and GB, the ?TBS was significantly increased for CSE and SB using EDTA pre-conditioning and 3 d of storage (P?0.001). Bond strength of GB decreased significantly when using EDTA (3 d storage, P<0.05). TM application only increased the ?TBS of GB (no EDTA) and SB (with EDTA) after 3 d (P?0.02). Comparing the adhesives after 3 d of storage, CSE exhibited the greatest ?TBS values followed by GB and SB (P?0.02). The factors of adhesive, EDTA, and TM did not show any significant impact on ?TBS when specimens were stored for 6 months (P>0.05). The additional application of TM and EDTA for cavity preparation seems only to have a short-term effect, and no influence on ?TBS of dentin bonds after a period of 6 months. PMID:25001224

  10. Effects of induced water stress on leaf trichome density and foliar nutrients of three elm (Ulmus) species: implications for resistance to the elm leaf beetle.

    PubMed

    Bosu, Paul P; Wagner, Michael R

    2007-06-01

    Seedlings of three elm species with variable susceptibility to the elm leaf beetle (Pyrrhalta luteola Müller) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) were subjected to three water stress treatments (no stress, low stress, and high stress) in a greenhouse experiment. The species tested were Ulmus pumila L. (Siberian elm = highly susceptible), U. parvifolia Jacq. (Chinese elm = resistant), and U. americana L. (American elm = intermediate). The seedlings were analyzed for changes in the levels of selected host traits (trichome density, foliar concentration of nitrogen [N], phosphorus [P], potassium [K], calcium [Ca], magnesium [Mg], iron [Fe], and manganese [Mn]), some of which had previously been implicated in resistance to the elm leaf beetle. Density of leaf abaxial surface trichomes (simple, bulbous, and total trichomes) and foliar Fe and Mg concentrations increased significantly in the highly susceptible Siberian elms under water stress. In contrast, stress reduced trichome density in the moderately susceptible American elms, but it had no effect on levels of foliar mineral nutrients. The stress treatments had no influence on host traits in the resistant Chinese elms. The results suggest that environmental stress can alter plant traits that are likely involved in determining resistance of elms to the elm leaf beetle. PMID:17540070

  11. Studies on sintering additives for hydroxyapatite, and controlled porosity structures of calcium aluminates and polypropylene-tricalcium phosphate for bone graft applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalita, Samar Jyoti

    Tissue engineering has made a significant contribution in developing new biomaterials that can restore the structural features and physiological functions of natural tissues. Various materials, such as metals, ceramics, polymers and composites have been developed for their use in hard tissue engineering applications. Part A of this thesis describes my research on HAp ceramics. HAp, a bioactive ceramic, is known for its osteoconductivity, but shows poor mechanical performance. This program aimed at improving mechanical performance of synthetic HAp by introducing small quantities of various sintering additives. A range of oxide-based sintering additives were selected and prepared. Dense compacts were prepared using a uniaxial press with an average green density of 1.6 g/cc. Results showed that some of these sintering additives improved densification, hardness and compression strength of synthetic HAp compared to the pure composition. A maximum bulk density of 3.06 g/cc was achieved for 2.5 wt% addition of MgO. A Microhardness of 4.9 GPa (505 HV) was measured for 2.5 wt% addition of BaO, and the highest compression strength (220MPa) was reported for 2.5 wt% addition of CaO. Cytotoxicity and cell proliferation studies with a modified human osteoblast (HOB) cell-line (OPC1) proved most of these materials non-toxic and biocompatible. Microscopic observation revealed that bone cells were attached and grew well on most of these ceramic matrices. Part B describes my work on development of controlled porosity polypropylene-tricalcium phosphate composite scaffolds via the fused deposition modeling (FDM) process. Hg-porosimetry was performed to determine pore size and their distribution. Uniaxial compression testing performed on samples with 36 vol% porosity and pore size of 160 mum showed the best compressive strength of 12.7 MPa. Part C includes my research on development of "3-D honeycomb" porous calcium aluminate structures via the indirect FDM process. Samples of 29% and 44% VFP (designed) with average pore size of 300 mum showed compressive strength between 2 and 24 MPa. Cell proliferation studies conducted with OPC1 cells on polymer-ceramic composite scaffolds and porous calcium aluminate structures showed good cell attachment and a steady cell growth behavior during the first three weeks of in vitro analyses.

  12. Calcium and Mitosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepler, P.

    1983-01-01

    Although the mechanism of calcium regulation is not understood, there is evidence that calcium plays a role in mitosis. Experiments conducted show that: (1) the spindle apparatus contains a highly developed membrane system that has many characteristics of sarcoplasmic reticulum of muscle; (2) this membrane system contains calcium; and (3) there are ionic fluxes occurring during mitosis which can be seen by a variety of fluorescence probes. Whether the process of mitosis can be modulated by experimentally modulating calcium is discussed.

  13. Calcium absorption and achlorhydria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert R. Recker

    1985-01-01

    Defective absorption of calcium has been thought to exist in patients with achlorhydria. The author compared absorption of calcium in its carbonate form with that in a pH-adjusted citrate form in a group of 11 fasting patients with achlorhydria and in 9 fasting normal subjects. Fractional calcium absorption was measured by a modified double-isotope procedure with 0.25 g of calcium

  14. Calcium and magnesium disorders.

    PubMed

    Goff, Jesse P

    2014-07-01

    Hypocalcemia is a clinical disorder that can be life threatening to the cow (milk fever) and predisposes the animal to various other metabolic and infectious disorders. Calcium homeostasis is mediated primarily by parathyroid hormone, which stimulates bone calcium resorption and renal calcium reabsorption. Parathyroid hormone stimulates the production of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D to enhance diet calcium absorption. High dietary cation-anion difference interferes with tissue sensitivity to parathyroid hormone. Hypomagnesemia reduces tissue response to parathyroid hormone. PMID:24980727

  15. Stochastic models of intracellular calcium signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rüdiger, Sten

    2014-01-01

    Cellular signaling operates in a noisy environment shaped by low molecular concentrations and cellular heterogeneity. For calcium release through intracellular channels-one of the most important cellular signaling mechanisms-feedback by liberated calcium endows fluctuations with critical functions in signal generation and formation. In this review it is first described, under which general conditions the environment makes stochasticity relevant, and which conditions allow approximating or deterministic equations. This analysis provides a framework, in which one can deduce an efficient hybrid description combining stochastic and deterministic evolution laws. Within the hybrid approach, Markov chains model gating of channels, while the concentrations of calcium and calcium binding molecules (buffers) are described by reaction-diffusion equations. The article further focuses on the spatial representation of subcellular calcium domains related to intracellular calcium channels. It presents analysis for single channels and clusters of channels and reviews the effects of buffers on the calcium release. For clustered channels, we discuss the application and validity of coarse-graining as well as approaches based on continuous gating variables (Fokker-Planck and chemical Langevin equations). Comparison with recent experiments substantiates the stochastic and spatial approach, identifies minimal requirements for a realistic modeling, and facilitates an understanding of collective channel behavior. At the end of the review, implications of stochastic and local modeling for the generation and properties of cell-wide release and the integration of calcium dynamics into cellular signaling models are discussed.

  16. Effectiveness of a calcium sodium phosphosilicate containing prophylaxis paste in reducing dentine hypersensitivity immediately and 4 weeks after a single application: a double-blind randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Neuhaus, Klaus W; Milleman, Jeffery L; Milleman, Kimberly R; Mongiello, Kimberly A; Simonton, Thomas C; Clark, Courtney E; Proskin, Howard M; Seemann, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    Aims The aim of this single-site, randomized, controlled, double-blind, 3-arm parallel study was to determine the effectiveness of a prophylaxis paste containing 15% calcium sodium phosphosilicate (CSPS; NovaMin®) with and without fluoride in reducing dentine hypersensitivity immediately after a single application and 28 days following dental scaling and root planing. Materials & Methods Overall, 151 subjects were enrolled in this study. All subjects received a scaling and root planing procedure followed by a final prophylaxis step using one of three different prophylaxis pastes: Test-A (15% NovaMin® and NaF), Test-B (15% NovaMin®) and a control. Dentine hypersensitivity was assessed by tactile stimulus (Yeaple Probe®) and by air blast (Schiff scale) at baseline, immediately after and 28 days after a prophylaxis procedure. One hundred and forty-nine subjects completed the study. Results Subjects having received the test prophylaxis pastes showed statistically lower (anova, p < 0.05) dentine hypersensitivity compared with the control group immediately after the prophylaxis procedure (Yeaple Probe®: Test-A = 20.9 ± 12.6, Test-B = 22.7 ± 12.9, Control=11.2 ± 3.1; Schiff score: Test-A = 1.1 ± 0.6, Test-B = 1.1 ± 0.6, Control = 2.0 ± 0.7) and after 28 days (Yeaple probe: Test-A = 21.5 ± 11.9, Test-B = 20.6 ± 11.3, Control = 11.8 ± 6.0; Schiff score: Test-A = 1.0 ± 0.6, Test-B = 1.0 ± 0.6, Control = 2.0 ± 0.7). Conclusions In conclusion, the single application of both fluoridated and non-fluoridated prophylaxis pastes containing 15% CSPS (NovaMin®) provided a significant reduction of dentine hypersensitivity up to at least 28 days. PMID:23414245

  17. Calcium and Vitamin D

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter describes the roles of calcium and vitamin D in bone health. Calcium is required for the bone formation phase of bone remodeling and it also affects bone mass through its impact on the remodeling rate. Typically, about 5 nmol (200 mg) of calcium is removed from the adult skeleton and ...

  18. RESEARCH ARTICLE CALCIUM CHANNEL STRUCTURE

    E-print Network

    Napp, Nils

    RESEARCH ARTICLE CALCIUM CHANNEL STRUCTURE Structural basis for a pH-sensitive calcium leak across,3 Wayne A. Hendrickson,1,2,4,5 Qun Liu1,4 * Calcium homeostasis balances passive calcium leak and active calcium uptake. Human Bax inhibitor­1 (hBI-1) is an antiapoptotic protein that mediates a calcium leak

  19. Process for converting magnesium fluoride to calcium fluoride

    DOEpatents

    Kreuzmann, A.B.; Palmer, D.A.

    1984-12-21

    This invention is a process for the conversion of magnesium fluoride to calcium fluoride whereby magnesium fluoride is decomposed by heating in the presence of calcium carbonate, calcium oxide or calcium hydroxide. Magnesium fluoride is a by-product of the reduction of uranium tetrafluoride to form uranium metal and has no known commercial use, thus its production creates a significant storage problem. The advantage of this invention is that the quality of calcium fluoride produced is sufficient to be used in the industrial manufacture of anhydrous hydrogen fluoride, steel mill flux or ceramic applications.

  20. Foliar application of nickel and copper on pecan performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mobilization and conversion of reserve nitrogen (N) is critical for pecans [Carya illinoinensis (Wang.) K. Koch] during early spring when trees begin growing actively. Conversion of N reserves to translocatable forms (amides, amino acids, ureides) is adversely affected by a nickel (Ni) shortage...

  1. Effects of sampling method on foliar ? (13)C of Leymus chinensis at different scales.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanjie; Li, Yan; Zhang, Lirong; Xu, Xingliang; Niu, Haishan

    2015-03-01

    Stable carbon isotope composition (? (13)C) usually shows a negative relationship with precipitation at a large scale. We hypothesized that sampling method affects foliar ? (13)C and its response pattern to precipitation. We selected 11 sites along a precipitation gradient in Inner Mongolia and collected leaves of Leymus chinensis with five or six replications repeatedly in each site from 2009 to 2011. Additionally, we collected leaves of L. chinensis separately from two types of grassland (grazed and fenced) in 2011. Foliar ? (13)C values of all samples were measured. We compared the patterns that foliar ? (13)C to precipitation among different years or different sample sizes, the differences of foliar ? (13)C between grazed and fenced grassland. Whether actual annual precipitation (AAP) or mean annual precipitation (MAP), it was strongly correlated with foliar ? (13)C every year. Significant difference was found between the slopes of foliar ? (13)C to AAP and MAP every year, among the slopes of foliar ? (13)C to AAP from 2009 to 2011. The more samples used at each site the lower and convergent P-values of the linear regression test between foliar ? (13)C and precipitation. Furthermore, there was significant lower foliar ? (13)C value in presence of grazed type than fenced type grassland. These findings provide evidence that there is significant effect of sampling method to foliar ? (13)C and its response pattern to precipitation of L. chinensis. Our results have valuable implications in methodology for future field sampling studies. PMID:25798224

  2. Effects of sampling method on foliar ?13C of Leymus chinensis at different scales

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yanjie; Li, Yan; Zhang, Lirong; Xu, Xingliang; Niu, Haishan

    2015-01-01

    Stable carbon isotope composition (?13C) usually shows a negative relationship with precipitation at a large scale. We hypothesized that sampling method affects foliar ?13C and its response pattern to precipitation. We selected 11 sites along a precipitation gradient in Inner Mongolia and collected leaves of Leymus chinensis with five or six replications repeatedly in each site from 2009 to 2011. Additionally, we collected leaves of L. chinensis separately from two types of grassland (grazed and fenced) in 2011. Foliar ?13C values of all samples were measured. We compared the patterns that foliar ?13C to precipitation among different years or different sample sizes, the differences of foliar ?13C between grazed and fenced grassland. Whether actual annual precipitation (AAP) or mean annual precipitation (MAP), it was strongly correlated with foliar ?13C every year. Significant difference was found between the slopes of foliar ?13C to AAP and MAP every year, among the slopes of foliar ?13C to AAP from 2009 to 2011. The more samples used at each site the lower and convergent P-values of the linear regression test between foliar ?13C and precipitation. Furthermore, there was significant lower foliar ?13C value in presence of grazed type than fenced type grassland. These findings provide evidence that there is significant effect of sampling method to foliar ?13C and its response pattern to precipitation of L. chinensis. Our results have valuable implications in methodology for future field sampling studies. PMID:25798224

  3. Intrinsic Ca 2+ affinities of peptides: Application of the kinetic method to analogs of calcium-binding site III of rabbit skeletal troponin C

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olga V. Nemirovskiy; Michael L. Gross

    2000-01-01

    We extended the kinetic method to determine the intrinsic affinities of nonvolatile organic molecules with divalent metal\\u000a ions and then applied the amended method to determine the calcium affinities of peptide analogs of the calcium-binding site\\u000a III of rabbit skeletal troponin C. Metal-bis(peptide) complexes of the composition ([H2Pi + H2Pii] ? H + Ca)+, where H2P is a neutral peptide,

  4. Foliar urea fertilization of cereals: A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Gooding; W. P. Davies

    1992-01-01

    It has been suggested that there are several potential benefits of providing nitrogen to cereals via the foliage as urea solution. These include: reduced nitrogen losses through denitrification and leaching compared with nitrogen fertilizer applications to the soil; the ability to provide nitrogen when root activity is impaired e.g., in saline or dry conditions, and uptake late in the season

  5. Response of Dianthus caryophyllus L. Plants to Foliar Nutrition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aly H. El-Naggar

    2009-01-01

    This investigation was conducted at Nubaria Region, West of Alexandria City, Egypt, during 2006 and 2007 seasons to study the influence of different concentrations (0. 0,0. 2,0. 4,0. 6,0. 8 and 1. 0 %) of foliar fertilizer (Sangral) contains macro-elements (20%N, 20% P, 20% K, 0. 12% Mg) and micro-elements (70 ppm Fe, 14 ppm Zn, 16 ppm Cu, 42

  6. Estimating foliar water content of winter wheat with hyperspectral image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xia; Jiao, Quanjun; Wu, Di; Zhang, Bing; Gao, Lianru

    2007-11-01

    Estimates of vegetation water content are of great interest for assessing vegetation water status in agriculture and forestry, and have been used for drought assessment. This study focuses on the retrieval of foliar water content with hyperspectral data at canopy level. The hyperspectral image used in this study was acquired by the airborne operative modular imaging spectrometer (OMIS) at Demonstration Site for Precision Agriculture in Xiaotangshan area, Beijing, on April 26th, 2001. 40 image spectra were extracted to correspond to the quasi-synchronous meansurements of foliar water content (FWC). The image spectra of winter wheat were utilized to validate the sensitivity of the existing and novel water indices and parameters of three water absorption features in NIR and SWIR regions. Correlation analysis showed that, NDWI(860,1241) and NDWI(860,1200) both had significant linear relationships with FWC (R2 were 0.4124 and 0.4042 respectively). Red edge position (REP) could reflect indirectly the variations of wheat FWC to some extent. Significant linear relationships were also found between WI(820,1600) and FWC, and between WI(900,1200) and FWC, while no relationship was shown between the traditional WI(900,970) and FWC. The derived depth of water absorption centered around 2078nm, namely AD2078, had the highest linear correlation with FWC (R2 is 0.4551) , much higher than those parameters derived from the two water absorption around 1175 and 1409. In the end, AD2078 was applied to OMIS image to map the foliar water content. The value range of the inverted foliar water content ranged from 69.39 to 78.35%, which was quite close to that of the field measurements (70.72-78.12%). The distribution of the FWC map was quite consistent with growth status of winter wheat.

  7. Fractions of calcium in the plant-soil system affected by the application of olive oil wastewater.

    PubMed

    Gallardo-Lara, F; Azcón, M; Quesada, J L; Polo, A

    1998-09-01

    A pot experiment using calcareous soil was conducted in a growth chamber to examine the effects of olive oil wastewater applications on Ca fractions in the plant and on exchangeable Ca in soil after plant growth. The experimental treatments consisted of two rates of olive oil wastewater, two mineral fertilizer treatments including K, which supplied K in amounts equivalent to the K supplied by the olive oil wastewater treatments, a mineral fertilizer without K treatment (F), and a control. The pots were sown with ryegrass which was harvested 3 times at monthly intervals. The high rate of olive oil wastewater resulted in a prolonged increases in dry matter production. It also resulted in a reduction in the concentrations of soluble Ca, bound Ca, inorganic insoluble Ca and organic insoluble Ca in the plant shoots relative to the control and the F treatment. The low rate of olive oil wastewater produced similar but less marked effects, with decreases being observed in the soluble Ca and bound Ca fractions. After 3 months of plant growth, soil exchangeable Ca was higher in the control and F treatment soils than in the soils receiving olive oil wastewater or K fertilizer. At this time, there were no significant differences in exchangeable Ca between the soils receiving olive oil wastewater and those treated with K fertilizer. PMID:9731309

  8. Chitosan/?-1,3-glucan/calcium phosphate ceramics composites--novel cell scaffolds for bone tissue engineering application.

    PubMed

    Przekora, Agata; Palka, Krzysztof; Ginalska, Grazyna

    2014-07-20

    Bone tissue engineering put emphasis on fabrication three-dimensional biodegradable porous scaffolds that possess ability to enhance adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of osteoblast cells, therefore supporting bone regeneration and functional bone tissue formation. The aim of this work was to fabricate novel tri-component scaffolds composed of chitosan, ?-1,3-glucan, and bioceramics and to evaluate their basic structural, mechanical, and biological properties. It should be noted that we are the first who describe fabrication and characterization of tri-component composites containing ?-1,3-glucan. Microstructure of novel composites was visualized by computed tomography scanning and SEM. Compressive strength and Young's modulus of the composites were evaluated by compression testing. The biocompatibility was assessed in vitro by cytotoxicity, cell attachment and cell proliferation tests using human foetal osteoblast cell line. Our results demonstrated that novel composites possess good compressive strength as the effect of polysaccharide components of scaffolds, are very elastic, are non-toxic, favourable to cell adhesion and promote cell proliferation. However, novel biomaterials revealed relatively low Young's modulus values. Thus, we infer that fabricated novel composites are promising materials for bone tissue engineering application as cell scaffolds to fill small bone losses rather than as massive bone fillers exposed to mechanical load. PMID:24815684

  9. Calcium-induced calcium release in rod photoreceptor terminals boosts synaptic transmission during maintained depolarization

    PubMed Central

    Cadetti, Lucia; Bryson, Eric J.; Ciccone, Cory A.; Rabl, Katalin; Thoreson, Wallace B.

    2008-01-01

    We examined the contribution of calcium-induced calcium release (CICR) to synaptic transmission from rod photoreceptor terminals. Whole-cell recording and confocal calcium imaging experiments were conducted on rods with intact synaptic terminals in a retinal slice preparation from salamander. Low concentrations of ryanodine stimulated calcium increases in rod terminals, consistent with the presence of ryanodine receptors. Application of strong depolarizing steps (?70 to ?10 mV) exceeding 200 ms or longer in duration evoked a wave of calcium that spread across the synaptic terminals of voltage-clamped rods. This secondary calcium increase was blocked by high concentrations of ryanodine, indicating it was due to CICR. Ryanodine (50 ?M) had no significant effect on rod calcium current (Ica) although it slightly diminished rod light-evoked voltage responses. Bath application of 50 ?M ryanodine strongly inhibited light-evoked currents in horizontal cells. Whether applied extracellularly or delivered into the rod cell through the patch pipette, ryanodine (50 ?M) also inhibited excitatory post-synaptic currents (EPSCs) evoked in horizontal cells by depolarizing steps applied to rods. Ryanodine caused a preferential reduction in the later portions of EPSCs evoked by depolarizing steps of 200 ms or longer. These results indicate that CICR enhances calcium increases in rod terminals evoked by sustained depolarization, which in turn acts to boost synaptic exocytosis from rods. PMID:16819987

  10. Calcium-induced calcium release in rod photoreceptor terminals boosts synaptic transmission during maintained depolarization.

