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1

Sodium phosphate-derived calcium phosphate cements  

SciTech Connect

Calcium phosphate cements (CPC) were synthesized by the acid-base reaction between sodium phosphate, NaH[sub 2]PO[sub 4] or -(-NaPO[sub 3]-)-[sub n], as the acid solution, and calcium aluminate cements (CAC) as the base reactant at 25 C. The extent of reactivity of -(-NaPO[sub 3]-)-[sub n] with CAC was much higher than that of NaH[sub 2]PO[sub 4], thereby resulting in a compressive strength of > 20 MPa. Sodium calcium orthophosphate (SCOP) salts as amorphous reaction products were responsible for the development of this strength. When this CPC specimen as exposed in an autoclave, in-situ amorphous [r arrow] crystal conversions, such as SCOP [r arrow] hydroxyapatite (HOAp), and Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] [center dot] xH[sub 2]O [r arrow] [gamma]-AlOOH, occurred at [approx] 100 C, while the rate of reaction of the residual CAC with the phosphate reactant was increasingly accelerated by hydrothermal catalysis. Based upon this information, the authors prepared lightweight CPC specimens by hydrothermally treating a low-density cement slurry (1.28 g/cc) consisting of CAC powder, -(-NaPO[sub 3]-)-[sub n] solution, and mullite-hollow microspheres. The characteristics of the autoclaved lightweight specimens were a compressive strength of > 9.0 MPa, water permeability of [approx] 5.0 [times] 10[sup [minus]3] milli darcy, and a low rate of alkali carbonation. The reasons for such a low carbonation rate reflected the presence of a minimum amount of residual CAC, in conjunction with the presence of HOAp and [gamma]-AlOOH phases that are unsusceptible to wet carbonation.

Sugama, T.; Carciello, N.R. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States))

1995-01-01

2

Sintering of calcium phosphate bioceramics.  

PubMed

Calcium phosphate ceramics have become of prime importance for biological applications in the field of bone tissue engineering. This paper reviews the sintering behaviour of these bioceramics. Conventional pressureless sintering of hydroxyapatite, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, a reference compound, has been extensively studied. Its physico-chemistry is detailed. It can be seen as a competition between two thermally activated phenomena that proceed by solid-state diffusion of matter: densification and grain growth. Usually, the objective is to promote the first and prevent the second. Literature data are analysed from sintering maps (i.e. grain growth vs. densification). Sintering trajectories of hydroxyapatite produced by conventional pressureless sintering and non-conventional techniques, including two-step sintering, liquid phase sintering, hot pressing, hot isostatic pressing, ultrahigh pressure, microwave and spark plasma sintering, are presented. Whatever the sintering technique may be, grain growth occurs mainly during the last step of sintering, when the relative bulk density reaches 95% of the maximum value. Though often considered very advantageous, most assisted sintering techniques do not appear very superior to conventional pressureless sintering. Sintering of tricalcium phosphate or biphasic calcium phosphates is also discussed. The chemical composition of calcium phosphate influences the behaviour. Similarly, ionic substitutions in hydroxyapatite or in tricalcium phosphate create lattice defects that modify the sintering rate. Depending on their nature, they can either accelerate or slow down the sintering rate. The thermal stability of compounds at the sintering temperature must also be taken into account. Controlled atmospheres may be required to prevent thermal decomposition, and flash sintering techniques, which allow consolidation at low temperature, can be helpful. PMID:23212081

Champion, E

2013-04-01

3

Development of Calcium Phosphate-gelatin Composites  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This study was performed to investigate and develop a biomaterial of calcium phosphate/gelatin to be used as an injectable bone substitute. Gelatin is an ideal medium to transfer calcium phosphate because it is biocompatible, biodegradable, cheap, and can be injected without open surgery. The interaction of calcium and phosphate with gelatin will be studied; these include solubility, titration and precipitation. The calcium phosphate/gelatin composites will be characterized by chemical analysis, x-ray powder diffraction, and infrared spectroscopy. The mechanical strength, such as DTS, will also be investigated.

Hwang, Jesse

2005-01-01

4

Next generation calcium phosphate-based biomaterials  

PubMed Central

It has been close to a century since calcium phosphate materials were first used as bone graft substitutes. Numerous studies conducted in the last two decades have produced a wealth of information on the chemistry, in vitro properties, and biological characteristics of granular calcium phosphates and calcium phosphate cement biomaterials. An in depth analysis of several key areas of calcium phosphate cement properties is presented with the aim of developing strategies that could lead to break-through improvements in the functional efficacies of these materials.

LC, Chow

2009-01-01

5

About Calcium Phosphate Cements (CPC)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calcium phosphate cements (CPC) are used in orthopaedic surgery as bone substitution and fixation of metallic implants, showing advantages with respect to other materials like polymeric cements or ceramic blocks also used for bone repair. For example, they are easy to shape and fill bone defects, react at low temperature and their setting product is hydroxyapatite, mineral from it's composed the inorganic part of the bone, resulting a bioabsorbable material that can be replaced by new bone. Nevertheless there are still some complications like their low absorption rate, inyectability, setting times and their low strength that limits their use to only non load bearing applications. In this work we present a brief resume of some investigations that has been proposed to solve some of these problems, like the addition of phosphates solutions or seeds to increase the reaction rate, or fibers and hard particles to produce a composite material.

Piñera, Silvia; Piña, Cristina

2006-09-01

6

Application of Calcium Phosphate Materials in Dentistry  

PubMed Central

Calcium phosphate materials are similar to bone in composition and in having bioactive and osteoconductive properties. Calcium phosphate materials in different forms, as cements, composites, and coatings, are used in many medical and dental applications. This paper reviews the applications of these materials in dentistry. It presents a brief history, dental applications, and methods for improving their mechanical properties. Notable research is highlighted regarding (1) application of calcium phosphate into various fields in dentistry; (2) improving mechanical properties of calcium phosphate; (3) biomimetic process and functionally graded materials. This paper deals with most common types of the calcium phosphate materials such as hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate which are currently used in dental and medical fields.

Al-Sanabani, Jabr S.; Al-Sanabani, Fadhel A.

2013-01-01

7

Application of calcium phosphate materials in dentistry.  

PubMed

Calcium phosphate materials are similar to bone in composition and in having bioactive and osteoconductive properties. Calcium phosphate materials in different forms, as cements, composites, and coatings, are used in many medical and dental applications. This paper reviews the applications of these materials in dentistry. It presents a brief history, dental applications, and methods for improving their mechanical properties. Notable research is highlighted regarding (1) application of calcium phosphate into various fields in dentistry; (2) improving mechanical properties of calcium phosphate; (3) biomimetic process and functionally graded materials. This paper deals with most common types of the calcium phosphate materials such as hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate which are currently used in dental and medical fields. PMID:23878541

Al-Sanabani, Jabr S; Madfa, Ahmed A; Al-Sanabani, Fadhel A

2013-01-01

8

21 CFR 182.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Monobasic calcium phosphate. 182.6215 Section 182...Sequestrants 1 § 182.6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

2013-04-01

9

21 CFR 582.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Monobasic calcium phosphate. 582.6215 Section 582...Sequestrants 2 § 582.6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

2013-04-01

10

Effects of Nickel on Calcium Phosphate Formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the effect of nickel on calcium phosphate formation from aqueous solutions. The calcium phosphates prepared under different reaction conditions (pH, temperature, and nickel concentration) were characterized by X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy, and chemical analysis. The apatite compounds were also studied thermogravimetrically. From the combined results of the techniques employed we have determined that nickel favors the formation of brushite and amorphous calcium phosphate. We have found, as well, that the presence of nickel in the solution inhibits calcium hydroxyapatite (CaHAP) and octacalcium phosphate formation. However in the synthesis performed at basic pH and 95°C the apatitic phase (HAP) could be obtained. The present results suggest that the presence of nickel may modify the precipitation of oral calcium phosphate.

Guerra-López, J.; González, R.; Gómez, A.; Pomés, R.; Punte, G.; Della Védova, C. O.

2000-05-01

11

Calcium phosphate phase transformations in serum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A better knowledge of the pathological calcification mechanisms should provide a rational basis for their control. In the\\u000a present study, dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD, CaHPO4·2H2O) was used as a source of calcium and phosphate ions to investigate the mechanism of formation of more basic and more insoluble\\u000a calcium phosphates in ultrafiltered serum (u.f.s.). DCPD crystals were suspended in u.f.s. at

Naomi Eidelman; Laurence C. Chow; Walter E. Brown

1987-01-01

12

Sonochemical synthesis of calcium phosphate powders.  

PubMed

beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) and biphasic calcium phosphate powders (BCP), consisting of hydroxyapatite (HA) and beta-TCP, were synthesized by thermal decomposition of precursor powders obtained from neutralization method. The precursor powders with a Ca/P molar ratio of 1.5 were prepared by adding an orthophosphoric acid (H(3)PO(4)) solution to an aqueous suspension containing calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)(2)). Mixing was carried out by vigorous stirring and under sonochemical irradiation at 50 kHz, respectively. Glycerol and D-glucose were added to evaluate their influence on the precipitation of the resulting calcium phosphate powders. After calcination at 1000 degrees C for 3 h BCP nanopowders of various HA/beta-TCP ratio were obtained. PMID:17136604

de Campos, M; Müller, F A; Bressiani, A H A; Bressiani, J C; Greil, P

2007-05-01

13

Glycochenodeoxycholic acid inhibits calcium phosphate precipitation in vitro by preventing the transformation of amorphous calcium phosphate to calcium hydroxyapatite.  

PubMed Central

Calcium hydroxyapatite can be a significant component of black pigment gallstones. Diverse molecules that bind calcium phosphate inhibit hydroxyapatite precipitation. Because glycine-conjugated bile acids, but not their taurine counterparts, bind calcium phosphate, we studied whether glycochenodeoxycholic acid inhibits calcium hydroxyapatite formation. Glycochenodeoxycholic acid (2 mM) totally inhibited transformation of amorphous calcium phosphate microprecipitates to macroscopic crystalline calcium hydroxyapatite. This inhibition was not mediated by decreased Ca2+ activity. Taurocholic acid (2-12 mM) did not affect hydroxyapatite formation, but antagonized glycochenodeoxycholic acid. Both amorphous and crystalline precipitates contained a surface fraction relatively rich in phosphate. The surface phosphate content was diminish by increasing glycochenodeoxycholic acid concentrations, and this relationship was interpreted as competition between bile acid and HPO4(-4) for binding sites on the calcium phosphate surface. A phosphate-rich crystal surface was associated with rapid transition from amorphous to crystalline states. These results indicate that glycochenodeoxycholic acid prevents transformation of amorphous calcium phosphate to crystalline hydroxyapatite by competitively inhibiting the accumulation of phosphate on the crystal embryo surface.

Qiu, S M; Wen, G; Hirakawa, N; Soloway, R D; Hong, N K; Crowther, R S

1991-01-01

14

Physiology of Calcium and Phosphate Metabolism: 1980 Refresher Course, Syllabus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This syllabus reviews information concerning calcium and phosphate regulation. Topics of interest include the following: calcium metabolism, phosphorus metabolism, bone, parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, and vitamin D. (CS)

Knox, Franklyn G., Ed.

1980-01-01

15

Direct complexometric titration of calcium phosphates.  

PubMed

Calcium was determined in calcium phosphate samples by dissolving the sample in hydrochloric acid, adding hydroxynaphthol blue indicator and triethanolamine, adjusting the pH to 12.3--12.5 with potassium hydroxide solution, and titrating with standard disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate solution. Time can be saved and the formation of a precipitate (which dissolves readily during the titration) can be avoided by adding at least 85% of the amount of complexing agent required for titration before adjusting the pH. PMID:903881

Tuckerman, M M; Sanchez de Ramos, M E

1977-09-01

16

Calcium phosphate ceramics in drug delivery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calcium phosphate (CaP) particulates, cements and scaffolds have attracted significant interest as drug delivery vehicles. CaP systems, including both hydroxyapaptite and tricalcium phosphates, possess variable stoichiometry, functionality and dissolution properties which make them suitable for cellular delivery. Their chemical similarity to bone and thus biocompatibility, as well as variable surface charge density contribute to their controlled release properties. Among specific research areas, nanoparticle size, morphology, surface area due to porosity, and chemistry controlled release kinetics are the most active. This article discusses CaP systems in their particulate, cements, and scaffold forms for drug, protein, and growth factor delivery toward orthopedic and dental applications.

Bose, Susmita; Tarafder, Solaiman; Edgington, Joe; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

2011-04-01

17

Injectable bioactive calcium-magnesium phosphate cement for bone regeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Novel injectable and degradable calcium-magnesium phosphate cement (CMPC) with rapid-setting characteristic was developed by the introduction of magnesium phosphate cement (MPC) into calcium phosphate cement (CPC). The calcium-magnesium phosphate cement prepared under the optimum P\\/L ratio exhibited good injectability and desired workability. It could set within 10 min at 37 °C in 100% relative humidity and the compressive strength could

Fan Wu; Jiacan Su; Jie Wei; Han Guo; Changsheng Liu

2008-01-01

18

Fabrications of zinc-releasing biocement combining zinc calcium phosphate to calcium phosphate cement.  

PubMed

Recently, zinc-releasing bioceramics have been the focus of much attention owing to their bone-forming ability. Thus, some types of zinc-containing calcium phosphate (e.g., zinc-doped tricalcium phosphate and zinc-substituted hydroxyapatite) are examined and their osteoblastic cell responses determined. In this investigation, we studied the effects of zinc calcium phosphate (ZCP) derived from zinc phosphate incorporated into calcium phosphate cement (CPC) in terms of its setting reaction and MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cell responses. Compositional analysis by powder X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that HAP crystals were precipitated in the CPC containing 10 or 30wt% ZCP after successfully hardening. However, the crystal growth observed by scanning electron microscopy was delayed in the presence of additional ZCP. These findings indicate that the additional zinc inhibits crystal growth and the conversion of CPC to the HAP crystals. The proliferation of the cells and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were enhanced when 10wt% ZCP was added to CPC. Taken together, ZCP added CPC at an appropriate fraction has a potent promotional effect on bone substitute biomaterials. PMID:24090874

Horiuchi, Shinya; Hiasa, Masahiro; Yasue, Akihiro; Sekine, Kazumitsu; Hamada, Kenichi; Asaoka, Kenzo; Tanaka, Eiji

2014-01-01

19

A woman with recurrent calcium phosphate kidney stones.  

PubMed

Kidney stones composed predominantly (50% or more) of calcium phosphate constitute up to 10% of all stones and 15%-20% of calcium stones, 80% of which are composed of calcium oxalate. Calcium phosphate is a minor component of up to 30% of calcium oxalate stones as well. The cause of calcium phosphate stones is often obscure but most often related to a high urine pH. Some patients with calcium phosphate stones may have incomplete renal tubular acidosis. Others have distal renal tubular acidosis characterized by hyperchloremic acidosis, hypocitraturia, and high urine pH. The use of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as acetazolamide, topiramate, and zonisamide leads to a similar picture. Treatment options to specifically prevent calcium phosphate stone recurrence have not been tested in clinical trials. Increases in urine volume and restriction of sodium intake to limit calcium excretion are important. Citrate supplementation is probably effective, although the concomitant increase in urine pH may increase calcium phosphate supersaturation and partially offset the inhibition of crystallization resulting from the increased urine citrate excretion and the alkali-associated reduction in urine calcium excretion. Thiazides lower urine calcium excretion and may help ensure the safety of citrate supplementation. PMID:22595827

Goldfarb, David S

2012-07-01

20

Agronomic effectiveness of partially acidulated rock phosphate and fused calcium-magnesium phosphate compared with superphosphate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The agronomic effectiveness of two partially acidulated rock phosphate (PARP) fertilizers, made from either North Carolina or Moroccan apatite rock phosphate, and a fused calcium-magnesium phosphate (thermal phosphate or TP), was compared with the effectiveness of superphosphate in two glasshouse experiments. A different lateritic soil from Western Australia was used for each experiment. Oats (Avena sativa) were grown in one

M. D. A. Bolland; R. N. Glencross; R. J. Gilkes; Vijay Kumar

1992-01-01

21

Odontoblast phosphate and calcium transport in dentinogenesis.  

PubMed

It has been suggested that odontoblasts are instrumental in translocating Ca2+ and inorganic phosphate (Pi) ions during the mineralization of dentin. The aim of this thesis was, therefore, to study the expression of components of the transcellular ion transport system, Na+/Ca2+ exchangers and Na(+)-Pi contransporters, in odontoblastic and osteoblastic cells. Their activity was assayed in osteoblast-like cells and in the recently developed MRPC-1 odontoblast-like cell line. To assess the relationship between ion transport and mineralization, Ca2+ and Pi uptake activities were determined in mineralizing cultures of MRPC-1 cells. Osteoblastic and odontoblastic cells showed an identical expression pattern of Na+/Ca2+ exchanger splice-variants, NCX1.3, NCX1.7 and NCX1.10, derived from the NCX1 gene, while NCX2 was not expressed. The cells showed a high sodium-dependent calcium extrusion activity. Regarding Na(+)-Pi cotransporter expression, Glvr-1, Ram-1 and the two high capacity cotransporters Npt-2a and Npt-2b were found to be expressed in odontoblasts and MRPC-1 cells. Osteoblast-like cells differed from this in expressing the Npt-1 but not the Ram-1 gene but were otherwise identical to the odontoblastic cells. Odontoblast-like cells exhibited almost twice the sodium-dependent Pi uptake activity of osteoblast-like cells. The presence of NaPi-2a and NaPi-2b, gene products of Npt-2a and Npt-2b, was verified in vivo by immunohistochemistry on mouse teeth. Both cotransporters could be detected in fully differentiated, polarized odontoblasts but not in preodontoblasts prior to dentin formation. Both cotransporters were detected in adjacent bone and in ameloblasts. Studying ion uptake in mineralizing MRPC-1 cultures, large changes were detected concomitant with the onset of mineral formation, when phosphate uptake increased by 400% while calcium uptake started to decline. The increase in Pi uptake was found to be due to activation of the NaPi-2a cotransporter. MRPC-1 cells expressed an odontoblast-like phenotype already at the onset of culture, but in order to form mineral a differentiation involving their ion transporters seems necessary. Calculating the theoretical rate of ion transport needed for dentin formation and comparing with data from the studies in this thesis showed that transcellular ion transport is both possible and sufficient to meet the phosphate and calcium demands of dentinogenesis. PMID:12240523

Lundquist, Patrik

2002-01-01

22

Biocompatibility and resorption of a brushite calcium phosphate cement  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hydraulic calcium phosphate cement with ?-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) granules embedded in a matrix of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) was implanted in experimentally created defects in sheep. One type of defect consisted of a drill hole in the medial femoral condyle. The other, partial metaphyseal defect was located in the proximal aspect of the tibia plateau and was stabilized using

Felix Theiss; Detlef Apelt; Bastian Brand; Annette Kutter; Katalin Zlinszky; Marc Bohner; Sandro Matter; Christian Frei; Joerg A. Auer; Brigitte von Rechenberg

2005-01-01

23

Biphasic calcium phosphate bioceramics: preparation, properties and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) bioceramics belong to a group of bone substitute biomaterials that consist of an intimate mixture of hydroxyapatite (HA), Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, and beta-tricalcium phosphate (ß-TCP), Ca3(PO4)2, of varying HA\\/ß-TCP ratios. BCP is obtained when a synthetic or biologic calcium-deficient apatite is sintered at temperatures at and above 700 °C. Calcium deficiency depends on the method of preparation (precipitation,

R. Z. LeGeros; S. Lin; R. Rohanizadeh; D. Mijares; J. P. LeGeros

2003-01-01

24

Osteogenesis promoted by calcium phosphate N, N-dicarboxymethyl chitosan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of N,N-dicarboxymethyl chitosan (DCMC) on the precipitation of insoluble calcium salts, namely phosphate, sulfate, oxalate, carbonate, bicarbonate and fluoride, and magnesium salts, namely phosphate and carbonate, were studied. Results indicated that the chelating ability of DCMC interfered effectively with the well-known physico-chemical behaviour of magnesium and calcium salts. Dicarboxymethyl chitosan formed self-sustaining gels upon mixing with calcium acetate,

Riccardo A. A Muzzarelli; Viviana Ramos; Vesna Stanic; Bruno Dubini; Monica Mattioli-Belmonte; Giorgio Tosi; Roberto Giardino

1998-01-01

25

Physical properties and self-setting mechanism of calcium phosphate cements from calcium bis-dihydrogenophosphate monohydrate and calcium oxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apatitic calcium phosphate cement was developed from calcium bis-dihydro-genophosphate monohydrate (or monocalcium phosphate monohydrate, MCPM) and calcium oxide (CaO). The powder had a Ca\\/P molar ratio of 1.67, and the liquid was either pure water or 0.25 M–1 M sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7.4. The influence of the powder-to-liquid (P\\/L) ratio on the setting time and the mechanical strength

P. BOUDEVILLE; S. SERRAJ; J.-M. LELOUP; J. MARGERIT; B. PAUVERT; A. TEROL

1999-01-01

26

Development of a novel calcium phosphate cement composed mainly of calcium sodium phosphate with high osteoconductivity.  

PubMed

Two novel calcium phosphate cements (CPC) have been developed using calcium sodium phosphate (CSP) as the main ingredient. The first of these cements, labeled CAC, contained CSP, ?-tricalcium phosphate (TCP), and anhydrous citric acid, whereas the second, labeled CABC, contained CSP, ?-TCP, ?-TCP, and anhydrous citric acid. Biopex(®)-R (PENTAX, Tokyo, Japan), which is a commercially available CPC (Com-CPC), and OSferion(®) (Olympus Terumo Biomaterials Corp., Tokyo, Japan), which is a commercially available porous ?-TCP, were used as reference controls for analysis. In vitro analysis showed that CABC set in 5.7 ± 0.3 min at 22 °C and had a compressive strength of 86.0 ± 9.7 MPa after 5 days. Furthermore, this material had a compressive strength of 26.7 ± 3.7 MPa after 2 h in physiologic saline. CAC showed a statistically significantly lower compressive strength in the presence of physiologic saline and statistically significantly longer setting times than those of CABC. CABC and CAC exhibited apatite-forming abilities in simulated body fluid that were faster than that of Com-CPC. Samples of the materials were implanted into the femoral condyles of rabbits for in vivo analysis, and subsequent histological examinations revealed that CABC exhibited superior osteoconductivity and equivalent bioresorbability compared with Com-CPC, as well as superior osteoconductivity and bioresorbability compared with CAC. CABC could therefore be used as an alternative bone substitute material. PMID:24671331

Tanaka, Masashi; Takemoto, Mitsuru; Fujibayashi, Shunsuke; Kawai, Toshiyuki; Tsukanaka, Masako; Takami, Kimiaki; Motojima, Satoshi; Inoue, Hikaru; Nakamura, Takashi; Matsuda, Shuichi

2014-06-01

27

Studies of calcium phosphate formation in artificial matrices.  

PubMed

An in vitro system is described allowing turbidimetric measurements of calcium phosphates (or other sparingly soluble salts) formed by one-dimensional double diffusion in an agar gel matrix. The basic conditions were investigated over a wide concentration range of calcium and phosphate, and characterized by IR spectra, transmission electron microscopy and selected parameters of the turbidity curve, i.e. the maximal turbidity, the life time of the amorphous calcium phosphate, the optical dispersion and the crystallization rate. The system was also applied to well known effectors, like F-, Mg2+, pyrophosphate and citrate ions as well as two compounds of biological matrices, hyaluronidate and chondroitin-4-sulphate. The results agree well with those observed in aqueous solutions, showing that the overall process in the gel matrix is identical. The economical and efficient method is suitable for large-scale kinetic determinations of compounds affecting nucleation, precipitation and transformation processes of calcium phosphates and other precipitating systems. PMID:4026812

Udich, H J; Höft, H; Börnig, H

1985-01-01

28

The growth of calcium phosphates on natural enamel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetics of growth of calcium phosphate on seed materials prepared from human tooth enamel has been studied at 25C and\\u000a pH 7.40 in stable supersaturated solutions of calcium phosphate. The grown material was characterized chemically, by specific\\u000a surface area (SSA) measurements and by subsequent dissolution experiments. The marked increase in SSA in the early stages\\u000a of the precipitation reaction

B. Tomazic; M. Tomson; G. H. Nancollas

1975-01-01

29

TRANSIENT AMORPHOUS CALCIUM PHOSPHATE IN FORMING ENAMEL  

PubMed Central

Enamel, the hardest tissue in the body, begins as a three-dimensional network of nanometer size mineral particles, suspended in a protein gel. This mineral network serves as a template for mature enamel formation. To further understand the mechanisms of enamel formation we characterized the forming enamel mineral at an early secretory stage using x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectromicroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), FTIR microspectroscopy and polarized light microscopy. We show that the newly formed enamel mineral is amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP), which eventually transforms into apatitic crystals. Interestingly, the size, shape and spatial organization of these amorphous mineral particles and older crystals are essentially the same, indicating that the mineral morphology and organization in enamel is determined prior to its crystallization. Mineralization via transient amorphous phases has been previously reported in chiton teeth, mollusk shells, echinoderm spicules and spines, and recent reports strongly suggest the presence transient amorphous mineral in forming vertebrate bones. The present finding of transient ACP in murine tooth enamel suggests that this strategy might be universal.

Beniash, Elia; Metzler, Rebecca A.; Lam, Raymond S.K.; Gilbert, P.U.P.A.

2009-01-01

30

Premixed macroporous calcium phosphate cement scaffold.  

PubMed

Calcium phosphate cement (CPC) sets in situ to form resorbable hydroxyapatite and is promising for orthopaedic applications. However, it requires on-site powder-liquid mixing during surgery, which prolongs surgical time and raises concerns of inhomogeneous mixing. The objective of this study was to develop a premixed CPC scaffold with macropores suitable for tissue ingrowth. To avoid the on-site powder-liquid mixing, the CPC paste was mixed in advance and did not set in storage; it set only after placement in a physiological solution. Using 30% and 40% mass fractions of mannitol porogen, the premixed CPC scaffold with fibers had flexural strength (mean +/- sd; n = 5) of (3.9 +/- 1.4) MPa and (1.8 +/- 0.8) MPa, respectively. The scaffold porosity reached (68.6 +/- 0.7)% and (74.7 +/- 1.2)%, respectively. Osteoblast cells colonized in the surface macropores of the scaffold and attached to the hydroxyapatite crystals. Cell viability values for the premixed CPC scaffold was not significantly different from that of a conventional non-premixed CPC known to be biocompatible (P > 0.1). In conclusion, using fast-dissolving porogen and slow-dissolving fibers, a premixed macroporous CPC scaffold was developed with strength approaching the reported strengths of sintered porous hydroxyapatite implants and cancellous bone, and non-cytotoxicity similar to a biocompatible non-premixed CPC. PMID:17277972

Xu, Hockin H K; Carey, Lisa E; Simon, Carl G

2007-07-01

31

An electrodeposition method of calcium phosphate coatings on titanium alloy.  

PubMed

Calcium phosphates coatings were deposited onto titanium alloy discs via en electrodeposition method. Titanium alloy discs were blasted with calcium phosphate particles, then etched in a mixture of nitric and fluoric acids and rinsed in demineralized water. The titanium alloy disc (cathode) and platinum mesh (anode) were immersed in a supersaturated calcium phosphate electrolyte buffered at pH 7.4 and connected to a current generator. The microstructure, chemical composition and crystallinity of the electrodeposited coatings were studied as function of time 10-120 min, temperature 25-80 degrees C, current density 8-120 mA/cm(2), magnesium and hydrogen carbonate amounts (0.1-1 mM). Uniform calcium phosphate coatings were obtained in 30 min but coating thickness increased with deposition time. Raising the temperature of electrolyte resulted in more uniform coatings as ionic mobility increased. Low current density was preferable due to hydrogen gas evolving at the cathode, which disturbed the deposition of calcium phosphate crystals on titanium. The amounts of magnesium and hydrogen carbonate ions affected both the homogeneity and morphology of the coatings. This study showed that the electrodeposition method is efficient for coating titanium with osteoconductive calcium phosphate layers. PMID:17323172

Lopez-Heredia, Marco Antonio; Weiss, P; Layrolle, P

2007-02-01

32

Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate and basic calcium phosphate crystalinduced arthropathies: Update on pathogenesis, clinical features, and Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium-containing crystals are the most common class for the osteoarthritic joint. They are responsible for acute periarthritis\\u000a and destructive arthropathies, and for tissue deposits mimicking tumor-like masses. These crystals encompassed mainly calcium\\u000a pyrophosphate dihydrate and basic calcium phosphate crystals, with the latter being related to hydroxyapatite, carbonate-substituted\\u000a apatite, and octacalcium phosphate. Calcification deposit mechanisms will be reviewed with respect to

Hang-Korng Ea; Frédéric Lioté

2004-01-01

33

Calcium phosphate crystallization under terrestrial and microgravity conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium phosphate crystalline powders grown under terrestrial and space (EURECA 1992–1993 flight) conditions in the Solution Growth Facility are analyzed and compared by optical and electron microscopy (scanning and transmission), electron and X-ray microdiffraction and microanalyses. On earth, only small, micrometer size scale, spherolites of hydroxyapatite (HAP) grow. In space, the HAP spherolites reach hundreds of micrometer. Also, octacalcium phosphate

H. E. Lundager Madsen; F. Christensson; L. E. Polyak; E. I. Suvorova; M. O. Kliya; A. A. Chernov

1995-01-01

34

Chemistry Misconceptions Associated with Understanding Calcium and Phosphate Homeostasis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Successful learning of many aspects in physiology depends on a meaningful understanding of fundamental chemistry concepts. Two conceptual diagnostic questions measured student understanding of the chemical equilibrium underlying calcium and phosphate homeostasis. One question assessed the ability to predict the change in phosphate concentration…

Cliff, William H.

2009-01-01

35

On the development of an apatitic calcium phosphate bone cement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of an apatitic calcium phosphate bone cement is reported. 100 ? Particles of tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP) and\\u000a dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) were mixed in equimolar ratio to form the cement powder. The wetting medium used was\\u000a distilled water with Na2HPO4 as accelerator to manipulate the setting time. The cement powder, on wetting with the medium, formed a workable putty.

Manoj Komath; H. K. Varma; R. Sivakumar

2000-01-01

36

Properties of Calcium Phosphate Cements With Different Tetracalcium Phosphate and Dicalcium Phosphate Anhydrous Molar Ratios  

PubMed Central

Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) were prepared using mixtures of tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP) and dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA), with TTCP/DCPA molar ratios of 1/1, 1/2, or 1/3, with the powder and water as the liquid. Diametral tensile strength (DTS), porosity, and phase composition (powder x-ray diffraction) were determined after the set specimens have been immersed in a physiological-like solution (PLS) for 1 d, 5 d, and 10 d. Cement dissolution rates in an acidified PLS were measured using a dual constant composition method. Setting times ((30 ± 1) min) were the same for all cements. DTS decreased with decreasing TTCP/DCPA ratio and, in some cases, also decreased with PLS immersion time. Porosity and hydroxyapatite (HA) formation increased with PLS immersion time. Cements with TTCP/DCPA ratios of 1/2 and 1/3, which formed calcium-deficient HA, dissolved more rapidly than the cement with a ratio of 1/1. In conclusion, cements may be prepared with a range of TTCP/DCPA ratios, and those with lower ratio had lower strengths but dissolved more rapidly in acidified PLS.

Hirayama, Satoshi; Takagi, Shozo; Markovic, Milenko; Chow, Laurence C.

2009-01-01

37

Prediction of the Setting Properties of Calcium Phosphate Bone Cement  

PubMed Central

Setting properties of bone substitutes are improved using an injectable system. The injectable bone graft substitutes can be molded to the shape of the bone cavity and set in situ when injected. Such system is useful for surgical operation. The powder part of the injectable bone cement is included of ?-tricalcium phosphate, calcium carbonate, and dicalcium phosphate and the liquid part contains poly ethylene glycol solution with different concentrations. In this way, prediction of the mechanical properties, setting times, and injectability helps to optimize the calcium phosphate bone cement properties. The objective of this study is development of three different adaptive neurofuzzy inference systems (ANFISs) for estimation of compression strength, setting time, and injectability using the data generated based on experimental observations. The input parameters of models are polyethylene glycol percent and liquid/powder ratio. Comparison of the predicted values and measured data indicates that the ANFIS model has an acceptable performance to the estimation of calcium phosphate bone cement properties.

Rabiee, Seyed Mahmud; Baseri, Hamid

2012-01-01

38

Osteoinductivity of Calcium Phosphate Mediated by Connexin 43  

PubMed Central

Recent reports have alluded to the osteoinductive properties of calcium phosphate, yet the cellular processes behind this are not well understood. To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms of this phenomenon, we have conducted a series of in vitro and in vivo experiments using a scaffoldless three dimensional (3D) dental pulp cell (DPC) construct as a physiologically relevant model. We demonstrate that amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) alters cellular functions and 3D spatial tissue differentiation patterns by increasing local calcium concentration, which modulates connexin 43 (Cx43)-mediated gap junctions. These observations indicate a chemical mechanism for osteoinductivity of calcium phosphates. These results provide new insights for possible roles of mineral phases in bone formation and remodeling. This study also emphasizes the strong effect of scaffold materials on cellular functions and is expected to advance the design of future tissue engineering materials.

Syed-Picard, Fatima N.; Jayaraman, Thottala; Lam, Raymond S.K.; Beniash, Elia; Sfeir, Charles

2013-01-01

39

Calcium activation of mitochondrial glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase restudied.  

PubMed

cDNAs which encode the rat testis and pancreatic islet mitochondrial glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase (mGPD) (EC 1.1.99.5), the key enzyme of the glycerol phosphate shuttle, were recently cloned and sequenced and found to contain calmodulin-like calcium-binding sequences, thus explaining the widely observed calcium activation of the enzyme from many tissues of higher eukaryotes. mGPD activity and protein, as judged from Western analysis, appear to be most abundant in testis and pancreatic islets in the rat. mGPD is known to be located within the inner mitochondrial membrane. At a physiologic concentration of glycerol phosphate (75 microM), half maximal activity of Triton X-100-solubilized testis mGPD was seen in the presence of 0.1-0.25 microM free calcium. Calcium (10(-6)-10(-5) M) lowered the Km of mGPD from 2.5 mM glycerol phosphate (islet mGPD) and 3.2 mM glycerol phosphate (testis mGPD) to 0.4 mM glycerol phosphate. Calcium activation of mGPD from both testis and islets was not prevented by calmodulin inhibitors, which is consistent with mGPD possessing regions that can mediate its own activation by calcium. 45Calcium overlay experiments, in which proteins were separated by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, blotted onto nitrocellulose membranes, and probed with 45Ca, showed that mGPD is a major calcium-binding protein in testis mitochondrial membranes. A hydropathy plot suggested that the mature mGPD protein has three transmembrane helices. The first membrane-spanning region coincides with the FAD site and thus this site is placed within the membrane. The hydropathy analysis indicated that the calcium-binding region and the putative glycerol phosphate-binding site lie outside the membrane exposed to the cytosolic environment. This is consistent with earlier biochemical evidence which indicated that these sites are situated outside the membrane (M. Klingenberg, Eur. J. Biochem. 13, 247-252, 1970). This suggests that cytosolic calcium can regulate mGPD activity. Since simultaneous oscillations in electrical activity, cytosolic calcium, glycolysis, and insulin release occur in the pancreatic beta cell, mGPD activity might also fluctuate and allow the glycerol phosphate shuttle to participate in glycolytic oscillations. PMID:8579375

MacDonald, M J; Brown, L J

1996-02-01

40

Calcium acetate versus calcium carbonate as oral phosphate binder in pediatric and adolescent hemodialysis patients.  

PubMed

Calcium carbonate is widely used as an oral phosphorus binder to control hyperphosphatemia in children on maintenance hemodialysis. Intestinal calcium absorption may induce hypercalcemia, particularly if calcitriol is given simultaneously. In adults, calcium acetate binds phosphorus more effectively than calcium carbonate, while reducing the frequency of hypercalcemic events. We therefore compared calcium acetate with calcium carbonate in nine pediatric patients on long-term maintenance hemodialysis. Following a 1-week withdrawal of phosphorus binders, calcium carbonate was administered for 7 weeks; after a second withdrawal, calcium acetate was given for another 7 weeks. All patients received calcitriol regularly. Both agents lowered the serum phosphorus concentration significantly (calcium carbonate 5.7 +/- 1.4 vs. 7.7 +/- 2.1 mg/ dl, P < 0.005; calcium acetate 5.8 +/- 1.4 vs. 7.8 +/- 2.0 mg/dl, P < 0.005). Significantly less elementary calcium was ingested with calcium acetate than with calcium carbonate: 750 (375-1,500) vs. 1,200 (0-3,000) mg calcium/day, P < 0.0001. Wit calcium carbonate serum calcium increased significantly. The number of episodes of hyperphosphatemia or hypercalcemia did not differ between treatments. Intact plasma parathyroid hormone (PTH) decreased significantly with both phosphate binders, and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 increased. There was a close relationship between serum phosphorus and PTH in prepubertal but not in pubertal patients. We conclude that hyperphosphatemia can be controlled effectively by both calcium acetate and calcium carbonate in pediatric hemodialysis patients. The oral load of elementary calcium is reduced significantly by binding phosphorus with calcium acetate instead of calcium carbonate; nevertheless, hypercalcemic episodes remain equally frequent with both phosphate binders. PMID:8897570

Wallot, M; Bonzel, K E; Winter, A; Geörger, B; Lettgen, B; Bald, M

1996-10-01

41

Differences in gastrointestinal calcium absorption after the ingestion of calcium-free phosphate binders.  

PubMed

Both calcium-containing and noncalcium-containing phosphate binders can increase gastrointestinal calcium absorption. Previously, we observed that lanthanum carbonate administration to rats with renal failure is not associated with increased calciuria. Additionally, lanthanum carbonate treatment in dialysis patients has been associated with a less pronounced initial decrease in serum parathyroid hormone compared with other phosphate binders. For 8 days, male Wistar rats received a diet supplemented with 2% lanthanum carbonate, 2% sevelamer, 2% calcium carbonate, or 2% cellulose. Calciuria was found to be increased in animals with normal renal function treated with sevelamer or calcium carbonate but not with lanthanum carbonate. In animals with renal failure, cumulative calcium excretion showed similar results. In rats with normal renal function, serum ionized calcium levels were increased after 2 days of treatment with sevelamer, while calcium carbonate showed a smaller increase. Lanthanum carbonate did not induce differences. In animals with renal failure, no differences were found between sevelamer-treated, calcium carbonate-treated, and control groups. Lanthanum carbonate, however, induced lower ionized calcium levels within 2 days of treatment. These results were confirmed in normal human volunteers, who showed lower net calcium absorption after a single dose of lanthanum carbonate compared with sevelamer carbonate. In conclusion, these two noncalcium-containing phosphate-binding agents showed a differential effect on gastrointestinal calcium absorption. These findings may help to improve the management of calcium balance in patients with renal failure, including concomitant use of vitamin D. PMID:24197066

Behets, Geert J; Dams, Geert; Damment, Stephen J; Martin, Patrick; De Broe, Marc E; D'Haese, Patrick C

2014-01-01

42

In vivo behaviour of three calcium phosphate cements and a magnesium phosphate cement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three types of calcium phosphate cements and one magnesium phosphate cement were implanted subcutaneously in rats under exclusion of direct cellular contact. Retrieval times were either 1, 2, 4 or 8 weeks. Before and after retrieval the compressive strength, the diametral tensile strength, the quantitative chemical composition, the qualitative phase composition, the FTIR spectrum and the microstructure were determined. The

F. C. M. Driessens; M. G. Boltong; M. I. Zapatero; R. M. H. Verbeeck; W. Bonfield; O. Bérmúdez; E. Fernández; M. P. Ginebra; J. A. Planell

1995-01-01

43

The stability mechanisms of an injectable calcium phosphate ceramic suspension.  

PubMed

Calcium phosphate ceramics are widely used as bone substitutes in dentistry and orthopedic applications. For minimally invasive surgery an injectable calcium phosphate ceramic suspension (ICPCS) was developed. It consists in a biopolymer (hydroxypropylmethylcellulose: HPMC) as matrix and bioactive calcium phosphate ceramics (biphasic calcium phosphate: BCP) as fillers. The stability of the suspension is essential to this generation of "ready to use" injectable biomaterial. But, during storage, the particles settle down. The engineering sciences have long been interested in models describing the settling (or sedimentation) of particles in viscous fluids. Our work is dedicated to the comprehension of the effect of the formulation on the stability of calcium phosphate suspension before and after steam sterilization. The rheological characterization revealed the macromolecular behavior of the suspending medium. The investigations of settling kinetics showed the influence of the BCP particle size and the HPMC concentration on the settling velocity and sediment compactness before and after sterilization. To decrease the sedimentation process, the granule size has to be smaller and the polymer concentration has to increase. A much lower sedimentation velocity, as compared to Stokes law, is observed and interpreted in terms of interactions between the polymer network in solution and the particles. This experimentation highlights the granules spacer property of hydrophilic macromolecules that is a key issue for interconnection control, one of the better ways to improve osteoconduction and bioactivity. PMID:20229185

Fatimi, Ahmed; Tassin, Jean-François; Axelos, Monique A V; Weiss, Pierre

2010-06-01

44

Calcium phosphates in pharmaceutical tableting. 2. Comparison of tableting properties.  

PubMed

Ten calcium phosphates suitable for direct compression (dibasic calcium phosphate dihydrate, dibasic calcium phosphate anhydrous and hydroxylapatite) were investigated with respect to their compressional behaviour. Except for Di-Cafos A all products gave tablets with sufficient to good mechanical strength. Nevertheless, there were differences between the products. All tablets prepared from the different products showed a high friability. This seems to be a problem of the calcium phosphates in general. On the other hand, the influence of magnesium stearate on the mechanical strength of the tablets was negligible for all products investigated. Moreover, a considerable effect of the particle size on the tensile strength of the tablets was found. The ejection forces and residual pressures were high in general, but critical only in the case of hydroxylapatites. Heckel plots were used to differentiate between plastic deformation and brittle fracture of the particles. In the case of calcium phosphates the slope of the Heckel plots indicated the hardness of the particles rather than their deformation behaviour. PMID:8348107

Schmidt, P C; Herzog, R

1993-06-18

45

The Ca/P range of nanoapatitic calcium phosphate cements.  

PubMed

Nanoapatites are apatites consisting of nanometer size crystals. The commercial calcium phosphate cements set by the precipitation of nanoapatitic calcium phosphates in the range 1.5 < or = Ca/P < 1.8. In this study it is shown that a continuum of nanoapatites can precipitate in the range 0.8 < Ca/P< or = 1.5. In order to be formed these nanoapatites need to incorporate K+ ions. In addition they can incorporate some Na+ ions. Upon immersion in aqueous solutions these nanoapatites loose phosphate, K+ and Na+ so that in an open system they are transformed into calcium deficient hydroxyapatite Ca9(HPO4)(PO4)5OH within about 2 months. PMID:12162334

Driessens, F C M; Boltong, M G; de Maeyer, E A P; Wenz, R; Nies, B; Planell, J A

2002-10-01

46

Alternative technique for calcium phosphate coating on titanium alloy implants.  

PubMed

As an alternative technique for calcium phosphate coating on titanium alloys, we propose to functionalize the metal surface with anionic bath containing chlorides of palladium or silver as activators. This new deposition route has several advantages such as controlled conditions, applicability to complex shapes, no adverse effect of heating, and cost effectiveness. A mixture of hydroxyapatite and calcium phosphate hydrate is deposited on the surface of Ti-6Al-4V. Calcium phosphate coating is built faster compared with the one by Simulated Body Fluid. Cell morphology and density are comparable to the control one; and the results prove no toxic compound is released into the medium during the previous seven days of immersion. Moreover, the cell viability is comparable with cells cultivated with the virgin medium. These experimental treatments allowed producing cytocompatible materials potentially applicable to manufacture implantable devices for orthopedic and oral surgeries. PMID:24646569

Le, Van Quang; Pourroy, Geneviève; Cochis, Andrea; Rimondini, Lia; Abdel-Fattah, Wafa I; Mohammed, Hadeer I; Carradò, Adele

2014-01-01

47

Phosphate-binding capacity of ferrihydrite versus calcium acetate in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium salts, such as calcium carbonate and calcium acetate, are the principal compounds used as phosphate binders in patients with chronic renal failure. The dose required is three to six times the normal requirement for calcium. Use of these large doses of calcium salts in the diet can result in hypercalcemia. Other compounds have been investigated as phosphate binders with

Connie M. Weaver; Darrell G. Schulze; Louise W. Peck; Helen M. Magnusen; Berdine R. Martin; Sara E. Gruenhagen

1999-01-01

48

Precipitation of calcium phosphate at 40° C from neutral solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calcium phosphate formation was studied in the pH range 5< pH <7.5 and for calcium and phosphate concentrations up to 0.04M. Amorphous tricalcium phosphate (ACP) is the dominating primary precipitate. Near the lower limit of the pH range brushite (CaHPO 4·2H 2O) is the role product, and octacalcium phosphate predominates at low concentrations. ACP is subsequently transformed into brushite or apatite (Ca 5OH(PO 4) 3), the latter always crytocrystalline, but brushite crystals often redissolve and leave apatite as the end product. The formation and evolution of precipitates are chiefly governed by solubilities of the different crystalline phases; for apatite, the excess solubility of small crystals as determined by the Gibbs-Kelvin equation plays an important role.

Lundager Madsen, Hans E.; Christensson, Finn

1991-12-01

49

Phosphate-bonded calcium aluminate cements  

DOEpatents

A method is described for making a rapid-setting phosphate-bonded cementitious material. A powdered aluminous cement is mixed with an aqueous solution of ammonium phosphate. The mixture is allowed to set to form an amorphous cementitious material which also may be hydrothermally treated at a temperature of from about 120 C to about 300 C to form a crystal-containing phosphate-bonded material. Also described are the cementitious products of this method and the cement composition which includes aluminous cement and ammonium polyphosphate. 10 figures.

Sugama, T.

1993-09-21

50

Phosphate-bonded calcium aluminate cements  

DOEpatents

A method is described for making a rapid-setting phosphate-bonded cementitious material. A powdered aluminous cement is mixed with an aqueous solution of ammonium phosphate. The mixture is allowed to set to form an amorphous cementitious material which also may be hydrothermally treated at a temperature of from about 120.degree. C. to about 300.degree. C. to form a crystal-containing phosphate-bonded material. Also described are the cementitious products of this method and the cement composition which includes aluminous cement and ammonium polyphosphate.

Sugama, Toshifumi (Mastic Beach, NY) [Mastic Beach, NY

1993-01-01

51

Gelatin powders accelerate the resorption of calcium phosphate cement and improve healing in the alveolar ridge.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to show the effectiveness of combining calcium phosphate cement and gelatin powders to promote bone regeneration in the canine mandible. We mixed gelatin powders with calcium phosphate cement to create a macroporous composite. In four beagle dogs, two saddle-type bone defects were created on each side of the mandible, and calcium phosphate cement alone or calcium phosphate cement containing composite gelatin powders was implanted in each of the defects. After a healing period of six months, mandibles were removed for µCT and histological analyses. The µCT and histological analyses showed that at experimental sites at which calcium phosphate cement alone had been placed new bone had formed only around the periphery of the residual calcium phosphate cement and that there had been little or no ingrowth into the calcium phosphate cement. On the other hand, at experimental sites at which calcium phosphate cement containing composite gelatin powders had been placed, we observed regenerated new bone in the interior of the residual calcium phosphate cement as well as around its periphery. The amount of resorption of calcium phosphate cement and bone regeneration depended on the mixing ratio of gelatin powders to calcium phosphate cement. New bone replacement was significantly better in the sites treated with calcium phosphate cement containing composite gelatin powders than in those treated with calcium phosphate cement alone. PMID:24105428

Matsumoto, Goichi; Sugita, Yoshihiko; Kubo, Katsutoshi; Yoshida, Waka; Ikada, Yoshito; Sobajima, Satoshi; Neo, Masashi; Maeda, Hatsuhiko; Kinoshita, Yukihiko

2014-05-01

52

The Role of Polycarboxylic Acids in Calcium Phosphate Mineralization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of two polyelectrolytes, poly-L-glutamate and poly-L-aspartate, in the growth of calcium phosphate crystal phases, has been investigated at constant supersaturation. Both molecules are strong inhibitors of HAP growth when present in the solution phase but also act as hydroxyapatite and (octacalcium phosphate)-like crystal nucleators when adsorbed on germanium surfaces. The structure of the polymers in solution is presented

Achilles Tsortos; George H. Nancollas

2002-01-01

53

Dual-Setting Calcium Phosphate Cement Modified with Ammonium Polyacrylate  

Microsoft Academic Search

a-Tricalcium phosphate bone cement, as for- merly designed and developed by Driessens et al., consists of a powder composed by a-tricalcium phosphate (a-TCP) and hydroxyapatite (HA) seeds, and an aqueous solution of Na2HPO4 as mixing liquid. After mixing powder and liquid, a-TCP dissolves into the liquid and calcium defi- cient hydroxyapatite (CDHA), more insoluble than the former, precipitates as an

Raúl García Carrodeguas; Anselmo Ortega Boschi; Antônio Celso; Fonseca de Arruda

54

Optimization of calcium phosphate fine ceramic powders preparation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of biomimetic synthesis method, reaction medium and further precursor treatments on the chemical and phase composition, crystal size and morphology of calcium phosphates was examined. Nanosized calcium phosphate precursors were biomimetically precipitated by the method of continuous precipitation in three types of reaction media at pH 8: (i) SBF as an inorganic electrolyte system; (ii) organic (glycerine) modified SBF (volume ratio of 1:1); (iii) polymer (10 g/l xanthan gum or 10 g/l guar gum) modified SBF (volume ratio of 1:1). After maturation (24 h) the samples were lyophilized, calcinated at 300°C for 3 hours, and washed with water, followed by new gelation, lyophilization and step-wise (200, 400, 600, 800, and 1000°C, each for 3 hours) sintering. The reaction medium influenced the chemical composition and particle size but not the morphology of the calcium phosphate powders. In all studied cases bi-phase calcium phosphate fine powders with well-shaped spherical grains, consisting of ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) and hydroxyapatite (HA) with a Ca/P ratio of 1.3 - 1.6 were obtained. The SBF modifiers decreased the particle size of the product in the sequence guar gum ˜ xanthan gum < glycerin < SBF medium.

Sezanova, K.; Tepavitcharova, S.; Rabadjieva, D.; Gergulova, R.; Ilieva, R.

2013-12-01

55

[Regulation and disorders of calcium and phosphate metabolism].  

PubMed

Calcium and phosphate are the constituents of biomineral, and their levels in circulation are regulated by various hormones. Disorders in calcium/phosphate metabolism are often associated with skeletal demineralization and pathological calcification. Some of the hypophosphatemic rickets/osteomalacia are caused by the increased bioactivity of FGF23, and classified into FGF23-mediated hypophosphatemic rickets/osteomalacia. In the adult patients with FGF23-mediated hypophosphatemic rickets/osteomalacia, mineralizing enthesopathy is an often observed complication. In addition, mutations of the same genes can be responsible for both rickets/osteomalacia and ectopic calcification. PMID:24473349

Michigami, Toshimi

2014-02-01

56

Investigating calcium polyphosphate addition to a conventional calcium phosphate cement for bone-interfacing applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) are of great interest in bone regeneration applications because of their biocompatibility and osteoconductivity, and as delivery vehicles for therapeutics; however, delivery applications have been limited by adverse interactions between therapeutics and the cement setting reaction. Amorphous calcium polyphosphate (CPP) yields a biodegradable material with a demonstrated drug delivery capacity following appropriate processing. The incorporation of

Jennifer Lynn Krausher

2010-01-01

57

Molecular mechanisms of crystallization impacting calcium phosphate cements  

PubMed Central

The biomineral calcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate (CaHPO4·2H2O), known as brushite, is a malleable material that both grows and dissolves faster than most other calcium minerals, including other calcium phosphate phases, calcium carbonates and calcium oxalates. Within the body, this ready formation and dissolution can play a role in certain diseases, such as kidney stone and plaque formation. However, these same properties, along with brushite’s excellent biocompatibility, can be used to great benefit in making resorbable biomedical cements. To optimize cements, additives are commonly used to control crystallization kinetics and phase transformation. This paper describes the use of in situ scanning probe microscopy to investigate the role of several solution parameters and additives in brushite atomic step motion. Surprisingly, this work demonstrates that the activation barrier for phosphate (rather than calcium) incorporation limits growth kinetics and that additives such as magnesium, citrate and bisphosphonates each influence step motion in distinctly different ways. Our findings provide details of how, and where, molecules inhibit or accelerate kinetics. These insights have the potential to aid in designing molecules to target specific steps and to guide synergistic combinations of additives.

Giocondi, Jennifer L.; El-Dasher, Bassem S.; Nancollas, George H.; Orme, Christine A.

2010-01-01

58

Micropatterned TiO 2 effects on calcium phosphate mineralization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of implant surface topography and chemistry on biomineralization have been a research focus because of their potential importance in orthopedic and bone replacement applications. While a vast amount of research is focusing on chemical modified surfaces and rough surfaces, little attention has been paid to the well-defined micropatterned surface effects on calcium phosphate mineralization process due to the

Lili Jiang; Xiong Lu; Yang Leng; Shuxin Qu; Bo Feng; Jie Weng

2009-01-01

59

Bone regeneration: molecular and cellular interactions with calcium phosphate ceramics  

PubMed Central

Calcium phosphate bioceramics are widely used in orthopedic and dental applications and porous scaffolds made of them are serious candidates in the field of bone tissue engineering. They have superior properties for the stimulation of bone formation and bone bonding, both related to the specific interactions of their surface with the extracellular fluids and cells, ie, ionic exchanges, superficial molecular rearrangement and cellular activity.

