These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Effects of post-harvest foliar boron and calcium applications on subsequent season's pollen germination and pollen tube growth of pear ( Pyrus pyrifolia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of foliar boron and calcium application after harvest on the quantity and activity of pollen in the ‘Housui’ and ‘Wonwhang’ pears on a subsequent year. Pollen grains of the ‘Housui’ pear were cultured on germination medium, to which had been added boric acid (0, 25, 75, 100, 200, 300,

Sang-Hyun Lee; Wol-Soo Kim; Tae-Ho Han

2009-01-01

2

Effect of Foliar Application of Phosphorus on Winter Wheat Grain Yield, Phosphorus Uptake, and Use Efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

One would expect foliar applied phosphorus (P) to have higher use efficiencies than when applied to the soil, but limited information is available concerning this. Experiments were conducted in 2002, 2003, and 2004 to determine the effect of foliar applications of P on winter wheat grain yields, P uptake, and use efficiency. Twelve treatments containing varying foliar P rates (0,

Jagadeesh Mosali; Kefyalew Desta; Roger K. Teal; Kyle W. Freeman; Kent L. Martin; Jason W. Lawles; William R. Raun

2006-01-01

3

Field evaluation of inorganic and chelated iron fertilizers as foliar sprays and soil application  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of inorganic and chelated ferric and ferrous fertilizers were tested for their ability to alleviate Fe chlorosis as foliar and soil application on peach and grape under field conditions. Limited re?greening was obtained with foliar application of ferric citrate\\/ammonium nitrate, ferrous sulfate and DTPA on peaches, and with foliar application of ferric citrate\\/ammonium nitrate and ferrous sulfate and

David Wm. Reed; Calvin G. Lyons Jr; George Ray McEachern

1988-01-01

4

Foliar nickel application alleviates detrimental effects of glyphosate drift on yield and seed quality of wheat.  

PubMed

Glyphosate drift to nontarget crops causes growth aberrations and yield losses. This herbicide can also interact with divalent nutrients and form poorly soluble complexes. The possibility of using nickel (Ni), an essential divalent metal, for alleviating glyphosate drift damage to wheat was investigated in this study. Effects of Ni applications on various growth parameters, seed yield, and quality of durum wheat ( Triticum durum ) treated with sublethal glyphosate at different developmental stages were investigated in greenhouse experiments. Nickel concentrations of various plant parts and glyphosate-induced shikimate accumulation were measured. Foliar but not soil Ni applications significantly reduced glyphosate injuries including yield losses, stunting, and excessive tillering. Both shoot and grain Ni concentrations were enhanced by foliar Ni treatment. Seed germination and seedling vigor were impaired by glyphosate and improved by foliar Ni application to parental plants. Foliar Ni application appears to have a great potential to ameliorate glyphosate drift injury to wheat. PMID:23882996

Kutman, Bahar Yildiz; Kutman, Umit Baris; Cakmak, Ismail

2013-09-01

5

The use of microbial siderophores for foliar iron application studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were conducted to assess the distribution of foliar applied Fe-containing compounds using microbial siderophores. Fe was measured in leaf fluid obtained by centrifugation according to a determination method based on Fe chelation by desferrioxamine E and HPLC separation on a reversed phase column. To avoid sample Fe contamination, treatments were only applied to a part of the leaf following

Victoria Fernàndez; Georg Ebert; Günther Winkelmann

2005-01-01

6

Nitrogen metabolism and seed composition as influenced by foliar boron application in soybean  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The effect of foliar boron (B) application on nitrogen metabolism and seed composition in soybean was not well investigated, especially under water stress conditions. Nonirrigated field experiment and watered (W) and water-stressed (WS) greenhouse experiments were conducted to investigate the effect...

7

Application of Calcium Phosphate Materials in Dentistry  

PubMed Central

Calcium phosphate materials are similar to bone in composition and in having bioactive and osteoconductive properties. Calcium phosphate materials in different forms, as cements, composites, and coatings, are used in many medical and dental applications. This paper reviews the applications of these materials in dentistry. It presents a brief history, dental applications, and methods for improving their mechanical properties. Notable research is highlighted regarding (1) application of calcium phosphate into various fields in dentistry; (2) improving mechanical properties of calcium phosphate; (3) biomimetic process and functionally graded materials. This paper deals with most common types of the calcium phosphate materials such as hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate which are currently used in dental and medical fields. PMID:23878541

Al-Sanabani, Jabr S.; Al-Sanabani, Fadhel A.

2013-01-01

8

Physiological response of onion plants to foliar application of putrescine and glutamine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two field experiments were carried out in Egypt during two successive seasons (2007\\/2008 and 2008\\/2009). This study aimed to investigate the response of growth, yield quality and some metabolic constituents of onion (Allium cepa L. cv. ‘Giza 20’) to foliar application of putrescine (Put; 25, 50 and 100mgL?1) and glutamine (Glut; 50, 100 and 200mgL?1), the former a diamine and

A. A. Amin; Fatma A. E. Gharib; M. El-Awadi; El-Sherbeny M. Rashad

2011-01-01

9

Physiological Response of Wheat to Foliar Application of Zinc and Inoculation with some Bacterial Fertilizers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a pot experiment, sterilized sandy soil (irrigated with Long-Ashton nutrient solution containing a half of the recommended dose of ZnSO4 · 7H2O) was used to study the effects of zinc (Zn) foliar-application, and soil biofertilization on some physiological traits of wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Sakha 155) plant grown for 70 days in greenhouse under controlled conditions. The treatments comprised different levels

Mohsen K. H. Ebrahim; Magda M. Aly

2005-01-01

10

Potential of foliar, dip, and injection applications of avermectins for control of plant-parasitic nematodes.  

PubMed

Studies were conducted to determine the potential of two avermectin compounds, abamectin and emamectin benzoate, for controlling plant-parasitic nematodes when applied by three methods: foliar spray, root dip, and pseudostem injection. Experiments were conducted against Meloidogyne incognita on tomato, M. javanica on banana, and Radopholus similis on banana. Foliar applications of both avermectins to banana and tomato were not effective for controlling any of the nematodes evaluated. Root dips of banana and tomato were moderately effective for controlling M. incognita on tomato and R. similis on banana. Injections (1 ml) of avermectins into banana pseudostems were effective for controlling M. javanica and R similis, and were comparable to control achieved with a conventional chemical nematicide, fenamiphos. Injections of 125 to 2,000 mug/plant effectively controlled one or both nematodes on banana; abamectin was more effective than emamectin benzoate for controlling nematodes. PMID:19274200

Jansson, R K; Rabatin, S

1998-03-01

11

Foliar potassium nitrate application improves the tolerance of Citrus macrophylla L. seedlings to drought conditions.  

PubMed

Scarcity of water is a severe limitation in citrus tree productivity. There are few studies that consider how to manage nitrogen (N) nutrition in crops suffering water deficit. A pot experiment under controlled-environment chambers was conducted to explore if additional N supply via foliar application could improve the drought tolerance of Citrus macrophylla L. seedlings under dry conditions. Two-month-old seedlings were subjected to a completely random design with two water treatments (drought stress and 100% water/field capacity). Plants under drought stress (DS) received three different N supplies via foliar application (DS: 0, DS + NH4NO3: 2% NH4NO3, DS + KNO3: 2% KNO3). KNO3-spraying increased leaf and stem DW as compared with DS + NH4NO3 and DS treatments. Leaf water potential (?w) was decreased by drought stress in all the treatments. However, in plants from DS + NH4NO and DS + KNO3, this was due to a decrease in the leaf osmotic potential, whereas the decrease in those from the DS treatment was due to a decrease in the leaf turgor potential. These responses were correlated with the leaf proline and K concentrations. DS + KNO3-treated plants had a higher leaf proline and K concentration than DS-treated plants. In terms of leaf gas exchange parameters, it was observed that net assimilation of CO2 [Formula: see text] was decreased by drought stress, but this reduction was much lower in DS + KNO3-treated plants. Thus, when all results are taken into account, it can be concluded that a 2% foliar-KNO3 application can enhance the tolerance of citrus plants to water stress by increasing the osmotic adjustment process. PMID:25218731

Gimeno, V; Díaz-López, L; Simón-Grao, S; Martínez, V; Martínez-Nicolás, J J; García-Sánchez, F

2014-10-01

12

Premixed calcium silicate cement for endodontic applications  

PubMed Central

Calcium silicate-based materials (also called MTA) are increasingly being used in endodontic applications. However, the handling properties of MTA are not optimal when it comes to injectability and cohesion. Premixing the cements using glycerol avoids these issues. However, there is a lack of data on the effect of common cement variables on important properties of premixed cements for endodontic applications. In this study, the effects of liquid-to-powder ratio, amount of radiopacifier and amount of calcium sulfate (added to control the setting time) were screened using a statistical model. In the second part of the study, the liquid-to-powder ratio was optimized for cements containing three different amounts of radiopacifier. Finally, the effect of using glycerol rather than water was evaluated in terms of radiopacity. The setting time was found to increase with the amount of radiopacifier when the liquid-to-powder ratio was fixed. This was likely due to the higher density of the radiopacifier in comparison to the calcium silicate, which gave a higher liquid-to-powder ratio in terms of volume. Using glycerol rather than water to mix the cements led to a decrease in radiopacity of the cement. In conclusion, we were able to produce premixed calcium silicate cements with acceptable properties for use in endodontic applications. PMID:23507729

Persson, Cecilia; Engqvist, Håkan

2011-01-01

13

40 CFR 461.20 - Applicability; description of the calcium subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Applicability; description of the calcium subcategory. 461.20 Section 461...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Subcategory § 461.20 Applicability; description of the calcium subcategory. This subpart...

2010-07-01

14

40 CFR 461.20 - Applicability; description of the calcium subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Applicability; description of the calcium subcategory. 461.20 Section 461...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Subcategory § 461.20 Applicability; description of the calcium subcategory. This subpart...

2011-07-01

15

40 CFR 461.20 - Applicability; description of the calcium subcategory.  

... Applicability; description of the calcium subcategory. 461.20 Section 461...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Subcategory § 461.20 Applicability; description of the calcium subcategory. This subpart...

2014-07-01

16

40 CFR 461.20 - Applicability; description of the calcium subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Applicability; description of the calcium subcategory. 461.20 Section 461...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Subcategory § 461.20 Applicability; description of the calcium subcategory. This subpart...

2012-07-01

17

40 CFR 461.20 - Applicability; description of the calcium subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Applicability; description of the calcium subcategory. 461.20 Section 461...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Subcategory § 461.20 Applicability; description of the calcium subcategory. This subpart...

2013-07-01

18

Management of Ditylenchus dipsaci in Daffodils with Foliar Applications of Oxamyl  

PubMed Central

Ditylenchus dipsaci (Kühn) Filipjev is a serious pest of commercial daffodil (Narcissus sp.) in northern California. The control measures practiced by growers in recent years are postharvest treatment of planting bulbs for 3 hours in a 1% solution of formalin at 44 C combined with preplant soil fumigation with 1,3-dicbloropropene and (or) at-planting applications of phorate. In field trials, several combinations of rates (1.12, 2.24, or 4.48 kg a.i./ha in 189 liters of water/ha) and timings (one, two, or three applications at weekly intervals) of foliar applications with oxamyl on three daffodil varieties (Fortune, Ice Folley, and King Alfred) were evaluated as alternatives. Several treatments reduced nematode levels in leaves and bulbs. Phytotoxicity was not observed at any rate or combination of treatments. PMID:19283189

Westerdahl, B. B.; Giraud, D.; Radewald, J. D.; Anderson, C. A.

1991-01-01

19

Effects of foliar boron application on seed composition, cell wall boron, and seed delta 15N and delta 13C isotopes in soybean are influenced by water stress  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Although the effect of foliar boron (B) application on yield and quality is well established for crops, limited information and controversial results still exist on the effects of foliar B application on soybean seed composition (seed protein, oil, fatty acids, and sugars). The objective of this res...

20

Effect of soil and foliar application of zinc on grain zinc and cadmium concentration of wheat genotypes differing in Zn-efficiency  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A two-year field experiment was carried out to investigate the effectiveness of soil and foliar applications of zinc sulfate and soil application of waste rubber ash to increase Zn and decrease cadmium (Cd) concentration in grain of 10 wheat genotypes with different Zn-efficiency. Foliar spray of zi...

21

Improving efficacy of Beauveria bassiana foliar treatments against Colorado potato beetle via manipulation of spray-application parameters  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Effects of hydraulic spray pressure and sprayer configuration on efficacy of foliar applications of B. bassiana against Leptinotarsa decemlineata larvae were evaluated during 4 field seasons. Treatments were applied to small plots using a tractor-mounted sprayer with nozzles mounted on swivels on sh...

22

Investigating calcium polyphosphate addition to a conventional calcium phosphate cement for bone-interfacing applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) are of great interest in bone regeneration applications because of their biocompatibility and osteoconductivity, and as delivery vehicles for therapeutics; however, delivery applications have been limited by adverse interactions between therapeutics and the cement setting reaction. Amorphous calcium polyphosphate (CPP) yields a biodegradable material with a demonstrated drug delivery capacity following appropriate processing. The incorporation of

Jennifer Lynn Krausher

2010-01-01

23

Effect of pre-harvest calcium chloride applications on fruit calcium level and post-harvest anthracnose disease of papaya  

E-print Network

Effect of pre-harvest calcium chloride applications on fruit calcium level and post October 2013 Keywords: Papaya Anthracnose Calcium Disease incidence Disease severity a b s t r a c losses. The goal of this research was to use pre-harvest calcium applications to reduce anthracnose

Biggs, Alan R.

24

Growth Promotion of Yunnan Pine Early Seedlings in Response to Foliar Application of IAA and IBA.  

PubMed

A field experiment was conducted using a 3 × 3 orthogonal regression design to explore the growth promotion of one-year-old Yunnan pine seedlings (Pinus yunnanensis Franch.) in response to foliar application of IAA (indole-3-acetic acid) at rates of 0, 200 and 400 mg·L(-1) and IBA (indole-3-butyric acid) at rates of 0, 200 and 400 mg·L(-1) in order to promote the growth during the seedlings' early stage. The experiment was conducted at the Lufeng Village Forest Farm of Yiliang County in Kunming, Yunnan, China. The results showed that IAA and IBA were effective in growth promotion of Yunnan pine seedlings. The response of both growth increment and biomass accumulation to the concentration of IAA and IBA can be modeled using a bivariate surface response, and each growth index had a peak value. Growth indexes increased with the increase of the dosage of photohormones before reaching a peak value, and then decreased. The different growth indexes had various responses to the concentrations and ratio of IAA and IBA. The foliar application of IAA in combination with IBA showed the largest improvement on the biomass of the needles, followed by stems and roots. The higher ratio of IAA promoted stem diameter growth, root system development and biomass accumulation in the needles, while a higher ratio of IBA contributed to height growth and biomass accumulation in the stem. Based on the auxin effect equations on the different growth indexes and surface response, the optimum concentrations and the (IAA:IBA) ratios can be obtained. The optimum concentrations of IAA and IBA were 167 and 186, 310 and 217, 193 and 159, 191 and 221, and 206 and 186 mg·L(-1), with corresponding ratios of 1:1.11, 1:0.70, 1:0.82, 1:1.15 and 1:0.90, respectively, at the maximum seedling height and collar diameter growth as well as biomass accumulation at the root, stem and needle. The above growth indexes were 22.00%, 79.80%, 48.65%, 82.20% and 107.00% higher than the control treatment. PMID:22754380

Xu, Yulan; Zhang, Yuemin; Li, Yunfei; Li, Genqian; Liu, Daiyi; Zhao, Minchong; Cai, Nianhui

2012-01-01

25

Growth Promotion of Yunnan Pine Early Seedlings in Response to Foliar Application of IAA and IBA  

PubMed Central

A field experiment was conducted using a 3 × 3 orthogonal regression design to explore the growth promotion of one-year-old Yunnan pine seedlings (Pinus yunnanensis Franch.) in response to foliar application of IAA (indole-3-acetic acid) at rates of 0, 200 and 400 mg·L?1 and IBA (indole-3-butyric acid) at rates of 0, 200 and 400 mg·L?1 in order to promote the growth during the seedlings’ early stage. The experiment was conducted at the Lufeng Village Forest Farm of Yiliang County in Kunming, Yunnan, China. The results showed that IAA and IBA were effective in growth promotion of Yunnan pine seedlings. The response of both growth increment and biomass accumulation to the concentration of IAA and IBA can be modeled using a bivariate surface response, and each growth index had a peak value. Growth indexes increased with the increase of the dosage of photohormones before reaching a peak value, and then decreased. The different growth indexes had various responses to the concentrations and ratio of IAA and IBA. The foliar application of IAA in combination with IBA showed the largest improvement on the biomass of the needles, followed by stems and roots. The higher ratio of IAA promoted stem diameter growth, root system development and biomass accumulation in the needles, while a higher ratio of IBA contributed to height growth and biomass accumulation in the stem. Based on the auxin effect equations on the different growth indexes and surface response, the optimum concentrations and the (IAA:IBA) ratios can be obtained. The optimum concentrations of IAA and IBA were 167 and 186, 310 and 217, 193 and 159, 191 and 221, and 206 and 186 mg·L?1, with corresponding ratios of 1:1.11, 1:0.70, 1:0.82, 1:1.15 and 1:0.90, respectively, at the maximum seedling height and collar diameter growth as well as biomass accumulation at the root, stem and needle. The above growth indexes were 22.00%, 79.80%, 48.65%, 82.20% and 107.00% higher than the control treatment. PMID:22754380

Xu, Yulan; Zhang, Yuemin; Li, Yunfei; Li, Genqian; Liu, Daiyi; Zhao, Minchong; Cai, Nianhui

2012-01-01

26

Determination of Optimum Rate and Growth Stage for Foliar?Applied Phosphorus in Corn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foliar applications of fertilizer phosphorus (P) could improve use efficiency by minimizing soil applications. Nine experiments were conducted in 2002 and 2003 to determine foliar P rates and appropriate growth stages for application. Treatments comprised of 10 factorial combinations of three foliar P application timings and four rates of foliar P. Foliar application times were V4 (collar of fourth leaf

Kefyalew Girma; K. L. Martin; K. W. Freeman; J. Mosali; R. K. Teal; William. R. Raun; S. M. Moges; D. B. Arnall

2007-01-01

27

Calcium.  

PubMed

This chapter describes the chemical and biological value of the calcium ion. In calcium chemistry, our main interest is in equilibria within static, nonflowing systems. Hence, we examined the way calcium formed precipitates and complex ions in solution. We observed thereafter its uses by humankind in a vast number of materials such as minerals, e.g., marble, concrete, mortars, which parallel the biological use in shells and bones. In complex formation, we noted that many combinations were of anion interaction with calcium for example in the uses of detergents and medicines. The rates of exchange of calcium from bound states were noted but they had little application. Calcium ions do not act as catalysts of organic reactions. In biological systems, interest is in the above chemistry, but extends to the fact that Ca2+ ions can carry information by flowing in one solution or from one solution to another through membranes. Hence, we became interested in the details of rates of calcium exchange. The fast exchange of this divalent ion from most organic binding sites has allowed it to develop as the dominant second messenger. Now the flow can be examined in vitro as calcium binds particular isolated proteins, which it activates as seen in physical mechanical changes or chemical changes and this piece-by-piece study of cells is common. Here, however, we have chosen to stress the whole circuit of Ca2+ action indicating that the cell is organized both at a basal and an activated state kinetic level by the steady state flow of the ion (see Fig. 11). Different time constants of exchange utilizing very similar binding constants lead to: 1) fast responses as in the muscle of an animal; or 2) slower change as in differentiation of an egg or seed. Many other changes of state may relate to Ca2+ steady-state levels of flow in the circuitry and here we point to two: 1) dormancy in reptiles and animals; and 2) sporulation in both bacteria and lower plants. In the other chapters of this volume many components of the overall circuitry will be described. The reader should try to marry these into the overall activity of the cell for on top of molecular biology there is the cooperative system molecular biology of cells. To give an analogy, whereas much can be understood from the analysis of the properties of single-isolated water molecules, even examining their interaction in ice, this study alone cannot lead to an appreciation of the melting or boiling points of bulk water. PMID:11833348

Williams, Robert J P

2002-01-01

28

40 CFR 415.50 - Applicability; description of the calcium oxide production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...true Applicability; description of the calcium oxide production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Oxide Production Subcategory § 415.50 Applicability; description of the calcium oxide production subcategory....

2011-07-01

29

40 CFR 415.30 - Applicability; description of the calcium carbide production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...true Applicability; description of the calcium carbide production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Carbide Production Subcategory § 415.30 Applicability; description of the calcium carbide production subcategory....

2010-07-01

30

40 CFR 415.310 - Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...true Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Hydroxide Production Subcategory § 415.310 Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory....

2011-07-01

31

40 CFR 415.300 - Applicability; description of the calcium carbonate production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...true Applicability; description of the calcium carbonate production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Carbonate Production Subcategory § 415.300 Applicability; description of the calcium carbonate production subcategory....

2010-07-01

32

40 CFR 424.50 - Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory. 424...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Other Calcium Carbide Furnaces Subcategory § 424.50 Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory....

2010-07-01

33

40 CFR 415.50 - Applicability; description of the calcium oxide production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...true Applicability; description of the calcium oxide production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Oxide Production Subcategory § 415.50 Applicability; description of the calcium oxide production subcategory....

2010-07-01

34

40 CFR 415.40 - Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...true Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.40 Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory....

2010-07-01

35

40 CFR 415.310 - Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...true Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Hydroxide Production Subcategory § 415.310 Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory....

2010-07-01

36

40 CFR 415.40 - Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...true Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.40 Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory....

2011-07-01

37

40 CFR 424.50 - Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory. 424...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Other Calcium Carbide Furnaces Subcategory § 424.50 Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory....

2011-07-01

38

40 CFR 415.30 - Applicability; description of the calcium carbide production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...true Applicability; description of the calcium carbide production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Carbide Production Subcategory § 415.30 Applicability; description of the calcium carbide production subcategory....

2011-07-01

39

40 CFR 415.300 - Applicability; description of the calcium carbonate production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...true Applicability; description of the calcium carbonate production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Carbonate Production Subcategory § 415.300 Applicability; description of the calcium carbonate production subcategory....

2011-07-01

40

40 CFR 415.310 - Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Hydroxide Production Subcategory § 415.310 Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory....

2012-07-01

41

40 CFR 415.40 - Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory.  

...true Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.40 Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory....

2014-07-01

42

40 CFR 424.50 - Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory. 424...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Other Calcium Carbide Furnaces Subcategory § 424.50 Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory....

2013-07-01

43

40 CFR 415.30 - Applicability; description of the calcium carbide production subcategory.  

...true Applicability; description of the calcium carbide production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Carbide Production Subcategory § 415.30 Applicability; description of the calcium carbide production subcategory....

2014-07-01

44

40 CFR 424.50 - Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory.  

...Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory. 424...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Other Calcium Carbide Furnaces Subcategory § 424.50 Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory....

2014-07-01

45

40 CFR 415.40 - Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.40 Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory....

2012-07-01

46

40 CFR 415.50 - Applicability; description of the calcium oxide production subcategory.  

...true Applicability; description of the calcium oxide production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Oxide Production Subcategory § 415.50 Applicability; description of the calcium oxide production subcategory....

2014-07-01

47

40 CFR 415.50 - Applicability; description of the calcium oxide production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Applicability; description of the calcium oxide production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Oxide Production Subcategory § 415.50 Applicability; description of the calcium oxide production subcategory....

2012-07-01

48

40 CFR 415.300 - Applicability; description of the calcium carbonate production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Applicability; description of the calcium carbonate production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Carbonate Production Subcategory § 415.300 Applicability; description of the calcium carbonate production subcategory....

2012-07-01

49

40 CFR 415.310 - Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...true Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Hydroxide Production Subcategory § 415.310 Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory....

2013-07-01

50

40 CFR 424.50 - Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory. 424...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Other Calcium Carbide Furnaces Subcategory § 424.50 Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory....

2012-07-01

51

40 CFR 415.30 - Applicability; description of the calcium carbide production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...true Applicability; description of the calcium carbide production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Carbide Production Subcategory § 415.30 Applicability; description of the calcium carbide production subcategory....

2013-07-01

52

40 CFR 415.300 - Applicability; description of the calcium carbonate production subcategory.  

...true Applicability; description of the calcium carbonate production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Carbonate Production Subcategory § 415.300 Applicability; description of the calcium carbonate production subcategory....

2014-07-01

53

40 CFR 415.40 - Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...true Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.40 Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory....

2013-07-01

54

40 CFR 415.300 - Applicability; description of the calcium carbonate production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...true Applicability; description of the calcium carbonate production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Carbonate Production Subcategory § 415.300 Applicability; description of the calcium carbonate production subcategory....

2013-07-01

55

40 CFR 415.310 - Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory.  

...true Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Hydroxide Production Subcategory § 415.310 Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory....

2014-07-01

56

40 CFR 415.30 - Applicability; description of the calcium carbide production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Applicability; description of the calcium carbide production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Carbide Production Subcategory § 415.30 Applicability; description of the calcium carbide production subcategory....

2012-07-01

57

40 CFR 415.50 - Applicability; description of the calcium oxide production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...true Applicability; description of the calcium oxide production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Oxide Production Subcategory § 415.50 Applicability; description of the calcium oxide production subcategory....

2013-07-01

58

Foliar boron and nickel applications reduce water-stage fruit-split of pecan  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Water-stage fruit-split (WSFS) is a relatively common and often major problem of certain pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] cultivars. This study evaluates the possibility that the malady can be influenced by improving tree micronutrient nutrition. Foliar sprays of boron (B) and nickel...

59

Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 107 (2001) 167175 Reduction of transpiration through foliar application of chitosan  

E-print Network

was applied foliarly to pepper plants and water use was monitored. Peppers were grown in pots in growth to the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA), which plays a key role in the regulation of water use by plants of chitosan, a natural beta-1-4-linked glucosamine polymer, to reduce plant transpiration. Chitosan

Flury, Markus

60

Effect of sequential applications of foliar nutrients, biofertilizers and sowing dates on the incidence of corn stem borers in Egypt.  

PubMed

In this study either early sown (May 1st) or lately sown (June 2nd) corn plants were treated with Phosphorin & Rhizobactrin as biofertilizers and sprayed with six selected foliar nutrients, i.e. Polymex; Greenzit SP100, Greenzit NPK, Potasin-F, Copper sulphate and Ascorbic acid; in mono-, bi-, and/or tri-sequential applications. Such practices were conducted to show their beneficial effects compared with the chemical treatment in checking the incidence of the stem borers and hence increasing the corn yield. The obtained results could be summarized in the following chief points: (a) the lately sown biofertilized plants showed somewhat higher levels of infestation than the early planted ones., (b) in general, spraying the biofertilized corn plants in both sowing dates with the tested foliar nutrients, significantly decreased the rate of the stem borers infestation than the untreated plants of control., (c) the foliar sprays of Greenzit NPK alone, bi- or tri-sequential applications of Potasin-F, Polymex, Ascorbic acid and Copper sulphate achieved considerable success in reducing larval numbers of the borers species. For example, in case of using the bi-sequential nutrients (Polymex/Ascorbic acid) the numbers were 1.2, 1.5 and 1.2 larvae/5 plants, whereas the numbers were 1.3, 1.0 and 0.7 larvae/5 plants as a result, of the tri-sequential applications (Potasin-F/Ascorbic acid/Polymex) for the pink stem borer, Sesamia cretica, (Led.), the purple lined borer, Chilo agamemnon, (Bels.), and the European corn borer Ostrinia nubilalis (Hb.), in respect, vs. 4.8, 4.5 and 2.9 larvae/5 plants for the same stem borers, respectively, in case of the untreated corn plants. In addition, the other trisequential applications (Polymex/ascorbic acid/Copper sulphate), (Potasin-F/Copper sulphate/ascorbic acid) and (Potasin-F/Copper sulphate/Polymex) reduced the stem borers infestation; (d) from the view point of the interaction effects of sowing dates and the tested foliar nutrients, it was found that the tri-sequential sprayings (Potasin-F/Copper sulphate/Polymex) and/or (Potasin-F/Copper sulphate/Ascorbic acid) have lowered the rate of the stem borers infestation to 3.3 and 3.3 and 5.7 and 4.3 larvae/5 plants for the tri-applications in the 1st and 2nd sowing dates, respectively. Such reductions in the levels of infestation led to an increase in the grain yield up to 6.9 and 7.2 and 5.4 and 5.8 ton/fed, for the early and lately sown corn plants, in respect, and (e) All the foliar nutrients, with no exception, proved to be efficient in managing the stem borers infestation as compared with the insecticide treatment using Polytrin. Although the chemical application had lowered the level of infestation to 2.3 and 5.7 larvae/5 plants in the 1st and 2nd sowing dates as compared with 9.7 and 14.7 larvae/5 untreated plants for the same sowing dates, lesser grain yield of 5.6 and 4.4 ton/fed. was obtained in the first and second dates of planting, successively, in comparison to the grain yield resulted from the tri-applications of Potasin-F/Copper sulphate with either Polymex or Ascorbic acid. The abovementioned results assured the profitable effects of using foliar nutrients as well as the biofertilizers for attaining healthy corn plants, which would be capable of tolerating the injury inflicted by the studied stem borers and compensating for the harmful effects of insects infestation, so high grain yields could be obtained than those of the untreated and/or the insecticide treated plants. PMID:12696416

Mesbah, H A; Mourad, A K; el-Nimr, Hanyiat M; el-Kady, Magda B; Haroun, Nagah S

2002-01-01

61

Calcium  

MedlinePLUS

... of calcium dietary supplements are carbonate and citrate. Calcium carbonate is inexpensive, but is absorbed best when taken ... antacid products, such as Tums® and Rolaids®, contain calcium carbonate. Each pill or chew provides 200–400 mg ...

62

Calcium  

MedlinePLUS

Calcium is a mineral that is an essential part of bones and teeth. The heart, nerves, and blood-clotting systems also need calcium ... as well as the calcium-enriched citrus juices, mineral water, canned fish with bones, and soy products ...

63

First evidence on phloem transport of nanoscale calcium oxide in groundnut using solution culture technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoscale materials, whose size typically falls below 100 nm, exhibit novel chemical, physical and biological properties which are different from their bulk counterparts. In the present investigation, we demonstrated that nanoscale calcium oxide particles (n-CaO) could transport through phloem tissue of groundnut unlike the corresponding bulk materials. n-CaO particles are prepared using sol-gel method. The size of the as prepared n-CaO measured (69.9 nm) using transmission electron microscopic technique (TEM). Results of the hydroponics experiment using solution culture technique revealed that foliar application of n-CaO at different concentrations (10, 50, 100, 500, 1,000 ppm) on groundnut plants confirmed the entry of calcium into leaves and stems through phloem compared to bulk source of calcium sprayed (CaO and CaNO3). After spraying of n-CaO, calcium content in roots, shoots and leaves significantly increased. Based on visual scoring of calcium deficiency correction and calcium content in plant parts, we may establish the fact that nanoscale calcium oxide particles (size 69.9 nm) could move through phloem tissue in groundnut. This is the first report on phloem transport of nanoscale calcium oxide particles in plants and this result points to the use of nanoscale calcium oxide particles as calcium source to the plants through foliar application, agricultural crops in particular, as bulk calcium application through foliar nutrition is restricted due to its non-mobility in phloem.

Deepa, Manchala; Sudhakar, Palagiri; Nagamadhuri, Kandula Venkata; Balakrishna Reddy, Kota; Giridhara Krishna, Thimmavajjula; Prasad, Tollamadugu Naga Venkata Krishna Vara

2014-08-01

64

Biomineralization of calcium carbonates and their engineered applications: a review  

PubMed Central

Microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation (MICCP) is a naturally occurring biological process in which microbes produce inorganic materials as part of their basic metabolic activities. This technology has been widely explored and promising with potential in various technical applications. In the present review, the detailed mechanism of production of calcium carbonate biominerals by ureolytic bacteria has been discussed along with role of bacteria and the sectors where these biominerals are being used. The applications of bacterially produced carbonate biominerals for improving the durability of buildings, remediation of environment (water and soil), sequestration of atmospheric CO2 filler material in rubbers and plastics etc. are discussed. The study also sheds light on benefits of bacterial biominerals over traditional agents and also the issues that lie in the path of successful commercialization of the technology of microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation from lab to field scale. PMID:24194735

Dhami, Navdeep K.; Reddy, M. Sudhakara; Mukherjee, Abhijit

2013-01-01

65

Foliar Damage, Ion Content, and Mortality Rate of Five Common Roadside Tree Species Treated with Soil Applications of Magnesium Chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensitivity to magnesium chloride (MgCl2) was assessed on five common roadside tree species by maintaining soil concentrations at 0-, 400-, 800-, or 1,600-ppm chloride\\u000a via MgCl2 solution over four growing seasons. Evaluations of growth, leaf retention, foliar damage, and ion concentrations were conducted.\\u000a Water potentials were measured on two species. Foliar chloride and magnesium concentrations were positively correlated with\\u000a foliar

Betsy A. Goodrich; William R. Jacobi

66

Soybean seed phenol, lignin, and isoflavones and sugars composition are altered by Foliar Boron application in soybean under water stress  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Previous research showed that foliar boron (B) fertilizer at flowering or seed-fill growth stages altered seed protein, oil, and fatty acids. The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of foliar B fertilizer on seed phenolics (phenol, lignin, and isoflavones) and sugars concentrat...

67

Reversible loss of gravitropic sensitivity in maize roots after tip application of calcium chelators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of calcium chelating agents (EDTA or EGTA) to the tips of maize roots caused a loss of gravitropic sensitivity. When the chelator was replaced with calcium chloride, gravitropic sensitivity was restored. Asymmetric application of calcium chloride near the tip of a vertical root caused curvature toward the calcium source. When the calcium was applied to the upper surface of the tip of a root oriented horizontally, the root curved upward even though control roots exhibited strong downward curvature. Application of calcium chloride to the tips of decapped roots, which are known to be gravitropically insensitive, did not restore gravitropic sensitivity. However, asymmetric application of calcium chloride near the tips of decapped roots caused curvature toward the calcium source. Calcium may play a key role in linking gravity detection to gravitropic curvature in roots.

Lee, J. S.; Mulkey, T. J.; Evans, M. L.

1983-01-01

68

Application of glycerol as a foliar spray activates the defence response and enhances disease resistance of Theobroma cacao.  

PubMed

Previous work has implicated glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P) as a mobile inducer of systemic immunity in plants. We tested the hypothesis that the exogenous application of glycerol as a foliar spray might enhance the disease resistance of Theobroma cacao through the modulation of endogenous G3P levels. We found that exogenous application of glycerol to cacao leaves over a period of 4 days increased the endogenous level of G3P and decreased the level of oleic acid (18:1). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were produced (a marker of defence activation) and the expression of many pathogenesis-related genes was induced. Notably, the effects of glycerol application on G3P and 18:1 fatty acid content, and gene expression levels, in cacao leaves were dosage dependent. A 100?mm glycerol spray application was sufficient to stimulate the defence response without causing any observable damage, and resulted in a significantly decreased lesion formation by the cacao pathogen Phytophthora capsici; however, a 500?mm glycerol treatment led to chlorosis and cell death. The effects of glycerol treatment on the level of 18:1 and ROS were constrained to the locally treated leaves without affecting distal tissues. The mechanism of the glycerol-mediated defence response in cacao and its potential use as part of a sustainable farming system are discussed. PMID:24863347

Zhang, Yufan; Smith, Philip; Maximova, Siela N; Guiltinan, Mark J

2015-01-01

69

Improving yield, quality, and shelf life of Thompson seedless grapevine by preharvest foliar applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten-year-old Thompson seedless grape vines were sprayed during 2009 and 2010 growing seasons with putrescine (Put), gibberellic acid (GA3), ascorbic acid (AA), ethephon (Eth), salicylic acid (SA), cytofex (CPPU) and calcium chloride (CaCl2) at two stages of berry development; pea stage (4–5mm fruitlet diameter, ?30–35 days after fruit set) and veraison stage (when approximately 20% of the berries on 50%

H. A. Marzouk; H. A. Kassem

2011-01-01

70

EFFECT OF FOLIAR APPLICATION OF UREA, MOLYBDENUM, BENZYLADENINE, SUCROSE AND SALICYLIC ACID ON YIELD, NITROGEN METABOLISM OF RADISH PLANTS AND QUALITY OF EDIBLE ROOTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2006–2007 small radish was cultivated in a pot experiment. Foliar applications were applied twice with solutions of the following compounds: 1) control (water); 2) urea; 3) urea+molybdenum (Mo), 4) urea+Mo+benzyladenine (BA); 5) urea+Mo+BA+sucrose; 6) urea+Mo+BA+sucrose+salicylic acid (SA), 7) BA; 8) SA; and 9) sucrose. The above solutions contained following concentrations of compounds: urea 20 g dm, sucrose 10 g

Sylwester Smole?; W?odzimierz Sady

2012-01-01

71

Amorphous calcium phosphate and its application in dentistry  

PubMed Central

Amorphous Calcium Phosphate (ACP) is an essential mineral phase formed in mineralized tissues and the first commercial product as artificial hydroxyapatite. ACP is unique among all forms of calcium phosphates in that it lacks long-range, periodic atomic scale order of crystalline calcium phosphates. The X-ray diffraction pattern is broad and diffuse with a maximum at 25 degree 2 theta, and no other different features compared with well-crystallized hydroxyapatite. Under electron microscopy, its morphological form is shown as small spheroidal particles in the scale of tenths nanometer. In aqueous media, ACP is easily transformed into crystalline phases such as octacalcium phosphate and apatite due to the growing of microcrystalline. It has been demonstrated that ACP has better osteoconductivity and biodegradability than tricalcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite in vivo. Moreover, it can increase alkaline phosphatase activities of mesoblasts, enhance cell proliferation and promote cell adhesion. The unique role of ACP during the formation of mineralized tissues makes it a promising candidate material for tissue repair and regeneration. ACP may also be a potential remineralizing agent in dental applications. Recently developed ACP-filled bioactive composites are believed to be effective anti-demineralizing/remineralizing agents for the preservation and repair of tooth structures. This review provides an overview of the development, structure, chemical composition, morphological characterization, phase transformation and biomedical application of ACP in dentistry. PMID:21740535

2011-01-01

72

Investigating calcium polyphosphate addition to a conventional calcium phosphate cement for bone-interfacing applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) are of great interest in bone regeneration applications because of their biocompatibility and osteoconductivity, and as delivery vehicles for therapeutics; however, delivery applications have been limited by adverse interactions between therapeutics and the cement setting reaction. Amorphous calcium polyphosphate (CPP) yields a biodegradable material with a demonstrated drug delivery capacity following appropriate processing. The incorporation of drug-loaded CPP into a CPC is under consideration as a method of minimizing adverse interactions and extending drug release. This thesis represents the first investigation into the effects of CPP addition on the properties, setting and antibiotic release profile of a conventional apatitic calcium phosphate cement. As-made, gelled and vancomycin-loaded CPP particulate were added to the powder component of a conventional dicalcium phosphate/tetracalcium phosphate CPC. The setting behaviour, set properties and microstructure of the resulting CPP-CPCs were evaluated with setting time testing (Gilmore needle method), pH testing, mechanical testing, SEM imaging, XRD and FTIR analysis. In vitro degradation and elution behaviour were evaluated by monitoring calcium release (atomic absorbance spectroscopy), mechanical strength and vancomycin release (UV-visual spectrophotometry). CPP addition was found to increase the setting time, reduce the mechanical strength and inhibit the conversion of the CPC starting powders to the set apatitic phase. The most likely mechanism for the observed effect of CPP addition was the adsorption of polyphosphate chains on the particle surfaces, which would inhibit the dissolution of the starting powders and the conversion of apatite precursor phases to apatite, leading to reduced mechanical properties. The detrimental effects of CPP were reduced by limiting the CPP fraction to less than a few weight per cent and increasing the size of the CPP particulate. CPP-containing CPCs were found to degrade more rapidly than the CPP-free controls. The ability of drug-loaded CPP to minimize adverse interactions between drug and cement could not be determined because of the adverse effect of CPP itself and the low vancomycin loads studied, but there was evidence that vancomycin release from apatitic CPCs could be extended through the use of loaded CPP.

Krausher, Jennifer Lynn

73

Block of L-type calcium channels by charged dihydropyridines. Sensitivity to side of application and calcium  

PubMed Central

We have studied block of L-type calcium channels by intracellular and extracellular application of the ionized dihydropyridine derivatives amlodipine and SDZ 207-180. We find that extracellular application of either drug causes voltage-dependent block of calcium channels. However, neither drug is effective when applied intracellularly. The insensitivity of calcium channels to intracellular drug is not due to the low concentrations of cytosolic calcium, because voltage-dependent block by ionized amlodipine, SDZ 207-180, and the neutral drug nisoldipine persists under conditions in which Ca0 is buffered by EGTA. In fact, the time course of the development of block by the ionized but not neutral drug molecules studied, is slower in the presence than in the absence of calcium. Our results indicate that the DHP binding site of the L-type calcium channel is close to the extracellular surface of the cell membrane and that ionized DHP molecules may interact with the receptor in a manner that is uniquely affected by calcium. PMID:1658191

1991-01-01

74

Understanding variability associated with corn grain yield response to foliar fungicide application.  

E-print Network

??Quinone outside inhibitor (QoI) fungicide (e.g., pyraclostrobin, azoxystrobin, and trifloxystrobin) fungicide application is becoming a common practice in corn production systems. The strobilurin class of… (more)

Marshall, John

2014-01-01

75

DEVELOPMENT OF CEMENTITIOUS MATERIALS FOR ADHESION TYPE APPLICATIONS COMPRISING CALCIUM SULFOALUMINATE (CSA) CEMENT AND LATEX POLYMER.  

E-print Network

??The objective of this research was to develop high performing polymer modified calcium sulfoaluminate (CSA) cement materials for use in applications requiring superior adhesion characteristics.… (more)

Brien, Joshua V

2014-01-01

76

Influence of phosphorus application and arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation on growth, foliar nitrogen mobilization, and phosphorus partitioning in cowpea plants.  

PubMed

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of phosphorus (P) application and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi (Funneliformis mosseae) on growth, foliar nitrogen mobilization, and phosphorus partitioning in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata cv. Vita-5) plants. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse in pots containing a mixture of vermiculite and sterilized quartz sand. Mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal cowpea plants were supplied with three levels of soluble P (0.1 (low P), 0.5 (medium P), or 1.0 mM (high P)).Cowpea plants supplied with low P fertilization showed significantly (p?

Taffouo, Victor Désiré; Ngwene, Benard; Akoa, Amougou; Franken, Philipp

2014-07-01

77

The role of calcium in improving photosynthesis and related physiological and biochemical attributes of spring wheat subjected to simulated acid rain.  

PubMed

The response of photosynthesis parameters, catalase, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activity, malondialdehyde, proline, chlorophyll, yield and yield components to foliar application of calcium and simulated acid rain in wheat were investigated. Foliar treatment of calcium led to significant increases in the photosynthesis rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, proline, chlorophyll, yield and yield components in plants subjected to acid rain. Antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation in the wheat leaves decreased because of calcium foliar application. Calcium hindered degradation of the rubisco subunits under acid rain treatment compared with water-treated plants. Results suggest that acid rain induces the production of free radicals resulting in lipid peroxidation of the cell membrane so that significant increase in antioxidant enzyme activity was observed. In addition, photosynthetic parameters i.e. photosynthesis rate, transpiration rate and stomatal conductance were drastically suppressed by acid rain. The cellular damage caused by free radicals might be reduced or prevented by a protective metabolism including antioxidative enzymes and calcium. We report that foliar application of calcium before acid rain may ameliorate the adverse effects of acid rain in wheat plants. PMID:24431486

Dolatabadian, Aria; Sanavy, Seyed Ali Mohammad Modarres; Gholamhoseini, Majid; Joghan, Aydin Khodaei; Majdi, Mohammad; Kashkooli, Arman Beyraghdar

2013-04-01

78

Amorphous calcium phosphate and its application in dentistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amorphous Calcium Phosphate (ACP) is an essential mineral phase formed in mineralized tissues and the first commercial product\\u000a as artificial hydroxyapatite. ACP is unique among all forms of calcium phosphates in that it lacks long-range, periodic atomic\\u000a scale order of crystalline calcium phosphates. The X-ray diffraction pattern is broad and diffuse with a maximum at 25 degree\\u000a 2 theta, and

Jie Zhao; Yu Liu; Wei-bin Sun; Hai Zhang

2011-01-01

79

Quantifying the non-fungicidal effects of foliar applications of fluxapyroxad (Xemium) on stomatal conductance, water use efficiency and yield in winter wheat.  

PubMed

The active ingredient fluxapyroxad belongs to the chemical group of carboxamides and is a new generation succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor (SDHI) in complex II of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. It has strong efficacy against the key foliar diseases of winter wheat in the UK: Septoria leaf blotch, yellow stripe rust and brown rust. Fluxapyroxad is marketed under the brand name of Xemium, was launched in 2012 and is available in the UK as a solo product (Imtrex) for co-application with triazoles, in co-formulation with epoxiconazole (Adexar), or in a three way formulation with epoxiconazole and pyraclostrobin (Ceriax). The objective of the study was to quantify the direct effects of Xemium on stomatal conductance and yield, mediated through stimulation of host physiology. Three field experiments and two controlled environment (CE) experiments were conducted across three cropping seasons (2010-2012) in Herefordshire and Cambridge, in the UK. Xemium was evaluated against boscalid, pyraclostrobin (F500), epoxiconazole and an untreated control. Across site-seasons, disease severity was significantly reduced when Xemium was applied as a foliar spray. Healthy canopy size and duration was increased by Xemium and canopy greening effects were seen shortly after application. Stomatal conductance was found to be consistently lower in Xemium treated plants but reduced stomatal opening was not found to be detrimental to yield in these experiments. Large, beneficial effects of Xemium on water use efficiency were found at the canopy level and this finding was supported by measurements of instantaneous water use efficiency at the leaf level. Effects on season long water use efficiency were largely driven by improvements in yield for a given amount of water uptake. Foliar applications of Xemium reduced the water required to produce 1.0 t grain per hectare by 82,330 L(82 t) when compared with an untreated crop. Yield was significantly higher in Xemium treatments and this was achieved primarily through increases in grains ear. Evidence is presented hereto show that in addition to controlling visible disease symptoms, Xemium is able to exert positive physiological effects on the host. The yield increase from plots treated with Xemium applied at standard commercial timings was shown to exceed that which can be explained solely through good disease control and the associated loss of healthy canopy area. Approximately 1.0 t ha(-1) (12%) yield was produced by Xemium treatments which could not be accounted for through the control of visible disease symptoms. PMID:25151827

Smith, J; Grimmer, M; Waterhouse, S; Paveley, N

2013-01-01

80

Effects of foliar boron application on seed composition, cell wall boron, and seed ?15N and ?13C isotopes in water-stressed soybean plants  

PubMed Central

Limited information is available on the effects of foliar boron (B) application on soybean seed composition. The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of foliar B on seed composition (protein, oil, fatty acids, and sugars). Our hypothesis was that since B is involved in nitrogen and carbon metabolism, it may impact seed composition. A repeated greenhouse experiment was conducted where half of the soybean plants was exposed to water stress (WS) and the other half was well-watered. Foliar boron (FB) in the form of boric acid was applied twice at a rate of 1.1 kg ha?1. The first application was during flowering stage, and the second application was during seed-fill stage. Treatments were water stressed plants with no FB (WS–B); water stressed plants with FB (WS+B); watered plants without FB (W–B), and watered plants with FB (W+B). The treatment W–B was used as a control. Comparing with WS–B plants, B concentration was the highest in leaves and seed of W+B plants (84% increase in leaves and 73% in seed). Seeds of W+B plants had higher protein (11% increase), oleic acid (27% increase), sucrose (up to 40% increase), glucose, and fructose comparing with W–B. However, seed stachyose concentrations increased by 43% in WS–B plants seed compared with W–B plants. Cell wall (structural) B concentration in leaves was higher in all plants under water stress, especially in WS–B plants where the percentage of cell wall B reached up to 90%. Water stress changed seed ?15N and ?13C values in both B applied and non-B applied plants, indicating possible effects on nitrogen and carbon metabolism. This research demonstrated that FB increased B accumulation in leaves and seed, and altered seed composition of well-watered and water stressed plants, indicating a possible involvement of B in seed protein, and oleic and linolenic fatty acids. Further research is needed to explain mechanisms of B involvement in seed protein and fatty acids. PMID:23888163

Bellaloui, Nacer; Hu, Yanbo; Mengistu, Alemu; Kassem, My A.; Abel, Craig A.