    PubMed

    Cadetti, Lucia; Bryson, Eric J; Ciccone, Cory A; Rabl, Katalin; Thoreson, Wallace B

    2006-06-01

    We examined the contribution of calcium-induced calcium release (CICR) to synaptic transmission from rod photoreceptor terminals. Whole-cell recording and confocal calcium imaging experiments were conducted on rods with intact synaptic terminals in a retinal slice preparation from salamander. Low concentrations of ryanodine stimulated calcium increases in rod terminals, consistent with the presence of ryanodine receptors. Application of strong depolarizing steps (-70 to -10 mV) exceeding 200 ms or longer in duration evoked a wave of calcium that spread across the synaptic terminals of voltage-clamped rods. This secondary calcium increase was blocked by high concentrations of ryanodine, indicating it was due to CICR. Ryanodine (50 microm) had no significant effect on rod calcium current (I(ca)) although it slightly diminished rod light-evoked voltage responses. Bath application of 50 microm ryanodine strongly inhibited light-evoked currents in horizontal cells. Whether applied extracellularly or delivered into the rod cell through the patch pipette, ryanodine (50 microm) also inhibited excitatory post-synaptic currents (EPSCs) evoked in horizontal cells by depolarizing steps applied to rods. Ryanodine caused a preferential reduction in the later portions of EPSCs evoked by depolarizing steps of 200 ms or longer. These results indicate that CICR enhances calcium increases in rod terminals evoked by sustained depolarization, which in turn acts to boost synaptic exocytosis from rods. PMID:16819987

  11. A nonadherent cell-based HTS assay for N-type calcium channel using calcium 3 dye.

    PubMed

    Lubin, Mary Lou; Reitz, Tasha L; Todd, Matthew J; Flores, Christopher M; Qin, Ning; Xin, Hong

    2006-12-01

    The N-type calcium channel is a member of the voltage-sensitive calcium channel family and plays a major role in the regulation of neurotransmitter release in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Inhibition of the N-type calcium channel by intrathecal administration of the channel-specific blocker omega-conotoxin MVIIA (ziconotide) is efficacious in the treatment of severe chronic pain. While no orally active small molecules that block the N-type calcium channel are currently available, the discovery of such potentially valuable therapeutics would benefit from a reliable, high throughput assay. However, the assay of N-type calcium channel activity by measuring calcium influx using nonadherent cells in a high throughput fashion has not been achieved before, likely owing to a number of technical hurdles. For example, the measurement of calcium levels in nonadherent cells using conventional calcium indicators, such as Fluo-3 or Fluo-4, requires dyeloading the cells in suspension and subsequent removal of extracellular dye. This limits plate throughput and requires constant handling of the cells. To assay the N-type calcium channel activity using a nonadherent cell line in a high throughput manner, we investigated the application of no-wash calcium assay kits from Molecular Devices Corp. (Sunnyvale, CA): FLIPR Calcium, FLIPR Calcium Plus, and FLIPR Calcium 3. We show here that the FLIPR Calcium 3 assay kit can be used with nonadherent IMR-32 cells to measure potassium-evoked, omega-conotoxin MVIIA-reversible calcium flux with high throughput (15,000 data points/day), high quality (Z approximately 0.6), and minimal handling of the cells. Thus, this assay can be used to reliably and efficiently screen large compound libraries in the search for small molecule N-type calcium channel blockers. PMID:17199507

  12. Calcium is incorporated into the calcium carbonate matrix of otoliths

    E-print Network

    118 Calcium is incorporated into the calcium carbonate matrix of otoliths and into the calcium). In addition to calcium, trace elements, such as strontium, are also incorporated into the calcified components valence) allow strontium ions to act as replace- ments for calcium during the pro- cess of calcification

  13. Improved biocompatibility of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) orv and poly-L-lactic acid blended with nanoparticulate amorphous calcium phosphate in vascular stent applications.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiaoxin; Wang, Yujue; Lan, Zhiyuan; Lyu, Yongnan; Feng, Gaoke; Zhang, Yipei; Tagusari, Shizu; Kislauskis, Edward; Robich, Michael P; McCarthy, Stephen; Sellke, Frank W; Laham, Roger; Jiang, Xuejun; Gu, Wei Wang; Wu, Tim

    2014-06-01

    Biodegradable polymers used as vascular stent coatings and stent platforms encounter a major challenge: biocompatibility in vivo, which plays an important role in in-stent restenosis (ISR). Co-formulating amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) into poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) or poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) was investigated to address the issue. For stent coating applications, metal stents were coated with polyethylene-co-vinyl acetate/poly-n-butyl methacrylate (PEVA/PBMA), PLGA or PLGA/ACP composites, and implanted into rat aortas for one and three months. Comparing with both PEVA/PBMA and PLGA groups after one month, the results showed that stents coated with PLGA/ACP had significantly reduced restenosis (PLGA/ACP vs. PEVA/PBMA vs. PLGA: 21.24 +/- 2.59% vs. 27.54 +/- 1.19% vs. 32.12 +/- 3.93%, P < 0.05), reduced inflammation (1.25 +/- 0.35 vs. 1.77 +/- 0.38 vs. 2.30 +/- 0.21, P < 0.05) and increased speed of re-endothelialization (1.78 +/- 0.46 vs. 1.17 +/- 0.18 vs. 1.20 +/- 0.18, P < 0.05). After three months, the PLGA/ACP group still displayed lower inflammation score (1.33 +/- 0.33 vs. 2.27 +/- 0.55, P < 0.05) and higher endothelial scores (2.33 +/- 0.33 vs. 1.20 +/- 0.18, P < 0.05) as compared with the PEVA/PBMA group. Moreover, for stent platform applications, PLLA/ACP stent tube significantly reduced the inflammatory cells infiltration in the vessel walls of rabbit iliac arteries relative to their PLLA cohort (NF-kappaB-positive cells: 23.31 +/- 2.33/mm2 vs. 9.34 +/- 1.35/mm2, P < 0.05). No systemic biochemical or pathological evidence of toxicity was found in either PLGA/ACP or PLLA/ACP. The co-formulation of ACP into PLGA and PLLA resulted in improved biocompatibility without systemic toxicity. PMID:24749387

  14. Self-Setting Calcium Orthophosphate Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Dorozhkin, Sergey V.

    2013-01-01

    In early 1980s, researchers discovered self-setting calcium orthophosphate cements, which are bioactive and biodegradable grafting bioceramics in the form of a powder and a liquid. After mixing, both phases form pastes, which set and harden forming either a non-stoichiometric calcium deficient hydroxyapatite or brushite. Since both of them are remarkably biocompartible, bioresorbable and osteoconductive, self-setting calcium orthophosphate formulations appear to be promising bioceramics for bone grafting. Furthermore, such formulations possess excellent molding capabilities, easy manipulation and nearly perfect adaptation to the complex shapes of bone defects, followed by gradual bioresorption and new bone formation. In addition, reinforced formulations have been introduced, which might be described as calcium orthophosphate concretes. The discovery of self-setting properties opened up a new era in the medical application of calcium orthophosphates and many commercial trademarks have been introduced as a result. Currently such formulations are widely used as synthetic bone grafts, with several advantages, such as pourability and injectability. Moreover, their low-temperature setting reactions and intrinsic porosity allow loading by drugs, biomolecules and even cells for tissue engineering purposes. In this review, an insight into the self-setting calcium orthophosphate formulations, as excellent bioceramics suitable for both dental and bone grafting applications, has been provided. PMID:24956191

  15. Effect of a plant growth regulator prohexadione-calcium on insect pests of apple and pear.

    PubMed

    Paulson, G S; Hull, L A; Biddinger, D J

    2005-04-01

    The effect of prohexadione-calcium, a plant growth regulator that inhibits gibberellin metabolism, on Cacopsylla pyricoloa (Foerster) in pear trees, and Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) and Aphis spireacola Patch, in apple trees was studied. C. pyricoloa and A. spireacola populations were significantly reduced in prohexadione-calcium-treated pear and apple, respectively. Insecticide control of both pests with imidacloprid was synergized in treatments with prohexadione-calcium. In apples treated with prohexadione-calcium, there was a significant reduction in the number of C. rosaceana shelters per tree and amount of fruit injury at harvest attributable to the C. rosaceana. There was an additive effect when tebufenozide was used to control C. rosaceana in trees treated with prohexadione-calcium. Prohexadione-calcium significantly reduced vegetative growth in both pears and apples. Synergistic and additive treatment effects of prohexadione-calcium and pesticides used in this study may be due to better penetration and coverage of pesticides due to reduced foliar growth or to changes in the nutritional quality of the host plants. PMID:15889734

  16. Calcium carbonate phase transformations during the carbonation reaction of calcium heavy alkylbenzene sulfonate overbased nanodetergents preparation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhaocong; Xiao, Shan; Chen, Feng; Chen, Dongzhong; Fang, Jianglin; Zhao, Min

    2011-07-01

    The preparation and application of overbased nanodetergents with excess alkaline calcium carbonate is a good example of nanotechnology in practice. The phase transformation of calcium carbonate is of extensive concern since CaCO(3) serves both as an important industrial filling material and as the most abundant biomineral in nature. Industrially valuable overbased nanodetergents have been prepared based on calcium salts of heavy alkylbenzene sulfonate by a one-step process under ambient pressure, the carbonation reaction has been monitored by the instantaneous temperature changes and total base number (TBN). A number of analytical techniques such as TGA, DLS, SLS, TEM, FTIR, and XRD have been utilized to explore the carbonation reaction process and phase transformation mechanism of calcium carbonate. An enhanced understanding on the phase transformation of calcium carbonate involved in calcium sulfonate nanodetergents has been achieved and it has been unambiguously demonstrated that amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) transforms into the vaterite polymorph rather than calcite, which would be of crucial importance for the preparation and quality control of lubricant additives and greases. Our results also show that a certain amount of residual Ca(OH)(2) prevents the phase transformation from ACC to crystalline polymorphs. Moreover, a vaterite nanodetergent has been prepared for the first time with low viscosity, high base number, and uniform particle size, nevertheless a notable improvement on its thermal stability is required for potential applications. PMID:21507412

  17. Natural foliar variegation without costs? The case of Begonia

    PubMed Central

    Sheue, Chiou-Rong; Pao, Shang-Horng; Chien, Lee-Feng; Chesson, Peter; Peng, Ching-I

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Foliar variegation is recognized as arising from two major mechanisms: leaf structure and pigment-related variegation. Begonia has species with a variety of natural foliar variegation patterns, providing diverse examples of this phenomenon. The aims of this work are to elucidate the mechanisms underlying different foliar variegation patterns in Begonia and to determine their physiological consequences. Methods Six species and one cultivar of Begonia were investigated. Light and electron microscopy revealed the leaf structure and ultrastructure of chloroplasts in green and light areas of variegated leaves. Maximum quantum yields of photosystem II were measured by chlorophyll fluorescence. Comparison with a cultivar of Ficus revealed key features distinguishing variegation mechanisms. Key Results Intercellular space above the chlorenchyma is the mechanism of variegation in these Begonia. This intercellular space can be located (a) below the adaxial epidermis or (b) below the adaxial water storage tissue (the first report for any taxa), creating light areas on a leaf. In addition, chlorenchyma cell shape and chloroplast distribution within chlorenchyma cells differ between light and green areas. Chloroplasts from both areas showed dense stacking of grana and stroma thylakoid membranes. The maximum quantum yield did not differ significantly between these areas, suggesting minimal loss of function with variegation. However, the absence of chloroplasts in light areas of leaves in the Ficus cultivar led to an extremely low quantum yield. Conclusions Variegation in these Begonia is structural, where light areas are created by internal reflection between air spaces and cells in a leaf. Two forms of air space structural variegation occur, distinguished by the location of the air spaces. Both forms may have a common origin in development where dermal tissue becomes loosely connected to mesophyll. Photosynthetic functioning is retained in light areas, and these areas do not include primary veins, potentially limiting the costs of variegation. PMID:22362664

  18. Calcium Flux During Hemodialysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralph S. Goldsmith; Jacob Furszyfer; William J. Johnson; William F. Taylor

    1978-01-01

    A system of equations has been derived, and examined, to describe membrane permeability and calcium fluxes within a commonly used hemodialyzer, the Mini-Kiil. By a statistical technique of sequential multiple regression analysis, factors which might influence these variables were tested on data derived from 74 hemodialysis periods in 5 patients. Calcium flux from plasma to dialysate was influenced positively by

  19. Disorders of Calcium Metabolism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John F. O’Toole

    2011-01-01

    The genetic contribution to calcium metabolism is well recognized. Many of the proteins that contribute to calcium homeostasis through intestinal absorption, bone deposition and resorption, renal reabsorption and the molecules regulating these processes have been identified. Mutations in many of the genes coding for these proteins have been identified and often have clear clinical phenotypes. These mutations are generally rare

  20. Calcium Nutrition in Adolescence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marta Mesías; Isabel Seiquer; M. Pilar Navarro

    2011-01-01

    Adolescence is an important period of nutritional vulnerability due to increased dietary requirements for growth and development and special dietary habits. Calcium needs are elevated as a result of the intensive bone and muscular development and thus adequate calcium intake during growth is extremely important to reach the optimum peak bone mass and to protect against osteoporosis in the adult

  1. Strategies for the uses of lanthanide NMR shift probes in the determination of protein structure in solutio. Application to the EF calcium binding site of carp parvalbumin.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, L; Sykes, B D

    1980-01-01

    The homologous sequences observed for many calcium binding proteins such as parvalbumin, troponin C, the myosin light chains, and calmodulin has lead to the hypothesis that these proteins have homologous structures at the level of their calcium binding sites. This paper discusses the development of a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique which will enable us to test this structural hypothesis in solution. The technique involves the substitution of a paramagnetic lanthanide ion for the calcium ion which results in lanthanide induced shifts and broadening in the 1H NMR spectrum of the protein. These shifts are sensitive monitors of the precise geometrical orientation of each proton nucleus relative to the metal. The values of several parameters in the equation relating the NMR shifts to the structure are however known as priori. We have attempted to determine these parameters, the orientation and principal elements of the magnetic susceptibility tensor of the protein bound metal, by studying the lanthanide induced shifts for the protein parvalbumin whose structure has been determined by x-ray crystallographic techniques. The interaction of the lanthanide ytterbium with parvalbumin results in high resolution NMR spectra exhibiting a series of resonances with shifts spread over the range 32 to -19 ppm. The orientation and principal elements of the ytterbium magnetic susceptibility tensor have been determined using three assigned NMR resonances, the His-26 C2 and C4 protons and the amino terminal acetyl protons, and seven methyl groups; all with known geometry relative to the EF calcium binding site. The elucidation of these parameters has allowed us to compare the observed spectrum of the nuclei surrounding the EF calcium binding site of parvalbumin with that calculated from the x-ray structure. A significant number of the calculated shifts are larger than any of the observed shifts. We feel that a refinement of the x-ray based proton coordinates will be possible utilizing the geometric information contained in the lanthanide shifted NMR spectrum. PMID:7248448

  2. Ozone air pollution and foliar injury development on native plants of Switzerland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristopher Novak; John M. Skelly; Marcus Schaub; Norbert Kräuchi; Christian Hug; Werner Landolt; Peter Bleuler

    2003-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the foliar sensitivity to ozone exposure of 12 tree, shrub, and herbaceous species native to southern Switzerland and determine the seasonal cumulative ozone exposures required to induce visible foliar injury. The study was conducted from the beginning of May through the end of August during 2000 and 2001 using an open-top chamber

  3. Occurrence and severity of foliar ozone symptoms on sensitive hardwood species in Shenandoah National Park, VA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Hildebrand; J. M. Skelly

    1993-01-01

    To assess the extent of foliar symptoms due to ozone on sensitive hardwoods in the Shenandoah National Park in Virginia, three species were sampled and evaluated at sites of differing elevations adjacent to 3 ozone monitors in 1991 and 1992: black cherry, yellow poplar, and white ash. All foliar samples were evaluated to precent of symptomatic leaves on each branch

  4. Variation in foliar ? 13 C in Hawaiian Metrosideros polymorpha : a case of internal resistance?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter M. Vitousek; Christopher B. Field; Pamela A. Matson

    1990-01-01

    Sun leaves of Metrosideros polymorpha were collected in 51 sites on 9 lava flows that represented gradients of elevation, precipitation, substrate age, and substrate texture on Mauna Loa volcano, Hawai'i. Leaf mass per unit leaf area increased with increasing elevation on all flows, while foliar nitrogen concentration decreased with increasing elevation and increased with increasing substrate age. Foliar d13C became

  5. Foliar d13C within a temperate deciduous forest: spatial, temporal, and species sources of variation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles T Garten Jr; G. E. TaylorJr

    1992-01-01

    Foliar ¹³C-abundance (¹³C) was analyzed in the dominant trees of a temperate deciduous forest in east Tennessee (Walker Branch Watershed) to investigate the variation in foliar ¹³C as a function of time (within-year and between years), space (canopy height, watershed topography and habitat) and species (deciduous and coniferous taxa). Various hypotheses were tested by analyzing (i) samples collected from the

  6. Foliar fungicides on alfalfa: 2012 University extension field trial results from Minnesota and Wisconsin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To answer the increasing number of questions received regarding the use of foliar fungicide on alfalfa, a group of Extension and USDA Agricultural Research Station staff in southeastern Minnesota and Wisconsin worked together to conduct field research trials to examine the benefit of using a foliar ...

  7. ARQUITECTURA FOLIAR Y OTROS CARACTERES DEL ESPORÓFITO EN ESPECIES NEOTROPICALES DE MARATTIA SW. (MARATTIACEAE-PTERIDOPHYTA)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    María del Carmen LAVALLE

    RESUMEN. Arquitectura foliar y otros caracteres del esporófito en especies neotropicales de Marattia Sw., Marattiaceae-Pteridophyta. Se estudió la arquitectura foliar y la anatomía de ejes y láminas en siete especies neotropicales de Marattia: M. alata Sw., M. cicutifolia Kaulf., M. excavata Underw., M. interposita H. Christ, M. laevis Sm., M. laxa Kunze y M. weinmanniifolia Liebm. Los rizomas desnudos, amiláceos,

  8. Nitrogen fertilization effects on foliar nutrient dynamics and autumnal resorption in maidenhair tree (Gingko biloba L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer A. Brinkman; Ralph E. J. Boerner

    1994-01-01

    We quantified seasonal foliar nutrient dynamics and autumnal N and P resorption of individuals of the deciduous gymnosperm Gingko biloba (maidenhair tree) growing in compacted, urban soils over two years following a single fertilization with 150 kg\\/ha\\/yr of N (and no P). Mean foliar nutrient concentrations were more similar to those reported for angiosperm trees than for other gymnosperms. During

  9. Ozone air pollution and foliar injury development on native plants of Switzerland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristopher Novak; John M. Skelly; Marcus Schaub; Norbert Krauchi; Christian Hug; Werner Landolt; Peter Bleuler

    The objectives of this study were to examine the foliar sensitivity to ozone exposure of 12 tree, shrub, and herbaceous species native to southern Switzerland and determine the seasonal cumulative ozone exposures required to induce visible foliar injury. The study was conducted from the beginning of May through the end of August during 2000 and 2001 using an open-top chamber

  10. Foliar deficiencies of mature southern Appalachian red spruce determined from fertilizer trials

    SciTech Connect

    Joslin, J.D.; Wolfe, M.H. [Tennessee Valley Authority, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1994-09-01

    A field fertilization study employing additions of Ca, Mg, and N to a mature red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) stand was conducted at a high-elevation site in southwestern Virginia. Statistically significant increases in needle weight (20% larger than controls) were observed after two growing seasons in treatments receiving Ca or Ca plus Mg. Significant foliar growth responses were accompanied by significant increases (20-60%) in foliar concentrations of Ca, Zn, Mg, and Mn in current-year and 1-yr-old needles. Both Ca and Mg addition, alone or together, appear to have alleviated antagonisms by Al towards the uptake of these four cations. Both the foliar growth response (negative) and the foliar N concentration response to N addition were nonsignificant, a response consistent with evidence for N saturation at this site. Vector analysis, correlation analyses, and literature evidence all provide support at this site for a foliar deficiency of Zn at a foliar concentration of 14 mg kg{sup -1} and for a foliar and/or root deficiency of Ca at a current-year needle concentration of 1700 mg kg{sup -1}, Foliar concentrations of Ca and Zn at or below these thresholds are common in southern Appalachian red spruce and may be related to its apparent growth decline in the higher elevations. 47 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Climatic limits on foliar growth during major droughts in the southwestern USA

    E-print Network

    Climatic limits on foliar growth during major droughts in the southwestern USA Jeremy L. Weiss,1; accepted 9 August 2012; published 20 September 2012. [1] Pronounced droughts during the 1950s and 2000s examine indices that represent climatic limits on foliar growth for both drought periods and evaluate

  12. IDENTIFICATION OF SOLANUM TUBEROSUM GP. ANDIGENA CLONES HAVING BOTH FOLIAR AND TUBER RESISTANCE TO LATE BLIGHT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Breeding strictly for foliar resistance to late blight without subsequent effort in tuber resistance has the potential to exacerbate tuber infection. Wild potato species can be valuable sources of foliar and tuber blight resistance. However, most species are difficult to sexually hybridize with cu...

  13. Segregation of progeny of Solanum tuberosum subsp. andigena for foliar and tuber resistance to late blight.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Breeding solely for foliar resistance to late blight without emphasis on tuber resistance has the potential to exacerbate tuber infection. Wild potato species are valuable sources of foliar and tuber blight resistance. However, most species are difficult to sexually hybridize with cultivated potat...

  14. Incorporating temperature-sensitive Q10 and foliar respiration acclimation algorithms modifies modeled ecosystem

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    Incorporating temperature-sensitive Q10 and foliar respiration acclimation algorithms modifies that respiration acclimation (RA) to temperature in plants can have a substantial influence on ecosystem carbon drivers, we incorporated a temperature-sensitive Q10 of respiration and foliar basal RA into the ecosystem

  15. 21 CFR 172.330 - Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2009-04-01 true Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt. 172.330 Section 172... § 172.330 Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt. The food additive calcium chloride double salt of calcium...

  16. 21 CFR 172.330 - Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt. 172.330 Section 172.330 Food and...Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt. The food additive calcium chloride double salt of calcium pantothenate may be safely...

  17. 21 CFR 172.330 - Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt. 172.330 Section 172.330 Food and...Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt. The food additive calcium chloride double salt of calcium pantothenate may be safely...

  18. 21 CFR 172.330 - Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt. 172.330 Section 172.330 Food and...Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt. The food additive calcium chloride double salt of calcium pantothenate may be safely...

  19. 21 CFR 172.330 - Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt. 172.330 Section 172.330 Food and...Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt. The food additive calcium chloride double salt of calcium pantothenate may be safely...

  20. Scaling uncertainties in estimating canopy foliar maintenance respiration for black spruce ecosystems in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, X.; McGuire, A.D.; Ruess, R.W.

    2006-01-01

    A major challenge confronting the scientific community is to understand both patterns of and controls over spatial and temporal variability of carbon exchange between boreal forest ecosystems and the atmosphere. An understanding of the sources of variability of carbon processes at fine scales and how these contribute to uncertainties in estimating carbon fluxes is relevant to representing these processes at coarse scales. To explore some of the challenges and uncertainties in estimating carbon fluxes at fine to coarse scales, we conducted a modeling analysis of canopy foliar maintenance respiration for black spruce ecosystems of Alaska by scaling empirical hourly models of foliar maintenance respiration (Rm) to estimate canopy foliar Rm for individual stands. We used variation in foliar N concentration among stands to develop hourly stand-specific models and then developed an hourly pooled model. An uncertainty analysis identified that the most important parameter affecting estimates of canopy foliar Rm was one that describes R m at 0??C per g N, which explained more than 55% of variance in annual estimates of canopy foliar Rm. The comparison of simulated annual canopy foliar Rm identified significant differences between stand-specific and pooled models for each stand. This result indicates that control over foliar N concentration should be considered in models that estimate canopy foliar Rm of black spruce stands across the landscape. In this study, we also temporally scaled the hourly stand-level models to estimate canopy foliar Rm of black spruce stands using mean monthly temperature data. Comparisons of monthly Rm between the hourly and monthly versions of the models indicated that there was very little difference between the estimates of hourly and monthly models, suggesting that hourly models can be aggregated to use monthly input data with little loss of precision. We conclude that uncertainties in the use of a coarse-scale model for estimating canopy foliar Rm at regional scales depend on uncertainties in representing needle-level respiration and on uncertainties in representing the spatial variability of canopy foliar N across a region. The development of spatial data sets of canopy foliar N represents a major challenge in estimating canopy foliar maintenance respiration at regional scales. ?? Springer 2006.