Barrere, Florence; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A; de Groot, Klaas

2006-01-01

60

Cellular investigations on electrochemically deposited calcium phosphate composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrochemically deposited calcium phosphate (CaP) coatings are fast resorbable and existent only during the first period of osseointegration. In the present study, composite coatings with varying solubility (hydroxyapatite (HA), brushite with less HA and monetite (M) with less HA) were prepared and the influence of the degradation and the reprecipitation of CaP on osteoblastic cells were investigated. On the brushite

Petra Becker; Hans-Georg Neumann; Barbara Nebe; Frank Lüthen; Joachim Rychly

2004-01-01

61

Amorphous calcium phosphate and its application in dentistry  

PubMed Central

Amorphous Calcium Phosphate (ACP) is an essential mineral phase formed in mineralized tissues and the first commercial product as artificial hydroxyapatite. ACP is unique among all forms of calcium phosphates in that it lacks long-range, periodic atomic scale order of crystalline calcium phosphates. The X-ray diffraction pattern is broad and diffuse with a maximum at 25 degree 2 theta, and no other different features compared with well-crystallized hydroxyapatite. Under electron microscopy, its morphological form is shown as small spheroidal particles in the scale of tenths nanometer. In aqueous media, ACP is easily transformed into crystalline phases such as octacalcium phosphate and apatite due to the growing of microcrystalline. It has been demonstrated that ACP has better osteoconductivity and biodegradability than tricalcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite in vivo. Moreover, it can increase alkaline phosphatase activities of mesoblasts, enhance cell proliferation and promote cell adhesion. The unique role of ACP during the formation of mineralized tissues makes it a promising candidate material for tissue repair and regeneration. ACP may also be a potential remineralizing agent in dental applications. Recently developed ACP-filled bioactive composites are believed to be effective anti-demineralizing/remineralizing agents for the preservation and repair of tooth structures. This review provides an overview of the development, structure, chemical composition, morphological characterization, phase transformation and biomedical application of ACP in dentistry.

2011-01-01

62

Randomized crossover study comparing the phosphate-binding efficacy of calcium ketoglutarate versus calcium carbonate in patients on chronic hemodialysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study was to evaluate the phosphate-binding efficacy, side effects, and cost of therapy of calcium ketoglutarate granulate as compared with calcium carbonate tablets in patients on chronic hemodialysis. The study design used was a randomized, crossover open trial, and the main outcome measurements were plasma ionized calcium levels, plasma phosphate levels, plasma intact parathyroid hormone (PTH)

S Bro; RA Rasmussen; J Handberg; K Olgaard; B Feldt-Rasmussen

1998-01-01

63

In vivo behavior of a novel injectable calcium phosphate cement compared with two other commercially available calcium phosphate cements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the physicochemical and biological properties of a newly developed calcium phosphate cement (CPC). The novel cement was compared with two other commercially available CPCs. After mixing the powder and liquid phase, the CPCs were injected as a paste into a rabbit distal femoral defect model. The CPCs were evaluated after 24 h,

Gerjon Hannink; Joop G. C. Wolke; B. Willem Schreurs; Pieter Buma

2008-01-01

64

Diagnosis and clinical manifestations of calcium pyrophosphate and basic calcium phosphate crystal deposition diseases.  

PubMed

Basic calcium phosphate and pyrophosphate calcium crystals are the 2 main calcium-containing crystals that can deposit in all skeletal tissues. These calcium crystals give rise to numerous manifestations, including acute inflammatory attacks that can mimic alarming and threatening differential diagnoses, osteoarthritis-like lesions, destructive arthropathies, and calcific tendinitis. Awareness of uncommon localizations and manifestations such as intraspinal deposition (eg, crowned dens syndrome, tendinitis of longus colli muscle, massive cervical myelopathy compression) prevents inappropriate procedures and cares. Coupling plain radiography, ultrasonography, computed tomography, and synovial fluid analysis allow accurate diagnosis by directly or indirectly identifying the GRAAL of microcrystal-related symptoms. PMID:24703344

Ea, Hang-Korng; Lioté, Frédéric

2014-05-01

65

Prediction of the setting properties of calcium phosphate bone cement.  

PubMed

Setting properties of bone substitutes are improved using an injectable system. The injectable bone graft substitutes can be molded to the shape of the bone cavity and set in situ when injected. Such system is useful for surgical operation. The powder part of the injectable bone cement is included of ?-tricalcium phosphate, calcium carbonate, and dicalcium phosphate and the liquid part contains poly ethylene glycol solution with different concentrations. In this way, prediction of the mechanical properties, setting times, and injectability helps to optimize the calcium phosphate bone cement properties. The objective of this study is development of three different adaptive neurofuzzy inference systems (ANFISs) for estimation of compression strength, setting time, and injectability using the data generated based on experimental observations. The input parameters of models are polyethylene glycol percent and liquid/powder ratio. Comparison of the predicted values and measured data indicates that the ANFIS model has an acceptable performance to the estimation of calcium phosphate bone cement properties. PMID:22919372

Rabiee, Seyed Mahmud; Baseri, Hamid

2012-01-01

66

Calcium acetate versus calcium carbonate as phosphate-binding agents in chronic haemodialysis.  

PubMed

Hyperphosphataemia plays a key role in the pathogenesis of renal osteodystrophy, and phosphate-binding agents are required in many chronic dialysis patients. Aluminium hydroxide and calcium carbonate are well-established phosphate binders, but their use is associated with toxicity or poor efficacy. Calcium acetate is known to be a potent phosphate binder, and has recently been used successfully in chronic dialysis patients. In this randomized cross-over trial in 31 chronic haemodialysis patients, equimolar doses of calcium acetate and calcium carbonate were administered for 6 weeks each. Compliance was estimated from tablet counts, and biochemical parameters were measured at the end of each treatment period. Of the 31 patients 23 completed both treatment arms; of the remainder, three withdrew due to adverse symptoms, hypercalcaemia necessitated treatment withdrawal in two, and three died. Non-compliance was significantly higher with acetate (18.3% tablets not taken) than with carbonate (8.7%). Serum phosphate was significantly lower after treatment with acetate (1.51 mmol/l) than with carbonate (1.80), as was the Ca x PO4 product (3.59 vs 4.18 respectively) and PTH (17.8 vs 25.4 pmol/l respectively). Serum calcium was significantly higher after acetate therapy (2.40 vs 2.32 mmol/l). No significant difference was found for sodium, potassium, bicarbonate, urea, creatinine, and haemoglobin. This study confirms that the treatment of hyperphosphataemia is more effective with calcium acetate than with calcium carbonate. For the first time an associated beneficial effect on secondary hyperparathyroidism has also been demonstrated. Patient tolerability of calcium acetate was considerably poorer, probably due in part to tablet formulation and bulkiness, as well as possible direct gastrointestinal effects of the acetate salt. PMID:7800211

Pflanz, S; Henderson, I S; McElduff, N; Jones, M C

1994-01-01

67

Raising Urinary Citrate Lowers Calcium Oxalate and Calcium Phosphate Crystal Formation in Whole Urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crystal formation in whole urine was studied by the technique of rapid evaporation to 1,250 mosmol\\/l with and without raising citrate concentration by 40–50%. The added citrate reduced calcium oxalate crystal formation at pH 5.3 by about 25 % and reduced calcium phosphate crystal formation at pH 6.8 by some 42%. These results support the view that citrate is important

P. C. Hallson; G. A. Rose; S. Sulaiman

1983-01-01

68

Non-Calcium-Containing Phosphate Binders: Comparing Efficacy, Safety, and Other Clinical Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphate-binder therapy for hyperphosphataemia is key to the treatment of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD)-mineral and bone disorder (MBD). Calcium-free phosphate binders are increasingly favoured since calcium-based agents potentially cause harmful calcium overload and vascular calcification that confound the benefits of reducing serum phosphorus. Several calcium-free phosphate binders are available, including the non-absorbed agent sevelamer and the absorbed agents,

João M. Frazão; Teresa Adragão

2012-01-01

69

Calcium phosphate-based composites as injectable bone substitute materials.  

PubMed

A major weakness of current orthopedic implant materials, for instance sintered hydroxyapatite (HA), is that they exist as a hardened form, requiring the surgeon to fit the surgical site around an implant to the desired shape. This can cause an increase in bone loss, trauma to the surrounding tissue, and longer surgical time. A convenient alternative to harden bone filling materials are injectable bone substitutes (IBS). In this article, recent progress in the development and application of calcium phosphate (CP)-based composites use as IBS is reviewed. CP materials have been used widely for bone replacement because of their similarity to the mineral component of bone. The main limitation of bulk CP materials is their brittle nature and poor mechanical properties. There is significant effort to reinforce or improve the mechanical properties and injectability of calcium phosphate cement (CPC) and this review resumes different alternatives presented in this specialized literature. PMID:20336722

Low, Kah Ling; Tan, Soon Huat; Zein, Sharif Hussein Sharif; Roether, Judith A; Mouriño, Viviana; Boccaccini, Aldo R

2010-07-01

70

Soft-tissue response to injectable calcium phosphate cements  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the soft tissue reaction to two newly developed injectable calcium phosphate bone cements (cement D and W) was evaluated after implantation in the back of goats. For one of the cements (cement D) the tissue reaction was also investigated after varying the concentration of accelerator Na2HPO4 in the cement liquid (resulting in cement D1 and D2). Eight

E. M. Ooms; E. A. Egglezos; J. G. C. Wolke; J. A. Jansen

2003-01-01

71

Fluoride and Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) slows the progression of caries and remineralizes enamel subsurface lesions. The aim of this study was to determine the ability of CPP-ACP to increase the incorporation of fluoride into plaque and to promote enamel remineralization in situ. Randomized, double-blind, cross-over studies involved mouthrinses and dentifrices containing CPP-ACP and fluoride. The mouthrinses were used for 60

E. C. Reynolds; F. Cai; N. J. Cochrane; P. Shen; G. D. Walker; M. V. Morgan; C. Reynolds

2008-01-01

72

Composites of Calcium Phosphate and Polymers as Bone Substitution Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The state of the art of calcium phosphate\\/polymer composites for bone substitution is reviewed. Many combinations are possible\\u000a which were proposed to improve the mechanical properties and the biocompatibility. However, the way from the laboratory to\\u000a the clinical application is long, and potential candidates for new bone substitution materials have to meet many different\\u000a requirements.

Markus Neumann; Matthias Epple

2006-01-01

73

Calcium phosphate crystal growth under controlled atmosphere in electrochemical deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cathodic deposition of calcium phosphate (Ca–P) on titanium was studied under controlled atmospheres. Electrochemical deposition was conducted in a sealed electrochemical cell with a controlled flow of nitrogen, carbon dioxide or compressed air. The Ca–P phases of the depositions on titanium were examined by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform–infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Experimental results showed that

Xiong Lu; Zhanfeng Zhao; Yang Leng

2005-01-01

74

Development of magnesium calcium phosphate biocement for bone regeneration  

PubMed Central

Magnesium calcium phosphate biocement (MCPB) with rapid-setting characteristics was fabricated by using the mixed powders of magnesium oxide (MgO) and calcium dihydrogen phosphate (Ca(H2PO4)2·H2O). The results revealed that the MCPB hardened after mixing the powders with water for about 7 min, and the compressive strength reached 43 MPa after setting for 1 h, indicating that the MCPB had a short setting time and high initial mechanical strength. After the acid–base reaction of MCPB containing MgO and Ca(H2PO4)2·H2O in a molar ratio of 2 : 1, the final hydrated products were Mg3(PO4)2 and Ca3(PO4)2. The MCPB was degradable in Tris–HCl solution and the degradation ratio was obviously higher than calcium phosphate biocement (CPB) because of its fast dissolution. The attachment and proliferation of the MG63 cells on the MCPB were significantly enhanced in comparison with CPB, and the alkaline phosphatase activity of MG63 cells on the MCPB was significantly higher than on the CPB at 7 and 14 days. The MG63 cells with normal phenotype spread well on the MCPB surfaces, and were attached in close proximity to the substrate, as seen by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results demonstrated that the MCPB had a good ability to support cell attachment, proliferation and differentiation, and exhibited good cytocompatibility.

Jia, Junfeng; Zhou, Huanjun; Wei, Jie; Jiang, Xin; Hua, Hong; Chen, Fangping; Wei, Shicheng; Shin, Jung-Woog; Liu, Changsheng

2010-01-01

75

Metastable states in calcium phosphate - aqueous phase equilibrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A critical evaluation of the literature reveals that during equilibration of well crystallized hydroxyapatite in aqueous solutions metastable states can occur. They are characterized by a persistent supersaturation with respect to hydroxyapatite and a systematical dependence of the ion activity product of this compound on the solution composition. For products synthesized by thermal treatment it is known that they are transformed into oxyhydroxyapatite so that the theoretical solubility behaviour could be predicted from the extrapolated value of the free energy of oxyapatite at room temperature: the negative logarithm of the ionic product for hydroxyapatite should become close to that of oxyapatite during equilibration. The discrepancy with experimental data is probably due to the formation of thin layers seeming dicalcium phosphate dihydrate, octocalcium phosphate or defective hydroxyapatite as coatings on the apatite crystals. This is derived from the apparent Ca/P ratio of the solubility controlling phase. According to chemical potential plots this apparent Ca/P ratio can have values close to 1, 1.33, 1.50 or 1.67. The aqueous solutions are clearly undersaturated with respect to the more acidic calcium phosphates so that the coatings must deviate from the compositions of these compounds in their pure state. The formation of these metastable states during equilibration of oxyhydroxyapatites is compared with others occuring during precipitation and crystal growth of calcium phosphates. A model is proposed which explains the observations qualitatively.

Driessens, F. C. M.; Verbeeck, R. M. H.

1981-05-01

76

Cefuroxime-impregnated calcium phosphates as an implantable delivery system in experimental osteomyelitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of porous calcium phosphates viz., hydroxyapatite (HAp) and a bi-phasic calcium phosphate (BCP) with predominately ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) prepared by aqueous solution combustion method impregnated with cefuroxime axetil for the treatment of experimental osteomyelitis and compared with parenteral treatment. In vitro release of the drug was tested for its sustained elution characteristics for

Samit K. Nandi; Biswanath Kundu; Samir K. Ghosh; Tapan K. Mandal; Someswar Datta; Dipak K. De; Debabrata Basu

2009-01-01

77

Effect of biomedical organic compounds on the setting reaction of calcium phosphates  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, the effect of biomedical organic compounds (starch, sodium alginate, chitosan and gelatin) on the hydration of calcium phosphates was studied using X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and XPS analysis. Amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) was prepared by a mechanochemical route and mixed with biomedical organic compounds. A solidification reaction occurred between ACP and dicalcium phosphate

Tao Yu; Jiandong Ye; Chengying Gao; Long Yu; Yingjun Wang

2010-01-01

78

Biomimetic coprecipitation of calcium phosphate and bovine serum albumin on titanium alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Titanium alloy implants were precoated biomimetically with a thin and dense layer of calcium phosphate and then incubated either in a supersaturated solution of calcium phosphate or in phosphate-buffered saline, each containing bovine serum albumin (BSA) at various concentrations, under physiological conditions for 48 h. Coated implants then underwent scanning electron microscopy, immunohistochemical evaluation, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray

Yuelian Liu; Pierre Layrolle; Bruijn de Joost; Blitterswijk van Clemens; Groot de Klaas

2001-01-01

79

Response to "Chemistry misconceptions associated with understanding calcium and phosphate homeostasis"  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

I enjoyed Dr. Cliff's "conceptual diagnostic test" regarding calcium phosphate equilibrium and was relieved that I chose the correct answers (1). Question 2 was the more difficult one, and I hesitated before almost answering it incorrectly. Dr. Cliff asks what would happen if more calcium phosphate is added to a beaker containing calcium, phosphate, and calcium phosphate "at equilibrium." His answer states the question differently: "Only 11% of the students correctly answered the conceptual diagnostic question about the addition of solid calcium phosphate to a saturated [emphasis added] solution of calcium phosphate." The question did not specify that the solution was saturated but that it was "at equilibrium." It is not simply a question about understanding "mass action." One also needs to realize that the solvent is saturated if a solid in the solvent is at equilibrium. That is an additional concept itself and, when not made explicit, might explain why only 11% of the students answered it correctly.

David S. Goldfarb (St. Vincent's Hospital, and New York University School of Medicine)

2010-03-01

80

A mini review of biodegradable calcium phosphate nanoparticles for gene delivery.  

PubMed

Nucleic acid drugs are promising new therapeutics for the treatment of various diseases including genetic diseases, viral diseases, and cancer. However, their poor intracellular bioavailability and rapid degradation hinder their development as drugs. Therefore, the main challenge is to develop an efficient delivery system. Calcium phosphate has been widely used to transfect cultured cells for 40 years, due to its safety, simply of production and noticeable efficacy of transfection. Unfortunately, calcium phosphate particles show poor colloidal stability because of uncontrolled growth, which impedes their practical use. Recently, investigators have designed a variety of biodegradable calcium phosphate nanocarriers and achieved efficient gene delivery both in vitro and in vivo with low toxicity. In this review, we focus on the current research activity in the development of calcium phosphate nanoparticlss for gene delivery. Calcium phosphate nanoparticles are mainly classified into lipid coated and polymer coated ones for discussion. In addition, cellular uptake and intracellular trafficking of calcium phosphate nanoparticles are also mentioned. PMID:24372244

Xie, Ying; Chen, Yun; Sun, Minjie; Ping, Qineng

2014-11-01

81

Method of coating a substrate with a calcium phosphate compound  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a method of coating a substrate with a calcium phosphate compound using plasma enhanced MOCVD. The substrate is a solid material that may be porous or non-porous, including but not limited to metal, ceramic, glass and combinations thereof. The coated substrate is preferably used as an implant, including but not limited to orthopaedic, dental and combinations thereof. Calcium phosphate compound includes but is not limited to tricalcium phosphate (TCP), hydroxyapatite (HA) and combinations thereof. TCP is preferred on a titanium implant when implant resorbability is desired. HA is preferred when the bone bonding of new bone tissue into the structure of the implant is desired. Either or both of TCP and/or HA coated implants may be placed into a solution with an agent selected from the group of protein, antibiotic, antimicrobial, growth factor and combinations thereof that can be adsorbed into the coating before implantation. Once implanted, the release of TCP will also release the agent to improve growth of new bone tissues and/or to prevent infection.

Gao, Yufei (Kennewick, WA); Campbell, Allison A. (Kennewick, WA)

2000-01-01

82

Precipitation of calcium phosphate from moderately acid solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The precipitation of calcium phosphate upon mixing of equimolar amounts of calcium nitrate and ammonium phosphate has been studied in the temperature range 40-60°C and pH 3.5-6.5. At the lowertemperatures, brushite, CaHPO 4, 2 H 2O, is the major crystalline product. Monetite, CaHPO 4, is formed at the higher temperatures and above a certain critical supersaturation, and OCP, Ca 4H(PO 4) 3.2.5H 2O, in the higher pH range. A metastable, amorphous tricalcium phosphate, Ca 3(PO 4) 2. xH2O, is formed initially if a(Ca 2+) 3a(PO 3-4) 2 exceeds a certain value, which decreases rapidly as temperature increases. The range in which brushite is found as the only crystalline phase narrows with increasing temperature. The results are explained in terms of heterogeneous nucleation for brushite and homogeneous nucleation for monetite.

Lundager Madsen, H. E.; Thorvardarson, G.

1984-04-01

83

Remineralization of Enamel Subsurface Lesions by Casein Phosphopeptide-stabilized Calcium Phosphate Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Casein phosphopeptides (CPP) stabilize amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP), localize ACP in dental plaque, and are anticariogenic in animal and in situ human caries models. In this in vitro study, CPP-stabilized calcium phosphate solutions were shown to remineralize subsurface lesions in human third-molar enamel. Solutions were used to examine the effect of CPP-calcium phosphate concentration on remineralization. Other solutions were used

E. C. Reynolds

1997-01-01

84

Ab initio modelling of calcium phosphate clusters and their vibrational spectra  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium phosphate and hydroxylcalcium phosphate clusters that model amorphous phase elementary unit cells as well as their vibrational spectra were calculated by ab initio quantum chemical method using GAMESS code. Normal coordinate analysis was accomplished for phosphate anion, tricalcium phosphate and hydrox- ylapatite. Calculated IR-spectra and spectra of inelastic neutron scattering were defined in comparison with experimental data. It was

I. E. Boldeskul; L. F. Sukhodub; A. N. Kalinkevich; V. D. Khavryutchenko

2006-01-01

85

Antibacterial and physical properties of calcium-phosphate and calcium-fluoride nanocomposites with chlorhexidine  

PubMed Central

Objectives Previous studies have developed calcium phosphate and fluoride releasing composites. Other studies have incorporated chlorhexidine (CHX) particles into dental composites. However, CHX has not been incorporated in calcium phosphate and fluoride composites. The objectives of this study were to develop nanocomposites containing amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) or calcium fluoride (CaF2) nanoparticles and CHX particles, and investigate S. mutans biofilm formation and lactic acid production for the first time. Methods Chlorhexidine was frozen via liquid nitrogen and ground to obtain a particle size of 0.62 µm. Four nanocomposites were fabricated with fillers of: Nano ACP; nano ACP+10% CHX; nano CaF2; nano CaF2+10% CHX. Three commercial materials were tested as controls: A resin-modified glass ionomer, and two composites. S. mutans live/dead assay, colony-forming unit (CFU) counts, biofilm metabolic activity, and lactic acid were measured. Results Adding CHX fillers to ACP and CaF2 nanocomposites greatly increased their antimicrobial capability. ACP and CaF2 nanocomposites with CHX that were inoculated with S. mutans had a growth medium pH > 6.5 after 3 d, while the control commercial composites had a cariogenic pH of 4.2. Nanocomposites with CHX reduced the biofilm metabolic activity by 10–20 folds and reduced the acid production, compared to the controls. CFU on nanocomposites with CHX were three orders of magnitude less than that on commercial composite. Mechanical properties of nanocomposites with CHX matched a commercial composite without fluoride. Significance The novel calcium phosphate and fluoride nanocomposites could be rendered antibacterial with CHX to greatly reduce biofilm formation, acid production, CFU and metabolic activity. The antimicrobial and remineralizing nanocomposites with good mechanical properties may be promising for a wide range of tooth restorations with anti-caries capabilities.

Cheng, Lei; Weir, Michael D.; Xu, Hockin H. K.; Kraigsley, Alison M.; Lin, Nancy J.; Lin-Gibson, Sheng; Zhou, Xuedong

2012-01-01

86

Biomimetic layer-by-layer templates for calcium phosphate biomineralization.  

PubMed

Carboxylated, sulfated and/or phosphorylated surfaces are admitted as potential optimal templates for biomimetic deposition of calcium phosphate (CaP) coatings in view of improving implants' osseointegration. Layer-by-layer films were built up consisting of anionic chondroitin sulfate (ChS), a biological carboxylated and sulfated polysaccharide and cationic poly(l-lysine) (PLL). The films were used as soft matrices to immobilize a model phosphoprotein, phosvitin (PhV). The respective roles of ChS, PLL and PhV terminal layers on the heterogeneous nucleation kinetics and the structure of CaP deposits obtained from supersaturated solutions were inspected. Critical supersaturation ratios and induction times preceding heterogeneous nucleation were precisely determined and interpreted within the framework of classical nucleation theory in order to derive the effective interfacial energies of CaP crystals. It was found that the potency of terminal layers toward CaP nucleation increased in the order: PLLcalcium bridging. Promisingly, all films templated the deposition of thin (a few micrometer thick) uniform coatings of octacalcium phosphate and possibly hydroxyapatite, the two most relevant biological phases of CaP. PMID:22683877

Abdelkebir, K; Morin-Grognet, S; Gaudière, F; Coquerel, G; Labat, B; Atmani, H; Ladam, G

2012-09-01

87

Regulation of calcium phosphate formation by amelogenins under physiological conditions  

PubMed Central

Amelogenin is essential for proper enamel formation. The present in vitro study extends our previous work at low (10 mM) ionic strength (IS) by examining the effect of amelogenin on mineralization under higher (162 mM) IS conditions found in developing enamel. Full-length phosphorylated (P173) and non-phosphorylated (rP172) amelogenins were examined, along with P148 and rP147 that lack the hydrophilic C-terminus. Calcium phosphate formation was assessed by pH change, while minerals formed were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Amelogenin self-assembly was also studied using dynamic light scattering and TEM. Results indicate that IS does not influence the effects of rP147, rP172 and P173 have on mineralization. However, in contrast to low IS findings, where both P173 and P148 stabilize initially formed amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) nanoparticles for >1 d, elongated hydroxyapatite crystals were observed after 24 h using P148 at high IS, unlike that seen with P173. Differences in self-assembly help explain these findings, which suggest that P173 and P148 may play different roles in regulating enamel mineral formation. Present data support the notion that proteolytic processing of P173 is required in vivo to induce the transformation of initial ACP phases to apatitic enamel crystals.

Kwak, Seo-Young; Green, Samantha; Wiedemann-Bidlack, Felicitas B.; Beniash, Elia; Yamakoshi, Yasuo; Simmer, James P.; Margolis, Henry C.

2012-01-01

88

Noninvasive bone replacement with a new injectable calcium phosphate biomaterial.  

PubMed

The use of injectable calcium phosphate (CaP) biomaterials in noninvasive surgery should provide efficient bone colonization and implantation. Two different kinds of injectable biomaterials are presently under development: ionic hydraulic bone cements that harden in vivo after injection, and an association of biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) ceramic granules and a water-soluble polymer vehicle (a technique particularly investigated by our group), providing an injectable CaP bone substitute (IBS). In our study, we compared these two approaches, using physicochemical characterizations and in vivo evaluations in light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and three-dimensional microtomography with synchrotron technology. Three weeks after implantation in rabbit bone, both biomaterials showed perfect biocompatibility and bioactivity, but new bone formation and degradation of the biomaterial were significantly greater for BCP granules than for ionic cement. Newly formed bone developed, binding the BCP granules together, whereas new bone grew only on the surface of the cement, which remained dense, with no obvious degradation 3 weeks after implantation. This study confirms that BCP granules carried by a cellulosic polymer conserve bioactivity and are conducive to earlier and more extensive bone substitution than a carbonated-hydroxyapatite bone cement. The presence of intergranular spaces in the BCP preparation, as shown on microtomography imaging, seems particularly favorable, allowing body fluids to reach each BCP granule immediately after implantation. Thus, the IBS functions as a completely interconnected ceramic with total open macroporosity. This new bone replacement approach should facilitate microinvasive bone surgery and local delivery of bone therapy agents. PMID:12833430

Gauthier, O; Khairoun, I; Bosco, J; Obadia, L; Bourges, X; Rau, C; Magne, D; Bouler, J M; Aguado, E; Daculsi, G; Weiss, P

2003-07-01

89

[Chondrocalcinosis : Clinical impact of intra-articular calcium phosphate crystals].  

PubMed

Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystals are known to cause acute attacks of pseudogout in joints but crystal deposition has also been reported to be associated with osteoarthritis (OA). Aside from CPPD crystals, basic calcium phosphates (BCPs), consisting of carbonate-substituted hydroxyapatite (HA), tricalcium phosphate and octacalcium phosphate, have been found in synovial fluid, synovium and cartilage of patients with OA. Although CPPD crystals have been found to be associated with OA and are an important factor in joint disease, this has also recently been associated with a genetic defect. However, according to the most recent findings, the association of BCP crystals, such as apatite with OA is much stronger, as their presence significantly correlates with the severity of cartilage degeneration. Identification of BCP crystals in OA joints remains problematic due to a lack of simple and reliable methods of detection. The clinical and pathological relevance of cartilage mineralization in patients with OA is not completely understood. It is well established that mineralization of articular cartilage is often found close to hypertrophic chondrocytes. A significant correlation between the expression of type X collagen, a marker for chondrocyte hypertrophy and cartilage mineralization was observed. In the process of endochondral ossification, the link between hypertrophy and matrix mineralization is particularly well described. Hypertrophic chondrocytes in OA cartilage and at the growth line share certain features, not only hypertrophy but also a capability to mineralize the matrix. Recent data indicate that chondrocyte hypertrophy is a key factor in articular cartilage mineralization strongly linked to OA and does not characterize a specific subset of OA patients, which has important consequences for therapeutic strategies for OA. PMID:24924727

Fuerst, M

2014-06-01

90

Development of artificial seed crystal for crystallization of calcium phosphate.  

PubMed

An artifical seed crystal material consisting of calcium silicate hydrate (5CaO x 6SiO2 x 5H2O : tobermorite crystals) applicable for phosphorus removal by crystallization was developed. Card-house shaped tobermorite crystals were developed on the seed material where orthophosphate crystallized as a calcium phosphate. The seed material can be manufactured by mixing siliceous and calcareous raw materials, pelletizing and subsequent autoclaving. Laboratory experiments were conducted to apply the new developed seed crystal material in the phosphorus recovery from sludge sidestreams of a wastewater treatment plant. In this crystallization process, the performance the carbon dioxide degassingprocess usually carried out when applying crystallization was not necessary, the hydroxyapatite was able to crystallize at a pH of 8.0 to 8.5 without precipitation of calcium carbonates. In the treatment of a sidestream with orthophosphate concentrations of 50 mgl(-1) and COD concentrations between 200 to 400 mgl(-1), phosphorus removal efficiencies ranging from 75 to 85% were observed. The seed crystal material was collected after the laboratory experiments and the chemical estimation and the germination test for agricultural reuse were performed. As a result, it was shown that the hydroxyapatite precipitated on the seed material had a 100% fusibility to soil and had characteristics to be a good nutrient source as a fertilizer for plants. PMID:11804345

Moriyama, K; Kojima, T; Minawa, Y; Matsumoto, S; Nakamachi, K

2001-11-01

91

Calcium phosphate deposition from simulated milk ultrafiltrate on different stainless steel-based surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to reduce the fouling caused by milk during heat treatment, it is important to know more about the precipitation process of calcium phosphate, the main mineral component of milk deposits. This work was mainly focused on the relationship between calcium phosphate fouling behaviour and the surface properties of the materials used as metallic substrata. The foulant solution used

Roxane Rosmaninho; Luís F. Melo

2006-01-01

92

Preparation and Characterization of Polypropylene Nanocomposites Filled with Nano Calcium Phosphate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The synthesized nano calcium phosphate by matrix mediated growth and controlled technique was used as nanofiller in the preparation of polypropylene nanocomposites. Nanocomposites with different filler concentrations were prepared. The content of nano calcium phosphate was varied from 1 to 3 wt% in the preparation of PP nanocomposites. During preparation of nanocomposites shear rate was varied by means of increase in

Abdul Ahamad; Ashok Chaudhari; Chetan Patil; Pramod Mahulikar; Dilip Hundiwale; Vikas Gite

2012-01-01

93

Improved properties of amorphous calcium phosphate fillers in remineralizing resin composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. The rationale for this study was based on the hypothesis that the mechanical strength of methacrylate composites containing the bioactive filler, amorphous calcium phosphate, can be enhanced by synthesizing this filler in the presence of glass-forming agents. Specifically, this study was conducted to prepare composites with zirconia- and silica-modified amorphous calcium phosphate fillers, and to determine whether the remineralization

Drago Skrtic; Joseph M. Antonucci; Edward D. Eanes

1996-01-01

94

Dietary and Pharmacological Control of Calcium and Phosphate Metabolism in Predialysis Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on calcium and phosphate metabolism in the predialysis stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) are scarce when compared with the available information on patients on dialysis. Visible derangements of calcium and phosphate levels start to become apparent when GFR falls below 40 ml\\/min. In some but not all patients, hyperphosphatemia may be a mortality risk predictor in CKD stages

Markus Ketteler; Patrick H. Biggar

2009-01-01

95

Effectiveness of calcium acetate as a phosphate binder in patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.  

PubMed

We compared the effectiveness of calcium acetate as a phosphate binder with that of calcium carbonate by substituting one for the other in patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Twenty patients who had been receiving calcium carbonate as a phosphate binder were instead given calcium acetate, initially with two thirds of the previous dose of elemental calcium. The calcium acetate dose was adjusted to achieve adequate calcium-phosphate balance; 65.6% of the previous dose of elemental calcium in calcium carbonate was required. Eighteen of the 20 patients completed the 3-month study. There were no significant differences in the pre-study and study levels of serum phosphate (1.81plus minus0.04 [SEM] versus 1.89plus minus0.06 mmol/L), corrected serum calcium (2.54plus minus0.04 versus 2.57plus minus0.03 mmol/L), calcium phosphate product (4.60plus minus0.15 versus 4.87plus minus0.18), serum alkaline phosphatase (64.75plus minus4.17 versus 69.94plus minus3.77 U/L), and serum parathyroid hormone (122plus minus31 versus 124plus minus27 ng/L). Three patients developed a total of five episodes of hypercalcaemia (corrected calcium level greater-than-or-equal2.85 mmol/L) and four other patients developed gastrointestinal upset. Calcium acetate can thus achieve similar phosphate control to calcium carbonate, using 65.6% of the dose of elemental calcium in calcium carbonate; however, its clinical superiority was not demonstrated in this study. PMID:11832548

Choy, B Y; Lo, W K; Cheng, I KP

1998-03-01

96

Calcium and phosphate solubility curves for parenteral nutrient solutions containing Vaminolact.  

PubMed

Calcium and phosphate incompatibility in the total parenteral nutrient (TPN) solutions is a common problem especially in neonates. Their combinations in TPN admixture must be tested before use. We here investigated the compatibility of calcium and phosphate in TPN solutions containing a newborn amino acid product, Vaminolact. The TPN test-solutions contained 10 per cent dextrose, 1, 2, or 3 per cent Vaminolact, 4 mmole/L of magnesium sulphate and various combinations of calcium gluconate and dipotassium phosphate. Precipitations and crystallizations were inspected visually and microscopically after 24 hours standing at room temperature. Solubility curves were made by plotting the maximum concentrations of calcium and phosphate at which both were still compatible in the solution. Such curves are extremely helpful for clinicians and pharmacists to administer maximum calcium and phosphate dose for individual patient requirement. PMID:9277084

Mo-Suwan, L; Puetpaiboon, A; Apiromrak, B

1997-08-01

97

Calcium phosphate formation within sol-gel prepared titania in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

Calcium phosphate formation is induced within sol-gel prepared titania and grows toward a calcium phosphate solution in which the titania is immersed. The implantation of this sol-gel prepared titania film coating on TiA16V4 core into the femurs of goats shows an accumulation of calcium phosphate within the titania film 12 weeks postoperatively, which leads to the connection of the titania film coating to the bone. Therefore, sol-gel prepared titania is probably bioactive. The results indicate that hydrated titania gel is able to generate calcium phosphate by intake of calcium and phosphate from the surrounding solution. Sufficient TiOH concentration at the titania surface is needed to start this process. Titanium could be bioactive, if its hydrolysis can be accelerated. PMID:8113236

Li, P; de Groot, K

1993-12-01

98

Fabrication of calcium phosphate–calcium sulfate injectable bone substitute using hydroxy-propyl-methyl-cellulose and citric acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, an injectable bone substitute (IBS) consisting of citric acid, chitosan, and hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose\\u000a (HPMC) as the liquid phase and tetra calcium phosphate (TTCP), dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) and calcium sulfate dehydrate\\u000a (CSD, CaSO4·2H2O) powders as the solid phase, were fabricated. Two groups were classified based on the percent of citric acid in the liquid\\u000a phase

Van Viet Thai; Byong-Taek Lee

2010-01-01

99

Composition and properties of silver-containing calcium carbonate-calcium phosphate bone cement.  

PubMed

The introduction of silver, either in the liquid phase (as silver nitrate solution: Ag(L)) or in the solid phase (as silver phosphate salt: Ag(S)) of calcium carbonate-calcium phosphate (CaCO3-CaP) bone cement, its influence on the composition of the set cement (C-Ag(L) and C-Ag(S) cements with a Ca/Ag atomic ratio equal to 10.3) and its biological properties were investigated. The fine characterisation of the chemical setting of silver-doped and reference cements was performed using FTIR spectroscopy. We showed that the formation of apatite was enhanced from the first hours of maturation of C-Ag(L) cement in comparison with the reference cement, whereas a longer period of maturation (about 10 h) was required to observe this increase for C-Ag(S) cement, although in both cases, silver was present in the set cements mainly as silver phosphate. The role of silver nitrate on the setting chemical reaction is discussed and a chemical scheme is proposed. Antibacterial activity tests (S. aureus and S. epidermidis) and in vitro cytotoxicity tests (human bone marrow stromal cells (HBMSC)) showed that silver-loaded CaCO3-CaP cements had antibacterial properties (anti-adhesion and anti-biofilm formation) without a toxic effect on HBMSC cells, making C-Ag(S) cement a promising candidate for the prevention of bone implant-associated infections. PMID:23892487

Jacquart, Sylvaine; Siadous, Robin; Henocq-Pigasse, Christel; Bareille, Reine; Roques, Christine; Rey, Christian; Combes, Christèle

2013-12-01

100

In vivo Dentin Microhardness beneath a Calcium-Phosphate Cement  

PubMed Central

A minimally invasive caries-removal technique preserves potentially repairable, caries-affected dentin. Mineral-releasing cements may promote remineralization of soft residual dentin. This study evaluated the in vivo remineralization capacity of resin-based calcium-phosphate cement (Ca-PO4) used for indirect pulp-capping. Permanent carious and sound teeth indicated for extraction were excavated and restored either with or without the Ca-PO4 base (control), followed by adhesive restoration. Study teeth were extracted after 3 months, followed by sectioning and in vitro microhardness analysis of the cavity floor to 115-µm depth. Caries-affected dentin that received acid conditioning prior to Ca-PO4 basing showed significantly increased Knoop hardness near the cavity floor. The non-etched group presented results similar to those of the non-treated group. Acid etching prior to cement application increased microhardness of residual dentin near the interface after 3 months in situ.

Bresciani, E.; Wagner, W.C.; Navarro, M.F.L.; Dickens, S.H.; Peters, M.C.

2010-01-01

101

Preparation of Mineralized Nanofibers: Collagen Fibrils Containing Calcium Phosphate  

PubMed Central

We report a straightforward, bottom-up, scalable process for preparing mineralized nanofibers. Our procedure is based on flowing feed solution, containing both inorganic cations and polymeric molecules, through a nanoporous membrane into a receiver solution with anions, which leads to the formation of mineralized nanofibers at the exit of the pores. With this strategy, we were able to achieve size control of the nanofiber diameters. We illustrate this approach by producing collagen fibrils with calcium phosphate incorporated inside the fibrils. This structure, which resembles the basic constituent of bones, assembles itself without the addition of noncollagenous proteins or their polymeric substitutes. Rheological experiments demonstrated that the stiffness of gels derived from these fibrils is enhanced by mineralization. Growth experiments of human adipose derived stem cells on these gels showed the compatibility of the fibrils in a tissue-regeneration context.

Maas, Michael; Guo, Peng; Keeney, Michael; Yang, Fan; Hsu, Tammy M.; Fuller, Gerald G.; Martin, Charles R.; Zare, Richard N.

2011-01-01

102

Positively charged calcium phosphate/polymer nanoparticles for photodynamic therapy.  

PubMed

The charge of nanoparticles influences their ability to pass through the cellular membrane, and a positive charge should be beneficial. The negative charge of calcium phosphate nanoparticles with an inner shell of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) was reversed by adding an outer shell of poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) into which the photoactive dye 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(3-hydroxyphenyl)-porphyrin (mTHPP) was loaded. The aqueous dispersion of the nanoparticles was used for photodynamic therapy with HT29 cells (human colon adenocarcinoma cells), HIG-82 cells (rabbit synoviocytes), and J774A.1 cells (murine macrophages). A high photodynamic activity (killing) together with a very low dark toxicity was observed for HIG-82 and for J774.1 cells at 2 microM dye concentration. The killing efficiency was equivalent to the pure photoactive dye that, however, needs to be administered in alcoholic solution. PMID:19924519

Klesing, J; Wiehe, A; Gitter, B; Gräfe, S; Epple, M

2010-03-01

103

Novel dental adhesive containing antibacterial agents and calcium phosphate nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Secondary caries remains the main reason for dental restoration failure. Replacement of failed restorations accounts for 50-70% of all restorations performed. Antibacterial adhesives could inhibit biofilm acids at tooth-restoration margins, and calcium phosphate (CaP) ions could remineralize tooth lesions. The objectives of this study were to: (1) incorporate nanoparticles of silver (NAg), quaternary ammonium dimethacrylate (QADM), and nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) into bonding agent; and (2) investigate their effects on dentin bonding and microcosm biofilms. An experimental primer was made with pyromellitic glycerol dimethacrylate (PMGDM) and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA). An adhesive was made with bisphenol-A-glycerolate dimethacrylate (BisGMA) and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA). NAg was incorporated into primer at 0.1wt%. The adhesive contained 0.1% NAg and 10% QADM, and 0-40% NACP. Incorporating NAg into primer and NAg-QADM-NACP into adhesive did not adversely affect dentin bond strength (p>0.1). SEM showed numerous resin tags, and TEM revealed NAg and NACP in dentinal tubules. Viability of human saliva microcosm biofilms on primer/adhesive/composite disks was substantially reduced via NAg and QADM. Metabolic activity, lactic acid, and colony-forming units of biofilms were much lower on the new bonding agents than control (p<0.05). In conclusion, novel dental bonding agents containing NAg, QADM and NACP were developed with the potential to kill residual bacteria in the tooth cavity and inhibit the invading bacteria along tooth-restoration margins, with NACP to remineralize tooth lesions. The novel method of combining antibacterial agents (NAg and QADM) with remineralizing agent (NACP) may have wide applicability to other adhesives for caries inhibition.

Melo, Mary Anne S.; Cheng, Lei; Weir, Michael D.; Hsia, Ru-ching; Rodrigues, Lidiany K. A.; Xu, Hockin H. K.

2013-01-01

104

Structure and Degradation Behaviour of Calcium Phosphate Glasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some studies have shown a relationship between glass structure and in vitro mineralization, generally associated with the rate of glass degradation, nature of released ions and subsequent Ca-P precipitation on glass surfaces when immersed in a Simulated Body Fluid (SBF). The knowledge of the ionic species distribution in glasses and of the involved bond strengths can be used to assess the in vitro behaviour of a glass. The role of ions such as silicon or titanium is of major importance for the development of new compositions and also for the control of glass degradation behaviour. A comparative study with two calcium phosphate glasses series was performed: Both glasses series - one with Si and another with Ti - include P2O5 and alkaline earth ions in their compositions. Surface reactivity of glasses from the SiO2-containing system have been studied in SBF showing the precipitation of a Ca-P surface layer that increases with increasing MgO/CaO ratio. In glasses from the TiO2-containing series it is shown that the increase of TiO2 contributes for the stabilization of the glass network thus allowing the control of their degradation rate when immersed in SBF. The relationship between structural features of these calcium-phosphate glasses and their degradation behaviour in SBF is discussed in terms of the structural role of Si and Ti ions. It is concluded that glasses with less interconnected species favour the Ca-P surface precipitation. The understanding of this relationship in synthetic physiological fluids is expected to allow the tailoring of glass degradation rates in complex biological systems.

Silva, A. M. B.; Oliveira, J. M. M.; Correia, R. N.; Fernandes, M. H. V.

2011-10-01

105

Amorphous calcium phosphate in the stylets produced by a marine worm (Nemertea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Electron microprobe analyses of the calcified stylets produced by the nemertean wormAmphiporus formidabilis reveal large calcium and phosphorus peaks. IR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction indicate that the calcium and phosphorus in stylets constitute an amorphous calcium phosphate rather than a crystalline mineral phase.

S. A. Stricker; S. Weiner

1985-01-01

106

Injectable calcium-phosphate-based composites for skeletal bone treatments.  

PubMed

Alpha-tricalcium-phosphate-based bone cements hydrolyze and set, producing calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite. They can result in an effective solution for bone defect reconstruction due to their biocompatibility, bioactivity and adaptation to shape and bone defect sizes, together with an excellent contact between bone and graft. Moreover, the integration of hydrogel phase based on poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) to H-cem-composed of ?-tricalcium phosphate (98% wt) and hydroxyapatite (2% wt)-allows improving the mechanical and biological properties of the cement. The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of the PVA on relevant properties for the final use of the injectable bone substitute, such as setting, hardening, injectability and in vivo behaviour. It was shown that by using PVA it is possible to modulate the setting and hardening properties: large increase in injectability time (1 h) in relation with the plain cement (few minutes) was achieved. Moreover, in vivo tests confirmed the ability of the composite to enhance bone healing in trabecular tissue. Histological results from critical size defects produced in rabbit distal femoral condyles showed after 12 weeks implantation a greater deposition of new tissue on bone-composite interfaces in comparison to bone-cement interfaces. The quality of bone growth was confirmed through histomorphometric and microhardness analysis. Bone formation in the composite implantation sites was significantly higher than in H-cem implants at both times of evaluation. PMID:22456083

Ambrosio, L; Guarino, V; Sanginario, V; Torricelli, P; Fini, M; Ginebra, M P; Planell, J A; Giardino, R

2012-04-01

107

Growth units and nucleation: The case of calcium phosphates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calcium phosphates are precipitated at 37°C from solutions the pH of which ranges from 5.0 to 11.0. Despite the fact that the supersaturations of hydroxyapatite HAP, octocalcium phosphate OCP and brushite B are often in the order HAP?OCP?B, brushite nucleates more easily than OCP and HAP at low pH, while OCP nucleates more easily than HAP at mean to high pH. These facts cannot be explained, as usually, by the only differences in the surface free energies of the three solid phases. On the other hand, they may be explained by assuming that the values of the kinetic coefficients change as a function of the concentration in the proper growth units which have to integrate in the nuclei of either phase. In the model we propose, the kinetic coefficients of OCP and HAP are smaller than that of B by 10 and 18 orders of magnitude at pH=6.5, differences which reduce to 3 orders of magnitude at pH=10.0. Accordingly, nucleation of OCP and HAP is favoured with increasing pH.

Boistelle, Roland; Lopez-Valero, Isabel

1990-05-01

108

Investigating calcium polyphosphate addition to a conventional calcium phosphate cement for bone-interfacing applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) are of great interest in bone regeneration applications because of their biocompatibility and osteoconductivity, and as delivery vehicles for therapeutics; however, delivery applications have been limited by adverse interactions between therapeutics and the cement setting reaction. Amorphous calcium polyphosphate (CPP) yields a biodegradable material with a demonstrated drug delivery capacity following appropriate processing. The incorporation of drug-loaded CPP into a CPC is under consideration as a method of minimizing adverse interactions and extending drug release. This thesis represents the first investigation into the effects of CPP addition on the properties, setting and antibiotic release profile of a conventional apatitic calcium phosphate cement. As-made, gelled and vancomycin-loaded CPP particulate were added to the powder component of a conventional dicalcium phosphate/tetracalcium phosphate CPC. The setting behaviour, set properties and microstructure of the resulting CPP-CPCs were evaluated with setting time testing (Gilmore needle method), pH testing, mechanical testing, SEM imaging, XRD and FTIR analysis. In vitro degradation and elution behaviour were evaluated by monitoring calcium release (atomic absorbance spectroscopy), mechanical strength and vancomycin release (UV-visual spectrophotometry). CPP addition was found to increase the setting time, reduce the mechanical strength and inhibit the conversion of the CPC starting powders to the set apatitic phase. The most likely mechanism for the observed effect of CPP addition was the adsorption of polyphosphate chains on the particle surfaces, which would inhibit the dissolution of the starting powders and the conversion of apatite precursor phases to apatite, leading to reduced mechanical properties. The detrimental effects of CPP were reduced by limiting the CPP fraction to less than a few weight per cent and increasing the size of the CPP particulate. CPP-containing CPCs were found to degrade more rapidly than the CPP-free controls. The ability of drug-loaded CPP to minimize adverse interactions between drug and cement could not be determined because of the adverse effect of CPP itself and the low vancomycin loads studied, but there was evidence that vancomycin release from apatitic CPCs could be extended through the use of loaded CPP.

Krausher, Jennifer Lynn

109

The initial phases of calcium and magnesium phosphates precipitated from solutions of high to medium concentrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The precipitation of calcium and magnesium phosphates is performed at 25°C by mixing solutions of ammonium phosphate and solutions of calcium and magnesium chlorides under the condition [ P] = [ Ca] + [ Mg] in large pH intervals. Before any nucleation the phosphate concentration ranges from 0.50M to 0.01M. The phases first precipitated are CaHPO 4·2H 2O (brushite), CaHPO 4 (monetite), Ca 3(PO 4) 2· xH 2O (amorphous calcium phosphate), MgNH 4PO 4·6H 2O (struvite), and MgHPO 4·3H 2O (newberyite). The precipitation fields of each phase are determined and discussed as a function of pH, composition and supersaturation. The solutions are even supersaturated with respect to several other calcium phosphates but they never occur first even if their supersaturation is the highest.

Abbona, F.; Madsen, H. E. Lundager; Boistelle, R.

1986-04-01

110

Long-Term (6 Months) Cross-Over Comparison of Calcium Acetate with Calcium Carbonate as Phosphate Binder  

Microsoft Academic Search

A previous short-term study of 10 weeks in 8 patients had shown us that with half the dose of elemental calcium, calcium acetate (CaAc) could control predialysis plasma phosphate (PPO4) as well as calcium carbonate (CaCO3) but that the incidence of hypercalcemia was not decreased. To better appreciate the value of CaAc in comparison to CaCO3, CaAc was given to

F. Ben Hamida; I. El Esper; M. Compagnon; Ph. Morinière; A. Fournier

1993-01-01

111

Polymeric additives to enhance the functional properties of calcium phosphate cements  

PubMed Central

The vast majority of materials used in bone tissue engineering and regenerative medicine are based on calcium phosphates due to their similarity with the mineral phase of natural bone. Among them, calcium phosphate cements, which are composed of a powder and a liquid that are mixed to obtain a moldable paste, are widely used. These calcium phosphate cement pastes can be injected using minimally invasive surgery and adapt to the shape of the defect, resulting in an entangled network of calcium phosphate crystals. Adding an organic phase to the calcium phosphate cement formulation is a very powerful strategy to enhance some of the properties of these materials. Adding some water-soluble biocompatible polymers in the calcium phosphate cement liquid or powder phase improves physicochemical and mechanical properties, such as injectability, cohesion, and toughness. Moreover, adding specific polymers can enhance the biological response and the resorption rate of the material. The goal of this study is to overview the most relevant advances in this field, focusing on the different types of polymers that have been used to enhance specific calcium phosphate cement properties.

Perez, Roman A; Kim, Hae-Won

2012-01-01

112

An efficient calcium phosphate nanoparticle-based nonviral vector for gene delivery  

PubMed Central

Background: Smaller nanoparticles facilitate the delivery of DNA into cells through endocytosis and improve transfection efficiency. The aim of this study was to determine whether protamine sulfate-coated calcium phosphate (PS-CaP) could stabilize particle size and enhance transfection efficiency. Methods: pEGFP-C1 green fluorescence protein was employed as an indicator of transfection efficiency. Atomic force microscopy was used to evaluate the morphology and the size of the particles, and an MTT assay was introduced to detect cell viability and inhibition. The classical calcium phosphate method was used as the control. Results: Atomic force microscopy images showed that the PS-CaP were much smaller than classical calcium phosphate particles. In 293 FT, HEK 293, and NIH 3T3 cells, the transfection efficiency of PS-CaP was higher than for the classical calcium phosphate particles. The difference in efficiencies implies that the smaller nanoparticles may promote the delivery of DNA into cells through endocytosis and could improve transfection efficiency. In addition, PS-CaP could be used to transfect HEK 293 cells after one week of storage at 4°C with a lesser extent of efficiency loss compared with classical calcium phosphate, indicating that protamine sulfate may increase the stability of calcium phosphate nanoparticles. The cell viability inhibition assay indicated that both nanoparticles show similar low cell toxicity. Conclusion: PS-CaP can be used as a better nonviral transfection vector compared with classical calcium phosphate.

Liu, Yachun; Wang, Tao; He, Fangli; Liu, Qian; Zhang, Dexi; Xiang, Shuanglin; Su, Shengpei; Zhang, Jian

2011-01-01

113

Effects of Dietary Phosphate and Calcium Intake on Fibroblast Growth Factor-23  

PubMed Central

Summary Background and objectives Little is known about the influence of dietary phosphate intake on fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) and its subsequent effects on vitamin D levels. This study addresses changes in intact FGF23 (iFGF23) and C-terminal FGF23 (cFGF23), phosphaturia, and levels of vitamin D on high and low phosphate and calcium intake. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Ten healthy subjects adhered to a diet low or high in phosphate and calcium content for 36 hours each with a 1-week interval during which subjects adhered to their usual diet. Serum phosphate, calcium, vitamin D metabolites, parathyroid hormone (PTH), and FGF23 levels (cFGF23 and iFGF23) were measured several times a day. Phosphate, calcium, and creatinine excretion was measured in 24-hour urine on all study days. Results Serum phosphate levels and urinary phosphate increased during high dietary phosphate intake (from 1.11 to 1.32 mmol/L, P < 0.0001 and 21.6 to 28.8 mmol/d, P = 0.0005, respectively). FGF23 serum levels increased during high dietary phosphate/calcium intake (cFGF23 from 60 to 72 RU/ml, P < 0.001; iFGF23 from 33 to 37 ng/L, P = 0.003), whereas PTH declined. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D) showed an inverse relation with FGF23. Conclusions Variation in dietary phosphate and calcium intake induces changes in FGF23 (on top of a circadian rhythm) and 1,25D blood levels as well as in urinary phosphate excretion. These changes are detectable the day after the change in the phosphate content of meals. Higher FGF23 levels are associated with phosphaturia and a decline in 1,25D levels.

van Ittersum, Frans J.; Buttler, Rahel M.; Heijboer, Annemieke C.; Blankenstein, Marinus A.; ter Wee, Piet M.