2013-01-01

81

PHYSIOLOGY AND YIELD RESPONSES OF COTTON TO FOLIAR UREA WITH NBPT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Urea is the most recommended foliar N source, due to its relatively low toxicity, quick absorption, and low cost. However, in the literature reports of yield increments with foliar urea application are not consistent. The objectives of this research were to study foliar urea assimilation in cotton...

82

Properties and applications of calcium hydroxide in endodontics and dental traumatology.  

PubMed

Calcium hydroxide has been included within several materials and antimicrobial formulations that are used in a number of treatment modalities in endodontics. These include, inter-appointment intracanal medicaments, pulp-capping agents and root canal sealers. Calcium hydroxide formulations are also used during treatment of root perforations, root fractures and root resorption and have a role in dental traumatology, for example, following tooth avulsion and luxation injuries. The purpose of this paper is to review the properties and clinical applications of calcium hydroxide in endodontics and dental traumatology including its antibacterial activity, antifungal activity, effect on bacterial biofilms, the synergism between calcium hydroxide and other agents, its effects on the properties of dentine, the diffusion of hydroxyl ions through dentine and its toxicity. Pure calcium hydroxide paste has a high pH (approximately 12.5-12.8) and is classified chemically as a strong base. Its main actions are achieved through the ionic dissociation of Ca(2+) and OH(-) ions and their effect on vital tissues, the induction of hard-tissue deposition and the antibacterial properties. The lethal effects of calcium hydroxide on bacterial cells are probably due to protein denaturation and damage to DNA and cytoplasmic membranes. It has a wide range of antimicrobial activity against common endodontic pathogens but is less effective against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans. Calcium hydroxide is also an effective anti-endotoxin agent. However, its effect on microbial biofilms is controversial. PMID:21535021

Mohammadi, Z; Dummer, P M H

2011-08-01

83

The composite of hydroxyapatite and calcium sulphate: a review of preclinical evaluation and clinical applications.  

PubMed

Recent publications have shown that the combination of ?-calcium sulfate hemihydrate, the densest form of hydrates and hydroxyapatite (HA) particles gives good clinical outcome in various applications. It has large potential as bone substitute since the material transforms to bone throughout the entire volume and not only by creeping substitution, from the surface toward the inside. Release of important proteins for osteogenesis has been observed around implanted material and is speculated to be due to fast dissolution of the calcium sulfate phase in combination with the osteoconductive and bioactive nature of HA. In diabetic foot infection, the osteoconductive HA/calcium sulfate material has been successfully used loaded with antibiotics and since it is injectable, the application is minimally invasive, easy and precise. It is a bone substitute for the future. PMID:24053255

Nilsson, Malin; Zheng, Ming H; Tägil, Magnus

2013-09-01

84

Response of okra plants to root and foliar applied boron  

Microsoft Academic Search

The response of okra plants (Hibiscus esculentus) to root?and foliar?applied B at 0, 2 and 4 ppm was investigated in solution culture. Root?B application higher than 2 ppm resulted in severe root burn and toxicity in the plants, whereas foliar?B application up to 4 ppm produced adequate plant growth. Chlorophyll and carotene content of the leaves, flower number, stem diameter,

E. A. Aduayi; A. K. Adegbite

1979-01-01

85

Reinforcement of calcium phosphate cement with multi-walled carbon nanotubes and bovine serum albumin for injectable bone substitute applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the development of novel alternative injectable calcium phosphate cement (CPC) composites for orthopaedic applications. The new CPC composites comprise ?-tri-calcium phosphate (?-TCP) and di-calcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA) mixed with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and incorporated with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) or functionalized MWCNTs (MWCNTs–OH and MWCNTs–COOH). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), compressive strength tests, injectability tests, Fourier transform

Kean-Khoon Chew; Kah-Ling Low; Sharif Hussein Sharif Zein; David S. McPhail; Lutz-Christian Gerhardt; Judith A. Roether; Aldo R. Boccaccini

2011-01-01

86

Premixed calcium silicate cement for endodontic applications: injectability, setting time and radiopacity.  

PubMed

Calcium silicate-based materials (also called MTA) are increasingly being used in endodontic applications. However, the handling properties of MTA are not optimal when it comes to injectability and cohesion. Premixing the cements using glycerol avoids these issues. However, there is a lack of data on the effect of common cement variables on important properties of premixed cements for endodontic applications. In this study, the effects of liquid-to-powder ratio, amount of radiopacifier and amount of calcium sulfate (added to control the setting time) were screened using a statistical model. In the second part of the study, the liquid-to-powder ratio was optimized for cements containing three different amounts of radiopacifier. Finally, the effect of using glycerol rather than water was evaluated in terms of radiopacity. The setting time was found to increase with the amount of radiopacifier when the liquid-to-powder ratio was fixed. This was likely due to the higher density of the radiopacifier in comparison to the calcium silicate, which gave a higher liquid-to-powder ratio in terms of volume. Using glycerol rather than water to mix the cements led to a decrease in radiopacity of the cement. In conclusion, we were able to produce premixed calcium silicate cements with acceptable properties for use in endodontic applications. PMID:23507729

Persson, Cecilia; Engqvist, Håkan

2011-01-01

87

Biofilm-induced calcium carbonate precipitation: application in the subsurface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated mitigation strategies for sealing high permeability regions, like fractures, in the subsurface. This technology has the potential to, for example, improve the long-term security of geologically-stored carbon dioxide (CO2) by sealing fractures in cap rocks or to mitigate leakage pathways to prevent contamination of overlying aquifers from hydraulic fracturing fluids. Sealing technologies using low-viscosity fluids are advantageous since they potentially reduce the necessary injection pressures and increase the radius of influence around injection wells. In this technology, aqueous solutions and suspensions are used to promote microbially-induced mineral precipitation which can be applied in subsurface environments. To this end, a strategy was developed to twice seal a hydraulically fractured, 74 cm (2.4') diameter Boyles Sandstone core, collected in North-Central Alabama, with biofilm-induced calcium carbonate (CaCO3) precipitates under ambient pressures. Sporosarcina pasteurii biofilms were established and calcium and urea containing reagents were injected to promote saturation conditions favorable for CaCO3 precipitation followed by growth reagents to resuscitate the biofilm's ureolytic activity. Then, in order to evaluate this process at relevant deep subsurface pressures, a novel high pressure test vessel was developed to house the 74 cm diameter core under pressures as high as 96 bar (1,400 psi). After determining that no impact to the fracture permeability occurred due to increasing overburden pressure, the fractured core was sealed under subsurface relevant pressures relating to 457 meters (1,500 feet) below ground surface (44 bar (650 psi) overburden pressure). After fracture sealing under both ambient and subsurface relevant pressure conditions, the sandstone core withstood three times higher well bore pressure than during the initial fracturing event, which occurred prior to biofilm-induced CaCO3 mineralization. These studies suggest biofilm-induced CaCO3 precipitation technologies may potentially seal and strengthen high permeability regions or fractures (either natural or induced) in the subsurface. Novel high pressure test vessel to investigate biogeochemical processes under relevant subsurface scales and pressures.

Phillips, A. J.; Eldring, J.; Lauchnor, E.; Hiebert, R.; Gerlach, R.; Mitchell, A. C.; Esposito, R.; Cunningham, A. B.; Spangler, L.

2012-12-01

88

Synthesis of spherical calcium phosphate particles for dental and orthopedic applications  

PubMed Central

Calcium phosphate materials have been used increasingly in the past 40 years as bone graft substitutes in the dental and orthopedic fields. Accordingly, numerous fabrication methods have been proposed and used. However, the controlled production of spherical calcium phosphate particles remains a challenge. Since such particles are essential for the synthesis of pastes and cements delivered into the host bone by minimally-invasive approaches, the aim of the present document is to review their synthesis and applications. For that purpose, production methods were classified according to the used reagents (solutions, slurries, pastes, powders), dispersion media (gas, liquid, solid), dispersion tools (nozzle, propeller, sieve, mold), particle diameters of the end product (from 10 nm to 10 mm), and calcium phosphate phases. Low-temperature calcium phosphates such as monetite, brushite or octacalcium phosphate, as well as high-temperature calcium phosphates, such as hydroxyapatite, ?-tricalcium phosphate or tetracalcium phosphate, were considered. More than a dozen production methods and over hundred scientific publications were discussed. PMID:23719177

Bohner, Marc; Tadier, Solène; van Garderen, Noémie; de Gasparo, Alex; Döbelin, Nicola; Baroud, Gamal

2013-01-01

89

Proteins associated with heat-induced leaf senescence in creeping bentgrass as affected by foliar application of nitrogen, cytokinins, and an ethylene inhibitor.  

PubMed

Heat stress causes premature leaf senescence in cool-season grass species. The objective of this study was to identify proteins regulated by nitrogen, cytokinins and ethylene inhibitor in relation to heat-induced leaf senescence in creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera). Plants (cv. Penncross) were foliar sprayed with 18 mM carbonyldiamide (N source), 25 ?M aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG, ethylene inhibitor), 25 ?M zeatin riboside (ZR, cytokinin), or a water control, and then exposed to 20/15 °C (day/night) or 35/30 °C (heat stress) in growth chambers. All treatments suppressed heat-induced leaf senescence, as shown by higher turf quality and chlorophyll content, and lower electrolyte leakage in treated plants compared to the untreated control. A total of 49 proteins were responsive to N, AVG or ZR under heat stress. The abundance of proteins in photosynthesis increased, with ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase affected by all three treatments, chlorophyll a/b binding protein by AVG and N or Rubisco activase by AVG. Proteins for amino acid metabolism were up-regulated, including alanine aminotransferase by three treatments and ferredoxin-dependent glutamate synthase by AVG and N. Up-regulated proteins also included catalase by AVG and N and heat shock protein by ZR. Exogenous applications of AVG, ZR, or N down-regulated proteins in respiration (enolase, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and succinate dehygrogenase) under heat stress. Alleviation of heat-induced senescence by N, AVG, or ZR was associated with enhanced protein abundance in photosynthesis and amino acid metabolism and stress defense systems (heat shock protection and antioxidants), as well as suppression of those imparting respiration metabolism. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID:25407697

Jespersen, David; Huang, Bingru

2014-11-19

90

Foliar Iron Fertilization: A Critical Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of foliar iron (Fe) sprays is a common means of correcting Fe deficiency of agricultural crops. However, variable plant responses to iron sprays, ranging from no effect to defoliation, have often been described in the Fe-fertilization literature. Knowledge is still limited concerning the mechanisms of penetration of a leaf-applied, Fe-containing solution and the role of Fe in the leaf.

Victoria Fernández; Georg Ebert

2005-01-01

91

ATP-stabilized amorphous calcium carbonate nanospheres and their application in protein adsorption.  

PubMed

Calcium carbonate is a common substance found in rocks worldwide, and is the main biomineral formed in shells of marine organisms and snails, pearls and eggshells. Amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) is the least stable polymorph of calcium carbonate, which is so unstable under normal conditions that it is difficult to be prepared in vitro because it rapidly crystallizes to form one of the more stable polymorphs in aqueous solution. Herein, we report the successful synthesis of highly stable ACC nanospheres in vitro using adenosine 5'-triphosphate disodium salt (ATP) as a stabilizer. The effect of ATP on the stability of ACC nanospheres is investigated. Our experiments show that ATP plays an unique role in the stabilization of ACC nanospheres in aqueous solution. Moreover, the as-prepared ACC nanospheres are highly stable in phosphate buffered saline for a relatively long period of time (12 days) even under relatively high concentrations of calcium and phosphate ions. The cytotoxicity tests show that the as-prepared highly stable ACC nanospheres have excellent biocompatibility. The highly stable ACC nanospheres have high protein adsorption capacity, implying that they are promising for applications in biomedical fields such as drug delivery and protein adsorption. PMID:24578276

Qi, Chao; Zhu, Ying-Jie; Lu, Bing-Qiang; Zhao, Xin-Yu; Zhao, Jing; Chen, Feng; Wu, Jin

2014-05-28

92

Proceedings of the Seventh Walnut Council Research Symposium 101GTR-NRS-P-115 INFLUENCE OF FOLIAR FERTILIZATION ON FOLIAR ZINC LEVELS  

E-print Network

FERTILIZATION ON FOLIAR ZINC LEVELS AND NUT PRODUCTION IN BLACK WALNUT William R. Reid and Andrew L. Thomas1 Abstract.--The impact of foliar zinc fertilizer application on nut-bearing black walnut (Juglans nigra L growing seasons by wetting the foliage of the entire crown using a tank mix containing 500 ppm zinc

93

Gas phase laser synthesis and processing of calcium phosphate nanoparticles for biomedical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biochemical processes make pervasive use of calcium and phosphate ions. Calcium phosphate salts that are naturally nontoxic and bioactive have been used for several medical applications in form of coatings and micropowders. Nanoparticle-based calcium phosphates have been shown to be internalized by living cells and be effective in DNA transfection, drug delivery, and transport of fluorophores for imaging of intracellular processes. They are also expected to interact strongly with cell adhesive proteins and are therefore promising elements in approaches to mimic the complex environment of the extra cellular matrix of bone. Harnessing this biomedical potential requires the ability to control the numerous characteristics of nanophase calcium phosphates that affect biological response, including nanoparticle chemical composition, crystal phase, crystallinity, crystallographic orientation of exposed faces, size, shape, surface area, number concentration, and degree of aggregation. This dissertation focuses on the use of laser-induced gas-phase synthesis for creation of calcium phosphate nanoparticles, and corresponding nanoparticle-based substrates that could offer new opportunities for guiding biological responses through well-controlled biochemical and topological cues. Gas-phase synthesis of nanoparticles has several characteristics that could enhance control over particle morphology, crystallinity, and surface area, compared to liquid-phase techniques. Synthesis from gas-phase precursors can be carried out at high temperatures and in high-purity inert or reactive gas backgrounds, enabling good control of chemistry, crystal structure, and purity. Moreover, the particle mean free path and number concentration can be controlled independently. This allows regulation of interparticle collision rates, which can be adjusted to limit aggregation. High-temperature synthesis of well-separated particles is therefore possible. In this work high power lasers are employed to vaporize microcrystalline calcium phosphate materials to generate an aerosol of nanoparticles which is further processed and deposited using principles of aerosol mechanics. Particles and resulting particle-based systems are analyzed by transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and optical absorption. Obtained substrates are functionalized with cell adhesive peptides. Findings show that laser-induced gas-phase synthesis provides attractive new dimensions in the controlled fabrication of calcium phosphate nanoparticles, including manipulation not only of size and chemical composition, but also crystal phase make-up, fractal structure, and nanotopography of derived substrates.

Bapat, Parimal V.

94

Three-year growth response of young Douglas-fir to nitrogen, calcium, phosphorus, and blended fertilizers in Oregon and Washington  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Studies of nutrient limitation in Douglas-fir forests of the Pacific Northwest focus predominantly on nitrogen, yet many stands demonstrate negligible or even negative growth response to nitrogen fertilization. To understand what nutrients other than nitrogen may limit forest productivity in this region, we tested six fertilizer treatments for their ability to increase stem volume growth response of dominant and co-dominant trees in young Douglas-fir plantations across a range of foliar and soil chemistry in western Oregon and Washington. We evaluated responses to single applications of urea, lime, calcium chloride, or monosodium phosphate at 16 sites, and to two site-specific nutrients blends at 12 of these sites. Across sites, the average stem volume growth increased marginally with urea, lime, and phosphorus fertilization. Fertilization responses generally aligned with plant and soil indicators of nutrient limitation. Response to nitrogen addition was greatest on soils with low total nitrogen and high exchangeable calcium concentrations. Responses to lime and calcium chloride additions were greatest at sites with low foliar calcium and low soil pH. Response to phosphorus addition was greatest on sites with low foliar phosphorus and high soil pH. Blended fertilizers yielded only marginal growth increases at one site, with no consistent effect across sites. Overall, our results highlight that calcium and phosphorus can be important growth limiting nutrients on specific sites in nitrogen-rich Douglas-fir forests of the Pacific Northwest.

Mainwaring, Douglas B.; Maguire, Douglas A.; Perakis, Steven S.

2014-01-01

95

Remote sensing of foliar chemistry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Remotely sensed data are being used to estimate foliar chemical content. This paper reviews how stepwise multiple regression and deconvolution have been used to extract chemical information from foliar spectra, and concludes that both methods are useful, but neither is ideal. It is recommended that the focus of research be modeling in the long term and experimentation in the short term. Long-term research should increase our understanding of the interaction between radiation and foliar chemistry so that the focus of research can move from leaf model to canopy model to field experiment. Short-term research should aim to design experiments in which remotely sensed data are used to generate unambiguous and accurate estimates of foliar chemical content.

Curran, Paul J.

1989-01-01

96

Application of fluorescent indicators to analyse intracellular calcium and morphology in filamentous fungi.  

PubMed

A novel staining and quantification method to investigate changes in intracellular calcium levels [Ca(2+)](i) and morphology in filamentous fungus is presented. Using a simple protocol, two fluorescent dyes, Fluo-4-AM and Cell trace calcein red-orange-AM were loaded into the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum. The present study investigates the applicability of using Ca(2+)-sensitive dye to quantify and image [Ca(2+)](i) in P. chrysogenum cultures chosen for its potential as an experimental system to study Ca(2+) signalling in elicited cultures. The dye loading was optimised and investigated at different pH loading conditions. It was observed that the fluorophore was taken up throughout the hyphae, retaining cell membrane integrity and no dye compartmentalisation within organelles was observed. From the fluorescent plate-reader studies a significant rise (p<0.001) in the relative fluorescence levels corresponding to [Ca(2+)](i) levels in the hyphae was observed when challenged with an elicitor (mannan oligosaccharide, 150mgL(-1)) which was dependent upon extracellular calcium. Concurrently a novel application of dye-loaded hyphae for morphological analysis was also examined using the imaging software Filament Tracer (Bitplane). Essential quantitative mycelial information including the length and diameter of the segments and number of branch points was obtained using this application based on the three-dimensional data. PMID:21530914

Nair, Rakesh; Raina, Sheetal; Keshavarz, Tajalli; Kerrigan, Mark J P

2011-01-01

97

Uptake of Hydrophilic Solutes Through Plant Leaves: Current State of Knowledge and Perspectives of Foliar Fertilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foliar fertilization is an agricultural practice of increasing importance in practical terms. Since nutrient sprays are mostly applied as water solutions, the focus of the article was placed on the penetration of ionic, polar solutes through the leaf surface, although the mechanisms of cuticular penetration of lipophilics are also taken into consideration. In theory, application of foliar nutrient sprays may

V. Fernández; T. Eichert

2009-01-01

98

Development and application of a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method to evaluate the glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid dissipation in maize plants after foliar treatment.  

PubMed

A simple and fast method has been developed and validated to measure glyphosate (GLYP) and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), which were previously derivatized with 9-fluorenylmethylchloroformate (FMOC-Cl), in maize plants using liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to fluorescence (FLD) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) detection. The method has shown to be consistent, reliable, precise, and efficient. Moreover, the limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) reached with the proposed method for GLYP and AMPA are lower than the established maximum residue levels (MRLs). The validated method was applied to quantify GLYP and AMPA in genetically modified (GM) maize foliar treated with the herbicide. It has been found that the GLYP dissipation was mainly due to the progressive dilution effect after herbicide treatment. Finally, it was also observed that the GLYP residue dissipation trend in maize shoot (leaves and stem) tissue determined by LC-ESI-MS matched that determined by liquid scintillation. PMID:22480367

Bernal, José; Martin, María T; Soto, María E; Nozal, María J; Marotti, Ilaria; Dinelli, Giovanni; Bernal, José L

2012-04-25

99

Biomineralization and Size Control of Stable Calcium Phosphate Core Protein Shell Nanoparticles: Potential for Vaccine Applications  

PubMed Central

Calcium phosphate (CaP) polymorphs are nontoxic, biocompatible and hold promise in applications ranging from hard tissue regeneration to drug delivery and vaccine design. Yet, simple and robust routes for the synthesis of protein-coated CaP nanoparticles in the sub-100 nm size range remain elusive. Here, we used cell surface display to identify disulfide-constrained CaP binding peptides that, when inserted within the active site loop of E. coli Thioredoxin 1 (TrxA), readily and reproducibly drive the production of nanoparticles that are 50–70 nm in hydrodynamic diameter and consist of an approximately 25 nm amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) core stabilized by the protein shell. Like bone and enamel proteins implicated in biological apatite formation, peptides supporting nanoparticle production were acidic. They also required presentation in a loop for high affinity ACP binding since elimination of the disulfide bridge caused a nearly 3-fold increase in hydrodynamic diameters. When compared to a commercial aluminum phosphate adjuvant, the small core-shell assemblies led to a 3-fold increase in mice anti-TrxA titers three weeks post-injection, suggesting that they might be useful vehicles for adjuvanted antigen delivery to dendritic cells. PMID:22263898

Chiu, David; Zhou, Weibin; Kitayaporn, Sathana; Schwartz, Daniel T.; Murali-Krishna, Kaja; Kavanagh, Terrance J.; Baneyx, François

2012-01-01

100

Ion microprobe measurement of strontium isotopes in calcium carbonate with application to salmon otoliths  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The ion microprobe has the capability to generate high resolution, high precision isotopic measurements, but analysis of the isotopic composition of strontium, as measured by the 87Sr/ 86Sr ratio, has been hindered by isobaric interferences. Here we report the first high precision measurements of 87Sr/ 86Sr by ion microprobe in calcium carbonate samples with moderate Sr concentrations. We use the high mass resolving power (7000 to 9000 M.R.P.) of the SHRIMP-RG ion microprobe in combination with its high transmission to reduce the number of interfering species while maintaining sufficiently high count rates for precise isotopic measurements. The isobaric interferences are characterized by peak modeling and repeated analyses of standards. We demonstrate that by sample-standard bracketing, 87Sr/86Sr ratios can be measured in inorganic and biogenic carbonates with Sr concentrations between 400 and 1500 ppm with ???2??? external precision (2??) for a single analysis, and subpermil external precision with repeated analyses. Explicit correction for isobaric interferences (peak-stripping) is found to be less accurate and precise than sample-standard bracketing. Spatial resolution is ???25 ??m laterally and 2 ??m deep for a single analysis, consuming on the order of 2 ng of material. The method is tested on otoliths from salmon to demonstrate its accuracy and utility. In these growth-banded aragonitic structures, one-week temporal resolution can be achieved. The analytical method should be applicable to other calcium carbonate samples with similar Sr concentrations. Copyright ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd.

Weber, P.K.; Bacon, C.R.; Hutcheon, I.D.; Ingram, B.L.; Wooden, J.L.

2005-01-01

101

Application of Atomic Absorption Spectro- photometry in the Determination of Calcium in Serum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) was applied to the determination of serum calcium. A specialdiluent was developedto abolishthe effect of absorption depressors.This made possiblemeasurement of calcium in directly diluted serum sampleswithout prior removalof any serum constituents. Values obtained by AAS on calcium oxalate precipitates from serum were identical with those found by the direct dilution technique. THE RECENT appearance of good

Alfred Zettner; David Seligson

102

Effect of Pre-Harvest Foliar Application of Citric Acid and Malic Acid on Chlorophyll Content and Post-Harvest Vase Life of Lilium cv. Brunello  

PubMed Central

Citric acid is a regular ingredient in many vase solution formulations but pre-harvest use of citric acid is a novel method in vase life extension of cut flowers, which is reported on tuberose earlier. In order to verify previous result, and check for possible substitution of citric acid by malic acid, the current research was designed. Citric acid (0, 0.075, 0.15% w/v) and malic acid (0, 0.075, 0.15% w/v) were used in a factorial design with three replications. Foliar sprays were applied two times during growth period of Lilium plants. The results point out that 0.15% citric acid alone had increased vase life from 11.8 in control treatment to 14?days (??

Darandeh, Nafiseh; Hadavi, Ebrahim

2012-01-01

103

Catalase mimic property of Co3O4 nanomaterials with different morphology and its application as a calcium sensor.  

PubMed

The applications of inorganic nanomaterials as biomimetic catalysts are receiving much attention because of their high stability and low cost. In this work, Co3O4 nanomaterials including nanoplates, nanorods, and nanocubes were synthesized. The morphologies and compositions of the products were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The catalytic properties of Co3O4 nanomaterials as catalase mimics were studied. The Co3O4 materials with different morphology exhibited different catalytic activities in the order of nanoplates > nanorods > nanocubes. The difference of the catalytic activities originated from their different abilities of electron transfer. Their catalytic activities increased significantly in the presence of calcium ion. On the basis of the stimulation by calcium ion, a biosensor was constructed by Co3O4 nanoplates for the determination of calcium ion. The biosensor had a linear relation to calcium concentrations and good measurement correlation between 0.1 and 1 mM with a detection limit of 4 ?M (S/N = 3). It showed high selectivity against other metal ions and good reproducibility. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of calcium in a milk sample. PMID:24796855

Mu, Jianshuai; Zhang, Li; Zhao, Min; Wang, Yan

2014-05-28

104

Foliar Absorption and Phloem Translocation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Herbicides must be absorbed into plants in order to be effective. Herbicide absorption can occur through leaves, roots or both. The process by which herbicides kill weeds, called mode of action, requires herbicide absorption and may also require herbicide movement or translocation within the plant. Translocation means that the herbicide moves from the site of absorption to some other plant part. Foliar applied herbicides that have the necessary characteristics to move in the phloem will translocate to areas of the plant that are actively growing; however, not all foliar-applied herbicides move from the leaves that intercepted the spray solution. Herbicides that are absorbed but not translocated are calledcontact herbicides, while herbicides that translocate to shoot or root meristems are called systemic herbicides. Absorption and translocation of xylem mobile herbicides will be discussed in another lesson.

105

Calcium supplements  

MedlinePLUS

... The two main forms of calcium pills are: Calcium carbonate: Over-the-counter antacid products, such as Tums and Rolaids contain calcium carbonate. These sources of calcium carbonate do not cost ...

106

Ion Association versus Ion Interaction Models in Examining Electrolyte Solutions: Application to Calcium Hydroxide Solubility Equilibrium  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The heterogeneous equilibrium of the solubility of calcium hydroxide in water is used to predict both its solubility product from solubility and solubility values from solubility product when inert salts, in any concentration, are present. Accepting the necessity of including activity coefficients to treat the saturated solution of calcium

Menéndez, M. Isabel; Borge, Javier

2014-01-01

107

Printability of calcium phosphate: calcium sulfate powders for the application of tissue engineered bone scaffolds using the 3D printing technique.  

PubMed

In this study, calcium phosphate (CaP) powders were blended with a three-dimensional printing (3DP) calcium sulfate (CaSO4)-based powder and the resulting composite powders were printed with a water-based binder using the 3DP technology. Application of a water-based binder ensured the manufacture of CaP:CaSO4 constructs on a reliable and repeatable basis, without long term damage of the printhead. Printability of CaP:CaSO4 powders was quantitatively assessed by investigating the key 3DP process parameters, i.e. in-process powder bed packing, drop penetration behavior and the quality of printed solid constructs. Effects of particle size, CaP:CaSO4 ratio and CaP powder type on the 3DP process were considered. The drop penetration technique was used to reliably identify powder formulations that could be potentially used for the application of tissue engineered bone scaffolds using the 3DP technique. Significant improvements (p<0.05) in the 3DP process parameters were found for CaP (30-110 ?m):CaSO4 powders compared to CaP (<20 ?m):CaSO4 powders. Higher compressive strength was obtained for the powders with the higher CaP:CaSO4 ratio. Hydroxyapatite (HA):CaSO4 powders showed better results than beta-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP):CaSO4 powders. Solid and porous constructs were manufactured using the 3DP technique from the optimized CaP:CaSO4 powder formulations. High-quality printed constructs were manufactured, which exhibited appropriate green compressive strength and a high level of printing accuracy. PMID:24656346

Zhou, Zuoxin; Buchanan, Fraser; Mitchell, Christina; Dunne, Nicholas

2014-05-01

108

The preparation of calcium superoxide for air breathing and scrubbing applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is interest in the preparation of high-purity calcium superoxide as an oxygen source for breathing apparatus because both the available oxygen and the capacity for carbon dioxide removal, per unit weight of superoxide, are higher than that of a number of other chemical oxygen sources. A review of earlier findings shows that the general method used by Vol'nov and coworkers for the decomposition of calcium peroxide diperoxyhydrate can yield preparations containing more than 58.4% calcium superoxide maximum predicted for an equimolar disproportionation reaction. The decomposition of solid calcium peroxide diperoxyhydrate is studied using an apparatus that allows good control of the critical reaction parameters. The removal of water from decomposing calcium peroxide diperoxyhydrate, before the same water has an opportunity to back react with the calcium superoxide formed in the reaction, constitutes the rationale of the experiments. Even with allowance for the anomalies observed in the analytical results, the yields appear to be in the 65+ percent range, and optimization of the experimental variables is still being pursued.

Ballou, E. V.; Wood, P. C.; Spitze, L. A.; Wydeven, T.

1976-01-01

109

Characterization of nickel-doped biphasic calcium phosphate/graphene nanoplatelet composites for biomedical application.  

PubMed

The effect of the addition of an ionic dopant to calcium phosphates for biomedical applications requires specific research due to the essential roles played in such processes. In the present study, the mechanical and biological properties of Ni-doped hydroxyapatite (HA) and Ni-doped HA mixed with graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) were evaluated. Ni (3wt.% and 6wt.%)-doped HA was synthesized using a continuous precipitation method and calcined at 900°C for 1h. The GNP (0.5-2wt.%)-reinforced 6% Ni-doped HA (Ni6) composite was prepared using rotary ball milling for 15h. The sintering process was performed using hot isostatic pressing at processing conditions of 1150°C and 160MPa with a 1-h holding time. The results indicated that the phase compositions and structural features of the products were noticeably affected by the Ni and GNPs. The mechanical properties of Ni6 and 1.5Ni6 were increased by 55% and 75% in hardness, 59% and 163% in fracture toughness and 120% and 85% in elastic modulus compared with monolithic HA, respectively. The in-vitro biological behavior was investigated using h-FOB osteoblast cells in 1, 3 and 5days of culture. Based on the osteoblast results, the cytotoxicity of the products was indeed affected by the Ni doping. In addition, the effect of GNPs on the growth and proliferation of osteoblast cells was investigated in Ni6 composites containing different ratios of GNPs, where 1.5wt.% was the optimum value. PMID:25686995

Baradaran, S; Moghaddam, E; Nasiri-Tabrizi, Bahman; Basirun, W J; Mehrali, M; Sookhakian, M; Hamdi, M; Alias, Y

2015-04-01

110

40 CFR 424.40 - Applicability; description of the covered calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control...  

...calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control devices subcategory...Calcium Carbide Furnaces With Wet Air Pollution Control Devices Subcategory ...calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control devices...

2014-07-01

111

40 CFR 424.40 - Applicability; description of the covered calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control devices subcategory...Calcium Carbide Furnaces With Wet Air Pollution Control Devices Subcategory ...calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control devices...

2013-07-01

112

40 CFR 424.40 - Applicability; description of the covered calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control devices subcategory...Calcium Carbide Furnaces With Wet Air Pollution Control Devices Subcategory ...calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control devices...

2012-07-01

113

40 CFR 424.40 - Applicability; description of the covered calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control devices subcategory...Calcium Carbide Furnaces With Wet Air Pollution Control Devices Subcategory ...calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control devices...

2011-07-01

114

40 CFR 424.40 - Applicability; description of the covered calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control devices subcategory...Calcium Carbide Furnaces With Wet Air Pollution Control Devices Subcategory ...calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control devices...

2010-07-01

115

Influence of soil pH and application rate on the oxidation of calcium sulfite derived from flue gas desulfurization  

SciTech Connect

Calcium sulfite hemihydrate (CaSO{sub 3} {center_dot} 0.5H{sub 2}O), a common byproduct of coal-fired utilities, is fairly insoluble and can decompose to release toxic SO{sub 2} under highly acidic soil conditions; however, it can also oxidize to form gypsum. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of application rate and soil pH on the oxidation of calcium sulfite under laboratory conditions. Oxidation rates measured by release of SO{sub 4}-S to solution decreased with increasing application rate. Leachate SO{sub 4}-S from soils amended with 1.0 to 3.0 g kg{sup -1} CaSO{sub 3} increased over a 21 to 28 d period before reaching a plateau. At 4 g kg{sup -1}, maximum SO{sub 4}-S release was delayed until Week 7. Oxidation and release of SO{sub 4}-S from soil amended with 3.0 g kg{sup -1} calcium sulfite increased markedly with decreasing soil pH. After only 3 d incubation, the concentrations of SO{sub 4}-S in aqueous leachates were 77, 122, 1709 220, and 229 mg L{sup -1} for initial soil pH values of 7.8, 6.5, 5.5, 5.1, and 4.0, respectively. At an initial soil pH value of 4.0, oxidation/dissolution did not increase much after 3 d. At higher pH values, oxidation was maximized after 21 d. These results suggest that autumn surface applications of calcium sulfite in no-till systems should permit ample time for oxidation/dissolution reactions to occur without introducing biocidal effects related to oxygen scavenging. Soil and annual crops can thus benefit from additions of soluble Ca and SO{sub 4} if calcium sulfite is applied in advance of spring planting.

Lee, Y.B.; Bigham, J.M.; Dick, W.A.; Jones, E.S.; Ramsier, C. [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States). School of Environmental & Natural Resources

2007-01-15

116

Calcium bioavailability of vegetarian diets in rats: potential application in a bioregenerative life-support system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Calcium bioavailability of vegetarian diets containing various proportions of candidate crops for a controlled ecological life-support system (CELSS) was determined by femur 45Ca uptake. Three vegetarian diets and a control diet were labeled extrinsically with 45Ca and fed to 5-wk old male rats. A fifth group of rats fed an unlabeled control diet received an intraperitoneal (IP) injection of 45Ca. There was no significant difference in mean calcium absorption of vegetarian diets (90.80 +/- 5.23%) and control diet (87.85 +/- 5.25%) when calculated as the percent of an IP dose. The amounts of phytate, oxalate, and dietary fiber in the diets did not affect calcium absorption.

Nickel, K. P.; Nielsen, S. S.; Smart, D. J.; Mitchell, C. A.; Belury, M. A.

1997-01-01

117

Calcium Carbonate  

MedlinePLUS

Calcium carbonate is a dietary supplement used when the amount of calcium taken in the diet is not ... for healthy bones, muscles, nervous system, and heart. Calcium carbonate also is used as an antacid to relieve ...

118

Process for decontaminating radioactive liquids using a calcium cyanamide-containing composition. [Patent application  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a process for decontaminating a radioactive liquid containing a radioactive element capable of forming a hydroxide. This process includes the steps of contacting the radioactive liquid with a decontaminating composition and separating the resulting radioactive sludge from the resulting liquid. The decontaminating composition contains calcium cyanamide.

Silver, G.L.

1980-09-24

119

Surface modification of high calcium fly ash for its application in oil spill clean up  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study aims at utilising an inorganic industrial by-product, high calcium fly ash (HCFA), in an environmental field: oil spill clean up. Properties, such as fine particle size, floating ability, hydrophobic character and porosity, make this material attractive for such a use. In order to investigate the oil sorption behaviour of HCFA an oil spill has been simulated, by

O. K. Karakasi; A. Moutsatsou

2010-01-01

120

Application of pulsed spark discharge for calcium carbonate precipitation in hard water.  

PubMed

The effect of underwater pulsed spark discharge on the precipitation of dissolved calcium ions was investigated in the present study. Water samples with different calcium hardness were prepared by continuous evaporation of tap water using a laboratory cooling tower. It was shown that the concentration of calcium ions dropped by 20-26% after 10-min plasma treatment, comparing with no drop for untreated cases. A laser particle counting method demonstrated that the total number of solid particles suspended in water increased by over 100% after the plasma treatment. The morphology and the crystal form of the particles were identified by both scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Calcite with rhombohedron morphology was observed for plasma treated cases, comparing with the round structure observed for no-treatment cases. It was hypothesized that the main mechanisms for the plasma-assisted calcium carbonate precipitation might include electrolysis, local heating in the vicinity of plasma channel and a high electric field at the tip of plasma streamers, inducing structural changes in the electric double layer of hydrated ions. PMID:20494397

Yang, Yong; Kim, Hyoungsup; Starikovskiy, Andrey; Fridman, Alexander; Cho, Young I

2010-06-01

121

6 Nondestructive Estimation of Foliar Pigment  

E-print Network

141 6 Nondestructive Estimation of Foliar Pigment (Chlorophylls, Carotenoids, and Anthocyanins, carotenoids, and anthocyanins. The chlorophyll-a and chlorophyll-b are essential pigments for the conversion............................................................................................................... 143 6.2.3 Anthocyanins

Gitelson, Anatoly

122

Augmentation of Bone Tunnel Healing in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Grafts: Application of Calcium Phosphates and Other Materials  

PubMed Central

Bone tunnel healing is an important consideration after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) replacement surgery. Recently, a variety of materials have been proposed for improving this healing process, including autologous bone tissue, cells, artificial proteins, and calcium salts. Amongst these materials are calcium phosphates (CaPs), which are known for their biocompatibility and are widely commercially available. As with the majority of the materials investigated, CaPs have been shown to advance the healing of bone tunnel tissue in animal studies. Mechanical testing shows fixation strengths to be improved, particularly by the application of CaP-based cement in the bone tunnel. Significantly, CaP-based cements have been shown to produce improvements comparable to those induced by potentially more complex treatments such as biologics (including fibronectin and chitin) and cultured cells. Further investigation of CaP-based treatment in the bone tunnels during ACL replacement is therefore warranted in order to establish what improvements in healing and resulting clinical benefits may be achieved through its application. PMID:21350646

Baxter, F. R.; Bach, J. S.; Detrez, F.; Cantournet, S.; Corté, L.; Cherkaoui, M.; Ku, D. N.

2010-01-01

123

Europium-doped amorphous calcium phosphate porous nanospheres: preparation and application as luminescent drug carriers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calcium phosphate is the most important inorganic constituent of biological tissues, and synthetic calcium phosphate has been widely used as biomaterials. In this study, a facile method has been developed for the fabrication of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP)/polylactide-block-monomethoxy(polyethyleneglycol) hybrid nanoparticles and ACP porous nanospheres. Europium-doping is performed to enable photoluminescence (PL) function of ACP porous nanospheres. A high specific surface area of the europium-doped ACP (Eu3+:ACP) porous nanospheres is achieved (126.7 m2/g). PL properties of Eu3+:ACP porous nanospheres are investigated, and the most intense peak at 612 nm is observed at 5 mol% Eu3+ doping. In vitro cytotoxicity experiments indicate that the as-prepared Eu3+:ACP porous nanospheres are biocompatible. In vitro drug release experiments indicate that the ibuprofen-loaded Eu3+:ACP porous nanospheres show a slow and sustained drug release in simulated body fluid. We have found that the cumulative amount of released drug has a linear relationship with the natural logarithm of release time ( ln( t)). The Eu3+:ACP porous nanospheres are bioactive, and can transform to hydroxyapatite during drug release. The PL properties of drug-loaded nanocarriers before and after drug release are also investigated.

Chen, Feng; Zhu, Ying-Jie; Zhang, Kui-Hua; Wu, Jin; Wang, Ke-Wei; Tang, Qi-Li; Mo, Xiu-Mei

2011-12-01

124

Mechanical and physical properties of calcium silicate/alumina composite for biomedical engineering applications.  

PubMed

The focus of this study is to investigate the effect of Al2O3 on ?-calcium silicate (?-CaSiO3) ceramic. ?-CaSiO3 was synthesized from CaO and SiO2 using mechanochemical method followed by calcinations at 1000°C. ?-CaSiO3 and alumina were grinded using ball mill to create mixtures, containing 0-50w% of Al2O3 loadings. The powders were uniaxially pressed and followed by cold isostatic pressing (CIP) in order to achieve greater uniformity of compaction and to increase the shape capability. Afterward, the compaction was sintered in a resistive element furnace at both 1150°C and 1250°C with a 5h holding time. It was found that alumina reacted with ?-CaSiO3 and formed alumina-rich calcium aluminates after sintering. An addition of 15wt% of Al2O3 powder at 1250°C were found to improve the hardness and fracture toughness of the calcium silicate. It was also observed that the average grain sizes of ?-CaSiO3 /Al2O3 composite were maintained 500-700nm after sintering process. PMID:24316872

Shirazi, F S; Mehrali, M; Oshkour, A A; Metselaar, H S C; Kadri, N A; Abu Osman, N A

2014-02-01

125

Combined effect of CO2 enrichment and foliar application of salicylic acid on the production and antioxidant activities of anthocyanin, flavonoids and isoflavonoids from ginger  

PubMed Central

Background The increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration caused by climate change and agricultural practices is likely to affect biota by producing changes in plant growth, allocation and chemical composition. This study was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of the application of salicylic acid (SA, at two levels: 0 and 10-3 M) and CO2 enrichment (at two levels: 400 and 800 ?mol·mol?1) on the production and antioxidant activities of anthocyanin, flavonoids and isoflavonoids from two Malaysian ginger varieties, namely Halia Bentong and Halia Bara. Methods High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with photodiode array detection and mass spectrometry was employed to identify and quantify the flavonoids and anthocyanins in the ginger extracts. The antioxidant activity of the leaf extracts was determined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) assays. The substrate specificity of chalcone synthase, the key enzyme for flavonoid biosynthesis, was investigated using the chalcone synthase (CHS) assay. Results CO2 levels of 800 ?mol·mol?1 significantly increased anthocyanin, rutin, naringenin, myricetin, apigenin, fisetin and morin contents in ginger leaves. Meanwhile, the combined effect of SA and CO2 enrichment enhanced anthocyanin and flavonoid production compared with single treatment effects. High anthocyanin content was observed in H Bara leaves treated with elevated CO2 and SA. The highest chalcone synthase (CHS) activity was observed in plants treated with SA and CO2 enrichment. Plants not treated with SA and kept under ambient CO2 conditions showed the lowest CHS activity. The highest free radical scavenging activity corresponded to H Bara treated with SA under high CO2 conditions, while the lowest activity corresponded to H Bentong without SA treatment and under atmospheric CO2 levels. As the level of CO2 increased, the DPPH activity increased. Higher TBA activity was also recorded in the extracts of H Bara treated with SA and grown under high CO2 conditions. Conclusions The biological activities of both ginger varieties were enhanced when the plants were treated with SA and grown under elevated CO2 concentration. The increase in the production of anthocyanin and flavonoids in plants treated with SA could be attributed to the increase in CHS activity under high CO2 levels. PMID:23176249

2012-01-01

126

Applicability of the energy dispersive x-ray microanalysis for quantification of irregular calcium deposits on fruit and leaf cuticles.  

PubMed

In our studies, we evaluated the relation between CaCl(2) concentration and the scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive x-ray microanalysis parameters, net intensity, peak/background and standardized percentage of atoms and percentage of weight after application of single microdroplets on enzymatically isolated tomato fruit cuticles and apple seedling leaves. After analysis, the Ca/Cl ratio was calculated and the area ultimately covered with Ca and Cl within the droplet spread area determined. According to our findings, all evaluated parameters were influenced by both droplet volume and calcium chloride concentration, whereas Pearson's analysis revealed a strong correlation between net intensity and area ultimately covered by Ca or Cl, respectively. Simple linear regressions for net intensity, peak/background and Ca/Cl ratio showed variable determination coefficients (R(2)) ranging between 0.49 and 0.79. Multiple regression equations comprising net intensity, Ca/Cl ratio and deposit area were established to estimate the amount of calcium present on the cuticles. Equation slopes depended on droplet volumes, with determination coefficients of 0.89 and 0.81 for 0.5 and 1.0-microL droplets, respectively. The importance of the physicochemical properties of the spray solution was exploited in another study where a hydrophobic or a hydrophilic adjuvant was added to a 10 g L(-1) CaCl(2) solution, which was applied to apple seedling leaves. The addition of adjuvants increased values of net intensity and peak/background, which correlated significantly with the area covered by calcium. The importance of the methodology for studies on the interaction between leaf applied fertilizers (also extended to agrochemicals) and the characteristics of target surfaces is discussed. PMID:19094022

Hunsche, M; Noga, G

2008-12-01

127

Economical Route to Produce High Seebeck Coefficient Calcium Cobaltate for Bulk Thermoelectric Applications  

SciTech Connect

Phase pure calcium cobaltate (Ca1.24Co1.62O3.86) was prepared by Self-propagating High-temperature Synthesis (SHS) followed by a short post heat treatment. Prepared powders were characterized by XRD for phase purity, and SEM for particle size and distribution. Temperature histories at the center and on the surface of reaction pellet during the SHS process were monitored and recorded. Particles size of synthesized powders was reduced using a planetary mill to increase its specific surface area. Electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity and Seebeck coefficient of the prepared power were measured and figure of merit was reported.

Selig, Jiri [Lamar University; Lin, Sidney [Lamar University; Lin, Hua-Tay [ORNL; Johnson, D Ray [ORNL; Wang, Hsin [ORNL

2011-01-01

128

Porous microspheres of amorphous calcium phosphate: Block copolymer templated microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis and application in drug delivery.  

PubMed

Amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) microspheres with a porous and hollow structure have been prepared using an aqueous solution containing CaCl2 as a calcium source, adenosine triphosphate disodium salt (Na2ATP) as a phosphorus source in the presence of a block copolymer methoxyl poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(d,l-lactide) (mPEG-PLA) by the microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. The effects of microwave hydrothermal temperature and the concentrations of CaCl2 and Na2ATP on the crystal phase and morphology of the product are investigated. The as-prepared ACP porous hollow microspheres have a relatively high specific surface area of 232.9m(2)g(-1) and an average pore size of 9.9nm. A typical anticancer drug, docetaxel, is used to evaluate the drug loading ability and drug release behavior of ACP porous hollow microspheres in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) with different pH values of 4.5 and 7.4. The experiments reveal that the ACP porous hollow microspheres have a high drug loading capacity and favorable pH-responsive drug release property, and the ACP porous hollow microsphere drug delivery system shows a high ability to damage tumor cells. It is expected that the as-prepared ACP porous hollow microspheres are promising for the applications in various biomedical fields such as drug delivery. PMID:25535849

Ding, Guan-Jun; Zhu, Ying-Jie; Qi, Chao; Lu, Bing-Qiang; Wu, Jin; Chen, Feng

2015-04-01

129

Application of impedance spectroscopy to evaluate the effect of different setting accelerators on the developed microstructures of calcium phosphate cements.  