  1. EFFECT OF CHELATED CALCIUM ON VALENCIA PEANUT YIELD

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calcium nutrition is often a yield limiting factor for peanuts and is necessary for pod growth and increased peg strength. Calcium (Ca) applied to the fruiting zone increases the number of pods per plant. Application of Ca 30 to 45 days after penetration of gynophores into the soil increased the p...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1191 - Calcium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...As a byproduct in the “Lime soda process”; (2) By precipitation of calcium carbonate from calcium hydroxide in the “Carbonation process”; or (3) By precipitation of calcium carbonate from calcium chloride in the “Calcium...

  3. T-type Calcium Channel Blockers as Neuroprotective Agents

    PubMed Central

    Kopecky, Benjamin J.; Liang, Ruqiang; Bao, Jianxin

    2014-01-01

    T-type calcium channels are expressed in many diverse tissues, including neuronal, cardiovascular, and endocrine. T-type calcium channels are known to play roles in the development, maintenance, and repair of these tissues but have also been implicated in disease when not properly regulated. Calcium channel blockers have been developed to treat various diseases and their use clinically is widespread due to both their efficacy as well as their safety. Aside from their established clinical applications, recent studies have suggested neuroprotective effects of T-type calcium channels blockers. Many of the current T-type calcium channel blockers could act on other molecular targets besides T-type calcium channels making it uncertain whether their neuroprotective effects are solely due to blocking of T-type calcium channels. In this review, we discuss these drugs as well as newly developed chemical compounds that are designed to be more selective for T-type calcium channels. We review in vitro and in vivo evidence of neuroprotective effects by these T-type calcium channel blockers. We conclude by discussing possible molecular mechanisms underlying neuroprotective effects by T-type calcium channel blockers. PMID:24563219

  4. The Mauna Loa environmental matrix: foliar and soil nutrients

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vitousek, P.M.; Aplet, G.; Turner, D.; Lockwood, J.J.

    1992-01-01

    The accumulation of total carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus in soils, available soil nutrients, and foliar nutrients in the native dominant Metrosideros polymorpha were determined across a wide elevational range on 9 lava flows on Mauna Loa, Hawai'i. The flows included a young (2800 y) a??a?? (rough surface texture) and pa??hoehoe (smooth) flow on the wet east and dry northwest side of the mountain. Soil element pools and nutrient availability increased with flow age independent of climate. The dry sites accumulated organic matter and nutrients more slowly than comparable wet sites, but relative nutrient availability to plants (as indicated by soil assays and foliar nutrients) was greater in the dry sites. Accumulation of soil organic matter and nutrients occurred most rapidly in lowerelevation sites on the young flows, but the largest accumulations occurred at higher elevations on old flows. The range of sites sampled represents a complete and largely independent matrix of major factors governing ecosystem structure and function. ?? 1992 Springer-Verlag.

  5. Foliar bacterial communities of trembling aspen in a common garden.

    PubMed

    Mason, Charles J; Pfammatter, Jesse A; Holeski, Liza M; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2015-02-01

    Microbial associations with plants are widely distributed and are structured by a number of biotic and physical factors. Among biotic factors, the host plant genotype may be integral to these plant-microbe interactions. Trees in the genus Populus have become models for studies in scaling effects of host plant genetics and in plant-microbe interactions. Using 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, we assessed the foliar bacterial community of 7 genotypes of mature trembling aspen trees (Populus tremuloides Michx.) grown in a common garden. Trees were selected based on prior analyses showing clonal variation in their concentration of chemicals conferring resistance against insect herbivores. At broad taxonomic designations, the bacterial community of trembling aspen was similar across all plant genotypes. At a finer taxonomic scale, the foliage of these trees varied in their community composition, but there was no distinct pattern to colonization or abundance related to plant genotype. The most abundant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were classified as Ralstonia, Bradyrhizobium, Pseudomonas, and Brucella. These OTUs varied across the common garden, but there was no significant effect of host plant genotype or spatial position on the abundance of these members. Our results suggest that aspen genotype is less important in the structuring of its foliar bacterial communities than are other, poorly understood processes. PMID:25602743

  6. De-coupling seasonal changes in water content and dry matter to predict live conifer foliar moisture content

    E-print Network

    that RWC explained 59% of variation in foliar water mass. Additionally, foliar starch, sugar and crude fatDe-coupling seasonal changes in water content and dry matter to predict live conifer foliar and dry mass can change throughout the season. Here we quantify the seasonal changes in both plant water

  7. Geotechnical Properties of Low Calcium and High Calcium Fly Ash

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarat Kumar Das; Yudhbir

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a comparative study has been made for physical and engineering properties of low calcium and high calcium Indian\\u000a fly ash. The grain size distribution of fly ash is independent of lime content. Fly ash particles of size >75 ?m are mostly irregular in shape whereas finer fractions are spherical for low calcium fly ash. For high calcium

  8. CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING ON LEFT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING ON LEFT, CALCIUM CHLORIDE STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT OF CENTER WITH TOP OF SA (SODA ASH) BUILDING IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Solvay Process Company, Calcium Chloride Plant, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  9. Calcium Imaging Perspectives in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Kanchiswamy, Chidananda Nagamangala; Malnoy, Mickael; Occhipinti, Andrea; Maffei, Massimo E.

    2014-01-01

    The calcium ion (Ca2+) is a versatile intracellular messenger. It provides dynamic regulation of a vast array of gene transcriptions, protein kinases, transcription factors and other complex downstream signaling cascades. For the past six decades, intracellular Ca2+ concentration has been significantly studied and still many studies are under way. Our understanding of Ca2+ signaling and the corresponding physiological phenomenon is growing exponentially. Here we focus on the improvements made in the development of probes used for Ca2+ imaging and expanding the application of Ca2+ imaging in plant science research. PMID:24599077

  10. Synthesis of Calcium HydroxyapatiteTricalcium Phosphate (HATCP) Composite Bioceramic Powders and Their Sintering Behavior

    E-print Network

    Tas, A. Cuneyt

    Synthesis of Calcium Hydroxyapatite­Tricalcium Phosphate (HA­TCP) Composite Bioceramic Powders important inorganic phases of synthetic bone applications--namely, calcium hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 (HA)) and tri- calcium phosphate (Ca3(PO4)2 (TCP))--were prepared as submicrometer-sized, chemically

  11. Teaching calcium-induced calcium release in cardiomyocytes using a classic paper by Fabiato

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Willmann Liang (Nanyang Technological University Biological Sciences)

    2007-11-09

    This teaching paper utilizes the materials presented by Dr. Fabiato in his review article entitled "Calcium-induced release of calcium from the cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum." In the review, supporting evidence of calcium-induced calcium release (CICR) is presented. Data concerning potential objections to the CICR theory are discussed as well. In closing, technical issues associated with the skinned cell model are mentioned. Based on this review article, teaching and learning points are put forth in this article to highlight two concepts: 1) the regulatory mechanisms of CICR in cardiomyocytes and 2) the recognition of contradicting hypotheses and limitations in experimental design. The first concept is certainly an important one for physiology students. The second concept is universally applicable to researchers in all fields of science. It is thus the aim of this article to cultivate a rewarding teaching and learning experience for both instructors and students.

  12. Spectral unmixing techniques for retrieving plant foliar information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Themelis, Kostas; Sykioti, Olga; Rontogiannis, Athanasios; Koutroumbas, Konstantinos; Kyparissis, Aris

    2010-05-01

    In this study two novel approaches for supervised and semi-supervised hyperspectral unmixing are applied in the unmixing of CHRIS/PROBA data, in order to monitor seasonal land cover changes - in particular plant foliar coverage. Foliar coverage variations are directly linked to seasonal changes of the ecophysiological status of a plant (i.e. growth status, pigment concentrations, LAI etc). The high potential of using hyperspectral satellite data in monitoring plant biochemical and structural characteristics is important in ecophysiological studies. A reliable and efficient method to extract leaf and/or canopy information from a mixed pixel significantly contributes towards this direction. In this study, the development of two efficient algorithms in spectral unmixing enables the detection and mapping of leaf contribution to the overall pixel spectra and its seasonal variations. For this purpose, leaf spectra measured in the field, simultaneously to satellite acquisitions, are included in the endmember data set. The proposed unmixing techniques are performed on ground reflectances, assuming knowledge of the number and spectral signatures of the objects present in the images. An efficient estimation for their corresponding fractions in the pixels of the image is developed, based on a recently proposed maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) method. By exploiting the constraints naturally imposed to the problem, closed form expressions are derived for the statistical parameters required by the MAP estimator. In the semi-supervised scenario, we assume that a spectral library is given, containing spectral signatures of multiple endmembers. The objective in the latter case, is (a) to determine how many and which endmembers are present in the mixed pixel under study and (b) to use the selected endmembers to estimate the corresponding abundance fractions - especially the abundance of foliar coverage. The approach is based on a properly modified weighted l1-regularized least squares algorithm. The motivation of using the sparsity promoting l1 norm is that in practice, only a small number of the available endmembers are present in each pixel. Based on this observation, a weighted version of the well-known least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (lasso) criterion is utilized, where weights are used for penalizing different coefficients in the l1-regularization scheme. To efficiently solve the l1 minimization problem, the Least Angle Regression (LARS) algorithm is used. The performance of the proposed methods is compared to the performance of existing unmixing algorithms, such as standard convex programming procedures and ENVI software unmixing routines.

  13. Stoichiometry of Calcium Medicines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Gabriel

    2005-01-01

    The topic of calcium supplement and its effects on human lives is presented in the way of questions to the students. It enables the students to realize the relevance of chemistry outside the classroom surrounding.

  14. Calcium and Bone Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) . Weight-Bearing Physical Activity Regular physical activity has been associated ... strong bones. Like proper calcium consumption, adequate weight-bearing physical activity early in life is important in ...

  15. Calcium channel blocker overdose

    MedlinePLUS

    Salhanick SD. Calcium channel antagonists. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; ...

  16. The calcium silicate hydrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. G. Richardson

    2008-01-01

    This article is concerned with the calcium silicate hydrates, including crystalline minerals and the extremely variable and poorly ordered phase (C-S-H) that is the main binding phase in most concrete. Up-to-date composition and crystal-structure information is tabulated for the most important crystalline calcium (alumino) silicate hydrates and related phases. A number of models for the nanostructure of C-S-H are summarized

  17. Relationship between photosynthetic phosphorus-use efficiency and foliar phosphorus fractions in tropical tree species.

    PubMed

    Hidaka, Amane; Kitayama, Kanehiro

    2013-12-01

    How plants develop adaptive strategies to efficiently use nutrients on infertile soils is an important topic in plant ecology. It has been suggested that, with decreasing phosphorus (P) availability, plants increase photosynthetic P-use efficiency (PPUE) (i.e., the ratio of instantaneous photosynthetic carbon assimilation rate per unit foliar P). However, the mechanism to increase PPUE remains unclear. In this study, we tested whether high PPUE is explained by an optimized allocation of P in cells among P-containing biochemical compounds (i.e., foliar P fractions). We investigated the relationships among mass-based photosynthetic carbon assimilation rate (A mass), PPUE, total foliar P concentration, and foliar P fractions in 10 tree species in two tropical montane rain forests with differing soil P availability (five species on sedimentary soils and five species on P-poorer ultrabasic serpentine soils) on Mount Kinabalu, Borneo. We chemically fractionated foliar P into the following four fractions: metabolic P, lipid P, nucleic acid P, and residual P. A mass was positively correlated with the concentrations of total foliar P and of metabolic P across 10 tree species. Mean A mass and mean concentrations of total foliar P and of each foliar P fraction were lower on the P-poorer ultrabasic serpentine soils than on the sedimentary soils. There was a negative relationship between the proportion of metabolic P per total P and the proportion of lipid P per total P. PPUE was positively correlated with the ratio of metabolic P to lipid P. High PPUE is explained by the net effect of a relatively greater investment of P into P-containing metabolites and a relatively lesser investment into phospholipids in addition to generally reduced concentrations of all P fractions. We conclude that plants optimize the allocation of P among foliar P fractions for maintaining their productivity and growth and for reducing demand for P as their adaptation to P-poor soils. PMID:24455122

  18. Foliar flavonoids of Annonaceae from Brazil: taxonomic significance.

    PubMed

    Santos, D Y; Salatino, M L

    2000-11-01

    Foliar flavonoids of 31 species of the Annonaceae native to Brazil, amounting to 76 compounds, were isolated and identified. All phenols found were glycosides of either flavones (apigenin, scutellarein, hispidulin and luteolin) or flavonols (kaempferol, rhamnocitrin, 6-hydroxyrhamnocitrin, quercetin, isorhamnetin and rhamnetin), with the latter predominating. Some members of the tribe Bocageeae are distinctive for accumulating 6-oxygenated flavones and flavonols, in addition to 7-O-methylated flavonols, a feature possibly linked to the assumed advanced condition of the tribe within the family. Members of Duguetia stand out for the apparent absence of quercetin glycosides. Anaxagorea dolichocharpa seemingly lacks flavones and flavonols entirely. A UPGMA analysis based on the distribution of flavonoids does not group the analyzed species according to the available tribal division of the Annonaceae. However, several taxonomically meaningful groupings emerged through the multivariate analysis. PMID:11130666

  19. Foliar uptake of nitrogen oxides: A nitrogen source for forests

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, P.J.; Taylor, G.E. Jr.; Gunderson, C.A. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (USA))

    1989-04-01

    Non-urban concentrations of nitrogen oxide gases are insufficient to directly impede plant growth processes, but foliar uptake of these gases may represent a significant N source. Measurements of NO{sub 2} and HNO{sub 3} vapor uptake by elements representative of a forest landscape (e.g. foliage, bark, forest floor) were conducted in an open gas exchange system. Under daylight conditions using a mean NO{sub 2} level of 33 ml l{sup {minus}1}, NO{sub 2} uptake by foliage of forest tree species ranged from 0.35 to 5.75 nmol m{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}. Uptake of NO{sub 2} by broadleaf species was greater than by conifers. Dry bark surfaces showed about half the conductance to NO{sub 2} than did plant shoots. Forest floor samples had a disproportionately high conductance to NO{sub 2} when compared to bark or foliage surfaces. At similar concentrations, uptake of HNO{sub 3} vapor exceeded that for NO{sub 2}. Foliar NO{sub 2} uptake, under stomatal control, was principally to leaf interiors, but HNO{sub 3} uptake occurred to leaf interiors and surfaces. Based on ambient NO{sub 2} concentrations and conductance data scaled to the forest canopy, NO{sub 2} deposition provides from 0.1 to 2.0 kg ha{sup {minus}1} y{sup {minus}1} of nitrogen to natural forests (0.1 to 3% of annual needs). Conversely, deposition to urban forests may supply >10% of a forest's annual need.

  20. A novel strategy for immobilization of thionine based on calcium carbonate-gold nanoparticles inorganic hybrid composite and its application in hydrogen peroxide sensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Feng Li; Yan Feng; JingJing Li; Jie Guo

    2011-01-01

    Asbstract  A novel strategy for efficient immobilization of electroactive Thionine (Th) on the gold (Au) electrode surface based on calcium\\u000a carbonate-gold nanoparticles (CaCO3-AuNPs) inorganic hybrid composite was proposed and conducted by the strong electrostatic interaction between positively charged\\u000a Th and negatively charged CaCO3-AuNPs composite. The hybrid composite was obtained by the adsorption of AuNPs onto the surface of CaCO3 microspheres through

  1. Effect of selenium foliar spray on physiological and biochemical processes and chemical constituents of wheat under drought stress.

    PubMed

    Nawaz, Fahim; Ahmad, R; Ashraf, M Y; Waraich, E A; Khan, S Z

    2015-03-01

    Selenium (Se) is considered an essential micronutrient for humans, animals and plants due to its physiological and antioxidative properties. The positive role of Se in attenuation of drastic effects of various environmental stresses in plants is, however, still unclear and need to be explored. The present study aimed at investigating the physiological and biochemical changes induced by Se foliar spray to improve the drought tolerance potential of wheat. Additionally, we also examined the effect of supplemental Se on uptake of nutrients using detection by ICP-OES. Foliar Se application significantly lowered osmotic potential (13%) that markedly improved turgor by 63%, enhanced transpiration rate (60%), improved accumulation of total soluble sugars (33%) and free amino acids (118%) and activity of antioxidant system which ultimately increased the grain yield by 24%. Supplemental Se also significantly increased Se contents (5.77µgg(-1)DW) and improved Fe (91%) and Na (16%) uptake, whereas it reduced Zn accumulation by 54% and did not affect Ca contents. The results supported our hypothesis that supplemental Se influences nutrients uptake and wheat yield through maintenance of turgor and gas exchange characteristics and enhancement in antioxidant system activity. PMID:25499052

  2. Foliar Spray with Vermiwash Modifies the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Dependency and Nutrient Stoichiometry of Bhut Jolokia (Capsicum assamicum)

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Rajeev; Veer, Vijay; Singh, Lokendra; Kalita, Mohan C.

    2014-01-01

    Vermiwash (VW), a liquid extract obtained from vermicomposting beds, is used as an organic fertilizer for crop plants. The current study investigated the effect of a vermiwash foliar spray on the response of bhut jolokia (Capsicum assamicum) exposed to two different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF: Rhizophagus irregularis, RI and G. mosseae, GM) in acidic soil under naturally ventilated greenhouse conditions. The VW spray significantly influenced the growth of plants receiving the dual treatment of AMF+VW. Plant growth was more prominent in the GM+VW treatment group than that in the RI+VW treatment group. The plant-AMF interactions in relation to growth and nutrient requirements were also significantly influenced by the application of VW. Interestingly, the VW treatment appeared to contribute more N to plants when compared to that under the AMF treatment, which led to changes in the C:N:P stoichiometry in plant shoots. Furthermore, the increased potassium dependency, as observed in the case of the dual treatments, suggests the significance of such treatments for improving crop conditions under salt stress. Overall, our study shows that the VW foliar spray modifies the response of a crop to inoculations of different AMF with regard to growth and nutrient utilization, which has implications for the selection of an efficient combination of nutrient source for improving crop growth. PMID:24651577

  3. Portable fluorescence photometer for monitoring free calcium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struckmeier, Jens; Klopp, Erk; Born, Matthias; Hofmann, Martin; Tenbosch, Jochen; Jones, David B.

    2000-12-01

    We introduce a compact and portable photometric system for measurements of the calcium dynamics in cells. The photometer is designed for applications in centrifuges or in zero gravity environment and thus extremely compact and reliable. It operates with the calcium-sensitive dye Indo-1. The excitation wavelength of 345 nm is generated by frequency doubling of a laser diode. Two compact photomultiplier tubes detect the fluorescent emission. The electronics provide the sensitivity of photon counting combined with simultaneous measurement of the temperature, of air pressure, and of gravitational force. Internal data storage during the experiment is possible. A newly developed cell chamber stabilizes the cell temperature to 37.0±0.1 °C and includes a perfusion system to supply the cells with medium. The system has a modular setup providing the possibility of changing the light source and detectors for investigation of ions other than calcium. Measurements of the intracellular calcium concentration are based on a comprehensive calibration of our system. First experiments show that the calcium dynamics of osteosarcoma cells stimulated by parathyroid hormone is observable.

  4. Soil and foliar nutrient and nitrogen isotope composition (?(15)N) at 5 years after poultry litter and green waste biochar amendment in a macadamia orchard.

    PubMed

    Hosseini Bai, Shahla; Xu, Cheng-Yuan; Xu, Zhihong; Blumfield, Timothy J; Zhao, Haitao; Wallace, Helen; Reverchon, Frédérique; Van Zwieten, Lukas

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the improvement in soil fertility and plant nutrient use in a macadamia orchard following biochar application. The main objectives of this study were to assess the effects of poultry litter and green waste biochar applications on nitrogen (N) cycling using N isotope composition (?(15)N) and nutrient availability in a soil-plant system at a macadamia orchard, 5 years following application. Biochar was applied at 10 t ha(-1) dry weight but concentrated within a 3-m diameter zone when trees were planted in 2007. Soil and leaf samples were collected in 2012, and both soil and foliar N isotope composition (?(15)N) and nutrient concentrations were assessed. Both soil and foliar ?(15)N increased significantly in the poultry litter biochar plots compared to the green waste biochar and control plots. A significant relationship was observed between soil and plant ?(15)N. There was no influence of either biochars on foliar total N concentrations or soil NH4 (+)-N and NO3 (-)-N, which suggested that biochar application did not pose any restriction for plant N uptake. Plant bioavailable phosphorus (P) was significantly higher in the poultry litter biochar treatment compared to the green waste biochar treatment and control. We hypothesised that the bioavailability of N and P content of poultry litter biochar may play an important role in increasing soil and plant ?(15)N and P concentrations. Biochar application affected soil-plant N cycling and there is potential to use soil and plant ?(15)N to investigate N cycling in a soil-biochar-tree crop system. The poultry litter biochar significantly increased soil fertility compared to the green waste biochar at 5 years following biochar application which makes the poultry litter a better feedstock to produce biochar compared to green waste for the tree crops. PMID:25266060

  5. Inositol trisphosphate and calcium signalling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berridge, Michael J.

    1993-01-01

    Inositol trisphosphate is a second messenger that controls many cellular processes by generating internal calcium signals. It operates through receptors whose molecular and physiological properties closely resemble the calcium-mobilizing ryanodine receptors of muscle. This family of intracellular calcium channels displays the regenerative process of calcium-induced calcium release responsible for the complex spatiotemporal patterns of calcium waves and oscillations. Such a dynamic signalling pathway controls many cellular processes, including fertilization, cell growth, transformation, secretion, smooth muscle contraction, sensory perception and neuronal signalling.