2011-01-01

114

Calcium-Based Phosphate Binders Are Appropriate in Chronic Renal Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many nephrologists feel threatened by the allegation that, in patients with chronic renal failure, treatment with calcium-based phosphate binders (calcium acetate and calcium carbonate) may induce coronary artery and cardiac calcification, thereby imposing a greater risk for death compared with sevelamer, a non-calcium-based binder. Acknowledging that drug manu- facturers are not unaware of the marketing advantage to their product consequent

Eli A. Friedman

2006-01-01

115

Preparation of in situ hardening composite microcarriers: Calcium phosphate cement combined with alginate for bone regeneration  

PubMed Central

Novel microcarriers consisting of calcium phosphate cement and alginate were prepared for use as three-dimensional scaffolds for the culture and expansion of cells that are effective for bone tissue engineering. The calcium phosphate cement-alginate composite microcarriers were produced by an emulsification of the composite aqueous solutions mixed at varying ratios (calcium phosphate cement powder/alginate solution?=?0.8–1.2) in an oil bath and the subsequent in situ hardening of the compositions during spherodization. Moreover, a porous structure could be easily created in the solid microcarriers by soaking the produced microcarriers in water and a subsequent freeze-drying process. Bone mineral-like apatite nanocrystallites were shown to rapidly develop on the calcium phosphate cement–alginate microcarriers under moist conditions due to the conversion of the ?-tricalcium phosphate phase in the calcium phosphate cement into a carbonate–hydroxyapatite. Osteoblastic cells cultured on the microspherical scaffolds were proven to be viable, with an active proliferative potential during 14 days of culture, and their osteogenic differentiation was confirmed by the determination of alkaline phosphatase activity. The in situ hardening calcium phosphate cement–alginate microcarriers developed herein may be used as potential three-dimensional scaffolds for cell delivery and tissue engineering of bone.

Park, Jung-Hui; Lee, Eun-Jung; Knowles, Jonathan C

2014-01-01

116

Synthesis of spherical calcium phosphate particles for dental and orthopedic applications  

PubMed Central

Calcium phosphate materials have been used increasingly in the past 40 years as bone graft substitutes in the dental and orthopedic fields. Accordingly, numerous fabrication methods have been proposed and used. However, the controlled production of spherical calcium phosphate particles remains a challenge. Since such particles are essential for the synthesis of pastes and cements delivered into the host bone by minimally-invasive approaches, the aim of the present document is to review their synthesis and applications. For that purpose, production methods were classified according to the used reagents (solutions, slurries, pastes, powders), dispersion media (gas, liquid, solid), dispersion tools (nozzle, propeller, sieve, mold), particle diameters of the end product (from 10 nm to 10 mm), and calcium phosphate phases. Low-temperature calcium phosphates such as monetite, brushite or octacalcium phosphate, as well as high-temperature calcium phosphates, such as hydroxyapatite, ?-tricalcium phosphate or tetracalcium phosphate, were considered. More than a dozen production methods and over hundred scientific publications were discussed.

Bohner, Marc; Tadier, Solene; van Garderen, Noemie; de Gasparo, Alex; Dobelin, Nicola; Baroud, Gamal

2013-01-01

117

Increased bone formation using calcium sulfate-calcium phosphate composite graft.  

PubMed

Calcium phosphates (CaPO4) and faster-resorbing calcium sulfate (CaSO4) are successfully employed as synthetic bone grafts for treatment of contained defects. We used a canine critical-sized bone defect model to study an injectable CaSO4/CaPO4 composite graft that incorporated a matrix of CaSO4 and dicalcium phosphate dihydrate into which beta-tricalcium phosphate granules were distributed. The area fraction, ultimate compressive stress, and elastic modulus of restored bone and the relative rates of material resorption were compared between the CaSO4/CaPO4 composite graft and pure CaSO4 pellets and to normal canine bone. The area fraction of bone in stained sections and the ultimate compressive stress of the regenerated bone were greater using the CaSO4/CaPO4 composite graft compared to pure CaSO4 pellets after 13 and 26 weeks and were greater than normal bone. The elastic modulus of restored bone in defects treated with CaSO4/CaPO4 composite graft was greater than in defects treated with CaSO4 pellets after 26 weeks, but similar to specimens of normal bone. A small amount of CaSO4/CaPO4 composite graft and no CaSO4 pellets remained after 13 or 26 weeks. This novel CaSO4/CaPO4 composite holds promise for clinical applications where a strong, injectable, slower-resorbing, and biocompatible bone graft substitute would be advantageous. PMID:17415007

Urban, Robert M; Turner, Thomas M; Hall, Deborah J; Inoue, Nozomu; Gitelis, Steven

2007-06-01

118

Calcium phosphate cements prepared by acid-base reaction  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the authors investigate the characteristics of calcium phosphate cements (CPC) prepared by an exothermic acid-base reaction between NH[sub 4]H[sub 2]PO[sub 4]-based fertilizer (Poly-N) and calcium aluminate compounds (CAC), such as 3CaO[center dot]Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] (C[sub 3]A), CaO[center dot] Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] (CA), and CaO[center dot] 2Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] (CA[sub 2]), in a series of integrated studies of reaction kinetics, interfacial reactions, in-situ phase transformations, and microstructure development. Two groups were compared: untreated and hydrothermally treated CPC specimens. The extent of reactivity of CAC with Poly-N at 25[degrees]C was in the following order: CA [gt] C[sub 3]A much+[gt] CA[sub 2]. The formation of a NH[sub 4]CaPO[sub 4][center dot]xH[sub 2]O salt during this reaction was responsible for the development of strength in the CPC specimens. The in-situ phase transformation of amorphous NH[sub 4]CaPO[sub 4][center dot]xH8[sub 2]O into crystalline Ca[sub 5](PO[sub 4])[sub 3](OH) and the conversion of hydrous Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] gel [yields] [gamma]-AlOOH occur in cement bodies during exposure in an autoclave to temperatures up to 300[degrees]C.

Sugama, T.; Allan, M. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Applied Science Dept.)

1992-08-01

119

Amorphous Calcium Phosphate-Based Bioactive Polymeric Composites for Mineralized Tissue Regeneration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP), a postulated precursor in the formation of biological hydroxyapatite, has been evaluated as a filler phase in bioactive polymeric composites that utilize dental monomers to form the matrix phase on polymerization. In add...

2003-01-01

120

Bioactive calcium phosphate coating formed on micro-arc oxidized magnesium by chemical deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to improve the bioactivity of the micro-arc oxidized magnesium, a calcium phosphate coating was formed on the surface of micro-arc oxidized magnesium using a chemical method. The microstructures of the substrate and the calcium phosphate coating before and after the simulated body fluids (SBF) incubation were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the calcified coating was composed of calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (HA) and dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD). After SBF incubation, some new apatite formation on the calcified coating surface from SBF could be found. The corrosion behaviours of the samples in SBF were also investigated by potentiodynamic polarization curves and immersion tests. The results showed that calcium phosphate coating increased the corrosion potential, and decreased the hydrogen gas release.

Liu, G. Y.; Hu, J.; Ding, Z. K.; Wang, C.

2011-01-01

121

Polymeric Bioresorbable Composites Containing an Amorphous Calcium Phosphate Polymer Ceramic for Bone Repair and Replacement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A bioresorbable composite of a non-crystalline calcium phosphate ceramic synthesized within an encapsulating microspheres of bioresorbable polymeric material for use in bone repair and replacement is provided. Also provides are methods for producing these...

A. M. Ambrosio C. T. Laurencin J. Sahota

2002-01-01

122

Characterization of a silver-incorporated calcium phosphate film by RBS and its antimicrobial effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A thin calcium phosphate film was synthesized on both commercially pure Ti and Si wafers by electron beam evaporation of hydroxyapatite as an evaporant with simultaneous Ar ion beam bombardments. Silver was introduced into an ion-beam-assisted deposition of a calcium phosphate thin film for antimicrobial effect. The amount of incorporated silver ions was controlled by immersing calcium-phosphate-coated samples in different AgNO3 concentrations, and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) was employed to measure the amounts of substituted silver. The higher concentration of silver in the calcium phosphate film was more effective in reducing the bacteria of Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 and Streptococcus mutans OMZ 65 on contact with respect to controls.

Han, I.-H.; Lee, I.-S.; Song, J.-H.; Lee, M.-H.; Park, J.-C.; Lee, G.-H.; Sun, X.-D.; Chung, S.-M.

2007-09-01

123

Quartz crystal microbalance for comparison of calcium phosphate precipitation on planar and rough phospholipid bilayers.  

PubMed

The planar and rough phospholipid bilayers at the surfaces of quartz crystal and titania-modified quartz crystal were fabricated via the surface modification, respectively, and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and piezoelectric measurement. The formation of calcium phosphate on planar and rough phospholipid bilayers was investigated in detail using in situ quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The obtained results showed that the calcium phosphate precipitation was closely related to the roughness and surface potential of phospholipid bilayers. Compared with planar phospholipid bilayers, the rough phospholipid bilayers exhibited a higher deposition rate of calcium phosphate. The presence of anionic phosphatidylserine (PS) in phosphatidylcholine (PC)/PS phospholipid induced PC/PS surface with negative charge, thus showing significantly enhanced calcium phosphate precipitation. PMID:24495457

Yang, Zhengpeng; Zhang, Chunjing; Huang, Lina

2014-04-01

124

Ethoxylated Bisphenol Dimethacrylate-based Amorphous Calcium Phosphate Composites  

PubMed Central

Improving the anti-demineralizing/remineralizing and mechanical properties of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) composites has been the focus of our recent research. In this study, an ethoxylated bisphenol A dimethacrylate (EBPADMA) was blended with triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA), 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and methacryloxyethyl phthalate (MEP) to form three experimental resins. The resins were formulated to have 3 different EBPADMA/TEGDMA molar ratios (0.50, 0.85 and 1.35) and a constant HEMA/MEP molar ratio (8.26 ± 0.33). The resins were photo-activated for visible light polymerization and composites were prepared by admixture of either unmilled or milled zirconia-ACP filler (40 % by mass). One aim of the study was to test if improved ion release can be achieved by elevating the EBPADMA/TEGDMA ratio while lowering the level of surface active methacryloxyethyl phthalate in the resin without adversely affecting the strength, degree of vinyl conversion and water sorption of composites. A second aim was to assess the effect of using milled vs. unmilled ACP on these properties of the various composites. Both copolymers blends and composites were assessed for the biaxial flexure strength, degree of vinyl conversion and water sorption, and the composites were evaluated for the mineral ion release as well. Overall ion release of all composites was significantly above the theoretical minimum necessary for remineralization and calcium ion release was not impeded by calcium binding with the carboxylic acid groups of methacryloxyethyl phthalate. Increased supersaturation was attained with increasing EBPADMA/TEGDMA ratio in the resin. Variations in resin composition had no effect on the biaxial flexure strength or degree of vinyl conversion of composites. The biaxial flexure strength values of the milled ACP composites were higher than the biaxial flexure strength values of unmilled ACP composites (56 % and 79 %, respectively for dry and wet specimens). Degree of vinyl conversion of composites was only moderately reduced (13.6 % and 7.3 %, for unmilled and milled ACP, respectively) compared to unfilled resins [(80.2 ± 3.1) %]. Water sorption decreased in the following order: unmilled ACP composites > milled ACP composites ? copolymer blends. Fine-tuning of the resin and utilizing milled ACP filler improved the remineralizing potential of ACP composites without impeding their vinyl conversion, mechanical strength or water sorption.

Skrtic, D.; Antonucci, J.M.; Liu, D.W.

2006-01-01

125

Calcium phosphate coating on magnesium alloy by biomimetic method: Investigation of morphology, composition and formation process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnesium alloy has similar mechanical properties with natural bone and can degrade via corrosion in the electrolytic environment\\u000a of the human body. Calcium phosphate has been proven to possess bioactivity and bone inductivity. In order to integrate both\\u000a advantages, calcium phosphate coating was fabricated on magnesium alloy by a biomimetic method. Supersaturated calcification\\u000a solutions (SCSs) with different Ca\\/P ratio and

Jing-xin Yang; Yan-peng Jiao; Qing-shui Yin; Yu Zhang; Tao Zhang

2008-01-01

126

In Situ Laser Coating of Calcium Phosphate on TC4 Surface for Enhancing Bioactivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Titanium alloy has been a successful implant material owing to its excellent ratio of strength to weight, toughness, and bio-inert oxide surface. Significant progress has been made in improving the bioactivity of titanium alloy by coating its oxide surface with calcium phosphates. In the present study, in situ coating was reported on Ti6Al4V (TC4) surface with calcium phosphate (Ca-P) bioceramics

Chi DENG; Yong WANG; Ya-ping ZHANG; Jia-cheng GAO

2007-01-01

127

Calcium phosphate mineralization with linear poly(ethylene imine): a time-resolved study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have earlier shown that linear poly(ethylene imine) (LPEI) is an efficient growth modifier for calcium phosphate mineralization\\u000a from aqueous solution (Shkilnyy et al., Langmuir, 2008, 24 (5), 2102). The current study addresses the growth process and\\u000a the reason why LPEI is such an effective additive. To that end, the solution pH and the calcium and phosphate concentrations\\u000a were monitored

Andriy Shkilnyy; Stefanie Schöne; Claudia Rumplasch; Annett Uhlmann; Annett Hedderich; Christina Günter; Andreas Taubert

2011-01-01

128

Effect of phospholipids on the transformation of amorphous calcium phosphate to hydroxyapatite in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conversion of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) to crystalline hydroxyapatite (HA) was studiedin vitro in the presence or absence of phosphatidyl serine (PS) and other phospholipids. ACP transformation and HA crystal growth\\u000a were monitored by electron microscopy, selected-area electron diffraction and X-ray diffraction, and by measuring supernatant\\u000a calcium and phosphate. PS, and other acidic phospholipids, had a significant stabilizing effect

R. E. Wuthier; E. D. Eanes

1975-01-01

129

Transfecting mammalian cells: optimization of critical parameters affecting calcium-phosphate precipitate formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA-calcium phosphate co-precipitates arise spontaneously in supersaturated solutions. Highly effective precipitates for transfection purposes, however, can be generated only in a very narrow range of physico-chemical conditions that control the initiation and growth of precipitate complexes. The concentrations of calcium and phosphate are the main factors influencing characteristics of the precipitate complex, but other parameters, such as temperature, DNA concentration

Martin Jordan; Annette Schallhorn; Florian M. Wurm

1996-01-01

130

Insight into Shape Control Mechanism of Calcium Phosphate Nanoparticles in Reverse Micelles Solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present experiment demonstrates a systematic morphosynthesis of calcium phosphate crystals with controlled morphology in reverse micelles solution of CTAB\\/n?pentanol\\/water\\/cyclohexane. Well?defined morphologies of calcium phosphate particles, such as nanowires, tablets, brushlike particles, and fiber bundles, can be prepared. The microstructural characteristics of the CTAB\\/n?pentanol\\/water\\/cyclohexane reverse micelles solution has been investigated by FTIR spectroscopic, P NMR, and UV?visible absorption spectra techniques,

Chen Lai; Shaoqiu Tang; Yingjun Wang; Kun Wei; Shiyin Zhang

2005-01-01

131

Study of controlled tetracycline release from porous calcium phosphate\\/polyhydroxybutyrate composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Porous calcium phosphate ceramics were prepared by sintering of mixtures of nanocrystalline apatitic calcium phosphate and\\u000a fibrous natural cotton cellulose after pressing at temperatures of 1150 ?C and 1250 ?C. Micro-and macropores were present\\u000a in microstructures of ceramic samples. The microstructures of porous ceramics were similar to those observed in bone tissues\\u000a and fiber-like randomly oriented texture was observed in

L’ Medvecký; R. Štulajterová; J. Brian?in

2007-01-01

132

Human umbilical cord stem cell encapsulation in calcium phosphate scaffolds for bone engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) require an invasive procedure to harvest, and have lower self-renewal potential with aging. Umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) are a relatively new stem cell source; this study reveals a self-setting and load-bearing calcium phosphate construct that encapsulates these stem cells. The flexural strength (mean±sd; n=5) of the hUCMSC-encapsulating calcium phosphate cement (CPC)

Liang Zhao; Michael D. Weir; Hockin H. K. Xu

2010-01-01

133

Current perspectives: calcium phosphate nanocoatings and nanocomposite coatings in dentistry.  

PubMed

The purpose of coatings on implants is to achieve some or all of the improvements in biocompatibility, bioactivity, and increased protection from the release of harmful or unnecessary metal ions. During the last decade, there has been substantially increased interest in nanomaterials in biomedical science and dentistry. Nanocomposites can be described as a combination of two or more nanomaterials. By this approach, it is possible to manipulate mechanical properties, such as strength and modulus of the composites, to become closer to those of natural bone. This is feasible with the help of secondary substitution phases. Currently, the most common composite materials used for clinical applications are those selected from a handful of available and well-characterized biocompatible ceramics and natural and synthetic polymers. This approach is currently being explored in the development of a new generation of nanocomposite coatings with a wider range of oral and dental applications to promote osseointegration. The aim of this review is to give a brief introduction into the new advances in calcium phosphate nanocoatings and their composites, with a range of materials such as bioglass, carbon nanotubes, silica, ceramic oxide, and other nanoparticles being investigated or used in dentistry. PMID:23857642

Choi, A H; Ben-Nissan, B; Matinlinna, J P; Conway, R C

2013-10-01

134

Porous calcium phosphate cement for alveolar bone regeneration.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to provide information on material degradation and subsequent alveolar bone formation, using composites consisting of calcium phosphate cement (CPC) and poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) with different microsphere morphology (hollow vs dense). In addition to the plain CPC-PLGA composites, loading the microspheres with the growth factors platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) was investigated. A total of four different CPC composites were applied into one-wall mandible bone defects in beagle dogs in order to evaluate them as candidates for alveolar bone regeneration. These composites consisted of CPC and hollow or dense PLGA microspheres, with or without the addition of PDGF-IGF growth factor combination (CPC-hPLGA, CPC-dPLGA, CPC-hPLGAGF , CPC-dPLGAGF ). Histological evaluation revealed significantly more bone formation in CPC-dPLGA than in CPC-hPLGA composites. The combination PDGF-IGF enhanced bone formation in CPC-hPLGA materials, but significantly more bone formation occurred when CPC-dPLGA was used, with or without the addition of growth factors. The findings demonstrated that CPC-dPLGA composite was the biologically superior material for use as an off-the-shelf material, due to its good biocompatibility, enhanced degradability and superior bone formation. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:22777771

Félix Lanao, R P; Hoekstra, J W M; Wolke, J G C; Leeuwenburgh, S C G; Plachokova, A S; Boerman, O C; van den Beucken, J J J P; Jansen, J A

2014-06-01

135

Degree of vinyl conversion in experimental amorphous calcium phosphate composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental dental composite, based on amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) with the potential to arrest caries development and regenerate mineral-deficient tooth structures has recently been developed. The aim of this study was to assess the degree of vinyl conversion (DVC) attained in experimental composites based on zirconia-modified ACP. Photo-activated resins were based on ethoxylated bisphenol A dimethacrylate (EBPADMA) [ETHM series with varying EBPADMA/triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) molar ratios assigned 0.5-ETHM I, 0.85-ETHM II and 1.35-ETHM III], or 2,2-bis[p-(2'-hydroxy-3'-methacryloxypropoxy)phenyl]-propane (Bis-GMA) [BTHZ series]. To asses a possible effect of filler particle size on DVC, composites containing 60 mass % resin and 40 mass % of either milled ACP (mACP; median diameter d m = 0.9 ?m) or coarse ACP (cACP; d m = 6.0 ?m) were prepared, and irradiated with LED curing unit for 40 s. The DVC was calculated as the % change in the ratio of the integrated peak areas between the aliphatic and aromatic absorption bands determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The highest DVCs values were attained in mACP-BTHZ, cACP-BTHZ and mACP-ETHM III formulations. DVC of tested ACP composites (on average (76.76 ± 4.43)%) compares well with or exceeds DVCs values reported for the majority of commercial materials.

Tarle, Z.; Kneževi?, A.; Matoševi?, D.; Škrti?, D.; Risti?, M.; Prskalo, K.; Musi?, S.

2009-04-01

136

Remineralization of demineralized enamel via calcium phosphate nanocomposite.  

PubMed

Secondary caries remains the main problem limiting the longevity of composite restorations. The objective of this study was to investigate the remineralization of demineralized human enamel in vitro via a nanocomposite containing nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP). NACP were synthesized by a spray-drying technique and incorporated into a dental resin. First, caries-like subsurface enamel lesions were created via an acidic solution. Then, NACP nanocomposite or a commercial fluoride-releasing control composite was placed on the demineralized enamel, along with control enamel without a composite. These specimens were then treated with a cyclic demineralization/remineralization regimen for 30 days. Quantitative microradiography showed typical enamel subsurface demineralization before cyclic demineralization/remineralization treatment, and significant remineralization in enamel under the NACP nanocomposite after the demineralization/remineralization treatment. The NACP nanocomposite had the highest enamel remineralization (mean ± SD; n = 6) of 21.8 ± 3.7%, significantly higher than the 5.7 ± 6.9% for fluoride-releasing composite (p < 0.05). The enamel group without composite had further demineralization of -26.1 ± 16.2%. In conclusion, a novel NACP nanocomposite was effective in remineralizing enamel lesions in vitro. Its enamel remineralization was 4-fold that of a fluoride-releasing composite control. Combined with the good mechanical and acid-neutralization properties reported earlier, the new NACP nanocomposite is promising for remineralization of demineralized tooth structures. PMID:22933607

Weir, M D; Chow, L C; Xu, H H K

2012-10-01

137

Dibasic calcium phosphate dihydrate, USP material compatibility with gamma radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gamma radiation is a commonly used method to reduce the microbial bioburden in compatible materials when it is applied at appropriate dose levels. Gamma irradiation kills bacteria and mold by breaking down the organism’s DNA and inhibiting cell division. The purpose of this study is to determine the radiation dosage to be used to treat Dibasic Calcium Phosphate Dihydrate, USP (DCPD) and to evaluate its physicochemical effects if any, on this material. This material will be submitted to various doses of gamma radiation that were selected based on literature review and existing regulations that demonstrate that this method is effective to reduce or eliminate microbial bioburden in natural source and synthetic materials. Analytical testing was conducted to the DCPD exposed material in order to demonstrate that gamma radiation does not alter the physicochemical properties and material still acceptable for use in the manufacture of pharmaceutical products. The results obtained through this study were satisfactory and demonstrated that the gamma irradiation dosages from 5 to 30 kGy can be applied to DCPD without altering its physicochemical properties. These are supported by the Assay test data evaluation of lots tested before and after gamma irradiation implementation that show no significant statistical difference between irradiated and non irradiated assay results. The results of this study represent an achievement for the industry since they provide as an alternative the use of Gamma irradiation technology to control the microbial growth in DCPD.

Betancourt Quiles, Maritza

138

Macrophage and osteoblast responses to biphasic calcium phosphate microparticles.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to investigate in vitro the biological events leading to ectopic bone formation in contact with microporous biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) ceramics. After implantation, microparticles may arise from their degradation and induce an inflammatory response involving macrophages. The secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines may affect the differentiation of osteoblasts. Mouse macrophage-like (J774) and osteoblast-like (MC3T3-E1) cells were cultured in the presence of BCP microparticles of different sizes (<20, 40-80, or 80-200 microm). The smallest microparticles decreased the viability of both cell types as measured with LDH and methyl tetrazolium salt assays, and enhanced the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-alpha) by macrophages after 24 h, as revealed by ELISA. Osteoblastic cells were then cultured for 96 h in the presence of these pro-inflammatory cytokines and their differentiation studied by RT-PCR. MC3T3-E1 cells cultured with TNF-alpha showed a decrease in osterix, PTH receptor (PTHR1), and osteocalcin gene expression. On the contrary, IL-6 enhanced the expression of osterix, Runx2, alkaline phosphatase, and osteocalcin compared with plastic. In conclusion, this study shows that the inflammatory response initiated by BCP microparticles may have both detrimental and beneficial effects on osteogenesis. PMID:20014296

Fellah, Borhane Hakim; Delorme, Bruno; Sohier, Jérôme; Magne, David; Hardouin, Pierre; Layrolle, Pierre

2010-06-15

139

Doped calcium-aluminium-phosphate cements for biomedical applications.  

PubMed

Calcium-aluminium-phosphate cements (CAPCs) for biomedical applications, mainly intended for applications in the dental field as non-resorbable fillers, were obtained by reacting Ca-aluminates compounds, i.e. CaO·Al(2)O(3) (CA) and CaO·2 Al(2)O(3) (CA(2)), with Al(H(2)PO(4))(3) aqueous solution. Hydroxyapatite was also introduced as a bioactive dispersed phase. Suitable elements like Sr and La were used to increase the radiopacity of the set yielded pastes towards X-ray wavelength used in clinical diagnostic radiographic equipments. La and Sr doped Ca-aluminates powders have been synthesized by solid state reaction at 1,400°C from a mixture of CaCO(3), Al(2)O(3), La(2)O(3) and SrCO(3). The characteristics of the obtained powders were analyzed and related to the starting compositions and synthesis procedures. The microstructure, setting time, radiopacity and compressive strength of the CAPCs have been investigated and discussed. PMID:21165760

Medri, V; Mazzocchi, M; Bellosi, A

2011-02-01

140

Antibacterial Property Expressed by a Novel Calcium Phosphate Glass  

PubMed Central

We have developed a calcium phosphate glass (CPG) doped with Zn2+ or F? or combined Zn2+ and F? ions, which are naturally found in the human body and play a dual role in bone formation and antibacterial activity. Previously, we have demonstrated that this family of CPGs has superior osteoconductive and resorbable properties in vivo. This study aimed to investigate the antibacterial property of CPGs incorporating Zn2+ and/or F?. We used Streptococcus mutans as a model organism because it is one of the major human oral pathogens and an early colonizer, and it has been associated with several oral infections, such as dental caries, periodontitis, and peri-implantitis. 0.01g and 0.05g of CPGs were incubated with Streptococcus mutans for 0, 2, 4, and 6 h. Serial dilutions were plated in triplicate and colony forming units were determined. The antimicrobial effect of CPG incorporating Zn2+ or F? was greater than CPG incorporating both these ions. CPG without doping produced a moderate antimicrobial effect. This family of CPGs, previously shown to promote new bone formation in vivo, is demonstrated to have superior bactericidal properties.

Liu, Lela; Pushalkar, Smruti; Saxena, Deepak; LeGeros, Racquel Z.; Zhang, Yu

2014-01-01

141

Genetic Responses to Nanostructured Calcium-phosphate-coated Implants  

PubMed Central

Nanostructured calcium phosphate (CaP) has been histologically and biomechanically proven to enhance osseointegration of implants; however, conventional techniques were not sufficiently sensitive to capture its biological effects fully. Here, we compared the conventional removal torque (RTQ) evaluation and gene expression in tissues around nanostructured CaP-coated implants, using real-time RT-PCR, with those of uncoated implants, in a rabbit model. At 2 wks, RTQ values were significantly higher, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) expression was significantly higher, and runt-related transcription factor 2 and tumor necrosis factor-? expressions were significantly lower in the coated than in the uncoated implants. This indicates that inflammatory responses were suppressed and osteoprogenitor activity increased around the CaP-coated surface. At 4 wks, although RTQ values did not significantly differ between the 2 groups, ALP and osteocalcin (OCN) were significantly up-regulated in the coated group, indicating progressive mineralization of the bone around the implant. Moreover, an osteoclast marker, adenosine triphosphatase, which indicates acidification of the resorption lacunae, was significantly higher for the coated implants, suggesting gradual resorption of the CaP coating. This study reveals detailed genetic responses to nanostructured CaP-coated implants and provides evidence that the effect of nanotopography is significant during the osseointegration cascade.

Jimbo, R.; Xue, Y.; Hayashi, M.; Schwartz-Filho, H.O.; Andersson, M.; Mustafa, K.; Wennerberg, A.

2011-01-01

142

Antibacterial Nanocomposite with Calcium Phosphate and Quaternary Ammonium  

PubMed Central

Secondary caries is a frequent reason for restoration failure, resulting from acidogenic bacteria and their biofilms. The objectives of this study were to: (1) develop a novel nanocomposite containing nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) and quaternary ammonium dimethacrylate (QADM); and (2) investigate its mechanical and antibacterial durability. A spray-drying technique yielded NACP with particle size of 116 nm. The nanocomposite contained NACP and reinforcement glass fillers, with QADM in the resin. Two commercial composites were tested as controls. Composites were inoculated with Streptococcus mutans. After 180-day water-aging, NACP+QADM nanocomposite had flexural strength and elastic modulus matching those of commercial controls (p > 0.1). NACP+QADM nanocomposite reduced the biofilm colony-forming units (CFU) by 3-fold, compared with commercial composites (p < 0.05). Metabolic activity and lactic acid production of biofilms on NACP+QADM were much less than those on commercial composites (p < 0.05). The antibacterial properties of NACP+QADM were maintained after water-aging for 30, 90, and 180 d (p > 0.05). In conclusion, the novel NACP-QADM nanocomposite greatly decreased biofilm metabolic activity, CFU, and lactic acid, while matching the load-bearing capability of commercial composites without antibacterial properties. The NACP-QADM nanocomposite with strong and durable antibacterial properties, together with its previously reported Ca-PO4 release capability, may render it useful for caries-inhibiting restorations.

Cheng, L.; Weir, M.D.; Zhang, K.; Xu, S.M.; Chen, Q.; Zhou, X.; Xu, H.H.K.

2012-01-01

143

The bactericidal and biocompatible characteristics of reinforced calcium phosphate cements.  

PubMed

Infection remains a serious medical problem in orthopaedic surgery. Antibiotic administration can be available either systemically via the blood stream or locally, directly into the infected bone. One of the main limitations of antibiotic administration is the development of multi-antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains. In this study, we developed bactericidal calcium phosphate cements (CPC) by incorporation of different molecular weight chitosan and hydroxypropyltrimethyl ammonium chloride chitosan (HACC). Two standard strains, S. epidermidis (ATCC35984) and S. aureus (ATCC25923), and one clinical isolate, methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis (MRSE), were selected to evaluate the antibacterial activity of these bone cements. Our data showed that the CPC loaded with low molecular weight chitosan and HACC significantly inhibited the bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation. In addition, HACC-containing CPC has no cytotoxic effects on both mouse pluripotent C3H10T1/2cell line and a murine L929 fibroblast cell line. We propose that HACC-containing CPC represents a promising polymer-based bactericidal bone scaffold in controlling orthopaedic surgery-related infection. PMID:22556166

Wu, Tianyi; Hua, Xiaolin; He, Zhiwei; Wang, Xinfu; Yu, Xiaowei; Ren, Weiping

2012-08-01

144

Remineralization of Demineralized Enamel via Calcium Phosphate Nanocomposite  

PubMed Central

Secondary caries remains the main problem limiting the longevity of composite restorations. The objective of this study was to investigate the remineralization of demineralized human enamel in vitro via a nanocomposite containing nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP). NACP were synthesized by a spray-drying technique and incorporated into a dental resin. First, caries-like subsurface enamel lesions were created via an acidic solution. Then, NACP nanocomposite or a commercial fluoride-releasing control composite was placed on the demineralized enamel, along with control enamel without a composite. These specimens were then treated with a cyclic demineralization/remineralization regimen for 30 days. Quantitative microradiography showed typical enamel subsurface demineralization before cyclic demineralization/remineralization treatment, and significant remineralization in enamel under the NACP nanocomposite after the demineralization/remineralization treatment. The NACP nanocomposite had the highest enamel remineralization (mean ± SD; n = 6) of 21.8 ± 3.7%, significantly higher than the 5.7 ± 6.9% for fluoride-releasing composite (p < 0.05). The enamel group without composite had further demineralization of ?26.1 ± 16.2%. In conclusion, a novel NACP nanocomposite was effective in remineralizing enamel lesions in vitro. Its enamel remineralization was 4-fold that of a fluoride-releasing composite control. Combined with the good mechanical and acid-neutralization properties reported earlier, the new NACP nanocomposite is promising for remineralization of demineralized tooth structures.

Weir, M.D.; Chow, L.C.; Xu, H.H.K.

2012-01-01

145

Antibacterial nanocomposite with calcium phosphate and quaternary ammonium.  

PubMed

Secondary caries is a frequent reason for restoration failure, resulting from acidogenic bacteria and their biofilms. The objectives of this study were to: (1) develop a novel nanocomposite containing nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) and quaternary ammonium dimethacrylate (QADM); and (2) investigate its mechanical and antibacterial durability. A spray-drying technique yielded NACP with particle size of 116 nm. The nanocomposite contained NACP and reinforcement glass fillers, with QADM in the resin. Two commercial composites were tested as controls. Composites were inoculated with Streptococcus mutans. After 180-day water-aging, NACP+QADM nanocomposite had flexural strength and elastic modulus matching those of commercial controls (p > 0.1). NACP+QADM nanocomposite reduced the biofilm colony-forming units (CFU) by 3-fold, compared with commercial composites (p < 0.05). Metabolic activity and lactic acid production of biofilms on NACP+QADM were much less than those on commercial composites (p < 0.05). The antibacterial properties of NACP+QADM were maintained after water-aging for 30, 90, and 180 d (p > 0.05). In conclusion, the novel NACP-QADM nanocomposite greatly decreased biofilm metabolic activity, CFU, and lactic acid, while matching the load-bearing capability of commercial composites without antibacterial properties. The NACP-QADM nanocomposite with strong and durable antibacterial properties, together with its previously reported Ca-PO(4) release capability, may render it useful for caries-inhibiting restorations. PMID:22403412

Cheng, L; Weir, M D; Zhang, K; Xu, S M; Chen, Q; Zhou, X; Xu, H H K

2012-05-01

146

Silver-doped calcium phosphate cements with antimicrobial activity.  

PubMed

There is a current need for the localised delivery of antibiotics in order to treat implant-based bacterial infections. Existing treatments use non-resorbable materials such as poly(methyl methacrylate) beads loaded with antibiotics; unfortunately, as they are not resorbable, these beads require secondary surgery for removal. Calcium phosphate cements have considerable potential for the localised delivery of drugs since they can be resorbed to some extent within the body, eliminating the need for a secondary surgical procedure. Therefore, in this study, the efficacy of both hydroxyapatite and brushite cements in the delivery of silver ions has been investigated. The activity of the Ag(+) released from the cements was assessed against the growth of both Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis; the brushite cement exhibited excellent antibacterial properties and also showed an increase in compressive strength of over 30%. In this study we have found that with a few changes in Ag(+) concentration it should be possible to produce a fully resorbable bone replacement material that is combined with an antibacterial scaffold with controlled release over a period of time, which is likely to inhibit bacterial infections associated with implantation procedures. PMID:21763795

Ewald, Andrea; Hösel, Daniel; Patel, Sarika; Grover, Liam M; Barralet, Jake E; Gbureck, Uwe

2011-11-01

147

The influence of magnetism on precipitation of calcium phosphate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The precipitation of calcium phosphate upon rapid mixing of solutions of CaCl 2 and KH 2PO 4-K 2HPO 4 was followed by pH and other quantitative measurements and the examination of the precipitate in the polarizing microscope. The experiments were carried out at 25°C in the presence and absence of a static magnetic field of 0.27 T. It was found that the magnetic field increased dissolution of metastable precursor phases and increased nucleation of more stable phases. This was a general tendency for the transformation sequence: ACP? brushite ?OCP?HAP at initial pH?6.5 and total concentrations CCa= CP=25, 50 or 100 mM. Crystallization upon slow diffusion of ions from a solution of CaCl 2 into silica hydrogel containing dissolved KH 2PO 4-K 2HPO 4 was followed by recording the number and positions of appearing brushite crystals and Liesegang rings. The experiment was performed in the presence and absence of magnetic fields in the range 0.08-0.3 T and the following conditions: room temperature, initial pH of the gel between 5.5 and 6.8, and CCa= CP=50 mM. Magnetism increased nucleation of brushite in the experiments at low initial pH. The dependence on field strength was not significant, and no effect was found in experiments with high initial pH.

Skytte Sørensen, Jens; Lundager Madsen, Hans E.

2000-06-01

148

Mechanical properties of novel calcium phosphate-mullite biocomposites.  

PubMed

Herein, the results of systematic mechanical property measurements of pressureless sintered calcium phosphate (CaP)-mullite composites are discussed. Our experimental results demonstrated how the mullite addition (upto 30 wt%) influenced hardness, elastic modulus, strength and toughness properties of the composites. In assessing each of these fundamental material properties, either a range of load or a number of complimentary techniques were used to obtain reliable measure of mechanical properties. Importantly, the results of single edge V notch beam measurements revealed that a reliable toughness value of ~1.5 MPa m(0.5) could be obtained in composites containing 20 or 30 wt% mullite. Our results clearly illustrated that a combination of elastic modulus (~80 GPa), compressive strength of more than 350 MPa, three-point flexural strength of 70-80 MPa, hardness of 4-5 GPa were achievable with the investigated composites. Such a combination of material properties, in addition to modest toughness property appeared to indicate that CaP-mullite composites could be used as a biomaterial for hard tissue replacement. PMID:21343213

Nath, Shekhar; Dubey, Ashutosh Kumar; Basu, Bikramjit

2012-07-01

149

Antibacterial property expressed by a novel calcium phosphate glass.  

PubMed

We have developed a calcium phosphate glass (CPG) doped with Zn(2+) or F(-) or combined Zn(2+) and F(-) ions, which are naturally found in the human body and play a dual role in bone formation and antibacterial activity. Previously, we have demonstrated that this family of CPGs has superior osteoconductive and resorbable properties in vivo. This study aimed to investigate the antibacterial property of CPGs incorporating Zn(2+) and/or F(-) . We used Streptococcus mutans as a model organism because it is one of the major human oral pathogens and an early colonizer, and it has been associated with several oral infections, such as dental caries, periodontitis, and peri-implantitis. CPGs of 0.01 and 0.05 g were incubated with S. mutans for 0, 2, 4, and 6 h. Serial dilutions were plated in triplicate and colony forming units were determined. The antimicrobial effect of CPG incorporating Zn(2+) or F(-) was greater than CPG incorporating both these ions. CPG without doping produced a moderate antimicrobial effect. This family of CPGs, previously shown to promote new bone formation in vivo, is demonstrated to have superior bactericidal properties. PMID:24039127

Liu, Lela; Pushalkar, Smruti; Saxena, Deepak; LeGeros, Racquel Z; Zhang, Yu

2014-04-01

150

RBS and XPS analyses of the composite calcium phosphate coatings for biomedical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The calcium phosphate coatings on metallic implants are widely used for biomedical applications. The calcium phosphate coatings require mechanical strength, strong adhesion to the metallic implants, chemical stability and low dissolution into the human body fluid for stable functioning in the corrosive environment of the human body. In this study, a novel approach for improving the calcium phosphate coatings is utilized by adding trace metallic element into the coatings. We focused on teeth enamel, which is the hardest calcium phosphate tissue in the human body. Zn concentration increases exponentially from the interior to the surface of the enamel. As the Zn concentration increases, so the local hardness increases. Our previous studies suggest that Zn has influence on the hardness and other properties of enamel, calcium phosphate tissue. Calcium phosphate coatings doped with Zn was fabricated and characterized. The atomic composition and chemical state were investigated by using Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) and X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS), respectively. Scratch test was also carried out for measuring the adhesion of the coatings.

Ide-Ektessabi, Ari; Yamaguchi, Tetsuro; Tanaka, Yoshikazu

2005-12-01

151

A composite coating by electrolysis-induced collagen self-assembly and calcium phosphate mineralization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A composite coating that is composed of collagen protein and calcium phosphate minerals is considered to be bioactive and may enhance bone growth and fixation of metallic orthopedic implants. In this study, we have successfully developed a uniform collagen fibril\\/octacalcium phosphate composite coating on silicon substrate by electrolytic deposition (ELD). The coating deposition was done through applying a constant potential

Yuwei Fan; Ke Duan; Rizhi Wang

2005-01-01

152

A comparison of the calcium-free phosphate binder sevelamer hydrochloride with calcium acetate in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia in hemodialysis patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current phosphate binders used in hemodialysis patients include calcium-based binders that result in frequent hypercalcemia and aluminum-based binders that result in total body aluminum accumulation over time. This investigation describes the use of a calcium- and aluminum-free phosphate-binding polymer in hemodialysis patients and compares it with a standard calcium-based phosphate binder. An open-label, randomized, crossover study was performed to evaluate

Anthony J. Bleyer; Steven K. Burke; Maureen Dillon; Bruce Garrett; K. Shashi Kant; David Lynch; S. Noor Rahman; Patricia Schoenfeld; Isaac Teitelbaum; Steven Zeig; Eduardo Slatopolsky

1999-01-01

153

Characterization and in vivo evaluation of calcium phosphate coated cp-titanium by dip-spin method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium phosphate ceramics like hydroxyapatite (HA) and tricalcium phosphate (TCP) are good candidates for bone substitutes due to their chemical similarity to bone minerals. Additionally, the biodegradation property of bone substitutes may allow the organism to replace the foreign material by fully functional new bone in a balanced time schedule. Thus, the coating of biodegradable calcium phosphate ceramics on dental

Changkook You; In-Sung Yeo; Myung-Duk Kim; Tae-Kwan Eom; Jae-Yeol Lee; Sukyoung Kim

2005-01-01

154

Casein Micelle Substructure and Calcium Phosphate Interactions Studied by Sephacryl Column Chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were designed to manipulate only one of the factors known to be important in maintaining the integrity of casein micelles while holding all of the other factors constant. Casein micelles were dis- sociated either by reducing the content of colloidal calcium phosphate or by adding k-casein at a constant free calcium ion concentration, pH, and ionic strength and, in

Carl Holt

1998-01-01

155

P-RoC - Phosphorus Recovery from Wastewater by Crystallisation of Calcium Phosphate Compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The P-RoC process - the phosphorus recovery straight from the aqueous phase by crystallisation of calcium phosphate - was developed in order to simultaneously remove and recover phosphorus from municipal waste- and industrial process waters by applying calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) compounds or synthesised tobermorite pellets as crystallisation seed materials. At first, the experiments were performed in fixed bed reactors

U. Berg; G. Knoll; E. Kaschka; V. Kreutzer; D. Donnert; P. G. Weidler; R. Nüesch

156

Calcium and Inorganic Phosphate Transport in Rat Colon  

PubMed Central

In the small intestine, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] stimulates both calcium (Ca) and inorganic phosphate (Pi) absorption. This is mediated through an increase in mucosal-to-serosal flux (Jms) whereas the serosal-to-mucosal flux (Jsm) remains unchanged. We now report that in rat proximal colon, 1,25(OH)2D3 produces active Ca absorption without affecting Pi transport, and that this induced active Ca absorption is associated with alterations in kinetics of both Jms and Jsm so that both processes demonstrate saturable components. Vitamin D-deficient rats were given daily injections of solvent (?D) or 270 ng 1,25(OH)2D3 (+D) for 3 d. 45Ca and [32P]phosphate fluxes were measured employing the Ussing technique using a modified Krebs-Ringer-HCO3 buffer ([Ca] 1.25, [Pi] 1.18, [glucose] 11 mM). In ?D rats there was no net flux (Jnet) of either Ca or Pi. In +D rats net active Ca absorption was observed (?D = 3.3 nmol/cm2 per h ±3.4 (SEM); +D = 27.3 ±3.8, n = 11, P < 0.001) whereas Pi transport was unchanged, i.e., still no Jnet. Pi Jms was not different from Pi Jsm measured at the following buffer [Pi]: 0.0118, 0.118, 1.18, and 2.36 mM. Ca saturation kinetics were estimated using buffer [Ca] from 0.0125 to 5.0 mM. Saturable processes were demonstrated for both Jms and Jsm. Jnet for Ca across colon from +D rats exhibited saturation at [Ca] > 3 mM, with an estimated Vmax of 44.0 nmol/cm2 per h and a Km of 0.9 mM. This colonic model may provide a useful system for studying 1,25(OH)2D3-induced molecular events related to Ca but not Pi transport. The apparent action of 1,25(OH)2D3 on Ca secretory process may furnish new insights into the mechanism of action of vitamin D.

Lee, D. B. N.; Walling, M. W.; Gafter, U.; Silis, V.; Coburn, J. W.

1980-01-01

157

Use of a calcium sulfate-calcium phosphate synthetic bone graft composite in the surgical management of primary bone tumors.  

PubMed

Benign primary bone tumors are commonly treated with intralesional curettage with or without the use of surgical adjuvants. The reconstructive approach to the resulting contained bone defects is controversial, and clinical practice is varied. Synthetic bone substitutes may provide early mechanical support while minimizing the risks of disease transmission, nonunion, infection, and donor-site morbidity. Limited data exists regarding the use of calcium sulfate-calcium phosphate composite bone substitute for this purpose. The authors retrospectively reviewed the clinical outcomes of 24 patients with benign primary bone tumors who underwent intralesional curettage followed by reconstruction with a calcium sulfate-calcium phosphate composite bone substitute. Mean follow-up was 23 months. The most common diagnosis was giant cell tumor of bone. Six patients had upper-extremity tumors and 18 had lower-extremity tumors. Mean preoperative radiographic tumor volume was 41.0 cm(3). Mean volume of PRO-DENSE (Wright Medical Technology, Arlington, Tennessee) used in each patient was 15.6 cm(3). Mean time to full weight bearing for all patients was 7.3 weeks. Two patients sustained local tumor recurrences. No postoperative fractures occurred, and no complications occurred related to the use of the calcium sulfate-calcium phosphate composite. One case of deep infection occurred secondary to wound breakdown. The use of a calcium sulfate-calcium phosphate composite was associated with rapid biological integration and an early return to activities of daily living, with no composite-related complications. This technique is a viable option in the reconstruction of cavitary bone defects following intralesional curettage of primary benign bone tumors. PMID:23380017

Evaniew, Nathan; Tan, Victoria; Parasu, Naveen; Jurriaans, Erik; Finlay, Karen; Deheshi, Benjamin; Ghert, Michelle

2013-02-01

158

Evaluation of the mechanical properties of hot isostatically pressed titania and titania-calcium phosphate composites.  

PubMed

A number of composites based on titania and calcium phosphates, hydroxyapatite, bone ash or beta-tricalcium phosphate, were sintered by glass-encapsulated hot isostatic pressing at 925 degrees C. The mechanical properties of the titania and titania-calcium phosphate composites--three-point bending strength, fracture toughness and Young's modulus--were 250-450 MPa, 2.5-2.9 MPa m1/2 and 230-270 GPa, respectively. Hardness and density were also measured. The results suggest that these composites have potential applications in medicine as implant materials. PMID:1888813

Li, J; Forberg, S; Hermansson, L

1991-05-01

159

Pathogenic Role of Basic Calcium Phosphate Crystals in Destructive Arthropathies  

PubMed Central

Background basic calcium phosphate (BCP) crystals are commonly found in osteoarthritis (OA) and are associated with cartilage destruction. BCP crystals induce in vitro catabolic responses with the production of metalloproteases and inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1 (IL-1). In vivo, IL-1 production induced by BCP crystals is both dependant and independent of NLRP3 inflammasome. We aimed to clarify 1/ the role of BCP crystals in cartilage destruction and 2/ the role of IL-1 and NLRP3 inflammasome in cartilage degradation related to BCP crystals. Methodology/ Principal Findings synovial membranes isolated from OA knees were analysed by alizarin Red and FTIR. Pyrogen free BCP crystals were injected into right knees of WT, NLRP3 -/-, ASC -/-, IL-1? -/- and IL-1?-/- mice and PBS was injected into left knees. To assess the role of IL-1, WT mice were treated by intra-peritoneal injections of anakinra, the IL-1Ra recombinant protein, or PBS. Articular destruction was studied at d4, d17 and d30 assessing synovial inflammation, proteoglycan loss and chondrocyte apoptosis. BCP crystals were frequently found in OA synovial membranes including low grade OA. BCP crystals injected into murine knee joints provoked synovial inflammation characterized by synovial macrophage infiltration that persisted at day 30, cartilage degradation as evidenced by loss of proteoglycan staining by Safranin-O and concomitant expression of VDIPEN epitopes, and increased chondrocyte apoptosis. BCP crystal-induced synovitis was totally independent of IL-1? and IL-1? signalling and no alterations of inflammation were observed in mice deficient for components of the NLRP3-inflammasome, IL-1? or IL-1?. Similarly, treatment with anakinra did not prevent BCP crystal effects. In vitro, BCP crystals elicited enhanced transcription of matrix degrading and pro-inflammatory genes in macrophages. Conclusions/ Significance intra-articular BCP crystals can elicit synovial inflammation and cartilage degradation suggesting that BCP crystals have a direct pathogenic role in OA. The effects are independent of IL-1 and NLRP3 inflammasome.

Ea, Hang-Korng; Chobaz, Veronique; Nguyen, Christelle; Nasi, Sonia; van Lent, Peter; Daudon, Michel; Dessombz, Arnaud; Bazin, Dominique; McCarthy, Geraldine; Jolles-Haeberli, Brigitte; Ives, Annette; Van Linthoudt, Daniel; So, Alexander; Liote, Frederic; Busso, Nathalie

2013-01-01

160

Incorporation of bioactive glass in calcium phosphate cement: An evaluation.  

PubMed

Bioactive glasses (BGs) are known for their unique ability to bond to living bone. Consequently, the incorporation of BGs into calcium phosphate cement (CPC) was hypothesized to be a feasible approach to improve the biological performance of CPC. Previously, it has been demonstrated that BGs can successfully be introduced into CPC, with or without poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) microparticles. Although an in vitro physicochemical study on the introduction of BG into CPC was encouraging, the biocompatibility and in vivo bone response to these formulations are still unknown. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the in vivo performance of BG supplemented CPC, either pure or supplemented with PLGA microparticles, via both ectopic and orthotopic implantation models in rats. Pre-set scaffolds in four different formulations (1: CPC; 2: CPC/BG; 3: CPC/PLGA; and 4: CPC/PLGA/BG) were implanted subcutaneously and into femoral condyle defects of rats for 2 and 6 weeks. Upon ectopic implantation, incorporation of BG into CPC improved the soft tissue response by improving capsule and interface quality. Additionally, the incorporation of BG into CPC and CPC/PLGA showed 1.8- and 4.7-fold higher degradation and 2.2- and 1.3-fold higher bone formation in a femoral condyle defect in rats compared to pure CPC and CPC/PLGA, respectively. Consequently, these results highlight the potential of BG to be used as an additive to CPC to improve the biological performance for bone regeneration applications. Nevertheless, further confirmation is necessary regarding long-term in vivo studies, which also have to be performed under compromised wound-healing conditions. PMID:23159565

Renno, A C M; van de Watering, F C J; Nejadnik, M R; Crovace, M C; Zanotto, E D; Wolke, J G C; Jansen, J A; van den Beucken, J J J P

2013-03-01

161

Proteoglycan inhibition of calcium phosphate precipitation in liposomal suspensions.  

PubMed

The major proteoglycan in cartilage (aggrecan) is a complex macromolecule with numerous chondroitin sulphate, keratan sulphate, and oligosaccharide substituents. It has been proposed that this macromolecule has an important role in regulating mineralization in this tissue, a process which is initiated by the deposition of apatite in matrix vesicles. We have used a liposome-centred endogenous precipitation method as a model for matrix vesicle mineralization to study the effect of the rat chondrosarcoma aggrecan and its chondroitin sulphate and core protein components on apatite formation from solution. Precipitation was initiated by encapsulating buffered (pH 7.4) 50 mmol/l KH2PO4 solutions in the aqueous centres of 7:2:1 phosphatidylcholine:dicetylphosphate:cholesterol liposomes, adding 2.25-2.65 mmol/l Ca2+ and 1.5 mmol/l total inorganic phosphate (PO4) to the suspending medium (pH 7.4, 22 degrees C), then making the intervening lipid membranes permeable to the Ca2+ ions with the calcium ionophore X-537A. Aggrecan (0.5%) in the suspending medium had no effect on intraliposomal precipitation, but severely reduced (approximately 70% reduction at 24 h) its subsequent spread into the medium. The chondroitin sulphate and core protein were similarly inhibitory. The degree to which aggrecan and its constituent parts inhibited precipitation correlated with their capacity to bind Ca2+ ions. These findings suggest that functional groups in aggrecan blocked apatite growth by linking via Ca2+ bridges to growth sites on the crystal surfaces. Similar Ca-mediated interactions may well have a critical regulatory role in cartilage mineralization. PMID:1472764

Eanes, E D; Hailer, A W; Midura, R J; Hascall, V C

1992-12-01

162

Microstructure and properties of alendronate-loaded calcium phosphate cement.  

PubMed

Calcium phosphate cement (CPC), as an injectable bone substitute material is significant in bone defect treatment. Drugs and biological molecules are often incorporated into CPC to promote the healing of bone defects and treat some bone diseases. In this work, alendronate (ALN)-loaded CPC was prepared and the influences of the content of ALN on the setting time, microstructure of hydrate porosity, mechanical strength, in vitro drug release, rheological properties and injectability of CPC were systematically investigated. The results showed that the addition of ALN had no effect on the final hydration product of CPC. The setting time of CPC was prolonged, while the prolonging effect became weak when the larger amount of ALN was added. With the increment of ALN content, the hydroxyapatite crystals of cured CPC became smaller, and the hydrated CPC became more compact with lower porosity, which resulted in the improvement of compressive strength of CPC with a drug-loaded amount less than 1wt%. The injectability was dramatically improved due to the addition of ALN, which was corresponding to the decrease of viscosity. The thixotropy of the CPC slurry was promoted with increasing the ALN content, which could enhance the stability of the slurry. However, it was worth noting that an inverted thixotropic loop appeared when the drug content was higher than 3.0wt%. During the in vitro drug release, the initial burst release turned up for all formulations and the degree of burst release was different from each other. This work would allow advances in understanding the effect of ALN on the setting process and physical and chemical properties of CPC, and we should think over the appropriate content when adding ALN into CPC. PMID:25063123

Shen, Zhonghua; Yu, Tao; Ye, Jiandong

2014-09-01

163

Effect of biomedical organic compounds on the setting reaction of calcium phosphates.  