PubMed

The main goal of the present study was to evaluate the effect of different setting accelerator agents on the developed microstructures of calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) by employing the impedance spectroscopy (IS) technique. Six compositions of CPCs were prepared from mixtures of commercial dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA) and synthesized tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP) as the solid phases. Two TTCP/DCPA molar ratios (1/1 and 1/2) and three liquid phases (aqueous solutions of Na(2)HPO(4), tartaric acid (TA) and oxalic acid (OA), 5% volume fraction) were employed. Initial (I) and final (F) setting times of the cement pastes were determined with Gillmore needles (ASTM standard C266-99). The hardened samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and apparent density measurements. The IS technique was employed as a non-destructive tool to obtain information related to porosity, tortuosity and homogeneity of the cement microstructures. The formulation prepared from a TTCP/DCPA equimolar mixture and OA as the liquid phase presented the shortest I and F (12 and 20 min, respectively) in comparison to the other studied systems. XRD analyses revealed the formation of low-crystallinity hydroxyapatite (HA) (as the main phase) as well as the presence of little amounts of unreacted DCPA and TTCP after 24 h hardening in 100% relative humidity. This was related to the proposed mechanisms of dissolution of the reactants. The bands observed by FTIR allowed identifying the presence of calcium tartrate and calcium oxalate in the samples prepared from TA and OA, in addition to the characteristic bands of HA. High degree of entanglement of the formed crystals was observed by SEM in samples containing OA. SEM images were also correlated to the apparent densities of the hardened cements. Changes in porosity, tortuosity and microstructural homogeneity were determined in all samples, from IS results, when the TTCP/DCPA ratio was changed from 1/1 to 1/2. The cement formulated from an equimolar mixture of TTCP/DCPA and OA as the liquid phase presented setting times, degree of conversion to low-crystallinity HA and microstructural features suitable to be used as potential bone cement in clinical applications. The IS technique was shown to be a very sensitive and non-destructive tool to relate the paste composition to the developed microstructures. This approach could be very useful to develop calcium phosphate bone cements for specific clinical demands. PMID:19347256

Romeo, H E; Bueno, P R; Fanovich, M A

2009-08-01

130

Bioactive calcium sulfate/magnesium phosphate cement for bone substitute applications.  

PubMed

A novel calcium sulfate/magnesium phosphate cement (CSMPC) composite was prepared and studied in the present work. The physical properties including the phases, the microstructures, the setting properties and the compressive strengths of the CSMPCs were studied. The bio-performances of the CSMPCs were comprehensively evaluated using in vitro simulated body fluid (SBF) method and in vitro cell culture. The dependence of the physical and chemical properties of the CSMPC on its composition and microstructure was studied in detail. It is found that the CSMPC composites exhibited mediate setting times (6-12 min) compared to the calcium sulfate (CS) and the magnesium phosphate cement (MPC). They showed an encapsulation structure in which the unconverted hexagonal prism CSH particles were embedded in the xerogel-like MPC matrix. The phase compositions and the mechanical properties of the CSMPCs were closely related to the content of MPC and the hardening process. The CSMPCs exhibited excellent bioactivity and good biocompatibility to support the cells to attach and proliferate on the surface. The CSMPC composite has the potential to serve as bone grafts for the bone regeneration. PMID:24411353

Yang, Guangyong; Liu, Jianli; Li, Fan; Pan, Zongyou; Ni, Xiao; Shen, Yue; Xu, Huazi; Huang, Qing

2014-02-01

131

Calcium-energized motor protein forisome controls damage in phloem: potential applications as biomimetic "smart" material.  

PubMed

Abstract Forisomes are ATP independent, mechanically active proteins from the Fabaceae family (also called Leguminosae). These proteins are located in sieve tubes of phloem and function to prevent loss of nutrient-rich photoassimilates, upon mechanical injury/wounding. Forisomes are SEO (sieve element occlusion) gene family proteins that have recently been shown to be involved in wound sealing mechanism. Recent findings suggest that forisomes could act as an ideal model to study self assembly mechanism for the development of nanotechnological devices like microinstruments, the microfluidic system frequently used in space exploration missions. Technology enabling improvement in micro instruments has been identified as a key technology by NASA in future space exploration missions. Forisomes are designated as biomimetic smart materials which are calcium-energized motor proteins. Since forisomes are biomolecules from plant systems it can be doctored through genetic engineering. In contrast, "smart" materials which are not derived from plants are difficult to modify in their properties. Current levels of understanding about forisomes conformational shifts with respect to calcium ions and pH changes requires supplement of future advances with relation to its 3D structure to understand self assembly processes. In plant systems it forms blood clots in the form of occlusions to prevent nutrient fluid leakage and thus proves to be a unique damage control system of phloem tissue. PMID:24020505

Srivastava, Vineet Kumar; Tuteja, Renu; Tuteja, Narendra

2013-09-11

132

Biocontrol of foliar pathogens: mechanisms and application.  

PubMed

Biocontrol offers attractive alternatives or supplements to the use of conventional methods for plant disease management. Vast experience has been gained in the biocontrol of plant diseases. Prevention of infection by biocontrol agents or suppression of disease is based on various modes of action. Pathogens are typically affected by certain modes of actions and not by others according to their nature (i.e. biotrophs vs. necrotrophs). Resistance in the host plant may be induced locally or systemically by either live or dead cells of the biocontrol agent and may affect pathogens of various groups. As some pathogens are negatively affected by lake of nutrients in the infection court, competition for nutrients and space was long recognized as antagonism trait. Antibiosis and hyperparasitism affect pathogens of various groups. Other valid mechanisms are reduction of the saprophytic ability and reducing spore dissemination. Recently it was revealed that restraining of pathogenicity factors of the pathogens, i.e. host hydrolyzing proteins or reactive oxygen species takes place when biocontrol is used. It is likely that several modes of action concomitantly participate in pathogens suppression but the relative importance of each one of them is not clear. Examples of effective prevention of infection in the phyllosphere that rely on multiple modes of action will be demonstrated with Trichodermo harzianum T39 (TRICHODEX), Bacillus mycoides and Pichia guilermondii, a filamentous fungus, bacterium and yeast biocontrol agents, respectively. Several commercial products based on microorganisms have been developed and are starting to penetrate the market. However, large-scale use is still limited because of variability and inconsistency of biocontrol activity. In some cases this may be caused by sensitivity of the biocontrol agents to environmental influences. Ways to overcome biocontrol limitations and to improve its efficacy are i. integration of biocontrol with chemical fungicides on a calendar basis or according to ecological requirements of the biocontrol agents relying on the advise of a decision support system; ii. introduction of two or more biocontrol agents in a mixture, assuming that each one of them has different ecological requirements and/or different modes of action. Implementation of one (or more) of these approaches, using biocontrol preparations mentioned above lowered the variability and increased the consistency of disease suppression. The expected long-term result of the implementation of these suggested strategies is reduced risk of uncontrolled epidemics and increase of confidence of growers in using this non-chemical control measure on a large scale. PMID:15149089

Elad, Y

2003-01-01

133

Neural field theory of calcium dependent plasticity with applications to transcranial magnetic stimulation.  

PubMed

Calcium dependent plasticity (CaDP), a physiologically realistic plasticity mechanism in the microscopic regime, is incorporated into a neural field theory to explore system-level plasticity. This system-level plasticity model is capable of reproducing the characteristic plasticity window of spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP) in paired associative stimulation (PAS), where a peripheral electric pulse stimulation is paired to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in the cortex, and rTMS frequency dependent plasticity, where low and high frequency rTMS trains induce depression and potentiation, respectively. These thus reproduce experimental results for system-level plasticity for the first time. This also bridges the gap between microscopic plasticity theory and system-level plasticity observed experimentally, and addresses long standing problems of stability and adaptability by predicting stable plasticity, a possible seizure state where neurons fire at a high rate, and spike-rate adaptation. PMID:23376643

Fung, P K; Robinson, P A

2013-05-01

134

Size controlled hydroxyapatite and calcium carbonate particles: synthesis and their application as templates for SERS platform.  

PubMed

An elegant route for hydroxyapatite (HA) particle synthesis via ionic exchange reaction is reported. Calcium carbonate particles (CaCO3) were recrystallized into HA beads in water solution with phosphate ions. The size of initial CaCO3 particles was controlled upon the synthesis by varying the amount of ethylene glycol (EG) in aqueous solution. The average size of HA beads ranged from 0.6±0.1 to 4.3±1.1?m. Silver nanoparticles were deposited on the surface of HA and CaCO3 particles via silver mirror reaction. Surface enhanced Raman scattering of silver functionalized beads was demonstrated by detecting Rhodamine B. CaCO3 and HA particles have a great potential for design of carrier which can provide diagnostic and therapeutic functions. PMID:24802965

Parakhonskiy, B V; Svenskaya, Yu I; Yashchenok, A ?; Fattah, H A; Inozemtseva, O A; Tessarolo, F; Antolini, R; Gorin, D A

2014-06-01

135

Coronary calcium scoring and computed tomography angiography: current indications, future applications.  

PubMed

Cardiac computed tomography (CT) has evolved at a rapid pace over the last few years. The improved spatial and temporal resolution allows collection of valuable information about the coronary arteries and atherosclerosis not obtainable by other noninvasive modalities. Coronary artery calcium acquisition is more straightforward, and large datasets are available to help validate its use in risk stratification and prediction of future events. The data from CT angiography has excellent negative predictive value to rule out stenosis, with potential use in plaque characterization to predict plaque vulnerability and perfusion. In addition, a recent novel technique with fractional flow reserve CT (FFRCT) has been shown to predict ischemia-causing lesions noninvasively. The ability of FFRCT to reduce the need for invasive angiography has recently been studied for the third time in a multicenter study, which showed high concordance with the results of invasive fractional flow reserve. PMID:25028979

Alani, Anas; Budoff, Matthew J

2014-09-01

136

A microwave-assisted solution combustion synthesis to produce europium-doped calcium phosphate nanowhiskers for bioimaging applications.  

PubMed

Biocompatible nanoparticles possessing fluorescent properties offer attractive possibilities for multifunctional bioimaging and/or drug and gene delivery applications. Many of the limitations with current imaging systems center on the properties of the optical probes in relation to equipment technical capabilities. Here we introduce a novel high aspect ratio and highly crystalline europium-doped calcium phosphate nanowhisker produced using a simple microwave-assisted solution combustion synthesis method for use as a multifunctional bioimaging probe. X-ray diffraction confirmed the material phase as europium-doped hydroxyapatite. Fluorescence emission and excitation spectra and their corresponding peaks were identified using spectrofluorimetry and validated with fluorescence, confocal and multiphoton microscopy. The nanowhiskers were found to exhibit red and far red wavelength fluorescence under ultraviolet excitation with an optimal peak emission of 696 nm achieved with a 350 nm excitation. Relatively narrow emission bands were observed, which may permit their use in multicolor imaging applications. Confocal and multiphoton microscopy confirmed that the nanoparticles provide sufficient intensity to be utilized in imaging applications. PMID:23764803

Wagner, Darcy E; Eisenmann, Kathryn M; Nestor-Kalinoski, Andrea L; Bhaduri, Sarit B

2013-09-01

137

Foliar Nitrogen Fertilization for Perennial Nursery Crops  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Nitrogen (N) availability affects plant growth and development and is intimately linked to the quality of nursery plants. In nursery production, N is commonly applied to the soil as controlled release and/or liquid fertilizers. However, research has shown that combining foliar N fertilization with a...

138

Calcium phosphate sol-gel-derived coatings on titanium-aluminum-vanadium substrate for biomedical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Osseointegration of implants to host bone is a necessary requirement for dental and orthopaedic implants. The rate and quality of osseointegration were enhanced through the use of calcium phosphate (Ca-P) films on metallic substrates. The present study investigates the characteristics of Ca-P films applied using sol-gel dip coating methods to sintered porous-surfaced implants. Ca-P films have been formed using Inorganic Route and Organic Route processes. It has been shown that both approaches resulted in the formation of carbonated hydroxyapatite but with different Ca/P ratios as well as different surface textures and film structures, the Inorganic Route-formed film being more porous at its outermost surface, and having a more irregular topography. An interfacial reaction product (calcium titanium oxide) was detected for the Inorganic Route-formed coatings while this interfacial phase was not detectable in the Organic Route-formed coatings. The interface tensile and shear adhesion strength properties of Ca-P films have been evaluated using an improved direct pull-off testing (ASTM C633) and a substrate straining method, respectively. For both Ca-P films, the adhesive tensile strength was higher than the failure stress of ˜38 MPa occurring between the Ca-P films and the glue or in the glue. A shear lag approach revealed a shear strength of 347 +/- 64MPa and 280 +/- 28MPa for the Inorganic Route and the Organic Route Ca-P films, respectively. In vivo animal model studies have been performed to compare the effect on early bone formation of sintered porous-surfaced implants that had been modified through the addition of Ca-P film. In Group I study (i.e. Inorganic Route-formed Ca-P-coated implants vs. non-coated implants), it has been found that the Inorganic Route-formed Ca-P film significantly enhances the early rate of bone ingrowth for sintered porous-surfaced implants. However, in Group II study (i.e. Organic Route-formed Ca-P-coated implants vs. non-coated implants), significant improvement was not observed for the Organic Route-formed Ca-P film. It is speculated that the slightly different surface topography and film density between the two Ca-P films result in a different amounts of protein adsorption on the implant surface at the early stage, which further affects the following processes leading to osseointegration.

Gan, Lu

139

Hyperspectral Remote Sensing of Foliar Nitrogen Content  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A strong positive correlation between vegetation canopy bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) in the near infrared (NIR) spectral region and foliar mass-based nitrogen concentration (%N) has been reported in some temperate and boreal forests. This relationship, if true, would indicate an additional role for nitrogen in the climate system via its influence on surface albedo and may offer a simple approach for monitoring foliar nitrogen using satellite data. We report, however, that the previously reported correlation is an artifact - it is a consequence of variations in canopy structure, rather than of %N. The data underlying this relationship were collected at sites with varying proportions of foliar nitrogen-poor needleleaf and nitrogen-rich broadleaf species, whose canopy structure differs considerably. When the BRF data are corrected for canopy-structure effects, the residual reflectance variations are negatively related to %N at all wavelengths in the interval 423-855 nm. This suggests that the observed positive correlation between BRF and %N conveys no information about %N. We find that to infer leaf biochemical constituents, e.g., N content, from remotely sensed data, BRF spectra in the interval 710-790 nm provide critical information for correction of structural influences. Our analysis also suggests that surface characteristics of leaves impact remote sensing of its internal constituents. This further decreases the ability to remotely sense canopy foliar nitrogen. Finally, the analysis presented here is generic to the problem of remote sensing of leaf-tissue constituents and is therefore not a specific critique of articles espousing remote sensing of foliar %N.

Knyazikhin, Yuri; Schull, Mitchell A.; Stenberg, Pauline; Moettus, Matti; Rautiainen, Miina; Yang, Yan; Marshak, Alexander; Carmona, Pedro Latorre; Kaufmann, Robert K.; Lewis, Philip; Disney, Mathias I.; Vanderbilt, Vern; Davis, Anthony B.; Baret, Frederic; Jacquemoud, Stephane; Lyapustin, Alexei; Myneni, Ranga B.

2013-01-01

140

Hyperspectral remote sensing of foliar nitrogen content.  

PubMed

A strong positive correlation between vegetation canopy bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) in the near infrared (NIR) spectral region and foliar mass-based nitrogen concentration (%N) has been reported in some temperate and boreal forests. This relationship, if true, would indicate an additional role for nitrogen in the climate system via its influence on surface albedo and may offer a simple approach for monitoring foliar nitrogen using satellite data. We report, however, that the previously reported correlation is an artifact--it is a consequence of variations in canopy structure, rather than of %N. The data underlying this relationship were collected at sites with varying proportions of foliar nitrogen-poor needleleaf and nitrogen-rich broadleaf species, whose canopy structure differs considerably. When the BRF data are corrected for canopy-structure effects, the residual reflectance variations are negatively related to %N at all wavelengths in the interval 423-855 nm. This suggests that the observed positive correlation between BRF and %N conveys no information about %N. We find that to infer leaf biochemical constituents, e.g., N content, from remotely sensed data, BRF spectra in the interval 710-790 nm provide critical information for correction of structural influences. Our analysis also suggests that surface characteristics of leaves impact remote sensing of its internal constituents. This further decreases the ability to remotely sense canopy foliar nitrogen. Finally, the analysis presented here is generic to the problem of remote sensing of leaf-tissue constituents and is therefore not a specific critique of articles espousing remote sensing of foliar %N. PMID:23213258

Knyazikhin, Yuri; Schull, Mitchell A; Stenberg, Pauline; Mõttus, Matti; Rautiainen, Miina; Yang, Yan; Marshak, Alexander; Latorre Carmona, Pedro; Kaufmann, Robert K; Lewis, Philip; Disney, Mathias I; Vanderbilt, Vern; Davis, Anthony B; Baret, Frédéric; Jacquemoud, Stéphane; Lyapustin, Alexei; Myneni, Ranga B

2013-01-15

141

Improved methods for reducing calcium and magnesium concentrations in tissue culture medium: Application to studies of lymphoblast proliferation in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  We have compared several methods for reducing calcium and magnesium concentrations in tissue culture medium, with the objective\\u000a of producing selective deficiency effects on the growth of mouse (L5178Y) and human (P1R) lymphoblasts. In experiments in\\u000a which calcium- and magnesium-“free” McCoy’s medium was supplemented with 15% horse or fetal calf serum, enough calcium and\\u000a magnesium was provided by serum to

James K. Brennan; James Mansky; Geraldine Roberts; Marshall A. Lichtman

1975-01-01

142

Current perspectives of bio-ceramic technology in endodontics: calcium enriched mixture cement - review of its composition, properties and applications.  

PubMed

Advancements in bio-ceramic technology has revolutionised endodontic material science by enhancing the treatment outcome for patients. This class of dental materials conciliates excellent biocompatibility with high osseoconductivity that render them ideal for endodontic care. Few recently introduced bio-ceramic materials have shown considerable clinical success over their early generations in terms of good handling characteristics. Calcium enriched mixture (CEM) cement, Endosequence sealer, and root repair materials, Biodentine and BioAggregate are the new classes of bio-ceramic materials. The aim of this literature review is to present investigations regarding properties and applications of CEM cement in endodontics. A review of the existing literature was performed by using electronic and hand searching methods for CEM cement from January 2006 to December 2013. CEM cement has a different chemical composition from that of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) but has similar clinical applications. It combines the biocompatibility of MTA with more efficient characteristics, such as significantly shorter setting time, good handling characteristics, no staining of tooth and effective seal against bacterial leakage. PMID:25671207

Utneja, Shivani; Nawal, Ruchika Roongta; Talwar, Sangeeta; Verma, Mahesh

2015-02-01

143

Effect of cluster thinning and prohexadione calcium applications on phenolic composition and sensory properties of red wines.  

PubMed

The overall objective of this study was to investigate the effect of manual cluster thinning (CT) and the application of the growth regulator Prohexadione calcium (ProCa) on the phenolic composition and the sensory profile of Tempranillo and Grenache wines produced from treated vines in La Rioja (Spain). ProCa was applied at preblooming and CT was carried out at veraison in two consecutive years. Different physicochemical parameters and analyses of phenolic compounds were carried out in control, CT and ProCa grapes and wines and wine sensory was performed. Thinning treatments decreased crop yield, besides ProCa application reduced berry size, and berry weight. Color and phenolic composition of Grenache and Tempranillo wines in general were affected by thinning treatments, with an increase in anthocyanin, flavanol and flavonol concentrations. In sensory analysis, wines obtained from thinned vines presented higher values for several aromatic (e.g., white and yellow fruits, fresh flowers) and taste attributes (i.e., astringency, bitternes, persistence). CT and ProCa treatments resulted in an improvement in wine quality. In general, similar results in phenolic composition, sensory properties and quality of wines were obtained by manual and chemical cluster thinning. ProCa as a growth regulator may be an option for a quality vitiviniculture. PMID:23293882

Avizcuri-Inac, José-Miguel; Gonzalo-Diago, Ana; Sanz-Asensio, Jesús; Martínez-Soria, María-Teresa; López-Alonso, Miguel; Dizy-Soto, Marta; Echávarri-Granado, José-Federico; Vaquero-Fernández, Luis; Fernández-Zurbano, Purificación

2013-02-01

144

Current perspectives of bio-ceramic technology in endodontics: calcium enriched mixture cement - review of its composition, properties and applications  

PubMed Central

Advancements in bio-ceramic technology has revolutionised endodontic material science by enhancing the treatment outcome for patients. This class of dental materials conciliates excellent biocompatibility with high osseoconductivity that render them ideal for endodontic care. Few recently introduced bio-ceramic materials have shown considerable clinical success over their early generations in terms of good handling characteristics. Calcium enriched mixture (CEM) cement, Endosequence sealer, and root repair materials, Biodentine and BioAggregate are the new classes of bio-ceramic materials. The aim of this literature review is to present investigations regarding properties and applications of CEM cement in endodontics. A review of the existing literature was performed by using electronic and hand searching methods for CEM cement from January 2006 to December 2013. CEM cement has a different chemical composition from that of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) but has similar clinical applications. It combines the biocompatibility of MTA with more efficient characteristics, such as significantly shorter setting time, good handling characteristics, no staining of tooth and effective seal against bacterial leakage.

Nawal, Ruchika Roongta; Talwar, Sangeeta; Verma, Mahesh

2015-01-01

145

Alleviation of Cadmium Toxicity in Brassica juncea L. (Czern. & Coss.) by Calcium Application Involves Various Physiological and Biochemical Strategies  

PubMed Central

Calcium (Ca) plays important role in plant development and response to various environmental stresses. However, its involvement in mitigation of heavy metal stress in plants remains elusive. In this study, we examined the effect of Ca (50 mM) in controlling cadmium (Cd) uptake in mustard (Brassica juncea L.) plants exposed to toxic levels of Cd (200 mg L?1 and 300 mg L?1). The Cd treatment showed substantial decrease in plant height, root length, dry weight, pigments and protein content. Application of Ca improved the growth and biomass yield of the Cd-stressed mustard seedlings. More importantly, the oil content of mustard seeds of Cd-stressed plants was also enhanced with Ca treatment. Proline was significantly increased in mustard plants under Cd stress, and exogenously sprayed Ca was found to have a positive impact on proline content in Cd-stressed plants. Different concentrations of Cd increased lipid peroxidation but the application of Ca minimized it to appreciable level in Cd-treated plants. Excessive Cd treatment enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase, which were further enhanced by the addition of Ca. Additionally, Cd stress caused reduced uptake of essential elements and increased Cd accumulation in roots and shoots. However, application of Ca enhanced the concentration of essential elements and decreased Cd accumulation in Cd-stressed plants. Our results indicated that application of Ca enables mustard plant to withstand the deleterious effect of Cd, resulting in improved growth and seed quality of mustard plants. PMID:25629695

Ahmad, Parvaiz; Sarwat, Maryam; Bhat, Nazir Ahmad; Wani, Mohd Rafiq; Kazi, Alvina Gul; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

2015-01-01

146

75 FR 28608 - Calcium Hydroxide; Receipt of Application for Emergency Exemption, Solicitation of Public Comment  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...nurseries to control Eleutherodactylus frogs. The applicant proposes the use of a new...nurseries to control Eleutherodactylus frogs. Information in accordance with 40 CFR...hydroxide is necessary to control the tropical frogs, Eleutherodactylus coqui and E....

2010-05-21

147

Adhesive polydopamine coated avermectin microcapsules for prolonging foliar pesticide retention.  

PubMed

In this work, we report a conceptual strategy for prolonging foliar pesticide retention by using an adhesive polydopamine (PDA) microcapsule to encapsulate avermectin, thereby minimizing its volatilization and improving its residence time on crop surfaces. Polydopamine coated avermectin (Av@PDA) microcapsules were prepared by emulsion interfacial-polymerization and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscope, and transmission electron microscopy. The in situ synthesis route confers Av@PDA microcapsules with remarkable avermectin loading ability of up to 66.5% (w/w). Kinetic study of avermectin release demonstrated that Av@PDA microcapsules exhibit sustained- and controlled-release properties. The adhesive property of Av@PDA microcapsules on different surfaces was verified by a comparative study between Av@PDA and passivated Av@SiO2 and Av@PDA@SiO2 capsules with silica shell. Moreover, PDA shell could effectively shield UV irradiation and so protect avermectin from photodegradation, making it more applicable for foliar spraying. Meanwhile, it is determinated that Av@PDA microcapsules have good mechanical stability property. PMID:25390545

Jia, Xin; Sheng, Wen-bo; Li, Wei; Tong, Yan-bin; Liu, Zhi-yong; Zhou, Feng

2014-11-26

148

Design and application of chitosan/biphasic calcium phosphate porous scaffolds for bone tissue engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the restoration of maxillofacial bone tissue, design of novel tissue engineering scaffolds capable of inducing bone remodeling through the delivery of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and an angiogenic growth factor, directly at the site of the defect was investigated in order to replace autogenous cancellous bone grafts with synthetic materials. Porous, three dimensional scaffolds were fabricated by a freeze drying method. In culture media, biphasic calcium phosphate particles within chitosan produced a surface reprecipitate of a composition similar to natural apatite that led to a uniform distribution of cells and mineralized ECM through chemotaxis. Further, the reprecipitation regulated the differentiation pathway and phenotype commitment of stem cells by altering the initial cell attachment morphology and actin cytoskeleton organization. In order to induce neovascularization after implantation, constructs were designed to be loaded with gelatin microspheres that delivered basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), a potent angiogenic factor. In vitro proliferation tests performed on fibroblastic cells showed no detectible loss of bFGF activity when delivered through enzymatic degradation of gelatin. Laser scanning confocal microscopy was used to demonstrate that gelatin microspheres can be injected evenly into cell-scaffold constructs owing to the spongy characteristics of the scaffold. To examine the binding interactions of bFGF with surface bound gelatin, a label free biosensor system, Biomolecular INteraction Detection sensor (BIND) was used. Results confirm that the principal interaction that takes place between bFGF and gelatin is electrostatic. Cell loaded tissue engineered constructs were produced in vitro at clinically relevant sizes and implanted with and without bFGF into a porcine mandibular defect model. Tissue engineered constructs facilitated the healing of mandibular defects only if combined with delivery of bFGF via gelatin microspheres. bFGF release from the constructs improved neovascularization in the defect area and subsequently enhanced new bone formation. Although the rate and extent of bone formation was similar in bFGF group to those in empty defects for the period of the study, existence of woven bone in bFGF group suggests that bone formation is continuing while the lamellar structure in empty defects indicates that bone formation in that group was finalized.

Sendemir-Urkmez, Aylin

149

The effects of foliar applied CaCl 2·2H 2O, Ca(OH) 2 and K 2CO 3 combined with the surfactants Glucopon and Plantacare on gas exchange of 1 year old apple ( Malus domestica BORKH.) and broad bean ( Vicia faba L.) leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium chloride, calcium hydroxide, potassium carbonate and the alkylpolyglycoside surfactants Glucopon 215 CSUP and Plantacare 12 UP are salts applied to leaves as foliar nutrients and fungicides. These chemicals were sprayed on apple (Malus domestica BORKH.) and broad bean (Vicia faba L.) leaves. Stomatal conductance and rates of net photosynthesis were measured continuously in the light and in the dark

R. Q. Bai; T. K. Schlegel; J. Schönherr; P. W. Masinde

2008-01-01

150

Bulk physicochemical, interconnectivity, and mechanical properties of calcium phosphate cements-fibrin glue composites for bone substitute applications.  

PubMed

Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) and fibrin glue (FG) are used for surgical applications. Their combination is promising to create bone substitutes able to promote cell attachment and bone remodeling. This study proposes a novel approach to create CPC-FG composites by simultaneous CPC setting and FG fibrinogenesis. CPC-FG composites were obtained by mixing CPC powders, i.e. ?-tricalcium phosphate, dicalcium phosphate anhydrous and precipitated hydroxyapatite, with FG powder components, i.e. fibrinogen and thrombin, and a 2% Na(2) HPO(4) solution. To study the effect of FG quantity and fibrinogenesis kinetics, long and fast setting FGs were evaluated in amounts of 0.125, 0.250, and 0.500 mL on CPC-FG composites. Physicochemical, interconnectivity, and mechanical properties were measured. Scanning electron microscopy, Micro-computed tomography (?-CT), X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analyzed morphology, structure, crystallographic, and chemical composition, respectively. FG fibrinogenesis was performed within the CPC. FTIR confirmed this and its interfacial bonding with CPC. ?-CT confirmed a good FG distribution. FG addition affected the CPC when compared with pristine CPC. Adding FG to CPC changed their morphology, density, porosity, setting, cohesion, injectability, interconnectivity, crystallographic and chemical composition and mechanical properties. Moreover, 0.500 mL of long setting FG modified the observed fracture behavior of the CPC-FG. PMID:22927324

Lopez-Heredia, M A; Pattipeilohy, J; Hsu, S; Grykien, M; van der Weijden, B; Leeuwenburgh, S C G; Salmon, P; Wolke, J G C; Jansen, J A

2013-02-01

151

A novel application of calcium phosphate-based bone cement as an adjunct procedure in adult craniofacial reconstruction.  

PubMed

Secondary corrective osteotomy of malunited craniofacial fractures can be a challenging proposition. The exposure, extrusion, and palpability of the titanium implants used become a genuine concern especially in areas of relatively thin skin, such as the periorbital region. Restoring a satisfactory contour to the midface is another major task for the plastic surgeon. Bone cement used to reconstruct craniofacial defects has existed for many years. However, most applications have been as a substitute for autogenous bone grafts for defects less than 25 cm(2). In this article, we present two cases of malunited facial fractures that underwent corrective osteotomy, during which we felt that despite the conventional osteotomy and reduction techniques, there was still either a small remnant step deformity or suboptimal contour smoothness due to prominence of the implants used. We thus used bone cement as a resurfacing medium over titanium implants to restore good malar contour and reduce the palpability and exposure rate of the titanium implants. We report good patient satisfaction with contour correction with no increase in wound infection rates or any delay in wound healing. There was initial chemosis associated with the use of the bone cement, which resolved in both patients within 3 to 4 weeks. Postoperative computed tomography showed some degree of osteointegration but no fraction of the bone cement. Calcium phosphate bone cement thus presents an attractive adjunctive method for midfacial contour resurfacing, when used in conjunction with conventional osteotomy procedures and as an onlay over prominent titanium implants. PMID:23205176

Ho, Samuel; Nallathamby, Vigneswaran; Ng, Huiwen; Ho, Michelle; Wong, Marcus

2011-12-01

152

Precise and Accurate Trace Element Analysis of Calcium Carbonate by LA-ICP-MS and its Application to Stalagmites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interest in high-spatial-resolution in-situ micro-analysis of calcium carbonates (e.g., speleothems, corals, ostracods) has increased substantially in recent years, because these samples provide important information on past climate variability. The most commonly used method is LA-ICP-MS, which combines the advantages of low detection limits (ng/g range) with high spatial resolution (10 - 100 ?m). Most studies apply low mass resolution ICP-MS, and the synthetic NIST 610 and 612 silicate glasses for instrumental calibration. However, there are several drawbacks of this procedure: (1) the NIST glasses have not been certified for micro-analytical purposes, (2) molecules and doubly charged ions may interfere with the mass lines of interest, and (3) the silicate matrix is quite different from the carbonate matrix. We have, therefore, systematically investigated these points by using the low (300) and medium (4000) mass resolution modes of the Thermo Element2 ICP-MS, application of different laser ablation systems (193 nm and 213 nm wavelengths, respectively) and reference materials of different matrix (NIST silicate glass, calcium carbonate, natural geological). Recently, Jochum et al. (2011) investigated the use of the NIST glasses in micro-analysis and provided both new reference values and the corresponding uncertainties at 95 % confidence level following ISO guidelines. These values differ significantly (by as much as 10 %) from the most commonly used values of Pearce et al. (1997). Our study demonstrates that many mass lines are affected by interferences in low mass resolution mode, such as the 24Mg line, which is interfered by 48Ca++ in carbonate samples, the 67Zn line, which is interfered with 27Al40Ar+ in silicate glasses, and 31P, which may be affected by 15N16O+and 14N17O+. In addition, a "gas blank" correction is insufficient in case of a significant increase of Ca and C molecules during ablation of calcium carbonate samples. These mass lines should, therefore, not be used for accurate micro-analysis at low mass resolution. As shown by many publications, non-matrix matched calibration and the so-called mass load effect may result in incorrect LA-ICP-MS data. Our investigations with different matrix materials show that the relative sensitivity factors (RSF) of most elements are within ~10%. However, the RSF of carbonate and geological samples differ by up to 40% from those of the NIST silicate glasses for the chalcophile elements Cu, Zn, Ge, Mo, Cd, Sn, Tl, Pb. We have tested a new procedure for analysis of calcite and aragonite phases of a stalagmite from the Hüttenbläserschachthöhle, Germany, by using low and medium mass resolution and appropriate RSF. Because of higher count rates, the detection limits of interference-free isotopes are much lower for low mass resolution than for medium mass resolution. For interfered mass lines the detection limits are, however, lower for medium mass resolution. For example, the detection limit for 24Mg is 0.2 ?g/g for medium mass resolution compared to 500 ?g/g for low mass resolution. Thus, it is possible to accurately measure the three Mg isotopes for Mg concentrations down to several ?g/g.

Jochum, K. P.; Scholz, D.; Stoll, B.; Weis, U.; Yang, Q.; Andreae, M. O.

2011-12-01

153

Application of calcium carbonate slows down organic amendments mineralization in reclaimed soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A field experiment was set up in Cartagena-La Unión Mining District, SE Spain, aimed at evaluating the short-term effects of pig slurry (PS) amendment alone and together with marble waste (MW) on organic matter mineralization, microbial activity and stabilization of heavy metals in two tailing ponds. These structures pose environmental risk owing to high metals contents, low organic matter and nutrients, and null vegetation. Carbon mineralization, exchangeable metals and microbiological properties were monitored during 67 days. The application of amendments led to a rapid decrease of exchangeable metals concentrations, except for Cu, with decreases up to 98%, 75% and 97% for Cd, Pb and Zn, respectively. The combined addition of MW+PS was the treatment with greater reduction in metals concentrations. The addition of PS caused a significant increase in respiration rates, although in MW+PS plots respiration was lower than in PS plots. The mineralised C from the pig slurry was low, approximately 25-30% and 4-12% for PS and MW+PS treatments, respectively. Soluble carbon (Csol), microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and ?-galactosidase and ?-glucosidase activities increased after the application of the organic amendment. However, after 3 days these parameters started a decreasing trend reaching similar values than control from approximately day 25 for Csol and MBC. The PS treatment promoted highest values in enzyme activities, which remained high upon time. Arylesterase activity increased in the MW+PS treatment. Thus, the remediation techniques used improved soil microbiological status and reduced metal availability. The combined application of PS+MW reduced the degradability of the organic compounds. Keywords: organic wastes, mine soils stabilization, carbon mineralization, microbial activity.

Zornoza, Raúl; Faz, Ángel; Acosta, José A.; Martínez-Martínez, Silvia; Ángeles Muñoz, M.

2014-05-01

154

Calcium - ionized  

MedlinePLUS

... before the test. Many medicines can interfere with blood test results. Your health care provider will tell you if ... decrease total calcium levels. These may include abnormal blood levels of albumin or immunoglobulins.

155

Calcium Hydroxylapatite  

PubMed Central

Background: Calcium hydroxylapatite is one of the most well-studied dermal fillers worldwide and has been extensively used for the correction of moderate-to-severe facial lines and folds and to replenish lost volume. Objectives: To mark the milestone of 10 years of use in the aesthetic field, this review will consider the evolution of calcium hydroxylapatite in aesthetic medicine, provide a detailed injection protocol for a global facial approach, and examine how the unique properties of calcium hydroxylapatite provide it with an important place in today’s market. Methods: This article is an up-to-date review of calcium hydroxylapatite in aesthetic medicine along with procedures for its use, including a detailed injection protocol for a global facial approach by three expert injectors. Conclusion: Calcium hydroxylapatite is a very effective agent for many areas of facial soft tissue augmentation and is associated with a high and well-established safety profile. Calcium hydroxylapatite combines high elasticity and viscosity with an ability to induce long-term collagen formation making it an ideal agent for a global facial approach. PMID:25610523

Yutskovskaya, Yana Alexandrovna; Philip Werschler, WM.

2015-01-01

156

Feasibility of digital image colorimetry--application for water calcium hardness determination.  

PubMed

Interpretation and relevance of basic RGB colors in Digital Image-Based Colorimetry have been treated in this paper. The studies were carried out using the chromogenic model formed by the reaction between Ca(II) ions and glyoxal bis(2-hydroxyanil). It produced orange-red colored solutions in alkaline media. Individual basic color data (RGB) and also the total intensity of colors, I(tot), were the original variables treated by Factorial Analysis. Te evaluation evidenced that the highest variance of the system and the highest analytical sensitivity were associated to the G color. However, after the study by Fourier transform the basic R color was recognized as an important feature in the information. It was manifested as an intrinsic characteristic that appeared differentiated in terms of low frequency in Fourier transform. The Principal Components Analysis study showed that the variance of the system could be mostly retained in the first principal component, but was dependent on all basic colors. The colored complex was also applied and validated as a Digital Image Colorimetric method for the determination of Ca(II) ions. RGB intensities were linearly correlated with Ca(II) in the range 0.2-2.0 mg L(-1). In the best conditions, using green color, a simple and reliable method for Ca determination could be developed. Its detection limit was established (criterion 3s) as 0.07 mg L(-1). And the reproducibility was lower than 6%, for 1.0 mg L(-1) Ca. Other chromatic parameters were evaluated as dependent calibration variables. Their representativeness, variance and sensitivity were discussed in order to select the best analytical variable. The potentiality of the procedure as a field and ready-to-use method, susceptible to be applied 'in situ' with a minimum of experimental needs, was probed. Applications of the analysis of Ca in different real water samples were carried out. Water of the city net, mineral bottled, and natural-river were analyzed and results were compared and evaluated statistically. The validity was assessed by the alternative techniques of flame atomic absorption spectroscopy and titrimetry. Differences were appreciated but they were consistent with the applied methods. PMID:23200383

Lopez-Molinero, Angel; Tejedor Cubero, Valle; Domingo Irigoyen, Rosa; Sipiera Piazuelo, Daniel

2013-01-15

157

Foliar phloem infrastructure in support of photosynthesis  

PubMed Central

Acclimatory adjustments of foliar minor loading veins in response to growth at different temperatures and light intensities are evaluated. These adjustments are related to their role in providing infrastructure for the export of photosynthetic products as a prerequisite for full acclimation of photosynthesis to the respective environmental conditions. Among winter-active apoplastic loaders, higher photosynthesis rates were associated with greater numbers of sieve elements per minor vein as well as an increased apparent total membrane area of cells involved in phloem loading (greater numbers of cells and/or greater cell wall invaginations). Among summer-active apoplastic loaders, higher photosynthesis rates were associated with increased vein density and, possibly, a greater number of sieve elements and companion cells per minor vein. Among symplastic loaders, minor loading vein architecture (number per vein and arrangement of cells) was apparently constrained, but higher photosynthesis rates were associated with higher foliar vein densities and larger intermediary cells (presumably providing a greater volume for enzymes involved in active raffinose sugar synthesis). Winter-active apoplastic loaders thus apparently place emphasis on adjustments of cell membrane area (presumably available for transport proteins active in loading of minor veins), while symplastic loaders apparently place emphasis on increasing the volume of cells in which their active loading step takes place. Presumably to accommodate a greater flux of photosynthate through the foliar veins, winter-active apoplastic loaders also have a higher number of sieve elements per minor loading vein, whereas symplastic loaders and summer-active apoplastic loaders have a higher total number of veins per leaf area. These latter adjustments in the vasculature (during leaf development) may also apply to the xylem (via greater numbers of tracheids per vein and/or greater vein density per leaf area) serving to increase water flux to mesophyll tissues in support of high rates of transpiration typically associated with high rates of photosynthesis. PMID:23785375

Adams, William W.; Cohu, Christopher M.; Muller, Onno; Demmig-Adams, Barbara

2013-01-01

158

Calcium pyrophosphate arthritis (Pseudogout)  

MedlinePLUS

Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease; CPPD disease; Acute CPPD arthritis; Pseudogout ... Calcium pyrophosphate arthritis is caused by the collection of salt called calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD). The buildup ...

159

16 The Response of Foliar Carbohydrates to Elevated [CO2  

E-print Network

16 The Response of Foliar Carbohydrates to Elevated [CO2] Alistair Rogers and Elizabeth A. Ainsworth 16.1 Introduction Accumulation of foliar carbohydrates is one of the most pronounced and uni]). Carbohydrates are both the product of photosynthetic cells and the substrate for sink metabolism. However

Rogers, Alistair

160

FOLIAR WASHOFF OF PESTICIDES (FWOP) MODEL: DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The Foliar Washoff of Pesticides (FWOP) Model was developed to provide an empirical simulation of pesticide washoff from plant leaf surfaces as influenced by rainfall amount. To evaluate the technique, simulations by the FWOP Model were compared to those by the foliar washoff alg...

161

Regulation of Foliar Plasticity in Conifers: Developmental and Environmental Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foliar plasticity is widespread among woody plants, and historically most observations have been made in angiosperms. This review concentrates on examples from gymnosperms, particularly the Pinaceae, since there have been a number of recent studies on coniferous forest species. Foliar plasticity can be defined as variation in the morphology and physiological function of foliage produced over time and space within

Michael S. Greenwood; Michael E. Day; Graeme P. Berlyn

2009-01-01

162

Evaluating mechanical adhesion of sol-gel titanium dioxide coatings containing calcium phosphate for metal implant application.  

PubMed

The adhesion of thin (< 10 microm) sol-gel calcium phosphate-titanium dioxide films bonded to a titanium substrate was studied using two different tests: a rotating-bending test and a tensile bond test. The former evaluates the impact of both the coating procedure and the surface pre-treatment on the resistance to fatigue of the substrate as well as the adhesion of the coating; the latter measures the tensile adhesion strength of the coating. Both tests gave similar results. A reduction of the thickness of the coating or an increase of the roughness of the substrate improves the quality of the interface. A comparison of the adhesion of the calcium phosphate-titanium dioxide film with that of a pure calcium phosphate coating obtained by a similar route suggests the involvement of a chemical component in the binding. PMID:10985493

Piveteau, L D; Gasser, B; Schlapbach, L

2000-11-01

163

Management of Pratylenchus penetrans on Oriental Lilies with Drip and Foliar-applied Nematicides.  

PubMed

Pratylenchus penetrans is a pest for producers of oriental lilies in northern California. Concern over groundwater contamination from 1,2-dichloropropane following shank injections of 1,3-dichloropropene-l,2-dichloropropane mixture and granular applications of aldicarb prompted testing for alternative methods of controlling P. penetrans. In field trials, nematicides applied by drip irrigation (ethoprop, fenamiphos, oxamyl, sodium tetrathiocarbonate, water extracts of marigold and vetch, and 1,3-D plus emulsifier) were tested with and without foliar applications of oxamyl. Nematode populations were reduced (P = 0.05) relative to controls in soil or roots on one or more sampling dates by all drip-applied nematicides except the plant extracts. On some sampling dates, additional reductions (P = 0.05) occurred as a result of three foliar applications of oxamyl. Foliar-applied oxamyl alone also reduced (P = 0.05) nematodes in soil or roots. Lily bulb weight was not affected (P = 0.05) by chemical treatments. PMID:19279836

Westerdahl, B B; Giraud, D; Radewald, J D; Anderson, C A; Darso, J

1993-12-01

164

Forest vegetation monitoring and foliar chemistry of red spruce and red maple at Acadia National Park in Maine.  

PubMed

The USDA Forest Service Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) program indicators, including forest mensuration, crown condition classification, and damage and mortality indicators were used in the Cadillac Brook and Hadlock Brook watershed forests at Acadia National Park (ANP) along coastal Maine. Cadillac Brook watershed burned in a wildfire in 1947. Hadlock Brook watershed, undisturbed for several centuries, serves as the reference site. These two small watersheds have been gauged and monitored at ANP since 1998 as part of the Park Research and Intensive Monitoring of Ecosystems Network (PRIMENet). Forest vegetation at Hadlock Brook was dominated by late successional species such as Acer saccharum, Fagus grandifolia, Betula alleghaniensis, Acer rubrum and Picea rubens. Forest vegetation at Cadillac Brook, on the other hand, was younger and more diverse and included those species found in Hadlock as well as early successional species such as Betula papyrifera and Populus grandidentata. Differences in forest species composition and stand structure were attributed to the severe wildfire that affected the Cadillac Brook watershed. Overall, the forests at these ANP watersheds were healthy with a low percentage (Foliar nitrogen (N) concentrations were higher in A. rubrum and P. rubens trees growing in Hadlock Brook watershed, but differences were significant only for P. rubens. Foliar aluminum (Al) concentrations were also higher in both species growing in Hadlock Brook watershed but differences were significant only for A. rubrum. Foliar calcium (Ca) and manganese (Mn) concentrations, on the other hand, were significantly lower in Hadlock Brook watershed for both species. Foliar potassium (K) was significantly higher for P. rubens growing in Hadlock Brook. No differences in foliar concentrations of magnesium (Mg), phosphorus (P), boron (B), copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) were found between watersheds. The higher foliar N concentrations as well as higher foliar concentrations of Ca and Al might indicate early stages of N saturation and acidification in Hadlock Brook watershed as also suggested by Hadlock Brook stream N flux data in published PRIMENet studies at ANP. PMID:17180435

Wiersma, G Bruce; Elvir, Jose Alexander; Eckhoff, Janet D

2007-03-01

165

Calcium in diet  

MedlinePLUS

... with calcium and prevent it from being absorbed. DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Calcium is also found in many multivitamin-mineral supplements. The amount varies depending on the. supplement. Dietary supplements may contain only calcium or calcium with other ...

166

Application of Foraminiferal Calcium Carbonate Chemistry to Proxy Past Ocean Conditions: key roles of Biomineral Formation and Dissolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of the shell chemistry of foraminiferal calcite and aragonite for seawater paleothermometry and paleochemistry rests on confidence in the calibrations established to link metal uptake or isotope fractionation by the marine biogenic calcium carbonate to modern seawater composition. The early pioneering work in this field led to a period of application, principally of the establishment and expansion of stable oxygen and carbon isotope studies. But new work on trace metals in foraminifera has led to an upsurge of interest in, and reappraisal of, what controls metal uptake and the extent to which foraminifera do a good a job in recording and revealing the ocean's secrets. Two issues are considered: (i) understanding how secretion by the organism takes place and the chemical consequences; (ii) how dissolution changes the initial chemistry. The early work on ultrastructure shows that different, often progressive, layers are formed ranging from anhedral microgranules to euhedral crystallites; and that there is sequential and preferential dissolution of the different textural forms. This forms some basis for understanding, for example, the heterogeneity in foraminiferal Mg/Ca and how this is affected by dissolution. In general, warmer species (higher Mg/Ca) show greatest 104 line broadening and depth (or carbonate ion) related dissolution is accompanied by a decrease both in Mg/Ca and line broadening. Variation in calcification rate has been linked to changes in carbon isotope and Sr/Ca, perhaps through a carbonate ion effect. This is also seen from size fraction data. There is also variability in shell mass both from initial calcification history and from dissolution, and both affect shell chemistry. Shell mass is also associated with changes in normalised size and accompanied by chemical changes. One clear effect of Mg heterogeneity is in its effect on calibrations for thermometry and the extent to which phase differences between temperature (dissolution-corrected Mg/Ca) and ice volume (temperature-corrected oxygen isotopes) can be defined. Most paleoceanographic proxies are complex and are affected by primary and secondary factors which is why multi-proxy approached are increasingly used. Understanding why and how foraminifera incorporate trace elements through biological mineralization will help aid expansion of this important field.

Elderfield, H.