  6. Calcium metal to synthesize amorphous or cryptocrystalline calcium phosphates A. Cuneyt Tas

    E-print Network

    Tas, A. Cuneyt

    Calcium metal to synthesize amorphous or cryptocrystalline calcium phosphates A. Cuneyt Tas Accepted 30 January 2012 Available online 10 February 2012 Keywords: Amorphous Cryptocrystalline Calcium Metal Phosphate Synthesis Metallic calcium was never used before as the calcium source in synthesizing

  7. Regional assessment of N saturation using foliar and root d15 L. H. PARDO1,

    E-print Network

    Templer, Pamela

    and nitrification. The dataset included sites in northeastern North America, Colorado, Alaska, southern Chile the following species: American beech>yellow birch>sugar maple. Other factors that affected foliar d15 N

  8. Toxicity of seven foliar insecticides to four insect parasitoids attacking citrus and cotton pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laboratory studies were carried out to compare the relative toxicity of seven foliar insecticides against four species of beneficial insects representing two families of HYmenoptera: Aphelinidae (Aphytis melinus Debach, Eretmocerus eremicus Rose & Zolnerowich, and Encarsia formosa Gahan) and MYmarid...

  9. Gravimetric Determination of Calcium as Calcium Carbonate Hydrate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henrickson, Charles H.; Robinson, Paul R.

    1979-01-01

    The gravimetric determination of calcium as calcium carbonate is described. This experiment is suitable for undergraduate quantitative analysis laboratories. It is less expensive than determination of chloride as silver chloride. (BB)

  10. Calcium metabolism and correcting calcium deficiencies.

    PubMed

    Emkey, Ronald D; Emkey, Gregory R

    2012-09-01

    Calcium is the most abundant cation in the human body, of which approximately 99% occurs in bone, contributing to its rigidity and strength. Bone also functions as a reservoir of Ca for its role in multiple physiologic and biochemical processes. This article aims to provide a thorough understanding of the absorptive mechanisms and factors affecting these processes to enable one to better appreciate an individual's Ca needs, and to provide a rationale for correcting Ca deficiencies. An overview of Ca requirements and suggested dosing regimens is presented, with discussion of various Ca preparations and potential toxicities of Ca treatment. PMID:22877428

  11. Foliar carbon isotope discrimination in Larix species and sympatric evergreen conifers: a global comparison

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian D. Kloeppel; Stith T. Gower; Isabel W. Treichel; Slava Kharuk

    1998-01-01

    Larches (Larix spp.), deciduous conifers, occur in the northern hemisphere in cold-temperate and boreal climates – an environment normally\\u000a thought to favor evergreen tree species. We compare foliar carbon isotope discrimination (?), instantaneous water use efficiency,\\u000a total foliar nitrogen concentration, and specific leaf area (for a subset of sites) between Larix spp. and co-occurring evergreen conifers at 20 sites throughout

  12. Influence of Foliar Fertilization with Amino Acids and Humic Acids on Productivity and Quality of Asparagus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Tejada; J. L. Gonzalez

    2003-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to study the effect of foliar fertilization with amino acids and humic acids on the productivity and quality of green asparagus (Asparagus officinalis, L. cv. UC-157) (four-year-old plants) located in the Protected Geographical Indication of Huétor-Tájar (Andalusia, Spain). Foliar fertilization with amino acids and humic acids increased cladode and rhizome micronutrients, as well

  13. Exploring the remote sensing of foliar biochemical concentrations with AVIRIS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Geoffrey M.; Curran, Paul J.

    1992-01-01

    Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data shows promise for the estimation of foliar biochemical concentrations at the scale of the canopy. There are, however, several problems associated with the use of AVIRIS data in this way and these are detailed in recent Plant Biochemical Workshop Report. The research reported was concentrated upon three of these problems: field sampling of forest canopies, wet laboratory assay of foliar chemicals, and the visualization of AVIRIS data.

  14. Calcium absorption from a new calcium delivery system (CCM)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth T. Smith; Robert P. Heaney; Lawrence Flora; Sharilyn M. Hinders

    1987-01-01

    Absorption of calcium from a highly soluble form of calcium, a mixed calcium citrate-malate* salt (CCM), was tested against calcium carbonate and milk in both rats and humans. The rat method estimated absorption from\\u000a the 6-day retention of an oral tracer, and the human method employed the standard double-isotope procedure. CCM was given\\u000a both as a dry powder and in

  15. Foliar Water Uptake of Tamarix ramosissima from an Atmosphere of High Humidity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuang; Xiao, Hong-lang; Zhao, Liang; Zhou, Mao-Xian; Wang, Fang

    2014-01-01

    Many species have been found to be capable of foliar water uptake, but little research has focused on this in desert plants. Tamarix ramosissima was investigated to determine whether its leaves can directly absorb water from high humidity atmosphere and, if they can, to understand the magnitude and importance of foliar water uptake. Various techniques were adopted to demonstrate foliar water uptake under submergence or high atmospheric humidity. The mean increase in leaf water content after submergence was 29.38% and 20.93% for mature and tender leaves, respectively. In the chamber experiment, obvious reverse sap flow occurred when relative humidity (RH) was persistently above 90%. Reverse flow was recorded first in twigs, then in branches and stems. For the stem, the percentage of negative sap flow rate accounting for the maximum value of sap flow reached 10.71%, and its amount accounted for 7.54% of diurnal sap flow. Small rainfall can not only compensate water loss of plant by foliar uptake, but also suppress transpiration. Foliar uptake can appear in the daytime under certain rainfall events. High atmospheric humidity is beneficial for enhancing the water status of plants. Foliar uptake should be an important strategy of water acquisition for desert plants. PMID:24982964

  16. 21 CFR 184.1191 - Calcium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...calcium hydroxide in the “Carbonation process”; or (3) By precipitation of calcium carbonate from calcium chloride in the “Calcium chloride process”. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals...

  17. 21 CFR 573.260 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 573.260 Section 573.260 Food and...ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.260 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium silicate,...

  18. 21 CFR 573.260 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 573.260 Section 573.260 Food and...ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.260 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium silicate,...

  19. 21 CFR 573.260 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 573.260 Section 573.260 Food and...ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.260 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium silicate,...

  20. 21 CFR 172.410 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium silicate. 172.410 Section 172.410 Food and...CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.410 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium silicate,...

  1. 21 CFR 172.410 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 172.410 Section 172.410 Food and...CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.410 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium silicate,...

  2. 21 CFR 573.260 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 573.260 Section 573.260 Food and...ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.260 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium silicate,...

  3. 21 CFR 172.410 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 172.410 Section 172.410 Food and...CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.410 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium silicate,...

  4. 21 CFR 172.410 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 172.410 Section 172.410 Food and...CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.410 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium silicate,...

  5. 21 CFR 573.260 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 573.260 Section 573.260 Food and...ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.260 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium silicate,...

  6. 21 CFR 172.410 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 172.410 Section 172.410 Food and...CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.410 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium silicate,...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1199 - Calcium gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...1199 Calcium gluconate. (a) Calcium gluconate ([CH2 OH(CHOH...Reg. No. 299-28-5) is the calcium salt of gluconic acid which may...neutralization of gluconic acid with lime or calcium carbonate. (b) The...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1199 - Calcium gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...1199 Calcium gluconate. (a) Calcium gluconate ([CH2 OH(CHOH...Reg. No. 299-28-5) is the calcium salt of gluconic acid which may...neutralization of gluconic acid with lime or calcium carbonate. (b) The...

  9. Calcium carbonate with magnesium overdose

    MedlinePLUS

    The combination of calcium carbonate and magnesium is commonly found in antacids, which are medicines that provide heartburn relief. Calcium carbonate with magnesium overdose occurs when someone accidentally or ...

  10. Measurement of platelet ionized calcium.

    PubMed

    Salzman, E W; Johnson, P; Ware, J A

    1985-01-01

    We measured ionized cytoplasmic calcium in human blood platelets by two techniques: one based on the fluorescence of intracellular Quin 2 and the other based on the luminescence of the calcium sensitive photoprotein, aequorin. Platelet activation (shape change, aggregation, secretion) induced by thrombin, ADP, epinephrine, collagen, A23187, or phorbol ester was invariably preceded or accompanied by a rise in platelet free calcium indicated by aequorin, but in some cases Quin 2 failed to detect the elevation of calcium concentration. Aequorin appears to be sensitive to localized changes in cytoplasmic calcium levels, while Quin 2 reflects average or diffuse calcium values. Failure of Quin 2 to indicate a rise in free calcium levels in association with a platelet activity does not establish the process as "calcium independent". PMID:2997700

  11. Fluid fragmentation shapes rain-induced foliar disease transmission.

    PubMed

    Gilet, T; Bourouiba, L

    2015-03-01

    Plant diseases represent a growing threat to the global food supply. The factors contributing to pathogen transmission from plant to plant remain poorly understood. Statistical correlations between rainfalls and plant disease outbreaks were reported; however, the detailed mechanisms linking the two were relegated to a black box. In this combined experimental and theoretical study, we focus on the impact dynamics of raindrops on infected leaves, one drop at a time. We find that the deposition range of most of the pathogen-bearing droplets is constrained by a hydrodynamical condition and we quantify the effect of leaf size and compliance on such constraint. Moreover, we identify and characterize two dominant fluid fragmentation scenarios as responsible for the dispersal of most pathogen-bearing droplets emitted from infected leaves: (i) the crescent-moon ejection is driven by the direct interaction between the impacting raindrop and the contaminated sessile drop and (ii) the inertial detachment is driven by the motion imparted to the leaf by the raindrop, leading to catapult-like droplet ejections. We find that at first, decreasing leaf size or increasing compliance reduces the range of pathogen-bearing droplets and the subsequent epidemic onset efficiency. However, this conclusion only applies for the crescent moon ejection. Above a certain compliance threshold a more effective mechanism of contaminated fluid ejection, the inertial detachment, emerges. This compliance threshold is determined by the ratio between the leaf velocity and the characteristic velocity of fluid fragmentation. The inertial detachment mechanism enhances the range of deposition of the larger contaminated droplets and suggests a change in epidemic onset pattern and a more efficient potential of infection of neighbouring plants. Dimensionless parameters and scaling laws are provided to rationalize our observations. Our results link for the first time the mechanical properties of foliage with the onset dynamics of foliar epidemics through the lens of fluid fragmentation. We discuss how the reported findings can inform the design of mitigation strategies acting at the early stage of a foliar disease outbreak. PMID:25652459

  12. Impregnating Coal With Calcium Carbonate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, Pramod K.; Voecks, Gerald E.; Gavalas, George R.

    1991-01-01

    Relatively inexpensive process proposed for impregnating coal with calcium carbonate to increase rates of gasification and combustion of coal and to reduce emission of sulfur by trapping sulfur in calcium sulfide. Process involves aqueous-phase reactions between carbon dioxide (contained within pore network of coal) and calcium acetate. Coal impregnated with CO2 by exposing it to CO2 at high pressure.

  13. The Plasma Membrane Calcium Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasmussen, H.

    1983-01-01

    Three aspect of cellular calcium metabolism in animal cells was discussed including the importance of the plasma membrane in calcium homeostasis, experiments dealing with the actual mechanism of the calcium pump, and the function of the pump in relationship to the mitochondria and to the function of calmodulin in the intact cell.

  14. Osteoinduction by calcium phosphate biomaterials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huipin Yuan; Zongjian Yang; Yubao Li; Xingdong Zhang; J. D. De Bruijn; K. De Groot

    1998-01-01

    Different materials were implanted in muscles of dogs to study the osteoinduction of calcium phosphate biomaterials. Bone formation was only seen in calcium phosphate biomaterials with micropores, and could be found in hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramic, tricalcium phosphate\\/hydroxyapatite ceramic (BCP), ß-TCP ceramic and calcium phosphate cement. The osteoinductive potential was different in different materials. The results indicate that osteoinduction can be

  15. Calcium silicate insulation structure

    DOEpatents

    Kollie, Thomas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1995-01-01

    An insulative structure including a powder-filled evacuated casing utilizes a quantity of finely divided synthetic calcium silicate having a relatively high surface area. The resultant structure-provides superior thermal insulating characteristics over a broad temperature range and is particularly well-suited as a panel for a refrigerator or freezer or the insulative barrier for a cooler or a insulated bottle.

  16. Calcium and Vitamin D

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adequate intakes of vitamin D and calcium are essential preventative measures and essential components of any therapeutic regimen for osteoporosis. Vitamin D is also important for the prevention of falls. Current evidence suggests that a 25-hydroxyvitamin D level of 75 nmol/L (30 ng/ml) or higher ...

  17. Calcium biofortification of crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More than half of the world's population is deficient in calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), iodine (I), magnesium (Mg), selenium (Se), or zinc (Zn). The consumption of plants, directly or via livestock, containing inadequate concentrations of particular minerals causes these deficiencies. Agronomic and geneti...

  18. Calcium Phosphate Nanoparticle Adjuvant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    QING HE; ALAINA R. MITCHELL; STACY L. JOHNSON; CLAUS WAGNER-BARTAK; TULIN MORCOL; STEVE J. D. BELL

    2000-01-01

    Vaccination to protect against human infectious diseases may be enhanced by using adjuvants that can selec- tively stimulate immunoregulatory responses. In a murine model, a novel nanoparticulate adjuvant composed of calcium phosphate (CAP) was compared with the commonly used aluminum (alum) adjuvants for its ability to induce immunity to herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections.

  19. High Blood Calcium (Hypercalcemia)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... tests to further assess your condition, such as checking your blood levels of phosphorus (a mineral). Imaging studies also may be helpful, such as bone mineral density, ultrasound, or other types of scans. How is HigH blood calcium treated? ...

  20. Characterization of polyketide metabolites from foliar endophytes of Picea glauca.

    PubMed

    Sumarah, Mark W; Puniani, Eva; Blackwell, Barbara A; Miller, J David

    2008-08-01

    A collection of 250 foliar endophytes of Picea glauca (white spruce) yielded several isolates that produced metabolites toxic to Choristoneura fumiferana (spruce budworm). Three of these strains were selected for further study based on their ability to be cultured and produce secondary metabolites under laboratory conditions. The culture filtrate of each was extracted and analyzed by LC-MS and LC-NMR, and the major metabolites were isolated and characterized. Structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses including 2D NMR and HRMS and by comparison to literature data. In some cases the extract was methylated in order to facilitate separation, but the original natural structure was determined by comparing the NMR data of the isolated methylated product with that of the stop-flow NMR of the underivatized extract (i.e., 2a, 2b, and 4). Two of these metabolites, 1 and 2a, are new structures, 3 and 4 are reported here for the first time as fungal metabolites, and 5- 10 as known fungal metabolites from other species. Tyrosol (10) was the only common metabolite found in all three extracts but did not account for the observed toxicity to C. fumiferana. PMID:18636777

  1. Foliar herbivory and leaf traits of five native tree species in a young plantation of Central Panama

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gillian S. Paul; Florencia Montagnini; Graeme P. Berlyn; Dylan J. Craven; Michiel van Breugel; Jefferson S. Hall

    This study examined foliar herbivory on 1 year-old tree saplings planted in previously abandoned fields in central Panama.\\u000a Plots (15 × 15 trees) of Anacardium excelsum (Anacardiaceae), Dalbergia retusa (Fabaceae), Pachira quinata (Malvaceae), Tabebuia rosea (Bignoniaceae), and Terminalia amazonia (Combretaceae) were tested for herbivory using leaf counts and digital image analysis. Values of foliar carbon, foliar nitrogen,\\u000a specific leaf area (SLA), and leaf

  2. Calcium signaling in lymphocytes and ELF fields. Evidence for an electric field metric and a site of interaction involving the calcium ion channel.

    PubMed

    Liburdy, R P

    1992-04-13

    Calcium influx increased during mitogen-activated signal transduction in thymic lymphocytes exposed to a 22 mT, 60 Hz magnetic field (E induced = 1.7 mV/cm, 37 degrees C, 60 min). To distinguish between an electric or a magnetic field dependence a special multi-ring annular cell culture plate based on Faraday's Law of Induction was employed. Studies show a dependence on the strength of the induced electric field at constant magnetic flux density. Moreover, exposure to a pure 60 Hz electric field or to a magnetically-induced electric field of identical strength resulted in similar changes in calcium transport. The first real-time monitoring of [Ca2+]i during application of a 60 Hz electric field revealed an increase in [Ca2+]i observed 100 s after mitogen stimulation; this suggests that the plateau phase rather than the early phase of calcium signaling was influenced. The hypothesis was tested by separating, in time, the early release of calcium from intracellular stores from the influx of extracellular calcium. In calcium-free buffer, 60 Hz field exerted little influence on the early release of calcium from intracellular stores. In contrast, addition of extracellular calcium during exposure enhanced calcium influx through the plasma membrane. Alteration of the plateau phase of calcium signaling implicates the calcium channel as a site of field interaction. In addition, an electric field exposure metric is mechanistically consistent with a cell-surface interaction site. PMID:1333413

  3. Reporting neural activity with genetically encoded calcium indicators

    PubMed Central

    Hires, S. Andrew; Tian, Lin; Looger, Loren L.

    2009-01-01

    Genetically encoded calcium indicators (GECIs), based on recombinant fluorescent proteins, have been engineered to observe calcium transients in living cells and organisms. Through observation of calcium, these indicators also report neural activity. We review progress in GECI construction and application, particularly toward in vivo monitoring of sparse action potentials (APs). We summarize the extrinsic and intrinsic factors that influence GECI performance. A simple model of GECI response to AP firing demonstrates the relative significance of these factors. We recommend a standardized protocol for evaluating GECIs in a physiologically relevant context. A potential method of simultaneous optical control and recording of neuronal circuits is presented. PMID:18941901

  4. Oxidative calcium release from catechol.

    PubMed

    Riley, Patrick A; Stratford, Michael R L

    2015-04-01

    Oxidation of 4-methylcatechol previously exposed to aqueous calcium chloride was shown by ion chromatography to be associated with release of calcium ions. The catechol was oxidised to the corresponding orthoquinone by the use of tyrosinase from Agaricus bisporus. The oxidative release of calcium from the catechol is ascribed to the diminution of the available hydroxyl functions able to act as chelating groups. Our results suggest that the redox status of melanin may regulate calcium binding and influence calcium levels in pigmented cells. PMID:25740160

  5. Calcium channels and prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Shapovalov, George; Skryma, Roman; Prevarskaya, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    Calcium channels significantly contribute to many cellular processes, including such critical ones as proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. In prostate cancer, the influence of calcium channels has been known for over 30 years, with the first observations that calcium channel blockers affect the progression of cancer towards more aggressive phase. Later research identified additional classes of channel proteins having an important regulatory role and affecting malignant transformation. This review discusses the accumulated scientific knowledge focused on calcium channel involvement in regulation of cell fate in prostate tissues as well as recent developments in patents targeted at prostate cancer treatments and involving calcium channel modulators. PMID:22694290

  6. Calcium Phosphates and Human Beings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorozhkin, Sergey V.

    2006-05-01

    This article describes the general importance of calcium phosphates for human beings. The basic information on the structure and chemical properties of the biologically relevant calcium phosphates is summarized. Basic facts on the natural occurrence and the industrial use of natural calcium phosphates are discussed. Fundamental details on the presence of calcium phosphates in major calcified tissues (bones and teeth) of humans and mammals, as well as on biomaterials made of calcium phosphates are discussed. The article will be of value for chemistry teachers for expansion of their general background and point the students' attention to the rapidly growing topic of bone-substituting biomaterials.

  7. Foliar uptake of cesium from the water column by aquatic macrophytes.

    PubMed

    Pinder, J E; Hinton, T G; Whicker, F W

    2006-01-01

    The probable occurrence and rate of foliar absorption of stable cesium (133Cs) from the water column by aquatic macrophyte species was analyzed following the addition of 133Cs into a small reservoir near Aiken, South Carolina, USA. An uptake parameter u (10(3)Lkg(-1)d(-1)) and a loss rate parameter k (d(-1)) were estimated for each species using time series of 133Cs concentrations in the water and plant tissues. Foliar uptake, as indicated by rapid increases in plant concentrations following the 133Cs addition, occurred in two floating-leaf species, Brasenia schreberi and Nymphaea odorata, and two submerged species, Myriophyllum spicatum and Utricularia inflata. These species had values of u> or =0.75 x 10(3)Lkg(-1)d(-1). Less evidence for foliar uptake was observed in three emergent species, including Typha latifolia. Ratios of u to k for B. schreberi, M. spicatum, N. odorata and U. inflata can be used to estimate concentration ratios (CR) at equilibrium, and these estimates were generally within a factor of 2 of the CR for 137Cs for these species in the same reservoir. This correspondence suggests that foliar uptake of Cs was the principal absorption mechanism for these species. Assessments of: (1) the prevalence of foliar uptake of potassium, rubidium and Cs isotopes by aquatic macrophytes and (2) the possible importance of foliar uptake of Cs in other lentic systems are made from a review of foliar uptake studies and estimation of comparable u and k values from lake studies involving Cs releases. PMID:15990203

  8. Calcium signaling in taste cells.

    PubMed

    Medler, Kathryn F

    2014-11-16

    The sense of taste is a common ability shared by all organisms and is used to detect nutrients as well as potentially harmful compounds. Thus taste is critical to survival. Despite its importance, surprisingly little is known about the mechanisms generating and regulating responses to taste stimuli. All taste responses depend on calcium signals to generate appropriate responses which are relayed to the brain. Some taste cells have conventional synapses and rely on calcium influx through voltage-gated calcium channels. Other taste cells lack these synapses and depend on calcium release to formulate an output signal through a hemichannel. Beyond establishing these characteristics, few studies have focused on understanding how these calcium signals are formed. We identified multiple calcium clearance mechanisms that regulate calcium levels in taste cells as well as a calcium influx that contributes to maintaining appropriate calcium homeostasis in these cells. Multiple factors regulate the evoked taste signals with varying roles in different cell populations. Clearly, calcium signaling is a dynamic process in taste cells and is more complex than has previously been appreciated. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 13th European Symposium on Calcium. PMID:25450977

  9. Application of a simple method using minute particles of amorphous calcium phosphate for recovery of norovirus from cabbage, lettuce, and ham.