PubMed

In the present study, the effect of biomedical organic compounds (starch, sodium alginate, chitosan and gelatin) on the hydration of calcium phosphates was studied using X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and XPS analysis. Amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) was prepared by a mechanochemical route and mixed with biomedical organic compounds. A solidification reaction occurred between ACP and dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD); the hydration product was poorly crystallized hydroxyapatite (HA). During the setting reaction of ACP and DCPD, the presence of biomedical organic compounds had an effect on the hydration product: the bonding energies of the primary elements (Ca, P) in the hydration product (HA) were changed; also different hydration morphologies, self-setting properties, rheological properties and mechanical strength of the cement were obtained. This work will allow advances in the synthesis of bionic composite calcium phosphate cement (CPC). PMID:19811895

Yu, Tao; Ye, Jiandong; Gao, Chengying; Yu, Long; Wang, Yingjun

2010-01-01

164

Mucins and calcium phosphate precipitates additively stimulate cholesterol crystallization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human biliary mucin and calcium binding pro- tein (CBP) influence formation of both calcium salt precipi- tates and cholesterol crystals and colocalize in the center of cholesterol gallstones. We investigated how physiological concentrations of these proteins regulate cholesterol crys- tallization in model biles, supersaturated with cholesterol and calcium salts, mimicking pathological human bile. Us- ing polarizing light microscopy and nephelometry

A. A. van den Berg; Buul van J. D; G. N. J. Tytgat; A. K. Groen; J. D. Ostrow

1998-01-01

165

Discrimination between biologically relevant calcium phosphate phases by surface-analytical techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatially resolved phase identification of biologically relevant calcium phosphate phases (CPPs) in bone tissue is essential for the elucidation of bone remodeling mechanisms and for the diagnosis of bone diseases. Analytical methods with high spatial resolution for the discrimination between chemically quite close phases are rare. Therefore the applicability of state-of-the-art ToF-SIMS, XPS and EDX as chemically specific techniques was investigated. The eight CPPs hydroxyapatite (HAP), ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP), ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP), octacalcium phosphate (OCP), dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD), dicalcium phosphate (DCP), monocalcium phosphate (MCP) and amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) were either commercial materials in high purity or synthesized by ourselves. The phase purity was proven by XRD analysis. All of the eight CPPs show different mass spectra and the phases can be discriminated by applying the principal component analysis method to the mass spectrometric data. The Ca/P ratios of all phosphates were determined by XPS and EDX. With both methods some CPPs can be distinguished, but the obtained Ca/P ratios deviate systematically from their theoretical values. It is necessary in any case to determine a calibration curve, respectively the ZAF values, from appropriate standards. In XPS also the O(1s)-satellite signals are correlated to the CPPs composition. Angle resolved and long-term XPS measurements of HAP clearly prove that there is no phosphate excess at the surface. Decomposition due to X-ray irradiation has not been observed.

Kleine-Boymann, Matthias; Rohnke, Marcus; Henss, Anja; Peppler, Klaus; Sann, Joachim; Janek, Juergen

2014-08-01

166

The influence of trace magnesium content on the phase composition of silicon-stabilized calcium phosphate powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel silicon-stabilized calcium phosphate phase mixture possesses a characteristic phase composition of ?75 wt.% silicon-stabilized ?-tricalcium phosphate (Si-?-TCP) with the balance being calcium hydroxyapatite (HA) and traces of ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP). Variability in the phase composition has been shown to be caused by trace magnesium (Mg) contained in the calcium nitrate tetrahydrate used to prepare the sol gel. Mg contents

Joel W. Reid; Karen Fargo; Jason A. Hendry; Michael Sayer

2007-01-01

167

Formation characteristics of calcium phosphate deposits on a metal surface by H 2O 2-electrolysis reaction under various conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cathodic electrolysis of H2O2 (H2O2+e??OH?+OH) on a metal surface in the presence of calcium and phosphate ions results in the formation of calcium phosphate deposits on the metal surface. In this study, the deposits formed under various treatment conditions (pHs, concentrations and ratios of calcium\\/phosphate ions, and so on) were characterized by scanning electron spectroscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffractometry.

Kazuaki Kanamoto; Koreyoshi Imamura; Nobuhide Kataoka; Jun Oshitani; Hiroyuki Imanaka; Kazuhiro Nakanishi

2009-01-01

168

In-situ mineralization of chitosan/calcium phosphate composite and the effect of solvent on the structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solvent played an important role in the formation of calcium phosphate phase of the chitosan/calcium phosphate composites. In this investigation, ethanolacetic acid mixtures were employed as solvents, and various calcium phosphate phases, such as brushite, amorphous calcium phosphate, and hydroxyapatite, were introduced into the chitosan/calcium phosphate composites by using in-situ preparation process. The results showed that the structures of composite were influenced remarkably by the morphology and the distribution of calcium phosphate phase. In addition, the bioactivity of composites was governed mainly by the characters of calcium phosphate phases in composites, since calcium phosphate phases could induce the growth of hydroxyapatite coating on the surfaces of composites. On the surface of chitosan/brushite composite, the formed hydroxyapatite coating consisted of oriented plate crystallites, which selfassembled into spherical-like crystals. When other calcium phosphate phase was introduced into composites, the polymorphs of hydroxyapatite layer would change greatly. The oriented plate crystallites became bigger, and meanwhile, the self-assembled aggregates became less and smaller. In addition, with the shift of the prior nucleating point, the growth orientation of plate crystallites was transformed.

He, Ling-Hao; Yao, Lu; Xue, Rui; Sun, Jing; Song, Rui

2011-09-01

169

Biomimetic synthesis of poly(propylene-fumarate)-calcium phosphate composites for tissue engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel in-situ co-precipitation process for the synthesis of poly(propylene-fumarate)-calcium phosphate composites was developed. In this process the calcium phosphate phase nucleates and grows in the presence of poly(propylene-fumarate) (PPF), in a novel two-solvent system including tetrahydrofuran (THF) and water. It was found that the presence of the organic solvent (THF) does not affect the phase evolution of the calcium phosphate. Both in the presence and absence of THF crystalline dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD, brushite) and poorly crystalline hydroxyapatite (HAp) form, and transform to crystalline HAp after 24 hours of synthesis time. Contrary to the organic solvent, PPF has a significant influence on the calcium phosphate phase that forms in its presence. It is found that PPF provides a template for the formation of the calcium phosphate phase through a coordination bond between the calcium ion and the carbonyl group of the polymer. As a result of this templating, hydroxyapatite can form in a significantly shorter period of time (˜1 hr) compared to the system where PPF is not present (24 hrs). The nature of the calcium phosphate phase that forms in the presence of PPF depends on the molecular weight and concentration of PPF. High concentration of PPF in the composite (e.g. 80%) stabilizes an amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) phase and hinders its transformation to crystalline apatite, while low concentration of PPF (e.g. 5%) promotes the formation of crystalline apatite. Higher molecular weight PPF (Mw = 4500) is found to be more efficient in stabilizing the amorphous phase compared to lower molecular weight PPF (Mw = 1800). While high molecular weight PPF stabilizes ACP, low molecular weight PPF promotes its conversion to crystalline apatite. TEM observations revealed that flake-like hydroxyapatite crystals form in the absence of PPF while spherical ACP particles form in a composite containing 80% PPF. The ACP nano-particles (50-100 nm in diameter) are homogeneously distributed within the PPF matrix. The PPF-calcium phosphate composite can crosslink into a 3D structure by UV irradiation.

Hakimi Mehr, Dorna

170

Characterization of titanium surfaces with calcium and phosphate and osteoblast adhesion.  

PubMed

The titanium surfaces containing calcium, phosphate ions and the carbonate apatite were characterized. The effect of surface chemistry on the initial rabbit osteoblast response on these surfaces was investigated. The cell count and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) specific activity assay were used for biochemical analyses. Scanning electron microscopy was used for morphology observation and in particular X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) for surface chemistry characterization. The number of cells adhering to the apatite coating surface was the maximum, the number of cells on the surface containing calcium without phosphate ions was higher than that containing phosphate without calcium, and the number on the unmodified titanium surface was the least. The osteoblasts cultured on the apatite surface exhibited the highest ALP specific activity, next were the ones on the surface containing solely calcium, the lowest were on the unmodified titanium surface. On the substrate surfaces removed of adhered cells, the order of nitrogen amounts detected by XPS was consistent with ones of ALP specific activity and cell number, except for the unmodified titanium surface. For the substrate surfaces removed of adhered osteoblasts, XPS analysis showed that calcium and phosphorous amounts decreased during cell adhesion. After cell culture the Ca2p binding energy (BE) values for apatite coating and the surface containing solely calcium were similar to those of the two surfaces adsorbed bovine serum albumin (BSA). The P2p BE values for the surfaces containing phosphate ions, including the apatite coating and the surface containing solely phosphate ions, showed the same change. But after cell culture the decrease of the P2p BE value for the coating surface was larger than the one for the surface containing solely phosphate ions. Considering the bovine serum albumin adsorption on the same samples, these results indicated that calcium ions on titanium surfaces play a more important role than phosphate ions in initial interactions among culture medium, osteoblasts and titanium surfaces. On the apatite coating surface, calcium ions are active sites for osteoblast adhesion, while calcium and phosphate ions co-exist on titanium surfaces, the former promotes the osteoblast adhesion onto the phosphate sites on titanium surfaces. The cell adhesion was a complicated biological and chemical process relating to surface several elements similar to protein adsorption. PMID:15020115

Feng, B; Weng, J; Yang, B C; Qu, S X; Zhang, X D

2004-08-01

171

Direct transformation from amorphous to crystalline calcium phosphate facilitated by motif-programmed artificial proteins.  

PubMed

An animal's hard tissue is mainly composed of crystalline calcium phosphate. In vitro, small changes in the reaction conditions affect the species of calcium phosphate formed, whereas, in vivo, distinct types of crystalline calcium phosphate are formed in a well-controlled spatiotemporal-dependent manner. A variety of proteins are involved in hard-tissue formation; however, the mechanisms by which they regulate crystal growth are not yet fully understood. Clarification of these mechanisms will not only lead to the development of new therapeutic regimens but will also provide guidance for the application of biomineralization in bionanotechnology. Here, we focused on the peptide motifs present in dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1), which was previously shown to enhance hydroxylapatite (HAP) formation when immobilized on a glass substrate. We synthesized a set of artificial proteins composed of combinatorial arrangements of these motifs and successfully obtained clones that accelerated formation of HAP without immobilization. Time-resolved static light-scattering analyses revealed that, in the presence of the protein, amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) particles increased their fractal dimension and molecular mass without increasing their gyration radii during a short period before precipitation. The protein thus facilitated reorganization of the internal structure of amorphous particles into ordered crystalline states, i.e., the direct transformation of ACP to HAP, thereby acting as a nucleus for precipitation of crystalline calcium phosphate. Without the protein, the fractal dimension, molecular mass, and gyration radii of ACP particles increased concurrently, indicating heterogeneous growth transformation. PMID:18957547

Tsuji, Toru; Onuma, Kazuo; Yamamoto, Akira; Iijima, Mayumi; Shiba, Kiyotaka

2008-11-01

172

Efficacy of coral-hydroxyapatite and biphasic calcium phosphate for early bacterial detection.  

PubMed

Nano- or microhydroxyapatites with microbiological properties are being used to detect pathogens in clinical samples and industrial environments. In this study, the calcium phosphates coral-hydroxyapatite and biphasic calcium phosphate were characterized physicochemically using x-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric, and differential thermal analysis. The morphology, texture, and chemical composition of the ceramics were also investigated using scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy. The biocompatibility of the ceramics was evaluated using Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis. Microorganisms were detected by incorporating the enzyme markers 4-metilumbelliferil-?-d-glucoside and 4-metilumbelliferil-?-d-glucuronide in the ceramic powders and evaluating fluorescence. The characterization of the ceramics revealed typical characteristics, such as crystallinity, thermal stability, and chemical composition, consistent with other calcium phosphates. The calcium phosphates coral-hydroxyapatite and biphasic calcium phosphate ceramics differed from one another in morphology, structural topography, particle size distribution, and the capacity to absorb water. These properties can influence the rates of microbiological responses and bacterial detection. Although both materials are suitable for use as structural supports in microbial diagnostic systems, BCP was more efficient and detected E. coli and E. faecalis more rapidly than CHA. PMID:24985222

Lobaina, Tamara; Zhurbenko, Raisa; Alfonso, Ivonne; Rodríguez, Claudio; Gala-García, Alfonso; Gontijo, Sávio Lacerda; Cortés, Maria E; Gomes, Alinne; Sinisterra, Ruben Dario

2014-06-01

173

Templating route for mesostructured calcium phosphates with carboxylic acid- and amine-type surfactants.  

PubMed

Mesostructured calcium phosphates constructed by ionic frameworks were synthesized using carboxylic acid- and amine-type surfactants in mixed solvent systems of ethanol and water. A lamellar mesostructured calcium phosphate was prepared using palmitic acid as an anionic surfactant, as in the case using n-alkylamines. A wormhole-like mesostructured calcium phosphate can be obtained using dicarboxyl N-lauroyl- l-glutamic acid, whose headgroup is larger than that of palmitic acid. Similar mesostructured product was obtained using 4-dodecyldiethylenetriamine with a large headgroup containing two primary amine groups. Interactions of carboxyl and primary amino groups in the surfactant molecules with inorganic species are quite important for the formation of mesostructured calcium phosphates. The Ca/P molar ratio of mesostructured calcium phosphates was strongly affected by the molecular structure of surfactants containing carboxyl and primary amino groups. Ca-rich materials can be obtained using carboxylic acid-type surfactants (Ca/P approximately 1.7) rather than amine-type surfactants (Ca/P approximately 1.0). PMID:18947246

Ikawa, Nobuaki; Hori, Hideki; Kimura, Tatsuo; Oumi, Yasunori; Sano, Tsuneji

2008-11-18

174

Formation of hydroxyapatite in soils using calcium citrate and sodium phosphate for control of strontium migration.  

SciTech Connect

{sup 90}Sr contamination is a major problem at several U.S. sites. At some sites, {sup 90}Sr has migrated deep underground making site remediation difficult. In this paper, we describe a novel method for precipitation of hydroxyapatite, a strong sorbent for {sup 90}Sr, in soil. The method is based on mixing a solution of calcium citrate and sodium phosphate in soil. As the indigenous soil microorganisms mineralize the citrate, the calcium is released and forms hydroxyapatite. Soil, taken from the Albuquerque desert, was treated with a sodium phosphate solution or a sodium phosphate/calcium citrate solution. TEM and EDS were used to identify hydroxyapatite with CO{sub 3}{sup 2-} substitutions, with a formula of (Ca{sub 4.8}Na{sub 0.2})[(PO{sub 4}){sub 2.8}(CO{sub 3}){sub 0.2}](OH), in the soil treated with the sodium phosphate/calcium citrate solution. Untreated and treated soils were used in batch sorption experiments for Sr uptake. Average Sr uptake was 19.5, 77.0 and 94.7% for the untreated soil, soil treated with sodium phosphate, and soil with apatite, respectively. In desorption experiments, the untreated soil, phosphate treated soil and apatite treated soil released an average of 34.2, 28.8 and 4.8% respectively. The results indicate the potential of forming apatite in soil using soluble reagents for retardation of radionuclide migration.

Moore, Robert Charles; Hasan, Ahmed Ali Mohamed; Sanchez, Charles Anthony (University of Arizona, Yuma, AZ); Zhao, Hongting; Salas, Fred Manuel; Hasan, Mahmoud A. (Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, Egypt); Holt, Kathleen Caroline

2003-08-01

175

Phosphate removal from wastewaters by a naturally occurring, calcium-rich sepiolite.  

PubMed

Developing an easily handled and cost-effective phosphate absorbent is crucial for the control of water eutrophication. In this study, a naturally occurring, calcium-rich sepiolite (NOCS) was evaluated for its feasibility as a phosphate absorbent candidate. Batch studies showed that phosphate sorption on NOCS followed a stepwise isotherm for concentrations between 5 and 1000 mg P/l, and the phosphate sorption was fitted well by the Freundlich equation. The estimated maximum phosphorus sorption capacity was 32.0 mg P/g, which was quite high compared with other natural materials and was comparable to some efficient manmade P absorbents. The NOCS sorption kinetics followed a pseudo-first-order model with an R(2) value of 0.999. The adsorption of phosphate was highly pH dependent. Phosphate adsorption decreased moderately with increasing pH values from 3.0 to 6.0, and it decreased sharply in alkaline conditions. Ionic strength, sulfate, nitrate and chloride anions had no effects on the phosphate removal capacity of NOCS, but fluoride and bicarbonate anions exerted large effects. Phosphorus fractionation indicated that phosphate removed from the solution was primarily formed as a calcium-bound phosphorus precipitation, which was further confirmed by SEM-EDS analysis. Moreover, phosphate was barely (<1.5%) desorbed from the phosphorus-adsorbed sepiolite regardless of pH value. PMID:22088501

Yin, Hongbin; Yun, Ye; Zhang, Yinlong; Fan, Chengxin

2011-12-30

176

Non-calcium-containing phosphate binders: comparing efficacy, safety, and other clinical effects.  

PubMed

Phosphate-binder therapy for hyperphosphataemia is key to the treatment of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD)-mineral and bone disorder (MBD). Calcium-free phosphate binders are increasingly favoured since calcium-based agents potentially cause harmful calcium overload and vascular calcification that confound the benefits of reducing serum phosphorus. Several calcium-free phosphate binders are available, including the non-absorbed agent sevelamer and the absorbed agents, e.g. lanthanum and magnesium salts. Randomised controlled studies consistently show that sevelamer and lanthanum carbonate offer equivalent lowering of serum phosphorus and often effectively achieve phosphorus targets versus calcium salts, with sevelamer having a positive effect on bone disease, vascular calcification, and patient-level outcomes in dialysis patients in several trials. There is also evidence that lanthanum carbonate can improve bone health, but data are limited to its effects to vascular calcification or patient-level outcomes. Magnesium salts have also been shown to reduce serum phosphorus levels, but clear evidence is lacking on bone, vascular, or clinical outcomes. It also remains to be established whether long-term systemic accumulation of lanthanum and magnesium, in tissues including bone, has clinically relevant toxic effects. This review summarises the evidence of efficacy and safety for newer calcium-free phosphate binders in CKD-MBD management. PMID:22555359

Frazão, João M; Adragão, Teresa

2012-01-01

177

Calcium acetate versus calcium carbonate as oral phosphate binder in pediatric and adolescent hemodialysis patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium carbonate is widely used as an oral phosphorus binder to control hyperphosphatemia in children on maintenance hemodialysis.\\u000a Intestinal calcium absorption may induce hypercalcemia, particularly if calcitriol is given simultaneously. In adults, calcium\\u000a acetate binds phosphorus more effectively than calcium carbonate, while reducing the frequency of hypercalcemic events. We\\u000a therefore compared calcium acetate with calcium carbonate in nine pediatric patients

Michael Wallot; Klaus-Eugen Bonzel; Andreas Winter; Birgit Geiirger; Bernhard Lettgen; Martin Bald

1996-01-01

178

The use of calcium phosphate cement in vertebroplasty of the base of odontoid process.  

PubMed

The authors describe the use of bone cement containing calcium phosphate for vertebroplasty of the cavity in the base of odontoid process. A 23-year-old female patient was operated on by incision in lateral cervical area (anterior open access). After a blunt dissection, the working cannula (Kyphon) was introduced under fluoroscopic guidance through the C2 vertebral body to the cavity in the base of the odontoid process. Intraoperatively, biopsy of the lesion was taken and histo-pathological examination excluded the presence of neoplasm. The cavity, presumably haemangioma, was successfully filled with calcium phosphate bone cement KyphOsTM FS (Ky-phon). The proper filling without paravertebral cement leak was confirmed by postoperative computed tomography (CT). The CT and magnetic resonance imaging performed 9 months after the procedure showed that cement was still present in the cavity. This is the first use of calcium phosphate cement to conduct the vertebroplasty of C2 vertebra. PMID:24375006

Zapa?owicz, Krzysztof; Wojdyn, Maciej; Zieli?ski, Krzysztof W?odzimierz; Snopkowska-Wiaderna, Dorota

2013-01-01

179

Dense and porous titanium substrates with a biomimetic calcium phosphate coating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work studied a biomimetic method using a simplified solution (SS) with calcium and phosphorus ions for coating titanium substrates, in order to improve their bioactivity. Commercially pure titanium dense sheet, microporous and macroporous titanium samples, both produced by powder metallurgy, were treated in NaOH solution followed by heat-treating and immersed in SS for 7, 14 or 21 days. The samples characterization was performed by quantitative metallographic analysis, confocal scanning optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and low angle X-ray diffraction. The results showed coatings with calcium phosphate precipitation in all samples, with globular or plate-like morphology, typical of hydroxyapatite and octacalcium phosphate, respectively, indicating that the solution (SS) has potential for coating titanium substrates. In addition, the different surfaces of substrates had an effect on the formed calcium phosphate phase and thickness of coatings, depending on the substrate type and imersion time in the simplified solution.

Ribeiro, A. A.; Balestra, R. M.; Rocha, M. N.; Peripolli, S. B.; Andrade, M. C.; Pereira, L. C.; Oliveira, M. V.

2013-01-01

180

Silver-doped calcium phosphate nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization, and toxic effects toward mammalian and prokaryotic cells.  

PubMed

Spherical silver-doped calcium phosphate nanoparticles were synthesized in a co-precipitation route from calcium nitrate/silver nitrate and ammonium phosphate in a continuous process and colloidally stabilized by carboxymethyl cellulose. Nanoparticles with 0.39 wt% silver content and a diameter of about 50-60 nm were obtained. The toxic effects toward mammalian and prokaryotic cells were determined by viability tests and determination of the minimal inhibitory and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MIC and MBC). Three mammalian cells lines, i.e. human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) and blood peripheral mononuclear cells (PBMC, monocytes and T-lymphocytes), and two prokaryotic strains, i.e. Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) were used. Silver-doped calcium phosphate nanoparticles and silver acetate showed similar effect toward mammalian and prokaryotic cells with toxic silver concentrations in the range of 1-3 ?g mL(-1). PMID:23107950

Peetsch, Alexander; Greulich, Christina; Braun, Dieter; Stroetges, Christian; Rehage, Heinz; Siebers, Bettina; Köller, Manfred; Epple, Matthias

2013-02-01

181

Setting time and formability of calcium phosphate cements prepared using modified dicalcium phosphate anhydrous powders.  

PubMed

Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) were prepared using Ca4(PO4)2O (TeCP) and modified CaHPO4 (DCPA) to evaluate the effects of the powder properties for DCPA particles on the setting time and formability of the resulting CPCs. Two types of modified DCPA were prepared by milling commercially available DCPA with ethanol (to produce E-DCPA) or distilled water (to produce W-DCPA). The E-DCPA samples consisted of well-dispersed, fine primary particles, while the W-DCPA samples contained agglomerated particles, and had a smaller specific surface area. The mean particle size decreased with increased milling time in both cases. The raw CPC powders prepared using W-DCPA had a higher packing density than those prepared using E-DCPA, regardless of the mean particle size. The setting time of the CPC paste after mixing with distilled water decreased with decreases in the mean particle size and specific surface area, for both types of DCPA. The CPCs prepared using W-DCPA showed larger plasticity values compared with those prepared using E-DCPA, which contributed to the superior formability of the W-DCPA samples. The CPCs prepared using W-DCPA showed a short setting time and large plasticity values, despite the fact that only a small amount of liquid was used for the mixing of the raw CPC powders (a liquid-to-powder ratio of 0.25 g g(-1) was used). It is likely that the higher packing density of the raw CPC powders prepared using W-DCPA was responsible for the higher performance of the resulting CPCs. PMID:24715331

Sawamura, Takenori; Mizutani, Yoichiro; Okuyama, Masahiko; Kasuga, Toshihiro

2014-07-01

182

Crystallization of calcium and magnesium phosphates from solutions of low concentration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The precipitation and evolution of calcium phosphates in solutions of low concentration ([Ca] = [P] = 0.005M) were studied at 25° C in the presence of magnesium the concentration of which ranged from 0.5mM to 50mM. The initial and final phases are described in terms of initial composition and pH of solutions. The first precipitating phase is an amorphous calcium phosphate, Ca 3(PO 4) 2· nH 2O, which transforms into apatite-like phosphate, Ca 5(PO 4) 3OH, or whitlockite, Ca 9MgH(PO 4) 7, or remains unaltered, according to the magnesium concentration. Brushite, CaHPO 4·2H 2O, dominates in the poorly supersaturated solutions. Octacalcium phosphate, Ca 4H(PO 4) 3·2.5H 2O, rarely occurs. The conditions for phase stability, and the role of magnesium and supersaturation are discussed.

Abbona, F.; Franchini-Angela, M.

1990-08-01

183

Adsorption and release of amino acids mixture onto apatitic calcium phosphates analogous to bone mineral  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Study focused on the interaction of adsorbate with poorly crystalline apatitic calcium phosphates analogous to bone mineral. Calcium phosphates prepared in water-ethanol medium at physiological temperature (37 °C) and neutral pH, their Ca/P ratio was between 1.33 and 1.67. Adsorbate used in this paper takes the mixture form of two essential amino acids L-lysine and DL-leucine which have respectively a character hydrophilic and hydrophobic. Adsorption and release are investigated experimentally; they are dependent on the phosphate type and on the nature of adsorbate L-lysine, DL-leucine and their mixture. Adsorption of mixture of amino acids on the apatitic calcium phosphates is influenced by the competition between the two amino acids: L-lysine and DL-leucine which exist in the medium reaction. The adsorption kinetics is very fast while the release kinetics is slow. The chemical composition of apatite has an influence on both adsorption and release. The interactions adsorbate-adsorbent are electrostatic type. Adsorption and release reactions of the amino acid mixture are explained by the existence of the hydrated surface layer of calcium phosphate apatite. The charged sbnd COOsbnd and sbnd NH3+ of adsorbates are the strongest groups that interact with the surface of apatites, the adsorption is mainly due to the electrostatic interaction between the groups sbnd COOsbnd of amino acids and calcium Ca2+ ions of the apatite. Comparative study of interactions between adsorbates (L-lysine, DL-leucine and their mixture) and apatitic calcium phosphates is carried out in vitro by using UV-vis and infrared spectroscopy IR techniques.

El Rhilassi, A.; Mourabet, M.; El Boujaady, H.; Bennani-Ziatni, M.; Hamri, R. El; Taitai, A.

2012-10-01

184

Fabrication and characterization of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microsphere/amorphous calcium phosphate scaffolds.  

PubMed

Although hydroxyapatite (HAP) and ?-tricalcium phosphate have been used extensively as osteoconductive minerals in biomaterial scaffolds for bone regeneration, they lack the capacity to stimulate osteoblastic differentiation of progenitor cells. In contrast, amorphous calcium phosphates (ACPs), which convert to HAP under aqueous conditions, have the potential to facilitate osteoblastic differentiation through the transient local release of calcium and phosphate ions. Therefore, in this study ACPs were synthesized using zinc and zirconia divalent cations as stabilizers (denoted ZnACP and ZrACP, respectively) and compared to HAP. Analysis of ion release into serum-containing cell culture medium revealed transiently elevated levels of calcium and phosphorous, consistent with the enhanced solubility of ZrACP and ZnACP relative to HAP. In addition, X-ray diffraction analysis revealed partial conversion of ZrACP to HAP but no conversion of ZnACP after 96 h. Next, scaffolds were fabricated by sintering mixtures of 300-500 µm poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres and 0.5 wt% calcium phosphate mineral (HAP, ZrACP or ZnACP) at 70 °C for 24 h. Scanning electron microscopy revealed a porous microsphere matrix with calcium phosphate particulates clinging to the microsphere surfaces both prior to and after 14 days in culture medium. Finally, the incorporation of calcium phosphate resulted in a lower compressive modulus in the range 127 to 74-89 MPa. Taken together, these results indicate that ZrACP, ZnACP and HAP minerals exhibit very different properties, and therefore may elicit different osteoblastic responses in vitro. PMID:21312335

Popp, Jenni R; Laflin, Kate E; Love, Brian J; Goldstein, Aaron S

2012-01-01

185

Incorporation of methotrexate in calcium phosphate cement: behavior and release in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

The application of antibiotic-loaded calcium phosphate bone cement in the treatment and prevention of osteomyelitis suggests that calcium phosphate cement could also be used as an anticancer drug carrier to reduce the local recurrence of bone tumors and systemic toxicities of chemotherapy. We added 0 to 400 mg of methotrexate to 40 g cement, with final methotrexate concentrations of 0% to 1% (weight/weight). The setting times, mechanical properties, microstructures, and in vitro methotrexate release kinetics of these methotrexate-calcium phosphate bone cement specimens were evaluated, along with in vivo methotrexate release kinetics in 24 rabbits. Methotrexate did not significantly alter the cement setting time. The compressive and tensile strengths of the methotrexate-calcium phosphate bone cement specimens were significantly less when 400 mg methotrexate was used, compared to control samples without methotrexate addition. Nevertheless, the cement remained compliant with the minimum requirements for clinical application. The scanning electron microscopy micrographs showed that the basic crystal structure did not alter. The methotrexate release kinetics in vitro and in vivo confirmed that methotrexate-calcium phosphate bone cement was a monolithic matrix system, with a burst effect in the initial stage and a sudden drop thereafter. Drug delivery in vivo was faster than in vitro. We estimated that the incorporated methotrexate could be continuously released over 2 to 4 months at a higher than minimum concentration. The methotrexate had no apparent toxicity on the host rabbits, even at the highest dose of methotrexate tested. The methotrexate-calcium phosphate bone cement system may be a potentially effective therapy for bone tumors in humans. PMID:19226038

Yang, Zhiping; Han, Jian; Li, Jianmin; Li, Xin; Li, Zhenfeng; Li, Shuhong

2009-01-01

186

Synthesis, characterization and osteoblastic activity of polycaprolactone nanofibers coated with biomimetic calcium phosphate.  

PubMed

Immersion of electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofiber mats in calcium phosphate solutions similar to simulated body fluid resulted in deposition of biomimetic calcium phosphate layer on the nanofibers and thus a highly bioactive novel scaffold has been developed for bone tissue engineering. Coatings with adequate integrity, favorable chemistry and morphology were achieved in less than 6h of immersion. In the coating solutions, use of lower concentrations of phosphate sources with respect to the literature values (i.e., 3.62 vs. 10 mM) was substantiated by a thermodynamic modeling approach. Recipe concentration combinations that were away from the calculated dicalcium phosphate phase stability region resulted in micron-sized calcium phosphates with native nanostructures. While the nano/microstructure formed by the deposited calcium phosphate layer is controlled by increasing the solution pH to above 6.5 and increasing the duration of immersion experimentally, the nanostructure imposed by the dimensions of the fibers was controlled by the polymer concentration (12% w/v), applied voltage (25 kV) and capillary tip to collector distance (35 cm). The deposited coating increased quantitatively by extending the soak up to 6h. On the other hand, the porosity values attained in the scaffolds were around 87% and the biomimetic coatings did not alter the nanofiber mat porosities negatively since the deposition continued along the fibers after the first 2h. Upon confirming the non-toxic nature of the electrospun PCL nanofiber mats, the effects of different nano/microstructures formed were evaluated by the osteoblastic activity. The levels of both alkaline phosphatase activity and osteocalcin were found to be higher in the coated PCL nanofibers than in the uncoated PCL nanofibers, indicating that biomimetic calcium phosphate on PCL nanofibers supports osteoblastic differentiation. PMID:19426840

Mavis, Bora; Demirta?, Tolga T; Gümü?derelio?lu, Menem?e; Gündüz, Güngör; Colak, Uner

2009-10-01

187

Simulations of inositol phosphate metabolism and its interaction with InsP(3)-mediated calcium release.  

PubMed

Inositol phosphates function as second messengers for a variety of extracellular signals. Ins(1,4,5)P(3) generated by phospholipase C-mediated hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate, triggers numerous cellular processes by regulating calcium release from internal stores. The Ins(1,4,5)P(3) signal is coupled to a complex metabolic cascade involving a series of phosphatases and kinases. These enzymes generate a range of inositol phosphate derivatives, many of which have signaling roles of their own. We have integrated published biochemical data to build a mass action model for InsP(3) metabolism. The model includes most inositol phosphates that are currently known to interact with each other. We have used this model to study the effects of a G-protein coupled receptor stimulus that activates phospholipase C on the inositol phosphates. We have also monitored how the metabolic cascade interacts with Ins(1,4,5)P(3)-mediated calcium release. We find temporal dynamics of most inositol phosphates to be strongly influenced by the elaborate networking. We also show that Ins(1,3,4,5)P(4) plays a key role in InsP(3) dynamics and allows for paired pulse facilitation of calcium release. Calcium oscillations produce oscillatory responses in parts of the metabolic network and are in turn temporally modulated by the metabolism of InsP(3). PMID:12202356

Mishra, Jyoti; Bhalla, Upinder S

2002-09-01

188

Recent studies of bone mineral: Is the amorphous calcium phosphate theory valid?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies on bone mineral are reviewed, with particular emphasis on the nature of the initial mineral deposited and the changes occuring during further mineralization and maturation. It is shown that amorphous calcium phosphate, which has been proposed as the precursor of hydroxyapatite in bone mineral, cannot be detected in significant quantity in the earliest bone mineral formed, and furthermore that there is evidence that no progressive decrease in amount of any amorphous phase occurs with bone maturation. We conclude in general that the X-ray difraction pattern and non-stoichiometric composition of bone mineral, and the changes in these characteristic observed with age and maturation cannot be explained by the presence of a second phase in progressively decreasing proportion whether it be amorphous calcium phosphate, octacalcium phosphate, brushite or some other distinct phase. The structural and compositional changes observed with age and maturation in bone mineral are consistent with a general increase in the degree of crystal perfection of a calcium phosphate phase best described as a poorly crystalline hydroxyapatite, although the exact details of the stuctural and compositional modification taking place with maturation must await further research. The role of brushite, which has been proposed as the earliest solid calcium phosphate phase deposited in at least one species, is reviewed.

Glimcher, Melvin J.; Bonar, Laurence C.; Grynpas, Marc D.; Landis, William J.; Roufosse, Albert H.

1981-05-01

189

Studies on calcium phosphate precipitation: effects of metal ions used in dental materials.  

PubMed

The effects of 26 metal ions, of which 23 are used in dental materials, on the conversion of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) to hydroxyapatite (HAP) in vitro were studied. From the effects on both the rate of HAP transformation and induction time, effects of metal ions were classified into three types; inhibitory (in the order: nickel, tin, cobalt, manganese, copper, zinc, gallium, thallium, molybdenum, cadmium, antimony, magnesium, and mercury); ineffective (cesium, titanium, chromium, iron [ferrous], iridium, palladium, platinum, silver, gold, aluminum, and lead); and stimulatory (iron [ferric] and indium). These results suggest that metal ions used in dental materials may modify the precipitation of oral calcium phosphate. PMID:7876278

Okamoto, Y; Hidaka, S

1994-12-01

190

Preparation of various calcium-phosphate powders by ultrasonic spray freeze-drying technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various calcium–phosphate powders with Ca\\/P ratios ranging from 1.00 to 1.67 were prepared by an ultrasonic spray freeze-drying (USFD) technique: (i) 100 cm3 of aqueous solution containing 0.500 mol·dm?3 of calcium acetate (Ca(CH3COO)2), 0.300–0.500 mol·dm?3 of trimethyl phosphate (PO(OCH3)3) and 1.77 mol·dm?3 of acetic acid (CH3COOH) were refluxed at 80°C for 100 h; (ii) the droplets with diameters as small

Kiyoshi Itatani; Kengo Iwafune; F. Scott Howell; Mamoru Aizawa

2000-01-01

191

Anticariogenicity of Calcium Phosphate Complexes of Tryptic Casein Phosphopeptides in the Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Casein phosphopeptides (CPP) stabilize calcium phosphate through the formation of casein-phosphopeptide amorphous calcium-phosphate complexes (CPP-CP). The ability of CPP-CP to reduce caries activity was investigated by use of specific-pathogen-free rats inoculated with Streptococcus sobrinus. The animals consumed a defined cariogenic diet free of dairy products. Solutions (100 pL) of the CPP-CP (0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0% w\\/v) were applied to the

E. C. Reynolds; C. J. Cain; EL Webber; C. L. Black; P. F. Riley; I. H. Johnson; J. W. Perich

1995-01-01

192

Enzymatic pH control for biomimetic deposition of calcium phosphate coatings.  

PubMed

The current study examines the enzymatic decomposition of urea into carbon dioxide and ammonia as a means to increase the pH during biomimetic deposition of calcium phosphate (CaP) onto implant surfaces. The kinetics of the enzymatically induced pH increase were studied by monitoring pH, calcium concentration and conductivity of the aqueous solutions as a function of time, urease concentration and initial concentrations of calcium and phosphate ions. Cryogenic transmission electron microscopy was used to study the process of homogeneous CaP precipitation in solution, whereas CaP deposition on conventional acid-etched titanium and micropatterned polystyrene (PS) surfaces was studied using scanning electron microscopy. The data presented in this study confirm that the substrate-enzyme combination urea-urease offers strong control over the rate of pH increase by varying the concentrations of precursor salts and urease. Formation of biomimetic CaP coatings was shown to proceed via formation of ionic polymeric assemblies of prenucleation complexes. The process of deposition and corresponding coating morphology was strongly dependent on the concentration of calcium, phosphate and urease. Finally, it was shown that the substrate-enzyme combination urea-urease allowed for spatial distribution of CaP crystals along the grooves of micropatterned PS surfaces at low concentrations of calcium, phosphate and urease, stressing the sensitivity of the presented method. PMID:24095783

Nijhuis, Arnold W G; Nejadnik, M Reza; Nudelman, Fabio; Walboomers, X Frank; te Riet, Joost; Habibovic, Pamela; Tahmasebi Birgani, Zeinab; Li, Yubao; Bomans, Paul H H; Jansen, John A; Sommerdijk, Nico A J M; Leeuwenburgh, Sander C G

2014-02-01

193

The effect of organic ligands on the crystallinity of calcium phosphate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calcium phosphate phases precipitated under critical supersaturation were identified and studied in detail using X-ray powder diffraction, electron probe microanalysis, infrared spectroscopy (IR) and transmission electron microscopy. These synthetic calcium phosphates formed by spontaneous precipitation at pH 7, 25°C and 0.1 M ionic strength (NaCl as the background electrolyte). The combination of several methods allowed detailed characterisation of the calcium phosphates. The purpose of the work was to assess the influence of carboxylate ligands, specifically acetate and citrate, on the quality of the calcium phosphate precipitate. All precipitates were identified as non-stoichiometric, calcium-deficient hydroxylapatites (HAPs), containing carbonate, HPO 42-, sodium and chloride impurities. No other phases were found to be present in any of the precipitates. The presence of citrate resulted in a decrease in crystal size and a higher degree of apatite lattice imperfection in the precipitated HAP. Furthermore, IR spectroscopy showed a higher amount of carbonate present in that HAP, compared with the ones formed in the control and acetate experiments. An additional absorption band, in the infrared spectrum of the HAP formed in the presence of citrate, was observed at 1570 cm -1; this is interpreted as carboxyl groups bound to HAP.

van der Houwen, Jacqueline A. M.; Cressey, Gordon; Cressey, Barbara A.; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia

2003-03-01

194

Preparation and properties of dense and porous calcium phosphate  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dense tricalcium phosphate possesses E- and shear-modulus of 115 and 86 GPa, respectively. By polyurethane foam and C-fibres a high porous structure with integral porosity of 55–70% was created. The porous tricalcium phosphate possesses a E-modulus of 2–5 GPa, bending strength of 6–11 MPa and compressive strength of 11–22 MPa. Regarding mechanical properties this system could be ranged between

M. Milosevski; J. Bossert; D. Milosevski; N. Gruevska

1999-01-01

195

The phase evolution, crystallography and thin films of silicon stabilized calcium phosphates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The crystallography and phase evolution of silicon substituted and pure calcium phosphate materials suitable for bone replacement have been studied using x-ray diffraction. Thin films of these materials have been applied to Ti6Al4V implant grade alloys. Calcium hydroxyapatite sintered in the presence of silica over 800°C forms a multiphase mixture with a phase composition which depends on the silica content,

Joel Wellington Reid

2004-01-01

196

Effect of temperature on electrochemical deposition of calcium phosphate coatings in a simulated body fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium phosphate coatings were deposited on titanium plate by an electrochemical method in simulated body fluid at 5–62 °C. X-ray diffractometry and FTIR studies demonstrated that the deposits at 5, 22 and 37 °C were amorphous and those at 52 and 62 °C contained Mg(OH)2, CaCO3 and carbonate apatite of low crystallinity. The calcium, magnesium and phosphorus contents of deposit

Seiji Ban; Shigeo Maruno

1995-01-01

197

Effect of rapidly resorbable calcium phosphates and a calcium phosphate bone cement on the expression of bone-related genes and proteins in vitro.  

PubMed

The use of biodegradable bone substitutes is advantageous for alveolar ridge augmentation because it avoids second-site surgery for autograft harvesting. This study examines the effect of novel, rapidly resorbable calcium phosphates and a calcium phosphate bone cement on the expression of bone-related genes and proteins by human bone-derived cells (HBDCs) and compares this behavior to that of tricalciumphosphate (TCP). Test materials were alpha-TCP, two materials with a crystalline phase Ca(2)KNa(PO(4))(2) and with a small amorphous portion containing either magnesium potassium phosphate (material denominated GB14) or silica phosphate (material denominated GB9), and a calcium phosphate bone cement (material denominated Biocement D). HBDCs were grown on the substrata for 3, 7, 14, and 21 days, counted, and probed for various mRNAs and proteins (type I collagen, osteocalcin, osteopontin, osteonectin, alkaline phosphatase, and bone sialoprotein). All substrates supported continuous cellular growth for 21 days. In the presence of GB14 and Biocement D specimens cell proliferation was reduced and cell differentiation increased. At day 21, the greatest number of cells was found on GB9 expressing significantly higher levels of bone-related proteins than cells grown on all other surfaces. Because all novel materials facilitated the expression of the osteoblastic phenotype at least as much as TCP and the polystyrene control, these biomaterials can be regarded as excellent candidate bone substitute materials. GB9 induced the highest proliferation and cellular differentiation after 21 days of incubation, suggesting that this material may possess a higher potency for enhancing osteogenesis than TCP. PMID:14999762

Knabe, C; Berger, G; Gildenhaar, R; Meyer, J; Howlett, C R; Markovic, B; Zreiqat, H

2004-04-01

198

The effect of ball milling grinding pathways on the bulk and reactivity properties of calcium phosphate cements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) are significant alternatives to autologous bone grafting. CPCs can be composed of biphasic or multiphase calcium phosphate (CaP) compounds. A common way to process CPCs is by ball milling. Ball milling can be used for grinding or mechanosynthesis. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of well-defined ball milling grinding parameters, applied via

M. A. Lopez-Heredia; M. Bohner; W. Zhou; A. J. Winnubst; J. G. C. Wolke; J. A. Jansen

2011-01-01

199

Self-setting bioactive calcium–magnesium phosphate cement with high strength and degradability for bone regeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium phosphate cement (CPC) has been successfully used in clinics as bone repair biomaterial for many years. However, poor mechanical properties and a low biodegradation rate limit any further applications. Magnesium phosphate cement (MPC) is characterized by fast setting, high initial strength and relatively rapid degradation in vivo. In this study, MPC was combined with CPC to develop novel calcium–magnesium

Fan Wu; Jie Wei; Han Guo; Fangping Chen; Hua Hong; Changsheng Liu

2008-01-01

200

RenaGel®, a nonabsorbed calcium- and aluminum-free phosphate binder, lowers serum phosphorus and parathyroid hormone  

Microsoft Academic Search

RenaGel®, a nonabsorbed calcium- and aluminum-free phosphate binder, lowers serum phosphorus and parathyroid hormone.Background.This multicenter, open-label, dose-titration study assessed the safety and efficacy of RenaGel®, a nonabsorbed calcium- and aluminum-free phosphate binder, in lowering serum phosphorus. Secondary outcomes were its effects on serum intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) and serum lipids.Methods.Phosphate binders were discontinued during a two-week washout period. Patients whose

EDUARDO A SLATOPOLSKY; STEVEN K BURKE; MAUREEN A DILLON

1999-01-01

201

The determination of calcium in phosphate, carbonate, and silicate rocks by flame photometer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A method has been developed for the determination of calcium in phosphate, carbonate, and silicate rocks using the Beckman flame photometer, with photomultiplier attachement. The sample is dissolved in hydrofluoric, nitric, and perchloric acids, the hydrofluoric and nitric acids are expelled, a radiation buffer consisting of aluminum, magnesium, iron, sodium, potassium, phosphoric acid, and nitric acid is added, and the solution is atomized in an oxy-hydrogen flame with an instrument setting of 554 mµ. Measurements are made by comparison against calcium standards, prepared in the same manner, in the 0 to 50 ppm range. The suppression of calcium emission by aluminum and phosphate was overcome by the addition of a large excess of magnesium. This addition almost completely restores the standard curve obtained from a solution of calcium nitrate. Interference was noted when the iron concentration in the aspirated solution (including the iron from the buffer) exceeded 100 ppm iron. Other common rock-forming elements did not interfere. The results obtained by this procedure are within ± 2 percent of the calcium oxide values obtained by other methods in the range 1 to 95 percent calcium oxide. In the 0 to 1 percent calcium oxide range the method compares favorably with standard methods.

Kramer, Henry

1956-01-01

202

Does Potassium Citrate Medical Therapy Increase the Risk of Calcium Phosphate Stone Formation?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Potassium citrate has been extensively used in the treatment of recurrent nephrolithiasis. Recent evidence suggests that it may contribute to increasing urinary pH and, as such, increase the risk of calcium phosphate stone formation. We performed a retrospective review of our patients to further investigate this phenomenon.

Leitao, Victor; Haleblian, George E.; Robinson, Marnie R.; Pierre, Sean A.; Sur, Roger L.; Preminger, Glenn M.

2007-04-01

203

Influence of polymer addition on the mechanical properties of a premixed calcium phosphate cement  

PubMed Central

Premixed calcium phosphate cements can reduce handling complications that are associated with the mixing of cements in the operating room. However, to extend the clinical indication of ceramic cements their mechanical properties need to be further improved. The incorporation of a polymeric material with intrinsically high tensile properties could possibly assist in increasing the mechanical properties of calcium phosphate cement. In this study polymer microparticles made from poly(lactid-co-glycolide) plasticised with poly(ethylene glycol) 400 (PLGA/PEG microparticles) were added in amounts of up to 5 wt% to a premixed acidic calcium phosphate cement. The PLGA/PEG microparticles added undergo a shape transformation at 37 °C, which could give a better integration between polymer microparticles and ceramic cement compared with polymer microparticles lacking this property. The results showed that the incorporation of 1.25 wt% PLGA/PEG microparticles increased the compressive strength by approximately 20% up to 15.1 MPa while the diametral tensile strength was kept constant. The incorporation of PLGA/PEG microparticles increased the brushite to monetite ratio after setting compared with pure ceramic cements. In conclusion, small amounts of PLGA/PEG microparticles can be incorporated into premixed acidic calcium phosphate cement and increase their mechanical properties, which could lead to increased future applications.

Engstrand, Johanna; Persson, Cecilia; Engqvist, Hakan

2013-01-01

204

Chiral calcium VAPOL phosphate mediated asymmetric chlorination and Michael reactions of 3-substituted oxindoles.  

PubMed

We disclose a novel high yielding and highly enantioselective chiral calcium VAPOL phosphate-catalyzed chlorination of 3-substituted oxindoles with N-chlorosuccinimide (NCS). The reaction conditions are also shown to be effective for the catalytic enantioselective Michael addition of 3-aryloxindoles to methyl vinyl ketone. PMID:21341790

Zheng, Wenhua; Zhang, Zuhui; Kaplan, Matthew J; Antilla, Jon C

2011-03-16

205

Chiral Calcium VAPOL Phosphate Mediated Asymmetric Chlorination and Michael Reactions of 3-Substituted Oxindoles  

PubMed Central

We disclose a novel high yielding and highly enantioselective chiral calcium VAPOL phosphate-catalyzed chlorination of 3-substituted oxindoles with N-chlorosuccinimide (NCS). The reaction conditions are also shown to be effective for the catalytic enantioselective Michael addition of 3-aryloxindoles to methyl vinyl ketone.

Zheng, Wenhua; Zhang, Zuhui; Kaplan, Matthew J.; Antilla, Jon C.

2011-01-01

206

Influence of the surface tension components of stainless steel on fouling caused by calcium phosphate  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to lengthen the processing time of dairy plants, research has been undertaken to study the deposition of calcium phosphate, one of the main components of milk fouling deposits. It is accepted that the surface tension of the solid material in contact with the liquid affects the fouling behaviour and, therefore samples with different surface tension characteristics were tested.

R. Rosmaninho; H. Visser; L. Melo

207

Adhesion failure behavior of sputtered calcium phosphate thin film coatings evaluated using microscratch testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is generally accepted that calcium phosphate (CaP) is one of the most important biomaterials in implant coating applications mainly because of its excellent bioactivity. However, its relatively poor mechanical properties limits its application. This entails that a better understanding of the mechanical properties of a CaP coating is a must especially its behavior and the mechanisms involved when subjected

J. A. Toque; M. K. Herliansyah; M. Hamdi; A. Ide-Ektessabi; I. Sopyan

2010-01-01

208

Strontium enhances osseointegration of calcium phosphate cement: a histomorphometric pilot study in ovariectomized rats  

PubMed Central

Background Calcium phosphate cements are used frequently in orthopedic and dental surgeries. Strontium-containing drugs serve as systemic osteoblast-activating medication in various clinical settings promoting mechanical stability of the osteoporotic bone. Methods Strontium-containing calcium phosphate cement (SPC) and calcium phosphate cement (CPC) were compared regarding their local and systemic effects on bone tissue in a standard animal model for osteoporotic bone. A bone defect was created in the distal femoral metaphysis of 60 ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats. CPC and SPC were used to fill the defects in 30 rats in each group. Local effects were assessed by histomorphometry at the implant site. Systemic effects were assessed by bone mineral density (BMD) measurements at the contralateral femur and the spine. Results Faster osseointegration and more new bone formation were found for SPC as compared to CPC implant sites. SPC implants exhibited more cracks than CPC implants, allowing more bone formation within the implant. Contralateral femur BMD and spine BMD did not differ significantly between the groups. Conclusions The addition of strontium to calcium phosphate stimulates bone formation in and around the implant. Systemic release of strontium from the SPC implants did not lead to sufficiently high serum strontium levels to induce significant systemic effects on bone mass in this rat model.

2013-01-01

209

Neonatal Parenteral Nutrition Containing Calcium Chloride and Sodium Phosphate: Mineral Intake and Aluminum Content  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. The authors’ objectives were to determine mineral as well as Al intakes for ?1000 g birth weight (ELBW) infants supported with parenteral nutrition (PN) solutions containing calcium chloride (CaCl) and sodium phosphate (NaPhos). Study design. This study was a prospective cohort study of 32 ELBW infants. Nutrient and Al intakes were recorded based on actual fluid intakes and concentrations

Robert K. Huston; Elizabeth A. McCulley; Andrea M. Markell; Carl F. Heisel; Patrick K. Lewallen

2012-01-01

210

New chemolysis for urological calcium phosphate calculi – a study in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Advances in techniques have left very few indications for open surgical extraction of urinary stones currently. These advances notwithstanding, the search continues for medical approaches to urinary stone management. In this study, we perform an in vitro study analyzing the efficiency and prospect of two new complex solutions in urological calcium phosphate calculi dissolution. METHODS: Eighteen stones composed mainly

Zhang Xiang-bo; Wang Zhi-ping; Duan Jian-min; Lu Jian-zhong; Ma Bao-liang

2005-01-01

211

Influence of annealing temperature on RF magnetron sputtered calcium phosphate coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of different annealing temperatures on the characteristics of thin calcium phosphate coatings fabricated by radiofrequency magnetron sputtering was studied. Annealing of the as-sputtered films was necessary to change the amorphous coating to a crystalline coating. The films were annealed for 2 and 4 h at 400, 600, 800,1000 and 1200 °C under dry argon or argon and water

K. van Dijk; H. G. Schaeken; J. G. C. Wolke; J. A. Jansen

1996-01-01

212

Lead Retention in a Calcareous Soil Influenced by Calcium and Phosphate Amendments  

EPA Science Inventory

Phosphate amendments in calcareous lead (Pb)-contaminated soils to immobilize Pb may be hindered due to competition of Pb with calcium (Ca) that may inhibit the retention of Pb as a precipitation mechanism. This study explored the retention of Pb in a calcareous soil spiked and ...

213

Evaluation of new porous ?-tri-calcium phosphate ceramic as bone substitute in goat model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was carried out to evaluate the porous ?-tri-calcium phosphate (TCP) (prepared by aqueous solution combustion technique) as bone substitute and compared with normal healing in 12 adult Black Bengal goats on the basis of clinical and radiographic findings, histological studies, oxytetracycline labeling, angiography studies (on day 90). Bone defects created in the diaphysis of radius were left

Samit K. Nandi; Samir K. Ghosh; Biswanath Kundu; Dipak K. De; Debabrata Basu

2008-01-01

214

Cost containment using cysteine HCl acidification to increase calcium/phosphate solubility in hyperalimentation solutions.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine if (1) the calcium/phosphate insoluble product was inversely related to pH [when cysteine HC1 (CH) was added as neonatal supplementation at 0.5 mM/kg/day to hyperalimentation (HAL) solutions] and (2) the potential cost savings to the hospital. The pH of the HAL solutions was adjusted by adding various amounts of CH to the HAL solution. HAL solutions containing 27 mEq of calcium/liter and 30 mEq (15 mM) of phosphate/liter were compounded. Ten-milliliter aliquots were analyzed at 0, 12, 24, and 48 hr. All samples (n = 56) were filtered (0.22 mu), viewed with 7-10,000 X magnification scanning electron microscopy, and qualitatively analyzed with a Philips Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis System equipped with a SW9100 Microprocessor. Calcium/phosphate insoluble product was present in the 0-, 12-, 24-, and 48-hr samples from the CH-free solutions. The solutions containing 759 mg (4.17 mM)/liter of CH however, remained free of precipitant. This investigation demonstrated that addition of CH to HAL can foster significant cost containment (projected $82,000/yr tangible hospital savings) by the elimination of current calcium/phosphate separation procedures for neonates on parenteral nutrition. PMID:3083133

Schmidt, G L; Baumgartner, T G; Fischlschweiger, W; Sitren, H S; Thakker, K M; Cerda, J J

1986-01-01

215

Biomimetic Nanocomposites of Calcium Phosphate and Self-Assembling Triblock and Pentablock Copolymers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In an effort to mimic the growth of natural bone, self-assembling, micelle and gel-forming copolymers were used as a template for calcium phosphate precipitation. Because of the cationic characteristics imparted by PDEAEM end group additions to commercial...