2001-12-01

167

LOW CONCENTRATION MERCURY SORPTION MECHANISMS AND CONTROL BY CALCIUM-BASED SORBENTS; APPLICATION IN COAL-FIRED PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

The capture of elemental mercury (Hgo) and mercuric chloride (HgCl2) by three types of calcium (Ca)-based sorbents was examined in this bench-scale study under conditions prevalent in coal fired utilities. Ca-based sorbent performances were compared to that of an activated carbon...

168

Selected Calcium Salt Formulations: Interactions between Spray Deposit Characteristics and Ca Penetration with Consequences for Rain-Induced Wash-Off  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of two ethoxylated rapeseed oils (RSO) as surfactants for foliar-applied calcium chloride CaCl2 and calcium acetate Ca(CH3COO)2 on deposit characteristics, penetration, and calcium (Ca) residues after rainfall was investigated in columnar apple trees (CAT, Malus domestica Borkh.) and apple seedlings. Irrespective of salt and apple variety, both surfactants enhanced droplet spreading and led to a greater area covered

Thorsten Kraemer; Mauricio Hunsche; Georg Noga

2009-01-01

169

Foliar nutrient status of Pinus ponderosa exposed to ozone and acid rain  

SciTech Connect

A direct effect of foliar exposure to acid rain may be increased leaching of nutrient elements. Ozone exposure, through degradation of the cuticle and cellular membranes, may also result in increased nutrient leaching. To test these hypotheses, the foliar concentrations of 13 nutrient elements were monitored for mature branches of three clones of Pinus ponderosa exposed to ozone and/or acid rain. The three clones represented three distinct levels of phenotypic vigor. Branches were exposed to charcoal filtered, ambient, or 2 x ambient concentrations of ozone and received no acid rain (NAP), pH 5.1 rain (5.1), or pH 3.0 (3.0) rain. Following 10 months of continuous ozone exposure and 3 months of weekly rain applications, the concentrations of P and Mg differed significantly among rain treatments with a ranking of: 5.1 < NAP < 3.0. The S concentration increased with rain application regardless of pH. For the clones of moderate and low vigor, the concentration of N decreased with increasing rain acidity. There was no evidence of significant ozone or ozone x acid rain response. Among the three families, high phenotypic vigor was associated with significantly greater concentrations of N, P, K, Mg, B and An. These results indicate generally negligible leaching as a result of exposure to acid rain and/or ozone for one growing season. Increases in foliar concentrations of S, Mg and P are possibly the result of evaporative surface deposition from the rain solution.

Anderson, P.D.; Houpis, J.L.J. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States))

1991-05-01

170

Project Calcium  

SciTech Connect

Fouling problems in utility boilers have been classified into two principal types: high-temperature and low-temperature fouling. A multiclient-sponsored program was initiated at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) to better understand the causes of low-temperature fouling when burning high-calcium western US coals. The goals of Project Calcium were to define the low-temperature deposition problem, identify the calcium-based components that are responsible for the formation of the deposits, develop ways to predict their formation, and identify possible methods to mitigate the formation of these deposits. To achieve the goals of Project Calcium, detailed sampling of utility boilers and laboratory-scale studies coupled with state-of-the-art methods to determine the inorganic components in coals and coal ash-derived materials were conducted. Boiler Sampling was also performed. The work involved sampling coal, entrained ash, deposits and slags from five full-scale utility boilers combined with detailed advanced characterization of the materials. The results of this work aided in identifying the key phenomena to focus the laboratory studies and in model verification. Field testing was conducted at three utilities.

Hurley, J.P.; Benson, S.A.; Erickson, T.A.; Allan, S.E.; Bieber, J.

1992-09-01

171

The relationship between foliar nitrogen content and feeding by Odontota dorsalis Thun. on Robinia pseudoacacia L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between total foliar nitrogen content and feeding by Odontota dorsalis Thun. on Black Locust trees (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) was examined via experimental manipulation of foliar nitrogen levels. Trees with high concentrations of foliar nitrogen received more herbivory by adult O. dorsalis, but herbivory by larvae was independent of foliar nitrogen concentration. Late in the growing season, leaf abscission

Leslie A. Athey; Edward F. Connor

1989-01-01

172

Original article Availability of calcium from skim milk, calcium sulfate  

E-print Network

Original article Availability of calcium from skim milk, calcium sulfate and calcium carbonate; accepted 19 November 1999) Abstract --Dairy products provide abundant, accessible calcium for humans, while some calcium sulfate-rich mineral waters could provide appreciable amounts of calcium

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

173

Effects of water table depth and calcium perioxide application on cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata ) and soybean ( Glycine max )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The effects of three water table (WT) depths (0, 15 and 40 cm) and calcium peroxide (Calper) on the growth and yield of cowpea\\u000a (Vigna unguiculata, L.) and soybean (Glycine max) were investigated in field lysimeters for a sandy loam soil. Cowpea growth was the best at 40 cm WT depth. Leaf area, plant\\u000a height, dry matter production, number of

L. T. Ogunremi; R. Lal; O. Babalola

1981-01-01

174

Potentiostatic pulse-deposition of calcium phosphate on magnesium alloy for temporary implant applications - An in vitro corrosion study.  

PubMed

In this study, a magnesium alloy (AZ91) was coated with calcium phosphate using potentiostatic pulse-potential and constant-potential methods and the in vitro corrosion behaviour of the coated samples was compared with the bare metal. In vitro corrosion studies were carried out using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization in simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37°C. Calcium phosphate coatings enhanced the corrosion resistance of the alloy, however, the pulse-potential coating performed better than the constant-potential coating. The pulse-potential coating exhibited ~3 times higher polarization resistance than that of the constant-potential coating. The corrosion current density obtained from the potentiodynamic polarization curves was significantly less (~60%) for the pulse-deposition coating as compared to the constant-potential coating. Post-corrosion analysis revealed only slight corrosion on the pulse-potential coating, whereas the constant-potential coating exhibited a large number of corrosion particles attached to the coating. The better in vitro corrosion performance of the pulse-potential coating can be attributed to the closely packed calcium phosphate particles. PMID:25427473

Kannan, M Bobby; Wallipa, O

2013-03-01

175

Calcium and bone disease  

PubMed Central

Calcium transport and calcium signaling are of basic importance in bone cells. Bone is the major store of calcium and a key regulatory organ for calcium homeostasis. Bone, in major part, responds to calcium-dependent signals from the parathyroids and via vitamin D metabolites, although bone retains direct response to extracellular calcium if parathyroid regulation is lost. Improved understanding of calcium transporters and calcium-regulated cellular processes has resulted from analysis of genetic defects, including several defects with low or high bone mass. Osteoblasts deposit calcium by mechanisms including phosphate and calcium transport with alkalinization to absorb acid created by mineral deposition; cartilage calcium mineralization occurs by passive diffusion and phosphate production. Calcium mobilization by osteoclasts is mediated by acid secretion. Both bone forming and bone resorbing cells use calcium signals as regulators of differentiation and activity. This has been studied in more detail in osteoclasts, where both osteoclast differentiation and motility are regulated by calcium. PMID:21674636

Blair, Harry C.; Robinson, Lisa J.; Huang, Christopher L.-H.; Sun, Li; Friedman, Peter A.; Schlesinger, Paul H.; Zaidi, Mone

2013-01-01

176

Effects of crown position and initial spacing on foliar nutrient composition of seven bottomland hardwoods. Forest Service research note  

SciTech Connect

Seven plantation-grown bottomland hardwoods, sweetgum (Liquidambar stryaciflua L.), green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh.), American sycamore (Platanus occidentalis L.), water oak (Quercus nigra L.), Nuttall oak (Q. nuttallii Palmer), cherrybark oak (Q. falcata var. pagodifolia Ell.), and swamp chestnut oak (Q. michauxii Nutt.), were sampled after the seventh growing season to determine foliar nutrient concentrations. Foliage samples were collected from the upper, middle, and lower crown positions and from the entire crown. Determinations were made for levels of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, and magnesium. Spacing had no effect on nutrient concentrations. Nutrient levels differed by crown position for some nutrients in most species. Most of the differences were in the nitrogen, calcium, and magnesium levels.

Kennedy, H.E.

1993-01-01

177

Foliar mercury accumulation and exchange for three tree species.  

PubMed

The goals of this study were to (1) investigate plant mercury (Hg) uptake using different air and soil Hg concentrations near natural background values for three tree species, and (2) test if measured foliar Hg fluxes could explain observed foliar Hg concentrations. Plants were exposed to three soil treatments (<0.01, 0.09 +/- 0.02, and 0.92 +/- 0.27 microg Hg g(-1)), and to three atmospheric exposure concentrations (5.9 +/- 2.3, 14.3 +/- 2.7, and 30.1 +/- 3.5 ng Hg m(-3)). Foliar Hg concentrations were found to be influenced primarily by atmospheric Hg concentrations and to a lesser extent by soil Hg exposures. Data indicated that deciduous species might play a more active role in ecosystem Hg cycling than evergreen trees. Foliar mercury fluxes quantified using a dynamic single-plant gas-exchange chamber for two species were variable and accumulation rates were lower than those predicted based on foliar Hg concentrations. A hypothesis to explain this discrepancy is that the plant gas-exchange chamber measures net flux which includes emission, deposition, adsorption, and reemission of Hg at the leaf surface, while total foliar accumulation represents only deposition and assimilation. PMID:17051791

Millhollen, Allison G; Gustin, Mae S; Obrist, Daniel

2006-10-01

178

Calcium and Vitamin D  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Calcium is required for the bone formation phase of bone remodeling. Typically about 5 nmol (200 mg) of calcium is removed from the adult skeleton and replaced each day. To supply this amount, one would need to consume about 600 mg of calcium, since calcium is not very efficiently absorbed. Calcium ...

179

Evaluation of uncertainty of measurement in routine clinical chemistry--applications to determination of the substance concentration of calcium and glucose in serum.  

PubMed

We studied the uncertainty of measurement for the calcium and glucose (amount of) substance concentrations in serum. The evaluation follows a four-step procedure, which complies with the ISO document Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM). The applications were chosen to represent commonly used measuring systems in medical laboratories. The uncertainty components are quantified using observations of the measuring system, and information from calibration certificates, instrument specifications and literature. The evaluation focuses on the measurement step but empirical terms are used to illustrate how the pre-analytical phase and patient-related issues can be accounted for. The software GUM Workbench was used to facilitate calculations and to visualize the importance of each uncertainty component. The combined standard uncertainties (u(c)) for the measurands were < or =2% including the pre-analytical uncertainty sources. The patient-related source is discussed in relation to clinician's diagnosis and decision-making. The evaluation, as carried out here for calcium and glucose substance concentration measurements, can easily be applied to many other measurands in clinical chemistry. This work emphasizes that the internal quality control can provide much of the information needed in the uncertainty evaluation, and that external quality assessment (EQA) schemes are important in the control of the uncertainty evaluated by the individual laboratories. Due to statistical and metrological limitations routine EQA schemes should themselves not be used as a means of uncertainty evaluation. PMID:12059081

Linko, Solveig; Ornemark, Ulf; Kessel, Rüdiger; Taylor, Philip D P

2002-04-01

180

Complexometric Determination of Calcium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) complexes with numerous mineral ions, including calcium and magnesium. This reaction can be used to determine the amount of these minerals in a sample by a complexometric titration. Endpoints in the titration are detected using indicators that change color when they complex with mineral ions. Calmagite and eriochrome black T (EBT) are such indicators that change from blue to pink when they complex with calcium and magnesium. In the titration of a mineral-containing solution with EDTA, the solution turns from pink to blue at the endpoint with either indicator. The pH affects a complexometric EDTA titration in several ways, and must be carefully controlled. A major application of EDTA titration is testing the hardness of water, for which the method described is an official one (Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, Method 2340C; AOAC Method 920.196).

Nielsen, S. Suzanne

181

Characterization of calcium oxide catalysts from natural sources and their application in the transesterification of sunflower oil.  

PubMed

The catalytic activities of calcium oxide obtained from natural sources (crab shell and eggshell) were characterized and evaluated in the transesterification of vegetable oil. These catalysts are mainly composed of calcium carbonate, which is partially converted into CaO after calcination (900°C for 2h). The catalysts have some advantages, such as abundant occurrence, low cost, porous structure, and nontoxic. The materials were characterized by XRD, FTIR, TG/DTG, CO2-TPD, XPS, SEM, and BET methods. The thermal treatment produces small particles of CaCO3 and CaO that are responsible for the catalytic activity. The conversion from triglycerides to methyl ester was not observed in transesterification carried out using natural crab shell and eggshell. Under optimized reaction conditions, the conversions to YFAME using the calcined catalysts were: crab shell (83.10±0.27 wt.%) and eggshell (97.75±0.02 wt.%). These results, showed that these materials have promising viability in transesterification for biodiesel production. PMID:24240148

Correia, Leandro Marques; Saboya, Rosana Maria Alves; Campelo, Natália de Sousa; Cecilia, Juan Antonio; Rodríguez-Castellón, Enrique; Cavalcante, Célio Loureiro; Vieira, Rodrigo Silveira

2014-01-01

182

Calcium Collage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (on pages 11-14 of PDF), learners cut out pictures from magazines of foods that help make bones strong and glue the pictures to a paper bone. The lesson plan includes information about various activities - including physical exercise as well as diet - that lead to healthy bones. It also includes a list of foods that provide calcium to strengthen bones, including dairy products, spinach, and tofu. The paper bones can be cut out of construction paper prior to the activity.

2012-06-26

183

Calcium source (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Getting enough calcium to keep bones from thinning throughout a person's life may be made more difficult if that person has ... as a tendency toward kidney stones, for avoiding calcium-rich food sources. Calcium deficiency also effects the ...

184

Get Enough Calcium  

MedlinePLUS

... Physical Activity > Nutrition > Get Enough Calcium Get Enough Calcium The Basics Take Action! Ver en español Content ... January 06, 2015 The Basics Your body needs calcium to build strong bones when you are young ...

185

Coronary Calcium Scan  

MedlinePLUS

... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Coronary Calcium Scan? A coronary calcium scan is a test ... you have calcifications in your coronary arteries. Coronary Calcium Scan Figure A shows the position of the ...

186

Calcium carbonate overdose  

MedlinePLUS

Calcium carbonate is an ingredient that is commonly found in antacids (for heartburn) and some dietary supplements. Calcium carbonate overdose occurs when someone accidentally or intentionally takes ...

187

Supplemental macronutrients and microbial fermentation products improve the uptake and transport of foliar applied zinc in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants. Studies utilizing micro X-ray florescence  

PubMed Central

Enhancing nutrient uptake and the subsequent elemental transport from the sites of application to sites of utilization is of great importance to the science and practical field application of foliar fertilizers. The aim of this study was to investigate the mobility of various foliar applied zinc (Zn) formulations in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and to evaluate the effects of the addition of an organic biostimulant on phloem loading and elemental mobility. This was achieved by application of foliar formulations to the blade of sunflower (H. annuus L.) and high-resolution elemental imaging with micro X-ray fluorescence (?-XRF) to visualize Zn within the vascular system of the leaf petiole. Although no significant increase of total Zn in petioles was determined by inductively-coupled plasma mass-spectrometer, ?-XRF elemental imaging showed a clear enrichment of Zn in the vascular tissues within the sunflower petioles treated with foliar fertilizers containing Zn. The concentration of Zn in the vascular of sunflower petioles was increased when Zn was applied with other microelements with EDTA (commercial product Kick-Off) as compared with an equimolar concentration of ZnSO4 alone. The addition of macronutrients N, P, K (commercial product CleanStart) to the Kick-Off Zn fertilizer, further increased vascular system Zn concentrations while the addition of the microbially derived organic biostimulant “GroZyme” resulted in a remarkable enhancement of Zn concentrations in the petiole vascular system. The study provides direct visualized evidence for phloem transport of foliar applied Zn out of sites of application in plants by using ?-XRF technique, and suggests that the formulation of the foliar applied Zn and the addition of the organic biostimulant GroZyme increases the mobility of Zn following its absorption by the leaf of sunflower. PMID:25653663

Tian, Shengke; Lu, Lingli; Xie, Ruohan; Zhang, Minzhe; Jernstedt, Judith A.; Hou, Dandi; Ramsier, Cliff; Brown, Patrick H.

2014-01-01

188

Identification of genes in Thuja plicata foliar terpenoid defenses.  

PubMed

Thuja plicata (western redcedar) is a long-lived conifer species whose foliage is rarely affected by disease or insect pests, but can be severely damaged by ungulate browsing. Deterrence to browsing correlates with high foliar levels of terpenoids, in particular the monoterpenoid ?-thujone. Here, we set out to identify genes whose products may be involved in the production of ?-thujone and other terpenoids in this species. First, we generated a foliar transcriptome database from which to draw candidate genes. Second, we mapped the storage of thujones and other terpenoids to foliar glands. Third, we used global expression profiling to identify more than 600 genes that are expressed at high levels in foliage with glands, but can either not be detected or are expressed at low levels in a natural variant lacking foliar glands. Fourth, we used in situ RNA hybridization to map the expression of a putative monoterpene synthase to the epithelium of glands and used enzyme assays with recombinant protein of the same gene to show that it produces sabinene, the monoterpene precursor of ?-thujone. Finally, we identified candidate genes with predicted enzymatic functions for the conversion of sabinene to ?-thujone. Taken together, this approach generated both general resources and detailed functional characterization in the identification of genes of foliar terpenoid biosynthesis in T. plicata. PMID:23388118

Foster, Adam J; Hall, Dawn E; Mortimer, Leanne; Abercromby, Shelley; Gries, Regine; Gries, Gerhard; Bohlmann, Jörg; Russell, John; Mattsson, Jim

2013-04-01

189

Effect of the application of a casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) paste and adhesive systems on bond durability of a fissure sealant.  

PubMed

This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the previous application of a casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate paste (MI Paste, MI) and adhesive systems on the bond durability of a fissure sealant. Ninety-eight enamel blocks were obtained from proximal surfaces of erupted third molars. Specimens were divided into 14 groups (n = 7) according to the previous application of MI (with and without) and the adhesive systems used (no adhesive system; hydrophobic resin of a three-step etch-and-rinse adhesive system; etch-and-rinse single-bottle adhesive system; all-in-one adhesive system; two-step self-etching adhesive system; additional phosphoric acid conditioning and all-in-one adhesive system; additional phosphoric acid conditioning and two-step self-etching adhesive system). A fissure sealant (Fluroshield) was applied and photoactivated for 20 s. Beams (~0.7 mm(2)) were prepared for the microtensile bond strength test, which was executed after 24 h or 6 months of water storage. Fractured specimens were analyzed by scanning electronic microscopy. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA with repeated measures/Tukey's test (P < 0.05). Groups that received MI application and adhesive systems presented higher means than those groups where MI was not applied. Higher frequency of cohesive failures was observed for groups with MI. Applying a CPP-ACP containing paste on enamel before adhesive systems was an effective method to increase bond durability of the sealant tested. PMID:22438086

Borges, Boniek Castillo Dutra; Catelan, Anderson; Sasaki, Robson Tetsuo; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi; Reis, André Figueiredo; Aguiar, Flávio Henrique Baggio

2013-01-01

190

Use of foliar symptoms and plant height to predict yield loss in potatoes due to metribuzin injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model to predict yield loss due to metribuzin injury was developed using data from four experiments involving postemergence\\u000a applications of metribuzin to numerous cultivars and breeding selections. Two explanatory variables, plant height proportion\\u000a (PHR), defined as injured\\/uninjured, and percent foliar injury (FI), were used to predict yield loss. Three multiple regression\\u000a models, including linear, quadratic, and a linear-log were

Stephen L. Love; Bahman Shafii; Lloyd C. Haderlie; Charlotte Eberlein

1993-01-01

191

Fiber-reinforced calcium phosphate cement formulations for cranioplasty applications: a 52-week duration preclinical rabbit calvaria study.  

PubMed

The in vivo tissue response to a newly developed fiber-reinforced calcium phosphate cement (CPC) formulation was assessed using a well-established rabbit calvarial defect model. Bilateral subcritical sized (8-mm diameter) defects were surgically created in the parietal bones of each rabbit (a total of 48 rabbits), and randomized to be filled with either the new fiber-reinforced formulation, a conventional CPC (positive control), or left unfilled (negative control). The implant sites were subsequently retrieved after 12, 24, and 52 weeks postsurgery. Each specimen, including the parietal bone craniotomy and underlying brain, were recovered at necropsy and the tissue responses were assessed by histology. The resulting histological slides indicated that there was no evidence of severe inflammatory responses or osteolysis. The data showed new dural and pericranial bone formation along the implants, as well as excellent bone-to-implant interfaces in all of the CPC-filled defects. These results suggest that the biologic response to the new fiber-reinforced CPC formulations and conventional nonreinforced CPC are very similar, and both demonstrate excellent biocompatibility as well as an overall osteophylic response. PMID:22114067

Kim, Jinku; McBride, Sean; Fulmer, Mark; Harten, Robert; Garza, Zach; Dean, David D; Sylvia, Victor L; Doll, Bruce; Wolfgang, Tahlia L; Gruskin, Elliott; Hollinger, Jeffrey O

2012-05-01

192

Update on Calcium Signaling Calcium Signaling through Protein Kinases. The  

E-print Network

Update on Calcium Signaling Calcium Signaling through Protein Kinases. The Arabidopsis Calcium protein kinase activities occur through calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs). These novel calcium provides a valuable opportunity to understand the plant calcium-signaling network. Calcium is a ubiquitous

Sheen, Jen

193

Climatic limits on foliar growth during major droughts in the southwestern USA  

E-print Network

Climatic limits on foliar growth during major droughts in the southwestern USA Jeremy L. Weiss,1 examine indices that represent climatic limits on foliar growth for both drought periods and evaluate the degree to which VPD limits foliar growth during future droughts and expand its reach to higher elevations

194

Effect of Zinc Application on Growth and Some Biochemical Characteristics of Costmary (Chrysanthemum balsamita L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of different zinc (Zn) application methods (soil and foliar application) and concentrations (1 and 2 mg kg in soil application and 1 and 3 g L in foliar application) on the growth, some biochemical characteristics, and nutrient concentrations of costmary (Chrysanthemum balsamita L.). Growth parameters were increased by zinc application regardless

Zaynab Derakhshani; Abbas Hassani; Mir Hassan Rasouli Sadaghiani; Mohammad Bagher Hassanpouraghdam; Bahman Hosseini Khalifani; Mahdie Dalkani

2011-01-01

195

Staircase-like potentiation of calcium release in mouse myotubes during repetitive short-term application of threshold caffeine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The release of Ca2+ in response to caffeine at threshold concentration (5 mM) was studied in mouse skeletal myotubes. Repeated 5-s applications of caffeine, each followed by a 30-s washout, caused Ca2+ releases of consecutively growing amplitude (staircase phenomenon). Each response declined rapidly and had a slow tail. Repeated applications of threshold caffeine lowered the threshold concentration. The interval between

Philipp S. Lange; Reinhardt Rüdel; Stuart R. Taylor; Karl Föhr

2001-01-01

196

75 FR 48672 - Pesticides; Revised Fee Schedule for Registration Applications  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Unit V.A. cover RD actions...application; crop destruct basis...g., for soil or foliar application...commodities; includes crops with established...g., for soil or foliar application...6 or more crops submitted in...inadvertent residues in one crop...Unit V.B. cover...

2010-08-11

197

Original article Changes in foliar nutrient content and resorption  

E-print Network

Original article Changes in foliar nutrient content and resorption in Fraxinus excelsior L., Ulmus, Ca) concentrations in leaves of three representative species, Fraxinus excelsior L., Ulmus minor Mill dans les feuilles de trois espèces ligneuses, Fraxinus excelsior L., Ulmus minor Mill. et Clematis

Boyer, Edmond

198

Original article Foliar senescence in maize plants grown  

E-print Network

Original article Foliar senescence in maize plants grown under different water regimes Arturo) Abstract - The leaf ontogeny of potted maize plants subjected to severe water stress was carried out and water-stressed plants received 100 and 50 % of the water evapotranspired, respectively. After 30 days

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

199

Correcting Iron Deficiencies in Soybean with Foliar Iron Fertilizer  

E-print Network

Correcting Iron Deficiencies in Soybean with Foliar Iron Fertilizer Kevin Bronson, Calvin TrostleH soils in our region is conducive to "lime-induced chlorosis" or iron (Fe) deficiency in soybean. High p indicators of iron deficiency for chlorotic and green soybean, Ropesville, Texas, 2001 Soil type Soil Ca (ppm

Mukhtar, Saqib

200

THE RESPONSE OF FOLIAR CARBOHYDRATES TO ELEVATED CARBON DIOXIDE CONCENTRATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Accumulation of foliar carbohydrates is one of the most pronounced and universal changes observed in the leaves of C3 plants grown at elevated CO2 concentration ([CO2]). Carbohydrates are both the product of photosynthetic cells, and the substrate for sink metabolism. However, carbohydrates are no...

201

Foliar anthocyanin content - Sensitivity of vegetation indices using green reflectance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amount and composition of photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic foliar pigments varies primarily as a function of species, developmental and phenological stages, and environmental stresses. Information on the absolute and relative amounts of these pigments thus provides insights onto the physiological conditions of plants and their responses to stress, and has the potential to be used for evaluating plant species composition

A. Vina; A. A. Gitelson

2009-01-01

202

Estimating foliar water content of winter wheat with hyperspectral image  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimates of vegetation water content are of great interest for assessing vegetation water status in agriculture and forestry, and have been used for drought assessment. This study focuses on the retrieval of foliar water content with hyperspectral data at canopy level. The hyperspectral image used in this study was acquired by the airborne operative modular imaging spectrometer (OMIS) at Demonstration

Xia Zhang; Quanjun Jiao; Di Wu; Bing Zhang; Lianru Gao

2007-01-01

203

MULTIPLE DISEASE RESISTANCE IN DOGWOODS (CORNUS SPP.) TO FOLIAR PATHOGENS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disease resistance in several Cornus species and cultivars to three foliar pathogens was evaluated in a 5-year study. Of the 51 accessions evaluated, 20 were of C. kousa, 21 of C. florida, two of C. sericea, two of C. mas, one of C. alternifolia, and five were interspe- cific hybrids of C. kousa × C. florida. Powdery mildew and spot

M. T. Mmbaga; R. J. Sauvé

2004-01-01

204

Seasonal variation in foliar composition of black walnut trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaf samples were collected from upper and lower crown positions at three times during the 1971 and 1972 growing seasons for planted black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) trees on the Kaskaskia Experimental Forest in Hardin County, Illinois. The average dry weight of leaves was affected by crown position and time of year. Foliar concentrations of N, P, K, Ca, and

Felix Ponder Jr; Robert E. Phares; Richard C. Schlesinger

1979-01-01

205

Foliar biofilms of Burkholderia pyrrocinia FP62 on geraniums  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Biofilm formation on foliar surfaces is commonly associated with plants in water-saturated environments (e.g. tropics or modified environments). On most leaf surfaces bacteria are thought to reside in aggregates with limited production of an exopolysaccharide (EPS) matrix. However, the biocontrol ag...

206

CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING IN CENTER, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING IN CENTER, CALCIUM CHLORIDE STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT WITH SA (SODA ASH) BUILDING IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Solvay Process Company, Calcium Chloride Plant, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

207

Total phosphorous, calcium, aluminum and iron levels in Cecil soil after ten years of poultry litter application  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Poultry litter (PL) is a traditionally inexpensive and effective organic fertilizer to improve soil quality and agricultural productivity. However, there is concern with over application as this can lead to excess releases of nutrients, especially phosphorus, and metals into fresh water bodies resul...

208

Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change (2006) 11: 147171 C Springer 2006 SCALING UNCERTAINTIES IN ESTIMATING CANOPY FOLIAR  

E-print Network

UNCERTAINTIES IN ESTIMATING CANOPY FOLIAR MAINTENANCE RESPIRATION FOR BLACK SPRUCE ECOSYSTEMS IN ALASKA XINXIAN analysis of canopy foliar mainte- nance respiration for black spruce ecosystems of Alaska by scaling empirical hourly models of foliar maintenance respiration (Rm) to estimate canopy foliar Rm for individual

Ruess, Roger W.

209

Application of the specular and diffuse reflection analysis for in vitro diagnostics of dental erosion: correlation with enamel softening, roughness, and calcium release  

PubMed Central

We present assembly and application of an optical reflectometer for the analysis of dental erosion. The erosive procedure involved acid-induced softening and initial substance loss phases, which are considered to be difficult for visual diagnosis in a clinic. Change of the specular reflection signal showed the highest sensitivity for the detection of the early softening phase of erosion among tested methods. The exponential decrease of the specular reflection intensity with erosive duration was compared to the increase of enamel roughness. Surface roughness was measured by optical analysis, and the observed tendency was correlated with scanning electron microscopy images of eroded enamel. A high correlation between specular reflection intensity and measurement of enamel softening (r2 ? ?0.86) as well as calcium release (r2 ? ?0.86) was found during erosion progression. Measurement of diffuse reflection revealed higher tooth-to-tooth deviation in contrast to the analysis of specular reflection intensity and lower correlation with other applied methods (r2 = 0.42–0.48). The proposed optical method allows simple and fast surface analysis and could be used for further optimization and construction of the first noncontact and cost-effective diagnostic tool for early erosion assessment in vivo. PMID:22029364

Rakhmatullina, Ekaterina; Bossen, Anke; Höschele, Christoph; Wang, Xiaojie; Beyeler, Barbara; Meier, Christoph; Lussi, Adrian

2011-01-01

210

Application of the specular and diffuse reflection analysis for in vitro diagnostics of dental erosion: correlation with enamel softening, roughness, and calcium release  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present assembly and application of an optical reflectometer for the analysis of dental erosion. The erosive procedure involved acid-induced softening and initial substance loss phases, which are considered to be difficult for visual diagnosis in a clinic. Change of the specular reflection signal showed the highest sensitivity for the detection of the early softening phase of erosion among tested methods. The exponential decrease of the specular reflection intensity with erosive duration was compared to the increase of enamel roughness. Surface roughness was measured by optical analysis, and the observed tendency was correlated with scanning electron microscopy images of eroded enamel. A high correlation between specular reflection intensity and measurement of enamel softening (r2 >= -0.86) as well as calcium release (r2 >= -0.86) was found during erosion progression. Measurement of diffuse reflection revealed higher tooth-to-tooth deviation in contrast to the analysis of specular reflection intensity and lower correlation with other applied methods (r2 = 0.42-0.48). The proposed optical method allows simple and fast surface analysis and could be used for further optimization and construction of the first noncontact and cost-effective diagnostic tool for early erosion assessment in vivo.

Rakhmatullina, Ekaterina; Bossen, Anke; Höschele, Christoph; Wang, Xiaojie; Beyeler, Barbara; Meier, Christoph; Lussi, Adrian

2011-10-01

211

Influence of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate application, smear layer removal, and storage time on resin-dentin bonding*  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of Tooth Mousse (TM) application, smear layer removal, and storage time on resin-dentin microtensile bond strength (?TBS). Dentin specimens were divided into two groups: (1) smear layer covered; (2) smear layer removed using 15% EDTA for 90 s. In each group, half the specimens were treated once with TM for 60 min. After bonding procedures using a two-step self-etching adhesive (Clearfil SE Bond (CSE); Kuraray Medical, Tokyo, Japan), an all-in-one adhesive (G-Bond (GB); GC Corp, Tokyo, Japan), and a total-etch adhesive (Adper Single Bond 2 (SB); 3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN, USA), the specimens were stored for 3 d or 6 months in deionized water at 37 °C, and ?TBS was tested and analyzed. With the exception of SB (no TM application) and GB, the ?TBS was significantly increased for CSE and SB using EDTA pre-conditioning and 3 d of storage (P?0.001). Bond strength of GB decreased significantly when using EDTA (3 d storage, P<0.05). TM application only increased the ?TBS of GB (no EDTA) and SB (with EDTA) after 3 d (P?0.02). Comparing the adhesives after 3 d of storage, CSE exhibited the greatest ?TBS values followed by GB and SB (P?0.02). The factors of adhesive, EDTA, and TM did not show any significant impact on ?TBS when specimens were stored for 6 months (P>0.05). The additional application of TM and EDTA for cavity preparation seems only to have a short-term effect, and no influence on ?TBS of dentin bonds after a period of 6 months. PMID:25001224

Lin, Jun; Zheng, Wei-ying; Liu, Peng-ruo-feng; Zhang, Ning; Lin, Hui-ping; Fan, Yi-jing; Gu, Xin-hua; Vollrath, Oliver; Mehl, Christian

2014-01-01

212

Influence of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate application, smear layer removal, and storage time on resin-dentin bonding.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of Tooth Mousse (TM) application, smear layer removal, and storage time on resin-dentin microtensile bond strength (µTBS). Dentin specimens were divided into two groups: (1) smear layer covered; (2) smear layer removed using 15% EDTA for 90 s. In each group, half the specimens were treated once with TM for 60 min. After bonding procedures using a two-step self-etching adhesive (Clearfil SE Bond (CSE); Kuraray Medical, Tokyo, Japan), an all-in-one adhesive (G-Bond (GB); GC Corp, Tokyo, Japan), and a total-etch adhesive (Adper Single Bond 2 (SB); 3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN, USA), the specimens were stored for 3 d or 6 months in deionized water at 37 °C, and µTBS was tested and analyzed. With the exception of SB (no TM application) and GB, the ?TBS was significantly increased for CSE and SB using EDTA pre-conditioning and 3 d of storage (P?0.001). Bond strength of GB decreased significantly when using EDTA (3 d storage, P<0.05). TM application only increased the ?TBS of GB (no EDTA) and SB (with EDTA) after 3 d (P?0.02). Comparing the adhesives after 3 d of storage, CSE exhibited the greatest ?TBS values followed by GB and SB (P?0.02). The factors of adhesive, EDTA, and TM did not show any significant impact on ?TBS when specimens were stored for 6 months (P>0.05). The additional application of TM and EDTA for cavity preparation seems only to have a short-term effect, and no influence on µTBS of dentin bonds after a period of 6 months. PMID:25001224

Lin, Jun; Zheng, Wei-ying; Liu, Peng-ruo-feng; Zhang, Ning; Lin, Hui-ping; Fan, Yi-jing; Gu, Xin-hua; Vollrath, Oliver; Mehl, Christian

2014-07-01

213

Comparison of Rain-Fast Bait Stations Versus Foliar Bait Sprays for Control of Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, in Papaya Orchards in Hawaii  

PubMed Central

Bait stations represent an environmentally friendly attract-and-kill approach to fruit fly population suppression. Recently a novel, visually attractive, rain-fast bait station was developed in Hawaii for potential use against multiple species of pestiferous fruit flies. Here, we compared the efficacy of GF-120 NF Naturalyte Fruit Fly Bait applied either as foliar sprays or onto bait stations in reducing female oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), population density and level of fruit infestation in commercial papaya orchards in Hawaii. Trapping and infestation data were used as indicators of the effectiveness of the two bait application methods. For the first 10 weeks of the study, captures of female B. dorsalis in monitoring traps were significantly greater in control plots than in plots treated with foliar sprays or bait stations. Six weeks after the first bait spray, incidence of infestation (i.e. number of fruit with one or more B. dorsalis larvae) of quarter to half-ripe papaya fruit was reduced by 71.4% and 63.1% for plots with bait stations and foliar sprays, respectively, as compared to control plots. Twelve weeks after first spray, incidence of infestation was reduced by only 54.5% and 45.4% for plots with bait stations and foliar sprays, respectively, as compared to control plots. About 42% less GF-120 was used in orchard plots with bait stations compared to those subject to foliar sprays. The impact of field sanitation on the outcome is also discussed. The results indicate that bait stations can provide a simple, efficient, and economical method of applying insecticidal baits to control fruit flies and a safer alternative to foliar sprays. PMID:21067423

Piñero, Jaime C.; Mau, Ronald F. L.; Vargas, Roger I.

2010-01-01

214

Comparing the applicability of some geostatistical methods to predict the spatial distribution of topsoil Calcium Carbonate in part of farmland of Zanjan Province  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of soils in iran, were located in the arid and semi-arid regions and have high pH (more than 7) and high amount of calcium carbonate and this problem cause to their calcification.In calcareous soils, plant growing and production is difficult. Most part of this problem, in relation to high pH and high concentration of calcium ion that cause to fixation and unavailability of elements which were dependent to pH, especially Phosphorous and some micro nutrients such as Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu. Prediction of soil calcium carbonate in non-sampled areas and mapping the calcium carbonate variability in order to sustainable management of soil fertility is very important.So, this research was done with the aim of evaluation and analyzing spatial variability of topsoil calcium carbonate as an aspect of soil fertility and plant nutrition, comparing geostatistical methods such as kriging and co-kriging and mapping topsoil calcium carbonate. For geostatistical analyzing, sampling was done with stratified random method and soil samples from 0 to 15 cm depth were collected with auger within 23 locations.In co-kriging method, salinity data was used as auxiliary variable. For comparing and evaluation of geostatistical methods, cross validation were used by statistical parameters of RMSE. The results showed that co-kriging method has the highest correlation coefficient and less RMSE and has the higher accuracy than kriging method to prediction of calcium carbonate content in non-sampled areas.

Sarmadian, Fereydoon; Keshavarzi, Ali

2010-05-01

215

Relative bioavailability of calcium from calcium formate, calcium citrate, and calcium carbonate  

E-print Network

Published Abstract: Calcium is an essential nutrient required in substantial amounts, but many diets are deficient in calcium making supplementation necessary or desirable. The objective of this study was to compare the oral bioavailability...

Hanzlik, Robert P.; Fowler, S. C.; Fisher, D. H.

2005-06-01

216

Effectiveness of a calcium sodium phosphosilicate containing prophylaxis paste in reducing dentine hypersensitivity immediately and 4 weeks after a single application: a double-blind randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Aims The aim of this single-site, randomized, controlled, double-blind, 3-arm parallel study was to determine the effectiveness of a prophylaxis paste containing 15% calcium sodium phosphosilicate (CSPS; NovaMin®) with and without fluoride in reducing dentine hypersensitivity immediately after a single application and 28 days following dental scaling and root planing. Materials & Methods Overall, 151 subjects were enrolled in this study. All subjects received a scaling and root planing procedure followed by a final prophylaxis step using one of three different prophylaxis pastes: Test-A (15% NovaMin® and NaF), Test-B (15% NovaMin®) and a control. Dentine hypersensitivity was assessed by tactile stimulus (Yeaple Probe®) and by air blast (Schiff scale) at baseline, immediately after and 28 days after a prophylaxis procedure. One hundred and forty-nine subjects completed the study. Results Subjects having received the test prophylaxis pastes showed statistically lower (anova, p < 0.05) dentine hypersensitivity compared with the control group immediately after the prophylaxis procedure (Yeaple Probe®: Test-A = 20.9 ± 12.6, Test-B = 22.7 ± 12.9, Control=11.2 ± 3.1; Schiff score: Test-A = 1.1 ± 0.6, Test-B = 1.1 ± 0.6, Control = 2.0 ± 0.7) and after 28 days (Yeaple probe: Test-A = 21.5 ± 11.9, Test-B = 20.6 ± 11.3, Control = 11.8 ± 6.0; Schiff score: Test-A = 1.0 ± 0.6, Test-B = 1.0 ± 0.6, Control = 2.0 ± 0.7). Conclusions In conclusion, the single application of both fluoridated and non-fluoridated prophylaxis pastes containing 15% CSPS (NovaMin®) provided a significant reduction of dentine hypersensitivity up to at least 28 days. PMID:23414245

Neuhaus, Klaus W; Milleman, Jeffery L; Milleman, Kimberly R; Mongiello, Kimberly A; Simonton, Thomas C; Clark, Courtney E; Proskin, Howard M; Seemann, Rainer

2013-01-01

217

RESEARCH ARTICLE CALCIUM CHANNEL STRUCTURE  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE CALCIUM CHANNEL STRUCTURE Structural basis for a pH-sensitive calcium leak across,3 Wayne A. Hendrickson,1,2,4,5 Qun Liu1,4 * Calcium homeostasis balances passive calcium leak and active calcium uptake. Human Bax inhibitor­1 (hBI-1) is an antiapoptotic protein that mediates a calcium leak

Napp, Nils

218

Process for converting magnesium fluoride to calcium fluoride  

DOEpatents

This invention is a process for the conversion of magnesium fluoride to calcium fluoride whereby magnesium fluoride is decomposed by heating in the presence of calcium carbonate, calcium oxide or calcium hydroxide. Magnesium fluoride is a by-product of the reduction of uranium tetrafluoride to form uranium metal and has no known commercial use, thus its production creates a significant storage problem. The advantage of this invention is that the quality of calcium fluoride produced is sufficient to be used in the industrial manufacture of anhydrous hydrogen fluoride, steel mill flux or ceramic applications.

Kreuzmann, A.B.; Palmer, D.A.

1984-12-21

219

Effects of foliar applied nickel on tomato plants. [Lycopersicon esculentum  

SciTech Connect

Shoot-applied nickel (Ni) treatments produced symptomatology, foliar Ni accumulation, and cytological changes in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) similar to those caused by treatments with root-applied nickel (Ni). Leaf damage resulting from 100 ..mu..g/ml foliar Ni-treatments consisted of interveinal chlorosis and spotting necrosis which appeared histologically as tissue collapse, cell clumping, and chloroplast disintegration. Shoot-treated plants accumulated more Ni in leaves than in roots; whereas the reverse was true in root-treated plants. Interference with root-to-shoot manganese translocation was attributed to attenuated vascular tissue and phloem blockage. Evidence of reduced nutrient transport and inhibited meristem activity due to Ni toxicity presents a potential for crop damage from excessive Ni in the atmosphere as well as in the soil environment.

Cash, R.C.; Leone, I.A.

1987-01-01

220

Estimating foliar water content of winter wheat with hyperspectral image  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimates of vegetation water content are of great interest for assessing vegetation water status in agriculture and forestry, and have been used for drought assessment. This study focuses on the retrieval of foliar water content with hyperspectral data at canopy level. The hyperspectral image used in this study was acquired by the airborne operative modular imaging spectrometer (OMIS) at Demonstration Site for Precision Agriculture in Xiaotangshan area, Beijing, on April 26th, 2001. 40 image spectra were extracted to correspond to the quasi-synchronous meansurements of foliar water content (FWC). The image spectra of winter wheat were utilized to validate the sensitivity of the existing and novel water indices and parameters of three water absorption features in NIR and SWIR regions. Correlation analysis showed that, NDWI(860,1241) and NDWI(860,1200) both had significant linear relationships with FWC (R2 were 0.4124 and 0.4042 respectively). Red edge position (REP) could reflect indirectly the variations of wheat FWC to some extent. Significant linear relationships were also found between WI(820,1600) and FWC, and between WI(900,1200) and FWC, while no relationship was shown between the traditional WI(900,970) and FWC. The derived depth of water absorption centered around 2078nm, namely AD2078, had the highest linear correlation with FWC (R2 is 0.4551) , much higher than those parameters derived from the two water absorption around 1175 and 1409. In the end, AD2078 was applied to OMIS image to map the foliar water content. The value range of the inverted foliar water content ranged from 69.39 to 78.35%, which was quite close to that of the field measurements (70.72-78.12%). The distribution of the FWC map was quite consistent with growth status of winter wheat.

Zhang, Xia; Jiao, Quanjun; Wu, Di; Zhang, Bing; Gao, Lianru

2007-11-01

221

Calcium is incorporated into the calcium carbonate matrix of otoliths  

E-print Network

118 Calcium is incorporated into the calcium carbonate matrix of otoliths and into the calcium). In addition to calcium, trace elements, such as strontium, are also incorporated into the calcified components valence) allow strontium ions to act as replace- ments for calcium during the pro- cess of calcification

222

Self-Setting Calcium Orthophosphate Formulations  

PubMed Central

In early 1980s, researchers discovered self-setting calcium orthophosphate cements, which are bioactive and biodegradable grafting bioceramics in the form of a powder and a liquid. After mixing, both phases form pastes, which set and harden forming either a non-stoichiometric calcium deficient hydroxyapatite or brushite. Since both of them are remarkably biocompartible, bioresorbable and osteoconductive, self-setting calcium orthophosphate formulations appear to be promising bioceramics for bone grafting. Furthermore, such formulations possess excellent molding capabilities, easy manipulation and nearly perfect adaptation to the complex shapes of bone defects, followed by gradual bioresorption and new bone formation. In addition, reinforced formulations have been introduced, which might be described as calcium orthophosphate concretes. The discovery of self-setting properties opened up a new era in the medical application of calcium orthophosphates and many commercial trademarks have been introduced as a result. Currently such formulations are widely used as synthetic bone grafts, with several advantages, such as pourability and injectability. Moreover, their low-temperature setting reactions and intrinsic porosity allow loading by drugs, biomolecules and even cells for tissue engineering purposes. In this review, an insight into the self-setting calcium orthophosphate formulations, as excellent bioceramics suitable for both dental and bone grafting applications, has been provided. PMID:24956191

Dorozhkin, Sergey V.

2013-01-01

223

Foliar Iron Fertilization of Peach ( Prunus persica (L.) Batsch): Effects of Iron Compounds, Surfactants and Other Adjuvants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments to assess the capability of different combinations of iron (Fe) compounds and adjuvants to provide Fe via foliar application to Fe-deficient plants have been carried out. A total of 80 formulations containing (1) one of five Fe-compounds [FeSO4·7H2O, Fe(III)-citrate, Fe(III)-Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), Fe(III)-Diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), Fe(III)-Iminodisuccinic acid (IDHA)], (2) a surfactant (Mistol, alkyl-polyglucoside1 or alkyl-polyglucoside2), and (3) an

Victoria Fernández; Victor Del Río; Javier Abadía; Anunciación Abadía

2006-01-01

224

Natural foliar variegation without costs? The case of Begonia  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Foliar variegation is recognized as arising from two major mechanisms: leaf structure and pigment-related variegation. Begonia has species with a variety of natural foliar variegation patterns, providing diverse examples of this phenomenon. The aims of this work are to elucidate the mechanisms underlying different foliar variegation patterns in Begonia and to determine their physiological consequences. Methods Six species and one cultivar of Begonia were investigated. Light and electron microscopy revealed the leaf structure and ultrastructure of chloroplasts in green and light areas of variegated leaves. Maximum quantum yields of photosystem II were measured by chlorophyll fluorescence. Comparison with a cultivar of Ficus revealed key features distinguishing variegation mechanisms. Key Results Intercellular space above the chlorenchyma is the mechanism of variegation in these Begonia. This intercellular space can be located (a) below the adaxial epidermis or (b) below the adaxial water storage tissue (the first report for any taxa), creating light areas on a leaf. In addition, chlorenchyma cell shape and chloroplast distribution within chlorenchyma cells differ between light and green areas. Chloroplasts from both areas showed dense stacking of grana and stroma thylakoid membranes. The maximum quantum yield did not differ significantly between these areas, suggesting minimal loss of function with variegation. However, the absence of chloroplasts in light areas of leaves in the Ficus cultivar led to an extremely low quantum yield. Conclusions Variegation in these Begonia is structural, where light areas are created by internal reflection between air spaces and cells in a leaf. Two forms of air space structural variegation occur, distinguished by the location of the air spaces. Both forms may have a common origin in development where dermal tissue becomes loosely connected to mesophyll. Photosynthetic functioning is retained in light areas, and these areas do not include primary veins, potentially limiting the costs of variegation. PMID:22362664

Sheue, Chiou-Rong; Pao, Shang-Horng; Chien, Lee-Feng; Chesson, Peter; Peng, Ching-I

2012-01-01

225

Foliar anthocyanin content - Sensitivity of vegetation indices using green reflectance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The amount and composition of photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic foliar pigments varies primarily as a function of species, developmental and phenological stages, and environmental stresses. Information on the absolute and relative amounts of these pigments thus provides insights onto the physiological conditions of plants and their responses to stress, and has the potential to be used for evaluating plant species composition and diversity across broad geographic regions. Anthocyanins in particular, are non-photosynthetic pigments associated with the resistance of plants to environmental stresses (e.g., drought, low soil nutrients, high radiation, herbivores, and pathogens). As they absorb radiation primarily in the green region of the electromagnetic spectrum (around 540-560 nm), broad-band vegetation indices that use this region in their formulation will respond to their presence. We evaluated the sensitivity of three vegetation indices using reflectance in the green spectral region (the green Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, gNDVI, the green Chlorophyll Index, CIg, and the Visible Atmospherically Resistant Vegetation Index, VARI) to foliar anthocyanins in five different species. For comparison purposes the widely used Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, NDVI was also evaluated. Among the four indices tested, the VARI, which uses only spectral bands in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum, was found to be inversely and linearly related to the relative amount of foliar anthocyanins. While this result was obtained at leaf level, it opens new possibilities for analyzing anthocyanin content across multiple scales, by means of currently operational aircraft- and spacecraft-mounted broad-band sensor systems. Further studies that evaluate the sensitivity of the VARI to the relative content of anthocyanins across space (e.g., at canopy and regional scales) and time, and its relationship with plant biodiversity and vegetation stresses, are needed.