    PubMed

    Shinohara, Michiyo; Uchida, Kazue; Shimada, Shin-ichi; Tomioka, Kyoko; Suzuki, Noriko; Minegishi, Toshitaka; Kawahashi, Sachie; Yoshikawa, Yuko; Ohashi, Norio

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) method developed previously for calicivirus concentration from water was applied for norovirus detection from food. The viral recovery from cabbage, lettuce, or ham (10g of each) was firstly examined in seeding experiments with feline caliciviruses (FCVs). The viruses were concentrated by viral adsorption to ACP particles (0.3g) in the eluent solution (40ml) from foods, collection of the particles by centrifugation, followed by dissolution of the particles with 3.3M citric acid (3ml). In ham, FCV recovery was improved by addition of ascorbic acids into the eluent solution before ACP-particle adsorption. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed that FCV recoveries were 32-33%, 50-55%, and 37-46% from cabbage, lettuce, and ham, respectively, when seeded with 10(3)-10(4) viruses, and detection limits were estimated ?10(3) genomic copies in all 3 foods. Subsequently, the ACP-concentration method was evaluated for norovirus (NoV) detection from these 3 foods. The recoveries and detection limit of NoVs determined by qRT-PCR were 12-41% and 10(3) (genomic copies) from cabbage, 30-57% and 10(3) from lettuce, and 20-26% and 10(4) from ham, when seeded with 10(3)-10(5) viruses. This simple method may be suitable for NoV detection from these foods. PMID:23046989

  10. Setting Reaction and Hardening of an Apatitic Calcium Phosphate Cement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. P. Ginebra; E. Fernández; E. A. P. De Maeyer; R. M. H. Verbeeck; M. G. Boltong; J. Ginebra; F. C. M. Driessens; J. A. Planell

    1997-01-01

    The combination of self-setting and biocompatibility makes calcium phosphate cements potentially useful materials for a variety of dental applications. The objective of this study was to investigate the setting and hardening mechanisms of a cement-type reaction leading to the formation of calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite at low temperature. Reactants used were a-tricalcium phosphate containing 17 wt% ?-tricalcium phosphate, and 2 wt% of

  11. Foliar Treatments of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid for Control of Common Scab in Potato Have Beneficial Effects on Powdery Scab Control

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Hannah Katherine; Tegg, Robert Stephen; Corkrey, Ross; Wilson, Calum Rae

    2014-01-01

    Prior studies have shown that applications of the synthetic auxin 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) to the foliage of potato plants can reduce common scab. Here field and glasshouse trials suggest that 2,4-D foliar treatments may also reduce the biologically distinct tuber disease, powdery scab. Significant correlations between suppression of common and powdery scab from the field trials suggested an interaction between the two diseases or possible additional broad spectrum mechanisms of enhanced defence against pathogen invasion provided by 2,4-D treatment. PMID:25009832

  12. Ozone air pollution and foliar injury development on native plants of Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Novak, Kristopher; Skelly, John M; Schaub, Marcus; Kräuchi, Norbert; Hug, Christian; Landolt, Werner; Bleuler, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the foliar sensitivity to ozone exposure of 12 tree, shrub, and herbaceous species native to southern Switzerland and determine the seasonal cumulative ozone exposures required to induce visible foliar injury. The study was conducted from the beginning of May through the end of August during 2000 and 2001 using an open-top chamber research facility located within the Lattecaldo Cantonal Forest Nursery in Canton Ticino, southern Switzerland (600 m asl). Plants were examined daily and dates of initial foliar injury were recorded in order to determine the cumulative AOT40 ppb h ozone exposure required to cause visible foliar injury. Plant responses to ozone varied significantly among species; 11 species exhibited visible symptoms typical of exposures to ambient ozone. The symptomatic species (from most to least sensitive) were Populus nigra, Viburnum lantana, Salix alba, Crataegus monogyna, Viburnum opulus, Tilia platyphyllos, Cornus alba, Prunus avium, Fraxinus excelsior, Ribes alpinum, and Tilia cordata; Clematis spp. did not show foliar symptoms. Of the 11 symptomatic species, five showed initial injury below the critical level AOT40 10 ppmh O3 in the 2001 season. PMID:12804826

  13. Host genotype shapes the foliar fungal microbiome of balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera).

    PubMed

    Bálint, Miklós; Tiffin, Peter; Hallström, Björn; O'Hara, Robert B; Olson, Matthew S; Fankhauser, Johnathon D; Piepenbring, Meike; Schmitt, Imke

    2013-01-01

    Foliar fungal communities of plants are diverse and ubiquitous. In grasses endophytes may increase host fitness; in trees, their ecological roles are poorly understood. We investigated whether the genotype of the host tree influences community structure of foliar fungi. We sampled leaves from genotyped balsam poplars from across the species' range, and applied 454 amplicon sequencing to characterize foliar fungal communities. At the time of the sampling the poplars had been growing in a common garden for two years. We found diverse fungal communities associated with the poplar leaves. Linear discriminant analysis and generalized linear models showed that host genotypes had a structuring effect on the composition of foliar fungal communities. The observed patterns may be explained by a filtering mechanism which allows the trees to selectively recruit fungal strains from the environment. Alternatively, host genotype-specific fungal communities may be present in the tree systemically, and persist in the host even after two clonal reproductions. Both scenarios are consistent with host tree adaptation to specific foliar fungal communities and suggest that there is a functional basis for the strong biotic interaction. PMID:23326555

  14. Identification of Genes in Thuja plicata Foliar Terpenoid Defenses1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Adam J.; Hall, Dawn E.; Mortimer, Leanne; Abercromby, Shelley; Gries, Regine; Gries, Gerhard; Bohlmann, Jörg; Russell, John; Mattsson, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Thuja plicata (western redcedar) is a long-lived conifer species whose foliage is rarely affected by disease or insect pests, but can be severely damaged by ungulate browsing. Deterrence to browsing correlates with high foliar levels of terpenoids, in particular the monoterpenoid ?-thujone. Here, we set out to identify genes whose products may be involved in the production of ?-thujone and other terpenoids in this species. First, we generated a foliar transcriptome database from which to draw candidate genes. Second, we mapped the storage of thujones and other terpenoids to foliar glands. Third, we used global expression profiling to identify more than 600 genes that are expressed at high levels in foliage with glands, but can either not be detected or are expressed at low levels in a natural variant lacking foliar glands. Fourth, we used in situ RNA hybridization to map the expression of a putative monoterpene synthase to the epithelium of glands and used enzyme assays with recombinant protein of the same gene to show that it produces sabinene, the monoterpene precursor of ?-thujone. Finally, we identified candidate genes with predicted enzymatic functions for the conversion of sabinene to ?-thujone. Taken together, this approach generated both general resources and detailed functional characterization in the identification of genes of foliar terpenoid biosynthesis in T. plicata. PMID:23388118

  15. Understanding Cardiac Calcium Channelopathies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barry London

    imothy syndrome is a rare genetic disorder characterized by QT prolongation (designated LQT8), arrhythmias and sudden death, structural heart disease, cognitive defects with autism, syndactyly (webbed fingers and toes), hypoglycemia, and immune deficiencies.1,2 A single mutation (G406R) in exon 8a of the cardiac L-type calcium channel (CACNA1C, Cav1.2, 1c) was shown to cause Timothy syndrome in multiple unrelated subjects, whereas

  16. CONCENTRACIÓN FOLIAR DE NUTRIENTES EN PLANTACIONES DE DIFE- RENTES EDADES DE Pinus taeda L. EN EL NORTE DE MISIONES, ARGENTINA. FOLIAR NUTRIENT CONCENTRATIONS IN PLANTATIONS OF DIFFERENT AGES OF Pinus taeda L, IN NORTH Of MISIONES, ARGENTINA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan F. Goya; Carolina A. Pérez; Roberto Fernández

    SUMMARY The relationship between net primary productivity in Pinus taeda plantations and foliar nutrient concentrations during the productive cycle was investigated. Three different ages were considered from 7 to 21 years of the plantation. Foliar concentrations were compa- red between these ages. Nutrient concentrations were analysed between different ages of leave formation. No significant differences were found among formation ages

  17. Chemistry misconceptions associated with understanding calcium and phosphate homeostasis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    William H. Cliff (Niagara University Biology)

    2009-12-01

    Successful learning of many aspects in physiology depends on a meaningful understanding of fundamental chemistry concepts. Two conceptual diagnostic questions measured student understanding of the chemical equilibrium underlying calcium and phosphate homeostasis. One question assessed the ability to predict the change in phosphate concentration when calcium ions were added to a saturated calcium phosphate solution. Fifty-two percent of the students correctly predicted that the phosphate concentration would decrease in accord with the common ion effect. Forty-two percent of the students predicted that the phosphate concentration would not change. Written explanations showed that most students failed to evoke the idea of competing chemical equilibria. A second question assessed the predicted change in calcium concentration after solid calcium phosphate was added to a saturated solution. Only 11% of the students correctly predicted no change in calcium concentration; 86% of the students predicted an increase, and many based their prediction on a mistaken application of Le Chatelier's principle to heterogeneous equilibria. These results indicate that many students possess misconceptions about chemical equilibrium that may hamper understanding of the processes of calcium and phosphate homeostasis. Instructors can help students gain greater understanding of these physiochemical phenomena by adopting strategies that enable students achieve more accurate conceptions of chemical equilibria.

  18. Cell-type specific calcium signalling in a Drosophila epithelium.

    PubMed

    Rosay, P; Davies, S A; Yu, Y; Sözen, M A; Kaiser, K; Dow, J A

    1997-08-01

    Calcium is a ubiquitous second messenger that plays a critical role in both excitable and non-excitable cells. Calcium mobilisation in identified cell types within an intact renal epithelium, the Drosophila melanogaster Malpighian tubule, was studied by GAL4-directed expression of an aequorin transgene. CAP2b, a cardioactive neuropeptide that stimulates fluid secretion by a mechanism involving nitric oxide, causes a rapid, dose-dependent rise in cytosolic calcium in only a single, genetically-defined, set of 77 principal cells in the main (secretory) segment of the tubule. In the absence of external calcium, the CAP2b-induced calcium response is abolished. In Ca2+-free medium, the endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase inhibitor, thapsigargin, elevates [Ca2+]i only in the smaller stellate cells, suggesting that principal cells do not contain a thapsigargin-sensitive intracellular pool. Assays for epithelial function confirm that calcium entry is essential for CAP2b to induce a physiological response in the whole organ. Furthermore, the data suggest a role for calcium signalling in the modulation of the nitric oxide signalling pathway in this epithelium. The GAL4-targeting system allows general application to studies of cell-signalling and pharmacology that does not rely on invasive or cytotoxic techniques. PMID:9264456

  19. Plasma albumin induces calcium waves in rat cortical astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Nadal, A; Fuentes, E; Pastor, J; McNaughton, P A

    1997-04-01

    Changes in intracellular calcium were monitored in cultured cortical astrocytes stimulated with albumin. Albumin elicited intracellular calcium mobilisation from intracellular stores, inducing repetitive intracellular calcium oscillations. The oscillations were not blocked by ryanodine, a blocker of the Ca-induced Ca release mechanism, and the release occurred from the same store as is accessed by glutamate and bradykinin, both of which release calcium by an IP3-dependent mechanism. Calcium signals induced by albumin appear therefore to occur via a pure IP3-dependent mechanism. When albumin was applied to confluent monolayers of astrocytes, the oscillations in individual cells were initially unsynchronised, but after several minutes of application, the Ca2 oscillations were observed to synchronise and spread through the astrocyte network as a wave. These intercellular calcium waves were inhibited by the gap junction blocker halothane. Using the fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) technique, we demonstrate that the development of propagated waves with prolonged exposure to albumin does not result from an increase in cell coupling. The development of calcium waves on exposure to albumin may be important in the formation of glial scars in the CNS after breakdown of the blood-brain barrier. PMID:9097078

  20. [Cognitive Function and Calcium. Intake of calcium and dementia].

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Mieko

    2015-01-01

    Calcium are related to several function in nervous system. Dysfunction of calcium metabolism has been suggested as a pathogenetic participation of the degenerative process. On the other hand, Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been considered a primary neurodegenerative disorder caused by amyloid deposition, although recent epidemiological studies have suggested the partial involvement of cardiovascular risk factors in AD development. Higher self-reported dietary intakes of calcium reduced the risk of all-cause dementia and vascular dementia but not of AD in the general Japanese population, the Hisayama study. A diet rich in calcium and so on may be recommended to lessen the future risk of dementia. PMID:25634044

  1. Cameleon calcium indicator reports cytoplasmic calcium dynamics in Arabidopsis guard cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, G. J.; Kwak, J. M.; Chu, S. P.; Llopis, J.; Tsien, R. Y.; Harper, J. F.; Schroeder, J. I.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Cytoplasmic free calcium ([Ca2+]cyt) acts as a stimulus-induced second messenger in plant cells and multiple signal transduction pathways regulate [Ca2+]cyt in stomatal guard cells. Measuring [Ca2+]cyt in guard cells has previously required loading of calcium-sensitive dyes using invasive and technically difficult micro-injection techniques. To circumvent these problems, we have constitutively expressed the pH-independent, green fluorescent protein-based calcium indicator yellow cameleon 2.1 in Arabidopsis thaliana (Miyawaki et al. 1999; Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96, 2135-2140). This yellow cameleon calcium indicator was expressed in guard cells and accumulated predominantly in the cytoplasm. Fluorescence ratio imaging of yellow cameleon 2.1 allowed time-dependent measurements of [Ca2+]cyt in Arabidopsis guard cells. Application of extracellular calcium or the hormone abscisic acid (ABA) induced repetitive [Ca2+]cyt transients in guard cells. [Ca2+]cyt changes could be semi-quantitatively determined following correction of the calibration procedure for chloroplast autofluorescence. Extracellular calcium induced repetitive [Ca2+]cyt transients with peak values of up to approximately 1.5 microM, whereas ABA-induced [Ca2+]cyt transients had peak values up to approximately 0.6 microM. These values are similar to stimulus-induced [Ca2+]cyt changes previously reported in plant cells using ratiometric dyes or aequorin. In some guard cells perfused with low extracellular KCl concentrations, spontaneous calcium transients were observed. As yellow cameleon 2.1 was expressed in all guard cells, [Ca2+]cyt was measured independently in the two guard cells of single stomates for the first time. ABA-induced, calcium-induced or spontaneous [Ca2+]cyt increases were not necessarily synchronized in the two guard cells. Overall, these data demonstrate that that GFP-based cameleon calcium indicators are suitable to measure [Ca2+]cyt changes in guard cells and enable the pattern of [Ca2+]cyt dynamics to be measured with a high level of reproducibility in Arabidopsis cells. This technical advance in combination with cell biological and molecular genetic approaches will become an invaluable tool in the dissection of plant cell signal transduction pathways.

  2. Sulfur to nitrogen ratios in Ponderosa pine as bioindicators of foliar sulfur loading from air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Johns, C.

    1984-01-01

    The objective of the research was to investigate the potential of foliar S:N ratios in Ponderosa pine as bioindicators of foliar sulfur loading in areas of long-term exposure to low levels of sulfurous air pollutants. First it was necessary to document seasonal variation in S:N ratios in trees not exposed to air pollution. Fifteen Ponderosa pines were selected at a site remote from urban and industrial sources of air pollution and the trees sampled at 18 intervals over a 15 month study period. Significant differences in sulfur and nitrogen concentrations occurred among the five needle age groups within most collections. One-year-old needles contained significantly more sulfur than other needles. Current-year needles contained more nitrogen than the three and four-year-old needles. Within each foliar age class significant differences in total sulfur content and S:N ratios occurred throughout the season. Sulfur concentrations and S:N r

  3. Purple Phototrophic Bacterium Enhances Stevioside Yield by Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni via Foliar Spray and Rhizosphere Irrigation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jing; Wang, Yiming; Lin, Xiangui

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the effects of foliar spray and rhizosphere irrigation with purple phototrophic bacteria (PPB) on growth and stevioside (ST) yield of Stevia. rebaudiana. The S. rebaudiana plants were treated by foliar spray, rhizosphere irrigation, and spray plus irrigation with PPB for 10 days, respectively. All treatments enhanced growth of S. rebaudiana, and the foliar method was more efficient than irrigation. Spraying combined with irrigation increased the ST yield plant -1 by 69.2% as compared to the control. The soil dehydrogenase activity, S. rebaudiana shoot biomass, chlorophyll content in new leaves, and soluble sugar in old leaves were affected significantly by S+I treatment, too. The PPB probably works in the rhizosphere by activating the metabolic activity of soil bacteria, and on leaves by excreting phytohormones or enhancing the activity of phyllosphere microorganisms. PMID:23825677

  4. Eleven-year response of foliar chemistry to chronic nitrogen and sulfur additions at the Bear Brooks Watershed in Maine

    SciTech Connect

    Jose Alexander Elvir; Gregory J. White

    2005-06-01

    The foliar chemistry of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.), American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.), and red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) was studied from 1993 to 2003 at the Bear Brook Watershed in Maine (BBWM). The BBWM is a paired-watershed forest ecosystem study, with one watershed treated bimonthly since 1989 with ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4) at a rate of 25.2 kg N·ha–1·year–1. Foliar N concentrations were higher in all tree species within the treated watershed compared with trees within the reference watershed. Foliar Ca and Mg concentrations were lower in American beech and red spruce within the treated watershed. There were no significant differences in foliar K concentrations between watersheds. Foliar P and Mn concentration differences between watersheds were inconsistent among years. Differences in foliar N concentrations between watersheds declined over time in sugar maple but not in red spruce or American beech. Differences in foliar Ca and Mg concentrations between the treated and reference watersheds increased over time for American beech and red spruce, primarily because of a consistent decline in concentrations of these nutrients in trees within the treated watershed. No temporal trends in foliar Ca and Mg concentration differences between watersheds were observed for sugar maple.

  5. Abstract--Extensive foliar damage to Utah juniper ( Juniperus osteosperma [Torr.] Little) has been observed in southern Utah.

    E-print Network

    258 Abstract--Extensive foliar damage to Utah juniper ( Juniperus osteosperma [Torr.] Little) has (Juniperus osteosperma [Torr.] Little) has been observed in the Natural Bridges National Monument) analyzed 255 Utah juniper (Juniperus osteo- sperma) trees for foliar mineral composition, total soluble

  6. Remote Sensing of fuel moisture content from the ratios of canopy water indices with a foliar dry matter index

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fuel moisture content (FMC) is an important variable for predicting the occurrence and spread of wildfire. Foliar FMC was calculated as the ratio of leaf foliar water content (Cw) and dry matter content (Cm). Recently, the normalized dry matter index (NDMI) was developed for the remote sensing of Cm...

  7. Remote sensing of fuel moisture content from the ratios of canopy water indices with a foliar dry matter index

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fuel moisture content (FMC) is an important variable for predicting the occurrence and spread of wildfire. Foliar FMC was calculated as the ratio of leaf foliar water content (Cw) and dry matter content (Cm). Recently, the normalized dry matter index (NDMI) was developed for the remote sensing of Cm...

  8. Calcium Kinetics During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Wastney, Meryl E.; OBrien, Kimberly O.; Lane, Helen W.

    1999-01-01

    Bone loss is one of the most detrimental effects of space flight, threatening to limit the duration of human space missions. The ability to understand and counteract this loss will be critical for crew health and safety during and after extended-duration missions. The hypotheses to be tested in this project are that space flight alters calcium homeostasis and bone mineral metabolism, and that calcium homeostasis and bone mineral metabolism will return to baseline within days to weeks of return to Earth. These hypotheses will be evidenced by elevated rates of bone mineral resorption and decreased bone mineral deposition, decreased absorption of dietary calcium, altered calcitropic endocrine profiles, elevated excretion of calcium in urine and feces, and elevated excretion of markers of bone resorption. The second hypothesis will be evidenced by return of indices of calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism to preflight levels within days to weeks of return to Earth. Studies will be conducted on International Space Station astronauts before, during, and after extended-duration flights. Measurements of calcium kinetics, bone mass, and endocrine/biochemical markers of bone and calcium homeostasis will be conducted. Kinetic studies utilizing dual isotope tracer kinetic studies and mathematical modeling techniques will allow for determination of bone calcium deposition, bone calcium resorption, dietary calcium absorption and calcium excretion (both urinary and endogenous fecal excretion). These studies will build upon preliminary work conducted on the Russian Mir space station. The results from this project will be critical for clarifying how microgravity affects bone and calcium homeostasis, and will provide an important control point for assessment of countermeasure efficacy. These results are expected to aid in developing countermeasures for bone loss, both for space crews and for individuals on Earth who have metabolic bone diseases.

  9. INTEGUMENTARY LOSS OF CALCIUM.: 839

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jen-Yih Chu; Sheldon Margen; Doris Calloway; Francoise Costa; James A. Monteleone

    1978-01-01

    Integumentary calcium loss was studied in 16 healthy young men. The daily loss by the 16 ambulatory but relatively sedentary young men in 52 determinations of 6-day periods each was 8.7 ± 1.9 mgJm2 per day (average 15.8 mg\\/man per day). The amount lost was not influenced by calcium intake (0. 1 to 2.3 g\\/day). In contrast to urinary calcium

  10. Calcium Distribution in Amoeba proteus

    E-print Network

    Robert D. Prusch; Jo Ann Hannafin

    ABSTRACT A preliminary investigation of the distribution ofcellular calcium in Amoeba proteus was undertaken. Total cellular calcium under control conditions was found to be 4.59 mmol/kg of cells. When the external Ca ++ concentration is increased from the control level of 0.03 to 20 mM, a net Ca ++ influx results with a new steady-state cellular calcium level being achieved in ~ 3 h. At steady state the amount of calcium per unit weight of cells is higher than the amount of calcium per unit weight of external solution when the external concentration of Ca ++ is below 10 raM. At external Ca ++ concentrations above this level, total cellular calcium approaches the medium level of Ca ++. Steady-state calcium exchange in Amoeba proteus was determined with 45Ca. There is an immediate and rapid exchange of 000.84 mmol/kg of cells or 18 % of the total cellular calcium with the labelled Ca ++. Following this initial exchange, there was very little if any further exchange observed. Most of this exchanged calcium could be eliminated from the cell with 1 mM La +++, suggesting that the exchanged calcium is associated with the surface of the cell. Increase in either the external Ca ++ concentration or pH raise the amount of exchangeable calcium associated with the cell. Calcium may be associated with the cell surface as a co-ion in the diffuse double layer or bound to fixed negative sites on the surface of the cell. If Ca++-binding sites do exist on the cell surface, there may be more than one type and they may have different dissociation constants. The cytoplasmic Ca ++ ion activity is probably maintained at very low levels.

  11. Sequential application of epsilon-polylysine, lauric arginate and acidic calcium sulfate for inactivation of pathogens on raw chicken and beef

    E-print Network

    Benli, Hakan

    2009-05-15

    Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EC) contamination continues to be one of the major concerns for the microbiological safety of raw poultry and beef products. Application of more than one decontamination agent as a multi-hurdle intervention...

  12. Calcium in the regulation of gravitropism by light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perdue, D. O.; LaFavre, A. K.; Leopold, A. C.