D. L. Enlow

2006-01-01

216

Influence of polymer addition on the mechanical properties of a premixed calcium phosphate cement.  

PubMed

Premixed calcium phosphate cements can reduce handling complications that are associated with the mixing of cements in the operating room. However, to extend the clinical indication of ceramic cements their mechanical properties need to be further improved. The incorporation of a polymeric material with intrinsically high tensile properties could possibly assist in increasing the mechanical properties of calcium phosphate cement. In this study polymer microparticles made from poly(lactid-co-glycolide) plasticised with poly(ethylene glycol) 400 (PLGA/PEG microparticles) were added in amounts of up to 5 wt% to a premixed acidic calcium phosphate cement. The PLGA/PEG microparticles added undergo a shape transformation at 37 °C, which could give a better integration between polymer microparticles and ceramic cement compared with polymer microparticles lacking this property. The results showed that the incorporation of 1.25 wt% PLGA/PEG microparticles increased the compressive strength by approximately 20% up to 15.1 MPa while the diametral tensile strength was kept constant. The incorporation of PLGA/PEG microparticles increased the brushite to monetite ratio after setting compared with pure ceramic cements. In conclusion, small amounts of PLGA/PEG microparticles can be incorporated into premixed acidic calcium phosphate cement and increase their mechanical properties, which could lead to increased future applications. PMID:24270588

Engstrand, Johanna; Persson, Cecilia; Engqvist, Håkan

2013-11-22

217

Calcium Acetate versus Calcium Carbonate as Phosphate Binders in Hemodialysis Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a randomized unblinded parallel clinical trial to compare the effectiveness, side effects and tolerance between calcium acetate (CA) and calcium carbonate (CC) in 80 stable chronic hemodialysis patients selected on the basis of their acceptable control of serum phosphorus (P) levels with aluminum hydroxide (AH). All patients were dialyzed against the same calcium dialyzate (1.62 mmol\\/l). The serum

F. Caravaca; I. Santos; J. J. Cubero; J. F. Esparrago; M. Arrobas; J. L. Pizarro; R. Robles; E. Sanchez-Casado

1992-01-01

218

Interactions of total bone marrow cells with increasing quantities of macroporous calcium phosphate ceramic granules.  

PubMed

The biological properties of synthetic calcium phosphate bioceramics have made them the third choice of material for bone reconstructive surgery, after autologous bone and allografts. Nevertheless, bioceramics lack the osteogenic properties that would allow them to repair large bone defects. One strategy in bone tissue engineering consists of associating a synthetic scaffold with osteogenic cells. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are usually isolated from bone marrow cultured for several weeks and seeded on to a small quantity of bioceramic. We have studied the association of total bone marrow cells, harvested from femurs of rats, with increasing amounts of calcium phosphate ceramic granules (50-250 mg). A cell viability test indicated that a little quantity of bioceramics granules (50 mg) was less detrimental for culturing 1 million nucleated cells from the whole bone marrow population. Cell morphology, viability, adhesion and differentiation were studied after different culture periods. Among the heterogeneous population of bone marrow cells, only a limited amount of cells attached and differentiated on the bioceramics. To explain the influence of the amount of synthetic scaffold on cell viability, media calcium concentrations were measured. Low cell viability could be explained by calcium phosphate precipitation leading to a decrease in calcium concentrations observed with relatively large amounts of scaffold. This study showed that the chemical stability of the ceramic plays a critical role in the viability of bone marrow cells. PMID:17554601

Le Nihouannen, Damien; Duval, Laure; Lecomte, Antoine; Julien, Marion; Guicheux, Jérôme; Daculsi, Guy; Layrolle, Pierre

2007-10-01

219

The role of intracellular calcium phosphate in osteoblast-mediated bone apatite formation  

PubMed Central

Mineralization is a ubiquitous process in the animal kingdom and is fundamental to human development and health. Dysfunctional or aberrant mineralization leads to a variety of medical problems, and so an understanding of these processes is essential to their mitigation. Osteoblasts create the nano-composite structure of bone by secreting a collagenous extracellular matrix (ECM) on which apatite crystals subsequently form. However, despite their requisite function in building bone and decades of observations describing intracellular calcium phosphate, the precise role osteoblasts play in mediating bone apatite formation remains largely unknown. To better understand the relationship between intracellular and extracellular mineralization, we combined a sample-preparation method that simultaneously preserved mineral, ions, and ECM with nano-analytical electron microscopy techniques to examine osteoblasts in an in vitro model of bone formation. We identified calcium phosphate both within osteoblast mitochondrial granules and intracellular vesicles that transported material to the ECM. Moreover, we observed calcium-containing vesicles conjoining mitochondria, which also contained calcium, suggesting a storage and transport mechanism. Our observations further highlight the important relationship between intracellular calcium phosphate in osteoblasts and their role in mineralizing the ECM. These observations may have important implications in deciphering both how normal bone forms and in understanding pathological mineralization.

Boonrungsiman, Suwimon; Gentleman, Eileen; Carzaniga, Raffaella; Evans, Nicholas D.; McComb, David W.; Porter, Alexandra E.; Stevens, Molly M.

2012-01-01

220

Interaction between hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and biphasic calcium phosphate after steam sterilisation: capillary gas chromatography studies  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to check the chemical stability of an injectable bone substitute (IBS) composed of a 50/50 w/w mixture of a 2.92% hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) solution in deionised water containing biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) granules (60% hydroxyapatite/40% ?-tricalcium phosphate w/w). After separation of the organic and mineral phases, capillary gas chromatography (GC) was used to study the possible modification of HPMC due to the contact with BCP granules following steam sterilisation and 32 days of storage at room temperature. HPMC was extracted from IBS in aqueous medium, and a dialytic method was then use to extract calcium phosphate salts from HPMC. The percentage of HPMC extracted from BCP was 98.5% ± 0.5% as measured by a UV method. GC showed no chemical modifications after steam sterilisation and storage.

Bourges, Xavier; Schmitt, Michel; Amouriq, Yves; Daculsi, Guy; Legeay, Gilbert; Weiss, Pierre

2001-01-01

221

Interaction between hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and biphasic calcium phosphate after steam sterilisation: capillary gas chromatography studies.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to check the chemical stability of an injectable bone substitute (IBS) composed of a 50/50 w/w mixture of 2.92% hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) solution in deionized water containing biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) granules (60% hydroxyapatite/40% beta-tricalcium phosphate w/w). After separation of the organic and mineral phases, capillary gas chromatography (GC) was used to study the possible modification of HPMC due to the contact with BCP granules following steam sterilisation and 32 days storage at room temperature. HPMC was extracted from IBS in aqueous medium, and a dialytic method was then used to extract calcium phosphate salts from the HPMC. The percentage of HPMC extracted from BCP was 98.5%+/-0.5%, as measured by UV. GC showed no chemical modifications after steam sterilisation and storage. PMID:11556737

Bourges, X; Schmitt, M; Amouriq, Y; Daculsi, G; Legeay, G; Weiss, P

2001-01-01

222

A construction of novel iron-foam-based calcium phosphate/chitosan coating biodegradable scaffold material.  

PubMed

Slow corrosion rate and poor bioactivity restrict iron-based implants in biomedical application. In this study, we design a new iron-foam-based calcium phosphate/chitosan coating biodegradable composites offering a priority mechanical and bioactive property for bone tissue engineering through electrophoretic deposition (EPD) followed by a conversion process into a phosphate buffer solution (PBS). Tensile test results showed that the mechanical property of iron foam could be regulated through altering the construction of polyurethane foam. The priority coatings were deposited from 40% nano hydroxyapatite (nHA)/ethanol suspension mixed with 60% nHA/chitosan-acetic acid aqueous solution. In vitro immersion test showed that oxidation-iron foam as the matrix decreased the amount of iron implanted and had not influence on the bioactivity of this implant, obviously. So, this method could also be a promising method for the preparation of a new calcium phosphate/chitosan coating on foam construction. PMID:23827538

Wen, Zhaohui; Zhang, Liming; Chen, Chao; Liu, Yibo; Wu, Changjun; Dai, Changsong

2013-04-01

223

Electrically Polarized Biphasic Calcium Phosphates: Adsorption and Release of Bovine Serum Albumin  

PubMed Central

In this study, we applied electrical polarization technique to increase adsorption and control protein release from biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP). Three different biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) composites, with hydroxyapatite (HAp) and ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP), were processed and electrically polarized. Our study showed that stored charge was increased in the composites with the increase in HAp percentage. Adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA), as a model protein, on the poled, as well as unpoled surfaces of the composites, was studied. The highest amount of BSA adsorption was obtained on positively poled surfaces of each composite. Adsorption isotherm study suggested a multilayer adsorption of BSA on the BCP composites. The effect of electrical polarization on BSA release kinetics from positively charged BCP surfaces was studied. A gradual increase in percent BSA release from positively charged BCP surfaces with decreasing stored charge was observed. Our study showed that the BCP based composites have the potential to be used as drug or growth factor delivery vehicle.

Tarafder, Solaiman; Banerjee, Shashwat; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

2010-01-01

224

Chitosan-coated electrospun PLA fibers for rapid mineralization of calcium phosphate.  

PubMed

In this work, hydroxyapatite (HA) mineralized on chitosan (CS)-coated poly(lactic acid) (PLA) nanofiber mat was prepared and compared in terms of mineralization characteristics. Significant calcium phosphate crystals formed on various concentrations of CS-coated PLA fiber mat with better uniformity after 2h of incubation in 10 times simulated body fluid (10× SBF). X-ray diffraction results further indicated that the composition of the deposited mineral was a mixture of dicalcium phosphate dehydrates and apatite. Chitosan, a cationic polysaccharide, can promote more nucleation and growth of calcium phosphate under conditions of 0.4% chitosan concentrations. These results indicated that HA-mineralized on CS-coated PLA fiber mat can be prepared directly via simply using CS coating followed by SBF immersion, and the results also suggest that this composite can mimic structural, compositional, and biological functions of native bone and can serve as a good candidate for bone tissue engineering (BTE). PMID:24768970

Lin, Chi-Chang; Fu, Shu-Juan; Lin, Yu-Ching; Yang, I-Kuan; Gu, Yesong

2014-07-01

225

Nanocrystalline biphasic resorbable calcium phosphate (HAp/?-TCP) thin film prepared by electron beam evaporation technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) thin film having resorbable ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) and non-resorbable hydroxyapatite (HAp) phases having enhanced bioactivity was synthesized by electron beam evaporation technique. Nanosized BCP was deposited as a layer (500 nm) on (0 0 1) silicon substrate by electron beam evaporation and crystalline phase of samples were found to improve on annealing at 700 °C. Uniform deposition of calcium phosphate on silicon substrate was verified from elemental mapping using scanning electron microscope (SEM-EDX). Annealing of the samples led to a decrease in surface roughness, hydrophobicity and dissolution of the coating layer. Amoxicillin loaded thin films exhibited significant bacterial resistance. In addition, BCP thin films did not exhibit any cytotoxicity. Antibiotics incorporated BCP coated implants might prevent the post-surgical infections and could promote bone-bonding of orthopedic devices.

Elayaraja, K.; Chandra, V. Sarath; Joshy, M. I. Ahymah; Suganthi, R. V.; Asokan, K.; Kalkura, S. Narayana

2013-06-01

226

Modelling biological and chemically induced precipitation of calcium phosphate in enhanced biological phosphorus removal systems.  

PubMed

The biologically induced precipitation processes can be important in wastewater treatment, in particular treating raw wastewater with high calcium concentration combined with Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal. Currently, there is little information and experience in modelling jointly biological and chemical processes. This paper presents a calcium phosphate precipitation model and its inclusion in the Activated Sludge Model No 2d (ASM2d). The proposed precipitation model considers that aqueous phase reactions quickly achieve the chemical equilibrium and that aqueous-solid change is kinetically governed. The model was calibrated using data from four experiments in a Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) operated for EBPR and finally validated with two experiments. The precipitation model proposed was able to reproduce the dynamics of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) formation and later crystallization to hydroxyapatite (HAP) under different scenarios. The model successfully characterised the EBPR performance of the SBR, including the biological, physical and chemical processes. PMID:21565382

Barat, R; Montoya, T; Seco, A; Ferrer, J

2011-06-01

227

Cellular response to calcium phosphate glasses with controlled solubility.  

PubMed

In the last decades, the research on materials for bone regeneration has focused on materials that are degradable and capable of stimulating tissue regeneration. In this context, phosphate glasses offer an interesting alternative, given the wide range of solubility they present and their similarity with respect to the chemical composition of the bone mineral phase. In the current work, two different formulations of phosphate glasses in the system P(2)O(5)[bond]CaO[bond]Na(2)O[bond]TiO(2) are developed. The incorporation of TiO(2) into the glass network allows for better control of the glass dissolution rate. Although these glasses have been studied extensively from the physicochemical point of view, little is known about their biocompatibility. To evaluate the biological response to these materials, we have used a human skin fibroblast model. The cells were incubated in vitro following two different methods. The first was incubated in direct contact with the glasses and the second one, in the presence of their extracts. The effects of the materials on cell growth were determined by means of toxicity (WST assay), adhesion, and proliferation tests. The results showed that the in vitro behavior of soluble phosphate glasses is strongly affected by their solubility. On the other hand, the results showed that the cellular response is highly affected by the testing procedure. PMID:14613251

Navarro, Melba; Ginebra, Maria-Pau; Planell, Josep A

2003-12-01

228

The nucleation and growth of calcium phosphate onto self-assembled monolayers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nucleation and growth of calcium phosphate is of great importance to the formation of mammalian hard tissue structures such as bone and teeth and for unwanted, ectopic calcium phosphate deposition on arteries and implants. In spite of its importance, the mechanisms of nucleation and growth of calcium phosphate are not well known, but are believed to involve an organic template. The nucleation and growth of calcium phosphate was studied onto model nucleation templates composed of alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers on gold that were developed and tailored to have various surface functionalities, various surface site densities composed of mixtures of two thiols, and various degrees of conformational disorder composed of mixtures of SAMs of various chain lengths. The quartz crystal microbalance was developed as an in-situ technique to study the nucleation and growth kinetics and ex-situ techniques such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy were used to assess adsorbate molecular chemistry in the initial stages of deposition. Significant nucleation and growth of calcium phosphate onto SAMs involved the adsorption of solution-formed critical nuclei. This mechanism is in contrast to heterogeneous nucleation and may have important implications for bone formation. An initial slow growth region occurred which involved the adsorption and assembly of solution-formed nanometer-sized particles. A second fast growth period occurred which involved the adsorption and growth of solution-formed critical nuclei or the assembly of supercritical particles. There was evidence for the heterogeneous nucleation of a very low density of crystals at low solution supersaturation. Heterogeneous nucleation may be limited due to the use of planar surfaces and to limits on phosphate adsorption due to electrostatic double layer anisotropy at the charged interfaces. Surface selective deposition was found in the initial slow growth region with growth promoted onto charged SAMs such as carboxylic acid in contrast to hydroxyl, methyl ester, and methyl. The nanoparticle assembly growth mechanism was used to form ultrathin films of calcium phosphate which have not been formed previously. The micron-sized and ultrathin films are of interest as biosensors, bioelectronic devices, and bioactive coatings on implants.

Tarasevich, Barbara J.

229

Formation of calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite from ?-tricalcium phosphate  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the factors influencing the kinetics of Ca9HPO4(PO4)5OH (calcium deficient hydroxyapatite or CDHAp) formation from ?-Ca3(PO4)2 (?-TCP). The kinetics of CDHAp formation were investigated by isothermal calorimetry at constant temperatures ranging between 30 and 75°C and by changes in pH at 37.4 and 70°C. The calorimetric curves were characterized by two reaction peaks. Activation energies were calculated for

Kevor S. TenHuisen; Paul W. Brown

1998-01-01

230

Polymeric-Calcium Phosphate Cement Composites-Material Properties: In Vitro and In Vivo Investigations  

PubMed Central

New polymeric calcium phosphate cement composites (CPCs) were developed. Cement powder consisting of 60?wt% tetracalcium phosphate, 30?wt% dicalcium phosphate dihydrate, and 10?wt% tricalcium phosphate was combined with either 35%?w/w poly methyl vinyl ether maleic acid or polyacrylic acid to obtain CPC-1 and CPC-2. The setting time and compressive and diametral tensile strength of the CPCs were evaluated and compared with that of a commercial hydroxyapatite cement. In vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo biocompatibility of the two CPCs and hydroxyapatite cement were assessed. The setting time of the cements was 5–15?min. CPC-1 and CPC-2 showed significantly higher compressive and diametral strength values compared to hydroxyapatite cement. CPC-1 and CPC-2 were equivalent to Teflon controls after 1 week. CPC-1, CPC-2, and hydroxyapatite cement elicited a moderate to intense inflammatory reaction at 7 days which decreased over time. CPC-1 and CPC-2 show promise for orthopedic applications.

Khashaba, Rania M.; Moussa, Mervet M.; Mettenburg, Donald J.; Rueggeberg, Frederick A.; Chutkan, Norman B.; Borke, James L.

2010-01-01

231

Structural characterization of anion-calcium-humate complexes in phosphate-based fertilizers.  

PubMed

Fertilizers based on phosphate-metal-humate complexes are a new family of compounds that represents a more sustainable and bioavailable phosphorus source. The characterization of this type of complex by using solid (31)P NMR in several fertilizers, based on single superphosphate (SSP) and triple superphosphate (TSP) matrices, yielded surprising and unexpected trends in the intensity and fine structure of the (31)P NMR peaks. Computational chemistry methods allowed the characterization of phosphate-calcium-humate complexes in both SSP and TSP matrices, but also predicted the formation of a stable sulfate-calcium-humate complex in the SSP fertilizers, which has not been described previously. The stability of this complex has been confirmed by using ultrafiltration techniques. Preference towards the humic substance for the sulfate-metal phase in SSP allowed the explanation of the opposing trends that were observed in the experimental (31)P NMR spectra of SSP and TSP samples. Additionally, computational chemistry has provided an assignment of the (31)P NMR signals to different phosphate ligands as well as valuable information about the relative strength of the phosphate-calcium interactions within the crystals. PMID:23670945

Baigorri, Roberto; Urrutia, Oscar; Erro, Javier; Mandado, Marcos; Pérez-Juste, Ignacio; Garcia-Mina, José María

2013-07-01

232

Synthesis, characterization and cation adsorption of p-aminobenzoic acid intercalated on calcium phosphate  

SciTech Connect

Graphical abstract: Scanning electron microscopy photographs of calcium phosphate (a) and intercalated with p-aminobenzoic acid (b). Highlights: ? Calcium phosphate was intercalated with p-aminobenzoic acid. ? Guest molecule contains nitrogen and oxygen atoms from amine and carboxylic groups. ? These basic centers are potentially useful for cation coordination in ethanol solution. ? Crystal morphology of compounds is lamellar, it agrees with expected structural characteristics. -- Abstract: Crystalline lamellar calcium phosphate retained 4-aminobenzoic acid inside its cavity without leaching. The intense infrared bands in the 1033 and 1010 cm{sup ?1} interval confirmed the presence of the phosphonate groups attached to the inorganic layer, with sharp and intense peaks in X-ray diffraction patterns, which gave basal distances of 712 and 1578 pm for the original and the intercalated compounds, respectively. Solid-state {sup 31}P nuclear magnetic resonance spectra presented only one peak for the phosphate groups attached to the main inorganic polymeric structure near ?2.4 ppm. The adsorption isotherms from ethanol gave the maximum adsorption capacities of 6.44 and 3.34 mmol g{sup ?1} for nickel and cobalt, respectively, which stability constant and distribution coefficient followed Co > Ni.

Silva, Camila F.N. [Departamento de Química, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Av. Colombo, 5790, 87020-900 Maringá, PR (Brazil)] [Departamento de Química, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Av. Colombo, 5790, 87020-900 Maringá, PR (Brazil); Lazarin, Angélica M., E-mail: amlazarin2@uem.br [Departamento de Química, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Av. Colombo, 5790, 87020-900 Maringá, PR (Brazil); Sernaglia, Rosana L.; Andreotti, Elza I.S. [Departamento de Química, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Av. Colombo, 5790, 87020-900 Maringá, PR (Brazil)] [Departamento de Química, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Av. Colombo, 5790, 87020-900 Maringá, PR (Brazil)

2012-06-15

233

Acute effect of high-calcium milk with or without additional magnesium, or calcium phosphate on parathyroid hormone and biochemical markers of bone resorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess whether there are any differences in the postprandial physiological responses to apple drink (control), calcium phosphate (tricalcium phosphate, TCP) and high-calcium skim milk (HCSM) with or without additional magnesium in postmenopausal women.Design: Randomized, controlled, cross-over. Measurements after overnight fast before each drink, and subsequently every hour for 8 h postprandially.Setting: Human Nutrition Studies Laboratory, Milk and Health

J H Green; C Booth; R Bunning

2003-01-01

234

Laminin Coating Promotes Calcium Phosphate Precipitation on Titanium Discs in vitro  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Objectives The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a laminin coating on calcium phosphate precipitation on three potentially bioactive titanium surfaces in simulated body fluid. Material and Methods Blasted titanium discs were prepared by alkali and heat treatment (AH), anodic oxidation (AO) or hydroxyapatite coating (HA) and subsequently coated with laminin. A laminin coated blasted surface (B) served as a positive control while a blasted non coated (B-) served as a negative control. Surface morphology was examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The analysis of the precipitated calcium and phosphorous was performed by Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX). Results The thickness of the laminin coating was estimated at 26 Å by ellipsometry. Interferometry revealed that the coating process did not affect any of the tested topographical parameters on µm level when comparing B to B-. After 2 weeks of incubation in SBF, the alkali-heat treated discs displayed the highest calcium phosphate deposition and the B group showed higher levels of calcium phosphate than the B- group. Conclusions Our results suggest that laminin may have the potential to be used as a coating agent in order to enhance the osseoinductive performance of biomaterial surfaces, with the protein molecules possibly functioning as nucleation centres for apatite formation. Nevertheless, in vivo studies are required in order to clarify the longevity of the coating and its performance in the complex biological environment.

Stenport, Victoria Franke; Currie, Fredrik; Wennerberg, Ann

2011-01-01

235

Dentin adhesion and microleakage of a resin-based calcium phosphate pulp capping and basing cement.  

PubMed

An experimental resin-based bioactive calcium phosphate cement, intended as a pulp capping and basing material, was evaluated for dentin shear bond strength and microleakage. The interfacial morphology was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). For microleakage, dentin cavities without (Group A) or after (Group B) acid etching were restored with the calcium phosphate cement. A resin-based calcium hydroxide (VLC Dycal; Group C) was used as control material according to the manufacturer's instructions. After water storage and thermocycling, the microleakage was scored using a AgNO(3) staining procedure. For the shear bond strength, flat exposed dentin surfaces were treated as for the microleakage test. Metal irises pressed against the dentin surface were filled with the cements, which were photocured. Both tests were carried out after 1 wk. While acid etching did not result in significantly greater microleakage, it led to higher shear bond strength, and allowed, as shown by SEM, the formation of a hybrid layer and resin tags. Both groups treated with the calcium phosphate cement had significantly lower microleakage scores and higher mean shear bond strength values than the groups treated with the control material. PMID:15458506

Dickens, Sabine H; Kelly, Sean R; Flaim, Glenn M; Giuseppetti, Anthony A

2004-10-01

236

Effect of the Intravenous Lipid Emulsions on the Availability of Calcium when using Organic Phosphate in TPN Admixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The addition of high amounts of calcium remains a pharmaceutical concern due to its precipitation with phosphate in total\\u000a parenteral nutrient (TPN) admixtures, compromising also the stability of the lipid emulsion.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and Methods  Calcium-phosphate solubility was compared when using binary PN solutions versus all-in-one TPN (admixtures with lipid emulsions) in three formulas using organic calcium gluconate and gulcose-1-phosphate.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  It was

Jean Claude Chaumeil; Sami Jebnoun; Naima Khrouf; Abderrazek Hedhili; Souad Sfar

2008-01-01

237

Effects of a calcium phosphate cement on mineralized nodule formation compared with endodontic cements.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate mineralizing ability of a premixed calcium phosphate cement (premixed-CPC) compared to mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and zinc oxide eugenol cement (SuperEBA) in ROS17/2.8 cells. The measurements of cell proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALPase) activity and mineralized nodule formation in the presence or absence (control) of the test materials were performed using a cell culture insert method with the test materials placed on a porous membrane of culture plate insert. Mineralized nodules were detected by staining with alizarin red, and the calcium content of the mineralized nodules was determined quantitatively using a calcium assay kit. Premixed-CPC and MTA indicated significantly higher cell proliferation, ALPase activity, mineralized nodule formation, and calcium content in nodules than those of SuperEBA (p<0.05). The present results suggest that premixed-CPC has the same mineralizing ability as MTA. PMID:22277611

Ogata, Hidehiro; Hayashi, Makoto; Tsuda, Hiromasa; Suzuki, Naoto; Maeno, Masao; Sugawara, Akiyoshi; Ogiso, Bunnai

2012-02-01

238

Structural characterization of phosphorylated chitosan and their applications as effective additives of calcium phosphate cements.  

PubMed

Chitosan was phosphorylated by P2O5 in methanesulfonic acid and the product as water-soluble phosphorylated chitosan (P-chitosans) was then characterized by phosphorus elemental analysis, IR and 31P-NMR spectroscopy. Two calcium phosphate cement (CPC) systems, i.e. (1) monocalcium phosphate monohydrate (MCPM) and calcium oxide (CaO) in 1 M phosphate buffer (pH = 7.4) and (2) dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) and calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] in 1 M Na2HPO4 solution, were chosen to improve their mechanical properties by the addition of water-soluble P-chitosans with various values for molecular weight, degree of deacetylation (DD) and degree of substitution (DS). The results show that the compressive strength (CS) and Young's modulus of both CPC formulations after setting were obviously increased and setting time was slightly prolonged by adding water-soluble P-chitosan to the liquid phases. When a suitable amount of P-chitosan was used, two improved CPC formulations were obtained with much better mechanical properties while the setting times were not longer than 15 min. The enhancement of compressive strength was due to high Ca2+-binding ability of phosphorylated chitosan, which could tightly bind the newly formed hydroxyapatite (HA) particles together by polymeric chains. It was noted that excessive addition of P-chitosan would lead to slow setting or no setting at all. The hardened CPC samples containing P-chitosan were characterized via X-ray diffraction spectra and scanning electron microscopy. Their leaching experiment was also carried out. The results indicated that P-chitosan-forced calcium phosphate cements have some good characteristics for clinical applications. PMID:11456064

Wang, X; Ma, J; Wang, Y; He, B

2001-08-01

239

Characterization of calcium phosphate powders originating from Phyllacanthus imperialis and Trochidae Infundibulum concavus marine shells.  

PubMed

The study reports the preparation and characterization of powders consisting of the different phases of calcium phosphates that were obtained from the naturally derived raw materials of sea-shell origins reacted with H3PO4. Species of sea origin, such as corals and nacres, attracted a special interest in bone tissue engineering area. Nacre shells are built up of calcium carbonate in aragonite form crystallized in an organic matrix. In this work two natural marine origin materials (shells of echinoderm Sputnik sea urchin - Phyllacanthus imperialis and Trochidae Infundibulum concavus mollusk) were involved in the developing powders of calcium phosphate based biomaterials (as raw materials for bone-scaffolds) by hotplate and ultrasound methods. Thermal analyses of the as-prepared materials were made for an assessment of the thermal behavior and heat treatment temperatures. Samples from both sea shells each of them prepared by the above mentioned methods were subjected to thermal treatments at 450 °C and 850 °C in order to evaluate the crystalline transformations of the calcium phosphate structures in the heating process. By X-ray diffraction analyses various calcium phosphate phases were identified. In Sputnik sea urchins originated samples were found predominantly brushite and calcite as a small secondary phase, while in Trochidae I. concavus samples mainly monetite and HA phases were identified. Thermal treatment at 850 °C resulted flat-plate whitlockite crystals - ?-MgTCP [(Ca, Mg)3 (PO4)2] for both samples regardless the preparation method (ultrasound or hotplate) or the targeted Ca/P molar ratio according with XRD patterns. Scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy were involved more in the characterization of these materials and the good correlations of the results of these methods were made. PMID:23623070

T?m??an, M; Ozyegin, L S; Oktar, F N; Simon, V

2013-07-01

240

Factors modulating the pH at which calcium and magnesium phosphates precipitate from human urine.  

PubMed

The factors controlling the rate at which crystalline bacterial biofilms develop on indwelling bladder catheters are poorly understood. It is known that normally the pH of voided urine (pHv) is lower than the pH at which calcium and magnesium phosphates come out of urine solution (pHn). In patients who develop infections with urease producing bacteria, however, the pHv rises above the pHn and precipitation of the phosphates occurs in the urine and the biofilm. The aim of this study was to examine ways of manipulating the pHn of urine so that more of its calcium and magnesium remain in solution under alkaline conditions. The experimental data show that pHn can be elevated by decreasing the calcium, magnesium and phosphate concentrations. Increasing the fluid intake of a human subject so that the urinary calcium fell from 120 mg/l to 25 mg/l, for example, resulted in the pHn increasing from 6.48 to 8.22. The addition of citrate to urine also produced a rise in the pHn. The daily consumption of 500 ml of fresh orange juice increased urinary citrate concentrations from 0.35 to around 1.21 mg/ml and the pHn rose from 7.24 to 8.2. The pHn of urine is thus a highly variable parameter. It can be manipulated by controlling the urinary concentrations of magnesium, calcium, phosphate and citrate ions. We suggest that increasing fluid intake with citrate containing drinks would reduce the extent of encrustation on catheters in patients infected with urease producing bacteria. PMID:15981006

Suller, M T E; Anthony, V J; Mathur, S; Feneley, R C L; Greenman, J; Stickler, D J

2005-08-01

241

Lead retention in a calcareous soil influenced by calcium and phosphate amendments.  

PubMed

Phosphate amendments in calcareous lead (Pb)-contaminated soils to immobilize Pb may be hindered due to competition of Pb with calcium (Ca) that may inhibit the retention of Pb as a precipitation mechanism. This study explored the retention of Pb in a calcareous soil spiked and aged with 500 mg kg(-1) Pb(2+) and amended with H2PO4(-). In addition, Ca(2+) was added immediately or three days before or after phosphate, after which ryegrass (Lolium perenne) was planted. Diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Pb of the soils in which Ca was added immediately after phosphate was lower than those only amended with phosphate or when Ca was added three days before or after phosphate. The addition of Ca immediately after phosphate resulted in the greatest reduction of ammonia acetate-exchangeable Ca concentration, Olsen-P concentration, and carbonate phase Pb. Higher plant biomass yields were observed for the simultaneous P and Ca treatment. The results of the study demonstrate that co-added Ca and P may help reduce Pb availability by forming fresh Ca-P sorbent phases to retain Pb through an adsorption-substitution mechanism, which may play an important role in the sequestration of Pb in calcareous soils with soluble phosphate in addition to the mechanism of the direct precipitation as pyromorphite. PMID:24036148

Li, Liping; Xing, Weiqin; Scheckel, Kirk G; Xiang, Guoqiang; Ji, Haohao; Li, Hao

2013-11-15

242

The progress of early phase bone healing using porous granules produced from calcium phosphate cement  

PubMed Central

Objective Bone grafting is a vital component in many surgical procedures to facilitate the repair of bone defects or fusions. Autologous bone has been the gold standard to date in spite of associated donor-site morbidity and the limited amount of available donor bone. The aim of this study was to investigate the progress of bone regeneration and material degradation of calcium phosphate granules (CPG) produced from a calcium phosphate self-setting cement powder compared to the use of autologous bone grafting in the treatment of "critical size defects" on load-bearing long bones of minipigs. Methods A critical size defect in the tibial metaphysis of 16 mini-pigs was filled either with autologous cancellous graft or with micro- and macroporous carbonated, apatic calcium phosphate granules (CPG) produced from a calcium phosphate self-setting cement powder. After 6 weeks, the specimens were assessed by X-ray and histological evaluation. The amount of new bone formation was analysed histomorphometrically. Results The semi-quantitative analysis of the radiological results showed a complete osseous bridging of the defect in three cases for the autograft group. In the same group five animals showed a beginning, but still incomplete bridging of the defect, whereas in the CPG group just two animals developed this. All other animals of the CPG group showed only a still discontinuous new bone formation. Altogether, radiologically a better osseous bridging was observed in the autograft group compared to the CPG group. Histomorphometrical analysis after six weeks of healing revealed that the area of new bone was significantly greater in the autograft group concerning the central area of the defect zone (p < 0.001) as well as the cortical defect zone (p < 0.002). All defects showed new bone formation, but only in the autograft group defects regenerated entirely Conclusions Within the limits of the present study it could be demonstrated that autologous cancellous grafts lead to a significantly better bone regeneration compared to the application of calcium phosphate granules (CPG) produced from a calcium phosphate self-setting cement powder after 6 weeks. In the early phase of bone-healing, the sole application of CPG appears to be inferior to the autologous cancellous grafts in an in vivo critical size defect on load-bearing long bones of mini-pigs.

2010-01-01

243

Calcium phosphate phase transformation produced by the interaction of the portland cement component of white mineral trioxide aggregate with a phosphate-containing fluid.  

PubMed

The bioactivity of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) has been attributed to its ability to produce hydroxyapatite in the presence of phosphate-containing fluids. It is known that stoichiometric hydroxyapatites do not exist in biological systems and do not contribute to the osteogenic potential of calcium phosphate-based biomaterials. Because Portland cement is the active ingredient in white MTA, we have characterized the calcium phosphate phases produced when set white Portland cement was immersed in phosphate-buffered saline using pH and turbidity measurements, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, transmission electron microscopy, electron diffraction, x-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy. An amorphous calcium phosphate phase was initially formed that transformed to an apatite phase, with the latter consisting of calcium-deficient, poorly crystalline, B-type carbonated apatite crystallites. Amorphous calcium phosphate is a key intermediate that precedes biological apatite formation in skeletal calcification. Thus, the clinical manifestations of bioactivity with the use of MTA may at least be partially attributed to the mineralization induction capacity of its Portland cement component. PMID:17963961

Tay, Franklin R; Pashley, David H; Rueggeberg, Frederick A; Loushine, Robert J; Weller, R Norman

2007-11-01

244

Preliminary evaluation of a novel strong/osteoinductive calcium phosphate cement.  

PubMed

We developed a novel calcium phosphate cement (CPC) by combining the silk fibroin and osteogenic supplements (?-glycerophosphate, ascorbic acid, and dexamethasone) with ?-tricalcium phosphate cement. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were cultured on the novel CPC scaffold. Results showed that the novel CPC scaffold was biocompatible and favorable for the adhesion, spreading, and proliferation of MSCs. Osteogenic differentiation of MSCs was confirmed by high osteocalcin content and elevated gene expressions of bone markers, such as alkaline phosphatase, collagen type I, and osteocalcin. Therefore, the novel CPC scaffold may be potentially useful for implant fixation and more rapid new bone formation in moderate load-bearing applications. PMID:20566653

Qu, Yili; Yang, Yang; Li, Juan; Chen, Zhiqing; Li, Jidong; Tang, Kuangyun; Man, Yi

2011-09-01

245

Calcium thorium phosphate (Whitlockite-type mineral). Synthesis and structure refinement  

SciTech Connect

The crystal structure of a new calcium thorium phosphate has been refined by the full-profile Rietveld method using X-ray powder diffraction data. The sample has been synthesized by the sol-gel technique. The phosphate has been identified by X-ray powder diffraction and IR spectroscopy. The refined composition is represented by the formula Ca{sub 10.26}Th{sub 0.12}(PO{sub 4}){sub 7}. The CaO{sub n} and PO{sub 4} polyhedra are distorted compared to the corresponding polyhedra in the basic compound {beta}-Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}.

Orlova, A. I., E-mail: oai@uic.nnov.ru [Lobachevsky State University of Nizhni Novgorod (Russian Federation); Khainakov, S. A. [University of Oviedo (Spain); Loginova, E. E.; Oleneva, T. A. [Lobachevsky State University of Nizhni Novgorod (Russian Federation); Garcia Granda, S. [University of Oviedo (Spain); Kurazhkovskaya, V. S. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation)

2009-07-15

246

Morphology and microstructure of electrochemically deposited calcium phosphates in a modified simulated body fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium phosphates were deposited on a pure titanium plate for various loading times under 1.3 and 12.9mA\\/cm2 in a modified simulated body fluid at 52–92°C. The plate-like crystals formed under 1.3mA\\/cm2 were identified to be octacalcium phosphate (OCP) and\\/or carbonate-containing apatite. OCP converted to carbonate-containing apatite with the elapsing time of the loading current. The needle-like precipitates formed under 12.9mA\\/cm2

Seiji Ban; Shigeo Maruno

1998-01-01

247

Effect of macromolecules and of sodium dodecyl sulphate upon precipitation of calcium oxalate and phosphate from whole urine.  

PubMed

Different proportions of mixtures of whole urine and its ultrafiltrate were evaporated to 1,250 mosm/kg to study crystal formation of calcium oxalate at pH 5.3 and calcium phosphate at pH 6.8. At both pH values there was a direct linear relationship between proportion of whole urine and crystal formation. When sodium dodecyl sulphate was added to whole urine before evaporation, calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate crystal formation were reduced to 64.3 and 53% respectively of the values of whole urine. This favours the proposition that crystal formation is promoted by polymeric uromucoid. PMID:6719637

Rose, G A; Sulaiman, S

1984-01-01

248

Fabrication and mechanical testing of porous calcium phosphate bioceramic granules.  

PubMed

Porous hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate (HA/TCP) granules were fabricated by a novel technique of vacuum impregnation of reticulated polyurethane (PU) foams with ceramic slip. The resultant granules had 5-10% interconnected porosity with controlled pore sizes necessary to allow bone ingrowth combined with good mechanical properties. Using PU foams with a different number of pores per inch (ppi), porous HA/TCP granules in the size range of 2-8 mm were successfully manufactured. Dieplunger tests were used to compare the compression and relaxation properties of the granules with those of a commercially available bone graft product, BoneSave. The results of the die-plunger testing showed that the experimental granules were stiffer than the BoneSave materials and had less of a tendency to crumble to powder after testing. This therefore suggests that these experimental granules would be useful for impaction grafting and space filling applications. PMID:17554596

Hsu, Y H; Turner, I G; Miles, A W

2007-10-01

249

Structural aspects of calcium iron phosphate glass containing neodymium oxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Homogeneous glasses of the xNd2O3sbnd (100 - x)(12CaOsbnd 20Fe2O3sbnd 68P2O5) system were obtained within the 0 ? x ? 10 mol% composition range. The density and molar volume measurements helped to understand the structural changes occurring in these glasses. Vickers-hardness results showed that addition of Nd2O3 strengthened the crosslinking of the glass network. Spectra analysis indicated that Nd2O3 enters in the structure of the phosphate glasses as a network modifier. The depolymerization of the glass network by the addition of Nd2O3 is characterized by the increase in the concentration of pyrophosphate. The decrease of the Q1 terminal oxygen with increasing Nd2O3 content indicated that Psbnd Osbnd Nd bonds participated in the pyrophosphate glass structure, determined from the Raman spectra.

Li, Haijian; Liang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Cuiling; Yu, Huijun; Li, Zhen; Yang, Shiyuan

2014-06-01

250

Preparation and Properties of Nanoparticles of Calcium Phosphates With Various Ca/P Ratios  

PubMed Central

This study aimed at preparing and studying the properties of nanoparticles of calcium phosphate (nCaP) with Ca/P ratios ranging from 1.0 to 1.67 using a spray-drying technique. Micro-structural analyses suggested that the nCaPs with Ca/P ratios of 1.67 to 1.33 were nano-sized amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) containing varying amounts of acid phosphate and carbonate. The nCaP with Ca/P ratio of 1 contained only nano-sized low crystalline dicalcium phosphate (DCP). BET measurements of the nCaPs showed specific surface areas of (12 ± 2 to 50 ± 1) m2/g, corresponding to estimated equivalent spherical diameters of (38 to 172) nm. However, dynamic light scattering measurements revealed much larger particles of (380 ± 49 to 768 ± 111) nm, owing to agglomeration of the smaller primary nano particles as revealed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Thermodynamic solubility measurements showed that the nCaPs with Ca/P ratio of 1.33 – 1.67 all have similar solubility behavior. The materials were more soluble than the crystalline hydroxyapatite (HA) at pH greater than about 4.7, and more soluble than ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP), octacalcium phosphate (OCP) and DCP at pH above 5.5. Their solubility approached that of ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) at about pH 7. These nCaPs, which cannot be readily prepared by other currently available methods for nanoparticle preparation, have potential biomedical applications.

Sun, Limin; Chow, Laurence C.; Frukhtbeyn, Stanislav A.; Bonevich, John E.

2010-01-01

251

Preparation, Physical-Chemical Characterization, and Cytocompatibility of Polymeric Calcium Phosphate Cements  

PubMed Central

Aim. Physicochemical mechanical and in vitro biological properties of novel formulations of polymeric calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) were investigated. Methods. Monocalcium phosphate, calcium oxide, and synthetic hydroxyapatite were combined with either modified polyacrylic acid, light activated polyalkenoic acid, or polymethyl vinyl ether maleic acid to obtain Types I, II, and III CPCs. Setting time, compressive and diametral strength of CPCs was compared with zinc polycarboxylate cement (control). Specimens were characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and infrared spectroscopy. In vitro cytotoxicity of CPCs and control was assessed. Results. X-ray diffraction analysis showed hydroxyapatite, monetite, and brushite. Acid-base reaction was confirmed by the appearance of stretching peaks in IR spectra of set cements. SEM revealed rod-like crystals and platy crystals. Setting time of cements was 5–12?min. Type III showed significantly higher strength values compared to control. Type III yielded high biocompatibility. Conclusions. Type III CPCs show promise for dental applications.

Khashaba, Rania M.; Moussa, Mervet; Koch, Christopher; Jurgensen, Arthur R.; Missimer, David M.; Rutherford, Ronny L.; Chutkan, Norman B.; Borke, James L.

2011-01-01

252

Methylene blue intercalated into calcium phosphate - Electrochemical properties and an ascorbic acid oxidation study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methylene blue (MB) was intercalated inside the cavity of a layered calcium phosphate host. The dye is strongly retained and not easily leached from the matrix. The intercalated dye material was incorporated into a carbon paste electrode and by means of cyclic voltammetry and amperometry, its electrochemical properties were investigated. In various electrolyte solutions, on changing the pH between 3 and 9, the midpoint potential remained practically constant at -0.15 V. This is not the usual behavior for MB, since it is known that in the solution phase the midpoint potential changes considerably with pH, indicating that, in the present case, methylene blue is a guest molecule intercalated inside the lamellar structure of the calcium phosphate. An electrode made with this material was used to study the electrochemical oxidation of ascorbic acid and then applied to commercial samples, with excellent agreement within the 95% confidence level.

Lazarin, Angélica M.; Airoldi, Claudio

2008-09-01

253

Vertebral body recollapse without trauma after kyphoplasty with calcium phosphate cement.  

PubMed

Traditionally, immobilization and external bracing has been recommended for patients with type A traumatic and non-osteoporotic fractures that do not present neurological deficits or significant instability. Nevertheless, several authors have recently suggested the possibility to treat thoraco-lumbar and lumbar vertebral compression post-traumatic fractures using standalone balloon kyphoplasty with osteoconductive filler materials, such as calcium phosphate (CPC). Maestretti and Huang have demonstrated the advantages of this technique showing an almost immediate return to daily activities without the inconvenience of wearing a brace, pain reduction, minimal operative risks and maintenance of stability, therefore proposing this as a first-choice technique in young patient needing rapid spine stability. The authors present a case of vertebral body recollapse after kyphoplasty with calcium phosphate cement (CPC) in a 47-year-old man with an A1.2 post-traumatic L1 compression fracture. PMID:21468725

Piazzolla, Andrea; De Giorgi, Giuseppe; Solarino, Giuseppe

2011-08-01

254

Preparation, physical-chemical characterization, and cytocompatibility of polymeric calcium phosphate cements.  

PubMed

Aim. Physicochemical mechanical and in vitro biological properties of novel formulations of polymeric calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) were investigated. Methods. Monocalcium phosphate, calcium oxide, and synthetic hydroxyapatite were combined with either modified polyacrylic acid, light activated polyalkenoic acid, or polymethyl vinyl ether maleic acid to obtain Types I, II, and III CPCs. Setting time, compressive and diametral strength of CPCs was compared with zinc polycarboxylate cement (control). Specimens were characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and infrared spectroscopy. In vitro cytotoxicity of CPCs and control was assessed. Results. X-ray diffraction analysis showed hydroxyapatite, monetite, and brushite. Acid-base reaction was confirmed by the appearance of stretching peaks in IR spectra of set cements. SEM revealed rod-like crystals and platy crystals. Setting time of cements was 5-12?min. Type III showed significantly higher strength values compared to control. Type III yielded high biocompatibility. Conclusions. Type III CPCs show promise for dental applications. PMID:21941551

Khashaba, Rania M; Moussa, Mervet; Koch, Christopher; Jurgensen, Arthur R; Missimer, David M; Rutherford, Ronny L; Chutkan, Norman B; Borke, James L

2011-01-01

255

The effects of sodium lauryl sulphate and its oxidative breakdown products on calcium phosphate precipitation and transformation.  

PubMed

Most commercial dentifrices contain sodium lauryl sulphate, which oxidizes upon storage. The effects of aged sodium lauryl sulphate and its oxidative breakdown products on the conversion of amorphous calcium phosphate to hydroxyapatite were studied in vitro by a pH drop method. Hydroxyapatite was identified from its X-ray diffraction pattern. With storage time, the concentration of dodecanol [CH3(CH2)11OH], a breakdown product of sodium lauryl sulphate, increased. The storage dodecanol-containing sodium lauryl sulphate accelerated the conversion of amorphous calcium phosphate to hydroxyapatite. Dodecanol mixed with sodium lauryl sulphate accelerated the conversion when added both before and after initial formation of amorphous calcium phosphate. A stored commercial dentifrice also accelerated the conversion of amorphous calcium phosphate to hydroxyapatite. It was found that the concentration of dodecanol increased 2-fold over a 2-month period. PMID:1375020

Hidaka, S; Abe, K

1992-03-01

256

Preparation and Sustained-Release Property of Triblock Copolymer/Calcium Phosphate Nanocomposite as Nanocarrier for Hydrophobic Drug  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The P123/ACP nanocomposite with sizes less than 100 nm consisting of triblock copolymer P123 and amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) has been prepared by using an aqueous solution containing CaCl2, (NH4)3PO4, and P123 at room temperature. The P123/ACP nanocomposite is used as the nanocarrier for hydrophobic drug ibuprofen, based on the combined advantages of both amphiphilic block copolymer and calcium phosphate delivery system. The P123/ACP nanocomposite has a much higher ibuprofen loading capacity (148 mg/g) than the single-phase calcium phosphate nanostructures. The drug release percentage of the P123/ACP nanocomposite in simulated body fluid reaches about 100% in a period of 156 h, which is much slower than that of single-phase calcium phosphate nanostructures. It is expected that the P123/ACP nanocomposite is promising for the application in the controlled delivery of hydrophobic drugs.

Cao, Shao-Wen; Zhu, Ying-Jie; Wu, Jin; Wang, Ke-Wei; Tang, Qi-Li

2010-04-01

257

Evaluation of an orthotopically implanted calcium phosphate cement containing gelatin microparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focused on the degradation properties of gelatin microparticles incorporated in calcium phosphate (CaP) cement and the subsequent effect of these composites on bone formation. Positively charged alkaline gelatin (type A) microparticles or negatively charged acidic gelatin (type B) microparticles were incorporated in CaP cement, which was implanted in critical-sized cranial defect in rats and left in place for

Dennis P. Link; Juliette van den Dolder; Jeroen J. J. P. van den Beucken; Wouter Habraken; Annemieke Soede; Otto C. Boerman; Antonios G. Mikos; John A. Jansen

2009-01-01

258

Laser pulse dependent micro textured calcium phosphate coatings for improved wettability and cell compatibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface wettability of an implant material is an important criterion in biological response as it controls the adsorption\\u000a of proteins followed by attachment of cells to its surface. Hence, micro-textured calcium phosphate coatings with four length\\u000a scales were synthesized on Ti–6Al–4V substrates by a laser cladding technique and their effects on wettability and cell adhesion\\u000a were systematically evaluated. Microstructure and

Sameer R. Paital; Wei He; Narendra B. Dahotre

2010-01-01

259

Enhanced chemiluminescent resonance energy transfer in hollow calcium phosphate nanoreactors and the detection of hydrogen peroxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemiluminescent nanoreactors (nano-CRET) that exhibit unusually efficient chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer to a co-encapsulated fluorophore when reacted with hydrogen peroxide are described. The nanoparticles have a mean size of 150 ± 20 nm and consist of a calcium phosphate shell surrounding a hollow core that is filled with a solution containing luminol, haematin and fluorescein. Steady state and stopped-flow fluorescence

P A Wingert; H Mizukami; A E Ostafin

2007-01-01

260

Electrochemically assisted co-deposition of calcium phosphate\\/collagen coatings on carbon\\/carbon composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium phosphate (CaP)\\/collagen coatings were prepared on the surface of carbon\\/carbon (C\\/C) composites by electrochemically assisted co-deposition technique. The effects of collagen concentration in the electrolyte on morphology, structure and composition of the coatings were systematically investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The adhesive strength of the

Xueni Zhao; Tao Hu; Hejun Li; Mengdi Chen; Sheng Cao; Leilei Zhang; Xianghui Hou

2011-01-01

261

Calcium phosphate coating on magnesium alloy for modification of degradation behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnesium alloy has similar mechanical properties with natural bone, but its high susceptibility to corrosion has limited\\u000a its application in orthopedics. In this study, a calcium phosphate coating is formed on magnesium alloy (AZ31) to control\\u000a its degradation rate and enhance its bioactivity and bone inductivity. Samples of AZ31 plate were placed in the supersaturated\\u000a calcification solution prepared with Ca(NO3)2,

Fu-zhai Cui; Jing-xin Yang; Yan-peng Jiao; Qing-shui Yin; Yu Zhang; In-Seop Lee

2008-01-01

262

Effect of Microstructural Evolution on Wettability of Laser Coated Calcium Phosphate on Titanium Alloy  

SciTech Connect

Surface engineering of synthetic implant materials provides an exciting opportunity to mimic natural biomaterials. Surface that are bioactive and textured at multi scale have the potential for easier osseointegration. Ti alloy surfaces known for their biocompatibility are coated with bioactive Calcium Phosphate using a laser source at multiple processing speeds. The resulting surface has multiscale morphology and multi-phase chemical nature. Faster processing speeds showed improved wettability to water along with higher degree of crystallinity in the phases present.

Kurella, Anil K [ORNL; Hu, Michael Z. [ORNL; Dahotre, Narendra B [ORNL

2008-01-01

263

Preparation and characterisation of calcium-phosphate porous microspheres with a uniform size for biomedical applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work, a novel route for the preparation of porous ceramic microspheres is described. Two ceramic powders, calcium-titanium-phosphate\\u000a (CTP) and hydroxyapatite (HAp), were mixed with a sodium alginate solution that enabled the preparation of spherical particles,\\u000a using the droplet extrusion method combined with ionotropic gelation in the presence of Ca2+. The spherical particles were subsequently sintered, to burn-off

C. C. Ribeiro; C. C. Barrias; M. A. Barbosa

2006-01-01

264

Multiple prismatic calcium phosphate layers in the jaws of present-day sharks (Chondrichthyes; Selachii)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Jaws of large individuals, over 2 m in total length, of the shark speciesCarcharodon carcharias (great white shark) andIsurus oxyrinchus (mako shark) of the family Lamnidae, andGaleocerdo cuvieri (tiger shark) andCarcharhinus leucas (bull shark) of the family Carcharhinidae were found to have multiple, up to five, layers of prismatic calcium phosphate surrounding the cartilages. Smaller individuals of these species

G. Dingerkus; B. Séret; E. Guilbert

1991-01-01

265

Diphosphonates Inhibit Formation of Calcium Phosphate Crystals in vitro and Pathological Calcification in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two diphosphonates containing the P-C-P bond, CH3C(OH)(PO3HNa)2 and H2C(PO3HNa)2, inhibit the crystallization of calcium phosphate in vitro and prevent aortic calcification of rats given large amounts of vitamin D3. The diphosphonates therefore have effects similar to those described for compounds containing the P-O-P bond but are active when administered orally.