Vina, A.; Gitelson, A. A.

2009-12-01

226

High Blood Calcium (Hypercalcemia)  

MedlinePLUS

... the levels of several hormones. When blood calcium levels are low, your parathyroid glands (four pea-sized glands in your neck) secrete a hormone called parathyroid hormone (Pth). Pth helps your bones ... also important in keeping calcium levels in the normal range. Vitamin D, which is ...

227

Absorption of foliar-applied arsenic by the arsenic hyperaccumulating fern (Pteris vittata L.)  

E-print Network

Absorption of foliar-applied arsenic by the arsenic hyperaccumulating fern (Pteris vittata L brake fern (Pteris vittata L.), a hyperaccumulator of arsenic, a carcinogenic metalloid, was proficient by the brake fern; also examined were the effects of foliar sprays on surface ultrastructure and arsenic

Ma, Lena

228

Effects of fertilization on decomposition rate of Populus tremuloides foliar litter in a boreal forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rates of mass loss of foliar litter of trembling aspen ( Populus tremuloides Michx.) were measured for 4 years after a single fertilization with N at 200 kg N\\/ha or a mix of N, P, K. Ca, Mg, S, and B. Foliar litter from fertilized plots had higher N concentrations than litter from control plots; litter from the nutrient-mix plots

C. E. Prescott; R. Kabzems; L. M. Zabek

1999-01-01

229

Ozone air pollution and foliar injury development on native plants of Switzerland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to examine the foliar sensitivity to ozone exposure of 12 tree, shrub, and herbaceous species native to southern Switzerland and determine the seasonal cumulative ozone exposures required to induce visible foliar injury. The study was conducted from the beginning of May through the end of August during 2000 and 2001 using an open-top chamber

Kristopher Novak; John M. Skelly; Marcus Schaub; Norbert Kräuchi; Christian Hug; Werner Landolt; Peter Bleuler

2003-01-01

230

Foliar d13C within a temperate deciduous forest: spatial, temporal, and species sources of variation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foliar ¹³C-abundance (¹³C) was analyzed in the dominant trees of a temperate deciduous forest in east Tennessee (Walker Branch Watershed) to investigate the variation in foliar ¹³C as a function of time (within-year and between years), space (canopy height, watershed topography and habitat) and species (deciduous and coniferous taxa). Various hypotheses were tested by analyzing (i) samples collected from the

Charles T Garten Jr; G. E. TaylorJr

1992-01-01

231

Foliar deficiencies of mature southern Appalachian red spruce determined from fertilizer trials  

SciTech Connect

A field fertilization study employing additions of Ca, Mg, and N to a mature red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) stand was conducted at a high-elevation site in southwestern Virginia. Statistically significant increases in needle weight (20% larger than controls) were observed after two growing seasons in treatments receiving Ca or Ca plus Mg. Significant foliar growth responses were accompanied by significant increases (20-60%) in foliar concentrations of Ca, Zn, Mg, and Mn in current-year and 1-yr-old needles. Both Ca and Mg addition, alone or together, appear to have alleviated antagonisms by Al towards the uptake of these four cations. Both the foliar growth response (negative) and the foliar N concentration response to N addition were nonsignificant, a response consistent with evidence for N saturation at this site. Vector analysis, correlation analyses, and literature evidence all provide support at this site for a foliar deficiency of Zn at a foliar concentration of 14 mg kg{sup -1} and for a foliar and/or root deficiency of Ca at a current-year needle concentration of 1700 mg kg{sup -1}, Foliar concentrations of Ca and Zn at or below these thresholds are common in southern Appalachian red spruce and may be related to its apparent growth decline in the higher elevations. 47 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Joslin, J.D.; Wolfe, M.H. [Tennessee Valley Authority, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

1994-09-01

232

Incorporating temperature-sensitive Q10 and foliar respiration acclimation algorithms modifies modeled ecosystem  

E-print Network

Incorporating temperature-sensitive Q10 and foliar respiration acclimation algorithms modifies that respiration acclimation (RA) to temperature in plants can have a substantial influence on ecosystem carbon drivers, we incorporated a temperature-sensitive Q10 of respiration and foliar basal RA into the ecosystem

Minnesota, University of

233

Kidney and Calcium Homeostasis  

PubMed Central

Plasma calcium concentration is maintained within a narrow range (8.5-10.5 mg/dL) by the coordinated action of parathyroid hormone (PTH), 1,25(OH)2D3, calcitonin, and ionized calcium (iCa2+) itself. The kidney plays a key role in this process by the fine regulation of calcium excretion. More than 95% of filtered calcium is reabsorbed along the renal tubules. In the proximal tubules, 60% of filtered calcium is reabsorbed by passive mechanisms. In the thick ascending limb, 15% of calcium is reabsorbed by paracellular diffusion through paracellin-1 (claudin-16). The calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) in the basolateral membrane of the thick ascending limb senses the change in iCa2+ and inhibits calcium reabsorption independent to PTH and 1,25(OH)2D3. The fine regulation of calcium excretion occurs in the distal convoluted tubules and connecting tubules despite the fact that only 10-15% of filtered calcium is reabsorbed there. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 5 (TRPV5) and 6 (TRPV6) in the apical membrane act as the main portal of entry, calbindin-D28K delivers Ca2+ in the cytoplasm, and then Na2+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX1) and plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase in the basolateral membrane serve as an exit. In the cortical collecting duct, TRPV6 is expressed, but the role might be negligible. In addition to PTH and 1,25(OH)2D3, acid-base disturbance, diuretics, and estrogen affect on these calcium channels. Recently, klotho and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) are suggested as new players in the calcium metabolism. Klotho is exclusively expressed in the kidney and co-localized with TRPV5, NCX1, and calbindin-D28K. Klotho increases calcium reabsorption through trafficking of TRPV5 to the plasma membrane, and also converts FGF receptor to the specific FGF23 receptor. FGF23:klotho complex bound to FGF receptor inhibits 1?-hydroxylase of vitamin D, and contributes to calcium reabsorption and phosphate excretion in the kidney. PMID:24459525

2008-01-01

234

Foliar pH as a new plant trait: can it explain variation in foliar chemistry and carbon cycling processes among subarctic plant species and types?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant traits have become popular as predictors of interspecific variation in important ecosystem properties and processes.\\u000a Here we introduce foliar pH as a possible new plant trait, and tested whether (1) green leaf pH or leaf litter pH correlates\\u000a with biochemical and structural foliar traits that are linked to biogeochemical cycling; (2) there is consistent variation\\u000a in green leaf pH

J. H. C. Cornelissen; H. M. Quested; R. S. P. van Logtestijn; N. Pérez-Harguindeguy; D. Gwynn-Jones; S. Díaz; T. V. Callaghan; R. Aerts

2006-01-01

235

Scaling uncertainties in estimating canopy foliar maintenance respiration for black spruce ecosystems in Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A major challenge confronting the scientific community is to understand both patterns of and controls over spatial and temporal variability of carbon exchange between boreal forest ecosystems and the atmosphere. An understanding of the sources of variability of carbon processes at fine scales and how these contribute to uncertainties in estimating carbon fluxes is relevant to representing these processes at coarse scales. To explore some of the challenges and uncertainties in estimating carbon fluxes at fine to coarse scales, we conducted a modeling analysis of canopy foliar maintenance respiration for black spruce ecosystems of Alaska by scaling empirical hourly models of foliar maintenance respiration (Rm) to estimate canopy foliar Rm for individual stands. We used variation in foliar N concentration among stands to develop hourly stand-specific models and then developed an hourly pooled model. An uncertainty analysis identified that the most important parameter affecting estimates of canopy foliar Rm was one that describes R m at 0??C per g N, which explained more than 55% of variance in annual estimates of canopy foliar Rm. The comparison of simulated annual canopy foliar Rm identified significant differences between stand-specific and pooled models for each stand. This result indicates that control over foliar N concentration should be considered in models that estimate canopy foliar Rm of black spruce stands across the landscape. In this study, we also temporally scaled the hourly stand-level models to estimate canopy foliar Rm of black spruce stands using mean monthly temperature data. Comparisons of monthly Rm between the hourly and monthly versions of the models indicated that there was very little difference between the estimates of hourly and monthly models, suggesting that hourly models can be aggregated to use monthly input data with little loss of precision. We conclude that uncertainties in the use of a coarse-scale model for estimating canopy foliar Rm at regional scales depend on uncertainties in representing needle-level respiration and on uncertainties in representing the spatial variability of canopy foliar N across a region. The development of spatial data sets of canopy foliar N represents a major challenge in estimating canopy foliar maintenance respiration at regional scales. ?? Springer 2006.

Zhang, X.; McGuire, A.D.; Ruess, R.W.

2006-01-01

236

Fungicide volatilization measurements: inverse modeling, role of vapor pressure, and state of foliar residue.  

PubMed

Few data sets of pesticide volatilization from plants at the field scale are available. In this work, we report measurements of fenpropidin and chlorothalonil volatilization on a wheat field using the aerodynamic gradient (AG) method and an inverse dispersion modeling approach (using the FIDES model). Other data necessary to run volatilization models are also reported: measured application dose, crop interception, plant foliage residue, upwind concentrations, and meteorological conditions. The comparison of the AG and inverse modeling methods proved the latter to be reliable and hence suitable for estimating volatilization rates with minimized costs. Different diurnal/nocturnal volatilization patterns were observed: fenpropidin volatilization peaked on the application day and then decreased dramatically, while chlorothalonil volatilization remained fairly stable over a week-long period. Cumulated emissions after 31 h reached 3.5 g ha(-1) and 5 g ha(-1), respectively (0.8% and 0.6% of the theoretical application dose). A larger difference in volatilization rates was expected given differences in vapor pressure, and for fenpropidin, volatilization should have continued given that 80% of the initial amount remained on plant foliage for 6 days. We thus ask if vapor pressure alone can accurately estimate volatilization just after application and then question the state of foliar residue. We identified adsorption, formulation, and extraction techniques as relevant explanations. PMID:20199019

Bedos, Carole; Rousseau-Djabri, Marie-France; Loubet, Benjamin; Durand, Brigitte; Flura, Dominique; Briand, Olivier; Barriuso, Enrique

2010-04-01

237

21 CFR 172.330 - Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt.  

...Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt. 172.330 Section 172.330 Food and...Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt. The food additive calcium chloride double salt of calcium pantothenate may be safely...

2014-04-01

238

21 CFR 172.330 - Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt. 172.330 Section 172.330 Food and...Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt. The food additive calcium chloride double salt of calcium pantothenate may be safely...

2013-04-01

239

21 CFR 172.330 - Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt. 172.330 Section 172.330 Food and...Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt. The food additive calcium chloride double salt of calcium pantothenate may be safely...

2012-04-01

240

Foliar bacterial communities of trembling aspen in a common garden.  

PubMed

Microbial associations with plants are widely distributed and are structured by a number of biotic and physical factors. Among biotic factors, the host plant genotype may be integral to these plant-microbe interactions. Trees in the genus Populus have become models for studies in scaling effects of host plant genetics and in plant-microbe interactions. Using 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, we assessed the foliar bacterial community of 7 genotypes of mature trembling aspen trees (Populus tremuloides Michx.) grown in a common garden. Trees were selected based on prior analyses showing clonal variation in their concentration of chemicals conferring resistance against insect herbivores. At broad taxonomic designations, the bacterial community of trembling aspen was similar across all plant genotypes. At a finer taxonomic scale, the foliage of these trees varied in their community composition, but there was no distinct pattern to colonization or abundance related to plant genotype. The most abundant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were classified as Ralstonia, Bradyrhizobium, Pseudomonas, and Brucella. These OTUs varied across the common garden, but there was no significant effect of host plant genotype or spatial position on the abundance of these members. Our results suggest that aspen genotype is less important in the structuring of its foliar bacterial communities than are other, poorly understood processes. PMID:25602743

Mason, Charles J; Pfammatter, Jesse A; Holeski, Liza M; Raffa, Kenneth F

2015-02-01

241

EVALUATION OF CALCIUM SENSORS IN FRESH AND SALTWATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The Orion Calcium Ion Electrode No. 93-20 was evaluated for suitability as a calcium ion sensor for monitoring or in-situ marine applications by testing for the following parameters: accuracy, precision, temperature dependence, short- and long-term stability, durability, sensitiv...

242

De-coupling seasonal changes in water content and dry matter to predict live conifer foliar moisture content  

E-print Network

that RWC explained 59% of variation in foliar water mass. Additionally, foliar starch, sugar and crude fatDe-coupling seasonal changes in water content and dry matter to predict live conifer foliar and dry mass can change throughout the season. Here we quantify the seasonal changes in both plant water

243

Seasonal development of ozone-induced foliar injury on tall milkweed (Asclepias exaltata) in Great Smoky Mountains National Park  

E-print Network

Seasonal development of ozone-induced foliar injury on tall milkweed (Asclepias exaltata) in Great by symptoms of foliar ozone injury. Abstract The goals of this study were to document the development of ozone-induced foliar injury, on a leaf-by-leaf basis, and to develop ozone exposure relationships for leaf cohorts

Neufeld, Howard S.

244

Calcium spray dryer waste management: Design guidelines: Final report  

SciTech Connect

Calcium spray drying is a commercially available and applied technology used to control SO/sub 2/ emissions. This process is rapidly gaining utility acceptance. Because physical and chemical properties of wastes generated by calcium spray drying differ from those of conventional coal combustion by-products (fly ash and scrubber sludge) typical waste management practices may need to be altered. This report presents technical guidelines for designing and operating a calcium spray drying waste management system. Waste transfer, storage, pretreatment/conditioning, transport and disposal are addressed. The report briefly describes eighteen existing or planned calcium spray drying waste management systems. Results of waste property tests conducted as part of this study, and test data from other studies are reported and compared. Conceptual designs of both new and retrofit calcium spray drying waste management systems also are presented to demonstrate the economic impact of spray drying on waste management. Parametric cost sensitivity analyses illustrate the impact of significant design parameters on waste management costs. Existing calcium spray drying waste management experiences, as well as spray drying waste property data provided the basis for guideline development. Because existing calcium spray drying facilities burn low sulfur coal, this report is considered applicable only to calcium spray drying wastes produced from low sulfur coal. At this time, calcium spray drying is not expected to be feasible for high sulfur coal applications.

Not Available

1987-09-01

245

CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING ON LEFT, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING ON LEFT, CALCIUM CHLORIDE STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT OF CENTER WITH TOP OF SA (SODA ASH) BUILDING IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Solvay Process Company, Calcium Chloride Plant, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

246

Dengue and Calcium  

PubMed Central

Dengue is potentially fatal unless managed appropriately. No specific treatment is available and the mainstay of treatment is fluid management with careful monitoring, organ support, and correction of metabolic derangement. Evidence with regards to the role of calcium homeostasis in dengue is limited. Low blood calcium levels have been demonstrated in dengue infection and hypocalcemia maybe more pronounced in more severe forms. The cause of hypocalcemia is likely to be multifactorial. Calcium has been also implicated in the immuopathogenesis of dengue; however, the precise clinical implications of these interactions are yet not clearly defined. Derangements of calcium homeostasis are likely to be associated with myocardial dysfunction and cardiac arrhythmias observed in dengue as suggested by in vitro studies. Calcium also plays a role in platelet aggregation. Studies evaluating the therapeutic use of calcium in dengue have been underpowered and poorly designed to make any firm recommendations. Further studies are needed to explore the role and usefulness of maintenance of calcium homeostasis in modulating cardiac dysfunction, immunopathogenesis, and platelet abnormalities related to dengue. PMID:25625064

Shivanthan, Mitrakrishnan C; Rajapakse, Senaka

2014-01-01

247

Calcium Signaling and Neurodegeneration  

PubMed Central

Neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Huntington’s disease (HD), and spinocerebellar ataxias (SCA) are very important both for fundamental science and for practical medicine. Despite extensive research into the causes of these diseases, clinical researchers have had very limited progress and, as of now, there is still no cure for any of these diseases. One of the main obstacles in the way of creating treatments for these disorders is the fact that their etiology and pathophysiology still remain unclear. This paper reviews results that support the so–called “calcium hypothesis of neurodegenerative diseases.” The calcium hypothesis states that the atrophic and degenerative processes in the neurons of AD, PD, ALS, HD, and SCA patients are accompanied by alterations in calcium homeostasis. Moreover, the calcium hypothesis states that this deregulation of calcium signaling is one of the early–stage and key processes in the pathogenesis of these diseases. Based on the results we reviewed, we conclude that the calcium channels and other proteins involved in the neuronal calcium signaling system are potential drug targets for AD, PD, ALS, HD, and SCA therapy. PMID:22649630

2010-01-01

248

Numerical methods to determine calcium release flux from calcium transients in muscle cells.  

PubMed Central

Several methods are currently in use to estimate the rate of depolarization-induced calcium release in muscle cells from measured calcium transients. One approach first characterizes calcium removal of the cell. This is done by determining parameters of a reaction scheme from a fit to the decay of elevated calcium after the depolarizing stimulus. In a second step, the release rate during depolarization is estimated based on the fitted model. Using simulated calcium transients with known underlying release rates, we tested the fidelity of this analysis in determining the time course of calcium release under different conditions. The analysis reproduced in a satisfactory way the characteristics of the input release rate, even when the assumption that release had ended before the start of the fitting interval was severely violated. Equally good reconstructions of the release rate time course could be obtained when the model used for the analysis differed in structure from the one used for simulating the data. We tested the application of a new strategy (multiple shooting) for fitting parameters in nonlinear differential equation systems. This procedure rendered the analysis less sensitive to ill-chosen initial guesses of the parameters and to noise. A locally adaptive kernel estimator for calculating numerical derivatives allowed good reconstructions of the original release rate time course from noisy calcium transients when other methods failed. PMID:9545033

Timmer, J; Müller, T; Melzer, W

1998-01-01

249

Synthesis of Calcium HydroxyapatiteTricalcium Phosphate (HATCP) Composite Bioceramic Powders and Their Sintering Behavior  

E-print Network

Synthesis of Calcium Hydroxyapatite­Tricalcium Phosphate (HA­TCP) Composite Bioceramic Powders important inorganic phases of synthetic bone applications--namely, calcium hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 (HA)) and tri- calcium phosphate (Ca3(PO4)2 (TCP))--were prepared as submicrometer-sized, chemically

Tas, A. Cuneyt

250

Stoichiometry of Calcium Medicines  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The topic of calcium supplement and its effects on human lives is presented in the way of questions to the students. It enables the students to realize the relevance of chemistry outside the classroom surrounding.

Pinto, Gabriel

2005-01-01

251

Calcium and Your Child  

MedlinePLUS

... teen years, they can start out their adult lives with the strongest bones possible. For optimal bone health, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommends: 1 to 3 years old — 700 milligrams of calcium daily 4 to 8 ...

252

Teaching calcium-induced calcium release in cardiomyocytes using a classic paper by Fabiato  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This teaching paper utilizes the materials presented by Dr. Fabiato in his review article entitled "Calcium-induced release of calcium from the cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum." In the review, supporting evidence of calcium-induced calcium release (CICR) is presented. Data concerning potential objections to the CICR theory are discussed as well. In closing, technical issues associated with the skinned cell model are mentioned. Based on this review article, teaching and learning points are put forth in this article to highlight two concepts: 1) the regulatory mechanisms of CICR in cardiomyocytes and 2) the recognition of contradicting hypotheses and limitations in experimental design. The first concept is certainly an important one for physiology students. The second concept is universally applicable to researchers in all fields of science. It is thus the aim of this article to cultivate a rewarding teaching and learning experience for both instructors and students.

Willmann Liang (Nanyang Technological University Biological Sciences)

2007-11-09

253

Relationship between photosynthetic phosphorus-use efficiency and foliar phosphorus fractions in tropical tree species  

PubMed Central

How plants develop adaptive strategies to efficiently use nutrients on infertile soils is an important topic in plant ecology. It has been suggested that, with decreasing phosphorus (P) availability, plants increase photosynthetic P-use efficiency (PPUE) (i.e., the ratio of instantaneous photosynthetic carbon assimilation rate per unit foliar P). However, the mechanism to increase PPUE remains unclear. In this study, we tested whether high PPUE is explained by an optimized allocation of P in cells among P-containing biochemical compounds (i.e., foliar P fractions). We investigated the relationships among mass-based photosynthetic carbon assimilation rate (Amass), PPUE, total foliar P concentration, and foliar P fractions in 10 tree species in two tropical montane rain forests with differing soil P availability (five species on sedimentary soils and five species on P-poorer ultrabasic serpentine soils) on Mount Kinabalu, Borneo. We chemically fractionated foliar P into the following four fractions: metabolic P, lipid P, nucleic acid P, and residual P. Amass was positively correlated with the concentrations of total foliar P and of metabolic P across 10 tree species. Mean Amass and mean concentrations of total foliar P and of each foliar P fraction were lower on the P-poorer ultrabasic serpentine soils than on the sedimentary soils. There was a negative relationship between the proportion of metabolic P per total P and the proportion of lipid P per total P. PPUE was positively correlated with the ratio of metabolic P to lipid P. High PPUE is explained by the net effect of a relatively greater investment of P into P-containing metabolites and a relatively lesser investment into phospholipids in addition to generally reduced concentrations of all P fractions. We conclude that plants optimize the allocation of P among foliar P fractions for maintaining their productivity and growth and for reducing demand for P as their adaptation to P-poor soils. PMID:24455122

Hidaka, Amane; Kitayama, Kanehiro

2013-01-01

254

Relationship between photosynthetic phosphorus-use efficiency and foliar phosphorus fractions in tropical tree species.  

PubMed

How plants develop adaptive strategies to efficiently use nutrients on infertile soils is an important topic in plant ecology. It has been suggested that, with decreasing phosphorus (P) availability, plants increase photosynthetic P-use efficiency (PPUE) (i.e., the ratio of instantaneous photosynthetic carbon assimilation rate per unit foliar P). However, the mechanism to increase PPUE remains unclear. In this study, we tested whether high PPUE is explained by an optimized allocation of P in cells among P-containing biochemical compounds (i.e., foliar P fractions). We investigated the relationships among mass-based photosynthetic carbon assimilation rate (A mass), PPUE, total foliar P concentration, and foliar P fractions in 10 tree species in two tropical montane rain forests with differing soil P availability (five species on sedimentary soils and five species on P-poorer ultrabasic serpentine soils) on Mount Kinabalu, Borneo. We chemically fractionated foliar P into the following four fractions: metabolic P, lipid P, nucleic acid P, and residual P. A mass was positively correlated with the concentrations of total foliar P and of metabolic P across 10 tree species. Mean A mass and mean concentrations of total foliar P and of each foliar P fraction were lower on the P-poorer ultrabasic serpentine soils than on the sedimentary soils. There was a negative relationship between the proportion of metabolic P per total P and the proportion of lipid P per total P. PPUE was positively correlated with the ratio of metabolic P to lipid P. High PPUE is explained by the net effect of a relatively greater investment of P into P-containing metabolites and a relatively lesser investment into phospholipids in addition to generally reduced concentrations of all P fractions. We conclude that plants optimize the allocation of P among foliar P fractions for maintaining their productivity and growth and for reducing demand for P as their adaptation to P-poor soils. PMID:24455122

Hidaka, Amane; Kitayama, Kanehiro

2013-12-01

255

Foliar flavonoids of Annonaceae from Brazil: taxonomic significance.  

PubMed

Foliar flavonoids of 31 species of the Annonaceae native to Brazil, amounting to 76 compounds, were isolated and identified. All phenols found were glycosides of either flavones (apigenin, scutellarein, hispidulin and luteolin) or flavonols (kaempferol, rhamnocitrin, 6-hydroxyrhamnocitrin, quercetin, isorhamnetin and rhamnetin), with the latter predominating. Some members of the tribe Bocageeae are distinctive for accumulating 6-oxygenated flavones and flavonols, in addition to 7-O-methylated flavonols, a feature possibly linked to the assumed advanced condition of the tribe within the family. Members of Duguetia stand out for the apparent absence of quercetin glycosides. Anaxagorea dolichocharpa seemingly lacks flavones and flavonols entirely. A UPGMA analysis based on the distribution of flavonoids does not group the analyzed species according to the available tribal division of the Annonaceae. However, several taxonomically meaningful groupings emerged through the multivariate analysis. PMID:11130666

Santos, D Y; Salatino, M L

2000-11-01

256

Foliar Spray with Vermiwash Modifies the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Dependency and Nutrient Stoichiometry of Bhut Jolokia (Capsicum assamicum)  

PubMed Central

Vermiwash (VW), a liquid extract obtained from vermicomposting beds, is used as an organic fertilizer for crop plants. The current study investigated the effect of a vermiwash foliar spray on the response of bhut jolokia (Capsicum assamicum) exposed to two different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF: Rhizophagus irregularis, RI and G. mosseae, GM) in acidic soil under naturally ventilated greenhouse conditions. The VW spray significantly influenced the growth of plants receiving the dual treatment of AMF+VW. Plant growth was more prominent in the GM+VW treatment group than that in the RI+VW treatment group. The plant-AMF interactions in relation to growth and nutrient requirements were also significantly influenced by the application of VW. Interestingly, the VW treatment appeared to contribute more N to plants when compared to that under the AMF treatment, which led to changes in the C:N:P stoichiometry in plant shoots. Furthermore, the increased potassium dependency, as observed in the case of the dual treatments, suggests the significance of such treatments for improving crop conditions under salt stress. Overall, our study shows that the VW foliar spray modifies the response of a crop to inoculations of different AMF with regard to growth and nutrient utilization, which has implications for the selection of an efficient combination of nutrient source for improving crop growth. PMID:24651577

Gupta, Rajeev; Veer, Vijay; Singh, Lokendra; Kalita, Mohan C.

2014-01-01

257

Foliar exposure of the crop Lactuca sativa to silver nanoparticles: evidence for internalization and changes in Ag speciation.  

PubMed

The impact of engineered nanomaterials on plants, which act as a major point of entry of contaminants into trophic chains, is little documented. The foliar pathway is even less known than the soil-root pathway. However, significant inputs of nanoparticles (NPs) on plant foliage may be expected due to deposition of atmospheric particles or application of NP-containing pesticides. The uptake of Ag-NPs in the crop species Lactuca sativa after foliar exposure and their possible biotransformation and phytotoxic effects were studied. In addition to chemical analyses and ecotoxicological tests, micro X-ray fluorescence, micro X-ray absorption spectroscopy, time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and electron microscopy were used to localize and determine the speciation of Ag at sub-micrometer resolution. Although no sign of phytotoxicity was observed, Ag was effectively trapped on lettuce leaves and a thorough washing did not decrease Ag content significantly. We provide first evidence for the entrapment of Ag-NPs by the cuticle and penetration in the leaf tissue through stomata, for the diffusion of Ag in leaf tissues, and oxidation of Ag-NPs and complexation of Ag(+) by thiol-containing molecules. Such type of information is crucial for better assessing the risk associated to Ag-NP containing products. PMID:24275476

Larue, Camille; Castillo-Michel, Hiram; Sobanska, Sophie; Cécillon, Lauric; Bureau, Sarah; Barthès, Véronique; Ouerdane, Laurent; Carrière, Marie; Sarret, Géraldine

2014-01-15

258

Effect of selenium foliar spray on physiological and biochemical processes and chemical constituents of wheat under drought stress.  

PubMed

Selenium (Se) is considered an essential micronutrient for humans, animals and plants due to its physiological and antioxidative properties. The positive role of Se in attenuation of drastic effects of various environmental stresses in plants is, however, still unclear and need to be explored. The present study aimed at investigating the physiological and biochemical changes induced by Se foliar spray to improve the drought tolerance potential of wheat. Additionally, we also examined the effect of supplemental Se on uptake of nutrients using detection by ICP-OES. Foliar Se application significantly lowered osmotic potential (13%) that markedly improved turgor by 63%, enhanced transpiration rate (60%), improved accumulation of total soluble sugars (33%) and free amino acids (118%) and activity of antioxidant system which ultimately increased the grain yield by 24%. Supplemental Se also significantly increased Se contents (5.77µgg(-1)DW) and improved Fe (91%) and Na (16%) uptake, whereas it reduced Zn accumulation by 54% and did not affect Ca contents. The results supported our hypothesis that supplemental Se influences nutrients uptake and wheat yield through maintenance of turgor and gas exchange characteristics and enhancement in antioxidant system activity. PMID:25499052

Nawaz, Fahim; Ahmad, R; Ashraf, M Y; Waraich, E A; Khan, S Z

2015-03-01

259

Field evaluation of in situ remediation of Cd-contaminated soil using four additives, two foliar fertilisers and two varieties of pakchoi.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to determine the optimal planting mode for pakchoi (Brassica rapa chinensis) in Cd-contaminated soil to reduce the accumulation of Cd in the edible parts while maintaining yields. Four additives (red mud (RM), silicon calcium fertiliser (SC), spodium (SP) and calcium magnesium phosphate (CMP)), two foliar fertilisers (Ca and Zn) and two varieties of pakchoi (Aijiaohuang (AJ) and Baixuegongzhu (BX)) were used in this study. The results show that the addition of SC and RM had an effect, but the other additives did not appear to increase the biomasses of AJ and BX. In some cases, the growth responses of AJ and BX to the same treatment were different. Extra additions of Ca or Zn to additive-treated pakchoi did not help the additives stimulate the growth of AJ and BX, except for SC-treated AJ and BX and SP-treated AJ. The SC and CMP additives significantly reduced the available Cd concentration in both the AJ soil and the BX soil; however, they did not significantly decrease the Cd concentration in the aboveground parts of AJ and BX. The RM treatments (for both levels) and some treatments containing SP reduced the available Cd concentration in the soils and reduced the accumulation of Cd in the two pakchoi varieties. Additions of Ca or Zn fertiliser significantly reduced the Cd concentration in the aboveground parts of AJ and BX. However, when Ca or Zn was sprayed on the additive-treated AJ and BX, they did not help the additives reduce the Cd accumulation in the aboveground parts of AJ and BX, except for the additive CMP. This study shows that RM may be an optimal amendment to reduce the accumulation of Cd in the edible part of pakchoi while simultaneously maintaining yields. The utilisation of Ca or Zn as a foliar fertiliser to additive-treated pakchoi showed positive effects only under some conditions. PMID:23603772

Feng, Renwei; Qiu, Weiwen; Lian, Fei; Yu, Zhihong; Yang, YiXin; Song, Zhengguo

2013-07-30

260

COMMUNITY AND ECOSYSTEM ECOLOGY Foliar Chemistry and Gypsy Moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), Herbivory  

E-print Network

COMMUNITY AND ECOSYSTEM ECOLOGY Foliar Chemistry and Gypsy Moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), Herbivory and nutrient uptake, and the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), to measure herbivore suitability. Gypsy moth exactacostinplantgrowthandproductivityforthischestnuthybrid,andmayenhanceplantsuitability for a generalist herbivore. Additionally, enhanced gypsy moth

Rieske-Kinney, Lynne K.

261

Calcium tartrate gel.  

PubMed

A method for preparation of a gel for chromatography has been developed. The adsorbent is calcium tartrate treated with potassium phosphate. By changing the temperature of synthesis (10-65 degrees C) and concentration of the salts (calcium chloride and sodium potassium tartrate) from 0.3 to 3.0 M, we have been able to prepare adsorbent crystals of definite sizes in the range 35-200 microns. In all cases, for synthesis of adsorbent, the Ca2+/K+Na+ ratio was greater than 1. After treatment of calcium tartrate crystals with 0.075-1.5 M potassium phosphate at 80-100 degrees C and pH 8.5-9.0, an appropriate chromatographic adsorbent was prepared. The chromatographic properties of calcium tartrate gel have been studied. The adsorbent permits flow rates of 25-150 ml/h, depending on the particle size. The capacity of calcium tartrate gel for binding BSA, RNA, and DNA was similar to that of Tiselius' hydroxyapatite (A. Tiselius, S. Hjerten, O. Levin (1956) Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 65, 132-155). The spheric shape of gel particles permits uniform and compact packing of adsorbent under the conditions of column chromatography. PMID:2757203

Akhrem, A A; Drozhdenyuk, A P

1989-05-15

262

Calcium metal to synthesize amorphous or cryptocrystalline calcium phosphates A. Cuneyt Tas  

E-print Network

Calcium metal to synthesize amorphous or cryptocrystalline calcium phosphates A. Cuneyt Tas Accepted 30 January 2012 Available online 10 February 2012 Keywords: Amorphous Cryptocrystalline Calcium Metal Phosphate Synthesis Metallic calcium was never used before as the calcium source in synthesizing

Tas, A. Cuneyt

263

Exploring the remote sensing of foliar biochemical concentrations with AVIRIS data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data shows promise for the estimation of foliar biochemical concentrations at the scale of the canopy. There are, however, several problems associated with the use of AVIRIS data in this way and these are detailed in recent Plant Biochemical Workshop Report. The research reported was concentrated upon three of these problems: field sampling of forest canopies, wet laboratory assay of foliar chemicals, and the visualization of AVIRIS data.

Smith, Geoffrey M.; Curran, Paul J.

1992-01-01

264

Site index of western hemlock ( Tsuga heterophylla) in relation to soil nutrient and foliar chemical measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the productivity of western hemlock, relationships between site index and forest floor, mineral soil, and foliar nutrient measures were examined in 101 immature western hemlock stands located in southern coastal British Columbia. Measures of both soil and foliar nitrogen were consistently identified as explanatory variables. In addition, measures of forest-floor-extractable K, mineral soil pH, C:N ratio, extractable K

Gordon J. Kayahara; Reid E. Carter; Karel Klinka

1995-01-01

265

Foliar ? 13 C values of nine dominant species in the Loess Plateau of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The foliar stable carbon isotope compositions (?13C) of nine dominant species in seven sites, Yangling, Yongshou, Tongchuan, Fuxian, Ansai, Mizhi, and Shenmu, standing from\\u000a the south to the north in the Loess Plateau of China were studied. The results showed that foliar ?13C values ranged from ?22.61 to ?30.73 ‰ with an average of ?27.23 ‰ in 141 C3 plant

S.-X. Zheng; Z.-P. Shangguan

2007-01-01

266

Legumes Increase Growth and Alter Foliar Nutrient Levels of Black Walnut Saplings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Van Sambeek, J.W., Ponder, F., Jr. and Rietveld, W.J., 1986. Legumes increase growth and alter foliar nutrient levels of black walnut. For. Ecol. Manage., 17: 159-167. Differences in herbaceous competition, growth, soil, and foliar nutrient levels were compared for black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) saplings growing on an upland and a bottomland site in southern Illinois, with covers of five

J. W. VAN SAMBEEK; FELIX PONDER; W. J. RIETVELD

267

Sintering of calcium phosphate bioceramics.  

PubMed

Calcium phosphate ceramics have become of prime importance for biological applications in the field of bone tissue engineering. This paper reviews the sintering behaviour of these bioceramics. Conventional pressureless sintering of hydroxyapatite, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, a reference compound, has been extensively studied. Its physico-chemistry is detailed. It can be seen as a competition between two thermally activated phenomena that proceed by solid-state diffusion of matter: densification and grain growth. Usually, the objective is to promote the first and prevent the second. Literature data are analysed from sintering maps (i.e. grain growth vs. densification). Sintering trajectories of hydroxyapatite produced by conventional pressureless sintering and non-conventional techniques, including two-step sintering, liquid phase sintering, hot pressing, hot isostatic pressing, ultrahigh pressure, microwave and spark plasma sintering, are presented. Whatever the sintering technique may be, grain growth occurs mainly during the last step of sintering, when the relative bulk density reaches 95% of the maximum value. Though often considered very advantageous, most assisted sintering techniques do not appear very superior to conventional pressureless sintering. Sintering of tricalcium phosphate or biphasic calcium phosphates is also discussed. The chemical composition of calcium phosphate influences the behaviour. Similarly, ionic substitutions in hydroxyapatite or in tricalcium phosphate create lattice defects that modify the sintering rate. Depending on their nature, they can either accelerate or slow down the sintering rate. The thermal stability of compounds at the sintering temperature must also be taken into account. Controlled atmospheres may be required to prevent thermal decomposition, and flash sintering techniques, which allow consolidation at low temperature, can be helpful. PMID:23212081

Champion, E

2013-04-01

268

Foliar Water Uptake of Tamarix ramosissima from an Atmosphere of High Humidity  

PubMed Central

Many species have been found to be capable of foliar water uptake, but little research has focused on this in desert plants. Tamarix ramosissima was investigated to determine whether its leaves can directly absorb water from high humidity atmosphere and, if they can, to understand the magnitude and importance of foliar water uptake. Various techniques were adopted to demonstrate foliar water uptake under submergence or high atmospheric humidity. The mean increase in leaf water content after submergence was 29.38% and 20.93% for mature and tender leaves, respectively. In the chamber experiment, obvious reverse sap flow occurred when relative humidity (RH) was persistently above 90%. Reverse flow was recorded first in twigs, then in branches and stems. For the stem, the percentage of negative sap flow rate accounting for the maximum value of sap flow reached 10.71%, and its amount accounted for 7.54% of diurnal sap flow. Small rainfall can not only compensate water loss of plant by foliar uptake, but also suppress transpiration. Foliar uptake can appear in the daytime under certain rainfall events. High atmospheric humidity is beneficial for enhancing the water status of plants. Foliar uptake should be an important strategy of water acquisition for desert plants. PMID:24982964

Li, Shuang; Xiao, Hong-lang; Zhao, Liang; Zhou, Mao-Xian; Wang, Fang

2014-01-01

269

Foliar water uptake of Tamarix ramosissima from an atmosphere of high humidity.  

PubMed

Many species have been found to be capable of foliar water uptake, but little research has focused on this in desert plants. Tamarix ramosissima was investigated to determine whether its leaves can directly absorb water from high humidity atmosphere and, if they can, to understand the magnitude and importance of foliar water uptake. Various techniques were adopted to demonstrate foliar water uptake under submergence or high atmospheric humidity. The mean increase in leaf water content after submergence was 29.38% and 20.93% for mature and tender leaves, respectively. In the chamber experiment, obvious reverse sap flow occurred when relative humidity (RH) was persistently above 90%. Reverse flow was recorded first in twigs, then in branches and stems. For the stem, the percentage of negative sap flow rate accounting for the maximum value of sap flow reached 10.71%, and its amount accounted for 7.54% of diurnal sap flow. Small rainfall can not only compensate water loss of plant by foliar uptake, but also suppress transpiration. Foliar uptake can appear in the daytime under certain rainfall events. High atmospheric humidity is beneficial for enhancing the water status of plants. Foliar uptake should be an important strategy of water acquisition for desert plants. PMID:24982964

Li, Shuang; Xiao, Hong-lang; Zhao, Liang; Zhou, Mao-Xian; Wang, Fang

2014-01-01

270

Circadian Models of Serum Potassium, Sodium, and Calcium Concentrations in Healthy Individuals and Their Application to Cardiac Electrophysiology Simulations at Individual Level  

PubMed Central

In the article a brief description of the biological basis of the regulation of human biological clocks was presented in order to introduce the role of circadian rhythms in physiology and specifically in the pharmacological translational tools based on the computational physiology models to motivate the need to provide models of circadian fluctuation in plasma cations. The main aim of the study was to develop statistical models of the circadian rhythm of potassium, sodium, and calcium concentrations in plasma. The developed ion models were further tested by assessing their influence on QT duration (cardiac endpoint) as simulated by the biophysically detailed models of human left ventricular cardiomyocyte. The main results are model equations along with an electronic supplement to the article that contains a fully functional implementation of all models. PMID:24078832

Fijorek, Kamil; Puskulluoglu, Miroslawa

2013-01-01

271

Infusional high-dose application of the calcium-channel-blocking and antiglutamatergic agent caroverine in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal (DSM-III-R 291.80).  

PubMed

In an open study, nineteen in-patients fulfilling the criteria for an alcohol withdrawal syndrome (DSM-III-R 291.80) were treated with intravenous caroverine (400 mg/12 h). Caroverine is a class B calcium-channel-blocker and antiglutamatergic agent with significant effects on the brain function. Caroverine exhibits competitive AMPA antagonism, and at higher concentrations, non-competitive NMDA antagonism. All rating scales showed a significant improvement from the start of the treatment throughout the whole study period (CIAW-Ar: P=0.0000; NGI 1: P=0.0000, NGI 2: P=0.0304; CGI 1: P=0.0000, CGI 2: P=0.0208, CGI 3: P=0.0003). The heart rate also stabilised from 111/min before treatment to 81/min after 12 h (P=0.0000). Caroverine was well tolerated, showed no sedative side effects, and no epileptic seizures were observed. PMID:9716312

Geretsegger, C; Fartacek, R

1998-08-01

272

Ultrathin calcium silicate hydrate nanosheets with large specific surface areas: synthesis, crystallization, layered self-assembly and applications as excellent adsorbents for drug, protein, and metal ions.  

PubMed

A simple and low-cost solution synthesis is reported for low-crystalline 1.4 nm tobermorite-like calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) ultrathin nanosheets with a thickness of ~2.8 nm and with a large specific surface area (SSA), via a reaction-rate-controlled precipitation process. The BET SSA of the CSH ultrathin nanosheets can reach as high as 505 m(2) g(-1) . The CSH ultrathin nanosheets have little cytotoxicity and can be converted to anhydrous calcium silicate (ACS) ultrathin nanosheets with a well preserved morphology via a heat treatment process. The crystallinity of CSH ultrathin nanosheets can be improved by solvothermal treatment in water/ethanol binary solvents or a single solvent of water, producing well-crystalline 1.1 nm tobermorite-like CSH nanobelts or nanosheets. CSH ultrathin nanosheets acting as building blocks can self-assemble into layered nanostructures via three different routes. The CSH ultrathin nanosheets are investigated as promising adsorbents for protein (hemoglobin, Hb), drug (ibuprofen, IBU), and metal ions (Cr(3+) , Ni(2+) , Cu(2+) , Zn(2+) , Cd(2+) , Pb(2+) ). The highest adsorbed percentages of Hb and IBU are found to be 83% and 94%, respectively. The highest adsorption capacities of Hb and IBU are found to be as high as 878 milligram Hb per gram CSH and 2.2 gram IBU per gram CSH, respectively. The ppm level metal ions can be totally adsorbed from aqueous solution in just a few minutes. Thus, the CSH ultrathin nanosheets are a promising candidate as excellent adsorbents in the biomedical field and for waste water treatment. Several empirical laws are summarized based on the adsorption profiles of Hb and IBU using CSH ultrathin nanosheets as the adsorbent. Furthermore, the ACS ultrathin nanosheets as adsorbents for Hb protein and IBU drug are investigated. PMID:23585365

Wu, Jin; Zhu, Ying-Jie; Chen, Feng

2013-09-01

273

21 CFR 172.410 - Calcium silicate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 172.410 Section 172.410 Food...HUMAN CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.410 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium...

2011-04-01

274

21 CFR 172.410 - Calcium silicate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 172.410 Section 172.410 Food...HUMAN CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.410 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium...

2013-04-01

275

21 CFR 172.410 - Calcium silicate.  

...Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 172.410 Section 172.410 Food...HUMAN CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.410 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium...

2014-04-01

276

21 CFR 172.410 - Calcium silicate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 172.410 Section 172.410 Food...HUMAN CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.410 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium...

2012-04-01

277

Nuclear calcium signaling.  

PubMed

Calcium is the major intracellular messenger linking synaptic activity in neurons to gene expression to control diverse functions including adaptive responses to synaptic activity as well as survival and death (Bading et al. 1993; Hardingham et al. 1997; Chawla and Bading 2001; West et al. 2001; Zhang et al. 2007; Flavell and Greenberg 2008; Mellstrom et al. 2008; Redmond 2008; Wayman et al. 2008; Bootman et al. 2009; Zhang et al. 2009; Hardingham and Bading 2010). Calcium entry at the synapse acts locally to activate signaling cascades which regulate posttranslational modifications essential for synaptic plasticity, such as the insertion of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs) into the postsynaptic membrane (Soderling 2000; Malinow and Malenka 2002; Ehrlich and Malinow 2004). Synaptic activity can also evoke calcium signals in the nucleus which regulate gene pools largely through the phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and its coactivator, CREB-binding protein (CBP) (Bading et al. 1993; Hardingham et al. 1997; Hardingham et al. 1999; Hu et al. 1999; Hardingham et al. 2001b; Impey et al. 2002; Zhang et al. 2009). Distinct mechanisms have been proposed to mediate synaptically generated calcium signals in subcompartments of pyramidal neurons; N-methyl-D -aspartate receptors (NMDARs) and ryanodine receptors have been implicated in the spine, inositol 3,4,5 triphosphate (IP3) receptors in the dendrites, and L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) at the soma and nucleus, although both NMDARs and IP3 receptors can also contribute to somatic and nuclear calcium signals under certain stimulation conditions (Nakamura et al. 1999; Bardo et al. 2006; Raymond and Redman 2006; Watanabe et al. 2006; Hong and Ross 2007; Hagenston et al. 2008; Bengtson et al. 2010). We review here the calcium signaling pathways underlying synaptically activated gene transcription leading to long-lasting changes in synaptic efficacy and memory as well as the physiological mechanisms by which synaptic activity evokes nuclear calcium signals. PMID:22351065

Bengtson, C Peter; Bading, Hilmar

2012-01-01

278

Calcium carbonate with magnesium overdose  

MedlinePLUS

The combination of calcium carbonate and magnesium is commonly found in antacids, which are medicines that provide heartburn relief. Calcium carbonate with magnesium overdose occurs when someone accidentally or ...

279

Diterpene Foliar exudates of Blakiella bartsiifolia and phytotoxicity of clerodanes.  