    1988-01-01

    The red light requirement for positive gravitropism in roots of corn (Zea mays cv "Merit") provides an entry for examining the participation of calcium in gravitropism. Applications of calcium chelators inhibit the light response. Calcium channel blockers (verapamil, lanthanum) can also inhibit the light response, and a calcium ionophore, A23187, can substitute for light. One can substitute for red light by treatments which have elsewhere been shown to trigger Ca2+ influx into the cytosol, e.g. heat or cold shock. Agents which are known to be agonists of the phosphatidylinositol second messenger system (serotonin, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, deoxycholate) can each partially substitute for the red light, and Li+ can inhibit the light effect. These experiments suggest that the induction of positive gravitropism by red light involves a rise in cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration, and that a contribution to this end may be made by the phosphatidylinositol second messenger system.

  13. Calcium Orthophosphates as Bioceramics: State of the Art

    PubMed Central

    Dorozhkin, Sergey V.

    2010-01-01

    In the late 1960s, much interest was raised in regard to biomedical applications of various ceramic materials. A little bit later, such materials were named bioceramics. This review is limited to bioceramics prepared from calcium orthophosphates only, which belong to the categories of bioactive and bioresorbable compounds. There have been a number of important advances in this field during the past 30–40 years. Namely, by structural and compositional control, it became possible to choose whether calcium orthophosphate bioceramics were biologically stable once incorporated within the skeletal structure or whether they were resorbed over time. At the turn of the millennium, a new concept of calcium orthophosphate bioceramics—which is able to promote regeneration of bones—was developed. Presently, calcium orthophosphate bioceramics are available in the form of particulates, blocks, cements, coatings, customized designs for specific applications and as injectable composites in a polymer carrier. Current biomedical applications include artificial replacements for hips, knees, teeth, tendons and ligaments, as well as repair for periodontal disease, maxillofacial reconstruction, augmentation and stabilization of the jawbone, spinal fusion and bone fillers after tumor surgery. Exploratory studies demonstrate potential applications of calcium orthophosphate bioceramics as scaffolds, drug delivery systems, as well as carriers of growth factors, bioactive peptides and/or various types of cells for tissue engineering purposes. PMID:24955932

  14. Impact of zinc application methods on green gram (Vigna radiata L.) productivity and grain zinc fortification.

    PubMed

    Roy, P Deb; Narwal, R P; Malik, R S; Saha, B N; Kumar, S

    2014-09-01

    Application of Zn @ 0, 5.5 kg, 22 kg Zn ha(-1), 0.1% Zn foliar application, 5.5 kg Zn + 0.1% Znspray, increased the yield, concentration and its uptake in seed and straw in all the green gram genotypes. However, combined application of 5.5 kg Zn ha(-1) + 0.1% Zn as foliar increased the straw yield by 56.4% and seed yield by 57%, which was the highest. Maximum Zn concentration in straw and seed (5.48 and 3.5 folds over control) was achieved when combined application of soil + foliar was made. Soil + foliar application of Zn increased the seed crude protein by 26.9% over control. Seed and straw Zn content showed a significant and positive correlation with all yield attributes except branches per plant. PMID:25204058

  15. Coupled nitrogen and calcium cycling in forests of the Oregon Coast Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perakis, Steven S.; Maguire, Douglas A.; Bullen, Thomas D.; Cromack, Kermit; Waring, Richard H.; Boyle, James R.

    2006-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) is a critical limiting nutrient that regulates plant productivity and the cycling of other essential elements in forests. We measured foliar and soil nutrients in 22 young Douglas-fir stands in the Oregon Coast Range to examine patterns of nutrient availability across a gradient of N-poor to N-rich soils. N in surface mineral soil ranged from 0.15 to 1.05% N, and was positively related to a doubling of foliar N across sites. Foliar N in half of the sites exceeded 1.4% N, which is considered above the threshold of N-limitation in coastal Oregon Douglas-fir. Available nitrate increased five-fold across this gradient, whereas exchangeable magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca) in soils declined, suggesting that nitrate leaching influences base cation availability more than soil parent material across our sites. Natural abundance strontium isotopes (87Sr/86Sr) of a single site indicated that 97% of available base cations can originate from atmospheric inputs of marine aerosols, with negligible contributions from weathering. Low annual inputs of Ca relative to Douglas-fir growth requirements may explain why foliar Ca concentrations are highly sensitive to variations in soil Ca across our sites. Natural abundance calcium isotopes (I'44Ca) in exchangeable and acid leachable pools of surface soil measured at a single site showed 1 per mil depletion relative to deep soil, suggesting strong Ca recycling to meet tree demands. Overall, the biogeochemical response of these Douglas-fir forests to gradients in soil N is similar to changes associated with chronic N deposition in more polluted temperate regions, and raises the possibility that Ca may be deficient on excessively N-rich sites. We conclude that wide gradients in soil N can drive non-linear changes in base-cation biogeochemistry, particularly as forests cross a threshold from N-limitation to N-saturation. The most acute changes may occur in forests where base cations are derived principally from atmospheric inputs.

  16. Coupled nitrogen and calcium cycles in forests of the Oregon Coast Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perakis, S.S.; Maguire, D.A.; Bullen, T.D.; Cromack, K.; Waring, R.H.; Boyle, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) is a critical limiting nutrient that regulates plant productivity and the cycling of other essential elements in forests. We measured foliar and soil nutrients in 22 young Douglas-fir stands in the Oregon Coast Range to examine patterns of nutrient availability across a gradient of N-poor to N-rich soils. N in surface mineral soil ranged from 0.15 to 1.05% N, and was positively related to a doubling of foliar N across sites. Foliar N in half of the sites exceeded 1.4% N, which is considered above the threshold of N-limitation in coastal Oregon Douglas-fir. Available nitrate increased five-fold across this gradient, whereas exchangeable magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca) in soils declined, suggesting that nitrate leaching influences base cation availability more than soil parent material across our sites. Natural abundance strontium isotopes (87Sr/86Sr) of a single site indicated that 97% of available base cations can originate from atmospheric inputs of marine aerosols, with negligible contributions from weathering. Low annual inputs of Ca relative to Douglas-fir growth requirements may explain why foliar Ca concentrations are highly sensitive to variations in soil Ca across our sites. Natural abundance calcium isotopes (??44Ca) in exchangeable and acid leachable pools of surface soil measured at a single site showed 1 per mil depletion relative to deep soil, suggesting strong Ca recycling to meet tree demands. Overall, the biogeochemical response of these Douglas-fir forests to gradients in soil N is similar to changes associated with chronic N deposition in more polluted temperate regions, and raises the possibility that Ca may be deficient on excessively N-rich sites. We conclude that wide gradients in soil N can drive non-linear changes in base-cation biogeochemistry, particularly as forests cross a threshold from N-limitation to N-saturation. The most acute changes may occur in forests where base cations are derived principally from atmospheric inputs. ?? 2006 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  17. Cell Calcium 37 (2005) 411416 Regulation of dendritic development by calcium signaling

    E-print Network

    Ghosh, Anirvan

    Cell Calcium 37 (2005) 411­416 Regulation of dendritic development by calcium signaling Lori are mediated by calcium signaling. While many effects of calcium on dendrite structure occur locally at the site of calcium entry into the cytoplasmic milieu, elevation of cytoplasmic calcium is also translated

  18. Calcium oxalate urolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Gisselman, Kelly; Langston, Cathy; Palma, Douglas; McCue, John

    2009-11-01

    Calcium oxalate (CaOx) uroliths are one of the most common urolith types in dogs, cats, and humans. Many factors predispose animals to CaOx uroliths, including breed, old age, obesity, male sex, being neutered, and certain diseases. Because there are no effective strategies for medical dissolution of these uroliths, management should focus on physical removal (by surgical or nonsurgical methods) and prevention, especially in patients with recurring uroliths, high-risk breeds, and animals with predisposing diseases. Prevention focuses on diet modification, primarily to increase water intake, and the appropriate use or avoidance of specific medications. PMID:20180219

  19. Calcium-deficiency assessment and biomarker identification by an integrated urinary metabonomics analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Calcium deficiency is a global public-health problem. Although the initial stage of calcium deficiency can lead to metabolic alterations or potential pathological changes, calcium deficiency is difficult to diagnose accurately. Moreover, the details of the molecular mechanism of calcium deficiency remain somewhat elusive. To accurately assess and provide appropriate nutritional intervention, we carried out a global analysis of metabolic alterations in response to calcium deficiency. Methods The metabolic alterations associated with calcium deficiency were first investigated in a rat model, using urinary metabonomics based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry and multivariate statistical analysis. Correlations between dietary calcium intake and the biomarkers identified from the rat model were further analyzed to confirm the potential application of these biomarkers in humans. Results Urinary metabolic-profiling analysis could preliminarily distinguish between calcium-deficient and non-deficient rats after a 2-week low-calcium diet. We established an integrated metabonomics strategy for identifying reliable biomarkers of calcium deficiency using a time-course analysis of discriminating metabolites in a low-calcium diet experiment, repeating the low-calcium diet experiment and performing a calcium-supplement experiment. In total, 27 biomarkers were identified, including glycine, oxoglutaric acid, pyrophosphoric acid, sebacic acid, pseudouridine, indoxyl sulfate, taurine, and phenylacetylglycine. The integrated urinary metabonomics analysis, which combined biomarkers with regular trends of change (types A, B, and C), could accurately assess calcium-deficient rats at different stages and clarify the dynamic pathophysiological changes and molecular mechanism of calcium deficiency in detail. Significant correlations between calcium intake and two biomarkers, pseudouridine (Pearson correlation, r = 0.53, P = 0.0001) and citrate (Pearson correlation, r = -0.43, P = 0.001), were further confirmed in 70 women. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report of reliable biomarkers of calcium deficiency, which were identified using an integrated strategy. The identified biomarkers give new insights into the pathophysiological changes and molecular mechanisms of calcium deficiency. The correlations between calcium intake and two of the biomarkers provide a rationale or potential for further assessment and elucidation of the metabolic responses of calcium deficiency in humans. PMID:23537001

  20. Application of intact cell-based NFAT-?-lactamase reporter assay for Pasteurella multocida toxin-mediated activation of calcium signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Shuhong; Ho, Mengfei; Wilson, Brenda A.

    2009-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida toxin (PMT) stimulates and subsequently uncouples phospholipase C ?1 (PLC?1) signal transduction through its selective action on the alpha subunit of the Gq protein. Here, we describe the application of an NFAT-?-lactamase reporter assay as a functional readout for PMT-induced activation of the Gq-protein-coupled PLC?1-IP3-Ca2+ signaling pathway. Use of the NFAT-?-lactamase reporter assay with a cell-permeable fluorogenic substrate provides high sensitivity due to the absence of endogenous ?-lactamase activity in mammalian cells. This assay system was optimized for cell density, dose and time exposure of PMT stimulation. It is suited for quantitative characterization of PMT activity in mammalian cells and for use as a high-throughput screening method for PMT deletion and point mutants suitable for vaccine development. This method has application for diagnostic screening of clinical isolates of toxinogenic P. multocida. PMID:18190943

  1. Tobermorite\\/jennite and tobermorite\\/calcium hydroxide-based models for the structure of CSH: applicability to hardened pastes of tricalcium silicate, ?-dicalcium silicate, Portland cement, and blends of Portland cement with blast-furnace slag, metakaolin, or silica fume

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. G. Richardson

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the applicability of the tobermorite–jennite (T\\/J) and tobermorite–‘solid-solution’ calcium hydroxide (T\\/CH) viewpoints for the nanostructure of C-S-H present in real cement pastes. The discussion is facilitated by a consideration of the author's 1992 model, which includes formulations for both structural viewpoints; its relationship to other recent models is outlined. The structural details

  2. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture...Specifications for Raw Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the requirements...

  3. Calcium transporters: From fields to the table

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calcium transporters regulate calcium fluxes within cells. Plants, like all organisms, contain channels, pumps, and exchangers to carefully modulate intracellular calcium levels. This review presents a summary of the recent advances in cloning and characterizing of these transporters and highlight...

  4. 21 CFR 582.6199 - Calcium gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium gluconate. 582.6199 Section 582.6199...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6199 Calcium gluconate. (a) Product. Calcium gluconate. (b) Conditions of use....

  5. 21 CFR 582.6199 - Calcium gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium gluconate. 582.6199 Section 582.6199...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6199 Calcium gluconate. (a) Product. Calcium gluconate. (b) Conditions of use....

  6. 21 CFR 582.6199 - Calcium gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium gluconate. 582.6199 Section 582.6199...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6199 Calcium gluconate. (a) Product. Calcium gluconate. (b) Conditions of use....

  7. 21 CFR 582.6197 - Calcium diacetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium diacetate. 582.6197 Section 582.6197...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6197 Calcium diacetate. (a) Product. Calcium diacetate. (b) Conditions of use....

  8. 21 CFR 172.720 - Calcium lactobionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium lactobionate. 172.720 Section 172...Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.720 Calcium lactobionate. The food additive calcium lactobionate may be safely used in food...

  9. 21 CFR 172.715 - Calcium lignosulfonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium lignosulfonate. 172.715 Section 172.715... Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.715 Calcium lignosulfonate. Calcium lignosulfonate may be safely used in or on...

  10. 21 CFR 172.715 - Calcium lignosulfonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium lignosulfonate. 172.715 Section 172.715... Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.715 Calcium lignosulfonate. Calcium lignosulfonate may be safely used in or on...

  11. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture...Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the...

  12. 21 CFR 172.720 - Calcium lactobionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium lactobionate. 172.720 Section 172...Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.720 Calcium lactobionate. The food additive calcium lactobionate may be safely used in food...

  13. 21 CFR 182.6197 - Calcium diacetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium diacetate. 182.6197 Section 182.6197...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6197 Calcium diacetate. (a) Product. Calcium diacetate. (b) Conditions of use....

  14. 21 CFR 172.715 - Calcium lignosulfonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium lignosulfonate. 172.715 Section 172.715... Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.715 Calcium lignosulfonate. Calcium lignosulfonate may be safely used in or on...

  15. 21 CFR 582.6197 - Calcium diacetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium diacetate. 582.6197 Section 582.6197...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6197 Calcium diacetate. (a) Product. Calcium diacetate. (b) Conditions of use....

  16. 21 CFR 182.6197 - Calcium diacetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium diacetate. 182.6197 Section 182.6197...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6197 Calcium diacetate. (a) Product. Calcium diacetate. (b) Conditions of use....

  17. 21 CFR 172.720 - Calcium lactobionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium lactobionate. 172.720 Section 172...Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.720 Calcium lactobionate. The food additive calcium lactobionate may be safely used in food...

  18. 21 CFR 172.720 - Calcium lactobionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium lactobionate. 172.720 Section 172...Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.720 Calcium lactobionate. The food additive calcium lactobionate may be safely used in food...

  19. 21 CFR 582.6199 - Calcium gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium gluconate. 582.6199 Section 582.6199...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6199 Calcium gluconate. (a) Product. Calcium gluconate. (b) Conditions of use....

  20. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture...Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the...

  1. 21 CFR 182.6197 - Calcium diacetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium diacetate. 182.6197 Section 182.6197...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6197 Calcium diacetate. (a) Product. Calcium diacetate. (b) Conditions of use....

  2. 21 CFR 182.6197 - Calcium diacetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium diacetate. 182.6197 Section 182.6197...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6197 Calcium diacetate. (a) Product. Calcium diacetate. (b) Conditions of use....

  3. 21 CFR 582.6197 - Calcium diacetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium diacetate. 582.6197 Section 582.6197...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6197 Calcium diacetate. (a) Product. Calcium diacetate. (b) Conditions of use....

  4. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture...Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the...

  5. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture...Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the...

  6. 21 CFR 172.715 - Calcium lignosulfonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium lignosulfonate. 172.715 Section 172.715... Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.715 Calcium lignosulfonate. Calcium lignosulfonate may be safely used in or on...

  7. 21 CFR 582.6197 - Calcium diacetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium diacetate. 582.6197 Section 582.6197...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6197 Calcium diacetate. (a) Product. Calcium diacetate. (b) Conditions of use....

  8. 21 CFR 184.1210 - Calcium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1210 Calcium oxide. (a) Calcium oxide (CaO, CAS Reg. No. 1305-78-8...lime, burnt lime, or calx. It is produced from calcium carbonate, limestone, or oyster shells by...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1210 - Calcium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1210 Calcium oxide. (a) Calcium oxide (CaO, CAS Reg. No. 1305-78-8...lime, burnt lime, or calx. It is produced from calcium carbonate, limestone, or oyster shells by...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1210 - Calcium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1210 Calcium oxide. (a) Calcium oxide (CaO, CAS Reg. No. 1305-78-8...lime, burnt lime, or calx. It is produced from calcium carbonate, limestone, or oyster shells by...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1210 - Calcium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1210 Calcium oxide. (a) Calcium oxide (CaO, CAS Reg. No. 1305-78-8...lime, burnt lime, or calx. It is produced from calcium carbonate, limestone, or oyster shells by...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1210 - Calcium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1210 Calcium oxide. (a) Calcium oxide (CaO, CAS Reg. No. 1305-78-8...lime, burnt lime, or calx. It is produced from calcium carbonate, limestone, or oyster shells by...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1201 - Calcium glycerophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...hygroscopic powder. It is prepared by neutralizing glycerophosphoric acid with calcium hydroxide or calcium carbonate. The commercial product is a mixture of calcium ?-, and D-, and L -?-glycerophosphate. (b) The...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1201 - Calcium glycerophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...hygroscopic powder. It is prepared by neutralizing glycerophosphoric acid with calcium hydroxide or calcium carbonate. The commercial product is a mixture of calcium ?-, and D-, and L -?-glycerophosphate. (b) The...

  15. 21 CFR 182.6197 - Calcium diacetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium diacetate. 182.6197 Section 182.6197...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6197 Calcium diacetate. (a) Product. Calcium diacetate. (b) Conditions of use....

  16. 21 CFR 172.715 - Calcium lignosulfonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium lignosulfonate. 172.715 Section 172.715... Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.715 Calcium lignosulfonate. Calcium lignosulfonate may be safely used in or on...

  17. 21 CFR 582.6199 - Calcium gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium gluconate. 582.6199 Section 582.6199...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6199 Calcium gluconate. (a) Product. Calcium gluconate. (b) Conditions of use....

  18. 21 CFR 172.720 - Calcium lactobionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium lactobionate. 172.720 Section 172...Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.720 Calcium lactobionate. The food additive calcium lactobionate may be safely used in food...

  19. 21 CFR 582.6197 - Calcium diacetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium diacetate. 582.6197 Section 582.6197...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6197 Calcium diacetate. (a) Product. Calcium diacetate. (b) Conditions of use....

  20. Extracellular calcium sensing and extracellular calcium signaling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, E. M.; MacLeod, R. J.; O'Malley, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    The cloning of a G protein-coupled extracellular Ca(2+) (Ca(o)(2+))-sensing receptor (CaR) has elucidated the molecular basis for many of the previously recognized effects of Ca(o)(2+) on tissues that maintain systemic Ca(o)(2+) homeostasis, especially parathyroid chief cells and several cells in the kidney. The availability of the cloned CaR enabled the development of DNA and antibody probes for identifying the CaR's mRNA and protein, respectively, within these and other tissues. It also permitted the identification of human diseases resulting from inactivating or activating mutations of the CaR gene and the subsequent generation of mice with targeted disruption of the CaR gene. The characteristic alterations in parathyroid and renal function in these patients and in the mice with "knockout" of the CaR gene have provided valuable information on the CaR's physiological roles in these tissues participating in mineral ion homeostasis. Nevertheless, relatively little is known about how the CaR regulates other tissues involved in systemic Ca(o)(2+) homeostasis, particularly bone and intestine. Moreover, there is evidence that additional Ca(o)(2+) sensors may exist in bone cells that mediate some or even all of the known effects of Ca(o)(2+) on these cells. Even more remains to be learned about the CaR's function in the rapidly growing list of cells that express it but are uninvolved in systemic Ca(o)(2+) metabolism. Available data suggest that the receptor serves numerous roles outside of systemic mineral ion homeostasis, ranging from the regulation of hormonal secretion and the activities of various ion channels to the longer term control of gene expression, programmed cell death (apoptosis), and cellular proliferation. In some cases, the CaR on these "nonhomeostatic" cells responds to local changes in Ca(o)(2+) taking place within compartments of the extracellular fluid (ECF) that communicate with the outside environment (e.g., the gastrointestinal tract). In others, localized changes in Ca(o)(2+) within the ECF can originate from several mechanisms, including fluxes of calcium ions into or out of cellular or extracellular stores or across epithelium that absorb or secrete Ca(2+). In any event, the CaR and other receptors/sensors for Ca(o)(2+) and probably for other extracellular ions represent versatile regulators of numerous cellular functions and may serve as important therapeutic targets.

  1. Assessment of crop foliar nitrogen using a novel dual-wavelength laser system and implications for conducting laser-based plant physiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eitel, Jan U. H.; Magney, Troy S.; Vierling, Lee A.; Dittmar, Günter

    2014-11-01

    Advanced technologies for improved nitrogen (N) fertilizer management are paramount for sustainably meeting future food demands. Green laser systems that measure pulse return intensity can provide more reliable information about foliar N than can traditional passive remote sensing devices during the critical early crop growth stages (e.g., before canopy closure when vegetation and soil signals are spectrally mixed) when further decisions regarding N management can be made. However, current green laser systems are not designed for agricultural applications and only employ a single green laser wavelength, which may limit applications because many factors that require normalization techniques can affect pulse return intensity. Here, we describe the design of a tractor-mountable, green (532 nm)- and red (658 nm) dual wavelength laser system and evaluate the potential of an additional red reference wavelength to improve laser based estimates of foliar N by calculating laser spectral indices based on ratio combinations of green laser return intensity (GLRI) and red laser return intensity (RLRI). We hypothesized that such laser spectral indices aid in accounting for factors that confound laser based foliar N estimates including variations in leaf angle, measurement distance, soil returns, and mixed edge returns. Leaf level measurements in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) revealed that the two laser spectral indices improved the relationship with foliar N (r2 > 0.71, RMSE < 0.28%) compared to the sole use of GLRI (r2 = 0.47, RMSE = 0.38%). Laboratory measurements also showed that laser spectral indices reduced the effect of measurement distance on laser readings and allowed leaf returns to be better separated from edge returns and soil returns. However, laboratory measurements showed that laser spectral indices did not account for variations in leaf angle, possibly explaining the weak relationships (r2 < 0.36, RMSE = 0.49%) between foliar N and laser spectral indices observed when employing the laser system under field conditions. In fact, the strongest relationship at the field canopy level was shown for GLRI (r2 = 0.65, RMSE = 0.37%) alone. Laboratory measurements suggest that the better performance of GLRI compared to ratio-based laser spectral indices may result from pronounced differences in the leaf-level bidirectional reflectance distribution factor (BRDFleaf) between the green and red laser wavelengths, thus confounding leaf angle effects so that they are not cancelled when calculating laser spectral indices. This finding suggests that the small spot size of the laser pulses (?5 mm diameter) interacts with BRDFleaf at very fine scales, therefore causing differential, wavelength-specific scattering effects. Additional study of BRDFleaf at the mm scale is therefore warranted, and should be carefully considered in future development and use of multi-wavelength laser systems for remotely sensing foliar biochemistry.