Marion D. Francis; R. Graham G. Russell; Herbert Fleisch

1969-01-01

266

Mg 2+ substituted calcium phosphate nano particles synthesis for non viral gene delivery application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gene therapy provides a unique approach to medicine as it can be adapted towards the treatment of both inherited and acquired\\u000a diseases. Recently, calcium phosphate vectors as a new generation of the non viral gene delivery nano carriers have been studied\\u000a because of their biocompatibility and DNA condensation and gene transfer ability. Substituting cations, like magnesium, affects\\u000a physical and chemical

A. HanifiM; M. H. Fathi; H. Mir Mohammad Sadeghi; J. Varshosaz

2010-01-01

267

In vitro surface reaction layer formation and dissolution of calcium phosphate cement–bioactive glass composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Composites of hydrated calcium phosphate cement (CPC) and bioactive glass (BG) containing Si were immersed in vitro to study the effect of chemical composition on surface reaction layer formation and dissolution\\/precipitation behavior. The solutions used were 0.05 M tris hydroxymethyl aminomethane\\/HCl (tris buffer), tris buffer supplemented with plasma electrolyte (TE) with pH 7.4 at 37 °C, and this solution complemented

Changsheng Liu; Chien-Wen Chen; Paul Ducheyne

2008-01-01

268

An attempt to reduce calcium phosphate deposits on cobaltic oxide pellets by citric acid treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

ExtractAt least under New Zealand conditions, the use of cobaltic oxide pellets (“cobalt bullets”) to control cobalt deficiency in sheep is limited by a tendency of the bullet to accumulate deposits of calcium phosphate (Andrews, 1961). Although the use of steel “grinders” (for example, in the form of 1\\/2 in. × 1\\/2 in. engineer's grub screws) has been recommended as

E. D. Andrews; B. J. Stephenson; C. E. Isaacs

1964-01-01

269

Synthesis, formulation and evaluation of novel zinc-calcium phosphate-based adhesive resin composite cement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three novel adhesive oligomers having carboxylic acid and methacrylate groups were synthesized, characterized and used to formulate composite bone cements with newly synthesized zinc-calcium-silicate phosphate. The optimal formulation was determined based on types of oligomer, oligomer\\/diluent ratio, initiator concentration, and filler level using compressive strength (CS) and curing time (CT) as screening tools. Shrinkage, exotherm and aging of the formed

Dong Xie; IL-Doo Chung; Guigui Wang; Dingsong Feng; Jimmy Mays

2004-01-01

270

Effect of processing parameters on the microstructure and mechanical behavior of silica-calcium phosphate nanocomposite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silica-calcium phosphate nanocomposite (SCPC) is a bioactive ceramic characterized by superior bone regenerative capacity\\u000a and resorbability when compared to traditional bioactive ceramics. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect\\u000a of processing parameters on the microstructure and mechanical properties of SCPC. Cylinders were prepared by pressing the\\u000a ceramic powder at 200, 300 or 400 MPa and sintering at

Xueran Liu; Ahmed EI-Ghannam

2010-01-01

271

Controlled formation of calcium-phosphate-based hybrid mesocrystals by organic-inorganic co-assembly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An understanding of controlled formation of biomimetic mesocrystals is of great importance in materials chemistry and engineering. Here we report that organic-inorganic hybrid plates and even mesocrystals can be conveniently synthesized using a one-pot reaction in a mixed system of protein (bovine serum albumin (BSA)), surfactant (sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT)) and supersaturated calcium phosphate solution. The morphologies of calcium-phosphate-based products are analogous to the general inorganic crystals but they have abnormal and interesting substructures. The hybrids are constructed by the alternate stacking of organic layer (thickness of 1.31 nm) and well-crystallized inorganic mineral layer (thickness of 2.13 nm) at the nanoscale. Their morphologies (spindle, rhomboid and round) and sizes (200 nm-2 ?m) can be tuned gradually by changing BSA, AOT and calcium phosphate concentrations. This modulation effect can be explained by a competition between the anisotropic and isotropic assembly of the ultrathin plate-like units. The anisotropic assembly confers mesocrystal characteristics on the hybrids while the round ones are the results of isotropic assembly. However, the basic lamellar organic-inorganic substructure remains unchanged during the hybrid formation, which is a key factor to ensure the self-assembly from molecule to micrometre scale. A morphological ternary diagram of BSA-AOT-calcium phosphate is used to describe this controlled formation process, providing a feasible strategy to prepare the required materials. This study highlights the cooperative effect of macromolecule (frame structure), small biomolecule (binding sites) and mineral phase (main component) on the generation and regulation of biomimetic hybrid mesocrystals.

Zhai, Halei; Chu, Xiaobin; Li, Li; Xu, Xurong; Tang, Ruikang

2010-11-01

272

The deposition of calcium pyrophosphate and phosphate by matrix vesicles isolated from fetal bovine epiphyseal cartilage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Since calcium (Ca) deposition by isolated fetal bovine matrix vesicles is selectively supported by nucleoside triphosphate,\\u000a and since the Ca deposits appear to be amorphous by transmission electron microscopy [1], attempts were made to study further\\u000a the nature of these Ca deposits. Calcification of isolated matrix vesicles was allowed to occur in a calcifying medium in\\u000a which either inorganic phosphate

Howard H. T. Hsu; H. Clarke Anderson

1984-01-01

273

Synthesis of nano-sized biphasic calcium phosphate ceramics with spherical shape by flame spray pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanometer size biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) powders with various Ca\\/P molar ratios satisfied with appropriate phase ratios\\u000a of HA\\/?-TCP were prepared by high temperature flame spray pyrolysis process. The BCP powders had spherical shapes and narrow\\u000a size distributions irrespective of the ratios of Ca\\/P. The mean size of the BCP powders measured from the TEM image was 38 nm.\\u000a The composition

Jung Sang Cho; You Na Ko; Hye Young Koo; Yun Chan Kang

2010-01-01

274

Preparation of Whole ?-casein by Treatment with Calcium Phosphate Gel1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preparations of crude whole V-casein, containing approximately 32~ ,\\/-casein, were treated w~th calcium phosphate gel to develop a batch-type procedure for isolation of y-casein. The crude whole V- casein was dissolved to a final concen- tration of 2% in a .02 M potassium phos- phate buffer, pH 6.8, containing 4.5 M urea and .005 M potassium chloride. \\/?- casein contamination

W. N. Eigel; H. E. Randolph

1974-01-01

275

The influence of genetic factors on the osteoinductive potential of calcium phosphate ceramics in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of calcium phosphate (CaP) ceramics in healing large bone defects is, in general, not as high as that of autologous bone grafting. Recently, we reported that CaP ceramics with osteoinductive properties were as efficient in healing an ilium defect of a sheep as autologous bone graft was, which makes this subclass of CaP ceramics a powerful alternative for

Ana M. C. Barradas; Huipin Yuan; Johan van der Stok; Bach Le Quang; Hugo Fernandes; Anindita Chatterjea; Marieke C. H. Hogenes; Kathy Schultz; Leah Rae Donahue; Clemens van Blitterswijk; Jan de Boer

2012-01-01

276

Growth of calcium phosphate thin films by in situ assisted ultraviolet pulsed laser deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium phosphate (CaP) thin films including hydroxyapatite were intensively studied in order to optimize the technology of the bone prostheses manufacturing. A drawback in the CaP films processing is the poor mechanical characteristics, especially hardness, tensile strength and adherence to the metallic substrate. We report a new method for the growth of high quality CaP films with substantial improvement of

V. Nelea; V. Craciun; M. Iliescu; I. N. Mihailescu; H. Pelletier; P. Mille; J. Werckmann

2003-01-01

277

Low methanol permeable and high proton-conducting Nafion\\/calcium phosphate composite membrane for DMFC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium phosphate (CP)\\/Nafion composite membranes were fabricated by incorporating CP into Nafion structure for the direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). This composite membrane showed lower methanol crossover compared to cast Nafion and Nafion® 117. This is likely to be due to high crystallinity and low water uptake content in the composite membranes. In addition, the composite membranes containing CP2.5% and

Young-Sun Park; Yohtaro Yamazaki

2005-01-01

278

Perfusion electrodeposition of calcium phosphate on additive manufactured titanium scaffolds for bone engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

A perfusion electrodeposition (P-ELD) system was reported to functionalize additive manufactured Ti6Al4V scaffolds with a calcium phosphate (CaP) coating in a controlled and reproducible manner. The effects and interactions of four main process parameters – current density (I), deposition time (t), flow rate (f) and process temperature (T) – on the properties of the CaP coating were investigated. The results

Yoke Chin Chai; Silvia Truscello; Simon Van Bael; Frank P. Luyten; Jozef Vleugels; Jan Schrooten

2011-01-01

279

A comparative study of electrochemical deposition and biomimetic deposition of calcium phosphate on porous titanium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coating porous titanium with calcium phosphate (Ca-P) is an effective way to enhance titanium's osteoinduction capability. This study investigated the effectiveness of two coating methods: biomimetic deposition (BD) and electrochemical deposition (ED) in aqueous solutions. The titanium surfaces were treated by acidic etching and alkaline before coating. Effects of the pre-coating treatments on Ca-P coating were also investigated. Both deposition

Qiyi Zhang; Yang Leng; Renlong Xin

2005-01-01

280

Calcium phosphate thin films enhance the response of human mesenchymal stem cells to nanostructured titanium surfaces  

PubMed Central

The development of biomaterial surfaces possessing the topographical cues that can promote mesenchymal stem cell recruitment and, in particular, those capable of subsequently directing osteogenic differentiation is of increasing importance for the advancement of tissue engineering. While it is accepted that it is the interaction with specific nanoscale topography that induces mesenchymal stem cell differentiation, the potential for an attendant bioactive chemistry working in tandem with such nanoscale features to enhance this effect has not been considered to any great extent. This article presents a study of mesenchymal stem cell response to conformal bioactive calcium phosphate thin films sputter deposited onto a polycrystalline titanium nanostructured surface with proven capability to directly induce osteogenic differentiation in human bone marrow–derived mesenchymal stem cells. The sputter deposited surfaces supported high levels of human bone marrow–derived mesenchymal stem cell adherence and proliferation, as determined by DNA quantification. Furthermore, they were also found to be capable of directly promoting significant levels of osteogenic differentiation. Specifically, alkaline phosphatase activity, gene expression and immunocytochemical localisation of key osteogenic markers revealed that the nanostructured titanium surfaces and the bioactive calcium phosphate coatings could direct the differentiation towards an osteogenic lineage. Moreover, the addition of the calcium phosphate chemistry to the topographical profile of the titanium was found to induce increased human bone marrow–derived mesenchymal stem cell differentiation compared to that observed for either the titanium or calcium phosphate coating without an underlying nanostructure. Hence, the results presented here highlight that a clear benefit can be achieved from a surface engineering strategy that combines a defined surface topography with an attendant, conformal bioactive chemistry to enhance the direct osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow–derived mesenchymal stem cells.

Burke, George A; Meenan, Brian J

2014-01-01

281

Human Periodontal Ligament Cell Response to a Newly Developed Calcium Phosphate–based Root Canal Sealer  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to investigate the cellular effects of newly developed calcium phosphate–based sealers (CAPSEAL I and II) using cultured human periodontal ligament cells (HPDLCs) compared with epoxy resin sealer (AH26; Dentsply, DeTrey, Konstanz, Germany), zinc oxide eugenol [ZOE] sealer (extended working time [EWT]; Kerr Corporation, Orange, CA), and CPC sealer (Sankin apatite sealer; Sankin-kogyo, Tokyo, Japan).

Won-Jung Bae; Seok-Woo Chang; Sang-Im Lee; Kee-Yeon Kum; Kwang-Shik Bae; Eun-Cheol Kim

2010-01-01

282

An effective approach to activate 316L stainless steel for biomimetic coating of calcium phosphate: electrochemical pretreatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, an electrochemical (EC) method to activate 316L stainless steel (denoted as 316L) surface for biomimetic calcium\\u000a phosphate (Ca–P) coatings was reported. After EC treatment, a gel-like Ca–P film with a thickness of 150 nm was generated\\u000a on the stainless steel surface after treatment, which was composed of amorphous phase of calcium phosphate with a large number\\u000a of crystal

Qiyi Zhang; Yang Leng; Renlong Xin; Chaoyuan Wang; Xiong Lu; Jiyong Chen

2007-01-01

283

In vitro biocompatibility of chitosan/hyaluronic acid-containing calcium phosphate bone cements.  

PubMed

The need for bone repair has increased as the population ages. In this research, calcium phosphate cements, with and without chitosan (CS) and hyaluronic acid (HA), were synthesized. The composition and morphological properties of cements were evaluated by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The acellular in vitro bioactivity revealed that different apatite morphologies were formed on the surfaces of cements after soaking in simulated body fluid. The in vitro osteoblastic cell biocompatibility of in situ forming cements was evaluated and compared with those of conventional calcium phosphate cements (CPCs). The viability and growth rate of the cells were similar for all CPCs, but better alkaline phosphatase activity was observed for CPC with CS and HA. Calcium phosphate cements supported attachment of osteoblastic cells on their surfaces. Spindle-shaped osteoblasts with developed cytoplasmic membrane were found on the surfaces of cement samples after 7 days of culture. These results reveal the potential of the CPC-CS/HA composites to be used in bone tissue engineering. PMID:24399509

Hesaraki, Saeed; Nezafati, Nader

2014-08-01

284

Preparation and characterisation of calcium-phosphate porous microspheres with a uniform size for biomedical applications.  

PubMed

In the present work, a novel route for the preparation of porous ceramic microspheres is described. Two ceramic powders, calcium-titanium-phosphate (CTP) and hydroxyapatite (HAp), were mixed with a sodium alginate solution that enabled the preparation of spherical particles, using the droplet extrusion method combined with ionotropic gelation in the presence of Ca(2+). The spherical particles were subsequently sintered, to burn-off the polymer and obtain calcium-phosphate microspheres with a uniform size and an interconnected porous network. CTP microspheres with diameters ranging from 513 +/- 24 microm to 792 +/- 35 microm and with pores of approximately 40 microm were obtained. HAp microspheres presented diameters of 429 +/- 46 microm and 632 +/- 40 microm and pores of ca. 2 microm. Depending on the formulations tested, the structure of both calcium phosphates may become altered during the sintering process, suggesting that the ratio between the ceramic phase and the polymer solution is a critical parameter. Porous microspheres prepared using the described methodology are promising candidates as bone defect fillers and scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration. PMID:16688586

Ribeiro, C C; Barrias, C C; Barbosa, M A

2006-05-01

285

Reproducible quantification of osteoclastic activity: characterization of a biomimetic calcium phosphate assay.  

PubMed

Osteoclasts are responsible for bone and joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis, periodontitis, and osteoporosis. Animal tusk slice assays are standard for evaluating the effect of therapeutics on these cells. However, in addition to batch-to-batch variability inherent to animal tusks, their use is clearly not sustainable. Our objective was to develop and characterize a biomimetic calcium phosphate assay based on the use of phase pure hydroxyapatite coated as a thin film on the surface of culture plates, to facilitate the reproducible quantification of osteoclast resorptive activity. Osteoclasts were formed from RAW 264.7 mouse monocyte cell line using a pro-resorptive cytokine RANKL (50 ng/mL). No change in substrate appearance was noted after culture with media without cells, or undifferentiated monocytes. Only in the presence of osteoclasts localized areas of calcium phosphate dissolution were observed. The total area resorbed positively correlated with the osteoclast numbers (R(2) = 0.99). The resorbed area was significantly increased by the addition of RANKL, and decreased after application of known inhibitors of osteoclast resorptive activity, calcitonin (10 ?M), or alendronate (100 ?M). Thus, calcium phosphate coated substrates allow reliable monitoring of osteoclast resorptive activity and offer an alternative to animal tusk slice assays. PMID:24259122

Maria, Salwa M; Prukner, Christiane; Sheikh, Zeeshan; Mueller, Frank; Barralet, Jake E; Komarova, Svetlana V

2014-07-01

286

Substrate geometry directs the in vitro mineralization of calcium phosphate ceramics.  

PubMed

Repetitive concavities on the surface of bone implants have recently been demonstrated to foster bone formation when implanted at ectopic locations in vivo. The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of surface concavities on the surface mineralization of hydroxyapatite (HA) and ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) ceramics in vitro. Hemispherical concavities with different diameters were prepared at the surface of HA and ?-TCP sintered disks: 1.8mm (large concavity), 0.8mm (medium concavity) and 0.4mm (small concavity). HA and ?-TCP disks were sintered at 1100 or 1200°C and soaked in simulated body fluid for 28 days at 37°C; the mineralization process was followed by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and calcium quantification analyses. The results showed that massive mineralization occurred exclusively at the surface of HA disks treated at 1200°C and that nucleation of large aggregates of calcium phosphate started specifically inside small concavities instead of on the planar surface of the disks. Regarding the effect of concavity diameter size on surface mineralization, it was observed that small concavities induce 124- and 10-fold increased mineralization compared to concavities of large or medium size, respectively. The results of this study demonstrated that (i) in vitro surface mineralization of calcium phosphate ceramics with surface concavities starts preferentially within the concavities and not on the planar surface, and (ii) concavity size is an effective parameter to control the spatial position and extent of mineralization in vitro. PMID:24184857

Bianchi, Michele; Urquia Edreira, Eva R; Wolke, Joop G C; Birgani, Zeinab T; Habibovic, Pamela; Jansen, John A; Tampieri, Anna; Marcacci, Maurilio; Leeuwenburgh, Sander C G; van den Beucken, Jeroen J J P

2014-02-01

287

Injectable thermosensitive hydrogel composite with surface-functionalized calcium phosphate as raw materials.  

PubMed

In this study, L-lactide was used to modify the tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) and tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP) surface which can form functionalized poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA)-grafted ?-TCP (g-?-TCP) and PLLA-grafted TTCP (g-TTCP) particles. The g-?-TCP and g-TTCP obtained were incorporated into a PEG-PCL-PEG (PECE) matrix to prepare injectable thermosensitive hydrogel composites. The morphology of the hydrogel composites showed that the g-?-TCP and g-TTCP particles dispersed homogeneously into the polymer matrix, and each hydrogel composite had a three-dimensional network structure. Rheologic analysis showed that the composite had good thermosensitivity. Changes in calcium concentration and pH in simulated body fluid solutions confirmed the feasibility of surface-functionalized calcium phosphate for controlled release of calcium. All the results indicate that g-?-TCP/PECE and g-TTCP/PECE hydrogels might be a promising protocol for tissue engineering. PMID:24489468

Fan, RangRang; Deng, XiaoHui; Zhou, LiangXue; Gao, Xiang; Fan, Min; Wang, YueLong; Guo, Gang

2014-01-01

288

Europium-doped amorphous calcium phosphate porous nanospheres: preparation and application as luminescent drug carriers  

PubMed Central

Calcium phosphate is the most important inorganic constituent of biological tissues, and synthetic calcium phosphate has been widely used as biomaterials. In this study, a facile method has been developed for the fabrication of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP)/polylactide-block-monomethoxy(polyethyleneglycol) hybrid nanoparticles and ACP porous nanospheres. Europium-doping is performed to enable photoluminescence (PL) function of ACP porous nanospheres. A high specific surface area of the europium-doped ACP (Eu3+:ACP) porous nanospheres is achieved (126.7 m2/g). PL properties of Eu3+:ACP porous nanospheres are investigated, and the most intense peak at 612 nm is observed at 5 mol% Eu3+ doping. In vitro cytotoxicity experiments indicate that the as-prepared Eu3+:ACP porous nanospheres are biocompatible. In vitro drug release experiments indicate that the ibuprofen-loaded Eu3+:ACP porous nanospheres show a slow and sustained drug release in simulated body fluid. We have found that the cumulative amount of released drug has a linear relationship with the natural logarithm of release time (ln(t)). The Eu3+:ACP porous nanospheres are bioactive, and can transform to hydroxyapatite during drug release. The PL properties of drug-loaded nanocarriers before and after drug release are also investigated.

2011-01-01

289

Europium-doped amorphous calcium phosphate porous nanospheres: preparation and application as luminescent drug carriers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calcium phosphate is the most important inorganic constituent of biological tissues, and synthetic calcium phosphate has been widely used as biomaterials. In this study, a facile method has been developed for the fabrication of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP)/polylactide-block-monomethoxy(polyethyleneglycol) hybrid nanoparticles and ACP porous nanospheres. Europium-doping is performed to enable photoluminescence (PL) function of ACP porous nanospheres. A high specific surface area of the europium-doped ACP (Eu3+:ACP) porous nanospheres is achieved (126.7 m2/g). PL properties of Eu3+:ACP porous nanospheres are investigated, and the most intense peak at 612 nm is observed at 5 mol% Eu3+ doping. In vitro cytotoxicity experiments indicate that the as-prepared Eu3+:ACP porous nanospheres are biocompatible. In vitro drug release experiments indicate that the ibuprofen-loaded Eu3+:ACP porous nanospheres show a slow and sustained drug release in simulated body fluid. We have found that the cumulative amount of released drug has a linear relationship with the natural logarithm of release time ( ln( t)). The Eu3+:ACP porous nanospheres are bioactive, and can transform to hydroxyapatite during drug release. The PL properties of drug-loaded nanocarriers before and after drug release are also investigated.

Chen, Feng; Zhu, Ying-Jie; Zhang, Kui-Hua; Wu, Jin; Wang, Ke-Wei; Tang, Qi-Li; Mo, Xiu-Mei

2011-12-01

290

Transfecting mammalian cells: optimization of critical parameters affecting calcium-phosphate precipitate formation.  

PubMed Central

DNA-calcium phosphate co-precipitates arise spontaneously in supersaturated solutions. Highly effective precipitates for transfection purposes, however, can be generated only in a very narrow range of physico-chemical conditions that control the initiation and growth of precipitate complexes. The concentrations of calcium and phosphate are the main factors influencing characteristics of the precipitate complex, but other parameters, such as temperature, DNA concentration and reaction time are important as well. An example for this is the finding that almost all of the soluble DNA in the reaction mix can be bound into an insoluble complex with calcium phosphate in <1 min. Extending the reaction time to 20 min results in aggregation and/or growth of particles and reduces the level of expression. With improved protocols we gained better reproducibility and higher efficiencies both for transient and for stable transfections. Up to 60% of cells stained positive for beta-gal and transient production of secreted proteins was improved 5- to 10-fold over results seen with transfections using standard procedures. Similar improvements in efficiency (number of recombinant cell colonies) were observed with stable transfections, using co-transfected marker plasmids for selection. Transient expression levels 2 days after DNA transfer and titers obtained from stable cell lines, emerging weeks later, showed strong correlation.

Jordan, M; Schallhorn, A; Wurm, F M

1996-01-01

291

Phase diagram for controlled crystallization of calcium phosphate under acidic organic monolayers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of ionic concentration and pH on matrix-regulated crystallization may be important in biomineralization processes and biomimetic synthesis of materials. This effect in the system of calcium phosphate solution under stearic acid monolayers was investigated. In experiments, the solution conditions ranged in concentration of Ca ion of 0.1-20mM and in pH of 5.3-7.0. It was found that at the initial stage of the controlled crystallization, the (0001)-oriented hydroxyapatite (HAp) precipitations under the acidic monolayers always occur. At solution conditions near the solubility isotherms of octacalcium phosphate (OCP) and dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) in the solubility phase diagram, precipitations of OCP and DCPD phases can form together with HAp precipitation, respectively. Orientations of DCPD or OCP phase precipitations were irregular.

Cui, F. Z.; Zhou, L. F.; Cui, H.; Ma, C. L.; Lu, H. B.; Li, H. D.

1996-12-01

292

Gelation behavior of in situ forming gels based on HPMC and biphasic calcium phosphate nanoparticles.  

PubMed

In this study, in situ forming gels are prepared using biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) as filler and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) as a matrix exhibiting temperature-sensitive behavior. BCP was composed of ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) with plate-like morphology and nano-sized hyadroxyapatite (HAp). Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and rheological results showed that low molecular weight HPMC had lower gelation temperature. Effects of BCP content and HAp/?-TCP ratio on rheological behavior of the gels were investigated. According to the results, all samples showed a pseudoplastic behavior and their viscosity increased with increasing mineral phase, especially ?-tricalcium phosphate. In order to investigate interaction mechanisms between the mineral phase and polymer and also the effects of ion release, particle size, hydrophobisity, and hydrophilisity, hydrophobic and hydrophilic silica with different particle sizes were also utilized. Results showed that factors affecting the hydrophobisity and hydrophilisity of solution may influence the rheological properties. PMID:24274504

Marefat Seyedlar, Roghayyeh; Nodehi, Azizollah; Atai, Mohammad; Imani, Mohammad

2014-01-01

293

Biomimetic synthesis of modified calcium phosphate fine powders and their in vitro studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomimetic approach and subsequent high-temperature treatment were used to synthesize ion modified calcium phosphate fine powders. Thus, using Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) as an ion modifier, a bi-phase mixture of ion modified ?-tricalcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite (?-TCP + HA) was prepared. The use of SBF electrolyte solution enriched with Mg or Zn yielded monophase ?-tricalcium phosphate additionally modified with Mg or Zn (Mg-?-TCP or Zn-?-TCP). The in vitro behavior of the prepared powders on cell viability and proliferation of murine BALB/c 3T3 fibroblasts and of human Lep 3 cells was studied by MTT test assays and Mosmann method after 72 h incubation. The relative cell viability was calculated.

Gergulova, R.; Tepavitcharova, S.; Rabadjieva, D.; Sezanova, K.; Ilieva, R.; Alexandrova, R.; Andonova-Lilova, B.

2013-12-01

294

Self-assembly of Filamentous Amelogenin Requires Calcium and Phosphate: From Dimers via Nanoribbons to Fibrils  

PubMed Central

Enamel matrix self-assembly has long been suggested as the driving force behind aligned nanofibrous hydroxyapatite formation. We tested if amelogenin, the main enamel matrix protein, can self-assemble into ribbon-like structures in physiologic solutions. Ribbons 17nm wide were observed to grow several microns in length, requiring calcium, phosphate, and pH 4.0–6.0. The pH range suggests that the formation of ion bridges through protonated histidine residues is essential to self-assembly, supported by a statistical analysis of 212 phosphate-binding proteins predicting twelve phosphate-binding histidines. Thermophoretic analysis verified the importance of calcium and phosphate in self-assembly. X-ray scattering characterized amelogenin dimers with dimensions fitting the cross-section of the amelogenin ribbon, leading to the hypothesis that antiparallel dimers are the building blocks of the ribbons. Over 5–7 days, ribbons self-organized into bundles composed of aligned ribbons mimicking the structure of enamel crystallites in enamel rods. These observations confirm reports of filamentous organic components in developing enamel and provide a new model for matrix-templated enamel mineralization.

Martinez-Avila, Olga; Wu, Shenping; Kim, Seung Joong; Cheng, Yifan; Khan, Feroz; Samudrala, Ram; Sali, Andrej; Horst, Jeremy A.; Habelitz, Stefan

2012-01-01

295

Formation of calcium phosphate/collagen composites through mineralization of collagen matrix.  

PubMed

Several types of calcium phosphate/collagen composites, including noncrystalline calcium phosphate/collagen, poorly crystalline carbonate-apatite (PCCA)/collagen, and PCCA + tetracalcium phosphate/collagen composites, were prepared through the mineralization of collagen matrix. The type I collagen was presoaked with a PO(3-)(4) containing solution and then immersed in a Ca(2+) containing solution to allow mineral deposition. The solution of 0.56 M sodium dibasic phosphate (Na(2)HPO(4)) with a pH of nearly 14 was metastable and its crystallization produced Na(2)HPO(4) and sodium tripolyphosphate hexahydrate (Na(5)P(3)O(10)). 6H(2)O), leading to a controlled release of orthophosphate ions during the subsequent mineral precipitation. The development of the composites was investigated in detail. The mineral contributed up to 60-70% of the weight of the final composites. The strength and Young's modulus of the composites in tensile tests overlapped the lower range of values reported for bone. When implanted in muscle tissue, the composite showed biodegradability that was partly through a multinucleated giant cell mediated process. In a bone explant culture model it was observed that bone-derived cells deposited mineralizing collagenous matrix on the composite. PMID:10756310

Du, C; Cui, F Z; Zhang, W; Feng, Q L; Zhu, X D; de Groot, K

2000-06-15

296

Effect of poly(aspartic acid) on calcium phosphate removal from stainless steel tubing under turbulent flow conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calcium phosphate deposition causes cleaning problems in a number of situations including water treatment, dairy processing, and dental applications. This problem is exacerbated by the limited choices of cleaning chemicals that meet environmental regulations. To promote the development of biodegradable, non-toxic alternatives, this research examines the removal of calcium phosphate deposits consisting of brushite (dicalcium phosphate dihydrate; DCPD) and a mixture of hydroxyapatite (HAP) and DCPD from stainless steel in the presence of poly(aspartic acid) and its sodium salt (PASP). The effects of solvent pH, PASP concentration, and flow rate on the calcium phosphate removal rates are measured from stainless steel tubing under turbulent flow conditions using a solid scintillation detection technique. A mechanistic evaluation of the cleaning data in the absence of PASP indicates that DCPD removal is dominated by shear while HAP/DCPD deposit removal is limited by a combination of mass transfer and interfacial processes. Although the removal mechanisms differ, the results conclusively show that PASP promotes calcium phosphate removal under conditions that favor calcium sequestration in both cases. An in-depth study of DCPD removal in the presence of PASP reveals that this additive is most effective under conditions where calcium sequestration and phosphate protonation occur simultaneously.

Littlejohn, Felicia

297

X-537A ionophore-mediated calcium transport and calcium phosphate formation in pressman cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The present study examined precipitate development induced in phosphate solutions by the ionophoric translocation of Ca2+ across a bulk organic solvent barrier. Experiments were conducted at pH 7.4 and 25 or 37 in a three-compartment Pressman\\u000a cell. The aqueous reaction (0, 2.2 or 22 mM phosphate, 100 mM K+) and donor (1.3 or 13 mM Ca2+, 0.8 mM Mg2+, 100

E. D. Eanes; Jonathan L. Costa

1983-01-01

298

A comparison of the calcium-free phosphate binder sevelamer hydrochloride with calcium acetate in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia in hemodialysis patients.  

PubMed

Current phosphate binders used in hemodialysis patients include calcium-based binders that result in frequent hypercalcemia and aluminum-based binders that result in total body aluminum accumulation over time. This investigation describes the use of a calcium- and aluminum-free phosphate-binding polymer in hemodialysis patients and compares it with a standard calcium-based phosphate binder. An open-label, randomized, crossover study was performed to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of sevelamer hydrochloride in controlling hyperphosphatemia in hemodialysis patients. After a 2-week phosphate binder washout period, stable hemodialysis patients were administered either sevelamer or calcium acetate, and the dosages were titrated upward to achieve improved phosphate control over an 8-week period. After a 2-week washout period, patients crossed over to the alternate agent for 8 weeks. Eighty-four patients from eight centers participated in the study. There was a similar decrease in serum phosphate values over the course of the study with both sevelamer (-2.0 +/- 2.3 mg/dL) and calcium acetate (-2.1 +/- 1.9 mg/dL). Twenty-two percent of patients developed a serum calcium greater than 11.0 mg/dL while receiving calcium acetate, versus 5% of patients receiving sevelamer (P < 0.01). The incidence of hypercalcemia for sevelamer was not different from the incidence of hypercalcemia during the washout period. Patients treated with sevelamer also sustained a 24% mean decrease in serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Sevelamer was effective in controlling hyperphosphatemia without resulting in an increase in the incidence of hypercalcemia seen with calcium acetate. This agent appears quite effective in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia in hemodialysis patients, and its usage may be advantageous in the treatment of dialysis patients. PMID:10196011

Bleyer, A J; Burke, S K; Dillon, M; Garrett, B; Kant, K S; Lynch, D; Rahman, S N; Schoenfeld, P; Teitelbaum, I; Zeig, S; Slatopolsky, E

1999-04-01

299

Calcium phosphate ceramics as bone graft substitutes in filling bone tumor defects  

PubMed Central

Background: Synthetic bio-inert materials are currently used as an alternative to autogenous bone graft. Calcium hydroxyapatite (HA) and Beta tri-calcium phosphate (?-TCP), which belong to the calcium phosphate ceramics group, are biocompatible and osteo-conductive. The purpose of this study is to analyse the use of HA and ?-TCP in their ceramic forms as a bone graft substitute in filling bone voids after curettage of benign bone tumors. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four patients in the age range of 3.5-55 years (mean 14.3 years) having benign bone tumors with bone defects were filled with bone graft substitute following curettage. In 20 patients bone defects were filled with block/granules of HA ceramic and in four with ?-TCP. Fibular strut graft was packed with HA in four patients. The patients were followed up for an average of 18 months (range 12-36 months). Results: The functional status of the patients at follow-up was evaluated and compared with preoperative functional status. Early incorporation of graft substitutes became evident radiologically between 6 and 10 weeks (Stage I). Complete incorporation (Stage III) was observed in an average of nine months (6-18 months). Clinical healing was observed before radiological healing. The average time taken to return to preoperative function was 14 weeks. There was no recurrence of lesion or growth retardation. Conclusion: Calcium hydroxyapatite and ?-TCP are excellent bone graft substitutes for autogenous bone graft in filling voids after curettage of benign bone tumors.

Saikia, KC; Bhattacharya, TD; Bhuyan, SK; Talukdar, DJ; Saikia, SP; Jitesh, P

2008-01-01

300

Characterization of a novel calcium phosphate composite bone cement: flow, setting, and aging properties.  

PubMed

The flow, setting, and aging characteristics of a newly developed calcium phosphate/calcium aluminate composite orthopaedic cement were studied. The effect of vibration on the flow of the cement paste was studied and found to greatly enhance placement. The setting times of this cement were dependent on temperature and decreased with increasing temperatures. At 37 degrees C, the working and setting times were 6.3 +/- 0.3 and 12.8 +/- 0.4 minutes, respectively. Hydration and conversion of the cement phases continued while specimens were stored under simulated, physiological conditions. A cumulative increase in mass of 8.23 +/- 0.65% was observed over a 14 month test period. During this time, the cement was found to expand slightly, 0.71 +/- 0.39%. X-ray diffraction was used to characterize the crystalline phases present during hydration and conversion. The calcium aluminate in the cement hydrated and formed calcium aluminate chloride hydrates, while no changes were observed in the beta-tricalcium phosphate during the testing period. PMID:17122927

Roemhildt, M L; Wagner, S D; McGee, T D

2006-11-01

301

Successful Control of Hyperparathyroidism in Patients on Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis Using Magnesium Carbonate and Calcium Carbonate as Phosphate Binders  

Microsoft Academic Search

To avoid the use of aluminium as a phosphate binder, patients on CAPD who were stable were dialysed against a peritoneal dialysis fluid which was magnesium free. A mixture of calcium and magnesium carbonate was used as a phosphate binder over a period in excess of 1 year. Vitamin D analogues were used in the majority. Results show satisfactory control

Victor Parsons; Dianne Baldwin; Caje Moniz; Joanne Marsden; Elizabeth Ball; Ian Rifkin

1993-01-01

302

Association of serum phosphorus and calcium x phosphate product with mortality risk in chronic hemodialysis patients: A national study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elevated serum phosphorus is a predictable accompaniment of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the absence of dietary phosphate restriction or supplemental phosphate binders. The consequences of hyperphosphatemia include the development and progression of secondary hyperparathyroidism and a predisposition to metastatic calcification when the product of serum calcium and phosphorus (Ca x PO4) is elevated. Both of these conditions may contribute

GA Block; TE Hulbert-Shearon; NW Levin; FK Port

1998-01-01

303

Application of impedance spectroscopy to evaluate the effect of different setting accelerators on the developed microstructures of calcium phosphate cements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main goal of the present study was to evaluate the effect of different setting accelerator agents on the developed microstructures\\u000a of calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) by employing the impedance spectroscopy (IS) technique. Six compositions of CPCs were\\u000a prepared from mixtures of commercial dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA) and synthesized tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP) as\\u000a the solid phases. Two TTCP\\/DCPA molar ratios

H. E. Romeo; P. R. Bueno; M. A. Fanovich

2009-01-01

304

Umbilical Cord Stem Cell Seeding on Fast-Resorbable Calcium Phosphate Bone Cement  

PubMed Central

Tissue engineering offers immense promise for bone regeneration. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) can be collected without invasive procedures required for bone marrow MSCs. The objective of this study was to investigate the physical properties and the differentiation capacity of hUCMSCs on calcium phosphate cement (CPC) scaffolds with improved dissolution/resorption rates. CPC consisted of tetracalcium phosphate and dicalcium phosphate anhydrous, with various tetracalcium phosphate/dicalcium phosphate anhydrous ratios. At 1/3 ratio, CPC had a dissolution rate 40% faster than CPC control at 1/1. The faster-resorbable CPC had strength and modulus similar to CPC control. Their strength and modulus exceeded the reported values for cancellous bone, and were much higher than those of hydrogels and injectable polymers for cell delivery. hUCMSCs attached to the nano-apatitic CPC and proliferated rapidly. hUCMSCs differentiated into the osteogenic lineage, with significant increases in alkaline phosphatase activity, osteocalcin, collagen I, and osterix gene expression. In conclusion, in this study we reported that hUCMSCs attaching to CPC with high dissolution/resorption rate showed excellent proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. hUCMSCs delivered via high-strength CPC have the potential to be an inexhaustible and low-cost alternative to the gold-standard human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. These results may broadly impact stem-cell-based tissue engineering.

Zhao, Liang; Detamore, Michael S.; Takagi, Shozo; Chow, Laurence C.

2010-01-01

305

The in situ synthesis of biphasic calcium phosphate scaffolds with controllable compositions, structures, and adjustable properties.  

PubMed

In this study, biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) porous scaffolds with controllable phase compositions, controllable macropore percentages, and thus adjustable properties were in situ prepared by sintering a series of composites consisted of calcium phosphate cement (CPC) and porous resin negative mold made from rapid prototyping (RP) technique. The CPC pastes were formed by mixing a powder mixture of tetracalcium phosphate and anhydrous dicalcium phosphate with liquid phase of diluted phosphate acid solution. Results show that the phase composition was easily adjustable by controlling both weight ratio of the powder mixture to the liquid phase (P/L) and concentration of the liquid phase. The macropore structure of the BCP scaffold can be regulated by using different RP negative molds. Through in vitro compressive strength (CS) and immersion tests, it was demonstrated that both macropore percentage and phase composition played important roles in the CS and also the dissolving rates of the scaffolds. As the macropore percentage of the scaffold increased, its CS decreased but the dissolving rate increased; also, as the weight ratio of hydroxyapatite to tricalcium (HA/TCP) in the scaffold increased, the CS first increased and then decreased but the dissolving rate uniformly decreased. The CS values of the BCP scaffolds with a HA/TCP weight ratio of 59:41 were 5.84 +/- 1.16 MPa for a total porosity of approximately 67.67% containing a macropore percentage of 30%, and 3.34 +/- 0.79 MPa for a total porosity of approximately 70.90% containing a macropore percentage of 50%, respectively, comparable to the corresponding levels of human cancellous bone (2-12 MPa). PMID:18257062

Guo, Dagang; Xu, Kewei; Han, Yong

2009-01-01

306

Investigation by infrared absorption spectroscopy into the chemical mechanisms of the wet process synthesis of some calcium phosphates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work describes the reactions of wet process synthesis, of some calcium phosphates, such as tricalcium phosphate (Ca{3}(PO{4})2) and hydroxyapatite (Ca{10}(PO{4})6(OH){2}). These reactions of synthesis are acido-basic reactions between the phosphoric acid (H{3}PO{4}) and calcium carbonates (CaCO{3}).The evolution of these reactions (and the concerned chemical mechanisms) were followed by mid infrared spectroscopy absorption. Indeed, in the first stage of these three reactions in which the medium is strongly acidic, favours the formation of a stable intermediate compound, which is the brushite.During the reaction, the concentration of phosphoric acid decreases, the pH increases and the brushite becomes unstable, thus it evolves to a more stable calcium phosphate under these new pH conditions. This later product was either the tricalcium phosphate or hydroxyapatite, according to the pH solution.

Essaddek, A.; Elgadi, M.; Mejdoubi, E.; Elansari, L. L.; Moradi, K.; Karroua, M.

2005-03-01

307

Plasma Calcium, Inorganic Phosphate and Magnesium During Hypocalcaemia Induced by a Standardized EDTA Infusion in Cows  

PubMed Central

The intravenous Na2EDTA infusion technique allows effective specific chelation of circulating Ca2+ leading to a progressive hypocalcaemia. Methods previously used were not described in detail and results obtained by monitoring total and free ionic calcium were not comparable due to differences in sampling and analysis. This paper describes a standardized EDTA infusion technique that allowed comparison of the response of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium between 2 groups of experimental cows. The concentration of the Na2EDTA solution was 0.134 mol/l and the flow rate was standardized at 1.2 ml/kg per hour. Involuntary recumbency occurred when ionised calcium dropped to 0.39 – 0.52 mmol/l due to chelation. An initial fast drop of ionized calcium was observed during the first 20 min of infusion followed by a fluctuation leading to a further drop until recumbency. Pre-infusion [Ca2+] between tests does not correlate with the amount of EDTA required to induce involuntary recumbence. Total calcium concentration measured by atomic absorption remained almost constant during the first 100 min of infusion but declined gradually when the infusion was prolonged. The concentration of inorganic phosphate declined gradually in a fluctuating manner until recumbency. Magnesium concentration remained constant during infusion. Such electrolyte responses during infusion were comparable to those in spontaneous milk fever. The standardized infusion technique might be useful in future experimental studies.

Mellau, LSB; J?rgensen, RJ; Enemark, JMD

2001-01-01

308

Effect of intravenous calcium and oral sodium phosphate in cows with parturient paresis.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to determine whether oral administration of sodium phosphate in conjunction with intravenous calcium is more efficaceous than intravenous calcium alone for the treatment of parturient paresis. Thirty cows with parturient paresis were examined and treated by the same veterinarian. The cows were divided randomly into two groups of 15 cows each. Cows in group A received 500 ml of a 40 per cent calcium borogluconate solution containing 15.65 g calcium gluconate and borogluconate, with a supplement of 6 per cent magnesium hypophosphite (9.85 g magnesium hypophosphite) intravenously over a period of approximately 15 min. Cows in group B received the same treatment as well as 350 g of monobasic sodium phosphate (70 g inorganic phosphate, NaH2PO4 2 H2O, Streuli) dissolved in 0.5 litres of distilled water orally via a stomach tube. After treatment, the heart rate, respiratory rate, rectal temperature, superficial body temperature, rumen motility, appetite and defecation of the cows were monitored every hour for eight h. The cows' attempts to rise and their ability to stand were also noted. Initially, the results of clinical examination and serum electrolyte analyses did not differ between the two groups of cows. Within one hour of treatment, stupor was not observed in any of the cows. The general demeanour after treatment did not differ significantly between the two groups. In both groups, the average rectal temperature increased within two hours of the initiation of treatment, from 38.0 +/- 0.95 degrees C to 38.5 +/- 0.40 degrees C. There was no significant difference in the recovery rate between the groups. Of the 30 cows, 22 (73.3 per cent) stood within eight hours of treatment (10 cows from group A and 12 cows from group B). The type of treatment did not affect the time required to stand: cows in group A stood within 47.3 +/- 44 minutes and cows in group B stood within 24.2 +/- 32 minutes after the start of treatment. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that oral treatment with 350 g of sodium phosphate together with intravenous infusion of calcium in cows with parturient paresis results in an improved outcome, even though all the cows had hypophosphataemia as well as hypocalcaemia. PMID:17645035

Braun, U; Dumelin, J; Siegwart, N; Bleul, U; Hässig, M

2007-06-01

309

Synthesis and characterization of carbonated hydroxyapatite and bioinspired polymer-calcium phosphate nanocomposites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Taking the inspiration from natural bone, where collagen provides sites for the nucleation and growth of carbonated hydroxyapatite, we have developed self-assembling calcium phosphate-block copolymer nanocomposites by using a bottom-up approach. In this regard, self-assembling thermo-reversibly gelling block copolymers based on the nonionic, zwitterionic, anionic, block copolymers conjugated to hydroxyapatite-nucleating peptides, and polylysine-polyleucine diblock copoly-peptides were employed as templates for the precipitation of nano-sized calcium phosphates from aqueous solutions. Calcium phosphate nanocrystals were formed at the polymer-inorganic interface presumably nucleated by the ionic interactions. Solid-state NMR, XRD, TEM, TGA, FTIR and X-ray scattering techniques were used to characterize the nanocomposites. NMR and scattering measurements of polymer-inorganic gel composites proved nanocomposite formation and templating by the polymer micelles. The inorganic fraction of the nanocomposites was found to vary between 30-55 wt%. TEM studies showed that the morphology and the size of the hydroxyapatite crystals in the nanocomposites were similar to the apatite in the bone. The findings in our studies provide information for developing guidelines for design of novel HAp-polymer nanocomposites and for the understanding of the mechanism of biomineralization. Moreover, this study may also offer routes for bioinspired bottom-up approaches for the development of a number of nanostructured composites including injectable nanocomposite biomaterials for potential orthopedic applications. As a part of the present study, the carbonate incorporation into the hydroxyapatite lattice under various pH conditions was also investigated. Crystalline sodium and carbonate containing calcium hydroxyapatite (NaCO 3HAp) powders were prepared using an oxidative decomposition of calcium-EDTA chelates in the sodium phosphate solution with hydrogen peroxide. Depending on pH, spherical particles with approximately 3.5 mum in diameter or hexagonal prismatic particles measuring 3 to 9 mum long were obtained. The precipitated particles were a single-phase NaCO3HAp. The carbonate content and the lattice parameters of the hydroxyapatite were a function of solution pH. Maximum carbonate incorporated into the HAp lattice was at pH=10. Formation of HAp on PMMA polymer films was also studied by using the same chelate decomposition method. Evolution of HAp coating as a function of experimental variables including time was examined.

Yusufoglu, Yusuf

310

Efficacy of tooth whitening with different calcium phosphate-based formulations.  

PubMed

The aim of this in-vitro study was to evaluate the efficacy of tooth whitening using different calcium phosphate-based formulations. Teeth were treated with three different hydroxyapatite preparations at different concentrations and with two control preparations; each tooth was treated a total of three times. After application of the last material, hydrodynamic shear force was applied to mimic mechanical loading. After each treatment, tooth color was measured using a dental spectrophotometer, and the mean changes in L*a*b* values between different measurements were expressed as ?E. The results indicated significant differences between the materials, but neither dose- nor time-dependent associations were found. The suspension containing tricalcium phosphate (10 wt%) showed the most obvious color change (?E = 2.20 ± 0.90), while the suspension containing zinc-carbonate-apatite (20 wt%) showed the least obvious color change (?E = 0.91 ± 0.50). Calcium phosphate-based formulations that can adhere to the enamel surface and contribute to tooth whitening have promising tooth-whitening potential. PMID:23841792

Jin, Jian; Xu, Xiaohui; Lai, Guangyun; Kunzelmann, Karl-Heinz

2013-08-01

311

Biomineralization and Size Control of Stable Calcium Phosphate Core Protein Shell Nanoparticles: Potential for Vaccine Applications  

PubMed Central

Calcium phosphate (CaP) polymorphs are nontoxic, biocompatible and hold promise in applications ranging from hard tissue regeneration to drug delivery and vaccine design. Yet, simple and robust routes for the synthesis of protein-coated CaP nanoparticles in the sub-100 nm size range remain elusive. Here, we used cell surface display to identify disulfide-constrained CaP binding peptides that, when inserted within the active site loop of E. coli Thioredoxin 1 (TrxA), readily and reproducibly drive the production of nanoparticles that are 50–70 nm in hydrodynamic diameter and consist of an approximately 25 nm amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) core stabilized by the protein shell. Like bone and enamel proteins implicated in biological apatite formation, peptides supporting nanoparticle production were acidic. They also required presentation in a loop for high affinity ACP binding since elimination of the disulfide bridge caused a nearly 3-fold increase in hydrodynamic diameters. When compared to a commercial aluminum phosphate adjuvant, the small core-shell assemblies led to a 3-fold increase in mice anti-TrxA titers three weeks post-injection, suggesting that they might be useful vehicles for adjuvanted antigen delivery to dendritic cells.

Chiu, David; Zhou, Weibin; Kitayaporn, Sathana; Schwartz, Daniel T.; Murali-Krishna, Kaja; Kavanagh, Terrance J.; Baneyx, Francois

2012-01-01

312

Synthesis and characterization of porous nanocrystalline biphasic calcium phosphate for bio applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nano crystalline biphasic calcium phosphates of hydroxyapatite (HAp)/?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCp) in the ratio 80:20 and 72:28 with interconnected porosity have successfully been prepared by co-precipitation method using mixed catanionic surfactants as template. The sample was calcinated at various temperatures for 8 h. The samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and thermal analyser. The samples calcinated at 750°C and 850°C show 75% and 89% of crystallinity respectively. Usually to obtain the biphasic calcium phosphates, either the medium will be set as acidic by altering the pH or the Ca/P ratio can be set below the value of 1.5. However this experiment was neither conducted with low Ca/P ratio (<=1.5) nor at low pH (<=7) to obtain the mixed phase. The combination of surfactants and calcination temperature controls the HAp/?-TCp ratio.

Shanthi, P. Michael S. L.; Ashok, M.; Balasubramanian, T.

2012-10-01

313

Cytocompatibility evaluation of microwave sintered biphasic calcium phosphate scaffolds synthesized using pH control.  

PubMed

Compounds belonging to the calcium phosphate (CaP) system are known to be major constituents of bone and are bioactive to different extents in vitro and in vivo. Their chemical similarity makes them prime candidates for implants and bone tissue engineering scaffolds. CaP nanoparticles of amorphous hydroxyapatite (aHA) and dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) were synthesized using chemical precipitation. Uniaxially pressed aHA and DCPD powders were subjected to microwave radiation to promote solid state phase transformations resulting in crystalline hydroxyapatite (HA), tricalcium phosphate (TCP) and biphasic compositions: HA/TCP and TCP/calcium pyrophosphate (CPP) and their subsequent densification. Phase composition of microwave sintered compacts was confirmed via X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Solution pH during crystal growth was found to have a profound effect on particle morphology and post-sintered phases, despite constant sintering temperature. Cytocompatibility assessment using 7F2 cells, corresponding to adult mouse osteoblasts, on microwave and conventional, furnace sintered samples demonstrated that manufacturing method does not impact cellular viability after 24 h or proliferation over 7 days. New CaP deposition and extracellular matrix components were observed in vitro via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). PMID:23827628

Wagner, Darcy E; Jones, Andrew D; Zhou, Huan; Bhaduri, Sarit B

2013-04-01

314

Porous hydroxyapatite and biphasic calcium phosphate ceramics promote ectopic osteoblast differentiation from mesenchymal stem cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because calcium phosphate (Ca-P) ceramics have been used as bone substitutes, it is necessary to investigate what effects the ceramics have on osteoblast maturation. We prepared three types of Ca-P ceramics with different Ca-P ratios, i.e. hydroxyapatite (HA), beta-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP), and biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) ceramics with dense-smooth and porous structures. Comprehensive gene expression microarray analysis of mouse osteoblast-like cells cultured on these ceramics revealed that porous Ca-P ceramics considerably affected the gene expression profiles, having a higher potential for osteoblast maturation. In the in vivo study that followed, porous Ca-P ceramics were implanted into rat skeletal muscle. Sixteen weeks after the implantation, more alkaline-phosphatase-positive cells were observed in the pores of hydroxyapatite and BCP, and the expression of the osteocalcin gene (an osteoblast-specific marker) in tissue grown in pores was also higher in hydroxyapatite and BCP than in ?-TCP. In the pores of any Ca-P ceramics, 16 weeks after the implantation, we detected the expressions of marker genes of the early differentiation stage of chondrocytes and the complete differentiation stage of adipocytes, which originate from mesenchymal stem cells, as well as osteoblasts. These marker gene expressions were not observed in the muscle tissue surrounding the implanted Ca-P ceramics. These observations indicate that porous hydroxyapatite and BCP had a greater potential for promoting the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into osteoblasts than ?-TCP.

Zhang, Lingli; Hanagata, Nobutaka; Maeda, Megumi; Minowa, Takashi; Ikoma, Toshiyuki; Fan, Hongsong; Zhang, Xingdong

2009-04-01

315

Some studies on calcium phosphate embedded in polyvinyl alcohol matrix before and after ?-irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ca-P ratio in polymer matrix was adjusted to 1.67 as in hydroxyapatite. The complexed polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) materials exhibit the characteristic absorption bands of phosphate at 601 and 962 cm -1 indicating the presence of (HPO 4) -1 anions in the structure. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed that the reaction between Ca and P ions in the PVA medium has a great effect on polymeric matrix crystallization. After irradiation, XRD results for sample c showed more sharp peaks indicating that irradiation can break the principal chemical bonds and favoring additional crystallization processes and therefore the crystallinity increases. An improvement in the thermal stability of PVA doped with calcium phosphate could be seen with the increase of calcium phosphate intercalated with PVA. The surfaces of films were analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) before and after ?-irradiation. The formation of hydroxyapatite is confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX analysis). The electric conduction data were interpreted on the basis of an intrachain one-dimensional interpolaron hopping model of Kuivalainen.

Abdelrazek, E. M.; El Damrawi, G.; Al-Shahawy, A.

2010-02-01

316

Calcium phosphate/chitosan composite scaffolds for controlled in vitro antibiotic drug release.  

PubMed

Macroporous chitosan scaffolds reinforced by beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) and calcium phosphate invert glasses were fabricated using a thermally induced phase separation technique. These porous composite materials were specially designed as both a drug carrier for controlled drug release and a scaffold for bone regeneration. The controlled drug release of antibiotic gentamicin-sulfate (GS) loaded scaffolds and morphology of osteosarcoma MG63 cells cultured on the scaffolds were studied. In comparison with the GS loaded pure chitosan scaffolds, the initial burst release of GS was decreased through incorporating calcium phosphate crystals and glasses into the scaffolds, and the sustained release for more than 3 weeks was achieved. The possible mechanisms for the controlled drug release were investigated by SEM, FTIR, and measurements of the pH values of the PBS solution during the drug release test. SEM micrographs showed no apparent morphological differences for osteoblastic cells grown on the pure chitosan scaffolds and those grown on composite scaffolds. The cells were attached and migrated on these scaffolds, and exhibited a biological appearance, suggesting a good cellular compatibility. PMID:12209923

Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Miqin

2002-12-01

317

Effects of 1,25-dihydroxicolecalciferol and dietary calcium-phosphate on distribution of lead to tissues during growth.  