PubMed

Blakiella bartsiifolia (S.F. Blake), an endemic and rare high altitude plant of the northern Andes, appears well adapted to the prevailing harsh environment owing in part to a thick glandular trichome cover. From foliar exudates, two new clerodanes, 15,16-epoxy-2-hydroxy-3,13(16),14-clerodatrien-20-oic acid (bartsiifolic acid) (2) and Z-15,16-dihydroxy-3,13-clerodien-20-oic acid (barthydrolic acid) (3), were isolated in addition to the known junceic acid (1). In addition, three new alicyclic furanoditerpenes: 1,20-epoxy-1,3(20),6(E),10(E),14-phytapentaen-18-methyl-19-oic acid (blakielic acid) (4), 1,20-epoxy- 1,3(20),10(E),14-phytapentaen-18-methyl-19-oic acid (blakifolic acid) (5) and 1,20-epoxy-1,3(20),6,14-phytatetraen-19-methyl-18-oic acid (dihydrocentipedic acid) (6) were obtained in minor quantity. Seed germination and plantlet growth bioassays on Allium cepa and Lactuca sativa to monitor bioactivity during isolation procedures revealed compounds 1-3 with substantial inhibition comparable with synthetic linuron. PMID:25522526

Rodriguez-Hernandez, Diego; Oliveros-Bastidas, Alberto; Alonso-Amelot, Miguel E; Calcagno-Pissarelli, Maria Pia

2014-10-01

280

Stoichiometric patterns in foliar nutrient resorption across multiple scales  

USGS Publications Warehouse

*Nutrient resorption is a fundamental process through which plants withdraw nutrients from leaves before abscission. Nutrient resorption patterns have the potential to reflect gradients in plant nutrient limitation and to affect a suite of terrestrial ecosystem functions. *Here, we used a stoichiometric approach to assess patterns in foliar resorption at a variety of scales, specifically exploring how N : P resorption ratios relate to presumed variation in N and/or P limitation and possible relationships between N : P resorption ratios and soil nutrient availability. *N : P resorption ratios varied significantly at the global scale, increasing with latitude and decreasing with mean annual temperature and precipitation. In general, tropical sites (absolute latitudes < 23°26?) had N : P resorption ratios of < 1, and plants growing on highly weathered tropical soils maintained the lowest N : P resorption ratios. Resorption ratios also varied with forest age along an Amazonian forest regeneration chronosequence and among species in a diverse Costa Rican rain forest. *These results suggest that variations in N : P resorption stoichiometry offer insight into nutrient cycling and limitation at a variety of spatial scales, complementing other metrics of plant nutrient biogeochemistry. The extent to which the stoichiometric flexibility of resorption will help regulate terrestrial responses to global change merits further investigation.

Reed, Sasha C.; Townsend, Alan R.; Davidson, Eric A.; Cleveland, Cory C.

2012-01-01

281

Characterization of polyketide metabolites from foliar endophytes of Picea glauca.  

PubMed

A collection of 250 foliar endophytes of Picea glauca (white spruce) yielded several isolates that produced metabolites toxic to Choristoneura fumiferana (spruce budworm). Three of these strains were selected for further study based on their ability to be cultured and produce secondary metabolites under laboratory conditions. The culture filtrate of each was extracted and analyzed by LC-MS and LC-NMR, and the major metabolites were isolated and characterized. Structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses including 2D NMR and HRMS and by comparison to literature data. In some cases the extract was methylated in order to facilitate separation, but the original natural structure was determined by comparing the NMR data of the isolated methylated product with that of the stop-flow NMR of the underivatized extract (i.e., 2a, 2b, and 4). Two of these metabolites, 1 and 2a, are new structures, 3 and 4 are reported here for the first time as fungal metabolites, and 5- 10 as known fungal metabolites from other species. Tyrosol (10) was the only common metabolite found in all three extracts but did not account for the observed toxicity to C. fumiferana. PMID:18636777

Sumarah, Mark W; Puniani, Eva; Blackwell, Barbara A; Miller, J David

2008-08-01

282

Impregnating Coal With Calcium Carbonate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Relatively inexpensive process proposed for impregnating coal with calcium carbonate to increase rates of gasification and combustion of coal and to reduce emission of sulfur by trapping sulfur in calcium sulfide. Process involves aqueous-phase reactions between carbon dioxide (contained within pore network of coal) and calcium acetate. Coal impregnated with CO2 by exposing it to CO2 at high pressure.

Sharma, Pramod K.; Voecks, Gerald E.; Gavalas, George R.

1991-01-01

283

The Plasma Membrane Calcium Pump  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three aspect of cellular calcium metabolism in animal cells was discussed including the importance of the plasma membrane in calcium homeostasis, experiments dealing with the actual mechanism of the calcium pump, and the function of the pump in relationship to the mitochondria and to the function of calmodulin in the intact cell.

Rasmussen, H.

1983-01-01

284

Calcium silicate insulation structure  

DOEpatents

An insulative structure including a powder-filled evacuated casing utilizes a quantity of finely divided synthetic calcium silicate having a relatively high surface area. The resultant structure-provides superior thermal insulating characteristics over a broad temperature range and is particularly well-suited as a panel for a refrigerator or freezer or the insulative barrier for a cooler or a insulated bottle.

Kollie, Thomas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1995-01-01

285

Size-mediated foliar response to ozone in black cherry trees.  

PubMed

Local ozone concentration and visible foliar injury were measured over the 1994 growing season on open-grown black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) trees of varying size (age) within forest stands and adjacent openings at a site in north-central Pennsylvania. Relationships were determined between visible ozone injury and ozone exposure, as well as calculated between injury and ozone uptake expressed as the product of stomatal conductance and ozone concentration. In addition, simultaneous measurements of visible symptoms and leaf gas exchange were also conducted to determine the correlation between visible and physiological injury and ozone exposure. By September, the amount of leaf area affected by visible foliar ozone injury was greatest for seedlings (46%), followed by canopy trees (20%) and saplings (15%). A large amount of variability in foliar ozone symptom expression was observed among trees within a size class. Sum40 and Sum60 (ozone concentration > 40 and > 60 nl liter(-1)) cumulative exposure statistics were the most meaningful indices for interpretation of foliar injury response. Seedlings were apparently more sensitive to ozone injury than larger trees because their higher rates of stomatal conductance resulted in higher rates of ozone uptake. Seedlings also had higher rates of early leaf abscission than larger trees with an average of nearly 30% of the leaves on a shoot abscised by 1 September compared to approximately 5% for larger trees. However, per unit ozone uptake into the leaf, larger trees exhibited larger amounts of foliar injury. The amount of visible foliar injury was negatively correlated (r(2) = 0.82) with net photosynthetic rates, but was not related to stomatal conductance. Net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance thus became uncoupled at high levels of visible foliar injury. PMID:15091453

Fredericksen, T S; Skelly, J M; Steiner, K C; Kolb, T E; Kouterick, K B

1996-01-01

286

Foliar uptake of cesium from the water column by aquatic macrophytes.  

PubMed

The probable occurrence and rate of foliar absorption of stable cesium (133Cs) from the water column by aquatic macrophyte species was analyzed following the addition of 133Cs into a small reservoir near Aiken, South Carolina, USA. An uptake parameter u (10(3)Lkg(-1)d(-1)) and a loss rate parameter k (d(-1)) were estimated for each species using time series of 133Cs concentrations in the water and plant tissues. Foliar uptake, as indicated by rapid increases in plant concentrations following the 133Cs addition, occurred in two floating-leaf species, Brasenia schreberi and Nymphaea odorata, and two submerged species, Myriophyllum spicatum and Utricularia inflata. These species had values of u> or =0.75 x 10(3)Lkg(-1)d(-1). Less evidence for foliar uptake was observed in three emergent species, including Typha latifolia. Ratios of u to k for B. schreberi, M. spicatum, N. odorata and U. inflata can be used to estimate concentration ratios (CR) at equilibrium, and these estimates were generally within a factor of 2 of the CR for 137Cs for these species in the same reservoir. This correspondence suggests that foliar uptake of Cs was the principal absorption mechanism for these species. Assessments of: (1) the prevalence of foliar uptake of potassium, rubidium and Cs isotopes by aquatic macrophytes and (2) the possible importance of foliar uptake of Cs in other lentic systems are made from a review of foliar uptake studies and estimation of comparable u and k values from lake studies involving Cs releases. PMID:15990203

Pinder, J E; Hinton, T G; Whicker, F W

2006-01-01

287

Heterogeneous disease modeling for Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium in case-control studies: application to renal stones and calcium-sensing receptor polymorphisms.  

PubMed

Renal stone formation due to hypercalciuria is a relatively common disorder with clear evidence for genetic predisposition, but cryptic phenotypic heterogeneity has hampered identification of candidate genes. The R990G single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the calcium sensing receptor (CASR) gene has been associated with hypercalciuria in stone formers and shows the appropriate functional phenotype in cell culture. In our preliminary association analysis of a case-control cohort, however, we observed significant Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium (HWD) for the cases (n= 223), but not controls (n= 676) at the R990G locus, pointing us toward the general disease model incorporating HWD. Because there is an adjacent CASR SNP, A986S, which is in negative linkage disequilibrium with R990G, we extended the general disease model to enable testing of a two-site hypothesis. In our data set, there is no lack of fit (P= .345) for the single-locus model for the R990G genotype, and likelihood ratio testing favors a recessive effect with an eight-fold increase in risk (P < .001) for GG homozygotes, relative to wild-type, based on a population prevalence of 2%. Addition of the A986S genotype provides no additional information either by itself or when included in our two-site model. PMID:19133942

Hamilton, D C; Grover, V K; Smith, C A; Cole, D E C

2009-03-01

288

Calcium signaling in taste cells.  

PubMed

The sense of taste is a common ability shared by all organisms and is used to detect nutrients as well as potentially harmful compounds. Thus taste is critical to survival. Despite its importance, surprisingly little is known about the mechanisms generating and regulating responses to taste stimuli. All taste responses depend on calcium signals to generate appropriate responses which are relayed to the brain. Some taste cells have conventional synapses and rely on calcium influx through voltage-gated calcium channels. Other taste cells lack these synapses and depend on calcium release to formulate an output signal through a hemichannel. Beyond establishing these characteristics, few studies have focused on understanding how these calcium signals are formed. We identified multiple calcium clearance mechanisms that regulate calcium levels in taste cells as well as a calcium influx that contributes to maintaining appropriate calcium homeostasis in these cells. Multiple factors regulate the evoked taste signals with varying roles in different cell populations. Clearly, calcium signaling is a dynamic process in taste cells and is more complex than has previously been appreciated. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 13th European Symposium on Calcium. PMID:25450977

Medler, Kathryn F

2014-11-16

289

Setting Reaction and Hardening of an Apatitic Calcium Phosphate Cement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combination of self-setting and biocompatibility makes calcium phosphate cements potentially useful materials for a variety of dental applications. The objective of this study was to investigate the setting and hardening mechanisms of a cement-type reaction leading to the formation of calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite at low temperature. Reactants used were a-tricalcium phosphate containing 17 wt% ?-tricalcium phosphate, and 2 wt% of

M. P. Ginebra; E. Fernández; E. A. P. De Maeyer; R. M. H. Verbeeck; M. G. Boltong; J. Ginebra; F. C. M. Driessens; J. A. Planell

1997-01-01

290

Making and Using Calcium-Selective Mini and Microelectrodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detection and measurement of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) have relied on various methods, the popularity of which depends on their ease of use and applicability to different cell types. Historically, Ca2+-selective electrodes have been used concomitantly with absorption indicators such as arsenazo-III, but their interest has been eclipsed by the introduction of a large number of fluorescent calcium probes with

L. Hove-Madsen; S. Baudet; D. M. Bers

2010-01-01

291

Precision and accuracy of visual foliar injury assessments  

SciTech Connect

The study compared three measures of foliar injury: (i) mean percent leaf area injured of all leaves on the plant, (ii) mean percent leaf area injured of the three most injured leaves, and (iii) the proportion of injured leaves to total number of leaves. For the first measure, the variation caused by reader biases and day-to-day variations were compared with the innate plant-to-plant variation. Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris 'Pinto'), pea (Pisum sativum 'Little Marvel'), radish (Rhaphanus sativus 'Cherry Belle'), and spinach (Spinacia oleracea 'Northland') plants were exposed to either 3 ..mu..L L/sup -1/ SO/sub 2/ or 0.3 ..mu..L L/sup -1/ ozone for 2 h. Three leaf readers visually assessed the percent injury on every leaf of each plant while a fourth reader used a transparent grid to make an unbiased assessment for each plant. The mean leaf area injured of the three most injured leaves was highly correlated with all leaves on the plant only if the three most injured leaves were <100% injured. The proportion of leaves injured was not highly correlated with percent leaf area injured of all leaves on the plant for any species in this study. The largest source of variation in visual assessments was plant-to-plant variation, which ranged from 44 to 97% of the total variance, followed by variation among readers (0-32% of the variance). Except for radish exposed to ozone, the day-to-day variation accounted for <18% of the total. Reader bias in assessment of ozone injury was significant but could be adjusted for each reader by a simple linear regression (R/sup 2/ = 0.89-0.91) of the visual assessments against the grid assessments.

Gumpertz, M.L. (Northrop Services Inc., Corvallis, OR); Tingey, D.T.; Hogsett, W.E.

1982-07-01

292

Host genotype shapes the foliar fungal microbiome of balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera).  

PubMed

Foliar fungal communities of plants are diverse and ubiquitous. In grasses endophytes may increase host fitness; in trees, their ecological roles are poorly understood. We investigated whether the genotype of the host tree influences community structure of foliar fungi. We sampled leaves from genotyped balsam poplars from across the species' range, and applied 454 amplicon sequencing to characterize foliar fungal communities. At the time of the sampling the poplars had been growing in a common garden for two years. We found diverse fungal communities associated with the poplar leaves. Linear discriminant analysis and generalized linear models showed that host genotypes had a structuring effect on the composition of foliar fungal communities. The observed patterns may be explained by a filtering mechanism which allows the trees to selectively recruit fungal strains from the environment. Alternatively, host genotype-specific fungal communities may be present in the tree systemically, and persist in the host even after two clonal reproductions. Both scenarios are consistent with host tree adaptation to specific foliar fungal communities and suggest that there is a functional basis for the strong biotic interaction. PMID:23326555

Bálint, Miklós; Tiffin, Peter; Hallström, Björn; O'Hara, Robert B; Olson, Matthew S; Fankhauser, Johnathon D; Piepenbring, Meike; Schmitt, Imke

2013-01-01

293

Ozone air pollution and foliar injury development on native plants of Switzerland.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to examine the foliar sensitivity to ozone exposure of 12 tree, shrub, and herbaceous species native to southern Switzerland and determine the seasonal cumulative ozone exposures required to induce visible foliar injury. The study was conducted from the beginning of May through the end of August during 2000 and 2001 using an open-top chamber research facility located within the Lattecaldo Cantonal Forest Nursery in Canton Ticino, southern Switzerland (600 m asl). Plants were examined daily and dates of initial foliar injury were recorded in order to determine the cumulative AOT40 ppb h ozone exposure required to cause visible foliar injury. Plant responses to ozone varied significantly among species; 11 species exhibited visible symptoms typical of exposures to ambient ozone. The symptomatic species (from most to least sensitive) were Populus nigra, Viburnum lantana, Salix alba, Crataegus monogyna, Viburnum opulus, Tilia platyphyllos, Cornus alba, Prunus avium, Fraxinus excelsior, Ribes alpinum, and Tilia cordata; Clematis spp. did not show foliar symptoms. Of the 11 symptomatic species, five showed initial injury below the critical level AOT40 10 ppmh O3 in the 2001 season. PMID:12804826

Novak, Kristopher; Skelly, John M; Schaub, Marcus; Kräuchi, Norbert; Hug, Christian; Landolt, Werner; Bleuler, Peter

2003-01-01

294

Identification of Genes in Thuja plicata Foliar Terpenoid Defenses1[C][W][OA  

PubMed Central

Thuja plicata (western redcedar) is a long-lived conifer species whose foliage is rarely affected by disease or insect pests, but can be severely damaged by ungulate browsing. Deterrence to browsing correlates with high foliar levels of terpenoids, in particular the monoterpenoid ?-thujone. Here, we set out to identify genes whose products may be involved in the production of ?-thujone and other terpenoids in this species. First, we generated a foliar transcriptome database from which to draw candidate genes. Second, we mapped the storage of thujones and other terpenoids to foliar glands. Third, we used global expression profiling to identify more than 600 genes that are expressed at high levels in foliage with glands, but can either not be detected or are expressed at low levels in a natural variant lacking foliar glands. Fourth, we used in situ RNA hybridization to map the expression of a putative monoterpene synthase to the epithelium of glands and used enzyme assays with recombinant protein of the same gene to show that it produces sabinene, the monoterpene precursor of ?-thujone. Finally, we identified candidate genes with predicted enzymatic functions for the conversion of sabinene to ?-thujone. Taken together, this approach generated both general resources and detailed functional characterization in the identification of genes of foliar terpenoid biosynthesis in T. plicata. PMID:23388118

Foster, Adam J.; Hall, Dawn E.; Mortimer, Leanne; Abercromby, Shelley; Gries, Regine; Gries, Gerhard; Bohlmann, Jörg; Russell, John; Mattsson, Jim

2013-01-01

295

Physicochemical–mechanical and in vitro biological properties of calcium phosphate cements with doped amorphous calcium phosphates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) are successfully used as bone substitutes in dentistry and orthopaedic applications. This study investigated the physico-chemical–mechanical properties of and in vitro biological properties (cell response) of CPCs prepared with amorphous calcium carbonate phosphate (ACCP) doped with magnesium (ACCP-Mg), zinc (ACCp-Zn) or fluoride (ACCP-F) ions. The experimental CPC consisted of ?-TCP, doped ACCP, and MPCM powders as

Marion Julien; Ibrahim Khairoun; Racquel Z. LeGeros; Severine Delplace; Paul Pilet; Pierre Weiss; Guy Daculsi; Jean Michel Bouler; Jerome Guicheux

2007-01-01

296

Synthesis of calcium superoxide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Efforts to prepare Ca(O2) sub 2 from reactions of calcium compounds with 100% O3 and with O(D-1) atoms generated by photolysis of O3 at 2537 A are described. Samples of Ca(OH) sub 2, CaO, CaO2, Ca metal, and mixtures containing suspected impurities to promote reaction have been treated with excess O3 under static and flow conditions in the presence and absence of UV irradiation. Studies with KO2 suggest that the superoxide anion is stable to radiation at 2537 A but reacts with oxygen atoms generated by the photolysis of O3 to form KO3. Calcium superoxide is expected to behave in an analogous.

Rewick, R. T.; Blucher, W. G.; Estacio, P. L.

1972-01-01

297

Calcium signaling in plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Changes in the cytosolic concentration of calcium ions ([Ca2+]i) play a key second messenger role in signal transduction. These changes are visualized by making use of either Ca2+-sensitive fluorescent dyes or the Ca2+-sensitive photoprotein, aequorin. Here we describe the advances made over the last 10 years or so, which have conclusively\\u000a demonstrated a second messenger role for [Ca2+]i in

J. J. Rudd; V. E. Franklin-Tong

1999-01-01

298

Calcium intake, calcium bioavailability and bone health.  

PubMed

Calcium accounts for 1-2 % of adult human body weight. Over 99 % of total body Ca is found in the teeth and bones. Therefore, in addition to the obvious structural role of the skeleton, it also serves as a reservoir for Ca. Dietary Ca intake has an important impact on bone metabolism and bone health. Chronic Ca deficiency resulting from inadequate intake or poor intestinal absorption is one of several important causes of reduced bone mass and osteoporosis. It is vital, therefore, that adequate dietary Ca is consumed at all stages of life - in early life so that the genetically programmed peak bone mass can be reached and in later adulthood so that the skeletal mass can be maintained and age-related bone loss minimised. Unfortunately, there is wide variation in the estimates of daily Ca requirements made by different expert authorities. Furthermore, there is evidence that many individuals are not consuming these recommended levels. The consequence of this for bone health will be discussed in the present review. Besides the amount of Ca in the diet, the absorption of dietary Ca in foods is also a critical factor in determining the availability of Ca for bone development and maintenance. Thus, there is a need to identify food components and/or functional food ingredients that may positively influence Ca absorption in order to ensure that Ca bioavailability from foods can be optimised. This approach may be of particular value in individuals who fail to achieve the dietary recommended level of Ca. PMID:12088515

Cashman, K D

2002-05-01

299

Purple phototrophic bacterium enhances stevioside yield by Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni via foliar spray and rhizosphere irrigation.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to compare the effects of foliar spray and rhizosphere irrigation with purple phototrophic bacteria (PPB) on growth and stevioside (ST) yield of Stevia. rebaudiana. The S. rebaudiana plants were treated by foliar spray, rhizosphere irrigation, and spray plus irrigation with PPB for 10 days, respectively. All treatments enhanced growth of S. rebaudiana, and the foliar method was more efficient than irrigation. Spraying combined with irrigation increased the ST yield plant (-1) by 69.2% as compared to the control. The soil dehydrogenase activity, S. rebaudiana shoot biomass, chlorophyll content in new leaves, and soluble sugar in old leaves were affected significantly by S+I treatment, too. The PPB probably works in the rhizosphere by activating the metabolic activity of soil bacteria, and on leaves by excreting phytohormones or enhancing the activity of phyllosphere microorganisms. PMID:23825677

Wu, Jing; Wang, Yiming; Lin, Xiangui

2013-01-01

300

Purple Phototrophic Bacterium Enhances Stevioside Yield by Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni via Foliar Spray and Rhizosphere Irrigation  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to compare the effects of foliar spray and rhizosphere irrigation with purple phototrophic bacteria (PPB) on growth and stevioside (ST) yield of Stevia. rebaudiana. The S. rebaudiana plants were treated by foliar spray, rhizosphere irrigation, and spray plus irrigation with PPB for 10 days, respectively. All treatments enhanced growth of S. rebaudiana, and the foliar method was more efficient than irrigation. Spraying combined with irrigation increased the ST yield plant -1 by 69.2% as compared to the control. The soil dehydrogenase activity, S. rebaudiana shoot biomass, chlorophyll content in new leaves, and soluble sugar in old leaves were affected significantly by S+I treatment, too. The PPB probably works in the rhizosphere by activating the metabolic activity of soil bacteria, and on leaves by excreting phytohormones or enhancing the activity of phyllosphere microorganisms. PMID:23825677

Wu, Jing; Wang, Yiming; Lin, Xiangui

2013-01-01

301

Effects of ozone on the foliar histology of the mastic plant (Pistacia lentiscus L.).  

PubMed

An open-top chamber study was conducted to investigate the tissue and cellular-level foliar effects of ozone (O3) on a Mediterranean evergreen species, the mastic plant (Pistacia lentiscus L.). Plants were exposed at three different O3 levels, and leaf samples were collected periodically from the beginning of the exposure. Although no visible foliar injury was evident, alterations of the plastids and vacuoles in the mesophyll were observed. Senescence processes were accelerated with an anomalous stacking of tannin vacuoles, and a reduction in the size and number of the chloroplasts. Overall, most of the modifications induced by O3 were consistent with previously reported observations on deciduous broadleaf species, with the exception of alterations in the cells covering the secretory channels, reported here as a new finding. Comments on the feasibility of using microscopy to validate O3 related field observations and subtle foliar injury are also given. PMID:15312944

Reig-Armiñana, J; Calatayud, V; Cerveró, J; García-Breijo, F J; Ibars, A; Sanz, M J

2004-11-01

302

Title: In vitro meets in silico: measuring and modeling the influence of calcium gradients on cell In tissue engineering applications, scaffolds act as carriers for cells and growth factors that restore  

E-print Network

their introduction, calcium phosphates (CaP) have proven to be an excellent bone substitute material, however for optimal bone healing. In a first step towards the development of a mathematical model accounting for the complexity of CaP driven bone formation, calcium release from CaP scaffolds is being studied. A model has

Wolper, Pierre

303

Cameleon calcium indicator reports cytoplasmic calcium dynamics in Arabidopsis guard cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cytoplasmic free calcium ([Ca2+]cyt) acts as a stimulus-induced second messenger in plant cells and multiple signal transduction pathways regulate [Ca2+]cyt in stomatal guard cells. Measuring [Ca2+]cyt in guard cells has previously required loading of calcium-sensitive dyes using invasive and technically difficult micro-injection techniques. To circumvent these problems, we have constitutively expressed the pH-independent, green fluorescent protein-based calcium indicator yellow cameleon 2.1 in Arabidopsis thaliana (Miyawaki et al. 1999; Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96, 2135-2140). This yellow cameleon calcium indicator was expressed in guard cells and accumulated predominantly in the cytoplasm. Fluorescence ratio imaging of yellow cameleon 2.1 allowed time-dependent measurements of [Ca2+]cyt in Arabidopsis guard cells. Application of extracellular calcium or the hormone abscisic acid (ABA) induced repetitive [Ca2+]cyt transients in guard cells. [Ca2+]cyt changes could be semi-quantitatively determined following correction of the calibration procedure for chloroplast autofluorescence. Extracellular calcium induced repetitive [Ca2+]cyt transients with peak values of up to approximately 1.5 microM, whereas ABA-induced [Ca2+]cyt transients had peak values up to approximately 0.6 microM. These values are similar to stimulus-induced [Ca2+]cyt changes previously reported in plant cells using ratiometric dyes or aequorin. In some guard cells perfused with low extracellular KCl concentrations, spontaneous calcium transients were observed. As yellow cameleon 2.1 was expressed in all guard cells, [Ca2+]cyt was measured independently in the two guard cells of single stomates for the first time. ABA-induced, calcium-induced or spontaneous [Ca2+]cyt increases were not necessarily synchronized in the two guard cells. Overall, these data demonstrate that that GFP-based cameleon calcium indicators are suitable to measure [Ca2+]cyt changes in guard cells and enable the pattern of [Ca2+]cyt dynamics to be measured with a high level of reproducibility in Arabidopsis cells. This technical advance in combination with cell biological and molecular genetic approaches will become an invaluable tool in the dissection of plant cell signal transduction pathways.

Allen, G. J.; Kwak, J. M.; Chu, S. P.; Llopis, J.; Tsien, R. Y.; Harper, J. F.; Schroeder, J. I.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

1999-01-01

304

The near millimetre wavelength optical constants of calcium lanthanum sulphide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectroscopic measurements at near millimeter wavelengths made on calcium lanthanum sulphide, a potential material for infrared window applications in high speed aircraft, have revealed a region of transparency below 40/cm. The optical constants of the material have been measured from 5 to 40/cm at 293 K, in order to consider its suitability for near millimeters wavelength applications.

Birch, J. R.; Savage, J. A.; Wilson, A. E. J.; Brierley, C. J.

1992-09-01

305

Gravitational infusion of ethylenediurea (EDU) into trunks protected adult European ash trees ( Fraxinus excelsior L.) from foliar ozone injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult ash trees (Fraxinus excelsior L.), known to be sensitive or insensitive to ozone, determined by presence or absence of foliar symptoms in previous years, were treated with ethylenediurea (EDU) at 450ppm by gravitational trunk infusion on six occasions at 21-day intervals in summer 2005 at Turin, Italy. At the end of the season, foliar ozone injury on EDU-treated trees

E. Paoletti; W. J. Manning; F. Spaziani; F. Tagliaferro

2007-01-01

306

Cuticular retention, foliar absorption and translocation of Fe, Mn and Zn supplied in organic and inorganic form  

Microsoft Academic Search

As chelates are commonly used in practice for soil fertilization and the interest of their extension to foliar fertilization is still in discussion, the purpose of this study was to specify some aspects of their behaviour when applied to leaves in comparison with inorganic forms. Since the first barrier to overcome in foliar nutrition is the cuticle, experiments were carried

Mireille Ferrandon; André R. Chamel

1988-01-01

307

Eleven-year response of foliar chemistry to chronic nitrogen and sulfur additions at the Bear Brooks Watershed in Maine  

SciTech Connect

The foliar chemistry of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.), American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.), and red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) was studied from 1993 to 2003 at the Bear Brook Watershed in Maine (BBWM). The BBWM is a paired-watershed forest ecosystem study, with one watershed treated bimonthly since 1989 with ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4) at a rate of 25.2 kg N·ha–1·year–1. Foliar N concentrations were higher in all tree species within the treated watershed compared with trees within the reference watershed. Foliar Ca and Mg concentrations were lower in American beech and red spruce within the treated watershed. There were no significant differences in foliar K concentrations between watersheds. Foliar P and Mn concentration differences between watersheds were inconsistent among years. Differences in foliar N concentrations between watersheds declined over time in sugar maple but not in red spruce or American beech. Differences in foliar Ca and Mg concentrations between the treated and reference watersheds increased over time for American beech and red spruce, primarily because of a consistent decline in concentrations of these nutrients in trees within the treated watershed. No temporal trends in foliar Ca and Mg concentration differences between watersheds were observed for sugar maple.

Jose Alexander Elvir; Gregory J. White

2005-06-01

308

The foliar endophytic fungal community composition in Cirsium arvense is affected by mycorrhizal colonization and soil nutrient content  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foliar fungal endophytes are ubiquitous, but understudied symbionts of most plant species; relatively little is known about the factors affecting their occurrence, diversity and abundance. We tested the effects of soil nutrient content and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization on the occurrence of foliar endophytic fungi in Cirsium arvense in two field studies. In the first study, we assessed relationships between

René Eschen; Stephanie Hunt; Charlotte Mykura; Alan C. Gange; Brian C. Sutton

2010-01-01

309

An Evaluation of the Allelopathic Potential of Selected Perennial Groundcovers: Foliar Volatiles of Catmint ( Nepeta × faassenii ) Inhibit Seedling Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six perennial groundcovers including Alchemilla mollis, Nepeta faassenii, Phlox subulata, Sedum acre, Solidago cutleri, and Thymus praecox were investigated for the allelopathic potential of their respective foliar tissues via evaluation of volatile constituents produced by foliage. These groundcovers were selected for further laboratory evaluation because of superior performance as weed-suppressive groundcovers in previous field experiments. Foliar volatile components of N.

Seok Hyun Eom; Hyun Seuk Yang; Leslie A. Weston

2006-01-01

310

Calcium spikes: Chance or necessity?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calcium oscillations present one of the most important signaling mechanisms in cell biology. The standard paradigm for the origin of calcium oscillations is dynamic, i.e. fast release of calcium from intracellular stores is followed by slow inhibition. Yet, this very dynamic theory for these oscillations came recently into scrutiny since the building blocks of cellular calcium signals are spatially and temporally limited calcium release events through small, distinct cluster of ion channels. According to this new paradigm, a coherent wave of calcium release, triggered by stochastic release events from a group of clusters, sweeps the cell. Oscillations are believed to emerge through a spatial coherence resonance mechanism. In this paper we investigate the difference in stochastic spiking generated by a small periodic system and a small excitable system and compare with published experimental data.

Jung, Peter; Swaminathan, Divya; Ullah, Aman

2010-10-01

311

High Blood Pressure and Calcium Antagonism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium ions are intimately involved in many aspects of cardiovascular function. Modification of calcium homeostasis therefore represents a key target for pharmacological intervention to achieve therapeutic control of hypertension. The calcium channel blockers (CCBs) act by blocking calcium influx through voltage-dependent L (long-acting) channels without affecting calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. The effect of blocking these channels is a

José L. Palma-Gámiz

1997-01-01

312

Calcium Kinetics During Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bone loss is one of the most detrimental effects of space flight, threatening to limit the duration of human space missions. The ability to understand and counteract this loss will be critical for crew health and safety during and after extended-duration missions. The hypotheses to be tested in this project are that space flight alters calcium homeostasis and bone mineral metabolism, and that calcium homeostasis and bone mineral metabolism will return to baseline within days to weeks of return to Earth. These hypotheses will be evidenced by elevated rates of bone mineral resorption and decreased bone mineral deposition, decreased absorption of dietary calcium, altered calcitropic endocrine profiles, elevated excretion of calcium in urine and feces, and elevated excretion of markers of bone resorption. The second hypothesis will be evidenced by return of indices of calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism to preflight levels within days to weeks of return to Earth. Studies will be conducted on International Space Station astronauts before, during, and after extended-duration flights. Measurements of calcium kinetics, bone mass, and endocrine/biochemical markers of bone and calcium homeostasis will be conducted. Kinetic studies utilizing dual isotope tracer kinetic studies and mathematical modeling techniques will allow for determination of bone calcium deposition, bone calcium resorption, dietary calcium absorption and calcium excretion (both urinary and endogenous fecal excretion). These studies will build upon preliminary work conducted on the Russian Mir space station. The results from this project will be critical for clarifying how microgravity affects bone and calcium homeostasis, and will provide an important control point for assessment of countermeasure efficacy. These results are expected to aid in developing countermeasures for bone loss, both for space crews and for individuals on Earth who have metabolic bone diseases.

Smith, Scott M.; Wastney, Meryl E.; OBrien, Kimberly O.; Lane, Helen W.

1999-01-01

313

Calcium Isotope Systematics During Development of the Domestic Chicken (Gallus gallus)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calcium isotope distributions have been recognized as showing systematic and predictable fractionation in nature. However, most of the observed calcium isotope fractionation to date is due to biological processes. The presence of abundant amounts of calcium in mineralized tissues makes the isotopic system of calcium particularly valuable in biological and paleobiological questions involving biomineralization. In order to apply calcium isotope systematics to paleobiological questions the changes in the calcium isotope signatures of mineralized tissue in modern animals should be studied. My study observed the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus) through embryologic ontogeny. This was accomplished by obtaining fertilized eggs staged in a growth series from day 12 to day 20. The eggs were dissected and shell, embryonic bone, albumen, and yolk were analyzed in order to characterize the calcium isotopic composition of the individual components over the course of the growth series. Several systematic changes in the isotopic signatures of various tissues were observed during the course of the development of the embryos. In general, mineralization in biological systems preferentially partitions the lighter isotopes of calcium into hard parts. As a result of this fractionation during mineralization, partitioning of light isotopes of calcium into the mineralized tissues may result in residual tissues being enriched in the heavier isotopes as ontogeny progresses. Better understanding of the behavior of calcium in modern biological systems will improve its application to fossils and expand the number of paleobiological and evolutionary questions that can be addressed using calcium isotopic data.

Wheatley, P. V.

2003-12-01

314

Hypertension and renal calcium transport.  

PubMed

Calcium homeostasis is altered in hypertensive patients. Indeed several investigators have reported that sodium-sensitive hypertension is associated with hypercalciuria. On the other hand, an independent clinical association exists between the occurrence of urolithiasis and hypertension, but the molecular mechanism(s) involved in stone formation by high blood pressure have not been so far clarified. To understand this association, it is obvious that we should analyze the effect of hypertension on the transport proteins involved in the renal calcium handling. In the kidney, the tubular reabsorption of calcium may proceed through transcellular and paracellular routes. At variance with the proximal tubule, along the distal segment, calcium transport is entirely sodium independent and occurs via the transcellular pathway. In particular, transcellular calcium reabsorption proceeds through a well-controlled sequence of events consisting of luminal calcium entry via the epithelial calcium channel (TRPV5), cytosolic diffusion of calcium bound to calbindin-D28K, and basolateral extrusion of calcium through the Na/Ca exchanger (NCX1) and plasma membrane Ca-ATPase (PMCA). It is highly likely that these proteins may be altered in hypertensive disease thus justifying and explaining the reported hypercalciuria. Experiments in hypertensive strains of animals exhibiting hypercalciuria may help to solve this puzzle. PMID:21170867

Petrazzuolo, Oriana; Trepiccione, Francesco; Zacchia, Miriam; Capasso, Giovambattista

2010-01-01

315

Injectable bioactive calcium-magnesium phosphate cement for bone regeneration.  

PubMed

Novel injectable and degradable calcium-magnesium phosphate cement (CMPC) with rapid-setting characteristic was developed by the introduction of magnesium phosphate cement (MPC) into calcium phosphate cement (CPC). The calcium-magnesium phosphate cement prepared under the optimum P/L ratio exhibited good injectability and desired workability. It could set within 10 min at 37 degrees C in 100% relative humidity and the compressive strength could reach 47 MPa after setting for 48 h, indicating that the prepared cement has relatively high initial mechanical strength. The results of in vitro degradation experiments demonstrated the good degradability of the injectable CMPC, and its degradation rate occurred significantly faster than that of pure CPC in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution. It can be concluded that the novel injectable calcium-magnesium phosphate cement is highly promising for a wide variety of clinical applications, especially for the development of minimally invasive techniques. PMID:19029607

Wu, Fan; Su, Jiacan; Wei, Jie; Guo, Han; Liu, Changsheng

2008-12-01

316

Calcium in the regulation of gravitropism by light  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The red light requirement for positive gravitropism in roots of corn (Zea mays cv "Merit") provides an entry for examining the participation of calcium in gravitropism. Applications of calcium chelators inhibit the light response. Calcium channel blockers (verapamil, lanthanum) can also inhibit the light response, and a calcium ionophore, A23187, can substitute for light. One can substitute for red light by treatments which have elsewhere been shown to trigger Ca2+ influx into the cytosol, e.g. heat or cold shock. Agents which are known to be agonists of the phosphatidylinositol second messenger system (serotonin, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, deoxycholate) can each partially substitute for the red light, and Li+ can inhibit the light effect. These experiments suggest that the induction of positive gravitropism by red light involves a rise in cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration, and that a contribution to this end may be made by the phosphatidylinositol second messenger system.

Perdue, D. O.; LaFavre, A. K.; Leopold, A. C.

1988-01-01

317

Control of Intracellular Calcium Signaling as a Neuroprotective Strategy  

PubMed Central

Both acute and chronic degenerative diseases of the nervous system reduce the viability and function of neurons through changes in intracellular calcium signaling. In particular, pathological increases in the intracellular calcium concentration promote such pathogenesis. Disease involvement of numerous regulators of intracellular calcium signaling located on the plasma membrane and intracellular organelles has been documented. Diverse groups of chemical compounds targeting ion channels, G-protein coupled receptors, pumps and enzymes have been identified as potential neuroprotectants. The present review summarizes the discovery, mechanisms and biological activity of neuroprotective molecules targeting proteins that control intracellular calcium signaling to preserve or restore structure and function of the nervous system. Disease relevance, clinical applications and new technologies for the identification of such molecules are being discussed. PMID:20335972

Duncan, R. Scott; Goad, Daryl L.; Grillo, Michael A.; Kaja, Simon; Payne, Andrew J.; Koulen, Peter

2010-01-01

318

Calcium Orthophosphates as Bioceramics: State of the Art  

PubMed Central

In the late 1960s, much interest was raised in regard to biomedical applications of various ceramic materials. A little bit later, such materials were named bioceramics. This review is limited to bioceramics prepared from calcium orthophosphates only, which belong to the categories of bioactive and bioresorbable compounds. There have been a number of important advances in this field during the past 30–40 years. Namely, by structural and compositional control, it became possible to choose whether calcium orthophosphate bioceramics were biologically stable once incorporated within the skeletal structure or whether they were resorbed over time. At the turn of the millennium, a new concept of calcium orthophosphate bioceramics—which is able to promote regeneration of bones—was developed. Presently, calcium orthophosphate bioceramics are available in the form of particulates, blocks, cements, coatings, customized designs for specific applications and as injectable composites in a polymer carrier. Current biomedical applications include artificial replacements for hips, knees, teeth, tendons and ligaments, as well as repair for periodontal disease, maxillofacial reconstruction, augmentation and stabilization of the jawbone, spinal fusion and bone fillers after tumor surgery. Exploratory studies demonstrate potential applications of calcium orthophosphate bioceramics as scaffolds, drug delivery systems, as well as carriers of growth factors, bioactive peptides and/or various types of cells for tissue engineering purposes. PMID:24955932

Dorozhkin, Sergey V.

2010-01-01

319

Cell Calcium 37 (2005) 411416 Regulation of dendritic development by calcium signaling  

E-print Network

Cell Calcium 37 (2005) 411­416 Regulation of dendritic development by calcium signaling Lori are mediated by calcium signaling. While many effects of calcium on dendrite structure occur locally at the site of calcium entry into the cytoplasmic milieu, elevation of cytoplasmic calcium is also translated

Ghosh, Anirvan

320

Custom-made modification of a commercial confocal microscope to photolyze caged compounds using the conventional illumination module and its application to the observation of Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-mediated calcium signals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The flash photolysis of ``caged'' compounds is a powerful experimental technique for producing rapid changes in concentrations of bioactive signaling molecules. These caged compounds are inactive and become active when illuminated with ultraviolet light. This paper describes an inexpensive adaptation of an Olympus confocal microscope that uses as source of ultraviolet light the mercury lamp that comes with the microscope for conventional fluorescence microscopy. The ultraviolet illumination from the lamp (350 - 400 nm) enters through an optical fiber that is coupled to a nonconventional port of the microscope. The modification allows to perform the photolysis of caged compounds over wide areas (~200 ?m) and obtain confocal fluorescence images simultaneously. By controlling the ultraviolet illumination exposure time and intensity it is possible to regulate the amount of photolyzed compounds. In the paper we characterize the properties of the system and show its capabilities with experiments done in aqueous solution and in Xenopus Laevis oocytes. The latter demonstrate its applicability for the study of Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-mediated intracellular calcium signals.

Sigaut, Lorena; Barella, Mariano; Espada, Rocío; Ponce, María Laura; Dawson, Silvina Ponce

2011-06-01

321

Effect of strontium ions substitution on gene delivery related properties of calcium phosphate nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gene therapy has been considered a strategy for delivery of therapeutic nucleic acids to a specific site. Calcium phosphates\\u000a are one gene delivery vector group of interest. However, low transfection efficiency has limited the use of calcium phosphate\\u000a in gene delivery applications. Present work aims at studying the fabrication of strontium substituted calcium phosphate nanoparticles\\u000a with improved gene delivery related

A. HanifiM; M. H. Fathi; H. Mir Mohammad Sadeghi

2010-01-01

322

Application of intact cell-based NFAT-?-lactamase reporter assay for Pasteurella multocida toxin-mediated activation of calcium signaling pathway  

PubMed Central

Pasteurella multocida toxin (PMT) stimulates and subsequently uncouples phospholipase C ?1 (PLC?1) signal transduction through its selective action on the alpha subunit of the Gq protein. Here, we describe the application of an NFAT-?-lactamase reporter assay as a functional readout for PMT-induced activation of the Gq-protein-coupled PLC?1-IP3-Ca2+ signaling pathway. Use of the NFAT-?-lactamase reporter assay with a cell-permeable fluorogenic substrate provides high sensitivity due to the absence of endogenous ?-lactamase activity in mammalian cells. This assay system was optimized for cell density, dose and time exposure of PMT stimulation. It is suited for quantitative characterization of PMT activity in mammalian cells and for use as a high-throughput screening method for PMT deletion and point mutants suitable for vaccine development. This method has application for diagnostic screening of clinical isolates of toxinogenic P. multocida. PMID:18190943

Luo, Shuhong; Ho, Mengfei; Wilson, Brenda A.

2009-01-01

323

Refilling Intracellular Calcium Stores  

PubMed Central

Within the cardiac cell, the movements of calcium ions are tightly regulated by a number of regulatory proteins including pumps, and channels. The sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) is in large part responsible for orchestrating these movements for the normal functioning of the cardiomyocyte. Alterations of SR regulatory proteins in failing hearts leads to abnormal Ca2+ homeostasis and consequently to a deficient contractile state. This review focuses on the roles of SR Ca2+ regulators in disease states and novel strategies for therapeutic targeting of these pathways. PMID:21170146

Kho, Changwon; Lee, Ahyoung; Jeong, Dongtak; Hajjar, Roger J.

2010-01-01

324

The oxidation of calcium sulphite by calcium nitrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crushed powder mixtures of calcium sulphite and calcium nitrate exhibit an exothermic reaction between 650 and 700K. This rate process has been investigated by dynamic and isothermal DSC experiments, complemented with isothermal rate studies based on gas evolution in a vacuum apparatus, together with some product analyses. It is concluded that the overall reaction is complicated, including several concurrent contributing

Andrew K Galwey; Clodagh Ettarh

1998-01-01

325

Tobermorite\\/jennite and tobermorite\\/calcium hydroxide-based models for the structure of CSH: applicability to hardened pastes of tricalcium silicate, ?-dicalcium silicate, Portland cement, and blends of Portland cement with blast-furnace slag, metakaolin, or silica fume  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to discuss the applicability of the tobermorite–jennite (T\\/J) and tobermorite–‘solid-solution’ calcium hydroxide (T\\/CH) viewpoints for the nanostructure of C-S-H present in real cement pastes. The discussion is facilitated by a consideration of the author's 1992 model, which includes formulations for both structural viewpoints; its relationship to other recent models is outlined. The structural details

I. G. Richardson

2004-01-01

326

Assessment of crop foliar nitrogen using a novel dual-wavelength laser system and implications for conducting laser-based plant physiology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advanced technologies for improved nitrogen (N) fertilizer management are paramount for sustainably meeting future food demands. Green laser systems that measure pulse return intensity can provide more reliable information about foliar N than can traditional passive remote sensing devices during the critical early crop growth stages (e.g., before canopy closure when vegetation and soil signals are spectrally mixed) when further decisions regarding N management can be made. However, current green laser systems are not designed for agricultural applications and only employ a single green laser wavelength, which may limit applications because many factors that require normalization techniques can affect pulse return intensity. Here, we describe the design of a tractor-mountable, green (532 nm)- and red (658 nm) dual wavelength laser system and evaluate the potential of an additional red reference wavelength to improve laser based estimates of foliar N by calculating laser spectral indices based on ratio combinations of green laser return intensity (GLRI) and red laser return intensity (RLRI). We hypothesized that such laser spectral indices aid in accounting for factors that confound laser based foliar N estimates including variations in leaf angle, measurement distance, soil returns, and mixed edge returns. Leaf level measurements in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) revealed that the two laser spectral indices improved the relationship with foliar N (r2 > 0.71, RMSE < 0.28%) compared to the sole use of GLRI (r2 = 0.47, RMSE = 0.38%). Laboratory measurements also showed that laser spectral indices reduced the effect of measurement distance on laser readings and allowed leaf returns to be better separated from edge returns and soil returns. However, laboratory measurements showed that laser spectral indices did not account for variations in leaf angle, possibly explaining the weak relationships (r2 < 0.36, RMSE = 0.49%) between foliar N and laser spectral indices observed when employing the laser system under field conditions. In fact, the strongest relationship at the field canopy level was shown for GLRI (r2 = 0.65, RMSE = 0.37%) alone. Laboratory measurements suggest that the better performance of GLRI compared to ratio-based laser spectral indices may result from pronounced differences in the leaf-level bidirectional reflectance distribution factor (BRDFleaf) between the green and red laser wavelengths, thus confounding leaf angle effects so that they are not cancelled when calculating laser spectral indices. This finding suggests that the small spot size of the laser pulses (?5 mm diameter) interacts with BRDFleaf at very fine scales, therefore causing differential, wavelength-specific scattering effects. Additional study of BRDFleaf at the mm scale is therefore warranted, and should be carefully considered in future development and use of multi-wavelength laser systems for remotely sensing foliar biochemistry.

Eitel, Jan U. H.; Magney, Troy S.; Vierling, Lee A.; Dittmar, Günter

2014-11-01

327

21 CFR 184.1195 - Calcium citrate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...acid. It is prepared by neutralizing citric acid with calcium hydroxide or calcium carbonate. It occurs as a fine white, odorless powder and usually contains four moles of water per mole of calcium citrate. (b) The ingredient...

2010-04-01

328

21 CFR 73.1070 - Calcium carbonate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...1070 Calcium carbonate. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive calcium carbonate is a fine, white, synthetically prepared powder consisting essentially of precipitated calcium carbonate (CaCO3 ). (2) Color additive...

2010-04-01

329

Calcium transporters: From fields to the table  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Calcium transporters regulate calcium fluxes within cells. Plants, like all organisms, contain channels, pumps, and exchangers to carefully modulate intracellular calcium levels. This review presents a summary of the recent advances in cloning and characterizing of these transporters and highlight...

330

21 CFR 582.6197 - Calcium diacetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium diacetate. 582.6197 Section 582.6197...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6197 Calcium diacetate. (a) Product. Calcium diacetate. (b) Conditions of use....

2011-04-01

331

21 CFR 182.6197 - Calcium diacetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium diacetate. 182.6197 Section 182.6197...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6197 Calcium diacetate. (a) Product. Calcium diacetate. (b) Conditions of use....

2010-04-01

332

21 CFR 182.6197 - Calcium diacetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium diacetate. 182.6197 Section 182.6197...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6197 Calcium diacetate. (a) Product. Calcium diacetate. (b) Conditions of use....