  2. Relationships between C3 plant foliar carbon isotope composition and element contents of grassland species at high altitudes on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yong-Chun; Fan, Jiang-Wen; Harris, Warwick; Zhong, Hua-Ping; Zhang, Wen-Yan; Cheng, Xi-Lei

    2013-01-01

    Relationships of foliar carbon isotope composition (?(13)C) with foliar C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg contents and their ratios of 219 C3 species leaf samples, obtained in August in 2004 to 2007 from 82 high altitude grassland sites on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau China, were examined. This was done with reference to the proposition that foliar ?(13)C increases with altitude and separately for the life-form groups of graminoids, forbs and shrubs and for the genera Stipa and Kobresia. For all samples, foliar ?(13)C was negatively related to foliar K, P and ?K+ Ca+ Mg, and positively correlated to foliar C, C/N and C/P. The significance of these correlations differed for the taxonomic and life-form groups. Lack of a relationship of foliar ?(13)C with foliar N was inconsistent with the majority of studies that have shown foliar ?(13)C to be positively related to foliar N due to a decrease of Ci/Ca (the ratio between intercellular and atmospheric concentration of CO2) and explained as a result of greater photosynthetic capacity at higher foliar N concentration. However this inconsistency relates to other high altitude studies that have found that photosynthetic capacity remains constant as foliar N increases. After accounting for the altitudinal relationship with foliar ?(13)C, of the elements only the K effect was significant and was most strongly expressed for Kobresia. It is concluded that factors critical to plant survival and growth at very high altitudes, such as low atmospheric pressure and low temperatures, may preclude expression of relationships between foliar ?(13)C and foliar elements that have been observed at lower altitudes. PMID:23565275

  3. Relationships between C3 Plant Foliar Carbon Isotope Composition and Element Contents of Grassland Species at High Altitudes on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yong-Chun; Fan, Jiang-Wen; Harris, Warwick; Zhong, Hua-Ping; Zhang, Wen-Yan; Cheng, Xi-Lei

    2013-01-01

    Relationships of foliar carbon isotope composition (?13C) with foliar C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg contents and their ratios of 219 C3 species leaf samples, obtained in August in 2004 to 2007 from 82 high altitude grassland sites on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau China, were examined. This was done with reference to the proposition that foliar ?13C increases with altitude and separately for the life-form groups of graminoids, forbs and shrubs and for the genera Stipa and Kobresia. For all samples, foliar ?13C was negatively related to foliar K, P and ?K+ Ca+ Mg, and positively correlated to foliar C, C/N and C/P. The significance of these correlations differed for the taxonomic and life-form groups. Lack of a relationship of foliar ?13C with foliar N was inconsistent with the majority of studies that have shown foliar ?13C to be positively related to foliar N due to a decrease of Ci/Ca (the ratio between intercellular and atmospheric concentration of CO2) and explained as a result of greater photosynthetic capacity at higher foliar N concentration. However this inconsistency relates to other high altitude studies that have found that photosynthetic capacity remains constant as foliar N increases. After accounting for the altitudinal relationship with foliar ?13C, of the elements only the K effect was significant and was most strongly expressed for Kobresia. It is concluded that factors critical to plant survival and growth at very high altitudes, such as low atmospheric pressure and low temperatures, may preclude expression of relationships between foliar ?13C and foliar elements that have been observed at lower altitudes. PMID:23565275

  4. An Improved Calcium Flame Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Robert S.

    1985-01-01

    Indicates that the true red color of calcium can be obtained (using the procedure described by Sorm and Logowski) if the calcium ion solution is mixed with an equal volume of saturated ammonium bromide solution. Suggestions for flame tests of other elements are also noted. (JN)

  5. Major Minerals - Calcium, Magnesium, Phosphorus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calcium, magnesium and phosphorus are essential elements critically important for the function of the musculoskeletal system, including the formation and transduction of energy and the maintenance of healthy bone. The major calcium concern for physically active healthy middle-aged adults is to consu...

  6. Calcium Intake: A Lifelong Proposition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amschler, Denise H.

    1985-01-01

    This article reviews the current problem of low calcium intake in the United States among all age groups, the role of calcium in the formation and maintenance of bone mass, and major factors influencing absorption. Osteoporosis is discussed, and current recommendations for Recommended Dietary allowance are provided. (Author/MT)

  7. Calcium: just a chemical switch?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah AMG Scrase-Field; Marc R Knight

    2003-01-01

    The calcium-signature hypothesis has evolved as a concept to explain specificity in signaling pathways that utilise calcium as a second messenger. In plant biology, this hypothesis was purely conceptual and based only upon correlative observations until recently. In the past few years, however, empirical data have emerged from experiments that were specifically designed to tackle the question of how specificity

  8. Molecular Structure of Calcium Sulfide

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2003-06-03

    Calcium sulfide in pure form is white and shaped like cubic crystals, and is slightly soluble in water. This is used as a base for luminescent materials. Calcium sulfide is also known as hepar calcies; sulfurated lime. This substance is used in phosphors and as a direct fungicide on powdery mildews and insecticides.

  9. A Review Paper on Biomimetic Calcium Phosphate Coatings

    PubMed Central

    Lin, X.; de Groot, K.; Wang, D.; Hu, Q.; Wismeijer, D.; Liu, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Biomimetic calcium phosphate coatings have been developed for bone regeneration and repair because of their biocompatibility, osteoconductivity, and easy preparation. They can be rendered osteoinductive by incorporating an osteogenic agent, such as bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2), into the crystalline lattice work in physiological situations. The biomimetic calcium phosphate coating enables a controlled, slow and local release of BMP-2 when it undergoes cell mediated coating degradation induced by multinuclear cells, such as osteoclasts and foreign body giant cells, which mimics a physiologically similar release mode, to achieve sustained ectopic or orthotopic bone formation. Therefore, biomimetic calcium phosphate coatings are considered to be a promising delivery vehicle for osteogenic agents. In this review, we present an overview of biomimetic calcium phosphate coatings including their preparation techniques, physico-chemical properties, potential as drug carrier, and their pre-clinical application both in ectopic and orthotopic animal models. We briefly review some features of hydroxyapatite coatings and their clinical applications to gain insight into the clinical applications of biomimetic calcium phosphate coatings in the near future.

  10. FOLIAR WASHOFF POTENTIAL AND SIMULATED SURFACE RUNOFF LOSSES OF TRIFLOXYSULFURON IN COTTON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The surface runoff potential of trifloxysulfuron in Mississippi Delta cotton production systems has not been evaluated. The objectives of this study were to 1) determine sorption/desorption coefficients for trifloxysulfuron; 2) quantify foliar washoff of trifloxysulfuron applied to cotton at the 5-...

  11. Foliar response of black cherry ( Prunus serotina) clones to ambient ozone exposure in central Pennsylvania

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Lee; J. M. Skelly; K. C. Steiner; J. W. Zhang; J. E. Savage

    1999-01-01

    During late summer of 1996 and 1997 we examined ozone-induced foliar injury in a plantation of 111 black cherry trees (ramets) comprising 15 clones originating from wild ortets growing in the Allegheny National Forest, Pennsylvania, and the Monongahela National Forest, West Virginia. The experimental plantation was a clonal seed orchard in Centre County, Pennsylvania, started in 1971 using ortet buds

  12. Size-mediated foliar response to ozone in black cherry trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. S. Fredericksen; J. M. Skelly; K. C. Steiner; T. E. Kolb; K. B. Kouterick

    1996-01-01

    Local ozone concentration and visible foliar injury were measured over the 1994 growing season on open-grown black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) trees of varying size (age) within forest stands and adjacent openings at a site in north-central Pennsylvania. Relationships were determined between visible ozone injury and ozone exposure, as well as calculated between injury and ozone uptake expressed as the

  13. CORRELATION BETWEEN OZONE EXPOSURE AND VISIBLE FOLIAR INJURY IN PONDEROSA AND JEFFREY PINES. (R825433)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ozone exposure was related to ozone-induced visible foliar injury in ponderosa and Jeffrey pines growing on the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California. Measurements of ozone exposure, chlorotic mottle and fascicle retention were collected during the years ...

  14. Diversity of Foliar Trichomes and Their Systematic Relevance in the Genus Hibiscus (Malvaceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    NIGHAT SHAHEEN; MIR AJAB; GHAZALAH YASMIN; MUHAMMAD QASIM HAYAT

    Qualitative and quantitative micromorphological characters, distribution and systematic relevance of both glandular and eglandular foliar trichomes in species of genus Hibiscus (Malvaceae) including H. caesius, H. mutabilis, H. rosa-sinensis, H. sabdariffa, H. schizopetalus, H. syriacus and H. trionum were characterized. Diversity of these epidermal appendages were separated into eight main types. Glandular capitate trichomes were the most abundant on both

  15. Sensitivity of soybean plant introductions to the foliar fungicide tebuconazole (Folicur)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nearly 100 plant introductions, ranging in maturity from 0 to IX and representing over 90% of the current commercial germplasm, were planted in 2 replications of 1 row plots 2.4 m long. Tebuconazole was applied at R1 and R3 at 4.0 oz/acre. Evaluation was done in both 2006 and 2007 with foliar sympto...

  16. HERITABILITY OF TOLERANCE TO EARLY FOLIAR DECLINE IN THREE AMERICAN PIMA COTTON POPULATIONS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early foliar decline (EFD) is a recurring problem of Pima cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.) in the San Joaquin Valley of California where it has been implicated in yield and fiber quality losses. Anecdotal evidence indicates that genetic variability for tolerance to EFD exists within Pima germplasm....

  17. GLOBAL CHANGE ECOLOGY -ORIGINAL PAPER Atmospheric change alters foliar quality of host trees

    E-print Network

    -011-2139-1 #12;growth (Ainsworth and Long 2005), although this response depends on forest stand age and nutrient moth (Lymantria dis- par) and forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria) per- formance. Elevated CO2 quality, but only marginally influenced birch foliar quality. Elevated CO2 slightly improved herbivore

  18. Absorption of foliar-applied arsenic by the arsenic hyperaccumulating fern (Pteris vittata L.)

    E-print Network

    Ma, Lena

    in the phytoremediation of groundwater contaminated with arsenic. D 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. KeywordsAbsorption of foliar-applied arsenic by the arsenic hyperaccumulating fern (Pteris vittata L brake fern (Pteris vittata L.), a hyperaccumulator of arsenic, a carcinogenic metalloid, was proficient

  19. Effects of Foliar Applied Sulfur and Commercial Growth Regulators in Wheat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Hussain; M. H. Leitch

    2008-01-01

    During the year 1999, two glasshouse experiments (Experiments 1 and 2) were conducted at the University of Wales Aberystwyth, UK to investigate the effects of foliar applied sulfur (S) in wheat in terms of its potential as a growth regulator and to compare the effects with that of commercial growth regulators, chlormequat (CC) and gibberellic acid (GA3). In Experiment 1,

  20. N and P in New Zealand Soil Chronosequences and Relationships with Foliar N and P

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Parfitt; D. J. Ross; D. A. Coomes; S. J. Richardson; M. C. Smale; R. A. Dahlgren

    2005-01-01

    The growth of forest species in soil development chronosequences becomes increasingly phosphorus (P)-limited with time, as P is weathered, eroded and leached from soil. Foliar nitrogen (N) concentrations also tend to decrease with soil age when vegetation may be limited in both N and P. Here we report on soil development in temperate rain forests along three New Zealand chronosequences

  1. Phenology of foliar and volatile terpenoid production for Thuja plicata families under differential nutrient availability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Owen T. Burney; Anthony S. Davis; Douglass F. Jacobs

    Herbivores use chemoreception to determine forage quality of plants. Certain terpenoid compounds produced by regenerating conifers may deter herbivory through negative feedback resulting from consumption or olfactory detection. Plant resource availability may influence the biosynthesis of terpenoids, yet terpenoid production in relation to changes in foliar chemistry is not well understood. Western redcedar (Thuja plicata Donn ex. D. Don) seedlings

  2. Evolution of a complex behavior: the origin and initial diversification of foliar galling by Permian insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schachat, Sandra R.; Labandeira, Conrad C.

    2015-04-01

    A central notion of the early evolution of insect galling is that this unique behavior was uncommon to rare before the diversification of angiosperms 135 to 125 m.yr. ago. However, evidence accumulated during recent years shows that foliar galls were diverse and locally abundant as early as the Permian Period, 299 to 252 m.yr. ago. In particular, a diversity of leaf galling during the Early Permian has recently been documented by the plant-damage record of foliar galls and, now, our interpretation of the body-fossil record of culprit insect gallers. Small size is a prerequisite for gallers. Wing-length measurements of Permian insects indicate that several small-bodied hemipteroid lineages originated early during the Permian, some descendant lineages of which gall the leaves of seed plants to the present day. The earliest foliar gallers likely were Protopsyllidiidae (Hemiptera) and Lophioneuridae (Thripida). Much of the Early Permian was a xeric interval, and modern galls are most common in dry, extra-tropical habitats such as scrubland and deserts. Plant-damage, insect body fossils, and the paleoclimate record collectively support the ecological expansion of foliar galling during the Early Permian and its continued expansion through the Late Permian.

  3. Evolution of a complex behavior: the origin and initial diversification of foliar galling by Permian insects.

    PubMed

    Schachat, Sandra R; Labandeira, Conrad C

    2015-04-01

    A central notion of the early evolution of insect galling is that this unique behavior was uncommon to rare before the diversification of angiosperms 135 to 125 m.yr. ago. However, evidence accumulated during recent years shows that foliar galls were diverse and locally abundant as early as the Permian Period, 299 to 252 m.yr. ago. In particular, a diversity of leaf galling during the Early Permian has recently been documented by the plant-damage record of foliar galls and, now, our interpretation of the body-fossil record of culprit insect gallers. Small size is a prerequisite for gallers. Wing-length measurements of Permian insects indicate that several small-bodied hemipteroid lineages originated early during the Permian, some descendant lineages of which gall the leaves of seed plants to the present day. The earliest foliar gallers likely were Protopsyllidiidae (Hemiptera) and Lophioneuridae (Thripida). Much of the Early Permian was a xeric interval, and modern galls are most common in dry, extra-tropical habitats such as scrubland and deserts. Plant-damage, insect body fossils, and the paleoclimate record collectively support the ecological expansion of foliar galling during the Early Permian and its continued expansion through the Late Permian. PMID:25783809

  4. SPECIATION OF GAS-PHASE AND FINE PARTICLE EMISSIONS FROM BURNING OF FOLIAR FUELS: JOURNAL ARTICLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    NRMRL-RTP-P- 620 Hays**, M.D., Geron*, C.D., Linna**, K.J., Smith*, N.D., and Schauer, J.J. Speciation of Gas-Phase and Fine Particle Emissions from Burning of Foliar Fuels. Submitted to: Environmental Science & Technology EPA/600/J-02/234, http://pubs.acs.org/journals/esthag/...

  5. Effects of elevated CO2 , nitrogen deposition, and decreased species diversity on foliar fungal plant disease

    E-print Network

    Crews, Stephen

    of the plant community in one year of a factorial grassland experiment. Decreased plant diversity had the broadest effect, increasing pathogen load across the plant community. Decreased diversity increased foliar fungal disease. Decreased plant diversity further magnified the increase in C3 grass pathogen load

  6. New Phytol. (1985) 99, 389^H)5 389 DIRECT FOLIAR EFFECTS OF SIMULATED

    E-print Network

    Neufeld, Howard S.

    New Phytol. (1985) 99, 389^H)5 389 DIRECT FOLIAR EFFECTS OF SIMULATED ACID RAIN I. DAMAGE, GROWTH acid rain (pH 5-6, 40, 30 and 2 0) were observed for seedlings of four deciduous tree species native have contributed to the observed reductions in growth. Key words: Acid rain, gas exchange

  7. New Phytol. (1985) 99, 407^16 DIRECT FOLIAR EFFECTS OF SIMULATED

    E-print Network

    Neufeld, Howard S.

    New Phytol. (1985) 99, 407^16 DIRECT FOLIAR EFFECTS OF SIMULATED ACID RAIN IL LEAF SURFACE to damage from simulated acid rain. The species examined differed in the type and extent of epicuticular wax different among species, and is highly correlated with previous reports of damage from simulated acid rain

  8. FOLIAR RESORPTION OF NUTRIENTS IN SELECTED SYMPATRIC TREE SPECIES IN GALLERY FOREST ?BLACK SEA REGION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hamdi Güray KUTBAY; Duygu KILIC; Hasan KORKMAZ; Erkan YALÇIN; Zeki APAYDIN

    Gallery forests in Central Black Sea Region are dominated by Platanus orientalis L. The studies were performed in four sites (Mert River, Adalar, Kurupelit and Taflan Regions) located in V-shaped river valleys and differing with soil conditions. Nutrient concen- trations were measured in green and senescent leaves in selected sympatric tree species. Foliar nutrient resorption efficiency (RE; as the ratio

  9. Effects of irrigation and nitrogen rates on foliar mineral composition of bell pepper

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric H. Simonne; D. Joseph Eakes; Christine E. Harris

    1998-01-01

    Irrigation and nitrogen fertilization are two important aspects of bell pepper production. Yet, limited information is available on the effect of irrigation on foliar nutrient content. Bell pepper were grown on bare ground under two nitrogen fertilization rates (11 and 19 kg N week) and irrigated according to an irrigation scheduling model based on weather data and crop age. Eight

  10. Cold hardiness and foliar disease resistance of North American and Asian Fragaria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirty-two wild strawberry genotypes and two commercial cultivars were obtained from the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Research Service (ARS), National Clonal Germplasm Repository-Corvallis (NCGR) and planted in the field to test cold hardiness and foliar disease resistance at th...

  11. Within-crown Foliar Plasticity of Western Hemlock, Tsuga heterophylla, in Relation to Stand Age

    E-print Network

    Richardson, Andrew D.

    Within-crown Foliar Plasticity of Western Hemlock, Tsuga heterophylla, in Relation to Stand Age A from six dierent positions within the crowns of western hemlock, Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg., were studied to investigate the plastic response of leaf structure to crown position, in relation to stand age

  12. Foliar respiration acclimation to temperature and temperature variable Q10 alter ecosystem carbon balance

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    Foliar respiration acclimation to temperature and temperature variable Q10 alter ecosystem carbon Station, TX 77843-2135, USA Abstract The response of respiration to temperature in plants can described by a constant Q10 of respiration, and longer-term responses often include acclimation. Despite

  13. Cardiovascular complications of calcium supplements.

    PubMed

    Reid, Ian R; Bristow, Sarah M; Bolland, Mark J

    2015-04-01

    There is longstanding concern that calcium supplements might increase cardiovascular risk in patients with renal impairment. The Auckland Calcium Study suggested that the same problem occurs in older people taking these supplements for prevention of osteoporosis. Our subsequent meta-analyses, (which followed protocols finalized before the data was available) confirmed that calcium supplements, with or without vitamin D, adversely affected risk of myocardial infarction and, possibly, stroke. Several groups have re-visited these data, consistently finding an adverse effect of calcium on myocardial infarction, not always statistically significant because some meta-analyses have been under-powered. Whether or not an adverse effect of calcium plus vitamin D on myocardial infarction is found depends on whether two specific groups of subjects are included-those in the Women's Health Initiative who were already taking calcium at the time of randomization, and subjects from an open, cluster-randomized study in which baseline cardiovascular risk was different between groups. Vitamin D alone does not affect vascular risk, so it is unlikely that differences between calcium alone and calcium plus vitamin D are real, and they are more likely to result from the inclusion of studies at high risk of bias. The mechanisms of the adverse cardiovascular effects are uncertain but may be mediated by the increase in serum calcium following supplement ingestion, and the effects of this on vascular function and coagulation. Available evidence suggests the risks of calcium supplements outweigh any small benefits on fracture incidence, so the case for their use is weak. PMID:25491763

  14. Controls over foliar N:P ratios in tropical rain forests.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Alan R; Cleveland, Cory C; Asner, Gregory P; Bustamante, Mercedes M C

    2007-01-01

    Correlations between foliar nutrient concentrations and soil nutrient availability have been found in multiple ecosystems. These relationships have led to the use of foliar nutrients as an index of nutrient status and to the prediction of broadscale patterns in ecosystem processes. More recently, a growing interest in ecological stoichiometry has fueled multiple analyses of foliar nitrogen:phosphorus (N:P) ratios within and across ecosystems. These studies have observed that N:P values are generally elevated in tropical forests when compared to higher latitude ecosystems, adding weight to a common belief that tropical forests are generally N rich and P poor. However, while these broad generalizations may have merit, their simplicity masks the enormous environmental heterogeneity that exists within the tropics; such variation includes large ranges in soil fertility and climate, as well as the highest plant species diversity of any biome. Here we present original data on foliar N and P concentrations from 150 mature canopy tree species in Costa Rica and Brazil, and combine those data with a comprehensive new literature synthesis to explore the major sources of variation in foliar N:P values within the tropics. We found no relationship between N:P ratios and either latitude or mean annual precipitation within the tropics alone. There is, however, evidence of seasonal controls; in our Costa Rica sites, foliar N:P values differed by 25% between wet and dry seasons. The N:P ratios do vary with soil P availability and/or soil order, but there is substantial overlap across coarse divisions in soil type, and perhaps the most striking feature of the data set is variation at the species level. Taken as a whole, our results imply that the dominant influence on foliar N:P ratios in the tropics is species variability and that, unlike marine systems and perhaps many other terrestrial biomes, the N:P stoichiometry of tropical forests is not well constrained. Thus any use of N:P ratios in the tropics to infer larger-scale ecosystem processes must comprehensively account for the diversity of any given site and recognize the broad range in nutrient requirements, even at the local scale. PMID:17489459

  15. Diffusion in calcium oxide/calcium sulfate pellets

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, K.L.