PubMed

The susceptibility to the toxic effects of lead (Pb) is mainly mediated by age and nutritional and hormonal status, and children are among the most vulnerable to them. During growth, an increase in calcium, phosphate and vitamin D in diet is recommended to enhance calcium and phosphate intestinal absorption and bone deposit. Calcium and phosphate reduce lead intestinal absorption, and 1,25-dihydroxicolecalciferol (1,25(OH)2D3) (active metabolite of vitamin D) increases both lead and calcium intestinal absorption. However, the effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 on lead bone deposit and redistribution to soft tissues are not well known. In this study, we examined the effects of calcium-phosphate diet supplementation and the administration of 1,25(OH)2D3 on Pb distribution to soft tissue and bone in growing rats exposed to Pb. Rats (21 days old) were exposed for 28 days to 100 ppm of Pb solution in drinking water. Calcium and phosphate in diet were increased from 1 to 2.5% and from 0.65 to 1.8%, respectively, and 1,25(OH)2D3 was administrated by intraperitoneal injection of 7.2 ng/kg every 7 days. Between 21 and 49 days, the body weight increased about 5 times. The results showed that high calcium-phosphate diet led to lower Pb concentration in blood and in bone, but Pb liver and kidney concentrations increased, which indicates that absorption and bone deposit redistribution of Pb decreased. On the other hand, no effect of this diet rich in calcium-phosphate in Pb concentration was observed in brain. Blood and bone Pb concentrations increased even more when the high calcium-phosphate diet included 1,25(OH)2D3. In the rats treated only with 1,25(OH)2D3, blood and bone Pb concentrations were lower. Higher concentrations of lead in the soft organs were observed also in rats treated under a high calcium-phosphate diet plus 1,25(OH)2D3 administration. The above mentioned results suggested that 1,25(OH)2D3 induces an increased absorption and redistribution of Pb, and therefore, it may enhance systemic damage in Pb-exposed growing animals. PMID:16223518

Cortina-Ramírez, G E; Cerbón-Solorzano, J; Calderón-Salinas, J V

2006-01-01

318

Effects of 1,25-dihydroxicolecalciferol and dietary calcium-phosphate on distribution of lead to tissues during growth  

SciTech Connect

The susceptibility to the toxic effects of lead (Pb) is mainly mediated by age and nutritional and hormonal status, and children are among the most vulnerable to them. During growth, an increase in calcium, phosphate and vitamin D in diet is recommended to enhance calcium and phosphate intestinal absorption and bone deposit. Calcium and phosphate reduce lead intestinal absorption, and 1,25-dihydroxicolecalciferol (1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3}) (active metabolite of vitamin D) increases both lead and calcium intestinal absorption. However, the effects of 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} on lead bone deposit and redistribution to soft tissues are not well known. In this study, we examined the effects of calcium-phosphate diet supplementation and the administration of 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} on Pb distribution to soft tissue and bone in growing rats exposed to Pb. Rats (21 days old) were exposed for 28 days to 100 ppm of Pb solution in drinking water. Calcium and phosphate in diet were increased from 1 to 2.5% and from 0.65 to 1.8%, respectively, and 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} was administrated by intraperitoneal injection of 7.2 ng/kg every 7 days. Between 21 and 49 days, the body weight increased about 5 times. The results showed that high calcium-phosphate diet led to lower Pb concentration in blood and in bone, but Pb liver and kidney concentrations increased, which indicates that absorption and bone deposit redistribution of Pb decreased. On the other hand, no effect of this diet rich in calcium-phosphate in Pb concentration was observed in brain. Blood and bone Pb concentrations increased even more when the high calcium-phosphate diet included 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3}. In the rats treated only with 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3}, blood and bone Pb concentrations were lower. Higher concentrations of lead in the soft organs were observed also in rats treated under a high calcium-phosphate diet plus 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} administration. The above mentioned results suggested that 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} induces an increased absorption and redistribution of Pb, and therefore, it may enhance systemic damage in Pb-exposed growing animals.

Cortina-Ramirez, G.E. [Department of Biochemistry, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, PO Box 14-740, Mexico City 07000 (Mexico); Cerbon-Solorzano, J. [Department of Biochemistry, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, PO Box 14-740, Mexico City 07000 (Mexico); Calderon-Salinas, J.V. [Department of Biochemistry, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, PO Box 14-740, Mexico City 07000 (Mexico)]. E-mail: jcalder@cinvestav.mx

2006-01-15

319

Renal transport of bisphosphonates: accumulation by renal cortical slices enhanced by calcium phosphate ions  

SciTech Connect

Bisphosphonates have been recognized as useful therapeutic agents in metabolic bone disease. Earlier studies showed a net renal secretion of 1-hydroxy-ethylidene-1,1-bisphosphonate (HEBP). They suggested a renal cellular uptake of this compound. The authors further studied this concept by investigating the uptake in vitro of /sup 14/C-HEBP by rat renal cortex slices. HEBP was accumulated against a concentration gradient, a process that was dependent on time, temperature, and substrate concentration. Unlike that of /sup 3/H-p-aminohippurate, the uptake was not affected by change in medium Na+ or glucose and acetate concentration, or by anoxia and various metabolic inhibitors. It was, however, markedly increased by raising the medium calcium and inorganic phosphate concentration. Equilibrium dialysis with renal cortex homogenates suggests that HEBP binds to a cytosolic macromolecule through a process that exhibits saturability and calcium dependency. In conclusion, the results suggest that the bisphosphonate HEBP can penetrate kidney cells by a process that does not appear to be energy dependent, but is markedly influenced by the extracellular calcium-phosphate concentration.

Troehler, U.; Bonjour, J.P.; Fleisch, H.

1985-07-01

320

In-Situ Cold Temperature XRD of Calcium Phosphate Produced From Organic Phosphoric Acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we synthesized calcium phosphate from an organic phosphoric acid, diethylhexyl phosphoric acid (DEHPA) and calcium hydroxide solution. The reaction involves a sol-gel process with a whitish gel formed. In-situ XRD analysis was then performed on the sample from room temperature to -140° C. At room the XRD diffractogram shows the sample as an amorphous material and as the temperature was further lowered sharp peaks begins to form indicating that the material had becomes crystalline. The peaks were identified to be that calcium hydrogen phosphate (Ca(H2PO4)2) and this indicates that there is no hydroxyl group removal during the cooling process. The relative crystallinity values obtained for the different cooling temperatures show a slow exponential increase on the initial cooling of 0 to -100° C and at further cooling temperatures resulted fast and linear process. Also unlike the in-situ XRD analysis performs at high temperature no phase transformation occurred at this low temperature.

Yusoff, M. S. Meor; Paulus, Wilfred; Muslimin, Masliana

2010-01-01

321

Phosphate release and force generation in cardiac myocytes investigated with caged phosphate and caged calcium.  

PubMed Central

The phosphate (P(i)) dissociation step of the cross-bridge cycle was investigated in skinned rat ventricular myocytes to examine its role in force generation and Ca(2+) regulation in cardiac muscle. Pulse photolysis of caged P(i) (alpha-carboxyl-2-nitrobenzyl phosphate) produced up to 3 mM P(i) within the filament lattice, resulting in an approximately exponential decline in steady-state tension. The apparent rate constant, k (rho i), increased linearly with total P(i) concentration (initial plus photoreleased), giving an apparent second-order rate constant for P(i) binding of 3100 M(-1) s(-1), which is intermediate in value between fast and slow skeletal muscles. A decrease in the level of Ca(2+) activation to 20% of maximum tension reduced k (rho i) by twofold and increased the relative amplitude by threefold, consistent with modulation of P(i) release by Ca2+. A three-state model, with separate but coupled transitions for force generation and P(i) dissociation, and a Ca(2+)-sensitive forward rate constant for force generation, was compatible with the data. There was no evidence for a slow phase of tension decline observed previously in fast skeletal fibers at low Ca(2+), suggesting differences in cooperative mechanisms in cardiac and skeletal muscle. In separate experiments, tension development was initiated from a relaxed state by photolysis of caged Ca(2+). The apparent rate constant, k(Ca), was accelerated in the presence of high P(i) consistent with close coupling between force generation and P(i) dissociation, even when force development was initiated from a relaxed state. k(Ca) was also dependent on the level of Ca(2+) activation. However, significant quantitative differences between k (rho i) and k(Ca), including different sensitivities to Ca(2+) and P(i) indicate that caged Ca(2+) tension transients are influenced by additional Ca(2+)-dependent but P i-independent steps that occur before P(i) release. Data from both types of measurements suggest that kinetic transitions associated with P(i) dissociation are modulated by the Ca(2+) regulatory system and partially limit the physiological rate of tension development in cardiac muscle.

Araujo, A; Walker, J W

1996-01-01

322

Discovery of ?-Klotho unveiled new insights into calcium and phosphate homeostasis  

PubMed Central

?-Klotho was first identified as the responsible gene in a mutant mouse line whose disruption results in a variety of premature aging-related phenotypes. ?-Klotho has been shown to participate in the regulation of parathyroid hormone secretion and trans-epithelial transport of Ca2+ in the choroid plexus and kidney. ?-Klotho, acting as a cofactor for FGF23, is also a major regulator of vitamin D biosynthesis and phosphate reabsorption in the kidney. These suggest that ?-Klotho is a key player that integrates a multi-step regulatory system of calcium and phosphate homeostasis. Collectively, the molecular function of ?-Klotho reveals a new paradigm that may change current concepts in mineral homeostasis and give rise to new insights in this field.

Nabeshima, Yo-ichi

2009-01-01

323

Microwave assisted synthesis & properties of nano HA-TCP biphasic calcium phosphate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) nanopowders were synthesized by using microwave and non-microwave irradiation assisted processes. The synthesized powders were pressed under a pressure of 90 MPa, and then were sintered at 1000-1200°C for 1 h. The mechanical properties of the samples were investigated. The formed phases and microstructures were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that the synthesis time was shorter, along with a more homogeneous microstructure, when the microwave irradiation assisted method was applied. The compression strength and the Young's modulus of the samples synthesized with microwave irradiation were about 60 MPa and 3 GPa, but those of the samples synthesized without microwave irradiation were about 30 MPa and 2 GPa, respectively. XRD patterns of the microwave irradiation assisted and non-microwave irradiation assisted nanopowders showed the coexistence of hydroxyapatite (HA) and tricalcium phosphate (TCP) phases in the system.

Ghomash Pasand, E.; Nemati, A.; Solati-Hashjin, M.; Arzani, K.; Farzadi, A.

2012-05-01

324

Antibacterial amorphous calcium phosphate nanocomposites with a quaternary ammonium dimethacrylate and silver nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Objectives Calcium and phosphate ion-releasing resin composites are promising for remineralization. However, there has been no report on incorporating antibacterial agents to these composites. The objective of this study was to develop antibacterial and mechanically-strong nanocomposites incorporating a quaternary ammonium dimethacrylate (QADM), nanoparticles of silver (NAg), and nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP). Methods The QADM, bis(2-methacryloyloxyethyl) dimethylammonium bromide (ionic dimethacrylate-1), was synthesized from 2-(N,N-dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate and 2-bromoethyl methacrylate. Ng was synthesized by dissolving Ag 2-ethylhexanoate salt in 2-(tertbutylamino)ethyl methacrylate. Mechanical properties were measured in three-point flexure with bars of 2×2×25 mm (n = 6). Composite disks (diameter = 9 mm, thickness = 2 mm) were inoculated with Streptococcus mutans. The metabolic activity and lactic acid production of biofilms were measured (n = 6). Two commercial composites were used as controls. Results Flexural strength and elastic modulus of NACP+QADM, NACP+NAg, and NACP+QADM+NAg matched those of commercial composites with no antibacterial property (p > 0.1). The NACP+QADM+NAg composite decreased the titer counts of adherent S. mutans biofilms by an order of magnitude, compared to the commercial composites (p < 0.05). The metabolic activity and lactic acid production of biofilms on NACP+QADM+NAg composite were much less than those on commercial composites (p < 0.05). Combining QADM and NAg rendered the nanocomposite more strongly antibacterial than either agent alone (p < 0.05). Significance QADM and NAg were incorporated into calcium phosphate composite for the first time. NACP+QADM+NAg was strongly-antibacterial and greatly reduced the titer counts, metabolic activity, and acid production of S. mutans biofilms, while possessing mechanical properties similar to commercial composites. These nanocomposites are promising to have the double benefits of remineralization and antibacterial capabilities to inhibit dental caries.

Cheng, Lei; Weir, Michael D.; Xu, Hockin H. K.; Antonucci, Joseph M.; Kraigsley, Alison M.; Lin, Nancy J.; Lin-Gibson, Sheng; Zhou, Xuedong

2012-01-01

325

Novel chemoembolization using calcium-phosphate ceramic microsphere incorporating TNP-470, an anti-angiogenic agent.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to develop a new method of chemoembolization to improve the therapeutic effectiveness and safety profile of cancer treatment. A chemoembolization approach was designed for human solid tumors using resorbable calcium-phosphate ceramic microspheres loaded with an agent anti-angiogenic to tumor vasculature in vivo. The human uterine sarcoma cell line FU-MMT-3 was used in this study because this tumor is aggressive and also exhibits a poor response to radiotherapy or any chemotherapy currently used. The calcium-phosphate ceramic microspheres loaded with TNP-470, an anti-angiogenic agent, were injected into FU-MMT-3 xenografts in nude mice three times per week for 8 weeks. The treatment using TNP-470-loaded microspheres suppressed tumor growth, compared to treatment with TNP-470 alone, microspheres alone, and the control. The mean tumor weight after treatment using TNP-470-loaded microspheres was significantly lower than that after treatment with microspheres alone. These ceramic microspheres were remarkably embolized in tumor microvessels as well as in the feeding arteries and a significant reduction of intratumoral vascularity was also demonstrated following treatment with TNP-470-loaded microspheres. Severe loss of body weight was not observed in any mice treated with the TNP-470-loaded microspheres, compared to treatment with TNP-470 alone. These results suggest that targeting tumor vasculature in human uterine sarcoma using calcium-phosphate microspheres might be more effective and safer than the treatment that employs anti-angiogenic agent alone. This new chemoembolization method incorporating an anti-angiogenic agent may contribute to the effective treatment of locally advanced or recurrent solid tumors. PMID:20109162

Emoto, Makoto; Naganuma, Yasuko; Choijamts, Batsuren; Ohno, Toshiki; Yoshihisa, Hajime; Kanomata, Nobuhiko; Kawarabayashi, Tatsuhiko; Aizawa, Mamoru

2010-04-01

326

Biomimetic Precipitation of Uniaxially Grown Calcium Phosphate Crystals from Full-Length Human Amelogenin Sols  

PubMed Central

Human dental enamel forms over a period of 2 – 4 years by substituting the enamel matrix, a protein gel mostly composed of a single protein, amelogenin with fibrous apatite nanocrystals. Self-assembly of a dense amelogenin matrix is presumed to direct the growth of apatite fibers and their organization into bundles that eventually comprise the mature enamel, the hardest tissue in the mammalian body. This work aims to establish the physicochemical and biochemical conditions for the synthesis of fibrous apatite crystals under the control of a recombinant full-length human amelogenin matrix in combination with a programmable titration system. The growth of apatite substrates was initiated from supersaturated calcium phosphate solutions in the presence of dispersed amelogenin assemblies. It was shown earlier and confirmed in this study that binding of amelogenin onto apatite surfaces presents the first step that leads to substrate-specific crystal growth. In this work, we report enhanced nucleation and growth under conditions at which amelogenin and apatite carry opposite charges and adsorption of the protein onto the apatite seeds is even more favored. Experiments at pH below the isoelectric point of amelogenin showed increased protein binding to apatite and at low Ca/P molar ratios resulted in a change in crystal morphology from plate-like to fibrous and rod-shaped. Concentrations of calcium and phosphate ions in the supernatant did not show drastic decreases throughout the titration period, indicating controlled precipitation from the protein suspension metastable with respect to calcium phosphate. It is argued that ameloblasts in the developing enamel may vary the density of the protein matrix at the nano scale by varying local pH, and thus control the interaction between the mineral and protein phases. The biomimetic experimental setting applied in this study has thus proven as convenient for gaining insight into the fundamental nature of the process of amelogenesis.

Uskokovic, Vuk; Li, Wu; Habelitz, Stefan

2011-01-01

327

MICROINCINERATION, ELECTRON MICROSCOPY, AND ELECTRON DIFFRACTION OF CALCIUM PHOSPHATE-LOADED MITOCHONDRIA  

PubMed Central

Isolated rat liver mitochondria were incubated in vitro under conditions supporting the massive accumulation of calcium and phosphate. Samples were embedded, thin sectioned, and examined in the electron microscope. The intramitochondrial distribution of insoluble or structure-bound mineral substances was studied by electron microscopy coupled with recently developed techniques of high resolution microincineration. As shown previously, the ion-loaded mitochondria acquire large, internal granules which have inherent electron opacity indicative of high mineral content. Study of ash patterns in preselected areas of sections directly confirmed the high mineral content of the granules, and the appearance of the residues was consistent with the copresence in the granules of some organic material. Other mitochondrial structures were almost devoid of mineral. Thin sections of unincubated control mitochondria also were incinerated. They were found to contain appreciable amounts of intrinsic mineral, seemingly associated with membranes. The normal, dense matrix granules commonly seen in unaltered mitochondria could be seen in intact sections of these control preparations, but after burning no definite correspondence of any ash to the granules could be demonstrated. The normal granules perhaps do not contain mineral. Heating experiments on ash patterns of all the preparations demonstrated the thermal stability and crystallizability of the ash. The crystallized ash of the in vitro-produced dense granules was tentatively shown by electron diffraction to be ?-tricalcium phosphate (whitlockite). This, together with evidence from the literature, suggests that the original, noncrystalline mineral may be a colloidal, subcrystalline precursor of calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite. Experiments were performed on synthetic calcium phosphates for comparison. Other possible applications of the microincineration techniques are briefly discussed.

Thomas, Richard S.; Greenawalt, John W.

1968-01-01

328

Effect of amorphous calcium phosphate and silver nanocomposites on dental plaque microcosm biofilms.  

PubMed

A dental composite containing amorphous calcium phosphate nanoparticles (NACP) was developed that released calcium (Ca) and phosphate (PO(4)) ions and possessed acid-neutralization capability. There has been little study on incorporation of antibacterial agents into calcium phosphate composites. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of silver nanoparticle (NAg) mass fraction in NACP nanocomposite on mechanical properties and dental plaque microcosm biofilm for the first time. NACP nanoparticles of 116 nm were synthesized via a spray-drying technique. NAg nanoparticles were synthesized using Ag 2-ethylhexanoate and 2-(tert-butylamino)ethyl methacrylate, yielding NAg of particle size of 2.7 nm that were well-dispersed in the resin. Five NACP nanocomposites were fabricated with NAg mass fractions of 0, 0.028, 0.042, 0.088, and 0.175%, respectively. Mechanical properties of NACP nanocomposites containing 0-0.042% of NAg matched those of a commercial composite without antibacterial activity. Live/dead assay of dental plaque microcosm biofilms showed complete coverage with live bacteria on commercial composite. However, there were increasingly more dead bacteria with higher NAg content in the NACP nanocomposite. Colony-forming unit (CFU) counts for total microorganisms, total streptococci, and mutans streptococci for NACP nanocomposite with 0.042% NAg were about 1/4 those of commercial composite. Lactic acid production on NACP nanocomposite with 0.042% NAg was 1/3 that on commercial composite. In conclusion, novel NACP-NAg nanocomposites were developed which possessed good mechanical properties and potent antibacterial properties, with substantially reduced biofilm viability and lactic acid production. Hence, the NACP-NAg nanocomposites are promising for dental restorations with remineralizing and antibacterial capabilities. PMID:22566464

Cheng, Lei; Weir, Michael D; Xu, Hockin H K; Antonucci, Joseph M; Lin, Nancy J; Lin-Gibson, Sheng; Xu, Sarah M; Zhou, Xuedong

2012-07-01

329

The Properties of Sintered Calcium Phosphate with [Ca]/[P] = 1.50  

PubMed Central

In order to obtain the properties of the sintered as-dried calcium phosphate with [Ca]/[P] = 1.50, the characteristics of sintered pellets have been investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra, Vickers hardness indentation and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). When the pellet samples were sintered between 700 °C and 1200 °C for 4 h, the hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, HA) still maintained the major phase, accompanied with the rhenanite (NaCaPO4) as the secondary phase and ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-Ca3(PO4)2, ?-TCP) as the minor phases. In addition, the HA partially transformed to ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-Ca3(PO4)2, ?-TCP) and tetracalcium phosphate (Ca4(PO4)2O, TTCP), when the pellet samples were sintered at 1300 °C and 1400 °C, respectively, for 4 h. The maximum density and Vickers Hardness (HV) of sintered pellet samples were 2.85 g/cm3 (90.18% theoretical density (T.D.)) and 407, which appeared at 1200 °C and 900 °C, respectively.

Hung, I-Ming; Shih, Wei-Jen; Hon, Min-Hsiung; Wang, Moo-Chin

2012-01-01

330

Electrodeposition on nanofibrous polymer scaffolds: Rapid mineralization, tunable calcium phosphate composition and topography  

PubMed Central

We developed a straightforward, fast, and versatile technique to fabricate mineralized nanofibrous polymer scaffolds for bone regeneration in this work. Nanofibrous poly(l-lactic acid) scaffolds were fabricated using both electrospinning and phase separation techniques. An electrodeposition process was designed to deposit calcium phosphate on the nanofibrous scaffolds. Such scaffolds contain a high quality mineral coating on the fiber surface with tunable surface topography and chemical composition by varying the processing parameters, which can mimic the composition and structure of natural bone extracellular matrix and provide a more biocompatible interface for bone regeneration.

He, Chuanglong; Xiao, Guiyong; Jin, Xiaobing; Sun, Chenghui; Ma, Peter X.

2011-01-01

331

Purification and characterization of a rabbit salivary protein, a potent inhibitor of crystal growth of calcium phosphate salts.  

PubMed

Human saliva is supersaturated with respect to basic calcium phosphate salts but is stabilized by specific macromolecules that inhibit calcium phosphate precipitation. One of the families of inhibitory proteins in human and monkey saliva is the acidic proline-rich proteins. The purpose of this study was to isolate and characterize inhibitors of calcium phosphate precipitation from rabbit parotid saliva. Saliva was fractionated by immunoaffinity chromatography and anion exchange chromatography. Individual fractions were assayed for their ability to inhibit calcium phosphate crystal growth and the fraction associated with the inhibition was purified by repeated anion exchange chromatography, preparative gel electrophoresis and electroelution. A major (APRP) and two minor proteins (AM1, AM2) that were inhibitory were purified. APRP is an acidic proline-rich phospho-glycoprotein and a very potent inhibitor of secondary crystal growth of calcium phosphate as it was active at a concentration of 2 x 10(-8) M in a standard assay. The N-terminal sequence of one APRP was EYENLDGSLAATQNDDD?Q and a clostripain fragment of APRP had the following N-terminal sequence PQHRPPRPGGH-????SPPP?GN???PPP. Although the N-terminal segment of APRP does not resemble that of proline-rich proteins, alignment of the clostripain fragment with the repeat region of such proteins from rat, mouse, monkey and man revealed a high degree of similarity, indicating a structural relationship with the proline-rich protein family. PMID:2012527

Spielman, A I; Bernstein, A; Hay, D I; Blum, M; Bennick, A

1991-01-01

332

Identification of proteins extracted from calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate crystals induced in the urine of healthy and stone forming subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of our study was to identify the proteins and investigate the differences, if any, between protein components\\u000a of the matrices of calcium oxalate (CaOx) and calcium phosphate (CaP) crystals induced in?vitro in whole human urine of healthy\\u000a individuals and kidney stone patients. In addition, preliminary studies were performed to understand the effect of centrifugation\\u000a and filtration of urine

Fouad Atmani; Patricia A. Glenton; Saeed R. Khan

1998-01-01

333

Preparation and characterization of biphasic calcium phosphate ceramics of desired composition.  

PubMed

A modified processing route for fabricating dense and porous biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) ceramics of desired and reproducible phase composition (hydroxyapatite (HA)/beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) ratio) has been developed. The principal idea of the route was combining a precipitation and a solid phase methods. First, a nonstoichiometric (slightly carbonated calcium-deficient) HA (CdHA) precipitate was synthesized by mixing a calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)) water suspension with an orthophosphoric acid (H(3)PO(4)) solution in abundance (related to the amount resulting in a stoichiometric HA) under definite conditions, and a powder of the precipitate was prepared and calcinated in air (860 degrees C, 1.5 h). In the second stage, a BCP ceramics of the composition determined by the calcium-deficiency in a calcinated powder (the acid abundance in a mixture) was processed by sintering powder compacts with or without a porosizer under appropriate conditions (1,200 degrees C, 2h). A calibrating dependence of the HA/beta-TCP ratio in the ceramics on the acid abundance has been plotted which enabled a controlled preparation of BCP ceramics. A correlation based on unresolved bands in nu(4)-PO (4) (3-) domain in IR-spectra of nanostructured BCP materials was found. Using the correlation, the process of CdHA --> beta-TCP transformation could be easily monitored. The density and microhardness of the BCP ceramics neglectly depended on the composition, however, the compressive strength did: the lower the HA/beta-TCP ratio, the higher the strength in the dense materials. PMID:18322781

Zyman, Z Z; Tkachenko, M V; Polevodin, D V

2008-08-01

334

Preparation and properties of calcium phosphate cements incorporated gelatin microspheres and calcium sulfate dihydrate as controlled local drug delivery system.  

PubMed

To develop high macroporous and degradable bone cements which can be used as the substitute of bone repairing and drug carriers, cross-linked gelatin microspheres (GMs) and calcium sulfate dihydrate (CSD) powder were incorporated into calcium phosphate bone cement (CPC) to induce macropores, adjust drug release and control setting time of ?-TCP-liquid mixtures after degradation of GMs and dissolution of CSD. In this study, CSD was introduced into CPC/10GMs composites to offset the prolonged setting time caused by the incorporation of GMs, and gentamicin sulphate (GS) was chosen as the model drug entrapped within the GMs. The effects of CSD amount on the cement properties, drug release ability and final macroporosity after GMs degradation were studied in comparison with CPC/GMs cements. The resulting cements presented reduced setting time and increased compressive strength as the content of CSD below 5 wt%. Sustained release of GS was obtained on at least 21 days, and release rates were found to be chiefly controlled by the GMs degradation rate. After 4 weeks of degradation study, the resulting composite cements appeared macroporous, degradable and suitable compressive strength, suggesting that they have potential as controlled local drug delivery system and for cancellous bone applications. PMID:21894539

Cai, Shu; Zhai, Yujia; Xu, Guohua; Lu, Shanshan; Zhou, Wei; Ye, Xiaojian

2011-11-01

335

Influence of the calcium phosphate content of the target on the phase composition and deposition rate of sputtered films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calcium phosphate was coated from tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP), hydroxyapatite (HA), ?-tricalcium phosphate (TCP), ?-calcium pyrophosphate (CPP), and ?-calcium metaphosphate (CMP) powder targets using radio frequency magnetron sputtering. The composition of the crystal phase of the coated films was changed, depending on the target materials, and the Ca/P molar ratios of the films varied from 0.74 to 2.54, increasing with the Ca/P molar ratio of the target. The solubility of the target, determined using a microwave-induced plasma-mass spectrometer was: TTCP ? ?-CMP > ?-TCP > ?-CPP > HA, and the deposition rate from each target showed a similar order to the solubility: TTCP ? ?-CMP > ?-TCP > ?-CPP ? HA.

Ozeki, K.; Fukui, Y.; Aoki, H.

2007-03-01

336

Pegylated siRNA-loaded calcium phosphate nanoparticle-driven amplification of cancer cell internalization in vivo  

PubMed Central

The cell membrane is a critical barrier to effective delivery for many therapeutics, including those which are nanoparticle-based. Improving nanoparticle transport across the cell membrane remains a fundamental challenge. Cancer cells preferentially internalized pegylated calcium phosphate nanoparticles over normal epithelial cells. Furthermore, non-cytotoxic levels of doxorubicin markedly amplified this difference by increasing free unbound caveolin-1 and resulted in enhanced caveolin-mediated nanoparticle endocytosis in cancer cells. Engineered pegylated siRNA-loaded triple-shell calcium phosphate nanoconstructs incorporating ultra-low levels of doxorubicin recapitulated these effects and delivered increased numbers of siRNA into cancer cells with target-specific results. Systemic administration of nanoparticles in vivo demonstrated highly preferential entry into tumors, little bystander organ biodistribution, and significant tumor growth arrest. In conclusion, siRNA-loaded calcium phosphate nanoparticles incorporating non-cytotoxic amounts of doxorubicin markedly enhances nanoparticle internalization and results in increased payload delivery with concomitant on-target effects.

Tobin, Lisa A.; Xie, Yili; Tsokos, Maria; Chung, Su I.; Merz, Allison A.; Arnold, Michael A.; Li, Guang; Malech, Harry L.; Kwong, King F.

2013-01-01

337

New processing approaches in calcium phosphate cements and their applications in regenerative medicine.  

PubMed

The key feature of calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) lies in the setting reaction triggered by mixing one or more solid calcium phosphate salts with an aqueous solution. Upon mixture, the reaction takes place through a dissolution-precipitation process which is macroscopically observed by a gradual hardening of the cement paste. The precipitation of hydroxyapatite nanocrystals at body or room temperature, and the fact that those materials can be used as self-setting pastes, have for many years been the most attractive features of CPCs. However, the need to develop materials able to sustain bone tissue ingrowth and be capable of delivering drugs and bioactive molecules, together with the continuous requirement from surgeons to develop more easily handling cements, has pushed the development of new processing routes that can accommodate all these requirements, taking advantage of the possibility of manipulating the self-setting CPC paste. It is the goal of this paper to provide a brief overview of the new processing developments in the area of CPCs and to identify the most significant achievements. PMID:20123046

Ginebra, M P; Espanol, M; Montufar, E B; Perez, R A; Mestres, G

2010-08-01

338

The effect of alendronate doped calcium phosphates on bone cells activity.  

PubMed

This study demonstrates that octacalcium phosphate (OCP) is a suitable substrate for alendronate local action towards bone cells. The results of the structural, spectroscopic, and microscopic investigation show that soaking OCP into alendronate solutions provoked the deposition of long crystalline rod-shaped formations, most likely a calcium alendronate complex, onto the calcium phosphate. The amount of alendronate loaded onto OCP increased as a function of the bisphosphonate concentration in solution. Osteoblast and osteoclast response was tested in single and in co-cultures on OCP containing 6.4 wt.% AL (OCP-AL), and for comparison on hydroxyapatite (HA) containing a similar amount (5.9 wt.%) of AL (HA-AL), as well as on pure OCP and HA as reference materials. Alendronate loaded materials displayed a beneficial effect on osteoblast activity and differentiation, whereas they inhibited osteoclast proliferation and differentiation. Crosstalking between osteoblast-like MG63 cells and human osteoclasts enhanced their response to alendronate. Moreover, OCP displayed a greater stimulating effect than HA on osteoblast differentiation, and AL promotion of osteoblast differentiation and mineralization was enhanced in OCP-AL with respect to HA-AL. PMID:22878156

Boanini, Elisa; Torricelli, Paola; Gazzano, Massimo; Fini, Milena; Bigi, Adriana

2012-11-01

339

Peptide decorated calcium phosphate/carboxymethyl chitosan hybrid nanoparticles with improved drug delivery efficiency.  

PubMed

In this study, a facile strategy to effectively improve the delivery efficiency of nano-sized drug delivery systems was developed. Calcium phosphate/carboxymethyl chitosan (Ca-P/CMC) hybrid nanoparticles were prepared by the precipitation of calcium phosphate in the aqueous solution containing CMC. The obtained Ca-P/CMC nanoparticles were characterized by SEM, XPS and TGA. Doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX), a water-soluble anticancer drug, was loaded in the nanoparticles with high encapsulation efficiency. The in vitro drug release showed that the release of DOX from the nanoparticles could be effectively sustained. After drug loading, the nanoparticles were decorated by peptide KALA by self-assembly through the electrostatic interaction between the positively charged KALA and the negatively charged CMC chains to obtain drug loaded Ca-P/CMC/KALA nanoparticles. The size and size distribution of the nanoparticles were measured by a particle size analyzer. The KALA decorated nanoparticles exhibited a larger size and an increased zeta potential. The effect of KALA content on the HeLa cell inhibition was studied. The in vitro study showed that the cell inhibition effect could be significantly enhanced by the presence of KALA. PMID:23422273

Wang, Jun; Chen, Bin; Zhao, Dong; Peng, Yan; Zhuo, Ren-Xi; Cheng, Si-Xue

2013-03-25

340

Calcium phosphate/octadecyl-quatemized carboxymethyl chitosan nanoparticles: an efficient and promising carrier for gene transfection.  

PubMed

Calcium phosphate (CaP) has been widely used as the vector for gene transfection in the past three decades. However, clinical application is still not popular due to the poor-controlling of DNA/CaP complexes preparation, cytotoxicity and its low transfection efficiency. In this study, a novel amphipathic octadecyl-quatemized carboxymethyl chitosan (OQCMC) derivative from chitosan was combined with calcium phosphate to synthesize CaP/OQCMC nanoparticles (CaP/OQCMC NPs). The nanoparticles were 122-177 nm in diameter exhibited neutral zeta potential (from -0.115 mV to 0.216 mV), and they were applied as DNA vectors for DNA loading and in vitro transfection. The results showed that CaP/OQCMC NPs displayed high DNA loading capacity and enhanced transfection efficiency with extremely low cytotoxicity. In addition, both CaP and OQCMC are biocompatible and biodegradable, thus the as-prepared CaP/OQCMC NPs are promising in gene delivery. PMID:23882752

Sun, Ying; Li, Xiaoyu; Liang, Xiaofei; Wan, Zhiyong; Duan, Yourong

2013-08-01

341

Association of calcium and phosphate ions with collagen in the mineralization of vertebrate tissues.  

PubMed

Among the vertebrate species, collagen is the most abundant protein and is associated with mineralization of their skeleton and dentition in all tissues except enamel. In such tissues, bones, calcifying tendon, dentin, and cementum are comprised principally of type I collagen, which has been proposed as a template for apatite mineral formation. Recent considerations of the interaction between type I collagen and calcium and phosphate ions as the major constituents of apatite have suggested that collagen polypeptide stereochemistry underlies binding of these ions at sites within collagen hole and overlap regions and leads to nucleation of crystals. The concept is fundamental to understanding both normal and abnormal mineralization, and it is reviewed in this article. Given this background, avenues for additional research studies in vertebrate mineralization will also be described. The latter include, for instance, how mineralization events subsequent to nucleation, that is, crystal growth and development, occur and whether they, too, are directed by collagen stereochemical parameters; whether mineralization can be expected in all spaces between collagen molecules; whether the side chains of charged amino acid residues actually point toward and into the hole and overlap collagen spaces to provide putative binding sites for calcium and phosphate ions; and what phenomena may be responsible for mineralization beyond hole and overlap zones and into extracellular tissue regions between collagen structural units. These questions will be discussed to provide a broader understanding of collagen contributions to potential mechanisms of vertebrate mineralization. PMID:23543143

Landis, William J; Jacquet, Robin

2013-10-01

342

Amorphous calcium phosphate/urethane methacrylate resin composites. I. Physicochemical characterization.  

PubMed

Urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA), an oligomeric poly(ethylene glycol) extended UDMA (PEG-U) and a blend of UDMA/PEG-U were chosen as model systems for introducing both hydrophobic and hydrophilic segments and a range of compliances in their derived polymers. Experimental composites based on these three resins with amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) as the filler phase were polymerized and evaluated for mechanical strength and ion release profiles in different aqueous media. Strength of all composites decreased upon immersion in saline (pH = 7.4). Both polymer matrix composition and the pH of the liquid environment strongly affected the ion release kinetics. In saline, the UDMA/PEG-U composite showed a sustained release for at least 350 h. The initially high ion release of the PEG-U composites decreased after 72 h, seemingly due to the mineral re-deposition at the composite surface. Internal conversion from ACP to poorly crystallized apatite could be observed by X-ray diffraction. In various lactic acid (LA) environments (initial pH = 5.1) ion release kinetics was much more complex. In LA medium without thymol and/or carboxymethylcellulose, as a result of unfavorable changes in the internal calcium/phosphate ion stoichiometry, the ion release rate greatly increased but without observable conversion of ACP to apatite. PMID:17619969

Regnault, William F; Icenogle, Tonya B; Antonucci, Joseph M; Skrtic, Drago

2008-02-01

343

Effects of Monocarboxylic Acid Addition on Crystallization of Calcium Phosphate in a Hydrogel Matrix  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In biomineralization, it is thought that water-soluble organic substances control crystal growth of minerals in hard tissues. The roles of organic substances are not well understood, because the biomineralization process is established by complicated parameters. Crystal growth in hydrogel matrixes can be regarded as simplified model system of biomineralization. In the present study, we investigated the effects of propionic acid (Pro) on crystalline phases and crystal morphologies of calcium phosphate formed in polymeric hydrogel matrixes as the model system of biomineralization. Crystalline phase of the precipitates was octacalcium phosphate (OCP) with spherical shape regardless of Pro concentrations. The fibrous crystals formed under the condition without addition of Pro. The crystal morphologies composing spherical crystals were changed from fibrous to plate-like shape with increasing Pro concentrations. Generally, OCP crystal has plate-like shape exposing (100) face, which calcium ions exist on. Therefore, crystal growth rate of [100] direction of OCP was decreased by Pro adsorbed on (100) face. As a result, crystal morphology composing spherulite became plate-like shape with increasing Pro concentrations.

Yokoi, T.; Kawashita, M.; Ohtsuki, C.

2011-10-01

344

Effect of substrate temperature on mechanical properties of calcium phosphate coatings.  

PubMed

The effect of substrate temperature and processing parameters on mechanical properties of nanoscale calcium phosphate coatings are being studied in order to refine the processing technique for Functionally Graded Hydroxyapatite (FGHA) coatings. Coatings were deposited on titanium substrates with a set substrate temperature of 450, 550, 650, or 750 degrees C in an Ion Beam Assisted Deposition (IBAD) system using a sintered hydroxyapatite (HA) target. Mechanical properties of the coatings deposited with a set substrate temperature such as, bonding/adhesion strength to the substrate, nanohardness, and Young's Modulus as well as coating thickness were evaluated and compared with commercial plasma spray HA coatings. It is concluded that depositing FGHA coatings would better be started at 550-650 degrees C to maintain superior properties of the film at the interface. It can also be concluded that the residual stresses caused by different Coefficient of Thermal Expansions (CTEs) between the substrate and coatings are not the only factor controlling the bonding strength and mechanical properties of these samples. Other parameters such as the nature of the interface layers and their bonding to each other as well as the density and grain structure of the coatings must be taken into consideration for an appropriate evaluation of mechanical properties of calcium phosphate coatings deposited on heated substrate. PMID:17696150

Blalock, Travis L; Bai, Xiao; Narayan, Roger; Rabiei, Afsaneh

2008-04-01

345

Surface potential and osteoblast attraction to calcium phosphate compounds is affected by selected alkaline hydrolysis processing.  

PubMed

This study examines the link(s) between the suspension behavior of calcium deficient apatites (CDAs) and biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP), as measured by the zeta-potential, with respect to both whole bone and osteoblasts. CDA is fabricated by hydrolyzing an acidic CaP such as dicalcium diphosphate dihydrate (DCPD; CaHPO4.2H2O) and has a structure and composition close to bone apatite. Sintering CDA results in the formation of BCP ceramics consisting of mixtures of hydroxyapatite (HA) and beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP), with the HA/beta-TCP weight ratio proportional to the Ca/P ratio of CDA. The choice of the base for the DCPD hydrolysis allows various ionic partial substitution of the formed CDA. Na for Ca partial substitution is of interest because of the resulting improvement in mechanical properties of the resulting BCP ceramics and NH4OH was used as a negative control. The zeta-potential was measured for these materials and the stability of the ceramic to bone interaction calculated. zeta-potential values decrease for CDA(NH4OH) versus CDA(NaOH) and increase for BCP(NH4OH) versus BCP(NaOH). While results of these analyses indicate that NH4OH and NaOH processed CDA and BCP will likely yield osteoblast attachment in vivo, differences in the zeta-potentials may explain varying degrees of cell attachment. PMID:15477734

Smith, I O; Baumann, M J; Obadia, L; Bouler, J-M

2004-08-01

346

Biomimetic calcium phosphate crystal mineralization on electrospun cellulose-based scaffolds.  

PubMed

Novel cellulose based-scaffolds were studied for their ability to nucleate bioactive calcium phosphate crystals for future bone healing applications. Cellulose-based scaffolds were produced by electrospinning cellulose acetate (CA) dissolved in a mixture of acetone/dimethylacetamide (DMAc). The resulting nonwoven CA mats containing fibrils with diameters in the range of 200 nm to 1.5 ?m were saponified by NaOH/ethanol for varying times to produce regenerated cellulose scaffolds. Biomimetic crystal growth nucleated from the fiber surface was studied as a function of surface chemistry. Regenerated cellulose scaffolds of varying treatments were soaked in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution. Scaffolds that were treated with CaCl(2), a mixture of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and CaCl(2), and NaOH and CaCl(2), were analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy to understand the growth of bioactive calcium phosphate (Ca-P) crystals as a function of surface treatment. The crystal structure of the nucleated Ca-P crystals had a diffraction pattern similar to that of hydroxyapatite, the mineralized component of bone. The study shows that the scaffold surface chemistry can be manipulated, providing numerous routes to engineer cellulosic substrates for the requirements of scaffolding. PMID:21355545

Rodríguez, Katia; Renneckar, Scott; Gatenholm, Paul

2011-03-01

347

Unusual effect of water vapor pressure on dehydration of dibasic calcium phosphate dihydrate.  

PubMed

Dibasic calcium phosphate occurs as an anhydrate (DCPA; CaHPO?) and as a dihydrate (DCPD; CaHPO?•2H?O). Our objective was to investigate the unusual behavior of these phases. Dibasic calcium phosphate dihydrate was dehydrated in a (i) differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) in different pan configurations; (ii) variable-temperature X-ray diffractometer (XRD) at atmospheric and under reduced pressure, and in sealed capillaries; and (iii) water vapor sorption analyzer at varying temperature and humidity conditions. Dehydration was complete by 210°C in an open DSC pan and under atmospheric pressure in the XRD. Unlike "conventional" hydrates, the dehydration of DCPD was facilitated in the presence of water vapor. Variable-temperature XRD in a sealed capillary and DSC in a hermetic pan with pinhole caused complete dehydration by 100°C and 140°C, respectively. Under reduced pressure, conversion to the anhydrate was incomplete even at 300°C. The increase in dehydration rate with increase in water vapor pressure has been explained by the Smith-Topley effect. Under "dry" conditions, a coating of poorly crystalline product is believed to form on the surface of particles and act as a barrier to further dehydration. However, in the presence of water vapor, recrystallization occurs, creating cracks and channels and facilitating continued dehydration. PMID:24081471

Kaushal, Aditya M; Vangala, Venu R; Suryanarayanan, Raj

2011-04-01

348

Dry mechanochemical synthesis of hydroxyapatites from dicalcium phosphate dihydrate and calcium oxide: a kinetic study.  

PubMed

Calcium phosphate ceramics have been used successfully as synthetic bone substitutes in orthopedics, dentistry, and maxillofacial surgery. One way of preparing these ceramics is the sintering of a calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA), which can be obtained in different ways. Mechanochemistry is one possible means of synthesizing CDHA, with an expected molar calcium-to-phosphate (Ca/P) ratio +/- 0.005. The grinding can be carried out under dry or wet conditions. To optimize the experimental conditions of CDHA preparation by dry mechanosynthesis and for a better understanding of the DCPD/CaO mechanochemical reaction, we performed a kinetic study in which some of the experimental parameters were varied. Carried out with two different vertical rotating ball mills, this kinetic study showed that (1) experiments are reproducible and give as a final product a hydroxyapatite powder, formed of nano-sized crystals of around 20 nm, with a controlled Ca/P ratio; (2) the time for complete disappearance of DCPD and the time for complete reaction are in direct proportion to the mass of the ground powder; but (3) the time for complete disappearance of DCPD is independent of the Ca/P ratio while the time for complete reaction increases exponentially with the Ca/P ratio; and (4) the time for complete disappearance of DCPD corresponds to the time for complete reaction solely for Ca/P = 1.5. These observations suggest a reaction mechanism in two well differentiated stages: (First stage) CaO reacts with DCPD to give first an amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) with a low Ca/P ratio that transforms into CDHA when its Ca/P ratio reaches 1.5. At the same time, CaO is hydrated into Ca(OH)(2) by the water produced by the reaction. (Second stage) If the Ca/P > 1.5 in the initial mixture, the excess Ca(OH)(2) is added to CDHA 1.5 by reacting with the HPO(4) group of CDHA until its Ca/P ratio reaches the expected value. The slower the reaction, the higher the Ca/P in the initial mixture. PMID:14613241

El Briak-BenAbdeslam, Hassane; Mochales, Carolina; Ginebra, Maria Pau; Nurit, Josiane; Planell, Josep A; Boudeville, Philippe

2003-12-01

349

Fluorescent-tagged acrylic acid-allylpolyethoxy carboxylate copolymer as a green inhibitor for calcium phosphate in industrial cooling systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allyloxy polyethoxy ether (APEG) and succinic anhydride were used to prepare allyloxy polyethoxy carboxylate (APEL). The 8-hydroxy-1,3,6-pyrene trisulfonic acid trisodium salt (PY) was reacted with allyl chloride to produce fluorescent monomer 8-allyloxy-1,3,6-pyrene trisulfonic acid trisodium salt (PA). APEL and PA were copolymerized with acrylic acid (AA) to synthesize PA-tagged no phosphate and nitrogen free calcium phosphate inhibitor AA–APEL–PA. Structures of

Guangqing Liu; Jingyi Huang; Yuming Zhou; Qingzhao Yao; Yong Yang; Lei Ling; Huchuan Wang; Wendao Wu; Wei Sun; Zhengjun Hu

2012-01-01

350

Improved sugar cane juice clarification by understanding calcium oxide-phosphate-sucrose systems.  

PubMed

It is accepted that the efficiency of sugar cane clarification is closely linked with sugar juice composition (including suspended or insoluble impurities), the inorganic phosphate content, the liming condition and type, and the interactions between the juice components. These interactions are not well understood, particularly those between calcium, phosphate, and sucrose in sugar cane juice. Studies have been conducted on calcium oxide (CaO)/phosphate/sucrose systems in both synthetic and factory juices to provide further information on the defecation process (i.e., simple liming to effect impurity removal) and to identify an effective clarification process that would result in reduced scaling of sugar factory evaporators, pans, and centrifugals. Results have shown that a two-stage process involving the addition of lime saccharate to a set juice pH followed by the addition of sodium hydroxide to a final juice pH or a similar two-stage process where the order of addition of the alkalis is reversed prior to clarification reduces the impurity loading of the clarified juice compared to that of the clarified juice obtained by the conventional defecation process. The treatment process showed reductions in CaO (27% to 50%) and MgO (up to 20%) in clarified juices with no apparent loss in juice clarity or increase in residence time of the mud particles compared to those in the conventional process. There was also a reduction in the SiO2 content. However, the disadvantage of this process is the significant increase in the Na2O content. PMID:21322558

Doherty, William O S

2011-03-01

351

Physicochemical properties and cytotoxicities of Sr-containing biphasic calcium phosphate bone scaffolds.  

PubMed

This study demonstrates a new biomaterial system composed of Sr-containing hydroxyapatite (Sr-HA) and Sr-containing tricalcium phosphate (Sr-TCP), termed herein Sr-containing biphasic calcium phosphate (Sr-BCP). Furthermore, a series of new Sr-BCP porous scaffolds with tunable structure and properties has also been developed. These Sr-BCP scaffolds were obtained by in situ sintering of a series of composites formed by casting various Sr-containing calcium phosphate cement (Sr-CPC) into different rapid prototyping (RP) porous phenol formaldehyde resins, which acted as the negative moulds for controlling pore structures of the final scaffolds. Results show that the porous Sr-BCP scaffolds are composed of Sr-HA and Sr-TCP. The phase composition and the macro-structure of the Sr-BCP scaffold could be adjusted by controlling the processing parameters of the Sr-CPC pastes and the structure parameters of the RP negative mould, respectively. It is also found that both the compressive strength (CS) and the dissolving rate of the Sr-BCP scaffold significantly vary with their phase composition and macropore percentage. In particular, the compressive strength achieves a maximum CS level of 9.20 +/- 1.30 MPa for the Sr-BCP scaffold with a Sr-HA/Sr-TCP weight ratio of 78:22, a macropore percentage of 30% (400-550 microm in size) and a total-porosity of 63.70%, significantly higher than that of the Sr-free BCP scaffold with similar porosity. All the extracts of the Sr-BCP scaffold exhibit no cytotoxicity. The current study shows that the incorporation of Sr plays an important role in positively improving the physicochemical properties of the BCP scaffold without introducing obvious cytotoxicity. It also reveals a potential clinical application for this material system as bone tissue engineering (BTE) scaffold. PMID:20217190

Dagang, Guo; Kewei, Xu; Yaxiong, Liu

2010-06-01

352

The size of surface microstructures as an osteogenic factor in calcium phosphate ceramics.  

PubMed

The microporosity of calcium phosphate (CaP) ceramics has been shown to have an essential role in osteoinduction by CaP ceramics after ectopic implantation. Here we show that it is not the microporosity but the size of surface microstructural features that is the most likely osteogenic factor. Two tricalcium phosphate (TCP) ceramics, namely TCP-S and TCP-B, were fabricated with equivalent chemistry and similar microporosity but different sizes of surface microstructural features. TCP-S has a grain size of 0.99±0.20?m and a micropore size of 0.65±0.25?m, while TCP-B displays a grain size of 3.08±0.52?m and a micropore size of 1.58±0.65?m. In vitro, both cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation were significantly enhanced when human bone marrow stromal cells were cultured on TCP-S without any osteogenic growth factors, compared to TCP-B ceramic granules. The possible involvement of direct contact between cells and the TCP ceramic surface in osteogenic differentiation is also shown with a trans-well culture model. When the ceramic granules were implanted in paraspinal muscle of dogs for 12weeks, abundant bone was formed in TCP-S (21±10% bone in the available space), whereas no bone was formed in any of the TCP-B implants. The current in vitro and in vivo data reveal that the readily controllable cue, i.e. the size of the surface microstructure, could be sufficient to induce osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells, ultimately leading to ectopic bone formation in calcium phosphate ceramics. PMID:24681376

Zhang, Jingwei; Luo, Xiaoman; Barbieri, Davide; Barradas, Ana M C; de Bruijn, Joost D; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A; Yuan, Huipin

2014-07-01

353

Association of salivary calcium, phosphate, pH and flow rate on oral health: A study on 90 subjects  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives: This study was designed to compare inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, flow rate and pH of un-stimulated saliva and oral hygiene of healthy subjects, patients with periodontitis and dental caries and to correlate salivary calcium level with the number of intact teeth. Materials and Methods: The present study consisted of 90 patients aged between 18 and 55 years and were divided into three groups, periodontitis, dental caries and controls. Oral hygiene index-simplified, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level and number of teeth present, teeth with active carious lesions were recorded. Salivary flow rate and pH was recorded and subjected to biochemical investigation. Estimation of inorganic calcium and phosphate was performed by colorimetric method. Results: Results showed statistically significant increase in salivary inorganic calcium and phosphate levels, poor oral hygiene status, pH and salivary flow rate in patients with periodontitis when compared with dental caries group and controls. Interpretation and Conclusion: Individuals who have increased salivary inorganic calcium, phosphate, pH, flow rate and maintain poor oral hygiene could be at a higher risk for developing periodontitis and may have less dental caries and more number of intact teeth.

Fiyaz, Mohamed; Ramesh, Amitha; Ramalingam, Karthikeyan; Thomas, Biju; Shetty, Sucheta; Prakash, Prashanth

2013-01-01

354

A New Type of Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Cement as a Gentamicin Carrier for Osteomyelitis  

PubMed Central

Osteomyelitis therapy is a long-term and inconvenient procedure for a patient. Antibiotic-loaded bone cements are both a complementary and alternative treatment option to intravenous antibiotic therapy for the treatment of osteomyelitis. In the current study, the biphasic calcium phosphate cement (CPC), called ?-TCP/HAP (?-tricalcium phosphate/hydroxyapatite) biphasic cement, was prepared as an antibiotics carrier for osteomyelitis. The developed biphasic cement with a microstructure of ?-TCP surrounding the HAP has a fast setting time which will fulfill the clinical demand. The X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry analyses showed the final phase to be HAP, the basic bone mineral, after setting for a period of time. Scanning electron microscopy revealed a porous structure with particle sizes of a few micrometers. The addition of gentamicin in ?-TCP/HAP would delay the transition of ?-TCP but would not change the final-phase HAP. The gentamicin-loaded ?-TCP/HAP supplies high doses of the antibiotic during the initial 24 hours when they are soaked in phosphate buffer solution (PBS). Thereafter, a slower drug release is produced, supplying minimum inhibitory concentration until the end of the experiment (30 days). Studies of growth inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in culture indicated that gentamicin released after 30 days from ?-TCP/HAP biphasic cement retained antibacterial activity.

Chen, Yu-Chun; Lin, Feng-Huei

2013-01-01

355

Long-chain base phosphates modulate pollen tube growth via channel-mediated influx of calcium.  

PubMed

Long-chain base phosphates (LCBPs) have been correlated with amounts of crucial biological processes ranging from cell proliferation to apoptosis in animals. However, their functions in plants remain largely unknown. Here, we report that LCBPs, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and phytosphingosine-1-phosphate (Phyto-S1P), modulate pollen tube growth in a concentration-dependent bi-phasic manner. The pollen tube growth in the stylar transmitting tissue was promoted by SPHK1 overexpression (SPHK1-OE) but dampened by SPHK1 knockdown (SPHK1-KD) compared with wild-type of Arabidopsis; however, there was no detectable effect on in vitro pollen tube growth caused by misexpression of SPHK1. Interestingly, exogenous S1P or Phyto-S1P applications could increase the pollen tube growth rate in SPHK1-OE, SPHK1-KD and wild-type of Arabidopsis. Calcium ion (Ca(2+) )-imaging analysis showed that S1P triggered a remarkable increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration in pollen. Extracellular S1P induced hyperpolarization-activated Ca(2+) currents in the pollen plasma membrane, and the Ca(2+) current activation was mediated by heterotrimeric G proteins. Moreover, the S1P-induced increase of cytosolic free Ca(2+) inhibited the influx of potassium ions in pollen tubes. Our findings suggest that LCBPs functions in a signaling cascade that facilitates Ca(2+) influx and modulates pollen tube growth. PMID:24905418

Wu, Juyou; Qin, Xiaoya; Tao, Shutian; Jiang, Xueting; Liang, Yun-Kuan; Zhang, Shaoling

2014-08-01

356

Incorporation of bovine serum albumin in calcium phosphate coating on titanium.  