2011-04-01

333

21 CFR 172.715 - Calcium lignosulfonate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium lignosulfonate. 172.715 Section 172.715... Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.715 Calcium lignosulfonate. Calcium lignosulfonate may be safely used in or on...

2011-04-01

334

7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture...Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the...

2011-01-01

335

21 CFR 172.720 - Calcium lactobionate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium lactobionate. 172.720 Section 172...Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.720 Calcium lactobionate. The food additive calcium lactobionate may be safely used in food...

2011-04-01

336

21 CFR 582.6199 - Calcium gluconate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium gluconate. 582.6199 Section 582.6199...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6199 Calcium gluconate. (a) Product. Calcium gluconate. (b) Conditions of use....

2010-04-01

337

21 CFR 172.715 - Calcium lignosulfonate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium lignosulfonate. 172.715 Section 172.715... Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.715 Calcium lignosulfonate. Calcium lignosulfonate may be safely used in or on...

2010-04-01

338

7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture...Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the...

2010-01-01

339

21 CFR 582.6199 - Calcium gluconate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium gluconate. 582.6199 Section 582.6199...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6199 Calcium gluconate. (a) Product. Calcium gluconate. (b) Conditions of use....

2011-04-01

340

21 CFR 582.6197 - Calcium diacetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium diacetate. 582.6197 Section 582.6197...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6197 Calcium diacetate. (a) Product. Calcium diacetate. (b) Conditions of use....

2010-04-01

341

21 CFR 172.720 - Calcium lactobionate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium lactobionate. 172.720 Section 172...Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.720 Calcium lactobionate. The food additive calcium lactobionate may be safely used in food...

2010-04-01

342

21 CFR 172.720 - Calcium lactobionate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium lactobionate. 172.720 Section 172...Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.720 Calcium lactobionate. The food additive calcium lactobionate may be safely used in food...

2013-04-01

343

7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.  

...Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture...Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the...

2014-01-01

344

21 CFR 582.6199 - Calcium gluconate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium gluconate. 582.6199 Section 582.6199...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6199 Calcium gluconate. (a) Product. Calcium gluconate. (b) Conditions of use....

2012-04-01

345

21 CFR 582.6199 - Calcium gluconate.  

... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium gluconate. 582.6199 Section 582.6199...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6199 Calcium gluconate. (a) Product. Calcium gluconate. (b) Conditions of use....

2014-04-01

346

21 CFR 582.6197 - Calcium diacetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium diacetate. 582.6197 Section 582.6197...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6197 Calcium diacetate. (a) Product. Calcium diacetate. (b) Conditions of use....

2012-04-01

347

21 CFR 182.6197 - Calcium diacetate.  

... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium diacetate. 182.6197 Section 182.6197...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6197 Calcium diacetate. (a) Product. Calcium diacetate. (b) Conditions of use....

2014-04-01

348

21 CFR 172.715 - Calcium lignosulfonate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium lignosulfonate. 172.715 Section 172.715... Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.715 Calcium lignosulfonate. Calcium lignosulfonate may be safely used in or on...

2012-04-01

349

21 CFR 182.6197 - Calcium diacetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium diacetate. 182.6197 Section 182.6197...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6197 Calcium diacetate. (a) Product. Calcium diacetate. (b) Conditions of use....

2012-04-01

350

7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture...Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the...

2012-01-01

351

21 CFR 172.715 - Calcium lignosulfonate.  

... 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium lignosulfonate. 172.715 Section 172.715... Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.715 Calcium lignosulfonate. Calcium lignosulfonate may be safely used in or on...

2014-04-01

352

21 CFR 582.6199 - Calcium gluconate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium gluconate. 582.6199 Section 582.6199...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6199 Calcium gluconate. (a) Product. Calcium gluconate. (b) Conditions of use....

2013-04-01

353

7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture...Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the...

2013-01-01

354

21 CFR 182.6197 - Calcium diacetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium diacetate. 182.6197 Section 182.6197...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6197 Calcium diacetate. (a) Product. Calcium diacetate. (b) Conditions of use....

2013-04-01

355

21 CFR 582.6197 - Calcium diacetate.  

... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium diacetate. 582.6197 Section 582.6197...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6197 Calcium diacetate. (a) Product. Calcium diacetate. (b) Conditions of use....

2014-04-01

356

21 CFR 172.720 - Calcium lactobionate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium lactobionate. 172.720 Section 172...Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.720 Calcium lactobionate. The food additive calcium lactobionate may be safely used in food...

2012-04-01

357

21 CFR 172.715 - Calcium lignosulfonate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium lignosulfonate. 172.715 Section 172.715... Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.715 Calcium lignosulfonate. Calcium lignosulfonate may be safely used in or on...

2013-04-01

358

21 CFR 582.6197 - Calcium diacetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium diacetate. 582.6197 Section 582.6197...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6197 Calcium diacetate. (a) Product. Calcium diacetate. (b) Conditions of use....

2013-04-01

359

21 CFR 172.720 - Calcium lactobionate.  

... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium lactobionate. 172.720 Section 172...Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.720 Calcium lactobionate. The food additive calcium lactobionate may be safely used in food...

2014-04-01

360

21 CFR 582.6193 - Calcium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.6193 Section 582.6193...GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6193 Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

2010-04-01

361

Relationships between C3 Plant Foliar Carbon Isotope Composition and Element Contents of Grassland Species at High Altitudes on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China  

PubMed Central

Relationships of foliar carbon isotope composition (?13C) with foliar C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg contents and their ratios of 219 C3 species leaf samples, obtained in August in 2004 to 2007 from 82 high altitude grassland sites on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau China, were examined. This was done with reference to the proposition that foliar ?13C increases with altitude and separately for the life-form groups of graminoids, forbs and shrubs and for the genera Stipa and Kobresia. For all samples, foliar ?13C was negatively related to foliar K, P and ?K+ Ca+ Mg, and positively correlated to foliar C, C/N and C/P. The significance of these correlations differed for the taxonomic and life-form groups. Lack of a relationship of foliar ?13C with foliar N was inconsistent with the majority of studies that have shown foliar ?13C to be positively related to foliar N due to a decrease of Ci/Ca (the ratio between intercellular and atmospheric concentration of CO2) and explained as a result of greater photosynthetic capacity at higher foliar N concentration. However this inconsistency relates to other high altitude studies that have found that photosynthetic capacity remains constant as foliar N increases. After accounting for the altitudinal relationship with foliar ?13C, of the elements only the K effect was significant and was most strongly expressed for Kobresia. It is concluded that factors critical to plant survival and growth at very high altitudes, such as low atmospheric pressure and low temperatures, may preclude expression of relationships between foliar ?13C and foliar elements that have been observed at lower altitudes. PMID:23565275

Zhou, Yong-Chun; Fan, Jiang-Wen; Harris, Warwick; Zhong, Hua-Ping; Zhang, Wen-Yan; Cheng, Xi-Lei

2013-01-01

362

Astrocyte Calcium Waves  

PubMed Central

Several lines of evidence indicate that the elaborated calcium signals and the occurrence of calcium waves in astrocytes provide these cells with a specific form of excitability. The identification of the cellular and molecular steps involved in the triggering and transmission of Ca2+ waves between astrocytes resulted in the identification of two pathways mediating this form of intercellular communication. One of them involves the direct communication between the cytosols of two adjoining cells through gap junction channels, while the other depends upon the release of “gliotransmitters” that activates membrane receptors on neighboring cells. In this review we summarize evidence in favor of these two mechanisms of Ca2+ wave transmission and we discuss that they may not be mutually exclusive, but are likely to work in conjunction to coordinate the activity of a group of cells. To address a key question regarding the functional consequences following the passage of a Ca2+ wave, we list, in this review, some of the potential intracellular targets of these Ca2+ transients in astrocytes, and discuss the functional consequences of the activation of these targets for the interactions that astrocytes maintain with themselves and with other cellular partners, including those at the glial/vasculature interface and at perisynaptic sites where astrocytic processes tightly interact with neurons. PMID:17006900

SCEMES, ELIANA; GIAUME, CHRISTIAN

2008-01-01

363

An Improved Calcium Flame Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Indicates that the true red color of calcium can be obtained (using the procedure described by Sorm and Logowski) if the calcium ion solution is mixed with an equal volume of saturated ammonium bromide solution. Suggestions for flame tests of other elements are also noted. (JN)

Pearson, Robert S.

1985-01-01

364

Observations on the foliar nematode, Aphelenchoides besseyi, infecting tuberose and rice in India  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The foliar nematode Aphelenchoides besseyi causes white tip disease in rice (Oryza sativa L.) and floral malady in tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa L.). This nematode is widely distributed in the rice fields of many states of India, including West Bengal (WB), Andhra Pradesh (AP), Madhya Pradesh (MP) a...

365

HERITABILITY OF TOLERANCE TO EARLY FOLIAR DECLINE IN THREE AMERICAN PIMA COTTON POPULATIONS.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Early foliar decline (EFD) is a recurring problem of Pima cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.) in the San Joaquin Valley of California where it has been implicated in yield and fiber quality losses. Anecdotal evidence indicates that genetic variability for tolerance to EFD exists within Pima germplasm....

366

Effects of Foliar Applied Sulfur and Commercial Growth Regulators in Wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the year 1999, two glasshouse experiments (Experiments 1 and 2) were conducted at the University of Wales Aberystwyth, UK to investigate the effects of foliar applied sulfur (S) in wheat in terms of its potential as a growth regulator and to compare the effects with that of commercial growth regulators, chlormequat (CC) and gibberellic acid (GA3). In Experiment 1,

Z. Hussain; M. H. Leitch

2008-01-01

367

Control of stripe rust of winter wheat with foliar fungicides, 2007  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A total of nine foliar fungicide treatments were tested for efficacy to control stripe rust on spring wheat at Pullman, Washington during the 2006-2007 growth season using a randomized completed block design experiment with non-treated plots as the experimental control. Susceptible winter wheat var...

368

Absorption of foliar-applied arsenic by the arsenic hyperaccumulating fern ( Pteris vittata L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fact that heavy metals can enter various domains of the plant system through foliar pathways spurred us to explore if the fronds of the Chinese brake fern (Pteris vittata L.), a hyperaccumulator of arsenic, a carcinogenic metalloid, was proficient in absorbing arsenic in the form of sprays. The specific objective of this study was to investigate the impact of

Bhaskar R. Bondada; Shuxin Tu; Lena Q. Ma

2004-01-01

369

SPECIATION OF GAS-PHASE AND FINE PARTICLE EMISSIONS FROM BURNING OF FOLIAR FUELS: JOURNAL ARTICLE  

EPA Science Inventory

NRMRL-RTP-P- 620 Hays**, M.D., Geron*, C.D., Linna**, K.J., Smith*, N.D., and Schauer, J.J. Speciation of Gas-Phase and Fine Particle Emissions from Burning of Foliar Fuels. Submitted to: Environmental Science & Technology EPA/600/J-02/234, http://pubs.acs.org/journals/esthag/...

370

Phenology of foliar and volatile terpenoid production for Thuja plicata families under differential nutrient availability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herbivores use chemoreception to determine forage quality of plants. Certain terpenoid compounds produced by regenerating conifers may deter herbivory through negative feedback resulting from consumption or olfactory detection. Plant resource availability may influence the biosynthesis of terpenoids, yet terpenoid production in relation to changes in foliar chemistry is not well understood. Western redcedar (Thuja plicata Donn ex. D. Don) seedlings

Owen T. Burney; Anthony S. Davis; Douglass F. Jacobs

371

CORRELATION BETWEEN OZONE EXPOSURE AND VISIBLE FOLIAR INJURY IN PONDEROSA AND JEFFREY PINES. (R825433)  

EPA Science Inventory

Ozone exposure was related to ozone-induced visible foliar injury in ponderosa and Jeffrey pines growing on the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California. Measurements of ozone exposure, chlorotic mottle and fascicle retention were collected during the years ...

372

The relationship between dermal pesticide exposure by fruit harvesters and dislodgeable foliar residues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dermal pesticide exposure rates, expressed in mg\\/hr, by strawberry and blueberry harvesters and dislodgeable foliar pesticide residues were determined in 7 separate field experiments during 1981–1983 in California and Oregon. The pesticides which were studied included captan, vinclozolin, carbaryl, and methiocarb. A positive correlation between these two parameters was found and compared with literature values involving different pesticides and tree

Gunter Zweig; J. T. Leffingwell; Wm. Popendorf

1985-01-01

373

Neonicotinoid Seed Treatments and Foliar Sprays on Sugarbeet for Control of Severe Curly Top  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarbeet production in semiarid regions is hindered by yield loss caused with Beet severe curly top virus and other closely related species vectored by the beet leafhopper. In 2010, a study was established to investigate the level of control from seed treatments and supplemental foliar insecticide...

374

Observation and Confirmation of Foliar Ozone Symptoms of Native Plant Species of Switzerland and Southern Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tropospheric ozone is considered as the major pollutant of concern to the health and productivity of forests in the eastern United States and has more recently become of increasing concern within the forests of southern Europe. Recent observations have clearly demonstrated foliar injury symptoms to be occurring on many tree and native plant species within remote forested areas. Several plant

J. M. Skelly; J. L. Innes; J. E. Savage; K. R. Snyder; D. Vanderheyden; J. Zhang; M. J. Sanz

1999-01-01

375

Foliar respiration acclimation to temperature and temperature variable Q10 alter ecosystem carbon balance  

E-print Network

Foliar respiration acclimation to temperature and temperature variable Q10 alter ecosystem carbon Station, TX 77843-2135, USA Abstract The response of respiration to temperature in plants can described by a constant Q10 of respiration, and longer-term responses often include acclimation. Despite

Minnesota, University of

376

FOLIAR RESORPTION OF NUTRIENTS IN SELECTED SYMPATRIC TREE SPECIES IN GALLERY FOREST ?BLACK SEA REGION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gallery forests in Central Black Sea Region are dominated by Platanus orientalis L. The studies were performed in four sites (Mert River, Adalar, Kurupelit and Taflan Regions) located in V-shaped river valleys and differing with soil conditions. Nutrient concen- trations were measured in green and senescent leaves in selected sympatric tree species. Foliar nutrient resorption efficiency (RE; as the ratio

Hamdi Güray KUTBAY; Duygu KILIC; Hasan KORKMAZ; Erkan YALÇIN; Zeki APAYDIN

377

Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 115 (2003) 163171 Foliar morphology and canopy nitrogen as predictors of  

E-print Network

of photosynthetic "machinery" (Ncanopy) and its inherent efficiency, which is inversely related to Marea. AcrossAgricultural and Forest Meteorology 115 (2003) 163­171 Foliar morphology and canopy nitrogen as predictors of light-use efficiency in terrestrial vegetation D. Scott Greena,, John E. Ericksonb, Eric L

Green, Scott

378

New Phytol. (1985) 99, 389^H)5 389 DIRECT FOLIAR EFFECTS OF SIMULATED  

E-print Network

New Phytol. (1985) 99, 389^H)5 389 DIRECT FOLIAR EFFECTS OF SIMULATED ACID RAIN I. DAMAGE, GROWTH acid rain (pH 5-6, 40, 30 and 2 0) were observed for seedlings of four deciduous tree species native have contributed to the observed reductions in growth. Key words: Acid rain, gas exchange

Neufeld, Howard S.

379

New Phytol. (1985) 99, 407^16 DIRECT FOLIAR EFFECTS OF SIMULATED  

E-print Network

New Phytol. (1985) 99, 407^16 DIRECT FOLIAR EFFECTS OF SIMULATED ACID RAIN IL LEAF SURFACE to damage from simulated acid rain. The species examined differed in the type and extent of epicuticular wax different among species, and is highly correlated with previous reports of damage from simulated acid rain

Neufeld, Howard S.

380

Variation in foliar nitrogen and albedo in response to nitrogen fertilization and elevated CO2.  

PubMed

Foliar nitrogen has been shown to be positively correlated with midsummer canopy albedo and canopy near infrared (NIR) reflectance over a broad range of plant functional types (e.g., forests, grasslands, and agricultural lands). To date, the mechanism(s) driving the nitrogen–albedo relationship have not been established, and it is unknown whether factors affecting nitrogen availability will also influence albedo. To address these questions, we examined variation in foliar nitrogen in relation to leaf spectral properties, leaf mass per unit area, and leaf water content for three deciduous species subjected to either nitrogen (Harvard Forest, MA, and Oak Ridge, TN) or CO(2) fertilization (Oak Ridge, TN). At Oak Ridge, we also obtained canopy reflectance data from the airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS) to examine whether canopy-level spectral responses were consistent with leaf-level results. At the leaf level, results showed no differences in reflectance or transmittance between CO(2) or nitrogen treatments, despite significant changes in foliar nitrogen. Contrary to our expectations, there was a significant, but negative, relationship between foliar nitrogen and leaf albedo, a relationship that held for both full spectrum leaf albedo as well as leaf albedo in the NIR region alone. In contrast, remote sensing data indicated an increase in canopy NIR reflectance with nitrogen fertilization. Collectively, these results suggest that altered nitrogen availability can affect canopy albedo, albeit by mechanisms that involve canopy-level processes rather than changes in leaf-level reflectance. PMID:22294028

Wicklein, Haley F; Ollinger, Scott V; Martin, Mary E; Hollinger, David Y; Lepine, Lucie C; Day, Michelle C; Bartlett, Megan K; Richardson, Andrew D; Norby, Richard J

2012-08-01

381

Effects of Foliar Herbivory on Male and Female Reproductive Traits of Wild Radish, Raphanus raphanistrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. In this study, we examined how foliar herbivory affected the relative allo- cation to male and female reproductive traits in a hermaphroditic plant. In two experiments, one in the greenhouse and the other in a growth chamber, leaves of full sibling plants of the annual wild radish, Raphanus raphanistrum, received one of four damage treatments to leaves (0, 25%

Kari Lehtila; Sharon Y. Strauss

1999-01-01

382

Mapping Disease Resistance QTL for Three Foliar Diseases of Maize in a RIL Population  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Southern leaf blight (SLB), gray leaf spot (GLS), and northern leaf blight (NLB) are three important foliar diseases impacting maize production. The objectives of this study were to identify quantitative trait loci for disease resistance (dQTL) for resistance to these diseases in a maize recombinan...

383

Regular paper Visible foliar injury caused by ozone alters the relationship between SPAD  

E-print Network

, foliar stipple, ozone, Rudbeckia laciniata, SPAD meter Abstract The ability of the SPAD-502 chlorophyll meter to quantify chlorophyll amounts in ozone-affected leaves of cutleaf coneflower (Rudbeckia laciniata var. digitata) was assessed in this study. When relatively uninjured leaves were measured (percent

Neufeld, Howard S.

384

21 CFR 582.5201 - Calcium glycerophosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5201 Calcium glycerophosphate. (a) Product. Calcium glycerophosphate. (b)...

2011-04-01

385

21 CFR 582.5201 - Calcium glycerophosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5201 Calcium glycerophosphate. (a) Product. Calcium glycerophosphate. (b)...

2012-04-01

386

21 CFR 582.5201 - Calcium glycerophosphate.  

... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5201 Calcium glycerophosphate. (a) Product. Calcium glycerophosphate. (b)...

2014-04-01

387

21 CFR 582.5201 - Calcium glycerophosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5201 Calcium glycerophosphate. (a) Product. Calcium glycerophosphate. (b)...

2013-04-01

388

Calcium oxalate stone and gout.  

PubMed

Gout is well known to be produced by increased uric acid level in blood. The objective of this paper is to assess the relationship between gout and calcium oxalate stone formation in the humans. 48 patients with combination of gout and calcium oxalate stone problem were included. The biochemical values of this group were compared with 38 randomly selected uric acid stone patients with gout, 43 stone patients with gout alone, 100 calcium oxalate stone patients without gout and 30 controls, making a total of 259 patients. Various biochemical parameters, namely serum calcium, phosphorus and uric acid and 24-h urine calcium, phosphorus, uric acid, oxalate, citrate and magnesium were analysed. ANOVA and Duncan's multiple-range tests were performed to assess statistical significance of the variations. The promoters of stone formation, namely serum calcium (P < 0.05), phosphorus (P < 0.05) and uric acid (P < 0.05) and urine calcium (P < 0.05), uric acid (P < 0.05) and oxalate (P < 0.05) were significantly variable in the different groups. The inhibitor citrate (P < 0.05) was also significantly variable. Multiple-range test showed that the promoters, namely serum calcium (P < 0.05) and urine uric acid (P < 0.05) were in a significantly higher range in the gouty patients, gouty uric acid stone patients and gouty calcium oxalate stone patients compared to the non-gouty patients and controls. Urine oxalate (P < 0.0001) was in the highest range in the gouty calcium oxalate or gouty uric acid stones patients. The inhibitor urine citrate (P < 0.001) was significantly lower in the gouty, gouty uric acid and gouty calcium oxalate patients. Serum uric acid was highest in the non-stone gouty patients, followed by the gouty uric acid stone formers and gouty calcium oxalate stone patients. The high values of promoters, namely uric acid and calcium in the gouty stone patients indicate the tendency for urinary stone formation in the gouty stone patients. There is probably a correlation between gout and calcium oxalate urinary stone. We presume this mechanism is achieved through the uric acid metabolism. The findings point to the summation effect of metabolic changes in development of stone disease. PMID:19779706

Marickar, Y M Fazil

2009-12-01

389

Taurine regulates mitochondrial calcium homeostasis.  

PubMed

We have investigated the protective role of taurine in glutamate-mediated cell death and the involvement of mitochondria in this process. In cultured cerebellar granule cells, glutamate induces a rapid and sustained elevation in cytoplasmic free calcium ([Ca2+]i), causing the collapse of the mitochondrial electrochemical gradient (MtECG) and subsequent cell death. We found that pre-treatment with taurine, did not affect the level of calcium uptake with glutamate but rather reduced its duration; the calcium increase was transient and returned to basal levels about 10 min after adding glutamate. Furthermore, taurine reduced mitochondrial calcium concentration under non-depolarizing conditions. Treatment of cerebellar granule cells with taurine enhanced mitochondrial activity as measured by rhodamine uptake, both in the presence or absence of glutamate. We conclude that taurine prevents or reduces glutamate excitotoxicity through both the enhancement of mitochondrial function and the regulation of intracellular (cytoplasmic and mitochondrial) calcium homeostasis. PMID:12908639

El Idrissi, Abdeslem; Trenkner, Ekkhart

2003-01-01

390

Erythroneura lawsoni abundance and feeding injury levels are influenced by foliar nutrient status in intensively managed American sycamore.  

SciTech Connect

Abstract 1 Abundance and feeding injury of the leafhopper Erythroneura lawsoni Robinson was measured in an intensively-managed American sycamore Platanus occidentalis L. plantation. Trees were planted in spring 2000 in a randomized complete block design, and received one of three annual treatments: (i) fertilization (120 kg N/ha/year); (ii) irrigation (3.0 cm/week); (iii) fertilization + irrigation; or (iv) control (no treatment). 2 Foliar nutrient concentrations were significantly influenced by the treatments because only sulphur and manganese levels were not statistically greater in trees receiving fertilization. 3 Over 116 000 E. lawsoni were captured on sticky traps during the study. Leafhopper abundance was highest on nonfertilized trees for the majority of the season, and was positively correlated with foliar nutrient concentrations. Significant temporal variation in E. lawsoni abundance occurred, suggesting five discrete generations in South Carolina. 4 Significant temporal variation occurred in E. lawsoni foliar injury levels, with the highest injury ratings occurring in late June and August. Foliar injury was negatively correlated with foliar nutrient content, and higher levels of injury occurred more frequently on nonfertilized trees. 5 The results obtained in the present study indicated that increased E. lawsoni abundance occurred on trees that did not receive fertilization. Nonfertilized trees experienced greater foliar injury, suggesting that lower foliar nutrient status may have led to increased levels of compensatory feeding.

Coyle, David, Robert: Aubrey, Doug, Patric; Bentz, Jo-Ann

2010-01-01

391

Climatic limits on foliar growth during major droughts in the Southwestern U.S.A.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Pronounced droughts during the 1950s and 2000s in the Southwestern U.S.A. (SW) provide an opportunity to compare mesoscale ecosystem responses to anomalously dry conditions before and during the regional warming that started in the late 1970s. This year-round warming has produced fewer cool season freezes, losses in regional snowpack, an 8-10 day advance in spring onset, and hotter summers, all of which should affect vegetation differently across seasons and elevations. Here, we examine indices that represent climatic limits on foliar growth for both drought periods, and evaluate these indices for areas that experienced tree mortality during the 2000s drought. Relative to the 1950s drought, warmer conditions during the 2000s drought decreased the occurrence of temperatures too low for foliar growth at lower elevations in winter and higher elevations in summer. Higher vapor pressure deficits (VPDs) largely driven by warmer temperatures in the more recent drought were more limiting to foliar growth from spring through summer at lower and middle elevations. At many locations where tree mortality occurred during the 2000s drought, low-temperature constraints on foliar growth were extremely unlimiting, whereas VPD constraints were extremely limiting from early spring through late autumn. Our analysis shows that in physiographically complex regions like the SW, seasonality and elevational gradients are important for understanding vegetative responses to warming. It also suggests that continued warming will increase the degree to which VPD limits foliar growth during future droughts, and expand its reach to higher elevations and other seasons.

Weiss, Jeremy L.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Overpeck, Jonathan T.

2012-01-01

392

Atmospheric change alters foliar quality of host trees and performance of two outbreak insect species.  

PubMed

This study examined the independent and interactive effects of elevated carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and ozone (O(3)) on the foliar quality of two deciduous trees species and the performance of two outbreak herbivore species. Trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) and paper birch (Betula papyrifera) were grown at the Aspen FACE research site in northern Wisconsin, USA, under four combinations of ambient and elevated CO(2) and O(3). We measured the effects of elevated CO(2) and O(3) on aspen and birch phytochemistry and on gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) and forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria) performance. Elevated CO(2) nominally affected foliar quality for both tree species. Elevated O(3) negatively affected aspen foliar quality, but only marginally influenced birch foliar quality. Elevated CO(2) slightly improved herbivore performance, while elevated O(3) decreased herbivore performance, and both responses were stronger on aspen than birch. Interestingly, elevated CO(2) largely offset decreased herbivore performance under elevated O(3). Nitrogen, lignin, and C:N were identified as having strong influences on herbivore performance when larvae were fed aspen, but no significant relationships were observed for insects fed birch. Our results support the notion that herbivore performance can be affected by atmospheric change through altered foliar quality, but how herbivores will respond will depend on interactions among CO(2), O(3), and tree species. An emergent finding from this study is that tree age and longevity of exposure to pollutants may influence the effects of elevated CO(2) and O(3) on plant-herbivore interactions, highlighting the need to continue long-term atmospheric change research. PMID:21971584

Couture, John J; Meehan, Timothy D; Lindroth, Richard L

2012-03-01

393

Contributing factors in foliar uptake of dissolved inorganic nitrogen at leaf level.  

PubMed

We investigated the influence of leaf traits, rainwater chemistry, and pedospheric nitrogen (N) fertilisation on the aqueous uptake of inorganic N by physiologically active tree leaves. Leaves of juvenile silver birch and European beech trees, supplied with NH4NO3 to the soil at rates from 0 to 200kgNha(-1)y(-1), were individually exposed to 100?l of artificial rainwater containing (15)NH4(+) or (15)NO3(-) at two concentration levels for one hour. In the next vegetative period, the experiment was repeated with NH4(+) at the highest concentration only. The N form and the N concentration in the applied rainwater and, to a lesser extent, the pedospheric N treatment and the leaf traits affected the aqueous foliar N uptake. The foliar uptake of NH4(+) by birch increased when leaves were more wettable. High leaf N concentration and leaf mass per area enhanced the foliar N uptake, and NO3(-) uptake in particular, by birch. Variation in the foliar N uptake by the beech trees could not be explained by the leaf traits considered. In the first experiment, N fertilisation stimulated the foliar N uptake in both species, which was on average 1.42-1.78 times higher at the highest soil N dose than at the zero dose. However, data variability was high and the effect was not appreciable in the second experiment. Our data suggest that next to rainwater chemistry (N form and concentration) also forest N status could play a role in the partitioning of N entering the ecosystem through the soil and the canopy. Models of canopy uptake of aqueous N at the leaf level should take account of leaf traits such as wettability and N concentration. PMID:25461099

Wuyts, Karen; Adriaenssens, Sandy; Staelens, Jeroen; Wuytack, Tatiana; Van Wittenberghe, Shari; Boeckx, Pascal; Samson, Roeland; Verheyen, Kris

2015-02-01

394

Habitat-specific differences in plasticity of foliar ?13C in temperate steppe grasses  

PubMed Central

A decrease in foliar ?13C with increasing precipitation is a common tendency in steppe plants. However, the rate of decrease has been reported to differ between different species or populations. We here hypothesized that plant populations in the same habitat of temperate steppes may not differ in foliar ?13C response patterns to precipitation, but could differ in the levels of plasticity of foliar ?13C across different habitats. In order to test this hypothesis, we conducted controlled watering experiments in northeast China at five sites along a west–east transect at latitude 44°N, which show substantial interannual fluctuations and intra-annual changes in precipitation among them. In 2001, watering treatment (six levels, three replicates) was assigned to 18 plots at each site. The responses of foliar ?13C to precipitation (i.e., the sum of watering and rainfall) were determined in populations of several grass species that were common across all sites. Although similar linear regression slopes were observed for populations of different species growing at the same site, significantly different slopes were obtained for populations of the same species growing at different sites. Further, the slope of the line progressively decreased from Site I to Site V for all species in this study. These results suggest habitat-specific differences in plasticity of foliar ?13C in temperate steppe grasses. This indicates that species' ?13C response to precipitation is conservative at the same site due to their long-term acclimation, but the mechanism responsible behind this needs further investigations. PMID:25035804

Liu, Yanjie; Zhang, Lirong; Niu, Haishan; Sun, Yue; Xu, Xingliang

2014-01-01

395

Nod Factor Elicits Two Separable Calcium Responses in Medicago truncatula Root Hair Cells1  

PubMed Central

Modulation of intracellular calcium levels plays a key role in the transduction of many biological signals. Here, we characterize early calcium responses of wild-type and mutant Medicago truncatula plants to nodulation factors produced by the bacterial symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti using a dual-dye ratiometric imaging technique. When presented with 1 nm Nod factor, root hair cells exhibited only the previously described calcium spiking response initiating 10 min after application. Nod factor (10 nm) elicited an immediate increase in calcium levels that was temporally earlier and spatially distinct from calcium spikes occurring later in the same cell. Nod factor analogs that were structurally related, applied at 10 nm, failed to initiate this calcium flux response. Cells induced to spike with low Nod factor concentrations show a calcium flux response when Nod factor is raised from 1 to 10 nm. Plant mutants previously shown to be deficient for the calcium spiking response (dmi1 and dmi2) exhibited an immediate, truncated calcium flux with 10 nm Nod factor, demonstrating a competence to respond to Nod factor but an impaired ability to generate a full biphasic response. These results demonstrate that the legume root hair cell exhibits two independent calcium responses to Nod factor triggered at different agonist concentrations and suggests an early branch point in the Nod factor signal transduction pathway. PMID:12644650

Shaw, Sidney L.; Long, Sharon R.

2003-01-01

396

Formate Oxidation-Driven Calcium Carbonate Precipitation by Methylocystis parvus OBBP  

PubMed Central

Microbially induced carbonate precipitation (MICP) applied in the construction industry poses several disadvantages such as ammonia release to the air and nitric acid production. An alternative MICP from calcium formate by Methylocystis parvus OBBP is presented here to overcome these disadvantages. To induce calcium carbonate precipitation, M. parvus was incubated at different calcium formate concentrations and starting culture densities. Up to 91.4% ± 1.6% of the initial calcium was precipitated in the methane-amended cultures compared to 35.1% ± 11.9% when methane was not added. Because the bacteria could only utilize methane for growth, higher culture densities and subsequently calcium removals were exhibited in the cultures when methane was added. A higher calcium carbonate precipitate yield was obtained when higher culture densities were used but not necessarily when more calcium formate was added. This was mainly due to salt inhibition of the bacterial activity at a high calcium formate concentration. A maximum 0.67 ± 0.03 g of CaCO3 g of Ca(CHOOH)2?1 calcium carbonate precipitate yield was obtained when a culture of 109 cells ml?1 and 5 g of calcium formate liter?1 were used. Compared to the current strategy employing biogenic urea degradation as the basis for MICP, our approach presents significant improvements in the environmental sustainability of the application in the construction industry. PMID:24837386

Ganendra, Giovanni; De Muynck, Willem; Ho, Adrian; Arvaniti, Eleni Charalampous; Hosseinkhani, Baharak; Ramos, Jose Angel; Rahier, Hubert

2014-01-01

397

Alternative technique for calcium phosphate coating on titanium alloy implants.  

PubMed

As an alternative technique for calcium phosphate coating on titanium alloys, we propose to functionalize the metal surface with anionic bath containing chlorides of palladium or silver as activators. This new deposition route has several advantages such as controlled conditions, applicability to complex shapes, no adverse effect of heating, and cost effectiveness. A mixture of hydroxyapatite and calcium phosphate hydrate is deposited on the surface of Ti-6Al-4V. Calcium phosphate coating is built faster compared with the one by Simulated Body Fluid. Cell morphology and density are comparable to the control one; and the results prove no toxic compound is released into the medium during the previous seven days of immersion. Moreover, the cell viability is comparable with cells cultivated with the virgin medium. These experimental treatments allowed producing cytocompatible materials potentially applicable to manufacture implantable devices for orthopedic and oral surgeries. PMID:24646569

Le, Van Quang; Pourroy, Geneviève; Cochis, Andrea; Rimondini, Lia; Abdel-Fattah, Wafa I; Mohammed, Hadeer I; Carradò, Adele

2014-01-01

398

Toxicity, absorption, and translocation of soil and foliar applied imazaquin in yellow (Cyperus esculentus) and purple (C. rotundus) nutsedge  

SciTech Connect

Studies were conducted to investigate the toxicity of soil and foliar applied imazaquin in yellow and purple nutsedge. Soil incorporated imazaquin rates from 0.1 to 0.5 ppmw reduced plant dry weight of yellow nutsedge by 92 to 99%, and that of purple nutsedge by 82 to 99%. Imazaquin placement above the tuber was significantly more toxic than placement either around or below the tuber. This suggests that a shallow incorporation of imazaquin at 1 to 2 inch depth should provide effective nutsedge control. Incrementing imazaquin rate significantly increased the number of sprouts when the herbicide was placed above the tuber. This apparent release of apical dominance may be a result of herbicide absorption and translocation from the sprouts to the lateral buds of the tuber at growth regulatory level or a result of the death of the current sprout at lethal concentrations. Three-day old nutsedge propagules absorbed significantly greater amounts of /sup 14/C-imazaquin from shoot application than from root application. The emerging shoot appeared to be the major site of imazaquin uptake at early stages of nutsedge plant development.

Nandihalli, U.B.

1986-01-01

399

Effects of acid deposition on calcium nutrition and health of Southern Appalachian spruce fir forests  

SciTech Connect

The role of acid deposition in the health of spruce fir forests in the Southern Appalachian Mountains has been investigated by a wide variety of experimental approaches during the past 10 years. These studies have proceeded from initial dendroecological documentation of altered growth patterns of mature trees to increasingly more focused ecophysiological research on the causes and characteristics of changes in system function associated with increased acidic deposition. Field studies across gradients in deposition and soil chemistry have been located on four mountains spanning 85 km of latitude within the Southern Appalachians. The conclusion that calcium nutrition is an important component regulating health of red spruce in the Southern Appalachians and that acid deposition significantly reduces calcium availability in several ways has emerged as a consistent result from multiple lines or research. These have included analysis of trends in wood chemistry, soil solution chemistry, foliar nutrition, gas exchange physiology, root histochemistry, and controlled laboratory and field studies in which acid deposition and/or calcium nutrition has been manipulated and growth and nutritional status of saplings or mature red spruce trees measured. This earlier research has led us to investigate the broader implications and consequences of calcium deficiency for changing resistance of spruce-fir forests to natural stresses. Current research is exploring possible relationships between altered calcium nutrition and shifts in response of Fraser fir to insect attack by the balsam wooly adelgid. In addition, changes in wood ultrastructural properties in relation to altered wood chemistry is being examined to evaluate its possible role in canopy deterioration, under wind and ice stresses typical of high elevation forests.

McLaughlin, S.B.; Wullschleger, S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Stone, A. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Wimmer, R. [Austrian Agricultural Univ., Vienna (Austria); Joslin, J.D.

1995-02-01

400

Calcium phosphate ceramics in drug delivery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calcium phosphate (CaP) particulates, cements and scaffolds have attracted significant interest as drug delivery vehicles. CaP systems, including both hydroxyapaptite and tricalcium phosphates, possess variable stoichiometry, functionality and dissolution properties which make them suitable for cellular delivery. Their chemical similarity to bone and thus biocompatibility, as well as variable surface charge density contribute to their controlled release properties. Among specific research areas, nanoparticle size, morphology, surface area due to porosity, and chemistry controlled release kinetics are the most active. This article discusses CaP systems in their particulate, cements, and scaffold forms for drug, protein, and growth factor delivery toward orthopedic and dental applications.

Bose, Susmita; Tarafder, Solaiman; Edgington, Joe; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

2011-04-01

401

Total body calcium analysis. [neutron irradiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technique to quantitate total body calcium in humans is developed. Total body neutron irradiation is utilized to produce argon 37. The radio argon, which diffuses into the blood stream and is excreted through the lungs, is recovered from the exhaled breath and counted inside a proportional detector. Emphasis is placed on: (1) measurement of the rate of excretion of radio argon following total body neutron irradiation; (2) the development of the radio argon collection, purification, and counting systems; and (3) development of a patient irradiation facility using a 14 MeV neutron generator. Results and applications are discussed in detail.

Lewellen, T. K.; Nelp, W. B.

1974-01-01

402

Original article Intestinal absorption of calcium  

E-print Network

Original article Intestinal absorption of calcium from yogurt in lactase-deficient subjects absorption of calcium (FACa) was measured using radioactive cal- cium and 200 mg of calcium carrier provided the control period prior to yogurt consumption, mean calcium in- take was 819 mg per day in L(-) and 931 mg

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

403

Foliar d13C within a temperate deciduous forest: spatial, temporal, and species sources of variation  

SciTech Connect

Foliar {sup 13}C-abundance ({delta}{sup 13}C) was analyzed in the dominant trees of a temperate deciduous forest in east Tennessee (Walker Branch Watershed) to investigate the variation in foliar {delta}{sup 13}C as a function of time (within-year and between years), space (canopy height, watershed topography and habitat) and species (deciduous and coniferous taxa). Various hypotheses were tested by analyzing (i) samples collected from the field during the growing season and (ii) foliar tissues maintained in an archived collection. The {delta}{sup 13}C-value for leaves from the tops of trees was 2 to 3%. more positive than for leaves sampled at lower heights in the canopy. Quercus prinus leaves sampled just prior to autumn leaf fall had significantly more negative {delta}{sup 13}C-values than those sampled during midsummer. On the more xeric ridges, needles of Pinus spp. had more positive {delta}{sup 13}C-values than leaves from deciduous species. Foliar {delta}{sup 13}C-values differed significantly as a function of topography. Deciduous leaves from xeric sites (ridges and slopes) had more positive {delta}{sup 13}C-values than those from mesic (riparian and cove) environments. On the more xeric sites, foliar {delta}{sup 13}C was significantly more positive in 1988 (a dry year) relative to that in 1989 (a year with above-normal precipitation). In contrast, leaf {delta}{sup 13}C in trees from mesic valley bottoms did not differ significantly among years with disparate precipitation. Patterns in foliar {delta}{sup 13}C indicated a higher ratio of net CO{sub 2} assimilation to transpiration (A/E) for trees in more xeric versus mesic habitats, and for trees in xeric habitats during years of drought versus years of normal precipitation. However, A/E (units of mmol CO{sub 2} fixed/mol H{sub 2}O transpired) calculated on the basis of {delta}{sup 13}C-values for leaves from the more xeric sites was higher in a wet year (6.6 {+-} 1.2) versus a dry year (3.4 {+-} 0.4). This difference was attributed to higher transpiration (and therefore lower A/E) in the year with lower relative humidity and higher average daily temperature. The calculated A/E values for the forest in 1988-89, based on {delta}{sup 13}C, were within {+-}55% of estimates made over a 17 day period at this site in 1984 using micrometeorological methods.

Garten Jr, Charles T [ORNL; TaylorJr, G. E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

1992-04-01

404

"Caged Calcium" in Aplysia Pacemaker Neurons Characterization of Calcium-activated Potassium and  

E-print Network

"Caged Calcium" in Aplysia Pacemaker Neurons Characterization of Calcium-activated Potassium-Anatomy, Universityof California, Berkeley, California 94720 ABSTRACT We have studied calcium-activated potassium neurons, using photolysis of a calcium chelator (nitr-5 or nitr-7) to release "caged calcium

Zucker, Robert S.

405

PHOTOSENSITIVE CENTERS AND CHARGE TRANSFER PROCESSES IN BARIUM CALCIUM TITANATE  

E-print Network

PHOTOSENSITIVE CENTERS AND CHARGE TRANSFER PROCESSES IN BARIUM CALCIUM TITANATE G.MALOVICHKO, V@uos.de; vgrachev@uos.de; schirmer@uos.de Abstract The results of the study of charge transfer processes in barium of crystals from barium titanate (BT) family make them promising candidates for various applications

Malovichko, Galina

406

Main characteristics of calcium phosphate coatings obtained by laser cladding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser surface cladding has become an extensively used technique in metallurgical applications in order to improve surface properties of materials. We have proposed this technique in the field of biomaterials to coat the surface of titanium alloy substrates used in orthopaedical implants with a calcium phosphate (CaP) bioceramic to promote the growth of the bone when the implant is inserted

F. Lusquiños; J. Pou; M. Boutinguiza; F. Quintero; R. Soto; B. León; M. Pérez-Amor

2005-01-01

407

Discovery of the Calcium Isotopes  

E-print Network

Twenty four calcium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

J. L. Gross; M. Thoennessen

2010-09-08

408

Calcium signaling in immune cells  

PubMed Central

Calcium acts as a second messenger in many cell types, including lymphocytes. Resting lymphocytes maintain a low concentration of Ca2+. However, engagement of antigen receptors induces calcium influx from the extracellular space by several routes. A chief mechanism of Ca2+ entry in lymphocytes is through store-operated calcium (SOC) channels. The identification of two important molecular components of SOC channels, CRACM1 (the pore-forming subunit) and STIM1 (the sensor of stored calcium), has allowed genetic and molecular manipulation of the SOC entry pathway. In this review, we highlight advances in the understanding of Ca2+ signaling in lymphocytes with special emphasis on SOC entry. We also discuss outstanding questions and probable future directions of the field. PMID:19088738

Vig, Monika; Kinet, Jean-Pierre

2010-01-01

409

Foliar Reflectance and Fluorescence Responses for Plants Under Nitrogen Stress Determined with Active and Passive Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vegetation productivity is driven by nitrogen (N) availability in soils. Both excessive and low soil N induce physiological changes in plant foliage. In 2001, we examined the use of spectral fluorescence and reflectance measurements to discriminate among plants provided different N fertilizer application rates: 20%, 50%, 100% and 150% of optimal N levels. A suite of optical, fluorescence, and biophysical measurements were collected on leaves from field grown corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean plants (Glycine max L.) grown in pots (greenhouse + ambient sunlight daily). Three types of steady state laser-induced fluorescence measurements were made on adaxial and abaxial surfaces: 1) fluorescence images in four 10 nm bands (blue, green, red, far-red) resulting from broad irradiance excitation; 2) emission spectra (5 nm resolution) produced by excitation at single wavelengths (280,380 or 360, and 532 nm); and 3) excitation spectra (2 nm resolution), with emission wavelengths fixed at wavelengths centered on selected solar Fraunhofer lines (532,607,677 and 745 nm). Two complementary sets of high resolution (less than 2 nm) optical spectra were acquired for both adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces: 1) optical properties (350-2500 nm) for reflectance, transmittance, and absorptance; and 2) reflectance spectra (500-1000 nm) acquired with and without a short pass filter at 665 nm to determine the fluorescence contribution to apparent reflectance in the 650-750 spectrum, especially at the 685 and 740 nm chlorophyll fluorescence (ChIF) peaks. The strongest relationships between foliar chemistry and optical properties were demonstrated for C/N content and two optical parameters associated with the red edge inflection point. Select optical properties and ChIF parameters were highly correlated for both species. A significant contribution of ChIF to apparent reflectance was observed, averaging 10-25% at 685 nm and 2 - 6% at 740 nm over all N treatments. Discrimination of N treatment groups was possible with specific fluorescence band ratios (e.g., F740/F525 obtained with 380EX). From all measurements assessing fluorescence, higher ChIF and blue/green emissions were measured from the abaxial leaf surfaces; Abaxial surfaces also produced higher reflectances in the 400-800 nm spectrum. Fluorescence information collected in Fraunhofer regions located on the shoulders of ChIF features compared favorably with peak emissions. This supports the potential capability of a future space-born interferometer sensor to capture plant canopy fluorescence.

Middleton, E. M.; McMurtrey, J. E.; Campbell, P. K. Entcheva; Corp, L. A.; Butcher, L. M.; Chappelle, E. W.

2003-01-01

410

IP3 Receptor-Operated Calcium Entry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Perspective by Mikoshiba and Hattori is the third in a series on cellular calcium release mechanisms. The authors describe the regulated release of calcium from intracellular stores by the inositol 1,4,5 trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) and the relationship of this release mechanism to calcium influx from the extracellular milieu through store-operated calcium channels. They discuss a model proposing that intracellular and plasma membrane calcium channels are functionally and physically coupled.

Katsuhiko Mikoshiba (Japan; University of Tokyo and the Laboratory for Developmental Neurobiology REV)

2000-09-26

411

Medical therapy, calcium oxalate urolithiasis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of diagnostic protocols that identify specific risk factors for calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis has led to the formulation of directed medical regimens that are aimed at correcting the underlying metabolic disturbances. Initiation of these treatment programs has reduced markedly the rate of stone formation in the majority of patients who form stones. This article discusses the rationale that underlies the choice of medical therapy for the various pathophysiologic causes of calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis and the appropriate use of available medications.

Ruml, L. A.; Pearle, M. S.; Pak, C. Y.