    1981-10-01

    Diffusion rates in calcium oxide pellets after partial conversion to calcium sulfate were measured. A Wicke-Kallenbach type diffusion cell operated in the pulse-response mode was used to measure effective diffusivity. Cylindrical calcium oxide pellets were formed from the powder using pelletizing pressures of 10,000, 20,000 and 30,000 psi. The pellets were reacted at 325, 500 and 600/sup 0/C with sulfur dioxide and oxygen to form calcium sulfate. The volume of calcium sulfate is 2.7 times that of calcium oxide, so partial pore closure occurs. The diffusivity was measured in the original pellet and in pellets partially reacted to several different conversion levels. The effective diffusivity decreases as conversion decreases and is roughly inversely proportional to pellet porosity squared for low conversions. However, the porosity and diffusion rate do not become zero when the reaction rate approaches zero. Pore closure is, therefore, not the mechanism which limits the ultimate conversion. A large diffusion resistance through the calcium sulfate product layer probably causes the reaction to stop before total conversion. The final conversion obtainable increases as reaction temperature increases and decreases as pelletizing pressure increases.

  16. Title: In vitro meets in silico: measuring and modeling the influence of calcium gradients on cell In tissue engineering applications, scaffolds act as carriers for cells and growth factors that restore

    E-print Network

    Wolper, Pierre

    of 3D printing by Sirris (Liège) and tested in the lab of Prof. Lambert. This thesis should lead their introduction, calcium phosphates (CaP) have proven to be an excellent bone substitute material, however

  17. A novel method to make regenerable core-shell calcium-based sorbents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. J. Liu; K. S. Chou; Y. K. Huang

    2006-01-01

    A sorbent having a calcium oxide core and a clay shell was prepared and shown to be capable of reusable applications in absorption and desorption processes for carbon dioxide. The novelty of this sorbent is that only calcium carbonate and clay are used for its preparation with water as a binder. A two-step granulation procedure is used to get the

  18. Erythroneura lawsoni abundance and feeding injury levels are influenced by foliar nutrient status in intensively managed American sycamore.

    SciTech Connect

    Coyle, David, Robert: Aubrey, Doug, Patric; Bentz, Jo-Ann

    2010-01-01

    Abstract 1 Abundance and feeding injury of the leafhopper Erythroneura lawsoni Robinson was measured in an intensively-managed American sycamore Platanus occidentalis L. plantation. Trees were planted in spring 2000 in a randomized complete block design, and received one of three annual treatments: (i) fertilization (120 kg N/ha/year); (ii) irrigation (3.0 cm/week); (iii) fertilization + irrigation; or (iv) control (no treatment). 2 Foliar nutrient concentrations were significantly influenced by the treatments because only sulphur and manganese levels were not statistically greater in trees receiving fertilization. 3 Over 116 000 E. lawsoni were captured on sticky traps during the study. Leafhopper abundance was highest on nonfertilized trees for the majority of the season, and was positively correlated with foliar nutrient concentrations. Significant temporal variation in E. lawsoni abundance occurred, suggesting five discrete generations in South Carolina. 4 Significant temporal variation occurred in E. lawsoni foliar injury levels, with the highest injury ratings occurring in late June and August. Foliar injury was negatively correlated with foliar nutrient content, and higher levels of injury occurred more frequently on nonfertilized trees. 5 The results obtained in the present study indicated that increased E. lawsoni abundance occurred on trees that did not receive fertilization. Nonfertilized trees experienced greater foliar injury, suggesting that lower foliar nutrient status may have led to increased levels of compensatory feeding.

  19. Habitat-specific differences in plasticity of foliar ?13C in temperate steppe grasses

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yanjie; Zhang, Lirong; Niu, Haishan; Sun, Yue; Xu, Xingliang

    2014-01-01

    A decrease in foliar ?13C with increasing precipitation is a common tendency in steppe plants. However, the rate of decrease has been reported to differ between different species or populations. We here hypothesized that plant populations in the same habitat of temperate steppes may not differ in foliar ?13C response patterns to precipitation, but could differ in the levels of plasticity of foliar ?13C across different habitats. In order to test this hypothesis, we conducted controlled watering experiments in northeast China at five sites along a west–east transect at latitude 44°N, which show substantial interannual fluctuations and intra-annual changes in precipitation among them. In 2001, watering treatment (six levels, three replicates) was assigned to 18 plots at each site. The responses of foliar ?13C to precipitation (i.e., the sum of watering and rainfall) were determined in populations of several grass species that were common across all sites. Although similar linear regression slopes were observed for populations of different species growing at the same site, significantly different slopes were obtained for populations of the same species growing at different sites. Further, the slope of the line progressively decreased from Site I to Site V for all species in this study. These results suggest habitat-specific differences in plasticity of foliar ?13C in temperate steppe grasses. This indicates that species' ?13C response to precipitation is conservative at the same site due to their long-term acclimation, but the mechanism responsible behind this needs further investigations. PMID:25035804

  20. Contributing factors in foliar uptake of dissolved inorganic nitrogen at leaf level.

    PubMed

    Wuyts, Karen; Adriaenssens, Sandy; Staelens, Jeroen; Wuytack, Tatiana; Van Wittenberghe, Shari; Boeckx, Pascal; Samson, Roeland; Verheyen, Kris

    2015-02-01

    We investigated the influence of leaf traits, rainwater chemistry, and pedospheric nitrogen (N) fertilisation on the aqueous uptake of inorganic N by physiologically active tree leaves. Leaves of juvenile silver birch and European beech trees, supplied with NH?NO? to the soil at rates from 0 to 200 kg N ha(-1)y(-1), were individually exposed to 100 ?l of artificial rainwater containing (15)NH?(+) or (15)NO?(-) at two concentration levels for one hour. In the next vegetative period, the experiment was repeated with NH?(+) at the highest concentration only. The N form and the N concentration in the applied rainwater and, to a lesser extent, the pedospheric N treatment and the leaf traits affected the aqueous foliar N uptake. The foliar uptake of NH?(+) by birch increased when leaves were more wettable. High leaf N concentration and leaf mass per area enhanced the foliar N uptake, and NO?(-) uptake in particular, by birch. Variation in the foliar N uptake by the beech trees could not be explained by the leaf traits considered. In the first experiment, N fertilisation stimulated the foliar N uptake in both species, which was on average 1.42-1.78 times higher at the highest soil N dose than at the zero dose. However, data variability was high and the effect was not appreciable in the second experiment. Our data suggest that next to rainwater chemistry (N form and concentration) also forest N status could play a role in the partitioning of N entering the ecosystem through the soil and the canopy. Models of canopy uptake of aqueous N at the leaf level should take account of leaf traits such as wettability and N concentration. PMID:25461099

  1. Climatic limits on foliar growth during major droughts in the Southwestern U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weiss, Jeremy L.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Overpeck, Jonathan T.

    2012-01-01

    Pronounced droughts during the 1950s and 2000s in the Southwestern U.S.A. (SW) provide an opportunity to compare mesoscale ecosystem responses to anomalously dry conditions before and during the regional warming that started in the late 1970s. This year-round warming has produced fewer cool season freezes, losses in regional snowpack, an 8-10 day advance in spring onset, and hotter summers, all of which should affect vegetation differently across seasons and elevations. Here, we examine indices that represent climatic limits on foliar growth for both drought periods, and evaluate these indices for areas that experienced tree mortality during the 2000s drought. Relative to the 1950s drought, warmer conditions during the 2000s drought decreased the occurrence of temperatures too low for foliar growth at lower elevations in winter and higher elevations in summer. Higher vapor pressure deficits (VPDs) largely driven by warmer temperatures in the more recent drought were more limiting to foliar growth from spring through summer at lower and middle elevations. At many locations where tree mortality occurred during the 2000s drought, low-temperature constraints on foliar growth were extremely unlimiting, whereas VPD constraints were extremely limiting from early spring through late autumn. Our analysis shows that in physiographically complex regions like the SW, seasonality and elevational gradients are important for understanding vegetative responses to warming. It also suggests that continued warming will increase the degree to which VPD limits foliar growth during future droughts, and expand its reach to higher elevations and other seasons.

  2. Formate Oxidation-Driven Calcium Carbonate Precipitation by Methylocystis parvus OBBP

    PubMed Central

    Ganendra, Giovanni; De Muynck, Willem; Ho, Adrian; Arvaniti, Eleni Charalampous; Hosseinkhani, Baharak; Ramos, Jose Angel; Rahier, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    Microbially induced carbonate precipitation (MICP) applied in the construction industry poses several disadvantages such as ammonia release to the air and nitric acid production. An alternative MICP from calcium formate by Methylocystis parvus OBBP is presented here to overcome these disadvantages. To induce calcium carbonate precipitation, M. parvus was incubated at different calcium formate concentrations and starting culture densities. Up to 91.4% ± 1.6% of the initial calcium was precipitated in the methane-amended cultures compared to 35.1% ± 11.9% when methane was not added. Because the bacteria could only utilize methane for growth, higher culture densities and subsequently calcium removals were exhibited in the cultures when methane was added. A higher calcium carbonate precipitate yield was obtained when higher culture densities were used but not necessarily when more calcium formate was added. This was mainly due to salt inhibition of the bacterial activity at a high calcium formate concentration. A maximum 0.67 ± 0.03 g of CaCO3 g of Ca(CHOOH)2?1 calcium carbonate precipitate yield was obtained when a culture of 109 cells ml?1 and 5 g of calcium formate liter?1 were used. Compared to the current strategy employing biogenic urea degradation as the basis for MICP, our approach presents significant improvements in the environmental sustainability of the application in the construction industry. PMID:24837386

  3. SERCaMP: a carboxy-terminal protein modification that enables monitoring of ER calcium homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Mark J.; Wires, Emily S.; Trychta, Kathleen A.; Richie, Christopher T.; Harvey, Brandon K.

    2014-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium homeostasis is disrupted in diverse pathologies, including neurodegeneration, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes. Temporally defining calcium dysregulation during disease progression, however, has been challenging. Here we describe secreted ER calcium-monitoring proteins (SERCaMPs), which allow for longitudinal monitoring of ER calcium homeostasis. We identified a carboxy-terminal modification that is sufficient to confer release of a protein specifically in response to ER calcium depletion. A Gaussia luciferase (GLuc)–based SERCaMP provides a simple and sensitive method to monitor ER calcium homeostasis in vitro or in vivo by analyzing culture medium or blood. GLuc-SERCaMPs revealed ER calcium depletion in rat primary neurons exposed to various ER stressors. In vivo, ER calcium disruption in rat liver was monitored over several days by repeated sampling of blood. Our results suggest that SERCaMPs will have broad applications for the long-term monitoring of ER calcium homeostasis and the development of therapeutic approaches to counteract ER calcium dysregulation. PMID:25031430

  4. Calcium binding protein-mediated regulation of voltage-gated calcium channels linked to human diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nasrin Nejatbakhsh; Zhong-ping Feng

    2011-01-01

    Calcium ion entry through voltage-gated calcium channels is essential for cellular signalling in a wide variety of cells and multiple physiological processes. Perturbations of voltage-gated calcium channel function can lead to pathophysiological consequences. Calcium binding proteins serve as calcium sensors and regulate the calcium channel properties via feedback mechanisms. This review highlights the current evidences of calcium binding protein-mediated channel

  5. Calcium binding protein-mediated regulation of voltage-gated calcium channels linked to human diseases

    PubMed Central

    Nejatbakhsh, Nasrin; Feng, Zhong-ping

    2011-01-01

    Calcium ion entry through voltage-gated calcium channels is essential for cellular signalling in a wide variety of cells and multiple physiological processes. Perturbations of voltage-gated calcium channel function can lead to pathophysiological consequences. Calcium binding proteins serve as calcium sensors and regulate the calcium channel properties via feedback mechanisms. This review highlights the current evidences of calcium binding protein-mediated channel regulation in human diseases. PMID:21642945

  6. Calcium/Calmodulin-Mediated Gravitropic Response in Plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poovaiah, B. W.

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this project was to gain a fundamental understanding of how calcium/calmodulin-mediated signaling is involved in gravity signal transduction in plants. During the period of support, significant progress was made in elucidating the role of calmodulin and its target proteins in gravitropism. This laboratory has made breakthroughs by cloning and characterizing genes that are involved in calcium/calmodulin-mediated signaling. Some of these genes show altered expression under hypergravity and simulated microgravity conditions. A major advance was made in our attempts to understand gravity signal transduction by cloning and characterizing a catalase which requires calcium/calmodulin for its activation. Our results suggest that calcium/calmodulin have dual roles in regulating the level of hydrogen peroxide (H202), a signal molecule that plays a major role in gravitropism. It is well established that auxin plays a major role in gravitropism. Our results indicate that there is a 'cross-talk' between calcium/calmodulin-mediated signaling and auxin-mediated signal transduction. Auxin-regulated SAUR proteins that are involved in gravitropism bind to calmodulin in a calcium-dependent manner. A novel chimeric calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase was cloned and characterized and its role in gravity signal transduction was investigated. These studies have provided some answers to the fundamental questions about how signal molecules such as calcium, H202, and hormones such as auxin bring about the ultimate gravitropic response and the integral role of calmodulin in gravity signal transduction. This NASA-funded study has led to some spinoffs that have applications in solving agricultural problems. The Washington State University Research Foundation has obtained several patents related to this work.

  7. Alternative technique for calcium phosphate coating on titanium alloy implants.

    PubMed

    Le, Van Quang; Pourroy, Geneviève; Cochis, Andrea; Rimondini, Lia; Abdel-Fattah, Wafa I; Mohammed, Hadeer I; Carradò, Adele

    2014-01-01

    As an alternative technique for calcium phosphate coating on titanium alloys, we propose to functionalize the metal surface with anionic bath containing chlorides of palladium or silver as activators. This new deposition route has several advantages such as controlled conditions, applicability to complex shapes, no adverse effect of heating, and cost effectiveness. A mixture of hydroxyapatite and calcium phosphate hydrate is deposited on the surface of Ti-6Al-4V. Calcium phosphate coating is built faster compared with the one by Simulated Body Fluid. Cell morphology and density are comparable to the control one; and the results prove no toxic compound is released into the medium during the previous seven days of immersion. Moreover, the cell viability is comparable with cells cultivated with the virgin medium. These experimental treatments allowed producing cytocompatible materials potentially applicable to manufacture implantable devices for orthopedic and oral surgeries. PMID:24646569

  8. Alternative technique for calcium phosphate coating on titanium alloy implants

    PubMed Central

    Le, Van Quang; Pourroy, Geneviève; Cochis, Andrea; Rimondini, Lia; Abdel-Fattah, Wafa I; Mohammed, Hadeer I; Carradò, Adele

    2014-01-01

    As an alternative technique for calcium phosphate coating on titanium alloys, we propose to functionalize the metal surface with anionic bath containing chlorides of palladium or silver as activators. This new deposition route has several advantages such as controlled conditions, applicability to complex shapes, no adverse effect of heating, and cost effectiveness. A mixture of hydroxyapatite and calcium phosphate hydrate is deposited on the surface of Ti–6Al–4V. Calcium phosphate coating is built faster compared with the one by Simulated Body Fluid. Cell morphology and density are comparable to the control one; and the results prove no toxic compound is released into the medium during the previous seven days of immersion. Moreover, the cell viability is comparable with cells cultivated with the virgin medium. These experimental treatments allowed producing cytocompatible materials potentially applicable to manufacture implantable devices for orthopedic and oral surgeries. PMID:24646569

  9. Effect of vitamin D or calcium deficiency on duodenal, jejunal and ileal calcium-binding protein and on plasma calcium

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Effect of vitamin D or calcium deficiency on duodenal, jejunal and ileal calcium-binding protein and on plasma calcium and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol levels in the growing pig Monique THOMASSET, A. POINTILLART Josas. Summary. In vitamin D-deficient pigs the amount of intestinal calcium-binding protein (Ca

  10. Effects of acid deposition on calcium nutrition and health of Southern Appalachian spruce fir forests

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, S.B.; Wullschleger, S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Stone, A. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Wimmer, R. [Austrian Agricultural Univ., Vienna (Austria); Joslin, J.D.

    1995-02-01

    The role of acid deposition in the health of spruce fir forests in the Southern Appalachian Mountains has been investigated by a wide variety of experimental approaches during the past 10 years. These studies have proceeded from initial dendroecological documentation of altered growth patterns of mature trees to increasingly more focused ecophysiological research on the causes and characteristics of changes in system function associated with increased acidic deposition. Field studies across gradients in deposition and soil chemistry have been located on four mountains spanning 85 km of latitude within the Southern Appalachians. The conclusion that calcium nutrition is an important component regulating health of red spruce in the Southern Appalachians and that acid deposition significantly reduces calcium availability in several ways has emerged as a consistent result from multiple lines or research. These have included analysis of trends in wood chemistry, soil solution chemistry, foliar nutrition, gas exchange physiology, root histochemistry, and controlled laboratory and field studies in which acid deposition and/or calcium nutrition has been manipulated and growth and nutritional status of saplings or mature red spruce trees measured. This earlier research has led us to investigate the broader implications and consequences of calcium deficiency for changing resistance of spruce-fir forests to natural stresses. Current research is exploring possible relationships between altered calcium nutrition and shifts in response of Fraser fir to insect attack by the balsam wooly adelgid. In addition, changes in wood ultrastructural properties in relation to altered wood chemistry is being examined to evaluate its possible role in canopy deterioration, under wind and ice stresses typical of high elevation forests.

  11. Total body calcium analysis. [neutron irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewellen, T. K.; Nelp, W. B.

    1974-01-01

    A technique to quantitate total body calcium in humans is developed. Total body neutron irradiation is utilized to produce argon 37. The radio argon, which diffuses into the blood stream and is excreted through the lungs, is recovered from the exhaled breath and counted inside a proportional detector. Emphasis is placed on: (1) measurement of the rate of excretion of radio argon following total body neutron irradiation; (2) the development of the radio argon collection, purification, and counting systems; and (3) development of a patient irradiation facility using a 14 MeV neutron generator. Results and applications are discussed in detail.

  12. Calcium carbonate and calcium sulfate in Martian meteorite EETA79001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gooding, J. L.; Wentworth, S. J.

    1987-01-01

    Chips of glassy Lithology C of EETA79001 were studied by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy to determine the mineralogy and petrogenesis of the glass that was shown by others to contain trapped Mars-like gases. Calcium carbonite was identified as massive to acicular crystals for which Ca, C, and O were the major elements. Calcium sulfate was identified as prismatic-acicular crystals with Ca and S as the major elements.

  13. 21 CFR 184.1229 - Calcium stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...1229 Calcium stearate. (a) Calcium stearate (Ca(C17 H35 COO...Reg. No. 1529-23-0) is the calcium salt of stearic acid derived...as a white precipitate by mixing calcium chloride and sodium stearate in...

  14. Original article Intestinal absorption of calcium

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Intestinal absorption of calcium from yogurt in lactase-deficient subjects absorption of calcium (FACa) was measured using radioactive cal- cium and 200 mg of calcium carrier provided the control period prior to yogurt consumption, mean calcium in- take was 819 mg per day in L(-) and 931 mg

  15. INTRODUCTION Pedogenic (secondary) calcium carbonate is,

    E-print Network

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    INTRODUCTION Pedogenic (secondary) calcium carbonate is, by definition, a product of soil processes of calcium for pe- dogenic calcium carbonate (Gile et al., 1979). In regard to the source of the carbonate; Cerling et al., 1989; Quade et al., 1989). Because pedogenic calcium carbonate is read- ily soluble, its

  16. Calcium signalling and calcium channels: evolution and general principles.

    PubMed

    Verkhratsky, Alexei; Parpura, Vladimir

    2014-09-15

    Calcium as a divalent cation was selected early in evolution as a signaling molecule to be used by both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Its low cytosolic concentration likely reflects the initial concentration of this ion in the primordial soup/ocean as unicellular organisms were formed. As the concentration of calcium in the ocean subsequently increased, so did the diversity of homeostatic molecules handling calcium. This includes the plasma membrane channels that allowed the calcium entry, as well as extrusion mechanisms, i.e., exchangers and pumps. Further diversification occurred with the evolution of intracellular organelles, in particular the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, which also contain channels, exchanger(s) and pumps to handle the homeostasis of calcium ions. Calcium signalling system, based around coordinated interactions of the above molecular entities, can be activated by the opening of voltage-gated channels, neurotransmitters, second messengers and/or mechanical stimulation, and as such is all-pervading pathway in physiology and pathophysiology of organisms. PMID:24291103

  17. "Caged Calcium" in Aplysia Pacemaker Neurons Characterization of Calcium-activated Potassium and

    E-print Network

    Zucker, Robert S.

    "Caged Calcium" in Aplysia Pacemaker Neurons Characterization of Calcium-activated Potassium-Anatomy, Universityof California, Berkeley, California 94720 ABSTRACT We have studied calcium-activated potassium neurons, using photolysis of a calcium chelator (nitr-5 or nitr-7) to release "caged calcium

  18. Biocomposites and hybrid biomaterials based on calcium orthophosphates

    PubMed Central

    Dorozhkin, Sergey V.

    2011-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of biocomposites and hybrid biomaterials based on calcium orthophosphates that are suitable for biomedical applications is presented in this review. Since these types of biomaterials offer many significant and exciting possibilities for hard tissue regeneration, this subject belongs to a rapidly expanding area of biomedical research. Through successful combinations of the desired properties of matrix materials with those of fillers (in such systems, calcium orthophosphates might play either role), innovative bone graft biomaterials can be designed. Various types of biocomposites and hybrid biomaterials based on calcium orthophosphates, either those already in use or being investigated for biomedical applications, are extensively discussed. Many different formulations, in terms of the material constituents, fabrication technologies, structural and bioactive properties as well as both in vitro and in vivo characteristics, have already been proposed. Among the others, the nanostructurally controlled biocomposites, those containing nanodimensional compounds, biomimetically fabricated formulations with collagen, chitin and/or gelatin as well as various functionally graded structures seem to be the most promising candidates for clinical applications. The specific advantages of using biocomposites and hybrid biomaterials based on calcium orthophosphates in the selected applications are highlighted. As the way from the laboratory to the hospital is a long one, and the prospective biomedical candidates have to meet many different necessities, this review also examines the critical issues and scientific challenges that require further research and development. PMID:23507726

  19. Metabolic changes associated with calcium deficiency in potato sprouts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. C. Dekock; P. W. Dyson; A. Hall; Flora B. Grabowska

    1975-01-01

    Changes in the major elements and in citric, malic and chlorogenic acids have been studied in relation to sub-apical necrosis of potato sprouts. Both citric and chlorogenic acids accumulated in the necrotic sprout; application of calcium decreased these acids but increased malic acid.

  20. PHOTOSENSITIVE CENTERS AND CHARGE TRANSFER PROCESSES IN BARIUM CALCIUM TITANATE

    E-print Network

    Malovichko, Galina

    PHOTOSENSITIVE CENTERS AND CHARGE TRANSFER PROCESSES IN BARIUM CALCIUM TITANATE G.MALOVICHKO, V of crystals from barium titanate (BT) family make them promising candidates for various applications@uos.de; vgrachev@uos.de; schirmer@uos.de Abstract The results of the study of charge transfer processes in barium