PubMed

Calcium phosphate (Ca-P) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were coprecipitated as a coating on commercially pure titanium (cpTi) with a high protein loading (15 wt %) by employing a recently developed wet-chemistry technique. It was observed that the incorporation of BSA significantly modified the morphology, composition, and crystallinity of the Ca-P coating. The Ca-P coating without BSA is a mixture of hydroxyapatite (HA) and octacalcium phosphate (OCP) with sharp-edged thin OCP crystal plates on the top layer, whereas only an HA phase was detected in the Ca-P/BSA coating. The crystal plates in the latter had a more rounded appearance. The Ca-P/BSA coatings were immersed respectively in neutral (pH 7.4) and acidic (starting pH 4.0) phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at 37 degrees C over a 14-day period. No protein release was detected in the neutral PBS during the immersion; however, a continuous release of BSA was measured in the acidic PBS, subsequently leading to the formation of a very dense and well-adherent composite coating of BSA and Ca-P on cpTi. The present study provides the possibility to achieve a long-term effective release of biologically active proteins from a Ca-P-coated metallic implant. PMID:10380003

Wen, H B; de Wijn, J R; van Blitterswijk, C A; de Groot, K

1999-08-01

357

A new type of biphasic calcium phosphate cement as a gentamicin carrier for osteomyelitis.  

PubMed

Osteomyelitis therapy is a long-term and inconvenient procedure for a patient. Antibiotic-loaded bone cements are both a complementary and alternative treatment option to intravenous antibiotic therapy for the treatment of osteomyelitis. In the current study, the biphasic calcium phosphate cement (CPC), called ? -TCP/HAP ( ? -tricalcium phosphate/hydroxyapatite) biphasic cement, was prepared as an antibiotics carrier for osteomyelitis. The developed biphasic cement with a microstructure of ? -TCP surrounding the HAP has a fast setting time which will fulfill the clinical demand. The X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry analyses showed the final phase to be HAP, the basic bone mineral, after setting for a period of time. Scanning electron microscopy revealed a porous structure with particle sizes of a few micrometers. The addition of gentamicin in ? -TCP/HAP would delay the transition of ? -TCP but would not change the final-phase HAP. The gentamicin-loaded ? -TCP/HAP supplies high doses of the antibiotic during the initial 24 hours when they are soaked in phosphate buffer solution (PBS). Thereafter, a slower drug release is produced, supplying minimum inhibitory concentration until the end of the experiment (30 days). Studies of growth inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in culture indicated that gentamicin released after 30 days from ? -TCP/HAP biphasic cement retained antibacterial activity. PMID:23662153

Su, Wen-Yu; Chen, Yu-Chun; Lin, Feng-Huei

2013-01-01

358

In vivo degradation of low temperature calcium and magnesium phosphate ceramics in a heterotopic model.  

PubMed

Bone replacement using synthetic and degradable materials is desirable in various clinical conditions. Most applied commercial materials are based on hydroxyapatite, which is not chemically degradable under physiological conditions. Here we report the effect of a long-term intramuscular implantation regime on the dissolution of various low temperature calcium and magnesium phosphate ceramics in vivo. The specimens were analysed by consecutive radiographs, micro-computed tomography scans, compressive strength testing, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffractometry. After 15months in vivo, the investigated materials brushite (CaHPO(4)·2H(2)O), newberyite (MgHPO(4)·3H(2)O), struvite (MgNH(4)PO(4)·6H(2)O) and hydroxyapatite (Ca(9)(PO(4))(5)HPO(4)OH) showed significant differences regarding changes of their characteristics. Struvite presented the highest loss of mechanical performance (95%), followed by newberyite (67%) and brushite (41%). This was accompanied by both a distinct extent of cement dissolution as well as changes of the phase composition of the retrieved cement implants. While the secondary phosphate phases (brushite, newberyite, struvite) completely dissolved, re-precipitates of whitlockite and octacalcium phosphate were formed in either particulate or whisker-like morphology. Furthermore, for the first time the possibility of a macropore-free volume degradation mechanism of bioceramics was demonstrated. PMID:21658480

Klammert, Uwe; Ignatius, Anita; Wolfram, Uwe; Reuther, Tobias; Gbureck, Uwe

2011-09-01

359

In situ synthesis of magnesium-substituted biphasic calcium phosphate and in vitro biodegradation  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: ? Mg–BCP were successfully prepared through in situ aqueous co-precipitation method. ? The amount of ?-TCP phase was changed with the magnesium substitution level. ? The substitution of magnesium led to a decrease in the unit cell volume. ? Mg–BCP could be able to develop a new apatite phase on the surface faster than BCP. -- Abstract: In situ preparation of magnesium (Mg) substituted biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) of hydroxyapatite (HAp)/?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) were carried out through aqueous co-precipitation method. The concentrations of added magnesium were varied with the calcium in order to obtain constant (Ca + Mg)/P ratios of 1.602. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were used to characterize the structure of synthesized magnesium substituted BCP powders. The results have shown that substitution of magnesium in the calcium deficient apatites revealed the formation of biphasic mixtures of different HAp/?-TCP ratios after heating at 1000 °C. The ratios of the formation of phase mixtures were dependent on the content of magnesium. After immersing in Hanks’ balanced salt solution (HBSS) for 1 week, 1 wt% magnesium substituted BCP powders were degraded and precipitation started to be formed with small granules consisting of number of flake-like crystal onto the surface of synthesized powders. On the other hand, in the case of pure BCP powders, the formation of new precipitates was detected after immersion in HBSS for 2 weeks. On the basis of these results, magnesium substituted BCP could be able to develop a new apatite phase on the surface in contact with physiological fluids faster than BCP does. In addition, the retention time to produce the new apatite phase in implantation operation for the BCP powder could be controlled by the amount of magnesium substitution.

Kim, Tae-Wan; Lee, Hyeong-Shin; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Jin, Hyeong-Ho [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)] [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Kyu-Hong [School of Nano and Advanced Materials, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, Kyungnam 660-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [School of Nano and Advanced Materials, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, Kyungnam 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Kook [Department of Advanced Materials Engineering, Chosun University, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Advanced Materials Engineering, Chosun University, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hong-Chae [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)] [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Seog-Young, E-mail: syy3@pusan.ac.kr [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)] [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-09-15

360

Effect of Macromolecules and of Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate upon Precipitation of Calcium Oxalate and Phosphate from Whole Urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different proportions of mixtures of whole urine and its ultrafiltrate were evaporated to 1,250 mosm\\/kg to study crystal formation of calcium oxalate at pH 5.3 and calcium phosphate at pH 6.8. At both pH values there was a direct linear relationship between proportion of whole urine and crystal formation. When sodium dodecyl sulphate was added to whole urine before evaporation,

Alan Rose; S. Sulaiman

1984-01-01

361

Rapid hydrothermal flow synthesis and characterisation of carbonate- and silicate-substituted calcium phosphates  

PubMed Central

A range of crystalline and nano-sized carbonate- and silicate-substituted hydroxyapatite has been successfully produced by using continuous hydrothermal flow synthesis technology. Ion-substituted calcium phosphates are better candidates for bone replacement applications (due to improved bioactivity) as compared to phase-pure hydroxyapatite. Urea was used as a carbonate source for synthesising phase pure carbonated hydroxyapatite (CO3-HA) with ?5?wt% substituted carbonate content (sample 7.5CO3-HA) and it was found that a further increase in urea concentration in solution resulted in biphasic mixtures of carbonate-substituted hydroxyapatite and calcium carbonate. Transmission electron microscopy images revealed that the particle size of hydroxyapatite decreased with increasing urea concentration. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy result revealed a calcium deficient apatite with Ca:P molar ratio of 1.45 (±0.04) in sample 7.5CO3-HA. For silicate-substituted hydroxyapatite (SiO4-HA) silicon acetate was used as a silicate ion source. It was observed that a substitution threshold of ?1.1?wt% exists for synthesis of SiO4-HA in the continuous hydrothermal flow synthesis system, which could be due to the decreasing yields with progressive increase in silicon acetate concentration. All the as-precipitated powders (without any additional heat treatments) were analysed using techniques including Transmission electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, Differential scanning calorimetry, Thermogravimetric analysis, Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

Knowles, Jonathan C; Rehman, Ihtesham; Darr, Jawwad A

2013-01-01

362

Effect of cold-setting calcium- and magnesium phosphate matrices on protein expression in osteoblastic cells.  

PubMed

Bone loss due to accidents or tissue diseases requires replacement of the structure by either autografts, allografts, or artificial materials. Reactive cements, which are based on calcium phosphate chemistry, are commonly used in nonload bearing areas such as the craniofacial region. Some of these materials are resorbed by the host under physiological conditions and replaced by bone. The aim of this study was to test different calcium and magnesium cement composites in vitro for their use as bone substitution material. Phase composition of calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (Ca(9) (PO(4) )(5) HPO(4) OH), brushite (CaHPO(4) ·2H(2) O), and struvite (MgNH(4) PO(4) ·6H(2) O) specimens has been determined by means of X-ray diffraction, and compressive strength was measured. Cell growth and activity of osteoblastic cells (MG 63) on the different surfaces was determined, and the expression of bone marker proteins was analyzed by western blotting. Cell activity normalized to cell number revealed higher activity of the osteoblasts on brushite and struvite when compared to hydroxyapatite and also the expression of osteoblastic marker proteins was highest on brushite scaffolds. While brushite sets under acidic conditions, formation of struvite occurs under physiological pH, similar to hydroxyapatite cements, providing the possibility of additional modifications with proteins or other active components. PMID:21210513

Ewald, Andrea; Helmschrott, Kerstin; Knebl, Georg; Mehrban, Nazia; Grover, Liam M; Gbureck, Uwe

2011-02-01

363

Quantitative Assessment of the Efficacy of Amorphous Calcium Phosphate\\/Methacrylate Composites in Remineralizing Caries-like Lesions Artificially Produced in Bovine Enamel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies show that methacrylate-based composites with amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) as a filler can release supersaturating levels of calcium and phosphate ions in proportions favorable for apatite formation. These findings suggest that such composites could be effectively used as coatings for remineralizing teeth damaged by tooth decay. To examine this hypothesis, we tested composites in vitro for their efficacy

D. Skrtic; A. W. Hailer; S. Takagi; J. M. Antonucci; E. D. Eanes

1996-01-01

364

High phosphate reduces host ability to develop arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis without affecting root calcium spiking responses to the fungus.  

PubMed

The arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis associates soil fungi with the roots of the majority of plants species and represents a major source of soil phosphorus acquisition. Mycorrhizal interactions begin with an exchange of molecular signals between the two partners. A root signaling pathway is recruited, for which the perception of fungal signals triggers oscillations of intracellular calcium concentration. High phosphate availability is known to inhibit the establishment and/or persistence of this symbiosis, thereby favoring the direct, non-symbiotic uptake of phosphorus by the root system. In this study, Medicago truncatula plants were used to investigate the effects of phosphate supply on the early stages of the interaction. When plants were supplied with high phosphate fungal attachment to the roots was drastically reduced. An experimental system was designed to individually study the effects of phosphate supply on the fungus, on the roots, and on root exudates. These experiments revealed that the most important effects of high phosphate supply were on the roots themselves, which became unable to host mycorrhizal fungi even when these had been appropriately stimulated. The ability of the roots to perceive their fungal partner was then investigated by monitoring nuclear calcium spiking in response to fungal signals. This response did not appear to be affected by high phosphate supply. In conclusion, high levels of phosphate predominantly impact the plant host, but apparently not in its ability to perceive the fungal partner. PMID:24194742

Balzergue, Coline; Chabaud, Mireille; Barker, David G; Bécard, Guillaume; Rochange, Soizic F

2013-01-01

365

Mapping calcium phosphate activated gene networks as a strategy for targeted osteoinduction of human progenitors in vitro and in vivo  

PubMed Central

Although calcium phosphate-containing biomaterials are promising scaffolds for bone regenerative strategies, the osteoinductive capacity of such materials is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated whether endogenous mechanisms of in vivo calcium phosphate-driven, ectopic bone formation could be identified and used to induce enhanced differentiation in vitro of the same progenitor population. To accomplish this, human periosteum derived cells (hPDCs) were seeded on hydroxyapatite/collagen scaffolds (calcium phosphate rich matrix or CPRM), or on decalcified scaffolds (calcium phosphate depleted matrix or CPDM), followed by subcutaneous implantation in nude mice to trigger ectopic bone formation. In this system, osteoblast differentiation occurred in CPRM scaffolds, but not in CPDM scaffolds. Gene expression was assessed by human full-genome microarray at 20 hours after seeding, and 2, 8 and 18 days after implantation. In both matrices, implantation of the cell constructs triggered a similar gene expression cascade, however, gene expression dynamics progressed faster in CPRM scaffolds than in CPDM scaffolds. The difference in gene expression dynamics was associated with differential activation of hub genes and molecular signaling pathways related to calcium signaling (CREB), inflammation (TNF?, NFkB, and IL6) and bone development (TGF?, ?-catenin, BMP, EGF, and ERK signaling). Starting from this set of pathways, a growth factor cocktail was developed that robustly enhanced osteogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, our data demonstrate that through the identification and subsequent stimulation of genes, proteins and signaling pathways associated with calcium phosphate mediated osteoinduction, a focused approach to develop targeted differentiation protocols in adult progenitor cells can be achieved.

Eyckmans, J.; Roberts, S.J.; Bolander, J.; Schrooten, J.; Chen, C.S.; Luyten, F.P.

2014-01-01

366

Gelation and biocompatibility of injectable alginate-calcium phosphate gels for bone regeneration.  

PubMed

An emerging approach toward development of injectable, self-setting, and fully biodegradable bone substitutes involves the combination of injectable hydrogel matrices with a dispersed phase consisting of nanosized calcium phosphate particles. Here, novel injectable composites for bone regeneration have been developed based on the combination of ultrapure alginate as the matrix phase, crystalline CaP [monetite and poorly crystalline hydroxyapatite (HA)] powders as both a dispersed mineral phase and a source of calcium for cross-linking alginate, glucono-delta-lactone (GDL) as acidifier and glycerol as both plasticizer and temporary sequestrant. The composites were maximized with respect to CaP content to obtain the highest amount of osteoconductive filler. The viscoelastic and physicochemical properties of the precursor compounds and composites were analyzed using rheometry, elemental analysis (for calcium release and uptake), acidity [by measuring pH in simulated body fluid (SBF)], general biocompatibility (subcutaneous implantation in rabbits), and osteocompatibility (implantation in femoral condyle bone defect of rabbits). The gelation of the resulting composites could be controlled from seconds to tens of minutes by varying the solubility of the CaP phase (HA vs. monetite) or amount of GDL. All composites mineralized extensively in SBF for up to 11 days. In vivo, the composites also disintegrated upon implantation in subcutaneous or bone tissue, leaving behind less degradable but osteoconductive CaP particles. Although the composites need to be optimized with respect to the available amount of calcium for cross-linking of alginate, the beneficial bone response as observed in the in vivo studies render these gels promising for minimally invasive applications as bone-filling material. PMID:23589413

Cardoso, D Alves; van den Beucken, J J J P; Both, L L H; Bender, J; Jansen, J A; Leeuwenburgh, S C G

2014-03-01

367

The Calcium Phosphate Matrix of FGF-2-Apatite Composite Layers Contributes to Their Biological Effects.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to fabricate fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2-apatite composite layers on titanium (Ti) pins in one step at 25 °C using a supersaturated calcium phosphate (CaP) solution, and to evaluate the physicochemical characteristics and biological effects of the coated Ti pins compared with coated Ti pins fabricated at 37 °C. Ti pins were immersed in a supersaturated CaP solution containing 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 µg/mL FGF-2 at 25 °C for 24 h (25F0.5, 25F1.0, and 25F2.0) or containing 4.0 µg/mL FGF-2 at 37 °C for 48 h (37F4.0). Except for the 25F0.5, the chemical compositions and the mitogenic activity levels of FGF-2 of the composite layers formed by these two methods were similar, except for the Ca/P molar ratio, which was markedly smaller at 25 °C (1.55-1.56 ± 0.01-0.02, p = 0.0008-0.0045) than at 37 °C (1.67 ± 0.11). Thus, either the apatite was less mature or the amount of amorphous calcium phosphate was higher in the composite layer formed at 25 °C. In vivo, the pin tract infection rate by visual inspection for 37F4.0 (45%) was lower than that for 25F1.0 (80%, p = 0.0213), and the rate of osteomyelitis for 37F4.0 (35%) was lower than that for 25F0.5 (75%, p = 0.0341). The extraction torque for 37F4.0 (0.276 ± 0.117 Nm) was higher than that for 25F0.5 (0.192 ± 0.117 Nm, p = 0.0142) and that for 25F1.0 (0.176 ± 0.133 Nm, p = 0.0079). The invasion rate of S. aureus for 37F4.0 (35%) was lower than that for 25F0.5 (75%, p = 0.0110). On the whole, the FGF-2-apatite composite layer formed at 25 °C tended to be less effective at improving fixation strength in the bone-pin interface and resisting pin tract infections. These results suggest that the chemistry of the calcium phosphate matrix that embeds FGF-2, in addition to FGF-2 content and activity, has a significant impact on composite infection resistance and fixation strength. PMID:24918287

Mutsuzaki, Hirotaka; Ito, Atsuo; Sogo, Yu; Sakane, Masataka; Oyane, Ayako; Yamazaki, Masashi

2014-01-01

368

The Calcium Phosphate Matrix of FGF-2-Apatite Composite Layers Contributes to Their Biological Effects  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the present study was to fabricate fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2-apatite composite layers on titanium (Ti) pins in one step at 25 °C using a supersaturated calcium phosphate (CaP) solution, and to evaluate the physicochemical characteristics and biological effects of the coated Ti pins compared with coated Ti pins fabricated at 37 °C. Ti pins were immersed in a supersaturated CaP solution containing 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 µg/mL FGF-2 at 25 °C for 24 h (25F0.5, 25F1.0, and 25F2.0) or containing 4.0 µg/mL FGF-2 at 37 °C for 48 h (37F4.0). Except for the 25F0.5, the chemical compositions and the mitogenic activity levels of FGF-2 of the composite layers formed by these two methods were similar, except for the Ca/P molar ratio, which was markedly smaller at 25 °C (1.55–1.56 ± 0.01–0.02, p = 0.0008–0.0045) than at 37 °C (1.67 ± 0.11). Thus, either the apatite was less mature or the amount of amorphous calcium phosphate was higher in the composite layer formed at 25 °C. In vivo, the pin tract infection rate by visual inspection for 37F4.0 (45%) was lower than that for 25F1.0 (80%, p = 0.0213), and the rate of osteomyelitis for 37F4.0 (35%) was lower than that for 25F0.5 (75%, p = 0.0341). The extraction torque for 37F4.0 (0.276 ± 0.117 Nm) was higher than that for 25F0.5 (0.192 ± 0.117 Nm, p = 0.0142) and that for 25F1.0 (0.176 ± 0.133 Nm, p = 0.0079). The invasion rate of S. aureus for 37F4.0 (35%) was lower than that for 25F0.5 (75%, p = 0.0110). On the whole, the FGF-2-apatite composite layer formed at 25 °C tended to be less effective at improving fixation strength in the bone-pin interface and resisting pin tract infections. These results suggest that the chemistry of the calcium phosphate matrix that embeds FGF-2, in addition to FGF-2 content and activity, has a significant impact on composite infection resistance and fixation strength.

Mutsuzaki, Hirotaka; Ito, Atsuo; Sogo, Yu; Sakane, Masataka; Oyane, Ayako; Yamazaki, Masashi

2014-01-01

369

Preparation and characterization of calcium phosphate ceramics and composites as bone substitutes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine CaCO3 skeletons have tailored architectures created by nature, which give them structural support and other functions. For example, seashells have dense lamellar structures, while coral, cuttlebone and sea urchin spines have interconnected porous structures. In our experiments, seashells, coral and cuttlebone were hydrothermally converted to hydroxyapatite (HAP), and sea urchin spines were converted to Mg-substituted tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCMP), while maintaining their original structures. Partially converted shell samples have mechanical strength, which is close to that of compact human bone. After implantation of converted shell and spine samples in rat femoral defects for 6 weeks, there was newly formed bone growth up to and around the implants. Some new bone was found to migrate through the pores of converted spine samples and grow inward. These results show good bioactivity and osteoconductivity of the implants, indicating the converted shell and spine samples can be used as bone defect fillers. Calcium phosphate powders were prepared through different synthesis methods. Micro-size HAP rods were synthesized by hydrothermal method through a nucleation-growth mechanism. On the other hand, HAP particles, which have good crystallinity, were prepared by wet precipitation with further hydrothermal treatment. beta-TCP or beta-TCMP powders were prepared by a two-step process: wet precipitation of apatitic tricalcium phosphate ('precursor') and calcination of the precursor at 800°C for 3 hours. beta-TCMP or beta-TCP powders were also prepared by solid-state reactions from CaHPO4 and CaCO 3 with/without MgO. Biphasic calcium phosphate, which is mixture of HAP and beta-TCP, can be prepared though mechanical mixing of HAP and beta-TCP powders synthesized as above. Dense beta-TCP and beta-TCMP ceramics can be produced by pressing green bodies at 100MPa and further sintering above 1100°C for 2 hours. beta-TCMP ceramics ˜99.4% relative dense were prepared by this method. Dense beta-TCP ceramics have average strength up to 540MPa. Macroporous beta-TCMP ceramics were produced with sucrose as the porogen following a two-step pressing method. Porous beta-TCMP ceramics were also prepared by replication of polyurethane sponge. beta-TCMP ceramics with porous structures in the center surrounded by dense structures were created. The outside dense structures give the scaffold mechanical strength, while the central porous structures enable cells migration and vascular infiltration, and finally in-growth of new bone into the scaffold.

Zhang, Xing

370

Calcium aluminate, RGD-modified calcium aluminate, and beta-tricalcium phosphate implants in a calvarial defect.  

PubMed

Calcium aluminate (CaAl), arginine-glycine-aspartic acid-modified CaAl, and beta-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) implants were studied in a rat calvarial critical-sized defect model. The rates of newly formed bone and osteointegration were measured using 3 different methods: radiography, micro-computed tomography, and histologic examination. After 4 weeks, there was no new bone formed and no signs of osteointegration into the skull bone in the CaAl or arginine-glycine-aspartic acid-modified CaAl groups, and thick fibrous capsules were visible around the whole circumference of the implants in both groups. In the beta-TCP group, neovascularization of the implant was observed, which is consistent with the early phase of new bone formation. In addition, in the beta-TCP group, signs of implant integration into the host tissue were evident at 4 weeks. There was no soft tissue reaction around the beta-TCP implant. These observations suggest that more specific adhesion peptides may be needed to activate the bioinert CaAl implant and promote bone formation in the craniofacial skeleton. PMID:19816293

Miljkovic, Natasa D; Cooper, Gregory M; Hott, Shelby L; Disalle, Brian F; Gawalt, Ellen S; Smith, Darren M; McGowan, Kenneth; Marra, Kacey G

2009-09-01

371

Amorphous Calcium Phosphate Based Composites: Effect of Surfactants and Poly(ethylene oxide) on Filler and Composite Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uncontrolled aggregation of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) particulate fillers and their uneven distribution within polymer matrices can have adverse effects on the properties of ACP composites. In this article, we assessed the influence of nonionic and anionic surfactants and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) introduced during the preparation of ACP on the particle size distribution and compositional properties of ACP. In

J. M. Antonucci; D. W. Liu; D. Skrtic

2007-01-01

372

Comparison of amorphous TCP nanoparticles to micron-sized alpha-TCP as starting materials for calcium phosphate cements.  

PubMed

The development of degradable bone cements with a mineral composition similar to natural bone was investigated using highly reactive calcium phosphate phases as starting materials. Mixtures of XRD-amorphous, glassy tricalcium phosphate (amorphous-TCP) nanoparticles of 25-60 nm size and micron sized, milled alpha-TCP were set by hydration with sodium phosphate buffer and investigated for possible application as single component calcium phosphate cements (CPCs). Isothermal calorimetry allowed a precise tracking of the setting process. Amorphous-TCP nanoparticles converted into calcium deficient hydroxyapatite with cement setting times below 12 min. The total energy release by the material during hardening corroborated the importance of high specific surface area and phase composition, that is, amorphous state of the nanometric starting material as repeatedly suggested earlier. The phase composition of the resulting CPCs was characterized by X-ray diffraction before and after setting. The morphology was investigated by nitrogen adsorption, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy and revealed the formation of highly porous calcium deficient hydroxyapatite with specific surface areas of up to 160 m(2) g(-1) after setting. In contrast to the very fast reaction time and highest specific surface area, the mechanical stability of the resulting CPC is still insufficient and requires further improvement. PMID:17410573

Brunner, Tobias J; Bohner, Marc; Dora, Claudio; Gerber, Christian; Stark, Wendelin J

2007-11-01

373

Changes in calcium phosphate on bone surfaces and in lining cells after the administration of parathyroid hormone or calcitonin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small doses of parathyroid hormone and calcitonin were injected into thyroparathyroidectomized newborn rats to investigate the histological and chemical changes in bone surfaces and in mitochondrial granules of bone lining cells. Nondecalcified tissue specimens were observed under transmission electron microscope, electron probe X-ray microanalyzer, and microdiffraction after freeze substitution preparation of tibia shafts. Amorphous calcium phosphate, which appears as clusters

HIROMICHI NORIMATSU; TOSHIO YAMAMOTO; HIDEHIRO OZAWA; ROY v. TALMAGE

1982-01-01

374

Histological and histomorphometrical study of connective tissue around calcium phosphate coated titanium dental implants in a canine model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Connective tissue reaction and collagen fiber orientation were evaluated on the calcium phosphate coated implants made by ion beam assisted deposition, and compared with the uncoated titanium implants. Twelve implants of each group were randomly placed in mandibles after 3 months of premolars extraction in beagle dogs. All the implants were firmly anchored in the bone and had no clinical signs

Bao Hong Zhao; Inho Han; Hai Lan Feng; Wei Bai; Fu-Zhai Cui; In-Seop Lee

2007-01-01

375

Inhibition of the growth of urinary calcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate crystals with aqueous extracts of Tribulus terrestris and Bergenia ligulata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urinary type calcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate (CHPD) or Brushite crystals were grown by the single diffusion gel technique in silica hydro-gels. The gel framework acts as a three dimensional crucible in which the crystal nuclei are delicately held in the position of their formation and nutrients are supplied for their growth. This technique can be utilized as a simplified screening

Vimal S. Joshi; Bharat B. Parekh; Mihir J. Joshi; Ashok D. B. Vaidya

2005-01-01

376

Management of disturbances of calcium and phosphate metabolism in chronic renal insufficiency, with emphasis on the control of hyperphosphataemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Disturbances of calcium-phosphate (Ca-P) metabolism in chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) play an important role not only in bone disease (renal osteodystrophy) but also in soft tissue calcification, with an increased risk of vascular calcification, arterial stiffness, and worsening of atherosclerosis. Methods. Discussion in order to achieve a consensus on key points relating to pathogenesis, clinical assess- ment, and management

Francesco Locatelli; Jorge B. Cannata-Andia; Tilman B. Drueke; Walter H. Horl; Denis Fouque; Olof Heimburger; Eberhard Ritz

2002-01-01

377

Targeting and activation of antigen-specific B-cells by calcium phosphate nanoparticles loaded with protein antigen.  

PubMed

Cross-linking of the B-cell receptors of an antigen-specific B-cell is the initial signal for B-cell activation, proliferation, and differentiation into antibody secreting plasma cells. Since multivalent particulate structures are efficient activators of antigen-specific B-cells, we developed biodegradable calcium phosphate nanoparticles displaying protein antigens on their surface and explored the efficacy of the B-cell activation after exposure to these nanoparticles. The calcium phosphate nanoparticles were functionalized with the model antigen Hen Egg Lysozyme (HEL) to take advantage of a HEL-specific B-cell receptor transgenic mouse model. The nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The functionalized calcium phosphate nanoparticles were preferentially bound and internalized by HEL-specific B-cells. Co-cultivation of HEL-specific B-cells with the functionalized nanoparticles also increased surface expression of B-cell activation markers. Functionalized nanoparticles were able to effectively cross-link B-cell receptors at the surface of antigen-matched B-cells and were 100-fold more efficient in the activation of B-cells than soluble HEL. Thus, calcium phosphate nanoparticles coated with protein antigens are promising vaccine candidates for induction humoral immunity. PMID:24776487

Temchura, Vladimir V; Kozlova, Diana; Sokolova, Viktoriya; Uberla, Klaus; Epple, Matthias

2014-07-01

378

Comparison of human bone marrow stromal cells seeded on calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite, ?-tricalcium phosphate and demineralized bone matrix  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to compare three resorbable biomaterials regarding seeding efficacy with human bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs), cell penetration into the matrix, cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. Calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA), ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP), and demineralized bone matrix (DBM) were seeded with human BMSCs and kept in human serum and osteogenic supplements for 3 weeks. Morphologic and

P. Kasten; R. Luginbühl; M. van Griensven; T. Barkhausen; C. Krettek; M. Bohner; U. Bosch

2003-01-01

379

Electrochemical characteristics of calcium-phosphatized AZ31 magnesium alloy in 0.9 % NaCl solution.  

PubMed

Magnesium alloys suffer from their high reactivity in common environments. Protective layers are widely created on the surface of magnesium alloys to improve their corrosion resistance. This article evaluates the influence of a calcium-phosphate layer on the electrochemical characteristics of AZ31 magnesium alloy in 0.9 % NaCl solution. The calcium phosphate (CaP) layer was electrochemically deposited in a solution containing 0.1 M Ca(NO3)2, 0.06 M NH4H2PO4 and 10 ml l(-1) of H2O2. The formed surface layer was composed mainly of brushite [(dicalcium phosphate dihidrate (DCPD)] as proved by energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. The surface morphology was observed by scanning electron microscopy. Immersion test was performed in order to observe degradation of the calcium phosphatized surfaces. The influence of the phosphate layer on the electrochemical characteristics of AZ31, in 0.9 % NaCl solution, was evaluated by potentiodynamic measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The obtained results were analysed by the Tafel-extrapolation method and equivalent circuits method. The results showed that the polarization resistance of the DCPD-coated surface is about 25 times higher than that of non-coated surface. The CaP electro-deposition process increased the activation energy of corrosion process. PMID:24477876

Hadzima, Branislav; Mhaede, Mansour; Pastorek, Filip

2014-05-01

380

Doxorubicin-loaded calcium phosphate cement in the management of bone and soft tissue tumors.  

PubMed

Several materials have been used as drug delivery systems to maintain a high concentration of anticancer drugs at localized sites. The feasibility of using doxorubicin-loaded calcium phosphate cement (CPC) as a new material, which can release the drug as well as fill a postoperative bony defect, was investigated. The mechanical strength of cylinders of doxorubicin-loaded CPC was not lower than that of CPC alone. Culture medium incubated with doxorubicin-loaded CPC from 1 to 7 days suppressed the proliferation of RMT-1 E4 rat breast cancer cells. In rabbits with doxorubicin-loaded CPC in their femurs, histological examinations showed diffuse edematous changes in the medullary space, but neither fracture nor skin necrosis occurred. Doxorubicin-loaded CPC markedly inhibited the proliferation of sarcoma 180 cells in the mouse air-pouch model. These results indicate that doxorubicin-loaded CPC may be useful in the local treatment of malignant bone and soft tissue tumors. PMID:16433029

Tani, Takayuki; Okada, Kyoji; Takahashi, Shu; Suzuki, Norio; Shimada, Yoichi; Itoi, Eiji

2006-01-01

381

Treatment of toxic metal aqueous solutions: encapsulation in a phosphate-calcium aluminate matrix.  

PubMed

Polyphosphate-modified calcium aluminate cement matrices were prepared by using aqueous solutions polluted with toxic metals as mixing water to obtain waste-containing solid blocks with improved management and disposal. Synthetically contaminated waters containing either Pb or Cu or Zn were incorporated into phosphoaluminate cement mortars and the effects of the metal's presence on setting time and mechanical performance were assessed. Sorption and leaching tests were also executed and both retention and release patterns were investigated. For all three metals, high uptake capacities as well as percentages of retention larger than 99.9% were measured. Both Pb and Cu were seen to be largely compatible with this cementitious matrix, rendering the obtained blocks suitable for landfilling or for building purposes. However, Zn spoilt the compressive strength values because of its reaction with hydrogen phosphate anions, hindering the development of the binding matrix. PMID:24721638

Fernández, J M; Navarro-Blasco, I; Duran, A; Sirera, R; Alvarez, J I

2014-07-01

382

[Superior semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome treated by calcium phosphate cement canal plugging: a case report].  

PubMed

Superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SCD) syndrome exhibits pressure- and/or sound-induced oscillopsia and vertigo due to an absence of bone overlaying the superior semicircular canal. A 33-year-old man with right-ear SCD reported dizziness in a noisy hall three years earlier followed by dizziness during flatulence, straining or coughing, and right-ear autophony. Audiography showed a right-ear low-frequency air-bone gap, with positive Tullio phenomenon and a Valsalva maneuver against closed glottis causing torsional-vertical nystagmus. Temporal-bone computed tomography (CT) led to a diagnosis of right-ear SCD syndrome. Surgical dehiscence plugging with calcium phosphate cement via the middle fossa resolved vestibular and cochlear symptoms in the more than two years since. PMID:21770307

Hayashi, Hisamitsu; Aoki, Mitsuhiro; Yamada, Nansei; Kuze, Bunya; Mizuta, Keisuke; Ito, Yatsuji

2011-06-01

383

An improvement in sintering property of beta-tricalcium phosphate by addition of calcium pyrophosphate.  

PubMed

The sintering behavior of calcium pyrophosphate (CPP, Ca2P2O7)-doped beta-tricalcium phosphate [TCP, Ca3(PO4)2], prepared by solid state reaction, was investigated in-situ, using dilatometry. Pure beta-TCP undergoes phase transition to alpha-TCP at about 1200 degrees C; hence pure beta-TCP ceramics should be sintered bclow 1200 degrees C. Pure beta-TCP sintered body can achieve a relative density of only 86% when sintered at 1150 degrees C. However, the addition of CPP in the range of 0.5-3 wt% delays phasc transition of beta-TCP and enables sintering of beta-TCP at 1200 degrees C without a phase transformation to alpha-TCP. Due to this effect of CPP added to TCP, CPP-doped beta-TCP ceramics with relative density over 95% could be obtained when sintered at 1200 degrees C for 2 h. PMID:11771710

Ryu, Hyun-Seung; Youn, Hyuk-Joon; Hong, Kug Sun; Chang, Bong-Sun; Lee, Choon-Ki; Chung, Sung-Soo

2002-02-01

384

Self-healing hybrid nanocomposites consisting of bisphosphonated hyaluronan and calcium phosphate nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Non-covalent interactions are often regarded as insufficient to construct macroscopic materials of substantial integrity and cohesion. However, the low binding energy of such reversible interactions can be compensated by increasing their number to work in concert to create strong materials. Here we present the successful development of an injectable, cohesive nanocomposite hydrogel based on reversible bonds between calcium phosphate nanoparticles and bisphosphonate-functionalized hyaluronic acid. These nanocomposites display a capacity for self-healing as well as adhesiveness to mineral surfaces such as enamel and hydroxyapatite. Most importantly, these non-covalently cross-linked composites are surprisingly robust yet biodegradable upon extensive in vitro and in vivo testing and show bone interactive capacity evidenced by bone ingrowth into material remnants. The herein presented method provides a new methodology for constructing nanoscale composites for biomedical applications, which owe their integrity to reversible bonds. PMID:24862440

Nejadnik, M Reza; Yang, Xia; Bongio, Matilde; Alghamdi, Hamdan S; van den Beucken, Jeroen J J P; Huysmans, Marie C; Jansen, John A; Hilborn, Jöns; Ossipov, Dmitri; Leeuwenburgh, Sander C G

2014-08-01

385

Evolution of the magnesium incorporated amorphous calcium phosphate to nano-crystallized hydroxyapatite in alkaline solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A homogeneous amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) coating containing magnesium was achieved on titanium substrates by electrochemical deposition (ECD). Its amorphous structure is confirmed by transmission electron microscope (TEM) together with grazing reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (IR) spectrometer. In the images of high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), the ACP spheres are assembled by nano-particles with the diameter of 5-10 nm. In the alkaline environment, nucleation of hydroxyapatite (HAP) occurs on the surfaces of ACP spheres. By consuming the Ca and PO 4 ions inside the ACP spheres, the HAP nuclei grow outward. Confirmed by TEM, the ACP spheres converse to hollow HAP spheres composed of HAP nano-needles. The coating is finally constructed by the HAP nano-needles, which are themselves aggregated by numerous nano-particles.

Zhang, Xiao-Juan; Lin, Dong-Yang; Yan, Xiao-Hui; Wang, Xiao-Xiang

2011-12-01

386

Cytocompatibility and osteogenic activity of a novel calcium phosphate silicate bioceramic: Silicocarnotite.  

PubMed

In the present study, the effect of a novel bioceramic, silicon-containing calcium phosphate ceramic (silicocarnotite, Ca5 (PO4 )2 SiO4 , CPS) on attachment, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSC) has been investigated in comparison to hydroxyapatite (HA). The CPS showed a similar cell attachment behavior to HA, while the proliferation of rBMSC on CPS was significantly higher than that on HA, which indicated that CPS had a good cytocompatibility. Moreover, the expression of alkaline phosphatase activity and osteogenic-related genes, including Runx-2, osteopontin (OPN), bone sialoprotein (BSP) and osteocalcin (OC), demonstrated that CPS enhanced the osteogenic differentiation of rBMSC and accelerated the differentiation process. The results suggest that CPS ceramic exhibits a good cytocompatibility and osteogenic activity, which might be used as a potential candidate material for bone tissue engineering. PMID:23225789

Duan, Wei; Ning, Congqin; Tang, Tingting

2013-07-01

387

Mechanism of the uptake of cationic and anionic calcium phosphate nanoparticles by cells.  

PubMed

The uptake of calcium phosphate nanoparticles (diameter 120nm) with different charge by HeLa cells was studied by flow cytometry. The amount of uptaken nanoparticles increased with increasing concentration of nanoparticles in the cell culture medium. Several inhibitors of endocytosis and macropinocytosis were applied to elucidate the uptake mechanism of nanoparticles into HeLa cells: wortmannin, LY294002, nocodazole, chlorpromazine and nystatin. Wortmannin and LY294002 strongly reduced the uptake of anionic nanoparticles, which indicates macropinocytosis as uptake mechanism. For cationic nanoparticles, the uptake was reduced to a lesser extent, indicating a different uptake mechanism. The localization of nanoparticles inside the cells was investigated by conjugating them with the pH-sensitive dye SNARF-1. The nanoparticles were localized in lysosomes after 3h of incubation. PMID:23454056

Sokolova, Viktoriya; Kozlova, Diana; Knuschke, Torben; Buer, Jan; Westendorf, Astrid M; Epple, Matthias

2013-07-01

388

Curettage and calcium phosphate bone cement injection for the treatment of enchondroma of the finger.  

PubMed

Ten consecutive patients with digital enchondroma were treated by curettage and calcium phosphate bone cement (CPC) injection under digital nerve block. Mean patient age at surgery was 39 years old (range, 26-54), and the mean follow-up period was 19 months (range, 12-31). Two patients had a pathologic fracture at the first visit. Active finger motion was allowed at three days postoperatively and all patients returned to work within four weeks of surgery. The surgical procedures were uneventful in all patients, and no complications were encountered during follow-up. The mean total arc of motion of the PIP joints and MP joints of the affected fingers was 93% of and 99%, respectively, of the arcs of the corresponding joints of the contralateral unaffected fingers at final follow-up. CPC injection is a good option for the treatment of enchondroma of the finger. PMID:22351535

Kim, Jae Kwang; Kim, Nam Ki

2012-01-01

389

Polymerization shrinkage and stress development in amorphous calcium phosphate/urethane dimethacrylate polymeric composites  

PubMed Central

This study explores how substituting a new high molecular mass oligomeric poly(ethylene glycol) extended urethane dimethacrylate (PEG-U) for 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) in photo-activated urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA) resins affects degree of vinyl conversion (DC), polymerization shrinkage (PS), stress development (PSSD) and biaxial flexure strength (BFS) of their amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) composites. The composites were prepared from four types of resins (UDMA, PEG-U, UDMA/HEMA and UDMA/PEG-U) and zirconia-hybridized ACP. Introducing PEG-U improved DC while not adversely affecting PS, PSSD and the BFS of composites. This improvement in DC is attributed to the long, more flexible structure between the vinyl groups of PEG-U and its higher molecular mass compared to poly(HEMA). The results imply that PEG-U has the potential to serve as an alternative to HEMA in dental and other biomedical applications.

Antonucci, J.M.; Regnault, W. F.; Skrtic, D.

2010-01-01

390

Polymerization shrinkage and stress development in amorphous calcium phosphate/urethane dimethacrylate polymeric composites.  

PubMed

This study explores how substituting a new high molecular mass oligomeric poly(ethylene glycol) extended urethane dimethacrylate (PEG-U) for 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) in photo-activated urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA) resins affects degree of vinyl conversion (DC), polymerization shrinkage (PS), stress development (PSSD) and biaxial flexure strength (BFS) of their amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) composites. The composites were prepared from four types of resins (UDMA, PEG-U, UDMA/HEMA and UDMA/PEG-U) and zirconia-hybridized ACP. Introducing PEG-U improved DC while not adversely affecting PS, PSSD and the BFS of composites. This improvement in DC is attributed to the long, more flexible structure between the vinyl groups of PEG-U and its higher molecular mass compared to poly(HEMA). The results imply that PEG-U has the potential to serve as an alternative to HEMA in dental and other biomedical applications. PMID:20169007

Antonucci, J M; Regnault, W F; Skrtic, D

2010-02-01

391

Basic calcium phosphate crystal-induced Egr-1 expression stimulates mitogenesis in human fibroblasts  

SciTech Connect

Previously, we have reported that basic calcium phosphate (BCP) crystals stimulate mitogenesis and synthesis of matrix metalloproteinases in cultured human foreskin and synovial fibroblasts. However, the detailed mechanisms involved are still unclear. In the present study, using RT-PCR and Egr-1 promoter analysis we showed that BCP crystals could stimulate early growth response gene Egr-1 transcription through a PKC{alpha}-dependent p44/p42 MAPK pathway. Using a retrovirus gene expression system (Clontech) to overexpress Egr-1 in human fibroblast BJ-1 cells resulted in promotion of mitogenesis measured either by MTT cell proliferation analysis or by direct cell counting. The results demonstrate that Egr-1 may play a key role in mediating BCP crystal-induced synovial fibroblast mitogenesis.

Zeng, Xiao R. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Miami, Coral Gablek, FL 33146 (United States); Sun Yubo [Division of Rheumatology and Immunology, Department of Medicine, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33101 (United States); Wenger, Leonor [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Miami, Coral Gablek, FL 33146 (United States); Cheung, Herman S. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Miami, Coral Gablek, FL 33146 (United States) and Division of Rheumatology and Immunology, Department of Medicine, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33101 (United States) and Research Service and the Geriatric Research, Education, and Clinical Center, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Miami, FL 33125 (United States)]. E-mail: hcheung@med.miami.edu

2005-05-13

392

Growth of calcium phosphates on magnesium substrates for corrosion control in biomedical applications via immersion techniques.  

PubMed

Magnesium (Mg) has been suggested as a revolutionary biodegradable replacement for current permanent metals used in orthopedic applications. Current investigations concentrate on the control of the corrosion rate to match bone healing. Calcium phosphate coatings have been a recent focus of these investigations through various coating protocols. Within this investigation, an in situ crystallization technique was utilized as an inexpensive and relatively simple method to produce a brushite and monetite coating on pure Mg. Coatings were characterized using energy dispersive spectroscopy, glancing angle X-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy. Corrosion protection properties of the coatings were assessed in physiological buffers, Earles balanced salt solution, minimum essential media, and minimum essential media containing serum albumin, over a 4-week period. Using this novel coating protocol, our findings indicate brushite and monetite coated Mg to have significant corrosive protective effects when compared with its uncoated counterpart whilst maintaining high coating substrate adhesion, homogeneity, and reproducibility. PMID:23090758

Shadanbaz, Shaylin; Walker, Jemimah; Staiger, Mark P; Dias, George J; Pietak, Alexis

2013-01-01

393

The final phases of calcium and magnesium phosphates precipitated from solutions of high to medium concentration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phases of calcium and magnesium phosphates, which are obtained by evolution at 25°C of the first precipitates in their mother solutions, are described in terms of pH and composition of solutions. The initial conditions were: 0.050M ? [P] ? 0.500M; [P] = [Ca] + [Mg]; 0 ? [Mg]/[Ca] ? 1. The most abundant final phases are brushite, CaHPO 4·2H 2O; monetite, CaHPO 4; newberyite, MgHPO 4·3H 2O and struvite, MgNH 4PO 4·6H 2O. At low concentration whitlockite, Ca 9MgH(PO 4) 7, occurs with the amorphous phase previously precipitated, Ca 3(PO 4) 2·nH 2O. The conditions for stability are discussed and the changes observed are interpreted.

Abbona, Francesco; Lundager Madsen, Hans Erik; Boistelle, Roland

1988-07-01

394

Fiber reinforced calcium phosphate cements -- on the way to degradable load bearing bone substitutes?  

PubMed

Calcium phosphate cements (CPC) are well-established materials for the repair of bone defects with excellent biocompatibility and bioactivity. However, brittleness and low flexural/tensile strength so far restrict their application to non-load bearing areas. Reinforcement of CPC with fibers can substantially improve its strength and toughness and has been one major strategy to overcome the present mechanical limitations of CPC. Fiber reinforced calcium phosphate cements (FRCPC) thus bear the potential to facilitate the use of degradable bone substitutes in load bearing applications. This review recapitulates the state of the art of FRCPC research with focus on their mechanical properties and their biological evaluation in vitro and in vivo, including the clinical data that has been generated so far. After an overview on FRCPC constitutes and processing, some general aspects of fracture mechanics of reinforced cementitious composites are introduced, and their importance for the mechanical properties of FRCPC are highlighted. So far, fiber reinforcement leads to a toughness increase of up to two orders of magnitude. FRCPC have extensively been examined in vitro and in vivo with generally good results. While first clinical products focus on the improved performance of FRCPC with regard to secondary processing after injection such as fixation of screws and plates, first animal studies in load bearing applications show improved performance as compared to pure CPCs. Aside of the accomplished results, FRCPC bear a great potential for future development and optimization. Future research will have to focus on the selection and tailoring of FRCPC components, fiber-matrix compatibilization, integral composite design and the adjusted degradation behavior of the composite components to ensure successful long term behavior and make the composites strong enough for application in load bearing defects. PMID:22632767

Krüger, Reinhard; Groll, Jürgen

2012-09-01

395

Structure-Composition-Property Relationships in Polymeric Amorphous Calcium Phosphate-Based Dental Composites†  

PubMed Central

Our studies of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP)-based materials over the last decade have yielded bioactive polymeric composites capable of protecting teeth from demineralization or even regenerating lost tooth mineral. The anti-cariogenic/re-mineralizing potential of these ACP composites originates from their propensity, when exposed to the oral environment, to release in a sustained manner sufficient levels of mineral-forming calcium and phosphate ions to promote formation of stable apatitic tooth mineral. However, the less than optimal ACP filler/resin matrix cohesion, excessive polymerization shrinkage and water sorption of these experimental materials can adversely affect their physicochemical and mechanical properties, and, ultimately, limit their lifespan. This study demonstrates the effects of chemical structure and composition of the methacrylate monomers used to form the matrix phase of composites on degree of vinyl conversion (DVC) and water sorption of both copolymers and composites and the release of mineral ions from the composites. Modification of ACP surface via introducing cations and/or polymers ab initio during filler synthesis failed to yield mechanically improved composites. However, moderate improvement in composite’s mechanical stability without compromising its remineralization potential was achieved by silanization and/or milling of ACP filler. Using ethoxylated bisphenol A dimethacrylate or urethane dimethacrylate as base monomers and adding moderate amounts of hydrophilic 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate or its isomer ethyl-?-hydroxymethacrylate appears to be a promising route to maximize the remineralizing ability of the filler while maintaining high DVC. Exploration of the structure/composition/property relationships of ACP fillers and polymer matrices is complex but essential for achieving a better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms that govern dissolution/re-precipitation of bioactive ACP fillers, and, ultimately, the suitability of the composites for clinical evaluation.

O'Donnell, Justin N.R.; Schumacher, Gary E.; Antonucci, Joseph M.; Skrtic, Drago

2009-01-01

396

Development of a biologically relevant calcium phosphate substrate for sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy.  

PubMed

A novel biologically relevant composite substrate has been prepared consisting of a calcium phosphate (CaP) layer formed by magnetron sputter-coating from a hydroxyapatite (HA) target onto a gold-coated silicon substrate. The CaP layer is intended to mimic tooth and bone surfaces and allows polymers used in oral care to be deposited in a procedure analogous to that used for dental surfaces. The polymer cetyl dimethicone copolyol (CDC) was deposited onto the CaP surface of the substrate by Langmuir Blodgett deposition, and the structure of the adsorbed layer was investigated by the surface specific technique of sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy. The gold sublayer provides enhancement of the SFG signal arising from the polymer but plays no part in the adsorption of the polymer. The surface morphology of the substrate was investigated using SEM and AFM. The surface roughness was commensurate with that of the thermally evaporated gold sublayer and uniform over areas of at least 36 mum(2). The chemical composition of the CaP-coated surface was determined by FTIR and TOF-SIMS. It was concluded that the surface is primarily calcium phosphate present as a mixture of amorphous, non-hydroxylated phases rather than solely stoichiometric hydroxyapatite. The SFG spectra from CDC on CaP were closely similar, both in resonance wavenumbers and in their relative intensities, with spectra of thin films of CDC recorded directly on gold. Application of previous analysis of the spectra of CDC on gold therefore enabled interpretation of the polymer orientation and conformation on the CaP substrate. PMID:16834276

McGall, Sarah J; Davies, Paul B; Neivandt, David J

2005-10-01

397

Mechanical and acid neutralizing properties and bacteria inhibition of amorphous calcium phosphate dental nanocomposite  

PubMed Central

Dental composites do not hinder bacteria colonization and plaque formation. Caries at the restoration margins is a frequent reason for replacement of existing restorations, which accounts for 50 to 70% of all restorations. The objectives of this study were to examine the filler level effect on nanocomposite containing nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) and investigate the load-bearing and acid-neutralizing properties and bacteria inhibition. NACP with 116-nm particle size were synthesized via a spray-drying technique and incorporated into a resin. Flexural strength of nanocomposite with 10 to 30% NACP fillers matched the strength of a commercial hybrid composite (p > 0.1). Nanocomposite with 40% NACP matched the strength of a microfill composite, which was 2-fold that of a resin-modified glass ionomer. Nanocomposite with 40% NACP neutralized a lactic acid solution of pH 4 by rapidly increasing the pH to 5.69 in 10 min. In contrast, the commercial controls had pH staying at near 4. Using Streptoccocus mutans, an agar disk-diffusion test showed no inhibition zone for commercial controls. In contrast, the inhibition zone was (2.5 ± 0.7) mm for nanocomposite with 40% NACP. Crystal violet staining showed that S. mutans coverage on nanocomposite was 1/4 that on commercial composite. In conclusion, novel calcium–phosphate nanocomposite matched the mechanical properties of commercial composite and rapidly neutralized lactic acid of pH 4. The nanocomposite appeared to moderately reduce the S. mutans growth, and further study is needed to obtain strong antimicrobial properties. The new nanocomposite may have potential to reduce secondary caries and restoration fracture, two main challenges facing tooth cavity restorations.

Moreau, Jennifer L.; Sun, Limin; Chow, Laurence C.; Xu, Hockin H. K.

2012-01-01

398

The use of physiological solutions or media in calcium phosphate synthesis and processing.  

PubMed

This review examined the literature to spot uses, if any, of physiological solutions/media for the in situ synthesis of calcium phosphates (CaP) under processing conditions (i.e. temperature, pH, concentration of inorganic ions present in media) mimicking those prevalent in the human hard tissue environments. There happens to be a variety of aqueous solutions or media developed for different purposes; sometimes they have been named as physiological saline, isotonic solution, cell culture solution, metastable CaP solution, supersaturated calcification solution, simulated body fluid or even dialysate solution (for dialysis patients). Most of the time such solutions were not used as the aqueous medium to perform the biomimetic synthesis of calcium phosphates, and their use was usually limited to the in vitro testing of synthetic biomaterials. This review illustrates that only a limited number of research studies used physiological solutions or media such as Earle's balanced salt solution, Bachra et al. solutions or Tris-buffered simulated body fluid solution containing 27mM HCO3(-) for synthesizing CaP, and these studies have consistently reported the formation of X-ray-amorphous CaP nanopowders instead of Ap-CaP or stoichiometric hydroxyapatite (HA, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) at 37°C and pH 7.4. By relying on the published articles, this review highlights the significance of the use of aqueous solutions containing 0.8-1.5 mMMg(2+), 22-27mM HCO3(-), 142-145mM Na(+), 5-5.8mM K(+), 103-133mM Cl(-), 1.8-3.75mM Ca(2+), and 0.8-1.67mM HPO4(2-), which essentially mimic the composition and the overall ionic strength of the human extracellular fluid (ECF), in forming the nanospheres of X-ray-amorphous CaP. PMID:24389317

Tas, A Cuneyt

2014-05-01

399

Mechanical and acid neutralizing properties and bacteria inhibition of amorphous calcium phosphate dental nanocomposite.  

PubMed

Dental composites do not hinder bacteria colonization and plaque formation. Caries at the restoration margins is a frequent reason for replacement of existing restorations, which accounts for 50 to 70% of all restorations. The objectives of this study were to examine the filler level effect on nanocomposite containing nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) and investigate the load-bearing and acid-neutralizing properties and bacteria inhibition. NACP with 116-nm particle size were synthesized via a spray-drying technique and incorporated into a resin. Flexural strength of nanocomposite with 10 to 30% NACP fillers matched the strength