1997-01-01

412

Ozone sensitivity of Fagus sylvatica and Fraxinus excelsior young trees in relation to leaf structure and foliar ozone uptake  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the summer of 2001, 2-year-old Fraxinus excelsior and Fagus sylvatica plants were subjected to ozone-rich environmental conditions at the Regional Forest Nursery at Curno (Northern Italy). Atmospheric ozone concentrations and stomatal conductance were measured, in order to calculate the foliar fluxes by means of a one-dimensional model. The foliar structure of both species was examined (thickness of the lamina

Giacomo Gerosa; Riccardo Marzuoli; Filippo Bussotti; Marica Pancrazi; Antonio Ballarin-Denti

2003-01-01

413

Calcium isotope analysis by mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The variations in the isotopic composition of calcium caused by fractionation in heterogeneous systems and by nuclear reactions can provide insight into numerous biological, geological, and cosmic processes, and therefore isotopic analysis finds a wide spectrum of applications in cosmo- and geochemistry, paleoclimatic, nutritional, and biomedical studies. The measurement of calcium isotopic abundances in natural samples has challenged the analysts for more than three decades. Practically all Ca isotopes suffer from significant isobaric interferences, whereas low-abundant isotopes can be particularly affected by neighboring major isotopes. The extent of natural variations of stable isotopes appears to be relatively limited, and highly precise techniques are required to resolve isotopic effects. Isotope fractionation during sample preparation and measurements and instrumental mass bias can significantly exceed small isotope abundance variations in samples, which have to be investigated. Not surprisingly, a TIMS procedure developed by Russell et al. (Russell et al., 1978. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 42: 1075-1090) for Ca isotope measurements was considered as revolutionary for isotopic measurements in general, and that approach is used nowadays (with small modifications) for practically all isotopic systems and with different mass spectrometric techniques. Nevertheless, despite several decades of calcium research and corresponding development of mass spectrometers, the available precision and accuracy is still not always sufficient to achieve the challenging goals. The present article discusses figures of merits of presently used analytical methods and instrumentation, and attempts to critically assess their limitations. In Sections 2 and 3, mass spectrometric methods applied to precise stable isotope analysis and to the determination of (41)Ca are described. Section 4 contains a short summary of selected applications, and includes tracer experiments and the potential use of biological isotope fractionation in medical studies, paleoclimatic and paleoceanographic, and other terrestrial as well as extraterrestrial investigations. PMID:19551693

Boulyga, Sergei F

2010-01-01

414

Calcium metabolism and cardiovascular function after spaceflight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To determine the influence of dietary calcium on spaceflight-induced alterations in calcium metabolism and blood pressure (BP), 9-wk-old spontaneously hypertensive rats, fed either high- (2%) or low-calcium (0.02%) diets, were flown on an 18-day shuttle flight. On landing, flight animals had increased ionized calcium (P < 0.001), elevated parathyroid hormone levels (P < 0.001), reduced calcitonin levels (P < 0.05), unchanged 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) levels, and elevated skull (P < 0.01) and reduced femur bone mineral density. Basal and thrombin-stimulated platelet free calcium (intracellular calcium concentration) were also reduced (P < 0.05). There was a tendency for indirect systolic BP to be reduced in conscious flight animals (P = 0.057). However, mean arterial pressure was elevated (P < 0.001) after anesthesia. Dietary calcium altered all aspects of calcium metabolism (P < 0.001), as well as BP (P < 0.001), but the only interaction with flight was a relatively greater increase in ionized calcium in flight animals fed low- compared with high-calcium diets (P < 0.05). The results indicate that 1) flight-induced disruptions of calcium metabolism are relatively impervious to dietary calcium in the short term, 2) increased ionized calcium did not normalize low-calcium-induced elevations of BP, and 3) parathyroid hormone was paradoxically increased in the high-calcium-fed flight animals after landing.

Hatton, Daniel C.; Yue, Qi; Dierickx, Jacqueline; Roullet, Chantal; Otsuka, Keiichi; Watanabe, Mitsuaki; Coste, Sarah; Roullet, Jean Baptiste; Phanouvang, Thongchan; Orwoll, Eric; Orwoll, Shiela; McCarron, David A.

2002-01-01

415

Calcium and Arrhythmogenesis  

PubMed Central

Triggered activity in cardiac muscle and intracellular Ca2+ have been linked in the past. However, today not only are there a number of cellular proteins that show clear Ca2+ dependence but also there are a number of arrhythmias whose mechanism appears to be linked to Ca2+-dependent processes. Thus we present a systematic review of the mechanisms of Ca2+ transport (forward excitation-contraction coupling) in the ventricular cell as well as what is known for other cardiac cell types. Second, we review the molecular nature of the proteins that are involved in this process as well as the functional consequences of both normal and abnormal Ca2+ cycling (e.g., Ca2+ waves). Finally, we review what we understand to be the role of Ca2+ cycling in various forms of arrhythmias, that is, those associated with inherited mutations and those that are acquired and resulting from reentrant excitation and/or abnormal impulse generation (e.g., triggered activity). Further solving the nature of these intricate and dynamic interactions promises to be an important area of research for a better recognition and understanding of the nature of Ca2+ and arrhythmias. Our solutions will provide a more complete understanding of the molecular basis for the targeted control of cellular calcium in the treatment and prevention of such. PMID:17429038

Ter Keurs, Henk E. D. J.; Boyden, Penelope A.

2010-01-01

416

Probing occurrence of phenylpropanoids in Morinda citrifolia in relation to foliar diseases.  

PubMed

Accumulation of phenolic compounds in cell walls of different plant organs leading to increased lignification is an early defence response of plants against biotic stress. The aim of this work was to delineate occurrence of cell wall-bound (CWB) phenolic compounds in Morinda citrifolia leaves. Alkaline hydrolysis of the cell wall material of leaf tissues yielded 4-coumaric acid (4-CA) as the major bulk of the phenolic compounds in all Morinda germplasms. Next in line was 4-hydroxybenzoic acid. Other phenolics identified were vanillic acid, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, vanillin and ferulic acid. Concentrations of all the CWB phenolics were highest in the germplasm CHN-5, followed by the germplasm CHN-1. Incidentally, these two Morinda germplasms recorded lowest incidence of foliar diseases. Significantly higher amounts of 4-CA in combination with other phenolics may be the reasons for lowest incidence of foliar diseases in CHN-5 and CHN-1 germplasms of M. citrifolia. PMID:25184947

Mandal, Sudhamoy; Rath, Chiranjibi; Gupta, Chandan Kumar; Nath, Vishal; Singh, Hari Shankar

2015-03-01

417

Phytotoxic activity of foliar volatiles and essential oils of Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi.  

PubMed

Foliar volatiles and essential oils of Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi, a Mediterranean plant species belonging to the Labiatae family, were investigated for their phytotoxic activities on seed germination and root growth of crops (Lactuca sativa L. and Raphanus sativus L.) and weed species (Lolium perenne L. and Amaranthus retroflexus L.). Foliar volatiles of C. nepeta (L.) Savi strongly inhibited both germination and root growth of lettuce, and its essential oils, especially at 125, 250 and 500 ?L/L, inhibited both processes in lettuce, radish and A. retroflexus L. species, while displaying a little effect on L. perenne L. By GC-MS, 28 chemicals were identified: 17 monoterpenes, 8 sesquiterpenes, 1 diterpene and 2 miscellaneous. Pulegone was the main constituent of the C. nepeta (L.) Savi essential oils. The terpenic components of essentials oils were probably responsible for the phytotoxic activities. PMID:23216166

Araniti, Fabrizio; Lupini, Antonio; Sorgonà, Agostino; Statti, Giancarlo Antonio; Abenavoli, Maria Rosa

2013-01-01

418

Effect of Microgravity on Bone Tissue and Calcium Metabolism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Session TA4 includes short reports concerning: (1) Human Bone Tissue Changes after Long-Term Space Flight: Phenomenology and Possible Mechanics; (2) Prediction of Femoral Neck Bone Mineral Density Change in Space; (3) Dietary Calcium in Space; (4) Calcium Metabolism During Extended-Duration Space Flight; (5) External Impact Loads on the Lower Extremity During Jumping in Simulated Microgravity and the Relationship to Internal Bone Strain; and (6) Bone Loss During Long Term Space Flight is Prevented by the Application of a Short Term Impulsive Mechanical Stimulus.

1997-01-01

419

Clonal variation in foliar chemistry of quaking aspen ( Populus tremuloides Michx.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We surveyed foliar morphological and chemical variation in 31 clones of Populus tremuloides in northern lower Michigan. Significant variation among clones was exhibited for leaf weight, specific leaf area, nitrogen, starch, phenolic glycosides (salicortin and tremulacin) and condensed tannins. Variation among clones with respect to nitrogen, starch, salicortin, tremulacin and condensed tannin concentrations was 1.7-, 8.0-, 10.3-, 5.9-, and 2.1-fold,

Richard L. Lindroth; Shaw-Yhi Hwang

1996-01-01

420

Effects of ozone on morphogenesis of the foliar embryos of bryophyllum calycinum Salisb  

SciTech Connect

Explants from three different ages, including the foliar embryo of ozonated and non-ozonated marginal leaf tissue from Bryophyllum calycinum were cultured on modified formulations of Murashige and Skoog's medium. Kinetin 2,4-D and IAA were added to the media individually or in combination. The development of the embryos was affected by tissue age, media composition and prior exposure to ozone. The production of callus, shoots, roots and anthocyanin were all in response to different sets of culture conditions.

Rier, J.P.; Phillips, G. (Howard Univ., Washington, DC (USA))

1990-01-01

421

Foliar uptake of 137Cs from the water column by aquatic macrophytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A transplant experiment was performed to determine the relative importances of root uptake from the sediments and foliar uptake from the water column in determining the accumulation of 137Cs by aquatic macrophytes. Uncontaminated individuals of three species, Brasenia schreberi, Nymphaea odorata and Nymphoides cordata, were transplanted into pots containing either contaminated sediments (i.e. 1.2 Bq 137Cs g?1 dry mass) or

M. S. Kelly; J. E. Pinder

1996-01-01

422

Foliar uptake of cesium from the water column by aquatic macrophytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The probable occurrence and rate of foliar absorption of stable cesium (133Cs) from the water column by aquatic macrophyte species was analyzed following the addition of 133Cs into a small reservoir near Aiken, South Carolina, USA. An uptake parameter u (103Lkg?1d?1) and a loss rate parameter k (d?1) were estimated for each species using time series of 133Cs concentrations in

J PINDERIII; T. G. Hinton; F. W. Whicker

2006-01-01

423

Plant water stress and K + starvation reduce absorption of foliar applied K + by olive leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three-month-old mist-rooted ‘Picual’ olive cuttings were transplanted into 2-l plastics pots containing perlite as substrate and fertigated with a complete nutrient solution containing 0.05, 0.1 or 2.5mM KCl depending on the experiment. In the first experiment, plants were sprayed with RbCl (Rb+ is a K+ analog) at a rate of 4% at 63 days after transplanting (DAT). Foliar Rb+ uptake

Hermann Restrepo-Diaz; Manuel Benlloch; Ricardo Fernández-Escobar

2008-01-01

424

FOLIAR BORON ENHANCES LEAF CHLOROSIS AND DOES NOT AFFECT PECAN PRODUCTION AND NUT QUALITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The narrow range between boron (B) deficiency and toxicity compared with other micronutrients is a serious problem for sustainable production of pecan throughout the southwest United States of America. However, performance of pecan under foliar B is lacking. Five B treatments (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 kg B ha, water spray) were applied to 27 years old trees of pecan variety

Shad Khan Khalil; John Mexal; Abdur Rehman; Amanullah; Fida Muhammad; Amir Zaman Khan

2011-01-01

425

The Use of Cloned Sequences for the Identification of Coconut Foliar Decay Disease-associated DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Single-stranded circular DNA associated with foliar decay disease of coconut palm in Vanuatu (FDD-DNA) has been purified and three fragments have been cloned in plasmid pUC19. Clones labelled with 32p by nick translation were used as specific probes for FDD-DNA in dot blot and Southern transfer hybridization assays. These assays were more sensitive than the polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis assay

D. Hanold; P. Langridge; J. W. Randles

1988-01-01

426

Edge effects, not connectivity, determine the incidence and development of a foliar fungal plant disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a model plant-pathogen system in a large-scale habitat corridor experiment, we found that corridors do not facilitate the movement of wind-dispersed plant pathogens, that connectivity of patches does not enhance levels of foliar fungal plant disease, and that edge effects are the key drivers of plant disease dynamics. Increased spread of infectious disease is often cited as a potential

Johnson; L. Brenda; Nick Haddad

2011-01-01

427

Nondestructive and rapid estimation of hardwood foliar nitrogen status using the SPAD502 chlorophyll meter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The utility of a portable chlorophyll meter (SPAD-502, Minolta Camera Co. Ltd., Japan) for rapidly and nondestructively assessing foliar N status of hardwood species was evaluated in two experiments. In experiment one (established near Raleigh, North Carolina), 0, 56, 168, or 336kgN\\/ha (ammonium nitrate) was applied in June 1998 to sycamore (Platanus occidentalis L.), sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.), green ash

Scott X. Chang; Daniel J. Robison

2003-01-01

428

Should foliar cadmium concentrations be expressed on a dry weight or dry ash weight basis?  

PubMed

Foliar analysis is a valuable tool for evaluating the pollution status of forests. However, the use of foliar diagnosis in large-scale surveys is a complicated process owing to the high variability within the crown. The method used to express foliar concentrations has often been found to diminish the variability. The effect of the method used to express element concentrations on the spatial variability of cadmium (Cd) in the leaves of crack willow (Salix fragilis L.) was investigated by sampling the leaves of one willow at 292 locations in the crown, each sampling location having a volume of 0.027 m3 (0.3 m x 0.3 m x 0.3 m). Cadmium showed a distinct spatial trend in the crown of the tree. Concentrations as low as 2.4 mg kg(-1) dry weight (DW) or 23.1 mg kg(-1) dry ash weight (DAW) were obtained in the top of the crown, and 10.6 mg kg(-1) DW or 73.0 mg kg(-1) DAW in the bottom of the crown. The lower relative standard deviation and weaker correlation with the sampling height support the use of DAW in large-scale surveys especially. The lower variability of the DAW Cd concentration makes this variable less sensitive to fluctuations caused by differences in growing conditions and sampling methodology. However, the majority of publications in this field report metal concentrations on a DW basis. Therefore, the restrictions set on the use of results expressed on a DAW basis in large-scale surveys of foliar metal concentrations have to be offset against the advantages offered by a reduction of the variability in metal concentrations. PMID:12094936

Luyssaert, S; Raitio, H; Mertens, J; Vervaeke, P; Lust, N

2002-06-01

429

Serial Development of Foliar Gemmae in Tortula(Pottiales, Musci), an Ultrastructural Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development and liberation mechanism of foliar gemmae have been studied by electron microscopy in two mosses,Tortula latifoliaBruch andTortula papillosaWils. The gemmae develop on the adaxial surface of mature leaves from single initial cells on both the lamina and costa inT. latifoliabut only on the costa inT. papillosa. Elongation of the initial cell is associated with the deposition of a

ROBERTO LIGRONE; JEFFREY G. DUCKETT; RAFFAELE GAMBARDELLA

1996-01-01

430

Calcium signaling in neuronal cells exposed to the munitions compound Cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX).  

PubMed

Cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX) has been used extensively as an explosive in military munitions. Mechanisms for seizure production, seen in past animal studies, have not been described. Increased calcium levels contribute to excitotoxicity, so in this study neuroblastoma cells are loaded with calcium-indicating dye before application of 1.5 microM to 7.5 mM RDX, with fluorescence recorded for 30 cycles of 11 seconds each. The lowest concentration of RDX increases calcium fluorescence significantly above baseline for cycles 2 to 8; millimolar concentrations increase calcium fluorescence significantly above baseline for cycles 2 to 30. Increases in calcium, like those of 200 nM carbachol, are prevented with 10 mM of calcium chelator ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N,N tetra-acetic acid (EGTA, tetrasodium salt). Calcium channel blocker verapamil (20 microM), Ca(2+)-ATPase inhibitor thapsigargin (5 microM), and general membrane stabilizer lidocaine (10 mM) partially attenuate carbachol- and RDX-induced increases in calcium, suggesting that RDX transiently increases intracellular calcium by multiple mechanisms. PMID:19652196

Ehrich, Marion; Wu, Xiaohua; Werre, Stephen R; Major, Michael A; McCain, Wilfred C; Reddy, Gunda

2009-01-01

431

Targeting Chronic and Neuropathic Pain: The N-type Calcium Channel Comes of Age  

PubMed Central

Summary: The rapid entry of calcium into cells through activation of voltage-gated calcium channels directly affects membrane potential and contributes to electrical excitability, repetitive firing patterns, excitation-contraction coupling, and gene expression. At presynaptic nerve terminals, calcium entry is the initial trigger mediating the release of neurotransmitters via the calcium-dependent fusion of synaptic vesicles and involves interactions with the soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor complex of synaptic release proteins. Physiological factors or drugs that affect either presynaptic calcium channel activity or the efficacy of calcium-dependent vesicle fusion have dramatic consequences on synaptic transmission, including that mediating pain signaling. The N-type calcium channel exhibits a number of characteristics that make it an attractive target for therapeutic intervention concerning chronic and neuropathic pain conditions. Within the past year, both U.S. and European regulatory agencies have approved the use of the cationic peptide Prialt for the treatment of intractable pain. Prialt is the first N-type calcium channel blocker approved for clinical use and represents the first new proven mechanism of action for chronic pain intervention in many years. The present review discusses the rationale behind targeting the N-type calcium channel, some of the limitations confronting the widespread clinical application of Prialt, and outlines possible strategies to improve upon Prialt's relatively narrow therapeutic window. PMID:16489373

Snutch, Terrance P.

2005-01-01

432

Modulation of Intercellular Calcium Signaling by Melatonin, in Avian and Mammalian Astrocytes, is Brain Region Specific  

PubMed Central

Calcium waves among glial cells impact many central nervous system functions, including neural integration and brain metabolism. Here, we have characterized the modulatory effects of melatonin, a pineal neurohormone that mediates circadian and seasonal processes, on glial calcium waves derived from different brain regions and species. Diencephalic and telencephalic astrocytes, from both chick and mouse brains, expressed melatonin receptor proteins. Further, using the calcium-sensitive dye Fluo-4, we conducted real-time imaging analyses of calcium waves propagated among mammalian and avian astrocytes. Mouse diencephalic astrocytic calcium waves spread to an area 2-5 fold larger than waves among avian astrocytes and application of 10 nM melatonin caused a 32% increase in the spread of these mammalian calcium waves, similar to the 23% increase observed in chick diencephalic astrocytes. In contrast, melatonin had no effect on calcium waves in either avian or mammalian telencephalic astrocytes. Mouse telencephalic calcium waves radially spread from their initiation site among untreated astrocytes. However, waves meandered among mouse diencephalic astrocytes, taking heterogeneous paths at variable rates of propagation. Brain regional differences in wave propagation were abolished by melatonin, as diencephalic astrocytes acquired more telencephalon-like wave characteristics. Astrocytes cultured from different brain regions, therefore, possess fundamentally disparate mechanisms of calcium wave propagation and responses to melatonin. These results suggest multiple roles for melatonin receptors in the regulation of astroglial function, impacting specific brain regions differentially. PMID:16261532

Peters, Jennifer L.; Earnest, Barbara J.; Tjalkens, Ronald B.; Cassone, Vincent M.; Zoran, Mark J.

2008-01-01

433

Rates of foliar penetration of chelated Fe(III): role of light, stomata, species, and leaf age.  

PubMed

Rates of foliar penetration of Fe(III) chelates of imidodisuccinic acid (IDHA), ligninsulfonic acid (Natrel), and citric acid (ammonium ferric citrate) were studied at 20 degrees C using a leaf disk method. After drying of the donor droplets, the humidity over the donor residues was maintained at 100% because Fe(III) chelates deliquesce only when humidity is higher than 90%. The wetting agent Glucopon 215 CSUP was added at a concentration of 0.2 g L(-1) to all donor solutions. With fully expanded stomatous broad bean leaves, penetration of Fe-IDHA followed first-order kinetics and rate constants of penetration were higher in light (0.073 h(-1)) than in the dark (0.042 h(-1)). Permeability of broad been leaves to CaCl2 was about 8 times higher than to Fe-IDHA. Doubling the Fe-IDHA concentration in the donor from 2.5 to 5 mmol L(-1) decreased rate constants of Fe-IDHA penetration by a factor of 2.2. Adding the silicon surfactant Break Thru S240 at 10 g L(-1) to the donor induced infiltration of open stomata and about 80% of the applied Fe-IDHA penetrated during droplet drying, while with Glucopon 215 CSUP stomatal infiltration was not observed. With broad bean leaves, penetration of Natrel and ammonium ferric citrate also followed first-order kinetics and rate constants were also higher in light than in the dark. Adaxial astomatous surfaces of fully expanded pear, apple, and grapevine leaves were practically impermeable to Fe-IDHA while stomatous abaxial leaf surfaces were permeable, but rate constants of penetration decreased with time and differed greatly among species. Astomatous surfaces of young unfurling grapevine and peach leaves were permeable to Fe-IDHA, but permeability of stomatous surfaces was much higher. The effect of light on permeability of stomatous leaf surfaces is attributed to the presence of aqueous pores in cuticles over guard cells, and it is suggested that permeability of these pores increases as stomata open. Consequences of these results for foliar applications of Fe chelates are discussed. PMID:16939343

Schlegel, Thomas K; Schönherr, Jörg; Schreiber, Lukas

2006-09-01

434

Functional and biological diversity of foliar spectra in tree canopies throughout the Andes to Amazon region.  

PubMed

Spectral properties of foliage express fundamental chemical interactions of canopies with solar radiation. However, the degree to which leaf spectra track chemical traits across environmental gradients in tropical forests is unknown. We analyzed leaf reflectance and transmittance spectra in 2567 tropical canopy trees comprising 1449 species in 17 forests along a 3400-m elevation and soil fertility gradient from the Amazonian lowlands to the Andean treeline. We developed quantitative links between 21 leaf traits and 400-2500-nm spectra, and developed classifications of tree taxa based on spectral traits. Our results reveal enormous inter-specific variation in spectral and chemical traits among canopy trees of the western Amazon. Chemical traits mediating primary production were tightly linked to elevational changes in foliar spectral signatures. By contrast, defense compounds and rock-derived nutrients tracked foliar spectral variation with changing soil fertility in the lowlands. Despite the effects of abiotic filtering on mean foliar spectral properties of tree communities, the spectra were dominated by phylogeny within any given community, and spectroscopy accurately classified 85-93% of Amazonian tree species. Our findings quantify how tropical tree canopies interact with sunlight, and indicate how to measure the functional and biological diversity of forests with spectroscopy. PMID:24942328

Asner, Gregory P; Martin, Roberta E; Carranza-Jiménez, Loreli; Sinca, Felipe; Tupayachi, Raul; Anderson, Christopher B; Martinez, Paola

2014-10-01

435

Localised calcium release events in cells from the muscle of guinea-pig gastric fundus  

PubMed Central

After enzymatic dispersion of the muscle of the guinea-pig gastric fundus, single elongated cells were observed which differed from archetypal smooth muscle cells due to their knurled, tuberose or otherwise irregular surface morphology. These, but not archetypal smooth muscle cells, consistently displayed spontaneous localized (i.e. non-propagating) intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) release events. Such calcium events were novel in their magnitude and kinetic profiles. They included short transient events, plateau events and events which coalesced spatially or temporally (compound events). Quantitative analysis of the events with an automatic detection programme showed that their spatio-temporal characteristics (full width and full duration at half-maximum amplitude) were approximately exponentially distributed. Their amplitude distribution suggested the presence of two release modes. Carbachol application caused an initial cell-wide calcium transient followed by an increase in localized calcium release events. Pharmacological analysis suggested that localized calcium release was largely dependent on external calcium entry acting on both inositol trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) and ryanodine receptors (RyRs) to release stored calcium. Nominally calcium-free external solution immediately and reversibly abolished all localized calcium release without blocking the initial transient calcium release response to carbachol. This was inhibited by 2-APB (100 ?m), ryanodine (10 or 50 ?m) or U-73122 (1 ?m). 2-APB (100 ?m), xestospongin C (XeC, 10 ?m) or U-73122 (1 ?m) blocked both spontaneous localized calcium release and localized release stimulated by 10 ?m carbachol. Ryanodine (50 ?m) also inhibited spontaneous release, but enhanced localized release in response to carbachol. This study represents the first characterization of localized calcium release events in cells from the gastric fundus. PMID:14608011

Parsons, S P; Bolton, T B

2004-01-01

436

Skeletal benefits from calcium supplementation are limited in children with calcium intakes near 800 mg daily  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction and Hypothesis  Calcium supplementation enhances bone mass accrual during administration, with a sustained benefit observed using milk-based calcium but not calcium salts. We tested the hypothesis that calcium from milk minerals but not calcium carbonate will be sustained after supplementation was discontinued.Methods  Ninety-nine pre-pubertal boys and girls aged 5–11 years were followed for 12 months after being randomized to receive 800 mg\\/day of calcium

S. Iuliano-Burns; X.-F. Wang; A. Evans; J.-P. Bonjour; E. Seeman

2006-01-01

437

Calcium stimulation of gastrin and gastric acid secretion: effect of small doses of calcium carbonate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral calcium carbonate (0-5 g, pH 9-4) increased serum gastrin and gastric acid output with slight but insignificant change in serum calcium. A similar rise in serum calcium during an intravenous infusion of calcium gluconate failed to increase serum gastrin and gastric acid output. Both intragastric calcium actions were abolished by acidification of the calcium carbonate solution (pH 1-0). The

J Behar; M Hitchings; R D Smyth

1977-01-01

438

Calcium homeostasis in barley aleurone  

SciTech Connect

Under the auspices of the Department of Energy we investigated calcium homeostasis in aleurone cells of barley. This investigation was initiated to explore the role played by extracellular Ca{sup 2+} in gibberellic acid (GA)-induced synthesis and secretion of hydrolases in the aleurone layer. We have focused our attention on four topics that relate to the role of Ca{sup 2+} in regulating the synthesis of {alpha}-amylase. First, we determined the stoichiometry of Ca{sup 2+} binding to the two principal classes of barley {alpha}-amylase and examined some of the biochemical and physical properties of the native and Ca{sup 2+}-depleted forms of the enzyme. Second, since {alpha}-amylase is a Ca{sup 2+} containing metalloenzyme that binds one atom of Ca{sup 2+} per molecule, we developed methods to determine the concentration of Ca{sup 2+} in the cytosol of the aleurone cell. We developed a technique for introducing Ca{sup 2+}-sensitive dyes into aleurone protoplasts that allows the measurement of Ca{sup 2+} in both cytosol and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Third, because the results of our Ca{sup 2+} measurements showed higher levels of Ca{sup 2+} in the ER than in the cytosol, we examined Ca{sup 2+} transport into the ER of control and GA-treated aleurone tissue. And fourth, we applied the technique of patch-clamping to the barley aleurone protoplast to examine ion transport at the plasma membrane. Our results with the patch-clamp technique established the presence of K{sup +} channels in the plasma membrane of the aleurone protoplast, and they showed that this cell is ideally suited for the application of this methodology for studying ion transport. 34 refs.

Jones, R.L.

1990-02-21

439

Evaluation of cucurbitacin-based gustatory stimulant to facilitate cucumber beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) management with foliar insecticides in melons.  

PubMed

The bitter plant-derived compounds cucurbitacins are known to stimulate feeding of adult cucumber beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). A cucurbitacin-based gustatory stimulant applied as a flowable bait combined with either spinosad or carbaryl was compared with foliar sprays of spinosad and carbaryl for controlling two cucumber beetle species (Diabrotica undecimpunctata undecimpunctata Mannerheim and Acalymma trivittatum Mannerheim) in honeydew melons (Cucumis melo L.). Field studies were conducted on the University of California-Davis plant pathology farm in 2008 and 2009. Beetle densities after applications and fruit damage from beetle feeding were compared among treatments. In addition, beetle survival was compared within field cages placed over the treated foliage infested with beetles. Using all three measures of efficacy, we determined that the addition of cucurbitacin bait had no effect on the level of cucumber beetle control with carbaryl in either 2008 or 2009. In both years, spinosad did not significantly reduce cucumber beetle densities in either field cages or field plots and did not reduce fruit damage relative to the untreated control. The addition of the bait to spinosad did not improve its efficacy. A laboratory bioassay of the spinosad formulation used in the field showed it had significant lethal effects on adults of both cucumber beetle species. Results indicated that the bait formulation used did not improve cucumber beetle control but may benefit from the addition of floral attractants or using a different type of cucurbitacin. PMID:21882695

Pedersen, Andrew B; Godfrey, Larry D

2011-08-01

440

Hydration of calcium oxide surface predicted by reactive force field molecular dynamics.  

PubMed

In this work, we present the parametrization of Ca-O/H interactions within the reactive force field ReaxFF, and its application to study the hydration of calcium oxide surface. The force field has been fitted using density functional theory calculations on gas phase calcium-water clusters, calcium oxide bulk and surface properties, calcium hydroxide, bcc and fcc Ca, and proton transfer reactions in the presence of calcium. Then, the reactive force field has been used to study the hydration of the calcium oxide {001} surface with different water contents. Calcium oxide is used as a catalyzer in many applications such as CO(2) sequestration and biodiesel production, and the degree of surface hydroxylation is a key factor in its catalytic performance. The results show that the water dissociates very fast on CaO {001} bare surfaces without any defect or vacancy. The surface structure is maintained up to a certain amount of water, after which the surface undergoes a structural rearrangement, becoming a disordered calcium hydroxyl layer. This transformation is the most probable reason for the CaO catalytic activity decrease. PMID:22316164

Manzano, Hegoi; Pellenq, Roland J M; Ulm, Franz-Josef; Buehler, Markus J; van Duin, Adri C T

2012-03-01

441

Making and using calcium-selective mini- and microelectrodes.  

PubMed

Detection and measurement of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) have relied on various methods, the popularity of which depends on their ease of use and applicability to different cell types. Historically, Ca(2+)-selective electrodes have been used concomitantly with absorption indicators such as arsenazo-III, but their interest has been eclipsed by the introduction of a large number of fluorescent calcium probes with calcium sensitivities varying from the nanomolar to the micromolar range such as fura-2, indo-1, fluo-4, and many others. In this chapter, we emphasize the utility of Ca(2+)-selective electrodes and show that their use is complementary to use of fluorescent indicators; indeed, each method has advantages and disadvantages. We first describe the preparation and application of Ca(2+)-selective minielectrodes based on the Ca(2+) ligand ETH 129 (Schefer et al., 1986) that have a larger dynamic range and faster response time than most commercially available calcium electrodes. The second part of the chapter is dedicated to ETH 129-based Ca(2+)-selective microelectrodes (MEs), and their application in the determination of [Ca(2+)](i) in cardiac cells. Since numerous reviews and books have been dedicated to the theoretical aspects of ion-selective ME principles and technology, this chapter is not intended for investigators who have no experience with MEs. PMID:21035683

Hove-Madsen, L; Baudet, S; Bers, D M

2010-01-01

442

Ultrasonic enhancing amorphization during synthesis of calcium phosphate.  

PubMed

Amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) has great application potential in biomaterials field due to its non-cytotoxicity, high bioactivity, good cytocompatibility, and so on. The results of this research demonstrated that ultrasonic obviously enhanced amorphization during synthesis of calcium phosphate. The ACP phase was relatively ideal when the solvent of Ca(NO3)2·4H2O was ethanol and the solvent of (NH4)2HPO4 was a mixture of water and ethanol, under ultrasonic. In-situ crystallization of ACP could be observed by HRTEM. The mechanism on the effects of ultrasonic on amorphization of the synthesized calcium phosphate was discussed. It was suggested that ultrasonic synthesis might be a facile method to prepare pure and safe ACP related biomaterials. PMID:24035140

He, Kun; Xiao, Gui-Yong; Xu, Wen-Hua; Zhu, Rui-Fu; Lu, Yu-Peng

2014-03-01

443

Calcium signaling in renal tubular cells.  

PubMed

The kidney handles calcium by filtration and reabsorption. About 60% of the plasma calcium is filterable, and 99% is reabsorbed in the tubule. In the proximal tubule, the reabsorption is passive and paracellular, but in the distal tubule is active and transcellular. Thus, renal tubular cells are exposed to very high concentrations of calcium in both, the extracellular and the intracellular compartments. Extracellular calcium signaling is transmitted by the calcium sensing receptor, located both in the luminal and basolateral sides of tubular cells. This receptor is able to control levels of extracellular calcium and acts in consequence to maintain calcium homeostasis. Furthermore, renal tubular cells possess several calcium channels that regulate some of the cell functions. Among those, voltage gated calcium channels, transient receptor potential channels and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor channels have been reported to control several functions. Those functions include survival, apoptosis, differentiation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and active vitamin D and renin synthesis. PMID:22453977

Bozic, Milica; Valdivielso, Jose M

2012-01-01

444

Calcium partitioning in human and bovine milk.  

PubMed

The partitioning of calcium in human milk was studied experimentally and compared with the distribution of calcium among the compartments of bovine milk. Care was taken to handle the milk samples to produce minimal disturbance of the milk fat globule membranes and the CO2 content. About 15% of the milk calcium was associated with casein in human milk; the remainder was in the aqueous phase. The equilibrium between ionized calcium and calcium complexes with smaller anions was examined. Ionized calcium varied between 2.3 and 4.0 mM across individuals (mean 3.0 +/- .1 mM) at 90 d of lactation. The remainder of the calcium in the aqueous phase was associated with citrate and phosphate. Changes in total calcium in human milk during lactogenesis and late lactation reflected changes in citrate and casein rather than alterations in ionized calcium. PMID:7929958

Neville, M C; Keller, R P; Casey, C; Allen, J C

1994-07-01

445

The stability mechanisms of an injectable calcium phosphate ceramic suspension  

PubMed Central

Calcium phosphate ceramics are widely used as bone substitutes in dentistry and orthopedic applications. For minimally invasive surgery an injectable calcium phosphate ceramic suspension (ICPCS) was developed. It consists in a biopolymer (hydroxypropylmethylcellulose: HPMC) as matrix and bioactive calcium phosphate ceramics (biphasic calcium phosphate: BCP) as fillers. The stability of the suspension is essential to this generation of “ready to use” injectable biomaterial. But, during storage, the particles settle down. The engineering sciences have long been interested in models describing the settling (or sedimentation) of particles in viscous fluids. Our work is dedicated to the comprehension of the effect of the formulation on the stability of calcium phosphate suspension before and after steam sterilization. The rheological characterization revealed the macromolecular behavior of the suspending medium. The investigations of settling kinetics showed the influence of the BCP particle size and the HPMC concentration on the settling velocity and sediment compactness before and after sterilization. To decrease the sedimentation process, the granule size has to be smaller and the polymer concentration has to increase. A much lower sedimentation velocity, as compared to Stokes law, is observed and interpreted in terms of interactions between the polymer network in solution and the particles. This experimentation highlights the granules spacer property of hydrophilic macromolecules that is a key issue for interconnection control, one of the better ways to improve osteoconduction and bioactivity. PMID:20229185

Fatimi, Ahmed; Tassin, Jean-François; Axelos, Monique A. V.; Weiss, Pierre

2010-01-01

446

Multi-Functions of Carbonated Calcium Deficient Hydroxyapatite (CDHA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural bone is a complex composite mainly constituted of inorganic minerals and organic collagen molecules. Calcium phosphate (CaP) based materials have been proposed as the predominant bone substitute for bone tissue engineering applications due to their chemical similarity to bone mineral. Amorphous carbonated calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA) is an important compound among CaP materials because of the amorphous crystallite structure. The presence of extra ions in its lattice structure not only influences cell attachment and proliferation of osteoblasts, but also helps in bone metabolism. Biomimetic coating approach is the most widely used approach to produce CDHA coatings to implant. It is a process using simulated body fluid (SBF) to deposit bone-like CDHA coating to various material surfaces. The CDHA formation mechanism, SBF compositions and reacting conditions of biomimetic coating have already been sufficiently studied and compared in the past 20 years. It is an attempt in this thesis to explore new applications of SBF in biomedical research, focusing on different biomaterial applications: 1) based on the low temperature reaction condition of SBF, bisphosphonate incorporated CDHA coatings were deposited onto Ti6Al4V surface for the treatment of osteoporosis; 2) amorphous calcium phosphate nanospheres with extra elements in the lattice structure were prepared by a novel microwave assisted approach, providing a new potential of CaP materials production; 3) CDHA particles formed in SBF can be used as great fillers with biopolymers for preparing biocomposites for biomedical applications; 4) based on the high activity of CDHA amorphous structure and the stabilization ability of ethanol, yttrium and europium doped calcium phosphates were prepared using CDHA as a sacrificing template. In the end, future work based on these observations in the thesis is addressed, including areas of drug delivery, biocomposite fabrication and preparation of functionalized calcium phosphate materials.

Zhou, Huan

447

Effects of endothelin and calcium channel blockers on membrane voltage and intracellular calcium in cultured bovine trabecular meshwork cells.  

PubMed

The membrane voltage was measured in cultured bovine trabecular meshwork cells. External barium (Ba2+; 10 mM) evoked repetitive overshooting action potentials which were reversibly inhibited by 10(-6) M nifedipine but insensitive to tetrodotoxin (10(-5) M). In contrast, no action potentials could be induced in bovine corneal endothelial cells. The vasoactive peptide endothelin (10(-9)-10(-6) M) induced dose-dependent depolarizations. The intracellular calcium concentration measured by the fura-2 method increased after endothelin application. An initial peak was followed by a sustained plateau. The effect of endothelin on the membrane potential and intracellular calcium value is typical for smooth muscle cells showing a contractile response to the peptide. Recent studies have shown the contractility of bovine trabecular meshwork. We conclude that calcium-channel antagonists and endothelin may alter the aqueous humour outflow through the trabecular meshwork. PMID:1483129

Lepple-Wienhues, A; Stahl, F; Wunderling, D; Wiederholt, M

1992-01-01

448

Research on the water use efficiency and foliar nutrient status of Populus euphratica and Tamarix ramosissima in the extreme arid region of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal variations in foliar stable carbon composition (?13C) and nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) concentrations of Populus euphratica Olivier and Tamarix ramosissima Ledeb, as well as correlations between foliar ?13C values and N, P and K concentrations were studied in the Ejina oasis in the lower reaches of the Heihe River, northwestern\\u000a China. Foliar ?13C values, and P

Sheng Kui Cao; Qi Feng; Yong Hong Su; Zong Qiang Chang; Hai Yang Xi

2011-01-01

449

The effect of variable calcium and very low calcium diets on human calcium metabolism. Ph.D. Thesis. Final Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of a very low calcium diet, with variable high and low protein intake, on the dynamics of calcium metabolism and the mechanism of calciuretics, are examined. The experiment, using male subjects, was designed to study the role of intestinal calcium absorption on urinary calcium excretion, and the rate of production of endogeneously secreted calcium in the gastrointestinal tract. The study showed an average of 70% fractional absorption rate during very low calcium intake, and that a decrease in renal tubular reabsorption of calcium is responsible for calciuretic effects of high protein intake. The study also indicates that there is a tendency to develop osteoporosis after long periods of low calcium intake, especially with a concurrent high protein intake.

Chu, J.

1971-01-01

450

Changes in radiocesium contamination from Fukushima in foliar parts of 10 common tree species in Japan between 2011 and 2013.  

PubMed

Yearly changes in radiocesium ((137)Cs) contamination, primarily due to the Fukushima accident of March 2011, were observed in the foliar parts of 10 common woody species in Japan (Chamaecyparis obtusa, Cedrus deodara, Pinus densiflora, Cryptomeria japonica, Phyllostachys pubescens, Cinnamomum camphora, Metasequoia glyptostroboides, Prunus × yedoensis, Acer buergerianum, and Aesculus hippocastanum). The samples were obtained from Abiko (approximately 200 km SSW of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant) during each growing season between 2011 and 2013, and the foliar parts were examined based on their year of expansion and location in each trees. The radiocesium concentrations generally decreased with time; however, the concentrations and rates of decrease varied among species, age of foliar parts, and locations. The radiocesium concentrations in the 2012 current-year foliar parts were 29%-220% of those from 2011, while those from 2013 fell to between 14% and 42% of the 2011 values. The net decontamination in the foliage was higher in evergreen species than in deciduous species. The radiocesium concentrations in the upper foliar parts were higher than those in the lower parts particularly in C. japonica. In addition, the radiocesium concentrations were higher in the current-year foliar parts than in the 1-year-old foliar parts, particularly in 2013. Thus, the influence of the direct deposition of the fallout was reduced with time, and the translocation ability of radiocesium from old to new tissues became more influential. Similar to the behavior of potassium in trees, Cs redistribution probably occurred primarily due to internal nutrient translocation mechanisms. PMID:25261868

Yoshihara, Toshihiro; Matsumura, Hideyuki; Tsuzaki, Masaharu; Wakamatsu, Takashi; Kobayashi, Takuya; Hashida, Shin-Nosuke; Nagaoka, Toru; Goto, Fumiyuki

2014-12-01

451

Foliar nitrogen patterns following stand-replacing fire in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) forests of the Rocky Mountains, USA  

E-print Network

; Mahonia repens; Pinus contorta var. latifolia; Solidago multiradiata; Spiraea betulifolia; Vaccinium scoparium 1. Introduction Foliar nitrogen (N) concentration is a useful general indicator of plant nitrogen

Turner, Monica G.

452

Visualizing Calcium Signaling in Astrocytes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Astrocytes are nonneuronal cells in the brain (glia) that do not generate electrical impulses but communicate by chemical signaling. This communication can be observed under a microscope with fluorescent calcium indicators that glow more brightly when the concentration of calcium increases inside the cell. Astrocytes release adenosine 5?-triphosphate and other cell signaling molecules that excite membrane receptors on other astrocytes to cause an increase in intracellular calcium in the recipient cell. Many of the substances released by astrocytes also excite neurons, and astrocytes have on their own cell membrane many of the same neurotransmitter receptors used by neurons to communicate across synapses. This allows astrocytes to respond to neural impulse activity, communicate among other astrocytes, and influence neuronal communication by taking up or releasing neurotransmitters from synapses.

R. Douglas Fields (National Institutes of Health; National Institute of Child Health and Human Development REV)

2010-11-09

453

Pharmacological differences between calcium antagonists.  

PubMed

The calcium channel antagonists are not an homogeneous group. From both pharmacological and clinical points of view, they can be divided into those of the dihydropyridine family like nifedipine, and those of the non-dihydropyridine family like verapamil and diltiazem. These families bind at different sites to the calcium channel, which may explain some of the clinical differences. The dihydropyridines are more vascular selective and the non-dihydropyridines are more myocardial selective and tend to reduce the heart rate. Further important differences are between short- and long-acting forms of the calcium channel antagonists. From the clinical point of view, these agents are most used in angina pectoris and hypertension. Emerging studies suggest that in angina of effort these agents have a safety record somewhat similar to that of beta-blockers. In congestive heart failure, these agents, as a group, are contraindicated. PMID:9049541

Opie, L H

1997-01-01

454

21 CFR 182.2729 - Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. 182...Anticaking Agents § 182.2729 Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

2011-04-01

455

21 CFR 172.120 - Calcium disodium EDTA.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium disodium EDTA. 172.120 Section 172...CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.120 Calcium disodium EDTA. The food additive calcium disodium EDTA (calcium disodium...

2011-04-01

456

21 CFR 582.2729 - Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. 582.2729 Section...Agents § 582.2729 Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

2010-04-01

457

21 CFR 182.2729 - Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. 182...Anticaking Agents § 182.2729 Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

2010-04-01

458

40 CFR 180.547 - Prohexadione calcium; tolerances for residues.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Prohexadione calcium; tolerances for residues. 180.547...Tolerances § 180.547 Prohexadione calcium; tolerances for residues. (a) General...the plant growth regulator, prohexadione calcium (calcium...

2010-07-01

459

21 CFR 582.2729 - Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. 582.2729 Section...Agents § 582.2729 Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

2011-04-01

460

40 CFR 180.547 - Prohexadione calcium; tolerances for residues.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Prohexadione calcium; tolerances for residues. 180.547...Tolerances § 180.547 Prohexadione calcium; tolerances for residues. (a) General...the plant growth regulator, prohexadione calcium (calcium...

2011-07-01

461

21 CFR 582.2729 - Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. 582.2729 Section...Agents § 582.2729 Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

2012-04-01

462

21 CFR 582.2729 - Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate.  

...2014-04-01 false Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. 582.2729 Section...Agents § 582.2729 Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

2014-04-01

463

21 CFR 172.120 - Calcium disodium EDTA.  

... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium disodium EDTA. 172.120 Section 172...CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.120 Calcium disodium EDTA. The food additive calcium disodium EDTA (calcium disodium...

2014-04-01

464

21 CFR 172.120 - Calcium disodium EDTA.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium disodium EDTA. 172.120 Section 172...CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.120 Calcium disodium EDTA. The food additive calcium disodium EDTA (calcium disodium...

2013-04-01

465

21 CFR 582.2729 - Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. 582.2729 Section...Agents § 582.2729 Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

2013-04-01

466

21 CFR 182.2729 - Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. 182...Anticaking Agents § 182.2729 Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

2013-04-01

467

21 CFR 182.2729 - Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. 182...Anticaking Agents § 182.2729 Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

2014-04-01

468

21 CFR 172.120 - Calcium disodium EDTA.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium disodium EDTA. 172.120 Section 172...CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.120 Calcium disodium EDTA. The food additive calcium disodium EDTA (calcium disodium...

2012-04-01

469

21 CFR 182.2729 - Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. 182...Anticaking Agents § 182.2729 Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

2012-04-01

470

Effect of vitamin D or calcium deficiency on duodenal, jejunal and ileal calcium-binding protein and on plasma calcium  

E-print Network

Effect of vitamin D or calcium deficiency on duodenal, jejunal and ileal calcium-binding protein Josas. Summary. In vitamin D-deficient pigs the amount of intestinal calcium-binding protein (CaBP. In chicks and rats, 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OHD,) is the major circulating metabolite of vitamin D3

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

471

Calcium orthophosphates in medicine: from ceramics to calcium phosphate cements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium phosphate (CaP) compounds are becoming of increasingly great importance in the fiel of biomaterials and, in particular, as bone substitutes. Recent discoveries have accelerated this process, but have simultaneously rendered the field more complicated for the everyday user. Subtle differences in composition and structure of CaP compounds may have a profound effect on their in vivo behaviour. Therefore, the

M. Bohner

2000-01-01

472

Conversion of Calcium Fluorapatiteinto Calcium Hydroxyapatite under Alkaline Hydrothermal Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exchange of F? ions in synthetic calcium fluorapatite single crystals with OH? was investigated under alkaline hydrothermal conditions. Experiments were performed at various temperatures from 600 to 800°C at 100 MPa, for intervals between 6 and 192 h, in 5 and 10 M KOH solutions. The fluorapatite single crystals were sluggishly dissolved at temperatures over 700°C, which resulted in

J. C. Rendón-Angeles; K. Yanagisawa; N. Ishizawa; S. Oishi

2000-01-01

473

Synaptic calcium regulation in hair cells of the chicken basilar papilla.  

PubMed

Cholinergic inhibition of hair cells occurs by activation of calcium-dependent potassium channels. A near-membrane postsynaptic cistern has been proposed to serve as a store from which calcium is released to supplement influx through the ionotropic ACh receptor. However, the time and voltage dependence of acetylcholine (ACh)-evoked potassium currents reveal a more complex relationship between calcium entry and release from stores. The present work uses voltage steps to regulate calcium influx during the application of ACh to hair cells in the chicken basilar papilla. When calcium influx was terminated at positive membrane potential, the ACh-evoked potassium current decayed exponentially over ?100 ms. However, at negative membrane potentials, this current exhibited a secondary rise in amplitude that could be eliminated by dihydropyridine block of the voltage-gated calcium channels of the hair cell. Calcium entering through voltage-gated channels may transit through the postsynaptic cistern, since ryanodine and sarcoendoplasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase blockers altered the time course and magnitude of this secondary, voltage-dependent contribution to ACh-evoked potassium current. Serial section electron microscopy showed that efferent and afferent synaptic structures are juxtaposed, supporting the possibility that voltage-gated influx at afferent ribbon synapses influences calcium homeostasis during long-lasting cholinergic inhibition. In contrast, spontaneous postsynaptic currents ("minis") resulting from stochastic efferent release of ACh were made briefer by ryanodine, supporting the hypothesis that the synaptic cistern serves primarily as a calcium barrier and sink during low-level synaptic activity. Hypolemmal cisterns such as that at the efferent synapse of the hair cell can play a dynamic role in segregating near-membrane calcium for short-term and long-term signaling. PMID:25505321

Im, Gi Jung; Moskowitz, Howard S; Lehar, Mohammed; Hiel, Hakim; Fuchs, Paul Albert

2014-12-10

474

Towards the development of calcium ion batteries  

E-print Network

A novel system for the study of calcium-ion electroactive materials has been developed, characterized, and utilized to screen a number of candidate calcium intercalation compounds